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ANNUAL AND QUARTERLY MEETINGS OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA FRUIT-GROWERS' ASSOCIATION FROM MARCH, 1908, TO… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1909

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 ANNUAL AND QUARTERLY MEETINGS
-of the-
BRITISH COLUMBIA FRUIT-GROWERS' ASSOCIATION
-FROM-
MARCH, 1908, TO JANUARY, 1909.
THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PROVINCE Of BRITISH COLUMBIA
BBINTED BY AUTHOBITY OF
THE   LEGISLATIVE   ASSEMBLY   OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
VICTORIA, B. C.:
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, I.S.O., V.D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1909.  9 Ed. 7 British Columbia Fruit-Growers' Association. L 3
To the Hon. R. G. Tatlow,
Minister of Agriculture.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit for your consideration the proceedings of the British
Columbia Fruit-Growers' Association for the year 1908.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
W. J. BRANDRITH,
Secretary-Treasurer, B. G. Fruit-Growers' Association.  9 Ed. 7 British Columbia Fruit-Growers' Association. L 5
BRITISH COLUMBIA FRUIT-GROWERS' ASSOCIATION.
NINETEENTH    ANNUAL    MEETING.
Victoria, B. C, January 29th, 1909.
The nineteenth annual meeting of the British Columbia Fruit-Growers' Association was
held in the Board of Trade Rooms, Victoria, at 2 o'clock, p.m., on January 29th, 1909, James
Johnstone, Esq., President, in the Chair. Present:—Jas. Johnstone, Nelson ; R. M. Palmer,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria ; Henry Kipp, Chilliwhack ; Thos. Cunningham,
Tom. Wilson, Vancouver ; W. J. Brandrith, Ladner ; J. F. Smith, Kamloops ; W. N. Shaw,
Gabriola ; Mrs. White Birch, Sidney ; A. Cleeves Hagan, H. Puckle, Geo. Stewart, Keating ;
F. Sere, W. R. Palmer, Capt. Elliston, Wm. Fernie, Victoria; W. F. Somers, Gordon Head;
Thos. A. Brydon, Saanich ; F. A. Frazier, Portland, Oregon ; D. F. McKaig, North Yakima,
Wash.; Mr. Duncan, Mr. French, and several others.
The President called upon the Mayor of Victoria, Dr. Lewis Hall, who was present by
invitation, to address the meeting.
Mayor's Address.
Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,—While I consider it a distinguished honour
to come and say a few words to you here, I regret that the Minister of Agriculture is not able
to be present. And while it will be impossible for me to fill his position in the slightest degree
from this standpoint, yet I do feel it an honour to be here—to a certain extent in his place—
and also to address the Fruit-Growers' Association. I feel, Sir, that the Fruit-Growers' Association has done a great deal to advance the fruit interests of our Province, and to make it
known—well, you might say, throughout the world. Many of us who have been here in
British Columbia for a number of years fully realise the vast improvement that has been made
in the fruit—not only in our own midst, but also the standing that our fruit has had in other-
countries. It comes to my recollection now the status that our fruit has taken both in our own
Dominion and also in the Old Country, and in the great Republic to the south of us, where it
has come in contact and competition with fruit there, as well as fruit from other portions of the
Dominion, and that has done a great deal to advertise our fruit; and I feel sure that a great
deal of that success is due to the efforts of many of those who are gathered here this afternoon,
and who represent the fruit-growers of British Columbia.
I well recollect, Sir, when there was very little home-grown fruit received at all in the
City of Victoria. It was nearly all imported, and now, instead of our using nearly all imported
fruit, we use a great deal of our own native fruit, and the fruit too is, as I have said, of the
best quality. And, gentlemen, I am sure I extend to you a cordial and hearty welcome to the
City of Victoria, the capital of British Columbia.
And I predict, Sir, that while your efforts have been such in the past that you have made
a standing for the fruit of the Province practically all over the world, yet it is only in its infancy,
and that where you are now exporting in the fruit season to the North-West and other places
carloads of fruit, I believe that you will soon be exporting trainloads of fruit.
We have a vast Province, and I believe that, for locality and climate, we have no equal
in the Dominion of Canada.    It is rich not only in fruit lands, but it is also rich in agricul- L 6 British Columbia 1909
tural lands, mines and timber of various kinds, and I feel that in the near future the progress
that will be made will be far greater and far more extended than any of us here to-day are
prepared to realise.
I don't wish to take up too much of your time, as I know that you have come here to work
and not to listen to me. It is impossible for me to give you any advice or make any suggestions in the fruit line, although I was brought up on a farm ; but I left there a good many
years ago and came here in the early days, when there was very little fruit-growing in British
Columbia, so I may say that I do know one apple from anothei, but, outside of that, that is
all I do know, so it is impossible for me to say anything on those lines.
I regret that the Minister of Agriculture is not able to be present with you to-day, as he
is in touch with the fruit-growing of the Province, but he will no doubt submit to you in some
way his views on the matter, which will be of interest to you.
I believe, Sir, that the Government of the Province should assist the fruit-growers in
every way possible, and everything that will help the fruit-growers will assist and help every
other industry in the Province of British Columbia. And it does not make any difference how
our Province is advertised—whether from an agricultural, mineral or fruit-growing standpoint
—the better it becomes known the more it is going to help every other industry, and we will
reap the reward therefrom.
I hope and trust that your deliberations here will be both pleasant and profitable to yourselves, and I am sure they will be profitable to the Province of British Columbia as well.
(Hear, hear.)
I thank you for this opportunity of being here, and wish you every success, and I will
watch your deliberations with interest, as I have done in the past, and when you come again,
while I may not be here in the same capacity as I am to-day, I will take a great interest in
your work, and I take pleasure in wishing you every success.    (Applause.)
I thank you, Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen.
Mr. J. F. Smith : Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen,—I have been asked to respond
to the cordial reception which has been given us by His Worship the Mayor. Now,
it is only since I have come into the room this afternoon that I had any idea I was supposed
to say anything in regard to the welcome that has been extended to us by His Worship the
Mayor, but I am pleased to have that honour ; and being interested in the fruit-growing
industry, and being sent down to represent the fruit interests of our district, I have much
pleasure in being able to say a few words in connection with the fruit industry in British
Columbia. It is only a few years ago—in British Columbia anyway—that fruit-growing has
been receiving its proper consideration. The majority of the fruit-growers who had orchards
paid more attention to the stock and raising of hay than they did to the care of their apples
or any other fruit, the fruit was only grown as a pastime. Now, during the last few years on
account of the interest that has been taken in fruit-growing, and the work that has been done
by fruit-growers, our people in British Columbia are realising that there is something in
growing fruit, and the trade has increased to such an extent within the last few years that it
is now becoming an industry of some great importance. Now, situated as I am in the Interior,
as Secretary of the Board of Trade, I am in a position to know the interest that is being
taken in the fruit of this Province, and within the last few years it is impossible for any one
man to reply to the number of correspondents and letters received asking information as to
the possibility of raising fruit up there, and the price of fruit lands, etc. This has all come
about by the efforts of the Fruit-Growers' Association, and it has been through their efforts
that the quality of our fruit has become so generally known to the public. And, gentlemen,
I am sorry to see such a small attendance here to-day in connection with this great work. I
don't believe that the people of this Province yet realise the importance of the work in which
they are engaged—that is to say, the importance of the fruit-growing industry. I am satisfied
of that. And as soon as they realise the value of this important work, and the necessity of
corroborating it, and trying to unite the forces, I think this Association will have a greater
attendance than we have here to-day. I am sure of it. I, as representing the Interior, have
made an effort to be here, because I think that one of our greatest assets is that of fruitgrowing. I am sure of it. Now, I have not a great deal more to say in this matter, only I
hope that whatever is done here will be to the interest of the fruit-growing industry as a
whole in British Columbia.    (Loud applause.) 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association.
The minutes of the previous meeting were read by the Secretary and, on motion of Mr.
Tom Wilson, the same were adopted.
President's Report.
Mr. James Johnstone, President, presented his annual report, which was read and, on
motion, adopted.
Secretary's Report.
The Secretary's annual report, which is as follows, was read by Mr. Brandrith and, on
motion, adopted :—
British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association,
Ladner, B. C, January 29th, 1909.
To the Officers and Members of the
B. C. Fruit-Growers' Association :
Gentlemen,—I have the honour to submit for your consideration my report for the year
1908. During the year I have had the pleasure of addressing 42 meetings in different sections,
from Alberni on the west to Golden near the eastern boundary of the Province. I have
travelled 10,856 miles in the interests of the fruit-growers, and I have written 1,422 letters
during the year.
The fruit crop in every line was well up to the average, but prices ruled low, especially
for small fruits. This can be partially accounted for by the fact of the immense crop in
Washington and Oregon and the slaughtering of prices in our markets by the dealers in the
States, and by the further fact that the money stringency is still felt in the Prairies, with the
result that the demand was very limited. It is impossible to prescribe a remedy for conditions
such as these, but one thing every grower must acknowledge, and that is, that there must be
a closer union before the best results can be obtained.
It is cause for congratulation that Mr. Palmer has once again had the pleasure of bringing
home the highest award given by the Royal Horticultural Society for fruit. This, with the
splendid showing made at the International Apple Show at Spokane, clearly demonstrates to
the world the superior qualities of British Columbia fruit. The fruit-growers of British
Columbia are certainly under obligations to Mr. de Hart, Mr. Cockle and the other public-
spirited men who took part in demonstrating the possibilities of British Columbia fruit at
Spokane.
The Dominion Government still continues to have the question of experimental orchards
in this Province under their "serious consideration." Four years seems a long time to spend
in the " serious consideration " of such a small matter. I would suggest that another resolution be forwarded the Department. Who knows but the parable of the " widow and the
unjust judge " might be enacted over again. It is very gratifying to me to be able to tell you
that the cleansing of the Indian orchards, under the supervision of Tom Wilson, is being
vigorously prosecuted by the Indian Department.
In conclusion, kindly allow me to express my appreciation of the assistance I have
received from officers and members alike during the past year.
W. J. Brandrith,
Secretary. L 8
British Columbia
1909
Treasurer's Report.
The Treasurer's report was read by Mr. Brandrith and adopted, and is as follows :—
Statement or Receipts and Expenditures foe the Year ending December 31st, 1908.
Receipts.
By cash on hand December 31st, ] 907 $   163 11
a balance in bank,    n n            284 80
a members' subscription fees       166 00
» Government grant   2,000 00
a sale of spraying material   1,073 88
v sale of paper       353 02
// over deposited by Secretary         22 09
$4,062 90
Expenditure.
To interest and overdrafts on loans $     24 81
//   stenographer, annual report  44 80
«             n             addresses  11 50
//   W. J. Brandrith, re 1907 audit  18 00
//   Subscription to Bradstreet  78 00
//   telegrams, telephones, etc   15 85
//  W. J.  Brandrith, commission on members' fees      32 25
n  C. F. Sprott, expenses, lecture  9 35
n  R. C. Brock,                  „              21 00
//  office supplies    4 70
a  postage, printing and stationery  98 00
a  Secretary, salary, balance, 1908  570 00
w  purchase paper  591 29
n        n spraying material    1,431 81
h   H. Kipp, travelling expenses, executive
committee  29 35
»   H. Kipp, allowance  80 00
a   S.   Bartholomew,   travelling   expenses,
executive committee  22 60
/;   S. Bartholomew, allowance  40 00
a   W. J.  Brandrith,  travelling expenses,
executive committee  251 60
it   W. J. Brandrith, allowance  308 00
a  J. Johnston, travelling expenses, executive committee  77 15
a   J. Johnstone, allowance  92 00
»  balance in Bank of Montreal  210 84
$4,062 90
Statement or Assets and Liabilities for Year ending December 31st, 1908.
Assets.
By cash on hand and in bank $ 210 84
;/ stock on hand, spraying material    202 45
a              a              paper  346 84
a office furniture (desk)  16 00
$ 776 13
Liabilities.
To sundry accounts owing, about $     40 00
a   balance due Secretary         22 09
//   excess of assets over liabilities       714 04
776 13
Audited and found correct.
J. A. ANDERSON, Auditor-General.
Victoria, B. C, 22nd January, 1909.
Report op Executive Committee.
To the President and Members of the B. C. Fruit-Growers' Association :
Ladies and Gentlemen,—Your Executive Committee beg to report: That in accordance
with the instructions received at the last annual meeting, pure spraying material and fruit
paper was purchased for the use of  members to the value of about $2,000.
The Secretary was instructed to address meetings in various parts of the Province on
subjects of importance to the fruit-growers, which he did as follows :—At Agassiz, March
26th, where he was assisted by the President and Mr. Kipp, Mr. Johnstone speaking on
"Co-operation," Mr. Kipp on "Cultivation," and Mr. Brandrith on "Orchard Cleansing"; at 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 9
Chilliwack on the 27th, when the same gentlemen spoke on the same subjects. On May 4th
Mr. Brandrith spoke at Keating on " Spraying, etc.," and on the 5th in Mr. May's orchard at
Cowichan, at 2 P. M., he demonstrated the proper method of planting and pruning, and
addressed a meeting in the evening on " Spraying," etc. On the 6th, at 2 p. m., he demonstrated tree planting at Duncan. On the 8th, at Alberni, he again gave practical illustrations
in planting and pruning, at 2 P. M., in Mr. Huff's orchard ; and in the evening Brand's Hall
was filled to the doors to hear Maxwell Smith on "Co-operation," Mr. Hubbs on "Mutual
Fire Insurance," and Mr. Brandrith on " Cultivation of the Orchard, Spraying, etc." On
the 9th a demonstration in tree planting was held at Parksville at 2 p. M., and a meeting was
held in the school-house at 7:30 p.m., addressed by Maxwell Smith and Mr. Brandrith on the
same subjects as at Alberni. On the 11th tree planting was again demonstrated at Nanaimo,
at 2 p.m., by Mr. Brandrith, and a meeting in the evening was addressed by Maxwell Smith
on " Co-operation." On the 12th Mr. Brandrith demonstrated the " Proper Methods of Tree
Planting" at Gabriola Island. On the 13th Mr. Brandrith addressed a meeting at Courtenay
in the evening on " Spraying," etc. On the 14th he proceeded to Denman Island, where tree
planting and pruning were the principal features, at 10 a.m. and 2.30 p.m., and spoke on
" Spraying " at 7.30 p. m. On the 19th Mr. Brandrith took tree planting for his theme at
Ganges at 2 p. m. ; and on the 20th, at Burgoyne, tree planting and pruning was again
demonstrated at 2.30 p.m., and at 7.30 " Spraying" was the subject. The 28th of July tree
planting was demonstrated by Mr. Brandrith at McDermot's, three miles from Golden, and
the meeting in the evening was addressed by him on " Cultivation " and " Varieties to Plant."
On the 29th he spoke on the same subjects at 7.30 p. m. at Revelstoke. At Burton, on the
30th, the same subjects were treated on as at Golden. On August 3rd a demonstration in
tree planting was held at 2.30 p. m. at Creston, where Mr. Brandrith was assisted by Mr.
Brock, of Hood River, Or. In the evening a large gathering listened to Mr. Johnstone on
"Co-operation," Mr. Brock on "Varieties to Plant," and Mr. Brandrith on "The Cultivation
of the Orchard." At Kaslo, on the 5th, Mr. Brock gave lessons in cherry packing, which were
much appreciated. On September 9th Mr. Brandrith addressed a meeting at Enderby, and at
Kamloops on the 11th, on the subject of " Orchard Cultivation, Spraying, etc." On the 14th
Messrs. Kipp and Brandrith addressed a meeting at Abbotsford, on " Cultivation of the
Orchard, Pruning," etc. On the 15th Mr. Kipp gave lessons in apple packing, and Mr. Brandrith spoke on "Spraying." at 2.30 p.m., at Peardonville, and then addressed a large gathering
in Matsqui Town Hall in the evening. At Langley, on the 16th, Mr. Kipp illustrated apple
packing in the afternoon, and in the evening spoke on " Varieties to Plant," Mr. Brandrith
speaking on "Spraying," etc. On the Nth apple and pear packing were shown by Mr. Kipp
at Hall's Prairie, and Mr. Brandrith spoke on the work of the Association. On the 22nd
Mr. Kipp taught apple and pear packing at Whonnock, and Mr. Brandrith spoke on
" Spraying."
With one or two exceptions, these meetings were well attended and a great deal of
interest shown, and we have reason to believe that they have proven profitable to those
interested in fruit-growing.
Your Committee have been insistant and persistant in their endeavours to have better
transportation facilities provided for fruit.
Your Committee would respectfully recommend : That the itinerary for education
purposes be continued; and that a Provincial Convention be held at some central point, to be
composed of delegates from the local associations and members in unorganised districts, to
discuss the important questions affecting the fruit industry, especially transportation, distribution and marketing. We would also recommend that the Secretary be authorised to make
the necessary arrangements to procure pure spraying material and fruit paper, inasmuch as
many of our members are in unorganised districts and local associations are not in a position
to do this work for them, and we also recommend that the subscription to Bradstreet's be
continued.
Respectfully submitted,
W. J.  Brandrith, Secretary.
Mr. R. M. Palmer's Address.
The President: I see we have the honour of the presence of our Deputy Minister, here,
and I know he is a very busy man and he would like to get away, and we would all like to
hear a few words from him while he is here. L 10 British Columbia 1909
Mr. Palmer : Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen,—I must at once say that I did not
come here with the expectation of being called upon to make a speech, but merely to hear the
report of the work of the Association during the past year. I think that the condition of the
fruit industry in the Province is perhaps somewhat critical. The arrangements which have
heretofore been fairly successful, as regards the marketing of the fruit and fruit products, have
during the past year been, unfortunately, not so successful; so at the present time we have a
condition of affairs which, to say the least, is unsatisfactory in many of the fruit-growing
districts. It is not difficult to find, as has already been shown by reports presented at this
meeting, that there are good reasons for this. It certainly behooves this Association to take
particular cognisance of the state of affairs which exist to-day, and, so far as it can, to assist
in the fruit organisations of the Province, in order that the fruit-growers in the districts which
are not organised may be able to meet the difficulties which have occurred in connection with
the marketing of the fruit. I think it would be unwise, perhaps, to take up your time at
great length in addressing you in connection with the fruit exhibitions which have been
held under Government auspices in the North-West provinces, and also in Great Britain. As
has been stated in reports presented at this meeting, these exhibitions have been successful.
They have done much to attract the attention of the world generally to fruit-growing in
British Columbia. And I might be permitted to say that one of the logical deductions is that,
after all, the basis of the fruit industry in this country must be successful marketing. And it
is therefore apparent that we must more than ever justify the hopes and expectations of those
who have gone into the fruit-growing in this regard. I therefore think that the most
important question which this association can concern itself with at this meeting is this
question of the marketing of the fruits of the Province. (Loud applause.) I thank you,
gentlemen.
Correspondence.
Mr. W. J. Brandrith : There is some correspondence to be read. The first is a letter I
have from the Hon. the Premier, acknowledging with thanks the invitation to be present at
this meeting, and expressing his regret at his inability to attend, and likewise a letter from
the Minister of Agriculture to the same effect. As gathered from the reading of the minutes,
I was instructed to place myself in communication with different parties, asking them to
prepare papers or addresses to be read at this meeting on the question of fruit distribution.
This is a reply from one of the parties :—
" W. J. Brandrith, Esq.,
" Sec.-Treas., B. C. Fruit-Growers' Association, Ladner, B. C.
"Dear Sir,—I thank you for your letter of November the 14th, and regret I shall be
unable to read a paper or give an address on " The Proper Distribution of B. C. Fruit," at the
annual meeting of the Association in Victoria, on the 27th of January. As no doubt you are
well aware, we have taken a great interest in this for a number of years, and we have formed
a clearing-house for the Okanagan Valley. Myself and one or two other business men of the
valley intend visiting various points in the States, this winter, to study their methods ; therefore, I feel that my opinion, at the present moment, is not duly formed on the procedure that
hould govern the distribution of B. C. fruit.
" If I am down at Victoria in January, I shall be glad to attend the meeting.
" Yours truly,
" W. Crawley Ricardo,
"Manager, Coldstream Estate Co., Ltd"
The other is dated away back in August, and it was read at the quarterly meeting, but I
think I am justified in reading it here :—
"Vancouver, Canada, August 26th, 1908.
" W. J. Brandrith, Esq.,
" Secretary B. C. Fruit-Growers' Association, Ladner, B. C.
" Dear Sir,—With reference to the request made of this company by your Association
some time since for reduced rates on peaches from the Okanagan to Coast points, I beg to say
that the matter was submitted in due course to the management at Toronto, with the recommendation that the request be granted if at all possible. I am now in receipt of the company's
decision in the matter, which is to the effect that no reductions can be made over present 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 11
rates. It has been pointed out on several occasions, by shippers, that the rates westward to
the Coast are out of proportion to the rates eastward. On this point the President and
General Manager expresses himself as follows:—
" ' That they are high as compared with the rates to the Prairie is probably true ; but it
is not that the rates locally are too high, but the rates to the Prairie are abnormally low and
I think the shippers should feel satisfied with what they have. I am satisfied that the
business is being carried by us from some points at less than a remunerative rate.'
" Yours truly,
"R. Helme, Superintendent."
" Fruit-Growers' Association  of Ontario.
"Parliament Buildings,
"Toronto, December 3rd, 1908.
" W. J. Brandrith, Esq., Ladner, B. G.
" Dear Sir,—The next biennial meeting of the American Pomological Society will be
held in St. Catharines, Ontario, in September, 1909. The Pomological Society has accepted
the invitation of the Ontario Fruit-Growers' Association to hold their meeting in Canada, and
has further agreed upon St. Catharines as the best point. I believe that the Secretary, Mr.
Craig, will send formal invitations to all members of the Society in the United States and
Canada, notifying them of the place of meeting and inviting them to attend the same next
year.
" On behalf of our Association, I wish to further extend this invitation, and to press upon
all horticultural societies the advisability of appointing delegates to this Convention, which is
undoubtedly the premier horticultural gathering on the American continent.
" The meeting place is in the centre of one of our finest fruit districts, and there will be
held at that time one of our largest local fruit shows. In addition, excursions will be run
during the week of the Convention to show visitors the orchards and vineyards of the famous
Niagara district. You can count on a hearty welcome to Ontario next September, and I
would again urge that you appoint one or more delegates at your next regular meeting.
"Very truly yours,
'•' P. W.  Hodgetts,
"Secretary Fruit-Growers' Association of Ontario."
There is another letter from the Western Lithograph Co., and here are samples of their
work that you can see :—
" Victoria, B. C, December 2nd, 1908.
" W. J. Brandrith, Esq., Ladner, B. C.
" Dear Sir,—Having decided to make a specialty of fine fruit labels of every
description, and believing that we could interest you and your associate fruit-growers in the
subject, we are taking the liberty of addressing you for any information you would care to
give that might be of mutual benefit.
"To enable us to submit quotations, we would be pleased to receive copies of your labels;
will say that we can produce the enclosed apple labels for $5 per M. in 25 M. lots, $4.50 per
M. in 50 M. lots. The cost of getting up an original design would be additional to the above,
but would only be an initial expense the first season. We would also allow the usual 10 % on
all orders.
"If you have been using stock labels, which are somewhat unsatisfactory owing to the
fact that the same label is also used by other packers and often meet in the same markets, we
would be pleased to get up an exclusive design for your Association.
"As it will take considerable time to prepare colour plates of this work, we would like to
get them in hand at an early date. Having a thorough equipment and an extended experience
in this line, having been many years with the leading colour houses of the Eastern States, we
are prepared to produce labels which will equal the best of their kind and surpass the usual
run of stock labels. I expect to visit the Mainland early in January. Hoping to hear from
you favourably in the meantime, we beg to remain, etc.,
" The Western Litho. Co.,
"Per F. Muriset." L 12 British Columbia 1909
The President: Now, gentlemen, we will take up the communication asking us to send a
delegate to the Pomological Society, which meets in Eastern Ontario. I will be glad to hear
from you on this matter. Do you think it advisable to send a delegate to this St. Catharines
Convention 1
Mr. Cunningham : I think we had better defer that until later on in the session, until we
have time to think over it.
The President : I have a note here, ladies and gentlemen, that it might be well to appoint
at least two delegates in case the Dominion Conference is held this year the same as it was
two years ago. I think that is one of the most important things we have to take up. The
Ontario fruit-growers are at present straining every nerve to come into our western market,
and I think that the more conferences we have with the fruit-growers throughout the country,
the better we will be posted and more able to act in the interest of British Columbia, and I
think it would be well, in case a Dominion Conference is called this year, to appoint delegates
to attend.
Mr. Tom Wilson : Is there likely to be a conference called, Mr. President?
The President: I think so.    Mr. Palmer possibly knows more about it than any of us.
Mr. Palmer : What is the question 1
The President : The Dominion Conference at Ottawa.
Mr. Palmer : I think there is a possibility that it will be called for the coming winter,
but there has been no definite information received.
Mr. Wilson : That is within the next year 1
Mr. W. J. Brandrith : Within the next three months—this year.
Mr. Palmer : As I say, we have no definite information.
Mr. Tom Wilson : You said during next winter 1
Mr. Palmer : It might be held this spring.
The President: The point I was making was this :—This is the annual meeting of this
Association, and it is better to prepare for a meeting in case one is called within three months.
There would be no better way of appointing a delegate now to attend, with the sanction of
the rest.
Mr. Palmer : It would be better to appoint two.    It would be well to have alternatives.
The President : I think so. I think it is a very important thing, this Dominion
Conference. We have a splendid man now down at Ottawa who will help us all he can, in
the person of Mr. Burrell, and it might be well to send two parties down to help him out.
Mr. Kipp : Well, ladies and gentlemen, perhaps one from the Lower Mainland and one
from the Interior would be enough,
Mr. W. J. Brandrith : It would be what we are entitled to—
Mr. Kipp : I understand that. I think one from each end of the Province, or one from
the Island and one from the Interior.
Mr. Tom Wilson : Yes, I think that would be more equitable; one from the Island.
Mr, Kipp : The Lower Mainland. I think, gentlemen, you should run geographically to
the Cascade Mountains for one, and then come down to the Lower Mainland or the Island for
the other—or east of the Rockies for the other.
Mr. W. J. Brandrith : I would not care if every one of them went from Victoria, so long
as they are good men.
The President : The main thing is to send good men. We had first class men at the last
conference, and they did good work.    It is now in order for you to propose two names—
Mr. Tom Wilson: I think, gentlemen, it would be best to have time to think over it.
There is an evening session.
The President: Is it the wish of the meeting that this should be left over until the
evening session 1
Laid over till evening session.
The President: There is now a short interval to allow the members to pay up their
annual fee of $1, so as to enable them to vote.
Mr. Kipp : We ought to have some music while the collection is being taken. Everyone
should come up with their dollar, gentlemen, and take a share in this great work. It is only
a dollar a share, and the more dollars we get the better it is for the association—the larger
capitalisation—as we will just have that many more taking an interest in the work of this
association. Now, gentlemen, come along and get interested in it, because then you like to
see the good work going on. 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 13
Election op Officers.
The President: It is the custom, gentlemen, during the election of officers for the ensuing
year, for the President to retire from the chair, and I have great pleasure in calling upon Mr.
R. M. Palmer to take the chair during the election of officers.
(Mr. Palmer takes the chair.)
The Chairman : Ladies and gentlemen, before we proceed to the election of officers, as
there are so many members here who have not heard the statement of the financial affairs of
the association read, I will ask the Secretary to read the report again, the Auditor's report.
The Auditor's report was again read by the Secretary.
Capt. W. H. Elliston : I think I am in order in saying that I think it would be as well
at the general meeting to have the balance sheet printed, as it is very hard to tell the figures
by just merely hearing them read. I think it would be well to have it printed annually, and
have it sent out before the annual meeting, so that all the members might have an opportunity
of seeing it, and taking an active interest in it.
The Chairman : I might suggest that this question could perhaps be dealt with later on
this afternoon, or this evening, by resolution. I might say, the accounts as presented were
accepted by the resolution of the meeting here; but I thought it advisable to have the statement read for those who were not here at the time it was read at the opening of the meeting.
The officers of the association consist of a President, a Vice-President, Second and Third and
Fourth Vice-Presidents, Secretary, and an Executive Committee. There ought to be some
qualification for the Directors.    What are they 1
Mr. W. J. Brandrith : They simply have to have been a member for the preceding year.
The Chairman : Unfortunately, there is no copy of the constitution available here. But
I understand from the Secretary that those who have paid their membership fees for the
present and past year are entitled to vote.    Nominations are now in order.
The election of officers was then proceeded with and resulted as follows :—
President, H. Puckle; First Vice-President, F. R. E. DeHart; Second Vice-President,
Tom Wilson ; Third Vice-President, James Johnstone ; Fourth Vice-President, R. R. Bruce ;
Secretary-Treasurer, W. J. Brandrith; Executive Committee, H. Puckle, F. R. E. DeHart,
James Johnstone, W. J. Brandrith, and J. E. Metcalfe.
Considerable discussion preceded the election of officers. Captain Elliston, in connection
with the election of Secretary, said :—I would like to ask the question whether it carries with
it a salary. Ever since I have been a member of the B. C. Fruit-Growers' Association, I have
never been able to get hold of the Articles and Rules of the Association. For instance,
supposing we elect Mr. Brandrith Secretary now, does it necessarily carry with it the same
salary that he has been having in the past? Or by whom is that salary arranged, or who
arranges the amount to be paid to the Secretary ?
The Chairman : It has been customary to arrange that at the annual meeting.
Capt. Elliston :  When we elect the Secretary, do we fix the salary at the same time?
The Chairman : Yes.
Capt. Elliston : So we will have to fix the amount of the salary, as well as the name of
the Secretary 	
The Chairman : Speaking from memory, I would say in cases where there has been nothing said as to salary, it would be continued at the rate fixed for the preceding year. Perhaps
Mr. Johnstone can tell us about it.
Mr. Jas. Johnstone,: I might say, some years ago when there was very little work to do
the Secretary's salary was only half what it is at present.
Mr. Tom Wilson : Yes, less than half.
Mr. Jas. Johnstone : And some few years ago we decided that it was simply inadequate
for the amount of work expected of the Secretary. For instance, taking last year, Mr.
Brandrith has not been at home more than a third of his time, because he is the only paid
member of the Association. And for that reason, whenever I had a request from any district
for information as to pruning, planting and spraying, or anything of that kind, I simply wrote
to Mr. Brandrith, and told him to go to that district and have a series of lectures arranged on
the subject wanted. And it was for that reason that some few years ago his salary was
increased. L 14 British Columbia 1909
Mr. Wilson : I think last year I was the mover of a resolution whereby his salary was
raised to $50. He had been getting somewhere about $25 or $30. It certainly was not
more.
Mr. Kipp : Beg pardon, he started off at $20, and it was raised $5 a year.
Mr. Wilson : It was during my time as President that he was made Secretary, and he
started at $20, and he got up as far as $30, and I think it was only last year at the annual
meeting that I moved the salary of the Secretary should be raised to $50, knowing that there
was a good deal more work to do in connection with the Association. The work of the
Association is steadily increasing. And this scheme of yours, Mr. Ex-President, about
co-operation, I think he had something to do with that; and I moved at that time that the
salary be raised to $50, and I think it is more than earned.
Capt. Elliston : My question has not been answered yet, whether, when we appoint this
gentleman Secretary, the salary goes with the election ?
The Chairman : Not necessarily ; but in the event of there being no resolution on the
question of salary, it would be presumed that the salary would be continued at the rate of the
preceding year, but, as has been pointed out, for a number of years past the yearly increases in
salary have been dealt with at the annual meeting.
Capt. Elliston : I would like to know whether it is necessary to give any previous notice
of the motion.    What is the rule 1
The Chairman : I regret that there are no rules here. The original constitution was
burnt at the time of the Westminster fire.
Capt. Elliston : Is it not possible to get a copy of those rules ?
Mr. Brandrith : The original minute book would likely show them.
Capt. Elliston : Isn't the Association incorporated under the Farmers' Institute Act ?
Mr. Brandrith : Under special Act.
Capt. Elliston : Well, you could find the original by-laws.
The Chairman : I think there should be a copy in the Department of Agriculture. We
could find some old report of the Association which would contain the articles of association,
but they have been amended from time to time ; but, so far as the question you raise is
concerned, I think it is well understood that the annual meeting deals with the question of
the Secretary's salary for the ensuing year.
Do you desire to raise the question of the Secretary's salary now or later, Capt. Elliston ?
Capt. Elliston : Just when it comes up.    I suppose it would be fixed by resolution.
Mr. Wilson : I move, Mr. Chairman, that the salary of last year be continued to the
Secretary. I think he is deserving of it, and I think that the Fruit-Growers' Association
will see that he earns it for the coming year.
Mr. Jas. Johnstone : I have very much pleasure in seconding it. I know well the work
Mr. Brandrith tias done during the past year, and I know that he has certainly earned every
dollar of his $50 during the past season. He was called upon in all kinds of weather to travel
long distances. For instance, when he travelled through that country where our Fourth Vice-
President, Mr. R. Bruce, lives, he asked me to go up there with him, and I found it took me
five days, besides going 80 miles on horseback, and I declined to go any further, and I was
only too glad to have someone on salary who would have to go to those distant places.
Mr. Kipp : I wish to thank our President for withdrawing me, because I missed that.
(Laughter.)
Mr. Stewart: I would like to know how much salary and remuneration he gets besides
his salary.
Mr. Wilson : I think it is $3.50 a day he is allowed for travelling. That I am not sure
of, but I know the old rate used to be $2.50 a day, and it was raised.
Mr. Johnstone : It used to be $2.50, and it is now $3.50.
Capt. Elliston : I was going to move in amendment that the salary of the Society be fixed
by the Board of Directors, and not by the general meeting. I take it that this meeting has a
good deal to do with the future course this Association is going to pursue. We all feel, ladies
and gentlemen, that this Association is not really as valuable to the fruit-growers in this Province as it ought to be, and we are all very anxious to make it a success and of real value to
us. And I think if we tell the Directors of the new Board what our views are in the matter,
that in the future they would be able to decide upon some course of action which will give new
life to this Association. And I would like to move in amendment to that resolution that the
question of the Secretary's salary be left to the Board of Directors. 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 15
Mr. Tom Wilson: Might I ask if you are a member of the Association 1
Capt. Elliston : I think so—yes.
Mr. Tom Wilson : Well, you are a Director then. Every member who pays up his fees is
a Director ex officio.
Capt. Elliston: Here I am again up against the absence of the rules, of which I am
entirely ignorant.
Mr. Johnstone : This is a Director's meeting.
Capt. Elliston : I would move that this matter be left over until later on in the meeting.
Mr. Wilson : I think that Mr. Johnstone has already seconded my motion that the salary
remain as it is.
Mr. Johnstone : Yes.
The Chairman: Yes, but that resolution has not been carried yet. The amendment is
quite in order if it is seconded.    It is still without a seconder.
Mr. Cleeves : I second it.
The Chairman : The amendment is, that the question of the salary of the Secretary should
be left until later.
Mr. Kipp : I was just going to rise to the point, that it was in the hands of the Directors
now, for every man that is a member is a Director.
The Chairman : That is not the question.    The question is that it should be left over.
Mr. Kipp : I thought that that gentleman who raised the point did not understand it
that way.
The Chairman : It was moved in amendment by Capt. Elliston, seconded by Mr. Cleeves,
that the question of the salary of the secretary should be left over for discussion until later.
Mr. Brydon : It seems a funny combination, after all. Here is the general annual meeting,
and we are told that every man who pays his dollar is a Director. Where do the members
come in, or where are we at ?
Mr. Wilson : I think that was made a part of the constitution.
Mr. Brydon : Why haven't we got the constitution 1 If it was burnt up at New Westminster, there ought to have been one resurrected long ago. (Applause.) And to simply bob
up and shut a man off by saying he is a Director is no way of conducting the business at all.
It is many years ago since New Westminster was burnt down, and there ought to have been
something done before this; and I think if Capt. Elliston knew a little about it, and I knew
a little about it, the business is managed by the Executive, which is formed of the President
and four Vice-Presidents, and they have the arranging of the business of the Association, and
also of the disbursing of the funds of the Association. And really the business of the whole
Provincial fruit-growers is very largely in the hands of the Secretary-Treasurer, and that is
why some of the members have been wanting to secure some information on the subject. You
can easily understand the vast distances in this Province we are apart from each other, and it
is difficult to get information that we want at all times, and, after all, the Provincial Association
comes home to us as individuals. There are only four meetings of this Association in the year,
and the Association, to do their very best, must separate themselves all over the Province.
Now, supposing there is one meeting for our district, and the next is held at Kaslo, and the
next at Okanagan, and the next at New Westminster, there is no continuity to the business,
and, consequently, our members lose interest. And that is how our members here have lost
interest very largely in the B. C. Fruit-Growers, because we have outlived the original intention
of the Association to some extent. One of the great things that has been holding us together
is that we could buy spraying materials at a cheaper rate than anyone else outside of the
Association. And now, since we are incorporated in a business institute ourselves, we intend
to do our own business, and, speaking locally, the usefulness of the Association is diminished
very largely in our case. So that is how the Association does not keep hold of the members
as it has done in years gone by. I am only speaking from general hearsay and observation,,
but I know there is not the same amount of members, and not the same interest taken in this
Association in our own district as in years gone by. And it ought to be made clear that,,
before another annual meeting, there ought to be given to every member a copy of the
procedure of this Association, so that when we come to the annual meeting we may know how
the business ought to be conducted.
Mr. Johnstone : Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, I feel I must say something in reply
to Mr. Brydon's remarks. Some few years ago there was a good deal of dissent in the B. C.
Fruit-Growers' Association because we decided to hold the annual meeting in Victoria, and of L 16 British Columbia 1909
all places and districts that there should not be now any kick coming from this district. It
should be the last, because we hold the annual meetings here now, which was arranged some
three years ago, for the convenience of the Association, so as to be present at the sitting of the
House; and because of the fact that we get a large Government grant and are supported by
the Government, it was decided that we should always hold our annual meetings at Victoria.
And we have always done it since, so I cannot agree with Mr. Brydon that there is any reason
why the people in Victoria should not take any interest in the B. C. Fruit-Growers' Association,
they have always one meeting a year here, while other districts can have possibly only one
quarterly meeting in every two or three years. For instance, take the Okanagan, this last
year did not have a meeting.
Mrs. E. C. Birch: Didn't the Provincial Government give a special order that the annual
meeting should be held in Victoria, and likewise that it should take place whilst the House
was in Session ?    If I am not mistaken, that was the condition on which the grant was given.
The Chairman : Well, in reply to that I might say, it would not be in order for the
Government to issue an order to the Fruit-Growers' Association, but it was suggested that it
was a desirable thing to hold it here.
Mrs. E. C. Birch : But in connection with the grant that they gave, I think they made a
condition ; it would be expected that the B. C. Fruit-Growers' Association should hold its
annual meeting here. I know I was at New Westminster when that was discussed, and all
sorts of opprobrium was thrown on the Victoria fruit-growers, and I was one of the persons
who stood up for them, I know.
Mr. Wilson : Years ago, at the inception of the Fruit-Growers' Association (I think
myself and Mr. Cunningham are the oldest members in the room), we got a grant from the
Government, but it was absolutely for the advancement of the fruit-growers and horticulture
generally, and the Government were to have no say in it as to how we should spend it, and
they did not in those days say we were to have our meetings in Victoria. In fact, I have been
a member of this Association all these years—some 16 years—and I have seen poorer meetings
in Victoria than I have seen anywhere else, and it is only within the last few years that we
have had anything like a meeting. I have seen better meetings in New Westminster than
anywhere, and I was one of those that kicked against the meetings in Victoria; but when it
was explained to me it was on account of this Government grant and being near the Legislature,
I agreed to it. But, as a matter of fact, the Government did not arrogate to itself the privilege
of dictating where we were to hold our annual meeting, and I do not think they would yet.
It came from the Fruit-Growers' Association first.
Mr. Smith : I believe we are discussing something foreign to the question. Speaking to
the amendment, I think that the general meeting should decide the salary of the Secretary,
and I do not think that business of that kind should be left to the Directors at all, but that
this meeting should decide here what salary or remuneration the Secretary should have.
The Chairman : Well, gentlemen, I have thought it desirable that the discussion should
be free on this question.     Now it rests with the meeting itself.    The amendment is before you.
Mr. Brydon : Mr. President, if you will just allow me one word—I have just one word
more—in regard to the annual meeting coming to Victoria—
The Chairman : I do not think we can discuss that.    We will take it up later, if you wish.
Mr. Brydon : The real object of this is, the members want to find out what the real usefulness of the Association is.
The Chairman : I must declare that you are out of order. This can be brought up as a
separate motion, but hardly in connection with the resolution that is before the meeting.
Mr. Stewart : Isn't this all bearing on the same line ? I think it is all tending in the same
direction. It is a discussion regarding the Secretary's salary, and as to whether the money is
being spent in the proper way.
The Chairman : No, I would much rather that any question of that kind should be
brought in on its own merits and dealt with as such. There is really no necessity for taking
it up in connection with the election of the Secretary-Treasurer. It can very well be dealt
with as a separate resolution. I will read both the resolution and the amendment, in order
to make it clear to the meeting. The resolution is, " That the salary of the Secretary-
Treasurer be at the same rate as the preceding year." And it is moved in amendment by
Capt. Elliston, seconded by Mr. Cleeves, " That the question of the salary of the Secretary-
Treasurer be left until later for discussion."
Amendment carried. 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 17
The Chairman : The next on the order paper is the election of the Executive Committee.
And I think, perhaps, before we proceed with the election of the Executive Committee it
would be fair to the Secretary to state how matters stand at present.
Mr. Kipp : The vote on that amendment is challenged. It is claimed you did not see all
the hands that were up.
The Chairman : No, the voting is not challenged. The question of the Secretary's salary
will be left over until this evening's meeting for discussion. We shall now proceed with the
election of the Exective Committee. Mr. Wilson, may I ask who are the present members of
that Committee ?
Mr. Brandrith : Mr. Bartholomew, the President, Mr. Kipp.
Mr. Johnstone :  And Mr. Brandrith.
The Chairman : Well, now, in the case of the President and Secretary, they have been ex
officio members.
Mr. Brandrith :  But they have always been elected just the same.
The Chairman : For the information of the meeting, I desire to state that the Executive
Committee during the past year consisted of five members, the President and Secretary and
three others.    Now, what is the wish of the meeting in this matter ?
Mr. Wilson : I would move that the President and Secretary be elected members of the
Committee, and be ex officio members of the Executive, and I would like to name Messrs. Kipp
and Metcalfe also as members. That will leave one member to be nominated by some other
person. And the reason that I would nominate those two gentlemen is that they are near at
hand to the Secretary, who is really the officer of the Association who has the most work to
do, and they are within his reach when he needs them. This means so much to have some one
handy that he can consult, without having to come down here to some one else. I have much
pleasure in nominating those two gentlemen, Mr. Hy. Kipp and Mr. Metcalfe.
Mr. Brydon : Mr. Chairman, it seems to me that we might improve on that, and I think
it is this way—the Vice-President ought to be put on the Executive Committee. You
appoint a man 1st Vice-President and another 2nd Vice-President. It has been merely a name;
a Vice-President of the district is supposed to take the meetings in his district, and he is supposed to do that at his own expense. The only paid members of the Association for travelling
the Executive Committee, and I think the Vice-Presidents should be placed on the Committee, and if there is any work to be done it should fall on the Vice-Presidents, and I would
make that as a suggestion. I think that would be the fairest way of not only having the
Vice-Presidents represented, but if they are members of the Executive Committee they would
be able to meet at the regular meetings of that committee and report the needs of the district,
and would also be in closer touch with the business of the Association.
Mr. Hy. Kipp : Might I make a little reply to that ?
The Chairman : At present we are receiving the nomination, and I think we ought to
take the nominations first.
Capt. Elliston : What about the Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. Brydon?
Mr. Brydon :  I put that as a motion 	
The Chairman : It is not a motion ; it is a nomination.
Mr. Brydon : I take much pleasure in nominating Mr. DeHart as one of the Executive.
Mr. Johnstone : The object of the Executive Committee is to have the members near the
Secretary, so that when he wishes to call a meeting at any time it may not be unnecessarily
delayed. For instance, I am nominated one of the Vice-Presidents, and if a question comes up
of buying spraying material, or something of that kind, the Secretary cannot close that matter
until he has consulted with me, and up in Kootenay it takes too long to get communication.
I quite agree with the idea expressed here that the Vice-Presidents should act in conjunction
with the Executive Committee. It would be a good idea, but there should be an Executive
Committee appointed from members nearer home, and by that I mean near the headquarters.
I think it is very necessary for that reason to have at least a majority of the Executive down
in this section, so that the Secretary need not have to wait to discuss financial and other
important matters with those living long distances from Victoria.    That is what I mean.
Mr. Cunningham : Are you receiving nominations now ? If so, I have much pleasure in
nominating Captain Elliston as one of the Executive.
Capt. Elliston : I must absolutely decline, as it would be impossible for me to be on the
Executive.
Mr. Brydon: I beg to nominate Mr. DeHart. L 18 British Columbia 1909
The Chairman : You have already nominated Mr. DeHart with three other gentlemen.
You now require a seconder.
Mr. Thos. Wilson : I will second it.
The Chairman : Well, it is now moved and seconded, " That the four Vice-Presidents,
the President and the Secretary-Treasurer form the Executive Board."
Mr. Brydon : Yes, but there are only three members wanted, I believe	
The Chairman : Not necessarily. It is not limited. It is left to the discretion of the
meeting.
Mr. Brydon : I think this is a very important point to decide. I know the two gentlemen that have already been nominated, and I can assure you that they have always given
heroic services to the Association and worked in the interest of the B. C. Fruit-Growers, and
they have also given long years of service to the work at a time when the B. C. Fruit-Growers'
Association did not occupy the same position as it occupies to-day. Now, the Executive Committee, I have always felt, are really the Directors of the Association. They do all the work
in connection with the Association, and while it may be better to have these Directors located
within easy reach of the Secretary, yet it is not so important, because the President and the
Secretary can easily manage the business part of it, so far as the paying for materials is
concerned. I do not think that the Executive is usually worried much on that account.
Now, if you have your Executive located all over the Province where they are likely to do
the most good, and where they will be not only in touch with the President and Secretary but
the grower as well, it would, I consider, be more beneficial to the interests of this Association.
The great object is to get hold of the growers. And when we elect a man a Vice-President,
and that is all, and he has no opportunity to take a hand in the business of the Association,
he loses his interest, and he says " This thing is not worth anything at all; it is merely the
name of the thing." And if I were not able to be there and have some say as to how the
business is going to be conducted, I don't want to be a Vice-President. Our object should be
to interest new fruit-growers and create a new feeling among the members and interest them,
and it will then be much better for the Association. I don't want to be misunderstood in this
matter. I know Mr. Kipp, and I know Mr. Metcalfe, and they are all that I have said about
about them, but I think it would be in the interest of the Association that the Vice-Presidents
should have some standing in the management of the business of the Association.
Mr. Kipp : Now, in this connection, the way this stands is just exactly what we thought
best when it was inaugurated. And I do not know of one instance when there was an
official meeting (I will speak for myself) that I was taken up there when I was not required
to form a quorum. You cannot do business without a quorum. And the way it was arranged
was to have the Vice-Presidents placed all over the country, so that when the Secretary went
out with the books and held meetings at the different places, he could pick up the Vice-
Presidents that would be required to form a quorum on his way, and there has never been
any needless expense involved in that way, because if a Vice-President was not required to be
present he would not attend. And I think that has been the history of the proceedings right
along. Now, I can take you back just a few years ago, when we had a meeting in New
Westminster where this question came up, and the annual meeting was in Victoria. And we
found out that there were only two members over here, and it struck me, I know, at the time
that if we went to Victoria, under the Act under which we were incorporated, we would have
to bring a quorum with us. And if we didn't do that, we would simply have to die, and it
was just a question as to who would in that case pay the funeral expenses. And I know in
Vancouver, at our quarterly meeting, the question of ways and means came up, and we discussed how we were going to take a quorum over to Vancouver Island. And it seemed that
if we didn't want to die we should not go to Victoria, but I moved that the annual meeting
should be held there. It was then considered best to have these Vice-Presidents placed all
over the country, and have a central one, as it were, to draw from, so that they could at all
times form a quorum, no matter where a meeting was required to be held ; and there has never
been, since that time, a man sent to attend an Executive meeting when he was not required,
and when there was not work for him to'do. And there is another thing I might just as well
say as regards remuneration ; I can remember the time that I have gone to Nelson on $2.50 a
day, and have gone to the hotel there and paid $3 a day, and I never got the 50 cents back
either. And then they have said to me, " Well, why do you stay there 1" And I would
say, " Oh, well, I want to learn my trade."    That is why I have stayed there. 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 19
The Chairman : The Secretary desires to offer a few words in explanation of the practice
that has been followed in the election of the Executive Committee.
Mr. W. J. Brandrith : Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen,—There has been a good deal
of talk about the expense, and I want to tell you it costs more to bring a member of the
Executive from Summerland to Victoria than it does to bring Mr. Puckle, Mr. Metcalfe and
Mr. Kipp to New Westminster, all told, and that is a quorum. And if it is a question of the
saving of expenses you are after, you should certainly put the Executive Committee as close
together as it is possible to put them. If you were in a private business, you would not want
your members scattered all over this Province; you would want them near at hand. As
regards the question of buying supplies, that is always settled at the close of the annual meeting,
but then there are always lots of other questions that come up, involving the expenditure of
the Association's money, that I don't feel justified myself in taking the responsibility on my
own shoulders, and the question has often to remain in abeyance until I can communicate with
the President, and it takes some time to do that. I know that I have sometimes been three
weeks before I could get a letter from Mr. Johnstone. He is not always at Nelson ; he has
his private business to attend to; and the same with myself ; I am not always at Ladner, for
I have also a little private business at times. Now, I would suggest that the members of the
Executive Committee be as close together as possible, in order to save expenses, so that they
can easily be brought together to discuss matters of interest to the Association and to the
Province oftener than if they live long distances away, where it involves extreme expenditure.
The Chairman : Ladies and gentlemen, I may perhaps be permitted to say that the question
of expense is one which must be considered in connection with the election of the Executive
Committee. If the principle is adopted of having a large committee, all the funds of the
Association will be taken up in paying the expenses of its members in attending the meetings,
and it will leave nothing for the Association work proper. This question has been taken up
at former meetings, and I think the consensus of opinion is that there should be three members
outside of the President and Secretary, who are in a sense ex-officio members, and the others
would be called upon to attend meetings within easy reach. Now, I do not wish to dictate to
this meeting what it shall do, but I think the question should be fully understood by you before
you proceed to the election of the Executive. At present there are nominations in for the
elections of the officials of the Association as members of the Executive Committee. That is
to say, the President, 1st Vice-President, 2nd and 3rd and 4th Vice-Presidents. That would
be an Executive Committee of six, including the Secretary-Treasurer. Then we have nominations from Mr. Wilson, preceding these, that the members of the Executive Committee shall
be, the President and Secretary, and Messrs. Metcalfe and Kipp. Are there any other
nominations ?
Mr. Wilson : That leaves room for one more that I didn't nominate.
Mr. Cunningham : I move that Mr. Palmer's name be added to the nomination.
The Chairman: I will have to decline being nominated. And Mr. Puckle is a member
by virtue of his office as President.
Mr. Johnstone : I move the nominations close.
Mr. Wilson : I second it.    Carried.
The Chairman : It will be necessary to elect the members of the Executive Committee by
ballot, unless you wish me to declare them all elected, in which case you would have an Executive Committee of eight.
Mr. Brydon : I move to suggest that the Executive Committee be five, leaving the 1st
Vice-President, 2nd and 3rd Vice-Presidents and President and Secretary-Treasurer members.
It wots never my intention to add more to the number. I merely mentioned that I thought
the Vice-Presidents were the proper men to be on the Executive. So I would move now that
the name of the 4th Vice-President be eliminated from the nomination.
The Chairman : The nominations are closed.
Mr. Brydon : It would be perfectly in order to limit the number to five. Eliminating
the name now interferes with the business that has been finished, but if we limit the number
to five that is still in order.
The Chairman : I will put that as motion. Moved by Mr. Brydon that the Executive
Committee be restricted to five members.
Mr. W. J. Brandrith : I second that motion.
The Chairman : Well, you have now seven names submitted.
Mr. Johnstone : Oh, I didn't understand it that way. L 20 British Columbia 1909
The Chairman : You have submitted four, but two of those are included in those submitted
by Mr. Brydon, unless you wish to withdraw some names.
Mr. Smith : Are not the President and Secretary ex officio members ?
The Chairman : No, they are included in both lists.
Mr. Wilson : Well, they have always been looked upon as ex officio members, haven't they
Mr. Chairman t
The Chairman : As they are in both lists, the question does not arise.
Mr. Brydon : The names of the President and Secretary do not come in at all. They are
only mentioned to fill up the number.
Mr. Wilson : They won't be voted upon.
Mr. Chairman : That will require another motion, because there is nothing in the constitution which determines that the Secretary and President shall be ex officio members. It has
been a matter of custom.
Mr. Brydon : I do not think we can drop them now, because they have been duly nominated and the nominations closed, and the only procedure now is to ballot.
The Chairman : Yes, that is my ruling. The only way out of it would be if some of
those names were withdrawn.
Mr. Brydon : I do not think that they can be withdrawn, because they have been duly
nominated.
The Chairman : With the consent of the meeting I think that they can. However, the
ballot will now be taken, and I will appoint Messrs. McKay and Frazer as scrutineers.
Mr. Brydon : Just one word in explanation—do we vote for the President and the Secretary along with the other members ?
The Chairman : Yes ; there are five names required for the Executive committee. The
names which have been given in are those of the President, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Vice-Presidents
and the Secretary-Treasurer, and Messrs. Metcalfe and Kipp. Seven names have been submitted, and five are to be chosen.
Mrs. E. C. Birch :  Would it be allowable to plump and only put three names ?
The Chairman : Yes, it would be allowable.
The Chairman (after the vote) : The President, Mr. Puckle, received 16 votes ; 1st Vice-
President, Mr. DeHart, 14; 2nd Vice-President, Mr. Tom Wilson, 7; 3rd Vice-President,
Mr. Johnstone, 8; Mr. Metcalfe received 8; Mr. Kipp, 7 ; Mr. Brandrith, 14. I therefore
declare, subject to the decision of the meeting, that the President, 1st Vice-President, 3rd
Vice-President, the Secretary-Treasurer and Mr. Metcalfe are elected members of the Executive Committee. Messrs. Puckle, De Hart, Brandrith, Johnstone and Metcalfe receive
majority votes. Now ladies and gentlemen, I think my duties are discharged, and I have
therefore much pleasure in calling upon Mr. Puckle to take the chair, as President of this
Association.    (Loud applause.)
Address by President Elect.
Mr. Puckle : Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen,—Before taking this seat of honour,
I would like to say a few words in regard to what we have been doing here this afternoon. I
did not come here with the intention of being elected President. In fact, I just dropped in
to see the fun. But it seems to me that there is a good deal of improvement open to this
branch of the business, and I think with the Executive Board you have elected for this year
ought to be able to do something. I do not know exactly what business you have on for tonight—
Mr. Brandrith : We have one or two papers.
The President: It appears that there are some interesting papers to be read to-night.
And I hope, ladies and gentlemen, now that I have got into this position, that we are going
to get some support from our growers. Take myself, for instance; all that I ever joined this
Association for was to save a dollar on spraying, but there should be something more to join
it for. We can do a great deal better than that, and I think we can prove that we can get
a great deal out of this Association, and we ought to be able to get a good many more members
interested. Now, this evening we have several interesting lectures, and we ought to have a
large attendance, and I hope that we will see a good many more in this audience next year. 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 21
Votes of Thanks.
Mr. Cunningham : I move a vote of thanks to Mr. Palmer for his kind services this
afternoon.
Mr. Brandrith : I second it.
Motion carried.
Mr. Palmer : I thank you, gentlemen, and I trust, as your President has intimated, that
your Association will enter upon a new era, and justify the position it holds as the B. C.
Fruit-Growers' Association. You must get away from the local view of things, and deal with
them from a provincial standpoint.    (Applause.)
Mr. Cunningham : I also move a vote of thanks to the retiring officers, who have been
very earnest in their endeavours, and have had a great deal of success.
Mr. Wilson : I second that.
Motion carried.
Mr. Kipp : Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen,—I am one of those lucky ones for
whom a vote of thanks has just been given, and I rise to thank you for the courtesy you have
given me at all times, and for the vote of thanks. I have been on this Board a good many
years and have done my business faithfully, and I appreciated your help, and I may say during
that time I have learned a good deal about my business, and I have a good deal of faith in
the Board which has been elected to-day, and I am perfectly willing to retire. And if I want
to get on the Board again, it will take me two or three years to heal up the wounds I have
now, and perhaps by that time some more of you may be disabled and I may be wanted, and
maybe by that time you will be glad to have me back again with you (laughter), and maybe
I won't be asked back ; but, anyway, gentlemen, you will always have my hearty appreciation.
I am not going to leave the country, and I am going to assist the Association in every possible
way, and I wish it all the success that can possibly come to it. I can tell you, ladies and
gentlemen, that the fruit-growing is far in advance to-day of what it was a few years ago, for
I want to give you my experience in travelling over British Columbia. I want to say this,
just briefly, if British Columbia is anything in the next one hundred years, it will be from
fruit-growing It can be an agricultural country only on a limited basis, but a fruit-growing
country it can be. I can take you to the district of our late President, where you will find
men growing as nice fruit in quantity and quality as you could wish to find anywhere, and
they cannot use a plough or horse on the ground, and never will, but there are nice little
places under those hills (isolated as it is) where a man can go in and make a living. It is
immense. The climate and soil are there. Of course, ladies and gentlemen, I feel in this
way with regard to the office I have previously occupied in this Association, that I would
have liked to have been in it a year or two more until I had extended the work to the Coast,
or pretty near. However, I retire with pleasure, and I have always had the most courteous
treatment from the officers with whom I have worked, and I want to say a word on behalf of
the Secretary. He is a very able and most untiring man, and has always been willing to take
all the work on his shoulders, but in the future I hope you will not leave it all in his hands,
and now that I have got out of it I want you to watch him a little closer (laughter). You
can just realise how hard he has worked when he has written 1,500 letters alone, in a year.
And then some one will write up to him and ask " Can you get him a nice rooster," and all
such things, things that are altogether outside of the work of the Association, and yet which
he has to attend to. But I know, gentlemen, you will render him all the assistance possible.
Thanking you, Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, for this privilege, I will now take a back
seat where I belong.     (Applause.)
Resolution of Regret.
Mr. Smith : Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, I suppose we all realise the loss that
the Province and the Dominion as a whole has suffered from the death of our late Dr. Fletcher.
During his life he has given considerable service in advancing the interest of horticulture and
other matters affecting the horticultural interests of this Province. I have much pleasure in
moving the following resolution : —
"Resolved, That the fruit-growers of British Columbia take this the first opportunity to
express their sincere regret at the loss the fruit-growers of Canada have sustained by the
sudden demise of the late Dr. Fletcher. And that a copy of this resolution be sent to the
Department of the Interior and to his widow." L 22 British Columbia 1909
Mr. Wilson : I would ask that that be forwarded to the Department of Agriculture, and
I might add, to his widow, Mrs. Fletcher.    I would ask that that be added to the resolution.
Mr. Brydon : I second that.
Motion carried.
The President : Well, gentlemen, I do not think that there is anything further now until
the evening session, when there will be some lectures on various subjects, starting at 7:30,
promptly on time.
The meeting then adjourned.
Evening   Session.
The delegates re-assembled in the Board of Trade Rooms at 7:30 o'clock, p.m.
The President: Well, the first business this evening is this adjournment in regard to the
Secretary's salary. It is the first thing on the list. It was requested that it be left over until
this evening, and I think if anyone wants to raise it, or lower it, why just say it out straight,
as it will save a great deal of time for those gentlemen who are to lecture.
Mr. Brydon : Gentlemen, I beg to move that the salary of the Secretary stand as at
present.
The President : I think that that has been already moved.
Mr. Brydon : No.
Mr. Wilson :  Well, I will second Mr. Brydon's motion.
The President : Moved and seconded that the salary of the Secretary be $50 a month, as
before.    Motion carried.
Dominion  Fruit-Growers'  Conference.
The President : The next is the appointing of delegates to attend the Dominion Fruit-
Growers' Conference. It is a representative gathering of the fruit interests of Canada, and we
want to appoint one delegate at least, and also a substitute, in case of the illness of the delegate appointed.
Mr. Brandrith : I think there should be two, Mr. President. It was two at the last
Convention, I think.
The President : Two substitutes and two alternatives. This Conference takes place in
Ottawa, I believe, within three months—the date is not yet fixed. So, gentlemen, if you will
appoint two delegates to attend, and also two substitutes. The nominations are open now.
It is the chance of a lifetime and expenses paid.
Mr. Johnstone :  Mr. Palmer, is it possible for you to go ?
Mr. Palmer : Well, I think it would be rather out of place to nominate me as a delegate
for this Association. If I went I would go in the capacity of a delegate from the Government, as I did on the last occasion.
Mr. Wilson : I nominate Mr. Brandrith, our Secretary.
Mr. Sears : I second that.
Mr. Smith : I nominate Mr. James Johnstone as a delegate.
Mr. Palmer : I would like to say, in a case of this kind, where you are dealing with the
commercial interests of fruit-growing especially, it would be rather unwise to leave the
Okanagan Valley unrepresented. Your Secretary knows the names of men in the Upper
Country who would be willing to attend.
Mr. Brandrith : I would suggest Mr. Stirling. He is the largest individual shipper in
the Province.
Messrs. Brandrith, Johnstone, Stirling and Brydon were nominated as delegates to the
Dominion Fruit-Growers' Conference.
The President : You are voting for two delegates now. The order in which they are
placed on your ballots governs them. (After the ballot.) I see the votes are as follows :—
Mr. Brandrith, 10 ; Mr. Brydon, 8 ; Mr. Stirling, 6 ; and Mr. Johnstone, 4. Mr. Brydon
and Mr. Brandrith will be the delegates, and Mr. Stirling and Mr. Johnstone the alternatives.
American Pomological Society.
The President: The next business will be the question of sending representatives to the
American Pomological Society. Is it the desire of the Association to send representatives
from here 1 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 23
Mr. Brydon : Mr. President, I think it would be desirable that we should send one. We
cannot get too much information along the lines of fruit-growing, or get too enthusiastic over
it.    Where and when do they meet ?
The Secretary: In the City of St. Catharines, in the month of September—the date is
not definitely fixed, but it will be positively in the month of September next.
Mr. Brydon: And has the Provincial Association just one member ?
The President: It calls for one member from this Association.
Mr. Brydon : That is the United States Society ?
Mr. Brandrith : It is the American Pomological Society, and they have as many members
in the Province of Ontario as in the State of New York ; they have some in British Columbia.
I have had the honour of being a member of it for the last 27 years. Mr. President, I do not
think that there can be any question about the desirability of sending representation, as we
should take every advantage of getting all the information we possibly can. There is the
question of whether this Association can stand the expense. It will cost about $150 to send
a delegate to St. Catharines.
Mr. Brydon : Mr. Pres;dent, I do not think that $150 would meet the bill.
Mr. Brandrith : Oh, yes, it would.
Mr. Brydon : And pay his fare and hotel bill and send him back again ?
Mr. Brandrith : Oh, yes.
Mr. Cunningham : I have much pleasure in nominating Mr. Hayward.
Mr. Hayward : First of all, I am not a member, and, secondly, I could not spare the
time, so it would be useless to suggest me.
The President : Well, probably the best thing would be to let this stand over until some
future date.
Mr. Brandrith : It can be dealt with at the quarterly meeting.
The President : Will some one move that that be laid over until the next quarterly
meeting.
Mr. Kipp : To save time, I have pleasure in moving that it be laid over until the next
quarterly meeting.
Mr. Brydon : I second the motion.    Carried.
The President: The next on the list is an address by Mr. Thos. Cunningham. It will be
well worth listening to.
Mr. Cunningham's Address.
Mr. Thos. Cunningham : Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen,—It affords me great
pleasure to extend my heartiest congratulations to the Association for the honour they have
done themselves in the election of our worthy President. I have known Mr. Puckle for some
time, and I feel quite certain that he will enthuse new life and energy into this Association.
The interests of this Association have ever been dear to me. I do not know whether there are
any other charter members in the Association than myself ?
Mr. Brandrith : Indeed there are.
Mr. Cunningham : Are you one ?
Mr. Brandrith : I surely am.
Mr. Cunningham : I was afraid that I was the last one of the original charter members
of this Association. It had a glorious record for many years and did very successful work. I
may say it is really the parent of the Board of Horticulture, but when it touched the commercial affairs of the fruit-growers some mistakes were made and more or less of a set-back was
given to the Association, much to the regret of those who had«been instrumental in organising
it. But it has now got fairly over that, and I have every reason to hope that during the
coming year, this next season, we will have good work done, and that the influeuce of this
Association will extend through the length and breadth of this Province. We must, however, be careful of one thing, and that is not to make it in any sense a local institution. It is
a Provincial institution, and worthy of the respect of all the fruit-growers of the Province, and
with an experienced Secretary, and a good directorate, I think we can hope for a successful
year.    (Applause.) L 24 • British Columbia 1909
To the President and Members of the
B. C. Fruit-Growers' Association.
Gentlemen,—At the last quarterly meeting of this Association the undersigned was
requested to prepare a paper on orchard-spraying and the merits of the various spraying solutions which are being recommended for general use in this Province, and the best methods of
applying them.
Early in 1908 I prepared a bulletin descriptive of the various spraying mixtures which we
have found by experience to be the most effective in controlling insect pests and plant diseases.
The first edition of 7,000 copies was soon exhausted; a second edition of 10,000 copies was
subsequently printed and distributed, generally amongst fruit-growers. These 17,000 copies
were all distributed before July last, and the demand from various sections of the Province
clearly indicated that another issue of this modest little bulletin, which had become quite
popular, was needed. With the consent of the Hon. the Minister of Finance and Agriculture,
I have had a third edition of 30,000 printed, after having been carefully revised.
I may say that before the revision was undertaken, we had been conducting experiments
with the several mixtures so as to enable me to deal with them safely and intelligently. I
believe, therefore, that the information contained in the latest edition of the spraying bulletin
can be safely relied on. This being so, it relieves me of the necessity of preparing an elaborate
treatise for this meeting.
My Assistant, Mr. Lyne, who is a most painstaking, careful and experienced fruit-grower,
has prepared a short paper dealing with the same subject. This I have great pleasure in
presenting to this meeting.
In addition to what he has said regarding the merits of the lime-sulphur-salt solution, I
may be permitted to state that, unlike some other spraying solutions, its effect on the trees,
irrespective of its insecticidal qualities, is beneficial. It acts as a tonic and as a fungicide as
well.    I have great confidence in its efficacy.
The home-made article, if properly prepared, is decidedly preferable to all others that I
have had to do with. I believe this superiority arises out of the fact that it is used generally
when hot and fresh. I believe it is admitted that in all spraying mixtures important chemical
changes begin very soon after the several ingredients have been brought together, and that
they rapidly deteriorate with age. I have proved this most conclusively with the Bordeaux
mixture, which is almost valueless the third day after it has been prepared.
If the lime-sulphur-salt solution has not always proved effective as an insecticide, I believe
the fault is with the manner of its application. All over the Province I find in orchards, that
the owners thereof regard as having been well sprayed, the fruit spurs, topmost twigs and
shoots have not been touched by the spray. It is well known that the latest brood of insects
are to be found on the spurs and shoots. This explains why young scale insects are found on
fruit rather than on the trunk and main branches of the trees. In spraying a tree, all such
growth must be completely covered, also the under-side of the laterals, which are often
untouched by the spray.
The lime-sulphur solution, as an effecOive fungicide, is still in the experimental stage. As
far as my experience goes in using it on orchards in Vancouver and adjacent thereto during
the past year, I have found it to produce excellent results when additional lime had heen added.
Taking the commercially made solutions, such as "Rex," "Niagara" and the British-
American Co.'s latest brand (and we have tested all of these), three gallons of the solution to
forty-five gallons water, and six pounds of Marble Bay lime, slacked with boiling water and
added to the dilute solution, no injury to either foliage, bloom or fruit followed.
I find that practically the same results have been obtained by experiments conducted in
Washington by Professor Beattie, of the Washington Agricultural Experiment Station,
whose report is so interesting and instructive that I embody it in this paper, and is as follows :—
" Lime-Sulphur   Wash for Apple Scab.
" Great chaos exists in our knowledge of and experience with Bordeaux mixture. This
is well illustrated by the fact that eighty-seven experiment station bulletins give fifty different
formulas for Bordeaux, running all the way from two pounds of vitriol and two pounds of
lime to twelve and a half pounds of vitriol and twelve and a half pounds of lime in fifty gallons
of water. Twelve of these different formulas are in bulletins dated 1908. Five bulletins
insist that the vitriol should be poured into the lime; twenty-two, that the lime should be 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 25
poured into the vitriol; seven, that the two should be poured together into a third vessel; two,
that first a bucket of one and then a bucket of the other should be poured in; eight, in a noncommittal way, say to mix them, and one, having tested the various ways, shows that they are
all equally good (or perhaps equally bad).
" Practical field experience with Bordeaux produces the same chaotic results. Where one
year the apple scab is cleaned out and the apples reach the packer in beautiful shape, the next
season serious scorching may occur, and the whole crop be ruined. Especially is this the case
on the Pacific Coast and in other regions where blossoming time nearly always brings rainy
weather. In the Far West the'grower must produce absolutely perfect fruit. No other is to
him worth marketing. Bordeaux may remain the standard in Eastern States, where less care
is used in grading and where there is a market for inferior fruit, but russeted fruit should
never be considered as No. 1.
" In nearly all cases the injurious effects of russeting and scorching have been blamed upon
the improper making of the Bordeaux mixture. It is usually claimed that uncombined copper
sulphate is present because of the lack of lime in quantity or its poorness in quality. Since it
requires but 1.38 pounds of lime to combine completely with six pounds of blue vitriol, it is
probable that that contention has no foundation in fact.
" Because of the very unsatisfactory results which were being obtained from Bordeaux,
the Washington Agricultural Experiment Station set out a couple of years ago to learn how to
control the Bordeaux or to find an efficient substitute for it. It is not alone necessary to
eliminate scab from Washington orchard0, but it is equally necessary to eliminate scorching
and scab.    If Bordeaux will not do this it must give way to something that will.
"In 1907 six acres were sprayed with various kinds of Bordeaux, with the results that
the better the Bordeaux, according to accepted standards, the more serious the scorching.
" In 1908 the experiments were carried out in a 100-acre orchard at Garfield, Washington,
and sulphur-lime wash was compared with Bordeaux mixture as a summer spray. This sulphur-
lime wash had first been worked out by Professor Piper and Director Thatcher of the Washington
station from the old California lime-sulphur-salt wash and had been shown to be shown to be
very effective against San Jose Scale, which it has practically eradicated from the commercial
orchards of the State of Washington. As a winter spray it has already shown its worth as a
fungicide against peach leaf curl and some other diseases. Its caustic nature has prevented
its trial as a summer spray.
" The spray was applied in varied strengths and at various times to a block of Jonathan
and Ben Davis trees which had been very scabby the year before. It was applied with a
Bean Magic hand pump, No. 9, from 150 to 200 pounds pressure, and with a Bordeaux
nozzle. The strengths used were one pound of sulphur and one-half pound of lime to four
gallons of water, the same to five gallons of water, and the same to six gallons of water. This
was made from the most highly concentrated commercially prepared sprays by diluting them
one to eleven, one to fourteen, and one to seventeen, respectively. No additional lime was
put in any of these sprays.
"Spraying took place (1) on April 19th, not long before the leaf buds began to swell;
(2), May Sth, just as the blossoms were pink and ready to burst ; and (3), June 4th, just after
the petals had fallen. Some trees received all three of the sprajdngs, some two, some but one.
At the same times trees were sprayed with Bordeaux mixture and other trees were left
unsprayed as checks. On June 4th, when the spray was applied, it was a rainy, wet daj?,
when neighbouring orchardists considered the day too disagreeable to work. The results were
as follows :—
"1. Sulphur-lime, made of one pound sulphur, one-half pound lime, to four gallons of
water, or any weaker solution, did no harm whatever to the buds, foliage or fruit of the
Jonathan and Ben Davis trees thus sprayed.
" 2. As a preventative of scab, sulphur-lime wash far excelled Bordeaux, as shown in the
accompanying table. In all cases, however, russeted and scabby fruit were counted out
altogether as unmarketable.
"Spray. % Clean Emit.
" Sulphur-lime, 1-1-4    95
Sulphur-lime, 1-^-5    93
Sulphur-lime, l-J-6    88
Sulphur-lime, 1st and 2nd sprayings    89
Sulphur-lime, 2nd and 3rd sprayings    94 L 26 British Columbia 1909
" Spray. % Clean Fruit.
Sulphur-lime, all three sprayings  92
Sulphur-lime, all sprayings  91
Bordeaux with Vermorel nozzle  52
Bordeaux with Bordeaux nozzle  40
Bordeaux made with lime milk  48
Berdeaux made with lime water  39
Bordeaux, all trees  44
Unsprayed trees (checks)     37
" Note.—The formula expressed l-J-4 means one pound sulphur, one-half pound lime, four gallons of
water. This applies to all places where this or similar formula appears in this article, the quantity of
sulphur being given first, then the quantity of lime, and then the quantity of water.
" 3. To test the effect of sulphur lime on the setting of fruit, sulphur-lime made of one-
pound sulphur and one-half pound lime to four gallons of water, such as is used as a winter
spray for scale, was applied every few days throughout the blossoming season to apple, pear,
peach and cherry trees. As a result, a good crop of the fruit set and developed from the apple
and pear trees. None of the peach trees, sprayed or unsprayed, bore well, and the results on
them are in doubt.    The cherry crop was completely destroyed by the spray.
" In addition to the work of the Experiment Station at Garfield, the owner sprayed the
balance of the 100 acres with sulphur-lime wash, l-|-4, once just as the buds were becoming
pink. Because the later spray which he should have applied conflicted with the one spraying
with arsenate of lead which he used to destroy the codling moth, he omitted the later spraying
for scab. From one spraying with sulphur-lime he got at thinning time on the Spitzenberg
and Newton Pippin from 60 to 70 % of clean fruit, and on the Jonathan, Ben Davis and Rome
Beauty about 80 %. The remaining scab was, of course, greatly reduced by the thinning of
the fruit.    At packing time the scabby fruit was less than 10 % of the crop.
" Conclusions.
" On the basis of this one year's experiments we recommend for apple scab a sulphur-
lime wash corresponding to the formula—
" Sulphur    1 pound.
Lin
1
Water    5 gallons.
" This may be made by boiling for about forty-five minutes at home or by diluting the
most highly concentrated commercially prepared sprays one part to fourteen of water.
"This spray should be applied (1) at the pink of the blossoms just before they burst;
(2) just after the blossoms have fallen. Further study may show that it is desirable to spray
the orchard just before the leaf buds burst.     This is frequently done anyhow for scale.
" Bordeaux will no doubt continue effective in destroying the scab and in favourable
years will be a successful spray, but on account of the frequent injury it is too dangerous for
us to recommend.
"Before absolutely fixed conclusions may be drawn further work must be done. Certain
problems remain to be further investigated : (1.) How many sprays are desirable ? (2.) What
are the best dates ? (3.) Can the time for the second spraying with sulphur-lime be separated
from that of the single spraying for codling moth ? (4.) Can the sulphur-lime be still further-
diluted 1    These problems we hope to undertake another year."
" Note.—In sending us the foregoing paper, Prof. Beattie says he realises that this is a new departure,
but regarding his experiments he sa3's :—' I feel that we have some rather interesting results. Tliey commend themselves to the apple-growers of Washington, where perhaps they know best of anywhere in the
United States how to grow the most perfect fruit, and I hope they may be of value to Eastern growers. I
am aware of the great sKepticism which the East uses in viewing our results, but having lived for many years
in the East myself, I am sure that the usual argument about the conditions being so different is largely an
effort to dodge an ultra-conservative stand and a careless trial of the matter. I wish some Eastern growers
would give these methods a fair trial, and therefore I am glad to put this report in the hands of the " Fruit-
Grower." If anyone should desire to ask further questions about this or any other related matter', I would
be glad to furnish you the information to the best of my ability.'
" We shall be pleased to receive questions from any subscriber of the ' Fruit-grower,' which will be
referred to Prof. Beattie for reply. Let us test this matter thoroughly in the East before condemning it, or
even doubting its efficienc}'.
"(Editor)    " 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 27
In view of these results I would certainly recommend fruit-growers located in the Coast
climate of British Columbia to experiment for themselves. Take one or two trees of each
variety of apples, pears and plums. Spray with the mixture at various strengths and under
various atmospheric conditions ; keep a careful record, and watch results. Be very sure, however, that lime, be added to the solution.
The next most important spraying mixture for the control of all leaf and fruit-eating
insects, and their numbers are legion, ever increasing, as fruit-growers know to their cost, is
the
Arsenate of Lead.
I believe that I was the first to experiment with this insecticide in this Province, and the
results have been so uniformly successful that it has almost superseded Paris green, London
purple, arsenoid and all other forms of arsenical poisons.
I have used it in all conditions of weather and at various strengths, ranging all the way from
two to seven pounds to the forty-five-gallon barrel of water, and never under any circumstance
did I discover the slightest injury to either foliage, blossom or fruit. With one exception, it
has proved a sovereign remedy against biting insects, the exception being hop flea beetle, on
which no arsenical spraying mixture has the slightest effect. I am thankful to report, however, that there is an insecticide which does control the flea bettle. This will be dealt with
later.
The question arose during the past year regarding the sale of arsenate of lead by merchants
and others not members of the Pharmaceutical Association. It seems that the Statutes of
British Columbia forbid any person other than a qualified druggist from dealing in arsenical
or other poisons. The question was raised early in the season and was at one time exceedingly
embarrassing, and threatened the defeat of the spraying operations which had been recommended, for it goes without saying that the fruit-growers cannot afford to pay druggists' profits
on insecticides. A strict interpretation of the Pharmacy Act would prohibit all other persons
but druggists from dealing in sulphate of copper, Paris green, hellebore, arsenate of lead, or
almost any other insecticide or fungicide that fruit-growers must use.
The same question arose in Great Britain, for it is very evident that the spread of insect
pests and plant diseases have become so common in the United Kingdom that the fruit industry is seriously threatened. This is seen by the infected condition in which we find English
and Continental nursery stock now reaching this Province ; hardly a shipment reached us
during the past season in which we did not find more or less infection, and were obliged to take
the usual precautions. The British horticulturists are now obliged to use the same methods
of combatting insect pests and disease as are used in British Columbia, United States and
other sections of the world. The British horticulturists had an Act passed by the Imperial
Government in November last, which gives their fruit-growers, nurserymen and others
engaged in such pursuits the right to sell such poisonous substances as are necessary to their
business.
To return to the question of selling arsenate of lead last spring, so threatening and
numerous had the protests become that I was obliged to give a personal guarantee to the
importers and agents dealing in arsenate of lead against all damages that might come to them
from prosecutions under the Pharmacy Act before they would resume the sale and shipment
of this most valuable insecticide. This had the desired effect, and prices were kept down to a
reasonable figure.
It would be of interest to the fruit-growers to hear that at the last meeting of the Board
of Horticulture this matter was dealt with in such a way as we believe will meet the requirements of the case. Class interests must not be permitted to interfere in any way with the
development of British Columbia horticulture.
Early in the season a very serious outbreak of the hop flea beetle occurred at Chilliwack
and Agassiz, respectively. Some 600 acres of hops were involved, I was on the ground as
soon as possible and began a series of experiments with arsenical mixtures of practically all
the known forms and formulas. I used arsenate of lead as strong as seven pounds to the
barrel of water without producing the slightest effect, although the same plot of vines was
sprayed daily. I did the spraying, and know that the vines were thoroughly covered with the
mixture. Whale oil soap at various strengths was also tested. I used it at a strength that
burnt the vines, but produced scarcely any effect on the beetles. Hellebore was also tried, but
without effect.    Finally I began to experiment with nicotine, first in combination with whale L 28 British Columbia 1909
oil soap, then a strong solution made from the stems and wastage of cigar factories. I extracted
the nicotine by various processes, using both hot and cold water, until I was able to determine
the most effective mode of preparation.
I personally did the spraying most carefully, and was amply rewarded by seeing, for the
first time, after two years of careful experiment, the beetles put out of business, and without
the slightest injury to the hop-vines.    The nicotine seems to improve the vines.
Nicotine  Useful.
Something over a year ago I obtained information that a very concentrated form of nicotine, commercially known as black leaf, was manufactured in Kentucky, and was being used
quite extensively by American fruit-growers. As soon as I discovered the value of nicotine
as a remedy against the hop beetle I wired for a shipment of the black leaf, but owing to the
great distance and various delays it did not reach me till I was called away from Agassiz to
another section of the Province on extremely urgent business. I am satisfied, however, that
we shall have in black leaf a most valuable remedy against various forms of insect attack.
One gallon of the black leaf is sufficient to make 60 gallons of spraying mixture, costing not
over $1.25 for that quantity.
I propose during the coming season to conduct experiments with the black leaf, and if it
proves to be all that I expect arrangements will be made with the manufacturers for a supply.
Unfortunately it is sold only in carload lots, and through duly accredited agents, but this will
not prevent its being imported into this Province and becoming available for fruit-growers.
From the best information at hand I believe it will be a most successful remedy against the
oyster shell scale, if used when the young are being hatched out. This I hope to demonstrate
during the coming season.
The President : We will now go on with an article written by Mr. Hagar, Manager of the
Central Exchange, which will be read by Mr. Brandrith.
The paper was read by Mr. Brandrith, and is as follows :—
Marketing and Distribution.
Mr. President and Gentlemen,—I have had the honour of being requested to address
you in regard to the best methods of handling and marketing the fruit and produce produced
in British Columbia.    I greatly appreciate the honour of the invitation and the privilege.
My experience of the fruit business is very limited, as my interest in the industry has only
extended over a period of two years. Previous to this my attention was engaged solely in
marketing the produce of a large American corporation, perhaps the largest producer in the
world. On leaving college I began my business career as an apprentice shoe cutter, from
which position, in the same factory, I rose to be cost clerk and salesman. But as a youngster
my kindest friends were the members of a family of a retired army officer living in the eastern
townships of Quebec. Here, on their farm, many days were spent, which resulted in the firm
conviction of my mind that the only life was that of a farmer, much to the amusement of those
in my home. Perhaps on this delightful farm I may have gained some knowledge of the
industry, but the incident I have borne most vividly in my mind (in connection with the fruit
industry) was a Sunday expedition to an orchard of a large dairyman on the Blue Bonnets
road, outside of Montreal. The apples in quest were the famous " Fameuse," but, unfortun
ately, our depredations were observed, and to hasten our desired retreat the irate grower opened
fire with a shot-gun loaded with coarse salt and pepper, a fairly full cargo of which was
received by the lower portion of my person as I topped the fence.
A training which may bear some good results in my present position was my connection
with the Army Service Corps in Quebec. I served a course of training school, and had command of the company for two years. The task of transporting 5,300 men and 1,800 horses—or,
rather, the conduction of the method of transportation and supply to, at and from the camps,
is no light task. In camp feed for soldier and horse had to be contracted for, supplies regulated, beef killed and 6,000 loaves of bread baked daily. A thorough and even distribution
had to be established. This outline will give you an idea of how very limited my experience
has been, and why I appreciate so very highly the request of your Association to address you
as Secretary of the Fruit & Produce Exchange of British Columbia, Limited, the central office
and co-operative distributing medium for local Fruit-Growers' Associations. I can only give
you my observations of the past two years, and the methods which appear to me the most
advisable to employ in fruit marketing. 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 29
Good Fruit and a Fair Return
To more clearly follow the outline of my suggestions, we will take each detail of the
whole operation " From Orchard to Market" separately and under different headings, as
follows :—The Grower's Part; Local Associations ; Marketing Mediums ; Distributors. Then,
as we go along, we will subdivide these again.
The Grower's Part.
The best method for marketing his fruit is a fitting question for the grower's most careful
consideration. The day has passed when the grower can sack or box his fruit or produce carelessly and haul it to the local dealer and expect a price, or for him to sack, box or crate
carefully and ship to a commission house on consignment, expecting to receive good returns.
A grower who will properly pack and grade his fruit and take a chance at sending it to a
certain market, or divide his shipment among several markets, does not get the full value to a
certainty. The wholesale men know the markets. The grower finds it almost impossible to
obtain, or practically has no source from which to obtain, the information as to where the
best market at the moment is, and what prices are quoted by that market. The dealers are
equipped to learn market conditions and changes ; the grower must also have the same equipment to compete, to become a dealer. The business of producing is one business, that of
marketing another. To be successful in an enterprise, one must confine one's whole attention
to just one department. Each of these businesses are in themselves sufficient for individual
attention. A man can supervise the growing of fruit in several orchards and be successful.
He can also conduct the management of several different warehouses for selling fruit likewise;
but he cannot be in the orchard and the office at the same time, or conduct the two departments and be successful, for each at the same moment require the man's personal supervision.
The solution of the difficulty is the question. The answer, organisation of the growers of the
locality and each locality.
The grower expects a fair price, but he must do his part honestly and earnestly and to
the best of his ability. He must plant marketable kinds and varieties, cultivate and prepare
his land to suit each kind and variety, prune and spray thoroughly and confine the whole of
his attention to his business. He must also co-operate with the other men of his district in
any project for the betterment of his locality and his business—just putting his shoulder
against the wheel a little more earnestly than his neighbour, if possible.
Marketable  Varieties.
Just a run over a few suggestions along this line. Ths strawberry of each district should
be the variety demonstrated to be the best shipper by bearing the strain of the long journey and
arriving in good condition, making it the best marketable variety at the other end ; and this
also applies to all the small fruits. Early vegetable shipments to the prairies should comprise
only the very earliest varieties of all kinds. The prairies had vegetables earlier than we had
this season, and in the average season we have only a little better than two weeks the
advantage. When the demand is reported dull let your potatoes grow, and feed or give the
rest away.
Don't try to market early varieties of cherries unless on the home market. The Prairies
have been fed to the full on these from the south. Grow the later varieties and follow up the
trade the southern fruit has left unsatisfied by the falling off of their late varieties.
There is always a good demand for plums and prunes, but your shipments should be mixeo.
with pears, crabs and peaches, if obtainable ; an assorted car is more easily placed. Calgary
can take a straight car, but the next town should also be supplied direct, and the population
being small, a little of each is the requirement.    But start a good shipper.
The same applies to peaches as to cherries. Good marketable varieties are on the market
from the south, and you have to " get in " with as good an article, and the early varieties
" don't go" with the medium or later sorts.
Pears are wanted ; there is a marked demand.    " Can you ship pears  and crabs ? " is an
almost daily message received.    In these,  too,  certain varieties will  only go.    Transcendant
and Hyslop crabs only.    I don't know so much about the variety of pears, but shipments have
not been shipped green enough.    Pick your early fruits matured and green.    The dealer may
omplain a little, but over-ripe fruit, or even just ripe, is not wanted at all. L 30 British Columbia 1909
Regarding apples, I would say, start with a Wealthy. Your Transparents, Duchess and
Red Astrachan cannot compete with the American Wealthies, which are on the markets at
the time our earlier varieties are fit for sale. But we have only a hog fence to protect our
apples, a four-strand wire. There is a duty of $1 per cwt. on peaches, 40c. a barrel on apples,
only a little better than 10c. per box. If peaches were packed in apple boxes the duty would
be 50c. on that box.
My line of suggestion in this regard would be as follows : The establishment of an Association of the growers of a district, which should as a business concern, elect a Board of
Directors, from which body its officers would be chosen—a President (or I would suggest
calling the office Chairman) and a Secretary-Treasurer. Such an organisation can be incorporated under the Farmers' Institute Act and serve well for the purpose at small cost. The
Directors to meet and frame a set of by-laws, rules and regulations, adaptable to the requirements of the Association, such as election of officers, their duties, calling of meetings, etc., and
have such well framed by a competent solicitor. The Board employs a Manager, who must
thoroughly understand the business of fruit packing and handling. Suitable appliances are
provided from stock subscribed for building and necessary machinery and packing supplies for
the season commencing. Each member is a shareholder on the same basis of stock subscription, one share non-dividend bearing, is entitled to vote and express his opinions and eligible
to become a member of the Board of Directors if elected by open ballot. The Association is
a partnership affair, growers assembled together with the one objective, even distribution and
a fair return for his production. The fruit of the individual grower is brought to the packing
house provided ; he obtains a receipt for the delivery and returns to his orchard. The berry
crop is to be packed and handled by the grower, brought for inspection to the warehouse and
shipped by manifest, so that the individual merits of each grower's portion of the shipment is
returned. The orchard fruit is brought in orchard boxes as picked to the warehouse, for
packing and handling, and the shipment goes out as from the Association. The fruit is
packed and graded under the supervision of the Association ; the grower receives the net
returns of the season on so much bulk of one kind, grade and variety of fruit. Payment
should be made to the grower of a certain shipment as received and when received, and not
less than 75 % of these net returns.
The fundamental principles on which the success of a local association is based are as
follows :
a. The care of the grower in production.
b. The membership of all growers in the district.
c. The contract from each grower for the whole of his production.
d. The establishment of a certain standard of pack from that certain district.
Marketing Medium.
In British Columbia there are the following separate fruit areas ; Victoria and three
adjoining districts, Hammond, Mission and Hatzic, Chilliwack, Kamloops, Salmon Arm,
Enderby, Armstrong, Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton, Peachland, Summerland, Kootenay
District and Grand Forks ; nineteen in all. Nineteen co-operative Associations, and there are
other areas which will soon warrant such an organisation. Five years from now there will be
at least twenty-five such organisations, all and each looking for a market.
To market fruit evenly and avoid competition, one must learn daily in the season just
how each market holds. We have our natural market, the prairies, with several large distributing centres, Calgary, Edmonton, Regina, Moosejaw, Saskatoon, Brandon, Winnipeg and
Lethbridge, Fernie and Vancouver—ten centres in all. We have nineteen Associations
ascertaining daily how ten markets are, 190 inquiries and 190 replies—380 messages—which
should be by wire. Such messages would approximately cost 50 cents each, and during the
rush season, say 90 days, we have 34,200 messages and replies eosting $17,100. You may be
amused at this estimate, but it can very possibly be a fact. Imagine the cost if there were no
Associations and the growers telegraphed individually. Then we have 19 Associations
canvassing ten markets, nineteen representatives at least. Each shipment should be delivered
by a representative of an organisation to the purchasers, the car checked out and a settlement
affected on the contents. Just figure the expense and competition. One of the nineteen sells
their shipment a little below the market value, a lever is used of this by the purchasers on the
next Association offering.    What then ?    Let these nineteen Associations send a representa- 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 31
tive to a meeting arranged at some certain place, and let all these organisations form an incorporated company well capitalised, to obtain for the nineteen a daily advice of the market
conditions ; employ an agent at each centre ; solicit orders for all; sell and collect for all.
Gentlemen, do you realise the strength of such an organisation, a whole Province of fruit
and produce growers 1 Such an organisation would command complete recognition in any issue.
These nineteen Associations each become shareholders in the Central Association ; each from
its Directors elect two Directors to the Board of the Central Organisation. The Executive
Management would consist of the most prominent, most business-like and most capable men
you have to conduct the affairs of all. The Chairman would be the most representative man
in a Province.
This organisation, then, must be well and substantially capitalised. This is an age for
fighting for business supremacy ; you want to be just a little bigger than the buyer.
These men, representing, as Directors of the Central Association, all the local Associations, appoint men whom they secure as capable for the work assigned to them, the best
to be bought. The local organisation contract with this marketing medium for the sale of
the whole of their pack. Without such a contract your marketing medium cannot make a
bond fide sale, will never know what predicament it may be in to-morrow. In fact, without
it you have nothing to offer for sale and in no position to do business.
Fruit-growing is an industry, marketing a business. The manager of the marketing
medium must be a head, know just what has to be sold, that he can get it, that he has no
competition from the same source of supply, then he can command the fair value from anyone. It is necessary for him to know by wire daily the condition of every market where he
may do business, who are competing and at what figure. It's important to know just what is
wanted. He must know daily what he has to offer ; every particular ; just where he can lay
his hands on a particular car ; that each shipment on the rail is his to send anywhere he may
please to place it. Complete control. He must be familiar with the standing of each firm,
financial standing and their popularity with the trade. He must have sufficient funds to
engage and pay competent men for the various departments. He should have a well trained,
reliable man at his command in every centre, whom he can have where he pleases to report on
any shipment which has arrived. These men must be resourceful and with stamina to be able
to deal with men of broad experience and calibre. This all would be more efficient and less
costly than the individuals or Associations operating on these markets separately. This staff
would individually be more expensive, no doubt. This organisation could very profitably
purchase by contract all supplies and distribute. If well capitalised, if necessary, it could
finance for the growers on the contracts so that an immediate partial payment could be made
on each shipment.
Gentlemen, the scheme is sound and simple and very feasible. The basic principle of its
success and its successful issue is the Association of all growers in all districts, their subscriptions to put the whole on a sound financial basis, their contracts for all their production, their
hearty good will, their back to the wheel and the elimination of home competition.
Distributors.
My ideas may not have your sympathy in this regard. The wholesale man who will
purchase your shipment outright when received is the proper medium for distribution. He
provides warehouses, book-keepers, managers, salesmen and competent employees. The wholesale men have furnished $1,000,000 to provide appliances for distribution. They buy your
fruit, take the risk of good or bad accounts with their customers, and charge you a profit, of
course. Their profit on your shipment is only a small percentage charge for the use of their
means of distribution and it would cost you more to compete.
There are four wholesale houses in Winnipeg; two at Brandon; one at Saskatoon; one
at Regina; one at Lethbridge; two at Edmonton; three at Calgary; five at Vancouver—
nineteen wholesale houses in all. Each of these houses will have three men soliciting orders,
at least 57 men in all. If you use the wholesaler you have the good-will of these men; if you
compete, their competition. Besides this, they supply their trade with supplies at all seasons;
we, to compete, have to organise a trade for a production of a few months.
Just a moment longer. One of the most important features of fruit and perishable
vegetable raising and the success of marketing the production, which operation has heretofore
received very little thought or proper investigation, is the loading of the car in which the pro- L 32 British Colurbia 1909
duct is shipped. No matter how painstaking the grower has been in pruning, cultivating,
spraying, picking, packing and handling, no matter how excellent cf quality the production
may be, unless the packages in which the produce is contained are systematically loaded on the
car (due care being given that only fruit in fit condition to carry is loaded, that the car has
been iced some hours previously and that the packages are evenly spaced, slatted and braced,
giving thorough ventilation to the whole load), the shipment very probably will show a loss of
considerable amount for fruit arriving in an unsalable condition, and the subsequent discouragement, perhaps (and it has invariably been done), attributed to some other than the real cause.
Mr. President and gentlemen, I beg to thank you earnestly for your attention and the
kindness of Mr. Brandrith, your Secretary, in so kindly requesting my opinion. I regret not
being able to attend your very important meeting and trust this epistle of mine may not have
taken up too much of your valuable time.
I have, etc.,
L M. Hagar.
Mr. Brandrith: The next is an address from Mr. Tom Wilson.
The following paper was then read by Mr. "Wilson :—
Some Leaf-eating Insects.
At the last quarterly meeting of the Fruit-Growers' Association, held in New Westminster,
I was asked to read a paper on " Spraying and Spraying Materials." Those two subjects have
in the past been very exhaustively treated, and there have been so many calendars, bulletins
and other publications sent out, both by the Dominion and Provincial Governments, that,
really, there is nothing new to be said on the matter. The one thing to be emphasised is,
Spray thoroughly, and at the right time. Numbers of people come to me and ask, " W'hat
should I spray my trees with ? " This is a question I cannot answer off-hand, and I usually ask,
" What have you got on your trees and I'll tell you 1" And this leads me up to what I want
to say about some of our insect enemies which have been in evidence during the past season.
In the early summer we were troubled by several of the leaf-destroying insects. The most
conspicuous, both in point of numbers and depredation, was the tent caterpillar. There are
two species of these destructive insects. The more common of the two, and that which did
most damage, was the forest tree tent caterpillar (Clisio campa sylvatica). I need hardly
describe the egg rings, as almost everyone knows them ; and I may say that anyone who knows
the egg clusters, and neglects to remove or destroy them, is deserving of the severest censure.
They are very easily distinguished. The eggs hatch out about the time that the buds burst,
and in the absence of food larva? are endowed with singular powers of endurance. It is said
that they have been known to survive a fast of three weeks' duration. In about six weeks the
larva is full grown, and is about an inch and a half or more in length. It attains its full size
about the middle of June, when it changes to the chrysalis, from which, after two or three
weeks, emerges the perfect moth. These are usually very common in the month of July.
During the past season they were swaying around the lights, and almost immediately we found
the egg clusters being laid on all kinds of plants, with the exception of the coniferea.
Although this insect usually occurs in great numbers, it is easily kept in check, by the use
of arsenate of lead. It has been recommended to use 3 lbs. to 40 gallons of water. I find that
half this quantity would have the desired effect.
Apple Tree Tent Caterpillar (G. Americana).
This has almost identical habits with the last-mentioned, but we are thankful to say that
it is not nearly so plentiful. On examination of the orchards, and also the wild woods, up the
Fraser Valley and other parts of the Province, the number of egg clusters which had been laid
on all manner of trees and shrubs would indicate that we will be infested to an almost abnormal
degree with this insect next spring and summer. I found them on almost every kind of shrub.
I also found them on herbaceous plants, such as the nettle, and even on the stalks of standing
grain, but as both the grain and nettle and other things of that kind are incapable of supporting
life during the winter months, no danger can ensue from the egg clusters of those. Another
fact which may raise hope in the hearts of some is, that many of these clusters were attacked
by a parasitic mite which preys on the eggs. It is almost microscopic in size. Nevertheless,
in spite of its diminutive size, it has been doing good work. I merely mention this to give a
little heart to those living in the infested district. At the same time, T do not mean that they
will relax their vigilance in fighting the pest when it comes along. 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 33
Apple Tree Case Bearer (Coleophera Malevorella).
You may have noticed, when the spring opens, on looking over the twigs of the apple
trees, certain curious little pistol-shaped cases. On examination, these will be found to contain a larva capable of moving from place to place and carrying its protecting case along with
it. As the buds begin to swell, the cases may be found here and there sticking on them, while
the active little foe within is actively devouring their interior. In this way many of the fruit
buds are destroyed. As the season goes along, the caterpillars leave the twigs and fasten on
the leaves, on which they feed, sometimes reducing them to mere skeletons. The larva is of
a pale yellow, with a faint, rosy tint, a black head, and a few short hairs on the body. The
perfect moths measure about half an inch when fully expanded.
Hop Flea Beetle (Psylloydes Punculata).
This perhaps, cannot be classed as an insect which injures fruit trees, or is of much
damage to fruit-growers, but as horticulture is widening its borders continually, and must
embrace hop-growing, whatever injures the hop must affect us as horticulturists. The insect
mentioned above is one which for the last three years has succeeded in doing incalculable
damage. It is a native insect which has changed, or is in the way of changing, its food plant,
and has been known to entomologists as feeding on the rhubarb, dock and allied plants. I
found it during the summer on the nettle, which, as everyone knows, is a sort of first cousin
to the hop. Our investigations have resulted in the knowledge that it hibernates as the
perfect beetle; that it is two-brooded, and that the reason why it cannot be overcome is the
immense numbers in which it appears. As the hop is such a rapid grower, growing, as it will
sometimes, from five to ten inches in a single night, it will readily be seen that it is difficult
to keep the leaf surface covered with an insecticide ; but I noticed in several of my visits
through the hop-yards at Agassiz and Chilliwack, that where arsenate of lead had been applied,
the leaves so treated were immune from the attacks of the pest. As the insect is a native, we
are in hopes that its own parasite will soon increase in such numbers as will again keep it
within due bounds. A mistake that was made in treating this insect, was in treating it as
the English hop flea beetle (Halsica Concinna), which has entirely different habits.
About the same time that the hop flea beetle commenced its depredations, I noticed
another species of beetle, which at first glance looked to be the same. I found it feeding on
potatoes, beets and mangels, but by far the most damage I found on young tomato plants.
This I have not yet been able to identify. It differed from the hop beetle in being covered
with very fine hairs, which could be distinguished under a comparatively low-powered microscope. This insect was rather widely distributed. I found it at Agassiz on potatoes and
beets, at Yale on tomatoes, at Kamloops, where it ate the first of the tomatoes, which were
planted in May, and I also found that it had done the same down on the North Arm of the
Fraser, and later on I saw the effects of its work near Duncan. I found, however, in my
own garden, that it could not stand the effects of poison. It succumbs readily enough to the
arsenate of lead.
Oblique-Banded Leaf-Roller (Cacaecia rosa ceana).
There were several leaf-rollers, which did considerable damage in the early summer. I
have only mentioned one, which is typical of all the rest. This moth is a member of a large
family called tortrices, or leaf-rollers, because their larvae have the habit of rolling the leaves,
or portions of them, thus forming hollow cylinders, in which they live, and where they are
partly protected from birds and other enemies. The moth, which emerges about the end of
June, or early in July, is a curiously shaped insect, being broad, short and flat, and partly
bell-shaped, and about an inch across when fully extended. The depredations of this foe are
sometimes serious, more especially when it attacks the terminal shoots of the trees, and thereby
stops their growth.
Eye Spotted Bud Moth (Tmetocera ocellana).
The larval form of this insect selects the opening bud as its point of attack. It is a small,
cylindrical, naked larvao, about f of an inch long, of a pale, dull, brownish hue, with small
warts on its body, from which arise short hairs. The head and top of the next segment are
black. It lives usually in a dried, blackened leaf, which is drawn together to form a rude
case and lined with silk.    It is very partial  to the  blossoms and  newly formed fruit,  often L 34 British Columbia 1909
causing great disappointment to fruit-growers, who may have waited for years to watch the
development of some new or promising variety and have their hopes blighted, when perhaps
only one bunch of flowers sets well and appears to be promising, and this little mischief-
maker commences its depredations on the fruit, drawing the several portions together with
silken threads and devouring them. This insect does not by any means confine itself to the
apple. I found it last summer on the cherry and the plum. The only remedy for it is to look
for the withered clusters of leaves in spring and to crush and destroy the larvas.
Lesser Apple Worm (Grapholitha prunivora).
This insect has on many occasions been mistaken for the codling moth. The mode of
attack is almost similar—that is, in the calyx end of the flower of the fruit, but it seldom or
never penetrates very far into the apple. It has been said that it does damage. For my part,
I have never yet found it causing any waste in the fruit, and, in my opinion, it is an outrage
on the producer to condemn fruit infested witn this insect, as it is not deleterious to health
and certainly does no harm.
The full grown larvao are described as being about three-eighths of an inch in length, one-
sixteenth in diameter, slightly tapering towards the extremities. The moth is a little over
half an inch across the wings. The front wings black, the hind wings dusky gray at the base,
shading to black at the top. From its mode of feeding, it will be seen that it can be kept in
check by any of the insecticides for the leaf eaters.
Fall Web Worm (Uyphantria textor).
In the late summer, when the fruit-grower is flattering himself that his trouble with leaf-
eaters is over, he may be chagrined to find his trees again being covered with tents or webs,
and the foliage again being destroyed. This is the fall web-worm. It is an entirely different
insect from the tent caterpillar. The eggs are laid in early summer, and those hatch out in
July or August. As soon as the larvao emerge they begin to eat, and spin a web for protection. They only devour the fleshy part of the leaf, leaving the veins and under-surface
untouched. During September or October these caterpillars descend to the ground, where
they burrow a short distance or shelter under any rubbish which may be handy, where they
form slight cocoons of silk. Within those cocoons they soon change to the chrysalis, in which
state they pass the winter.
Besides the above-mentioned insects, we have had the usual visitation of the apple and
plum aphis, also the wooly aphis, but they are so common that they require very little
comment. The pear and cherry slug also made its appearance, but so late in the season that
it did no harm.
Votes of Thanks.
The President: The next will be to decide the place of our quarterly meetings—where
the next quarterly meeting shall be held.
Mr. Brydon : Mr. President, is it not in order to hear some discussion on these valuable
papers that have been read, or at least to move a vote of thanks to the gentlemen who have
been so kind as to write these papers for us.
The President: The meeting is open to suggestions, Mr. Brydon. If anyone will suggest anything of the kind I shall be pleased to listen to it, as the meeting is always open
to discussion.
Mr. Brydon : Well, gentlemen, as no one else seems to want to hear themselves say anything, I think I will just say a few words in connection with these papers. One is dealing
with the killing of insects, and the other is letting us know something about the insect. The
first paper presented by Mr. Cunningham is very valuable indeed, and as growers there is one
point that we want to take special notice of, and that is " thorough" working. Spray
thoroughly. Do it well. There is a great difference of opinion about the amount of the
different ingredients required, but for myself I am never led away very much by new recommendations. I stay with what has been recommended for years, and what we have found has
done excellent work, and I may say that the spray is not so often the fault of the material as
the fault of the application, and it is just as important to the industry as anything else. It is
like a link in the chain, and if you do good cultivation, and have everything else good but
leave out your spraying, you will have poor results.    And I am sure the meeting is indebted 9 Ed. 7 Frult-Growers' Association. L 35
to Mr. Cunningham for expressing the importance of this spraying, and for giving us his own
experience in connection with it, and I have very much pleasure in moving a hearty vote of
thanks to Mr. Cunningham for his valuable paper.    (Applause.)
Mr. R. M. Palmer: In speaking to the motion, I may say, that I was very glad to
notice that Mr. Cunningham drew special attention to the necessity of using lime with the
lime-sulphur spray during the summer months. I mention this, because, as many of
you know, the lime-sulphur wash is being advocated very largely as a summer spray, and
experiments made under different conditions have shown that, where we have a moist
atmosphere, there is a great danger of injuring the foliage, and fruit too, in the use of this
spray, unless an extra amount of lime is added to it. In some cases, using the spray from 1-10
and 1-30, the foliage was burned so badly that it fell from the trees, and this is a point which
should be made very clear, as to the proportions in which this spray should be used, in the
different fruit districts. There is no doubt that, as experiments are made, we may be able to
differentiate more between the effects of spraying at different times than can at present. I
quite agree with what Mr. Brydon has just stated, that we want to go carefully with new
sprays until we know that they are really better than the old sprays which are tried and
proven. Personally, I would be very'glad to know that the lime-sulphur spray, diluted with
water, which gives you a clear spray, would do the work of the old spray. But at the present
we must regard it to a certain extent as experimental, especially so with regard to summer
work. I think, too, in regard to the use of the Bordeaux mixture a word or two might be said.
Unfortunately, extended experience has shown that, unless this spraying mixture is made with
the greatest care and used also with great judgment, it may do more harm than good; and
while it may prevent the apple scab, or the pear scab, yet it gives you a large amount of
russet fruit. I am sure that you will all be glad to know that Mr. Cunningham intends
to continue the good work that he has been doing the past season, and keep on experimenting
with this new spray, which we hope will do so much for us.
The President: The motion before the meeting is a vote of thanks to Mr. Cunningham.
Motion carried unanimously, midst loud applause.
Mr. T. Cunningham : I am sure I feel very thankful, ladies and gentlemen, for this kind
recognition of a very hastily prepared paper. As Mr. Palmer has intimated, I intend to
spend probably the most of the summer experimenting, and you will see, if you read carefully
what I have stated, that I ask you to experiment also. There is no reason in the world why
a fruit-grower should not experiment for himself. There are so many different conditions in
this Province—atmospheric conditions—that it is really necessary that every grower should
satisfy himself as to the value of the spray mixtures that are recommended. My intense
desire is to see the fruit-growers of British Columbia succeed, and succeed in growing the best
of fruit 	
Mr. Brydon: We are growing the best of fruit.
Mr. Cunningham : It is not so very creditable to us, after all, that after so many years of
energetic push, in one city in this Province some 72 carloads of American apples were dumped
on us this year. That is not very creditable. There is something wrong. That represents a
lot of money that ought to be cold cash in the hands of our fruit-growers—cash that is needed
by them, and which should be available, and which would be useful to our fruit-growers.
(Hear, hear.) Now, complaints have been made frequently about my enforcing the regulations
and condemning so much of our local fruit—that is, quarantining it and taking such measures
as I believed to be necessary to force men to do their level best. It is not to injure people
that I am trying to do my duty. It is to try and encourage them to greater efforts, and to
induce them to do the very best they can for themselves and for this country. This over-
drain upon our resources is not very creditable to us as fruit-growers. We have a large local
market of our own. Seventy-two carloads of fruit represent a good deal of money, and that
was only apples alone, and I estimate that the exportation of American fruit to British
Columbia this year will be 150 car-loads. Surely, surely, it is not right. Surely we ought to
stop all this. We must do it, and the only way to do it that I know of is to get our
orchards in such a condition we will be able to provide our own market with the very best
quality of fruit, and then the Americans will not be able to take any advantage of us; they
will have no encouragement to come here. This is the aim for which I live, and I hope, to
end my days at the business.    (Applause.) L 36 British Columbia 1909
Mr. Palmer: Mr. Chairman, just one word, although it is perfectly true, as Mr. Cunningham
has stated, that a great many carloads of apples have been shipped into Vancouver from
American cities, yet it is only fair to state that the shipment from British Columbia have
been 150 tons greater than the preceding year.
Mr. Stewart: I wish to move a vote of thanks to Mr. Hagar for the paper which Mr.
Brandrith has just read. I think it is a very valuable one, as it opens up questions that we
have been up against for some considerable time, and I think it is worthy of consideration.
Mr. Johnstone : I have much pleasure in seconding that. My belief is that unless we do
something to solve the problem of fruit marketing, there is no use of growing fruit at all. As
far as I know, we can produce the very best apples, and the very best small fruit, but unless
we have a market there is no use producing them, and if we don't organise more strongly, and
organise some central organisation as suggested by Mr. Hagar, and it doesn't get the unanimous support of this country, all the work the Government has done is absolutely useless—
absolutely useless.
The President: Moved and seconded that a vote of thanks be extended to Mr. Hagar for
his valuable paper.
Motion carried unanimously.
Mr. W. N. Shaw : Mr. Chairman, excuse me, but I would like to move a hearty vote of
thanks to Mr. Wilson. I think his paper has been neglected. It appeared to me to be a very
sensible paper, and it embraces a great many good ideas, and I think if we were to follow him
in practice as it has been presented to us, it would be beneficial in a great many ways.
Mr. Palmer : I take pleasure in seconding that motion.
Motion carried unanimousby.
Bounty on Crows.
Mr. Shaw : Mr. Chairman, if there is no other business in hand, there is a matter I would
like to draw your attention to if I am in order, Sir.
The President: Yes.
Mr. Shaw : It is a matter I have been trying to bring about for quite a number of years.
It refers to a particular pest in our district. In fact, there has been no formula made or provided for its eradication, and that is the Crow. It may appear to some to be a laughable and
a jocular thing, but from my own experience during the last two or three years, I have lost to
the extent of 60 % of the crop through the depredations of the crows. And my object in
bringing this matter before you is to get your sympathy and the endorsation of the Association,
if it is possible, in putting a stop to this pest. I took this matter up quite a number of years
ago, and threshed it out through the Department of Agriculture, but there was a consensus of
opinion at that time taken throughout the Province, and the result was that the crow was
considered beneficial and in the best interest of fruit-growing. Well, that applies, I believe,
in particular to the Upper Country, but in the Coast District, the district that I belong to,
and the Islands in particular, it is a serious hindrance. In fact, it is a menace, and, as a matter
of fact, it is absolutely impossible to grow fruit successfully, owing to the pest. This has been
our experience in the past. Now, my object in presenting this is to press the matter upon the
Government so that they will place a bounty upon these crows to exterminate them. It will
be an incentive for people to take the matter in hand and destroy them. As you know, the
crow is an exceedingly cunning creature, and it is very hard to treat with it. I have tried the
use of the gun, and it is very effective when you can get close enough. I have also tried to
persuade them to poison themselves, but it is an exceedingly difficult procedure. I have
tried poisoned wheat, and spread it out where I have already sown the wheat, but
they have seemed to know the difference between wheat that is poisoned and wheat
that is not poisoned. I have taken the trouble to get a nice piece of liver, which is
very appetising to a crow as a rule, and I have put it in a box and set it up where he
could see it, but he would not touch it. In dealing with the other pests you have them
within your reach, but the crow we have not. It is a hard matter to reach them. Now, I
have brought the matter before the representative of our District, and he has promised when
the matter has been endorsed by this Association, which is very representative of the Province,
that he will bring the matter up in the House, and will pass a Bill, or he will try to get a Bill
put through the House, to have the extermination of these crows brought into force. I do not
mean that it will embrace the whole of the Province, but only certain districts where they are
not found beneficial.    It has been demonstrated,  I know,  that they have been found to be 9 Ed. 7 British Columbia Fruit-Growers' Association. L 37
beneficial in some districts, but I would have it only apply to the districts affected ; and in that
way, I do not think that there would be any hardship imposed on any part of the Province in
particular. I have drafted a somewhat crude resolution, and if you feel disposed to adopt it
I will be exceedingly pleased :— •
" Resolved, That the B. C. Fruit-Growers' Association recommend that a bounty be given
for the destruction of crows, as they are a severe detriment to successful fruit-growing. This
to apply to the districts affected."
Now, gentlemen, if you wish to add anything further you may do so.
The Chairman : Well, gentlemen, there is certainly a good deal in what Mr. Shaw has
brought up. We have been cursed with the same pest ourselves in our district. I have seen
fully 500 boxes of fruit destroyed in our valley in half a day, while the man was in town. I
believe also, where these birds nest, the mere fact of their landing on the tree is sufficient to
destroy the tree, let alone the fruit. I would be strictly in favour of this resolution, and I
would also add the blue-jay, which is just as destructive. There used to be a bounty of 2J
cents, but that has been taken off. Unless vou have studied their habits closely, no one could
imagine what could be destroyed and taken off by them. I have seen 2,000 boxes of fruit
destroyed in one day by the pests.    The resolution has my strongest support.
Mr. Heatherbell: Well, I have had a very wide experience in this matter in the Comox
District. It is on the sea-coast too, and the crows there are a great pest, and this matter was
brought before the Institute last March by myself and several others, and it was turned down,
although it was discussed at length and largely supported, but it was lost. Why, I have picked
up in my orchard barrow loads of fruit which have been destroyed in a few minutes, probably
early in the morning. You can get up very early and still the crow would be there ahead of
you. And I believe if this Association would adopt and pass such a motion it would have
considerable weight with the Government. It is going to be brought up again at the Central
Institute, and I think it would be wise to put a small bounty on crows, as the previous speaker
said, in districts where they are so bad—that is, on the sea-coast. There is no doubt that the
crow is beneficial in many respects. He is a great scavenger, and gets away with lots of worms,
but it seems to me he does more harm than good. I know, up in our district, they come in by
hundreds to our orchards when the tide is in, and when the tide it out they go to their natural
food on the beach. In that way they cause much loss to the fruit-growers by damaging their
small fruits. I have also been at my wit's end in trying to exterminate them. One of my
best efforts was putting white twine over the trees; that scared them the best; but we would
have to put the twine up before the fruits matured, for when the fruit became ripe and fell,
then the centre of the tree would be opened up, and they would eat away and destroy all the
fruit it would be possible for them to destroy. And I feel that there is no doubt if this body
would adopt this resolution it might influence the Government in putting a small bounty on
the crows in the Coast Districts.    The small boys would get to work and take them away.
Mr. Johnstone : I would like to suggest, Mr. President, that the resolution be only
applicable to those districts where the crow is not beneficial, and where it does such serious
damage. For the last four years or more, I know, the farmer's meetings have been making
resolutions on this subject of crows, and we have heard a great deal of them ; and while a
great many things have been said for them, there has also been a great deal said against them,
and they have many friends as well as foes amongst us. But I think if you make this resolution to apply only to certain districts it would be better, because there is no doubt the crows
are beneficial in some districts.
Mr. Shaw: I think the resolution reads that way. I am sure I don't want to impose a
hardship on any one.
Mr. Cunningham : I am glad to be able to assure the meeting that you will find in Capt.
Tatlow a very sympathetic friend on this question. The first year he was appointed to office
I put the matter before him, as far as Vancouver was concerned, and he instructed me to
offer a bounty of 5c. for every crow's head that was brought to him. That was advertised all
over the city, but, unfortunately, the police authorities intervened in the matter and claimed
it was not allowable to shoot a gun within the corporate limits of Vancouver, and so that put
a stop to Capt. Tatlow's good intentions, and the result was that only about a dozen crows
were brought to him. People did not like to run the risk of being fined for shooting crows
within the corporate limits of the city. The police were instructed to take the question up,
and to spend their spare time in shooting crows, and were instructed particularly to shoot into L 38 British Columbia 1909
the nests of the crows. That was a very successful way of destroying them, just when they
are hatching. If you can find the nest let them have a good heavy shot, and it will put them
out of business for the season. So, gentlemen, if this resolution is passed by this meeting, you
will find Capt. Tatlow quite ready to take up the question sympathetically and practically.
(Applause.)
Mr. Hy. Kipp : Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen,—I would just like to have a word
along these lines. I have heard this subject discussed a good deal and I won't take up a
minute's time. Where I live the crows are not an enemy to me now. They bother us a little
in September, but there is some sport in shooting them. They smell the powder and they go
away. But when it comes down to the Coast here they are a great nuisance, I know, and I
am in favour of the resolution, because we all have to live. If I had an enemy up in my
district I would look to you at the Coast to give me your support, and you certainly have
mine.
Mr. Sears : In regard to the remark made by Mr. Johnstone just now about certain
districts, I think it would he also as well to exempt the crows at certain seasons of the year,
because there is no doubt that at certain others they are beneficial, and at certain others they
are not, as many of us who are in the fruit-growing business know what they can do, and if
you are not up early in the morning to watch them you will not have a single cherry in the
place.
Mr. Forest: I know that crows are detrimental to the fruit-grower, but I find a good way
to get rid of them is to send down my boys to their nests and get them to collect the eggs just
when the egg season begins, and I get them to bring me all the eggs they can get hold of, and
that is a good thing, I find.
Mr. Palmer : If I might be allowed to say a few words on this subject. I agree with
what Mr. Sears says, and I think if it were contemplated to destroy them at all seasons of the
year it might meet with serious opposition. And as far as the fruit-growers are concerned, I
think you will agree with me that it is only during a certain time of the year that the}' do so
much damage.    Possibly you may accept that suggestion	
Mr. Shaw : I may say that I have made a study of the crow, and I have found from
observation that he is not a vegetarian at all, nor yet an insect destroyer. He lives on clams,
and when ho is not eating clams he is at the fruit. I have watched him for a number of years,
as my land lies on the water front, and he does not seem to hunt for insects at all. He simply
seems to fill up on the clams and then goes to town and fills up on fruit.
The President: You see it is impossible when you start out to destroy crows to say when
you are going to destroy them. It may take you six months or more to kill those crows. You
cannot do it on short orders and protect the fruit-growers. You have to kill them at all times
of the year.
Mr. Palmer: I was looking at it from the standard that has been set by this meeting.
But you know the crow will demand some consideration, and in that way you will have to
consider him. My sympathies are entirely with the fruit-grower, and I will say this : although
it is true that in the Interior Districts crows are not so troublesome, yet in the valleys of the
Okanagan it is necessary to keep men going through the orchards with shot-guns all the time.
But they are not so troublesome there as they are in the Coast Districts. Immediately along
the Coast the crow does not seem to do any good at all, but when you come a little farther
away inland you will find that for several months in the year he will do good to the farmer.
I think we all know that the crow is a difficult bird to get at, and the time you can get at him
best is the time when he is the most troublesome in the orchards, and I think it is safe to
assume that is the time you can get at him—either by shot-gun or by poison.
Mr. Heatherbell: You have to take him when you can catch him.
President: Does anyone move an amending motion ?
Mr. Brydon : I think it covers the ground.
Motion carried.
Best Varieties of Winter Apples.
Mr. Shaw : Mr. Chairman, there is a matter I would like to try and get some information
upon, if possible, and get the benefit of the experience of some of you older fruit men. It may
seem selfish, perhaps, but still, gentlemen, we all have to live and learn, and I do not want to
go over the ground that has been already gone over by others. But I would like if someone
here who is accustomed or acquainted with the Coast District, in particular, would offer a 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 39
suggestion as to the best varieties (or variety) of winter apples to grow. I intend putting in
a commercial orchard, and I would like to get the best varieties, and I want to know what
would be the most suitable for my district, and I trust you will give me your consideration in
the matter.
The President: Mr. Brydon ?
Mr. Brydon : Mr. Cunningham would perhaps be able to give him the best information
on that.
Mr. Cunningham : Well, I don't know. It is a very difficult question to settle, as a good
deal depends upon the character of the soil and the location.
Mr. Shaw: Perhaps I might explain the location and the nature of the soil that I have
got. This particular spot that I am about to plant has a southern exposure ; it is almost flat.
It may have a slight decline to the north, but it has what I would consider a southern exposure.
It is about 15 or 20 feet above high-water level, and it is well sheltered from the north and
the north-east. It has a soil that varies from black loam to a clay loam, about from a foot to
four feet in depth, with a subsoil of shale clay. I have under-drained the ground with tile
drains about 30 feet apart, and the land is in a good state of fertility at the present moment.
I do not know that I can add very much more to this.    If you can make a suggestion	
We have not a great variety in the immediate vicinity to make a selection from, and I might
say what orchards there are at present have not been taken care of the way that they
should have been, so, therefore, we are practically in the experimental stage yet. We have
not had fruit, neither are our orchards sufficiently developed to show us what would be the
best varieties.
Mr. Cunningham : Well, if I'were planting an orchard for myself, and wanted to confine
my planting to one variety, I think I would begin with the King. (Cries of " Hear, hear.")
That is a good apple. I have never seen the day since I have known the King, nor the
market where you could not sell that apple at a good price. Then the Cox Orange Pippin
seems also to be a very popular apple. Mr. Palmer knows more about that than I do, but I
think I would put in the Cox Orange Pippin. There is also another apple which is off slightly
in colour, but, to my mind, it is one of the best apples grown. It is a good growing tree, the
fruit is very nicely distributed over it, and the wood is extremely strong. I never saw a
broken branch, and I never saw the day when you could not sell a box of Grimes Golden
at the top of the market. Those are the three varieties that I would recommend and would
plant myself. I do not think it well to plant too many varieties, but I would begin with the
King and Cox's Orange Pippin, and Grimes Golden. There is a great difference of opinion as
to the keeping qualities of the Grimes Golden, but I can assure you, gentlemen, that I have
kept the Grimes Golden in my cellar to the 14th May in excellent condition—apples that were
grown up in Salt Spring Island.    I have never seen them fail yet.
Mr. Palmer : With regard to Cox's Orange Pippin, I think it should be understood that
at the present time it is not very much known in our local market, and it might not command,
therefore, the price which it demands in markets where it is known and appreciated. In Old
Country markets, for instance, it sells for a higher price than any other apple, and they get
very good prices indeed for them there. Now, gentlemen, if we can obtain the prices they
get there for them, or even half of that price, we would be justified in planting them very
extensively. On the other hand, if you contemplate growing them to ship to the Old Country,
it is well to grow them in large quantities and make up carload shipments. That is the
business situation in regard to Cox's Orange Pippins. In the Okanagan Districts they are
being planted quite extensively now, having the London markets in view. It is not a bright
red apple.
Mr. Stewart: Isn't there a demand more for coloured apples than yellow apples ?
Mr. Palmer : Yes. As I say, it is an apple that our home market does not appreciate,
and I question, if you had them on sale in our home market, if you could sell them as well as
the King. Everyone knows what the King apple is to-day. It is one of the best for local
trade.
Mr. Stewart: I know that the King commands about the highest price of any I have seen
here.
Mr. Cunningham : There is one other apple that I have overlooked, and that is the
Yellow Newtown Pippin.    I think I would plant that one also.
Mr. Shaw : Would that be favourable to the Coast 1
Mr. Cunningham : I think so. L 40 British Columbia 1909
The President: I think you have overlooked the best apple for this Coast yet—that is
the Jonathan. It is a highly coloured apple and is in great demand in Australia. It is the
best keeper we have.    The King has got to be sold before Christmas.
Quarterly Meetings, Etc.
The President: Now, the next business before the meeting is the location of the next
meeting. The Secretary knows more about this than anyone. What is the routine of the
meetings, Mr. Secretary ?
Mr. W. J. Brandrith : I would suggest that the next quarterly meeting be held in
Chilliwack, and I think it would be probably as well to leave it until the next quarterly
meeting before you appoint the succeeding meeting. We have in the last two years appointed
the places for all the quarterly meetings at the annual meeting, but then there is always
something coming up that we don't know of at this time of year, and I think it is more
advisable to just arrange for one.
The President : Very well.
Mr. Brandrith : It is moved by myself, seconded by Mr. Cunningham—" That the best
thanks of this Association be tendered to the Board of Trade of Victoria for the use of this
room."    Motion carried.
Mr. Palmer : It has occurred to me that some of the papers which have been read at the
meeting this evening are of very general value to the fruit-growers of this Province and I have
no doubt that the press would be glad to have copies af those papers to print. It is one way
of bringing the information before the public generally. I have thrown out this hint to the
Secretary.
Mr. Brandrith : In answer to Mr. Palmer, I may say that I visited both newspaper offices,
but they have informed me, owing to the Legislative Session now in progress, they have not
the space to print it in extenso.
Mr. Palmer : But there are times when the "Times" and the "Colonist" issue special
editions, and they would, I am sure, be glad to get this. They might not be able to print them
now, but they could print it at different intervals.
Mr. Brandrith: I would be only too glad to have it done, Mr. Palmer, and will see what
I can do.
Moved by Mr. Brandrith, seconded by Mr. Shaw—" That the next quarterly meeting of
this Association be held at Chilliwack."    Motion carried.
Various Sprays and their  Advocates.
The President: We have some gentlemen here representing the different sprays. Is it
the wish of this meeting to hear from them ? (Cries of " Aye, aye.") Well, I will call upon
Mr. McKaig.    I notice our time is limited.
Mr. McKaig: Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, I am not a talker at all, and will only
make a few remarks and help out what Mr. Cunningham has told you. And that is this :
that every grower ought to be an experimentalist, and in that way you would get results.
For instance, we have a number of experiments going on at the present time with lime-sulphur.
As regards lime-sulphur, it is something that is in its infancy, and as compared to the uses it
will be put to in the future. We know it is one of the best disinfectants you have got, and
is good for cleaning the trees, and we have used it successfully for the destruction of worms in
gardens. For instance, in putting in cabbages, you can set your cabbage, and bore a little
hole and put in a solution of from 1 to 11 or 1-15. That will have to be worked out as to
how weak or strong you can use it, but you can use it to any strength, and it will make it grow
like a weed. It is one of the finest fertilisers that we have. Whether it gets its value from
its own properties, or gets it from releasing other properties, I don't know, but it gives most
wonderful results. We have used this solution on apple trees which have apparently been
dying. To use it, you scrape the dirt away from the roots of the tree, and pour this solution
on, and you will find that they will grow. I may say that at the present time Prof. Thorburn
is working on that, and he used it last spring on the college orchard on a number of trees that
were apparently dying, and he did not know what was ailing them, and he says that he has
had the very best success so far, but is not ready yet to say anything to the public about it, as
he has not gone far enough with the experiment to come out and make a statement about it.
Now, we have used it again for the codling moth.    But this is all in the experimental stage, 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 41
gentlemen. We have had three different parties at North Yakima who have used it for the
codling moth. They apparently did not know but that was the proper spray to use for that
purpose, and when I heard of it the season was about over for spraying, and I felt worried
about the party who had been using it, because I thought that they had lost the fruit, and
that it was entirely eaten up with worms. But it was to the contrary. As a matter of fact,
they hardly had a defective apple on the tree ■	
Mr. Palmer : What time was it used ?
Mr. McKaig: Now, that would not do here on the Coast. That would do back in the
Okanagan country, but not here. Another thing, you would have to go more carefully here.
I cannot help mentioning Mr. Cunningham's words here where he says the climatic condition
makes such a difference in all experiments. You can take a graded spray to-day and you have
not a leaf affected, and spray again to-morrow with the same spray and it is burned all off.
It is due to climatic conditions. Now, the remarks he brings out there I consider very
valuable. It is for you to experiment and find out just what is going to aid you, whether it
is sun or moisture, or what, and what solution you require. Now, there are probably fifty
different uses that you can put that lime-sulphur to that we are going to experiment on. You
can take it and put it in the chicken-yard, and there is nothing to equal it to-day. Take it
1-5 and dilute it, and you will have no lice. It is so cheap compared to anything else you
can get. You can take it in your vegetables, and there is not a worm that will bother them.
It is the best disinfectant and the best preventive of worms. 1 do not know that it will kill
them, but they will stay away from it. Always be thorough, gentlemen, with your experiments,
for it is the thoroughness that makes success. It is the man behind the gun that makes the
thing go, and whenever you go at it in that manner you are a success, either as a private
individual or as an organsation, or in any other capacity.
The President: The next gentleman to address you will be Mr. Fraser, representing the
Niagara spray.
Mr. Fraser : I am afraid if you get us spray fellows started it will be worse that the crow
question. I can heartily second what Mr. McKaig has said, for our spray is very similar to
his, and I presume our spraying methods are very much the same. I believe that this matter
of lime-sulphur spray is just beginning to be known. Now, we thought a few years ago that
we knew a good deal about it. I know an old labouring friend of mine, Mr. Shannon, down
in Oregon, began working on lime and sulphur years and years ago, and from that time on
much was learned of its value, and we are just now beginning to learn something of its commercial value, and with that knowledge the fruit-growers' problems are beginning to be solved.
And yet there are oceans of things to be found out yet. There are just a couple of things I
would like to mention which perhaps have not been brought out fully. Now, the experiments
that have been carried on in the last two or three years in regard to scab have had remarkable results ; and experiments that have been made in Oregon and other places have almost
brought the matter down to a conclusive judgment that lime and sulphur is by far the most
valuable spray for the apple scab. In connection with that, there is a question that has been
raised as to the value, or the possibility, of uniting the first codling moth spray with the second
scab spray, the lime and sulphur. Now, those of you who were at Spokane and heard Prof.
Beattie on this subject will recollect that he spoke against it, and said that it would not do.
Now, bearing that in mind, I heard Prof. Brady, of Corvallis, speak on the same subject this
month, and he was most emphatically in favour of its use. He said there was no possible
injury coming from the uniting of the two sprays, unless one were to use excessive arsenate of
lead. I wrote Prof. Beattie on that point after hearing Prof. Brady, and Prof. Beattie
replied that he did not know for a surety that it was injurious, but that from observation of
uniting the two sprays they were a little afraid to recommend the use of the two until they
found out what its effect might be. So this is a point that is of great value, because if you
can use the lime-sulphur with the arsenate of lead, the time the calyx is open—the first the
arsenate of lead and your second scab spray—you are killing two birds with the one stone,
and it may possibly catch the crow too. Now, our Hood River people—those fellows down
in Hood River are supposed to know everything—at least they think they know everything.
But this last fall they sprayed heavily with bluestone for the apple scab, as they found themselves confronted with the apple scab very seriously. They have been leaders in the lime and
sulphur spray, but they had the apple scab and decided they would try the bluestone. Of
course, they have not sent any of those scab apples to His Majesty King Edward.    I see in L 42 British Columbia 1909
the papers every once in a while that eight or ten boxes of fancy apples have been sent by
them to King Edward. Anyway, gentlemen, they turned their back on lime and sulphur
and used bluestone in great quantities this fall. Now, Prof. Cordley has been a great advocate
of lime and sulphur, and he has shown figures that lime and sulphur is the only thing to use.
He came up to visit the Hood River people, accompanied by Prof. Bradley and Prof. Lewis,
and when the Hood River people told them of their experiments, the answer came back :
" Why, you have not been using your lime and sulphur right. You are wasting your time and
money in spraying for the apple scab at this time of the year."
Mr. Brydon : What time of the year was that ?
Mr. Fraser : That was in November, after the leaves had fallen. Taking the argument
that the vitriol was a fungicide, they had sprayed heavily. Now, the professor pointed out to
them that the fungus wandered on to the leaves and on the ground, and the only way to catch
the scab was to either gather up all the leaves and burn them, which is almost an impracticable task, or to spray two or three times when the buds were coming out, and when the
bloom is out, and those are the only times it is practicable to spray.
Mr. Brydon : And what about spraying the leaves ?
Mr. Fraser : You might find some places where you can do it, but we don't find any
place where we can do it. I have raised that question myself. And another thing, I think
you cannot cover the tree thoroughly when the leaves are on the tree. Now, I leave those
points with you. The time is late, and I thank you for the privilege you have given me in
being allowed to speak before you.
Mr. French : I think, Mr. President and gentlemen, as the hour is late, it would be out
of place for me to say much. My views to you would have been on the chemical side of the
subject. Mr. Pendray wanted me to give you some idea of the work we were doing and
requested me to call on you, but the time is too late, gentlemen, and I do not intend to take
up much time speaking. Mr. Pendray's firm has for the last ten years been working on tree
sprays, and just as the market appeared and the demand, he attempted with some success, I
believe, to fill the demand. And when it was found that the liquid sulphur and lime tree
spray was coming largely before the fruit-grower, then he made it his business to see to it
that that line should not be neglected, and he made up his mind to keep pace with the demand.
Owing to their position here locally, and being Canadians and British Columbians, and situated
right in Victoria, it certainly gives them a very great advantage in the trade, which they wish
to take advantage of. And the quality of the stuff that they are turning out is of the very
best. I am responsible for that, as I am their consulting chemist. I need not speak of my
experience on these things, but it has been one which has covered over 40 years. I was in
England and America, and for the last 16 years have been in Australia and New Zealand,
where spraying is a very serious question indeed. Now, touching the question just raised,
and viewing it from the chemical side, sulphur and lime are subject to a very rapid change if
they are exposed to the air. They can be bottled up for a very considerable time with no
chemical change whatever, but when they are exposed they change rapidly. The sulphide of
calcium—calcium is the metal you find in ordinary lime. The combination of lime, sulphur
and calcium changes very rapidly when exposed to the atmosphere and becomes the sulphide
of lime, which is a tonic to the tree. Sulphide of lime, as most people know, is good for many
soils where there is not sufficient in the soil. It absorbs oxygen from organic substances, and
the bodies of those little insects, and the substances and the fungoids, are very easily attacked
by an oxydanous substance such as sulphide of calcium, and hence the rapidity with which
they are killed. To attain the pente sulphide, the best way is to boil the fresh slacked lime,
which is free from magnesia, and it is very useful for destroying insects and fungus. Boil the
slacked lime with sulphur, and then when you have got it up to the strength—the usual
strength is about 32 degrees—Mr. Pendray guarantees it up to 32—and when it gets to that
you can push it still further. Now, those two substances contain two sulphides and the two
molecules of pente sulphide—that is, sulphide five times, five doses—and each of these
substances are strong deodizers, the sulphur searching for oxygen. They are taking it from
the air when exposed to the air, and they are also taking it from the bodies of the insects and
the fungus, and hence the action upon them, and in a few days its action is gone, and then
you have two harmless substances, harmless to vegetable life and practically harmless to
animal life. Well, I did not intend to go into the chemistry part of it at this late hour, but
what I want to say is this, I heartily endorse our friends' remarks as regards Mr. Cunning- 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 43
ham's paper, and he certainly shows a great deal of knowledge of the subject. The only
difference that exists between our spray and these other gentlemen's is that we have the local
advantage. WTe are on the spot, and we are turning out precisely the same article, for you
cannot boil up good slaked lime and good sulphur without getting precisely the same results.
We are doing that. Mr. Pendray is doing that here, and he is prepared to meet the large
demand for this article with satisfactory prices, and at a very reduced price, owing to our local
advantages. We have no duty to pay, and we use the purest sulphur that is obtainable,
refined sulphur, and the very best quality of lime, and in that way we produce a good article.
I may say that I am responsible for the quality of the stuff when it is manufactured, and I.
take great care that everything is carefully tested. Now, just one word with regard to
arsenate of lead for spraying. In New Zealand, where I lived just about twenty months ago,
they have gone into raising small fruits very largely, and they are using nothing else but
arsenate of lead. Now, gentlemen, I may say that our preparations here have been made to
meet the demand and our factory in Victoria I can assure you will turn out the proper quality
of spray for our Province, and at an encouraging price to the growers. And we are preparing
to meet the demand for arsenate of lead and our raw materials are on the way. We have all
our preparations made, plant and everything to manufacture this article, and I might finish
by saying this : Mr. Pendray's object is not to grab everything for himself. It is a big,
extensive country. It is beyond all description, and year by year large numbers of trees will
be planted and the demand for tree sprays will be larger than ever, and tree sprays have come
to stay, gentlemen. In New Zealand they have been struggling with that for years. The
pomologists are experimenting, and Mr. Cunningham is also doing good work, and there is
room for all parties to be up and doing, and Mr. Pendray's wish is just merely to have a fair
share of the work.
The meeting then adjourned.
W. J. Brandrith, Secretary. L 44 British Columbia 1909
QUARTERLY    MEETINGS.
Agassiz, March 27th, 1908.
The regular quarterly meeting of the Association was held in the Good Templars' Hall.
President Jas. Johnstone called the meeting to order at 10 a. m. There were present : D.
Graham, Armstrong ; H. Kipp, Chilliwack ; Maxwell Smith, Vancouver ; W. J. Brandrith,
Ladner; and N. T. Baker, F. Sinclair, Chas. Wright, T. Paton, E. T. Calvert, Mr. Else, and
six or seven others.
The minutes of the previous meeting being read were adopted, on motion of H. Kipp,
seconded by D. Graham.
The President addressed the meeting at length on the subject of " Co-operation " and the
working of the " Fruit and Produce Exchange." D. Graham gave a resume of the working
of the Armstrong Exchange, and stated that, notwithstanding the losses of 1907 the farmers
and fruit-growers were still in favour of co-operation.
Maxwell Smith followed with an earnest appeal to the fruit-growers of Agassiz to organise
and co-operate with the other Exchanges.
Moved by D. Graham, seconded by N. T. Baker, " That the Dominion Government be
requested to establish experimental orchards in the Kootenay, in the Dry Belt, and on Vancouver Island."    Carried.
A resolution endorsing the work of the Board of Horticulture was moved by Chas.
Wright, seconded by F. Sinclair, and carried unanimously.
Henry Kipp spoke briefly on the benefits to be derived from co-operation in planting,
advising the growers to plant a few varieties, only those known to succeed in the valley, and
thus build up a name for Agassiz apples.
The meeting then adjourned.
W. J. Brandrith, Secretary.
Creston, August 3rd, 1908.
The regular quarterly meeting was held in the Public Hall, the President, Jas. Johnstone,
calling the meeting to order at 7 p. m. There were 47 persons present, but not a quorum
of members; consequently, no business was transacted.
The President briefly spoke on the benefits of Co-operation, urging them to organise and
work together for the best interests of their section.
W. J. Brandrith then addressed the meeting on the necessity for increased watchfulness
to keep their orchards free from insect pests and diseases. The question bureau opened by
him was kept busy answering questions, the replies evidently giving satisfaction.
R. C. Brock, of Hood River, Oregon, also gave an interesting and instructive address on
" The Care of the Orchard." He also strongly urged co-operation, showing that it was the
only road to success.
A resolution endorsing the action of the Board of Horticulture, in their endeavours to
keep pests and diseases out of the orchards, was passed. Also one asking the Dominion
Government to establish experimental orchards in Kootenay, the Dry Belt, and on Vancouver
Island.
The meeting closed with the National Anthem.
On the same date, at 2 p. m., Messrs. Brandrith and Brock gave practical demonstrations
in planting and pruning, 27 live fruit-growers being present. The demonstration and
accompanying addresses were accorded a hearty vote of thanks.
W. J. Brandrith, Secretary. 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 45
New Westminster, B. C, October 1st, 1908.
The regular quarterly meeting convened in the Board of Trade Rooms, City Hall, at 7
p. m., Tom Wilson, Vice-President, in the Chair.
Present:—R. M. Palmer, Deputy Minister of Agriculture; W. H. Keary, C. F. Sprott,
Thos. Cunningham, H. Kipp, J. F. Smith, Jesse Love, Jas. de C. Wetherell, J. C. Metcalfe,
Chas. Wright and several others, including the Secretary.
Minutes of two previous meetings read and adopted.
Letter from Hon. Sidney Fisher, re Experimental Orchards, ordered filed. Letter from
T. G. Earl, re freight and express rates on fruit, received and filed. Mr. Earl's letter led to
an animated discussion on the subject of rates, taken part in by nearly everyone present, the
unanimous opinion being that they were too high.
A resolution was passed instructing the Secretary to ask for the co-operation of the Boards
of Trade of the Province in an endeavour to obtain reduced freight and express rates, both east
and west.
On motion, the Secretary was appointed a delegate to the annual meeting of the "Union
of Municipalities," for the purpose of furthering the same object.
Mr. Jas. de C. Wetherell brought up the question of exorbitant prices charged for fruit
boxes. The Secretary drew his attention to the advertisement of the "Pacific Box Co.," who
were making a clear spruce box for 12 cents.
Mr. Metcalfe said he was getting his boxes for 10 cents.
Mr. Palmer thought the matter would rectify itself by the competition between the
manufacturers.    He suggested that the Secretary ask all the mills for quotations.
Mr. Sprott suggested getting prices from United States mills as well.
The Secretary was instructed to act on these suggestions.
On the question of programme for the annual meeting being brought up, Mr. Palmer
suggested that " Marketing and Distribution " would be suitable subjects to deal with.
Tom Wilson reported having seen fruit at Salmon Arm without the marks required by
law, evidently American fruit. A committee, composed of W. J. Brandrith, Capt. Ricardo,
J. F. Smith and M. McKay, was appointed to investigate the matter and report to annual
meeting.
J. F. Smith related his experience with spraying, stating that the Board of Horticulture
had done good work in Kamloops.
H. Kipp expressed his confidence in the Niagara lime-sulphur spray.
On motion, the meeting adjourned.
W. J. Brandrith, Secretary.
Chilliwack, April 3rd, 1909.
The regular quarterly meeting of the Association was held in the Oddfellows' Hall.
President H. Puckle called the meeting to order at 10 a. m. There were present : H.
Puckle, H. Kipp, W. J. Brandrith, J. C. Metcalfe, Maxwell Smith, Tom Wilson, W. H.
Burton, S. Cawley and nine or ten others.
His Worship Mayor Cawley briefly welcomed the Association to Chilliwack, " The Garden
of British Columbia," and trusted that their deliberations would, as in the past, redound to
the benefit of the fruit industry. y
The minutes of the previous meeting being read, were, on motion of Tom Wilson, seconded
by H. Kipp, adopted.
The correspondence, being read, was ordered received, and Secretary to attend to same.
J. 0. Metcalfe moved, P. H. Wilson seconded, "That W. J. Brandrith be delegate from
this Association to the meeting of the American Pomological Society in St. Catherines,
Ontario, in September next, and that H. Puckle be alternate."    Carried.
The meeting then adjourned until 2 p.m.
Meeting resumed 2:15 p. m. ; President Puckle in the chair.
A letter from Thos. Cunningham was read, expressing his regret at his inability to be
present.
On motion of W. J. Brandrith, seconded by H. Kipp, A. H. B. Maegowan, M. L. A., was
elected a life member, with all the privileges, as a token of the Association's appreciation of
is services as Secretary from its inception until January, 1897. Local Inspection of Fruit.
H. Kipp moved, and P. H. Wilson seconded, the following resolution :—
" Resolved, That we place ourselves on record as favouring local inspection by the
Provincial Government for insect pests and fungi."
In opening this discussion, the President, Mr. H. Puckle, of Keating, B. C, spoke very
strongly in favour of orchard inspection, citing instances of the effect of this inspection on the
Coast.
Mr. P. H. Wilson, of Chilliwack, said that by having this local inspection done in the
orchards before shipment, the growers would be saved the extra expense of shipping and having
the fruit condemned upon arrival at the market. If this can be done by the Government it
would be more satisfactory to the growers.
Henry Kipp : It seems to me that we are up to the limit, and the horticultural staff is
inadequate. Their time is taken up in the quarantine stations to keep out infection scale and
all this. We have no such thing as the codling moth on the Mainland, we have never seen
it here, but we have lots of infection, and it works a hardship to the grower to have him pick
his fruit and pack it and ship it to the market and have it out of reach, and then it is turned
down and lost, and we are getting tired of it as growers. I have been at it over thirty years,
and if we do not get relief I am going out of the business. I took to Victoria 1,000 tons
of fruit, on paper, that was shipped from this valley, and I'm certain I did not get it all.
Hundreds of boxes I missed. On account of the cold weather, and some of the steamers have
gone to Montreal for audit and agents I couldn't find, but I took these 1,000 tons and it
occurred to me to put this up to the annual meeting. I took it up with the wholesale houses
in Vancouver; asked them if they thought it an advantage to the industry to have local
inspection throughout the country 2 They grabbed at the idea ; said it was just what they
wanted. On the Sth of October we shipped a few boxes and they left the wharf on the 13th
of November, and some of them were thrown into the river and some cremated and charged
back to me. So I am not guessing at what I am talking about. Others have lost lots
of fruit, and it is a hardship, and we want local inspection, not only of the fruit, but of the
orchards.    There is no protection for the men who do try.
President : Who do you expect to have to do this inspecting—the Government or local ?
Mr. Kipp : That question arose in the rural council. Let the Government or Board of
Horticulture put an inspector here ; there is no use putting a local man. Let a charge be put
on the fruit. We want a competent man, but not a local man. A man should have been
here months ago. The winter is the time to clean up the orchards. If the thing is properly
represented to the Government they will give it to the people. I would rather give $2.50 and
get through here and know they are safe than to have them go to the market uninspected.
Down through the district they want relief or they will go out of the business. If they will
not come to us, let us put it on paper and send it to them.
Mr. P. W. Crankshaw, Sardis : I am well enough in favour of having an inspector, but I
don't think much of the idea of having an inspector and paying for it off the fruit that is
inspected. I do not believe in paying for an inspector when I have never had any trouble
with the inspectors. If we go to work and clean up our trees and look after them we will get
along as well as with an inspector. As far as having the fruit condemned, I did not have a
box condemned last year or the year before. I am willing enough to have an inspector, but I
am not willing to pay my share. What little fruit I ship I am satisfied to take it down and
take my chances with the Vancouver people.
Mr. Kipp, in reply to Mr. Crankshaw, said : While my friend and half a dozen others
may be pretty well advanced in fruit-growing, by reason of experience, yet there are hundreds
of others who are not; they know nothing about it. This inspection is for those people.
This Government inspection is not for Chilliwack or Langley alone, it is a provincial question.
It means a good deal. If the bill comes up in the House, men from non-producing fruit
districts will turn it down. We must make it possible for the Government to meet our
requests and I am willing that a charge should be made on my fruit. The benefit of having
the orchard inspected would be this : New men putting in young orchards have got to wait
three or four years before getting any fruit and they get this scale, when, if we had local
inspection, they would have a showing. 9 Ed. 7
Fruit-Growers' Association.
L 47
Mr. Crankshaw, in speaking of scale, said that in many of the orchards down in Langley
and that way they took no pains at all. There have, he said, been inspectors there, and in
one case the inspector ordered a grower to spray with bluestone and lye. I told the grower
that if he did he would not have a live tree. Another man sprayed his trees and the leaves
were as black as the stove. I am willing to have an inspector, but I do not propose to pay
for inspecting somebody else's place. I am willing to take my chances with Mr. Smith and
Mr. Cunningham at Vancouver.
Mr. Tom Wilson, of the Fumigating Station, Vancouver, in reply to a statement by Mr.
Kipp regarding the spreading of the scale through apple peelings, said that the scale had been
brought in by trees that had not been fumigated, but the first instance has yet to be found of
scale being spread through the fruit, through the peeling of the apple.
Mr. J. C. Metcalfe, of Hammond, remarked that this would not be true of other things,
while Mr. Wilson maintained it was of scale.
A discussion followed in reference to the danger or lack of danger from scale.
Mr. Maxwell Smith, Dominion Fruit Inspector, said he thought the resolution should
read, " That this meeting place itself on record in favour of local inspection by the Provincial
Government for pest and diseases." That would separate the question entirely from the
commercial side of it, with which the Dominion Government has to deal. He said : I think
the resolution is a good one; it is a reasonable one. As to the question of how the work
should be carried out, I think you might very well leave that to the Provincial Government
to work out. Personally, I think the Provincial Government should pay for the inspection of
fruit and orchards. While many people are familiar with the disease, many people engaged
in'the business are not, and local inspection by a competent officer would bring these matters
to the attention of the grower, if they were pointed out to him, and he would be willing to
carry out any regulations the Government see fit to impose. The inspection of fruit and
orchards for pests and diseases should be paid for by the whole of the people. It is a protection to the whole of the Province.
Mr. Kipp here quoted the dyking system and tax imposed as an example.
Mr. Crankshaw said that he did not see that it was a fair deal that a man who keeps his
orchard clean should have to pay to keep another man's fruit who will not spend a dollar to
spray or prune it. In the past we had to pick it up, but now there are people in the valley
who know how to grow trees. I would be in favour of the resolution if the ways and means
of paying was left out.
Mr. Brandrith : There is nothing in the resolution to say who pays for it.
Mr. Metcalfe : At the present time the Government propose inspecting the orchards as
soon as they get competent men to do so. It is a very difficult matter to get a man who is
competent to inspect orchards. The question is whether you want to endorse the amended
clauses of the Act. The Government is satisfied that with these amended clauses they can
go into court and compel a man to spray his orchard. Are you prepared to endorse that ?
Compel all these men who are growing fruit to spray, and in a very short time you will have
it reduced to a minimum.    I want to know if the gentlemen are in favour of these clauses ?
Amendments to the Board of Horticulture Act were then read, after which Mr. Crankshaw said that if you destroy all the trees that have bark diseases there are very few in British
Columbia but have bark diseases.    Can you spray a tree to cure this bark disease 1
President: Certainly.
Mr. Crankshaw moved an amendment to the resolution, that we adopt those clauses the
Secretary has just read.    It is the trees we want inspected, not the fruit.
Mr. Kipp : I would like to know what he is going to do with the fruit while he is having
the orchards cleaned.
Mr. Fred Potts, of Chilliwack, asked where Mr. Kipp wished the inspection of fruit—at
the wharf or in the orchard before he nails down ?
President: The inspection is called for on the tree.
Mr. Henry Eckert (Chilliwack) : I wish to speak on the original motion or resolution,
because on the amendment as suggested by Mr. Crankshaw we are already protected ; the
Government has that already provided for. All that is necessary for the fruit-grower is to
notify the Inspector to have his trees inspected. I will appeal to every fruit-grower to know
if every apple that grows on the tree is perfect ? (Answer, " No.") I have taken great pains
to spray, done even more than has been recommended in the last two years. I found that
last year picking our fruit, out of something over 1,200 boxes picked off the orchard, less than 500 would pass as marketable fruit, according to my view. I conceived the idea of having
the fruit inspected before it left our fruit-house. I thought it was good, the best I could get.
We got experienced packers to pack it, but I wouldn't send it down to Vancouver and take
chances of having it condemned there. I asked the Inspector to send an Inspector to our
fruit-house, which he did, and everything went off all right. I am perfectly willing to pay per
box, if necessary, to have it inspected in the fruit-house. I think that every fruit-grower who
has been spraying his orchard and taking the very best care will agree with me that you
cannot get every apple perfect. I am prepared to offer an amendment to this resolution, that
the pack also be inspected.
Mr. Smith : You are getting into very deep water if you call for inspection from the
commercial standpoint. The question of pests and diseases is one that everybody is not
familar with, but the question as to whether a box of fruit is up to the Government standard
of grade is one that any school boy can tell if he is honest. The commercial aspect extends
beyond the Province and follows a box wherever it goes.
Mr. Eckert: I can see no difference between the inspection of the packages and the
inspection for pests, so far as the inexperienced fruit-growers are concerned, in the valley. I
will agree with Mr. Smith that the requirement for commercial purposes is entirely in the
hands of the Dominion, but I certainly have to take issue with him on the point that everybody knows whether an apple is a fancy grade No. 1, 2 or 3. There are so many different
varieties that it is an easy matter for an amateur to make a mistake, and even an experienced
man is liable to get confused.
The President: Has the local organisation not a standard to pack ? The No. 1 of your
pack might not pass at the coast.. Lots of men are putting up No. 1 as applies to their
particular orchard, but you have to put up a No. 1 pack of tiie class of fruit you grow in this
country. They all vary in size. There will have to be a standard size of pack and some
district will not have any of that grade.    That is the great trouble I foresee in the future.
Mr. Kipp here asked where the inspection would take place ?
Mr. Smith answered that examination for grade may be done anywhere until the box
reaches its destination. It may go to China or Japan, and if found below grade they can
come back on the original packer. You cannot mix the two things; you must keep the
resolutions separate. You are dealing now with the resolution addressed to the Provincial
Government on pests and diseases, and you must stick to the resolution and urge local
inspection of your orchards as well as your fruit.
Motion carried.
Pollination.
Tom Wilson then read a paper on " Pollination," as follows :—
There are many problems connected with the business of horticulture which have in the
past proved to be " hard nuts to crack," but which, in the light of modern science and research,
are now having some light thrown on them. Among the rest, the question is sometimes raised
why our orchards do not bear so well as they ought to, all circumstances apparently being
favourable? Land, drainage, tilth, modes of cultivation, etc., may be all right, and yet the
trees sometimes do not come up to the standard. Something must be wanting, and one thing
that is often overlooked is pollination. The question of pollination and the different problems
connected therewith are now begining to exercise the brains of all thinking men in the profession of horticulture. Before going on to speak of pollination as it affects the orchardist,
allow me to describe the sexual parts of a typical flower. Take the rose, for instance, or any
of that family. We find that it consists, 1st, of the green outer covering, called the calyx;
2nd, the coloured or namental corolla; 3rd, you find a large number of very delicate organs,
called stamens. These are the male organs and contain the pollen (it is held in the little clublike end called the anther); 4th, and in the eentre of all we find the pistil or female organ.
This is an extremely delicate and complicated arrangement. If you examine it closely you will
see that it consists of three parts. The top part, which is slightly flattened, is called the stigma,
the collum, or style ; and the lower part called the ovary, which contains the ovales or incipient
seeds. When the anthers open and sets free the pollen, some of this will fall on the stigma;
and this, if in proper season, will be retained there by a peculiar viscid fluid. It then begins
to send down a growth through the style, called the pollen tube. This tube grows down till it
reaches the ovary, where it enters the ovules by the mycropyle, or little hole, and the process
of pollination is complete. 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 49
Now, perhaps you will say, "Well, all this is very simple." It is; all nature's methods
are simple, when we find out how they are worked. But sometimes we find that the organs of
reproduction, that is, the male and female organs, may be present, and yet the ovules remain
only partially fertilised, and it is part of the present work to explain why this is so. I start
out with the axiom that nature abhors self-fertilisation, and takes every means to prevent it.
Take such flowers as peas and clover, you will find the sets of organs present, but owing to the
position in which they are placed, it is an impossibility for the pollen grain to reach the stigma
of the same flower, so nature calls in a very important ally, the bee. The bee, in its search for
honey, visits the clover and as it sticks its long beak down into the flower its body gets dusted
over with the pollen which is then conveyed to the next flower it visits and so cross-fertilisation
is carrier! on. Sprengel, a German botanist of last century, showed as a result of his observations the very important part that insects played in pollination. He even observed that some
flowers were cross-fertilised, but he concluded that it was merely accidental. Andrew Knight,
another hybridizer, concluded that nature intended cross-fertilisation to take place, and had
made provision for it, but it remained for Darwin, with his grand reasoning powers and his
faculty for observation, to solve the problem and to show the interesting modification of
structure, so that this purpose may be achieved. Nature takes a variety of means to insure
against self-fertilisation. In some cases, like the clover above-mentioned, the flower is constructed in a very intricate manner. In other cases, one of the sets of organs is missing. This
is very noticeable in some of the marrow and squash tribe, where you sometimes have male
and female flowers on the one plant. Most of the grasses are constructed so. Then we have
other plants, where the male organs are found on one individual and the female on another,
as in some strawberries.    This method most thoroughly insures crossing.
Another method that nature takes to guard against self-pollination is to make the stigma
of some flowers ready to receive the pollen before the anthers of the same flowers are ready to
discharge it. Now, some of our apples and pears are so constructed. Examine closely and
you may find the stigma standing out from among the stamens, while the anthers are curved
inwards, but not coming in contact with the stigma.
There are others again whose pollen is sterile or barren, or, at least, so weak as to be useless, and it is with this that the orchardist has most to do. A great many plants are known
to be more or less completely fruitless when pollen from the same plant is used, and yet the
same plants will mature fruit when pollen from a different plant is used.
Now, there is a very strong tendency to self-sterility in the apple and pear and several of
our cultivated fruits, the tendency varying in different kinds. Just how far self-sterile or
otherwise has been the subject of some very interesting experiments at the different experimental stations, and the methods adopted were these : They prevented the visits of bees and
other insects, and so barred the entrance of foreign pollen by placing bags made of paper or
cheese cloth over the flowers before they had access to any visitor from the outside. Anothor
and even more exact method was to take full unopened buds and with a sharp pair of scissors
cut away the two outside coverings, and then to emasculate the flowers by cutting off all the
stamens ; then after the application of foreign pollen the bud was covered up as in the other
cases.
It was early found that some varieties of pears, such as Anjou, Clapp, Bartlett, &c, were
found to be partly self-sterile, and that the fruit produced when self-pollinated was small and
inferior. And also the seeds, when compared with seeds from fruit which had been crossed,
were found to be much smaller and in many cases abortive.
It is a hard matter to draw a hard and fast line batween what varieties are self-fertile and
those that are self-sterile. For instance, a variety which under adverse circumstances prove
to be sterile might, under more favourable circumstances, be found to produce abundant crops.
I found the Yellow Transparent apple was shy to set, more especially in wet weather, while in
Okanagan, where we never failed to have fine weather during flowering season, there was
always a fine crop of this variety. The following is a brief summary of conclusions drawn from
experiments:—
1. Many of the common varieties, both of apples and pears, require cross-pollination, being
either partially or wholly incapable of setting fruit when limited to their own pollen.
2. Some varieties are capable of self-fertilization.
3. Cross-pollination consists in applying pollen from a distinct horticultural variety, that
is, one which has been grown from a distinct seed, and not of using pollen from another tree
of the same grafted variety, which is practically no better than from the same tree. L 50 British Columbia 1909
4. Self-pollination takes place no matter whether foreign pollen is present or not. The
failure with self-pollination is due to the sterility of the pollen, and not to mechanical causes,
the impotency being due to a lack of affinity between the pollen and ovales of the same
variety.
5. Varieties that are absolutely self-sterile may be perfectly cross-fertile.
6. The condition of nutrition and general environment affect the ability of the tree to set
fruit, either with its own pollen or with pollen from another variety.
7. Pollen is transported from tree to tree by bees and other insects, and not by the wind.
8. Bad weather during the flowering season has a decidedly injurious effect on fruitage,
by keeping away insect visitors and affecting the fecundation of the flowers, and, conversely,
fine weather favours cross-fertilization and the setting of fruit.
9. Fruits resulting from self-pollination are very uniform in shape. They differ from
crosses, not only in size and shape, but, in some cases, in flavour and time of ripening.
10. Among the crosses the differences are slight and variable, so that the variations could
not be ascribed with any certainty to differences in pollen.
11. Self-fecundated fruits are deficient in seeds, and the seeds produced are frequently
abortive.    Crosses are usually supplied with good sound seeds.
12. Even in those varieties which are capable of self-fecundation, the pollen from another
variety is usually prepotent, and unless the entrance of foreign pollen is prevented the greater
number of fruit will be affected by it.
13. The normal typical fruit, and, in most cases, the largest and finest specimens from
both so-called self-fertile and self-sterile varieties, are crosses.
Although the main purpose of this paper is to bring out the importance of cross-pollination as a factor in fruit production, the importance of other well-known factors influencing
fruitfulness must not be overlooked. To plant an orchard and give attention to this feature
only, would be to invite failure. Unless the other conditions are favourable, the orchard will
not be a complete success even with abundant cross-pollination.
It i3 of the utmost importance to plant varieties which are naturally fruitful and adapted
to the soil and region. The Ben Davis and Duchess, among apples, have an inherent tendency
to bear fruit, and unless all the odds are against them they will bear crops. However, it is
only necessary to mention the subject of varieties here, as its importance is already well
understood.
The vegetative vigour of a tree exerts a decided influence on the capacity for setting and
maturing fruit. To be in good condition, a tree must have a proper proportion of vegetative
shoots. In the case of young trees, too much vigour of the vegetative parts tends to retard
the formation of fruit spurs, and blossom buds, and prevents the fruit from setting on blossom
already formed.
On the other hand, when the tree has once formed the bearing habit, its capacity for fruit
production is largely determined by the vigour of the tree. Declining vigour first renders the
tree completely self-sterile and eventually sterile to cross pollination. There is an apparent
exception to this general rule however, in trees which have been severely injured, or which
are about to die from disease, such trees loading themselves down with fruit. Under such
circumstances the fruit is small and inferior.
The weather during the blooming period exerts both a direct and indirect influence on the
setting of the fruit. Even when not injured by frost, the blossoms are often chilled by the
cold to such an extent as to interfere with fecundation. Moderate cold renders the self-fertile
trees self-sterile, and severe cold renders them sterile to cross-pollination as well. Warm
sunny weather at this time indirectly aids the fertilisation, by favouring insects in their work
of cross-fertilisation. An excessive degree of humidity favours fungous diseases, which may
destroy the blossoms or young fruit. Dry winds, on the other hand, cut down the supply of
honey to almost nothing, and probably also cut down the stigmatic secretion and interfere
with fecundation. Cold rainy weather during the flowering period may be disastrous, the
rains knocking off the pollen, washing away the secretion from the stigma and preventing
pollination by insects. Fruit will not set unless a reasonable amount of warm, sunny weather
occurs during the flowering season. The vitality of the tree is injured and young fruit often
killed by fungous diseases, which destroy the foliage. Hence such diseases often exert
sufficient influence to cause crop failure. Again, the amount of fruit a tree bears one year
generally determines the yield the following year, and sometimes all possibility of a crop is cut
off by the trees failing to bloom. 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 51
A great deal also depends on the number of insect visitors how much cross-fertilisation
can go on. The pollen of the apple and pear is not produced in sufficient quantity, nor is it
of the right consistency to be carried by the wind, and the pollination of these trees must be
dependent on the activity of insects. In an ordinary spring there is usually abundance of
insects to thoroughly cross-pollinate orchards of a few hundred trees, but in the case of large
commercial orchards, especially where several are close together, there is not a sufficient
number of insects for cross-pollination when the main body of the trees is in bloom. If there
is no apiary in the neighbourhood, each large orchardist should keep a number of hives of
bees. Honey bees and other members of the bee family are the best workers in cross-pollination, and over and above the good work they do towards increasing our fruit yield, there is a
very fair margin of profit in keeping the little workers. Besides, they are not like cattle or
horses—their pasturage costs nothing.
Small Fruits.
J. C. Metcalfe then delivered his address on " Small Fruits," as follows :—
I do not think very many of you here in Chilliwack are interested in the growing of small
fruits, but I expect that with the completion of the electric line giving transportation with the
coast cities and possibly a better opportunity for re-shipping to the east, there may be an
awakened interest in the matter of small fruit-growing. We know that we have been handicapped in the past in the shipping in the lack of rapid transportation. I might say that I
would advise anybody starting in to grow small fruit to grow rhubarb. It is used in every
way that fruit is used. Rhubarb is very easy of growth, very little labour in connection with
it, and it bears transportation well and there is a very good demand. To grow rhubarb you
want an exceptionally good soil naturally, and in addition to that plenty of good stable manure.
We believe in the preparation of the soil the year before. You plant about four feet apart in
drills made with a plough or spade and keep cultivated. Then the following season keep it
thinned out pretty well for shipping early, and be careful not to thin out too much, especially
when it is first coming into bearing. The only legal box used is 40 lbs. During the season
you line your box with rhubarb leaves. There is a very good demand for it and it stands
transportation well, and there is a fair price for it. Usually a sliding scale, starting with
perhaps $1.50 at the first and at a later date $1.25, down to 80 cents. A fair crop of rhubarb
is from 300 to 500 crates to the acre, but we know of instances where 1,000 crates were taken
from the acre.
Starting with the first summer fruit coming in, begin with strawberries, and the first thing
is the preparation of the soil. It does not require a very strong soil naturally, but any soil
that will grow a good crop of roots ought to grow strawberries. Our method has been with a
clover sod with a fair amount of manure and potato crop the year before. The following spring,
after your root crop, you plough, harrow, disc and float it, or roll it; if the soil was light I
would float or roll heavily, but if your soil is pretty strong, like clay, I would roll very lightly.
After this is done we use a marker, determined altogether by the method you wish to plant
your strawberries. There are four methods by which we usually plant these—the matted-row
system, the hedge-row and twin-row and the hill system. The most popular at the present time
is the hedge-row. Speaking of the matted-row first: You plant 3| or 4 feet apart; you make
your mark 4 feet. The row varies all the way from 2 feet. You would plant in this case as
close as you like—a foot, 15 inches or more apart, to fill up with runners. The objection to
the matted-row is that you cannot mulch it anywhere in the mat to protect from rain and dirt.
You can cultivate only by hand. We do not like a matted-row for that reason, and you also
grow a great many small berries.
With the hedge-row you use a marker whatever width you plant these hedge-rows, 2^ or
3 feet. If you plant 15 or 16 inches apart, keep them to that right through ; or if short of
plants, 24 inches apart, but train in the runners. The twin-row is just the same, only the two
rows planted 16 inches apart and 30 inches between them to the next row. The only objection
is that you have 16 inches to cultivate by hand in between.
The hill system your marker would be made 3| or 4 feet. You save a great deal of hand
labour, but it requires a much stronger soil in the hill than any other method.
There are some general ideas in regard to varieties. Some are adapted to light soil and
others not so well adapted. Perhaps the best variety that I know of in regard to succeeding
on very light soil is the Sharpless.    It will grow on almost any kind of soil.    You keep culti- L 52 British Columbia 1909
vated during the season and keep runners cut off. Concerning fertilisation : You want to be
very careful the first season. The only way we think of doing it now is where this marker has
been run along we run along this and put fertiliser in the drill and re-harrow it in the same
way the mark runs and re-mark it again. This is about all that is necessary until you come
to the fall. The matter of mulching is a matter of climatic conditions. If we anticipate frost,
mulching is a good thing, but if not, it is not a good thing, for the reason that it always makes
plants, wherever mulched, five to ten days later coming on. Put the mulch on very light. We
just cover the plant. Constant cultivation is a very necessary thing, especially with strawberries ; if you can, get through them with the cultivator every week, not too deeply. The
following season you start in early with cultivating ; keep it up, and towards the fruiting season
you put on your mulch and you come to the picking and packing. We use the 24-basket crate,
four-fifths basket, with strawberries entirely. In picking, you determine the number of trays
you need for the pickers you have. We have two trays for every picker. We have one person
to overlook the patch. Speaking of the wage system, we have found that by paying a wage
we get better satisfaction than picking by the box. We have had our berries better picked on
the wage system, at $1.25 a day, than by paying T| cents per box. We show them first how
to pick. The man who supervises carries out these trays. A man is never allowed to get up
from his row.
Mr. Metcalfe here dealt with the shipping question, and afterwards on the application of
a commercial fertiliser, which could be applied without danger on a dry day.
In answer to a question, Mr. Metcalfe said the Wilson and Warfield were the best
shippers.
He said on the subject of preparing the ground : We are planting on sod with a good
application of manure. We use little nitrogen. We use phosphoric acid and potash and a
little nitrogen about two weeks apart. Late applications of nitrate of soda, we have found,
have a tendency to make the berries soft.
The next small fruit is raspberries. We prepare our soil in very much the same way as
for strawberries. Prepare it the year before. We take clover sod or land utilised for vegetables of any kind. We plant about 6 or 7 feet apart in the row and 3 or 3J feet apart in the
hill. We plant these with a line and a spade. You can grow a row of anything between
these rows of raspberries that season, a root crop of any kind, and they will be all the better
for it. Getting the soil in good shape does away with a great deal of weeding afterward. At
the end of the second year (you will have nothing the first year) they may be high enough to
wire up. We take good posts and brace them at the end. We use baling wire and small
intermediate posts with the cross-wire on. We place them 15 or 18 feet apart and the two
end posts well planted and secure, and stretch the wire tight. We prune immediately after
we take the crop off. Prune the top to 6 feet, but not as low or as much as we do the following
spring. The picking and packing is very similar to the strawberries, only that the basket is
smaller.    We use the same tray.
Considerable discussion was had on the subject, in the course of which Mr. Metcalfe
stated that the Cuthbert was generally grown. Speaking of Logan berries, Mr. Metcalfe said
they came in about a week later than the raspberry. The Logan berry is a cross between the
raspberry and the cane blackberry. We find it better to grow in small drills. If they grow
too wide we draw them in. They stand the frost better on the ground than when trellised up.
We plant about 10 feet apart, run both ways, and then prune off. In picking, everything is
precisely the same as the other berry. We have found nothing so good as stable manure for
canes of all kinds.    We do give applications of chemical fertilisers.
Speaking of blackberries, he said they were grown similar to raspberries. You plant
about the same distance in the hill and prune the same way. We prune them down pretty
well, they are more easilv picked. We always plant north and south if we can. Prune
immediately after your crop is off and you won't have any trouble in breaking down. The
evergreens were the most productive for bearing. These you have to plant 8 feet apart.
There are two varieties, the British and American ; they are quite distinct in foliage and fruit.
The British is not a really good shipper, but the American is. They do not look quite alike
either in foliage or cane. They increase with age. Took 200 crates from a row of 300 feet.
They are immensely productive and stand shipping well. We have not found that they dry
out like the cane blackberries. We keep them thoroughly mulched with stable manure. I
think you could grow these berries for 50 years in the same soil if properly nourished.
A good deal of discussion was raised on this subject by the members and those present. Next came currants and gooseberries, which the speaker said were very similar in their
growing. We plant about 4 feet between the hills, 5 feet in the row. We prepare the soil
in a similar way as for raspberries and blackberries. There are two systems of growing them,
the tree system and the shrub system. We like the tree system in appearance, but if anything attacks the root of it there is just the one stem, and if it dies you have a vacancy ;
while in the other case, if one dies or is killed you still have a pretty good plant or shrub. We
keep them pruned off pretty close. We use either the 24-basket crate, 4- basket, or 10-lb.
cherry basket, for shipping black currants and gooseberries. We find the application of manure
good. Blackberries and gooseberries want stronger soil than raspberries, and also more
moisture. Put raspberries on light soil, but all blackberries, currants and gooseberries want
heavier soil and more moisture. We find Oregon Champion about the best gooseberry to
grow.    No trouble with mildew on these.
A lengthy discussion on the question of mildew arose at this point of the address and
was taken part in by many present.
During the afternoon session fine samples of apples were shown by G. I. Thornton and
W. R, Burton.
Mr. Metcalfe was strongly in favour of spraying five times a year, and spraying for the
proper diseases.    It costs but 1|- cents a box to spray five times.
Local inspection was again taken up, Mr. Crankshaw speaking strongly in favour of
orchard inspection, while Mr. Kipp had lost none of his ardour in favour of both orchard and
fruit inspection, and many others assisted in keeping the question in a heated condition until
the close of the afternoon meeting.
The meeting adjourned at 6:15 p.m. until 7:30 p.m.
Evening   Session.
The meeting was called to order by the President at 7.40 p. m., 47 being present.
At the opening of the evening session the resolution passed in the morning was re-read,
it being claimed that a misunderstanding existed in regard to the resolution.
On motion, the resolution was rescinded.
Mr. Alfred Unsworth, Sardis : The Government should send a man to spray and charge
it to the owner. I do not suppose you will find ten or twelve orchards in this valley without
scale, and the way it is now the fruit industry has been killed.
Mr. Metcalfe : In the event of your not spraying after being notified, the Government
will order the orchards cut down.
Mr. Crankshaw : I think that is the best thing yet.
Mr. Unsworth : Many of my neighbours will have nothing further to do with spraying.
Mr. Bailey : I think the resolution, as put this morning, was a fair one, asking for local
inspection by a person competent to do the work and capable of giving necessary information
to parties who did not understand, but if we ask for local fruit inspection we are going to
injure our business, although I know the Government is intending to give us orchard inspection at as early a date as Inspectors can be got. But if we think to get local fruit inspection,
it is a thing that I don't believe can be done, because I pack one way and each one packs in
a different way.    What we want is a thorough system of packing.
Mr. Crankshaw : I thoroughly agree with Mr. Bailey. I think the motion passed this
morning was one of the fairest things we could have.
Mr. A. B. McKenzie : I want to see how this thing works out. I am not satisfied with
simply spraying.
Mr. E. Thornton : It looks as though we had got at the wrong end. There is a waste of
money in picking, packing and shipping fruit to Vancouver and having it condemned, and the
fruit-grower is not in a position to stand it. The place to condemn the fruit is on the tree, and
the man who inspects that tree is in a position to see. I have 1,000 fruit trees. He would
say such a tree is diseased, do not ship these apples, and if I am mean enough to ship them
they should be condemned. Going around to inspect the orchards has not been a success; it
has not stopped shipping diseased fruit, and I shall support the resolution to have local
inspection of apples on the trees before they are shipped or packed.
Mr. Crankshaw : Mr. Thornton's idea is the same as mine. That resolution is to inspect
the apple trees. L 54 British Columbia 1909
The new motion read as follows : " That we place ourselves on record as favouring local
inspection of orchards, and also fruit before shipment, by officials of the Provincial Government, for the prevention of fruit pests and diseases."
Mr. Unsworth : I would support that if we knew the apples had not to be inspected after
they are packed.
Mr. Metcalfe : The inspection will be of the orchards and apples on the trees and the
condemnation will be there.    They will not inspect the fruit in boxes.
This motion was carried.
Mr. McKenzie : Is there any way to get at a man who will not spray who lives next to
you ?
In answer to this question, the amendments to the Horticulture Act were read.
General Discussion.
Mr. Puckle, in opening his address, said : " Gentlemen, you will never get on until you
pull together. You can not speak to one of these gentlemen to whom I have spoken to-day
but he says, ' 1 have had a loss in apples.' I know the conditions on the Coast, and I know
how they work this skin game, and as long as you are working individually, bucking one against
the other, you will never make a cent. What you need is an organisation and drop all the
jealously and bad feeling. We started this time last year with 10 members and $49, and to-day
we have 500 members. We deal with the wholesale houses. In the middle of the season we
threw off the wholesale houses and adopted the retail. They would not deal with us because
they were afraid the wholesale houses would cinch them. But we got the support of the
retailers and have kept it, and they recognise the strength of our Association. We buy
together, we sell together, we command prices and can get rebates on everything we buy, and
this after but one year, and our business has improved 300 per cent. A man who buys in
Vancouver and orders from Victoria does not ask the grade. The word of the Association is
good enough, and when you get on that grade you are all working together. You will all
have clean orchards as soon as you see the point. It is money that talks. I don't know
whether you had any dealings with the Central Exchange last year, but we were able to stand
a pretty bad jar in that direction. We lost probably $2,500. Well, we have all our growers
paid up ; we have new members joining at the rate of twenty and thirty a week. They had
confidence in the management and in the directors. These are just a few of the advantages
of pulling together. We fought each other for years. I was a director in the Central Exchange
and went up three times last season. Once I was sent up to look into the books. The books
were perfectly kept. They were doing their utmost, but fell down upon just what you are
falling down to-day—they could not trust one another, and you could not trust them. They
asked every Association for estimates on the crops within a few thousand dollars. They got
in these estimates. They put men in the field to sell these goods, and when it came to shipping they never appeared. The wholesaler jumped in and bought on the side, and when the
stuff ripened they went into a panic and shipped in every direction, and instead of $400,000
worth of business they had $80,000. I believe they are all honest men. They fell down on
account of lack of confidence of the grower. The same thing will apply to Chilliwack or any
other country. You have it all in your own hands. You need not put any man in that you
do not like. We imported a manager from Regina. It is only a question of policy whether
you can keep on growing at a loss, or whether you wish to make a new start, and this place is
just about right and in prime condition for organization along co-operative lines. You cannot
run it without support. Some men, if they cannot run everything their way, will not be in it
at all.    You are better without those men."
On the question of spraying Mr. Puckle said : " We are getting spraying down to a fine
point. We are about ready for co-operative spraying. You take in districts from 10 to 30
acres ; you can run a $250 plant. This ought to be owned by districts. Good plants owned
by districts do the work thoroughly. You must have power behind the pump. There is no
power in a man's arm. There are men who make a success of it; you have one in your own
district; but in 99 cases out of 100 there is not pressure in the nozzle. One hundred pounds
pressure is necessary for good work—150 to 200 they are using on the other side for the best
work. You may have heard that it is an awful place on Vancouver Island for codling moth.
We certainly had them; 160 orchards were condemned last year for codling moth; they spread 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 5c
from imported goods. As high as 75 % damage was done in orchards ; therefore the Government condemned all the fruit and destroyed it and paid the damage. There is no doubt that
all these pests can live in this climate."
Mr. Puckle went on to say that the possibilities of Chilliwack were greater than those of
Vancouver Island. He said : " You have the kind of land and everything but communica-.
tion, and you will soon have that. You have the best that any man could hope to get if he
were going around in a balloon."
I think if these Associations were co-operative this line of business would get out of the
hands of the wholesaler altogether. We are dealing this year with the retailers in Vancouver
and Victoria."
The discussion aroused by Mr. Puckle's address indicated the appreciation of the fruitgrowers.
Mr. Maxwell Smith then spoke to what he said was the largest audience he ever had in
Chilliwack. He said : " I am here to assist the fruit-growers, present and prospective, of the
Chilliwack District, and I am here simply to give you my own experiences and observations
for what they are worth, and I want to ask a favour before I go further, and that is that you
will at any time during my remarks break in and ask questions. I understand that I am
down to speak on the commercial aspect of the fruit industry. When we speak of the commercial aspect, we mean that aspect which means profit to those who are engaged in it. Well,
I may not be able to agree with my audience, and possibly not even with my esteemed colleagues who are present, on all questions, yet, at the same time, I shall endeavour to bring out
some points that should be of advantage to those who are present to-night. It is hardly
necessary to suggest that, before planting out a commercial orchard, it is absolutely necessary
that you have the ground thoroughly prepared to receive the trees, that is to say, absolutely
free from stumps, roots and logs, and stones, if they are there. There is no greater mistake
on earth a prospective fruit-grower can make than to undertake to establish an orchard among
stumps. After you have your land in first class condition, thoroughly cultivated, thoroughly
fertilised and ready to receive your trees, the question comes, what shall I plant? I will deal
more specifically with the tree fruits and deal with them from a commercial aspect. The
question of what variety of apple you should plant is one that undoubtedly exercises the mind
of most prospective fruit-growers. I may not be able to agree with you ; I may be wrong, but,
according to my own observations and experiences, I have certain opinions as to what the
prospective fruit-growers in the Chilliwack District ought to plant for commercial profit."
Mr. Smith here referred to the difference between the speculative and practical man, and
said : " I want to tell you, gentlemen, that the definition of a practical man is sometimes very
erroneous. The man who has always been engaged in growing fruit is not always the most
practical fruit-grower. I find in the Province of British Columbia that the hardest man to
get into line and the hardest man to get to realise the conditions and the lines of operation
that should be followed in British Columbia is very often the man who has been engaged in
the fruit industry to a more or less degree in the Old Country or back in Ontario. I find,
according to my observations and experiences, that the Ontario fruit farmer, or the Old
Country farmer who has treated the fruit industry as a side issue before he came here, is the
most impracticable man that you can possibly find, and yet at the same time he will come here
and say that these fellows who travel around as Government officials do not know what they
are talking about, because they are not engaged in fruit-growing and are not practical men.
The most practical man is the man who practises what he learns from observation and
experience and also from literature. There is no use trying to persuade yourselves that it is
simply your own personal experience that will make you a perfect fruit-grower, You must
take advantage of the successes and failures of others. It is necessary, in order to be
thoroughly practical, not only to have your own experience, but to have the experience and
observation and results of others to profit by, and then apply your own intelligence to your
own particular local conditions and environments.
" Coming back to where we started—the question as to what we should plant. I am
going to speak particularly of the apple orchard. If I were coming into Chilliwack to plant
a commercial fruit orchard to-morrow, on a basis of anywhere from 10 to 100 acres, I would
plant not more than three varieties of apples, and those three varieties would be these (I am
going to pass by some of your hobbies and particular friends): I would plant Jonathans; I
would plant King of Tomkins Co., I would plant Wealthys, and I would quit right there. L 56 British Columbia 1909
These are not all the best apples that are grown by any means, but you cannot expect to
monopolise all the good things in this world. I have not said anything about the Gravensteins, but I want to tell you, if you plant the Gravensteins you will have trouble in this
district with fungus diseases, more than with any of the three varieties I have mentioned.
You will get a good sound price for the Gravensteins, but you cannot grow as many apples as
on any of the three varieties I have mentioned. The Gravenstein is a shy bearer. It is a
splendid apple ; I like to eat it, but from a commercial standpoint it won't pay you to plant it
in Chilliwack, because you will have trouble with the scab on the apple, and it will not
produce fruit sufficient to make up for the difference in price. I have not said anything about
the Spy, which is the best apple probably ever grown. I would not advise you to plant it
here, for the simple reason that it is not a red apple and the modern market wants a red apple
if it is moderately good. The Spy will give you difficulty until it comes to about seven years
old. You will have trouble with the bark blight, etc., until it comes past seven. After it
gets beyond that you will not have a great deal of difficulty. You will find that the Spy in
this locality will not keep as long and you cannot regard it as a distinctly winter apple as you
can back East. There is another apple that is a particular favourite with you, that is the
Grimes Golden. It is a first class apple, but do not plant it commercially in the Chilliwack
District. There are two things that the modern markets want in an apple—they want a red
apple and they want a moderate sized apple, and in the Wealthy and the Jonathan you have
got them. The King is a little larger than it ought to be for the demands of the commercial
market to-day, but you can grow it very successfully in the Chilliwack District, and there is a
market for a limited number of Kings. It will not keep quite as long as in Ontario, but it
will bring you good prices, and if you handle the tree properly you will get good annual crops
instead of biennial."
An animated discussion ensued on the relative qualities of the various kinds of apples,
Mr. Unsworth advocating the Duchess, King and Lemon apples.
Mr. Smith, continuing his romarks, said : " I advise the people of this district to get
together. You are a long way apart and you have got to co-operate in the varieties you plant
as well as in other business organisations, and you may talk just as much as you like, but you
will never be a success as a district until you bury your personal ambitions for the good of the
whole community. I have just enough of that personal zeal to know that that is the only
thing that is keeping back the development of the Chilliwack District, so far as the fruit
industry is concerned. (Voice from the rear : "Say that again !") I wish to say again that
if you do not bury these little local prejudices and get together with the idea that the profit
to your neighbour is your profit and advantage, you will mever make a success. I am speaking
plainly; it is as plain as I can talk. Some of you may be under the impression that because
a certain organisation known as " The Farmers' Exchange " has not given you the returns this
year that you think it should have, the principle under which they are organised and operated
is a failure. We have had what is known as " The Central Exchange of British Columbia," with
headquarters at Revelstoke. The organisation and individuals who went into that have not
received the returns they expected or had a right to expect this year. But, gentlemen, I
want to say right here, notwithstanding recent occurrences in connection therewith, I do not
believe there was a single dishonest man in connection with that organisation. I believe there
has been mismanagement, but whose fault was it ? Your fault, starting right there. If the
men you put at the head of your business do not suit you and are not conducting things as
you think they should, it is not your business to get into a panic, but it is your business to go
to the meetings and straighten out the difficulties that are in the way and try to remedy what
is going wrong. The trouble is that the average fruit-grower has not moral courage enough
to stand up and say what he thinks in a public meeting, and until he does that he can never
be a success as a business man, and until you are successful business men you had better go
out of fruit-growing and put into position men who have business enough to carry on business."
Referring again to the apple question, he said : " The three varieties I have given you
can compete with any other variety in the Province. The Dominion Government regulations
tell you plainly what the grade is and mark them accordingly. Some apples have been brought
here to-day as good as can be grown any place."
Mr. Smith, with the aid of blackboard and chalk, here demonstrated very clearly and
intelligently how these trees should be planted. " I would plant the Jonathan 40 feet apart
on the square. We will now take the King of Tomkins Co. Now, the King is similar to the
Spy; it will give a good deal of trouble until seven years old.    I would plant the King in 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 57
between the Jonathans (I am following out Mr. Wilson's address of this afternoon in regard
to pollenation), In this way your rows are 20 feet apart and your trees are 28 and a fraction
feet apart. (I am speaking from a commercial standpoint and land is too valuable in this
country to have a great deal of ground lying waste.) Then I would plant Wealthies as fillers.
The Wealthy is the shortest lived tree of the three, and after about ten or fifteen years it will
be all right to pull out the Wealthy trees, and then your children can go along cultivating the
Jonathans and Kings, and when they have children big enough it will be time to pull out the
Kings and leave the Jonathans on the square of forty feet. You will find if you keep your
Wealthy trees cut back good and strong you will get a tremendous lot of profit from them
before the others go into business at all. Keep them well pruned back. Just as soon as the
other trees need the room, cut out the Wealthys. In the meantime, your Wealthys will pay
for the cultivation of your orchard. Having planted your orchard on that line, or any other
line you find can be better, the question of your pruning and your cultivation comes along.
You can grow two crops on one piece of ground. If you wish, while those trees are young, to
plant root crop in that orchard, plant it but do not plant anything within a radius of the
extent of the branches of your trees at any time, because the branches of the tree indicate the
extent of the radius of the tree, and you want to keep two feet outside of the branches at
every time. You may grow carrots or turnips or potatoes in the space that is beyond two
feet outside of the branches of the tree, but just as soon as they begin to come together,
stop growing anything between.    At all times keep that ground cultivated."
After dwelling upon the subject of cultivation for a short time, the speaker took up the
question of pruning : " You all have different ideas as to how you should prune trees. Some
people believe in the vase-shaped tree, some the pyramidal form of tree. Personally, I
believe in the pyramidal form of tree if not exaggerated. If you form about three sets of
branches off a tree it is time to stop from going any higher, and those who do not understand
the pyramidal form of tree, if you will drop me a post card to Vancouver I will send you a
copy of the report of the International North-West Fruit-Growers' Convention, which contains
a paper by Mr. T. W. Stirling, of Kelowna, treating the question of pruning. There is
altogether too much strong pruning in this country, in my opinion. Spring pruning produces
wood growth, and you all know that in this country, not only on the coast but in the interior,
we have a very vigorous wood growth at all times, and while it is all right to practise spring
pruning on your young orchard over one year old until it begins to bear, it is not policy to
practise spring pruning on your orchard after it begins to bear, only to a very limited extent.
Nature is so constituted that it is natural for all vegetable matter to endeavour to reproduce
itself and to repair the damage done to it, particularly in the spring-time, when Nature is
awakening from its dormant state. If you cut a limb off in the spring, Nature will endeavour
to reproduce that limb, either there or at some other point. Just practise your spring pruning
while the tree is growing, and the moment your tree begins to bear cut off your spring pruning
as much as possible and adopt the summer pruning. The summer pruning should be in July
or early in August, which has a tendency to produce fruit spurs or fruit buds. Those of you
who are planting young orchards, the first year that your young orchard blossoms pull them
all off. Do not let it boar the first year. Do not let it bear all the fruit it wants to bear
during the next year. Do not allow an apple tree to bear more than one apple on each stem.
You will find when the blossoms come out there will be four or five blossoms and probably
four or five apples set on that stem, but when about the size of your thumb you will find three
or four of those apples are Chilliwack apples and the rest of them are commercial apples.
What you want is the commercial apple ; pull off all the Chilliwack apples and keep them at
home. What I mean to say is this, that out of the four or five apples on a stem there is one
that is particularly good, generally speaking, and the others are particularly inferior. Just
pull off all the others and leave that one, and you will find, if you do that, you will get off
that tree all that it is able to bear. They will be cleaner and better, and you won't have one-
half that trouble you were talking about of the grading of your fruit. That is where you
want to begin grading your fruit, on the tree.
" With plums, do not leave them less than an inch apart. Apples and pears should be
thinned just about the same. In no case leave any of them touching one another. Plums and
prunes should be culled off so that they are not less than an inch apart when full grown. Of
course, you do not thin cherries. This climate is so constituted that it will produce everything a tree is able to carry in culling down to that extent. L 58 British Columbia 1909
" Now we come to the picking. I want to say that unless you handle your apples just as
carefully as you would eggs you are going to have trouble, and they want to be hand-picked,
every one of them, and handled just as carefully as eggs, because a dent that will crack the
shell of an egg will damage an apple to a sufficient degree to produce decomposition. While
it is necessary for you to handle the fruit carefully when picking from the tree and in the box,
that does not mean that you cannot press them in the box good and strong.
"I have advised you to grade your fruit on the tree when just the size of your thumb.
Some people raise the objection that it takes too much work to pick off these specimens. I
want to ask this question : If you cannot get time to pick off those small plums, how are you
going to get time when they are matured ? It does not take any longer to pick the small ones
than the large ones, and you will have them all uniform and fairly even grade all the way
through. The pulp of the apple is composed chiefly of water, about 90 %. It is the seed in
the core of the apple that exhausts the vitality of the tree."
Next came the marketing of fruit, and Mr. Smith said :—
" The marketing question is such a large one that I do not think I had better go into it
to-night, but there is one thing I would just like to say in passing—that while your local
organisation, or your provincial organisation, may not have given you the returns you think
they do or ought to have done, do not run away with the idea for a single moment that it will
pay you as an individual fruit-grower to cut loose from your neighbours and undertake to handle
your own business, because it won't. All the average fruit man wants is to get you fellows
squabbling with one another, and unless you stay together and handle your own business the
result will be bad. It matters not to me whether you sell through the wholesale or through
your agents in New Westminster, but it is absolutely necessary that you stand together as a
local organisation and work for each other's interest. It does not make any difference whether
the management of a particular organisation has been a failure or not, the principle of
co-operation is sound. There is no question about it, the principle of co-operation is the root of
all success, and unless you fruit men see your way clear to stand together and co-operate
together in the management of your own affairs, both in the purchasing of your supplies and
the marketing of your product, you are simply going to be at the mercy of the merchant who
does not care a rap for you. I want to say that co-operation is the fundamental principle that
underlies all human progress, which measures the strength and stability of any industry. Your
creameries are a living example of the success of co-operation, and it is simply a question with
the fruit-grower of whether he will follow along the same lines. As Dominion Fruit Inspector,
I want to tell you that it takes very little culling or care on the part of the packer to get
25 cents more a box than his neighbour. You would be astonished at how few specimens of
really cull fruit in a box will knock 25 cents off the price—I am speaking of the wholesale now.
There are two particular classes of fruit men in the Chilliwack District. There are some fruit
men in the Chilliwack District who have endeavoured to interpret the Dominion regulations
grades intelligently and understanding^, and they are endeavouring to live up to these as to
particular grades and are endeavouring to put on the market fruit honestly graded and honestly
packed, and they are particularly careful to throw out any specimens that they have the
slightest suspicion would not come up to the standard, and those men are going to get prices
for their fruit and in every case 25 cents more than the other fellow. The other fellow
reads the Act as carefully as the first man, but instead of looking for the things he should
not do, he is more anxious to have knowledge of the things he can do and escape the Inspector;
and the consequence is, he puts in every specimen that he thinks will pass the Inspector, and
that man gets a good deal less than 25 cents below the other man."
As an illustration of how these two fruit-growers come out in the end, Mr. Smith gave a
blackboard demonstration which could not fail to convince the fruit-growers present that the
first man is the gainer.
The meeting then adjourned.
W. J. Brandrith, Secretary. 9 Ed. 7 Fruit-Growers' Association. L 59
PRESIDENT'S   ADDRESS.
Following is the text of the President's address referred to on page L 7 :—
" Members of the British Columbia Fruit-Growers' Association :
" Ladies and Gentlemen,—During the past year the work of your Association has been
carried on over an ever-extending area of our rich Province. New districts, which are proving
themselves admirably adapted for producing the best varieties of fruit, are opening out on all
sides, and we are being continually called upon to send competent men to impart the necessary information as to planting, pruning and cultivating orchards in sections which, until
recently, were not considered as situated within the profitable fruit-growing areas. All this
rapid development impresses upon us the necessity for a very much increased expenditure in
providing this essential information in new districts and in keeping the older districts
informed as to the best varieties to plant and the most approved methods of cultivation and
care of orchards. Fruit-growing is becoming more of a science every year, and in order to
keep our Province in the proud position it now holds, we must be ever on the outlook to see
that every means is used to secure the best results in each varying district. Through the
good work of our Provincial Government, assisted by the Canadian Pacific Railway Co., our
Province has again made an enviable name for itself by securing the highest awards wherever
fruit was exhibited. Two years ago your Association started the co-operative movement for
the marketing of the fruit of the Province, and in spite of great difficulties and the untiring
hostility of those who wish to have joint stock companies controlling the industry, it is
wonderful the hold that this movement now has in all the chief districts of British Columbia.
The last meeting of the Directors of the Central Exchange was held in December, delegates
being present from all over the Province, and in spite of many disappointing results, owing to
keen opposition and unusual market conditions, the most perfect harmony existed throughout
the entire proceedings. This bringing together in convention representative men from the
various districts is proving of the greatest value to the industry as a whole. Not only has it
a great value from an educative standpoint, but it is fast dissipating those absurd narrow-
minded sectional jealousies which were found everywhere in past years. We cannot all be of
one opinion, but in meeting for the common good the personal contact thus fostered tends
towards a personal confidence in each other, which is the essence of success in the co-operative
movement, which is the only true road to success in fruit-growing. In retiring from the office
of President, which I have had the honour of holding during the past two years, it affords me
much pleasure to acknowledge the hearty support which I have at all times received from the
Honourable Mr. Tatlow, Minister of Agriculture, your Secretary and Board of Directors.
" Jas. Johnstone."
victoria, b. C:
Printed by Richard Wolkkkdkh, I.S.O.,  V.D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1909. 

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