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Printed by Richard Wolfenden, I.S.O., V.D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1908.  8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 3
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B. C, 3rd June, 1908.
Hon. R. G. Tatlow,
Minister of Agriculture,
Victoria, B. C.
I have the honour to transmit herewith the Ninth Report of Farmers' Institutes of
British Columbia for the year 1907, embodying the proceedings of the Tenth Annual Convention of the Central Farmers' Institute.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.  8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 5
Minutes  of the  Proceedings  of the  Tenth   Annual   Convention
of the Central Farmers' Institute.
Following the custom inaugurated of late years, the analysis of Farmers' Institute matters
will be found in my address before the Central Farmers' Institute.
The date set for the last meeting of the Central Farmers' Institute was not considered
the most convenient, and suggestions were made that it should be called in December. As I
pointed out, however, that would be impracticable, owing to the fact that the annual meetings
of the local Institutes do not take place until January, and as many of them do not hold their
meetings until quite late in the month, and as I further pointed out in my address, some of
the secretaries are so dilatory in making their reports that even at the late date on which the
meeting of the Central Farmers' Institute was called this year, I was still without full returns.
The first week in February is, therefore, the earliest date on which the meeting could be held,
with any degree of assurance that the necessary information which is derived from returns
could be placed before the delegates.
The season of the year when it would be most convenient to hold the spring regular
meetings is still a vexed question, and considering the varied climatic conditions necessarily
prevalent in a country of the extent of British Columbia, and on account of its topography, it
cannot but remain so to a certain degree. However, the experience of the past and present
season has proved that April and May are too late in the season, and it is therefore proposed
to begin in March hereafter.
In connection with the delinquencies of Secretaries, on which I have so often descanted,
I took occasion on several occasions, during journeys through the Province, to speak on this
matter at meetings of Farmers' Institutes, intimating quite plainly that if Secretaries are
unable or unwilling to fulfil their duties it would be a benefit to the Institute if they would
resign. Since making my address before alluded to, I have had occasion to request two
Secretaries to call meetings of their directorates and lay before them letters which I indited,
calling attention to the disorganised state of the Institute, with a view of reorganising. At
one meeting which I attended, the Secretary could not inform me who the officers were. Such
a state of affairs is intolerable, and means simply waste of time and money, by sending experts
at a large cost to such points. On the other hand, the large majority of Secretaries are to be
commended for their efficient work and the interest they take in their Institutes.
The inauguration of the new departure in Institute matters, such as illustrations in the
field, judging classes of live stock, illustrations by means of charts and magic lantern, have
proved to be of the greatest benefit. Additional slides are being constantly added to the
magic lantern, which will materially add to its value. Slides illustrating bee-keeping and
poultry are amongst the latest. N 6 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
The following persons were engaged during the year, giving addresses and demonstrations:—•
Wm. White, Kaslo—" Grafting and Pruning."
J. W. Cockle, Kaslo—" Insects, Injurious and Beneficial."
Robt. Hendricks and Alex. Goldsmith, Kaslo—" Poultry."
Rev. Archdeacon Beer, Kaslo—" Bee-Keeping."
Dr. James Fletcher, Ottawa—" Insects, Injurious and Beneficial " ;  " Weeds of the Farm."
J. D. McGuire, Salmon Arm—" Fruit-Growing."
J. N. McCallum, Salmon Arm—" Benefits of Institutes."
Robt. Turner, Salmon Arm—" Fruit-Growing."
V. D. Curry, Campbell Creek—"Irrigation."
M. S. Wade, A. E. Meighen and J. F. Smith, Kamloops—"Conservation of Water."
Thos. A. Brydon, Victoria—" Commercial Fruit-Growing "; " Planting and Care of
Fruit Trees."
W. S. Fraser, Bradford, Ont.—"Noxious Weeds, Seed Selection, Clover, Sheep, Hogs,
Cultivation and Under Drainage."
W. F. Kydd, Simcoe, Ont,—" Am I Raising the Most Profitable Horse 1" " The Dairy
Cow : Her Summer Feed and Winter Care " ; " Small Fruits and Care of Grape Vines, Peach
and Plum Trees";  "Potato Spraying" ;  "Dropped Stitches."
Miss R. Blanche Maddock, Guelph, Ont.—"Science and Butter-Making"; "Bread-
Making " ; " Women's Institutes and How to Make Them Interesting " ; " Bacteria : Their
Relation to Health and Disease"; "Different Cuts of Meat: Their Selection and Preparation"; " Hygienic and Economic Values of Food" ; " Simple Home Remedies without Recourse
to the Patent Medicine Man or the Doctor " ;  "A Girl's Possibilities."
W. F. Cash, Hood River—"Fruit Packing."
Professor Carpenter—" Irrigation."
Hon. F. J. Fulton, Victoria—" Irrigation."
E. Wilson, Armstrong—"Noxious Weeds."
Prof. Frank T. Shutt, Chemist, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa—" Soils and Their
Management"; " Mineral Salts in the Soil : How to Counteract Excess " ; " Fertilisers, Barnyard and Commercial" ; " Composition and Growth of Plants, Functions of Leaves, and Roots."
J. R. Anderson, Victoria—" Commercial Fruit-Growing " ; " Co-operation " ; " Fertilisers
and Soil Cultivation " ; " Forestry " ; " Institute Work."
James Mars, Coquitlam—" Institute Work."
E. A. Atkins, Coquitlam—"Duck Raising"; "Farmers' Cow of the Future."
W. A. Anderson, Agassiz—" The Horse."
N. T. Baker, Agassiz—" Co-operation."
A. S. Rankin, Chilliwack—" Milk Production " ; " Care of Milk and Cream."
T. A. Wiancko, Sardis—" Economical Production of Milk " ; " Proper Care of Milk and
Cream " ; " Creaming of Milk " ; " Creamery Management."
S. H. Shannon, Cloverdale—" Silos and Silage."
W. C. McKillican, Calgary—" Pure Seed " ; " Evils of Impure Seed " ; " Loss Through
Poor Seed."
F. M. Logan, Victoria—Addresses and demonstrations on Live Stock generally, and on
Dairy Matters in particular; judging classes on Live Stock."
J. T. Collins, Salt Spring Island—" Clearing Land with Stumping Powder "; " The
Apple"; "Spraying"; "Dairying"; "The Silo and its Construction "'; "Fruit Growing";
" Draining " ; " Construction of Farm Buildings."
Martin Burrell, Grand Forks—" Fruit-Growing."
M. H. Dobie, Victoria—" Soils and Fertilisers."
Geo. Stewart, Keating—" Commercial Fruit-Growing."
W. C. Grant, Gordon Head—" Fertilisers" ; "Fruit-Growing."
H. K. Rowland, Toppenish, Wash.—" Fruit-Growing."
W. J. L. Hamilton, Salt Spring Island—Magic Lantern demonstrations : ', Composition
of Soils " ; " Rotation of Crops."
Rev. W. E. Dunham, Victoria—" Buildings, Fixtures and Poultry Yard Methods," with
model illustrations ; " Incubators and Brooders," with demonstrations ; " Care of Young Stock,
Housing, Feed, etc." ; " Raising Stock for Market," illustrated type and practical demonstrations in killing, trussing and dressing ; " Fattening Stock for Market," with detailed comparison
■of methods, e.g., crates, pens and loose; " Raising Stock for Layers and Breeding," showing 8 Ed. 7
Farmers' Institutes Report.
N 7
types and giving a talk on the obtaining and handling of eggs ; " Best kinds of Fowls, and the
Climatic Conditions necessary for Successful Raising of same " ; " Diseases and how to Handle
Dr. S. F. Tolmie, Victoria—" Glanders"; "Hog Cholera"; "Milk Fever"; "Other
Diseases of Swine "; " Other Contagious Diseases of Animals"; " The Horse, Points of
Selection " ; " Care of the Horse from Colthood to Market."
Rev. Thos. Menzies, Comox—" Bee-keeping."
R. M. Halliday and Wm. Duncan, Courtenay—" Corn Culture."
John Shopland, Saanich—" Sheep."
Miss Laura Rose, Guelph, Ont.—" How to Make the Dairy Bring in Larger Profits " ;
*•' Defects we Find in Butter, their Cause and Remedy "; " Butter-making on the Farm " ;
*' The Dairy Cow " ; " Cheese, its Food Value and Simple Recipes " ; " The Making of Bread
■and Buns " ; " As Others See Us " ; " The Womanly Sphere of Woman " ; " The Head, the
Hand, the Heart, the Tripod of Successful Work "; " One Eye in the Town, the Other in the
A. Hammer, Bella Coola—" Faith in the Future " ; " Stumping Powder in connection
■with Road-making."
H. B. Christensen, Bella Coola—"Institute Work."
Detailed Statement of Institute Meetings.
Number of Meetings.
No. of
No. of
on hand.
16 00
105 50
50 10
111 80
42 S2
3 20
10 65
35 53
49 27
57 55
65 30
64 65
60 01
146 92
19 60
27 46
94 05
69 28
79 83
112 21
63 09
2 83
34 95
Salmon Arm ....
147 50
25 28
West Kootenay .
52 00
17 00
14 70
§1,581 58 N 8 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908-
Okanagan Farmers' Institute.
The annual meeting of the Okanagan Farmers' Institute was held on Saturday afternoon
in the Court House, a fairly large attendance being present. The President, R. Gillespie,,
occupied the chair and presented the following report:—
President's Report.
The past year has certainly been a banner one in the history of the Institute in the
Okanagan. The amount of good work done through its different channels has doubtless
surpassed any previous year. The distribution of Government stumping powder has been a
o-reat boon to the men who have had land to clear. There has been no less than three carloads of powder used by members of the Institute during the past year, which certainly has
been a great saving of money, time and labour to the rancher; also has proved invaluable in
the development of the whole district, for work has been accomplished which would not have
been begun without it.
Our meetings throughout the past year have been fairly well attended and the lecturers
were thoroughly up in their subjects, which is worth mentioning. Two meetings were held at
Lumby, one in the early summer on "Dairying and the Dairy Cow," and also stock-judging,
which were very well attended and a great deal of valuable knowledge gained, while the
lecture given on horses in the latter part of the season could not have very well been
I need not mention the literature received by the members of the Institute, as it speaks
for itself; but I take pleasure in adding that our members were able to help the Agricultural
Society in a financial way, a fact of which they might be justly proud.
Personally, I greatly regret that there are not more men from our own Province, or,
still better, from our own District, to take up the Institute work, instead of having to send to
Ontario for lecturers, for I feel confident that as good men could be found in the West who
understand the western soil and climate, and given the same opportunity by their Institute as
the Ontario man has been given by his, would prove quite as capable, and even in time might
become sufficiently competent (to say nothing of confident) to take an occasional trip to the
East to lecture on the improved and advanced methods of the West.
In conclusion, let me thank the members of this Institute for the compliment they paid
me in electing me their President for the past year.
R. Gillespie, President.
Secretary's Report.
Gentlemen,—In presenting my report for 1907,1 am glad to be able to state that in
numbers the Institute is a little ahead of last year, owing to new members joining, but I
regret to say that a considerable number of old members have dropped out.
There have been only five meetings held during the year, and the attendance at these has
been very small, only 151 all told, out of a total of 146 members.
We had some "very interesting speakers : Professor Carpenter on " Irrigation," who I
managed to secure after some trouble ; Mr. Cook, of Hood River, who gave a most interesting
demonstration of packing fruit, and also a most able address on " Better Methods in Selling
Our Fruits "; Mr. Kydd gave very excellent lectures on " The Horse," and Mr. Fraser conducted a judging class at Lumby, where three prizes were given. A lady lecturer was sent to
us, notwithstanding the department was informed this would not " catch on" here. She
spoke at Vernon on " Food," to four ladies; and she was billed to give an address at Lumby,
but not a single female attended the meeting and she was not called upon. This seems a,
waste of money for nothing. Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 9
Four directors' meetings were called, but it is the old story, only one came to anything
and then only a bare quorum was present.    This is a matter that should be remedied.
The question of literature is one which is certainly being inquired about by our members,
and after five years as Secretary I am now, as I always have been, of opinion that this is the
thing that most of the subscribers join for. This year we have had, notwithstanding a motion
I put and which carried at the Central Institute at Victoria last year for a larger supply, the
scantiest amount since the Institute was started, and I have prepared a resolution to submit
to this meeting which I wish to present at the meeting of " The Central" at Victoria if it is
your pleasure to adopt it. I am sure if the Government would spend the money in literature,
or a considerable portion of it, which is now expended in the heavy expenses of the lecturers,
much more good would be effected and many more members would join. Lectures have their
value, but it is dry work listening to the mere outpouring of information, and when persons
have heard the subjects once it is generally in the nature of repetition. There are numbers of
excellent -pamphlets published in the United States on every subject of interest to the farmer,
and if the Government would do as I suggest much good would be done.
We have made a donation of $50 to the Agricultural Society, which was in want of funds.
You are aware of the meeting of the Irrigation Convention to be held in Vernon this
year, and its objects, which will, I hope, be a success in all ways.
There has been a large increase in correspondence this year and I have received and
answered 165 letters from all parts of the world.    This literally and not as a figure of speech.
In concluding, I sincerely hope that all old members will rejoin this year and that the
directors will endeavour to attend the meetings called, as it is very hard to come in from a
distance and have no meeting for want of a quorum.
Arthur Venables, Secretary.
Spallumeheen Farmers' Institute.
President's Report.
Gentlemen,—I have much pleasure in presenting to you the annual report of the Institute
for the year 1907.
I am pleased to say our Institute is in a very flourishing condition and has accomplished
much good amongst the farmers in the district during the year just closed.
In point of membership, I think we stand a good chance of heading the list this year
amongst the 28 different Institutes in the Province, our roll at present being 271, which is 90
over last year and 200 more than the year previous.
During the year, 15 meetings were held and 18 addresses given, the total attendance at
these meetings being 529, or an average attendance of 35.
The speakers sent to address the Institutes were all capable lecturers and were well
received at the various points of meeting. It is interesting to note that the gentlemen who
talked on fruit subjects always had the largest audience. A meeting which turned out to be
interesting and instructive, and particularly to the ladies who were present in large numbers,
was that addressed by Miss Maddock on " Domestic Economics." This is something of a new
departure in Institute work and one that is to be highly commended, if for no other reason
than to encourage the women folk to become members and thus insure and promote the general
welfare of the Institute.
It is to be regretted that we were only able to get in two supplementary meetings during
the year, one addressed by Mr. Wilson on "Noxious Weeds," and the other being special at
Enderby. This was entirely the fault of your President, who was slated to give a paper on
" Alfalfa," but owing to pressure of private and other business was unable to do so. No one
realises more than I do the desirability of having more of these supplementary meetings, in
order to stimulate and enliven the members to take a keener interest in the work of the Institute,
but I have been, like a good many others, unable to put my preaching into practice.
The stumping powder which our Institute has shipped in during the year has been a great
boon to the members and farmers generally throughout the district. In fact, the Government
themselves have taken the greatest advantage of our privileges, in being able to get in the
powder at such reduced rates, and have purchased largely for their road work. At the same
time, I do not see why the President and Secretary should be personally responsible and have
to foot a note at the bank for the full value of every car of powder shipped in. N 10 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
I cannot close this report without saying a word anent the good work done by our
Secretary, Mr. Bird. As a rule, the success or failure of an Institute depends on the Secretary,
and in Mr. Bird we have had an officer who has been untiring in his efforts to raise our
Institute to the flourishing position it holds to-day, and I would ask you to deal with him
liberally. Our financial standing is good, as will be seen from the Secretary-Treasurer's report,
a balance being on hand of $112.21 after donating $100 to the Agricultural Society.
In conclusion, I would say, good results of Institute work will be felt just in proportion
to the interest we take in it, and I trust, now that the Spallumeheen Institute is becoming
such a factor for good in our midst, it will not be allowed to fall to the ground through lack
of interest in the members, and I would ask you to elect officers for the ensuing year who will
take an interest in the work and give all the help they can to the Secretary.
Geo. Heggie, President.
Surrey Farmers' Institute.
Secretary's Report.
Mr. President and Gentlemen,—In presenting to you my report for the year 1907, it
gives me much pleasure to be able to report a membership of 76. This is thejargest membership you have ever had, and, I believe, if you all would make a slight effort and induce those
of your neighbours to join who are not members, that this year we should reach the 100 mark.
We had a balance on hand from 1906 of $102.45. During the year your Institute paid
$53.20 for periodicals for members and donated $40 for special prizes at the Surrey exhibition,
which leaves our balance on hand for this year somewhat smaller, viz., $64.35. During the
year we held 10 meetings at different points in our district. Some of these meetings were well
attended and some were not. Two of these meetings were addressed by yourself, Mr.
President, on " Silo Construction," "Filling of Silo," " Results in Feeding Silage," and I must
say that, considering the importance of this phase of farm practice, I was disappointed in the
slight attendance at these meetings. I would like to impress on the members of our Institute
that they should, in all fairness to the Institute of which they are members, try and attend
the meetings, if they wish the Institutes to accomplish that for which they are established,
namely, a mutual exchange of knowledge and results gained from different systems of farm
H. Bose, Secretary Surrey Farmers' Institute.
Richmond Farmers' Institute.
President's Report.
The President reported holding seven meetings during the year, besides directors' meetings, and the most of them being very poorly attended to what they should have been. The
speakers supplied by the Superintendent were of a very high order and thoroughly familiar
with their various subjects, and the interest taken by those present showed that they were
highly appreciated, and he regretted very much that there were not more members and others
interested enough to avail themselves of this excellent opportunity, after the Department
having gone to such expense in providing these speakers for our benefit. It was certainly
very discouraging, first to the Superintendent, who had taken such interest in our behalf,
second to the speakers themselves, and lastly to the Secretary, who had spent so much time and
had gone to so much trouble to make these meetings a success, and he hoped and trusted that this
year the members would make every effort to attend the meetings and bring as many of their
friends and members of their families as possible.
Treasurer's   Report.
The Treasurer next submitted his report, giving in detail a statement of the finances for
the past year, which showed there was a balance on hand at beginning of year of $118.17 ; 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 11
receipts during the year, $193.90; total, 312.07; expenditure, $165.15, leaving a balance of
$146.92. The Auditors reported having examined the Treasurer's books, vouchers, etc.,
finding them correct.    The Treasurer's report was, on motion, received and adopted.
The election of officers was then proceeded with, the following being elected :—W. E.
Buckingham, President; James Thompson, Vice-President; W. F. Stewart, Secretary-
Treasurer ; J. H. Bath, H. A. Cummings, B. W. Garratt, D. E. McKay, J. M. Steves, and
M. R. Wells, Directors ; B. W. Garratt, delegate to Central Institute.
The W. M. Moore Co. had a gasoline lamp placed in the hall, giving a test of its lighting
power, and, on motion, the President and Messrs. Laing and McKay were appointed a committee to investigate its qualities, cost of installing, etc., with the view of having the lights
placed in the Agricultural Hall.
On motion, the sum of $60 was voted for the purpose of giving prizes to the Richmond
schools, also Eburne school, at the fall exhibition, the Richmond School Board and Secretary
of same to be a committee to make arrangements for the competition.
W. F. Stewart, Secretary.
Maple  Ridge  Farmers'  Institute.
President's Report.
Gentlemen,—I am happy to report that the last Institute year has been a good one, both
financially and otherwise. Our membership is larger than at any time since the Institute was
started here. We held six supplementary meetings, four regular and five directors' meetings.
The meetings at Coquitlam were generally well attended, but could have been better. There
were two written addresses read at the supplementary meetings, and addresses by the
President.    The regular meetings were well attended, and we had good speakers.
The distribution of seeds, trees and potatoes did not turn out very well, especially the
potatoes. The trees were distributed round Maple Ridge, and gave, as far as we know at
present, good satisfaction. There is a balance in bank of Coquitlam's share of $11.54.
Maple Ridge's share was all drawn out. The division of the funds, as far as I know, has had
a good effect to liven up the interest in the Institute, also sending out good practical speakers,
and I hope that the coming year will be as good as last.
Thomas Corbett, President.
Matsqui   Farmers'   Institute.
Secretary's Report.
Mr. President and Gentlemen,—I beg to submit the annual report of our Institute
and its meetings for the year ending December 31st, 1907. I am glad to state that the year
just closed has been one of unprecedented success, the best, in fact, in regard to membership,
of any year in the history of the Institute.
There have been 64 paid-up members, as against 50 for the year before; these, with the
23 members who paid their subscriptions late in the fall of 1906, carrying them over for the
year 1907, make a grand total for 1907 of 87 members.
The financial standing of the Institute is also in a satisfactory condition. Besides
possessing a very good spraying outfit, which is a very useful and deserving feature, the
Institute possesses two good thoroughbred Berkshire boars, one kept at Mr. Coghlan's, Mt.
Lehman, and the other at Mr. Victor Lehman's, at Aldergrove. These are newly bought
arrivals, one being secured from the New Westminster exhibition at a cost of $25, the old
boar having been sold to Mr. Gus Farman for $25. Also, the boar kept by Mr. Macey was
sold to Mr. G. G. Gold for $18, and another purchased from Mr. Shannon for the sum of $20,
which is now kept, as before stated, by Mr. Lehman, of Aldergrove.
At the time of writing I am not in a position to say if these hogs are self-supporting or
not, for the reason that I have not received any returns or account of their keep, but doubtless a full statement will be issued a little later on. N 12 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
There have been six regular meetings held during the year, but no supplementaries, with a
fair average attendance at all the evening meetings. Those held in the afternoons, as a rule,
were but slimly attended. A new departure was introduced, namely, that of judging stock,
which proved lively and interesting. The speakers for the occasions were Dr. Tolmie, Mr.
Logan, Dairy Commissioner, Mr. W. C. McKillican, of the Ottawa Seed Division, and Miss
Blanche Maddock, of Guelph, all of whom acquitted themselves in a very creditable manner.
The President, Mr. Phillips, has attended and occupied the chair at every meeting, and
has been most indefatigable in his services in promoting the best interest of the Institute,
and the social gatherings at the close of some of the meetings have, we hope, enthused a lively
feeling among the youth in our midst to become identified with the work, for it is to them we
have to look for the continuance of the Institute work.
The ladies of Mt. Lehman and district in general have been untiring in their aid to
supply refreshments from time to time. Never a call has been made but a very willing and
cheerful response has been the result. For this the executive and members, I feel sure, offer
their best and sincerest thanks, and to the musicians and all others who have assisted. Also,
the best thanks of the executive are accorded the Matsqui Council for the free use of the
Municipal Hall.
I am glad to remark that the system of procuring cheaper stumping powder is now in
general use at $5.80 per case, delivered at Abbotsford, and that members are availing themselves of this opportunity to secure it, as well as cheaper fuse and caps.
I am very thankful to remark that no deaths have occurred amongst the members for the
In closing, I am glad to report that the amount standing to the credit of the Institute
as cash in hand is the sum of $79.83, less the keep of hogs, besides possessing as assets two
good Berkshire boars and the spraying outfit previously mentioned.
Mr. President and gentlemen, in conclusion, I wish you a further increased membership
and a continuity of unbounded Institute prosperity.
Which report I humbly beg to submit.
John Ball, Secy.-Treas.
Bella Coola Farmers' Institute.
President's Report.
Gentlemen,—I have the honour to present my annual report to the Farmers' Institute
for the year 1907.
There have been held three supplementary and two Directors' meetings throughout the
year. At the last meeting our Secretary, Mr. Hammer, delivered a very interesting address
on the subject " How to Progress."
A motion was made at the last annual meeting to build a Farmers' Hall, but after some
discussion the matter was laid on the table.
By our secretary, Mr. Hammer, we were promised to have one or two speakers up here
last summer, but I am sorry to say they failed to come.
It has been proved that Bella Coola can compare with any other place in British Columbia
in fruit-growing, especially apples, and at our local exhibition, held on the 30th October, there
was a fine selection of fruit and vegetables, also wheat, oats and potatoes. I think it will
be a good idea to let the outside world know what we can produce here by sending some
specimens down to the Provincial Exhibition at New Westminster or Victoria.
I am proud to say that the farmers in Bella Coola are enlarging their orchards, and,
consequently, a number of apple trees are imported every year. From that point of view, I
think it would be a good paying business for an energetic and practical man to start a nursery
here in Bella Coola, which would be to the benefit both of the settlement and the man who
starts it.
Another paying proposition is stock. A farmer cannot succeed in farming of any kind
without stock ; he must have plenty of manure to keep his orchard and field in good condition.
A main factor for a farmer is to have good milk cows, and I wish we could increase our milk
cows, so we could start a creamery pretty soon.
I will close, wishing the Institute good progress in the future.
P.  Lauritson, President. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 13
Kootenay Lake Farmers' Institute.
Secretary's Report.
I have much pleasure in submitting the Secretary's Report, covering the first six months
of the Kootenay Lake Farmers' Institute, together with a statement showing the receipts and
expenditures of the Institute from the date of organization, July 20th, 1907, to January 20th,
1908. The statement shows a balance in hand of $14.70, and the number of members 47 ;
a very creditable number, considering we have been organised only six months.
The work of the Institute has created much interest among the fruit-growers, poultry-
raisers and farmers of our district, and as a result of this interest, I confidently believe that
our membership will be increased to at least 100 during the current year.
The literature sent to the members of the Institute by the Provincial Agricultural
Department contains much valuable information ou fruit-growing, poultry-raising and farming
generally, and is greatly appreciated, and this alone has proved an incentive to our more
distant members, who find it difficult to attend the meetings, to continue their membership in
the Institute.
At the present time our Institute is composed almost wholly of fruit-growers and poultry-
raisers, a few of whom have horses and cattle ; but we hope that the extensive general farming
lands of our district will soon have a large number of settlers on them, and the membership
and usefulness of our Institute be greatly increased.
Arrangements have been made for holding supplementary meetings of the Institute twice
a month, at which practical demonstrations of pruning, grafting, etc., will be made by the
members, and the various branches of fruit-growing, poultry-raising, the vegetable garden, etc.,
etc., will be discussed, and addresses given on fruit pests, spraying, etc., by our local entomologists. These meetings will be of great interest and value to our members, and will be
largely attended, as everybody interested is invited.
Our interest in the Annual Fruit Fair of the Kaslo Fruit-Growers' Association would be
increased by our Institute offering special prizes, to be competed for by members only.
The suggestion of our President that we should request Mr. J. R. Anderson, the Deputy
Minister of Agriculture, to send us an experienced fruit packer to give practical demonstrations
next fall, is a good one, and should be taken up by the Institute, as it is of great importance
to our district that our fruit should be graded and packed right, so we may obtain the highest
market price, and establish our reputation as producers of the highest grades of fruit.
Mr. T. A. Brydon and Miss Laura Rose addressed our fall meetings. A large number,
including many ladies, attended the meetings, whieh were open to everyone interested, and
the practical demonstrations and valuable information given were much appreciated. Practical
demonstrations in the field and in the lecture hall, by thoroughly experienced agriculturists
and horticulturists actually engaged in the business and thus keeping "up to date," who
are sent to us by the Government, are a feature of the Institute work which is received with
much favour, and this work will be supplemented during the coming year by our own members, who are closely observing actual conditions existing locally, giving us the benefit of their
A. J.  Curle, Secretary.
Report of T. A. Brydon, Craigo Park Fruit Farm.
Victoria, B. C, November Sth, 1907.
J. R. Anderson,  Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture,
Victoria, B. C.
Dear Sir,—I herewith submit a report of my itinerary re the fall meetings of the
Farmers' Institute, commencing October Sth and finishing November 7th, 1907.
October Sth, left Victoria en route for Comox, arriving next morning. Drove to Courtney,
and in the fore part of the day went out to call on the Secretary. Notices of the meetings were
posted at both places, but not the interest displayed that I would consider necessary to secure N 14 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
good meetings. Courtney Hall, 2 p.m., Miss Rose took first part, subject, " Bread and Buns."
I took up " The Preparation of the Soil and Planting Young Orchards." Over twenty present.
Evening meeting, Mr. Kydd and Miss Rose ; good attendance. October 10th, visited some
of the old orchards and found them generally in poor condition. 2 p.m.—I spoke one and
a half hours ; had a very interesting meeting ; " Care of young trees ; spraying; picking and
storing fruit." Evening, good attendance; Mr. Kidd and Miss Rose. Left 10.30 p.m., for
Union Bay ; left Union Bay per steamer " City of Nanaimo "; arrived at Nanaimo 7 a.m.
October 11th, left Nanaimo 8 a.m., in company with Dr. Tolmie ; arrived at Alberni 5 p.m.
Evening meeting in the hall. I spoke 1| hours; subject, "Preparing the land, selection of
trees and planting of same." Mr. Neill in the chair; 16 to 20 present; an interesting meeting; many questions asked during the course of the evening.
October 12th, walked out two miles to visit young orchard and gave demonstration
in pruning and general care of the orchard. Afternoon meeting well attended, when Dr.
Tolmie taught a class how to score a horse and judge dairy cows. Meeting lasted two and
a half hours and everyone was high pleased. A little more life in the Secretary might be
an advantage.    Leaving Alberni 5.30 p.m., arrived at Mrs. Hearst's at 11 p.m.
Sunday, October 13th, arrived in Nanaimo at 12 noon ; left at 3 p.m. ; arrived in Victoria
at 8 p.m.
October 14th, left Victoria on the V. and S. Railroad and s.s. " Iroquois" for the Islands ;
arriving at Ganges Harbour at 2.30 p.m. The Secretary, Mr. Collins, was awaiting me. He
had brought down apples, so that I might give some lessons in packing. Meeting came to
order on the wharf, about 20 present. I talked one and a half hours and explained the
different packs and how to place them, some of the growers present taking a hand, just to
make sure that they understood how it was done. When I completed my box the meeting
expressed satisfaction, as the fruit selected was not meant to make packing easy. Evening
meeting held in the public hall, Mr. Caldwell in the chair. Audience small but most interesting. I spoke one and a half hours on " Selection and culture of a young orchard," answering
many questions during the meeting.
October 15th, at 12 noon, in company with the Secretary, I started for Fulford,
calling at two small orchards on the way and giving instruction (mostly how to prune).
Arrived at Mr. Wilson's, who made us at home and attended to our comforts till it
was time for the evening meeting, held in the school, 18 present, the Secretary calling
the meeting to order. I endeavoured very fully to make plain the need and advantages of
thorough cultivation, especially in the conserving of the moisture. After speaking one and a
half hours the meeting was brought to a close.    Arrived at Mrs. Stevens' at 1.30 a.m.
October 16th, left Ganges early in the forenoon ; arrived at Pender at 2:30 p.m., when
an afternoon meeting was held at Mr. Harris's saw-mill. Mr. Menzies provided apples and
boxes for a packing contest, which proved to be interesting and instructive. Four ladies and
four gentlemen entered the contest, and no prize was to be awarded unless the fruit was
properly packed and ready for market. I awarded two ladies and three gentlemen prizes, and
eyery one seemed satisfied. Evening meeting in the school, Mr. Purves in the chair ; very
well attended; room well filled with a most attentive audience. I spoke largely on cultivation, its needs and advantages ; also on the picking, packing and marketing of the fruit.
The ladies helped very much the success of the gathering. After a two-hours' talk, with
questions, coffee and cake were served, and " God save the King " brought the meeting to a
On Thursday morning Mr. Harris took the secretary and myself over to Mayne Island
in his steam launch. We walked across the island to the hotel, where the meeting was held ;
25 to 30 present, the president in the chair, when I again took up the subject of young
orchards, speaking If hours. On our way back we called at Mr. Robson's, and I saw his
orchard and the way it was being cared for, also how the fruit was being packed and sent to
market; also Mr. Bennet's, jr., where we saw some very fine Grimes'Golden apples. They
had very bad luck in the marketing of their Bartlett pears. A large consignment came to
Victoria which netted Mr. Bennet five cents per box. Mr. Robson's returns from Vancouver
were better—fifty cents—but not what it ought to have been. As fruit-growers we have
much to learn along these lines. Friday morning I called at Mr. Collinson's; his orchard
cares for itself, and yet, under these adverse circumstances, he had some very fine fruit,
especially one variety of apple he named the "Lord Granville." Left Mayne Harbour at 12
noon on the steamer " Iroquois," arriving at Victoria the same evening. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 15
Saturday, October 19th, called at Parliament Buildings, as requested by Mr. Anderson,
Deputy Minister, to report and receive instructions, leaving same evening per steamer
" Victoria," en route to Kamloops. Sunday, met Miss Rose at Mission and proceeded to-
Kamloops, arriving at 2.30 a.m., October 21st. The Secretary, Mr. Smith, had the business-
well in hand. One p.m., left Kamloops for Campbell Creek, arriving late in the afternoon.
Evening meeting in school, 18 present, Miss Rose speaking on the " Dairy Cow," holding the
close attention of the meeting for one hour. I spoke also one hour on the " Young Orchard."
Some of the parties present, newly from the North-West, were very attentive hearers and
asked information on some points they were anxious about. Next day Mr. Smith drove us to
the Grande Prairie. Evening meeting in school. Small attendance at this point; the meeting
was poorly advertised by the residents. The Secretary had sent the notice of the meeting,
but no energy was displayed among the people themselves. We spoke for two hours, dealing
with our several subjects, receiving the close attention of those present and a promise, if we
came again, we might expect something better.
October 23rd, left Grande Prairie 8 a.m. for Ducks, arriving at 12 noon at Mr. Bostock's
ranch. Mr. Adam, the manager, received us with kindness. After lunch we had a walk
through the orchard and were informed that a large quantity of the early apples went to waste,
because of poor transportation. The men were all away after cattle, so Miss Rose spoke to
the school children and some ladies at an afternoon meeting. 3.30 p.m. started for Kamloops,
arriving at 6.30 p.m.    The weather was perfect, making the drive very enjoyable.
Thursday, October 24th, left Kamloops at 2.35 a.m., arriving at Notch Hill at 5 a.m. I
could not find any notice of the meeting placarded at any of the public places. Mr. Squires,
from Salmon Arm, and Mr. Akin, from the lake, arrived about 10 a.m. and went to work with
a will. Result, good afternoon meeting in school, when we spoke for two hours. I spoke on
the subject of " Drainage, Cultivation and Planting Young Trees." This was a good meeting,
many questions being asked, and as I had a drive over the lake and saw the conditions, also
the obstacles to be overcome, as the land has to be cleared, it enabled me to grasp what was
most needed and speak accordingly.    About 50 were present.
October 25th, Salmon Arm.—I think a little more push on the part of the Secretary would
have resulted in a larger meeting. 3 p.m., Orange Hall, Mr. Squires in the chair; 30 present.
Miss Rose spoke on "Bread and Buns." I had a very good talk for 1^ hours, when we
discussed many points of interest re fruit-growing and marketing. The interest displayed
by the audience was all that one could wish for.
Saturday, October 26th, 5 a.m., left for Nelson,  arriving same evening at 10.30 o'clock.
Sunday, October 27th, Nelson.
October 28th, 9.45 a.m., started for the Kootenay River Valley, destination, the President's (Mr. Farryn), whose kind hospitality we enjoyed for the day. Afternoon meeting in
Mr. D. Morrison's orchard, when we had a successful talk and demonstration for two hours,
many practical points being dealt with. Miss Rose held a meeting in the school for the ladies
and children. Owing to a breakdown on the railway, we did not get back to Nelson till
2.30 a.m.
October 29th, started up the lake at 10 a.m. to Mr. Harrop's landing, 16 miles. Afternoon meeting held in store, where we both spoke for over two hours. Audience small but
very appreciative and well pleased with the lectures. Left at 5 p.m. for Nelson. Evening
meeting in Nelson Court House. Small attendance—one of the poorest of our gatherings.
A little more advertising might have secured better results. Miss Rose spoke on " Butter-
making and Cheese-making." I spoke shortly on the need of greater care in our packing.
Mr. Cunningham was present and gave a short address and showed us some fine sample apples.
Wednesday 30th October. Arrived at Kaslo at noon. Field meeting abandoned, raining.
Evening meeting in Court House, President in the chair; very good attendance. We spoke
on our several subjects for two hours. Miss Rose, "Bread and Buns" and "The Dairy
Cow." I spoke on the increased value of land when cleared, drained, cultivated and planted
in orchard, and followed with scientific care. This was one of our best meetings, the officers
putting some vim into it. The people are very confident that a great future is before them as
Thursday, Thanksgiving Day, no regular meeting. I went with some of the growers and
examined some of the orchards.
Friday, left Kaslo for Creston, arriving at noon. Met by the Secretary. Something
wrong at this point;  meeting not properly advertised.    Evening, small attendance in the N 16 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
school, but those present gave very close attention. I spoke one hour on the different points
necessary to start a young orchard satisfactorily. Miss Rose spoke one hour, principally on
the dairy cow.
Sunday, left Creston on afternoon train, arriving at Nelson 9 p.m Leaving Miss Rose,
I proceeded to Nakusp, arriving at 10 a.m., November 4th. I was met by Mr. Abriel, who
had the business well under way. We walked two miles up the hill in the afternoon to Mr.
Beard's orchard, where we had lj hours talking and pruning, also cultivation, getting back to
the hotel at dark. Evening meeting Abriel Hall; 24 present. I gave a practical talk on
cultivation and the necessary results, also the care of young trees and how to plant them,
speaking 1J hours and answering questions, bringing to a close a most interesting meeting.
It gives me pleasure to state that at all the meetings of this itinerary, along with the
other speakers, we received cordial greetings and marked attention at all the gatherings,
large or small.
Thomas A. Brydon.
Report of Mr. W. J. L. Hamilton on Institute "Work.
Mr. W. J. L. Hamilton, of Salt Spring Island, who has been operating the new magic
lantern purchased by the Department of Agriculture at different meetings of Farmers'
Institutes throughout the country, has returned to the cityT. He expresses himself as surprised
at the extent of the work which the Department of Agriculture is doing, and gratified at the
appreciation shown by the farming communities generally.
The liberal expenditure of the Provincial Government in this connection has resulted in
rich returns.
"Although Vice-President of our local Institute," Mr. Hamilton remarked, "I never
realized the amount done for us by the Department of Agriculture until I was requested to
travel through a portion of the Province in charge of the new magic lantern acquired for the
purpose of illustrating the lectures of the different experts employed by the Government to
instruct the farmers in the best and most modern methods of making the greatest profit from
their farms.
" That this work has not been more widely recognized appears to be due to the fact that
the different meetings and lectures are seldom reported, and, consequently, the general public
hears little about them, and only too frequently the members of the Institutes themselves
neglect the opportunities offered them and do not attend in as great numbers as they might
with advantage to themselves.
"I know of no investment which brings such great returns as the Institute for so little
expenditure, not only in the lectures, which are in themselves an education, but also in the
bulletins and other literature issued to each member, the stumping powder supplied at cost
price, and the facilities offered to members to obtain expert advice as to soils, water, and the
thousand and one other topics in which farmers are interested.
" In my recent journeyings I have noticed many things well worthy of comment. One
of these is the co-operation amongst the farmers and the enormous financial benefits that
accrue therefrom.
" Co-operation in packing and selling apples, in dairying and buying and selling all commodities, adds enormously to the profits of the farmers in those districts where it is practised.
I am sure that these results only need to be more widely known to be universally adopted.
" Another point of equal interest is the enormous value of systematic spraying for the
abolition of the many pests which infest our orchards.
" I have learned enough to see the supreme folly of neglecting this, whereby is lost one
of the most profitable assets of British Columbia farms. The evidence of this is so convincing
that I am one of the most ardent supporters of any form of legislation which enforces the
spraying of orchards, great and small. I notice that a great source of danger and infection to
commercial orchards is the carelessness shown by the owners of one or two trees, who, thinking
that their produce is only for home consumption, neglect to spray, and so convert their trees
into centres of infection, whence disease spreads all around.
"Another noticeable point is how the branches of agriculture are specialised in the
different districts.     For instance,  the islands,   whilst occupied  in fruit-raising, sheep and 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 17
poultry, dairying and general farming, are specially adapted by their surroundings and the
facilities for shooting, fishing and boating that they offer, together with their unequalled
scenery, to be the choicest residential localities for men of means ; whilst up the Fraser, as at
Mission and the neighbourhood, the specialty is the raising of fruits, particularly berries,
which are here produced in the greatest perfection. Indeed, within the last few days, whilst
there, I had the great luxury at this time of the year of strawberries and cream for supper.
At Chilliwhack, again, dairying, hops and fruit are the staples, and the farmers there are
rapidly becoming some of the most well-to-do in the Province, due to the extreme fertility of
the soil, the absence of long droughts, and last, but not least, their excellent and comprehensive system of co-operation."—Daily Colonist.
Following is a detailed report of meetings on the Mainland :—
Sir,—I have the honour to report on our trip for Institute work.
Tuesday, October 15th.—Arrived at Vancouver. Meeting at 8 p. m., at Central Park. A
very fertile district, and all divided into small holdings ; strawberries and other small fruits,
orchards and poultry are the staples.
The lantern, as usual, proved a great attraction, the attendance being 67. The meeting
was interested in all the lectures. My subject was orchard work, including insect and fungous
pests, and how to spray for them.    (Illustrated by lantern.)
Mr. Kydd (Strawberry and Raspberry Growing) was well received, and Miss Rose, an
old friend, met with a hearty welcome.
Wednesday, October 16th.—Meeting at Burnaby Municipal Hall, 8 p. m. Maxwell Smith
in the Chair. Attendance 23, several of our previous night's audience being present. My
talk and Mr. Kydd's, same as previous night.
Miss Rose, on the  " Womanly Sphere of Woman," was good, and was appreciated.
Thursday, October 17th.—Westminster Junction. Chief interests, fruit and stock.
Afternoon session. "The Horse," by Mr. Kydd, with a horse before him, which was judged
by score cards. Also a practical demonstration by myself on orchard work, in an orchard,
i. «., grafting, showing different pests and their remedies.
Evening session, 7:30 o'clock. Lecture by self on "Orchard Pests" (illustrated), also on
" Intensive Farming," and on " How to Spray." Miss Rose on " The Head, the Hand and the
Heart," and Mr. Kydd on "Small Fruits." Afternoon attendance 23, and in the evening over
50.    Much interest shown and many congratulations.
Friday, October 18th.—Meeting at Haney, 7:30 p.m. Same subject as yesterday. Attendance =mall, only 25. After the meeting, many questions asked. Mr. Atkins is a most
exemplary Secretary, indefatigable in his work, and I cannot speak highly enough of all
the efforts made by him to ensure both the success of the meetings and our own personal
Saturday, October 19th.—Mission Junction. Three P. M., well attended lecture on "The
Horse," by Mr. Kydd, after which we retired to Mr. Abbott's orchard, where I gave a demonstration. At the same time, Miss Rose gave a lecture in the Orange Hall, " One Eye in the
Town and the Other in the Field." At 8 p. m. we had a great meeting of 140. I spoke on
the orchard, exhibited slides of pests, etc., spoke on spraying and intensive farming. Mr. Kydd
gave an address on " Our Boys," and Miss Rose same as afternoon. Mr. Abbott, as Chairman,
and Mr. Verchere, the Secretary, both deserve special mention, and the meeting was most
cordial and complimentary, whilst a couple of songs enlivened the proceedings.
At Mission Junction, which is a great small fruit district, we had a liberal dish of freshly
gathered strawberries, with cream, after the lecture. After much experimenting, nearly all
other varieties of strawberries have been superseded by the Dunlop, which has proved far
ahead of all rivals, according to Mr. Abbott, whom they have made wealthy. Orchards, small
fruits and rhubarb appear to be the staple products. Strawberries were being sold by the
crate a week or two ago.
Monday, October 21st.—Chilliwack. Afternoon meeting at Sardis (Edenbank Creamery).
Mr. Kydd on "Horse and Cow"; attendance, 16. Miss Maddock had an indoor meeting
(ladies); attendance, 23.    No evening meeting.
Tuesday, October 22nd.—Chilliwack Fair Grounds. I had a meeting at 3 p. m., and
visited an orchard, where I pointed out pests and their remedies, and illustrated orchard work.
Mr. Kydd, on " The Horse," followed. Miss Maddock, at the same time, had a meeting of
65 at the High School. N 18 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Same evening at 7:30 we had a meeting in the Town Hall, about 85 present. I ran the
lantern 20 minutes and spoke on spraying and intensive farming, also seed selection and
fertilisers.    Miss Maddock addressed the girls and Mr. Kidd spoke on  "Dropped Stitches."
Whilst at Sardis we visited Mr. Wells' farm of 300 acres, to see his silo, made in a cutting
in the bank, and merely covered with earth. The silage is of clover, and keeps well treated
in this simple manner. In his very fine barn, with every labour-saving convenience, he milks
70 cows, Ayrshires and Jerseys, pedigreed. He keeps careful record of the performance of
each animal, and is altogether up-to-date in his methods.
Wednesday, October 23rd.—Meeting at Rosedale, 2 p. m., 16 present; Mr. Kydd, demonstrating on the horse, caused much interest. Miss Maddock, at the same time, addressed a
fair-sized meeting in the school, and I addressed a number of orchardists, giving a practical
demonstration, a lecture on pests and spraying, and also on intensive farming, rotation of crops
and proper application of manures.
My colleagues have all along the line proved themselves to be not only pleasant companions
but most acceptable lecturers. They speak only upon subjects they thoroughly understand,
and speak well. As regards myself, it would be bad taste to say much. As to the lantern, it
has done yeoman's service, and as an educator and elucidator of the subjects spoken of, it is
invaluable. It draws the people, and more particularly the children, and interests them,
thereby giving the rising generation the " Institute Habit." I understand that we have
aroused greater interest than heretofore in Institute meetings, and I believe that our friends
(and they are many) will, in the districts where we have spoken, rally to the next meetings.
Commercial Fruit-Growing.
By Thos. A. Brydon.
(Synopsis of Address given at Meeting of West Kootenay Farmers' Institute—Reported by
Geo. G. McLaren, Secretary.)
The subject of Thos. A. Brydon's address was " Commercial Fruit-Growing." Select the
best land possible, clear thoroughly and cultivate before planting. The land should be
thoroughly drained before planting, either naturally or artificially. Buy one-year-old trees,
whips, cut back to about thirty inches, cut away all broken or injured roots ; plant the tree
about two inches deeper than it was in the nursery ; incline the tree a little toward prevailing
winds. If the union of scion and stock be not completely grown over with bark, turn the
unhealed side to the north. Let your first branch start about twenty inches from the ground,
and the other branches about three above that and at equal distances apart and on alternate
sides of the tree. Train the most suitable one for a leader, and if any of the others should outgrow the leader nip off the top bud. If other branches grow lower down the trunk leave them
for the first year, as the tree takes 95 % of its nourishment from the air, and the leaves are
the organs that do this work. Cultivate the ground thoroughly to retain moisture. Do not
grow any crop close to the trees; remember you are now erecting a frame-work for future
growth and development and let your motto be " Trees first, trees last, and trees all the time."
A crop of oats and clover may be grown between the rows and at a safe distance from them.
The first year this can be cut for feed and the second year it can be plowed down for manure ;
it contains a large percentage of nitrogen, and this is one of the most expensive fertilisers to
buy. The distances at which trees should be planted depends on the variety. Vigorous
growers, such as the Northern Spy and King, should be thirty feet apart, while other varieties
of slower growth may be planted closer together. Prune the trees carefully ; shape the heads
with the lower part wide and gracefully tapering, something as the cedar does in the forest.
Spray carefully and thoroughly, using the different preparations in their proper season.
The fruit-growers should co-operate in marketing their fruit, do not send it out and ask
buyers what they will give for it, but place it on the market at a fixed price, as merchandise
is placed on the market. British Columbia fruit has never taken a second place and never
should.    Attend carefully to business and fruit-growing will pay. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 19
{Synopsis of an address by Rev.   W. E. Dunham, at a meeting of the Alberni Farmers'
Institute—Reported by H. Hills, Secretary.)
The speaker stated that he was pleased to see so many present this fine day, knowing that
at this time of year everyone was busy, showing the interest taken in the subject. The first
essential is to get a stock of good layers. The climate is suitable ; soil and other conditions
are all right. Next to get a good market and find out amount required, so as not to overdo it.
Another necessity is a good poultry house, not necessarily expensive; build light without
draughts ; give plenty of room and don't have too many in a flock. A house 7 or 7 J feet high
in front, 4 feet high at the back and 10 feet deep is sufficient for 15 hens; 10 feet of yard
space should be given for each hen. Get keen, active birds; feed regularly; raise thoroughbreds
and raise your own own birds ; gather eggs daily. Re amount and kind of feed, much depends
on price paid; must use common sense ; preferred to feed wheat twice, soft feed once, about
middle of afternoon, and grain last thing at night. Q.—Which is the best breed 1 A.—Have
tried many breeds ; found the Mediterraneans too nervous, Asiatics poor layers, the American
breeds most profitable ; preferred White Wyandottes. Considered many of the coloured birds
were bred too much for feathers and lost much of their utility thereby. To rid house of
vermin, use insect powder in nests, good dust bath ; any coal tar preparation or coal oil good
for roosts ; 2 by 3-inch scantling much better for roosts than round poles ; feed some green bone,
meat scraps, etc.    Should be kept at a cost of about 2| cents per week.
Insect   Pests.
By Dr. Fletcher.    (Nelson, Aug. 19th, 1907).
I have no doubt that some people who might have been here to-night have kept away because
they thought they were not much interested in insect pests. You are in such a delightful
part of the country that you are troubled with comparatively very few of these enemies.
Were I to confine myself to my advertised subject to-night, I might soon sit down, but I am
one of those irrepressible people who when they once get an audience, such as I have here tonight, like to hang on to them ; consequently, I shall not keep too strictly within the limits
of the subject mentioned on the programme.
The recent development of farming and fruit-growing in this valley has been such a
surprise to everyone, and the fact that you have a district so eminently suited to the production of fruit of the finest appearance and quality, has made this new industry one of great
interest to everyone. The reputation of Kootenay fruit, and of that from other parts of
British Columbia, is such that we in the East are always on the qui vive at exhibition times
to see what has been sent from this Province. It is not only its quality that is so excellent,
but also the beauty of its appearance. Beauty in fruit is a very valuable quality. This
character of your fruit is so remarkable that it always attracts attention. You will always
have the naming of some of your British Columbian fruit challenged because of this and of
the peculiar effect of the British Columbian soil and climate upon the shape and development
of some of the well-known varieties. One of the great surprises to fruit-growers in the East
a few years ago, when you sent an exhibit of British Columbian fruit, was the excellent
quality of the Ben Davis apple. That is one of the well known apples which gives great
satisfaction to the grower, because it brings large returns into his pocket; but unfortunately,
it is not always so much esteemed by those who buy it, except by hotel keepers, who find that
it looks well on the table and lasts a long time. The fact that it is such a remunerative
apple to grow, however, creates the danger that too many trees of this variety may be planted.
There are a great many being planted to-day, and as your conditions here are such as to
enable you to produce to perfection the very best varieties for the market, it would be wiser
for you to find out what these are, and devote your whole attention to them. Flavour,
appearance, keeping qualities and popularity on the market are the characters in a variety
which ensure success in fruit-growing.
Notwithstanding the fact that your orchards are as yet very clear of the insect and
fungous enemies which do so much harm in other less favoured parts of the country, that is N 20 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
no reason why you should not find out all you can about them. The Provincial Government,
through your efficient Deputy Minister of Agriculture, is doing a great deal to fortify the
farmers of the Province, so that they may save themselves a great deal of loss by knowing
beforehand the difficulties which they may have to meet. In this valley the growing of fruit
is a new thing, but still there are certain orchards which have existed long enough to show
you what can be done, or, at any rate, give indications of the lines along which you can carry
on your work most successfully. Strange as it may sound, I think one of the difficulties
which you will have to meet in your orchards will be the wonderful prolificacy of growth, due
to your climate and the rich soil, which causes your trees to come into bearing very early and
produce large quantities of fruit before, perhaps, they are sufficiently developed to bear it.
The trees have a fine, healthy appearance, and an exceedingly bright, healthy, green colour.
This rapidity of growth and precocity in maturing is a difficulty, because the young trees are
liable to break down under the heavy crops, that suggests the advantage of thinning the fruit
more than has been done. The idea of thinning is to produce less fruit but of better quality.
A small crop of large and perfect apples is less trouble and more profitable than a large
quantity of small ones. Some trees, like some horses, will kill themselves by overwork if
allowed to do so, and by allowing too early and too heavy bearing you may, as in the fable,
kill the goose that lays the golden eggs.
There is another thing to which I will draw your attention, if I may be allowed to mention
it—there are in many orchards too many varieties. The experience of successful fruit-growers
is that a few well-known and popular varieties, suited to the locality, will bring more money
to the grower than a greater number of varieties. Most people know this, yet I see in many
of the orchards a large number of varieties, many of which are not likely to succeed. Mr.
Ricardo, the very successful manager of Lord Aberdeen's Coldstream Ranch at Vernon, told
me that one of the first things he did when he took charge was to cut out about 75% of the
varieties, that is, from about fifty or sixty he cut out all but five or six of the best paying
varieties. Many of the trees were beautiful, full-grown trees, but it did not pay to keep them
there, and the manager showed great wisdom in replacing them with kinds which would give
more money in return for caring for them. They were, indeed, merely luxuries, but you are
not most of you growing fruit merely as a luxury, but you want to make your labours pay you,
and what is nice and pretty does not always pay. I take a particular interest in this Kootenay
District because it is a part of Canada that has shown a wonderful capacity for producing, in
large quantities, fruit of the very best quality and appearance. I have mentioned appearance
several times, because it is a factor of great importance ; a thing may be very good, but unless
it advertises itself it is of less value than something that is not so good but is better known
and more popular.
I have said you are troubled with few insect pests. Many that do a lot of harm in other
parts of Canada, and even in districts close to you here, so far, have not occurred in your
orchards. They have, for instance, many difficulties on Vancouver Island that you have not.
That is because this is a new district. In nature we do not find large blocks of one kind of
plant or tree growing all together, as is the case under cultivation ; consequently, the insects
which feed on one kind of plant do not increase so rapidly. But as this condition is changed
by cultivation, and large quantities of the same kind of plants or fruit trees are planted in a
district, the insects that feed on them, having an unlimited food supply, increase rapidly, and
it becomes important for the fruit-grower both to know how and also to take special means to
prevent these enemies from increasing, so that his profits may not be reduced. Nearly one
hundred years ago the naturalist, Thomas Say, found in Colorado a few specimens of a very
rare beetle, which was feeding on a wild solanum, the same family as contains the potato. He
brought these home, and for many years specimens of this insect were very rare treasures in
collections. But as man gradually spread civilisation over the North American Continent, he
carried with him that standard food the potato, from the east to the west, and directly settlement, and with it the cultivation of the potato, extended to Colorado; then this once rare beetle,
now known as the Colorado Potato Beetle, swept back across the Continent over this bridge
of a special food-plant, closely allied with the native species upon which it fed in a state of
nature, and now it is a regular pest in all the potato fields of the Eastern Provinces, so that
to-day it is absolutely necessary to regularly spray our fields against this insect, or we should
have no potatoes at all. The beetles and their larva? eat the leaves, so that no starch is elaborated to be stored away in the tubers, which, of course, are not roots at all, but specially
modified underground branches.    It is a popular and pretty fable that children are taught, 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 21
that the leaves are the lungs of a plant, but that is not accurate; they are the mouths and
stomach of the plant. Plants take their food in gaseous form, from the air, through minute
pores on the leaves, and in the shape of water, which consists of two gases, taken from the soil
through the roots. These gases are elaborated in the leaves into special food products, which
are kept in store for the next year's growth. In the case of the potato, the starch is stored
away in the tubers, special reservoirs of food for the next year's plant. People who allow the
leaves to be eaten from their potato plants by insects thus deprive the plant of its only possible
means of producing a crop of tubers. Fruit-growers, too, who allow the leaves of their trees
to be eaten, have very small crops of fruit the next year, because there is no stock of food to
support it laid up in the branches and trunks. If the leaves of a currant bush are eaten off
one year, the fruit the next year will be very small and poor and bitter.
Fighting insects, like everything else, is a very simple matter when we know how. Some
people are deterred from studying insects and plants because they think that, on account of
the large number of species, it must be a very difficult matter. Some are surprised when a
botanist is able to tell them the name of every plant he sees, but it is really a simple matter.
It would be a very dull man who could not tell the names of all the people in this room when
he had met them a few times. It is the same with insects and plants when we once know
them. In the case of insects and plants, as a matter of fact, it is much simpler than with
people, because people change and plants and insects do not. The destruction of noxious
weeds and insects is simple when we have the requisite knowledge. The first essential in
obtaining that knowledge is to want to have it. Many people say they want to know a thing,
but do not take any trouble to find out. It is a common statement among fruit-growers, for
instance, that they spray their trees, but if asked why, and what with, they say, " Oh ! I don't
know ; I spray them." Now, the spraying of trees is not a panacea for all ills ; the word spray
is not a shibboleth ; you should know exactly why you do it and how it is to be done to
produce good results. While there are a great many insects in the world, the knowledge of
them necessary for a fruit-grower is not extensive. First of all, all the different kinds of
insects can be divided into two classes, by the way they eat their food. One class eats with
jaws or mandibles, such as we have, and the other class obtains its food by penetrating with
a beak-like organ and sucking out the sap or blood. So there are two classes, biting insects
and sucking insects, and according to the nature of the mouth parts, so are our remedies. For
the insects that bite we put on the plant some poisonous substance which will destroy the
insects which eat it, but which will not itself hurt the plant. In this matter, chemists have
helped us. One of the most deadly poisons known is arsenic, and one of the best forms for
killing insects is the aceto-arsenite of copper, Paris green. This is cheap, is of a bright green
colour, so that it can be mistaken for nothing else; it can be used in small quantities and if
done properly can be applied without injuring the foliage. If an equal amount of lime be
added, the lime offsets the caustic effects of the Paris green and causes it to be non-injurious
to the plant, and at the same time it kills the insect. Recent experiments have shown that
there is an even better form of arsenic than Paris green, that is arsenate of lead. It is not
so injurious to vegetation and is not so strong a poison, and being in finer particles it remains
longer on the plant. When spraying orchards, for the destruction of leaf-eating insects at the
same time as fungous diseases, by making the ordinary standard Bordeaux mixture combined
with arsenate of lead, we have a remedy by which most of the biting insects may be killed
and at the same time many of the fungous diseases. There are two kinds of fungous diseases
of plants, one of which develops on the outside, and the other penetrates the plant. In the
standard Bordeaux mixture, four pounds of bluestone and four pounds of lime in forty gallons
of water, we have a remedy which will destroy most of the worst enemies of the fruit-grower,
among them the black spot of the apple which is so very destructive in the East, but which is
not very prevalent in British Columbia. I may say, however, I found one specimen in
Kaslo, so you should be on your guard against it. Another disease which is very destructive
on the Fraser River and on Vancouver Island is the plum rot. The mummified plums caused
by this disease, and which are masses of spores by which the disease is propagated, should all
be beaten down and burned or buried deeply, so that the spores are not spread abroad in the
The value of arsenate of lead was discovered in fighting against the gypsy moth in
Massachusetts. That work has cost about two million dollars already, but, in a sense, it has
been money well spent, because it has resulted in the acquiring of a vast amount of valuable
information, which will be applicable for all time in similar efforts.    They now have about 1,700 men fighting the gypsy moth and the brown-tail moth in Massachusetts. The gypsy
moth was imported by a misguided naturalist, who thought he could introduce a new kind of
silkworm. He put a cluster of the eggs of the gypsy moth on his window-sill, and it blew out
into his garden. He knew it was gone, but he could not see it and did not trouble to look
very hard. Now, the consequence of that accident was that in the most beautiful parts of
that lovely State you may now see whole groves and parks of trees entirely denuded of foliage
by caterpillars. However, I mention this incident as an illustration of what can be done if
people set to work to do it, for this insect is now being fought so skilfully that there is every
prospect of final success. The San Jose scale has caused great destruction in the United
States and in a small part of Canada, and for many years it defied all efforts to find a remedy,
that is, a practical remedy. A remedy to be practical must have three qualities, it must be
simple, so that no mistake may be made in the preparation and application; it must not cost
more than the crop to be saved is worth ; and, of course, it must do the work. It is practical
remedies for all the different insect pests and fungous diseases that you want and should
demand from the people you pay to give you this information. The Provincial and Dominion
Governments employ men who make a special study of insects and plants, in order that they
may be able to give you the information you require. With regard to insect pests, it may
encourage you to know that these have been studied to the extent that we have now available
remedies which can be recommended at once on demand, for about 98 % of them. There are,
of course, some yet which have not been conquered, but as the study advances remedies will
undoubtedly be found for these too. In the case of the San Jose scale, in the lime and
sulpher wash a practical remedy has at last been found, by which perfectly clean crops of fruit
can be secured and the vigour of the trees maintained.
With regard to the extent and importance of injuries to crops which are every year
attributable to insects, these are enormously in excess of anything conceivable by the ordinary
citizen who has not considered the subject specially. Experts who have inquired into this
matter have found that the amount every year destroyed by insects aggregates at least one-
tenth of every crop grown, and that to this may be added another one-tenth for losses due to
fungous diseases. That means that one-fifth of the whole product of the farms, gardens,
orchards, as well as the live stock of Canada, are taken away from the producers by these
enemies. This, however, is not the worst aspect of the case. What is most regrettable is
that this loss goes on year after year with very little intelligent effort on the part of those who
suffer to prevent it, and this in the face of the fact that much relief might be had by making
use of remedies which have already been discovered and which are available to them. It is
incontrovertible that with a little more definite knowledge on the part of farmers, as to the
habits and nature of insects and fungous diseases, a large proportion of this loss could be
saved, and moreover, those engaged in farming and fruit-growing ought to possess themselves
of this knowledge, in the same way that any good business man learns as quickly as possible
about subjects which materially affect his profits.
There is another feature of this study of insect life which forces its importance home to
everybody, which is the now generally recognized importance of insects as carriers of some
of the worst diseases of men and animals. These are comparatively new discoveries, but are,
to my mind, some of the greatest advances in knowledge for the benefit of the world which
took place during the last century, by far outweighing in their results even such creations as
have come from the application of steam with all the inventions which followed in its wake,
or even electricity. About 1890 it was discovered that the Texas cattle fever was carried
from one animal to another by ticks. Soon afterwards the connection of malaria with certain
kinds of mosquitoes was proved, and this again was followed immediately afterwards by the
startling discovery that yellow fever, the most dreaded scourge of tropical countries, was also
conveyed by another kind of mosquito; in fact, it was proved that there was no possible way
for people to be infected with either malaria or yellow fever except by being bitten by a
special kind of mosquito which had previously bitten a patient suffering from these diseases.
This meant that in the past the thousands, yes, hundreds of thousands of dollars, which had
been spent in quarantine regulations and disinfectants were all money wasted, and that with
the definite knowledge as to the habits of the insects which conveyed these diseases special
steps could be taken to prevent their injuries. We used to learn in our geographies that
Sierra Leone, on the west coast of Africa, was the " White man's grave," and that it was
impossible for white men to live on that unhealthy coast of Africa, where every year thousands
of the natives and others died from malaria.    With the discovery of  the true nature of this 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 23
disease the British Government has taken steps to drain swamps and has taken other sanitary
measures in towns which have rendered impossible the breeding of the disease-carrying
mosquitoes, or have kept them out of houses, so that to-day the remarkable result has come
about that Sierra Leone has become a health resort, to which the Government officials resort,
to get away from malaria. Similar magnificent results have been secured by the United
States Government in Havana and in southern ports, where it may now be said that yellow
fever has been held in check to a marvellous extent. The transmission of the bubonic plague
by fleas, of typhoid fever and other intestinal diseases, as well as hospital gangrene, tuberculosis, and ophthalmia by the common house-fly, have all been proved, and to-day the progressive governments of the world are spending large sums of money to discover more about the
life-histories of insects which carry disease, thus linking the important study of entomology
with medical science in an alliance which will be of vital importance to the whole world.
I am thankful to have lived long enough to see the education of this country put on a
reasonable basis. Our boys and girls now learn geography and mathematics as we did, but
they also learn what is called nature study ; they learn to open their eyes and see what is about
them. So the education of to-day is better than that of earlier days, and my boys and yours
will be better citizens than we are for that reason. Boys and girls to-day are saving their
parents and the country a great deal by being able to see. The prevention of the spread of
noxious weeds in the North-West Provinces is due to the fact that the school children are all
taught to know thirty of the most harmful weeds, that is, the commonest weeds about their
fathers' farms, and children's minds are practical; they know these are likely to be their
fathers' enemies, so they destroy them whenever they find them. There was one weed in
Manitoba they called French weed ; I don't know why. People noticed that it had an abominable smell; they didn't mince matters when speaking about it. They did not say it was
malodorous ; there was just one word that aptly described it, and that word was s-t-i-n-k. So
I said, " Why don't you call it ' stinkweed ' 1 that will tell you something about it." Recognising the weed was of great importance when it spread into new localities all over the country.
Farmers were actually driven off their farms by this aggressive weed ; it got such a hold on
the land that, instead of thirty bushels to the acre, some of the fertile lands of the Red
River Valley were producing only ten or even five bushels, and the people were being driven
out of the land; they said it was too hard to fight this weed, and as there was clean land
farther west, they left their farms and went west. This weed has marked characteristics, and
the boys and girls soon learned to know it. It has such an abominable smell that if a cow
eats it it taints her milk and you know that she has eaten it; even the flesh tastes when an
animal is killed, and to the farmer it makes his very farm stink in his nostrils, because he gets
no profit out of it. The North-West Government printed and published and spread broadcast
coloured pictures of this weed; they were put in every school and every child who went to
school learned to know it by sight, and through the children the parents knew it, and the
result is that, with the assistance of the great railways, which have special men keeping their
tracks clean, the spread of this pest into new districts has been frequently prevented. So the
knowledge of the insects and fungous diseases that threaten your orchards is important to you ;
it is useful knowledge concerning your business which no intelligent business man should be
without. Everyone of you here has the opportunity to make great fortunes, not by selling
your land at inflated prices, but by growing fruit on it and marketing the fruit and keeping
your land. Learn what varieties are most successful and bring the best returns, and when
your orchards are contaminated by injurious insects be prepared to deal promptly with them,
because they are sure to come. You have heard of the great losses in Ontario from the codling
moth; do you know I have found this destructive pest established within a few miles of you 1
Remember that, because it will come to you here for a certainty, if it is not here already. It
is a business proposition for you all, therefore, to read this matter up, learn the standard
remedy and put it into practice. I have gone through some of the orchards here, and I find
the same ignorance concerning remedial methods for insect pests as I have already referred to.
I ask, " Do you spray " 1 " Oh, yes." " What with " 1 " Oh, I don't know; I think it is so and
so." You have no right to think about a matter that your livelihood depends on. You must
know; know the proper thing, the proper time, and the proper manner; have the very best
spraying pump that can be got; do not look for cheap ones ; don't talk about having bought a
new nozzle last year; I have worn out a new nozzle in less than a day. Spraying a tree, it
must be remembered, is not turning on a fire-hose and drenching the tree, it is applying a
liquid containing poison or fungicide in such a way that it is broken up into an actual spray N 24 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
which falls on and adheres to the tree, in the least possible quantity, so as to kill the insects
at small expense, and without danger of injuring the foliage. 1 want to wake you people up,
frighten you ; you have not half the diseases yet, but they will come. You have a big start in
the race during these years before they arrive. You are as yet relieved from a big handicap
in the race; be prepared to hold that advantage as long as you can. It is good business for
you to know and be ready with the remedy as soon as the trouble appears. The Governments
at Victoria and Ottawa stand ready to help you. I have been all over the settled parts of
Canada, and I find everywhere the Experimental Farm reports highly prized by those who read
them ; but in some houses they are put away with the family Bible, and, as in the well-known
story of the old woman's spectacles which were lost in the Bible, they might be put away in
these reports and never found again. Do not use them that way; every effort is made to make
them plain and practical, and every encouragement given to have people ask questions. And
as evidence that they do ask them, even in the one division of the work of which I have charge,
we answer well over 3,000 letters every year. People sometimes apologise for writing to us,
and say they fear we will get tired. Now, you know any man who is paid to do a thing likes
to do it. The people who write to us show they are the people who want to know, and we are
always interested in helping them, and eager to do so.
It would also be worth your while to get the Horticulturist's report. I have seen many
of your beautiful apples up here, and people ask me "What is this apple?" I say so and so.
" Well," they say, " I bought it for that, but I sent some to the show here and the judges said
it was something else." I say, "What have you done about it to find out?" They say,
" Nothing." That means that that fine fruit is ruled out of the next show. But you do not
have to accept the dictum of any one judge. The Horticulturist at Ottawa is one of the
highest authorities in North America, and I say to you people who have had apples ruled out
by the judges, send them down to Ottawa and ask him. Just wrap them up well in paper and
put them in a cigar box without stamps and they will be carried free, and if he, as your
Government official, cannot tell you what it is himself, he will find out; that is his business ;
then, next time the judges rule it out you can say, "Look here, I have authority."
Now, with regard to the insects I have seen in your orchards. First, I may say I have
seen nothing of very serious importance. Here is a curious disease, this gnarled appearance
on the apple (on a specimen produced). It is not, I believe, done by insects ; possibly it is due
to a fungous disease; we have not found that out. Your Government at Victoria and at
Ottawa have people who should find these things out; with some it is more difficult than with
others, but we must try and find a remedy for all. One gentleman told me to-night that
where the trees had been thoroughly sprayed with Bordeaux the disease disappeared ; others
say that this is not the case. Many years ago I found the same disease at Kelowna, on
Okanagan Lake ; it appeared there for two or three years and then disappeared. That does
not indicate fungous disease, but, on the other hand, the fact that it was cured by Bordeaux
mixture does. One experiment is not conclusive; you must try more. I would suggest to
use the lime and sulphur wash, which is a very good one, because it destroys the spores that
remain on the trees all winter. It is a standard remedy for all fungous diseases. (Mr. Johnston stated he had used Bordeaux mixture, but it did not cure).
I am glad to get your experience, but one experiment does not show it was no use,
because in another case it is said to have been successful; it means we have to take another
shot at it, and several shots. It was first thought to be bitter rot, but the injury does not
quite agree with the description of that disease; it is not bitter, and very often is chiefly on
the outside of the apple. It was given that name temporarily, but it does not succumb to the
remedies for bitter rot. Both these experiments may be wrong; there may have been some
other factor which has been overlooked ; it is necessary to repeat experiments over and over
again before they can be taken as conclusive. In one case I know of, it disappeared after a
man had simply drained his orchard. Still, it is probably not simply what is called a physiological defect, because it is too widespread. Our knowledge is not yet complete, but the work
is being carried on, and the results of experiments conducted by agricultural and horticultural
experts all over North America, wherever conditions are similar, are available to you as well
as the work of your own Governments. The definite information that can thus be obtained
sometimes enables a man simply to get out his spraying pump and eradicate at once many of
the worst pests he is troubled with. It is only about twenty years ago that the Bordeaux
mixture was discovered as an excellent remedy for grape rot or mildew. Now, where this
disease is prevalent it can be entirely prevented.    One of the most prevalent fungous diseases 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 25
in the world is the potato rot, which caused the great famine in Ireland in the last century.
That can be almost entirely prevented by spraying the fields in August with Bordeaux mixture. I had one experiment which I repeated as an experiment for fifteen years at Ottawa,
because it was such a striking object lesson. We have one field that is so situated on the side
of a hill as to be visible for a considerable distance. Right in the centre of that field I treat
a patch with the mixture, and the result is that on the patch so treated the foliage remains
green for nearly a month after all the rest is black and dead, and the crop of tubers is free of
disease; the rust on the leaves does not spread and, therefore, the rot of the roots does not
occur, for they are two forms of the same thing. First the rust attacks the leaves and forms
spores which fall, and are washed into the ground, and come into contact with the potatoes
and cause the rot. I have not seen a diseased potato in my own garden for ten years as a
result of regular spraying. The plum rot is more difficult to treat, yet it can be treated in a
practical, paying manner with the Bordeaux mixture, because the disease develops on the outside of the leaves. Some diseases, and the one we have been discussing on the apple may
possibly be one of these, develop inside the tissues of a plant. Two diseases that trouble the
farmers in the North-West are rust and smut. Rust is an external disease ; smut is internal,
and only shows in the grain when its fruiting organs are formed. Now, it is not practicable
to spray large fields of wheat, which, important as it is, is a comparatively low-priced crop.
So far we have no known remedy for rust; but a practical remedy for smut is to treat the
seed before it is sown, because the disease is carried as spores on the outside of the seed. The
treatment of wheat seed by bluestone, or some such treatment, is no new thing; it was
practised a hundred years ago, but people came into a new country and took their chances,
neglected to treat it, and, in consequence, the disease appeared and kept on increasing until
in one year not long ago there was as much as 33 % of the entire wheat crop of the North-
West graded lower than it would otherwise have been, because of the presence in the
grain marketed of weed seeds and smut. That was a serious matter affecting the whole
country, so the Government and the railways banded together and sent out a special
train throughout the land, with speakers to tell the farmers what to do to prevent this
enormous loss, and now every farmer knows it is his business to free his seed wheat from
weeds and disease, and the sales of formalin and bluestone in the Prairie Provinces have
increased by thousands of tons, and, as a result, the disease is stayed to a very large measure.
We do not yet know enough about many of the fungous diseases, but with more knowledge,
practical remedies will be discovered. As a general remedy, when a disease is not understood, I first use the Bordeaux mixture ; it will destroy any spores on the outside of a plant
and many are produced in this way.
(Mr. Johnston stated that the use of Bordeaux caused russeting of the apple.)
Yes, that is very true; russeting is a common injury on a clean, smooth-skinned apple.
It is caused either by the lime being poor or the proportions used being wrong. Great care
must be used in following formulas recommended. Of course, the Imperial gallon, not the
American gallon, should be used in all formulae, because the small American gallon is illegal
in Canada. Fifty American gallons only equal 40 Imperial. Some careless writers, who have
not tried the formula; they recommend, have done much harm by not knowing this.
(Mr. Johnston stated the mixture had been tested and showed the lime had neutralized
the bluestone.)
Yes, the Bordeaux mixture does certainly sometimes injure the appearance of delicate
fruit, but that is far better than having the fruit diseased and useless. If you buy a beefsteak you generally get a bone in it; you cannot always get perfect results even from the best
remedies, but their use will prevent a much greater loss than would have been suffered had
they not been used.
(Mr. Johnstone stated that some years ago he had some trees affected with the same
disease, and all remedies failed and the trees were dying, so he bared the roots and poured in
strong soapsuds, and the trees were cured.)
I cannot explain that, but if the soap used were a potash soap, the potash would be
beneficial to the plant, or soda might have neutralized some other ingredient in the soil. I
heard of a man who had some trouble with his trees and his friends proposed various remedies;
one told him it was rooting too deep, so he got a couple of crowbars and he pried up the roots
till the tree was almost out of the ground, then he laid a few flat stones around it to hold it
down, and he claims that afterwards his tree flourished. It may have been so, but I cannot
explain it. N 26 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
However, I congratulate you people in this valley, again, on your exceptional prospects.
Your climate and soil and conditions are such as will produce exceptionally good fruit, well
formed, and of very fine appearance. The color of the leaves of the trees indicate that they
get, the apples and plums especially, all they need to produce the best fruit. That being the
case, you would do well to let that be the chief line of your farming until you see something
better. Some of the apples I have seen about here, such as Northern Spies and others of the
finer grades, are as good as the best produced anywhere in Canada. That being the case, you
have a specially favoured locality, and with proper knowledge and use of your possibilities, I
do not see what can hold back the development of your valley that is now being so widely
planted with fruit trees. A few years ago the planting of these slopes with fruit was hardly
thought of, but now everyone knows they are the very best lands for the purpose and that
fruit of the finest quality can be produced on them. Some of your best men are engaged in
the work, and the Provincial and Dominion Governments stand ready to help you in your
difficulties and protect you and enable you to do your work in the best possible way. They
employ specialists for your assistance, and whose services are free to you for the asking.
(Mr. Anderson asked Dr. Fletcher to say a few words about some underground insects).
I may say that of these, there are some which are very hard to control. Wire-worms
are insects we have not yet found any practical cure for ; wire-worms and white grubs in grain
are two of the subjects of special study by entomologists now. There are some methods that
have given good results ; one is plowing the ground or breaking it up just when the insect is
passing through the pupa or resting stage, which in the case of many wire-worms is in the
month of August, but as there are many different kinds whose grubs are called wire-worms,
the season varies more or less. One species has given great trouble on Vancouver Island in
grain fields. Wire-worms are the grubs of the elaters or skip-jack beetles. The best information I can give you is that most of the simple remedies so largely recommended and advertised
in newspapers and so on, such as poisoning the seed or sowing salt on the land, are quite useless ; so you can save your money. The excellent agricultural practice of adopting a regular
short rotation of crops is one of the best safeguards against these insects. Two very popular
remedies are salt and carbolic acid, especially the latter, on the principle, I suppose, that a
medicine is effective in proportion to the intensity of its taste or smell; or like the man who
went to a dentist of the old school to have a tooth out, and the next time went to one of the
better trained men of a later day. The latter had the tooth out in a few seconds, so that he
scarcely knew it, and then asked him for two dollars. "Why," the man said, " I got dragged
half around the block by the other man for one dollar." You may remember that neither
carbolic acid nor salt has any effect on wire-worms. Up to the present time, fall-ploughing is
the only thing which has given any satisfactory results.
Cut-worms, except they come in great numbers as they did a few years ago in British
Columbia, are comparatively easy to deal with. One pound of Paris green mixed thoroughly
through 100 lbs. of bran, just sufficiently moist to hold the poison, and this mixture spread on
the land, is perfectly effective in my experience against most kinds of cut-worms. To show
how effective it is in a large way, I may tell you of its use by the Alberta sugar beet growers last
year, when a severe outbreak of cut-worms occurred ; but by the use of this remedy the insects
were destroyed and the crop was saved. The cut-worms also appeared in the northern wheat
fields, where sometimes a hundred-acre field of wheat or oats might be seen stripped bare;
but wherever this remedy was used the result was satisfactory. Some people doubt its
efficacy because they do not see the dead worms lying about with tombstones set up over them,
but this is merely because they do not know how to look for them. It must be remembered
that cut-worms are night feeders, which hide by day beneath the surface of the soil, and also
that Paris green, although very deadly, is also rather slow in its action. The insects come out
at night, and eat the poison and then go back and hide beneath the soil for the day, and die
underground. As I said, there are some fifty different varieties of wire-worms, and over three
hundred different cut-worms ; so while these may be said to be the general remedies, yet the
season for applying them will vary in different districts.
Another insect which is difficult to control when it occurs in large numbers is the onion
maggot. In small numbers, however, it is easily controlled by mixing any of the tar products
or other substances with a strong odour, such as carbolic acid, cresolene, zenoleum, kerosene,
etc., with sand, and spreading this along the rows about the time the young plants are coming
up. Sulphate of iron is also a hopeful new remedy, one pound in two gallons of water, poured
along the rows once a week from the time the onions come up for about a month. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 27
For root maggot in cauliflower and cabbages the best remedy is pyrethrum powder or
white hellebore. If an ounce of either be steeped in one gallon of hot water, and that diluted
with another gallon of cold water—that is, one ounce to two gallons of water—and a little of
this is poured around the roots by drawing the soil away and pouring it in, then putting the
soil back (about a teacupful to each plant), the maggot is destroyed and the cabbage stimulated
to grow by the moisture at a dry time of the year, and very satisfactory results have been
obtained. An excellent way of preventing damage to tomato and cabbage plants by cut-worms,
which I forgot to mention, is to place strips of paper around the stems of the plants when they
are put in the ground, the paper extending about 1|- inches above the surface.
(Mr. Johnston spoke of cases where this had been done but was not very satisfactory.)
This has been an unusually moist season, I understand ; the explanation may be that the
paper got soft. At Ottawa we use this method with thousands of plants, and it prevents a
large proportion of the loss. We have planted patches of two thousand each, one patch being
wrapped with these strips of paper and the other not; in the patch that was banded the loss
was about five per cent., while on the adjoining patch, not banded, the loss was so great that
it had had to be re-planted. Those are actual experiments, and are of the kind we have to
make at the Experimental Farms; we cannot afford to " think " when our recommendations
are for others to adopt.
(A question was asked as to the woolly aphis.)
I had not touched on that because I am not as frightened of it as some of you in this
Province seem to be. There are two or three kinds of insects known as woolly aphis. The
woolly aphis of the apple is a strange animal. It does a certain amount of harm, it is true ;
but it is by no means so bad as some of you think. It has two forms, one of which attacks
the roots, the other the trunks and branches of the apple tree. The form on the branches and
trunks, which is the common form in this Province, is not very dangerous ; it is easily killed,
even when in large numbers, by the application of kerosene emulsion or whale oil soap,
especially if these are applied hot. These applications penetrate the waxy covering of the
insects, and that kills them. The root form is not prevalent to any extent in Canada, but
does much harm, it is claimed, in the South.
The apple aphis is a general term covering three different kinds of plant louse. These
differ in habits. In one there is what is known as alternation of generations; one generation
appears in the spring on the trees, having hatched from eggs laid there the autumn before ;
the next generation flies to grasses, and lives there until the autumn, when another brood of
perfectly developed males and females appears and returns to the apple trees. But there is
one kind that stays on the trees all summer, which is more harmful, and there seems to be a
special development of this in British Columbia. In Ontario I generally say the best treatment for apple aphis is to leave it alone. One apple-grower who was very anxious, one spring,
saved two hundred dollars by doing so and "leaving well-enough alone," while it would have
cost him two hundred dollars to spray his orchard. However, here you cannot always afford
to run that risk, where a species remains on the trees all the season and does much harm
Here, spraying for this pest usually pays well.
The oyster shell scale is a very destructive insect in neglected orchards, but where
orchards are making a vigorous growth, as in this valley, and where they are being taken care
of and cultivated and sprayed with lime and sulphur in the winter and with the poisoned
Bordeaux mixture where necessary, this insect should never become a serious pest. I detected
at Kaslo the parasite of this insect, a very minute yellow fly of the wasp order, which feeds
inside of the scale and emerges in spring.
Burning of dead vegetation in the autumn was recommended, to destroy eggs of cut-worm
and other insects.
One hundred pounds of bran and Paris green mixture to the acre was used in Alberta for
For the black aphis on beans the only remedy is to cut off the twigs and burn them, the
insects being confined to the tips of the new shoots. Tobacco water was said to have been
effective by one present.
In spraying potatoes, for potato rot, three applications are necessary, but four are better
at intervals of a fortnight.
For white thrip hopper on roses (presence shown by white leaf), use kerosene emulsion or
whale oil soap.
For white mildew on rose trees, dust with sulphur. N 28 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
The Dairy Cow.
By Miss Laura Rose, Guelph.
(Synopsis of an Address delivered before the West Kootenay Farmers' Institute—Reported by
Geo.  G. McLaren, Secretary.)
Miss L. Rose delivered an address on the " Dairy Cow." Miss Rose said, select the breed
that will best suit the conditions. For the hill-sides and rough pastures, the Ayrshire would
be very suitable. She is hardy, light of foot and will thrive better on rough pastures than the
other dairy breeds. In a dairy cow the nostrils should be large, that she may inhale abundance
of fresh air and maintain good health. Do not use a cow that is not perfectly healthy. The
mouth should be large that she may be* able to consume large quantities of feed and chew the
cud well. The muzzle should be clear cut, the eye clear and good, as it indicates the nervous
constitution. The ear should contain a creamy secretion, which should also be found at the
roots of the hair. The backbone should be prominent, as it contains the spinal cord, the
largest nerve of the body. From the top of the shoulders downward she should be wedge-
shaped, giving large chest room for lungs and heart. The ribs should be well sprung and far
apart. The body should be large, showing great capacity for consuming feed. The udder
should be large and well shaped, and the teats of good length and the proper distances apart.
The milk veins should be large and crooked, and the wells, where the veins enter the body,
should be large. The tail should be slim and the brush large ; the last bone of the tail should
reach the hock joint. Provide a good house for the cow, where she will be comfortable. Feed
liberally; nothing is better than good clover hay. In feeding grain, give a combination, as
one will counteract the injurious effects of the other. Keep salt constantly before her. Give
plenty of pure water and, if necessary, in cold weather heat it slightly and she will drink
more of it; endeavour to have her drink as much as possible, as it has been proven that this
will increase the flow of milk more than if you increased her feed, and water along the
Kootenay Lake is much cheaper than feed.
Science has not determined in what way milk is secreted ; it is made from the blood. If
the largest milker was killed immediately before milking, the udder would be found to contain from a pint to a quart of milk. It is supposed the blood is converted into milk as it
passes through the udder during the process of milking.
Treat the cow with all kindness ; it pays. Milk rapidly and with dry hands ; use a little
vaseline. A person with weak hands should not be allowed to milk; they cannot do it
properly. Strain the milk immediately, using cheese-cloth four fold ; rinse the cloth in cold
water, then in hot, and pin on the clothes-line to dry. Chill the milk as rapidly as possible;
you will secure more cream. Have cream as rich as possible, as rich cream makes more and
better butter than a larger quantity of poorer cream. Store the cream in a suitable vessel and
stir it every day; strain the cream into the churn, and if the temperature is right, butter will
come in twenty or thirty minutes.
Fresh Air and Food for Health.
By Miss R. Blanche Maddock, Guelph.
(Synopsis of Address before the Matsqui Farmers' Institute.—Reported by J. Ball, Secy.)
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen,—I love talking to boys and girls, and your
Institute executive, I think, has done wisely in adjourning school for your attendance here a
little while this afternoon; at least I hope so. They tell us the country makes the people;
yet the best country ought to be where there are the best people, and one of the best ways to
fit you, as well as going to school, is to learn to grow up strong and healthy. The best kind
of food to take and the best fresh air to breathe, and this fine country of yours, rich in
possibilities far beyond what you now think, will be made all the better if we each do our part
nobly and well.
Now, I am going to talk to you a little about food, air and water. Air turns food into
blood.    The speaker here asked the children what kind of food they chose?    The answers 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 29
came: "Water," "bread," "potatoes," "vegetables," "meat," One child answers "water."
Well, we none of us take enough of this ; we ought to drink from five to six glasses a day.
Every morning on rising, and on going to bed, we should take one glass of cold water. This
and deep breaths of pure air, and you have plenty of this at your command, free and untainted,
and the good food I speak about, you will have no need of the patent medicine man. Now, I
speak about air ; the room in which you sleep, see that it gets lots of it. I find, wherever I
go, not enough attention is paid to this. It takes a very large room indeed to contain as
much pure air as should suffice for one person during night. A room 20 x 15x10 feet will
contain only enough pure air for one person for one hour. Now, just think of that, and how
many go to bed in small ill-ventilated rooms. Now, mind you, I don't want you to adopt any
plan to catch cold, and the best way to do it is, if possible, to let your window down from the
top a little and open the bottom window a few inches, resting on a board nicely fitted, and
the air rising between the two windows ascends and the damp will not enter. Thus you see
you cannot long remain healthy (and this applies to your fathers and mothers) if the food is
turned into blood only by the action of impure air. I am afraid you can tell poor mother that
we are not doing our duty towards our country in this respect. I don't hesitate to say there
is a revolution needed in the way of our cooking to-day The fried eggs that are rendered
indigestible; the cooked steak and joint, and the porridge hastily made and unpalatable ; in
fact, I could go on enumerating them, which are matters of the utmost concern and treated
and skipped over so lightly; no wonder there are so many broken-down mothers with indigestion and dyspepsia so prevalent. Now, I am sure a good many children have to take lunches
to school, owing to the distance you have to walk, and one of the best I know of is a sandwich of hard boiled eggs and butter, and for dessert a nice custard in cups, made of milk and
eggs, with nuts and dates ; pie is not good; and for breakfast thin crisp toast with properly
made oatmeal porridge and milk. A vote of thanks was accorded each speaker and the meeting
closed with singing " God save the King."
Vancouver  Island as  a Fruit-Growing Section.
(Synopsis of an address at Sooke by S. F. Tolmie, V. S.—Reported by the Secretary,
Mr. J. Smart.)
The meeting was largely attended. The Chairman, after a few introductory remarks,
called on Dr. Tolmie, who, departing from his usual subject, " Stock and its Diseases," gave the
meeting a brief account of his recent trip through the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts,
giving a description of the land and climatic conditions in these parts and comparing them
with the southern portion of Vancouver Island, principally as fruit-raising localities, assuring
his audience that, with the same care on the orchards of this island, fruit superior to that of
Kootenay and Okanagan could be produced. He also spoke of the high prices obtained for
land in the districts he had just visited, and attributed this, not to the superiority of the soil,
nor to any advantage of climate or locality, but principally to judicious and persistent advertising of these parts of the Province. He closed his remarks by a rousing appeal to the
people of Sooke to bestir themselves and let their district be heard of, by sending articles
descriptive of the place and its advantages to the papers, both local and in the East, by
forwarding views of Sooke for exhibition in the Tourist Association Rooms, and by sending
exhibits to the various agricultural shows within reach. He advised the meeting to strike
while the iron was hot and help on the coming of the good times they all saw ahead of our
Acting on his advice, a committee of three was appointed to give effect to the suggestions
he had made in regard to advertising the district. N 30 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Salmon Arm as a Fruit-Growing Section.
By Robert Turner,
Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,—I was asked at our last Institute meeting to
read a paper on fruit-growing. It puzzled me quite a little just what part of the great fruit
industry to deal with, but I decided to entitle the paper " Salmon Arm as a Fruit-Growing
Now, the very first thing to be taken into consideration in a fruit section is its
geographical position. As you all know, Salmon Arm is the most northerly and easterly
point in British Columbia where fruit is successfully grown, and it is a well known fact that
the farther north apples can be grown the better the quality. I think Salmon Arm has
demonstrated this point in every place our apples have been shown. Crispness, juiciness,
colour and flavour are synonymous to our eastern location. In our northern location we are in
closer proximity to the great North-West, which will in time be the greatest fruit market in
the world—a country capable of supporting a population of fifty millions, where not an apple
can be grown, at our very door. In addition to our North-West market, we have also the
markets of the Old Country. Now, the markets of the old world differ very materially from
those of the North-West. In the markets of Great Britain they are prepared to pay a price
never dreamt of in the North-West. Now, we can grow apples that will capture the markets
of Great Britain, but we have got to change our methods; we have got to adopt a different
system. We are told that in Hood River, Oregon, they sell the Jonathan apple at $2.75 per
box, and the Yellow Newtown at $3.25 per box. When Professor Lake was here last October
I showed him a sample of Salmon Arm Jonathans ; he said he had never seen finer specimens,
and the Salmon Arm Spy is far superior to the Jonathan. If Hood River Nowtowns are worth
$2.25 per box, Salmon Arm Spies, grown the way they can be and put up the way they should
be, are worth $3.50 per box.
Another very important point in our favour is the transportation facilities. In a few
years, when the Panama Canal is finished, cutting off some 10,000 miles of an ocean voyage,
we will have an almost direct water communication with Great Britain. The same thing is
going to reduce the freight rates to the North-West; as it is now, all the empty cars are
hauled west. When Alberta and Saskatchewan start to pour their wheat through British
Columbia for the Panama route, that order of things is going to be reversed, greatly benefiting
the Salmon Arm fruit-grower.
The question of variety is one of great importance, if we intend to lead British Columbia
in the fruit industry ; it is one we have got to settle soon. I am sorry to say that in a good
many cases the old order of things still prevails ; the selection is left to the fruit-tree pedlar.
From my experience, which is somewhat limited, I would suggest the Northern Spy, the
Jonathan, the King, and the Wealthy, in the order named. They are four high-grade, well-
coloured apples, and all can be successfully grown here. Next come the Yellow Bellflower,
Grimes' Golden, and Rhode Island Greening, also in the order named—all yellow apples with
a blush, also high grade. Of course I would not recommend the planting of all seven varieties,
but any of the seven can, I believe, be grown here with profit.
Salmon Arm contains some 15,000 acres of the best fruit land on the American Continent,
and no doubt in time every available foot of land capable of raising fruit will be planted. Very
few people realise what that means to this section. It means, at a very conservative estimate,
a revenue of $7,000,000 a year. It means $700 a year to 5,000 labourers to harvest the apple
crop. It means a net profit of $3,500 a year each for 1,000 fruit-growers. It means a population of 20,000 for Salmon Arm. Some people who are a little skeptical might ask the
question, " What would we do with 7,000,000 boxes of apples if we had them ?" For every
additional box of apples we grow for the next ten years there will be ten additional settlers in
the great North-West. There is not the least possibility of the fruit industry ever being overdone in British Columbia. It is just as reasonable to suppose that the wheat industry of the
North-West would be overdone as the fruit industry of British Columbia.
It is not my intention to run down any other fruit section in British Columbia in this
paper, but I cannot help enumerating some of the many advantages in this much-favoured
location. We have a lake frontage of some twelve miles, which protects and makes it almost
impossible to get hurt by frost when trees are in blossom. We have a snowfall sufficient to
saturate the ground thoroughly.    In addition, we have all the rain we require through the summer, always enough but never too much, irrigation being an unknown quantity. We are
also free from the two greatest fruit pests which the fruit-grower has to contend with over the
whole world, namely, the Codling moth and the San Jose scale. It is also true that the fruitgrower, even in Salmon Arm, has got to keep his eyes open. We have the Oyster Shell Bark
louse, the Pear Leaf Blister mite, the Cherry and Pear Tree slug, the Red Spider mite, the
June bug, the Tent caterpillar, the Apple scab, the Baldwin spot, and last, but not least, the
common green aphis, all of which are easily combated by the careful and watchful fruit-grower.
There is one side to fruit and fruit-growing which is often overlooked. Fruit-growing is
a pleasant occupation, and I don't know of any pleasanter place to indulge in this occupation
than Salmon Arm.
We read in Genesis, the 2nd chap, and 8th verse, " And the Lord God planted a garden
eastward in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed." The Great Creator didn't
build Adam a saw-mill, or a cheese factory, or a foundry; he wished to give him a pleasant
occupation, and he put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.
I have often had my doubts about what Adam was turned out of the orchard for, but
since being in the fruit business for a number of years I have come to the conclusion that he
had neglected spraying. Even at the present time I don't know of anything that will drive a
man out of the-garden and out of the fruit industry any faster than the neglect of judicious
spraying. An unkept orchard is an eyesore, but a well-kept, well-pruned orchard is a thing
of beauty. Not only is fruit-growing a pleasant occupation, it is also a profitable occupation.
It may be true that it has never turned out any millionares, but the fruit-grower, when out
working in his orchard amongst the birds, the bees and the blossoms, is a man to be envied.
He knows every variety in his orchard; in fact, he knows the nature of every tree, and its
requirements; he diagnoses every case; he knows that every variety' requires different treatment. He has planted his orchard ; it has grown up around him ; he has watched its progress
from year to year. Fruit-growing is something you cannot learn at school; you cannot learn
it out of books ; you have got to learn it in the orchard ; it is a nature study; it is something
that grows on you ; you learn to love it; it is something you love to learn. It is claimed that
crime is almost unknown amongst fruit-growers, and the death penalty has never yet been
meted out to anyone engaged in that industry.
By J. A. Coatham, Sardis, B. C.
The pruning and heading of fruit trees, the first few years after being set out in the
orchard, is a very important matter, as according to how this is done depends to a large
extent the future welfare and success of the tree. I prefer a medium low head, in a climate
where there is a large amount of sunshine, drying winds and a lack of rain. Very low heads
may be the best, but where the amount of sunshine is more limited, and where dull and rainy
weather sometimes prevails, I prefer a little higher head, say medium low, as this kind of a
head allows the lower part of the tree and the ground under it to get more sunshine, and
retards the development of fungous diseases, such as plum rot, black spot on the apple and
pear, etc., and this is quite an important matter in our climate. There are two kinds of shapes
for heads in common use, namely, the pyramid or centre leader and the open or vase-shaped
head. Both kinds are the favorites of different growers. The advocates of the centre leader
claim for it the power to carry the largest load of fruit without needing props or breaking
down ; while those in favour of the open head claim for it the power of letting more sunshine
into the centre of the tree. There are other claims made for the different heads, but either,
if properly pruned, can be made a success, and to fulfil all the requirements ; although, I
believe, the centre head is going to be the popular head of the future. In shaping the head,
great care should be taken to always keep the leader in the lead and not to let grow two side
limbs too near together, especially directly over each other, as the upper one will shade the
lower. Commence them by having them evenly distributed all over the tree, or around the
leader as even as it is possible for the eye to detect; then the tree will not only be evenly
balanced, but each branch will be able to obtain an equal amount of sap, air and sunshine.
There are two kinds of fruit-growers in this valley whom I consider are very poor ones. The
one never prunes, or, if he does, it is once in a number of years ; the other prunes far too N 32 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
severely. I have seen some trees during the past few weeks that were, in my estimation,
almost butchered. Pruning should be done once a year at least, May or June preferred, but
better done in the winter than not done at all. Winter pruning produces too much wood
growth, while the summer pruning helps to develop fruit spurs. July or August is a good
time at which to rub off with the hands any fresh wood growth that is seen will not be required
in the tree for the following year. I am speaking of the apple and pear chiefly ; the cherry
requires very little pruning. It is wise to prune for the forming of fruit spurs. Where more
are required they may be obtained by nipping back any new growth during these months.
With a little extra work and pains this can be done while picking much of the early fruit
with the hand, saving the trees the strength required to grow this extra wood that will be
cut out the following pruning time. If a tree has been properly pruned yearly until it gets
to bearing well, it usually requires less after that, as the extra drain upon the tree of bearing
the fruit checks the wood growth to some extent.
The aim of the pruner should be at all times merely to cut out any dead, diseased or
broken limbs, and to thin out any others that touch, crowd or cross each other, so that each
limb or branch left will be able to obtain an equal share of air and sunshine.
Where we are blessed with plenty of moisture from the clouds during the summer season,
I do not believe it is necessary to cultivate the ground each and every year. This requires a
lot of extra expense and work. I prefer growing some kind of hoe crop for a few years until
the trees are bearing well, then seeding down to pure red clover. I prefer the red clover,
because it does not rob the soil but enriches it and also keeps the ground in a loose state. I
do not like grass in the orchard, as it forms too hard a sod. The clover makes a very good
run for pigs, or can be cut for mulching or for feed.
I believe in applying plenty of manure to the orchard land, especially when in the hoe
crops, owing to the extra drain on the soil.    Also when the trees are bearing heavily.
If the trees have been properly pruned up to the time of bearing well, each tree ought to
be growing its fruit evenly distributed throughout its branches. This is very important for
several reasons, namely, each part of the tree is then bearing and carrying an equal share of
the fruit and sap, sunshine and air will be equally distributed, which means uniformity in
colour, flavour and size, three of the necessary things to make first class fruit.
On some lands where, after proper pruning, spraying, cultivation and manuring has been
done, and there is still a lack of colour, I would advise applying muriate of potash and phosphoric acid in equal parts.    As a fertiliser, wood ashes are also good.
At this stage of horticulture it is impossible for even young trees to keep free from disease
and insect pests and to grow good fruit long, and on old trees it seems out of the question
without spraying. The more we spray and the better we do the work, the greater is the profit.
This is a very important point. Each tree should be thoroughly sprayed each time, from the
very highest twig to the ground ; no place or part, no matter how small, should be missed, and
a strong, steady pressure should be kept up with the pump, and when the tree commences to
drip it has had enough. Poor spraying is very little better than none at all. I believe that
three good sprays a year (if an orchard is in good condition) will usually give good results—
one some time during the winter, another just after the blossoms drop, and the third usually
about the fore part of June or when the fruit is about the size of nuts. If many scale insects
are in the orchards, the first and last sprays should be the lime and sulphur spray, the former
of the winter strength, the latter the summer strength ; the second one the Bordeaux mixture;
and it is also well to poison the spring and summer sprays for leaf-eating insects. If black
canker or bark disease is in the orchard to any extent, it is wise to use the double strength
Bordeaux mixture late in the fall. I always use lots of lime in applying all my sprays,
especially the winter and spring ones, as it is a good thing for the tree and ground.
It pays well for the time and trouble to go over the trees, especially the apple and pear,
with a pair of scissors and clip off any cull fruit as soon as the different kinds can be detected,
and more than the culls if the tree is carrying too large a crop. It costs the tree as much
strength to mature a cull as a number one fruit, while there is three times the profit for the
grower in the number one. It does not pay to allow too large a crop to grow on a tree in one
year. It not onlv produces inferior fruit, but shortens the life of the tree, besides having a
tendency to cause or make a tree bear a light crop or miss every other year.
In picking fruit, ladders and stands, etc., should always be used. Pickers should never
be allowed to climb in and around a tree, for at that time of the year the fruit spurs for the
next season's crop are very tender, and easily broken off and destroyed by the shoes, hips and 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 33
shoulders of a person in picking a tree in this way. I prefer a pointed ladder, it being easier
to adjust to the tree, safer for the picker, and easier on the tree. I would recommend several
ladders of different lengths, as much time is lost in picking where the length of the ladder is
not suited to the height of the tree. I always use a strap on or around my neck or shoulders,
with a hook attached to the handle of the pail or basket, so as to insure it from dropping at
any time. By this method of holding the bucket both hands and arms are always free, and
wherever you move the bucket is always within easy reach, which means not only time made
in picking, but careful handling of the fruit into the bucket. A great many hang the bucket
on some part of the tree or ladder and soon move out of easy reach of it. and the consequences
often are that some of the fruit is then tossed into the bucket, not only bruising it, but some
of the other fruit already in the bucket. This is another very important point, and I strongly
urge on every fruit-grower to see that his fruit is handled at all times with the utmost care, as
though handling eggs, not turnips. All bruised fruit is really culled fruit, and should be
graded and classed as such, as it is neither fit to ship nor keep.
Just a few words about old and neglected orchards. If very mossy and rough in the
bark, scrape, prune and spray thoroughly, break up the ground, cultivate and manure well, and
success will crown the efforts put forth. If the trunk and heart of a tree are sound and
healthy, a new and healthy top can soon be grown on it.
The  Farmer's  Cow of the  Future.
By E. A. Atkins, Coquitlam.
The subject in the above title touches one of the most important matters connected with
the live stock industry of this Province. The day is coming, and is not very far off either,
when the men who are engaged in the beef-producing business will have to give more attention to the milking qualities of their herds. The days of beef ranching on a large scale in this
Province are drawing to a close. The range territory is being invaded, more and more every
year, by the grain and fruit-growers, and the field that at that time promised to become a
great market for beef cattle is gradually being narrowed. Mixed farming and cattle feeding
in the future are going to become more general. Grain-growing and live stock are going to
blend into one industry, just as they are combined in the East. The influx of immigrants is
going to make beef ranching unprofitable and impracticable. Towns will spring up and cities
grow out of some of the villages that now dot the Province. These communities will be filled
with a purchasing population, the principal and staple needs of which will be butter, milk and
beef. Milking cows will be required to supply this necessity, but cows of a different type to
that which now generally obtains ; cows that will milk well during their lactation period and
feed rapidly into beef when dry; cows capable of producing stock that will make good
butcher or export cattle; cows that combine in the highest degree the milking with the beef
function, not the kind that are for beef or for milk alone.
The general tendency, we believe, at the present time among Shorthorn breeders, who
are noc blindly following the old show-ring ideals of beef and nothing else, is towards a deeper
milking type of cattle; and as the country develops, as the demand for dairy produce becomes
greater, as it assuredly will, farmers generally will give more attention to this phase of the
live stock industry. They will keep records of some kind of the performance of their cows.
Let them do this for but a single year; let them once awaken to the fact that one good
milker is worth two or three inferior producers; and then there will be a demand in this
country for bulls from deep milking dams that will become greater in ever increasing ratio.
The farmer, when he finds he cannot secure such sires among the beef breeds, will turn
naturally to the dairy breeds for his bulls, and it is right here that the danger lies. It is
easier to develop a heavy milking Shorthorn than it is to produce a deeply fleshed Holstein.
It is easier because milk production is a natural characteristic in all breeds, while the tendency
to lay on meats has been developed by breeding and selection. It is easier because, on one
hand, all that is required is to bring into action a characteristic which has been more or less
dormant in the breed for something like half a century; while, on the other hand, it would be
necessary first of all to overcome to some extent a character which has been predominant in a
herd for two thousand years; and then, when this is accomplished, to engraft upon that N 34 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
breed the tendency to produce meat, which for hundreds of years has been the one thing these
cattle were bred particularly not to do. We must stay with the beefing breeds, but we must
breed them not for beef alone. There are some old ideas which we must eradicate from our
minds and methods. The old and too common way of allowing the calves to do the milking
must cease, if development is to be looked for in milk production. So long as it prevails no
development can be made in the milking functions of any breed. Retrogression alone in
that respect can be looked for. The calf milking system in pure-bred Shorthorns is largely
responsible for the fact that this breed of cattle, on the whole, have nothing like the milking
capacities now which they had half a century ago (this I know for a fact). It is a system
which, if persisted in, will result inevitably in a milkless cow. Deep milking cows are never
produced by such methods as this. The heifer calf designed for a cow must be fed for flesh
and not for fat. Cows milked by the calf from year to year go back in their milk-producing
capacity, instead of improving. Heifers bred from such cows, sired by bulls that have come
from such cows, and fed in such a manner as this in their calfhood, cannot be expected to be
better milk producers than their dams ; in fact, they cannot be as good ; it is contrary to all
the laws of nature that they should, and to that fundamental law of heredity upon which the
science of breeding is based. If this is true, it is little wonder that the number of heavy
milking cows in practically all our beef breeds is steadily growing less—and where is it going
to end ? Whither are we drifting ? It seems to me that the breeders of live stock in this
country—I refer particularly to the beef breeds—will have to unlearn a lot of that knowledge
which seems hitherto to have constituted the foundation of their work.
I have no desire just here to enter into a discussion of the theoretical dual purpose cow.
What I am trying to say, and what I want to emphasise, is simply this : That the beef breeders
in this western Province—in fact, in the whole Dominion, for that matter—have got to get
away from this old idea which so long has possessed them, that the beefing qualities of their
stock is the only factor to be considered in breeding up a herd. The men who, in years to
come, are going to make the greatest success in pure-bred live stock are the ones who now
will read aright the signs of changing circumstances, who will break away from the old belief
that beef production is the only function of such breeds of cattle as the Shorthorn. Twenty
years from now, I doubt not, farmers will marvel at the short-sightedness of breeders in not
seeing the trend of circumstances, and in not preparing for it. The demand of the future is
for milk as well as beef in our beefing herds.    What are we doing to provide for it ?
My Experience with a Silo.
By S. H. Shannon, Cloverdale.
My experience with a silo dates back about nine years ago, when we built one out of
rough lumber and ceiled with flooring on the inside, with tar paper between. It was 8 feet
square and 20 feet high. This we filled with cut corn, part of which was matured enough for
the silo, the balance not. It was not a success, as the silage was too sour and caused indigestion in the cows. Our next silo was a stave silo, constructed out of 2 x 6 with hoops. This
was filled with uncut clover. A portion around the outside next the wall would spoil; this
would be from 10 to 12 inches from the wall, and would mean a great yearly loss. The
second vear we gave it a coat of tar, but still it spoiled, which was very discouraging. In the
spring of 1905 Mr. H. L. Blanchard, of Hadlock, Wash., was lecturing for the Farmers'
Institute through this section. We sought advice from him, which led us to build our present
round silo, which is 13 feet in diameter and 32 feet high. The amount of material and labour
required is as follows :—
Lumber—60 pieces 2 x 6 inches x 24 feet long; 2,800 feet of ^x 10-inch laths; a small
amount of flooring for the doors, and a few 2 x 12-inch planks for making circle to place in
cement to set the studs on ; seven barrels of cement; three loads of sand ; two loads of coarse
Labour—Three men a day to splice 2x6 and put up frame ; two men one day putting
down cement foundation ; four men three days putting lumber on inside ; four men three days
putting lumber on outside; three men two days to lath ; three men four and a half days
putting on cement; one man one day making doors. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 35
In making the foundation, a circle was drawn about 6^ feet from the centre ; the earth
was dug out about 15 inches wide to the hard-pan; small rock and the coarsest of the
gravel was tamped in ; then about fifteen inches from the top the finest of the coarse gravel
and cement was mixed—one of cement to three of gravel—and put in ; the top, for about six
inches, was mixed two of sand to one of cement; and the circle cut out of the 2x12 was set in
this. The studs were placed on this, one foot apart, and thoroughly toe-nailed. We made the
mistake of building stationary staging inside, which had to be taken out, and we had to make
one that could be raised or lowered with ropes and pulleys. The sand was screened to take
out any small stones and lumps that might be in it. The first coat was mixed one of cement
to two of sand ; the last coat was mixed equal parts of each. We used one of Fleury's cutters
and blowers, and found no difficulty in elevating the ensilage 32 feet.
The cost of filling with clover is as follows :—5|- days' use of engine ; 5J days engineer,
$4 per day ; four days of three men and three teams ; four days of five men.
The amount of ensilage in the silo is 75 tons. It keeps good right to the edge, and after
three years' use we can recommend it to anyone in the dairy business.
The Horse.
By W. F. Kydd, op Simcoe, Ont.
(Synopsis of Address from the Chilliwack Progress.)
Mr. W. F. Kydd addressed a small but very select audience in one of the sheds at the Fair
Grounds, where an adjournment was made on account of rain. The programme outlined had
been a lesson in judging an animal by the score-card system, but afterward changed to " How
to Know and Care for the Horse." That the speaker was well able to speak upon this subject
was soon demonstrated, as Mr. Kydd handled his subject with an ease and knowledge born
with the true horseman. At the outset he complimented the audience upon the beauty and
agricultural wealth of the valley. Having traversed nearly every country upon the globe, he
spoke from observation and knowledge and could truthfully say that no place was so well
adapted for dairying and small fruits and the successful breeding of all classes of stock as the
Valley of Chilliwack. The breeder of the horse was particularly favoured, and it depended
upon the man himself whether he would make a successful breeder. In selecting a brood mare,
never select a bone-blemished one. The general trend was to sell all the sound saleable ones,
and use those that would not sell. This is a mistake, and would never build up a desirable
stud or stable of breeding mares. Always select the best and breed to good, sound stallions.
He divided his horses into four classes, namely : draught, carriage, road and saddle. The
draught horse he considered the most profitable for the farmer, for the following reasons : first,
because he earns his food a year younger than the other classes ; second, if he gets a slight
injury it does not take much from his value; and third, the draught horse requires no special
education or fitting, such as is required in the carriage or road horse. The carriage horse he
considered to be the next in order, if the farmer fancied him. He was a horse that could fill
a good many places. In the first place, he was bred and fitted to fill the rich man's carriage,
and if injured for that could fill a good many places in working upon the farm ; you could get
him by breeding a blood mare to a hackney stallion. Never, in breeding horses, cross the class
of horse. If you breed, select a certain class and stick to it. Don't cross a saddle or road
mare with a draught stallion, expecting to get a carriage horse. It is impossible. In the
breeding of hackneys select ones that have the high action. Never select one that travelled
wide behind, nor one that had the rocking or paddling outward action. A good brood mare
should be broad between the eyes. This should insure sound foal-getters. The narrow-brained
kind, as in everything else, were no good. He next spoke upon the care of the horse's feet,
and illustrated his lesson with a chart showing the construction of the different parts of the
foot and their usefulness. He drew particular attention to the frog of the foot, which he said
was placed there as a cushion to lessen concussion when the horse is drawing heavy loads or in
travelling. It is a function in helping to drive and carry the blood of the foot to and from
the heart. It should never be pared away except when diseased, principally thrush. This can
be cured by the use of calomel. Another abuse very common with blacksmiths is the rasping
away of the hoof when shoeing a horse.    The outer shell of the hoof is full of small tubes of a N 36 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
secretion of oily substance that keeps the foot moist and healthy and wastes away when the
hoof has been rasped too much, causing the hoof to become dry and brittle and requiring
artificial ointments and dressing to keep it moist. The proper form of pastern was pointed
out, and should have plenty of spring to enable the perfect action of the other joints. The
different forms of blemish, the location, the causes and effects, were briefly pointed out. He
emphasised the importance of selecting horses with good flat bone, as the round, fleshy bone
was more subject to blemish than the flat clean-boned horse. There were three cardinal points
in judging a horse: judge him first for manners; second for conformation; third for action.
Get your horse perfect in these points and you have a perfect horse. Always try to be with
the mare at foaling time. Feed your breeding mare lots of good roots, the young stock plenty
of good succulent food, the first years in particular. The word thoroughbred, so often used by
breeders of stock, was misapplied in most cases, as there was only one breed entitled to that
name, and that belonged strictly to the running horse. ' Purebred was the proper term to use,
and meant all classes of stock bred pure along certain lines.
Hood  River  Apple-Growers' Union.
By W. F. Cash, Hood River.
(From the Vernon News.)
A very interesting demonstration of fruit-packing took place in the warehouse of the
Okanagan Produce Association on the afternoon of the 30th ult., when Mr. W. F. Cash, of
Hood River, explained and illustrated the methods adopted by the packing experts of the
famous fruit section of Oregon.
Before proceeding with his object lesson, Mr. Cash remarked that he would strongly
advise the fruit-growers of the Okanagan to adopt a more thorough system of thinning their
fruit trees, if they wished to secure the best results.
In the Hood River country it was the general practice to thin an orchard twice, each
time seeing to it that there should be the full width of the hand between any two apples. This
system, carefully carried out, resulted in giving them a crop of apples of very much the same
size, and with only the very smallest proportion of fruit that was not No. 1.
Mr. Cash also dealt fully with the subject of pruning, advising that the vase-shaped form
of tree should be the aim, three main branches only being allowed to start from the trunk at
a distance of about 18 inches from the ground, and then three branches on each of these. He
strongly advised low heading, claiming that fruit could be harvested 40 per cent, cheaper if it
could be picked without the use of a ladder. Although perhaps a little harder to cultivate,
the saving in cost of picking would more than counter-balance this inconvenience. He
stated there was no particular rule as to the time for pruning, but, in his district, the great
bulk of it was done in the winter months.
He advised seeding down an orchard with leguminous plants, which possessed the valuable
nitrogen-producing property. Nitrogen, he pointed out, was an important factor in producing
the high colouring which added so such to the commercial value of fruit.
For the purposes of the packing demonstration Manager Wanless had provided a considerable number of Ben Davis apples, and the necessary wrapping-paper, boxes, etc. Mr. Cash,
after attaching to the box a handy holder for the paper and adjusting a rubber covering to
his thumb to aid him in taking hold, began to work, pointing out how a pleat in the lining paper
obviated breaking when the apples bore down upon it, and proceeding with a rapidity and
deftness that excited admiring comment. It is impossible to give a satisfactory description on
paper of the methods in detail. Suffice it to say, that the apples were arranged with the first
and every alternate layer stem down, and so closely packed as to be firm and solid under the
pressure of the hand.
Speaking of the great reputation now enjoyed by Hood River as a fruit-growing country,
Mr. Cash referred briefly to the methods adopted by the Union, and the fact that it had been
able to secure top prices for its fruit this season. He saw no reason, however, why the Okanagan should not be equally successful, providing similar methods were adopted, as the fruit he
had seen in the Okanagan was of a decidedly good quality. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 37
Another thing that it was well to bear in mind, if the best results in reputation were to
be secured, was the principal laid down in the stanza so often quoted by Mr. E. L. Smith,
widely known among fruit-growers of the North-West States as Hood River Smith :—■
" He who whispers down a well
About the goods he has to sell,
Will never gather in the dollars
Like him who climbs the tree and hollers."
At the conclusion of the packing demonstration, Mr. Cash was called upon to pass
judgment upon the packing of two boxes of fruit submitted to him, and declared in favour of
that put up by R. Ecclestone, head packer of the Okanagan Produce Association, to whom the
$5 prize offered was accordingly awarded.
Mr. Cash is one of the most interesting and practical Institute speakers that has yet
visited us, possessing a fund of information gathered by long experience, and withal, the happy
faculty of getting at the true inwardness of a matter and setting it forth in an interesting and
forceful manner. He has been on the staff of the State Experimental Stations of Idaho,
Indiana and Colorado for a number of years, and is now engaged in the work of commercial
fruit-growing in Hood River. To a " News " representative he accorded a most interesting
interview on the conditions prevailing in Hood River, so far as they affect the fruit industry.
Asked to give some idea as to the extent and situation of the Hood River country, so that
our readers might be in a position to judge how far the methods adopted there might fit in
with local conditions, Mr. Cash stated :—
" The Hood River district extends back from the Columbia River a distance of 25 miles,
and has the average width of four and a half or five miles. Not over one-third of this area is
now under cultivation, but it is being very rapidly settled. Hood River, the only city, has a
population of about 1,800 or 2,000, and there are besides two or three small settlements. The
total population of the section is, perhaps, 6,000 or 7,000. As to transportation facilities, it is
excellently situated, having direct communication with three transcontinental roads, while there
are two lines of boats on the river. Two of the roads, the Northern Pacific and the Great
Northern, are on the other side of the river, a mile across. A ferry, however, provides necessary connection.
"There are," said Mr. Cash, "two fruit-selling organisations at Hood River, the Apple
Growers' Union, which devotes its attention exclusively to apples, and the Fruit Growers'
Union, which handles strawberries and cherries. From this latter organisation as high as 17
cars have been shipped out in a day.
" Hood River has earned quite as good a reputation for its strawberries as for its apples,
but the latter industry' is by far the most popular, and there is, therefore, a tendency to go in
more and more for the larger fruit. Thus, where formerly some eleven or twelve hundred
acres were devoted to strawberries, the acreage now is probably not more than three or four
hundred, a great part of this extent being cultivated by ranchers waiting for their orchards
to mature. The berry grown almost exclusively is Clark's Seedling, a splendid variety, with
the highest shipping qualities.
" About two hundred crates of berries to the acre was the average yield this season; the
average price secured was $2.25 a crate, and the total expense of picking, packing and selling
came to eighty cents a crate, so that the grower received $1.80 a crate net, or $360 an acre.
They had no trouble with the labour question, as there were three or four Indian reserves
within forty or fifty miles of the city, and the Indians made excellent berry pickers. Another
inexhaustible source of labour supply was the City of Portland, only sixty miles distant,
hundreds of families from which were only too glad to earn good wages in light labour while
spending a vacation in the country. There were families that earned as high as $16 to $18 a
day in the fruit-picking season.
" The Apple Growers' Union was a stock company, each member of which paid $10 for one
share. It was purely co-operative. No one could buy more than one share, so that all were
on a footing of absolute equality. The capital raised by the sale of shares was applied to the
building and equipment of the warehouse, the only extraordinary expenses that had arisen so
far. No dividends were paid on stock, the actual expenses of packing and disposing of the
fruit being ascertained at the end of the season, and the net proceeds divided among the
growers in proportion to the number of boxes delivered. With an ordinary yield of apples,
the total expense did not amount to more than five cents a box.    An arrangement was made N 38 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
with the banks by which any one who desired could obtain partial payment on delivery of the
apples, but most growers were content to wait until the final settlement was made. None but
fruit produced by its members was handled by the Union."
As to the procedure of the Union in securing and inspecting the fruit, Mr. Cash stated
that early in the season the members of the organisation were required to sign a contract,
which practically amounted to a bill of sale to the Union of the entire crop of marketable
apples, the Union, on the other hand, agreeing to pay the highest price obtainable, less charges
of hauling. When the apples are ready for marketing, the manager, who has previously
obtained a reasonably close estimate of the probable crop, notifies all firms likely to make a
bid, and as a rule most of the big fruit-selling companies find it worth while to send representatives to ascertain conditions and look after their interests on the spot. This year thirteen
firms were represented at Hood River, including companies operated at Liverpool, London, New
York, Chicago and even Vladivostock. The bids are opened by the Board of Directors, comprising
ten stock-holders, and the fruit awarded to the highest bidder. Ordinarily the entire crop is
bought by one bidder, though sometimes only one or two of the high-priced varieties are purchased. This year the whole crop went to the Davidson Fruit Co., of Hood River, acting
probably for New York people.
All the Hood River apples sold by the Union are No. 1, all others being thrown out as
culls, and disposed of by the growers as best they may. They form, however, but a small proportion of the crop, the excellent care taken of the orchards, the general thoroughness with
which the trees are looked after, and the special attention paid to thinning and spraying
resulting in a crop of which less than six per cent., as a rule, are No. 2. The No. 1 apples
vary in size and are carefully graded as requiring 45, 54, 64, 72, 80, 88, 96, 104 and up to 200
to the box. Two kinds of boxes are used, both having the same cubic contents but different
shapes. One, known as the California box, is the same as that used in British Columbia. The
Oregon box is about two inches shorter and one inch wider and deeper. Mr. Cash stated that
each size of apple was particularly suited to one or other of these boxes, and could not be
satisfactorily packed in the other, and suggested that our fruit-growers would find it well to
secure legislation authorising the use of the two sizes of box. The best results in packing
could not be obtained with only one box.
Speaking of the prices of fruit and their dependence upon the business-like methods
adopted by the Hood River people, Mr. Cash said that six years ago, before the Union was
formed, the prices for apples ranged from 85c. to $1.00 a box. This year the crop of Spitzen-
berg apples sold at $3.37|; the Newtown Pippins at $2.75 ; and the average of other varieties
at $2.00. The total crop amounted to about two hundred cars. The prices obtained this year
were the record so far, and yet market conditions now indicated that fully $1.00 a box more
might have been asked. Oscar Vanderbilt, a prominent Hood River grower, sold a small crop
of winter Banana apples, about forty boxes, at $8 a box to Portland people, who retailed them
for $12. Practically all the Newtowns and Spitzenbergs were sent to the London market,
which always wants more than can be supplied.
As the Union is responsible for the quality of the apples sold, a very rigid system of
inspection is adopted. Every grower has an apple-house on his premises, and engages to pick,
wipe and partially sort the apples and deliver them there. The wiping, which is usually performed by girls, is rendered necessary because of the spraying for Codling Moth. As a rule,
this preliminary work costs about six cents a box.
When ready for packing, the Union is notified, and a crew of packers comprising four
packers and a foreman sent out by the management. The packers are paid five to seven cents
a box, and will pack fifty to seventy boxes a day. The foreman receives $3 a day. His duty
is to see that none but first-class fruit is packed, and generally to supervise the work of his
subordinates. The packer places his number on each box, as well as the number of apples
contained. After inspection by the foreman, the grower puts the cover on, stamps it with his
number, the variety of the apple and his own name. The latter is required by law. At the
warehouse the boxes may be subjected to another examination, after which they receive the
stamp of the Union, which is thus a very real guarantee of first-class fruit.
It is estimated that the total expense of growing, cultivating, spraying, harvesting and
putting the average crop on the market is about fifty cents a box.
Asked as to the wages paid for labour, Mr. Cash stated that $2.50 a day and board was
the average price paid for white male labour during the apple harvest. Much of the work
was done by women and children, who were paid twenty cents an hour for picking and wiping. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 39
The packing was all done by men, and experts in this line were not as plentiful as was desirable. No Chinamen nor Hindoos were employed, but Japs made very good and dependable
Mr. Cash believed that the outstanding success of Hood River was due, first, to the fact
that they had devoted their attention exclusively to a few varieties, which they were then able
to produce in sufficient quantities to attract the large buyers; second, to the adoption of proper
methods of taking care of their orchards, so as to reduce the percentage of poor fruit to a
minimum; third, the very thorough system of inspection which obviates the possibility of any
but first-class fruit being shipped out under the auspices of the Union.
Of apple varieties, the Spitzenberg and Newtowns ranked first, then Ortleys, Arkansas
Blacks, Hyde's King, Jonathan, etc.
The fruit-growers of Hood River are of the same general class as those who are coming to
the Okanagan, retired business men, people of some small means, wishing to take life easily
and make a living under pleasant climatic and other conditions. Men of this sort are more
apt than the ordinary farmer to realise the advantages of growing good selling fruit under the
strictest business principles, and it is they who have been mainly responsible for the development of the present admirable system.
Asked as to the prices of land in his district, Mr, Cash stated that uncleared land, seven
or eight miles from town, was worth from $150 to $350. Clearing would cost from $50 to $75.
Cleared land ranged from $250 to $500, while land set out in orchard, any price up to $1,000.
One four-year-old orchard of twenty acres had recently sold for $20,000, and others from $1,200
to $1,500 an acre. These prices were fully justified, for he knew of several instances where
$1,000 and better was realised from one crop, while $500 per acre was so common as to excite
no comment. So satisfactory, indeed, were the returns from apple orchards, that most people
did not care to part with them at any price.
Mr. Cash spoke very enthusiastically of the possibilities of the Okanagan as a fruit country.
He stated, however, that our fruit growers were scattering their energies in too many directions. They should concentrate upon a few varieties, and give up the large number of low
grade varieties, for which top prices could never be secured. He thought that when the crop
increased, as it would in a few years, there would be much difficulty in disposing of the output
of cheaper kinds. It was pointed out to Mr. Cash that we were more fortunately situated
than Hood River in at least one respect, viz., that we had at our back door, in the North-
West, an unlimited market for just those cheaper varieties that he condemned, while the fancy
grades were too costly for the residents of the prairies. Mr. Cash admitted the strength of
this argument, but was nevertheless of the opinion that the profits that might be realised from
the higher grades of fruit would amply justify specialisation in this direction. The people
should also be educated, he said, in thorough methods of thinning, so as to produce a better
size and quality of fruit. Attention should also be paid to the packing, a most important
matter. In this connection he stated that he had been somewhat disappointed that arrangements had not been made to have a number of young fellows, who wished to learn to pack,
placed under his instructions at the various points in his itinerary. Packing could not be
learned by merely watching someone else. The learner must do the work himself, under
expert direction.
Noxious   Weeds.
Paper read before a Meeting of the Farmers Institute by E. Wilson, of Armstrong.
Any plant that is troublesome to the farmer or gardener, or causes him loss, is popularly
called a weed. To a botanist, however, these plants are of the greatest interest, far more so
than those ordinarily cultivated. Very many of our plants which are profitable to the farmer
are products of man's selection or breeding, as hybrids, etc. They thus cannot be classed with
the products of nature, but are rather artificial and would soon deteriorate if the guiding hand
and care of man were removed. In weeds we see the products of natural selection and the
survival of the fittest, the two great principles which Darwin expounded. The weed exists
because it has proved its ability to protect itself from the ravages of animals and other
vegetable life. It has an inherent physical power, which enables it to crowd out and dominate
other vegetable life.    Indeed, it occupies the same place in vegetable life with the man or N 40 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
nation who ruled the world when brute force was the ruling power. To a botanist, then, there
are no weeds, since to him they are the highest natural vegetable products. Again, some
plants which are called weeds in one locality are profitable products of the soil in other
localities. To the pioneers of the Eastern Provinces the trees of the forest were weeds to be
got rid of in any manner possible. We all know the change that has taken place in that
respect. The horse-radish, fuller's teasel, ox-eye daisy, are examples of plants cultivated for
use or for ornament in one locality which have become weeds in other localities, although
introduced for other purposes.
It may be interesting to note some of the reasons these plants have obtained such strong
powers of endurance and ability to outwit even man himself. The principal characteristics
of the most successful weeds are their ability to live in a variety of soils and exposures, their
rapid growth, resistance to frost, drought and dust, their unfitness for the food of most of the
larger animals; in many cases their capacity for self-fertilization, and their ability to produce
many seeds and to secure their wide dispersal. All weeds have one or more of these characteristics. There are species of the willow family to be found in all the zones and in all soils;
the Shepherd's purse and chickweed exist mainly from their ability to produce many crops of
seed every year ; some of our weeds will ripen their seeds after being frozen several times.
Whole families of plants withstand droughts by storing up a supply of food in bulbs, cones
and rootstocks ; others have so smooth surfaces that dust cannot adhere to them, while others
are protected from dust by means of hairs and even wool. The thistles, burs, thorns, etc.,
protect themselves from animals by means of hairs, prickles, spines and thorns ; buttercups,
tansy, smartweed, ox-eye daisy, and many others, are so bitter or ill-smelling that no animal
will touch them. The violet will never cease to exist as one of our most beautifnl wild flowers,
because it produces seeds by self-fertilization from flowers that never open. The common
morning glory ordinarily produces from one plant 3,000 seeds in one season. If these all
lived and produced in their turn for seven years the descendants would number 720 quintil-
lions, or 9,000,000 plants the third year. We all know how the thistle seeds are carried by
the wind, the burs by man and animals; other seeds are winged, or the plants themselves are
driven by the wind as in the tumble weeds. Others, again, have so hard, indigestible coverings that they are wisely disseminated by the animals which eat them.
In regard to their growth there are three great classes of weeds, annuals, biennials and
perennials ; annuals complete their life history in one year; biennials in two years ; perennials
live throughout many years, producing fruit every year in the case of weeds. Annuals are
noted for their quick growth from fibrous roots and the production of large quantities of seed,
e.g., wild mustard, lamb's quarter, etc. Winter annuals germinate in the fall, live through
the winter and produce seed early in the succeeding year, e. g., shepherd's purse and ball
mustard ; hence the importance of fall cultivation. Biennials grow a large root and radical
leaves the first year, thus storing up food for the second year, when they produce stems,
flowers and fruit, as burdock and evening primrose, and in cultivated plants, turnip, cabbage,
carrot, etc. Biennials are easily killed because of their two years' habit of growth and are
generally troublesome because of their fondness for corners and fence lines. Perennials are
the most troublesome of all the weeds, because of their double means of reproduction from
seed and root, the root stalks often producing new plants from small pieces, or parts cut by the
plow. Some of the most persistent perennials are the perennial sow thistle, the Canada thistle
and couch grass. Botanically speaking, two orders are prominent, viz. : The cruoiferae and
the compositae among weeds. The mustards, shepherd's purse, skunkweed, pepper grass and
others belonging to the cruciferae family, which contains many of our most useful plants,
turnip, cabbage, radish being examples. These are mostly annuals or biennials and produce -
great quantities of seed, while one is a bad tumble-weed. To the compositae family belong
the thistles, flowers, etc. Many of these are perennials and hard to subdue, since the whole
order, the largest order in the plant world, by the way, is noted for its sturdiness and prolific-
Another interesting fact in connection with weeds is that they are nearly all introduced ;
few, indeed, are native. They have been brought from Europe or Asia, mainly, in many
ways, chief of which are in other seeds and in packing material, sometimes being brought in
at first as ornamental plants. Their hardiness, which enables them to crowd out and usurp
the places of our native plants, is no doubt due to their long struggle through countless ages
on the treeless plains and cultivated fields of the old continents. They exist because of their
superiority in physical  characteristics  over other plants.    They have, as it were, superior 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 41
faculties, because of hardships undergone and terrific struggles against enemies and discouragements of all kinds. How skillfully they choose places to grow where no eye will see
them nor hand molest; how they hasten to reach a size which will enable them to crowd out
their antagonists ; what blandishments of beauty or perfume they surround themselves with
so that man will not destroy but be attracted. They are prominent examples of the survival
of the fittest in a physical sense.
The injuries caused by weeds are so great that it is beyond the limits of this paper to
specify them in particular cases, we can only make general statements. One is that they
force the farmer to toil unremittingly, which perhaps to some of us is a blessing rather than a
curse. Another is that they crowd out or stunt the good, thus adding insult to injury7. Again,
they increase the cost of cultivation and harvesting, while their seeds spoil our foods and
lessen the price of our grains. They are also unsightly and most are useful to nothing except
themselves. Right here is the place to state what perhaps is the real function of weeds, i. e.,
to cover the naked places of the earth. No soil is good unless it contains a large amount of
vegetable matter; again the sun and drouth will soon strip many large areas of all vegetable
life if it were not for these hardy plants. A deserted farm soon becomes covered with a mass
of vegetation, at first mainly our most hardy weeds. It is nature's effort to restore the soil.
These die down and if pasturing animals have access, in not excessive numbers, grasses take
the place of the weeds ; if no pasturing animals are there, trees and shrubs soon become
established and in the end the forest is re-established. A naked soil is in most cases a soil
losing its fertility, especially under a scorching sun, since the sun burns up the organic matter;
hence nature's effort to re-clothe it.
Now, how shall we deal with weeds so as to avoid the injuries caused by them ; indeed,
how shall we exterminate them, because man can make use of more controllable plants to fill
the offices of weeds. Two great principles may be laid down as a basis : First, no plant can
exist which is not allowed to show its head above the soil; second, all plants must die out if
they never produce seed. Any intelligent man will at once see what he must do if he wants
to clean his farm of weeds. Even wild oats or couch grass will have to yield to the above
treatment. The chief difficulty7 in carrying this out is the fact that many weed seeds will lie
in the ground many years before germination. Wild mustard, and some say wild oats, are
noted for this, but I am inclined to think too much is made of this as our excuse for weedy
farms. It is evident in the case of these that the soil must be manipulated to either compel
germination or to hinder it for a definite time. Fall cultivation, shallow at first and gradually
increasing in depth, is recommended and is often the most practical, but if the job is to be
thorough, spring cultivation must follow either by fallow or hoed crops. The whole difficulty
is that so many men are not thorough. They will go so far with an intense earnestness, but
something will call their attention, and vigilance is relaxed for a week, or a day or two. Depend
upon it, the weeds do not relax vigilance ; they seize the opportunity and a few plants produce
their crop of seeds. Grain crops should be cultivated with the weeder, an instrument invented
for the purpose, or harrowed with a slanting toothed harrow after the grain is about three
inches high. This will destroy the young weed seedlings. In hoed crops many leave the*
hoeing until the weeds are too large ; they should be taken as soon as the seed-leaves show,
and horse cultivation even before. The secret in overcoming all annual weeds lies in taking
them in extreme youth, destroying them in the moment of germination.
As for perennials, of which there are two classes, deep-rooted and shallow-rooted, the
treatment differs. In the case of the deep-rooted, it is best to either not let them appear at
all or let them grow until in blossom, then plough deeply, completely covering the plants by
means of a chain ; then harrow well, and in about three or four weeks plough again. In
general, another good ploughing before winter will mean the death of the weeds. Not the
least essential part of this fallowing is the harrowing, since it gives a good surface for ploughing and assists the germination of any seeds in the soil. One mistake that is often made with
perennial weeds is letting them go too long before treatment. The proper moment must be
seized or the work is not efficacious. It is not well understood that half-ripe, and even seeds
in the milk, if left on the plant, will often ripen or advance to a stage sufficient for germination. Labour and money have often been wasted in the cutting of weeds because of this fact.
The work must be done at the first appearance of the blossoms. Perennial and biennial weeds
can be killed by hoed crops if properly done. The best crops for that purpose are turnips,
sugar beets and others of the same class with corn. The difficulty here is that the hoeing
which should be done from the 15th of August to the 15th of September is not done.    No N 42 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
matter how well the work has been done before, if this is not done, the weeds will be there the
following year. Potatoes are not good for this purpose, because the tops interfere with
thorough work. Shallow-rooted perennials are nearly always killed by thorough shallow
ploughing in the hot summer time, or a deep ploughing in late fall or early spring. We must
always remember that the spring and early summer is the natural growing season, and that the
plant is then in its most succulent state and putting forth its greatest efforts. If ploughed
down at this time it readily decays and so dies, even if not exhausted by its special efforts ;
also, then seeds germinate most freely. Ontario farmers take advantage of this in their
rotation and delay as long as possible the sowing of their root crops, so as to give the soil a
thorough cultivation for the purpose of weed destruction, often ploughing three or more times
before sowing. It is the rule to select their weediest fields for their root crops, always giving
as much manure as possible.
One thing I should like to say about the thistles. They nearly all require a fertile soil,
so are an evidence of good land. Their roots open up and render friable soils naturally hard
and impervious. They are comparatively easily killed, and always leave the soil in a better
crop condition after their death. There are two reasons for this : one because of the decaying
vegetable matter left in the soil; the other is that the soil is mechanically improved by its
treatment. It also requires a certain amount of moistuie. The thistle will never, even the
perennial sow, give any great trouble on the dry clay prairie lands about Armstrong, but look
out for them in the black soils. Indeed, if one of the dry clay prairie farms about Armstrong
were thickly covered with Canada thistles I should gladly count it worth $10 more per acre
if I were purchasing it. As for the bull thistle which grows on the roadsides here, its only
injury is its ugliness. It will never harm your farms, since being a shallow-rooted biennial
one, ploughing kills it. Prickly lettuce, lactuca scariola, is also a biennial, so thorough late
fall or early spring cultivation, carefully done so as to cover all the young plants, will overcome
There is a township called Scarborough, near the City of Toronto, in Ontario, through
which I often had occasion to drive when I lived at home. The farms of that township were
noted for their fertility and for their beauty. The roadsides and fence lines were free from
rubbish and weeds, their yards and outbuildings were neat and free from waste corners.
Every farmer was compelled by the force of public opinion to keep his farm in that condition.
There you saw straight furrows and clean crops ; their buildings were neat and the people
were clean. There, if a man was not prosperous he looked it anyway. All this was the
result of vigilance, enternal vigilance ; broken buildings and fences were repaired and the
waste removed ; no weeds were allowed to grow, let alone go to seed; if weeds showed
in a crop the crop was sacrificed and the field was black.    It is so to-day,    Let us do likewise.
Hygienic and Economic Values of Food.
By Miss R. Blanche Maddock, op Guelph, Ont.
(Synopsis of Address from  Vernon News.)
Miss Maddock, who gave an address on "Hygienic and Economic Values of Food," is a
graduate of Guelph Dairy School, and thoroughly familiar with every phase of the subjects
she handles.
She has been one of the principal promoters of the work of Women's Institutes in Ontario,
having probably organised more local branches of this organisation in that Province than any
other one person, and is very enthusiastic on the subject. Before dealing with the question of
food values, she spoke of the aims and objects of the Women's Institutes, expressing the hope
that another year the same kind of work might be undertaken in the Okanagan. These
organisations meet once a month to discuss the subjects of domestic economy, the uplifting and
benefiting of the home, etc., and the department supplies necessary literature. There are now
eleven thousand members in Ontario.
Miss Maddock gave some interesting advice as to methods of cooking eggs. Boiled eggs
should not be put into boiling water for four minutes, as is the general custom. This had the
effect of making the white of the egg like rubber, and difficult to digest.    Starch foods were 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 4c
prepared for digestion in the mouth, tissue-building foods in the stomach, and fats after leaving
the stomach. The albumen of the egg was one of the purest of tissue-building foods, and if
this was coagulated and hardened, it was very difficult to digest. The proper way to boil eggs
was to keep them in water below the boiling temperature for eight minutes.
Pies were injurious if the pastry was bad, because poor pastry resisted the digestive action
of the saliva upon the starch of which it was largely composed. Pastry should be light and
flaky, so as almost to dissolve in the mouth.
Fried foods were also injurious, the oils with which they were impregnated retarding
digestion till after the stomach was passed. The same principle applied to toast, which should
be well crisped, and in this was almost pre-digested, while it should not be soaked with butter
and warmed over in the stove, as the butter would thus interfere with the action of the mouth
Speaking of different kinds of meat, Miss Maddock pointed out that there was more nourishment, pound for pound, in the round than in the sirloin of beef. This was natural, as the
former were the parts of the animal that received the most exercise, and nourishing elements
are naturally found in exercised parts. It was a peculiar thing that the cheapest parts of meat
were almost invariably of most value from the standpoint of the nourishment contained.
Good steak should show a slight purplish hue when freshly cut, and, if it is from a young,
well fed animal, the finger should go through it very readily. It was often no use to try to
cook -a tough piece of meat rare, with the idea of having it palatable; but tough meat well
cooked might be made very pleasing to the taste. To cook steak, have the pan sizzling hot,
put on the meat, turning it rapidly so as to sear it on all sides. Then put on a little salt and
water, put on the cover of the pan, and set it on the back of the fire to steam and simmer.
The idea of searing quickly on a very hot pan and then finishing the cooking with a slow, moist
heat, was to keep in the valuable juices. The same principle applied to boiling or roasting.
The cooking in the first place should be commenced with an intense heat, and continued at a
more moderate temperature. In the case of boiling, the meat should be placed for a few
minutes only in boiling water, and then kept at the simmering point.
Few people were aware that just above the shank there was a portion that made a nice
pot roast. Such a piece of beef, if well seared on all sides, and then placed in a covered pot
on the back of the stove for some time, would make as delicious and palatable meat as much
more costly cuts.
Speaking of milk, Miss Maddock pointed out that it was a perfect food, especially
valuable to adults, however, for the lime it contained. Few people realised that there was as
much lime in a pint of milk as in a pint of lime-water.
The speaker brought a most interesting address to a close with some remarks on fish as a
food, claiming that it was a popular fallacy that fish was a brain food, valuable for its phosphorus. It did, however, offer tissue-building food in a form that was very easily assimilated,
and so might be of special use to brain workers who did not wish to overtax their energies
with digestion while engaged in mental effort.
Live   Stock  and   Institute  Matters.
(Synopsis of Addresses by S. F. Tolmie,   V. S., and the Deputy Minister of Agriculture, from
Chilliwack Progress.)
Dr. S. F. Tolmie conducted a stock-judging school at the Fair Grounds on June 4th,
about 50 farmers being present. Score cards were supplied to each. The first animal that
was judged was a cow, which, according to Dr. Tolmie's judgment, scored 85J out of a possible
100. Out of 20 students that scored, F. Barr was first, 86 ; R. H. Cairn, second, 841;; J. A.
Evans, third, 83|.
There was quite a difference of opinion about the weight of the cow, the range being
from 800 to 1,200 pounds. Dr. Tolmie and James Bailey guessed 925 pounds. The cow,
when placed on the scales, weighed 935.
A fine Clyde mare was then scored ; 11 students took part. Five out of the eleven
correctly guessed the age to be seven years. One student from the bunch-grass country
declared the mare to be 11 years old.    The student that scored the weight to be 1,900 was N 44 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
laughed at, as the lowest score was 1,560. The actual weight, when placed on the scales, was
1,815 pounds. Dr. Tolmie scored 73J points; James Bailey, 75 ; Wm. Cornby, 711; James
Grigg, 691
Dr. Tolmie pointed out the good and bad points of the animals, and also called upon the
students to explain their reasons in reference to the scale of points. The meeting lasted for
three and one-half hours and closed by giving Dr. Tolmie a hearty vote of thanks.
The evening meeting was held at the Court House, about 60 being present. Mr. Anderson, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, addressed the meeting in reference to Farmers' Institute
work, and was sorry to hear that the number of Institute members seemed to be decreasing.
Chilliwack should have a membership of at least 250 members. The Department of Agriculture is doing its best to assist in the matter of securing proper men as Institute speakers,
and it rests with the farmers whether they take advantage of the opportunities offered. A
great deal of the success of an Institute rests with the secretary.
The chairman then called on Dr. Tolmie to address the meeting.
The doctor said that his subject would be "Animals and their Diseases." He was glad
to see that Chilliwack is making progress in producing good animals. He had just returned
from Vernon, where he had been testing horses, and had found some splendid specimens,
valued at $200 to $500 each ; and, as far as his opinion goes, Chilliwack can produce horses
for the market as cheap as they can in other places. Good light horses, if well broken, can be
disposed of in the Coast cities at high prices. A large quantity of the beef that is used at the
present time comes from Calgary, at a cost of six cents per pound, live weight. Chilliwack
should produce more beef. From 50,000 to 75,000 sheep are imported from the United States
annually for mutton.
The doctor spoke at length on the diseases of animals and asked the farmers what
symptoms they had noticed in cases of hog cholera, and if they had been successful in treating
the disease 1 One of the farmers present had given a liberal dose of blue mass, castor oil
and fish-hooks.
The doctor, in speaking of tuberculosis, said that it is an established fact that bovine
tuberculosis is dangerous to the human species.
Evils of Impure Seed.
By W. C. McKillican, Dominion Department of Agriculture.
(Synopsis of Address before the Matsqui Farmers' Institute.—Reported by J. Ball, Sec.)
Mr. McKillican was the first speaker called upon, his subject being the evils of impure
seed and the working of the new Seed Act. The address was of a very praetical and interesting nature, and showed the great benefit to the farming community throughout Canada
the passing of this Act had been ; that no farmer or seed merchant need be at a loss to know
what he was sowing or selling, and since the passing of this Act a very decided change and
improvement had taken place. Farmers, like other people, are apt to buy the cheaper article,
but in the matter of purchasing this commodity they never made a greater mistake in their
lives. But bear in mind there is one thing we are determined to do, that is to protect the
farming industry and lend our aid in every way possible to assist seed buyers in getting
nothing but the best and high grade germinating seed, and prosecutions will now be in order,
as sufficient warning has been given to unscrupulous eastern seed merchants. So don't be
afraid of pouring in your samples for test to the department established entirely for your use
and benefit at Calgary. No expense or cost whatever are attached. A bulletin has just been
issued and will be sent to every person, giving the results of investigations made during the
last spring, only in British Columbia it takes usually about a week for testing, except in the
case of germination tests. A small sample sent in an envelope, with full address, and name
and address of seedsman, and we will do the rest. It has been nothing unusual to test
varieties containing from 20,000 to 40,000 grains of impure or weed seeds to the pound, and
with eight pounds each of clover and timothy sown to the acre, it can readily be seen what a
serious matter this has become. The speaker also dwelt largely upon the smut in grain, its
cause, prevention and eradication, as well as that of weeds. A well merited vote of thanks was
accorded. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 45
The Draught Horse.
By W. F. Kydd, op Simcoe, Ont.
(Synopsis of address, from  Vernon News.)
The Department of Agriculture is to be congratulated on securing an aggressive, forceful
speaker of the Professor E. R. Lake type, one whose evidently large and thorough practical
experience in connection with the subjects he handles, and clear and interesting methods of
exposition, will go far to redeem Institute speakers in general from the reproach of being too
frequently either mere visionary enthusiasts and theorists, or, if practical men, manifestly
lacking in the power of imparting information in a pleasing manner. Mr. Kydd gave one of
the best Institute lectures we have heard for some time, and there were none present but will
heartily welcome him if he again comes to address the ranchers in the Okanagan.
Mr. Kydd began with an expression of his appreciation of the wayr in which the fruit
industry was carried on in the Okanagan. If our ranchers took as good care of their stock as
they did of their orchards, he would have nothing but congratulations for them. But this
was by no means the case. He had been in British Columbia six or seven weeks ; he had a
good idea of the type of horse generally raised, so that he knew what he was talking about.
There was not a farmer thinking of setting out fruit trees who would not find out first what
the market demanded, and second, what varieties would be most profitable. But in horse
raising, as generally carried on, this was not the case. The best mares were found in cities,
the lumber woods and doing construction work on the great railroads. The farmers were
content to breed from poor, old, blemished, unsound mares, that no one would buy. As to
stallions, the principle seemed to be : Select the cheapest animals. And yet grand foals were
expected. This was a great mistake. Like begets like, and only the best mares and stallions
should be used for breeding. In particular, animals with side-bone, ring-bone, or spavin
should be rejected.    Nothing was more profitable on a farm than a really good brood mare.
The principal classes of horses that might be considered from the commercial standpoint
were draught, carriage, saddle and road horses; and of these, he would only advise the farmer
to go in for the two first. There was plenty of fun to be got out of raising saddle horses (not
cayuses or bronchos, but well-bred saddle-horses such as might be purchased for the pleasure
of the wealthy) and trotters, but they required so much time and special aptitude in training
them for the market, and were so liable to depreciation in value, on account of blemishes
caused by accidents, that there was very little money in handling them except for the
The draught horse was the best money-maker of all, for three reasons. He could earn
his feed much younger than any other horse without injury to legs or body, scratches and
other similar blemishes took little from his value, and all the training that was required was
to have him quiet in harness.
Nine out of ten draught horses would be profitable to the breeder, while with high-class
saddle or trotting horses, only one out of ten could be reckoned upon. A team of sound four-
year-olds could be sold any time for $800, and they would begin to earn their feed at the age
of two and a half years.
With regard to stock, the day had long ago passed for breeding except to pure-bred sires,
which should always be registered animals. Many farmers had the practice of breeding the
same mare successively to a Percheron, a hackney, a trotter, etc., with the result that it
could never be told what sort of a colt they would get. This was decidedly not good horse-
breeding. One breed of stallions should be chosen and held to. But while insisting on purebred sires there was nothing more dangerous than a pure-bred scrub. If the animal was a
poor specimen of his breed, pedigree should not commend him to the farmer.
Concluding his remarks on the draught horse, Mr. Kydd said that the people of the
Okanagan might be getting rich growing fruit, but there could be nothing safer than the
breeding of draught horses, and they would find it would pay them not to put all their eggs
in the same basket.
Next to draught horses, from a commercial standpoint, came the carriage horse, the main
requisite in connection with which was action. One of the best combinations would result
from the breeding of a mare with a little trotting blood in her to a hackney stallion. This
would secure all that was required in speed with the high-stepping which had so much to do N 46 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
with market value. Breeding to a running horse would not give the knee action, but result
in offspring with a tendency to gallop; while breeding to a trotter would give speed, but no
high-stepping at a moderate gait.
Leaving the question of breeds, Mr. Kydd dealt with the points of a horse. The first consideration was that they should have great big chests with plenty of room for the heart and
lungs. These were the only kind that had a constitution, and this was the great desideratum.
Then, the head should be broad between the eyes, and with these organs prominent and
intelligent. A horse with sunken eyes was likely to be mean and treacherous. Another
most important matter was the feet and legs of a horse. " No foot, no horse," was an admirable maxim. The feet should, point straight forward. If the toes pointed out, there would
be a tendency for the front feet to interfere. If it came to a choice, it was always best to
take the horse with turned in toes, as there were no more worthless animals than the horses
that interfered in front. There should be no cracks in the hoof, which should be proportioned
to the size of the body, and not contracted or narrow, or flat.
Mr. Kydd continued giving advice as to the care of the horse's hoof, among other things
criticising blacksmiths for frequently rasping away too much of the outside of the hoof and
paring away the frog, stating that he believed every blacksmith should be obliged to pass an
examination on the anatomy of the hoof before being allowed to drive a nail. He also dealt
fully with various diseases, such as side-heaves, bog spavins, ring-bone, scratches, curb, splints,
etc., giving a great deal of interesting information and good advice, concluding with instruction as to the taking care of foals immediately after birth.
The meeting concluded with a vote of thanks to the lecturer, in which all present heartily
Commercial  Fruit-Growing.
(Synopsis of addresses made at meetings of Farmers' Institutes by J. R. Anderson, Deputy
Minister of Agriculture.)
The object of this address is principally in the direction of the production of fruit from a
commercial standpoint, and I will, therefore, endeavour to treat the question in such a manner
that any of you who are growing fruit, or contemplate entering into the business of fruitgrowing, may derive some benefit from the experience that has been attained in other parts.
Naturally, the first thing to be considered is a proper location, for it must be remembered
that unless the proper facilities exist for shipping fruit to the markets after the fruit is grown,
it is absolutely useless growing it. This remark applies, of course, more particularly to soft
and early fruits; hard winter apples can obviously be transported greater distances and
handled more roughly without material injury. Since, however, every grower, I take it, contemplates growing fruit of all descriptions, and other perishable products, especially during the
first few years, before he can hope for a return from his tree fruits, a location with easy access
to railroad communication is necessary.
The site of an orchard is one which should be, when possible, carefully considered. This
remark applies more particularly to the Coast, west of the Cascades, than to interior points, for
in that portion of the Province first mentioned the period of plant rest is not so clearly defined,
and it is, therefore, of prime importance that a site which will retard growth during the winter
months and in the early spring should be selected, say one having a westerly, north-westerly
or northerly aspect. In the interior this matter is not of so much consequence, inasmuch as
the period of dormancy is more clearly defined, and furthermore, artificial means of controlling
early growth are available in most parts. This can be done by mulching the ground about the
trees when it is frozen hard, and keeping the mulch on until danger is passed. Mulch should
not be placed close to the trunk for two reasons : one is that it is likely to harbour mice and
other vermin, and the other is that the feeding roots of the tree are a distance away, say 10
to 15 feet, according to the size of a tree.
Eastern and southern aspects are not recommended, for the reasons stated, especially the
former; the early morning sun on frosted trees having a most deleterious effect, generally
causing such injury to the blossoms as to endanger the prospects of the season's crop, and often
endangering the very existence of the tree. Low, damp locations, alder bottoms, and so on,
are to be avoided, even if drained, as the liability to frost is much greater in such localities 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 47
than on good slopes with warm subsoils. Air drainage, however, caused by the proximity of
large bodies of water, such as lakes and rivers, in a great measure neutralises the effects of the
cold damp locations just alluded to.
Soil, as a matter of course, is another question which should receive the greatest attention
at the hands of intending orchardists. The apple seldom thrives on very dry sands, or soils
suturated with moisture, peaty, mucky, damp, cold, spongy soils, bad. A strong loam of a
calcareous or limestone nature is a favourite soil. A deep, strong, gravelly, marly, or clayey
loam, or a strong, sandy loam on a gravelly subsoil, produces the greatest crops and the highest
flavoured fruit. Such a soil is moist rather than dry, the most favourable condition for apples.
Pears will thrive in much lower and moister locations, but in no case should fruit be attempted
to be produced on low, undrained land, however good the quality of the land.
The preparation of the land is another important proceeding too often neglected or slurred
over. Unless the circumstances are exceptional, or the land is of such a nature that its
preparation is not of much consequence, a condition which I can hardly imagine exists, it is, in
probably the majority of cases, better to get the land properly prepared by draining and cultivation, even at the expense of a season's delay, than to plant trees in unprepared land in poor
tilth. A crop of clover is an excellent thing to put down for the purpose of ploughing in the
next season. This has the effect of adding humus and nitrogen to the soil, by which most
soils are greatly improved. After the land is thoroughly cultivated, the places—not the holes,
as they are generally termed, and too often followed out in practice, as if digging a post hole—
may be prepared, removing a sufficient quantity of the soil for the proper reception of the
roots. Planting the tree is a matter of considerable importance for the health of the tree in
after life. It is unreasonable to expect a tree to be thrifty whose roots are crammed into a
small hole. As I mentioned before, the place should be prepared in such a manner that the
centre is somewhat higher than the surrounding parts, and so the roots can be spread out in .
as natural a manner as possible, the ends being lower than where they start from the trunk.
Prune the roots carefully before planting, leaving no ragged ends for disease to assail. When
the tree is in place and the roots properly arranged, begin filling in by first carefully placing
some of the best of the top soil in and about the roots, moving the tree gently up and down
occasionally so as to give the tree a good firm hold, and so avoiding the necessity of staking.
The head of the tree, if more than one year old, should be pruned to correspond with the loss
of roots in transplanting, and it is well, when setting out a tree, to incline it towards the
quarter of the prevailing winds. Many mistakes are made by planting trees too deep or not
deep enough ; I do not know which is the worst. This can be said of shallow planting—that
earth can be placed over the roots, and so partially remedy the evil, but if planted too deep
there is no remedy. The proper height to plant a tree is about the same as it was in the
nursery, a little deeper but not shallower.
The best time to plant is greatly a matter of conditions. On the coast I certainly recommended autumn or winter planting, but in that portion of the Province to the eastward of the
coast range, I do not think that course is always practicable, owing to climatic conditions. In
all cases 1 consider it imperative that stock should be ordered beforehand, and, if possible,
transported to destination before the winter sets in, and planted or heeled in as circumstances
admit. Otherwise, have the trees ready for transportation as soon as practical in the spring.
Procrastination in the matter of placing orders often results in disappointment, both as regards
quality and variety.
Where to buy nursery stock is a question which does not admit of much argument.
By all means, if possible, buy from local nurserymen, for obvious reasons, viz., the trees are
acclimatised ; they need not be out of the ground for any lengthened periods; trees can be
inspected before purchasing, and you have the principals to deal with, if necessary. - If buying
through an agent, be sure that he has a licence to sell nursery stock, and that it is good for
the year. No licences are issued except to agents whose principals have deposited bonds in
the hands of the Government for the protection of purchasers. Do not allow agents or principals the privilege of substituting varieties other than those ordered.
The question of the best age at which to transplant a tree is one that sorely troubles the
tyro, a beginner naturally wants to obtain returns from his orchards at as early a date as
possible, and he, therefore, argues that if he can get a tree three or four years old to grow, he
will be so much nearer his goal than if he planted a younger one. Then the tree agent comes
along, and confirms his opinion by advising him exactly as he wished. In the majority of
cases, the advice given by the tree vendor is obvious. In the first place, his principals have
old stock on hand which is deteriorating every year they hold it, and unless it can be got rid N 48
Farmers' Institutes Report.
of by the time it is four years old it is practically dead stock and has to be destroyed. The
stock of a nurseryman is like the stock of any other merchant, it deteriorates with age, and
must be sacrificed if kept too long. Then the agent, by selling old trees at advanced prices,
not only does his principals a service, but increases his commission proportionately. Experi-
ience has shown that the best age at which to transplant almost all trees is one year from the
graft; cherries, plums and peaches may be risked at two years. The root system is less injured
when a tree is young, and being a mere whip, it can be brought up in the way it should go,
not according to the fancy or requirement of the nurseryman.
Varieties to Grow.
Of course, if a person is growing fruit for his own use or fancy, I have nothing to say,
except, if my advice is asked, to mention some which I know to be good for household use ;
but for commercial purposes, I say, by all means, seek the advice of those whose occupation
naturally enables them to acquire the knowledge that experience has taught to be profitable.
The Board of Horticulture has collated facts from the various sections of the country, and is
in a position which enables the members to say authoritatively what particular varieties
succeed best in the Upper Mainland, Lower Mainland and Islands. Therefore, before proceeding to buy, I advise, by all means, to seek the advice I speak of, and I assure vou it will
be most cheerfully given and costs nothing. It need not be followed if the intending"orchardist
has better authority, and it is, of course, quite possible that some better varieties than those
recommended may suit the particular locality, but I do say most emphatically, do not heed
the advice of the tree agent; it is more than probable that he knows nothing of the subject,
and will try to beguile you with gaudily coloured plates of impossible-looking fruit. And,
furthermore, do not take the advice often so generously given in the public press, by persons
30 Ft
3 OF*
EQUILATERAL   TRIANGLE 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 49
who cannot possibly know what they are writing about. I do not say anything against
experimenting; I think it is a highly laudable practice, and I would advise all those who
have time and space to plant one or two trees of varieties which may be considered suitable,
and so ascertain their real qualities. Above all things, do not attempt to grow many varieties ;
one or two good proved varieties are enough, and let everyone in one locality grow the same
Laying out an orchard, including distances to plant, is a part of orchard work which
should be attended to with care. As a rule, in this Province, apples and pears should be
planted 30 feet apart each way; this will give about 48 trees to the acre; planted in a
quincunx form, that is, a tree in the. centre, between four, gives a half more, or 72 trees to
the acre, but I do not think the plan expedient.
A plan adopted by many growers is the equilateral triangle, by which more trees can be
put into an acre than by the rectangular plan, and, at the same time, the trees are 30 feet
apart each way.    (See examples on previous page.)
I do not advise planting fillers, as experience has shown that when the time arrives to
cut them out, the moral courage of the grower often fails him, and the consequence is that
the orchard becomes overcrowded. Cherries and plums may be planted closer together ; say
24 feet, which gives 75 trees to the acre, and peaches, say 20 feet, gives 109 trees to the acre.
Whatever plan is adopted, care should be taken to have the trees in a proper line, this to
facilitate cultivation afterwards.
After the ground has been carefully mapped out and stakes driven at the points where it
is intended to plant the trees, a good plan is to use a board about eight feet long and six
inches wide, at each end of which a hole is bored and a nick cut in on the side midway
between. When the place for the tree is to be prepared, place the board on the ground with
the stake in the nick. Drive two stakes in the ground through the holes in the ends, and
then remove the board and proceed to prepare the ground, or, as it is generally termed, " dig
the hole." When the tree is to be planted, replace the board and the nick in the side will
indicate the exact spot where it should be planted.
2 n °
Pruning and shaping is a subject on which my opinion has considerably changed since I
first undertook orchard work, over 50 years ago. Then the idea was to have trees pruned up
to about six feet, in order that horse cultivation could be performed with ease. The modern
method, which is followed by all commercial orchardists in the adjoining States—and since
they are eminently practical people, I think we may safely follow their example—is to head
low ; the first branch from nine inches to a foot from the ground ; the next the same distance
higher up, and about a third of the way round, and so on. By this means, crotches, so frequently injuring a tree by splitting down either by weight of fruit or effects of weather, are
avoided; the effects of wind are lessened ; the fruit can be picked without the use of ladders,
and, when obtainable, the service of girls can be utilised. Cultivation can be performed by
the use of cultivators, disc harrows, etc., with a long arm on one side, if necessary, so as to
allow the implement to go as near the tree as desirable. Pruning should be done when the
trees are young, almost altogether in winter, during mild, open weather, but not when it is
frosty ; as the tree nears the bearing stage summer pruning should be practised, as by that
method the production of fruit buds is superinduced. Summer pruning is done simply by
pinching off the young ends, where desirable, between the thumb and forefinger. Heavy
pruning at any age is undesirable, as the cutting off of large limbs is apt to produce a thick,
broom-like growth very difficult to control. Constant care and attention in the matter of
bringing up a tree will obviate all necessity of heavy pruning. The argument in favour of one-
yrear-old trees is here exemplified, as at that age a tree is a mere whip, having buds all the way
to the ground, unless the nurseryman has been foolish enough to take them off. These buds
should be allowed to grow for at least the first year, so as to strengthen the trunk for its future
work ; after that, begin the process of pruning as I have described, and gradually get rid of the
lower limbs, as they are not required. In nature, this is all done without the aid of artificial
means, and we may safely follow her methods and assist them. N 50 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Causes of non-productiveness are legion ; natural soil conditions, such as lack of some constituent requisite for proper development of fruit, such as potash, or an over-abundance of some
constituent, such as nitrogen, causing an excess of growth in wood and foliage. Cold, wet
weather at the critical time of blossoming, destroying the vitality of pollen, scarcity of bees,
so often necessary for pollination, self-sterility and other minor causes, diseases, such as brown
rot and apple scab, often kills the blossoms. Hence, it is expedient that no great blocks of any
one variety should be planted, but they should be judiciously interspersed with some other
variety which blossoms at about the same season, having due regard to economy in picking
fruit. The keeping of bees by fruit-growers is to be recommended. When trees are over
vigorous in growth, root pruning about the month of August is sometimes resorted to. This
is done by digging a ditch all round the tree from ten to twelve feet away, and cutting off
every root.    In any case, under the most favourable conditions, not one blossom in ten sets fruit.
The following varieties of fruit are mentioned as being prominent as self-sterile and self-
fertile :—
Often Self-sterile.
Pears Bartlett,  Clapp's Favourite, Idaho,  Winter Nelis, Howell, Anjou, Louise Bonne
de Jersey, Boussock, Sheldon,  Clairgeau, Sou de Congress.
Apples—Bellflower, Spitzenberg, Winesap, Gravenstein, Northern Spy, King, Talman
Sweet, Roxberry Russet, Red Astrachan.
Plums—Coe's Golden Drop, French Prune, Italian Prune, Kelsey, Ogon, Peach, Satsuma.
Cherries—Napoleon Bigarreau, Belle de Choisy, Reine Hortense.
Exceptionally Self-fertile.
Apples Baldwin, Ben Davis, Fallawater, Duchess of Oldenberg, Rhode Island Greening.
Plums—Burbank, Bradshaw, De Soto.
Pears—Anjoulem, Bose, Diel, Flemish Beauty, Seckel.
Plant Foods.
Plant foods consist principally of the three following constituents, viz. : nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash. The chief function of nitrogen is to promote the growth of wood and
leaves ; of phosphoric acid, the production of seed and the shape and frame of the plant; and
potash affects the vital processes of plants,—flavour, firmness and colour of fruits ; it is said to
paint the peach; hence, three times as much potash as nitrogen should be applied when^ artificial fertilisers are used. Potash is best used in late fall or early spring, so as to be available
during the growth and maturing of fruit. Wood ashes contain a great deal of potash ; these
should be carefully preserved from wet; leaves also form a valuable fertiliser. Barnyard
manure is, of course, the best form of fertiliser, containing, as it does, all the principal constituents of plant food, as well as introducing much needed humus to the land, which artificial
or commercial fertilisers fail to do.
The cultivation of an orchard is possibly one of the greatest factors in the successful production of good first-class fruit. It is unreasonable to expect a tree to do its best if it is
deprived of its plant food, through the growing of other plants, whether weeds or crops, on the
same ground. It is too often the case in this country that a crop of hay is taken off the
orchard, with the natural consequence of the starving of the trees. Another evil attendant on
non-cultivation is the deprivation of the trees of the moisture required for their use. If other
crops are grown they naturally take up the moisture, and if the land is fallow and allowed to
become hard on the surface, there is the consequent loss of water by evaporation through
capillary attraction. This can in a great measure be obviated by keeping the surface of the
soil in a state of constant cultivation. In the dry belt, where irrigation is necessary, most
satisfactory results can be obtained by keeping a dust mulch on the surface and using but a
modicum of the water that is so often put on the land.
A clover crop however, is not objectionable for the first year or two; nay, as befor
mentioned, it is of great benefit to the land. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 51
The   Cooking   and   Preparation   of   Food.
By Miss R. Blanche Maddock, or Guelph, Ont.
(Synopsis of address, from Chilliwack Progress.)
At the Sardis meeting on Monday afternoon about twenty-five ladies were present. Miss
Maddock expressed herself as being delighted to meet so many home people, saying it was
more like an Ontario meeting than any she had addressed. Miss Maddock talked on the
practical subject of "The Cooking and Preparation of Foods," as well as the use of foods and
the work they do in the body. Some foods are especially beneficial and helpful in building up
the systems of our boys and girls. The necessity of "repair" foods received attention. " Our
bodies are highly organised machines, capable of doing almost anything if kept in repair, and
as any other machine should be supplied with fuel, the wheels must be kept running with oil."
Miss Maddock discussed the different foods of the different countries. In other countries of
the world they have their native diet. In Canada our national food is difficult todefine. "If
I should ask for our national food there would be as many national foods as there are ladies
present." For this reason it is important that the women of Canada should know more about
food values. The different foods do different work, perform different functions in the body.
Miss Maddock, with aid of a chart showing the composition of foods, dwelt in detail upon
these different foods as tissue builders and repair foods. She urged very strongly the free use
of vegetables, particularly carrots, which contain mineral matter and are especially beneficial
for growing children " If vegetables were used more freely we would hear less about patent
medicines, which, to put it mildly, are a nuisance and a great injury. If we would follow the
rules of nature laid down, use plenty of succulent vegetables, we would have no further use
for these." In this connection the free use of fruit and the cultivation of the habit of drinking
water the first thing in the morning and the last thing at night were strongly advocated. She
also pointed out the benefits to be derived from the drinking of milk as a tissue builder and
energising food. " There is more lime in a quart of milk than in a quart of lime water," she
The matter of digestion was dwelt upon at considerable length. Miss Maddock said: " The
object of our work is to take ordinary, everyday things and find out the ' why' of them." She
almost convinced her listeners that pie, if properly made, was not injurious. Speaking from
the standpoint of the economic values of foods, Miss Maddock explained the loss of nourishment sustained in preparing foods, taking, for example, fried and poached eggs. In frying an
egg about one-half of its value is lost. The white of the egg, almost pure tissue builder, is
hardened and when taken into the stomach is a strain upon the system in the course of digestion. It takes five hours to digest a fried egg, and two and one-half hours to digest a poached
egg. Before going to school a boy is given for breakfast oatmeal porridge, half-cooked, a fried
egg and a thick slice of partially toasted bread. All day long, instead of having his brain free
to think and act, the nervous centres are weakened while he is digesting this food. "Oatmeal
should be cooked at least six hours. When sufficiently cooked the grains will stand out so
that you can count them."
When talking on the subject of bread-making, Miss Maddock said that when possible
bread should be baked in individual loaves. The crust is more digestible than the crumb.
The following score card is used by her in judging bread :—
35 marks given for flavour; 25 marks given for texture and grain; 15 marks given for
colour;  10 marks given for crust;  10 marks given for crumb.
A hint was also given as to choosing flour. " You do not want a dead white colour ; it
should be a creamy white."
Referring to the question of different foods for different occupations, the speaker said :
" If food is well prepared, it is more necessary than the different articles of diet in reference
to the occupation of the members of the family."
The dainty serving of meals was also mentioned. " Sometimes," she said, " the girls want
to fix up a little, put a flower-pot on the table, and the father will say, ' Oh, take it away ; I
can't see the salt and pepper.' A dainty table has a great deal to do with the digesting of
our food. Anything that will tempt the appetite will cause digestion to take place more
readily." N 52 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
The choice of meats and their preparation was lucidly explained. In this connection it
was stated that there is more nourishment, pound for pound, in the cheaper cuts of meat than
in the more expensive ones. From the neck or stewing meat it costs 78 cents for a pound of
tissue builder, as compared with $1.58 for a pound of proteid from the sirloin.
A number of questions were asked by the ladies present, one of which was the comparative
value of brown and white bread. Miss Maddock said that there is more nourishment in white
bread than in brown bread, because the tissue-building food in the brown bread is wrapped up
in a woody fibre which causes too much nervous energy to digest.
Many interesting and instructive questions were discussed before the meeting was brought
to a close.
Bee Culture.
By the Rev. Thos. Menzies, Comox.
Bee culture, like all other industries, to be successful, must be conducted on a scientific
basis. Recent inventions and modern appliances must be made use of by the bee-keeper, if
he will compete in the market of those similarly occupied ; and, fortunately, these helps are of
such a nature that they can be employed by the person who has only a few hives of bees, as
well as those who give their undivided attention to the apiary.
Flowers that give Nectar and Pollen.
The first thing necessary in bee culture is to have an almost unlimited supply of nectar
and pollen-producing flowers, for it is from the former that honey is made, and both combined
that young bees are reared upon. The earliest flowers in British Columbia from which bees
take nectar and pollen are the crocuses which adorn so many gardens. Next in order comes
the willow and cottonwood ; then the wild gooseberry, fruit tree blossoms, dandelions, snow-
berries, barberry, clovers, especially red and white, and, last of all, buckwheat. This last is
not grown extensively in this Province, so does not hold as important a place as in the Eastern
Spraying during Fruit  Blossoms a source op danger.
In passing, let it be noted that spraying shrubs or trees during the time that they are in
full bloom does practically no good towards the destruction of pests and disease, but it is a
source of great danger to the honey bee, so much so that an entire apiary may be poisoned
and their honey rendered unfit for use. It must ever be borne in mind that bees increase the
productiveness of fruit trees at least seventy-five per cent.
Number of Hives to start with.
Having, then, an abundance of nectar-producing flowers, the next question is, how many
hives shall a bee-keeper start with 1 This depends almost altogether on the amount of
knowledge of bees he possesses. If a beginner, it is best to start with only one or two, and
purchased in the early spring before the swarming season, so that the natural increase by
swarming, which is generally two swarms to the hive, will give him in the fall three hives of
bees, instead of one.
Kind of Bees most profitable.
The variety of bees to purchase is a cause of great anxiety to the beginner, but after
careful experiments and comparisons it has been fairly well demonstrated that the Leather-
Coloured Italians are the best all-round bees to have. This arises from several causes ; first,
on account of hardiness, also their power to resist attacks of disease. They are also the very
best honey gatherers and very gentle to handle, when compared with the hybrids and common
blacks. The variety known as the Golden Italians, or five-banded, is almost on a par with
the leather-coloured or three-banded, but lack hardiness. The reason that the leather
Italian is a better honey-gatherer than any other is on account of the length of its tongue.
The black has a tongue fourteen one-hundredths of an inch long, the hybrid sixteen one-
hundredths,  and the  leather Italian twenty-one one-hundredths.    It can, therefore, work on longer or deeper flowers; and what is very valuable is that it can extract the nectar from
ordinary red clover, while other bees pass over this flower, which yields an abundant supply
of nectar.
Best Kind of Hive.
Many different patterns of hives are on the market and each has its ardent advocate,
claiming particular advantages ; but it is apparent that whatever design is chosen at the
beginning ought to be maintained year after year, as different makes and sizes cause confusion
to the bee-keeper. Taking everything into consideration, the best line is the metal-covered
eight-framed Langstroth. The galvanised cover keeps out the rain in this damp climate, and
the eight-framed hive is more easily handled than the ten or twelve-framed.
Location of Hive.
Upon receiving a hive a location must be sought. This should be free from strong winds
and shaded from the excessive heat of the sun during the summer months. It is best to have
the hive facing either the east or south. It thereby gets the sun early, and the bees start to
work earlier in the morning, than if the hive faced west or north.
Swarming Season.    Cause of Swarming.   ■
There is another problem which the bee-keeper has to face, and that is, managing the
the bees at swarming time. A beginner naturally feels timid or nervous when the first or
prime swarm comes off, and wonders how the bees are to be managed and the swarm saved.
Before dealing with the management of swarms, the cause of swarming will be dealt with.
During the winter and early spring there are just two kinds of bees in a hive, namely, one
queen and thousands of workers or honey gatherers. When the honey flow begins to fall off
during the autumn the queen ceases to lay eggs, and only begins in the spring when the flow
starts. Let it be taken for granted that early in March a little honey and pollen are being
stored away in the cells. The queen now starts to lay eggs in that part of the hive called the
brood nest, which is generally the middle. She will lay from 1,000 to 3,000 eggs a day,
depositing them in the bottom of the tiny cells. She does this with great regularity, so that
very seldom is a cell missed. The egg is a very small white thing, looking very much like a
white poppy seed. The egg, after three days, hatches out in the form of a very small grub.
Now the nurse bees take the task of feeding it; which is done by placing chyle in the cell
and rolling the tiny grub around in it. This operation is carried on for six days. By this
time the grub has increased greatly in size and is now curled up in the cell. At this stage the
cell is sealed over and the grub left to itself. At the end of 12 days the full-grown bee gnaws
its way out of the cell and does its nurse work for 16 days, when it starts out of the hive in
quest of honey7 and pollen, and if in the honey flow it dies when 45 days' work are completed
(approximately). It is thus seen that from the time the egg is laid till it hatches out is three
days; then other six days before the cell is sealed, and other 12 days before emerging, or 21
days in all. It has been stated that chyle is put in the cell. Now, this chyle is honey and
pollen that have been partly digested by the nurse bee and then deposited in the cell. For
drones, the bees feed them honey and pollen straight. The queens, again, are fed what is
termed royal jelly, and is a chyle of a finer quality than that given the workers. The queen,
by laying so many eggs a day, it is apparent that in a few weeks the hive will be full of bees,
made up chiefly of workers ; also some drones and two or three young queens coming to
maturity. It is now time for the old queen to leave the parent hive with thousands of her
bees and seek a new home, leaving the old home for her daughter queen, which is about
hatching, so, some fine forenoon in the latter part of April or beginning of May, the swarm
issues from the hive. There is no mistaking what is taking place, for the air is full of bees
making a peculiar humming sound that can be heard a considerable distance. Presently they
will begin to settle on some bush or limb of a tree close by, forming one or more large clusters.
If the swarm is close to the ground the hiving of it is easy; but if in the top of a tall tree,
then the difficulty of securing it is great. It can then be secured only by climbing the tree
or using a ladder. Before the bees have settled bring out a hive, take out some of the frames
in which there are strips or full sheets of foundation. When settled, if possible, shake the
swarm into the hive, put in the frames, set the hive on the ground and wait till all the bees
have gone into their new home; then remove the hive to where it is to remain permanently. N 54 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Should the swarm be high up in a tree, it is best to use a box on a long pole. Hold the box
directly under the swarm, then give the limb a jar, and the cluster will fall into the box;
then, as quickly as possible, dump the bees into the waiting hive, where they will likely
remain. It sometimes happens that a swarm does not take kindly to its new home and will
abscond. A sure remedy for this is to take a frame of brood out of an old hive and put it in
the hive in which the swarm is to be placed. It is stated, on good authority, that bees will
not desert uncapped brood. In hiving a swarm, it should be remembered that the bees are very
docile and seldom sting unless hurt. The reason for their docility is found in the fact that,
before coming out of the parent hive, they fill themselves with honey, not knowing where they
are going to start housekeeping ; so they must be prepared for an emergency. It is not even
necessary to wear a veil during the operation, but if one is timid it is best to do so till
confidence is established. After the first or prime swarm comes off, it is generally ten days
before the second from the same hive emerges. Should a third come, it is well to hunt out the
queen and kill her and let the bees go back again, as the swarm will likely be small and
unprofitable.    So much for natural swarming.
Artifical Swarming.
It sometimes happens that the bee-keeper does not want to wait for natural swarming
to increase his stock, so he resorts to what is called artifical increase or swarming. This is
done by placing an empty7 hive alongside the one to be divided; then taking three or four
frames out of the latter, placing them in the former, filling the space with frames of foundation. The original hive is now removed some distance and the new hive placed exactly where
the other stood. The queen being in the old stand, for she was to be on the frames that were
removed, keeps on laying, and the bees that have been away in the fields working come home
to the original stand, so there is quite a strong colony. Then there being unsealed brood in
the old hive, the bees soon have a new queen, and the young brood hatching out soon have a
good working force. This method of increase is not to be recommended very highly, for there
is nothing that exactly takes the place of natural swarming.
Putting on Supers for Comb or Extracting Honey.
After having caught a swarm, it is best to let it remain undisturbed for about three
weeks. This is to give the bees a chance to lay up stores for the coming fall and winter. But
the bee-keeper wants honey, so, after three weeks have elapsed, a super must be put on the
hive to hold the surplus. If comb honey is wanted, there should be pound boxes properly
placed, and each having foundation comb to give the bees a start. Sometimes only strips are
used, but experience teaches that it is best to have the foundation reaching from the top to the
bottom. Occasionally the bees won't go up into the super, but, after filling the body of the
hive with honey, will hang around the entrance and loaf. The best plan to follow in this case
is to smoke them up by blowing it in the entrance of the hive. Of course, if one has partly
finished sections of the previous year, these can be placed in the super in different places, distributed among the other sections, and by this means the bees are coaxed to work. When
the super is nearly filled, raise it up and put an empty super between it and the body of the
hive. The bees will finish the sections and cap them, and at the same time will start to work
on the other super. Where extracted honey is sought, an extracting super is placed on the
hive. This super is filled with frames having full sheets of medium foundation properly
wired, either perpendicularly or horizontally. The frames need to be wired, for when heavy
frames are placed in an extractor, there is a danger that the combs will be broken from the
frames, and by being properly wired this never happens. Before the honey is extracted it
should be properly ripened ; this can be easily ascertained, for if the cells are capped, then it
is ready to be taken from the hives and stored. These extracting frames can be used over
and over again, and the bees will gather a third more honey by having such frames, because it
takes ten pounds of honey to make one pound of wax. It is, therefore, poor policy to use
strips of foundation instead of whole sheets, for when the value of ten pounds of honey is
compared with a pound of foundation, it can readily be seen that it pays to supply full sheets.
When the season is over it is a good plan to take the extracting frames, after the honey has
been taken from them, put them in supers and place them over a hive, and the bees will clean
them up nicely, so that they can be stored away for the winter, to be used when occasion
requires. Farmers' Institutes Report. N 55
Swarming Prevented and Whole Strength of Colony Producing Honey.
It sometimes happens that the bee-keeper does not want an increase in hives, but wants
all the energies of the bees exerted in producing surplus honey. Should this be the case, the
best plan to follow is to let the bees swarm once and hive the swarm on full sheets of foundation. The hive is then taken and placed on top of the original hive, only facing the opposite
direction; here it is to remain till the evening of the fourth day after swarming. It is then
removed to one side and the old hive is opened up and each frame taken out and the bees
shaken off three feet from the entrance and all queen cells cut out. This last is very important,
for if one queen cell is left it will spoil the whole operation. After the frames are all removed
from the hive and the bees shaken on the ground, the frames are placed in the hive again.
Now the other hive is opened, and the frames are taken out of it and the bees are shaken upon
the other bees, so that they get mixed. Care should be taken not to shake the frame that has
the queen on it, for it should be reserved till the last. The second last frame should be shaken
immediately in front of the old hive, and the bees will soon begin to march into the hive.
While doing this, the frame that has the queen should be shaken on top of them, so that she
enters the hive with her own bees. The new hive is now placed as a super on top of the old
hive, with a queen excluder between. The bees will gradually find their way into the hive,
and are friendly. They miss the queen cells, but find a laying queen ; so all is harmonious and
the whole colony starts to work with a will, and the united forces store more honey than the
two colonies separate.
Introducing New Queens.
Bee-keepers occasionally want to introduce fresh blood into the apiary. One method is
by buying new colonies of the desired strain, but this method is expensive. Hence, the best
method is to introduce new queens, which can be purchased from a dollar to three dollars each,
and as all queens are fertilised before being shipped, this method should always be adopted.
But before a new queen can be introduced into a hive, the old queen must be taken out. To
find this queen is a difficult task, when it is remembered that there are possibly 40,000 bees in
a hive. The best way to find a queen is to select a bright sunny day, smoke the bees a little,
and get comfortably seated with the back to the sun and facing the side of the hive, having
an empty hive or box in which to put the frames after they are looked over. Having everything ready, the operator takes out the frame next him, looking first of all on the side of the
frame next the one in his hand, then on the one in his hand, and upon not finding her, the
frame is placed in the empty box. The second frame is now taken out and the side of the
frame next him of the third frame is looked over, then the frame in his hand, and it is placed
alongside the first frame. This operation is repeated till the queen is found, or until all the
frames are out of the hive. Then the side of the hive is examined, and if the frames are
slowly taken out, it is more than likely she will be found on the wall of the hive, for she runs
from the light to as dark a place as possible. If the queen is not found, the frames can be
carefully examined as they are put back in the hive in the order in which they were taken out.
When the queen is found and disposed of, the hive is made as snug as possible and the cage in
which the new queen has arrived is placed directly over the brood nest, netting downwards,
and a shallow super placed on the hive and the bees left to themselves. They will, in from
twenty-four to forty-eight hours, liberate the queen, and all is well. The de-queening and
introducing can be done at one time. Should the bees not liberate the queen in forty-eight
hours, the bee-keeper must do it. The time for re-queening is any time during the summer,
when queens can be purchased from the queen-breeders. A queen will live four or five years
and rear large colonies ; but it is preferable to re-queen every second or third year, for the
older she gets the more drones are produced, and the hive becomes unprofitable.
How to Detect Queenless Hive.
It sometimes happens that in the spring the bee-keeper is desirous of knowing whether
his hives are queenless or not. One good way to tell is that if the bees are working vigorously7
carrying in pollen, there is in all probability a queen. The best way, though, is to examine
the hive and look for brood, about the month of March. If the weather has been warm and
the flowers plentiful, and the hive has no brood, it is quite likely there is no queen, and this
must be remedied at once. Sometimes a common worker will lay eggs and a novice may think
his hive has a queen when one is not present; but a worker's eggs can easily be detected.    In N 5G Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
the first place, they hatch out drones, and, in the next place, they are not laid in order like a
queen's. The former lays in cells dotted all over the comb, while the queen is very precise
and exact, filling every cell with brood.
Twenty-five Pounds of Honey for winter use.
Every hive should go into winter quarters with at least twenty-five pounds of honey. If
from any cause there is not this amount, it can be augmented by feeding the bees, and the
best food is granulated sugar, and water, equal parts by measurement, made into a syrup and
fed by a simplicity feeder, which is kept in stock by every bee supply house. The best feeder
of this name is one that is larger than the width of the hive, so that the hive can be pulled
back and an end left for pouring in the syrup. This projecting end is first covered with a
piece of wire netting which keeps the bees within bounds while replenishing the food, and
then a block of wood placed over it to prevent robbing. The feeding is all done from the
inside of the hive and conserves the heat of the cluster.
Diseases of Bees described.
The honey bee, like all other animated creatures, is subject to diseases, but these and the
treatment of them can only be touched upon by7 this paper. The most common complaint is
spring dwindling, and although it is not a disease, yet it causes as great havoc as a disease.
The nature of it is as follows :—In the spring the Italians are the first to leave the hives in
search of food, so that the bright sunny days cause large numbers to leave the hives. Just as
soon as the sun goes behind a cloud or sets the air becomes cold, thereby causing the bees to
become chilled, and they are unable to reach their homes; consequently, they die in large
numbers. There is apparently no remedy for this loss except good steady weather. Bees are
also afflicted with dysentery, which is caused by close confinement during the winter months.
The remedy is to let them have a good flight, so that this disorder is easily regulated.
There are also the diseases known as foul brood, pickled brood and black brood. These
are hard to deal with and must be carefully handled. In foul brood the brood smells like glue ;
in pickled the brood is watery, and black brood has the appearance of a jelly-like mass.
Sure Remedy for Foul Brood.
The following remedy for foul brood is said to be very effective :—1. Procure a clean new
hive with full sheets of foundation and in the centre a frame of unsealed brood, with adhering
bees from another colony free from disease. 2. Take a Porter bee escape board, tack over the
entrance side of the escape queen-excluding zinc. In the evening, during honey flow, lift
diseased colony from its stand and place the new hive in its place. Instead of a cover, put on
Porter bee escape board with the opening downwards. Set the old hive, minus the bottom
board, on top of the new hive. Be careful not to leave any entrance except to the bottom
hive. Shade the upper diseased hive the next few days to prevent overheating. The following
day the bees go out to work ; they must go through the Porter bee escape and the new hive.
When they return they cannot get into the diseased hive, and so deposit their honey in the
bottom hive. From the unsealed brood they soon raise a queen, and the stored honey is
perfectly clean and pure. The old queen goes on laying, but in two or three weeks the hive
will be practically deserted. Now remove the old hive, and the best thing to do is to melt the
combs for wax and burn the frames and hive, together with the remaining bees.
Wintering  Colonies.
The wintering of bees is a cause of considerable anxiety, not knowing just what to do to
ensure the bees being brought safely through that season. In British Columbia, especially at
the Coast, there is no necessity for the bee-keeper to put his colonies into cellars, as is the case
where the thermometer falls to zero. The only requirements are to keep the hives dry and
entrances free from cold, damp winds; allow plenty of ventilation, as this helps to keep the
hives dry inside.
In concluding this paper, there shall now be given a few hints which will be found valuable
to the person beginning bee culture.
Marketing Honey.
Put the honey on the market in an attractive form. If in sections, scrape off the propolis
and display in glass cases. If extracted honey is sold, be sure to have attractive labels on
bottles, jars or pails, and give honest weight. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 57
Bee Veils.
Expensive veils can be purchased from all bee supply houses, but ordinary mosquito
netting, dark or green, is a very good substitute.
This is essential, and as there are many kinds the operator must decide for himself. As
to fuel, rotten wood is good, but the best thing to use are old sacks rolled up so as to go into
the smoker. They must first be soaked in saltpetre water, the strength of two ounces to a
gallon of water ; then when thoroughly dried, they are fit for use and burn well.
The sting of a bee is hollow and barbed, and the poison is deposited as soon as the sting
enters the flesh. There is no sure remedy for the removal of the poison. To remove the sting
from the flesh, scrape it out, either by rubbing against the clothing or with the finger nails.
Don't squeeze the sting.
Tools, Etc.
An old file, with the end of the handle made into a small hook, is an excellent tool to lift
up the brood frames so that they can be seized by the fingers. Have a strong knife to help
to cut the propolis on the brood frames, and also burr combs.
A Porter bee escape board is very handy to have when the supers are to be taken from
the hives. It can be put on the hive under the super during an afternoon, and by the next
day the bees will nearly all be below.
An Alley queen or drone trap is necessary, to put on the entrance of a hive at swarming
time, if the bee-keeper is unable to watch his bees. By using it, the queen is caught and the
trap can be hung on a rake or limb of a tree where the swarming bees will all cluster on it.
It can then be taken to the empty hive and the entire swarm shaken into it.
Last of all, the bee-keeper, when working with his bees, must be clean and tidy. Bees
detest an unpleasant odor, and they show their displeasure by stinging. If one can afford it,
clothing should be white, as bees seemingly prefer this colour to others.
The Orchard.
By Thos. A. Brydon.
(Synopsis of an Address made at a meeting of the Metchosin Farmers' Institute, 11th December,
1907.—Reported by J. II. Smart, Secretary.)
Mr. Brydon, in his remarks on fruit-growing, called particular attention to thorough
cultivation, clean cultivation, and impressed upon those who were present and engaged in
fruit-growing to cultivate well; to give their trees a good constitution, to be able to stand the
strain put upon them in after years. Make the tree your servant, said he, by thorough care
and thorough preparation of the soil. In reference to growing crops in an orchard, he said
that we are asking too much of the soil by trying to raise other crops between the trees. Give
the trees the full benefit of the land ; keep the ground in fine tilth, so that it will retain
moisture. Drain your orchard ground, so that you can get on the ground early in the season
to work it.
In planting your orchard, try and have co-operation among your neighbours in growing
as much of one kind as possible. In such a case it will be the better for marketing purposes.
Cold storage will, no doubt, do a great deal for the fruit-grower in a few years. Plant one-
year-old trees ; you get a better root system and you have the control of your trees from the
beginning (Mr. Brydon showed the root system of the different trees of one, two and three-
year-old trees.) In planting, spread out the roots and cover them with good surface soil.
Cut your one-year-old trees to a strong terminal bud; leave the foliage on the stem when
planting one-year-old trees, for the leaves draw from the air a certain amount of sustenance
necessary for the life of the tree. Head the trees low down, where there is danger from heavy
winds. N 58 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
(Mr. Brydon then gave a demonstration of both top and root pruning in one, two and
three-year-old trees, explaining, as he went on, his reasons for cutting out this branch, etc.)
Thin your fruit if you want to produce No. 1 fruit. No use in producing poor fruit;
raise the best and you will always find a customer at top prices. In regard to spraying, use
the lime, salt and sulphur spray for winter spraying, and the Bordeaux for black spot and all
fungous diseases.
Mr. Brydon closed his remarks with a magnificent description of the possibilities of the
future of British Columbia in fruit-growing.
Girls'  Possibilities.
By Miss R. Blanche Maddock, Guelph, Ont.
Synopsis of address given  before  the Matsqui Farmers' Institute.—Reported by J. Ball, Secy.
Miss Maddock stated she had not had so large a meeting since coming to the Province,
and it reminded her of an Ontario audience. The subject chosen was " A Girl's Possibilities."
Miss Maddock stated she found a wholesale welcome and heartiness in British Columbia which
made one feel glad, and that every other nation is now looking to Canada. Women, to be
fitted for their duties, should have the broadest possible education, not only school but
domestic. In olden times, anyone could keep house. The energetic farmer now realises his
son must have a better education, not because old-timed, but from changed conditions. It is
necessary to understand economic buying. Our civilisation is divided into three parts—the
Home, the Church and the State. Women are now being trained in business and it is sometimes said that it is harder to get a quarter out of them than from men, but they7 don't have
so many. A question is often asked, What do we learn at Institute Colleges 1 Housekeeping,
Method, Cleanliness, Economy; cleanliness from the standpoint of bacteriology ; it is necessary
that the principles of cleanliness be understood in health and disease. Old sheds, woodboxes,
dirty dish-cloths, are all disease germ carriers. I say there is nothing more necessary than
method. Help has been very scarce, so we have to do our work in the easiest and best way,
and the first thing to do is to start at the table with less cake and pastry. For dinner, have
meat and potatoes, vegetables, fruit and bread and butter. It is false economy to spend ten
cents in saving two; it is the wise expenditure of money rather than saving. It does not pay
to cut out the air of culture and refinement ; on that depends the future of the Province.
Woman has taken a leading part in business and science, though I am reminded of the newly-
married couple who decided to keep an account of their spendings. The lady had on her books,
"January 1st, $50. February 1st, money all spent." Some say women cannot do anything
in higher education; it was a woman discovered radium. Caroline Herschell made great discoveries in astronomy ; her work was done in the interest of home, and the help extended to
her brother in reading to him. There is no limit to women's work if requirement calls; a girl's
mission is with father, mother and brother. Companions, father and daughter when young;
grown old, drift apart. Father does not appreciate his girl's work and effort; nothing so
much needed as co-operation at home. The most beautiful thing and the longest in memory is
" A mother's face." The young people have the keeping of the mother's face sweet and young.
We hear a good deal of how to keep the boys on the farm, but let us learn also how to keep
the girls, and I say, where possible, to send them away, not to store, or factory, or office, but
to a domestic science school, where girls can come together and become broader with good
books. Then a girl begins to realise the wonderfulness of a real home. One reason
that boys depart is because they are not fairly treated. Bad workmen find fault
with their tools, and a poor farmer is always complaining to his family, running down
the farm, but I am glad to say I have not heard this in British Columbia. If a good
crop exists, why, he will say that weakens the soil. It has been said that the most wonderful
thing in the world is a boy, but the artist is greater than his work and the girls can mould the
boys. The girls are to lift up an high ideal; live for all the fun, but have a purpose and
expect young men to, and they generally will. Keep the Sabbath. This is woman's age and
thev are now on trial.
A hearty vote of thanks was accorded each speaker, and a very interesting and profitable
time was brought to a close by singing " God Save the King." 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 59
Planting, Pruning and Spraying.
By George Heatherbell.
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen,—First, I may say that I am going to speak, or
rather read, from knowledge gained from some 26 years of practical work among fruit trees,
having now planted three different orchards, one of which is 26 years old, and up to the time
I left it, some three years ago, was in fine condition.
The Land.
Have the land in as good heart as possible. That is, have it under-drained to carry off
surface water and to conserve the moisture, let in the air and warmth of the sun. Or, at least,
head the water off by open ditches until such times as you can properly under-drain the land.
A good clover sod, to my mind, makes a fine bed for planting on. I would dig large
holes, throwing out the sub-soil. Then fill with sods and surface soil to the level I wish the
tree to stand, which would be about two inches deeper than it used to stand in the nursery.
After carefully trimming the roots, that is, making a clean cut of all the bruised roots that
were injured by the spade when removed from the nursery, and cut back extra long ones to
balance them, so they won't be sending up the sap all on one side of the tree.
It needs two to plant a tree properly, one to hold it in place and to fix and fill in the
earth round the roots, while the other fills in the soil. Be careful to keep the roots near the
top separate from the ones lower down, so that each part of the roots will have its own portion
of soil to feed from (this is very important), and work it in with your fingers well up under the
crown, so that there will be no air spaces, shaking the tree a little to help settle the soil well
down. If the soil was very dry I would put a pail of water in the hole when about half full,
then fill up with all surface soil and tramp in solid, but do not tramp the top layer of two
inches or so. And now let me impress upon you the fact that you only expect to plant the
tree once, and that it pays the biggest kind of interest to do it well then. It is extremely
interesting and indeed very satisfactory to see a fruit tree respond to your efforts and
encouragement in the way of making it grow, and to see it doing its very best for the treatment it is getting at your hands.
(Advice on planting very good.—J. R. A.)
After, comes the point of heading your tree. There are two ways of doing this. One is
the "pyramid" and the other is the "vase" or "goblet" shape. I prefer the vase shape,
only you must avoid having bad crotches; they are likely to split down when heavily laden
with fruit or soft snow. The vase shape is better for letting in the sun and air, and when the
fruit bends down the limbs they bend outwards and, consequently, allow the sun in still more,
which insures a high colour. Then, again, it is easier to keep the tree within bounds and make
it much better for spraydng and picking and working among your trees generally.
One objection to the pyramid kind is that, if a strong grower, in a few years it runs so
high that you have to cut off the top anyway ; then the trouble commences; also when the
fruit brings down the limbs they droop down on each other and form a close mass. It is
necessary to decide at the time of planting which of these methods is to be followed.
(Pyramidal form preferred.—J. R. A.)
When planting an orchard I would plant in alternate rows, or just two rows of each kind
alternately, for the benefit of cross pollination, as they have proved beyond a doubt at the
Experiment Stations that it is beneficial to fruit as to size and quality.
(Necessary the varieties planted should bloom at same time.—J. R. A.)
There are two points I would particularly like to impress upon you here to-night, and I
think I may as well put it in here, that it is quite possible, and not a hard job either, to have
apples free from scab and clean ; and the other is, that it is possible to make old trees profitable, if not too far gone and they bear the right kind of fruit. So we need not be discouraged
when the Inspector comes along. But although that is true, we must not suppose it can be
done without an effort on our part.
First, we must get the soil in good condition and see that it is fairly drained so that water
does not lie on the land for any length of time. Enrich the soil by putting on the best
manure you can obtain, or, failing that, plow in clover. I am a great believer in clover as a
fertiliser    (Good.—J. R. A.) N 60 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Anv old trees that do not bear the right kind of apples should be cut off as low as the
head will allow, and top work to a better kind of apple. Scrape the rough bark off the trunk
and large limbs, so that the No. 1 spray can get the best chance to get at the bark louse; the
old bark makes a fine hiding place for them ; and dig out the borers, which you can easily find
in early spring and summer. Then, with good spraying and good cultivation thoroughly done,
you will be able to watch the trees grow and in three y7ears become profitable.
I would plant my trees by the triangle, or what is called the * quincunx method ; that is,
every tree stands in the angle of a triangle of equal sides, and in the center and equally
distant from six others, which gives a greater space for air and light, and trees so planted may
be at a less distance than in the square and still have more room, and it gives yrou three ways of
cultivation. The trees will be some two to three feet closer between the rows than they are
apart in the row.
Note.—Mr. Heatheibell is in error in describing the method he advocates as the "Quincunx." It is
properly known as the " Equilateral Triangle Method." The Quincunx is the Rectangular, with a tree in
the centre equidistant from the four corners. Illustrations of the different methods are given in the paper
in this report by myself.—J. B. A.
As I said before, the vase shape is the one I prefer, and I like to have my trees headed
from two to two and a half feet high where the limbs start out from and have from three to
five branches to start my head.
(In a pyramidal form, the first branch can be started at nine inches from the ground.—
J. R. A.)
Pruning—why do we prune 1
One reason why we prune young trees is to make the tree grow in the form we wish to
have it, and to keep the top within bounds, as, if a very strong grower, the top would be too
heavy for the stem, and blow over or break down. And we prune bearing trees with a view
to more profitable bearing. A tree will bear well if not pruned at all, and as nature intended
it to do. In fact, nature aims to produce seed; that is its one chief aim. But the fruitgrower is not directly concerned about seed production. What he wants is a large apple ;
that is, more pericarp formed around the carpel, or, in other words, more flesh around the core;
and this is secured at the expense of seed production and fertility. The question then is, how
can I prune a bearing tree to make the fruit larger, better colour and better quality ? We
must let in the sunlight, and train the tree so as to have an open top when loaded with fruit.
So then we must cut away the excess of limbs, so that sunlight can get all through the top o
the tree. There must not be too many leaves either, to act as a blanket, keeping out the sun,
yet still enough to transform the sap into the necessary ingredients to make good fruit.
(Summer pruning.)
You must, of course, study the habits of your trees in regard to their growth. Those
that are inclined to grow down, like the " Bellflower," you must prune up, and those that are
inclined to grow up, like the " Spy," prune down. But always remember that when the tree
starts to bear the limbs will naturally come down, more or less. Always make the cut clean
and not too close to destroy the bud, or too long, and leave an ugly spur or elbow.
Keep the tree from getting bushy as far as possible, and in taking off large limbs always
cut close in, to avoid new shoots starting around the wound; and if any do start through the
summer, take them off.
When looking at a tree to see how to commence, first start on those limbs you know have
to come out, that is, those that are cross from one side to the other, and those that are too
close to others and interfere with the light and air getting in. Then look to the balancing of
your tree. I think it bad practice to cut off the tips of all the branches, whether they need it
or not, especially if the tree is bearing well.
If you should have a tree with a crotch that is likely to split, a good way to avoid that
is to get two or three screw eye-bolts from any hardware store. Screw them into the tree above
the crotch, and put galvanised wire through the eyes and twist it up. You will find it neat
and effective, especially after the tree grows around the bolt.
(I prefer grafting a branch from one part to the other, or twisting two branches together.
—J. R. A.) 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N CI
I will come now to spraying. If possible, prune first, to economise in saving spray.
Why do we spray, or what is the object? Of course, we all know it is to kill the pests that
infest fruit trees, apple and pear and plum in particular. But we want to learn just what
kind of pest we have to fight, and the very best kind of spray to use to be the most effective,
and the best time to apply it. It appears now that in using the formula sent out by the
Government long ago, of the " Lime-Sulphur" solution, that they were somewhat in error,
in so far that they gave imperial measure instead of American, which has made the spray
weaker than intended. I believe in the American formula for sprays, for the reason that they
have much worse pests to contend with than we have at the present time ; for instance, the
San Jose scale and the codling moth. Therefore, it is my opinion that now they have proved
that their formula of the lime-sulphur solution is death to the San Jose scale, there is no
doubt in my mind but that it will kill anything we have in that line if properly applied.
They have proved in Washington that arsenate of lead is much better than Paris green as an
insecticide, one pound to 50 gallons of water for codling moth. It keeps in suspension much
better, and will not wash off.
No doubt some of you have noticed the russety, cracked and shrunken-on-one-side appearance of some of the apples after the Bordeaux sprayung. The New York Experiment Station
at Geneva has taken that up, and the tests have proved clearly that it is the Bordeaux mixture
that causes the injury, and not the arsenite used with it; that weather conditions have much
to do with the development of the russeting of the fruit and spotting of the leaves which
characterise the trouble, and that an excess of lime is not a preventive of the injury, and that
strong Bordeaux causes greater injury than a weaker solution.
I am a firm believer in the No. 1 spray—lime and sulphur solution. It is a great fungicide, as well as a killer of the eggs of the tent caterpillar, aphis, etc., and death to the oyster-
shell bark louse or scale. I also strongly believe that it is a great check, if not a preventive,
of the black spot on the bark, which is a very serious trouble indeed in some orchards, so much
so that I have seen men quite discouraged by it in orchards north of here. If you prune first,
be suie you burn the prunings.
Start on top of the tree and spray downwards. Be sure and cover every limb and branch,
especially the tips, and remember after you get the right material that it is on the man behind
the gun that the thoroughness of the job depends. If there is any wind, spray on the weather
side only, and when the wind goes down or changes, spray the other side. fie sure and have
the trees dry, and, if possible, spray in weather when it will dry quickly. It can rain all it
wants to after the No. 1 is dried on, it will not harm it. Use gloves soaked in oil or pine tar
and rub vaseline on the hands to save them from burning.
I believe in leaving the No. 1 spray as late as I dare do, before applying it, as I think the
eggs of the tent caterpillar and aphis easier to destroy the nearer they7 are to hatching out,
which is the case as the sun gets warmer. And I also believe the No. 1 will largely take the
place of the first Bordeaux spray as a fungicide, when applied late or just before the buds burst.
Let me say again to always remember it is poor economy to save spray, as everything depends
on the thoroughness of the job.
Professor Britton, of the Connecticut Experiment Station, has shown conclusively that
after it is placed on the trees its efficiency remains for months. He found more dead scales at
the end of two weeks than at the end of one, and more dead at the end of four months than
at the end of three.
Professor Piper, of Washington State College, at Pullman, has demonstrated beyond a
doubt that the salt is not necessary, and it is doubtful if it makes it stick any better, as some
claim, as the saltless spray can be seen on the trees months after spraying.
How to Make it.
One-one-three is the formula for making No. 1, or 1-1-4 for a weaker solution ; that is, one
pound of clod lime, one pound of sulphur, and three gallons of water.    Put the lime and sulphur
together, add enough boiling water to 'well cover the lime and let it cook the solution.     Then •
add the rest of the water to make three gallons to each pound of lime and sulphur.    That is
one way.
Another is to boil your ingredients as above for about one hour, or until the mixture
becomes amber colour.    This is the nice part of the job, as if you boil it too long it will change N 62 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
the chemical formation and it will not be good, and if you do not boil it enough the sulphur
will not stay in solution. It is better to have the spray warm, as it works through the pump
Next Spray.
Next spray with Bordeaux or lime and bluestone, 4-4-40 ; 4 lbs. clod lime ; 4 pounds of
bluestone, and 40 gallons water. I believe a stronger solution has a tendency to harm the
fruit and foliage. Spray first just as the buds are opening, and again when the blossoms
fall, and again when the apples are formed and before the calyx closes.     The last is important.
The best way to mix the Bordeaux is to put the four pounds of lime in a barrel that will
hold twenty gallons, and slack it with say four gallons of boiling water. Then put four
pounds bluestone in a sack (a twenty-pound sugar sack is just the thing), and suspend the
sack just above the bottom of the barrel ; then pour boiling water, say four gallons, and it
will quickly dissolve. Now add water to each, to make twenty gallons in each barrel. Then
it is better to have two men to dip out the lime and bluestone solution, pouring the same
together in your forty-gallon barrel, so that the solution is mixed evenly as you go. This is
important; the reason for this is that if you mix it wrong it may form a solution that will
curdle, as it were, and be quite different and not so good.
Now, I will be only too pleased to answer any questions about the subjects mentioned to
the best of my ability. This fruit question is getting pretty well talked about, and seems now
quite an old thing. But, at the same time, each one of us has our own way of doing things,
and those that have been successful should at least be a fair example for others to do likewise.
I may add, too, that the whole of this southern end of Vancouver Island has an exceedingly
bright future in the way of fruit-growing; even where the soil appears too dry you can make
up for that very largely by cultivation, if you will only follow it up and start in before the
ground dries out. Stir the soil, and keep stirring it, and you will find what a difference it
makes to crops of all kinds.
Let me say, too, do not waste time and money planting fruit trees if you cannot care for
them properly. Do not stick them in and expect them to grow without good care, as evidently
many do, leaving them in sod and without cultivation, and a prey to all pests and diseases
that may come along. What other kind of a crop would thrive under the same conditions ?
Would corn or potatoes 1    I think not.
I think it would be a good thing to have the Institute buy spraying material in large
quantities at wholesale prices, also apple boxes. 8 Ed. 7
Farmers' Institutes Report.
N 63
The Tenth Annual Convention of the Central Farmers' Institute of British Columbia was
convened on the 24th day of March, 1908, at 10 a.m., in the rooms of the Department of
The following delegates were present:—
Anderson, J. R., Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Superintendent.
Collins, J. T Islands Farmers' Institute.
Garratt, B. W Richmond n
Farquharson, A. K Central Park n
Gillespie, Robert Okanagan n
Johnstone, James Nelson n
Bailey, James '. Chilliwack ■>
Carter, Richard. Jr Comox n
Way, W. G Sooke
Woodward, Harvey H Nicola ir
Hills, Henry Alberni u
Heatherbell, Geo Metchosin n
Okell, Arthur East Kootenay n
Harris, Henry Langley n
McDiarmid, N. A Delta ..
McCallum, J. W Salmon Arm n
Cunningham,  T Nanaimo-Cedar n
Graham, D Spallumeheen n
Dilworth, John Osoyoos n
Curry, V. D  Kamloops m
Baker, N. T Kent
Jones, Charles R Victoria n
MacKenzie, R. D Surrey n
Cockle, J. W Kootenay Lake n
Corbett, Thomas Coquitlam n
Saugstad, G , Bella Coola n
Moved by Mr. Harris, seconded by Mr. Corbett,:—" That Mr. J. R. Anderson, Superintendent, act as Chairman."    Carried unanimously.
The Chairman : Is it your pleasure, gentlemen, to hear the Premier and the Minister of
Agriculture ?
Mr. Collins : I think that it would be a very good plan indeed, Mr. Chairman.
The Chairman : In the meantime, in order to expedite business, while we are waiting,
it would be better to appoint a Committee on Resolutions. About three would be a good
number to appoint. I therefore appoint Mr. Collins, Mr. Corbett and Mr. Cockle. After
hearing the addresses from the Ministers, the committee can draft out the resolutions and
hand them in. It would be well for everyone to send in the heading of their resolutions to
the committee, so that they will be ready to be brought forward as soon as the addresses have
been heard, and I would suggest that great care should be exercised in preparing the resolutions, so that the meeting can thoroughly understand their meaning.
Moved by Mr. Harris, seconded by Mr. Corbett,—" That Mr. J. T. Collins act as Secretary."    Carried unanimously. N 64 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Moved by Mr. Graham, seconded by Mr. Way,—"That no addresses from outsiders,
with the exception of those from members of the Cabinet and the Mayor, be delivered until
after the business of the Central Institute has been finished."    Carried.
Mr. Graham : Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, I think that all the speeches, even those of
the Ministers, should be as short as possible. This is a very bad time of the year to leave our
farms; we want to get home. We are here to do business, and it would be, in my mind,
much better to make all the speeches as short as possible, and I, therefore, make a motion to
that effect.
Mr. Way : I fully endorse Mr. Graham's opinion and second his motion, and I am sure
that all will agree with me in getting down to work as soon as possible.
The Chairman : I certainly7 think that is a very good idea to cut the speeches as short as
possible, because when the speeches are too long, as they often are, it does not give the delegates time to say all they have to say; I, therefore, am quite of the opinion that the speeches
be shortened.
Mr. Garrett: In reference to this resolution, I would like to say that Mr. Hobbs, of the
Mutual Fire Insurance Co., of British Columbia, would like to make you a short address. Or,
rather, it is not properly an address; Mr. Hobbs has written out what he wants to say and
will only occupy your time for a few minutes.
Mr. Curry : It seems to me that Mr. Hobbs' address is of more importance than the
Mayor's (laughter).    He is representing a fire insurance company.
The Chairman : It has always been customary for the Mayor to come to the Farmers'
Institute and make an address of welcome.
Motion carried.
Hon. Richard McBride, Premier, and Hon. Mr. Tatlow, Minister of Agriculture, having
entered the room, were loudly applauded.
Mr. Chairman : The Premier and the Minister of Agriculture, being now present, would
like to address you. (To the Premier and the Minister of Agriculture) The delegates would
now be extremely pleased to hear anything that you have to say to them.    (Loud applause.)
■Address by the Hon. Richard McBride, Premier of British Columbia.
Mr. Anderson and Gentlemen,—It may be that I shall have to leave you in a few
minutes because of some very important business in the Buildings. This being the case, my
time will be very short ; but before making any remarks, with the permission of your Chairman and Mr. Tatlow, I would like to give you all a very hearty welcome.
It is certainly a matter of very great pleasure to me, as one of the Ministers of the
Crown, to have again the privilege of extending to the representatives of the farmers of
British Columbia a greeting on their annual assembly. I have followed the work of this body
for, at any rate, eleven years, and am ready to admit that your achievements up to date have
been most commendable. The task that has been set for you, gentlemen, is a difficult one,
unlike the other Provinces of Canada. The agricultural industry of this country presents
such a varied programme as at once makes the solution of all problems which must come up
before you a very intricate one indeed. The Island of Vancouver possesses physical conditions
that cannot be compared, in every detail at any rate, to those of the Lower Mainland, while,
when we proceed farther into the interior, we come to the dry belt, which again presents an
entirely different set of physical features ; then again, when we go farther east, the conditions
are totally different.
You have, as I have already pointed out, a varied programme to discuss and at all times
very difficult problems to solve ; but I think that it can be said, with every justification, that,
so far, your work has not been in vain. I am glad to say that splendid results have been
obtained on all sides, in the different sections of the Province where the Institutes have been
actively engaged in their work and where the officers have lived up to their obligations.
Take, for instance, the interests of the fruit-growing industry, one which, to a great
extent, comes within the limits of your deliberations. We find it admitted on every side that
the class of fruit which is produced to-day in the Province, as well as the planting of orchards
and the care of fruit trees, has reached such a point as would meet with the commendation of
the most exacting expert. I know well that the work is yet in its infancy, but even so, to
the extent to which it has gone, it is well nigh perfect. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 65
Then last, but by no means least, you have the very excellent recommendations and the
satisfaction which has been secured through the achievements of our fruit-growers in the way of
the very best awards and medals which have been granted from the highest source in Great
Britain. I now refer to the Royal Horticultural Society's award, which you have carried off
on three or four successive occasions.     (Applause.)
Passing from this subject, I would like to say two or three words with regard to the
matters which are now under way, which, to a considerable extent, are in the hands of the
Government of the day, and in so doing I will preface my observations by making a direct
reference to the Minister of Agriculture, my friend, Mr. Tatlow. I do not think that my
statement is extravagant when I say that we have never had in British Columbia such an
active and earnest man at the head of affairs as Mr. Tatlow. (Applause.) I think, Mr.
Anderson and gentlemen, that the most critical of those who are engaged in the work of
promoting the agricultural interests of this Province would be quite ready and willing to admit
that my colleague, both in season and out of season, with the equipment at hand, has spared
no efforts to bring the industry which you represent up to the high position which it has
attained and which it should and must enjoy in this country of ours. Now, sir, with respect
to clearing the bush lands of the Province, which you have discussed here in days gone by, I
wish to tell you that my colleague, after the most exhaustive study, has reached the conclusion
that the best and fairest way in which we might reach this work would be by arranging for a
supply of cheap powder. I believe that he can give you figures which go to show that, up to
date, the work he has carried on under the arrangements he has made has been very satisfactory
indeed.    (Applause.)
Stumping, Machines.
In addition, the question of securing stumping machines and arranging for their use in
different parts of the Province has been carefully gone into, but has been found to be most
impracticable. Mr. Smith, for instance, has been for 15 years in this country and has cleared
about 50 acres with the labour of his own hands and at his own expense. It is hardly fair
that Mr. Brown, who owns the adjoining land, should have 50 acres cleared at the expense of
the people of British Columbia, as this would look pretty much like putting a premium on the
new-comer and fining the old-timer, and in all fairness, Mr. Tatlow has concluded to recommend to the Executive some means of supplying powder cheaply, in which manner no injustice
will be done and everybody will get fair play.    (Applause.)
Dyke Lands.
The story of dyking in British Columbia is not as attractive as one would like it to be;
but we all know perfectly well that, however legitimate were the aims and objects of those
who undertook the dyking of the lands on the Lower Fraser, the bill of expense to the people
of this Province has been enormous. Through the efforts of the late Commissioner of Lands
and Works, Mr. Green, we have been able to make some satisfactory disposition of this very
difficult subject. We now find that these dyked lands to-day are enjoying a season of settlement and development which promises to make, within the next few years, a large addition
to our population. We have been, however, taught by experience to move very slowly with
regard to the future, and to hesitate in taking up, as a Government at any rate, any further
dyking works in this country. If it can be demonstrated, as no doubt it will be, within the
next year or two, that these dyked lands will make a very rich agricultural zone, surely, as a
business enterprise, it will amply repay private capital to undertake works of this sort.
Dry Belt.
Now a word or two in regard to the dry belt. You will be glad to know that the Minister
of Agriculture and Mr. Fulton have looked very closely into some scheme whereby they may
be able to help the farmers in the dry7 belt. Here again we have a very difficult problem,
which we must approach with caution, and I am very glad to tell you that, so far, we have
reason to believe that the prospects for the future are very good, while, in addition, I feel quite
satisfied that we shall, within the next year or two, be able to introduce some method for
bringing about at a low cost the solution of the problem of bringing water upon the dry lands
of the Province.    (Applause.)
The subject is fraught with all manner of problems, and is one which, I assure you, we
approach with considerable hesitation.    In common with my colleagues, however, my heart is N 66 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
in the work, not only of affording much-needed assistance to those who live in the dry belt, to
reclaimed districts and to the sections of country which are covered with bush, but to the
whole subject of agriculture as far as this Province is concerned. I think that, with the
assistance which we have from time to time received from the officers of the department, as
well as through the Horticultural Board and this Board, what we have achieved has been very
worthy indeed of all those who have been engaged in this great work.    (Applause.)
I further believe that I can safely say to you to-day that agriculture has never before in
this Province had the promising outlook which it presents in the spring of 1908. (Applause.)
The fruit-growing industry seems to be in a most flourishing condition, with an abundance of
promise for the immediate future. Roots and cereals have every prospect, judging from the
market advices, of a very good season, and as far as the stock-raisers are concerned, no better
evidence than the horse show, which was the event of Vancouver City a few days ago, is needed
to show that more than ever a legitimate interest is taken by the farmers of British Columbia
in raising good stock. I am told that it is just as cheap, if not even cheaper, to feed a good
animal as it is to feed an indifferent one. If anyone wants to know what the farmers and
stock-raisers are doing, abundance of information is afforded by the splendid showing that was
made last week by Mr. Logan.
I would further like to say to Mr. Logan that the Government of the day has a very
large appreciation of his splendid exertions. He is the person who is mainly responsible for
the successful culmination of the horse show. We are quite sensible of his work as an official
of the Government to the Province. (Applause.) I desire to add that the Government deeply
appreciates the excellence of the services rendered and of the kind counsel given by Messrs.
Anderson, Palmer and Logan, as well as by all the officials who are connected with the agricultural branch of the administration.
I will close these brief observations with the hope that this annual meeting will be one of
the most successful in the history of the Institute.    (Cheers.)
Address by the Hon. R. G. Tatlow, Minister of Agriculture.
Mb. McBride, Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—I can assure you that it gives me
great pleasure to once more address this Convention of the farmers of British Columbia. These
conventions are extremely useful in many ways, both for an exchange of views and coming to
conclusions which will enable you to carry on a profitable and successful farming business.
(Applause.) I am glad to say that there has been a marked increase in the number of Farmers'
Institutes and in their membership throughout the Province. Last year the Institutes numbered 22, with a membership of 1,600, while this year they number 31, with a membership of
about 3,500, or more than double. (Applause.) These facts go far to show the great and
serious interest which is taken throughout the country in this most important department of
the Province's industries, namely, agriculture, and the future prospects are most encouraging.
Although last season was not as favourable as might be desired, owing partly, I am sure, to
the late spring, and though the importation of agricultural products exceeded those of the year
previous by $715,000, still, I think, when you take into account the large increase in the population, it is easy to account for the increase in the imports, and I am satisfied that when the
figures of last year's production are before you, they will be found to be not far, if at all, short
of the figures for the year previous. (Applause.) At the same time, I wish to point out that
thei'e is a large field for mixed farming in this country. Last year agricultural products to the
extent of some four millions, all of which could have been raised with facility in this country,
were imported. These imports included 2,221,000 doz. eggs ; poultry to the value of $115,000;
beef and mutton, $200,000; oats, $335,000; apples, $75,000; and hay, $148,000. Our products might also be better and more safely handled. Some improved method might, for
instance, be devised for handling eggs, either in connection with the institutes or the creameries.
I intended to take this matter up with Mr. Logan. Probably the creameries would afford
better facilities for this purpose, and during the next few months I shall try to ascertain
whether some such arrangement could not be reached.    (Applause.)
The Fruit Exhibits.
The results obtained at exhibitions in the Old Country during the past four years have
been most satisfactory and encouraging, showing that the fruit industry in British Columbia
had come to stay.    Not only had the climate and productions of British Columbia attracted 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 67
the most marked interest at home, but a market for the better grades of fruit had been found
in Australia and other portions of the globe. (Applause.) This being so, some closer form of
organisation should be introduced, and this, in my opinion, can be done through the Institutes.
(Applause.) When you have accomplished this and made this organisation representative of
the whole Province, I am sure that the Government will assist by every means in its power,
both financially and otherwise, to do the great work which lies before it.    (Applause.)
Gun Licences.
At the last meeting several matters were submitted to the consideration of the Government. The imposing of gun licences has been considered very seriously, but there has been so
much opposition to issuing them that, up to the present time, we have not deemed it advisable
to do so.
Stumping Powder.
The sale of powder for removing stumps has now been extended to municipalities, and
only the other day 100 cases were forwarded to one municipality at the reduced rate. We
have supplied cases to the number of 5,400, costing some $30,000, to the farmers during the
past year. I am glad to say that the bill for the past month shows an increase, proving that
advantage is being taken of the privilege of buying cheap powder.
Water Clauses.
I can inform you that the Water Clauses Act has recently been amended in reference to
water storage facilities and records. The Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works has at the
present time Mr. Carpenter's report under consideration, and the Government has strong hopes
that at the next Session they will be able to remedy7 several matters which were recommended
to us at your last meeting.    (Applause.)
Agricultural College.
The endowment of an Agricultural College will, I am sure, have to stand over until the
University question is settled. Legislation has been passed and power has been given for the
endowment of Universities in general, and, when this is completed, the Agricultural College
will follow, as a matter of course.
We have deferred the proposed amendment to the Veterinary Act, as the measure was
not very satisfactory, and the members of the profession have been asked to bring forward a
better one.
Bella Coola Trail.
We have been informed that the Bella Coola Trail is open to the lake, and the Chief
Commissioner of Lands and Works intends to push the matter forward during the coming
Railroad Guards.
All matters affecting the safety of people during construction and the safety of cattle will
have to be referred to the Dominion Railway Commission, as all the roads being built at the
present time are under Dominion jurisdiction. One or two of these cases have been dealt
with, but the others are unsettled.
Speakers at Institute Meetings.
We have endeavoured to get the best men possible to speak at the Institute meetings,
either from Canada or the adjoining States, but it is, as you know, a very difficult matter sometimes to obtain the services of good men; however, we have lost no opportunity of getting
these men when it was possible. I must, while I am speaking on this subject, call attention
to the good work that Dr. Tolmie and Mr. Logan have done in connection with this department
of the Farmers' Institute.
Experimental Station.
Nothing definite has as yet been accomplished in connection with the establishment of
another experimental farm by the Dominion Government, but this very important subject will
receive every possible attention. N 68 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
As regards the Fruit Marks Act, this Act has been taken up with the Dominion Government, and considerable correspondence has been going on ; however, there is a difference of
opinion at Ottawa concerning this matter and we have sent them all the letters, and we think
that it would be better if we had charge of the regulations of this Act.
There has been during the past year a tremendous demand for British Columbia literature
concerning immigration, and the demand appears to be on the increase, so much so that on
occasions the supply has run out. This, however, has not been in any way due to niggardliness, I can assure you, as we have not spared expense in this Department. The largest
possible stock was kept on hand, and at the same time arrangements have been made to
publish a great deal of the literature in England. (Applause.) The Province's bulletins are now
issued in London, England, and we are keeping our own printing presses and office pretty
well occupied in the same way.
Agricultural Statistics.
There is one question which I wish to touch on before terminating my address, and that
is the question of obtaining reliable information in regard to the area of land under cultivation
in the Province; the quantities and value of fruit, grain, root and other field crops; the
number, classification and value of live stock and poultry ; the output and value of dairy
butter, and of the miscellaneous products of the farm. The methods of collecting these
statistics heretofore in vogue were found to be cumbersome, calling for a great deal of work
on the part of the individual farmer, and tending too much towards unnecessary detail. It
is now proposed to simplify the system as much as possible, while securing reliable figures.
The importance of collecting every available item of information bearing upon the progress of
agriculture cannot be gainsaid, and I feel confident that you, gentlemen, representing the
farmers and fruit-growers, will lend the department your advice and co-operation in furnishing
the data necessary to a true understanding of what is being done from year to year in the
promotion of this great industry.
In the Province to the east of us the compilation of crop estimates and final results has
been reduced to a certainty; the contour of the country, the distribution of population, and
the universal sameness and limited number of products making almost absolute correctness
possible. The physical conditions in British Columbia, the diversity of products, sparsity of
population, and the lack of municipal machinery, render the task more difficult, but it is hoped
that, with your assistance, we may be able to establish a system which will provide full and
reliable returns. The provision of Sec. 22, 61 Vict., cap. 20, R. S., that, on request of the
Minister of Agriculture, it is the duty of the Secretary-Treasurer of a district to prepare a
report on agricultural conditions, nature and extent of crops, area under cultivation, number of
farmers, and other particulars, and transmit same to the Minister, for which $20 may be paid
by vote of the Legislature, has not been found satisfactory, and there is no means provided
for enforcing compliance.
It is suggested that Secretaries of Farmers' Institutes be made officials of the Department of Agriculture, they being in actual touch with the members, and possessing a knowledge of local conditions, and that they be assigned the work of collecting agricultural
statistics by means of schedules distributed to the members, who would be expected to fill in
and return these schedules to the Secretary. He would then digest the information so
obtained and forward the result to the Department. It is proposed to secure the assistance of
the Fruit Inspectors in a similar way. The Provincial Statistician, with this information
before him, would be in a position to answer the numerous inquiries of prospective settlers as
to the opportunities presented by, and the capabilities of each district of the Province.
This is, briefly, what we propose doing, the scheme may not be perfect, and it may take
time to get it in running order, but it will, I think, prove a step in advance of our present
methods. If you gentlemen can suggest anything which, in your opinion, would better serve
the end in view, you are cordially invited to express your ideas.
I urgently request you to impress upon the members of your respective Institutes the
importance to themselves and to the country at large of complete and accurate agricultural
I do not think, gentlemen, that there is anything more that I can say in regard to the
matters in which you are interested.    You will, no doubt, pass many resolutions, and I trust 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 69
that, when the proper time comes, some means will be found to carry as many as possible of
them into effect. If there is any assistance I can give you, it will give me great pleasure to
help you in any way I can.    (Applause.)
Mayor Hall was then introduced by the Chairman.    (Applause.)
Mayor Hall's Address.
Mr. Chairman, Mr. Tatlow, Gentlemen,—I am sure that it affords me the greatest
pleasure to welcome you to our city—a double pleasure, as certainly the agricultural population is one of the first to be considered either in city or country. The Farmers' Institutes
represent some of the most important interests in the Province ; in fact, we who have to dwell
in cities depend upon the farmers to a great extent for our existence. In the second place, I
am delighted to extend a welcome to you as I always have a great fellow feeling for farmers,
being a farmer's son myself. I do not intend to dip into the subject of farming, as it is more
than a quarter of a century since I left the farm, but I know the difficulties of a farmer's life
and the troubles with which he is often beset. I have watched with great pleasure the
expansion of the farming industry in this Province, and I am sure that nothing has helped it
more on its way than the establishment of the Farmers' Conventions. We depend on the
farmers and we feel that anything you do in the way of furthering the farming interests is as
important to us as it is to yourselves.
I am very sorry that the weather has not been better for your visit to Victoria, but Mr.
Logan seems to have had a monopoly of the fine weather at the horse show at Vancouver,
which I attended, so I suppose that we cannot expect it here. I sincerely hope that this visit
will be both pleasurable and profitable. I have often had occasion to attend Farmers' Institutes in various parts of the country, and I see among those present many faces I know well.
I will not take up any more of your valuable time; I know that you are here to do business and that you do not wish to waste a moment, so I leave you with the hope that the
affairs you are here to talk about will be satisfactorily settled.    (Applause.)
Mr. Corbett: In reference to the Institute speakers, I was wondering whether it would
be possible to have one of the speakers who is well posted on the subject of co-operation,
deliver an address to the Institutes of the Lower Mainland during the present year. The
business of co-operation is very imperfectly understood in that part of the country as yet, but
lately, in the District of Coquitlam, where I come from, in Warnock and other places, considerable interest has been evinced in this question. It is felt that some means should be
found to distribute and handle the agricultural produce of the Lower Mainland and to prevent
a glut in the market.
The Chairman : I think that it would be better to put this matter in the form of a
The Secretary : We intend bringing forward a resolution dealing with these matters.
The Chairman : Gentlemen, if it is your pleasure that I should read my address, I will
now proceed. I have usually made an extempore address, but this year, for reasons which
will transpire, I have had it written out. It is not very long, nor do I think that you will
find it very interesting.
Superintendent's Address.
Again I have to repeat my complaint regarding the carelessness or indifference of some
Secretaries in performing their duties. On proceeding to compile the report of last season's
work for presentation to this Convention, I found that in some instances imperfect returns
had been made, and in others absolutely7 no returns of any description during the whole of the
year. Such a state of affairs is intolerable, and whilst it may be said that the Superintendent
should have discovered the discrepancy sooner and reminded the delinquent Secretaries of their
faults, it must be remembered that his multifarious duties take up much of his time, and it is
impossible to keep the run of all details in connection with the work of the Institutes It
would be better, in the general interest, for those Secretaries who cannot or will not find time
to perform their duties properly to resign, and we would then know where we stand ; a halfhearted policy will only bring contempt on the Institute system, and if it is to be continued,
the efforts of the Government must be heartily seconded. N 70 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Although in the matter of the holding of supplementary meetings, as required by the Act,
and of which I freely descanted on previous occasions, a betterment is observable, there are
quite a number of the Institutes which apparently make no effort to hold meetings, relying
altogether on the Government to supply speakers. I need scarcely remind delegates that this
is not in conformity with the spirit or intention of the Act, and a disregard of its obligations
renders the Institute liable to be suspended. I leave it to you to bring these matters prominently before your Institutes, so that they may be in a position to proceed in the future according to the requirements, or take the chance of the cancellation of the Institute.
In the matter of providing the Superintendent with copies of addresses, of which I have
also spoken before, I am pleased to say that there has been an improvement. This improvement is altogether on the part of some Secretaries, however, others being quite indifferent.
The Act requires that the transcript of at least two addresses shall be sent to the Superintendent during the year; this requirement has been in the past more honoured in the breach
than in the observance, and I would now urge upon the delegates that they bring this question
prominently before their respective Institutes, with a view to its remedy. It is true that
stenographers are not always available, but it is an easy matter, comparatively, for a Secretary to take down the heads of an address and fill in the substance afterwards. Very often
speakers themselves will furnish copies if asked to do so.
As regards the hour set for meetings, I may be permitted to remind the delegates of the
grave discourtesy towards speakers, to say nothing of the waste of time entailed, by the want
of punctuality on the part of the audience. Also, regarding the proper notice and advertising
of meetings, it is most disheartening, on coming to a place at which a meeting has been called,
to be accosted perhaps by a prominent member of the Institute with the question as to what
you have come for. Individual notice forms are sent to Secretaries in any quantity, besides
large posters, the latter for placing on public buildings and places of resort, such as school-
houses, hotels, post offices, country stores, blacksmith's shops, etc., and it surely cannot entail
a great deal of work to fill in a dozen of such posters and have them placed. Nevertheless, it
frequently happens that no notice of any description is to be seen. I speak not only from a
personal knowledge of these facts, but from the reports sent in to me by the speakers.
Several complaints have been made that, during the last year, the distribution of literature has not been satisfactory. I may explain that, owing to the shortage of appropriations,
I was not in a position to acquire literature from outside sources, and since no report of this
Department has been authorised, none has been issued ; nevertheless, there were some good
bulletins issued, and new members were liberally supplied with such of the back numbers as
are available; altogether, the supply cannot be said, in my opinion, to be scanty, and I feel
assured that sufficient has been issued to afford much food for thought to those who are
disposed to master the contents. However, I believe I am safe in promising that, with the
increased appropriation this year, the Department will be in a position to obtain a supply of
new literature, which, with the bulletin on Farmers' Foes, about to be put in press, the
Report of the Meeting of the North-West Fruit-Grower's Association, which contains man}7
valuable papers, which it is proposed to distribute, and other bulletins on subjects of general
interest to farmers, which it is contemplated to get out during the present season, there will
be no further cause of complaint.
In addition to the live stock judging classes instituted last year, which have become so
popular with all classes, even with the women, and especially with the young people, demonstrations in the field, in orchard work, picking and packing of fruit, ploughing and other
matters of that kind are being urged upon the Institutes, and are being taken up with great
interest. These matters naturally require daylight meetings, and it is of the utmost importance that farmers should realise how much such subjects affect their interests, and get out of
the old rut into which so many of them have fallen, and make up their minds to spend a day or
two during the year in giving such meetings their countenance and support. Some districts, I
may mention, are awake to the fact that demonstrations and judging classes are of consequence, and afternoon meetings in these places are getting more and more frequent and more
and more in favour; other districts have so far failed to hold any daylight meetings, whilst
morning meetings are almost altogether unknown. This is not as it should be ; surely a day
given up when people are sent who can and do give some practical money-making ideas, is not
a day lost. As to evening meetings, let me again urge upon your attention the desirability of
introducing matters of a social character; the women have some interest in the welfare of the
farm, and, as a matter of fact, are much greater factors in the prosperity of a country than, I 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 71
fear, many people give them credit for. Some of the Institutes invariably have social gatherings at evening meetings, where, besides the hard facts presented by the speakers, there is a
little diversion in the shape of music, etc., with the consequence that the meetings are always
largely attended.
To illustrate evening addresses, a magic lantern has been put into use, and will in future
be made available to a much greater extent than has heretofore been possible, as familiarity
with the proper working of the lantern was necessary before it could be generally used. During
the spring meetings I hope that it will be available for many points on the Mainland. The
slides, of which there are now about 125, consist of representations of insects, injurious and
beneficial to animal and plant life; animals and their anatomy; diseases of plants ; views of
agricultural operations, scenery, etc. The lady lecturers, in the persons of Miss Laura Rose
and Miss Blanche Maddock, have given great satisfaction, and their addresses will, it is hoped,
bear fruit in the near future, by the formation of Women's Institutes, which have proved such
a success in Ontario. Requests for the services of these ladies have been received from every
part, and it is hoped that they will be available for the fall meetings. Whilst it has been the
steady aim to utilise local talent as far as possible—and by local I include those men well
versed in the cultivation and packing of fruit in the adjoining States—it is not always possible
to obtain the services of such persons, with the consequence that we often have to look abroad
for talent. As a rule, such persons are selected on account of their practical experience in
certain lines, such as dairying, the production of horses, cattle, sheep, swine and other branches ;
and in this connection I feel constrained to remind you that, in spite of the oft-repeated objection that persons not familiar with local conditions are not qualified to give instruction, there
are certain fundamental principles governing all agricultural operations, whether in the tilling
of the soil, the production of plants or animals, which are good all over the world, and it
stands to reason that those men who have made a life study of these subjects, both practical
and theoretical, are certainly in a position to afford some useful information which can be made
applicable to local conditions. During the summer months, when they are to a certain degree
free, the services of some of the Dominion officials in connection with the Experimental Farm,
such as Dr. Fletcher, the entomologist and botanist, and Prof. Shutt, the chemist, are sometimes available for supplementary meetings. Prof. Lake, of the Oregon Agricultural Experimental Station, and Prof. Thornber, of the Washington Experimental Station, who were asked
to come to the Province for the spring regular meetings which are about to take place, I regret
to say, could not at this time accede to the wishes of this Department, on account of their
professional duties, but they both say that later on, probably about July, they will possibly be
at liberty to accept engagements. It is the intention, when this is definitely ascertained, to
arrange for some special midsummer meetings, so as to give our people an opportunity of
benefiting by the experience of these experts; it is also hoped that about that time the services
of some of the Dominion officials will be available. It is, unfortunately, the case that the
services of expert fruit packers are most difficult to secure at a time of the year when they
are wanted for the purpose of giving demonstrations at the autumn regular meetings. The
reason is obvious, as at that season they have all the work they can get through at home.
Last season I used my utmost endeavours to secure a good man from the adjoining States, and,
after a number of failures, at length succeeded in getting a Mr. Cash for one or two meetings,
at which he gave good satisfaction. This is a matter to which it is the intention to give much
attention, and it is to be hoped that a good man will be available in the autumn.
An excellent plan, which obtains amongst some of the Institutes, is that of the President
and Secretary making reports at the annual meeting, reviewing the work of the previous year
and making suggestions as to future work. I cannot too highly commend this course to the
attention of delegates, and trust that they will not fail to impress it upon their Institutes.
I beg to submit a letter which I now ask permission to read, from Mr. Thos. A. Brydon,
one of our foremost speakers on the fruit question. I heartily endorse the suggestions made,
and trust that they will commend themselves to your favourable attention :—
"Dear Sir,—I take the liberty of bringing to your notice what seems to me a great
desideratum in the helping to develop the horticulture of this Province. Last summer, when
lecturing through the Okanagan and Spallumeheen Districts, and again later in the Islands,
Lower Mainland and the Kootenay country, in every district, as at every meeting, the great
felt want was some practical object as a pattern that the people could use and the lecturer
could explain and demonstrate on, so that the eye as well as the ear could take the lesson N 72 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
taught. In thinking over the matter and considering that many of the newer districts have
no help whatever in the form of an object lesson, two helps have suggested themselves to me.
I might say that, even in some of the more advanced districts, they are in great need of more
accurate information. But when one comes to such places as Nakusp and many7 others, where
new people are coming and purchasing land and making a beginning in fruit-growing, you
cannot fail to see what a handicap they are labouring under from the very start, and what disappointment and failure must assuredly come to some; I would not like to say how great that
some may be. Horticulture is entirely new to very many of the good people coming into this
Province. From your own experience, you know how difficult it is to make a lecture understood by people coming from other lands, who have never given tree culture the first thought,
as to what is necessary7 to insure success. Also, from very lack of knowledge, they are at the
mercy of tree agents and others, who are a real hindrance to the development and success of
horticulture in our Province. To my mind, the first and most essential help would be for the
Government to establish in as many districts as possible model orchards, say 10 to 20 acres, in
charge of the best men that can be secured, beginning and carrying through all the different
operations in the best and most scientific methods, so that they would become the pride and
the pattern of the district. First clear the land by approved and economic means ; then
underdrain with tile, if necessary. The foundation on which must rest the success of all the
branches of agriculture in most parts of our Province, thorough drainage. Cultivation in all
its phases ; selection and testing of varieties ; improvement of the soil by clover crops and
other means ; the best distance to plant trees ; training and development of the young trees
on approved methods ; spraying and thinning ; when and how to pick and store the fruit;
packing and preparing for the market. In fact, from beginning to ending, an object lesson
that would be worth much money and bring great credit to the Government in the successful
advancement of horticulture and save great loss and sore disappointment to many people. I
have not thought it necessary to go into figures as to the cost, as I am sure you have the
needed information at your command. But I would like to point out that an expenditure of
money along these lines would be a sure investment from which the Government would realise
a substantial return, as is evident from the way orchards in all stages of advancement in all
parts of the Province are now eagerly sought after and bought and sold at good prices.
"My second help takes the form of having some large-sized charts on cloth which the
lecturers could take on their itinerary, and which, I am sure, would be a great assistance to the
people in grasping the subject-matter of the lecture, because both eye and ear would be
brought into service, not to mention the aid afforded the speakers in the endeavour to impart
" Remaining faithfully yours,
" Thomas A. Brydon."
Again I regret to say that our friends of Bella Coola have not had the assistance in the
matter of speakers to which they are most undoubtedly entitled. It is true that, in granting
the petition to form an Institute in this district, it was stipulated that the Government would
not be called upon to send speakers, but that, when possible, it would be done. Now, with
the exception of a visit I myself made about three years ago, no outside assistance has been
given. This, of course, can be readily understood, on account of the isolated position of the
district, entailing the occupation of a great deal of time, so that it is all but impossible to get
people to give the necessary time. I have given my assurance that if it is impossible to get
anyone else to go, I will undertake it with the permission of the Minister, and trust that I
will be forgiven for imposing myself a second time upon the community. I take pleasure in
bearing witness to the energetic efforts of this vigorous Institute in keeping up an interest in
agricultural matters by means of meetings, addresses by local speakers, and by holding
exhibitions of agricultural products.
On account of the dilatoriness of some of the Secretaries mentioned in my opening
remarks, I regret to say that, even at this late date, I am not in possession of the needed
returns to make an accurate report for the past year. Approximately, the number of meetings
held was 230, as against 220 the year before, of which 4 were morning meetings, 79 afternoon,
and 147 evening. The attendance last year was 6,961, as against 7,431 in 1906, divided as
follows:—Islands, 2,045; North, 117; Lower Mainland, 2,322; Upper Mainland, 2,477.
There were 305 addresses made in 1907, against 333 the previous year ; the membership last
year was 2,969, as against 2,484 in 1906 ; the amount of funds on hand at the end of the year
was $1,581, against $1,690 the year previous.    These figures, whilst satisfactory on the whole, 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 73
are disappointing as regards attendance, which, in spite of the fact that the membership has
increased, shows a decrease.
Central Park again leads with a membership of 369 ; Spallumeheen follows, with 271 ;
Victoria with 214; West Kootenay with 197; Osoyoos with 155; Okanagan, 146; Delta,
139; Nanaimo-Cedar, 137; Cowichan, 128; Salmon Arm, 124. These are all that have
touched the century mark. As regards the lowest membership, Chilliwack occupies the
unenviable position, with a membership of only 26. That this showing is made by probably
the most populous and prosperous district on the Lower Fraser shows a very7 indifferent
management. I took occasion to speak of this at a meeting last year in that district and had
hoped it would have been productive of a change for the better.
The number of organised Institutes for the year was 28, an increase of one, divided as
follows :—Islands, 7 ; North, 1 ; Lower Mainland, 11 ; Upper Mainland, 9. Since that time
three more Institutes have been organised, making at the present time 31.
The membership was divided as follows :—Islands, 745 ; North, 58 : Lower Mainland,
1,048 ; Upper Mainland, 1,119 ; showing a decrease of 58 in the Islands, an increase of 234
on the Lower Mainland, an increase of 312 on the Upper Mainland, and a decrease of 2 in
the North.
The average membership is as follows :—Islands, nearly 107 ; Lower Mainland, 95 and a
fraction ; Upper Mainland, nearly 125.
As I mentioned in opening, I have deemed it expedient on the present occasion to depart
from my usual custom of giving an extempore address, in order that copies may be available
for the use of delegates on reporting to their Institutes. I have, therefore, had copies typewritten, which will be distributed amongst you for that purpose; and let me hope that the
suggestions made for the guidance of officers, especially Secretaries, will be strongly impressed
upon their attention. Let me again remind you that upon the Secretary devolves the principal
work, and if he is neglectful or dilatory, so sure will the Institute languish, and in the end
become practically moribund. The Government is willing to go to great lengths in affording
aid to the tillers of the soil in the matter of practical and theoretical teaching, and it remains
with you, gentlemen, to give encouragement in a practical manner to the movement.
The "Oregon Agriculturist" of the 1st December, 1907, commenting on Farmers' Institutes, says :—
" A community in which a Farmers' Institute could not be held, because the farmers in
the month of November were too busy to attend in the day-time and were going to have a
dance in the evening, needs stirring up by some one who is willing to make harsher and more
cutting criticisms than those which were attributed a few weeks ago to Commissioner James
H. Reid. The farmer who has no time to attend Farmers' Institutes and no time to read
agricultural papers is certainly deserving of pity, not because he is obliged to labour so
incessantly, but because he is in a mental condition which blocks for him the wheels of
In conclusion, let me express the hope that your deliberations will result in practical
advantage to the interests you represent, the most important, I may say, without any fear of
contradiction, in this or any other country.    (Applause.)
Mr. Curry : I move that the report of the Superintendent be debated upon.
The Chairman: It is usual to appoint a committee to report on the address of the
Messrs. Curry, McDiarmid and Collins were appointed on the committee.
The Chairman : I suppose, gentlemen, that it would be better to take an adjournment, in
order to allow the committee on resolutions to get them prepared.
Mr. McCallum : I move that we adjourn until 2 o'clock.
Mr. Curry: I would just like to say that this is the most busy time of year for the
farmers. I am sure that everybody will agree with me on that point. For my part, I would
like to see the work finished to-day, and I think that it would be much better not to adjourn
for three hours.
The Secretary : I do not agree with you, gentlemen, at all. We have most of us come
from a long distance to be present at this meeting, and I think that it would be a great
mistake to hurry the work one day ; we should not be doing justice to our Institutes. In fact, it is impossible ; we cannot get through the business in time. We must have
two hours to arrange the resolution and we must have something to eat. N 74 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Mr. Dilworth : I second this resolution and would like to get through in a day. There
is no very particular work before us. I think that we ought to get after the long speeches;
they take up far too much time. I am also anxious to get away. At the same time, I do not
see how we can possibly get through in one day, and it is not just to rush things after coming
all this distance.    It is better to take two, or even three, days and to do the work properly.
Mr. Johnstone : I support Mr. Curry ; I want to get home; and I think that two hours
and a half to prepare the resolutions is far too long.
Mr. Cockle : Gentlemen, may I offer a suggestion. Adjourn for ten minutes ; during that
time prepare a resolution ; then bring it in and -we can discuss it. This will keep us busy
until 12 o'clock.
Mr. Curry : A great many of our resolutions are to be brought before the Legislature, and
I cannot see the sense of having this meeting after the House has risen. It would be better
to have the meeting before the meeting of the Legislature, so that our resolutions can at once
be brought before the House, and we can see the members and interview them.
Mr. Mackenzie : I agree fully with the last speaker. This meeting ought to have been
called weeks ago.
The Chairman : I wish to remind you that if any have standard certificates from the
Canadian Pacific Railway Co., the certificates should be handed in to me for signature.
Mr. Johnstone :    Is there some plan adopted for timing the length of the speeches ?
The Chairman : It has been the customary7 plan to allow the delegates five minutes to
speak on a resolution.
Moved by Mr. Dilworth, seconded by Mr. Bailey7,—
" That five minutes be given to each speaker on any question, and that the mover be
given an opportunity to reply."
The Committee on Resolutions here handed in a report.
Standard Apple Box.
Moved by Mr. Johnstone, seconded by Mr: Farquharson,—
" Resolved, That the Central Farmers' Institute recommend the adoption of a new
standard apple box of the same cubic content as the 10 x 11 x 20 inches, now in use, but of
different dimensions, in order that all commercial apples may be packed and graded in a more
uniform manner."
Mr. Johnstone : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I shall not require five minutes to secure
the support of the delegates to this resolution. It is impossible to secure certain results from
one pick of apples. At the time that the present box was authorised by the Dominion Government, apples were not of the same excellence as they7 are now and there were fewer varieties.
I do not say that the Americans have the highest standard in these matters, but I wish to
quote in this connection two apple-growing districts in the States., viz., The Hood River
District and the Rogue River District. In the Hood River District they have two boxes,
one 10J x llf x 18 inches, the other 10 x 11 x 20 inches. The box we have here does not
admit of apples being advantageously packed, but these two apple boxes will allow for a packer
to pack good apples in good form. After the Hood River District, the Rogue River, the
next best apple-growing district, tried a 10x11x20 inches box last year; they gave it
up and followed the Hood River standard. Now, I ask you to support this resolution. We
must have two boxes; it is impossible to pack commercial apples in the same sized boxes and
obtain good results.    All apples are not the same size, as you know, and do not pack alike.
Mr. Farquharson : Mr. Chairman and gentleman, I have much pleasure in seconding Mr.
Johnstone's motion. I fully endorse all that he says and think that all must agree with him.
Personally, I have not much experience in packing apples, but all that Mr. Johnstone says
sounds correct.
Mr. McDiarmid : Is this the same size as the American box 1
Mr. Johnstone : No; this box has recently been figured out by Mr. Brock, who finds, by
figuring the thing out carefully, that boxes of this size will pack apples in better form and
in a much more satisfactory way.
Mr. Cunningham : Is it your intention to do away with the old apple box 1
Mr. Johnstone : No, certainly not, but to have two. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 75
Lectures on Irrigation.
Moved by Mr. Curry, seconded by Mr. Graham,—
" That it is in the interests of agriculture in the interior that speakers shall be able to
give lectures on irrigation and the best modes of dry farming."
Mr. Curry : I have only just read over this resolution ; I did not expect it to come up
so soon. However, I will do the best I can, so as to get along. There has been a great lack
of interest in the Institutes from the lack of speakers of the right sort. Speakers have been
brought in from the East, but the conditions thers are different and the great mass of the
country is interested in irrigation. It is the great question of the Upper Country, and many
are deficient in knowledge of this question. We want a man who can discuss the best methods
of conserving the moisture in the land and the best methods of irrigation, and how to irrigate
with the least waste of water. If a man does not know how to regulate the water he will use
too much and spoil his crop. We want speakers who will instruct us on these matters, and
men who know what they are talking about.    No others are of any use.
Mr. Graham : I will not say much in regard to this matter; still, in view of the steps
taken by the Government in this matter of irrigation in the Dry Belt, I think that it would be
better to have speakers who understand the question and know what the Government is about
to do. We want speakers who understand the question and can speak with authority on it.
The people in the Upper Country know this and it is of no use to send any others.
Mr. Cunningham : I fully agree with the last two speakers. The speakers at the Institutes in the Upper Country should know the conditions, in order to give an intelligent address.
The conditions in the Upper Country are totally different to those in the Lower Country, and
a lecturer cannot give an intelligent address if he does not understand these local conditions,
nor can he get very good results.
Mr. Dilworth : I might just say that it would be very seasonable for speakers to go into
the Dry Belt and study the local conditions themselves. Water is often used very badly by
ignorant people. It is not enough to turn the water on to the land, you must know how to
use it. The men who lecture ought to have a knowledge of the conditions and be able to
teach the farmer what water should be used on the different soils and on the different crops.
It is one thing to tell a man that he should water, it is another to tell him when and how he
should use it.
Mr. Woodward : In regard to the water question, we would like to have speakers who
know their business. One crop takes more water than another; a man should know how
much water it takes to different crops. He should know what crops should be planted on
different soils. If the water is run between the crops at the wrong time it is ruined. We
ought to have speakers who can instruct on these points; no others are of any use.
The Chairman : I fully recognise the force of the arguments and I quite agree with the
resolution. I wish to say this : I have been trying to obtain a competent person to speak on
the question, but it is very difficult to obtain reliable men. It is a very difficult matter to
get speakers, although it may sound very simple, especially on irrigation matters. Of course,
there are men who understand these matters thoroughly, and there are some men who pretend
to tell you all about it, and in the end more harm than good results. I assure you that I shall
use my best endeavours to get good speakers, but, I repeat, it is a most difficult matter, as
such people are few and far between and are generally fully employed.
Mr. Curry : At the present moment the Government is formulating an irrigation measure,
and I have the assurance of the Ministers that we shall have legislation on this matter. Most
people do not understand the common methods of irrigation, and when the Government passes
measures on this subject they condemn them, because they do not understand them. We
must educate the people to know about these matters, so that when the Act comes up they
will understand it. I quite believe that there are many men who could give us information.
Take, for instance, Mr. Ascroft, of Vernon ; he could give the finest amount of information
as to the building of dams and the distributing of water over the country. Besides that,
arrangements could be made with local individuals, who could give their experiences of the
districts they come from. I know that no man is a prophet in his own country, but I think
that there are many local men who could give a fund of information, especially to the newcomers. N 76 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
The Chairman : This is most necessary and very desirable, and I quite agree that there
are many local men who could give most valuable information ; you could have them speak
at your meetings without specially invoking the aid of the Government.
Motion carried.
Mr. Garrett: Are visitors allowed at this meeting 1
Mr. Curry : I see no objection, provided they do not interfere.
Mr. Dilworth : I move that we adjourn until 2 o'clock.
Mr. Curry : I second that motion :
Motion carried.    The meeting then adjourned until 2 o'clock.
Afternoon Session.
The Convention re-assembled at 2 p. m.
Mr. Hubbs, representative of the Mutual Fire Insurance Co., read the following paper to
the Convention, setting forth the advantages of his company :—
" Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—For your invitation extended to me, as representative of the Mutual Fire Insurance Company of British Columbia, to occupy a few minutes
of your time, I thank you.
" The Central Farmers' Institute of British Columbia does things that count, and one of
the counters is—the Mutual Fire Insurance Company of British Columbia; a company born
of this Institute and matured by its members; a company that has grown to dimensions most
pleasing to all interested and that must be flattering to the gentlemen who studied it in the
"With the closing of 1907 the members in good standing of this company had reached
1,147, and carried an insurance of $1,562,075.30, thus showing a gain for the past year of 246
members and $297,868.30 of business. The present business gives an average policy of $1,361.87,
which adds $66.87 to the average policy at 31st December, 1906. This business is backed up
by securities in premium notes to the value of $37,588.26, making a gain of $7,898.43 in
securities during the past year.
" British Columbia being the rich Province that it is, and farm property mortgages based
upon application reports of representatives of our company being seldom, and while the
Government with pleasure accepts the securities of the Mutual Fire Insurance Company of
British Columbia as solid protection for its patrons, and while the old line companies are often
jealous of the solid and perfect mechanism of our company, and while now the company is in
its sixth year and not yet has it been found necessary to make a single assessment, and while
the company is healthy and vigorous and not obligated with one dollar of loan or account of
any kind, there is but one right conclusion, and that is, that this company may well congratulate
itself for its already enviable reputation as a business organisation for the express benefit of
rural property holders, which organisation has already saved them thousands of dollars and
the necessary premiums have remained within the confines of the Province.
"As a company, we are now 1,147 strong, and each member is benefited to the extent of
the difference between four dollars per thousand payable per year and the sum of from twenty
to thirty dollars payable to an old line company on the day the policy is issued, but no reflection
to an old line company is intended by this remark, for capitalists who back up these companies
must have compensation for moneys advanced for securities and good salaries for their officials ;
yet if the farmer of British Columbia, in an already firmly established mutual company of
over a million and a half of business, can give his own security, which does not necessitate one
dollar of interest, then the time must come when British Columbia and the Mutual Fire
Insurance Company of British Columbia, when it comes to fire insurance, are bound to be
"The business written during 1907 amounted to $785,782.29, making an average policy
for the past year of $1,376.15. In fire claims the company paid in the last year $2,674.23.
The fact of all the company's risk being isolated keeps the losses at a minimum, and that
invites us to make another comparison between the old line companies and the Mutual.
Because of our risks being strictly rural, we are at no time heavily obligated, while the city
fires being often so extensive, old line companies are frequently heavily obligated, and because 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 77
of the likelihood of heavy lossses in the city, old line companies must necessarily demand heavy
premiums to be prepared for them, and to swell these premiums they gladly insure the farmer's
property; thus the farmer is elected to carry a double load.
" An approximate calculation, reckoning from the amount of business in force at 31st
December, 1907, after making an allowance for a lesser rate in Board Companies of $10 off
$30 on dwelling-houses and allowing our house and barn risk equal, would show a saving of
$20,306.97 in the last three years to the policy holders of this company ; and on the same basis
of reckoning the year of 1907 alone saved for the members of this company $10,215.14, and
the interest at 6 % per annum on the same for three years, which amounts to $1,951.09, which
interest money is kept in the pockets of the policy holders of the Mutual along with the
$10,215.14, making altogether a saving of $12,166.23 during the year 1907.
" Gentlemen, you have met at the capital of the Province and are assembled in these
Parliament Buildings for the express mission of benefiting yourself and your fellow-workers
throughout this Province, and when you return to your different homes your neighbours will
question you as to your work here. They will read your reports carefully, that your work as
their agents may he beneficial to them.    The saving of dollars is the making of dollars.
" In fire insurance it is a boon to the country to have it at cost. The Farmers' Mutual
gives it. May I ask you to present it plainly, fairly and squarely, and at the next Convention
of the Central Farmers' Institute, if this company is permitted to present its report, I am confident that that report will tell you of strides greater than ever.
" Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, let me thank you for your courtesy.
"C. S. Hubbs."
Mr. Graham : This seems a very creditable showing, and I think that the idea is a very
good one.
Mr. Hubbs was thanked for his communication.
The Chairman : Before we go any further I wish to say that a bulletin has been prepared
by Prof. Shutt, chemist of the Central Experimental Farm, on alkali soils, and anyone can have
one on application to Dr. William Saunders, the Director. This bulletin will not interest anybody but the people of the Upper Country.
The Committee on Resolutions then brought in a further report.
Experimental Farms.
Moved by Mr. Johnstone, seconded by Mr. Collins—
" Resolved, That the Central Farmers' Institute urge the establishment by the Government of Experimental Farms at stations in the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts."
Mr. Johnstone : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, this subject has been brought up for your
consideration before, but there has been nothing done so far. Certain movements have been
made, as Captain Tatlow said, but so far nothing definite has been done. The only way to
get what we want is to keep on at it. The reason that Kootenay and Okanagan are mentioned
in the report is that they are in the Dry Belt. We live in the Dry Belt, and the Experimental Farms established in other parts of the country are of no use to us. The conditions
are so totally different that, for any use they are to us, they might as well be in China. Now,
if an Experimental Station was established in the dry country, and the way to use and save
the water was practically demonstrated, it would be of enormous benefit.
Mr. Curry : I should like to speak on this subject for a few7 minutes. I also live in the
Dry Belt and, I think, not in the most insignificant part, and I have been fighting for an
Experimental Farm on the Thompson River for years. I have interviewed everybody, every
one of the Ministers who could assist in passing this measure, and it would be a great injustice
to my district if they did not include the Thompson Valley in the scheme. You in the
Okanagan District have the benefit of Lord Aberdeen's farm, where all the newest methods of
farming are carried out; the Thompson Valley has nothing of this sort, and it is dryer than
any other part of the country.
Mr. Johnstone : I suppose that it would be possible to include the Thompson Valley 1
The Chairman : Gentlemen, I think that it is very injudicious to mention certain localities
in connection with this enterprise.
Mr. Dilworth : I think that it is very natural to mention Okanagan as a district in which
to have an Experimental Farm. It is one of the best fruit-growing districts ; everybody will
agree on this point.    I do not wish to cast any slur on Kamloops, but we have fought this question before. As far as Lord Aberdeen's farm is concerned, it is of no use whatever to us;
we want a farm to report on the Dry Belt, and I think that the Okanagan is the proper place
for such a farm.
Mr. Jones : I think it would be a good thing to have a farm on Vancouver Island.
Mr. Graham : I wish to say that the land at the Experimental Farm on the Lower Fraser
is some of the best in the country, and there is no need for irrigation, so the conditions do not
apply at all to the Upper Country.
Mr. McCallum : I wish to bring forward a resolution which will come nearer to the mark
than that. There should be a model farm in every district, instead of the Experimental Farm.
We have in every district men who are practical farmers, and by giving them a premium and
assisting them in the way of good seed, etc., there could be a good farmer's farm in every
district, which would be of infinitely more benefit than even the Experimental Farm. I move
that this resolution be laid over.
Mr. Bailey : In regard to this question of Experimental Stations, if we wish the Dominion
Government to establish stations we must leave the matter to them. If we wish one in the
Dry Belt, say so ; if we want one on Vancouver Island, say so. There are so many different
conditions that, as far as the Upper Country people are concerned, the farms in the Lower
Country might as well be in China. I think that if this motion was altered, and if the
Institute urged upon the Dominion Government at Ottawa the establishment of two stations
in the Dry Belt, they to use their discretion as to the site, then you can do your wire-pulling
Mr. Garrett: Let the gentlemen find out what they want; let them decide. If they
wish to place more than one application for Experimental Farms in the Dry Belt, let them
find out what they really do want, and then let the Government decide.
Mr. Johnstone: I will be very pleased to make that read : " Experimental Farms in the
Dry Belt or where considered necessary." I do not think that there is any use my taking up
more time in discussing this subject. In the Kootenays we are experimenting on our own
behalf. I do not think that in our part of the world, however, that we are anxious for any
more inspection of our orchards. Last year the Inspectors visited my orchard and ate up all
my fruit.
The Chairman : I shall read the resolution over again, with the amendment:
"Resolved, That the Central Farmers'Institute urge the establishment by the Government of Experimental Farms at stations in the Dry and Semi-Dry Belt, where considered
necessary."    Carried.
Pulp Leases.
Moved by Mr. Saugstad, seconded by Mr. McCallum—
" That it being a great retardment to the development of the valley, we urgently request
the Government to give no more extension of time to the Bella Coola Development Co. on
their pulp leases, and more particularly that part which lies in the Bella Coola Valley7, as the
holding of the said leases by the said company has proved a bar to the pre-emption of the
land for agricultural purposes."
Mr. Saugstad : I will not take up much of your time ; I only wish to speak for a few
minutes. The Bella Coola Development Co. some five or six years ago, got this concession
from the Government, with the understanding that they should put in a pulp mill. They
have done nothing at all so far, and have been getting extensions, holding out for a great
price. They are holding the land as timber leases, and no one who wishes to take up agri
cultural land can take it up unless they get a permit from the company. Several parties have
been waiting to take up these lands, but have been debarred from doing so by the action of
the company. Their option is up in May, and I hope that the Government will not give them
any extension. I might mention particularly Sections 8, 9 and 10, which are all held by this
company and which are very well suited for agriculture.
Mr. McCallum : In seconding this motion, I am in entire sympathy with its mover.
Salmon Arm is in the same case. The timber has been gone for years, but the land is still
held. I hope that the Provincial Government will not follow in the steps of the Dominion
Government in this matter. There is no need of any further argument in this matter;
it is a great detriment to the settlers to have these lands tied up in this way. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 79
Mr. Bailey : In regard to this resolution, he mentions that there are some sections which
are good for agricultural purposes. He should mention these sections, so as not to embarrass
the company.
Mr. Saugstad : The reason I mentioned these sections is that they are surveyed in this
part of the valley ; other parts are quite as good, no doubt, for agricultural purposes, but they
are not surveyed, and there is no pulp lease there.
Mr. Graham : I think that it would be better to put this matter before the Government,
because some of the leases do good to the country, whereas some do not.
Mr. Jones : I endorse the remarks made by the member from Bella Ooola. I think that
this resolution should go out of this room endorsed by everybody, to cancel these leases. The
company has done no good to the country. They have the leases for speculation and farmers
do not want that sort of thing.
Mr. Curry : I am not conversant with the affairs of Bella Coola, but I am in symipathy
with them. It is hard to have land tied up in this manner. But I am certain that everyone
has the affairs of the country at heart, and I do not think it wise to tell the Government to
cancel these leases on the report of the delegate from Bella Coola. I think that his report is
true, but it would be better for the Government to look into the matter and take proper steps
to have the leases cancelled, if it is desirable. I am morally certain that the Government will
do what is right in this matter.
Mr. Dilworth : We are in sympathy with the gentleman from Kamloops, but I think that
it would be well to remodel that resolution, in order that it may suit all parties concerned.
It is very hard for the Government to say that the leases must be cancelled, after having
granted them.
Mr. Saugstad : I know that the Government understands the conditions in Bella Coola,
and we do not want the Government to extend the leases, but I am willing to have an amendment made to the resolution.
Mr. Cockle : I think that it would be better to withdraw that resolution and bring forward
Motion withdrawn.
Moved by Mr. Saugstad, seconded by Mr. Cockle,—
" It being understood, from representations made by the delegate from Bella Coola, that
much of the land embraced within the lease of the Bella Coola Development Co. is agricultural
land and is not of value for pulp lands, and is a detriment to the settlement of the district;
therefore, this Convention would urge on the Government the desirability of an investigation
before any further extension on the said leases be granted."
Fruit Makks Act.
Moved by Mr. Johnstone, seconded by Mr. Curry,—
" That the Government should take steps to co-operate with the Dominion Government in
the enforcement of the Fruit Marks Act by the same Inspectors whose duty it is to inspect
fruit and orchards."
Mr. Johnstone : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, it is not necessary to take up much of
your time on this subject. In our section of the country there are apple boxes put on the
market without names on them. The Inspector whose duty it is to inspect these boxes does
not know where they come from and has no means of finding out; and in this way, if the
apples in the boxes are not up to the mark, he has no remedy. The boxes ought all to be
marked and there ought to be someone to see that this is done. It would be an easy matter,
it seems to me, for the Inspector of orchards and fruit to see that the marks on the fruit boxes
are in order. One man could easily do both things. I know there is a good deal of politics
mixed up in this matter, but I am not a politician, I am a fruit-grower, and I want to see
better fruit grown in the country, and there is no reason why one capable man should not do
the whole thing.
Mr. Curry: What Mr. Johnstone says is perfectly true. A great many men ship fruit
to different markets. There is no Government Inspector to see that the boxes are marked
properly, and often infected fruit is passed out of the country. It would be better if the
Dominion Inspectors combined these two offices. N 80 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Mr. Cockle : Might I ask whether it would be better to have Provincial as well as
Dominion Inspectors ?
Mr. Johnstone : I do not know anything about that; I only know that I should like to
see the inferior fruit on the market done away with.
The Chairman : Several years ago this question was taken up by a member of the House,
and it was pointed out that such a course as you describe would produce confusion in people's
minds. As a matter of fact, confusion has already arisen in some people's minds, as you may
see from a publication in a paper published here, " The Week," which states that there are
three Inspectors—the Provincial Inspector for fruit pests, the Dominion Inspector for packing
fruit, and the City Inspector for inspecting the fruit in order to see if it is healthy. Of course,
this is nonsense. This question was brought up at the last meeting and a letter was directed
to the Dominion Minister of Agriculture, calling attention to this confusion and recommending
that the Provincial Inspectors be empowered to carry out the provisions of the Fruit Marks
Act; but the Dominion Government will not consent to this.
Appointment of Fruit Inspectors.
Moved by Mr. McCallum, seconded by D. Graham,—
"That Orchard and Fruit Inspectors be appointed in each Institute."
Mr. McCallum : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I think that this is an excellent idea. I
think that the Government can afford to pay for this. They have to pay a man to do this in
any case, and by doing this we would have a man on the spot at any time, thus saving expense.
In many cases a pest gets into an orchard and the damage is done before we can get an
Inspector. The expense of having one would be very light; there are local men who would
do it. The Government had better pay a man on the spot than pay a man and pay his
travelling expenses too. He is there on the ground ; he knows what is to be looked for in
that certain part of the country. Different parts of British Columbia have different pests
which require different remedies, and I think that really it would save the Government money
in the end if they would appoint local Inspectors.
Mr. Graham : I have not much to say on the matter, hut I think that every one must
endorse this.
Mr. Cunningham : I am thoroughly in accord with this resolution. I think that a local
Inspector would be better in most cases ; he does his work better. I have been in many districts and the feeling is generally for a local man.
Mr. Dilworth : The only objection I see to this is, that when you get local people they
do not always like to interfere with their neighbours. This holds good for every such appointment. Neighbours do not like to say what they think for fear of offending each other. It
seems to me that it is better to leave things as they are.
Mr. Heatherbell: I agree partly with both parties. It would be a good thing to have a
local Inspector; at the same time, one does not want to have quarrels with neighbours.
Mr. Cockle : It is very hard to get a local man to take up this kind of work. Of course,
a local man can do things more easily, as he is on the spot. At the same time, it seems to me
that an outsider can say more without fear of offending.
Mr. Corbett: I wish to say that in my district a great many orchards were planted years
ago, and through bad times have been neglected and given no care. Thus, practically all the
old orchards in the country I come from are full of pests. These pests spread to the new
orchards. In my district 300 acres of land has just been cut up into five-acre lots. All this
land is only fitted for the growing of fruit. In view of the state of the old orchards, this
resolution raises a serious point, as the new orchards have to be planted in the vicinity of the
old ones and soon become just as bad. I think that the present staff of Inspectors is very
inadequate, and is not capable of looking after the orchards as they should be looked after.
Mr. Bailey: This subject interests me very much. I am in favour of a local man, who
can approach his neighbour in a friendly way. The outside man is too often looked upon as
an interferer. If a local man approaches his neighbour in the right sort of way, they can look
the trees over, discuss them, and he will take the local man's advice. The outside man has to
do his work quickly; he is in a hurry and cannot take time to do it properly. I may say that
we like to have inspection in our district, but nobody ever comes to inspect. We have the
Experimental Farm, but still we need somebody to come and tell us what to do and give us
instruction in this way. 8 Ed. 7 ■ Farmers' Institutes Report. N 81
Mr. Way : I feel that our district is similar to two or three other districts in this way.
Some of the orchards were planted forty years ago, and the parties owning them have never
sprayed until last year, and yet they look upon the Inspector as their enemy, and even now
they will not do what they ought to ; he had to threaten that he would cut down their
orchards before they would do anything. Perhaps a local man might approach them more
kindly, but, for my part, I think that an outsider is better.
Mr. Johnstone : I do not agree with Mr. Bailey ; I think that, as Mr. Dilworth says,
inspection by neighbours would cause quarrels. If you appointed a young man as an
Inspector, the old men of the district whose orchards he inspected would say that they grew
apples before he was born and ought to know more about them than he does. I think that
the Government man is the best; he is backed up by the authority of the Government; and
an outside man is best, because I have never met such peaceable people in my experience that
they would take a neighbour's criticisms kindly.
Mr. Bailey : In regard to this question of spraying and inspection, we have a local man
in our part, and we have trees that are covered with pests. Mr. McCallum says that he is
going to make the Act count. I tell you that the Act is all right, but you must see that
every man does his own work. As far as the Inspector is concerned, it does not matter who
he is if he is a good man. If he does his duty he sees that the trees are kept clean ; whether
he is a local man or an outsider, he should see that every man's trees are clean. Newcomers
are in special need of an Inspector. Some of them do not know green fly from red spider, or
one kind of blight from the other. We should have capable men—men who understand their
business. The farmer knows whether the Inspector knows anything or not : it is no use
having people who do not understand the business.
The Chairman : This resolution calls for the appointment of Inspectors in every Institute
District; this means some thirty odd people. You have to find thirty capable men for this
work, and we cannot put our finger on six good men. I assure you that we have had great
difficulty this year and last year in getting any sort of a man to do this kind of work. However, the Government has stated that if the instructions of the Inspectors as to spraying are
not carried out this year the delinquents will be punished. Victoria and Sooke have the
worst infected orchards in the country; if they7 are not sprayed and cleaned they must be cut
down. In time we shall have these things under control, but it is impossible to do everything
at once, and it is out of the question to obtain such a number of competent Inspectors.
Mr. McCallum : I think—in fact, I may say that I know—that in every district there
are men capable of the work, and I cannot see that there is any difficulty in appointing men
who are on the spot. There are many capable men who would be willing to act if the Government would offer them a proper inducement.
The Chairman : I do not object to the resolution, but I do not think that it can be carried
into effect, and it is a pity to pass resolutions of this description.
Spraying Materials.
Moved by A. K. Farquharson, seconded by J. T. Collins,—
" Resolved, That preparations manufactured and sold as sprays should be up to the
standard of the formula intended, and that to this end an Inspector or Inspectors be appointed
by the Government to see that same comply with such standard."
Mr. Farquharson : Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, I have heard the motion and I understand what it means. Where I come from we are not in a position to start a plant of our
own. We buy the preparation, and we want to know if the formula is up to the standard.
A man up our way bought Pendray's spray and mixed it according to directions, but the more
he mixed the heavier it got, and he could do nothing with it. He thought his pump perhaps
was wrong and bought a new one, but he broke this new pump over it; it all settled in the
bottom of the barrel. Now, what we want is for someone to tell us whether this spray mixture is of the right sort and whether it is our fault in mixing it. It seems to me that there
should be someone to show us how to use it.
The Chairman : I suppose that you mean that you want an analysis of the spray. The
Inspector leaves a notice and you have the formula. The spray consists of lime, salt and
sulphur, but you cannot expect the Inspector to be there to see it used.
Mr. Collins: I do not look upon the matter in this light at all. The Inspector leaves
the notice, to spray with lime, salt and sulphur.    He comes again;  how does he know that N 82 Farmers' Institutes Report. - 1908-
the trees are sprayed with lime, salt and sulphur ? I know in my district some trees are only
whitewashed, some only sprayed with sulphur. There should be someone there to see that
the mixture is up to the standard,
Mr. Johnstone : I wish to speak on this motion. If y7ou want to be thoroughly dirty and
uncomfortable and have the skin taken off your hands and face, you have only to use some of
this spray. When I left Kootenay, three men were in bed from using Pend ray's spray. One
of them had blood poisoning and another was nearly as bad, but just escaped it.
Mr. Heatherbell: This is an important and far-reaching question. I think that a great
many people are ignorant as to the amount of spray to be used and how to use it. The
Government ought to test the spray and see that it is good for the purposes required. I have
used Pendray's spray and it is all right, as far as it goes, but it does not go far enough.
There are a great variety of sprays, some of which are good and some bad, and one wants to
be informed on this subject.
Mr. Bailey : In regard to the spray question, there is no doubt that the greatest trouble
arises from the spraying being done by ignorant men. I used Pendray's spray last year and
the Rex spray this year. The Rex spray can be used by even inexperienced persons, but
Pendray's spray is difficult to use ; it gets haid if not properly mixed; if it is left standing
without moving the pump for any length of time, it gets hard and settles at the bottom of the
barrel. With the Rex spray, by turning the nozzle into the barrel, the force-pump and the
agitator will keep the spray all right. Pendray's spray has to be hot; it has to be put on to
the trees as soon as possible, or else it settles.
Mr. Johnstone : I want to know how you start Pendray's spray; I tried to use it, but it
got too hard.
Mr. Bailey : I might say that on my farm I have crowbars and picks, and I pick it out
and put it into hot water.
Mr. Collins : Would it not be better to make your own preparation 1
Mr. Bailey : Yes, if you have proper conditions and can get a proper place to do it.
Mr. Heatherbell: The Pendray spray is light; it is not difficult to mix if you go about it
Mr. Bailey : In regard to this question, there is an English spray which is much recommended.     Has it been tried by the Board of Horticulture ?
The Chairman : No, it has not been proved yet.
Mr. McCallum : There is a great deal of lime in all these sprays, and it burns one's hands
very much. Pendray's'spray was used last year in the Similkameen, but was not satisfactory.
When I first used the spray I used rubber gloves, but they were no use; I now cover my hands
with grease, and that answers very well.
The Secretary : Vaseline is the best thing to use.
The Chairman : In the spray mixture the salt is really of no particular value ; there is
no harm putting it in. Lime and sulphur is recognised to be the best all-round spray. Mr.
Pendray makes, I think, a good quality ; the thing is to know how to use it. The best spray
in the world is no use to a man if he does not know how to use it. Mr. Scott, of Salt Spring
Island, says that his spray, which is self-boiled, is the best in the world, that nothing can stand
against it. If the spray is used in wet weather it all runs off; it should be used at least twice
and in fine weather. As for the inspection of the spray, it would be a great boon if it could be
done. Pendray's spray is as good as any if used properly. I saw one man using the spray
with such a little stream of water that it could not possibly be of any use.
The Secretary : Lime, sulphur and salt is a good spray ; we all admit that; but we want-
to know that lime, sulphur and salt are used. It is not expensive to mix it oneself; a very small
boiler fills the bill. You need not pay more than $25 for a boiler that is quite big enough.
However, if you cannot mix your own, Pendray's spray is quite good if properly used.
Mr. McCallum : There comes in the force of having a local man to do this work; people
do not know how to make the spray. I have used it, but do not know how to mix it properly ;.
it was not cooked properly. Spray is used every day, without being properly cooked, because
we cannot get at the Inspector at the right time.
Mr. Dilworthy: I could not get my spray right, when I made it myself at first. The
Inspector came round while I was away and he left a little booklet, which gives all the desired
information. If this book is left everywhere and the directions are followed, everybody can.
make their own spray. 8. Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 83
Mr. Cockle : Nothing in the way of spray should be used in this Province which the
Government will not endorse. There comes in the question of analysis. The mixture decomposes so rapidly; what you put on in the morning is all right, but it gets cold by evening. It
has to be put on hot and this is very difficult. Three years ago I presided at an Institute
where we took up this question. In the gardens near Kaslo there are 34,000 fruit trees. The
owners could not afford to spray, so we'put on a gang of men to do it all at once, and the scheme
worked very well. This year the people objected to the price paid for the spraying, so the
Association would not have anything more to do with it. However, I arranged that some men
should do it, but that anyone who wished to do their own spraying could do so. This matter
really comes within the duties of the Institute; they should see that everybody sprays their
trees properly. If people do not spray, they should be made to by the Association. You must
help the Government; you cannot expect them to do everything. Of course, if people will not
spray, then the aid of the Government should be asked to force them to do so. One man in
Kaslo had some trees badly infected, but would not spray them. I sent him a spraying notice,
but he said that he was going away at the end of the month and refused to spray them. These
men give a lot of trouble and should be forced to spray. I am thoroughly in accord with the
resolution, in that the sprays should be analysed before being put on the market, The " B "
spray is too strong; it is like lye. You can easily make your own spray and boil it in a big
iron kettle.
The Secretary : You can do it in a steam boiler.
Spraying Fruit Trees.
Moved by G. Heatherbell, seconded by J. T. Collins,—
" That the Government be asked to enforce the Act in regard to spraying fruit trees."
Mr. Heatherbell: Speaking on this question of spraying trees, I must say that the Act
is not enforced. The Government makes a law, but it is not enforced and is a dead law.
One man keeps it, the other evades it, and, in consequence, the pests spread all over the
Mr. McCallum '. Some time ago I noticed in the " Missouri Fruit-Grower " that Bordeaux
mixture was the cause of rust in the fruit.
Mr. Jones : The question of the proper kind of spray should be left to the Inspectors,
and they should advise the farmers what to use.
Mr. Johnstone : Well, would it not be a very good thing to have Inspectors who know
their business and could see what was best for an orchard and condemn the spray if not
suitable 1
The Secretary : I should like to say7 something on this point. Last year the Inspector
came round and gave orders to spray the orchards ; he came again this year; hut if he does
not come again and see that it has been done, the Act is a dead law. Every fruit-grower
ought to spray his orchard; if it was clean last year it may have pests this year.
The Chairman : The Government is trying to carry out these resolutions ; nothing more
can be done.    The Inspectors are all out and they will re-visit every orchard.
Mr. Corbett: Could we not, through the medium of the Institutes, appoint a capable
man to undertake the supervision of the fruit in every district, and when the Inspector is in
the district he could communicate with him, and thus see whether the people had done their
duty. If not, this man could notify the Inspector, who could then enquire into the matter.
This would take a great deal of labour off the shoulders of the Government. We ought to
help the Government in these matters as much as possible.
Motion carried.
Stock Running at Large.
Moved by Mr. Johnstone, seconded by Mr. Farquharson,—
" Resolved, That the Central Farmers' Institute request the Government to empower the
residents of any fruit-growing district to decide whether stock will be permitted to run at
large or be cared for by7 their owners."
Mr. Johnstone : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, this resolution was presented to me the
evening that I left. I do not know the law; if the municipalities have the power in this
matter it is of no use to carry it further.    Has every district a municipality ?
The Chairman : No. N 84 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Mr. Bailey : You must ask the Government to enforce the law in the outside districts.
Of course, in the municipalities they make their own laws in regard to this matter. There is
an Act which covers everything.
Mr. Johnstone : Then, if I choose to buy a cow I can turn it out to forage, and everybody
must fence in his orchard.
Mr. Bailey :  There is the herd law.
Mr. McCallum : Everybody must have a fence around his orchard in the cattle country ;
it would be impossible for every man to fence in his cattle.
Mr. Curry: This question reminds me of the question which came up with reference to
road work ; we came to a tie on that. The chairman voted in favour of the motion. You
must take local conditions into account, and while Mr. Johnstone is right from his point of
view, this law would apply to fruit-growers only, and would not apply to the cattle people.
You must be more specific.
Mr. Johnstone : We do not ask for a Provincial law.
Mr. Curry : The trouble is this : On the Thompson River, for instance, there is a fruitgrowing country, while on the ranges there are the cattle. If you give the fruit-growers the
right to make the cattle-men fence in their cattle, they must simply go out of business. If
cattle break into your orchard you can get redress.
Mr. Bailey : I think that it would be better to withdraw this resolution. The Attorney-
General will find that there are too many special things asked for. After they are incorporated into a municipality they can do as they like.
Mr. Dilworth : I think that it would be well to withdraw this resolution. In my part of
the country we have fruit in the valley and cattle on the ranges, If a man goes five or six
miles away from the valleys he is right in the cattle country, and if he wants an orchard, let
him fence it. It would be unfair to the cattle-men to make them fence in their cattle or
withdraw them for the sake of one or two orchards.
Motion lost.
Noxious Weeds.
Moved by R. Carter, Jr., seconded by Geo. Heatherbell—
"That the Noxious Weed Act be strictly enforced."
Mr. Carter : This is a very important question. It has been stated that the Inspectors
are doing their duty in Comox, but this duty has not been carried out as far as the Canadian
thistle is concerned, for it is fast spreading through the country. At the present time a notice
was sent by the municipality saying that they would not act in this, and we wish this matter
placed before the Government. An enforcement of the law is absolutely necessary. By not
attending to this matter at the right time of the year, nothing can be done. I cut my thistles,
but my neighbour does not cut his, and the consequence is I have the benefit of his crop.
Mr. Heatherbell: It is the Canadian thistle we are aiming at and the Government should
enforce the Act. I know that there are a great many where we live; the seed travels everywhere.    The Act should be enforced.
The Chairman : The Act only covers the Canadian thistles; it can be enforced by the
Provincial Constables or anyone empowered by the Department.    Will you act, Mr. Carter 1
Mr. Carter : Everybody at the meeting was asked to act, but they all refused, because it
might cause ill feeling throughout the district.    I want to live in harmony with my neighbours.
Motion carried.
Fruit Canneries.
Moved by J. W. Cockle, seconded by V. D. Curry—
" Resolved, That the Central Farmers' Institute desires to bring the attention of the
Government to the necessity of encouraging, either with financial assistance or otherwise, the
establishment of Fruit Canneries."
Mr. Cockle : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I am aware that there are many in this part
of the country connected with the fruit industry. Now we have to make provision for
marketing all our small fruit. We have to divide it into three heads—No. 1, shipped to
Winnipeg; No. 2, for the local market; No. 3, to the Prairies and the West. Now, very
often, owing to wet weather or inability to ship it at the right time, some of our fruit is a
dead loss, and I think that the Government might be induced to step in and establish small 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 85
fruit canneries, one on the Okanagan Lake, one in Kootenay, one on the Coast, etc. We are
not asking very much. They bonus creameries, and might be induced to bonus small
Mr. Curry : I only saw the resolution a few moments ago and have had no time to prepare
the subject. At Kamloops everybody has been wanting a cannery for years. We might
form a company to start a cannery, but it would be wise to get the Government to assist, so
as to set the undertaking on a proper footing. If a cannery is short of means it cannot go on
and we shall have a favourable business lost. In every country7 there is a large amount of
fruit that can be canned, while supplying the markets just as usual. For instance, tomatoes
ripen very rapidly and will not keep for any length of time ; strawberries are the same way ;
and if there was a cannery within reach we could get a better price for our fruit. It requires
a good deal of courage to start a cannery, and it seems to me that it would be a very good
thing if the Government would bonus them.
Mr. Bailey : What kind of arrangement would you make 1 Would you ask for a loan ?
In Chilliwack a joint stock company has been formed, with $1,200 subscribed, and we are
putting up a cannery of our own. There was a great difficulty last year in Chilliwack in
disposing of the fruit. Chilliwack handles its own industries more than any other part of
British Columbia. I think that the Government should advance a loan. They would not
lose money by helping the cannery industry. Thousands of pounds of fruit are wasted every
year and canneries would save all this. After you know exactly what you are asking the
Government for, I should like to support this resolution.
The Chairman: The creameries are not bonused; a loan is made to them under certain
conditions on favourable terms.
Mr. McCallum : If the same provision is made as with regard to the creameries, the
Government would advance a loan. I think that something of this sort should be done, but
I do not think that they would loan money to joint stock companies.
Mr. Curry : They bonus railways.
The Chairman : Not now. In regard to this matter, a gentleman from Cowichan asked
me to look into this question of machinery. Their idea was to put up a small cannery of their
own; it does not cost much. If the Government would pass an Act similar to that of the
creameries, it could be easily managed.
Mr. Johnstone : The great difficulty that I see in starting it, from a pure business standpoint, is that only occasionally can we obtain sufficient fruit for a cannery in a great many of
the districts. In order to obtain a good name for the cannery, the supply of fruit must be
continuous. I think that it would be to the advantage of the Government to establish a
cannery at Chilliwack, where they have a large supply of fruit. But in a small place it is
different, and I do not think that it would pay.
Motion carried.
Construction op Roads.
Moved by Mr. Johnstone, seconded by Mr. Cockle—
" Resolved, That the Central Farmers' Institute urges the necessity of opening the country
by roads, and the residents of Kootenay specially urge the construction of roads between
Robson and Nelson and Proctor and Nelson."
Mr. Johnstone : This resolution was passed last year and a certain amount of work has
been done on the roads, but it is essential to the country to obtain good roads. We have paid
$4 a year in taxes for four years and we have not enough roads. There is nothing being done
in my part. We do not wish this to apply to Kootenay alone, but to all other parts of the
Mr. Cockle : The point is a very knotty one. It is difficult to recommend any one road
or local improvement. In districts where there are no municipalities they are entitled to
support from the Government; but where there are municipalities they have to look after the
roads, and you must take the matter on this broad principle.
Mr. Graham : This question should not come up before the Farmers' Institute. The
people of a district are capable of showing that they want roads. I think that this year, of
all years, is a bad time to bring this up, as the Government is spending such a large sum on
the roads.    This should not be discussed at a farmers' meeting at all. N 86 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
The Chairman : A year or two ago the resolution calling upon the Government to spend
money at Maple Ridge for road work was voted down as being of a local character. I agree
with Mr. Graham that it is a mistake to specialise any particular locality.
Motion lost.
Clearing Land and Stumping Powder.
Moved by D. Graham, seconded by John Dilworth—
" That in view of the great difficulty and expense connected with the clearing of land in
British Columbia, the Government be asked to seriously consider the advisability of still
further cheapening the cost of stumping powder to farmers, either by7 a system of rebates, or
otherwise, as may be deemed advisable."
Mr. Graham : It is somewhat difficult to expect the Government to spend money always.
I do not ask the Government to spend money, but to give consideration to the idea. I take it
that the development of British Columbia depends largely upon stumping. The only lands
left are those that have to be cleared, and unless they are cleared settlers will not come in ; so
I think that, in reason, the Government might be asked to assist this idea. I think, therefore,
that a rebate of 30 %—and this is not a very heavy one—should be made. On the total of
$27,000 the Government should make a rebate of $15,000. If this was continued for a certain
number of years, it would help the Province considerably. I say that there is no class of men
who work harder than the men who are clearing land in the Province to-day, and they deserve
any assistance that they can obtain. (Applause.) I think if the Government would make a
rebate on the powder, that much waste land would soon become valuable. I beg to differ from
what the Premier said about Brown and Smith. I do not think that any of the old settlers
would object to his neighbour getting assistance. The powder would come to $4.20 instead of
$5.25.    It seems a small matter, but it would be of great assistance,    (Applause.)
Mr. Dilworth : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I do not intend to say much on this
subject. This is a vital question ; no question is more important to the farmer than stumping
powder. It is a business proposition to the Government. The farmer will clear more land
and the Government get more revenue. The Government now is giving them powder very
much cheaper than they ever got it before, but I think that the Government has been giving
.a bonus to mining claims here and there which would be very much better given to the farmer,
who is more deserving of help than the mining companies. The people are coming in here fast
and all want to clear land. The cheaper the powder is the more eager they will be to come,
but if the powder is not cheapened they will not come. They ought to give a rebate on it.
Mr. Jones : I should like to ask something. Does the Government lose anything on the
powder under the present arrangement?
The Chairman : No.
Mr. Jones : Is it the same quality as that supplied to outsiders ?
The Chairman : Yes.
Mr. Jones : Need the boxes be stamped ?
The Chairman : I do not know.
Mr. Jones : We are prepared to endorse this proposition.
Mr. Heatherbell: I agree with this motion entirely. Powder is far ahead of the stumping
machine. It is one of the best investments the Government can make, and will come back to
them ten-fold.
Mr. Corbett : It has been mentioned that many emigrants were coming into the country,
but if they are not offered sufficient inducement they will not stay, and when they go it takes
that much money out of the country. We must face the fact that the population is increasing
more rapidly than the development of agriculture. It is necessary to get a much larger area
under cultivation. What a great inducement it would be to people coming in to feel that
they had the help of the Government in clearing their land. It is a most important question,
a,nd one I am in full sympathy with, when I realise the difficulties intending settlers have to
contend with.    (Applause.)
Mr. McCallum : I think that there is a way that this question can be got at. I think
that if the Government were to manufacture their own powder we could get more than 30 %
rebate. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 87
Mr. Bailey : A few years ago a powder manufacturer came here and informed us that
powder could be manufactured for $2.50 per box. If this is so, I think that steps should be
taken to have it done.
The Chairman : That gentleman was mistaken.
Mr. Harris : I was on this question myself. Many will be glad to get cheaper powder,
but I think that the $2.50 proposition is quite out of place. The gentleman certainly made
us an offer, but it was a farce; yet I am sure that people will sympathise a great deal more
with our Institute if we get the powder at $1 per box cheaper. If there is any prospect of
such a thing, we will interview the Minister before we go home. We want powder at the
present time, as much as we can get.
The Secretary : As I am one of the pioneers of the powder question, I should like to say
a few words. I am quite satisfied with the results of our efforts so far. Mr. Tatlow says
that they cannot give us as a class cheaper powder; should they do so, everybody would ask
for it. We get the powder two dollars a box cheaper than formerly. It is no trouble to get,
and it is of no use to ask the Government for impossible things.
Mr. Bailey : The Government has given us a considerable concession in giving us the
powder cheaper. Five hundred boxes at cost were delivered to us at Chilliwack. We have
to ask the Government for something we can get; it is no use being unreasonable. Of course,
everybody would be glad to get it cheaper, but we cannot do it.
Mr. Harris : Langley7 has never got anything for dyking.
The Chairman : You are not speaking to the question.
Mr. Harris : We get off with nothing.
(Cries of "Order, order.")
Mr. Saugstad : We want all the powder we can get; it is cheaper now, but it costs
$7.75, so that any reduction would be welcome. We have great difficulty in getting it. Is
there no means by which we can get it t
The Chairman : The passenger boats are not allowed to carry it.
Mr. Cockle : Altogether, the Government has done whatever it could and does not make
any profit out of it.
Mr. Graham : We have had four car-loads in our municipality and the chairman had to
sign notes to pay for these car-loads. I know that for the last two or three years this country
has gone through a period of great prosperity, and if ever the Government should be in a
position to help the people it is now. This should be done by the present Government. I
know that they have done a great deal to help us, but at the same time, a proposition of this
sort ought to be taken into consideration. It would help people more than anything, and
would help agriculture materially.
Motion carried.
Spraying Materials by Wholesale.
Moved by Mr. Collins, seconded by Mr. Corbett,—
" Resolved, That the Government be asked to buy spraying materials in wholesale lots
and let farmers have the same at cost, on the same lines as stumping powder, which has proved
such a boon to the farmer."
Mr. Collins : In bringing forward this resolution we do not ask for a bonus from the
Government, but we all know what a boon stumping powder has been to the farmer, and our
object is to induce the Government to get spraying material in the same way. If the Government would bring in the spraying material wholesale, and let us have it at cost price, it would
be of the greatest help to us.
Mr. Corbett : One point to be accomplished by taking this course would be that the
spraying material would come under the inspection of the Government officials, and they could
prove its purity and usefulness before selling it to the farmers.
Mr. Bailey: I asked Mr. Cunningham if we could get spraying material through the
Government at first cost 1 Mr. Cunningham said that he had an idea of manufacturing it
here, so that they would know for certain that it would be up to the standard. Has nothing
been done in this matter ?
The Chairman : No, nothing has been done yet.
Motion carried. N 88 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Bounty on Coyotes.
Moved by Mr. Graham, seconded by Mr. McCallum,—
" Whereas more loss in stock of various kinds is caused by coyotes to the east of the
Cascades than by all other wild animals combined ;
" Therefore, be it Resolved, That the Government be asked to increase the bounty on
coyote scalps to at least $5 per scalp."
Mr. Graham : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, this resolution has been brought up on
previous occasions, with the result that the Government raised the bounty to $2.50. This
question affects only the country to the east of the Cascades; there are no coyotes to the west
of the Cascades. All the wild animals combined do not do as much damage as the coyote.
Wolves and panthers do not do nearly as much harm. Panthers, wolves and foxes were a
great question formerly, but I have never had any animals taken by wolves ; there may be
some danger in the hills in the upper country. The panthers have come in for a great deal of
abuse, but none of them do half the damage that the coyote does. We ought to impress upon
the Government that the bounty be increased to $5. When the duty was increased on wolves,
one man got $1,000 pelts in a very short time. If the same conditions exist as regards the
coyotes, they will become rare very quickly. It would pay the Government to raise the
bounty ; more men would try to trap them. That $2.50 is of no use ; it is not enough to
induce a man to go to the trouble of trapping them. One man told me that he had lost $25 by
the depredations of coyotes.    They also prey on the deer and fawns.
Mr. Dilworth : It was very urgently impressed on me to have this matter brought up.
In our country the coyote has become a terrible nuisance. It collars full-grown sheep; it will
kill them in the corral, not five yards from the house, but I think that $5 is a little extreme.
In our country the bounty is only $2.
The Chairman : It is $2 all over the Province.
Mr. Dilworth : Perhaps $5 would induce people to trap them, and it certainly cannot be
too strongly impressed upon the Government to increase the bounty.
Mr. Curry : I understand, by hearsay, that one of the members said that coyotes should
be protected, because they were good scavengers. They are one of the most difficult animals
to get, and people should be offered a strong inducement to catch them. I do not think $5 a
bit too large a bounty. Great efforts are made to preserve the game of the country, and the
coyotes destroy it.    The Government should put on this bounty.
Motion carried.
The meeting then adjourned.
Wednesday, March 25th, 1908.
The Chairman : We have two new members present to-day—Mr. Gillespie, of Vernon,
and Mr. Arthur Okell, of Creston. I have here some samples of Ramie Fibre Seed which
the Government got out last year. There are two samples, with directions; anyone who
wants to try it is welcome to do so. It is a very valuable fibre and useful for making cloth ;
it belongs to the nettle tribe.
Mr. Corbett: Is it strong ?
The Chairman—Oh, yes ; you can judge for yourself by the sample I have here. I have
also here three samples of pedigreed grain seed—Champion barley, Black Tartarian and
white oats—grown by John J. King and Sons, seedsmen by royal warrant to the King,
Goggeshall, Essex and Reading, Berks.    (The samples were distributed.)
Mr. Bailey : In connection with these seeds, would it not be a good thing for those who
grow them to report on the results of their experiments 1
The Chairman—It would be very desirable, if it only could be accomplished. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 89
Mr. Corbett : I may say that 1 am laying out an acre, which I am dividing into suitable
plots, solely for the purpose of experimenting with different seeds.
Mr. Bailey:  Reports of experiments should be asked for by the Department.
The Chairman : Certainly ; and I hope that something of the sort will be done in order
that we may learn whether these seeds are really worth growing in the Province. These
pedigreed seeds come from a prominent firm, and it would be as well to have a report of the
Mr. Curry : I will make a report on mine.
Report on Superintendent's Address.
The Secretary then read the report of the special committee which was instructed to
consider the address of the Superintendent.    The report of the Committee is as follows :—
"We, your Committee appointed to report on the Superintendent's address, beg to report
as follows:—
" We are sorry to hear some of the secretaries are so remiss in their duties respecting
reports to the Department, and would suggest that in future the Superintendent should communicate with the President of any Institute whose Secretary does not fulfil his duties ; and
if this has no effect, that some of the $25 paid by the Government be held back.
" We are pleased to hear that the Department is likely to send out more literature in the
" We consider that the literature, speakers and demonstrations have been a source of
valuable information to the farmers of British Columbia.
" We are glad to hear that the magic lantern is now in use to aid the lecturer, and would
suggest that slides of noxious weeds be added to the list.
"We hope the Superintendent will use every effort to get local speakers. We think that
if equal inducements were offered to that afforded to Eastern speakers there would be no
difficulty found.
"We suggest that the spring meetings in future be held not later than February on the
Island and Lower Mainland, and not later than March 15th in the Upper Mainland.
"We are pleased to hear of the increased membership, and regret the falling off of the
attendance. We think most likely the lateness in the Spring, when the meetings were held
at the time of seeding, was to a certain extent responsible for shortness of attendance.
" We beg to congratulate the Superintendent on the work of the Institute during the
past year.
" V.  D.  Curry (Chairman of Committee),
"N.  A. McDiarmid,
"J. T. Collins."
The Chairman : Gentlemen, you have heard this report; what is your pleasure regarding it ?
Mr. Harris : I move that it be received.
Mr. Corbett: I second that motion.
The Secretary : Your Committee request that an invitation be sent to Mr. R. M. Palmer,
asking him to address the meeting on the subject of fruit.
The Chairman : If any of you gentlemen have any resolutions to hand in, please do so
this morning, so that we can get through to-day.
Bounty on Crows.
Moved by Mr. Heatherbell, seconded by Mr. Way—
" That the Government be asked to place a small bounty on crows."
The Superintendent: Some of you will remember that this matter has been thrashed out
before. There is no question but that crows are a nuisance in some places, and a source of
serious loss to fruit-growers in other places, and again in certain parts of the Province their
presence is recommended. Interference with the general course of nature is always a dangerous
thing, and whether this motion is adopted or not, I doubt very much whether the Government,
under the circumstances, would act in the matter, in view of the opinions which, coming from
all parts of the country, were expressed some time ago in respect to the work which is done by
the crow. N 90 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Mr. Heatherbell : I have had a large experience with depredations of crows on Hornby
Island. They are most destructive and mischievous. I have seen quantities of apples and
pears destroyed in a few minutes. The crow begins with the fall wheat and goes the round of
the crops industriously, finishing up with the turnips. (Laughter.) Of course, he has his
good points, I must admit, but he does more harm than good. Although he is a good scavenger,
in all other ways he is bad. I am planting a new orchard, and the crows are a great trouble
to me.    I hope that I will be supported in this matter.
The Chairman : This resolution had better be embodied in the next one, which is much
more explicit; it explains the first one.
Mr. Heatherbell :  I will withdraw mine if my seconder will do the same.
Motion withdrawn.
Moved by Mr. Cunningham, seconded by Mr. McCallum—
" Whereas in some sections of the Province crow7s have become so numerous that they
cause a great deal of destruction to orchards, wheat fields, eggs of game birds, etc.;
" Be it Resolved, That the Government be asked to place a bounty on crows in districts
outside of municipalities."
Mr. Cunningham : I was asked by the Nanaimo people, before leaving home, to bring in
this resolution. The crows are certainly a nuisance in that district. I have known them to
destroy apples, cherries and nearly all the fruit in an orchard. It is not so much what they
eat, it is what they damage. I have often seen them eat up half a newly-sown wheat field,
and undoubtedly they do a great deal of damage to the game birds by eating the eggs in the
nests. Certainly7 they are good scavengers, but they are too destructive, and it would be better
to destroy a large number of them ; they do more harm than good.
Mr. McCallum : I think that it will be admitted by the majority that crows are a nuisance
all over the country. It is not what they eat, but what they destroy. If a small bounty were
placed on them the boys would destroy them. The boy7s could practice on the crows against
the time when the Japanese come over here to attack us.    (Laughter.)
Mr. Way : I cordially endorse what Mr. McCallum says. In my part of the country
there are swarms of them ; we cannot raise any cherries at all.
Mr. Johnstone : We are not troubled with crows much in the interior, but we are with
cut-worms. For my part, I would much rather have crows than cut-worms. I have often had
to plant my cabbages four times over, and have wished that there were some crows, because it
would mean fewer cut-worms.
Mr. Bailey : In regard to this question, I would support the motion if the Government
would place the bounty on crows in outside places, but not in municipalities; the people in
these places can put it on themselves if they want to. As far as unorganised districts are
concerned, I will support the motion, but in cities and municipalities I do not uphold it.
Mr. Curry : I have heard this question discussed for years. I have known the old crow
since I was a little boy, and while he occasionally takes up a hill of corn and swipes a few
other things, he keeps his eye on the grubs in the orchard and in the garden. Of course he
does some damage, but so does the robin, only the robin is a nice-looking fellow and the poor
old crow is in a black coat and so is condemned by everybody, although, as far as I can see, he
does good work.
Mr. Dilworth : In our country there are a great many crows and a great many people are
at war with them. For my own part, I kill a crow occasionally when he comes around my
premises and steals eggs and small chickens, but I think that in this matter we should
proceed with the greatest caution. I believe that he is more beneficial than injurious, that he
does more good than harm. (Hear, hear.) At certain times of the year the caterpillars are a
perfect plague in certain localities and he is very fond of them, while in the spring nobody is
more busy than Mr. Crow in looking out for cut-worms.
Mt. Curry : That is right.
Mr. Dilworth : In Saanich there are a few crows, but there are also the blue-jays. Now,
one blue-jay does more harm than twenty crows. Last year, while the crow did not do much
harm, the blue-jay destroyed a considerable amount of fruit, apples and plums especially, into
which he merely sticks his beak and then flies away. We should certainly be cautious in
recommending a bounty on crows.
Mr. Gillespie : We are badly troubled with crows, but it would be well for these gentlemen to do what the Coldstream people in the Okanagan do; they employ boys to frighten 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 91
them away with guns merely loaded with powder, so that they do not kill them. I think that
if the gentlemen who complain of their depredations would employ the same method of
keeping them off their property, it would be much better than killing them. Where I come
from, we have so much trouble with all sorts of grubs that we would not kill a crow.
The Chairman : The chief thing is to get up early in the morning.    (Laughter.)
.    Mr. Chairman : I think we cannot be too cautious in regard to the crows.    Of course they
■do a good deal of damage, especially with plums, but if one or two are killed and hung up in
trees for scarecrows they are very effective.    The amount of good they do more than balances
the harm.
Mr. Harris : This crow question has been coming up for years. There are, of course, two
opinions on the matter. It is true that they do a great deal of harm, but so does the blue-jay.
We simply must put up with them. It is absurd to ask the Government to put a bounty on
them. The Government is expected and requested to do everything. We come here expecting the Government to do something for us and to help us with money; but it is of no use to
ask absurd things. We must help ourselves a little. We want more important things than
this from the Government.    In our municipalities we have a bounty on blue-jays.
Mr. Cunningham : Then it would be better to alter this to unorganised districts.
Mr. Dilworth: But I strongly object to this proposition ; I live in an unorganised
Mr. Saugstad : I too come from an unorganised district and I do not want them killed.
Mr. Johnstone : I want a few in my district.
Mr. Hills : W"e have concluded that the crow does more good than harm. A few years
ago the cut-worms were very bad.    The crows eat them ; they also eat the grasshoppers.
Mr. Carter : I cannot agree with the last speaker's remarks. In the Comox District we
seem to be in a line with them ; they follow the beaches. I live near the beach, and those
who live there suffer the most. Last season 1 had to plant my corn twice. As soon as I
planted it the crows rooted it up. Therefore, in Comox, we think that they do more harm
than good.
Mr. Corbett : I would just like to say that I think that a little individual effort would
meet the difficulty. I know that the blue-jay cleans out peas and beans, but I have never
thought of going to the Government to prevent this.    Scare-crows are very successful.
The Chairman : Beyond all question, on the sea coast the crow is a great nuisance; on
the other hand, some of the interior districts have asked to have him protected. There is such
a, variety of opinion that the Government does not seem to feel justified in taking any action
on the subject. I cannot just lay my hand on the report on this subject. How much harm
they do as compared with the good, I do not know, but the evidence taken some years ago
went to show that it would be injudicious to meddle with them. On Salt Spring Island, last
year, I heard of a quantity of robins who destroyed fruit enormously, principally apples. They
had never done this before.
Motion lost.
Committee to Interview the Minister.
Proposed by Mr. Collins, seconded by Mr. Cockle,—
"Resolved, That the Chairman appoint a committee of three to put before the Minister
of Agriculture the most important resolutions passed by this Central Farmers' Institute, after
the closing of the meeting."
Committee appointed—Mr. Graham, Mr. Corbett, Mr. Collins.
Salaries of Institute Secretaries.
Moved by Mr. Heatherbell, seconded by Mr. Cockle,—
" That the Government be asked to increase the salary of the Institute Secretaries to the
sum of fifty ($50) dollars per annum."
Mr. Heatherbell: You have heard what the Superintendent has had to say on the subject
of the carelessness of some of the secretaries. I think that if they were better paid that they
would do better work. I do not think that $25 a year is sufficient. If they got $60 per
annum they might show more interest in the matter. N 92 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Mr. Cockle : In the course of Mr. Tatlow's remarks he said that the Government had a
great deal of trouble in obtaining information regarding the resources of the Province ; he also
said that the secretaries had not sent in reports. In supporting this motion, I think that we
might make some new disposition of the secretaries. It might be made compulsory for the
secretaries to do this work. If they do this they ought to receive more money for their trouble,
say $50 for compiling reports.    It would not do to ask for more.
The Chairman : I might call the attention of the last speaker, to the fact that this resolution does not call for anything of this sort.
Mr. Cockle : But ought they not to do this according to the Act, and have they not been
neglecting their duties.
The Chairman : That is another point. I did not say that all the secretaries were delinquent. There are some of them who are so, but the exact opposite is the case with the
majority of them. Of course, I know that $25 is very little inducement, but some of them
have not sent me one report of any kind whatever.
Mr. Graham : Before the question is put I would like to say that I think that even if the
salary were raised to $50 it would not be any good ; there is too much work attached to the
office. I think that this matter should be in the hands of the various Institutes. In our
district we have always supplemented the vote of the Government by $25, this year by $75,
but there is a great deal of work to it.    The Institutes should supplement the salary.
Mr. Corbett: I do not know whether this is in order, but I have always had a feeling
that in appointing the secretaries there is a great lack of business ability shown, A secretary
is often appointed because a certain number of influential men put him in the position, without regard to his ability for the work. The secretary has a most important position in the
Institute; he is the buffer between the Superintendent and the members, and if he does not
love his work, I do not think that the matter of $25 will make him carry out his duties.
Still, I think that the Government should increase his salary, as his duties are very heavy and
he certainly should be remunerated to a certain extent.
Mr. Jones : Might I ask if the members of an Institute can increase the salaries of their
secretary 1
The Chairman : Certainly.
Mr. Jones : Then why not leave matters as they now stand, and let each Institute increase
the salary of the secretary as they think fit ?
Mr. Garrett: I think like the last speaker, that if the secretaries do their work well, the
Institutes should increase their salaries.
Mr. Harris : Our secretary gets the Government grant and, besides that, we give him a
donation every y7ear. He is a very good man and very attentive. Whenever a speaker comes
he always meets him.    I think that the Institutes should give the secretaries a donation.
Motion lost.
Close Season for Game.
Moved by Mr. Heatherbell, seconded by Mr. Way,—
" That the Government be asked to lengthen the close season."
Mr. Heatherbell: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I should very much like to see this
motion passed. The grouse is a good bird ; he does practically no harm, and I should like
something to be done to protect him, as he is fast disappearing.
Mr. Wade : I second this motion.
Mr. Hills : I think that the shooting season should be shortened. It opens too early and
is left open too long.    The grouse are also very often killed before the season is really open.
Mr. Carter : I think that this is a very good resolution. The grouse in Comox are being
killed off very fast. People come in before the season and kill the grouse when they are just
running about like chickens. It would be a very good thing to make the season open a
month later.
Motion carried.
Institute Funds.
Moved by Mr. Baker, seconded by Mr. Carter—
" Resolved, That we discuss the best way of using the Institute funds."
The Chairman: I should think that this question might be left to the various Institutes. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 93
Mr. Baker : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen—In moving this resolution, I wish to open a
discussion for the benefit of the Institutes, as to the best way of using the funds and the best
manner of obtaining new members. Last year we had some funds on hand and we purchased
seeds, powder, twine, etc., in quantities, and supplied them to the members at cost. In this
way we have saved $200 and we have increased our membership. We have many more
members this year than last; in fact, nearly everybody in our district is a member of the
Mr. Carter : I merely wish to second this resolution, I think that this question might be
discussed to great advantage. 'In our district the funds are often not disposed of as we want;
I think that we might do a great deal better.
The Secretary : We have no difficulty in disposing of the Institute funds. At one time
we used to have packing and ploughing competitions, where we gave prizes. These do a great
deal of good. We have also established a very good library of technical works, which has
been of great advantage to the Institute.
Mr. Harris : In our Institute we have no trouble in disposing of the funds. This year
we have money to spare. The trouble with us is that the information as to how they are
disposed of is not accurate enough.
The Chairman : In regard to this question, I may say that in my address of last year I
pointed out that the duties of the auditors of the various Institutes were not perfunctory, but
should be performed faithfully, as is certainly not the case in a great many instances. They
should go into the finances carefully and see that everything is in conformity with the Act.
In looking through the accounts, I see many items not in conformity with the Act. The
auditor's duty is to see that this is not the case. I do not say that the items are wrong, but
they are not careful enough. I think that the suggestions made about the Institute funds are
very good, and if generally adopted would be most beneficial.
Tax on Automobiles.
Moved by Mr. Heatherbell, seconded by Mr, Way—
" Resolved, That the Government be asked to tax automobiles."
The Chairman : They are a terrible nuisance, anyway.    (Laughter.)
Mr. Heatherbell : I suppose they have come to stay, but some of us have had a sorrowful
experience with them, and I think that I live in the worst part of British Columbia for them,
because, between Nanaimo and Goldstream, these machines give the farmers more trouble
than in any7 other part of the Province. In the summer they destroy the roads terribly ;
luckily, in the winter, owing to the mud, we are not so much troubled with them. They tear
up the little stones and even the small rocks, and in this way they make the roads very bad
for horses. Under these circumstances, I think that it would be wise to ask the Government
to tax them. It would, at all events, bring something into the treasury. ISTo doubt many have
not as yet felt the effect of this innovation, but the time is coming when they will. I feel
very strongly on this subject, because we have very good roads, perhaps the best in the
country, in our district, and I would like to see something done in this matter.
The Chairman : Is there no tax now levied upon these vehicles ?
Mr. Heatherbell: Not by the Government on Government roads. I must say that these
vehicles are driven more decently than formerly. As a rule, however, the drivers take the
right of road and put you into the ditch if possible.
The Chairman : Under these circumstances, I think that the horse generally takes to the
ditch anyway.    (Laughter.)
Mr. Way: Mr. Heatherbell has covered this question pretty well, but there is one thing
that I should like to say. We have to pay the taxes to keep these roads in order, and these
machines tear them up. The farmer's rig does not tear up the roads nearly to the same extent,
and I think that automobiles should be taxed in proportion to the damage they do. They are
a plague and a nuisance and our recommendation should certainly carry some weight with the
Mr. Curry : I come from the best part of British Columbia for these machines, but they
are creeping in amongst us just the same. We have a mountainous country with good roads,
but in places they are very narrow and they frighten the horses dreadfully; the smell of them
is awful.    Certainly something ought to be done. N 94 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Mr. Farquharson : They give a toot, toot and away they7 go. I suppose that we shall have
to put up with them, but there certainly should be a limit put on their speed.
Mr. Harris : They put us in the ditch, upset our rigs and then pass on. I know of one
case where a man and his wife were upset into the ditch and the people in the motor just went
on, without seeing whether they were hurt or not. They are often seen now on the Yale road,
and if they are not taxed they ought to be. They are allowed to run, I believe, ten miles an
hour, but they often exceed this limit.
Mr. Corbett: How much will such a tax help a man whose horse and waggon are dumped
over a precipice ?
Mr. Way: I think that they are taxed as personal property, in common with other
The Chairman : But do they not pay a special tax if they are taken on country roads?
Cries from many of the members of " No, no."
Mr. Bailey : I should think that there ought to be a provision in the Act by which they
might regulate their speed on approaching other vehicles.
Mr. Jones : You can hold up your hand and they are obliged to stop.    (Laughter.)
Motion carried.
Time of Meeting of Central Farmers' Institute.
Moved by Mr. Corbett, seconded by Mr. Dilworth,—
" Resolved, That for the future the Central Farmers' Institute meeting shall be held
during the second week of Parliament."
The Chairman: It is not alway possible to Comply with this.
Mr. Curry : I think that it is quite worth while to speak on this subject. If the farmers
of British Columbia are going to do any good with their resolutions they must meet earlier, so
that the resolutions would receive earlier consideration and be placed before the Legislature in
good time. When our meeting is called after the close of the Legislature it is such a long time
before the resolutions come up before them. While the Legislature is sitting and the Ministers
are here, and the members are here, is the time for us to meet and put matters before them.
Are we to appear as a body whose opinions are worthy to appear before the Legislature of the
country, or are we to be put on one side ? As things stand', the resolutions w7e pass are simply
pigeonholed until next session. Just now is the time for the farmer to put in his crops, and
we ought to be doing this.    (Applause.)
Mr. Garrett : I would like to endorse this. Our Institute appointed a delegate early in
the season, with a view to the Legislature being in session at the time. They wanted many
questions to come before them, and we were all very much disappointed when the meeting was
held at the time it is being held. There should be a time set now for the next meeting, so
that we could prepare for it.    It certainly is a bad time to leave the farm.
Mr. Heatherbell: I agree with Mr. Curry. Institutes should be a power for good, and
we should be here when we can do the most good.
Mr. Cockle : In dealing with this subject, we must take into consideration many of the
features which govern the session. I am sure that this meeting involves a great deal of work
in making preparation for it, so that I would like to have an expression of opinion from the
Superintendent, as to whether it is too soon to hold this meeting at the beginning of the year.
The Chairman : Regarding the meeting of the Central Farmers' Institute, it has always
been the custom to hold it before or during the session of the House. If you remember, this
year the House was called very early, and the Minister was not prepared at that time to call
an Institute meeting. There was also a live stock Convention at Ottawa which involved the
interests of the whole Dominion, which I was obliged to attend. In December I was so taken
up with other meetings that it was impossible to hold it then. I have thought of recommending
to the Minister to have this meeting in December or January, but it is not always possible to
do just what is wanted.
Mr. Curry : Could we not meet during the first or second week of the session?
The Chairman : No ; the arrangements of the Ministers would not permit it. If we were
called in December we would have to take the reports of the previous year, as the annual
reports do not reach us until some time in January. Even the day before yesterday some of
the reports had not been received. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 95
Mr. Farquharson : In regard to holding this meeting in the fall of the year, how would
this fit in with the local Institutes 1 I suppose that we should have to hold our local meetings
in October, so as to have the reports sent in by the Secretaries.
The Chairman : This would entail an alteration in the Act.
Motion carried.
Mr. Corbett, seconded by Mr. Graham, then brought forward a motion concerning co-operation in his part of the country, but on learning that Mr. Johnstone, who is thoroughly conversant with the subject, was not present at the time, the motion was laid over for a future
A motion, proposed by Mr. Woodward and seconded by Mr. Dilworth, concerning cattle
guards, was referred to the Resolution Committee for re-draft.
Dairy Inspections.
Moved by Mr. Garrett, seconded by Mr. Cunningham—
" Resolved, That the Government be requested to introduce a more thorough inspection
of dairies and dairying stock."
Mr. Cunningham : I do not see that this question requires a great deal of explanation.
Milk is very susceptible to diseases and taints. During my travels I have noticed that a great
many dairies and cow-sheds are built in the old style. The refuse is banked up against the
sides of the shed or stable, and the liquid runs into the dairy. If there were a more thorough
inspection of dairies, this could be done away with. It is most injurious for the health to have
these conditions, and it is absolutely necessary to show the farmer that dirt is detrimental to
the production of good milk and good butter.
Mr. Garrett: I did not expect this resolution to come up now and have not prepared
myself to speak on it, but I would like to say that our part of the country is very much
interested in this question. It is not a fruit country and the question of clean dairies and
clean stock is a most important one, as we live close to the city and supply it with milk .and
butter, and some of this produce is a great menace, owing to the unsanitary condition of the
stock. I do not wish to find fault, but I wish to strengthen the hands of those who are doing
the work. The Government is doing something, but they are not spending enough ; they have
not sufficient Inspectors to do the work. I know of dairy stock so badly diseased that for very
shame's sake their owners took them out and shot them, and the Inspectors do not seem to
know it. It is a shame that they do not know this, when you reflect that the milk from such
dairies is going into the city. I must also refer to the cleanliness of the dairies and to the
dirty way in which they milk their cows. The Inspector may go round and inspect the dairies,
but he does not see the dirty way in which they milk their cows, and this is almost the chief
part of the business ; it is a most serious consideration. If the Inspectors would take time to
go to the dairies when they are milking and see that the work is done properly and cleanly,
and if this is not the case the offenders should be prohibited from selling milk. Four-fifths of
the dairymen may be clean, but if the other fifth is dirty, we all suffer for their dirtiness.
The Government ought to interfere ; we can do nothing ourselves. I strongly recommend that
more Inspectors be appointed, at any rate for the time being, until the dairy business is put
on a proper basis.
Mr. Corbett: I must say that in this business I am more or less of an amateur, but
common sense has taught me two or three things. One of these is that, to keep the cattle
clean as possible, the stalls ought to be graded and the cattle arranged according to their
length. This is a great help. I have also found that if the udders are thoroughly washed or
wiped with a wet cloth the milk is absolutely free from all sediment; while if rubbed with a
dry cloth, however thoroughly, there is always a sediment. We always now wash the cow's
udder thoroughly.
Mr. Bailey : In respect to inspecting stock and dairies, I would like to support the
motion, if you will ask the Government to get more efficient help. I think that the Government are doing all 'that they can with the help they now command. In Vancouver and
Victoria, Mr. Logan is sparing no effort to establish a new order of things. The motion
ought to be to ask the Government to give efficient service.
Mr. Logan, Inspector of Dairies, then addressed the meeting as follows :—
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—The matter of dairy inspection in this Province is a
most important one and receives strict attention at the hands of the Government. While
your resolution asks for more help in this line, you must know that this Province is far ahead N 96 Farmers' Institutes Report. 190S
of the other Provinces in this respect. Ontario, although it has butter and cheese inspectors,
has no dairy inspectors ; they are only just now talking about it. I consider the present
system to be fairly efficient, although, of course, we could make use of more men than we have
at present. We have two men going everywhere inspecting the dairies in every district.
They cover the Province in about five months, during which time some places are inspected at
least three times, others twice. But there are a great many difficulties in our way. For
instance, we go to a man and tell him that he must have a better stable; he replies that he
is only renting the stable and will not do anything to it. Then, if he is told to take the
manure away, he says that it is too muddy ; if he is told to build a new stable, he says that
he cannot get carpenters. In fact, he will tell you about twenty-five different lies with more
or less truth in them. (Laughter.) Unless you are very hard-hearted, you are almost bound
to give an extension of time.
Outside Vancouver I found that a man was keeping cows in an old slaughter-house, but
he was warned to get a new stable, and he very quickly did so. Another man, in Chilliwack,
spent $4,500. on his barn and then kept the separator in an old pig-pen. He was told to alter
this, but when the Inspector returned things were unchanged, so the man had just ten days
given to him to make matters right. Some men are poor and cannot afford to build new
places, and it is very difficult to be hard on them.
However, the greatest difficulty we have to contend with is in the milking, and we are
almost powerless to overcome this. I do not care how expensive a man's buildings are or how
much they are whitewashed, one dirty milker can get more dirt into the milk in ten minutes
than ten separators can take out. (Hear, hear.) This is where the great trouble lies. It is
impossible for the Inspectors to be there every time that milking is done, and if a man is born
dirty I do not think that any amount of legislation can make him clean.
One man, near Vancouver, admitted that the cow had put her foot into the pail, but he
said that he left the pail until the morning, when all the dirt settled in the bottom of the pail,
and then he strained it. Now, what are you going to do with a man like that ? He ought to
be sliot.    (Laughter.)
I cannot see any way of really getting good milk except by doing what Vancouver proposes to do and get men to club together and establish an up-to-date dairy, where the milk
and butter is treated as it should be.
I have come in for some very severe criticisms in regard to this subject. The farmers
have not spared me, but I think that if we can succeed in this dairy scheme and keep four or
five hundred in good condition and have everything up-to-date, it would be a very good advertisement for the Province. Anyone coming out here and wanting to go into dairy farming
could visit this farm and see how things ought to be done. The farmers could go and get
pointers as to how dairying should really be conducted. Many men who want to get ideas
will not go to the Experimental Farms conducted by the Government, because they think that
the Government has plenty of money to do things properly, and feel that they cannot possibly
do the same ; but, if the scheme I mentioned is successful, they can get all the ideas they
want, and it would be a splendid advertisement for the country. The farmers will then be
obliged to do better, or they will have to go out of business.
It is also a very difficult matter to get good Inspectors. Of the two now7 employed by
the Department, one is a very good man and the other is fair. I cannot get to all the places
myself and have to trust to the Inspectors. Sometimes they are too easy. However, we have
made a lot of improvement this year, but progress in this line is very gradual. If every four
or five months is not enough for visiting the different dairies, then we must have more
Mr. Graham : Do you think that every four or five months is enough ?
Mr. Logan : I think that it would be better if the farms were visited oftener.    In Washington Inspectors visit the farms every month, and oftener if they can.    While we are better
off in this respect than other Provinces, still it would be better to have more inspection.
Mr. Cunningham : Have you any Inspectors in the northern part of the island 1
Mr. Logan : Dr. Knight and Dr. Gibbons visited that part of  the  country.    The tuberculosis question needs attention.    We have been obliged to kill from 30 to 35 cows this year
which were afflicted with this disease.    They were for  the most part near Vancouver.    We
found some in advanced stages of the disease.    According to good authorities, no danger can
arise from using the milk, unless the udder is really affected.    The trouble  is that you never
know when the udder will be affected. 8 Ed. 7' Farmers' Institutes Report: ST 97
Mr. Cunningham : I am not aware of any Inspector having been in Nanaimo.
Mr. Logan : Dr. Knight was supposed to go through there in December.
Mr. Garrett: I was going to suggest that local Inspectors be appointed ; however, as it
is late, this question can be brought up again.
Motion carried.
Mr. Harris then moved that the meeting adjourn until half-past one in the afternoon.
Afternoon Session.
The Chairman : Copies of my address have been handed round, but if anyone has not
received one, will he please apply for it.
Cattle-Guards on Railways.
Moved by Mr. Woodward, seconded by Mr. Dilworth,—
" Resolved, That the attention of the Railway Commission be called to the inadequate
protection afforded stock along the line of the railways in British Columbia, and request that
they will frame an order in respect to cattle-guards and the proper fencing of railway rights-of-
The Chairman : This resolution has been re-drafted and takes the place of the other one
on the same subject.
Mr. Woodward: My seconder has not yet arrived, but I am sure that he will say, as I ■
do, that the cattle-guards in our part of the country are quite inefficient. The cattle soon get
used to them and are constantly getting over them. It is almost impossible to get any
adequate compensation from the railway companies. Also, there are no adequate fences
where the teams have to pass the track. In one place there is only 30 feet between the railway and a high bluff, and should you happen to meet a train there it would be very dangerous,
and certainly this bit of road needs a good fence.
Mr. Farquharson : The value of animals killed in this way is fixed by statute and is often
only about half what they are worth.
Motion carried.
Fruit Marks Act.
Moved by Mr. Johnstone, seconded by Mr. Okell,—
"Resolved, That the Dominion Government be requested to furnish up-to-date instructions
regarding the Fruit Marks Act, no instructions being at present printed as to the size of any
package or box."
Mr. Johnstone : I was instructed before leaving Kootenay to get instructions re the
Fruit Marks Act. After a great deal of trouble, I have secured an edition which is four
years old, and then I was obliged to get the Librarian to take it out of some of the books in
the library. Some information ought to be sent out on this subject; the secretaries of the
various Institutes cannot always have access to a library and we want pamphlets for distribution.
Motion carried.
Moved by Mr. Corbett, seconded by Mr. Graham—
" Resolved, That the subject of co-operation in the sale and distribution of produce on the
Lower Mainland be discussed and principle adopted by this meeting."
Mr. Corbett: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen—In bringing forward this resolution, my
object is to get the necessary information to bring about co-operation on the Lower Mainland.
In the Interior you have co-operation and it appears to have worked so successfully that we
are desirous of having it in our section. We are, however, entirely in the dark as how to
commence operations. We want the best system we can get. It is intolerable to take your
produce into Victoria or Vancouver and never to know what price you are going to get for it.
Some weeks it is more, some less, without any apparent reason, and this applies to all produce
with the exception,  perhaps, of grain.    When you consider the vast amount of produce N 98 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
imported into British Columbia, it does not seem just that we should have to bear the drops
in the market which we do, owing to these imports. Therefore, I want to obtain all the
information possible concerning this matter.
Mr. Johnstone : If I went into this matter thoroughly it would take far too long a time ;
however, I will make a few remarks on the subject. If you have any questions to ask, I think
that more good would come from them. In reference to the Lower Mainland, I do not think
that any part of the Province has had such difficulty in getting co-operation, owing to its having
a local market. The farmers think that co-operation will do them harm. Mr. Duffy, one of
the largest shippers in the world, was here last fall in Vancouver. He gave me an order for
25,000 boxes of fruit, at an advance of 25 % over the ordinary price. (Applause.) Mr. Duffy
said that it was lamentable to see pears going to waste or being sold for 75c. or $1 per box in
Victoria, which, if properly packed and graded, he would be willing to pay $4 a box for. A
great many farmers think that they can get a better price for their fruit if there is no
co-operation. You ought to form a local association and tie all the members hand and foot to
sell their produce through that association. We only handle the business at the actual cost of
sending sellers into the North-West, making collections and insuring against financial loss.
If you do not make it compulsory for the farmers to belong to the association, you cannot go
to the North-West and make responsible contracts. In order to fulfill a contract, you must be
able to count on the produce of a certain number of orcha rds, provided always that the season
is not adverse. You must be faithful, and in order to be faithful you must fill your orders.
We have had in the Kootenay District a good man, a practical fruit-grower, a practical business man and a practical packer; of course, this has been of great assistance to us. His
orchard at Hood River, consisting of 15 acres, has realised, during the past sixteen years,
$450 per acre per annum. When this district started there was no association ; they were
not tied up ; but during the third year of fruit-growing in this district they7 formed an association, and the consequence is that they obtain a better price for their fruit. In my district
we are getting $3.50 and $4 per box for apples which formerly sold for $1.75 only. A Central
Exchange is absolutely necessary. The Central Exchange is a body composed of exchanges,
not of individuals. They are not much trouble. Of course the books have to be kept; 5 %
commission is charged on sales, but otherwise the cost to members is only $1 per annum.
When shipping to the Central Exchange, your local manager notifies the manager of the
Central Exchange as to how much fruit will be available, then the manager of the Central
Exchange notifies the agents in the field and they place the fruit. At present we have more
orders than we can fill. Three car-loads a day of small fruits, and the Australian trade will
take most of the apple crop.
:  . , Mr. Corbett: Are these shipments made outside local wants?
Mr. Johnstone : One great objection to the Central Exchange was that they could not
sell to the local market, but that is not so; the local manager attends to the local market.
The Central does not prevent local men from selling goods to local people, but if they have a
surplus, then the Central Exchange takes it and charges them 5 °/0. This five per cent, is
taken off at the end of the year, and if there is a surplus the money is kept to go on with
next year. The local manager ascertains the amount of fruit you have to sell to the Exchange;
then so many cars are booked for Regina and so many for Winnipeg ; you know exactly
the price you will get and the payments are made twice a month. You must co-operate in
order to get equality in prices. I am very7 proud of my local association. The fruit has to
be good; if any man is found shipping bad strawberries they are sent back to him at his own
expense. At the Central Exchange, when the fruit arrives it is inspected, and if not good it
is sent back. At the height of the season one of the directors must be right at the shipping
place. This year we intend to have directors who will be in the field during the shipping of
perishable fruits. Of course there are defects; you cannot expect any organisation to be
perfect; but we must try to work together in harmony. It is better to try and improve than
to criticise. At the last meeting of the executive it was urged upon them that they put
forward their ideas at the time and not afterwards. There are some points which have been
omitted, but everything can be improved upon; all suggestions are heard and taken into
consideration at the meeting of the stock-holders. ,
Mr. Corbett: Do they have an annual meeting ?
Mr. Johnstone : Certainly ; we have one director for every twenty-five members. These
directors vote at the executive; they are all within reach of Revelstoke. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 99
Mr. Corbett : I should like to say a few words on the subject of co-operation. At the
last meeting of our Institute I read a paper, in which I had jotted down the features of the
subject as it had appeared to me during the last seven years. I was surprised at the amount
of interest that the subject drew forth. I was asked to communicate my ideas to the various
Secretaries of the different Institutes, but I shrank from the task ; yet I felt that the Central
Farmers' Institute would give me a good opportunity of getting into touch with the Secretaries
of the Institutes on the Lower Mainland; afterwards we could correspond one with another
and work up this subject. Before this meeting ends I should like to get the names of the
Secretaries of the various Institutes.
The Chairman : You can get them from me.
Motion carried.
Loans to Farmers' Exchanges.
Moved by Mr. Jones, seconded by Mr. Carter—
" Resolved, That whereas experience has shown the best results in the grading, packing
and marketing of our fruits and farm produce, it is necessary to establish local farmers and
fruit growers' exchanges, to be run on a co-operative plan;
" And whereas it is often found difficult to secure sufficient capital to operate such co-operative exchanges successfully in the first instance ;
" Therefore, be it Resolved, That this Central Farmers' Institute urgently requests the
Government to grant a sum of money not exceeding two thousand dollars (by way of a loan)
for a period not exceeding ten years, to bear interest at a rate not exceeding 5 % per annum,
to any farmers' exchange or fruit growers' exchange that is now organised, or that may become
organised in the future, in the Province of British Columbia. Proviso as follows :—That such
exchange can offer security in shape of a lien on real estate, buildings, machinery or equipment
satisfactory to the Government,"
Mr. Jones : We have felt the want of a Farmers' Exchange in our district for some time,
particularly in buying food for cattle and wheat for poultry. I speak from experience in this
matter. Why, some of our local dealers have made as much as $10 a ton in selling feed for
animals. These high prices retard the progress of the country ; if it were not for this, many
of us would be well off in a few years.
Mr. Carter : I second this motion.
Motion carried.
Storage of Water for Irrigation.
Moved by Mr. Curry, seconded by Mr. Johnstone—
" Resolved, That it is in the interests of the water user in the Dry Belt that the Legislature next session incorporate in the new Irrigation Act proper machinery to handle the
stored water through natural channels to the used ditch-head, allowing for seepage and evaporation, and defining the rights of the storage record-holder as against the records of the natural
Mr. Curry : I should like to speak for an hour on this subject, but the time is getting
short. The Government should really provide some way of protecting the rights of the record-
Mr. Johnstone : I second this motion.
Motion carried.
Supply of Literature to Secretaries.
Moved by A. K. Farquharson, seconded by Mr. Cockle—
"Resolved, That the Provincial Government, in addition to publishing literature from
time to time as at present, also furnish the Secretaries of Institutes with a supply of all literature issued in the past, in order that they may distribute same to new settlers, or as may be
The Chairman : This is impracticable ; I have tried it for several years without success.
It is of no use to bring forward this kind of resolutions.
Mr. Cockle : I withdraw this resolution.
Motion withdrawn. N 100 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Inspection of Water-courses.
Moved by Mr. Collins, seconded by Mr. Cockle,—
" Whereas in many cases the water-courses are obstructed by silt and other debris, owing
principally7 to the neglect of having the obstacles removed at the proper time;
"Beit, therefore, Resolved, That the Government be urged to have any water-courses
inspected and the owners of the property through which the water-courses pass be compelled
to keep such water-courses clean and clear of all obstacles.
" We respectfully suggest that such work might be undertaken by the present Inspector
of Roads and Bridges."
• Mr. Collins : This matter has come up for several years. People through whose land the
water-courses run do not keep them clean, and then the ditches get choked up and it costs
more than the ranch is worth to clean them. I think that the Inspector of Roads and Bridges
should look into this matter.    Last year they wanted to do something, but nothing came of it.
Mr. Cockle : I second this resolution.
Motion carried.
Dog Tax.
Moved by Mr. Hills, seconded by Mr. Jones,—
" That a tax be put on dogs, including Indian dogs; farmers to have one dog exempted."
Mr. Hills : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, this motion has been brought up before and
lost. The dogs in our district are a regular nuisance, especially on the Indian Reserve.
They get after the sheep and chickens. It is really very often dangerous for people to pass
the rancherie. They keep too many; the number should be restricted. Farmers should only
be allowed to keep one dog, perhaps a collie.
Mr. Jones : Lots of people keep too many dogs. I speak from a personal point of view.
I lost fourteen sheep this winter through dogs. If a man is able to keep a dog he ought to
be able to pay the tax.
Mr. Bailey : It is all right for the Government to put a tax on dogs outside the incorporated districts, but we manage all these affairs ourselves in my part of the country.
Motion carried.
Adulteration of Food-stuffs.
Moved by Mr. Collins, seconded by Mr. Heatherbell,—
" Resolved, That the Government be asked to take steps to stop the adulteration of feed-
Mr. Collins : I do net know who should take steps in this matter, but someone ought to
do so. Middlings and bran are adulterated, and plenty of other things ; it has been worse
than usual this year. I suppose that it pays better to sell bad stuffs than good ones. The
Provincial Government or the Dominion Government should do something in this matter. In
the imported seeds there is often a large quantity of weed seed ; every year new weeds come
up. Perhaps the Provincial Government might urge the Dominion Government to take steps,
in this matter.
The Chairman : Have you ever taken a sample of these seeds and sent them to Ottawa
The Secretary : My neighbours have done so and found that they were adulterated.
Mr. Heatherbell: I think that it would be wise to act on this suggestion.
Mr. McDiarmid : I think that there is an official in the Inland Revenue Department to
see about this.
Motion lost.
Votes of Thanks.
Moved by Mr. Cockle, seconded by Mr. Collins,—
" That a hearty vote of thanks be tendered to the Hon. Mr. Tatlow for his address and
the unfailing interest which he has exercised in the prosperity of the agricultural interests of
the Province."    (Loud applause,)
Motion carried. 8 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 101
Moved by Mr. Collins, seconded by Mr. Corbett,—
"That a hearty vote of thanks be tendered to the Hon. Richard McBride, Premier, for
his address and the encouragement that he has given to agriculture generally during the past
year."    (Loud applause.)
Motion carried.
The Chairman : Gentlemen, before going any further, you had better make a memorandum
of your fare. I cannot get a reduction just now, but I want the amounts and the number of
days itemised. You had also better interview the Minister and make arrangements as to what
resolutions you want to discuss with him.
It was then moved and seconded that Mr. Palmer address the meeting.
Mr. Palmer : I hope that you are not expecting an address from me. I do not think that
you want a long address just now, but there are a few words I should like to say to you concerning my visit to the Old Country. The work is carried on along the same lines as last year.
We endeavoured to reach the large communities, and, as you are aware, we met with great
success. I have with me to-day photographs which show the exhibit of fruit of British Columbia
at the Horticultural Exhibition. We received again the gold medal of the British Horticultural Society, which is the highest award in the Old Country. This is the fourth time that
British Columbia fruit has taken the medal, so it shows that it is not merely an accident,
because, as you know, that this year there were exhibits from Ontario and Nova Scotia, and
in spite of this we were awarded the greatest honours.    (Applause.)
(Mr. Palmer then showed the samples of medals.)
We also carried off the gold medal of the Scottish Horticultural Society at Edinburgh,
which is only given for merit, attaining the very highest degree of perfection. (Cheers.) One
other fact I might mention in regard to advertising British Columbia is this: Every year, for
the last three years, it has been the practice to place a part of the exhibit at well-known places,
such as Glasgow or Covent Garden. We sold some thirty boxes of pears at Covent Garden for
from 19 to 24 shillings per box; these pears came from Kelowna. Apples sold at from 11
shillings to 15 shillings. Se we may look forward confidently to the fact that we have a market
at home for large quantities of fine fruit, which can be sold there for better prices than the
local markets give.    (Cheers.)
Mr. Curry : In judging the fruit, do they taste it?
Mr. Palmer : Certainly, and the Old Country gives special prizes for certain kinds of
apples, such as Newtown Pippins, Cox's Orange Pippins, and the Spitzenberg. Sometimes the
local secretaries criticise the fruit and say that, although it looks very good, it does not taste
so good. But I think that this is owing to an old-fashioned idea that if fruit is very good to
look at the taste is sacrificed to appearances. The fruit sent by the Nelson, Salmon Arm and
Kaslo Associations took very high honours. (Cheers.) These facts are very important. You
have the information before you, also the medals. (Cheers.) I should like to retain these
medals for a few days, as I wish to have them photographed.
Mr. Curry: Have you ever really met with the statement that our fruit looks very good,
but does not taste so good as, for instance, the Ontario fruit?
Mr. Palmer : This has been stated, but I assure you that exactly the opposite is said when
the fruit is actually tasted. When it is tasted it is pronounced to be quite as good as it looks.
Mr. Cockle: Are there any points you would like to make ? Are there any special
shippers we have to look for in sending fruit, so that we may be better prepared to know
exactly which are the best articles for exportation 1   Are there any special prizes for plate fruit ?
Mr. Palmer : It is better not to expect to exhibit plate fruit. There is such a short time
to do everything when we get over there, and plate fruit does not convey much to the mind ;
it is more or less of a blur, whereas a well packed box of fruit is much more effective. The best
samples of fruit happened to be in perfect condition, but all we had was not perfect. Some
of the fruit was not packed with sufficient care, nor tight enough, and some of it was not fit to be
shown. If the instructions given were followed out properly, nothing of this kind would happen.
From the districts I mentioned the fruit was well packed and evenly graded. One thing to
be remembered in packing the fruit is to put paper between the lid and the fruit. This helps
to do away with the jar of the train. I think that this covers pretty well the points you
wished explained. N 102 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1908
Mr. Jones : Can we expect the same prices and the same cost in transportation for the
Mr. Palmer : The dealers say that we can get even better results by sending in larger
quantities. This is the third year we have shown fruit in Edinburgh, and so high is our
reputation that we were besieged with buyers before our fruit was opened up. They were
perfectly willing to take all chances, so anxious were they to get the fruit. This is the result
of the reputation we acquired at the exhibitions of the previous years. The Government has
done this in bringing the fruit industry of this country before the old country markets, and
our reputation is good. All fruit-growers must see to it that this reputation is kept up.
Mr. Heatherbell: What are the best varieties of fruit trees to plant 1
Mr. Palmer : In apples the Newtown Pippins ; the Cox Orange Pippin and the Spitzen-
berg are most in demand ; and in pears, the Beurre d'Anjou and the Doyenne de Cornice.
The latter bring some 30 shillings per box, and can be profitably grown in the Interior.
Mr. Heatherbell : Is the Ribstone Pippin a favourite?
Mr. Palmer : No; not such a favourite as the others.
Mr. Johnstone : Are Cox's Orange Pippins good ?
Mr. Palmer : Yes ; they bring 24 to 25 shillings per box. The Gravenstein is rather
risky. Red apples are very much in demand. Up to the time I left England the Spitzenberg
was in perfect condition.    This shows that they can be kept in good condition for the market.
Mr. Curry :  What about transportation ?
Mr. Palmer : The net cost in carloads is about $1 per box. It only costs about 35 %
more to send them to the Old Country than to send them to Winnipeg.
Mr. Johnstone : I can bear out Mr Palmer in these prices. Someone corresponding with
me in England wrote and told me that, after seeing our exhibition of fruit in England, he was
going to sell out there and come out to British Columbia to grow fruit. (Applause.) I should
like now to move a vote of thanks to Mr. Palmer for his interesting address.
Mr. Curry : I second that motion.
Mr. Palmer : I thank you very much, gentlemen, for your vote of thanks. Of course, the
work in connection with these exhibits has been hard, but it has been a labour of love and,
above all, it has been successful.    (Loud applause.)
Mr. Harris : I move that a vote of thanks be tendered to our Superintendent. I hope
that everybody is going home satisfied with the result of the meeting.
Mr. Johnstone :  I have much pleasure in seconding the motion.
The Chairman : Mr. Harris, Mr. Johnstone, gentlemen, your vote of thanks is very
acceptable to me. I have always given my best time to the interests of the farmers, but it is
not always an easy matter to please everybody, or to carry out schemes in the best interests of
the farming population. It lies mostly with the farmers themselves, but I must say that I have
always been well seconded in my efforts, and I hope that in the future we will work together
as harmoniously as in the past. The labours of this meeting are now at an end; is there
anything you would like to bring forward before we adjourn ?
It was moved by Mr. McKenzie, seconded by Mr. Johnstone,—
"That the Convention now adjourn."
Motion carried.
Messrs. Collins, Corbett and Graham submitted the various resolutions to the Hon. Mr.
Tatlow. He promised favourable consideration. Special emphasis was laid by the Committee
on ten of the most important recommendations, and Hon. Mr. Tatlow's replies relate to these
resolutions. INDEX.
Address by Hon. Richard McBride, Premier  64
n               ii    R. G. Tatlow, Minister of Agriculture  66
Mayor Hall  69
n          Mr. F. M. Logan, Inspector of Dairies  95
ii          Mr. R. M. Palmer, Freight Rate Commissioner  101
ii           Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes  69
Bee Culture—By Rev. Thos. Menzies  52
Central Farmers' Institute, Tenth Annual Convention  63
Commercial Fruit-Growing—By T. A. Brydon  18
ii                     ii                        Deputy Minister of Agriculture  46
Cooking and Preparation of Food—By Miss R. Blanche Maddock  , 51
Dairy Cow, The—By Miss Laura Rose      28
Evils of Impure Seed—By W. E. McKillican    44
Farmer's Cow of the Future, The—By E. A. Atkins   ,  33
Fresh Air and Food for Health—By Miss R. Blanche Maddock  28
Girls' Possibilities—                             n                                  n             58
Hood River Apple-Growers' Union—By W. F. Cash  36
Horse, Draught, The—By W. F. Kydd  45
n    The—                             ,,                 35
Horticulture—By J. A. Coatham  31
Hygienic and Economic Values of Food—By Miss R. Blanche Maddock  42
Insect Pests—By Dr. Fletcher  19
Live Stock and Institute Matters—By Dr. S. F. Tolmie and Deputy Minister of Agriculture 43
Mutual Fire Insurance Company—Paper read by C. S. Hubbs  76
My Experience with a Silo—By S. H. Shannon  34
Noxious Weeds—By E. Wilson  39
Orchard, The—By T. A. Brydon  57
Pedigreed Grain Seed  88
Planting, Pruning and Spraying—By Geo. Heatherbell , . . . , 59
Poultry—By Rev. W. E. Dunham   19
Ramie Fibre Seed  88
Reports :
Bella Coola Farmers' Institute, President of  12
Brydon, T. A., re itineraiy addressing Farmers' Institutes  13
Hamilton, W. J. L, on Institute Work ,  16
Kootenay Lake Farmers' Institute, Secretary of  13
Maple Ridge                     n                   President of  11
Matsqui                               n                    Secretary of  11
Okanagan                          n                   President of  8
ii                                      ii                    Secretary7 of  8
Richmond                          n                   President of  10
n                                      ii                    Secretary-Treasurer of  10
Spallumeheen                    n                   President of ,  9
Surrey                                n                   Secretary of  10 N 104 Index. 1908
Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes  5
n                                      M                 on address of  89
Resolutions :
Adulteration of Food Stuffs ,  100
Appointment of Fruit Inspectors  80
Bounty on Coyotes  88
Crows ,  89
Cattle-Guards on Railways  97
Close Season for Game  92
Committee to Interview Minister of Agriculture  91
Construction of Roads  85
Co-operation  97
Dairy Inspection  95
Dog Tax  100
Experimental Farms  77
Fruit Canneries  84
Fruit Marks Act  79, 97
Inspection of Water-courses  100
Institute Funds         92
Lectures on Irrigation •  75
Loans to Farmers' Exchanges       99
Noxious Weeds  84
Pulp Leases  78
Salaries of Institute Secretaries  91
Spraying Fruit Trees     ... 83
Spraying Materials  81
ii                 by wholesale  87
Standard Apple Box  74
Stock Running at Large  83
Storage of Water for Irrigation  99
Supply of Literature to Secretaries  99
Tax on Automobiles  93
Time of Meeting of Central Farmers' Institute  94
Votes of Thanks  100
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, I.S.O., V.D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty


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