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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR THE YEAR 1909. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1910

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 PRINTED BY AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF BRITISH    COLUMBIA.
REPORT
-OF   THE-
COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
FOR THE YEAR 1909.  10 Ed. 7. Commissioner of Fisheries Report. I 3
To His Honour Thomas W. Paterson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The Annual Report of John Pease Babcock for the year 1909 is herewith respectfully
submitted.
W. J. BOWSER,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia, February 28th, 1910.  10 Ed. 7
Commissioner of Fisheries Report.
I 5
FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT FOR 1909.
Hon.  W. J. Bowser, K. C, Attjrney-General and
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B. C. :
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report for the Fisheries Department for
the year 1909 :—
The catch of salmon from the waters of the Province during the season was, as anticipated,
larger than in any year since 1905. The total pack was 967,920 cases of 48 pounds each, and
of an approximate value of $5,600,000. Of this total the Fraser River produced 623,469
cases; the Skeena River, 140,990 cases; Rivers Inlet, 91,014 cases; Naas River, 40,990
cases; and outlying districts, 71,708 cases.
The chief increase in the pack this year over that of the three preceding years was made
on the Fraser River, this being what is known as a "year of the big run." The pack there
this year was, however, less than it has been in any one of the years of the big run since 1893,
and was 253,667 cases less than in the last big year, 1905—a decrease of 29 per cent.
The catch in American waters of sockeye salmon running to the Fraser River this year
was greater by 167,998 cases than in 1905, and was 406,800 cases or 40 percent, greater than
the pack made at our canneries on the Fraser River.
The sockeye pack of both the Provincial and American waters of the Fraser River District
for the past nine years is shown by the following table :—
1909.
1908.
1907.
1906.
1905.
1904.
1903.
204,846
167,211
1902.
1901.
Fraser River..
Puget Sound . .
567,203
1,005,120
74,574
155,218
59,815
96,974
183,007
182,241
837,498
837,122
72,688
123,419
196,107
293,477
339,556
928,669
1,105,096
Total
1,572,323
229,792
156,789
365,248
1,674,620
372,057
633,033
2,033,765
It has been demonstrated in my previous reports that the sockeye salmon passing through
the waters contiguous to the international boundary line between this Province and the State
of Washington are seeking the Fraser River in this Province in which to spawn, and that a
greatly increased run occurs every fourth year; hence a comprehensive review of any season's
operations on the Fraser River must, to be of value, include the operations conducted on both
sides of the boundary line, and comparisons with former runs must be made in connection with
those of the preceding fourth year. The term "Fraser River District" used here, as well as
in all of my reports, includes the waters of Juan de Fuca Strait, Puget Sound, the Gulf of
Georgia, and the Fraser River, in which fishing for sockeye is conducted by our own and
American fishermen. I 6 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. 1910
The above tabulation shows that during six years of the last nine years the American
catch of sockeye salmon in the Fraser River District exceeded our own by 790,180 cases, and
that as the years pass by they are taking an increasing proportion of these fish. This state
of affairs is due to the fact that the fishing methods employed by the Americans are more
effective than ours; that they have a considerable advantage over us geographically ; that
their closed seasons are shorter than ours; and that no general observance is given to even
those restrictions which the Legislature of the State of Washington has placed upon the use of
traps and nets. The laws of Washington prohibit the taking of salmon during thirty-six
specific hours each week by purse and drag-nets, as well as providing for the closing of all
traps ; but these necessary restrictions are not adequately enforced.
Early this past season complaints were received by this Department stating that traps
and purse-nets were being used in American waters near the international boundary line
during the weekly closed period. Provincial Fishery Overseer North and his assistants were
sent to investigate the traps in the vicinity of Point Roberts during the weekly closed periods
at the height of the sockeye run, and reported that the majority of the traps visited were in
use, that the tunnels were open, and that thousands of sockeye were found in the hearts and
spillers ; also that boats used in connection with purse-nets were filled with salmon at the
conclusion of the 36-hour weekly closed period. Captain John L. Riseland, the Fish
Commissioner of the State of Washington, in response to my inquiry as to whether there had
been any arrests made for violations of the weekly closed periods in Puget Sound this past
season, replied :—
" I wish to say that, so far as Puget Sound is concerned, we made only five arrests ; one
trapman for operating during the closed season who pleaded guilty and paid a fine of $250 and
costs ; two gill-netters that, I believe, were fined $50 each and costs ; at another time two gill-
netters that were fined $50 and costs ; two purse-seiners that were fined $250 each and costs ;
and three for dynamiting that were fined $50 each and costs. These were all the arrests made
which have come to my notice, and I desire to say further that there was no disposition on
the part of any class of fishermen this year to violate the law, especially owing to the fact that
nearly every one engaged in the industry was doing fairly well and making some money."
Dr. David Starr Jordan, the American representative on the International Fisheries
Commission of Great Britain and the United States, in transmitting to the Secretary of State
of United States the regulations agreed upon for boundary waters, wrote :—
"In Article III. of the Treaty of April 11th, 1908, the two Governments engage to put
into operation and to enforce by legislation these fishery regulations.
" I do not see how this can be done without a national system of patrol along the
boundary waters, in addition to that maintained by the several States for the enforcement of
their own Statutes. Such a national system is now in operation in Canada. Besides a complete staff of ' guardians ' and ' overseers,' Canada has a patrol steamer in Passamaquoddy Bay,
one in Lake Ontario, one in Lake Erie, and three in Puget Sound. On the United States
side, Pennsylvania and Ohio have each a patrol steamer in Lake Erie much smaller than the
Canadian vessel. The other States, so far as known to me, have only an occasional gasoline
launch. With upward of 2,500 square miles of fishing territory, the State of Washington has
no patrol vessels, and, so far as I know, but a single gasoline launch. The present Statutes
are fairly well enforced in most of the eastern boundary States, notably so in Ohio and
Pennsylvania. In Washington they are not adequately enforced. It is claimed that in the
current season the fishermen of Washington caught by encroachment on the close season
salmon to the value of upward of $600,000, to which they were not entitled. Part of these
should have been taken in British Columbia  waters.    The others should have escaped up 10 Ed. 7 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. I 7
Fraser River to the spawning-grounds. In Canada, throughout the boundary waters, the
Statutes now in effect are rigidly enforced. It does not even occur to any one to violate them.
The real need of the boundary situation is less that of stringent legislation than of equal
enforcement of law on either side. I see no way to accomplish this except by a federal patrol,
corresponding to the Dominion patrol of Canada."
Our fishermen are, by Dominion regulations, restricted to the use of gill-nets in the capture of salmon in the Gulf of Georgia, and the channels of the Fraser River which are south
of Mission Bridge. Fishing above that bridge is prohibited at all times. Our fishermen are
not permitted to take sockeye salmon before July 1st, or salmon of any variety between
August 25th and September 15th, and during the open season they cannot fish from Friday
midnight to 6 p.m. of the following Sunday—forty-two hours in each week. A force of both
Dominion and Provincial police—using four power-boats and acting independently of each
other—patrolled our fishing waters throughout the season. In no instance this year did the
officers of either service find the regulations being violated.
It is not surprising that our fishermen and canners protest vigorously against regulations
which they are forced to observe in competition with more favourable, unenforced regulations
on the American side, fully appreciating, as they do, the greater efficiency of the apparatus
allowed the Americans for the capture of salmon, and as the result of which a majority of the
sockeye annually taken are secured by them, and that the weekly closed period under American
law is six hours shorter than ours, and that when fishermen on the American side are arrested
and convicted the fines imposed are much less than the offenders secure from the sale of their
illicit catch.
Unquestionably, a very general sentiment exists in this Province among those interested
in our fisheries that the protective regulations provided for the American waters contiguous
to the international boundary line are not strictly observed. Many believe and advocate that
unless some practical measures are adopted and enforced in American waters for the preservation of the salmon seeking entrance to the Fraser River, the protective regulations now in force
in our waters should be greatly modified, if not entirely repealed. It is evident to all
concerned that, under existing conditions, the sockeye salmon fisheries of the Fraser River
cannot be maintained by protecting them in Canadian waters only, and that the industry will
be destroyed unless the fish are given the same protection in American waters as in ours.
In my report for last year I gave the text of a treaty made between Great Britain and
the United States providing for the appointment of a Commission for the determination of the
times, the seasons, and the regulation of the methods to be employed in the capture of fish in
waters contiguous to Canada and the United States, and referred to the appointment of the
Commissioners empowered to decide upon uniform international regulations. That Commission has during the past year reached an agreement. The text of that agreement has not
been made public* The President of the United States, in a message sent to Congress on
December 7th last, made the following statement :—
* Made public in January and printed in the appendix of this report.
"The International Fisheries Commission, appointed pursuant to and under the authority
of the convention of April 11th, 1908, between the United States and Great Britain, has
completed a system of uniform and common international regulations for the protection and
preservation of the food fishes in international boundary waters of the United States and
Canada.
" The regulations will be duly submitted to Congress, with a view to the enactment of
such legislation as will be necessary under the convention to put them into operation." I 8 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. 1910
The text of the agreement to be submitted to Congress, and the character and efficiency
of the legislation promised, is awaited with great interest by all our fishery folk.
The Season on the Fraser River.
Every one engaged in the salmon fisheries of the Fraser anticipated the big run of sockeye
this year, and made preparations to take and preserve them. The season opened on July 1st,
but there wore very few fish in the river until the end of that month. The big run did not
come in from the sea until July 27th, being somewhat later than in 1905, and a few days
earlier than in 1901. From our own waters of the Fraser River District the catch this season
at no time exceeded the canning capacity. The catch was heaviest from August 2nd to 5th,
and on the 11th, 12th, and 13th, and was fair up to August 25th. The catch was at no time
so heavy as to necessitate the canners placing a limit on the number of fish they would accept
from an individual fisherman, as has been the case in years gone by. It was the first season
in a year of the big run when the canners were willing to accept during every day of the season
all the fish offered them, and in consequence our entire catch was utilised, and there was no
waste of fish. For only a few days during the entire season were any of the canneries operated
to their capacity.
The catch on the American side was so large for a few days early in August that a
considerable number of fresh sockeye were shipped to canneries on the Columbia River to be
packed, and several of our canners purchased scow-loads of salmon taken from American traps
and shipped them to their canneries on the Fraser. One firm shipped fresh sockeye on ice to
its cannery at Rivers Inlet.
The run in the American channels leading to the Gulf of Georgia and the lower Fraser
continued up to August 20th, and was fair in the Gulf and river up to the commencement of
the fall closed season (August 25th) provided for our waters. There is evidence to show that
the run of sockeye continued in those waters throughout that closed period. The catches of
sockeye made after the resumption of fishing on September 16th shows that the run was large
at that time, and that it continued until well into October. Occasional catches of as high as
100 sockeye to the boat were made as late as the second week in November. During all the
fishing season in September the fish were in good condition for canning, and a considerable
pack was made during that month. Packing ceased as soon as the fish caught were found to
be soft. The September pack is reported not to have exceeded 100,000 cases. As is hereinafter shown, the number of fish which escaped capture and passed up to the spawning-beds
this year was greater than in 1905. This was due unquestionably to the establishment and
strict observance in our waters of the 42-hour weekly closed period, and the stopping of all
fishing from August 25th to September 15th. While our canners on the Fraser River did not
pack as many cases of sockeye as they prepared for, and our fishermen there did not have as
good a season as they anticipated, general satisfaction is felt amongst them over the favourable reports from the spawning-beds.
The catch of spring salmon in the Gulf of Georgia and the Fraser River was not up to the
average. The Fraser has never been considered a spring-salmon stream. The catch of spring
salmon in the traps in Juan de Fuca Strait was greater than last year. These fish were all
" mild-cured " and shipped in tierces.
The run of coho salmon to the Fraser this season was very much less than in any year
since 1903. The run of humpback or chum salmon occurs in the Fraser in cycles of two
years, and this year was large ; but being the big year for sockeye, there was very little
demand for the catch. Chum salmon, when taken in Juan de Fuca Strait, are firm and of a
desirable quality.    As their value becomes better known in the markets the demand for them 10 Ed. 7 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. I 9
will increase. The catch of dog salmon in the Fraser District this past season was the smallest since a market for these fish was established. The catch is " dry-cured " with rock salt,
and the product boxed and shipped to the Orient.
The Season in Northern Waters.
The pack from northern waters was 175,813 cases less than last year. The pack on the
Skeena was less by 68,438 cases, that on the Naas River 5,918 cases less, and in outlying
districts 27,381 cases less. The pack at Rivers Inlet shows a gain over that of last year of
15,924 cases, but is not up to the average of the last five years. While the run of salmon to
our northern waters fluctuates from year to year, there does not appear to be any marked
periodicity. Heretofore weather conditions have been held chiefly responsible for the good
and the bad years. The run to northern waters this year is reported to have been as great
as the average for the past six years, and fully as great as last season. The decline in the
pack at outlying districts is due to the closing of several small plants, their owners confining
their attention to their canneries on the Fraser, which they operate only in the years of the
big run. The pack at Rivers Inlet, though larger than that of last year, was, nevertheless
not up to the average yearly pack. The decline in the pack on the Skeena and Naas from
that of last year, and the decline in the yearly average at Rivers Inlet and the Naas, is
attributed by those best qualified to judge to a change made in the Dominion fishery regulations whereby fishing was not permitted until July 1st. The catch on the Skeena was further curtailed because the Dominion regulations cut off fully twelve miles of fishing water in
that stream formerly open to fishermen. The change in the opening of the fishing season for
our northern waters unquestionably occasioned a serious loss to our fishermen and canners ;
furthermore, it is the belief of every person familiar with the conditions on the Skeena, Naas,
and Rivers Inlet that the change was ill-advised and entirely unnecessary, so long as the
number of canneries and the boats used there are limited to the present numbers. The history of the pack in the northern waters of the Province shows no decline in the annual run
of salmon, and the spawning-beds for the last few years—ever since a study of the conditions
there has been made—have been abundantly seeded every year. It has been currently stated
that the change in the opening of the fishing season for northern waters was made upon the
recommendation of the Dominion-British Columbia Fisheries Commission of 1905-07, yet the
reports of that Board neither suggest nor recommend any such action. It is public knowledge
that that Commission consisted of six members—Campbell Sweeney, Richard Hall, G. W.
Taylor, J. C. Brown, and John P. Babcock, of this Province, and Edward E. Prince, of
Ottawa, and that the five members first named petitioned the Minister of Marine and Fisheries to restore the former conditions, and further stated " that no evidence suggesting a
change of season for northern waters was ever made to the Commission ; and, furthermore,
that the shortening of the season there was neither considered nor recommended by the
Commission, and was not deemed necessary." Further, the above-named Commissioners submitted an Interim Report to the Minister of Marine and Fisheries in December, 1905, in
which they stated :—
"The limitation of the number of salmon canneries in such northern areas as Rivers
Inlet, Skeena River, and Naas River has been strongly and influentially urged upon us in the
course of our sittings.
"We recommend that effective measures for securing some limitation of the exploitation
of these waters be sanctioned immediately, so that parties may not be unduly encouraged in
preparations and in expenditures with a view to new cannery enterprises in the northern
waters referred to. We recommend that, hereafter, the number of boats used in salmon-
fishing operations should be limited in the waters specified. I 10 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. 1910
" Further, we are of the opinion that it should be officially suggested to the canners
interested that they should mutually arrange to carry out a fair allotment of the boats
amongst themselves on the lines followed by those canneries in previous seasons, as indicated
in evidence laid before us as a Commission. Failing such allotment by local parties operating
canneries in the area referred to, then the matter to be adjusted by the fishery officer in
charge of the waters concerned and under the authority of the Department of Marine and
Fisheries."
It is a well-established fact that the sockeye enter our northern rivers earlier than the
Fraser, and that nature has placed in their channels obstructions to fishing, tidal and
otherwise, which afford a great measure of protection. So great was the protest made against
the regulation cutting off twelve miles of fishing waters on the Skeena that a considerable
modification in it was made late in the season, and the greater part of the old boundary
restored. Every one concerned in the northern fisheries expresses the hope that the Minister
of Marine and Fisheries will, as has been intimated by press despatches from Ottawa, restore
the old boundaries and put into effect regulations limiting the number of boats in northern
waters, as recommended by the British Columbia-Dominion Commission, and that the fishing
season may be opened June 20th.
The Spawning-Grounds of the Fraser River.
During the season I made an inspection of the spawning-grounds of the Fraser River,
which included every one of its tributaries frequented by spawning sockeye, with the exception of
Stuart and Fraser Lakes, which lie in the extreme north-west section of its watershed, and
which are at this time quite inaccessible. My visit included all the great lakes, Quesnel,
Chilco, Seton-Anderson, Shuswap-Adams, Lillooet, and Harrison, which constitute the principal
spawning-grounds of the Fraser, as well as all its tributary streams, including Bear River and
its lake, which is the only tributary to the South Fork of the Fraser frequented by sockeye.
This was the ninth consecutive season which I have devoted to the study of the life of the
salmon in those waters during their spawning period. In addition to my own observations
of the fish upon their spawning-beds this year, I had the benefit of reports from paid agents
of the Department and others who were stationed at all the most important lake sections to
observe the run. I here contrast the conditions found upon the fishing and spawning grounds
this year with those observed in 1901 and 1905, because I believe that a very large proportion
of the sockeye salmon which spawned in the watershed of the Fraser this year were the
offspring of those which spawned there in 1905, and that the latter were the product of those
which spawned in 1901. In other words, the run of sockeye to the Fraser of a given year
consists of those hatched in that watershed in the preceding fourth year.
The run of sockeye salmon to the Fraser River in 1901 is believed to have been greater
than in any previous year since the canning industry was established, with the possible
exception of 1897, the preceding fourth year. The catch of sockeye in 1901 is shown by the
cannery output to have been very much greater than in any year before or since. While
there was a spring run of sockeye to the Fraser that year, there was no run of commercial
importance after the opening of the fishing season until July 27th—the very day on which the
big run began this year. There were no traps in Canadian waters in 1901, with the exception of
those in Boundary Bay. The first traps encountered by the sockeye which came through
Juan de Fuca Strait that year were those driven on the salmon banks at the south-western
end of San Juan Island, and none of the traps at that place captured any considerable numbe
previous to July 27th. Subsequent to the appearance of the first large schools on the salmon
banks in 1901, the sockeye continued to run in great abundance for over six weeks.    They 10 Ed. 7 Commissioner of Fisheries Report I 11
were running in large numbers in the channels of the lower Fraser and throughout its central
and southernmost tributaries as late as October 25th. The catch that year was so great that
every one of the canneries on both sides of the international line filled every can they had or
could obtain; and in addition to the millions of fish which they packed that year, many
millions more were captured, from both the Canadian and American waters of the Fraser
River District, which could not be used, and were thrown back dead into the water. The
waste of sockeye of our own catch and of that of the Americans in 1901 is believed to
have been greater than the number caught and packed by all the canners on the waters
mentioned in any year since, with the exception of 1905 and this year.
In 1901 every lake and stream tributary to the Fraser River, with the exception of
Quesnel Lake and its extensive tributary streams, and even long stretches of the main riverbeds, were crowded to overflowing with spawning sockeye. The number which appeared in
every section is believed to have been greater that in any previous year within the recollection
of the whites.
In 1901 the sockeye were prevented from entering Quesnel Lake (one of the most
extensive and important, if not the most extensive and important, spawning section of the
watershed of the Fraser), because the great dam at its outlet, constructed in 1898, had not
been provided with a suitable fishway. As a result of this obstruction in the Quesnel River,
thousands and hundreds of thousands of sockeye which reached the dam died there without
spawning, and the many hundreds of miles of the tributary streams of Quesnel Lake were
not seeded with eggs that year.
Every other lake and its tributaries throughout the entire watershed of the Fraser, from
the last of August to the end of October, and in some of them as late as November 10th,
became offensive to both sight and smell because of the dead and djdng sockeye that lined the
shores and covered the bottoms of both lakes and streams. In that year the sockeye entered
even Bridge and Blaekwater Rivers, which have no extensive tributary lakes, and which have
not since that time been frequented by these lake-seeking salmon. The numbers which gained
access to the rivers above the fishing limits that year were so great that they appear to have
been forced into these two streams and were compelled to spawn even in the river-bed of the
Fraser itself, a condition which has not since occurred.
But two hatcheries existed on the Fraser in 1901, a small one that had been in existence
for some years near New Westminster, and one of ten million eggs capacity, erected that season
on Granite Creek, Shuswap Lake, both of which were filled with eggs that year.
The great run of 1905 began early in July, and appeared to be over at the beginning of
the closed season in the fall—August 25th to September 15th. This run was greatest during
the first fourteen days of August. During no period of the migration was the catch in
American waters in excess of their canning capacity. Our own canners were able to pack all
the fish offered, with the exception of a few days in August, when a limit was placed on the
number of fish which they would receive from one boat. As a result, little or no waste
occurred on either side of the line.
The pack of Fraser River sockeye in 1905 comprised 847,122 cases packed by American
canners, and 837,489 cases from our own canneries, a total of 1,684,611 cases. This pack was
22% less than the combined pack of 1901, in which year, as above stated, there was a
great waste. Up to August 25th the run was not nearly as great as up to the same time in
1901. On September 16th, 1905, there appeared in the channels at the mouth of the Fraser
a run of sockeye so numerous as to lead many competent observers to state that it equalled
that which appeared during the first two weeks in August.    This late run continued until the I 12 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. 1910
first week in October. None of these fish were observed in Juan de Fuca Strait, or in the
American channels leading to the Gulf of Georgia and the Fraser River. During the first
week of this movement several of our canners packed the fish, and a considerable number of
them were purchased for and shipped to American canneries. The fish a week or so after the
beginning of this run were found to be too soft for canning purposes, and canning was
discontinued. Their scales were deeply embedded in the flesh and covered with thick mucus,
their jaws were hooked and distorted, their exterior colouring was reddish, and their eggs and
milt indicated that they were rapidly attaining sexual maturity. Notwithstanding the fact
that there had been a similar run in the Fraser in September and October of 1901, the claim
was made that the late run of 1905 was most unusual. The same claim was again advanced
as to the late run this year. It appears evident, however, from the numbers of sockeye which
ran in the lower Fraser in September and October of 1901 and 1905, and again this year, that
a late run is characteristic of the big years.
The reports from the spawning-grounds of the Fraser watershed in 1905 indicated clearly
that the number of breeding sockeye which reached every section was very great. All the
beds were well seeded, and all four of the hatcheries operated that year were filled to their
capacity. In addition to the seeding in 1905 of all the natural spawning-beds of the Fraser
that were so abundantly sown in 1901, Quesnel Lake and its many tributaries were also
seeded. The great run of sockeye which reached the dam at the outlet of that lake in 1905
had no difficulty in passing into the lake and to its many tributaries through the spacious and
effective fishway which I constructed there for this Department in 1904.
The number of sockeye which reached the spawning-beds of the Fraser River in 1905
was not thought by me to have equalled those which reached there in 1901, but I expressed,
in my report of that year, the opinion that the product of that season's spawning would equal
that of 1901, because every section was well seeded, and the fish were enabled to reach the
extensive spawning-beds of the Quesnel Lake section.
The run of sockeye to the spawning-beds this past season was very light previous to
August 1st. The Indians in the canyon along the Fraser, from Yale to its headwaters, did
not catch more salmon than they desired for their immediate use until the beginning of July,
and the number which appeared upon the spawning-beds previous to August 15th was smaller
than in 1908, with the exception of the run to Quesnel Lake, where there was no run in that
year. The early run was smaller this year than during the corresponding period in 1905.
From August 5th to the end of October the Indians along the river above Mission Bridge
caught as many fish as their smoke houses could contain. From August 15th to the middle
of October there was a steady movement to all of the great lake districts of the Fraser and
its tributaries. While the sockeye were at no time so numerous upon the spawning-beds as
in the early part of the season of 1905, the run extended over a much longer period of time
and the total number that reached waters suitable for spawning was, I believe, greater
than in that year. The run to all sections, save to the Quesnel, was less than in 1901. The
run to Quesnel Lake this year was greater than in 1905, and is thought to have been greater
than the run that was prevented from entering that lake in 1901. This year the sockeye
made their first appearance there on August Sth. By the 7th they were running strong, and
their numbers gradually increased until the 29th, when they slackened, gradually decreasing
until September, when the last passed through the dam.
The Run to Quesnel Lake this Year.
The number of sockeye which passed into Quesnel Lake this year was so amazing, and
the conditions for observation so exceptional, and the record of the work conducted there by
this Department so interesting, that an account of it is here given with more than ordinary 10 Ed. 7
Commissioner of Fisheries Report.
I 13
detail. Quesnel Lake is, next to Chilco Lake, the largest in the watershed of the Fraser.
Because of the number of its tributary streams which afford excellent spawning-beds and
rearing waters for sockeye salmon, Quesnel Lake is the most important in the entire watershed
of the Fraser.
Following the meanderings of the rivers, the lake is 500 miles from the sea. It has an
elevation of 2,200 feet. A dam has been constructed at the outlet of the lake, and at its
north end is a raceway 124 feet wide by 430 feet in length, with a fall of only 6 inches in its
entire length. At the head of the raceway there are nine 12-foot discharge gates. All the
water flowing from the lake passes through these gates into the raceway, varying in depth
according to the season, and with a velocity never less than 12 to 14 feet per second. From
July to October the depth is from 4 to 6 feet. A fishway has been constructed in the race,
built of hewn timbers running parallel with and 26 feet from the eastern wall. On the floor
of the raceway between these two walls, at each 25 feet of its entire length, are placed timber
2 feet high extending from each wall upward and at an angle of 45 degrees, and meeting in
the centre they constitute a cross-wall which retards the flow of water and causes a series of
counter-currents which permit the fish to pass easily through it and into the quiet waters of
the lake above. All the salmon which enter the lake pass through this fishway, and as the
waters are clear, and at the head perfectly placid, the fish entering can be distinctly seen by
one stationed there. Every season since its construction this Department has placed a
watchman at the dam during the salmon-run to prevent any one catching them in or below
the fishway, and to note size and duration of the run. The watchman placed there this year
recorded his observations daily. Many times during each day he sat at the head of the
fishway and counted for ten consecutive minutes the number of sockeye which entered the lake.
The figures given indicate the average for each day and are based upon an actual count of the
fish passing into the lake for a given number of minutes at a time. No count was made at
night, but the movement of fish was observed by means of artificial lights. The record is
approximately correct, though for many days the fish entered the lake in such numbers that,
as the watchman says in his report, " it was impossible to count more than half of them, and
then only by bunching them as they entered." The figures given per minute are for the fish
actually counted or "bunched," and latter are in the record marked with an asterisk. The
numbers which entered the lake on those days were far greatei than the figures indicate.
Record of the Aitroximate Number or Sockeye Salmon which entered Quesnel Lake during
August, 1909.
Date.
Rate per
Minute.
Rate per
Hour.
Number per Day.
Date.
Rate per
Minute.
Rate per
Hour.
Number per Da}-.
August.
August.
5
20
1,200
28,800
19
95
5,700
136,800
6
36
2,160
47,840    -
20
110
6,600
158,400
7
50
3,000
72,000
21
110
6,600
158,400
8
50
3,000
72,000
22
152
9,120
218,400
9
65
3,900
93,600
23
152
9,120
218,400
10
65
3,900
93,600
24
152
9,120
218,400
11
75
4,500
108,000
25
189*
11,160
267,840
12
75
4,500
108,000
26
189*
11,160
267,840
13
85
5,100
122,000
27
189*
11,160
267,840
14
85
5,100
122,000
28
189*
11,160
267,840
15
85
5,100
122,000
29
189*
11,160
267,840
16
88
5,280
126,720
30
98
5,880
141,120
17
88
5,280
126,720
31
45
2,700
64,800
18
95
5,700
136,800
To
tal for Mon
th	
..    4,004,200
1 Many less than number running.    Too thick to count. I 14 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. 1910
It is pleasing to be able to present such a record and state that it is rather an underestimate than an over-estimate. Robert Winkley, who kept the above record, is a trapper
and fisherman who has resided at the outlet of Quesnel Lake for many years, and is considered a trustworthy and reliable man by all who know him. J. B. Hobson, the well-known
mining man, who lived near the dam during the greater part of the period covered by this
record, states that " Robert Winkley was most faithful, having literally lived on the dam
during the run, and from my own and my son's observations I am satisfied that his record is
reliable. The number of sockeye which entered the lake exceeded anything of the kind I
have ever witnessed."
Robert Winkley has lived at the outlet of Quesnel Lake ever since the dam was constructed in 1898, and observed the salmon-runs each year since, and states that, in his
opinion, the run this year was greater than in any previous year.
The Run to Chilco Lake.
The run to Chilco Lake this year is reported to have been as large as the run in 1905.
I did not visit this section in 1901, hence cannot compare the conditions this year with
those of that year. The migration of sockeye through Chilcotin River, which carries the
waters of Chilco Lake, began on August 15th, and continued from that date until the 27th,
when it ceased. The run was again resumed on September 7th, and was pronounced until the
21st.    The second run is declared to have been  as great as  the first.
The waters of the Chilcotin River are so discoloured by a chalky silt washed into it by
the Whitewater River that it is difficult to estimate the extent of the run until the mouth of
the Whitewater River is passed. From that point, for a distance of thirty-odd miles to
Chilco Lake, the water is clear and the salmon are exposed to view. The large stream issuing
from Chilco Lake is called " Chilco River" for its first ninety miles, after which it is
strangely enough named the " Chilcotin." The Chilcotin Indians catch large numbers of
sockeye by means of taut dip-nets in the canyons of the Chilcotin River, near Chilcotin, and
at Hanceville, and from the Chilco River at Indian Bridge, and at the head of that river at
the outlet of Chilco Lake. This year the Indians secured approximately 40,000 sockeye
which they cured in their smoke-houses. Most of them were taken from the first run in
August. I passed up the Chilcotin and the Chilco Rivers to Chilco Lake in the last week of
August, and returned in the first week in September. Owing to very favourable weather
conditions, I was enabled to spend a week on the lake, during which time I travelled in a
canoe along the eastern shore to within a few miles of its head. The lake is usually rough,
and as suitable boats are not obtainable it is a difficult matter to inspect or explore the tributaries. Chilco Lake is both the largest and most beautiful lake in the watershed of the
Fraser. It is eighty or ninety miles in length, has a breadth of eight miles in the centre, an
elevation of 3,700 feet, and is surrounded with mountains that rise to an elevation of from
10,000 to  12,000 feet, which were at the time  of my  visit reflected in all  their russred
J oo
majesty in the blue waters of its placid surface. There are miles of gravel shoals along the
eastern shore covered with but a few feet of water, and which extend from a half to three-
quarters of a mile into the lake, affording excellent spawning grounds for sockeye. There are
many tributary streams at the southern end of the lake, of which the one at the extreme
head of the lake is the largest. Sockeye spawn in all of them, as well as upon the gravel
shoals along the east shore. The outlet of the lake, Chilco River, is for the first six miles of
its course a slow-moving stream. Its waters are clear and the channel wide, and the bottom
is covered with fine gravel, which conditions afford ideal spawning-grounds. Vast numbers
of sockeye spawn there. The Chilcotin Indians hold the opinion that most of the salmon
which ascend the river spawn there, and that only a small number enter the lake and seek its tributary streams. The sockeye were massed along this stretch in great numbers by the 27th
of August this year, and in even greater numbers on September 5 th. The number was
greater than I have ever seen assembled in any unobstructed stream. They were not spawning, but appeared to be resting after their exertions in ascending what appeared to me to be
the most difficult stream frequented by them in the watershed of the Fraser. Those taken by
the Indians which I examined did not appear to be within a month of sexual maturity. There
are only about forty families of Indians residing in the vicinity of Chilco Lake, and they are
all residents of Namiah Valley, which extends to the centre of the lake from the east. The
Chilcotins are horsemen, and know but little of the use of the canoe. There are not to
exceed half a dozen canoes on the lake, and they are not suited to travelling upon so rough a
body of water. The Chilcotins who reside in Namiah Valley reach Chilco River over a trail
some thirty miles in length, and there catch and smoke their salmon. They do not frequent
the streams tributary to the lake during the salmon-spawning period. In fact, these streams
are seldom visited by these Indians ; but when they do visit them, it is chiefly during the
winter season.
Notwithstanding the Indians claim that the sockeye do not enter the lake in large
numbers, and that I did not see any considerable number at the mouths of any of the tributary
streams, I saw them in the lake many miles above the outlet, and from the well-known
characteristic of the sockeye to seek the tributaries of a great lake, I believe that the majority
of the sockeye which ascend the river do enter and spawn in the tributaries of the lake, for
there was not sufficient space in the river at the outlet for so many fish to spawn.
The Run to Seton Lake.
The run of sockeye to the Seton-Anderson Lake section this season was large, much
larger than in 1905, and although the migration extended from the 10th of August to the Sth
of November, and during September and October it was very great, it was not considered by
ocal residents to have equalled the great run of 1901, which, in their opinion, was the greatest
known to the whites.     At no time during this season were the fish moving in such great and
ompact numbers as in August and the first few days of September, 1905. As already stated,
the run this year extended over a much longer period, and the total number which entered
the lake was far greater than in 1905.
The conditions at Seton Lake do not permit of as accurate an estimate being made of the
numbers of sockeye entering it as at Quesnel Lake. A careful daily observation, however,
was made of the number passing into the lake, and it can be safely stated that fully one
million sockeye spawned in that district this year. This season was the first since 1901 in
which there has been a pronounced run of sockeye to this lake during the month of October.
There was no run there this year previous to August 10th, and only a few thousand entered that
section during that month, although they were running up the Fraser River in vast numbers
past the mouth of the stream leading to Seton Lake during that period. The run to the lake
was very heavy during September and October, a strong, steady movement. The fish began
spawning at the head of Seton Lake as early as September 1st, and a few were seen spawning
as late as December 10th.
We began collecting eggs on September 3rd, and ceased after taking thirty millions, on
September 27 th.    All the eggs were secured at the head of the lake.
In 1905 we collected and placed in the hatchery and cared for forty-five millions of eggs
until they hatched out, when we were obliged to plant the greater portion for lack of room.
This season we discontinued operations upon reaching the thirty-million mark, in order that I 16 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. 1910
the young fish might be given better care.     We  could have easily  taken  150 millions of
sockeye eggs at Seton Lake this year.    The eggs collected this season are as follows:—
September    3rd  568,000 September 16th  1,404,000
„            4th  426,000 m          17th  1,614,000
5th  471,000 ii         18th  1,435,000
6th  635,000 „         19th  1,490,000
7th  802,000 ,.         20th  1,008,000
8th  1,285,000 .,         21st  1,505,000
9th...   . 1,049,000 „         22nd  1,245,000
10th  1,178,000 m         23rd  1,368,000
11th  1,368,000 ,.         24th  1,347,000
12th  1,611,000 ,-         25th  1,347,000
13th..... 1,778,000 >,         26th  1,229,000
14th  1,604,000 „         27th  1,230,000
15th  1,524,000
Total 30,500,000
The Run to Shuswap-Adams Lake.
The run of sockeye to the Shuswap-Adams Lake section was as great as in 1905. It was
greatest in August and September, and very pronounced during October, and a few sockeye
spawned in the tributary streams as late as November. In the number and importance of its
tributaries this district exceeds the Chilco and Seton Lake sections. Thompson River, the
outlet of Shuswap Lake, is so wide and sluggish, and its waters so discoloured, that the number
of salmon passing through it cannot be determined with as much accuracy as those passing to
Quesnel, Chilco, and Seton Lakes. But after viewing the fish in the Adams and Eagle Riversj
and receiving reports from local residents as to the number of sockeye in these and other
tributaries of Shuswap Lake, I am convinced that the spawning-beds were as abundantly
covered as in 1905. The hatchery at Granite Creek was filled to its utmost capacity, and
sufficient eggs to fill the Bon Accord Hatchery were shipped from there.
The Run to Lilloobt-Harrison Lake.
The number of sockeye which entered the Lillooet-Harrison Lake watershed this year
was very much less than in 1901 and 1905, and is believed to have been even less than in
recent years of light runs. At no time during the season did the run come up to
expectations. The fish were later than usual in reaching the Birkenhead River, the
principal spawning ground of Lillooet Lake, at the head of the watershed ; the duration
of the run there was shorter, and at no time during the entire season were there anything like as many fish as in 1901 and 1905, and less, I think, than there were in 1902 or
1903. The decrease in the number of sockeye which sought Harrison Lake and River, and
their tributaries at the southern end of the district, was even more pronounced ; and for
practical purposes the run was declared a failure by men best qualified to judge. That any
one district of the Fraser watershed should show a decrease of spawn fish in a big year, when
all the other districts showed a large increase, is of itself remarkable. It is even more remarkable that the run to the Lillooet-Harrison Lake District in each of the last six years has been
far greater than to any other one section in the entire watershed of the Fraser, and that the
run there this year was smaller than to any other section. Not since 1900 has there been a
practical failure in the run to this section. For many years the only eggs taken for hatchery
propagation in the Province were collected at Morris Creek, a tributary to Harrison River a
few miles below Harrison Lake ; and until this year there has always been a good run there
in October and November, with the exception of the year 1900. I have always considered,
and do yet, the Lillooet-Harrison Lake section the best and most reliable place on the Fraser 10 Ed. 7 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. I 17
for the collection of eggs for hatchery propagation in the years of the poor runs. There was
certainly no lack of fish passing by the confluence of the Fraser with the Harrison, as indicated
by the numbers which reached Seton Lake in October and November. The fact that very few
of the fish turned out of the Fraser and entered the Harrison may possibly be attributed to
the low stage of water in its tributary lakes. The streams in this section were certainly lower
this summer and fall than at the same time during any one of the last eight years.
Notwithstanding the comparative light run to Lillooet Lake, no difficulty was experienced
in filling the large hatchery there to its full capacity with sockeye eggs, and the Indians at
Pemberton Meadows obtained all the fish they wanted for their winter food. The hatchery
at Harrison Lake—the largest on the Fraser—was not filled to its capacity this year, notwithstanding every possible effort was made to obtain eggs from the tributaries of Harrison Lake
and River. This situation was undoubtedly due to the fact that sufficient fish did not reach
there to produce the desired number of eggs. The hatchery at Harrison Lake could have been
filled with eggs collected at Seton and Shuswap Lakes, had it been conjectured that the late
run to Morris Creek and Harrison River would not materialise. The run there has been so
constant for the past nine years that no one doubted that there would be a big run this year.
In this connection it is interesting to again point out that there was a late run to Seton
Lake in October, 1901, and no run there at that time in 1905, while this year the run was
large during all of October, and even during the first two weeks in November. On the other
hand, there was no run to Shuswap after the middle of September in 1901, while in September
and October, 1905, the run there was greater than to any other section of the Fraser watershed, and the late run to that section this year was also large.
The number of sockeye eggs taken at the different hatcheries on the Fraser this year is
as follows :—
Seton Lake  30,000,000
Pemberton Meadows  27,000,000
Harrison Lake  15,000,000
Granite Creek, Shuswap Lake  10,000,000
Bon Accord (collected at Shuswap Lake)  10,000,000
Stuart Lake  6,000,000
Total    98,000,000
In concluding this review of the propagation of sockeye salmon in the watershed of the
Fraser River, I desire to call attention to a fact not commonly appreciated and to which
attention has not heretofore been drawn, to wit: that natural propagation in a year of the big
run is not only greater than in "the off years," because an increased number of fish reach the
spawning-beds and there cast a greater number of eggs, but because a much greater percentage
of the eggs which are expressed are fertilised and escape destruction.
To explain more fully, let us suppose a gravel spawning-bed 100 hundred yards square,
sparsely covered with spawning salmon in an off year; that same space in the year of a big
run would be crowded with spawning fish, in which case it can readily be seen that a much
greater percentage of eggs expressed by the female would become impregnated when the water
was filled with eggs and spermatozoa than in the case where only an occasional male and female
were operating. When the males and females are crowded on the spawning-beds, more live
milt and more live eggs must be in the water at the same time, and therefore the percentage
of eggs fertilised must be largely increased. The male germs possess but slight individual
power of motion, and live independently for only three to five minutes, yet during their life
they cover some little space, due to the water currents; so that in a big year's run the germs 18 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. 1910
of the male not only find the eggs of the nearest female, but also the eggs of a female spawning
some distance away. In the case of the poor years, when the fish spawn in pairs and are
widely scattered, as the male and the females do not always express their milt and eggs at the
same, time, there are times when the opening of the egg closes before any male germ can reach
it. Hence it is plain that more eggs are fertilised in a year of the big run, when the spawning-
beds are crowded with fish and the water full of milt and eggs. Then, too, a greater portion
of the sand and gravel of the spawning-bed is stirred up by the exertions of a large number of
fish and a large proportion of the fertilised eggs are buried. Of course it may happen that
the late-comers may dislodge some of the buried eggs of the fish which first spawned, yet they
need not necessarily be injured and will likely find lodgment and be covered again. In the
year of the big run less eggs in proportion are destroyed by trout and sculpin and other egg-
eating fishes than in a poor year, for there is a limit to the number of eggs that even a trout
can consume in a given time. The number of these egg-eaters does not vary with the size of
the run of salmon to the spawning-beds, so it is apparent that a proportionately less number
of eggs is destroyed in this way in the year of a big run than in the years of the smaller runs.
The Run Four Years Hence.
A careful comparison of the number of fish observed upon the spawning-beds this season
with those seen there in 1905 shows unquestionably that many more fish reached there this
year. The weather conditions were as favourable, and the hatcheries were well filled; therefore, I believe the prospect of a big run four years hence is better than at this time four years
ago.
Field-Work on Northern Rivers.
In addition to the field investigation conducted by the Department upon the Fraser
River, agents were despatched to the spawning-beds of the salmon which run to Rivers Inlet
and the Skeena and Naas Rivers. T. G. Wynn, Fishery Overseer for the Skeena River
District, was again detailed to inspect the spawning-grounds of the Skeena River. He reports
that he found the water very high in all the tributaries and so much discoloured that it was
difficult to form a reliable estimate of the number of sockeye which were spawning there this
year. From all the data he could collect, he is "satisfied there were as many salmon on the
spawning-grounds of Babine Lake as last year," and that there was no lack of fish in the other
tributaries. For the first time he went up the Bulkley River to its confluence with Morice
River. Of the falls in the Bulkley River at Moricetown he says : " The Indians catch salmon
here. I inspected their fish-sheds and found that a lot of sockeye salmon had been caught by
them this year. They caught these fish right at the falls by means of hooks attached to long
poles. It is very hard for the salmon to get up these falls even when the water is high, and
when the water is low it is impossible for them to do so. The Indians told me that a lot of
sockeye got up this year. At the forks of the Bulkley and Morice I was told by three Indians
that the sockeye go right up to the head of Morice River and spawn in the tributaries of Morice
Lake. I enclose a sketch map they drew of that section. From their description of the
extent and character of the spawning-grounds there, and the statements that in a year of low
water the sockeye cannot get over the falls at Moricetown, I strongly advise that those falls be
made passable at all stages of the water. I consider that there would be no great difficulty in
doing so; that is nothing compared to the expense it will take to get the fish over the falls in
the Tachek River at Babine Lake, as materials can be taken over the waggon road from
Hazelton, and the falls are easy to get at, and the character of the work much less difficult,
and the task much more likely to prove a success. I did not get up Copper River, but was
told by the men who worked on the trail there that large numbers of sockeye were there
this year." 10 Ed. 7 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. I 19
While at Babine Lake Mr. Wynn succeeded in getting up the Tachek River to Fulton
Lake, its principal source, and some miles up the main tributary at the head of that lake.
The lake and its tributaries he considered would be ideal though rather limited spawning-
grounds for the salmon which were massed below and could not get over the falls in the
Tatchek River, which he described in his report last year, and which he suggested should be
provided with a fishway.
Following Mr. Wynn's suggestion, and at the solicitation of the British Columbia
Canners' Association, the Department engaged J. H. Brownlee, C. E., to make a reconnaissance
of the falls in the Tachek River and the watershed above, and to report on the practicability
and cost of constructing a fishway there. His report will be of interest to those concerned in
the fisheries of the Skeena, and for their information it is hereto attached and made a part of
the appendix to this report. I will state, however, that it is not, under the terms of the
North American Act, the duty of the Provincial Government to undertake the work which he
suggests.
Rivers Inlet Spawning-Grounds.
To F. Gosby, Fishery Overseer for Rivers Inlet, was assigned the inspection of the
spawning-beds of Oweekayno Lake and its many tributaries, where the salmon which run
through that inlet spawn. As the fishermen and canners at Rivers Inlet appear to know
but little of the character of these spawning-beds, Officer Gosby's report is here given in full
as follows :—
"In obedience to your instructions, I proceeded on September 17th to Lake Oweekayno,
accompanied by two white assistants and one Indian, with two canoes. Finding the Mackwell
River to be very high and in flood, on account of heavy rains, I proceeded first to the head of
the lake. On arriving at the head I first ascended the Indian or Inziana River above the
falls, and about two and a half miles from the mouth of the river. This river is a succession
of sand-bars and rocks, but is a good sockeye stream; large numbers were spawning
everywhere, right up to the falls, which are about 40 feet in height, and effectually precluded
the fish from proceeding farther.
" I next ascended the Cheo River to the falls, about 10 feet in height, three and a half
miles from the mouth. There were numbers of sockeye spawning in this stream, but they did
not appear to go beyond the falls; although I saw quite a number of spring salmon above, I
saw no sockeye.
"I next ascended the Wak Wash River to the falls, about one and three-quarter miles
from the mouth. This is much the best river at the head of the lake for salmon, being
literally packed with spawning sockeye. In the pools and where the water runs over a
gravelly bottom they were massed so thickly that it appeared almost impossible that any more
could exist there. The falls, of which there are three, aggregate about 70 feet in height.
There is a very large log-jam in this river extending for a distance of about 400 or 500
yards. This jam assists the bears, wolves, eagles, etc., to catch the fish which have to
pass under it. I counted fifty wolves in one pack close to the falls and saw their trails
everywhere, together with bear, both black and grizzly. In the vicinity of this jam the
stench from the fish entrails and the portions left uneaten, after being hauled out of the river,
was practically unbearable. This river differs from the Indian and Cheo Rivers, in that the
water is much clearer, the others being very muddy and dirty.
"I next ascended the Shumahalt River to the falls, about 30 feet in height and about
twenty-seven miles from the mouth. This river is very hard to ascend for about twelve miles,
being nothing but a succession of riffles and very swift, but from about that distance gets much I 20 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. 1910
better, though there are some very bad places in it. This is a very good salmon stream,
especially for cohos, which were going up in very great numbers, although they had the
appearance of having been in fresh water but a short time. There were large numbers of
sockeye in this stream, though there did not appear to be as many as in the others; but then
again it would be a very hard thing to estimate their numbers, as they had so much room to
spawn in, and no necessity for massing together as in the smaller streams. The bears had
been busy along this river.
"I next looked in at the Zeneesee River, where the hatchery at Lake Oweekayno has a
camp. The river up to the trap was full of fish and the officer in charge was spawning many
hundreds of fish daily. He informed me that they get three big runs of fish in this stream,
and that those in the stream when I was there belonged to the first run. He also said that
the fish were exceptionally plentiful this year.
" I next ascended the Mackwell River as far as the confluence of the Neuchants River,
about three-quarters of a mile from the mouth. I then proceeded to ascend the Neuchants,
which is a quietly flowing stream to a point about three miles from the Mackwell, where it
divides into two branches, the main river going south-east and the other going south. Both
these streams get very swift, and both have very large log-jams in them. I followed the
course of the stream going south for a considerable distance. It was packed absolutely full of
sockeye, which were spawning everywhere. I then returned and followed the course of the
main river to a point above the rapids about four and a half miles from the Mackwell, where
the stream gets very narrow and, in my opinion, does not go much farther. Up to the rapids
this stream is packed with sockeye, massed as close as it was possible to get them, but they
do not go above, though I saw numbers of spring salmon—sachems—there. The bears, eagles,
etc., had been having a fine time along this river; everywhere were portions of fish which had
been left after being pulled out and just a part eaten. It was practically impossible to walk
without treading on salmon, and the stench was unbearable. I then returned to the Mackwell, and continued the ascent of that stream to a point about twenty-five miles from the
mouth. The Mackwell is undoubtedly the worst stream to ascend that runs into Lake
Oweekayno, being nothing but a succession of rapids. I made the ascent for the first ten
miles by canoe, but the stream got worse and progress so very slow that I abandoned that
mode of progression and took to the bush for about fifteen miles farther, where the river
narrows considerably7, but is still a good-sized stream. There appeared to be more cohos than
sockeye in this river, but the cohos did not appear to be spawning, simply playing around in
the pools. I was rather disappointed at the number of sockeye which I found in the river.
I considered it small in comparison with other streams, and am of opinion that a large majority
of the sockeye that enter this river from the lake do so for the purpose of reaching the waters
of the Neuchants River, which was far away the best sockeye stream I ascended.
"There were large numbers of seals in the lake and in the rivers; these animals must
destroy a great many fish. There were no Indians fishing at any of these streams. On my
way down the lake, on October 3rd, salmon, both sockeye and coho, were jumping on all sides
and large numbers of spring salmon were spawning in the Whannock River."
The Spawning-Beds of the Naas River.
The inspection of the spawning-beds of the Naas River was again assigned to C. P.
Hickman, Fishery Overseer for that district. He again visited all the streams which he
traversed last year, and he succeeded in reaching Meziadan Lake, the only lake of importance in the watershed of the Naas River. He found the water in all the tributaries of the
Naas very high, much higher than last year, and so discoloured that he was unable to deter- 10 Ed. 7
Commissioner of Fisheries Report.
I 21
mine whether the sockeye were as numerous there this season as they were last, but in all
sections he found evidence of large numbers of salmon. From the fact that fishing for sockeye did not begin on the Naas until July 1st, and that on that day the fishermen averaged
200 to the boat, he is of the opinion that a large number passed up the river in June. Of
Meziadan Lake he says : " It is a fine body of water and the only lake of importance in the
watershed of the Naas River. It is twelve to fourteen miles long and two miles at its widest
point. There are two creeks near the southern end and both have beaver-dams at their
mouths. There are no creeks on the west side of the lake, but I saw sockeye spawning on
the bed of the lake at two different points along that shore, also at the north-west and northeast ends of the lake. The lake is very deep on the west side after one gets 300 feet from the
shore. I could not get bottom with 180 feet of line. A large stream enters the lake at its
head and there is a large deposit of fine gravel at its mouth, extending some distance into the
lake, on which the water is shallow. Most of the salmon I saw were spawning there. I did
not go up the creek, but from its size it must be the principal spawning-ground of that section. On the lower Naas, during the fishing season, I again noticed that there were two
kinds of sockeye being caught, one with a blue nose and the other with a white one. All
those I saw at Meziadan had blue noses, and I did not see any of the white-nosed variety in
any tributary."
Mr. Hickman further states that the falls in the Meziadan River greatly obstruct the
ascent of the sockeye, and that at slight eost the passage could be made easy. As the lake
above the falls is the only one of importance in the watershed of the Naas River, it would
seem that the Dominion authorities would be warranted in having the obstruction removed.
Licence Collections of the Fishery Department for the Year 1909.
Fishermen.
Traps.
Cannery.
Fish-Packing
Establishment.
Total for
District.
District.
No.
2614
1017
853
199
25
4708
Amount.
No.
12
Amount.
No.
42
7
10
3
7
69
Amount.
$4,200
700
1,000
300
700
No.
9
3
3
3
9
27
Amount.
Amount.
Fraser River	
$13,070
5,085
4,265
995
125
$300
$900
300
300
300
900
$18,470
6,085
5,565
1,595
Outside Districts..
12
1,725
Totals
$23,540
$300
$6,900
$2,700
$33,440
* Including sales at Smith Inlet, Bella Bella, Namu, and Kimsquit.
I have the honour to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
JOHN PEASE BABCOCK,
Deputy Commissioner of Fisheries.
Victoria, B. C, December 31st, 1909. I 22
Commissioner of Fisheries Report.
1910
APPENDIX.
■:o:-
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1909,
Compiled erom Figures Furnished the Department by the B. C. Salmon Canners' Association.
Districts and Canneries.
Sockeyes.
Red
Springs.
White
Springs.
Chums and
Pinks.
Cohos.
Totals.
Fraser River District—
187,745
74,853
20,100
44,444
27,340
22,953
21,915
12,409
22,281
15,284
16,140
9,807
15,021
'     9.324
11,054
81,578
29,640
13,547
294
100
5,569
1,034
4,000
1,192
1,826
345
4,500
674
436
193.60S
75,987
24,100
1,090
46,7?6
25
989
29,166
118
23,441
27,404
Northern Canning Co., Ltd	
13.083
22,717
779
10,063
203
16,343
9,807
Great West Packing Co., Ltd	
 io'
578
15,699
9,334
452
731
5,900
479
27,919
11,606
10
32,319
J. H  Todd & Sons (Esquimalt)	
5,000
1,700
8,687
5,458
3,965
4,916
3,549
1,222
2/J10
40,540
B. C. Canning Co. (Capital City)	
15,726
5S5,435
1,428
623,469
Skeena River District—
19.181
12,165
7,794
8,715
9,790
14,637
5,419
10,200
3,702
2,798
577
1,377
751
1,748
144
630
5,629
882
1,178
534
632
2,365
579
450
33,970
742
20,552
14,465
B. C. Canning Co., Ltd	
14,175
12,395
21,660
6,142
6,100
17,380
Totals	
87,901
35,755
9,986
12,195
10,727
9,986
10,378
11,727
742
28,120
12,249
140,739
Rivers Inlet District—
302
308
185
462
445
36,365
10,171
A. B. C. Packing Co., Ltd	
J. H. Todd & Sons	
12,657
11,172
B. C. Canning Co., Ltd	
204
81
10,190
10,459
Totals	
89,027
7,964
11,812
8,470
587
616
1,638
126
1,400
91,014
2,514
116
959
Naas River District—
57
2,066
1,363
3,389
13,217
Pfc. Nelson C. & S. Co., Ltd   	
12,944
28,246
2,280
57
3,589
6,818
9,581
113
3,383
40,990
Outlying Districts—
16,618
6,954
7,388
13,500
5,872
500
1,696
740
628
3,200
300
1,280
6,695
500
14,300
455
7,607
600
13,532
Totals	
49,832
2,190
6,148
71,708
840,441
18,218
799
46,544
61,918
967,920 10 Ed. 7
Commissioner of Fisheries Report.
I 23
PACKED BY DISTRICTS PREVIOUS YEARS.
1908.
1907.
1906.
1905.
1904.
128,903
164,869
19,085
94,292
68,745
1903.
1902.
1901.
1900.
1899.
1898.
1897.
860,459
65,905
20,847
40,207
128,059
1896.
Fraser River ...
Skeena River ..
Naas River   ...
Rivers Inlet	
89,184
209,177
J6.908
75,090
122,330
542,689
163,116
159,255
31,832
94,064
99,192
547,459
240,486
162,420
32,534
122,878
71,142
629,460
877,136
114,085
32,725
83,122
60,392
1,167,460
237,125
98,669
12,100
09,390
56,390
327,095
164,876
23,218
70,298
50,496
990.2C2
126,092
14,790
66,840
38,182
316,522
128,529
18,238
75,413
46,711
685,413
510,383
108,026
19,443
71,079
23,506
256,101
81,234
18,953
104,711
23,162
356,984
100,140
14,649
107,468
22,329
Totals	
465,894
473,674
625,982
1,236,156
732,437
484,161
1,015,477
601,570
ESTIMATED PACK OF PUGET SOUND SALMON, SEASON 1909,
-:o:-
FURNISHED   THE   DEPARTMENT   BY  KeLLEY-ClARKE   Co.,   SEATTLE.
Tails.
Flats.
Halves.
8 doz. to case.
Total Cases.
442,130
101,978
361,088
52,251
455,052
20,687
2,698
107,938
16,652
1,370
1,005,120
139,297
865,156
52,251
Totals	
957,447
478,417
125,960
1,561,824
The Red Spring pack, amounting to 12,885 cases, included in Sockeye figures.
COMPARATIVE PACKS.
1909.
1908.
1907.
1906.
1805.
1904.
1903.
1902.
1901.
1900.
1899.
1,005,120
139,297
365,156
52,251
162,228
95,863
' 51,186
96,974
111,611
448,730
51,840
709,155
182,241
98,206
i'ssjasi
435,668
837,122
89,636
71,490
49,047
1,047,295
123,419
106,856
56,355
286,630
107,211
103,476
181,326
12,001
464,014
339,556
99,713
95,322
534,591
1,105,096
9,889
49,437
71,941
1,363,297
228,704
118,174
55,170
402,048
497,700
Puget Sound Pinks 	
90,400
245,400
17,800
Totals	
1,561,824
809,277
851,300 I 24 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. 1910
IN RE INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS,
[Prepared by the International Fisheries Commission pursuant to and under the authority of the convention of April 11th, 1908,
between the United States and Great Britain.1
The following regulations, prepared by the International Fisheries Commission pursuant
to and under the authority of a convention concluded by and between the United States of
America and His Majesty Edward the Seventh, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, and Emperor of India,
dated the 11th day of April, 1908, shall constitute a system of uniform and common international regulations for the protection and preservation of the food fishes in each of the waters
prescribed in Article IV. of said convention, to wit : (1) The territorial waters of Passama-
quoddy Bay; (2) the St. John and St. Croix Rivers; (3) Lake Memphremagog; (4) Lake
Champlain; (5) the St. Lawrence River, where the said river constitutes the international
boundary; (6) Lake Ontario; (7) the Niagara River ; (8) Lake Erie; (9) the waters
connecting Lake Erie and Lake Huron, including Lake St. Clair ; (10) Lake Huron, excluding
Georgian Bay, but including North Channel; (11) St. Mary's River and Lake Superior; (12)
Rainy River and Rainy Lake; (13) Lake of the Woods; (14) the Strait of Juan de Fuca,
those parts of Washington Sound, the Gulf of Georgia, and Puget Sound lying between the
parallels of 48° 10' and 49° 20'; (15) and such other contiguous waters as maybe recommended by the International Fisheries Commission and approved by the two Governments.
Part I.—Regulations.
1. Application of Regulations.
These regulations are to be applied within and throughout the above-named waters,
hereinafter called " treaty waters," provided that certain regulations are to be applied only
within certain of said waters, as hereinafter specifically indicated, and provided also that no
regulation shall apply to the St. John River unless such river is specially mentioned in such
regulation. It is understood by the International Fisheries Commission that all Statutes and
laws relating to the protection and preservation of the fisheries in the treaty waters lawfully
passed, or that hereafter may be lawfully passed, in the United States or in the Dominion of
Canada, shall have full validity in so far as the said Statutes and laws are not in conflict with
these regulations, and that these regulations shall not be construed as permitting fishing at
any times or places or by any methods or appliances prohibited by such laws.
2.  Definitions.
In these regulations the following definitions are adopted to apply to the words in
question, wherever the same shall be used :—
******
Open Season. —A period in which fishes may legally be taken.
Person.—This term as used in these regulations shall include person or persons, firm, partnership or
corporation.
Potmd Net.—A net attached to stakes or piles, composed of a long leader running from the shore, a
heart or partly enclosed portion, and a final, more perfectly enclosed portion, open at the top, called crib,
car, or pot, to which is sometimes added one or more enclosures called "spillers." On the Pacific Coast a
pound net is often called locally a " trap."
Purse Net.—A seine that can be so operated as to form a purse or bag, closed at the bottom.
Salmon.—This term includes the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); the landlocked salmon (Salmo sebago);
the red salmon, called blueback or sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) ; the chinook salmon, called quinnat, tyee,
king salmon, or spring salmon (Oncorhynchus tschairytscha); the silver salmon, called coho {Oncorhynchus
kisutch) ; the humpback salmon, called pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha.) ; and the dog salmon, called
chum or calico salmon (Oncorhynchus keta).
Seine.—An encircling fish-net which may be drawn to the shore or which may be closed about a body of
swimming fish.
Sanger. —St 'zostedion canadense.
Steelhead or Steelhead Trout.—Salmo irideus rividaris, 10 Ed. 7 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. I 25
3. Disposition of Prohibited Catch.
In case any fish is unintentionally captured contrary to the prohibitions or restrictions
contained in any of the following regulations, such fish shall, if possible, be immediately
returned alive and uninjured to the water.
If..  Dynamite, Poisonous, Substances, etc.
No person shall place or use quicklime, dynamite, explosive or poisonous substances, or
electric device in treaty waters for the purpose of capturing or killing fish.
5. Pollution of Waters.
No person shall place or pass, or allow to pass, into treaty waters any substance offensive
to fishes, injurious to fish life, or destructive to fish fry or to the food of fishes or of fish fry,
unless permitted so to do under any law passed by the legislative authority having jurisdiction.
No person shall deposit dead fish, fish offal, or gurry in treaty waters, or on ice formed
thereon, except in gurry grounds established by the duly constituted authorities.
6.   Capture of Fishes for Propagation or for Scientific Purposes.
Nothing contained in these regulations shall prohibit or interfere with the taking of any
fishes at any time for propagation or hatchery purposes, and obtaining at any time or by any
method specimens of fishes for scientific purposes under authority granted for Canadian treaty
waters by the duly constituted authorities in Canada and for United States treaty waters by
the duly constituted authorities in the United States.
11.  Commercial Fishing for certain Game Fishes Prohibited.
No black bass, brook trout, landlocked salmon, or maskinonge shall be fished for, killed,
or captured for commercial purposes in treaty waters.
12.  Capture of Immature Salmon Prohibited.
No salmon or steelhead of less than three pounds in weight shall be fished for, killed, or
captured in treaty waters.
13. Salmon Weirs, etc., above Tidal Limits Prohibited.
No salmon and no steelhead shall be fished for, killed, or captured by means of a net of
any sort, any weir or any fish wheel, above tidal limits in any river in treaty waters.
11/..  Close Season for Sturgeon.
During the term of four years next following the date of the promulgation of these regulations no sturgeon shall be fished for, killed, or captured in treaty waters.
15. Capture of Fish for Fertiliser or Oil Prohibited.
Fishes useful for human food shall not be fished for, killed, or captured in treaty waters
for use in the manufacture of fertiliser, or of oil other than oil for food or medicinal purposes.
16. Naked Hooks and Spears Prohibited.
No spear, grappling hook, or naked hook, and no artificial bait with more than three
hooks, or more than one burr of three hooks attached thereto, shall be used for the capture of
fish in treaty waters. This regulation shall not prohibit the use of a gaff in hook-and-line fishing.
19.  Torching Prohibited.
No torch, flambeau, or other artificial light shall be used as a lure for fish in treaty waters. I 26 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. 1910
Strait of Juan de Fuca and Adjacent Waters.
The following regulations (62 to 66, inclusive) shall apply to the Strait of Juan de Fuca,
those parts of Washington Sound, the Gulf of Georgia, and Puget Sound lying between the
parallels of 48 degrees 10 minutes and 49 degrees 20 minutes north latitude :—
62.  Close Season for Salmon.
From August 25th to September 15th in each year, both days inclusive, no salmon or
steelhead shall be fished for, killed, or captured for commercial purposes in these treaty waters;
provided, however, that in the waters to the westward of a line drawn southward from Gonzales Point to the shore of the State of Washington silver salmon, or coho salmon, may be
fished for, killed, or captured from September 1st to September 15 th in each year, both days
inclusive.
63.   Weekly Close Season for Salmon and Steelhead.
From 6 o'clock Saturday morning to 6 o'clock on the Monday morning next succeeding,
no salmon or steelhead shall be fished for, killed, or captured in these treaty waters.
It is, however, provided that in the waters to the westward of a line drawn southward
from Gonzales Point to the shore of the State of Washington the weekly close season shall
begin twelve hours earlier, and shall end twelve hours earlier.
Olf. Construction of Pound Nets.
All pound nets or other stationary appliances for the capture of salmon or steelhead shall
be so constructed that no fish whatever shall be taken during the weekly close season. The
erection or addition to the pound net of a jigger is prohibited.
65. Location of Pound Nets.
All pound nets shall be limited to a length of 2,500 feet, with an end passageway of at
least 600 feet between one pound net and the next in a linear series, such distance being
measured in continuation of the line of direction of the leader of such net, and a lateral
passageway of at least 2,400 feet between one pound net and the next.
On and after January Ist, 1911, the mesh in pound nets shall be 4 inches in extension in
the leader and not less than 3 inches in other parts of the net.
66. Nets other than Pound Nets.
No purse net shall be used within three miles of the mouth of any river and no seine
within one mile of the mouth of any river in these treaty waters.
No gill net of more than 900 feet in length or of a greater depth than 60 meshes shall be
used in these treaty waters.
Part II.—Recommendations.
1.  Investigation of Food Fishes.
It is recommended that the natural history and habits of each of the leading species of
food fishes in the treaty waters be made the subject of careful and continuous study, with a
view to increasing the fishery products to the highest possible degree and of obtaining more
satisfactory evidence upon points now under discussion, especially those relating to close and
open seasons. The Commissioners have in some cases found much divergence of opinion among
those engaged in the fisheries. For this reason they have thought it better to refrain from
making certain proposed fishery regulations rather than to risk improperly or unnecessarily
restricting the fishing industries.
2. Food Fishes Suitable for Artificial Propagation in Treaty  Waters.
It is recommended that the artificial propagation of the various species of food fishes in
the treaty waters be continued by both countries, and developed to the fullest possible extent
and with the highest possible degree of efficiency, this work being regarded as of vital moment
to the preservation and maintenance of the most valuable species of fishes. The following
species have high importance in this regard, so far as treaty waters are concerned :— 10 Ed. 7 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. I 27
Lake Superior whitefish (Coregonus clupeiformis).
Lake Erie whitefish (Coregonus albus.)
Sockeye, blueback, or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).
Chinook, spring salmon, king, or quinnat salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha).
Coho or silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).
Humpback salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
Landlocked salmon (Salmo sebago).
Lake Erie Cisco, called jumbo herring (Argyrosomus eriensis).
Lake trout, called Mackinaw trout, longe, togue, or gray trout (Cristivomer namaycush).
Yellow pike, wall-eye, or dore (Stizosledion vitreum).
Brook trout, or speckled trout or char (Salvelinus fontinalis).
Brown trout, or river trout of Europe (Salmo fario).
Steelhead trout (Salmo irideus rivularis).
Rainbow trout (Salmo irideus shasta).
Cisco, called lake herring (Argyrosomus artedi).
Lobster (Homarus americanus).
It is further urged that the hatching and propagation of food fishes is an art based on
scientific knowledge. It is therefore essential to make the position of the officer in charge of
a hatchery, through adequate salary and other means, attractive to men who have been
properly trained in the work, and who have the scientific acquirements necessary for success.
3.   Violation of International Regulations.
It is recommended that any violation of the fishery regulations governing the fishing in
treaty waters on the part of a Canadian subject or a person resident in Canada, or under the
jurisdiction of its Courts, shall constitute an offence punishable by fine or imprisonment, or
both, as provided by the Fisheries Act, chapter 45, Revised Statutes of Canada, 1906, and of
the regulations under the said Act.
It is recommended that any violation of the fishery regulations governing fishing in treaty
waters on the part of a citizen of the United States, or person resident in the United States,
or under the jurisdiction of its Courts, shall constitute an offence punishable by fine or imprisonment, or both, no fine imposed for such violation to exceed $1,000, and no imprisonment for a
period greater than one year.
4-. Enforcement of Regulations.
It is recommended that the enforcement of all laws and regulations governing fishing in
treaty waters be intrusted to the inspectors and other officers in the Dominion of Canada under
the Department of Marine and Fisheries, and in the United States to a staff of inspectors and
other officers to be organised under the Bureau of Fisheries of the Department of Commerce
and Labour of the United States.
5. International Licence System.
It is recommended that in the early future the Dominion of Canada and the United
States shall adopt a concurrent and uniform system of licences for fishing in treaty waters.
6. Extension of Area to be Covered by International Regulations.
It is recommended that the regulations applying to the territorial waters of Passama-
quoddy Bay be extended to include the tidal waters of Charlotte County, New Brunswick,
and of Washington County, Me., together with the waters adjacent to the islands of Charlotte County, New Brunswick, and the waters adjacent to the islands of Washington
County, Me.
It is further recommended that the regulations applying to the Lake of the Woods,
Rainy River, and Rainy Lake be extended to the other lakes and rivers traversed by the
boundary line between the Province of Ontario and the State of Minnesota.
7. Disposal of Fish Taken in Contravention of the Regulations.
It is recommended that fishermen who may unintentionally capture fish of species which
cannot be returned alive and uninjured to the water, in contravention of any of the foregoing regulations, shall, wherever possible,  send  such fish  ta the nearest inspector or other fishery
official, to be forwarded to some hospital or charitable institution.
Dated at the City of Washington, this  29th day of May, in the year of our Lord 1909.
David Starr Jordan,
International Fisheries Commissioner.
Edward Ernest Prince,
International Fishery Commissioner.
Indianapolis, Ind., November 26th, 1909.
Sir : Permit me to make the following brief report of the actions of the International
Fisheries Commission since May 31st, 1909, at which date the Commission placed in the
hands of the Secretary of State its proposed fishery regulations, 66 in number, in pursuance
of the treaty under which the Commission was appointed. These bear the caption : " A system of uniform and common international regulations for the protection and preservation of
the food fishes in the international boundary waters of the United States and Canada; prepared by the International Fisheries Commission, pursuant to and under the authority of the
convention of April 11th, 1908, between the United States and Great Britain."
Since signing this report the two Commissioners have again visited, together or sepa
rately, nearly every fishing port along the boundary from Toronto to Vancouver Island, and a-
representative of the Commission, Dr. B. W. Evermann, of the United States Bureau of Fisheries, has visited those of Maine and New Brunswick.
A formal meeting of the Commission was held November 18th and 19th, 1909, in New
York. At this meeting were also present Mr. Chandler P. Anderson, of the Department of
State ; Mr. Francis H. Gisborne, attorney of the Council of Canada; and Dr. Evermann.
It was agreed that no amendments shall be proposed at the present time and that the
system of regulations as presented on May 31st, 1909, shall be allowed to take their course.
As to these regulations, I ask you to pardon me certain suggestions which lie outside of
my official authority, but which may be of possible service to yourself.
Date of Taking Effect.
In my judgment the regulations should take effect on January 1st, 1911. The fishermen should have a season in which to use up the twine they now have. The change should
not take place in the midst of the fishing season. There is practically no fishing in boundary
waters in December, January, and February.
Federal Patrol System.
In Article III. of the treaty of April 11th, 1908, "the two Governments engage to put
into operation and enforce by legislation " these fishery regulations.
I do not see how this can be done without a national system of patrol along the
boundary waters in addition to that maintained by the several States for the enforcement of
their own Statutes. Such a national system is now in operation in Canada. Besides a complete staff of " guardians " and " overseers," Canada has a patrol steamer in Passamaquoddy
Bay, one in Lake Ontario, one in Lake Erie, and three in Puget Sound. On the United
States side, Pennsylvania and Ohio have each a patrol steamer in Lake Erie much smaller
than the Canadian vessel. The other States, so far as known to me, have only an occasional
gasoline launch. With upwards of 2,500 square miles of fishing territory, the State of Washington has no patrol vessels, and so far as I know but a single gasoline launch. The present
Statutes are fairly well enforced in most of the eastern boundary States, notably so in Ohio
and Pennsylvania. In Washington they are not adequately enforced. It is claimed that in
the current season the fishermen of Washington caught by encroachment on the close season
salmon to the value of upward of $600,000, to which they were not entitled. Part of these
should have been taken in British Columbia waters. The others should have escaped up
Fraser River to the spawning-grounds. In Canada, throughout the boundary waters, the
Statutes now in effect are rigidly enforced. It does not even occur to any one to violate them.
The real need of the boundary situation is less that of stringent legislation than of equal 10 Ed. 7 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. I 29
enforcement of law on either side. I see no way to accomplish this except by a federal patrol
corresponding to the Dominion patrol  of Canada.
As to the details of such a patrol, Doctor Evermann, of the Bureau of Fisheries, has
made a special study of the matter, and the Bureau of Fisheries is prepared, if desired, to
furnish the text of a Bill making appropriation for such purpose. I may further add that
Doctor Evermann is fully cognisant of all the details in these regulations, and is prepared to
answer any questions which may be asked by Congress or by the Department of State.
Meanwhile I append (Appendix A) a rough draft of what I conceive should be provided.
Penalty Clause.
A penalty clause must be added to the regulations. This may be drawn broadly, leaving
much to the discretion of the Court. The following has been suggested by the International
Fisheries Commission (recommendation 3, p. 13):—
It is recommended that any violation of the fishery regulations governing fishing in treaty waters on
the part of a citizen of the United States, or person resident in the United States or under the jurisdiction
of its Courts, shall constitute an offence punishable by fine or imprisonment, or both, no fine imposed for
such violation to exceed $1,000, and no imprisonment for a period greater than one year.
Fishes Illegally Taken.
It is the experience of Canada, as well as in our States generally, that it is necessary to
have a Statute creating a misdemeanor in case one shall buy, sell, offer for sale, hold in
possession for purposes of sale or for preservation as food, any fish illegally taken or below the
legal size. The International Fisheries Commission thought that such a clause should have
formed one of their regulations, but it was withdrawn as probably not within their authority.
Passamaquoddy Bay.
I would also call especial attention to recommendation 6, " Passamaquoddy Bay," for
example, does not, as indicated on the maps, include all the boundary waters between Maine
and New Brunswick.
I am, very respectfully, yours,
David Starr Jordan,
International Fisheries Commission,
Stanford University, California.
Hon. Philander C. Knox,
Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.
APPENDIX A.
Suggested Form of an Act.
AN ACT to give effect to the provisions of a treaty between the United States and Great Britain concerning the fisheries in waters
contiguous to the United States and the Dominion of Canada, signed at Washington on April 1st, 1908, and ratified by the
United States Senate April 13th, 1008.
Be it enacted by the Senate and Souse of Representatives of the  United States of America in Congres
assembled, That from and after the passage of this Act the regulation and control of the fisheries on the
United States side of the waters contiguous to the United States and the Dominion of Canada shall be
exercised by the United States Government.
That the system of uniform and common international regulations for the protection and preservation
of the food fishes in each of the waters prescribed in article four of said convention, as prepared by the
International Fisheries Commission appointed under the terms of said convention, and as signed on May
twenty-ninth, nineteen hundred and nine, is hereby received and approved.
That the administration of these International regulations is hereby placed with the United States
Bureau of Fisheries of the Department of Commerce and Labour.
That there shall be established in the Bureau of Fisheries a system of inspectors, wardens, deputy
wardens, and assistants adequate for the proper enforcement of the laws and regulations governing the
fisheries and fishing in international waters, each and any of whom shall have power to seize without
warrant fishing gear, boats, or other apparatus which is being illegally used, and to make arrests without
warrant; and the amount necessary for the enforcement of the said laws and regulations shall be estimated
for annually by the Secretary of Commerce and Labour and appropriated for, including salaries and expenses
of the inspectors, wardens, deputy wardens, and assistants herein authorised, all of whom shall be appointed
by the Secretary of Commerce and Labour in accordance with civil service regulations, as follows :—
One Deputy International Fisheries Commissioner, who shall have general charge, under the Commissioner of Fisheries, of the enforcement of the international fisheries laws and regulations, represent the
United States in any suit concerning any supposed violation of such laws and regulations, conduct investi I 30 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. 1910
gations of the natural history and habits of the various species of fishes with reference to their more
adequate protection and propagation, and in general act as the duly authorised representative and deputy of
the International Fisheries Commission.
One secretary to the Deputy International Fisheries Commissioner.
Three inspectors, one of whom shall have charge of the fisheries of Lake Ontario and of the international boundary waters lying between or on the boundary of the States known as New England and the
Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Quebec ; this to be known as the eastern division of the
treaty ; one for the Great Lakes, exclusive of Lake Ontario, and with the Lake of the Woods and its
tributary waters ; this to be known as the central division of the treaty waters; and one for the international boundary waters about Puget Sound as defined in the treaty; this to be known as the western
division of the treaty waters.
There shall be not fewer than seven wardens under the inspector for the eastern division, twenty-one
wardens under the inspector for the central division, and five wardens under the inspector for the western
diyision, all of whom shall devote their entire time to the service.
Upon the recommendation of the inspector in charge and the International Fisheries Commissioner the
Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries is authorised to appoint deputy wardens, not exceeding forty in all,
who will devote only such portion of their time to the service as may be required.
APPENDIX B.
Memorandum of Estimate of Expenses.
For the construction or purchase of 7 steam vessels, at $6,000 $ 42,000 00
For 16 gasoline launches, at |250  4,000 00
Total $ 46,000 00
Salaries per Year.
1 Deputy International Fisheries Commissioner $ 5,000 00
1 secretary to the Deputv International Fisheries Commissioner  2,000 00
1 clerk ."      1,000 00
1 clerk  900 00
3 inspectors, at $3,000  9,000 00
2 wardens, at $1,800    3,600 00
4 wardens, at $1,500  6,000 00
18 wardens, at $1,200  21,600 00
5 wardens, at $1,000  5,000 00
For deputy wardens  6,000 00
For travel and.other expenses  15,000 00
$ 75,100 00
Maintenance of Vessels.
7 captains, at $1,200 $    8,400 00
7 engineers, at $ 1,0S0  7,560 00
7 mates, at $720  5,040 00
7 deck hands, at $480  3,360 00
7 cooks, at $720  5,040 00
Subsistence for above  7,500 00
16 coxswains for 16 launches, at $300  4,800 00
Subsistence      1,600 00
$ 38,920 00
Summary of Initial Expenses.
For patrol vessels $ 46,000 00
For salaries (with travel expenses)       75,100 00
Maintenance of vessels       38,920 00
$160,020 00
Cost of coal and other fuel not estimated.
The vessels and launches would be assigned as follows : One vessel and one launch on Passamaquoddy
Bay, St. Croix River, and St. Johns River ; one vessel and two launches on Lake Ontario and the St.
Lawrence River ; one vessel and four launches on Lake Erie ; one vessel and two launches on Lake St. Clair
and Lake Huron ; one vessel and two launches on Lake Superior ; two vessels and two launches on Puget
Sound ; one launch on Lake Memphremagog; one launch on Lake of the Woods; one launch on Lake
Champlain.
The inspectors, wardens, etc., might be located as follows : Deputy International Fisheries Commissioner, Washington ; secretary to the Deputy International Fisheries Commissioner, Washington; inspector
for the eastern division, Eastport, Me.;   inspector for central division, Detroit,  Mich.; inspector for the 10 Ed. 7 Commissioner of Fisheries Report. I 81
western division, Bellingham, Wash.; one warden at Eastport, Me.; one warden on Lake Memphremagog;
one warden on Lake Champlain; one warden on St. Lawrence River; three wardens on Lake Ontario and
lower Niagara River ; seven wardens on Lake Erie and upper Niagara River ; four wardens on Lakes Huron
and St. Clair; four wardens on Lake Superior ; one warden on Rainy Lake and Rainy River ; one warden
on Lake of the Woods ; five wardens on Puget Sound. The two wardens at $1,800 would be stationed one
on Lake Erie, the other on Puget Sound.
REPORT ON PROPOSED SALMON LADDER, FULTON RIVER FALLS.
Hon.   W. J. Bowser, K. C,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria :
Sir,—As instructed by the Fisheries Department of the Provincial Government, I have
had made a survey of the above falls.
My assistant, Mr. John Davidson, reports that the falls are practically inaccessible for
survey purposes, and it was with great difficulty that the information submitted was obtained.
The lower fall is 15 feet high and the upper 47 feet, making a total rise of 62 feet from
the foot of the lower to the top of the upper fall. He found it impossible to descend between
the two falls, owing to the almost perpendicular rise of the rocks from the canon, and which
rise to a height of from 80 to 140 feet.    The rock is a fairly hard quartzite.
It will be necessary to construct a protecting wall or dam along the side of the ladder, in
order to prevent the whole volume of water, which is very great, from passing down the
ladder, thus allowing the salmon a better chance to rise. I have not had a detailed estimate
of the cost made out as yet, but I hope to submit one, along with a fuller report, by the end
of the month. At present it looks as if the work proposed will cost about $20,000. Re
spawning-ground on Fulton Lake, Fulton River, and Chapman Lake. Fulton Lake shore is
partly gravel and partly mud, the gravel giving a fair chance for spawning, but there are no
feeders to this lake large enough to allow the salmon to ascend.
Fulton River, between Chapman and Fulton Lakes, affords a good spawning-ground near
Chapman Lake, but for the rest of its length is muddy and unfit. Chapman Lake is the
better of the two lakes and there is a good-sized creek at the north end of the lake, up which
the salmon can run.
For a mile and a half above Babine Lake, Fulton River was full of dying salmon, which
were feebly trying to ascend over the riffles at the old Indian camp of Decker.     I would advise
the deepening of the bar there caused by an old Indian barrier of small boulders, for above
this there were few salmon.
I have, etc.,
J. H. Brownlee, C. E.
VICTORIA  B. C.:
Prii»ted.by Richard Wolfbhdkn, I.S.O., V.D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.

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