MINISTER OF MINES
YEAR ENDING 31st DECEMBER,
BEING AN ACCOUNT OF
MINING OPERATIONS FOR GOLD, COAL, ETC,
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PROVINCE QE BRITISH COLUMBIA
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B. C.:
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, I.S.O., V. D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1907. 7 Ed. 7 Report of the Minister of Mines. H 3
MINISTER OF MINES,
To His Honour the Honourable James Dunsmuir,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia:
May it please Your Honour :
The Annual Report of the Provincial Mineralogist ypon the Mining Industries of the
Province for the year 1906 is herewith respectfully submitted.
Minister of Mines.
Minister of Mines' Office,
March 19th, 1907. 0
M 7 Ed. 7 Report of the Minister of Mines. H 5
REPORT OF BUREAU OF MINES.
WILLIAM FLEET ROBERTSON, PROVINCIAL MINERALOGIST,
To the Hon. Richard McBride,
Minister of Mines.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my Annual Report on the Mining Industry
of the Province for the year ending December 31st, 1906.
The statistical tables give the total mineral output of the Province to date, and show in
considerable detail the actual mineral production of the past year, as based on smelter or mill
returns; also, a summary of the production of each of the last four years, thus illustrating by
comparison the progress made in productive mining during this period.
To facilitate comparison with information previously given, I have retained, as closely as
was possible, the general form already established for such tables and for the Report.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
William Fleet Robertson,
Bureau of Mines, Victoria, B. C,
March 19th, 1907. 7 Ed. 7 Report of the Minister of Mines. H 7
MINERAL PRODUCTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
METHOD OF COMPUTING PRODUCTION.
In assembling the output for the lode mines in the following tables, the established custom
of this Bureau has been adhered to, viz.: The output of a mine for the year is considered that
amount of ore for which the smelter or mill returns have been-received during the year. This
system does not give the exact amount mined during the year, but rather the amounts credited
to the mine on the company's books during such year.
For ore shipped in December the smelter returns are not likely to be received until
February in the new year, or later, and have, consequently, to be carried over to the credit of
such new year. This plan, however, will be found very approximate for each year, and
ultimately correct, as ore not credited to one year is included in the next.
In the Lode Mines tables, the amount of the shipments has been obtained from certified
returns received from the various mines, as provided for in the "Inspection of Metalliferous
Mines Act, 1897." In calculating the values of the products, the average price for the year in
the New York Metal Market has been used as a basis. For silver 95 per cent., and for lead
90 per cent., of such market price has been taken. Treatment and other charges have not
TABLE I.—Total Production for all Years up to and Including 1906.
Gold, placer 168,721,103
Gold, lode 41,015,697
Coal and Coke 79,334,798
Building stone, bricks, etc 5,543,700
Other metals 270,099
TABLE II.—Production for each Year from 1890 to 1906 (inclusive).
1852 to 1889 (inclusive) 171,981,634
Total $273,643,722 H
Report of the Minister of Mines.
SHOWING MINERAL PRODUCTION
• » —
. 1 Ed. 7
Table IV. gives a statement in detail of the amount and value of the different mineral
products for the years 1904, 1905 and 1906. As it has been impossible as yet to collect
accurate statistics regarding building stone, lime, bricks, tiles, etc., these are estimated.
Amount and Value op Mineral Products for 1904, 1905 and 1906.
Production op Mineral by Districts and Divisions.
Cariboo Mining Division
West Kootenay District
Osoyoos, Grand Forks & Green-
Coast Districts (Nanaimo, Alberni, Clayoquot, Quatsino, Vic-
$24,980,546 H 10
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Table VI. contains the yearly production of placer gold to date, as determined by the
returns, sent in by the banks and express companies, of gold transmitted by them to the mints,
and from returns sent in by the Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders. To these yearly
amounts one-third was added up to the year 1878, from then to 1895 and from 1898 to 1906,
one-fifth, which proportions are considered to represent, approximately, the amount of gold
sold of which there is no record. This placer gold contains from 10 to 25 per cent, silver, but
the silver value has not been separated from the totals, as it would be insignificant.
TABLE VI.—Yield op Placer Gold per Year to Date.
TABLE VII.—Production op Lode Mines.*
* Not included in above is 654 tons of zinc ore—worth 817,100.
*The information as to production in the earlier years is obtained from the "Mineral Statistics and Mines" for 1896, Geological
Survey of Canada. 7 Ed. 7
TABLE VIII.—Coal and Coke Production per Year to Date,
1890 .. .
Tons (2,240 Ids).
678,140 ; 2,034,420
. 24,144,633 tons.
. $ 96,980
Total 1,303,875 tons.
3,519,375 H 12
Report of the Minister of Mines.
TABLE IX.—Production in Detail of the
Quesnel ii ....
Lake and Lardeau
(Grand Forks, Greenwood and Osoyoos
and Vernon Div'ns.
Yale, Ashcroft and
Coast (Nanaimo, Al
minster and Victoria
(other metals, build
ing stone, brick, etc.)
t Includes Platinum. J Including- 654 tons Zinc ore, valued at $17,100. 7 Ed. 7
Production of Metalliferous Mines.
Metalliferous Mines for 1903, 1904, 1905 and 1906.
Totals for Divisions.
Totals for Districts.
819,432,502 H 14
Keport of the Minister of Mines.
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SHOWING MINEBAL PKODUOTION
000,000 7 Ed. 7
Progress of Mining.
PROGRESS OF MINING.
The value of the mineral products of the Province grows steadily greater, each year
showing a material increase over the preceding year.
The production for the year 1906 was $24,980,546, which is 11.2% greater than that of
1905, 31.6% greater than in 1904, and 42.8% greater than in 1903.
An analysis of the returns shows, however, that the increase this year is due chiefly to the
Boundary and Coast Districts, with a slight increase in the Cassiar District.
East Kootenay and Cariboo Districts about held their own this year, while Lillooet and
West Kootenay show a considerable decrease. In this latter district, however, Ainsworth
more than doubled its output, Rossland and Nelson nearly held their own, but Slocan and the
rest of the district show a marked decrease.
The tonnage of ore mined in the Province, exclusive of coal, was this past year 1,963,872
l.ons, some 257,193 tons, or 15%, greater than in 1905.
The number of mines from which shipments were made in 1906 was 154; and of these
only 77 shipped over 100 tons each, during the year,—practically no change from the preceding year.
Some 41 mines shipped in excess of 1000 tons each during the year, of which 14 were in
the Boundary District, eight in Nelson Mining Division, six in Trail Mining Division and
five on the Coast.
The following table shows the number of metalliferous mines which shipped ore during
the past year, together with the location of these mines and the number of men employed
both above and below ground :—
Table Showing Distribution of Shipping Mines in 1906.
Men Employed in these Mines.
East Kootenay :
West Kootenay :
3,718 H 16
Report of the Minister of Mines.
In explanation of the table, it should be said that in its preparation, a mine employing
12 men for four months is credited in the table with four men for 12 months, so that the total
given is less than the actual number of individuals who worked in mines during the year.
The "labour employed to the ton of ore mined" forms some criterion of the total cost of
mining in a camp, since the cost of labour is in a more or less constant proportion to such
total cost. In this respect it is interesting to note in the various districts the number of tons
of ore mined to each man employed. An analysis of the above table shows, approximately,
that, taking the Province as a whole, there were 528 tons of ore mined for each man employed
about the mines. In this respect, however, the districts vary very materially, since in the
Slocan District the figures show 44 tons mined to the man in the year, in the Nelson District
138 tons, in Trail Creek (Rossland) District 373 tons, and in the Boundary 1,064 tons.
Such generalisation, of course, does not apply exactly to any one mine, but only to the
district, and in the first two districts mentioned the mines vary in character so greatly, some
having high-grade shipping ores, and others low-grade concentrating ores, that care must be
taken not to carry these average figures too far.
Table Showing Non-Shipping Mines and Number op Men Employed, 1906.
Boundary (Gd. Forks, Greenw'd, Osoyoos)
East Kootenay (Ft. Steele & Windermere)
Referring to the preceding Statistical Tables of the mineral production of the Province,
the following is a summary of their contents :—
Table I. shows the total gross value of each mineral product that has been mined in the
Province up to the end of 1906. From this it will be seen that coal mining has produced more
than any separate class of mining—a total of $79,334,798—followed next in importance by
placer gold at $68,721,103, and third by lode gold at $41,015,697.
The metal gold, derived from both placer and lode mining, amounts to $109,736,800, the
greatest amount dei'ived from any one metal or mineral, the next most important being copper,
of a total gross value of $35,546,578, followed by silver at $25,586,008, and lead at $17,625,739.
Table II. shows the values of the total production of the mines of the Province for each
year from 1890 to 1906, during which period the output has increased nearly ten-fold, and has
now reached a production for the past year valued at $24,980,546, or more than double what
it was in 1899.
Table III. presents in graphical form the facts shown by figures in the tables, and
demonstrates to the eye the rapid growth of lode mining in the Province and also the fluctuations to which it has been subject. 1 Ed. 7 Progress of Mining. H 17
It will be seen that although coal mining has been a constantly increasing industry during
this whole period of 20 years, lode mining did not begin practically until 1894, since when it
has risen with remarkable rapidity, though not without interruption, until now it has nearly
reached the $17,500,000 line, and the total production has nearly reached the $25,000,000 line.
Table IV. gives the amounts, in the customary units of measure, and the values, of the
various metals or minerals which go to make up the grand total of the mineral production of
the Province, and also, for purposes of comparison, similar data for the two preceding years.
The table shows that there has been a decrease in the production of placer gold of some
$20,900, and at the same time a decrease in the output of lode gold of $302,463, thus leaving
for this metal a balance of $323,363 as a decrease.
The amount of silver produced this past year was 2,990,262 ounces, having a gross value
of $1,897,320, a decrease from the preceding year of $74,498, due chiefly to the decreased production of the Slocan district.
The table shows an output of lead in 1906 amounting to 52,408,217 tt>s., valued at
$2,667,578, which, although a decrease from the production of the preceding year of 4,172,486
Bos. of lead, is still greater than that of any other year since 1900, but owing to the greatly
increased market value of the metal, and in spite of the materially decreased amount produced,
the value of the product this year shows an increase over the preceding year of $268,556.
Table V. shows the proportions of the total mineral productions made in each of the
various Districts into which the Province is divided.
It will be noted that this year again the Boundary District has the honour of first place
on the list, followed in order of output by the Coast District and East Kootenay, with West
Kootenay, for many years our greatest producer, as only fourth on the list.
The Coast and East Kootenay Districts, however, owe a considerable percentage of their
outputs to the coal mines situated within their limits, whereas in the other districts the production is entirely from lode mining.
Table VI. gives the statistical record of the placer mines of the Province from 1858 to
1906, and shows a total production of $68,721,103. The output for 1906 was $948,400—a
decrease of about 2% as compared with the previous year, and due to a dry season with a
shortage of water for hydraulic mining.
Table VII. relates entirely to the lode mines of the Province, and shows the amounts
and values of the various metals produced each year since 1887—the beginning of such mining
in the Province. The gross value of the product of these mines to date is $119,774,022. The
production in 1906 was $17,484,102, an increase over the preceding year of $2,303,938, or
Table VIII. contains the statistics of production of the coal mines of the Province. The
total amount of coal mined to the end of 1906 is 24,144,633 tons (2,240Bis.), worth $72,815,423.
Of this there was produced in 1906 some 1,517,303 tons, valued at $4,551,909, a larger amount
than has been produced in any year previous.
In these figures of coal production is not included the coal used in making coke, as such
coal is accounted for in figures of output of coke.
The amount of coal used in 1906 in making coke was 381,773 tons, from which was produced some 199,227 tons of coke, worth $996,135, a decrease of some 72,558 tons from the
preceding year in coke produced. These figures are to a certain extent misleading, however,
as in 1905 some 3,694 tons of coke were put into stock, whereas in 1906 all the coke that was
made was sold, together with 13,009 tons taken from stock, making the coke sales this year
210,897 tons. H 18 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1906
The production of coke this year would have been much greater than it is but for the very
urgent demand for coal and the general scarcity of labour, which taxed the companies'
resources to keep up a sufficient supply of coal. A strike at the Crow's Nest Collieries in the
fall also greatly diminished the output.
More detailed statistics as to the coal production of the Province and of the separate
districts are given elsewhere in this Report.
Table IX. gives the details of production of the mines of the Province (excepting coal
mines) for the years 1903, 1904, 1905 and 1906, and the districts in which such productions
were made, showing the tonnage of ore mined in each district, with its metallic contents, and
The total tonnage of ore mined in the Province during the past year was 1,963,872
tons, having a gross value of $19,432,502.
The following table shows the percentages of such tonnage and values derived from the
various districts of the Province :—
60.2 % of tonnage and 44.2
Trail Creek Mining Division,
14.2 h 16.3
Fort Steele n
9.2 „ 15.1
.8 „ 2.7
11.1 „ 6.5
Miscellaneous and other districts
4.5 n 15.2
Table X. compares graphically the output of mineral products in British Columbia with
that of similar products in all the other Provinces of the Dominion, and shows that in 1906
British Columbia produced of the metals and coal an amount over 757. of that of all the
other Canadian Provinces combined.
During the year 1906 the actual production of coal in British Columbia has as yet been
confined to the two well-known districts, the collieries in vicinity of the Crow's Nest Pass and
the collieries on Vancouver Island.
In the former of these districts the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Co. has been operating collieries
at Michel, Coal Creek and, for the first portion of the year, at Carbonado, but latterly this last
colliery has been closed down.
The collieries on Vancouver Island have been operated by two companies, the Western
Fuel Co. at Nanaimo, and the Wellington Colliery Co. at Ladysmith and Comox.
The gross output of the coal mines of the Province for the year was 1,899,076 tons
(2,240 lbs.), which, with 17,230 tons taken from stock, makes a total consumption of 1,916,306
tons. Of this total amount, 1,361,728 tons were sold as coal, of which 681,899 tons were for
consumption in Canada and 679,829 tons were exported, while 381,773 tons were used in
making coke and 172,805 tons were used under the companies' boilers, etc., or sold locally.
The amount of coke made was 199,227 tons (2,240 lbs.), which, together with 11,670 tons
taken from stock, made the sales for the year 210,897 tons. 7 Ed. 7
Progress of Mining.
The following table indicates the markets in which the coal and coke output of the
Province was sold :—
ii export to United States «
n export to other countries .... "
/; export to United States n
Vancouver Island Collieries.
The Vancouver Island Collieries mined in 1906 some 1,178,627 tons of coal, which, with
17,230 tons taken from stock, makes the total amount of coal disposed of 1,195,857 tons,
distributed as follows:—
Sold as coal in Canada 531,106 tons
United States 433,183 ,.
ii other countries 15,783 n
Total sold as coal 980,072
Used under companies' boilers, etc 138,057
Used in making coke , 77,728
The total coal sales of the Coast collieries show an increase of 172,042 tons, or about
21.3 % over the preceding year. The amount of coal exported to the United States is very
little greater than it was last year, but amounts to about 45.8 % of the total sales. The chief
market for this coal is still San Francisco, although Alaska, with its increasing requirements
for mining and smelting, has become an important factor in the export trade, and promises to
become greater. The consumption of coal in that portion of British Columbia served by the
Coast collieries shows a marked increase, being 150,774 tons, or 39.6% greater than during
the preceding year.
The production of coke on the Coast is confined to one company, the Wellington Colliery
Co., which made in 1906 only 9,842 tons, but took from its stock piles some 13,009 tons,
making the coke sales 22,851 tons, of which amount 14,547 tons were sold locally and 8,304
tons were exported chiefly to Alaskan points. The local consumption of coke shows an increase
of 9,137 tons, or 169 %, due to the active operations of the Vancouver Island copper smelters.
The increase in the amount of coke exported is equally marked, being 4,004 tons, or 93 %, ■
and is due to the constantly increasing copper smelting operations carried on in Alaska.
While these increases are very considerable, they are not nearly as great as they would
have been but for the shortage of labour at the various collieries, which were, therefore, quite
unable to satisfy the demand for fuel. A fuel famine seemed to be imminent, and, as a
matter of fact, in the spring of 1907 coke had to be and was imported, a cargo of some 3,000
tons having been received by the Crofton smelter from Australia.
The selling price of coal has also advanced very much, so much so that local coal dealers
are charging $7.75 for 2,000 lbs. of coal delivered for domestic use. H 20 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1907
Crow's Nest Pass Collieries.
In the Rocky mountain coal field, the collieries in British Columbia are all operated by
the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company, although over the boundary in the Province of Alberta
there are three or four other companies operating. The Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company
operated collieries at Michel, Coal Creek, and at Carbonado (Morrissey); the latter, however,
was shut down on April 1st and has not since resumed operations. This company mined
during the year 720,449 tons (2,240) of coal, the disposition of which is shown in the following
Sold as coal in Canada , 150,793 tons.
„ United States 230,863 n
Used by company in making coke 304,045
n under companies' boilers, etc 34,748
The amount of coke produced from the coal noted above was 189,385 tons, of which
1,339 was carried over the year as stock and 188,046 tons sold, some 134,646 tons for consumption in Canada—all in British Columbia—while 53,400 tons were exported to the United
States. The coal sales of the Crow's Nest Company this year are less than during the preceding year by 13,285 tons, or 3.3 %. The coke sales also show a decrease of 70,335 tons, or
27.2 %. These decreases are accounted for by the facts that in the fall a labour strike closed
the mines for six weeks or two months, and later the unusually heavy snow fall blocked the
railways to such an extent that they were unable to move the coal.
The production of placer gold during the year 1906 was about $948,400,
Placer Gold. which is about 2.2 % less than that of 1905. This falling off, though slight,
is general and represents the lessened work of the individual miner, whose
successors, the large companies, have not as yet got into satisfactory operation.
The Atlin District produced very nearly as much gold as it did the previous year, chiefly
the work of comparatively small companies, although in this district individual miners are still
at work, but the ground suited for this class of mining is gradually diminishing.
The two large dredges installed in this district have been practically abandoned, as the
ground upon which they were working was found unsuitable for dredging operations.
A large steam shovel plant has been installed on shallow ground, and from present
indications promises to be a large producer. The small shovel, the first installed in the
district, has not been a commercial success, owing to the quite inadequate arrangements for
handling and washing the dirt lifted.
In the Dease lake section of Cassiar, despite the difficulties of transportation, one
.hydraulic company recovered between $20,000 and $25,000 in gold, and a second company
will probably be in operation in 1907. Here, however, the individual miner has almost
In the Cariboo District, the Cariboo Mining Division shows a marked increase over the
preceding year, about 18.6 %, chiefly from small hydraulic enterprises, but the Quesnel Division
shows a decrease of about 30 %, due to the fact that the largest producing company did little
mining, being taken up with large operations for increasing its water supply.
The Fort Steele District continues to produce a little gold from the old creeks, but the
quantity is yearly diminishing. 7 Ed. 7 Progress of Mining. H 21
The bars on the Thompson and Fraser rivers have been very disappointing, and the
dredges installed thereon have not been successful.
The value of the gold produced from lode mining in the Province in
Gold from Lode 1906 was $4,630,639, of which about 95 % was recovered from the smelting
Mining. of copper-bearing ores. There are practically no stamps in operation since
the Ymir mine ceased to operate, excepting one at Hedley.
The total amount of silver produced in the Province during the year was 2,990,262
ounces, valued at $1,897,320, a decrease of about 449,155 ounces and in the value of the
product of $74,498.
About 77 % of the silver is found in association with lead, in argentiferous galena, the
remainder being found in conjunction with copper ores.
The Fort Steele Mining Division produced 1,049,536 ounces, about the same as in 1905,
but the Slocan shows a decrease in output of 474,335 ounces, or 45 %.
There was produced in the Province in 1906 some 52,408,217 pounds of lead, valued at
$2,667,578. Although this is a decrease of 4,172,486 lbs. from the preceding year, the value,
owing to the higher market prices, shows an increase of $268,556, and is the highest amount
ever received for the lead product of the Province, except in 1900.
With lead, as with its associated metal silver, the greater part of the production comes
from Fort Steele Division, while the production of the Slocan in 1906 is only 55.1 % of that of
1905, or 28 % of the production of 1904.
The following table shows the output of the various districts, and the percentage such
bear to the total output for the year :—
Fort Steele Mining Division 44,487,481 lbs. = 84.88 %
Ainsworth „ 3,173,353 „ 6.05
Slocan „ 2,975,674 „ 5.66
Nelson ,, 1,034,553 „ 1.96
All other „ 737,156 „ 1.45
52,408,217 ii 100.00
For the whole of the year 1906 the market price of lead has been above £12 10s. in
London; consequently the Dominion Government lead bounty has, during this period, been
The copper output in 1905 was the largest the Province had ever made, but the production
of 1906 exceeds it by some 5,298,237 lbs., an increase of 12.32 %, while the value of the total
product this year is $2,412,343 in excess of the preceding year, an increase of 41 %.
The production of copper in 1906 was 42,990,488 lbs., having a gross value of $8,288,565.
This increase is chiefly attributable to the Boundary District, although there is an increase in
the Coast District, but Rossland shows a decrease. Of the total output, the Boundary
District produces 73 %, the Coast District 12 %, and Rossland 10 %. H 22 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1907
The following table shows the production of the various districts for the years 1904, 1905
and 1906 :—
Boundary District 22,066,407 fts.
32,226,782 lbs. =
Rossland „ .... 7,119,876 „
Coast ,i .... 5,960,593 n
Yale-Kamloops „ .... 328,380 „
Nelson „ .... 220,500 „
Various Districts 14,372 n
35,710,128 „ 37,692,251 „ 42,990,488 „ 100.00
The average assays of the copper ores of the various camps, based upon the copper
recovered, were as follows :—
Boundary, 1.4 % copper; Coast, 1.21 %, and Rossland, 0.85 % copper.
There has been no iron ore mined in the Province during this past
Iron Ore. year, for the reason that there is no market for it on the Pacific Coast-
There has been considerable prospecting work done in connection with the
known iron deposits on the Coast, and schemes have been in consideration for the erection of
blast furnaces, either in British Columbia or on Puget Sound.
The production of zinc ore this past year was very small, only some
Zinc Ore. 654 tons, and the industry has been practically at a stand still. In 1905,
concentrating or " enriching" plants were erected for the production of
concentrates that would assay about 50 % zinc, for which there was a market in the United
States, into which country they were admitted free of duty as "crude mineral " ; but in 1906
a decision of the United States Customs Department ruled that these concentrates were not
"crude mineral," and, consequently, were subject to duty, which duty was so high as to be
prohibitive, the result being a suspension of zinc mining in British Columbia. This decision
has, however, been appealed from, and on February 7th, 1907, the United States General
Appraisers reversed the decision, deciding that these concentrates were " crude mineral " and,
consequently, free from duty. The full text of this decision will be found in the Report on
the Slocan District submitted herewith.
The Commission, headed by W. R. Ingalls, of New York, and Philip Argall, of Denver,
appointed by the Dominion Government to investigate the zinc resources of British Columbia,
has published its report, which goes into the subject most thoroughly. Copies of this report
can be obtained from the Mines Branch of the Department of the Interior, Ottawa.
The following is a brief summary of some of the more important points brought out in the
Present Possible Zinc Output.
The two mines working are essentially lead mines, although containing
East Kootenay. considerable zinc—one of them has more developed zinc ore than any other
mine in British Columbia—but the character of the ore is such that zinc
extraction is almost hopeless (p. 47 of Report).
Assuming Blue Bell ore to carry 15 % zinc mined en masse, then, if
Ainsworth M. D. mined and concentrated at rate of 200 tons of ore a day, it might produce
39 tons a day of 50 % cencentrates. All the other mines in the Division
might produce 15 tons a day of 50 % concentrates (p. 166). 7 Ed. 7 Progress of Mining. H 23
Ingalls says 15,000 tons per annum of concentrates (45 to 50 tons a
Slocan. day) would be a liberal estimate for Slocan, and this could only be produced
as a by-product from lead mining (pp. 41-47).
"The zinc deposits of the Coast are still of unknown magnitude; they
Coast. are, in fact, nothing but prospects" (p. 56).
Possibilities and Cost op Zinc Smelting in B. C.
The ore must be taken to the coal, as the consumption of coal is 2 tons to 1 of ore; hence
the only places adapted for zinc smelting in British Columbia are Crow's Nest or Coast (pp. 51
and 52). Ore or concentrates must contain over 40 % metallic zinc. " It is difficult to see how
zinc smelting could be profitably carried on in British Columbia with coal at Crow's Nest Pass
Coal Co.'s price "— $2 a ton (p. 52).
" The prospect for zinc smelting on the Coast, at least by the standard method, is too remote
to merit detailed consideration at the present time " (p. 56).
The estimated cost of smelting in British Columbia, given by Ingalls, for the running
expenses of a perfectly equipped and economically run modern zinc smelter—with no allowance
for interest on investment, or legitimate profit—with coal at $1.50 a ton, and skilled labour
at $3 a day of 10 hours, is $15 a ton (p. 54.)
(If we substitute in this estimate the lowest prices at present available, viz.:—Coal at $2
to $2.25 a ton, and skilled labour at $3.25 to $3.50 for eight hours, it will make the estimated
costs of operation about $18.75 a ton of 50 % concentrates.) Ingalls further estimates the cost
of marketing the spelter produced from 1 ton of zinc concentrates at $8.50, which makes his
total estimate $23.50 a ton of concentrates (or, if corrected as above noted, $26.75 a ton).
The Report further estimates the cost of shipping the same concentrates to Europe for
treatment would be $25.03 a ton, from which it would appear that zinc smelting is not at
present feasible in British Columbia.
Electric Smelting op Zinc Ores.
The following are the conclusions arrived at by the Commission as to electric smelting of
zinc ores in British Columbia (pp. 132-133) :—
(1.) " Electric smelting will never displace ordinary (fire) smelting, if it is necessary to
generate the power from coal."
(2.) " Electric smelting may be, in the future, economically conducted at places where
very cheap hydro-electric power is available." (By cheap he means less than $15 per h. p. per
annum. Nelson and Trail are now paying $45 per h. p. See p. 67.)
(3.) " Aside from the question of power, up to the present time, certain peculiar and
serious metallurgical difficulties in electric smelting have not been satisfactorily overcome."
" It is unlikely that electric smelting of zinc ores can ever be profitably carried on in the
zinc-producing districts of the East and West Kootenays " (p. 133).
Platinum continues to be found in small quantities in various parts of
Platinum. the Province, but as yet no systematic attempt has been made to save it.
As already noted in previous reports, it is found in alluvial washings in the
Similkameen District, on the Quesnel river in Cariboo, on Thibert creek in Cassiar, and also in
the Yukon. The latest find was at Lillooet, from which district there was received a few
ounces of the crude platinum sand, saved by a prospector in washing for gold, for which the
Provincial Mineralogist was able to obtain some $25 an ounce net cash. H 24 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1907
The quarrying of stone for building purposes has as yet only on the
Building Stone. Coast taken the form of an industry, as in that district only has the use of
stone for building become at all general. In a previous report descriptions
were given of the more important quarries that had been opened up on the Coast, to which
there is not much to add now, except to note that the general output of the quarries has
nearly doubled in the last couple of years.
The manufacture of red building brick is constantly increasing with
Brick. the market. A special report on the industry and the clay deposits of the
Coast will be found elsewhere in this report. The greater consumption of
brick, and consequently the greater production, is on the Coast, near Vancouver and Victoria,
although scattered throughout the Interior are small yards supplying local demands, suitable
clay being found in abundance.
The manufacture of fire brick formerly carried on at Comox has, as far
Fire Brick. as is known, ceased, although about 3,500 tons of fire clay were mined from
the coal mines in the vicinity. A deposit of fire clay of apparently very
fair quality is being developed near Vancouver, and a brick-making plant erected, the product
of which has not, however, been on the market for a sufficient time to assure its reputation.
The manufacture of earthenware, such as sewer and drain pipes, chimney caps, flower
pots, &c, has been carried on near Victoria by the B. C. Pottery Company, the output
having a value of somewhere about $80,000, while other firms have also been making drain
tiles and pipes.
The production of lime is naturally associated more or less closely with
Lime. constructions of brick or stone, aside from its use in internal plastering,
and, consequently, the greatest production has been on the Coast, the most
extensively operated lime-kilns being situated at Victoria and on Texada Island, at both of
which points a lime of almost theoretical purity is made, although the kilns are rather primitive
and the economies of production have only begun to be introduced.
Although other enterprises are in contemplation, the only concern at
Cement. present manufacturing cement in British Columbia, to any extent, is the
Vancouver Portland Cement Company, with works at Tod Inlet, some 14
miles from Victoria, a description of whose plant, as it then existed, was given in the Report
of 1904, since which time the capacity of the plant has been about doubled and the demand
for the cement will probably necessitate further enlargements in the near future. The value
of the output in 1906 approached a quarter of a million dollars.
There has been no serious attempt made to develop the supposed oil
Oil and Oilshales. fields in the Flathead valley, owing probably to the conflicting and questioned validity of titles to the various claims ; but this matter has now
been practically settled, and it is expected the coming season will see active operations tending
to prove the field. Nothing further has been heard of the oilshales found in the vicinity of
Harper's Camp, Cariboo, and no serious attempt has been made to prospect for oil in the
Queen Charlotte Islands, where seepages were reported as found. 7 Ed. 7 Progress of Mining. H 25
DEVELOPMENTS OF THE YEAR.
There have been few developments or occurrences during the past year that require special
notice. Mining is becoming more a settled business, by the elimination, to a large extent, of
In placer mining a departure has been made in Atlin, from the methods
Placer Mining, formerly in vogue, in the installation of the first properly equipped steam
shovel, with apparently satisfactory results. In Cariboo, the long-preached
axiom that the quantity of water available for hydraulicking is the measure of the output, has
had the effect of starting extensive plans and works for rendering available considerably more
water, the effect of which will not be noticeable on the production for a couple of years.
Dredging in Atlin has proved a failure, owing to the character of the gravel rather than
the scarcity of gold. Dredging on the Fraser river and its tributaries has not proved
successful, for various reasons.
Individual placer mining is decreasing to such an extent as to be now relatively
The increase in the production of the metalliferous mines of the
Metalliferous Province this year is entirely due to the increase in the market price of
Mines. metals, together with the effect this has had in stimulating the output of
copper ore in the Boundary and Coast Districts. The chief product
of the East Kootenay District is silver-lead ore, of which practically all is obtained from two
or three mines in the Fort Steele Mining Division. Here, although the amount of lead produced this year is about 3,761,347 lbs. less than in 1905, this year's production is over double
that of 1904. Despite the decreased production, the market price has been so much higher as
to make the value of this year's diminished product greater than was that of last year.
The same is true of the silver product. The quantity of ore handled this year has increased
by about 10,000 tons.
Fort Steele Mining Division this year produced about 85 % of the total lead output of the
Province. The North Star Co. has again begun to ship a considerable quantity of ore from
another of its properties.
In the Windermere Mining Division some six mines shipped during the year, but did not
average 50 tons each.
In the Nelson Mining Division the tonnage of ore mined was about the same as in the
previous year, but, owing to the closing of the Ymir mine, the production of gold decreased,
while the copper output more than doubled. Several of the smaller properties in the Division
have been energetically and successfully operated.
In the Slocan District some 52 mines shipped ore—about the same as in the previous
year—but of these only 16 produced over 100 tons each during the year. During the past
year the metallic content of the ore is only about half what it was in 1905, or one-quarter of
what it was in 1904.
This graat decrease is partly attributable to the fact that this year there has been no
market for zinc ore, which is a by-product in the mining of galena. Neither the Dominion
Government bounty nor the high price of the metals seems to be able to stimulate the lead
industry in this district.
In the Rossland Camp there is a decrease in the tonnage of ore mined of 15 %, with a
somewhat greater decrease in gold and copper contents. H 26 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1907
In the Boundary District, despite a shortage of coal and coke for about two months,
there has been an increase of some 22 % in the tonnage of ore mined. The value of the gold
product has increased about 19 % ; of silver, about 18 % ; and of copper, of 44 %. The value
of the copper product in this district is 75 % that of the whole Province.
In the Coast District, on Texada Island, the Marble Bay mine has maintained regular
shipments, while the Copper Queen and Van Anda properties have again begun to ship,
although in small quantities. The iron mines have not been operated.
In the New Westminster District the Britannia mine has been in operation, but on
account of troubles with the aerial tramway, and difficulties encountered in the concentration
of the ores, has not been as successful as it was hoped it would be. There were mined, however, during the year about 90,000 tons of ore, of which some 35,000 tons were shipped direct
to the smelter and about 55,000 tons were concentrated, producing nearly 10,000 tons of
concentrates. The metallic contents of the ore mined were, approximately, 2,800 ounces of
gold, 4,500 ounces of silver, and 2,600,000 Bis. of copper. The smelter operated by this
company, situated at Crofton, has been in operation during the year on Britannia ore, supplemented by ores from Alaska and from the Portland Canal.
The Portland Canal District has at least partly fulfilled its promise of last year, and
during the latter part of this year has been shipping to the smelter at Hadley, Alaska, from
one mine, about 100 tons of copper ore a day.
In the Omineca Mining Division, on the headwaters of the Telkwa and Zymoetz rivers,
a number of prospects are being developed which have good surface showings, chiefly copper
ore. These will, however, be too remote from transportation to be available until after the
Grand Trunk Pacific railway is built.
On Vancouver Island, the Tyee mine shipped some 24,000 tons of ore, containing 1,800,000
lbs. of copper, in addition to the gold and silver values. The development of the lower levels
of the mine has been continued regularly, but has so far failed to disclose any important ore
On the Richard III. shipments have again been begun from a body of ore, a continuation
of the Tyee ore body.
A shipment of almost 100 tons of copper ore was made from the Southern Cross mine,
on the Alberni canal.
Active development has again begun on the copper properties at Sidney inlet on the
West Coast of the Island. 7 Ed. 7 Bureau of Mines. H 27
BUREAU OF MINES.
Work op the Year.
The work of the Bureau of Mines increases, of necessity, year by year, and this growing
activity is due to the following causes :—The extension of the mining area of the Province,
with the proportional increase in the number of mines; the increasing desire of the outside
public for the free information which the Bureau supplies with regard to the various mining
districts and camps; and the appreciation by the prospector of the fact that he may obtain,
gratis, a determination of any rock or mineral which he may send to the Bureau.
The routine work of the office, and the preparation and publication of the Report for the
year just ended, followed by the examination in the field of as many of the mines and mining
districts as the season would permit, together with the work of the Laboratory and instruction
of students, fully occupied the staff for the year. The staff of the Bureau consists of the
Provincial Mineralogist, the Provincial Assayer, and a junior assistant in the Laboratory,
wiih a clerk as temporary assistant during the publication of the Report.
After the publication of the Annual Report for the previous year and
Provincial the finishing of office work, the Provincial Mineralogist, early in June,
Mineralogist. made a trip to the vicinity of Cowichan lake, visiting there such mineral
claims as had had any material amount of work performed on them, and
making a report on the same. A report was also made as to the necessity for and the best
route to be followed for a trail into certain claims situated on the Nanaimo river. The field-
work to be undertaken during the summer months by the Bureau was then planned out and
preparations for the main summer trip of the Provincial Mineralogist made.
On July 12th the Provincial Mineralogist, acting under instructions of the Hon. the
Minister of Mines, started on a trip to the valley of the Peace river, east of the Rocky
mountains and west of the 120th mei'idian, the Provincial boundary between the 54° and 60°
north latitude. The reports of rich finds of gold, and also of coal, in this district, combined
with its agricultural possibilities, on all of which the Government had no authentic information, and the fact that this was a proposed route of the G.T.P. Railway across the Province
which seemed most likely to be followed, rendered an early report on this district very
The route chosen was to go up the Skeena river from Essington to Hazelton; thence by
pack-train to Babine lake, portaging to Stuart lake, and thence to Fort St. James, at the
outlet of this lake. From here pack-horses were taken to Fort McLeod, on the Pack river,
one of the tributaries of the Peace river, a distance of 85 miles. At McLeod Lake post canoes
were obtained, with which, and later the use of a bateau, the tributaries of and the main
Peace river were followed to Peace River Crossing, some 430 miles down stream, during
which run three or four side trips were made into the adjacent country by pack-train or on
From Peace River Crossing a waggon road was followed for 100 miles to Lesser Slave
lake, which discharges through Lesser Slave river into the Athabasca river; and these waterways were descended in a canoe, a distance of 200 miles, to Athabasca Landing, from which
place to Edmonton the trip of 100 miles was made in a waggon. From Edmonton to Victoria
the trip was made by the Canadian Pacific Railway. The total distance travelled on this trip was a little over 3,000 miles, of which 910 miles
was by steamer, 840 miles by railroad, 700 by canoe, 470 on horseback or on foot, and 200 by
freight waggon. The total time occupied, including all stops and delays, was 88 days. From
Hazelton to Edmonton, with included side trips, occupied 76 days, during which time camp
was moved 56 times.
In November the Provincial Mineralogist made a trip to Texada Island, accompanying an
officer of the United States Geological Survey.
In May, and again in December, Examinations for Assayers were held m the Government
Laboratory, Victoria, by the Board of Examiners appointed under the Act, on which Board
the Provincial Mineralogist and Provincial Assayer sat.
In December two bulletins—one on the West Coast of Vancouver Island and the other
on the Portland Canal district—were prepared, and published in January.
The remainder of the time was spent in the preparation for publication of the notes taken
in the field, the collection and preparation of statistics and the routine work of the office,,
which included, in connection with the various inquiries for information and the collection of
statistics, the sending out of, approximately, 1,500 letters, with, approximately, the same
In addition to the work in the assay office, which is noted in a separate
Provincial report herewith, the Provincial Assayer made a trip up the west coast of
Assayer. Vancouver Island and another to the district at the head of Portland
canal, with a short run into the Kemano river, on Gardner canal, visiting
the mineral claims under development in these sections, the reports of which trips are contained
in the body of this report. He also undertook an investigation of the clay deposits of the
Coast that are now being commei-cially worked, and although this investigation is not yet
completed, an account of some of the deposits visited will be found under the heading of the
Mining Divisions in which they are situated.
The photographs, from which cuts accompanying this l-eport were made, were almost all
developed in the Laboratory.
Attention is drawn to the very skillful manner in which the Provincial Assayer has-
made one photograph out of, in some cases, as many as six separate negatives (4x5 Kodak),
which have been so successfully joined that in most cases it is quite impossible to detect the
fact that the photograph is not from one negative. As good results have never been attained
by any professional photographer in the Province.
The following is a summary of the work of the Assay Office of the Bureau for the year
1906, as r-eported by the Provincial Assayer, Mr. Herbert Carmichael:—
During the year 1906 there were made by the staff in the Government Assay Office
1,005 assays or quantitative determinations, which is a deci-ease from the number made during
the previous year. Of these, a number were for the Bureau of Mines, or for the Department,
for which no fees were received. The fees collected by the office were as follows:—
Fees from assays $ 393 00
ii melting and assaying gold dust and bullion 249 00
ii assayers' examinations 467 00
Total cash receipts $1,109 00
Determinations and examinations made for other Government
Departments for which no fees wei-e collected $ 400 00
Value of assaying done $1,509 00 7 Ed. 7 Bureau of Mines. H 29
The value of gold melted during the year was $85,000, in 117 lots, as against $99,631, in
142 lots in 1905.
In addition to the above quantitative woi'k, a large number of quali-
Free tative determinations, or tests, were made in connection with the identifica-
Determinations. tion and classification of rocks or minerals sent to the Bureau for a report.
Of these no count was kept, nor were fees charged therefor, as it is the
established custom of the Bureau to examine and test qualitatively without charge samples of
mineral sent in from any part of the Province, and to give a report on the same. This has
been done for the purpose of encouraging the search for new or rare minerals and ores, and to
assist prospectors and others in the discovering of new mining districts, by enabling them to
have determined, free' of cost, the nature and probable value of any rock they may find.
In making these free determinations, the Bureau asks that the locality from which the sample
was obtained be given by the sender, so that the distribution of mineral over the Province
may be put ou record.
In addition to the ordinary work of the office, a large number of water analyses were
made for New Westminster city and Phcenix.
A considerable number of samples of black sand were assayed and platinum was found in
the samples from Omineca and Cassiar Districts.
An examination is being made of the clay and clay industry of the Province, and when
the work is further advanced a complete report will be made.
EXAMINATIONS FOR ASSAYERS.
Report of H. Carmichael, Secretary of Board op Examiners.
I have the honour, as Secretary, to submit the Annual Report of the Board of Examiners
for Certificates of Competency and Licence to Practice Assaying in British Columbia, as
established under the "Bureau of Mines Act Amendment Act, 1899."
The Act requires that at least two examinations shall be held each year, and such have
duly taken place.
Both these examinations were held in the Government Laboratory at Victoria, each
occupying a week ; the first examination began on April 23rd, and the second on December
At the first examination the Board consisted of the Provincial Mineralogist, the Provincial Assayer and Mr. Thomas Kiddie, and at this examination five candidates came up for
examination, of which number four passed the required examination, only one failing. At the
December examination, the Board consisted of the Provincial Mineralogist, Provincial Assayer
and Mr. D. E. Whitaker, a B. C. L. Assayer, at which twelve candidates stood for examination
and seven successfully passed.
The question of holding the fall examination at Nelson was thought of, providing a
sufficient number of candidates from the Upper Country entered for the examination. Advertisements were inserted in the Kootenay papers, giving notice of such intention and calling for
enti-ies, but no sufficient number applied to justify the considerable additional expense entailed
by holding an examination away from Victoria.
In addition to the twelve candidates mentioned above, who successfully passed the examinations, the Board recommended during the year the granting of two certificates by exemption,
under sub-section (2) of section 2 of the Act. In accordance with these recommendations, all
these fourteen certificates have been duly issued by the Honourable the Minister of Mines. H 30
Report of the Minister of Mines.
The following is a list, up to December 31st, 1906, of those to whom Certificates of
Competency have been issued :—
List op Assayers holding Provincial Certificates of Efficiency under the
"Bureau of Mines Act Amendment Act, 1899."
(Only the holders of such certificates may practise assaying in British Columbia.)
Under section 2, sub-section (1).
Mitchell, Charles T Grand Forks.
McCormiek. Alan F Ruth, Nevada.
MacDonald, Alex. C ....... .Vancouver.
McFarlane, James A Kaslo.
Nieholls, Frank .. Norway.
O'Sullivan, John Vancouver.
Parker, Rotit. H Rossland.
Parsenow. W. L
Perkins, Walter G Basin, Montana.
Robertson, T. R
Rombauer, A. B Butte, Montana.
Schroeder, Curt. A Hazelton.
Segsworth, Walter Houghton, Mich.
Sharpe, Bert N
Sim, Charles John England.
Snyder, Blanehard M Greenwood.
Steven, Wm. Gordon
Stimmel, B. A Boundary Falls.
Sundberg, Gustave Prince ol Wales Island-
Tally, Robert E Spokane, Wash.
Thomas, Percival W Pr. of Wales Is., Alask.
Tretheway, John H Kokanee, B. C.
Turner, H. A
Vance, John F. C. B Vancouver.
Van Agnew, Frank Siberia.
Wales, Roland T
Watson, William J Ladysmith.
Welch, J. Cuthbert Alaska.
Wells, Ben T Vancouver.
West, Geo. G
Whittaker, Delbert E Victoria.
Widdowson, E. Walter Nelson.
Williams, W. A Grand Forks.
Williams, Eliot H Nelson.
Wimberly, S. H Grand Forks.
Austin, John W Britannia Beach, B. C.
Baker, C. S. H Grand Forks.
Barke, A. C Greenwood, B. C.
Belt, Sam'l. Erwin Boundary Falls, B. C.
Bernard, Pierre Monte Christo, Wash.
Bishop, Walter Grand Forks.
Buchanan, James Trail.
Campbell, Colin New Denver.
Carmichael, Norman Clifton, Arizona.
Church, George B
Cobeldick, W. M Scotland.
Comrie, George H Atlin.
Collinson, H Ladysmith.
Cruickshank, G Rossland.
Day, Athelstan Dawson.
Dedolph, Ed Marysville, B. C.
Dockrill, Walter R Chemainus.
Farquhar, J. B Vancouver.
Fingland, John J Sandon.
Grosvenor, F. E Nelson.
Hannay, W. H Rossland.
Hart, P. E Grand Forks.
Hawkins, Francis. Silverton.
Hook, A. Harry Greenwood.
Hurter, C. S
John, D Haileybury, Ont.
Kiddie, Geo. R Victoria.
Kitto, Geoffrey B Ladysmith.
Lang, J. G
Ley, Richard N Nelson.
Marsli, Richard Spokane, Wash.
Marshall, H. Jukes Britannia Beach, B. C.
Marshall, William S Ladysmith.
Miles, Arthur D
Under section 2, sub-section (9,).
Browne, D. J Rossland.
Bryant, Cecil M Vancouver.
Blaylock, Selwyn G Nelson.
Cartwright, Cosmo T Vancouver.
Cavers, Thomas W Rossland.
Clothier, George A Rossland.
Cole, Arthur A Cobalt, Ont.
Cole, L. Heber ... Phoenix.
Coulthard, R. W Fernie.
Dixon, Howard A Toronto, Ontario.
Galbraith, M. T
Oilman, Ellis P Vancouver.
Green, J. T. Raoul Blairmore.
Guess, George A Trail.
Gwillim, J. C Kingston, Ontario.
Heal, John H
miliary, G. M Idaho, U. S.
Holdich, Augustus H England.
Johnston, William Steele... .Lachine, Que.
Kaye, Alexander Vancouver.
Lay, Douglas Silverton.
Lewis, Francis B
Merrit, Charles P
Musgrave, William N Victoria, B. C.
. Port Simpson.
Mussen, Horace W ....
McArthur, Reginald E..
McMurtry, Gordon 0 . .
McNab, j. A Trail.
McVicar, John .
Maclennan, F. W Rossland.
Noble, David T Trail.
Outhett, Christopher Kamloops.
Pemberton, W. P. D
Reid, J. A Greenwood.
Scott, Oswald Norman
Shannon, S Trout Lake, B. C.
Sharpe, G. P Midland, Ontario.
Sloan, David Three Forks, B. C.
Stevens, F. G Mexico.
Sullivan, Michael H Trail.
Sutherland, T. Fraser
Swinney, Leslie A. E
Thomson, H. Nellis Anaconda, Montana-
Watson, A. A Olalla.
Workman, Ch. W
Wright, Richard Rossland.
Wynne, Lewellyn C Princeton. 7 Ed. 7 Bureau of Mines. H 31
List of Assayers holding Provincial Certificates of Efficiency.—Concluded.
Under section 2, sub-section (3).
Carmichael, Herbert Victoria. McKillop, Alexander Nelson.
(Provincial Assayer.) Pellew-Htarvey, Wm London, England.
Harris, Henry Alaska. Robertson, Wm. F Victoria.
Kiddie, Thos Alaska. (Provincial Mineralogist.)
Sutton, W. J Victoria. Marshall, Dr. T. R Mexico.
Previously issued under the "Bureau op Mines Act, 1897," section 12.
Pinder, W. J Dawson, Y. T. Thompson, James B Vancouver.
EXAMINATIONS FOR COAL MINE OFFICIALS.
During the year 1904, under the " Coal Mines Regulation Act Further Amendment Act,
1904," the regulations regarding the qualifications and examinations of officials employed in
coal mines have been completely revised and at the same time made much more stringent and
The " Coal Mines Regulation Act," as now amended, provides that all the officers of a
coal mining company having any direct charge of work underground, shall hold Government
Certificates of Competency, which are to be obtained only after passing an examination before
a duly qualified Board, appointed for the purpose of holding such examinations, and known as
the Managers' Board. The certificates granted on the recommendation of such Board, and the
requirements for same, are as follows:—
First Class Certificate (or Manager's Certificate).
Such a certificate must be held by every manager or "chief officer having the control and
daily supervision of any coal mine " in British Columbia. The statutory requirements for this
certificate, in addition to such examination and qualifications as may be imposed by the Board
of Examiners are, that the candidate for examination shall be at least 25 years of age, a
British subject, and have had at least five years' experience in or about the practical working
of a coal mine.
Second Class Certificate (or Overman's Certificate).
Such certificate must be held by any person " who has the daily charge of the underground
workings of a coal mine under the control and daily supervision of the manager, and next in
charge under such manager."
Aside from the requirements of the Board of Examiners, a candidate for such certificate
must have had "at least five years' experience in or about the practical working of a coal
Third Class Certificate.
This certificate must be held by every shiftboss, fireboss, or shotlighter in a coal mine in
British Columbia, and besides the examination by the Board, calls for three years' practical
Experience in a coal mine outside the Province may be accepted by the Board. Any
certificate is considered to include that of any lower class.
In addition to the examinations and certificates already specified as coming under the
Managers' Board, the Act further provides that every coal miner shall be the holder of a
certificate of competency as such. By "miner" is meant "a person employed underground in
any coal mine to cut, sheer, break or loosen coal from the solid, whether by hand or machinery." H 32 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1907
Examinations for a miner's certificate are held each month at each colliery by a Board of
Examiners, known as the Miners' Board, and consisting of an official appointed by the owners,
an examiner elected by the miners of that colliery, and an examiner appointed by the Government.
Examinations for first, second and third classes were held simultaneously at Fernie,
Nanaimo and Cumberland, October 23rd, 24th and 25th, 1906.
BOARD OF EXAMINERS FOR COAL MINE OFFICIALS.
First, Second and Third Class Certificates.
Report of Secretary of Board, Francis II. Shepherd.
I beg to submit the annual report, covering the transactions of the above Board, appointed
under the " Coal Mines Regulation Act."
The period intervening between the holding of the last examination and the previous one
was longer than usual, and the number of applicants was in consequence greater. The Board
possesses no definite means of ascertaining when these examinations should be held, in order
to enable intending candidates to present themselves for examination without unnecessary
delay, and the Board has hitherto been governed in this matter by the response to the previous
While it is the desire of the Board to hold examinations sufficiently often to fully meet
the requirements of the " Coal Mines Regulation Act," it should be stated that the necessary
arrangements and preparations required to hold such examinations simultaneously over so
large an area, embracing as it does, coal mining centres 800 miles apart, necessitates work of
some magnitude, and the fixing of dates for holding these examinations should, and does,
receive the careful consideration of the Board.
In order that intending candidates may have ample time in which to prepare for examination, the Board now publishes notices of examinations intended to be held fully three months
previous to the date set for such examination. The last examination was held simultaneously
at Nanaimo, Fernie and Cumberland, on October 23rd, 24th and 25th.
The examiners were as follows :—
Nanaimo—Messrs. Charles Graham, Elijah Priest and F. H. Shepherd.
Fernie—Messrs. John John and R. G. Drinnan.
Cumberland—Messrs. A. Dick, John Matthews and Tully Boyce.
The following candidates having earned the necessary percentages, were recommended to
receive first, second or third class certificates accordingly :—
First Class—Thos. H. Williams, Thos. France and John K. Millar.
Second Class—Bernard Canfield, John Newton, James Derbyshire, Edward Budge,
William Lockhart, Thomas M. McGuchie, John Gillespie, David McKinnel, Joseph D. Thomas
and John C. Brown.
Third Class—J). B. Douglas, William Merrifield, Samuel K. Mottishaw, William Stock-
well, George Merrifield, James M. Stewart, Edward Devlin, George Moore, William Lancaster,
Samuel Richards, William Watson and John White.
Regarding the nature of the examinations, the Board regrets that it was unable to procure suitable apparatus in time to submit the "sight test" suggested in previous report, but
acknowledges with thanks the valuable information received upon the subject from James 0
< 7 Ed. 7 Bureau of Mines. H*33
Ashworth, Esq., The Cassels, Old Colwin, England, who describes, with drawings, a very
efficient apparatus for testing mine officials in the detection of small percentages of gas by
safety lamps. Also from J. T. Beard, Esq., Principal of the Scranton School of Mines (Coal
Min. Div.), for valuable suggestions upon the same subject, accompanied by his valuable
pamphlet upon the "Detection of small percentages of Gas by the Safety Lamp." Also
suggestions kindly sent by E. Gilpin, Esq., Inspector of Mines, Works and Mines Department,
Halifax, N. S.
The Board will endeavour, at its next examination, to install the necessary apparatus and
submit to each candidate this very important and necessary test.
The by-laws of the Board prohibit the use of text-books and of written or printed formulae
at the examinations, and this question has been brought to the attention of the Board by a
pertinent circular letter issued by J. T. Beard, Esq., and addressed to State Examining Boards
for Mine Foremen, Firebosses and Engineers, a copy of which was forwarded by the author
to this Board.
The question has from time to time received the consideration of the Board, and it is
probable that the matter will be taken up at the next general meeting of the Board. Giving
as an example a long, complicated numerical calculation, Mr. Beard comments as follows :—
" If this question came up in the office, or was worked out by the candidate at home, he
would naturally refer to his handbooks and find the formula that he required to make the
calculation, and in a few minutes he would arrive at the correct answer.
"No one expects a practical man to remember rules, formulae, etc., that are required in
such numerical calculations, and, except when a candidate is preparing for these examinations,
he does not attempt to memorise such formulae, because he knows where he can find them
" I think you will agree with me that the purposes of any examination should be: first, to
show the candidate's practical knowledge and acquaintance with mine-work of every description, and the laws, conditions and requirements in any way affecting the work; and, second,
to show his capability for making necessary calculations.
"A man may understand how to solve the hardest theoretical questions, and yet, without
practical experience, he would be incapable of holding any position of responsibility in mining
Mr. Beard has given this question much consideration, and in this connection I may say
that the recent efforts of the Board have been to render the British Columbia examinations
more practical, and to eliminate the ultra-academic feature, tending towards furnishing coal
mine officials of greater practical experience, and thus making for greater safety to life and
The Board of Appointment of Examiners consists of : Messrs. Andrew Bryden, Ladysmith, Chairman ; Tully Boyce, Nanaimo, Vice-Chairman ; T. R. Stockett, George Williams
and A. Dick, Nanaimo; R. G. Drinnan and John John, Fernie; F H. Shepherd, Nanaimo,
Secretary. The office of the Board is in the Provincial Court House building, at Nanaimo.
I have, etc.,
Francis H. Shepherd,
Secretary to the Board. H 34
Report of the Minister of Mines.
The following is the registered list of those to whom Certificates of Competency have
been issued by the Managers' Board, the Secretary of which Board is Francis H. Shepherd,
First Class Certificates.—Service Certipicates Issued Under Section 39,
Mines Regulation Act, 1877."
John Bryden, Victoria,
* James Gillispie.
Edward G. Prior.
Thomas A. Buckley.
Archibald Dick, Government Inspector of Mines.
James Dunsmuir, Victoria.
James Cairns, Comox, Farmer.
First Class Certificates op Competency Issued Under
Regulation Act, 1897."
Shepherd, Francis H ....
Little, Francis D
Martell, Joshua ..
*Dickinson, Urick Evan....
* Jones, John Bunyan Louis.
Norton, Richard Henry ...
*Lindsay, William Alfred . .
Wall, William H
Smith, Frank B
* Jamieson, Robert
Bradshaw, George B
Simpson, William G
Drinnan, Robert G
Stockett, Thomas, Jr
"Lamb, Robert B.
Wilson, A. R .
Richards, James A
Wright, H. B
Coulthard, R. W
Roaf, J. Richardson
Manley, H. L
*Dead. 7 Ed. 7
Bureau of Mines.
Issued Under "Coal Mines Regulation Act Further Amendment Act, 1904."
November 22nd, 1906
March 4th, 1905
March 4th, „
Millar, John K '.
November 22nd, 1906
March 4th, 1905
Williams, Thos. H
Second Class Certificate op Service.
Morton, T. R
Loe, John S
Miller, J. K
Powell, William Baden
Second Class Certificates op Competency Issued Under " Coal Mines Regulation Act
Further Amendment Act, 1904."
Brown Jolin C
Derbyshire, James . .. .
Jackson, Thos. R
McGuckie, Thomas M.
Nellist, David . . .. .
Thomas, Joseph D
Webber, John Frank. .
Wyllie, John B
Watson, Adam G
B28 H 36
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Third Class Certificates Issued under " Coal Mines Regulation Act Further
Amendment Act, 1904."
Cunningham, G. F . ..
Douglas, D. B
Freeman, H. G
Hodson, R. H
Jemson, J. W
Jones, W. T
Lancaster, William. ..
Mattishaw, Samuel K
Merrifield, William ..
McLellan, William . ..
McGuckie, Thomas ..
Richards, Samuel ....
Spruston, Thos. A....
Stewart, James M....
Stockwell, William ..
Taylor, Charles M
Thomas, John B
Watson, Adam G ....
Watson, William ....
Wintle, Thomas A . ..
C222 7 Ed. 7
Bureau of Mines.
COAL MINE OFFICIALS.
Third class certificates issued under " Coal Mines Regulation Act Further Amendment Act,
1904," sec. 38, s.-s. 2, in exchange for certificates issued under the " Coal Mines Regulation Act Amendment Act, 1901."
Ashman, Jabez . , .
Aughinvole, Alex . ..
Barclay, Andrew . . .
Briscoe, Edward ....
Carr, Jos. E
Collishaw, John ....
Courtney, A. W , ...
Crawford, Frank .. .
Dunsmuir, John ....
Eccleston, Wm ......
Evans, W. H
Findlayson, James ..
Fulton, Hugh T ... .
Gibson, Edward ....
Ha worth, Geo
Hutchison, Archie ..
Johnson, Wm. R . ..
Landfear, Herbert ..
Marshall, Howard ..
Miard, Harry E ....
Middleton, Robt . ..
Miller, Thos. K ....
McKenzie, John R..
McKinnell, David ..
MoMurtrie, John ...
Moore, Wm. H
Nimmo, Jas. P
Pengelly, Richard ..
Roughead, George ..
Sanders, John W . ..
Shenton, Thos. J . . .
Shepherd, Henry . ..
Stauss, Chas. F ....
Stewart, Duncan H.
Stewart, Daniel W..
Thomas, John , .
Webber, Chas. F . ..
Woodburn, Moses ..
C 46 H 38 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1907
CARIBOO AND QUESNEL MINING DIVISIONS.
Report by George Walker, Gold Commissioner.
I have the honour to submit herewith my report on mining operations in Cariboo District
during the year 1906.
I am unable to announce any increase in the gold output of the mines, but, at the same
time, the actual conditions give the greatest encouragement that the district is on the eve of a
prosperous term that has not been equalled for years, from the fact that more applications for
mining leases have been granted than in any previous year, while there has also been an
increase in the revenue. The work done during the past year has given evidence of such a
substantial character that it is safe to predict greatly increased activity in the near
future. Several of the small properties, hitherto held and worked by individual miners, have
been purchased by strong companies and formed into large enterprises, necessitating the construction of extensive ditches, flumes, reservoirs and other works of a substantial nature.
This changing of the methods of working, together with the very dry season, has had a
deterrent effect upon the output of our hydraulic operations, the method by which three-
fourths of the gold of the district is produced, and has curtailed this year's output of gold,
but, when the extensive preliminary works already well under way are completed, there will
undoubtedly be a large increase in the gold yield of the district.
In order to obtain as reliable information as possible, I addressed notes to the foremen
and managers of the various mines, requesting a report on the season's operations at the mines
under their supervision, and from the information thus obtained the following report is largely
QUESNEL MINING DIVISION*
Of this portion I regret my inability to speak with any degree of certainty, not having
received reports from the various managers, but the report of the Mining Recorder of the
Division will be found appended hereto.
The Luce claim, on Little Snowshoe creek, was purchased last spring by Messrs. Graham
and Minisci, to whom I am indebted for the following report:—
" The present season we operated the mine with a crew of seven men, but had only two
months' water. Unfortunately, just as the water had about given out, a large slide came
down from the bank and buried the bedrock we had stripped, in consequence of which we
were unable to clean up. We were unprepared for the freshet that occurred in the fall and
did not use the water. We drifted toward the hill rim for 50 feet, and found the pay of
greater width than was expected. We look forward with confidence to a good season next
* See also Report of Mining Recorder, page 44. 7 Ed. 7 Cariboo District. H 39
THE CARIBOO MINING DIVISION.
In the Cariboo, or what is locally known as the Barkerville Mining Division of Cariboo
District, the result of the season's operations has been fairly good, but shows a slight
decrease from that of the previous year.
Williams Creek and Tributaries.
The Mucho Oro claim on Stout's gulch, formerly owned by W. C. Fry and purchased this
year by John Hopp, who, having leased the Cariboo Gold Fields ditch and installed a larger
hydraulic plant, moved approximately eight times as much material as was previously done by
the former owners. The output of the mine, so far as I can learn, has been very satisfactory
and the future prospects are promising.
The Forest Rose hydraulic claim, on Williams Creek, also owned by Mr. J. Hopp, on which
very little has been done for a number of years, has been put into good working order and
active operations will commence in the early spring.
The property on this creek formerly owned by the Cariboo Consolidated, Limited, and on
which very little has been done for the past three or four years, was also purchased by Mr-
John Hopp, who in the fall employed quite a force of men repairing ditches, enlarging the sluice
flume and making general repairs in and around the property so as to be in readiness for next
season's work, when, I am informed, it will be operated to its full capacity.
Lightning Creek and Tributaries.
I am indebted to the manager of the Cariboo Consolidated Company, Limited, Mr. M.
Bailey, for the following brief but comprehensive report on the La Fontaine mine :—
"Work has progressed steadily, with a force of men numbering on an average 48 joer diem
for the whole year. The total length of the various tunnels, drives, cross-cuts, etc., that have
been driven to date, in developing and prospecting the channel, is 6,340 feet. A total of 95.2
feet of upraises has been made, in addition to the main shaft, which is of a depth of 175 feet.
Since the first of January, 1906, a total of 6,828 cubic yards of gravel has been mined and
washed, which yielded 1,451.5 ounces of gold; the gravel having, therefore, an average value
of $3.91, as against last year's average of $2.22 per cubic yard. The total amount of gold
recovered to date in our La Fontaine mine is 2,035 ounces, having an approximate value
of $37,450. Our drainage drives are being continued up stream as rapidly as possible, in
order to block out and drain the gravel so that it can be worked to advantage later on.
" Above the Old Eleven of England workings, opposite the mouth of Anderson creek,
gravel containing very much higher values has been struck, some of this gravel avei'aging
$30.40 per cubic yard, making the outlook for the future very bright."
I am indebted to Mr. S. Keast, Superintendent of the Lightning Creek Gold Gravel and
Drainage Co., Ltd., for the following report:—
" Our previous report included mention of prospect drilling operations closing the season
of 1905. This determined the depth and location of the old channel of Lightning creek, at
the present location of our works, to our satisfaction. A year ago we began the preliminary
work and placed orders for the equipment of our shaft; since then we have sunk a double
compartment shaft, 8|- x 12J feet, about 200 feet deep, and at this writing the cross-cut,
8x12 feet, is in about 90 feet and, we believe, very close to gravel. We have equipped the
plant with a 40 h. p. engine, 10 h. p. dynamo engine, 12 h. p. compressor, two 40 h. p. boilers,
25 h. p. hoist, saw-mill, two 12-inch Cornish pumps, driven by a water-wheel 8 feet breast and 20 feet diameter, a Keystone drilling apparatus to locate the depth, values and position of the
old channel, a considerable amount of special machinery, including a power-lathe, large pipe
cutter and threader, boring machine, and a complete outfit of tools to suit our work. We
also have one large and one small steam pump, with special arrangements for fire protection.
The property is also well provided with buildings for various purposes. The main shaft-house
is 62 x 90 feet. The old shaft house is equipped with an 8-inch pump and water-wheel, and
besides this we have two 6-inch fast-speed pumps for general use. Estimates on a 500 h. p.
electric plant, to be driven by turbines (water power), have been obtained from various companies, it being our intention to run all the works by electric power, the station to be located
below the old Big Bonanza dam, which we have cut away preparatory to the erection of a
much larger dam on the same site. All our operations along the creek will be connected by a
narrow gauge electric railway.
" The installation of this plant, which we estimate will cost $60,000, will greatly reduce
operating expenses and enable us to operate on a much larger scale. Since the last active
work began, in May, 1905, the company has expended for labour, equipment and working
expenses, generally, an average of $5,000 monthly. At present there are about 30 men
directly connected with the work, which number will be increased as soon as we get working
room in the drifts, if efficient labour can be secured.
" During the past winter our holdings, including the Big Bonanza and other claims not
included in the previous Consolidation Act, were re-consolidated by an Act of the Provincial
" The supplies and equipment for drilling operations and for special work during the
ensuing season have been ordered. These will aggregate fully 25 tons of material, excluding
the proposed electric plant. A second shaft will be started in the spring, and after drilling
the Big Bonanza a 300-foot shaft will be started thereon. The steam equipment for the No.
2 shaft is now on the ground.
" The drilling operations at our present location showed 9 feet of old or pre-glacial channel
gravel, very firm and apparently rich, underlying all the other gravel and sand. The formation
is about as follows : 40 feet sand and gravel, 40 feet blue clay, 30 feet dry and wet slum, 45
feet sand and gravel, 10 feet old hard gravel; altogether, 165 feet.
" The 6-inch drill hole which penetrated the old channel at this depth gave values of $7.15,
recovered by the sand pump. This would figure over $1,000 to the set, if these values were
similar over the bedrock at this location.
" During the past summer seven holes were drilled about half a mile above our present
shaft, and the last one, we feel certain, would have located the old channel, but that at 146
feet the drive pipe parted, and not having enough for a new string, we closed that work until
spring. At this depth, however, we recovered about $2.50 with the sand pump. The gravel
at this point was quite thick, and from the upper indications of value the bedrock was expected
to show a larger value than the location below."
Of the Fountain Creek Consolidated Mining Co., of Fountain creek, an enterprise started
last year to prospect the deep ground of this creek, Mr. A. McPherson, the foreman, writes
me : —
"The Fountain Creek Consolidated Mining Co. was first organised in July, 1905, to
prospect on Fountain creek. After four months' work the venture was found too expensive
for the company. The first bedrock was found at 45 feet, from which some 50 feet of drift
was run, but the bedrock found in the channel had so heavy a grade and was washed so smooth
that very little value was obtained, but the quality of gold was so encouraging that the com 7 Ed. 7 Cariboo District. H 41
pany concluded to go half a mile further down stream and sink a second shaft. This was
done, but a depth of only 42 feet was obtained when a flow of water was struck ; after three
days' work bailing with a bucket and windlass the shaft had to be abandoned and work was
suspended for two months and the company was reorganised. The reorganised company, on
November 20th, 1905, started to work to find the channel by sinking a large shaft, building
an overshot water-wheel to drive pumps and a large shaft-house, all of which are completed.
The shaft was sunk 52 feet and a drift started in rock to find the channel. This drift is now
out from the shaft 55 feet, but, as the rock encountered is very hard, the progress made is
slow. Up to the present time the company have expended $10,000."
Mr. Bertram Mellon, manager of the Slough Creek, Limited, kindly furnishes me with
the following particulars of the company's operations :—
"Our operations for the current year consist of drifting in bedrock and tapping the gravel
at various points at intervals during the year, but only as much work of this nature has been
done as was necessary to maintain a flow of water from the gravel at a speed sufficient to keep
both pumps running at from 70 to 80 per cent, of their capacity. The greater part of the year
has been occupied with purely construction work. A water lodgment (having a capacity of
about 60,000 Imperial gallons), has been driven below the level of the main tunnel for a distance
of 140 feet. A drift is now being run from the main tunnel to connect with the pump chamber
and provide a necessary exit. The old drain tunnel, commencing some 2,000 feet down the
valley and connecting with the gravel shaft, has been opened up and repaired throughout.
This drift is now being continued up stream, for the purpose of taking off the surface water
and so reducing the possibility of this water finding its way to the bedrock gravels. Pumping,
at the rate of from seven to eight million gallons a week, has gone on steadily throughout the
year. It is now quite clear that the unwatering of this mine is a much greater undertaking
than was anticipated, and in order to increase the outflow and assist the pumps it is proposed
to elevate water with bailing tanks. Two additional boilers and a pair of 16" x 36" direct-
acting winding engines will be installed. The work attending this increase of plant, new
boiler house, an extension of shaft-house and a new head frame, etc., is now going forward.
From 20 to 30 men have been employed and about 60 Chinese are at work cutting fuel,
The Willow River Mining Companj-, Limited, has at last succeeded in reaching the deep
channel of Willow river, and, I am credibly informed, when compelled to shut down on
account of the fatal illness of the principal owner, was working on gold sufficient to pay, with
the ground improving with every foot advanced across the channel.
The Williams and Alabama hydraulic claims, owned by Flynn Brothers, owing to the
light snowfall of last winter, had a short season; notwithstanding this fact, these claims still
continue to be among the most productive of the district.
Mr. T. O. Burgess, Assistant Manager of the Thistle Gold Company, Limited, says:—
"Notwithstanding the fact that it was necessary to do considerable dead work before
obtaining any returns from the mine, the season just past has proved a very successful one.
This is due in great part to the unusual rainfall in the latter part of the season, there being,
after the first day of September, 26 days (24 hours each) of water for hydraulic operations.
From the commencement of the season to June 30th, there were 52 full days of water. In
order to gain depth, a cut for a sluice flume two feet in width was brought up from the lake through the east side of the diggings. As the old sluice flume was on the west side, this also
afforded better dumping facilities, that part of the lake into which the old sluice dumped
having been filled up with tailings. With the exception of occasional bedrock, the cut was in
hardpan, all of which it was necessary to blast before the ' pipes' would take hold. This
cut, 800 feet in length, had a minimum depth of 8 feet, a maximum depth of 30 feet and an
approximate width of 8 feet. Total length of new sluice flume laid, 1,200 feet. Grade of
sluice, 4 inches to the 12-foot box.
"While the above was in progress, the top material at the working face, which, in the
fall of 1905, was prepared for washing by a bank blast, was worked off through the old sluice
flume. The bottom or pay gravel was left until the fall run, when it was taken up and
washed through the new sluice. At the same time a small pit was also taken out on the west
side of the diggings. Another bank blast will be put off this fall; length of main drive 60
feet; length of T, 60 feet; charge, 3,000 pounds of black blasting powder.
" Fifteen men were employed in the early part of the season.
" The prospects for next season are bright, the ground is good, and all work will be live
Regarding the Waverly mine, Mr. P. Carey, the foreman, says :—
" With a light snowfall during the winter, it was the general opinion that the water
supply was going to be short, which proved well founded. After a short run with the best of
the freshet, I decided to store the remaining flow in the reservoir, and thus keep the mine
going steadily with the usual number of hands. The result of the clean-up was so satisfactory
that the Board of Directors was able to declare a dividend of $5 per share, an increase of $1
a share over any previous year. Then the necessity of having to divert water from the main
pipe line for the economical and convenient working of the west branch pit, a new giant, water
gates and other apparatus had to be provided for. A contract has now been let for the supplying and delivering of this material at the mine, to be in readiness for next spring's operations.
In concluding this report, I might add that, from present appearances, the large body of pay
gravel in the faces of both pits of the mine will be a steady and increasing dividend-producer
for years to come."
I am favoured with the following report from Mr. B. A. Laselle, manager of the China
Creek Hydraulic Co.:—
" An early spring made it possible to commence hydraulicking the last week of April, ten
days earlier than is usual. The total 'yardage' washed during the season was 150,000 cubic
yards, of which 60,000 yards was piped off during the fall run and not cleaned up. The
equipment on this property now has an average daily washing capacity of 2,000 cubic yards a
day of 24 hours. The gold values here continued uniform, and the large amount of workable
ground in this company's holdings makes the future of this mine satisfactory to the owners."
There is a new hydraulic mine of much promise on Nugget Gulch, which has been equipped
this season, and of which the manager, Mr. B. A. Laselle, says :—
" This property has been equipped during the past season with a complete hydraulic plant,
capable of handling 1,500 cubic yards a day of 24 hours. The water supply is secured from
Victoria creek, where an earth-filled crib dam was constructed for storage and reservoir purposes, which will enable the property to be worked a part of the time during the dry seasons 7 Ed. 7 Cariboo District. H 43
The water was turned into the pipe for a few days in the latter part of October, and the pit
opened up enough to enable this mine to start hydraulicking with the first water available in
the spring of 1907. Construction work on the property completed this season consists of 2^
miles of ditch, with a carrying capacity of 1,200 miner's inches; an earth-filled crib dam 250
feet long, 14 feet high and 34 feet wide on the bottom ; pipe-line, 1,250 feet long ; sluice-flume)
200 feet long; camp buildings and three miles of new waggon road up Antler creek. This
property is situated on what is apparently a pre-glacial channel coming in from the head of
Cunningham creek, with every appearance of having been the principal source of the gold
found on Antler creek during the early 60's, and the owners feel assured of profitable returns
from this property in the future, as the workable ground is extensive and well suited for cheap
and economic working."
The Russian Creek Hydraulic Mine, on Lower Antler creek, is a new hydraulic mine of
much promise, which is at the present time being opened up, and of which the superintendent
writes me as follows :—
" The Russian Creek mine is situated at the junction of Russian and Antler creeks, having
a bench over a mile in length, and ranging from 500 to 1,000 feet in width. Gold was first
discovered late in the season of 1905 by a shaft sunk to a depth of 35 feet. Later, seven shafts
were sunk, cro