BC Sessional Papers

REPORT ON MILK SUPPLY British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1909

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 9 Ed. 7 Report on Milk. G 1
Provincial Board of Health,
Victoria, B. O, January 13th, 1909.
The Honourable 11. E. Young,
Provincial Secretary,
Victoria, B. C.
Sir,—In accordance with your instructions, I visited many centres in Eastern Canada
and the United States, in order to examine into and study the methods in vogue in the business of the " milk supply " for the public.
Every city visited had its milk problem, and although good work has been done and great
advances made, yet the solution of the difficulty has not yet been reached.
The problem of securing clean milk, i. e., milk as near as possible to the condition as it
exists in the udder, is the problem of dairy sanitation. To put it another way, it is the
problem of reducing contamination from all outside sources to the least possible factor.
•       Composition of Milk.
Milk consists of water in which are dissolved and suspended various solids, the relative
proportions of which depend upon certain factors, such as the kind of animal, its age, health,
condition, the character of food used, as well as the time of the year and day when it is
milked. The average composition of cow's milk is 87 per cent, of water and 13 per cent, of
solids.    The solids being :—
Fat  4.00 per cent.
Sugar  4.95      n
Proteid matter      3.30       n
Mineral matter  0.75       n
Total  13.00       „
Fat.—Milk-fat is formed of the glycerides of about ten fatty acids, oleic acids forming
about 50 per cent, of the whole. The fat is in the form of minute globules distributed
throughout the milk. Being lighter than water, they rise to the surface, forming cream. A
good milk gives, on standing for about 24 hours, an average of 12 to 14 per cent, of cream.
Sugar.—The sugar found in milk is lactose. It is faintly sweet, and is less liable to
fermentation in the stomach than cane sugar.
Proteids.—The proteid matter in milk consists of about 80 per cent, casein and 20 per
cent, albumen.    This is the part that forms " curd."
Mineral Matter.—The mineral constituents of milk are phosphates and chlorides of
potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and traces of iron.
Deterioration of Milk.
Milk, being an animal secretion, is very readily affected by the state of health of the
animal from which it is taken, and also by extraneous influences. Thus, the state of health
of the cow, any specific disease from which she suffers, as well as the ingestion by the animal
of certain poisonous foods, etc., will affect the milk. G 2 Report on Milk. 1909
Milk standing for some time becomes acid. This acidity is brought about by the action
of certain micro-organisms on the milk sugar, which is changed into lactic acid. If the
acidity is further developed, the milk turns sour, and the casein is precipitated as curd.
Milk exposed to the air readily absorbs all odours of objects near it.
In an endeavour to get at the root of any problem, the first principle to be followed is to
bring all possible facts to light. Bacteria in the milk problem play a prominent part, and,
although I know many will ridicule the statement presented, yet it must be remembered that
the presence of bacteria in milk is a fact, and the question to be considered is, how is this fact
to be handled to the best advantage and least injury to the community?
Many persons think the term " bacteria " relates to disease ; they fail to appreciate that,
among these micro-organisms, man has friends as well as enemies. Bacteria are great scavengers, and they play a most important part in connection with agricultural processes; in the
manufacture of certain products, their action is depended upon almost entirely; they are
necessary to the ripening of cream and the flavouring of butter, and are useful in giving
variety to cheese.
Bacteria are so small that it is difficult to form a conception of their size. They are not
visible to the naked eye, and some species require special handling and a powerful microscope
in order to be seen. In a single drop of badly infected milk, bacteria may be counted by the
million. .
Bacteria are composed of a single cell, and the most common way by which they reproduce
themselves is by division into two smaller cells. Under favourable conditions, these cells grow
and divide again, and multiplication takes place with great rapidity. Another method of
reproduction is by spore formation. Spores require a very high degree of temperature for their
Three things are necessary for the growth and development of bacteria ; they are food,
warmth, and moisture. Milk contains all the food elements required. It is evident, then,
that when warmth is present the bacterial growth must be great. The degree of heat has an
important effect on the rate of growth of bacteria. At about 90 deg. F. most forms grow
rapidly, the rate of their multiplication decreasing with the decrease of temperature.
Authorities have shown that, at 93 deg. F., many species of germs will, in four hours,
increase more than two hundred-fold, while, at 55 deg. F. their increase is only about eightfold. I know of an experiment in which a difference of 18 degs. in the temperature of two
samples equal in quantity, and taken from the same source, caused in 15 hours a difference of
75,000,000 bacteria. This shows very plainly how much the rate of growth of bacteria depends
upon the temperature.
At 50 deg. F. most bacteria are quite inactive, but at this and lower temperatures they
retain life. Freezing, even, does not kill them. At low temperatures they do not multiply,
but with the return of suitable conditions they commence to grow.
Up to a certain point, the higher temperatures have the same effect as cold, i. e., the germs
are rendered inactive. But when the heat is raised to about 125 deg. F., some are killed;
others, not harmed by this temperature, are destroyed by a greater heat. A sufficient
temperature to kill, or render harmless, almost all of the growing forms found in milk is 150
deg. F.    Spores require still more heat for killing purposes.
In classifying the bacteria of milk, it is usual to divide them into groups according to
to their action. Practically all the changes occurring in milk, subsequent to milking, are due
to the action of bacteria.    This is proved by the fact that milk, kept free from bacteria, may 9 Ed. 7 Report on Milk. G 3
be preserved for an almost indefinite period with very little change. Certain kinds of bacteria
found in milk are useful and, indeed, necessary ; other kinds have no particular function, so
far as is at present known. While, again, certain other kinds are distinctly vicious, and, if
allowed free and uncontrolled action, serious consequences may result. From this it would
appear that the number of bacteria present in any milk does not necessarily mean that that
milk is dangerous. By universal consent, however, milk containing excessive numbers of
bacteria is unfit for infant feeding. The tender lining membrane in the stomach and intestines
of infants is very susceptible to bacteria and their products, and a large proportion of the
summer complaints of infants has been traced to the use of bacteria-laden milk.
As has been already stated, some varieties of bacteria are harmful, others are not, and
when it is remembered that we have no way of restricting the kinds that will fall into milk,
except by enforcing cleanliness, it will, I think, be seen what need there is to keep the number
at the lowest point possible.
Legal Standards.
The first attempt to make a standard for the bacteriological content of milk was made in
New York in the year 1900. It was fixed at 1,000,000 per cubic centimetre (equal to \
teaspoonful). Even with such a high standard it was found impracticable to enforce it, on
account of the complexity and enormous volume of the milk trade of that city. The principal
difficulty was to place the responsibility when milk was found to contain an excessive number
of bacteria, as the milk passed through so many hands before it was delivered to the consumer.
Boston, on the other hand, made a strict standard of 500,000 bacteria per cubic centimetre. This is still the law in Boston, and it is enforced. A similar standard has been
adopted by other municipalities. Personally, I know of about twenty cities, conducting
investigations, having the above standard as a basis.
The City of Rochester (New York State) has a standard of 100,000 per cubic centimetre.
Many authorities believe that no milk should be sold containing more than 50,000
bacteria per cubic centimetre.
William H. Park, who is a recognised authority, states that any intelligent farmer can
use sufficient cleanliness and keep milk sufficiently cool with very little increase in expense,
to supply milk twenty-four to thirty-six hours old, which will not contain over 50,000 to
100,000 bacteria per cubic centimetre, and that no milk containing more bacteria than this
should be used.
The above figures apply to standards set on market milk. So far as milk for infant
feeding and hospital purposes is concerned, the standard of 10,000 bacteria per cubic centimetre should be demanded.
Milk Preservation.
For practical purposes, it may be assumed that the only cause of deterioration of milk is
due to micro-organisms or bacteria which come from the outside. It is clear, then, that the
best means of preserving milk for short periods is to insist on absolute cleanliness in all the
processes of milking, straining, cooling, storing, transporting, and distributing. To do this
perfectly is, in ordinary practice, impossible; therefore, the next best method of preservation
is by cold.
When milk is kept at a low temperature (not above 50 deg. F.) the action of bacteria is
inhibited. They are not destroyed by low temperatures, but decomposition is stopped for a
certain time. The advantage, then, of cold as a means of preservation is that the composition
of the milk is not altered. The only absolute method of preserving milk from decomposition is by killing the bacteria
by heat. This is called " sterilizing." A temperature above boiling point, under steam
pressure, is commonly sufficient for the purpose. Sterilization of milk alters the composition,
the lactose being changed and the casein and fats being made less digestible.
Pasteurization, too, preserves milk, but only for a short period. It consists in subjecting
milk to a temperature of 156 deg. F. for twenty minutes and then rapidly cooling it. Only
part of the bacteria are destroyed, but the disease producing organisms are rendered harmless
and the composition of the milk is not materially altered.
The preservation of milk by chemicals is universally condemned, and, under all circumstances, should be contrary to law.
How Milk is Contaminated.
It is now recognised that milk is liable to many sources of contamination before it reaches
the consumer. It is also established that milk furnishes an excellent food for many bacteria,
which, under certain conditions, are capable of growing and multiplying rapidly. While
growing and multiplying, these bacteria produce certain chemical changes, which may be very
inimical to human health, especially among children,
Whatever the condition of the milk may be at the moment it is secreted, it is always
contaminated with bacteria by the time it reaches the vessel. Certain species of these bacteria
are harmless, others are distinctly harmful; and while it is not necessary or advisable in this
short report to explain bacterial action, yet it must be pointed out that they sometimes poison
milk, or may produce certain specific diseases in human beings.
Sources of Bacterial Contamination of Milk.
The sources from which bacteria are derived are many, viz.:—
(a.) Cow Sheds.—There can be little question that much of the polluted milk finding its
way to the market is due to the bad housing of cows, lack of ventilation and light, uncleanli-
ness, over-crowding, bad drainage and bad floors. Sweeping the floors or brushing down cows,
immediately before milking, fills the air with bacteria.
(b.) Water Supply.—The water supply is one of the most important factors in relation to
the healthfulness of milk. Instances are now numerous of typhoid fever being distributed
through milk, the source of which is sometimes traced directly to the water supply. This
does not apply to the water the cows drink, but to the water used in the dairy for washing.
Rinsing vessels with cold water, obtained from doubtful sources, is particularly dangerous.
(c.) The Cow.—When the milk leaves the ducts it is subject to numerous sources of
contamination. Probably the most important of these is the cow herself. If all kinds of filth
are allowed to accumulate and dry on the cow's body, it can be easily understood how
the milker's movements and the cow's movements, especially the switching of the tail,
shower dust particles around. These dust particles are loaded with bacteria of all varieties.
Thus the air around is filled and the milk contaminated. The milk ducts may, and do,
become infected because of the surrounding filth.
(d.) The Milker.—A source of contamination that is liable to be one of serious importance
is the milker. Excepting tuberculosis, the pathogenic bacteria which are capable of producing
diseases in man are more liable to be found associated with the milker than they are with the
cow. Contamination of the milk by bacteria from the milker's hands or clothing is therefore,
more likely to affect the wholesomeness of the milk than the bacteria from other sources. In
this connection it might be well to refer to the too frequent practice of " wet-milking." It is
a dirty and a dangerous habit and cannot be too strongly condemned. 9 Ed. 7 Report on Milk. G 5
(e.) The Milk Vessels.—A further source of contamination is the vessel into which the milk
is drawn. Under ordinary conditions, the carelessness displayed under this head is painfully
evident. Every honest milker must adopt the most perfect methods available. The more
thorough the washing, the less the chance of contamination from this source.
(f) The Air.—The air has always been regarded as one of the sources of bacterial contamination of milk. The ordinary out-of-door air on a farm does not contain bacteria in large
numbers, and if milking were done in the open, the air would not be a very important source
of contamination. The case is different in the stable commonly used. The presence in such
a place of many cows, which are constantly giving off particles of dust and dirt from their
skin, fills the air with bacteria-laden dust. Hay is crowded with bacteria, and its dry dust
scatters itself readily and abundantly through the air of the cow-shed. From the above, it
will be evident that the longer the milk is exposed to the air, the greater will be the amount
of contamination.
(g.) Milk-Houses.—Milk should be removed at once from the barn to the milk-house.
This house may be a source of contamination if it is used for any other purpose than the
storage of milk. Want of ventilation, dirty surroundings, bad floors, etc., often cause trouble.
As it is here that the cooling process is carried out, the presence of flies is especially dangerous.
All that has been said regarding sources of milk contamination on the dairy farm, apply,
in certain particulars, to the transportation and distribution of milk. The consumer's duty,
too, as to cleanliness, surroundings, care in handling, etc., apply with equal force.
I fear the impression prevails that dirt, being removable, need not be given much consideration. If the presence of particles of dirt were the only damage wrought, the question would
resolve itself into the simple operation of straining. Its presence is, however, an indication of
much more serious conditions. Bacteriology teaches that every particle of dirt carries with it
great numbers of bacteria. Neither straining nor clarifying will remove the bacteria, hence
the necessity of keeping the dirt out.
While looking into milk conditions in a certain city in the Eastern States, I was present
at some laboratory milk examinations. Some samples were found to be almost pure, showing
bacterial counts to be as low as 2,000 to the cubic centimetre, while others ran as high as
21,000,000. Truly, this is a great object lesson, for it conclusively proves the possibility of
obtaining reasonable pure milk.
When, then, it is possible to protect milk so that but 2,000 bacteria are present in a given
quantity, and when it is known that in carelessly handled milk such enormous numbers as
twenty-one or more millions are found, it must be admitted that authorities are not only
justified, but compelled, to adopt certain lines of action for the public protection.
The only question, then, needing further consideration is, how to control the milk supply.
The right to regulate this question in British Columbia appears to be vested primarily in the
Dominion Government. To what extent, if any, the Dominion Government can delegate its
authority to the Local Government, I do not know, but a clear distinction must be recognised
between the right to enact a law and the right to enforce it. I trust this question will be
clearly defined at an early date.
For the efficient regulation of the milk supply of a community so as best to conserve the
public health, it is necessary to deal with several separate groups of individuals. In many
cases, the same person may belong to one or more groups, but, nevertheless, there is the same
more or less clearly defined differentiation of function. The groups may be distinguished as
follows:— A.—Producers.
B.—Transportation agents.
C.—Dealers in milk.
D.—Distributors of milk, other than dealers.
I will now take up groups A and C (producers and dealers), While in Washington, D. C,
I had a conversation with Dr. Woodward, the Health Officer of that city. He told me of an
admirable proposition once made to him by a prominent milk dealer. " Why," said the milk
dealer, " do you not require every person who desires to engage in the production of milk
for sale, or the selling of it, to show, by means of testimonials as to training and experience,
and by means of an examination, that he knows how to produce and handle milk in a proper
manner ? In many States you examine embalmers, who come in only after the milkman's
negligence. You examine plumbers, whose work is such that its character is readily determined
by inspection," etc., etc.
The reasonableness of this proposition cannot be disputed. Just as children or fools must
not play with edged tools, so must producers and dealers in milk be guided by knowledge as to
dangers. If every would-be milkman was required to submit evidence as to training, experience
and knowledge of the milk business in all its bearings, and to provide a plant for producing
milk or for selling it, a long step would then be taken towards the procuring of a satisfactory
milk supply.
The transportation agents, too, play an important part. The acceptance and delivery of
sealed cans, the facilities for keeping the milk cool, the storage, etc., are matters of great importance, and should be under strict regulations and constant supervision.
By the distributors of milk, other than dealers, I mean manufacturers of certain food
products, such as ice cream and butter, the heads of public or quasi-public institutions. Such
persons should have a knowledge of the dangers ever present and be under control as to the
carrying out of reasonable regulations.
We now come to the last group, namely, the consumers. Of course, the heads of households are free to do as they choose; but they must remember that milk may be contaminated
in the home just as readily as in the dairyman's hands, and it is a weak demand for pure milk
when made through words, while actions point to a contrary direction. Clean, covered vessels
placed in cool (with ice, when possible), dry, clean and well-aired places, are essential.
A source of contamination, too frequently seen in households, is the fly. All possible
efforts should be made to keep the fly from lighting on milk. The habits of flies are filthy, and
they frequently carry virulent infections.
Diseases Conveyed Through Milk.
During the last fifty years it has been conclusively shown that milk may receive and carry
the specific organisms of certain infectious diseases. Many epidemics have been reported in
medical literature as being spread in this way. The principal diseases spread through the
agency of milk are :—Typhoid fever, scarlet fever, diphtheria, cholera, diarrhoea, anthrax,
tuberculosis, etc. All these diseases are preventable. Great, then, is the responsibility of
milk dealers to see that all possible sources of infection are avoided.
Contamination from attendants may easily be avoided. A dairyman should know the
condition of health of every employee connected with his dairy, and of all members of his
heusehold. If at any time an infectious disease appears, the patient should be excluded from
the dairy premises, and all communication between the house and dairy should cease. Persons
working in a dairy should not enter a house where there has been an infectious disease until
it has been properly disinfected. 9 Ed. 7 Report on Milk. G 7
Diarrhoea.—It is now accepted that there is an intimate relationship between the epidemic
diarrhoea, which so frequently occurs in the summer months, and chiefly affects children under
two years, and the milk supply. There seems to be a difference of opinion among scientists as
to the exact cause of this trouble, but there is no doubt that it is a living organism which, in
the summer months, infects foods, especially milk. That the infection is conveyed through
milk, is established by :—
1st. That when the mother's milk is used, the death rate from diarrhoea is insignificant
(one-tenth, according to Newsholme).
2nd. That during the last three years, the better handling of milk in the City of New
York has reduced the children's death rate from 95 per 1,000 to 64 per 1,000.
It is evident, then, that milk under certain conditions is responsible for the deaths of
many children, and since it is shewn that these conditions are largely preventable, the
responsibility of health authorities becomes correspondingly heavy.
Tuberculosis.—The most important disease of cows, from the standpoint of public health,
is tuberculosis. When Koch first discovered the cause of this disease, and combined the
announcement of his discovery with the statement that the affection was identical in man and
cattle, it was generally accepted. His subsequent announcement in 1901, that the disease was
different in man and in cattle and could not pass from one to the other, caused a groat sensation.
The consequences of the announcement were unfortunate, for many were only too glad to be
freed from restrictions, and there is no doubt that herds suffered and human lives were
sacrificed because of Koch's mistake.    That it was a mistake is now universally accepted.
As a result of Koch's statement, several Government Commissions were appointed in
different countries, and many public and private scientists started to investigate. The results
of all of the investigations established three most important points ; 1st, that the bovine
bacillus had certain characteristics which differed from the human ; 2nd, that the human
disease could pass on to cattle; and, 3rd, that bovine tuberculosis could be passed on to man.
While attending the International Tuberculosis Convention, held in Washington, D. C,
last September, I had the good fortune to hear a discussion on the subject. Dr. Koch was
present, as were some of the highest scientific experts from England, Germany, France,
Denmark, America, and other countries. Ravenal, of Philadelphia, in a powerful and
convincing paper, gave his experience of three years' work, Calmette, of Lille, took a strong
stand, as did Bang, of Stockholm, and numerous other men of world-wide fame. All advanced
convincing proof that Koch's statement was incorrect. Dr. Koch's answer was painfully
weak. He tried to maintain his position, but admitted that, under certain unusual conditions,
the disease might sometimes pass on from cattle to man. A motion that it was proved, by
experiments and experience, that bovine tuberculosis was capable of being transmitted to man,
was carried.
The two principal sources of tuberculosis infection from cattle are the meat and milk of
infected animals.
There appear to be various opinions, as to the stage of tuberculosis in cows at which the
bacilli appear in the milk. Schroeder and Cotton have recently shewn that cows, so slightly
affected with tuberculosis as only to be discovered by the the tuberculin reaction, pass virulent
bacilli in their manure (Bulletin of Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington). This fact is
of the very greatest importance, and shows more than ever the great necessity of guarding
milk from contamination by dust or filth.
It has been frequently advanced that milk from cows reacting to tuberculin, but with, to
ordinary examination, unaffected udders, is safe. This statement is not correct, for, in the
first place, the udder may be so affected that no lesion can be detected, and yet can transmit the bacilli to the milk. Again, careful investigators have demonstrated beyond reasonable
doubt that tubercle bacilli, at certain times, may be present in the milk of cows affected with
tuberculosis to a degree that can be detected only by the tuberculin test.
Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Cattle.
As to the extent of the presence of tuberculosis among the cattle in British Columbia, I
do not know. Reports from other countries show that it runs high among dairy herds. I do
not think that the percentage of tuberculosis present in dairy herds in British Columbia is high,
but that it is present there is no doubt.
Need of Preventive Measures.
There are two reasons why energetic action should be adopted. 1st, the health of the
public should be guarded, and, 2nd, dairymen should be protected against their own want of
true economy. As to the first reason, there is no argument needed. As to the second, we all
know of the great opposition met in all efforts to weed out diseased from healthy cows.
The business of dairy farming depends for its success upon certain fundamental conditions.
One, and, indeed, the foremost of these conditions, is to establish beyond doubt that each
particular cow is producing milk sufficient to pay interest on money invested. In order to
obtain this knowledge, the characteristics of every cow must be studied, and the amount of
the milk yield and its quality should be ascertained. I have heard it stated that more than
one-fourth of the cows kept for their milk production do not pay for their cost of keeping, and
that nearly a fourth more fail to yield annual profits.
Whether the above is true I cannot say, but when we remember the first principle demanded,
in order to obtain the best returns from any living animal, is good health, and when we also
remember the high percentage of dairy herds suffering from tuberculosis, we must be inclined
to accept the statement. It appears to me to be unreasonable to expect a sick cow to pay.
If the trouble is something transient, that will soon be over, she should be kept till she
recovers. But if the disease is one from which she will not recover, then she will never pay.
In tuberculosis the advance of the disease is gradual and the loss will not be apparent at once,
but it is there and is continuous with a steady increase.
There is another point the dairyman must remember, and it is of much more importance
than the " producing " loss. Tuberculosis is a communicable disease, and when one affected
animal is present in a herd, it is certain the disease will pass to others.
Tuberculin Test.
The recognition of tuberculosis among a herd, at least in its early stages, was a problem
until the tuberculin test was discovered. Now, all that is needed is a competent veterinarian, by whom freedom from, or the presence of, the disease can be definitely established.
Tuberculin was first produced by Koch in the year 1890 and was used in treating tuberculosis in man. It fell into disrepute because the reaction was too great. There is now
produced a modified form, and it is again being extensively used on man, both as a diagnostic
and curative agent.
Experience has shewn that the injection of tuberculin is followed by a rise in temperature
in man or animals suffering from tuberculosis. In cases in which there is no tuberculosis,
there is no rise in temperature. This effect is now almost universally made use of, and except
in a small percentage of certain conditions, is accepted as a reliable diagnostic agency.
Tuberculin is the sterilised and filtered glycerine extract obtained from cultures of
tubercule bacilli. It contains the cooked product of the growth of these bacilli, but not the
bacilli themselves.    Consequently, when this substance is injected into man or animal, it is 9 Ed. 7 Report on Milk G 9
absolutely unable to produce the disease. I know that many stock-owners and dairymen have
an objection to its use. They are not justified in their opposition, for earnest and honest
investigations, and, indeed, lengthened experience, has proved that its proper use is harmless
to healthy animals and only inflicts temporary trouble to the tuberculous.
Nochard and Leclainche state :—
" Direct experiments and observations collected by thousands shew that tuberculin
injections have no unfavourable effect. With healthy animals, the system is indifferent to
the inoculation; with tuberculous animals, it only causes slight changes, which are not at all
Need anything further be said. It certainly is to the public advantage, and, I have tried
to show that it is to the dairyman's advantage to be rid of tuberculous cows. If the dairyman refuses to see it in this light, I think the time has arrived when he should be compelled to
act on facts that are accepted all the world over.
As to how tubercular cattle should be handled, does not come within the scope of this
report, but it is nevertheless a subject which should be dealt with in such a way that dairymen
may be encouraged to take action.
In this report I have made an endeavour to touch on the more important aspects of the
milk question. The subject is as extensive as it is important, and cannot be handled in a
single report. Each phase of the problem should be taken up separately and dealt with comprehensively in pamphlet form for general distribution, This, I am satisfied, is necessary, for
most of the evils so painfully evident are the results of gross ignorance. Popular Lectures,
illustrated by practical demonstration, would materially assist. A model dairy, too, would
stimulate dairymen to better efforts, by showing how, and and to what degree, reasonable
perfection may be attained.
I have not touched on the chemical aspect of milk, beyond giving the average composition. Adding water or, indeed, any substance whatever, or removing cream, will not be
prevented by knowledge of injury done. A word from a clergyman or a magistrate is what
is needed.
The following twenty-one suggestions were recommended to me while visiting the Bureau
of Public Health at Washington. They are concise, yet comprehensive, and I beg to recommend that they be printed and sent to every dairyman in the Province :—
The Cows.
1. Have the herd examined frequently by a skilled veterinarian. Promptly remove any
animals suspected of being in bad health. Never add an animal to the herd until certain it
is free from disease, especially tuberculosis.
2. Never allow a cow to be excited by hard driving, abuse, loud talking, or unnecessary
disturbances ; do not unduly expose her to cold or storms.
3. Clean the entire body of the cow daily. Hair in the region of the udder should be
kept short.    Wipe the udder and surrounding parts with a clean, damp cloth before milking.
4. Do not allow any strong flavoured feed, such as garlic, cabbage, or turnips, to be
eaten, except immediately after milking.
5. Salt should always be accessible.
6. Radical changes in feed should be made gradually.
7. Have fresh, pure water in abundance, easy of access, and not too cold. G 10 Report on Milk. 1909
The Stables.
8. Dairy cattle should be kept in a stable where no other animals are housed, preferably
without cellar or storage loft. Stable should be light (four square feet of glass per cow) and
dry, with at least 500 cubic feet of air to each animal. It should have air inlets and outlets,
so arranged as to give good ventilation without draughts of air on cows. The presence of
flies may be reduced by darkening the stable and removing the manure as directed below.
9. The floor, walls and ceilings of the stable should be tight, walls and ceilings being
kept free of cobwebs and whitewashed twice a year. There should be as few dust-catching
ledges and projections as possible.
10. Allow no musty or dirty litter or strong-smelling material in the stable. Store
manure under cover at least 40 feet from the stable in a dark place. Use land plaster daily
in gutter and on floor.
Milk  House.
11. Cans should not remain in the stable while being filled. Remove the milk of each
cow at once from the stable to a clean room; strain immediately through cotton flannel or
absorbent cotton ; cool to 50 deg. F. as soon as strained; store at 50 deg. F. or lower. All
milk-houses should be screened.
12. Milk utensils should be made of metal, with all joints smoothly soldered, or, when
possible, should be made of stamped mecal. Never allow utensils to become rusty or rough
inside.     Use milk utensils for nothing but handling, storing, or delivering milk.
13. To clean dairy utensils, use pure water only. First rinse the utensils in warm water ;
then wash inside and out in hot water in which a cleansing material has been dissolved ; rinse
again ; sterilise with boiling water or steam; then keep inverted in pure air that may have
ready access, and sun if possible, until ready for use.
Milking and Handling Milk.
14. The milker should wash his hands immediately before milking and should milk with
dry hands. He should wear a clean outer garment, which should be kept in a clean place when
not in use.    Tobacco should not be used while milking.
15. In milking be quiet, quick, clean and thorough. Commence milking at the same
hour every morning and evening, and milk the cows in the same order.
16. If any part of the milk is bloody, stringy, or unnatural in appearance, or if by
accident dirt gets into the milk pail, the whole mess should be rejected.
17. Weigh and record the milk given by each cow.
18. Never mix warm milk with that which has been cooled, and do not allow milk to
19. Feed no dry, dusty feed just previous to milking.
20. Persons suffering from any disease, or who have been exposed to a contagious disease,
must remain away from the cows and the milk.
21. It is needless to say that the shorter the time between the production of milk and its
delivery, and between delivery and use, the better will be the quality of the milk.
All of these suggestions are practical and within the possibility of all without undue
expense.    There are two suggestions I would like to add, namely :—
1st. The need of keeping milk, after aeration and cooling, covered.
2nd. The providing of cans for milking purposes with small tops.    (See plate.)
To many these may appear as being small matters, but they are not. It is
abundantly clear that, in dealing with an article which is so easily contaminated as milk, 9 Ed   7
Report on Milk.
G 11
details, which are commonly regarded as trifling, are really of the greatest importance, and it
is evident that painstaking care at every point, with scrupulous cleanliness in person and
habit, are absolutely essential.
I feel it would not be wise, at the present juncture, to offer suggestions as to what action
should be taken by the authorities. The public are interested, but, so far, have taken no
means of expressing their views. The milkmen will feel aggrieved if drastic regulations are
proposed. The points of view of these various parties must be considered. Every
means should be taken to find what the public want and are prepared to pay for ; and what
the milk producers and dealers can, and ought to, deliver for the prices paid.
I know that many medical men keenly feel the need of protection of their patients from
contaminated milk. This is reasonable and should be given every consideration. It must,
however, be remembered that authorities move deliberately and slowly, for one step too far
retards progress more than delay in action.
In the year 1892, Dr. Henry L. Coit, of Newark, N. J., formulated a plan for the
production of pure milk for clinical purposes and for distribution to the infants of the poor.
This idea has been taken up by many medical societies. These societies have formulated a set
of requirements, which must be strictly adhered to in order to obtain a certificate. The
methods adopted have had an influence in creating a demand for improved conditions in the
production of market milk.
I have a copy of the requirements demanded by the society and will be glad to place them
at the service of any of our Provincial Medical Associations.
Appended please find copies of regulations in force in the various cities which I visited.
The Small-top Milking Pail.
About the most common-sense way of protecting milk from contamination, after reasonable
precautions have been taken to have the surroundings clean, is to use a small-top milking pail.
The ordinary milking pail is commonly 14 inches wide across the top, and it is necessarily held
in a position to catch most of the dirt and dust that is unavoidably jarred from the cow's
udder and flanks during milking. It receives also countless particles of dust, which are
always floating in the air of a cow stable. If the diameter of the opening is reduced to 7
inches, then the opening is just one-fourth as large as before and the advantage is obvious.
The ordinary and small-top milk pails.
Many object that it is not convenient to use a small-top pail, but they would soon find
that its difficulties are over-estimated. No milker could consistently object to having the
opening of his pail only 8 or 10 inches in diameter. Such a pail would be a great improvement over the ordinary one. The size should be governed by the desire to produce clean milk
and the patience of the milkers. In some dairies openings of the milking pails are only 5
inches in diameter.
" I have, etc.,
C. J. PAGAN, Secretary.
Printed by Richard Wolfknden, I.S.O., V.D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 


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