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including proceedings of the
Printed by Richard Wolfehtjkn, I.S.O., V.D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1905.  5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 3
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, 7th June, 1905.
The Hon. R. G. Tatlow,
Minister of Agriculture,
Victoria, B. C.
I have the honour to transmit herewith the Sixth Report of Farmers' Institutes of British
Columbia for the year 1904, which, in conformity with your instructions, embodies the
proceedings of the Seventh Annual Convention of the Central Farmers' Institute.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Superintendent of Institutes.  5 Ed. 7
Farmers' Institutes Report.
H 5
Sixth   Report
Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, British Columbia.
The attention of the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture having been directed to the
fact that the publication of the proceedings of the Central Farmers' Institute as a separate
report entailed considerable expense and consumption of valuable time, besides being in nowise
of particular benefit to the public, directs that its publication in that form be discontinued in
the future. The proceedings of the Seventh Annual Convention of the Central Farmers'
Institute is therefore embodied in the present report.
The figures which are adduced below, whilst indicating a decided advance in the popularity
of the Farmers' Institute system, as is evidenced by the large increase in number of meetings,
attendance and addresses given, show but a slight increase in membership. The most probable
hypothesis that can be advanced for this apparent paradox is the lack of the dissemination of
proper information amongst the people by the officers of Institutes regarding the terms of
membership. It not infrequently happens that the Superintendent is asked by a supposed
member why literature is not supplied, he being an Institute member. On investigation, it
generally transpires that the interrogator became a member the year previous, or perhaps
several years previously; he has never been applied to for a renewal of his subscription, and
the consequence is that his name disappears from the mailing list. Now, whilst it may be
argued that in their own interest, recognising the benefits of the Farmers' Institute system and
the value of the literature supplied, farmers should be the first to remember facts that concern
their welfare so closely, it must be borne in mind that we are all prone to relegate our responsibilities to others, and especially when we are conscious that we have duly appointed persons
whose duty, we believe, it is to look after such responsibilities. This inclination to delegate
our personal responsibilities to others seems to be peculiarly a phase of the agricultural
character, and whether in matters such as are here dilated upon or in matters of co-operation
or in representation, the farmer appears to trust his interests rather to the man who talks
loudest and longest than to himself or one of his own number. Therefore, taking these peculiar
characteristics into consideration, it should be the first duty of the officers, and particularly
the secretaries of Institutes, to take the initiative at the close of the Institute year, and,
whether by personal canvass or through the medium of properly constituted representatives,
remind people of their obligations ; and for the expenses necessarily incurred in the performance
of such duties, appropriations should be made out of the Institute funds. At meetings also,
the custom should be followed to canvass the audience, in order that all should be made
acquainted with the conditions attached to membership.
Number of
Number of
Funds on
$1,183 61
1,411 64
228 03 of Institutes.
H 6 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
An analysis of the membership shows that Victoria again heads the list with 203 ; Burrard
is second with 184; Okanagan takes third place with 157; Nanaimo follows with 144;
Metchosin, 141; Cowichan, 135; Osoyoos, 125; and North Vancouver with an even 100.
These are the only Institutes of 100 and over, and on comparison with last year it will be seen
that there was a slight falling off in the membership of Victoria, Okanagan, Nanaimo and
Metchosin, whilst Cowichan and Osoyoos held their own and Burrard materially increased its
membership; and, in fact, the total increase in membership, small as it is, is principally due
to this Institute.
The number of organised Institutes at the close of the year was 25, divided as follows :—
Lower Mainland	
Upper Mainland	
25 2,062
The figures show a decrease in the membership of the Islands and Upper Mainland and
an increase of the Lower Mainland and the North. Had the two first sections maintained
their quota of membership, the total increase would have been 140, instead of 93; but, as a
matter of fact, not only should the membership have been maintained, but it should have been
materially increased. The average membership of all the Institutes is a fraction over 82, the
Islands leading with an average of 110, against 112 for the previous year; the Upper Country
80, against 85 for the previous year, and the Lower Mainland 69, against 63 for the previous
It has been the policy to encourage as much as possible the holding of daylight outdoor
meetings for purposes of practical demonstrations in the various branches of agriculture, such
as ploughing, seeding, draining, planting, grafting, budding, pruning, operations on animals,
judging live stock, killing and dressing poultry, examination of soils, identification of weeds.
This policy has had a marked effect on the interest displayed in the meetings, with a consequent
increase of morning and afternoon meetings, and I look for a still greater interest, as the
policy thus inaugurated is further developed. The fact also has been reported by many of the
speakers, especially those who have been previously employed, that the fact alone of the close
questioning of the speakers by the audience, as compared to that of the earlier meetings, is
indicative of great advancement in thought, to say nothing of the improvement in agricultural
methods. Possibly, development in theory and practice may not have been as rapid as could
be wished, but on comparing ourselves with the older Provinces, we find that development
there was very slow for the first few years, when the Farmers' Institute system was introduced.
In the adjoining States, also, the system has been slow in taking root, and the speakers
obtained from those sections all express themselves as being very favourably impressed with
the advanced system in this Province. Under the circumstances, therefore, it would seem that
we are not the slowest to take advantage of advanced methods, and, judging from the
enquiries daily received at the Department and the improvement which is so apparant in all
branches of agriculture throughout the Province, we may fairly take heart of grace for the
future. There are other concomitant circumstances which render the successful carrying out
of the Farmers' Institute Act not only difficult but expensive, viz., the exceptional conditions
which do not exist in the other Provinces. Not the least amongst these is the problem of
The vast extent of territory which has to be covered, with the indifferent means of
transportation to many places, is alone a serious problem. Many of the points at which
meetings have to be held cannot be reached by rail or water; others can only be reached on
certain days; conveyance, therefore, has to be arranged on the best terms possible for those
points which are not touched by regular lines of communication, which naturally adds greatly
to the expense of carrying on Institute work in this Province. On the other hand, if advantage
is taken of the infrequent means of transportation, either not sufficient time is allowed to
delegates to inform themselves on the conditions of the locality, or they have to spend much
more time than is necessary. Then the factor of varied interests has to be reckoned with.
In a Province like British Columbia, with its sudden climatic changes within a few miles,
owing  to its topography and other causes, the pursuits of one section are often quite at 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 7
variance with those of an adjoining one. Therefore, in sending delegates out, it is often the
case that, whilst in part of the Institute district one set of subjects suits its conditions, other
parts may require totally different subjects; this necessitates the changing of at least one,
sometimes all, of the speakers and substituting others. The seasonal differences in the various
portions of the Province are matters which further complicate the arranging of itineraries.
Heretofore, March and April for the spring regular meetings, and September and October for
the fall regular meetings, have been selected, and those times suit some parts well, whilst for
others they are found to be quite unsuited. It is, therefore, contemplated to make a change
in the spring meetings to February and March.
The holding of supplementary meetings and the employment of local talent are, I regret
to say, matters which do not claim as much of the attention of the officers of some Institutes
as they should ; other Institutes, on the contrary, are very keen on the subject, with a corresponding access of interest in Institute matters and the consequent success of the Institute.
This is a question of paramount importance, inasmuch as it is the principal means the
Superintendent has of judging the merits of local men and their fitness for Institute work.
It has been urged with great cogency that local men, acquainted, as they necessarily are, with
local conditions should be employed in preference to those from the East. Unfortunately, for
the reason named, it is a most difficult matter to make up a delegation entirely of local men,
and I have had to fall back on the East and on the adjoining States to fill the ranks. I am
bound to admit that the men sent by the Department of Agriculture in Ottawa have proved
themselves to be exceptionally efficient, and since the fundamental principles of agriculture
are the same the world over, their lack of knowledge of local conditions is very largely counterbalanced by their knowledge of the general principles of husbandry. As for the men who are
obtained from the adjoining States, I cannot speak too highly of their attainments, and since
the conditions prevailing there are in every way similar to our own, it stands to reason that
they are able to grasp the situation most readily and, consequently, have given the utmost
satisfaction. Our local men are few and far between, most of our most successful agriculturists
being unwilling to give up the necessary time, besides being diffident of their powers on the
platform. I have, however, succeeded in inducing some local men to come forward, and, I
am pleased to say, in some cases, they have proved themselves to be exceptionally well qualified.
The addresses, however, of delegates should not be considered as lectures, but rather as
opening a discussion on the topic at issue, and this I have attempted in all cases to impress
upon audiences. Speakers are thus put at their ease, and facts are elicited which otherwise
would never be brought to light. It must be borne in mind that however gifted a person may
be, and however well posted he may be in local matters, there are always some points which
escape his attention; and, furthermore, I dare say that even the most unobservant person has
at some time or other acquired information which is of value to his fellows, and these points
can only be brought out by open discussions. It is most discouraging to a speaker, after he
has had his say and invited questions, to be merely thanked for his fine address ; he would
much rather be badgered with questions and contradicted, so as to be afforded the opportunity
of proving his case or acknowledging his error. Some disappointments have, as a matter of
course, resulted; but these are unavoidable, and when they are brought to the notice of the
Superintendent the best is done to avoid them in the future. The suggestions made by some
of the delegates, that at all regular meetings to which speakers are sent one local address
should be given, is, I consider, an excellent idea, and I shall in the future certainly act upon
this advice, whenever it is at all within the bounds of possibility. Following is a list of
speakers who gave addresses during the last year, and their subjects :—
Daniel Drummond, Ottawa—" Selection and Breeding of Dairy Stock " ; " Soil, Moisture
and Cultivation " ; " Care and Application of Manure " ; " Talks on Dairy Stable Construction
and Ventilation " ; " The importance of Selected Seed to the Farmer"; " Rotation of Crops " ;
and practical demonstrations in the following : Lessons in plowing; points in cattle; and hog
Dr. S. F. Tolmie, Victoria—" Dairying "; " Organisation and Management of Creameries ";
" Contagious Diseases of Animals " ; " Importance of using Pure Bred Sires and Treatment";
" Judging Live Stock ;" " Beef Cattle "; " Milk Fever " ; " Diseases of Swine "; " Care of the
Horse from Colthood to Market"; and practical demonstrations as follows : The horse, how
to buy and sell; soundness, how to tell the age, etc.; Judging live stock, cattle, sheep, horses
and swine. H 8 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
Professor E. R. Lake, Horticulturist, Oregon Experiment Station, Corvallis—"Commercial Orchards " ; " Varieties to Plant" ; " Pruning " ; " Budding and Grafting " ; " Cultivation
and Management of Orchards and all matters pertaining to Fruit Culture "; " High Ideals to
be aimed at."
The following references to Mr. Lake are of interest:—
The recent visit of Prof. E. R. Lake, of the Oregon Agricultural College, to British
Columbia, where he delivered addresses at a number of Farmers' Institutes at the invitation
of the Department of Agriculture^ of British Columbia, was highly appreciated by the fruitgrowers of that Province. The people of British Columbia are famous for the extent of their
hospitality in the case of invited guests, and Prof. Lake found his trip a most pleasant as well
as an interesting one. The fruit-growers of the Province insist that he go back to them at
some early future date and give them some more horticultural talks.—Oregon Agriculturist.
The following is an extract from the annual report of the Secretary of the Salmon Arm
Farmers' Institute :—" Our regular meeting held December 7-th and addressed by Prof. Lake,
Oregon, and J. R. Anderson, Victoria, was, I think, one of the best of the year, from a fruitgrowers' point of view, an open air exhibition of pruning being given by Prof. Lake in
McGuire's orchard, which was both instructive and entertaining, he afterwards addressing a
fairly large audience in the Orange Hall on all points pertaining to fruit-growing. Prof. Lake
will long be remembered at Salmon Arm, his practical demonstration of pruning having done
more for the fruit industry of this place than all the literature that has ever been read on
the subject, and I think the Government should be congratulated for having secured the
services of a man of Mr. Lake's ability and pleasing address, and if Mr. Lake should again
visit Salmon Arm I have no doubt but he will see the fruits of his practical pointers on
pruning in McGuire's orchard."
Rev. W. E. Dunham, Sapperton, B. C.—" Buildings, Fixtures and Poultry Yard Methods,"
with model illustrations ; " Incubators and Brooders," with demonstrations ; " Care of Young
Stock, Housing, Feeding, etc."; "Raising Stock for Market," illustrated type, and practical
demonstrations in killing, dressing and trussing; " Fattening Stock for Market," with detailed
comparison of methods, e. g. crates, pens and loose; " Raising Stock for Layers and Breeding
Types" and giving an excursus on the obtaining of eggs; " Best Kinds of Fowls and the
climatic conditions necessary for raising them " ; " Diseases and how to handle them."
T. T. Gadd, Vancouver, B. C.—" Care and Improvement of Dairy Herd "; " Raising
Dairy Stock"; "Care of Cream for Creamery"; "Creamery Management and Organising";
" Farm Dairying " ; " Commercial Fertilisers and their Uses " ;  " Improvement of the Soil."
G. R. Cotterelle, Milton, Ont.—" Poultry for Profit " ; " How to get Eggs in Winter or
any time " ; " Poultry Houses " ; " Hatching and Raising Chickens, Naturally and Artificially";
" Preparation for Market" ; Practical demonstrations in judging poultry.
Maxwell Smith, Dominion Fruit Inspector, Vancouver—"Fruit-Packing Question";
" Fruit Industry " ;  " Co-operation."
Thos. A. Sharpe, Supt. of Dominion Experimental Farm, Agassiz—"General Farming";
" Ensilage " ; " Fruit Farming " ;  " Live Stock " ; " Making and Saving Barnyard Manure."
Thos. Cunningham, Inspector of Fruit Pests, Vancouver—" Work of the Board of Horticulture " ; " Spraying Fruit Trees " ; Inspection of Fruit and Nursery Stock " ; " Care of
Orchards," with practical demonstrations.
Robert Thompson, St. Catharines, Ont.—" Poultry Houses and Incubators " ; " Profitable Poultry Keeping for Boys and Girls " ; " Swine Breeding and Feeding " ; " Corn for Grain
and the Silo"; " Small Fruits and Fruit Trees" ; "Gathering and Marketing Fruit"; "Successful Co-operation " ; " Cold Storage " ; " The San Jose Scale and other Orchard Pests " ;
" Home Life on the Farm "; " Future Farmers and their Education." Demonstrations—
Judging poultry; Killing and dressing of fowls ; Grafting and pruning; Points of comparison
between different varieties of apples; Points in the cultivation of roots and fruit; Fruit
gathering and packing.
Thos. McMillan, Seaforth, Ont.—" Breeding and Management of Heavy Draught Horses";
" Breeding and Feeding of Beef Cattle"; "Soil Cultivation, which includes Land Drainage
and the care of Farmyard Manure " ; " Encouragement of Canadian Agriculture " ; " The
Journey of Life "; and practical demonstrations in judging heavy horses and beef cattle.
H. G. Reed, Georgetown, Ont.—"Influence of Natural Laws in breeding of Livestock";
"The modern Harness and Saddle Horse, and how to breed them"; "The relation which 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 9
exists between improper Feeding and Disease " ; " Diseases of the Digestive System of Cattle ";
t" Milk Fever in Cows and Preventive Treatment"; "Development and Training of Young
Horses " ; Practical demonstrations from living animals; The desirable and undesirable quali-
ies; Judging horses and beef cattle ; Disease and treatment of farm stock.
J. T. Collins, Salt Spring Island—" Forage Plants" ; " Care of Milk from the Cow to the
Churn " ; Milk Testing on the Farm," with practical demonstrations.
W. J. Brandrith, Ladners—" Planting Fruit Trees."
W. F. Stewart, Eburne, B. C.—" Mutual Fire Insurance."
Thos. G. Earl, Lytton—"Varieties of Fruit Trees for Dry Belt"; " Irrigation in connection with Fruit Growing."
E. P. Venables, Vernon, B. C.—" Economic Entomology."
Major James Sheppard, Queenstown, Ont.—" Impurities in Grass and Clover Seeds " ;
" The Newer Forage Plants, Lucerne, Clover, Rape, &o. " ; " The Planting and Care of Fruit
Trees and Orchards " ; " Individuality of Fruit Trees and Plants " ; " The Utility Breeds of
Poultry " ; " The Importance of Soil Moisture and how to maintain it " ; " The Spray Pump,
and when to use it" ; " What can be done to improve the common Breeds of Cattle " ; " Tomatoes for Home and Market" ; " Good Roads " ; " Packing and Sale of Apples " ; " Propagating Fruits"; "Grafting, Budding, &c. " ; "Forty Years' Experience in Growing Corn";
" Ensilage and the Round Silo " ; " The Export Bacon Trade"; " Four Good Reasons why we
should Till the Soil " ; " Birds in relation to the Fruit Grower."
F. T. Shutt, Central Experimental Station, Ottawa—" Soil Conditions " ; " Fertilisers " ;
"Water and its influence on Vegetation";  " Soil Inoculation by Nitrogen Bacteria."
H. B. Christensen, Bella Coola—" Poultry."
A. C. Christensen, Bella Coola—" Onion Culture."
A. Hammer, Bella Coola—"Institute Matters."
Dr. J. C. Spence, Bella Coola—" Contagious Diseases of Man and Beast."
R. F. Elton, Alberni—" Creameries."
Mr. Netherby, Victoria—" What I can do for my Country."
T. W. Turnbull, Comox—" Farmers' Difficulties, and how to overcome them."
H. Clark, Sandwick—" The Horse, Care and Treatment."
S. F. Crawford, Sandwick, B. C—" Forest Tree Pests."
A. Ledingham, Grantham—"Preparation of the Soil"; "Culture, Harvesting and Storing
the Turnip Crop."
A. Urquhart, Courtenay—" Report Central Farmers' Institute."
W. C. Duncan, Duncans—" Practical Illustrations in Grafting."
Rev. George W. Taylor, Wellington—" Injurious Insects " ; " Economic Entomology."
George Deans, Victoria—"Work of the Farmers' Institute."
R. M. Palmer, Victoria—" Care of Orchards " ; " Fruit and Co-operation " ; " Soils and
Fertilisers " ; " Marketing Fruit."
B. E. Maynard, Victoria—" Chemical Fertilisers " ; " Soils and Fertilisers."
Miss Turner, Victoria—" Poultry."
R. Layritz, Victoria—" Horticulture."
W. F. Loveland, Lake District—" Creameries."
J. R. Carmichael, Victoria—" Co-operation " ; " Creameries."
G. H. Hadwen, Duncans—" Creameries versus Private Dairying."
J. R. Anderson, Victoria—" Pure Seeds " ; " Benefits of Farmers' Institutes " ; " Co-operation "; " Fruit Culture," and " Practical Demonstrations in Budding and Grafting."
J. F. Smith, Kamloops—" Creamery Data."
E. S. Wood, Kamloops—" Organisation of District under Game Act."
J. W. McCallum, Salmon Arm—"Report on Central Farmers' Institute."
D. Matheson, Armstrong—" Co-operation."
D. W. Elder, North Vancouver—" Fruit Culture " ; " Floral Culture."
W. L. Keene, North Vancouver—" Fruit Tree Planting."
Rev. Mr. Baskett, England—" General Address on Duties of Farmers."
W. C. Grant, Victoria—" Apple Packing," with practical demonstrations.
T. Brydon, Victoria—" Fruit Growing."
A. de R. Taylor, Ladner—" Piggie and his Troubles."
T. Arnould, Sardis—" Poultry."
P. H. Wilson, Chilliwhack—" Report of Central Farmers' Institute." H 10 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
F. West, Agassiz—" General Farming."
W. Anderson, Agassiz—" Live Stock."
N. T. Baker, Agassiz—"Agricultural Products."
J. Whelpton, Agassiz—" Grain Growing."
— Westrell, New Westminster—" Packages, the kind used in B. C, and why ?"
— Leslie, Kelowna—" Dairying."
J. L. Pridham, Kelowna—" Farmers' Exchange."
C. S. Smith, Kelowna—"Farmers' Exchange."
H. W. Raymer, Kelowna—" Farmers' Exchange."
R. H. Alexander, Kamloops—" Cattle Marks Act."
Theo. Wiancko, Sardis—" Economical Production of Milk " ; Proper Care of Milk and
Cream " ; " Creaming of Milk "; " Creamery Management."
H. L. Blanchard, Hadlock—" Poultry " ; " Dairying."
The reports of some of the delegates and officers of Institutes, and such of the addresses
as I have been able to obtain, here follow.
Lillooet   Farmers'   Institute.
McGillivray's, Lytton, B. C, April 21st, 1904.
A meeting of Lillooet Farmers' Institute was held here to-day. It was addressed by Dr.
S. F. Tolmie and Major Sheppard, and Alex. Lochore acted as chairman.
Dr. Tolmie's subject was the " Model Horse," of which he gave an open-air demonstration.
By the use of his subject the doctor described the points of a model horse, giving plain and
simple rules for judging him as to soundness ; described various diseases to which horses were
subject, and showed the parts that would be affected. He gave a very instructive lesson in
telling a horse's age by his teeth, and also showed how to overcome such bad habits in a horse
as wind-sucking and switching. He described some tests for lampas, and told us how to stop
a runaway or start a balky horse. He demonstrated how to examine a horse's mouth, how
to ball him, and how to drench him. Altogether, the doctor's lecture was most instructive and
was much appreciated.
Major Sheppard's topics were " Seed Testing and Fruit Culture." By the use of a chart
he showed the vitality of various samples of grass seeds that had been purchased in different
points in the Province. It was truly an eye-opener to see the difference in the various samples
and also the amount of impurities some of them contained. It was amply shown that the
users of grass seeds were being victimised to a large extent, and that the proposed legislation
on this matter was much needed. The Major's talk on fruit culture was very interesting and
profitable. By the use of a small tree he showed how to prune and train a tree for best
results. He severely condemned the practice so much in vogue of inducing young trees to
bear an overload of fruit, thereby impairing their after usefulness. He advised to plant only
a few varieties, and gave a list he thought suitable for this locality. Among them were
Yellow Transparent, Astrachan, Duchess, Wealthy, Gravenstein, Baldwin, Northern Spy,
Jonathan and Ben Davis. He named two varieties of apples (Gano and Newton Pippin) that
a member brought for identification.
After the talk there was a good discussion on methods of pruning, in which many valuable
points were brought out.
At the close, at request of some present, he gave a demonstration in grafting and budding.
There were 15 present, and great interest was manifested on the various subjects handled,
and at the close a hearty vote of thanks and an invitation to " come again " was tendered to
the speakers.
Alex. Lochore. 5 Ed. 7
Farmers' Institutes Report.
H 11
Report of Dr. Tolmie, V. S.
The Deputy Minister of Agriculture,   Victoria :
Victoria, B. C, April 25th, 1904.
Sir,—I beg to submit a report of Farmers' Institutes attended by me from March 28th
to April 22nd, inclusive.    I enclose herewith a detailed report of each meeting.
You will notice that the meetings at Spence's Bridge, Lillooet and Lytton could not be
described as a success, and it is doubtful if meetings at these points will ever be of great
importance, owing to the very limited amount of farming done in the districts surrounding
those points. I think a great improvement could be made in the general attendance of the
meetings if some means could be devised to make them more attractive, and if the secretaries
advertised them more freely.
I have, etc.,
S. F. Tolmie,  V. S.
First Report.
Mar. 28th.
„ 29th.
„ 29th.
„    30th.
„ 30th.
,; 31st.
April 1st.
/;    1st.
„     2nd.
„    12th.
„ 13th.
„ 15th.
„ 15th.
„ 16th.
„ 16th.
„ 16th.
„ 16th.
„ 18th.
„ 20th.
„ 21st.
„    22nd.
Place of
Central Park
n      ..
Agassiz . ..
Eburne .
Lulu Island
Ladners ..
East Delta
Grand Prairie
Campbell Creek
Nicola Lake.
Lower Nioola
Spence's Bridge
By whom
/Prof. Sharpe.
\S. F. Tolmie.
S. F. Tolmie ..
/Capt. Stewart
\S. F. Tolmie.
/Capt. Stewart
\S. F. Tolmie.
I Capt. Stewart
\ Mr. Maynard
(.S. F. Tolmie.
/Capt. Stewart
\S. F. Tolmie.
/Capt. Stewart
\S. F. Tolmie.
/ Capt. Stewart
\S. F. Tolmie.
/Capt. Stewart
\S. F. Tolmie.
S. F. Tolmie...
/ Capt. Stewart
\S. F. Tolmie.
S. F. Tolmie ..
S. F. Tolmie . .
S. F. Tolmie ..
S. F, Tolmie . .
/Mj. Sheppard
\S. F. Tolmie.
/Mj. Sheppard
\S. F. Tolmie.
S. F. Tolmie ..
/Mj. Sheppard
\S. F. Tolmie.
S. F. Tolmie . .
Maj'r Sheppard
S. F. Tolmie . .
/Mj. Sheppard
\S. F. Tolmie.
/Mj. Sheppard
\S. F. Tolmie.
/Mj. Sheppard
\S. F. Tolmie,
/Mj. Sheppard
\S. F. Tolmie.
Fruit \
Care of Horses /
Judging live stock...
Insurance   \
Dairying /
Insurance   \
Diseases of animals. /
Care of horse ....
Insurance   \
Dairying /
Insurance "|
Judging live stock.. /
Insurance   \
Dairying    /
Insurance ~\
Contagious diseases. /
Judging stock	
Insurance   \
Care of horse /
Contagious diseases..
Care of horse	
Fruit and seeds .... 1
Care of horse /
Fruit and seeds \
Creameries J
Judging live stock. ..
Fruit and seeds .. .. \
Contagious diseases. /
Judging stock. [ing
Demonstrat'n of Prun-
Judging stock	
Fruit and seeds.... \
Care of horse /
Fruit \
Care ot horse /
Fruit , i
Care of horse /
Judging live stock &
various stock subj'ts
8 p.m.
3    „
8    //
10 a.m.
3 p.m.
Great interest shown.
Little interest shown;
one farmer present;
Not   much interest;
two farmers present;
Great interest shown.
No meeting. H 12
Farmers' Institutes Report.
Second Report.
Nov. 21.
„ 21.
„ 22.
., 23.
„ 24.
„ 25.
„ 25.
„ 28.
„ 29.
„ 29.
Nicola Lake
Lower Nicola ..
Campbell Creek
Grand Prairie .
Points of Horse	
Care of        n      	
Points /;      	
Care //      	
Points n      	
Care «     	
tt a     	
Judging Live Stock.
Care of Horse	
Contagious Diseases.
Points of Horse.....
Care u      	
8 ,,    .
Very good meeting.
Very fair meeting.
Very good meeting.
Very fair meeting.
Very good meeting.
Very fair meeting.
Very good meeting.
Report   of  Mr.   D.   Drummond,   Ottawa.
Ottawa, October 28th, 1904.
J. R. Anderson, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
Dear Sir,—I beg leave to make the following report of my work in British Columbia •'
First fair was Comox, where I judged all the cattle, and, in company with Mr. McMillan, the
sheep and swine. The fair was an exceptionally good one for an isolated district like Comox.
We gave reasons for our decisions in a good many classes, wherever we considered it would be
advantageous. The dairy cattle are very good. At Duncans we followed the same course,
where the show was also good, especially in dairy cattle. The swine were not numerous, but
of good quality.
At Victoria I judged the dairy cattle also, and must congratulate you on the exhibit
there, some of the animals being of outstanding merit, and would give a good account of themselves at any fair in any country.
In company with Mr. Thompson, I attended the following meetings of Farmers'
Institutes :—
Gabriola—25 present; interest good.
Comox—20 present; interest good ; discussion.
ii 25        ii       discussion.
Parksville—28 present; keen discussion.
Alberni—22 present; fair interest.
Harewood School-house—26 present; good meeting.
Wellington—24 present; good meeting.
Westholme—No meeting arranged for.
Duncans—Afternoon, 30 present; demonstration and talk about plowing. Evening, 50
present; first-class meeting.
Cobble Hill—8 present; raining.
North Vancouver—30 present; good meeting.
Central Park—35 present; excellent meeting.
Slough School-house, Richmond—12 present; good discussion.
Eburne—15 present; good discussion.
Thanking you and the various Secretaries for their kindness,
I remain, yours truly,
D. Drummond. 5 Ed. 7
Farmers' Institutes Report.
H 13
Report  of  Mr.   R.   Thompson.
J. R. Anderson, Esq.
Dear Sir,—I am leaving for the  East
Vancouver, October 19th, 1904.
on the evening train. I am pleased that
I stopped for the two meetings here, in North Vancouver and Central Park, as the first
day we had a good attendance in the afternoon at the demonstrations given on pruning
and grafting, and the evening meetings were well attended and the people very anxious to
learn anything in regard to fruit growing, poultry and gardening. I am sorry that the meetings have had to stop, owing to the elections. Even in the last three we find that political
gatherings the nights previous, or next evening, interfered greatly with the attendance, so that
it was wisdom on your part to call them off. I am just learning the conditions of your
Province and the requirements as to suitability of varieties to your climate and soil. Should
you, in arranging for your later series of meetings throughout the district, require my services,
I would arrange so that I could give what time you require. I will send in a full report of
the meetings and attendance, as well as my expenses and account, a few days later.
You have a great future before you in every way   throughout this Province.    I feel so
sure of this that I have caught the western fever and purchased some land.
I remain, yours,
Robt. Thompson.
Institute Meetings attended by Messrs. D. Drummond and R. Thompson.
Gabriola  .
Harewood (Nanaimo)
Duncans ...
Cobble Hill	
North Vancouver.
Central Park.
Afternoon.    Evening.
Subjects given by
Mr. Thompson.
Poultry Raising	
Future Farmer and His
Successful Co-operation.
Poultry and Fruit	
(No meeting)	
Home Life and Fruit . .
Pruning and Grafting . .
Poultry (evening)	
No questions asked but
those present seemed
Plenty of questions.
Every one very busy; in
the afternoons we went
out to some farms and
talked pruning, etc.
A fine meeting, many
A good meeting, good
The best meeting of series
on the Island.
A small meeting ; we went
out to a cheese factory
and met in the afternoon.
The Secretary of this
district should be more
This was a good meeting ;
in the afternoon Mr.
Drummond talked
ploughing and I had
orchard work.
A very wet day and meeting a failure.
Demonstration in orchard.
Fine meeting and good
people; a good, live district and Institute.
Another fine meeting and
peeple seemed to be
very much interested. H 14 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
I believe you should insist on the people holding afternoon meetings wherever possible, as
they help to get up interest and a better meeting in the evenings, and if possible get them to
have one local paper.
Yours, Robt. Thompson.
Delegates'   Report.
J. R. Anderson, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture,
Victoria, B. C.
Dear Sir,—The undersigned delegates to Farmers' Institute meetings through Metchosin,
Victoria, Islands, Delta and Surrey Districts, beg to report as follows :—
We found the Institute officers uniformly kind and attentive, every reasonable provision
having been made for our reception and comfort.
Owing to the fact that our instructions demanded our presence in Ladner on October
14th, to judge at Delta fair, and the opinion that the boats could not be relied upon to land
us there in due time, the Islands Executive deemed it advisable to cancel the Pender and
Mayne Islands meetings, which was accordingly done.
The attendance was as follows :—
Sooke—Evening, 61.
Metchosin—Afternoon, 15 ; evening, 85.
Colwood—Evening, 50.
Gordon Head—Evening, 26; great interest and good discussion.
Royal Oak—Evening, 17.
Sidney—Evening, 18.
Ganges Harbour—Afternoon, 8 ; evening, 19.
Fulford Harbour—Evening, 17.
Ladner—Evening, 30 ; very good meeting ; great interest.
East School-house—Evening, 23.
Surrey—Evening, 7.
Mud Bay—Evening, 0 ; drove out six miles ; no audience.
Clayton School-house—Afternoon, 7.
Cloverdale School-house—Evening, 25.
A good interest was manifested at the various meetings, the great weakness being, as the
attendance indicates, that the farmers generally do not seem to be sufficiently alive to the
importance of meeting together, discussing their own requirements and thus benefiting from
the knowledge and experience of each other, and, as a consequence, fail to put in an appearance.
We may also say there is strong evidence to warrant the belief that the prevailing idea in
turning out to the meetings is not to benefit from the experience of each other, but to hear
what is to be said by the visiting delegation. This, we consider, a great mistake, as although
delegates, in coming from a distance, may be able to give information of a general nature,
yet there is no one who can give the same practical and valuable information as men who have
been successful in the different localities, as they certainly understand the nature of the soil,
the climate and local conditions more thoroughly than any outsider can possibly do; and in
order to emphasise this feature of Institute work, which is the most important side, and the
one which seems to be the most neglected at present, we would suggest that a demand be made
(and, if possible, enforced) to require, as a start, that at least one local paper or address be read
or delivered by some successful local man at each meeting, in order, if possible, to bring out
and develop local talent, which is no doubt to be found in every locality if an earnest effort is
made to develop it. From all we could see in our journey through the various districts the
pressure of farm work is not so great as to prevent afternoon sessions being held. Even the
farmers themselves, generally, seem to have plenty of time to hunt and shoot, and if they have
the required interest in their own calling they can certainly afford an afternoon at the Institute.
If an attendance at the afternoon sessions cannot be obtained it would appear to be strong
proof that the farmers themselves are not sufficiently enthusiastic in their own calling to make
it as successful as it otherwise would be. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Itstitutes Report. H 15
Although valuable information upon agricultural questions is no doubt distributed through
the Department, of Agriculture, yet we are constrained to report that never once have we
heard reference made to the instruction contained therein. Why is this 1 Must we conclude
that farmers of British Columbia, as a class, are not a reading people 1 Or is it the fact that
those engaged in the pursuit of agriculture in this Province are so successful that they do not
require to peruse information upon these matters 1
We must realise that farming in this country has now assumed the status of a profession,
and in order to be fully successful we must exercise our brains as well as our hands, and in so
doing strive to vindicate our pre-eminence as members of the great and all-important industry
of this country ; that industry which is the forerunner of the other great movements which
hinge upon and depend upon it. Those other industries do not spring up in a country first;
but when once agriculture, in its various forms and phases, begins to become developed, it sets
in operation those other great movements ; hence the great necessity of every reasonable effort
being made to further advance the great foundation industry of this country.
Thos. McMillan,
H. G. Reed.
Matsqui Farmers' Institute.
Secretary's Report.
Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Matsqui Farmers' Institute :
I have great pleasure in submitting to you the annual report of the Matsqui Farmers'
Institute for the year 1904. The number of members for the year who paid their subscriptions
was 37. Sixteen have joined since October last, which entitled them for membership through
the year 1905. The Government grant for the year was only $11.50, this being caused by
remitting it early and the fact of so many joining so late in the year; this leaves a balance
owing to the Institute by the Department of $7, to be carried and sought payment for
another year. There were five meetings held during the year, namely, three in the municipal
hall, and two in the hall at the school-house, Matsqui. The spring meetings held in this hall
on Friday and Saturday, April 15th and 16th, were addressed, respectively, by Captain
Stewart on " Mutual Fire Insurance"; Mr. Cunningham on " Fruit-growing and Spraying for
Insect Pests "; and Mr. J. Arnold on " Poultry-keeping." The first days were attended by
15 persons, and the second day only by 8. The sparseness of attendance at these spring
meetings doubtless, in a great measure, is due to occurring at a season when all are busy
putting in their spring crop, and resolutions were adopted to have these meetings changed to
about the first week in June. The fall meetings were held on the 29th and 30th November;
one meeting in the hall in the afternoon of the" 29th, when 24 persons were in attendance.
An address on this occasion was delivered by the Rev. Mr. Dunham, on " Buildings, Fixtures,
and Poultry-yard Methods "; and on Wednesday, November 30th, two addresses were given, in
the afternoon and evening, at the school-house, Matsqui, when the former gentlemen addressed
the audience, composed of 25 persons, on " Poultry-keeping and Practical Demonstrations of
Killing and Dressing Poultry," and in the evening Mr. T. T. Gadd gave an address to 60 persons
on " How to Improve the Dairy Herd." A good many points of importance were discussed at
all these meetings on agriculture and how to render best practical aid to the farmer and
Death, being no respecter of persons, was attendant in the families of no less than three
of our members during the year, claiming first the beloved wife of our president, next the
youngest son of one of our executive officers, Mr. White, and, lastly, the beloved father of two
of our Institute members. Notes of condolence were moved by this Institute and forwarded
to members of the bereaved families and the same ordered spread on the minutes.
The President has presided at every meeting of the Institute. The Institute, desiring to
show its appreciation of the services of the Mount Lehman Farmers' Club in its work, and for
their encouragement and support and aid in assisting to clear foot-ball grounds, donated to
them the sum of $20 for Dominion day celebration sports, which was received and the best
thanks of the club returned for the same.
The financial affairs of the Institute, I am glad to say, Mr. President and gentlemen, are
not at all embarrassing, though not able to show quite so large a balance as last year, which H 16 Farmers' Institutes Report. 190E
was $51.23 ; this year it is $46.38, with, as before stated, a balance due from the Government
of $7, which would bring the amount up to $53.38; and $20 noted as just named would have
brought the sum total to $73.38; and during the year just entered upon, doubtless, steps will
be taken to put the Institute in a more practical and prosperous condition by utilising a
portion of this amount left on hand. The expenses in connection with the work for the year,
including the $20 appropriated, is the sum of $34.85, which includes an item of 50 cents
brought forward from the year 1903.
The Dominion of Canada very kindly forwarded a case of 100 bottles containing samples
of noxious and other grass and cereal seeds, for the use of the Institute members, when the
charge of $2 was requested in part payment, which was forwarded, and which are for the free
use of its members. Many samples of seeds have been taken from some of the local stores
and sent to Ottawa for analysis, with the result that one sample of 1 lb. of chop feed
contained over 16,000 of four different kinds of noxious seeds, and one other sample over
1,000. Further selections are asked to be made, in order to bring some of those unscrupulous
seed merchants to a point where it will be made criminal to deal with them. The Government
of the Dominion expresses a strong desire to deal with the question in some stringent manner.
Mr. President, executive officers and gentlemen, I desire to place on record my thanks to
you all for your assistance in helping to keep the Institute to its present state of efficiency,
which report I humbly beg to submit.
J. Ball, Secretary.
Surrey Farmers' Institute.
Secretary's   Report.
Mr. President and Gentlemen,—In presenting my report for 1904, I am pleased to
report that our membership is still increasing, it being 72 against 66 in 1903, but, at the
same time, I have to report that the total attendance at meetings, including the annual
meeting, was only 140. This small attendance, to a certain extent, was caused by the regular
spring meetings being held during the rush of seeding time, and the regular fall meetings being
during the political campaign.
In the spring I obtained about half a ton of clover seed for the members, of which I have
sent samples to the seed-testing department at Ottawa, the report of which I will give you
during the meeting. I also procured one ton of binder twine from the Government binder
twine works at Kingston, for a couple of our members, which I am pleased to say, gave good
Following is the list of meetings, speakers and subjects treated of :—
April 11th and 12th.—Cloverdale, Surrey Centre, Mud Bay ; T. Cunningham, "Fruit";
J. Arnold, " Poultry " ; Capt. Stewart, " Mutual Fire Insurance."
October 19th and 20th.—Surrey Centre, Clayton and Cloverdale; Dr. H. G. Reed,
" Diseases of the Digestive System of Cattle," " Milk Fever of Cows and Preventative Treatment," " Influence of Natural Laws in the Breeding of Live Stock;" W. J. Brandrith,
" Poultry,"  " Fruit-Growing in British Columbia and North-West Markets."
December 3rd.—Tynehead, Rev. W. E. Dunham, " Poultry " ; T. T. Gadd, " Dairying."
H. Bose, Secretary.
Bella Coola Farmers Institute.
President's Report.
Bella Coola, January 21st, 1905.
Ladies and Gentlemen,—I have the honour of presenting to you my first report. This
being the second annual meeting of this Institute, it is still in its infancy. Nevertheless,
Institute work is progressing quite well. Considering the isolation of the place and many
other difficulties we have met with, I am pleased to say that the farms are improving as the
clearings are gradually becoming larger, and numerous fruit trees are replacing the timber.
Nearly all the orchards were sprayed and taken good care of during the last season. Still, I
am sorry to say, I have seen an orchard badly infested with the oyster-shell bark louse and 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 17
no doubt many other injurious insects which I could not see with the naked eye. Whether
this orchard was sprayed or not, I could not say. In this case, I think something should be
done to prevent the pest from spreading.
On September 1st a regular meeting was held, and we had the pleasure of listening to
Mr. J. R. Anderson, Deputy Minister of Agriculture. Unfortunately, quite a number of the
people were down at the cannery, fishing, and unable to attend ; nevertheless, 35 persons
attended the meeting.    Mr.  Anderson gave us  a splendid address on " General Farming."
Three supplementary meetings were held during the year, with a total attendance of 83.
The subjects treated at these meetings were, " Contagious Diseases of Man and Beast," by
Dr. J. C. Spencer ; " Poultry," by H. B. Christensen ; " Onion Culture," by A. C. Christensen ;
and a summary of Mr. J. R. Anderson's address by the Secretary, A. Hammer.
The Board of Directors held two meetings and arranged for holding an exhibition on
October 29th. I am pleased to say the exhibition proved a great success. Considering we
have had a very dry summer the products were of good size and quality. Prizes were awarded
as follows :—
The best collection of farm produce—first prize, $2; second prize, $1.
The best collection of fruit—first prize, $2 ; second prize, $1.
The best collection of roots—first prize, $1 ; second prize, 50 cents.
Best quality of butter—first prize, $1; second prize, 75 cents.
Best oats—first prize, 50 cents.
Fifty cents was awarded as first prize for largest size and best quality of the following
products :—Plums, apples, potatoes, carrots, beets, onions, turnips, cabbage, parsnip, mangles,
squash and marrow.
The exhibition idea I consider to be a very good one, and would suggest that the Institute
encourage this matter in the future.
In regard to the stumping powder question, I am heartily in favour of the resolution
passed at the Central Farmers' Convention last year. The question was threshed out quite
thoroughly, and I hope that the aid asked for will be granted. If we could obtain powder at
a reasonable cost we might get rid of our stumps; but to pay $8 a box is an enormous price.
Consequently many have to leave their farms and go out and make a living elsewhere.
We appreciate very much the abundance of literature supplied by the Department. I
consider this the mainstay of our Institute.
In conclusion, I wish to express my sincere thanks to you all for the aid and interest
shown in the past, and I hope that our Institute, isolated as it is, will do much to promote
farming and improve this our beloved country.
G. B. Olson,
Care and. Feeding of the Horse.
By H. Clark, Comox^
The horse is the noblest and most intelligent of all the dumb animals, but, I am sorry to
say, he has to take a position in this part of the Province beneath that to which he is entitled.
To be successful with horses, we must study their natural requirements. When they are
left to run wild in their native state, they seldom have any ailments. The uses to which we
put the horse and the poor treatment he receives from man are the cause of the most of his
ailments. Feeding and care of a horse have a great deal to do with his general health. How
should we feed a horse to keep him in good health ? In the summer time, if he is not working
and is out on the grass and has plenty of pure water, we will have no difficulty whatever,
but if he is working and kept in and fed on dry feed, it will require a little more attention
and study on our part to keep him in good health. The proper way is, before we feed at
morning, noon, or at night, to water the horse, then feed hay, and the grain comes last. It
would be better if he was not allowed to eat any hay after he has finished his oats, before
going to work. One-half of the feed for the day should be fed at night, because it is injurious
to a horse to work him on a full stomach. The dust should be well shaken out of the hay and
then dampened with water before given to the horse, as dusty hay has a tendency to give a
horse the heaves, and never feed a horse musty hay or grain if you want to keep him in a
healthy condition. H 18 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
The quantity of feed which a horse should get depends mostly on the capacity of the
horse and the work he is asked to do. Hay and oats are the staple foods for a horse, but
those two are not enough ; he must have some laxative food also, such as wheat, bran, or
carrots. I know of nothing better for a horse than a few carrots every day. A horse, when
not at work, needs proper exercise, but don't turn him out on a cold day and have him stand
with his back turned up against the cold wind, because he is liable to catch cold ; and, anyway,
it does not pay, because it takes the fat off him, makes his hair stand up on end, and gives
the horse a rough appearance. It will also cause him to eat twice as much hay when he is
brought in again. It is not a wise plan, when feed is so dear as it is here in Comox, to leave
your horses out in the cold in the winter time, because it makes them poor, gives them a rough
coat, and causes them to eat more food than if they were kept warm and comfortable. A
horse also, when in the stable, needs plenty of pure air. It is better to use a light blanket in
cold weather than to have your stable too warm ; but you must remember a blanket will
never take the place of a curry-comb and brush in the matter of grooming a horse, because a
horse well-groomed daily will look slicker and cleaner than a horse blanketed and not groomed
at all. It appears to me that few people here in Comox realise the value of the comb and
brush. They think that as long as they get off the little particles of manure that adhere to
horses when they lie down at night, that is all that is necessary. That is a great mistake. It
pays big to groom your horses well.
Another great mistake that people used to make, and perhaps some still make, is in not
watering the horse when he needs it. When a horse works half a day or is driven a few
hours, he should be watered before he gets anything to eat, no matter how warm he is. It
makes no difference. It is safe to water him. It is cruel not to water him ; and if the horse
could talk he would use pretty loud language about this time if you refused to give him water.
I can temember when mostly every person was of the opinion that to give the horse water
when hot was something terribly wrong; but if they only knew it, they were doing something
that was radically worse. They would put him in the stable and feed him, maybe his tongue
that dry that he could hardly masticate his food, and doing the horse much more harm than if
they watered him. The way to water a horse when he is hot is to let him have a few swallows,
then stop him and make him hold his head up; then, after a few seconds, let him have five or
six swallows more and stop him again; and after a few seconds more you can let him have a
gallon or two more, which is a sufficient quantity for a horse at any time. Be sure and not
allow him to drink all he wants, for if you do there is sure to be danger of him hurting himself ;
and immediately after watering give him some hay to eat, and never give grain until he has
rested a while, as there is much more danger in giving the horse grain than water. A good
plan, after a very hard drive, is to walk the horse around a while after getting home, so as he
will cool off gradually ; then, after taking him into the stable, rub dry with a wisp of straw
or a bran sack ; ■ afterwards blanket him, and always be sure and not leave a wet blanket on
all night, as it would be liable to injure him.
In buying a farm horse, always try and get a horse about the size that you require to do
your work. If your horse is too big, you lose considerable every year by keeping that horse.
It will require a great deal more to keep him, and also he won't do as much work in the same
time as a smaller horse would do. On the other hand, if the horse is too light, you all know
the result; he won't do the work at all. A horse that weighs from twelve to thirteen hundred
is a good weight for any ordinary farm work.
Another very important point is the treatment of the horse before he is a horse, that is,
when he is a colt, as the quality of the horse depends a great deal upon how he was fed and
treated when he was a colt. The colt should be kept growing and in a thrifty condition, and
the only way to do this is to see that its mother has plenty of good food and worked as little
as possible. As soon as he will eat a little oats give him a little, and continue giving him a
little, not chop or bran or other soft foods, because there is nothing that will give him muscle
like the oats, and we all know that muscle is the main thing in the horse. A small horse
with lots of muscle is far stronger than a great big horse with little muscle. We don't want
great, big, soft overgrown horses without muscle ; we want a good, hard, solid, compact horse
with lots of muscle. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 19
Milk Fever in Cows and Preventive Treatment.
By H. G. Reed, Georgetown, Ont.
Milk fever is a disease peculiar to cows at time of calving, and especially to those of the
improved milk breeds. The premonitory symptoms are slight, the attack sudden, and the
course of the disease rapid. Heavy milking cows in good condition are the most likely to
become affected, although animals in moderate, or even poor, condition sometimes develop the
disease, provided they are heavy milkers and have been well fed for a few weeks before coming
in. It is one of the most fatal diseases that farm stock suffer from, and it is only within the
last few years that it has been very successfully treated, even by the veterinary profession;
consequently, in my opinion, no farmer is justified in attempting treatment. But although
curative treatment is often unsatisfactory, too much stress cannot be laid on preventive
measures, and the careful farmer will seldom or never have milk fever in his herd.
Preventive Treatment.
Cows, such as above described, should have no stimulating food, such as pea meal or
corn meal, or indeed any kind of meal, for at least two weeks before calving. Feed the cows
on clover hay, silage or other succulent food, with a few roots. It is of the utmost importance
that the bowels are kept relaxed, and boiled flaxseed or linseed meals help to answer the purpose. If the animal is in a condition favourable to an attack of this disease, it is good
practice to give a dose of purgative medicine, such as from one to two pounds of Epsom salts,
once a week for a few weeks before coming in, and give another dose as soon as she has calved.
Give no stimulating food for at least a week after calving. Keep the animal dry and warm,
as a chill always predisposes to the disease, and in cold weather take the chill off the drinking
The best dairymen do not milk the udder out dry for the first few days and claim that,
as a consequence, they have less milk fever than formerly. Many farmers think that cows are
safe from an attack if running at pasture. This is a mistake, as abundant juicy pasture, such
as may be found in many parts of British Columbia, is unsafe, and the animal should be
removed to poorer pasture for some weeks before coming in.
Curative Treatment.
On no account attempt to drench the animal with anything; the patient has almost
always lost the power of swallowing, and any fluid poured into the mouth is likely to run into
the lungs, and if not causing death at once, it will likely set up inflammation of those organs
later on. The most up-to-date treatment consists in injecting the udder full of pure oxygen
gas. This treatment has proved more successful in the hands of veterinary surgeons than any
yet discovered, and some surgeons have been using ordinary atmospheric air, injected by an
instrument specially made which sterilizes the air.
Small Fruit and Fruit Trees.
By Robert Thompson, St. Catharines, Ont.
In speaking of this subject in British Columbia, I can only do so on the principal points,
which I feel sure will be applicable to your conditions. I have noticed a few things in regard
to apples and pears in particular, that is, the fact that certain varieties of these fruits are very
much better flavoured than others, and seem to be better adapted to your climate. Take
pears, for instance. The Louise Bonne de Jersey is very fine flavoured, while you have quite
a number of varieties that are, as one gentleman said, only fit to feed to the hogs—hard, woody,
and of no flavour. This, of course, is found in every country to a greater or less extent, some
varieties doing better on one soil and some on another. I will divide this subject into several
headings, so you can remember them better, viz.: 1st, The site for the orchard; 2nd, The
preparation and planting; 3rd, Care of the trees later. II 20 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
1st—The site. A good deal depends on where you are located and the varieties you are
inclined to plant, as some varieties are better suited to gravelly and light soil and others to
heavy soil. There is, also, the spring frosts to be considered. If you are in a section of the
country where you are liable to have your early blossoms, or even the early buds, hurt by frost,
or even where no danger from frost arises, it is not much advantage to have your trees bud
out too soon and therefore I would prefer a northern, western or eastern slope to a southern ;
but whatever the slope, the land must be well drained. I cannot impress on you too strongly
the importance of having orchard or fruit land well drained. Some varieties of trees will live
and do fairly well for a time on wet soil, but they will be short-lived and never profitable.
2nd—Preparation of soil and planting. I would insist on the ground being well prepared
the previous year, so as to have the soil in a good state of cultivation and fairly well enriched,
so the trees will have a good start. In selecting your tre'es, I would prefer to buy from a
reliable nursery near home, if possible. Failing that, then only buy from some well-known
reliable firm, never from an irresponsible or unknown agent. Have your trees delivered in
the early spring, or if in your climate that should be impossible, then in the fall. I always
prefer spring planting. Insist on getting young, well-grown stock, preferably two-year-old
apple, pear, plum or cherry trees. These will make a better start than older trees. Trim off
all broken or bent limbs and roots, as a bruised or injured root or limb left on the tree is only
a detriment. Do not make the mistake of planting too many varieties; beginners nearly
always make this mistake. In apples do not plant over say 10 varieties, and I would say
even this is too many. Among the varieties that do well with you is the Wealthy, King,
Jonathan and Salome. Do not plant too large an orchard the first year ; work into it steadily;
then you will be more apt to succeed. Give your trees plenty of room; the majority of
growers plant too closely. If you wish to get fruit early, you might plant every other tree
with a quick-bearing variety, to be taken out later, but this, as a rule, is not to be recommended. Make the hole for planting large and deep enough, so that you may have some
loose earth in the bottom, and raise it in the centre, so that when you place the tree in the
hole it will rest on this mound, and when the earth is put in and tramped the roots will be a
little down on the outside of the hole. Firm the earth well around the roots and tree until
within two or three inches of the surface, then leave this loose to prevent evaporation. The
tree should stand, when finished, an inch or two deeper than in the nursery.
3rd—Care of the trees later. The success and profit of the orchard in after years depends
largely on the care the trees receive while young. A tree, like an animal, has a life, and we
can improve or injure that life according to the amount of food and care we give it when
young. Stock-raisers, as a rule, recognise the importance of keeping their young animals
growing and thrifty right from the start; but I fear that too many of our fruit-growers have
yet to learn that it is equally important with the young tree. If we let it get stunted in its
early years for want of cultivation or lack of plant food, it will rarely make a profitable tree
afterwards. Cultivation is essential in the early summer until the growth is well started and
moisture secured in the soil, but it must not be continued too late, or the young growth will
not have time to mature and ripen. Pruning must be attended to while the tree is growing,
so as to keep the top open and perfectly balanced and the long shoots shortened back. When
the tree begins to bear, do not allow it to overload, and as it grows older I would try and
replace the old branches with younger wood year by year. Spraying is as necessary as cultivation and manuring.
It is unnecessary to say much now, but before stopping I must say that I am very strongly
impressed with the possibilities of your country, for the production of certain fruits. First,
the strawberry; it grows as nowhere else. Then your cherry and plum trees make a growth
that astonishes any one from the East. If I were here I would go into plum-growing, because
you have the whole of the North-west for your market, and I would not be surprised to see
your prunes shipped into the cities of Ontario, because they carry and look so well. The
possibilities of fruit-growing in British Columbia are beyond estimation, and it only remains
with yourselves to develop it by selecting and growing the best varieties and in the best way
and putting them in the market in the best shape. In conclusion, I would say there is a great
future in store for fruit-growers in British Columbia. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 21
Soil Cultivation and Crop-Rotation.
By Thos. McMillan, Seaporth, Ont.
By soil cultivation we mean that system of operation by which we are able to produce the
different crops which we grow. In the first place, we must realise that the plants which we
grow are composed of many elementary substances which require to be supplied to the plant in
order to enable it to obtain perfect maturity. We must also realise that the source of plant
food is two-fold—some of its food is obtained from the atmosphere and some from the soil.
The elements which constitute the atmosphere remain practically the same ; with the soil,
however, it is somewhat different; its condition depends, first, upon its original composition;
secondly, upon the course of treatment to which it is subjected.
Practical and successful farmers realise that it is quite possible to work their lands in such
a way and subject them to such a system of rotation that in a very few years they will cease
to produce a profitable return; therefore, it is a matter of vital importance that our lands be
tilled in such a way and subjected to such a system of rotation that they will yield the largest
possible return from year to year.
In discussing any system of cultivation, their are two underlying principles which, to bear
in mind, will aid us greatly : First—No matter how rich a soil may naturally be, there is
very little, probably not more than one per cent., of its plant food in a fit condition at any one
time for the plants to feed upon it; that is, that the great percentage is in what we might call
a tied-up, unavailable condition, and is only gradually made soluble and ready for the food of
plants by the action of the air, moisture, heat and manure. Second—Although the plants
which we grow are composed of many different elements, which require to be supplied, yet it
has been proved by careful investigation, that with proper cultivation, all ordinary soils contain
an abundant available supply of all the elements of plant food for an indefinite period of crop
production, with the exception of three elements; therefore, the question of maintaining and
increasing the fertility of soils becomes much simplified, from the fact that it resolves itself
down to the consideration and supplying of these three elements, which are known to scientists
as Nitrogen, Phosphoric Acid and Potash, and the great secret of plant-growing is to know
how to liberate and husband these elements in the soil and apply them in the shape of fertilisers.
To secure their liberation, a chemical action in the soil requires to be kept up during the
whole season of growth. This process is induced, mainly, by the action of the oxygen of the
air getting in and through the soil, and coming in contact with its various particles; and
requires for its perfect action a soil which is porous, warm and moist. The better the condition
of our soil, the more porous and less adhesive will the soil particles be; and thus, the greater
the soil surface which will be exposed to the action of the air which penetrates it. This being
so, we can readily understand the deterimental effect of an overplus of surface water in our
soil, as water is a poor conductor of heat, and the heat which would otherwise be used in
warming the land is engaged in evaporating the water which is at or near the surface; therefore, the first requisite of proper cultivation is to get rid of this surface water by a system of
thorough underdrainage. Once the land is properly drained we may proceed, resting tolerably
assured that it will respond to a proper system of cultivation, which includes all the ordinary
operations, such as ploughing, harrowing, rolling, and anything else which is done in order to
bring the soil into a proper condition of tilth for receiving the seed. The first effect of
ploughing is to give to our soil a greater looseness and mellowness of surface; it also enables
the rain water to come evenly in contact with its various particles, increases the ability of the
soil to retain moisture at or near the surface, and allows the small fibrous rootlets to penetrate
the soil and search for food.
In discussing soil cultivation more minutely, reference should be had to the system of
rotation of crops which is followed. In fact any method of cultivation followed must depend
upon the system of rotation ; therefore, no system of cultivation can be properly or profitably
discussed without taking the rotation into consideration. Every farmer should have in his
mind some definite system of rotation which he seeks to follow from year to year, for two
reasons ; first, to destroy all noxious weeds; second, to economise the elements of plant food
to be found in the soil and applied in the shape of manures.
The following rotation would be a profitable one for the grain-growing and stock-
keeping farmer : First year, clover hay, to be followed by oats and peas. Roots and potatoes,
or more preferably corn, roots and potatoes, to be followed the  third year by the different H 22 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
grain crops (oats, barley, or wheat), seeding the land to clover and grass seeds (such as rye grass
or orchard grass) along with the grain. If pasture is also desired in the rotation the clover
sod might be allowed to lie for another year, the rye or orchard grass furnishing the pasture.
Method of cultivation for above rotation : In the fall, after removing clover crop or
pasturing for one year, plow down the aftergrowth just deep enough to cover the sod well and
have sufficient surface soil to make a good seed-bed, say four or five inches deep ; manure on
the surface during winter, and when springtime comes cultivate the surface soil into a firm
mellow tilth, plant the corn, root and potato crops in season, and during the whole period of
their growth keep up such a continuous system of surface cultivation as will preserve a mulch
of the surface soil, thus preventing needless evaporation of soil moisture and effectually
destroying all noxious weed seeds, which would otherwise sprout and grow to maturity.
After keeping up the thorough cultivation indicated during the growth of the corn and
root crops, the land should be prepared for the following grain crop by such a system of cultivation as will retain the surface soil on the surface ; hence, do not plow in the fall but work
the soil with a cultivator with narrow points, which can be put down deeply, thus retaining
the surface soil on top and at the same time loosening the subsoil. Before seeding the following
spring, cultivate seed-bed into a mellow tilth and plant grain and grass seeds, always bearing
in mind that the clover plant should be kept growing on our lands as much as possible.
Clover is the great foundation crop of successful agriculture. Why 1 Because as a
legume it has the ability to draw the nitrogen from the atmosphere, and by means of its long
tap root draw the mineral matters (phosphates and potash) from the subsoil, thus storing
these elements (which are the only ones we require to consider, excepting lime in soils which
are deficient in limestone) up in its structure, where they are held in its stubble and rootlets
for the benefit of the other crops which we grow.
To such an extent do the farmers of Great Britain value the clover plant that there
are, annually, large quantities of clover seed bought in America and shipped to Britain for
their use. The foremost of British farmers are a class of men who have a keen eye to their
own business; they are not backward in taking advantage of anything which they find will
benefit them, and it will well repay Canadian farmers to take a leaf from their book in this
respect and grow clover on their lands as extensively as possible.
Questions and Answers.
Q.—Explain what is meant by underdraining. Would not the removal of the surface
water by a network of water-furrows on the surface be just as efficient ?
A.—No. The scientific farmer realises that, in removing the surface water, it should be
drawn not off the land, but down through the soil. In doing this, we are simply imitating
the process of nature as shown in our very best soils, which are underlain by a pervious subsoil, when the rainwater as it falls gradually finds its way in and through the soil, sinking
where it falls, carrying with it the warmer temperature of the air into the soil; carrying also
the elements of plant food which it brings down from the atmosphere to the roots of plants,
and then passing off from under, leaving its space for the air itself, that great element upon
which the very life of vegetation depends.
Q.—Should drains be put down deeply in heavy clay soil ?
A.—Not more than two feet deep. In soils which are lighter and more open, the tile
may be buried somewhat deeper.
Q.—Should land be ploughed deep 1
A.—Land should not be ploughed deeper than five or six inches, but the subsoil should
be stirred deeply with some implement, a grubber or subsoiler or some other implement which,
while doing this, will keep the surface soil on top.
Q.—Do you recommend spring ploughing of land for a grain crop 1
A.—Certainly not. Land should be ploughed in the fall and just cultivated upon the
surface in spring. More particularly in a dry summer climate, if land upon which grain is to
be sown is ploughed deeply in spring, there is great danger of the soil drying out as far down
as the plough has gone.
Q.—Can you give any estimate of the quantity of water required to mature a crop of
grain 1
A.—Laws & Gilbert, of Rothamsted, England, have found that 114.860 gallons of water
is required to carry one acre of wheat or barley from the commencement of its growth to
maturity, and that it takes 500 lbs. of water to mature 1 To. of oat grain. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 23
By Prop. E. R. Lake, Horticulturist, Oregon Agricultural College and
Experiment Station, Corvallis, Oregon.
Don't go into orchard work unless you love trees and possess an insatiable appetite for
fruit. Orchards never yield immediate results, and sometimes one waits many years for them
to make profitable returns.
But if one possesses true tree-love, uses ordinary judgment in planting, and waits
patiently, he will reap his reward. When once you have planted, never cease giving the trees
the best of care and constant attention. Don't get discouraged because diseases and pests
appear, but fight them like you do a political opponent, with spirit and dash. Don't envy
your neighbour his success, but adopt such practices as he finds successful and apply them just
a little more effectively than he does. Don't keep constantly striving to compete with your
fellow in another district, but rather find out what your section can produce most advantageously and push that.
Read liberally of the horticultural press ; attend the conventions ; compete at the fairs
and exhibitions, and every where, on every occasion, with or without provocation, proclaim
the merits of your own district. Never waste a moment decrying the merits of the other
fellow's bailiwick.
The fruit-grower must do much brain-work. The more brains used in making a fruit-crop
the greater the returns in dollars. In fact, orchard work is largely head-work. The multitude
of topics that must be given close thought before manual operations can be intelligently or
successfully carried out is alarming in the extreme to the man who does not contemplate that
in the building and fruitage of an orchard there is a mental battle, an everlasting brain-
struggle. One must study the general principles of plant growth, soil functions and insect
life, and innumerable special questions like pollination, bacterial activities in soil, water and
plant tissues, the effect of mineral foods upon colour, flavour and keeping qualities, composition
of sprays and spraying materials, the mechanics of spraying devices, methods of application,
either separately or combined, etc., etc., for all time.
" Seed time and harvest," in orcharding, must be paraphrased to " Planting time is
harvest," for forthwith one begins to harvest a crop of exciting, stimulating questions. In
truth, this harvest really antedates the planting; for the real, wideawake, prospective fruitgrower will be up against an army of interrogation points as soon as he has conceived the
idea of planting an orchard. This is no imaginary harvest, let me assure you. It is real food
for an endless amount of thinking and investigation. And it's a good thing, too, for it tends
to allay the fever of orcharding on the part of the half-hearted, and thus leaves a clearer field
for the man of mettle.
The building of an orchard is a matter of much greater weight than we usually accord it.
It is a permanent investment viewed rightly. As such, it requires the best foundation possible
to give it. Assuming that you have settled the matter of locality, the topic of first moment
is site. A fruit tree is impatient of wet feet, hence the importance of selecting a deep, rich,
friable, porous soil for the orchard. A typical, perhaps an ideal, soil would be one in which
the water-table is not higher than ten to fifteen feet below the soil surface. While bottom
lands in new regions often appear to afford the better conditions in these respects, it will
usually be safer to select the bench lands, especially if the prospect indicates that irrigation
will be practised in the future. While bottom lands are frequently, perhaps usually, the more
fertile, they are liable in the future to be subject to "soaking" ; and, besides, the air drainage,
a topic of no less importance often than water drainage, is not so good on bottoms as on
benches. A good orchard soil will contain a good percentage of sand for early apples, but a
smaller percentage is rather more desirable for late keeping varieties. Red clay loams, when
well drained, are first-class orchard soils under nearly all general conditions. A highly
coloured apple needs plenty of sunshine, iron and potash for its best development.
As to varieties : If for home, get such varieties as will give the longest possible range
of seasonal maturities. From Yellow Transparent to Winesap, or something that keeps
equally long. If for market, then the selection of proper varieties becomes one of much
more significance. An orchard of three varieties is a good one for general commercial purposes. However, the market in view will be an important source of information as to what
and how much one should plant. Like other marketable products, those which will keep
through a long season are the safer for general purposes. H 24 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
There are a few varieties that are American standards: Newtown, Spitzenburg, Jonathan,
Spy, Yellow Belleflower, Grimes' Golden, and possibly a few others. These are likewise
recognised by Europeans as varities of special high merit. Some of these can be grown
successfully only in certain localities; others are so much superior when grown under certain
conditions that they are known as "specials." In these specials we find the money-makers of
the future. In the past, with a market less discriminating than at present, apples of quite
inferior quality, but of good colour, firm flesh and long keeping merit, have been the business
orchardist's favourites. But with the passing of Ben Davis a new era is upon us. The refined
and educated taste of to-day demands something better than a highly coloured package of
sweetened vegetable fibre, sawdust or punk. It is possible that your available market may
demand a combination of these varieties, quite different from those of districts in Oregon or
Washington. And it is quite likely that your section will have its "special"—a variety quite
unknown, or of only passing moment in other districts. Should such a variety be one of high
merit you will be indeed fortunate, and none but one of high merit should be tolerated. If
you can find an open place in the markets as to time, place, quantity or quality, make for it.
And when you have a product that meets the requirements, push its growth and development
to the end. Years of experiment lie before you. While a knowledge of the successes and
failures of other districts will greatly enlighten you, it cannot wholly place you upon a sure
footing—only exhaustive local experience can bring you to a definite successful practice. Be
sure of one thing: Do not let the plausible story of the itinerant tree vendor induce you to
plant many varieties, " so that you may have some for all markets." Confine your commercial
efforts to a few standard varieties, those best adapted to sections similar to yours, if the
experience of your own section is not sufficient to settle the matter of varieties.
As to planting : Prepare the whole tract of land. If it has been timbered, have it fully
cleared and subdued before trees are set out. Keep an eye out for mushroom growths—the
kinds that flourish on trees, especially the roots and lower trunks of oaks, cherries, hazels,
service-berries, etc., etc.
These growths sometimes attack the roots of orchard trees and do much damage. If
questionable forms are present on the native timber, defer planting fruit trees until the site is
fully subdued, which may require from three to five years. In the meantime, after the timber
is removed, thoroughly till the land and plant with root and leguminous crops. Plough deep,
pulverise, and keep free from all foul weeds. This latter is best done by keeping the soil
constantly covered with a useful crop. When the soil is ready for planting and the trees
have been properly selected, plant each tree as carefully as though the success of the enterprise
depended wholly upon its separate successful development.
Early western plantings were made with trees about a rod apart each way. A little later
thirty-eight feet was recommended for apples, somewhat closer for pears, then cherries, and
finally prunes, till the distances reached were about twenty by twenty feet for these latter.
More recently, our more progressive orchardists are recommending not more that twenty-five
feet for the apple, except in the very richest alluvial soils. The reason assigned for this change
of view is that the crop can be made more profitable by planting the trees closer, as they come
into bearing earlier, must be pruned lower, and thus the crop is easier handled, and the work
of spraying and pruning greatly facilitated.
In the words of one of our most active growers : " Trees will bear about a certain amount
per acre, one year with another; they are profitable only during their more active period, and
this for our best varieties is not so very long; so that all purposes are best subserved by producing the crop on the ground-floor and thus having a larger number of trees per acre, though
these are necessarily short-lived, than when planted farther apart."
Close planting makes it necessary to prune thoroughly and regularly, but this is a work
upon which efficient fruit-growing depends very largely for its best results. Judicious pruning
does much thinning, facilitates harvesting and spraying, aids in keeping an eye on diseases and
pests, for the intelligent pruner is bound to detect evidences of the trees' foes.
Pears may be planted about as apples. Sweet cherries one-fifth farther apart, sour
cherries about the same or even less, plums and peaches proportionately closer, say from
eighteen to twenty feet each way. These distances are based upon commercial practices for
land that is medium in character and not too moist. The trees of the home orchard may be
planted further apart, for the chances are they will not receive the attention they should.
Plant one-year-old trees. I know the nurseryman or his agent will tell you two-years-old
are better, or at least as good, oftentimes cheaper, and that they will come into bearing earlier. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 25
I wish our North-West experience bore out the assertion. The fact is, however, that a one-
year-old tree can be transplanted with greater success, especially by beginners in orcharding,
than those of any other age as ordinarily found upon the market. A tree is much like a human
in this transplanting aspect; the younger the better, if their home surroundings must be
changed. Then in yearlings one finds the buds active to within a few inches of the ground,
and thus we are enabled to begin the formation of a head " on the ground-floor."
Were I a nurseryman, this topic of age of trees would be a nightmare to me, as it is to
many real nurserymen, for with this one-year advice there is no place in which to dispose of
left-over stock, either two or more years old. I have in mind an orchard of nearly 20,000 trees
planted thirteen years ago. The contract for trees for that orchard called for first-class one-
year-old trees. When the trees were examined on the site it was found that several hundred
trees were seconds and two-years-old. These were rejected. A neighbour bought them, saying
they were good enough for him, because they were that much older and had bigger roots. He
planted them, cared for them about as others did, except heads were formed higher and
indifferently, because lower buds were dead and upper ones had already grown into position.
To-day the first orchard is in its prime, the other has been uprooted and the ground is now
into wheat. Such serious results do not always follow planting like this. It is an extreme
case, but it illustrates the possibilities that lie before the injudicious planter.
When one plants a tree he plants for years. Let him plant well, of vigourous, clean,
thrifty, young trees; trees of blood preferably. For blood in trees tells quite as much as in
hogs or chickens. If you doubt it, look about you in any large orchard and tell me why of
two trees side by side, same age, same variety, same care, same food as near as may be, the
fruit is so different, as you have so often seen it. Plant only young trees, good stock, free of
pests, and give them the very best care for several years before you get any fruit. Then when
the trees have made their growth, like the school-boy, they will make you such returns as are
in accord with the care and thought you have given them.
The pruning and training of trees depends on several conditions, among which may be
mentioned the purpose, the kind of trees, the locality, the man in charge. For a home
orchard a less vigorous system of pruning and training may be followed, but for a commercial
orchard our best growers have reached a quite common practice that gives good results.
Details will vary with varieties, with individuals and with particular localities, but in a general
way we may say: Head low, let the first branch start about a foot from the ground, the next
one about nine inches above, and the third about the same distance above the second. Cut
the top off two or three buds above this one left for a third branch. Then as the buds develop
during the first year out, pinch off the tips of all lateral shoots at a length of four to six
inches, except those three designated for branches. Let these three grow their full length,
training such as are a little obstinate to assume an upright or ascending direction. Don't let
them spread outward too much else the tree will be too low, and the branches interfere with
tillage. The two or three buds at the top will endeavour to grow quite directly upward.
Let the best one have the right-of-way, and pinch the others off at a few inches from the
parent stem. Next winter when pruning is done this leader may be cut back to such an
extent as will induce a stocky formation of branches. The second season out the buds along
the leader will develop into laterals. These must be treated as were those of the first year's
growth. Care must be used in directing these upper branches to assume position midway
between those of the preceding year. By following this course for a few years one will have
trees with well formed, strong heads—no forks to break when heavy winds and crops come.
By using tact in the training of the branches there need be no trouble about lateral branches
interfering with tillage operations. Acme-harrows, clod-mashers, and disk-plows can be so
arranged with " spreader-heads " as to make this work simple enough. The three first branches
must be cut back so as to balance their growth. The first and second year the young tree
presents much the appearance of a half-feathered Brahama chicken—ungainly, to say the least.
But, if the secondary branches of these three leaders are treated in a way similar to that
followed in the first instance, three years will overcome the awkward appearance and a
symmetrical tree will be the result.
Then there is an immense saving of labour in the pruning, spraying and harvesting
operations. A large part of the work can be done while one stands upon the ground. Women
and girls can pick much of the fruit from low-headed trees, and as they are much superior to
the average man, in that they handle choice fruit with greater care, a greater gain results in this
one way.    Every time a ladder with a heavy man on it is put up against a sleek, well-cared-for H 26 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
tree it is injured, physically at least. Buds and twigs by the hundreds are bruised, crushed,
broken off or otherwise destroyed. Much fruit is likewise bruised, and even after it is
gathered there is many a slip " twixt limb and box." Then the initial cost of picking with
women is not as great as with men. Much stress is to-day laid upon the subject of packing-
But you must not forget that it is only first-class fruit, well packed, that brings top prices.
While good packing enhances the value of any fruit, and while it is necessary to-day, in order
to get a place in the world's markets, to have fruit packed in harmony with the highest market
standards, yet it is only when packages of this character embrace fruit of prime quality and
finish that buyers search for the producer and pay the price demanded. And really, this is
the only position on the part of the grower that pays the big profits.
In any system of croppage there is bound to be a greater or less amount of second-class
product. Oftentimes this is of such magnitude as to warrant considerable effort in an
endeavour to save it. Rains in the coast regions often destroy such a part of the crop, as if
saved, by being manufactured into some by-product, would turn the ledger balance from one
of loss to one of gain.
Every considerable horticultural locality should have a preserving, evaporating and
canning plant. Not only does such a plant consume the secondary part of leading crops, but
it permits of the cultivation of subsidiary or attendant crops, like early vegetables and small
fruits, thus employing much light labour at seasons when it might otherwise be unoccupied to
a greater or less extent. A section should not, however, plunge into a venture of this kind
until the ground has been fully examined and a careful estimate of the output made, together
with a full study of the transportation facilities, and a thorough knowledge of the temperament
of the producers.
Every section should maintain a strong, active organisation for the discussion of all
matters pertaining to the horticulture of the locality. There are a multitude of questions
relating to soils, waters, varieties, tillage, pruning, spraying, harvesting, marketing, co-operation,
quarantine, sanitation; in fact, every question of general local interest, educational or economic,
is best handled by a public organisation through free assembly discussions. The great work
of testing and improving new or little known varieties can be most efficiently carried forward
by joint action through a local organisation.
Harvesting is an important factor in the growing of any crop. A crop well grown is
desirable, but it is even more desirable to harvest it according to the most approved methods,
for the market value of a well-grown crop may be changed from one of profit to one of loss,
through a little neglect at harvesting time. Early fruits, if intended for shipment, must be
taken from the trees before ripe. Late keeping varieties should be removed as soon as fully
matured—i.e., full grown and well coloured. All fruit of this latter type should be picked
from the tree, stems on, placed gently in basket or box and jolted or jostled as little as possible
while passing through the various stages of carting, packing and shipping. A bag slung over
the shoulders is the best device for picking where ladders must be used, while small baskets
or boxes answer for picking that is done from the ground. If possible, remove fruit from the
tree and orchard while it is dry. Boxes full of picked fruit should not be set in places exposed
to hot sun or drying winds. Get picked fruit into the packing sheds as soon as conveniently
possible after the boxes are filled. Pack, ship and sell in a like manner, except you possess
special store-room for the product and have an extra fancy article for special markets.
Packing is an item in orchard work best learned by seeing a good packer at work.
Certain well-known styles are standard. Adopt one of these. Make the package bear a
personal stamp, or character, so that buyers may know from the outside what quality lies
within. Then, when you have a choice product, well grown, carefully harvested, tastefully
packed, and judiciously branded—push it. Let the markets of the world know it. In order
to do this you must advertise. It costs much money to make an effective campaign in this
direction. The work is best accomplished by means of district or sectional effort. Okanagan
and Kootenay should make very " catchy" brands. Let these words once stand for first
quality and their individuality would be a prime factor in attracting the eye and fixing the
attention of buyers. Adopt characteristic brands like these and half the battle of getting
attention is won, providing they are backed up by a tasty package of high coloured, high
flavoured fruit. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 27
The Seventh Annual Convention of the Central Farmers' Institute of British Columbia
was convened on the 28th day of February, 1905, at 11 a.m., in the rooms of the Department
of Agriculture, the following delegates being present:—
J. R. Anderson, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Superintendent.
J. R. McLaren  Alberni Farmers' Institute.
A. Urquhart Comox n
J. N. Evans Cowichan h
Wm. N. Shaw Nanaimo-Cedar n
A. Gale    Victoria n
A. H. Peatt Metchosin n
J. T. Collins Islands n
A. D. Paterson Delta n
S. H. Shannon Surrey n
Henry Harris Langley it
W. E. Buckingham Richmond u
W. T. Abbott Mission .,
P. H. Wilson Chilliwhack .,
N. T. Baker Kent m
W. J. Harris. Maple Ridge n
Walter Towlan , Matsqui n
D. Matheson Spallumcheen n
Arthur F. Venables Okanagan n
F. R. E. DeHart Osoyoos n
Andrew Noble Kamloops n
James Evans Salmon Arm h
R. M. Woodward Lillooet n
E. Nordschow Bella Coola n
W. J. Brandrith Burrard n
On the opening of the meeting, it was moved by Mr. Collins, seconded by Mr. Venables,
and carried, that Mr. J. R. Anderson take the chair.
Mr. J. R. Anderson (Chairman) : Well, gentlemen, on two previous occasions I refused
to accept the chairmanship, as I considered that perhaps it would be more in the interests of
the Institute that someone else should occupy it and leave me free. However, if the business
can be expedited I accept the honour. We are not all conversant with the chairman's duties
and parliamentary usage. I do not claim to be familiar with them, but I hope to be able to
do my duty, and if I do not, and I fail in any point, I expect I will be called to order in the
same manner as I would call any of you to order if necessary. And now I wish to say this in
opening, that I expect you all to speak to the question, and not to go off on side issues. Let
us understand that the remarks of the delegates should be addressed only to the motions. I
think the rule that was made last year, that the mover of a resolution should have ten minutes
and the seconder five, is a very good one, and anyone speaking to the motion should have five,
and no person should speak twice without the permission of the chair. These are questions
which I leave to you to decide. I think that they are good ones, and worked well on previous
occasions, inasmuch as it was found that without something of that kind discussions ran wild, *
and the meetings became almost endless.
I think with what we have before us we could get through the meeting by to-morrow
night, by attending strictly to business. And now, before proceeding further, I will ask you
for your credentials.     (Credentials of delegates present handed in to chairman.) H 28 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
Before we proceed to business, His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor and the Hon. the
Minister of Agriculture would like to address you; so we will wait for their arrival.
Moved by Mr. W. J. Brandrith, seconded by Mr. A. Noble, and carried, that Mr. J. T.
Collins act as secretary.
His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor and the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture then
came in and were greeted with applause.
Mr. Chairman : As His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor and the Minister of Agriculture
are present, they will address us on several poiuts that were brought forward last year, and
also on other matters of importance to you.    The Lieutenant-Governor will now address us.
His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor's Address.
Gentlemen,—I am very glad to meet you, especially as I think that since I had the
pleasure of seeing you here last year, the interests which you have got so much at heart, and
for which there is so much at stake in the Province, appear rather to have taken a more
favourable turn and seem to be improving.
Now, speaking of the question of agriculture in British Columbia—and you know British
Columbia so much better than I do—I consider that of all industries in British Columbia it
is the one which really requires the most care and most patience in order to develop it. The
soil here appears to be wonderfully adapted for agriculture, and the country for mining, for
forestry, and at the same time the waters all around British Columbia contain the most
valuable fisheries. There is everything, in fact, already made by the hand of nature to develop
mining, forestry and fishing, but as to the farmer, he has got to do nearly everything for himself. The difficulty of clearing the land appears to be enormous. I have seen in a new settlement in the Province of Quebec what these districts are, but they are nothing at all compared
to British Columbia, in the way of clearing an acre of land which is heavily timbered, and I
am told that $100 and $150, and even $200 an acre are sometimes spent in clearing an acre
in this Province so as to make it fit for cultivation. Well, in the Province of Quebec, I have
seen that a good deal of work was required, too, but nothing at all as compared with what was
required to make land ready for cultivation in the Province of British Columbia.
I think there is a very encouraging sign for those who take an interest in the development of agriculture, in watching the number of people who propose to come and settle here
in British Columbia, especially for the cultivation of fruit.
Ever since I have been here, at the different exhibitions every year, I have always made
it a point when I was asked to offer some words of encouragement, to offer a prize for the
most careful packing of fruit. You can grow beautiful fruit in British Columbia, and you
can easily obtain a market for it if you only render justice to yourself by careful packing, and
during the short time I have been here, at the different exhibitions, I have been able to watch
the great improvements that have been recently introduced in the packing of fruit. I think
if there is any industry that is worthy of observation, or wants to be encouraged in British
Columbia, it is agriculture. You want the farmer, you want the settler in British Columbia ;
you want a man who is attached to the soil, who looks upon the soil as his home, and the
more of those men you can get, and the more encouragement you can give them, the better it
will be for the Province.    (Loud applause.)
Address by the Hon. the Minister op Agriculture.
Your Honour, Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—I can assure you it is a great pleasure
to me to have a second opportunity of meeting you here, and of meeting such a large and
representative body of agriculturists, as the farming industry is such a very important one in
our Province. It is also a great pleasure to know that during last year, in spite of the fact
that it was abnormally dry, the Province has shown great progress, and been in many ways
most successful in matters relating to agriculture.
To begin with, gentlemen, in one branch of this industry—that of horticulture—I think
we can feel satisfied with what has been done in the past year. As far as the Government is
, concerned, we decided at the beginning of the season to devote all our energy—first by means
of exhibitions in Winnipeg and the North-West Territories—in trying to expand our market
in that portion of Canada, which really belongs to this Province. In addition to that, we tried
by means of an exhibit in England to do a little educational work, where, as you' know, a great
many of the people look upon us, being a part of Canada, as having the same climate as 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 29
Eastern Canada, and it was really a great object lesson to be able to show them we produced
fruits as good as their own. The success of that was, as you all know, that we got on two
different occasions the gold medal at the horticultural show, and our fruit received great
recommendation from the capable judges who examined it.
In regard to the fruit industry, the figures of the past years are the best guides to what
has been done. In the year 1903 we shipped by the C. P. R. route, nearly all into the North-
West Territories, 2,544 tons ; in 1904 we shipped 3,010 tons, showing an increase of 466 tons
of fruit for the one year. The value of that fruit is estimated at about one-quarter of a
million dollars, and the fruit crop for the Province last year is estimated a little in excess of
one-half million dollars—that is, including what we consume ourselves.
During the past three years, it is estimated that 6,000 acres have been put down in fruit
trees. At the present time the amount of orchard in the Province is in excess of 13,500 acres,
and of that 6,000 acres has been put in fruit trees in the years 1902, 1903 and 1904.
When such a large amount of land is being put into fruit, the duty devolves upon the
Government to give what protection they can to the people who are laying out that land. I
need not explain to you, as you know better than I can tell you, what disappointment it is to
a man who has bought the land and got it in order and it does not turn out what he expected
it would. To overcome that danger, the Government thought fit to pass the somewhat drastic
Horticultural Bill. The Bill was framed entirely in the interests of the fruit-grower, and I
regret to say it has not given satisfaction altogether to the nurserymen. It has made it
a little difficult perhaps at the present time for the nurserymen to work under, but at the same
time I would point out to the nurserymen that as they themselves hope within the next two
or three years to be selling the greater part, if not all, of the stock purchased in the Province,
that what to-day looks to them rather as a hinderance, when that time comes will be the very
best protection they can have ; so, while I say I believe we are doing what is best in the
interests of horticulture, I will ask the nurserymen to bear with it, and they will find that
this very legislation is the very best thing they can have for themselves.
To deal with another large branch of the industry, that of dairying, I may say the result
has been satisfactory in the past year. We have to-day some fourteen creameries established
in British Columbia, and there are others being erected. These fourteen creameries produced,
during the last year, 1,210,000 pounds of butter. To show you how they have advanced since
1902, the production in 1902 was 715,842 pounds, and in 1903, 958,845 pounds. But to show
you what chances there are for the increase of this industry, I may say that in that same year
when we produced 1,210,000 pounds of creamery butter we imported into the Province butter
to the value of $1,179,000, showing that to-day we are only manufacturing a very small proportion of what we are using, or what is being handled in the Province.
In going over the whole list of the agricultural products consumed and marketed in British
Columbia for the last year, I found the total sum was $7,200,000; and with what we produce
ourselves, we may say that the amount of agricultural produce marketed in British Columbia
amounted to $12,000,000. That will just show you, gentlemen, what a tremendous market
there is here for all kinds of agricultural products. I do not mean for one moment to imply-
that all that produce above mentioned is being used in this country. A great deal of that
produce has gone into the Yukon, and some of it has been shipped to the Orient, but it is an
object lesson for you to know that the market for agricultural products for last year was something in the neighbourhood of $12,000,000.
Now, with reference to the legislation which Mr. Anderson said I would deal with, I
won't go into the details of everything that was done at last meeting, but at the present time
there is a Bill dealing with the question of noxious weeds, and the last meeting I introduced
that Bill into the House. The Bill is thought by many to be rather drastic in its nature, and
I was asked to let it stand over and have it submitted to you, and I will be very glad to hear
what, you have to say. I may say that a similar Bill is before the House of Commons at
Ottawa. Mr. Fisher introduced the Bill, and the paper containing the criticism on same I
intend leaving with you here. You may be of the opinion that the legislation on this question
is sufficient.
Now, as to the question of stumping powder and the Government's assistance in the cause
of stumping powder (Applause), this was brought up last year, and I see that it is a question
which you all consider of great interest. I am afraid I am not in a position to make you any
promise about it, but I will be glad to take this matter up with you again before I leave.    Of course, a great difficulty presents itself to us, not knowing exactly the limit of the liability
which we might take up if we made any promises in the matter, and we have also to consider
the storage facilities for handling it. These are suggestions I would like to hear something
about. That matter of assistance is rather a dangerous one in some respects, as you don't
know where it is going to stop; because, while one portion of the Province is to be benefited
by this assistance, there are other parts of the country which don't require that assistance,
and they would naturally expect us to give some other assistance in the place of it, and, therefore, you will see that this is a matter which requires a good deal of careful consideration, but
if before you leave you make me any practical suggestions I will take the opportunity of
laying same before the Executive.
The Scrub Bull Act, which you asked me to deal with this Session, was brought before
the House. Great difficulty was pointed out by the Attorney-General in making a proper
definition of scrub bull, and he did not think it was possible to do it in a way which would
commend itself, and at present we did not go on with it.
With reference to the cattle running at large, that was amended in accordance with your
Another matter was brought up with regard to the adulteration of jam. The House
passed a memorial, and had it sent to Ottawa, and I am glad to see that the matter is being
very seriously considered, and I see Mr. Borden made a statement the other day to the
effect that stringent measures would be taken in dealing with adulterated jam and other fruit.
Another matter I will deal with, and that is the Game Act. Some reference was made
to the Game Act at the last meeting, and certain amendments are being considered, and I may
say that the Provincial Secretary is now preparing it, and if there are any further suggestions
you wish to make we will be very glad to consider them. The question of Sunday observance
in connection with it is more difficult to deal with now than heretofore, because it was recently
decided that the Dominion Government, and not the Province, has the power to deal with
such ordinances. I might point out that you have one means of having this brought within
your power, and that is by the Trespass Act, so that if anyone tresspasses on another man's
property he should be subject to a heavy fine. But, as I say, it is impossible for us to deal
with it, because the matter of Sunday jurisdiction is in the hands of the Dominion Government, but in all other respects I think you will find the Act to serve the purpose. It is the
intention of the Act (and I think it will be carried out) that the Government appoint this
year one Game Warden for the Province of British Columbia, who will try and organise Game
Districts, and the game will be protected by means of volunteers and deputies. If we find
that works satisfactory this year, the chances are that the system will be extended in the
following year, but this will be done at once, and more strict prohibitive laws for the sale of
game will be made, because we recognise that preservation of game is necessary not only for
the purpose of sport, but it is a great asset to the country. Now, I have been reading some
of the Game Acts of the United States, and looking into the history of the game laws, and I
found that there is probably nothing of that nature that produces indirectly more valuable
results—in an indirect way—as a revenue producer. You see in the United States that they
estimate from one-half to two millions of money are brought into the different States, such as
Wyoming and Maine, just by people who come out there in pursuit of game, and we think by
proper protection we can make this a very favourable country to the sportsmen, who bring a
great deal of money into the Province itself.
Now, as I said before, I will be very glad to take these matters up with you before you
leave, and that being the case, I will not trespass any more on your time at present. (Loud
His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor and the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture then
Mr. Chairman : Gentlemen, you have heard what His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor
and the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture have said. I think, as far as the observations of
the Minister go, they are of a very satisfactory nature. There are one or two things which
he alluded to I notice are being brought up on this occasion—the Game Act is one, and the
stumping powder is another. It would be well if all the things alluded to by him should be
taken up, and a report of same be sent to him before the meeting adjourns. Is it, Gentlemen,
your pleasure to hear my address now?    (Cries of Yes.) 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 31
Chairman's Address.
Gentlemen,—I am glad on this occasion to see among us so many representatives, and
also to see one representative that has never been here before, that is the representative of the
Bella Coola Institute, as it was a great disappointment to that Institute last year that it was
not represented : but as I mentioned then, the meeting was called together rather in a hurry,
and so there was no time to communicate with the Institute to allow a representative getting
here. The steamers only go there twice a month. In fact, they don't go twice a month to
Bella Coola, but they pass there. I had occasion to go up there last summer, and I know
something of the difficulties of travel. I notice there are one or two absent, but do not know
how it is, as they have had full notice.
Mr. Brandrith : The train was twelve hours late yesterday, and that is the reason Mr.
Wilson is not here from Chilliwhack.
Mr. Chairman : Of course, there has not been time to get out the annual report, but, in
the meantime, I have prepared some figures which I will give to you.
Membership in 1903    1,969
1904    2,062
Divided as follows :—
Vancouver Island and Islands  770
Lower Mainland .     760
Upper Mainland  482
North  50
This shows an increase of only 93.
In membership, Victoria heads the list with 203; Burrard follows with 184; Okanagan
with 157 ; Nanaimo with 144; Metchosin with 141 ; Cowichan with 135 ; Osoyoos with 125,
and North Vancouver with an even 100. These are the only Institutes which run over 100.
These figures show a decrease in membership of the Victoria, Okanagan, Nanaimo and Metchosin Institutes. The Lower Mainland is still behindhand in membership, although probably more
populous and having the greatest number of Institutes. The number of Institutes is now 25,
viz.: The Islands, 7; Lower Mainland, 11 ; Upper Mainland, 6 ; and North, 1. The average
of membership is therefore: Islands, 110; Upper Mainland, 80; Lower Mainland, 69. This
shows a falling off in the averages of 2 on the Islands and 5 on the Upper Mainland and
a gain of 6 on the Lower Mainland. Therefore the increase, small as it is, is due to
an accession in the membership on the Lower Mainland. Bella Coola, the only
Institute in the North, had last year a membership of 50, against 44 the preceding year. The number of meetings held were 225, against 175 the year previous, divided
as follows :—Islands, 88; Upper Mainland, 67; Lower Mainland, 65, and North, 5
Morning meetings do not find favour, only two having been held last year. The rest of the
meetings were divided as follows, viz.: afternoon, 65; evening, 158. This shows an increase
of 1 morning meeting, 24 afternoon meetings and 45 evening meetings. Whilst it is to be
regretted that morning meetings are not more frequent, it is a matter of congratulation that
there is such a healthy increase in afternoon meetings. This increase is due principally, I
believe, to the outdoor daylight demonstrations, followed by addresses, which I have tried to
introduce, and with some degree of success, during the last year. The attendance last year
was 7,171, against 5,673 the year previous, divided as follows : morning, 46 ; afternoon, 1,442,
and evening, 5,683. Here again the Islands leads with an attendance of 3,426; the Upper
Mainland follows with 1,886 ; Lower Mainland, 1,681 ; and the North, 178. Metchosin again
leads with a total attendance of 1,168 ; Victoria follows with 899, and Osoyoos, 742. In all
there were 327 addresses given in 1904, against 260 the year previous, viz.: 127 on the Islands
100 the Lower Mainland, 94 Upper Mainland, and 6 Bella Coola. Now these figures go to
show that whilst the membership does not show the increase which we would like to see, the
fact that some 500 more people attended meetings, 50 more meetings were held, and 67 more
addresses given in 1904 than in the previous year, goes to show a greater appreciation of the
benefits of the Institute system by those who are members, and which will in time, I believe,
influence many others in becoming members, but it must be borne in mind that it is absolutely H 32 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
necessary to canvass for members, people forget unless their memories are jogged. In some
cases the prescribed number of supplementary meetings have not been held. This'I consider
a serious defect, and I have taken the opportunity to remind the secretaries where these
omissions have occurred that such recurrences of indifference to the provisions of the Act
cannot be permitted to continue. A greater amount of self-reliance is, I consider, of prime
importance, not only in the healthy building up of the Institute, but for the purpose (to which
I have so frequently referred) of exploiting native talent. I, as Superintendent, have to look
outside almost entirely for speakers on agricultural matters; whereas, if our own people'only
had the opportunity given them of talking at public meetings, there is no doubt but that some
would be found as suitable persons to send about as delegates. This is a matter that I have
tried very hard to remedy. Our people are very backward in coming on to the platform to speak
before an audience. I suppose it is natural. I know for a fact that we have talent among us
that could be utilised if it were only brought out. I have had some very good men address
you from the adjoining States, Professor Lake, for instance ; I am sorry that I could not utilise
more of that gentleman's time. He is the Horticulturist of the Oregon Experiment Station,
and, therefore, his time is greatly taken up with his duties, and we can only get such gentlemen
for limited periods and at uncertain times. Disappointment was expressed that Professor
Lake was not sent to more of the Institutes. The real reason was that some of the fall regular
meetings were put off on account of the Dominion elections, which, if you remember, came on
at that time, and many of the Institutes, especially the Upper Country Institutes, held their
meetings late in the year, and it was to those Institutes that Professor Lake was sent. He is
a gentleman of very high standing, and gave instruction in fruit which, I think, was of great
value to our people.
It has been mentioned to me that speakers from the East are not as acceptable as our
local speakers, and speakers such as Professor Lake. One can quite readily understand that,
but the selection of men from the East is quite unavoidable under the circumstances, as we
cannot get qualified persons from our midst to do all the work of the Institutes.
The amount in the hands of treasurers was as follows :—
1903   $1,183.61
1904    1,411.64
Now, although it is always desirable that a balance should be in the hands of the Institutes, it is not particularly desirable that a large amount should be kept. It is better that
the Institute funds should be spent, in a manner that will conduce to the welfare of the
Institute. I think a small sum might be spent in remunerating the Secretary, or anyone
employed by the Secretary, in obtaining membership during the year. It is a legitimate way
of spending some of the funds. The Act, of course, designates the different ways in which
the Institute funds may be expended.
The literature that was distributed during last year consisted of the following :—
Seventh Report of Department of Agriculture.
Twelfth and Thirteenth Reports of Fruit-Growers' Association.
Bulletin No. 12 : Information for Fruit-Growers.
Bulletin No. 13 : Silos and Ensilage.
Bulletin No. 14 : Care and Management of Orchards.
Leaflet on Feeds and Feeding.
Dairyman's and Live Stock Association Act.
Farmers' Institute Act.
Board of Horticulture Act.
Bulletin on Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs (English).
Fifth Report of Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes.
Sixth Report Central Farmers' Institute.
Bulletin No. 15 : Poultry-Raising in British Columbia.
Bulletin No. 66 : Black Spot Canker (Washington).
Besides specimen cases of weed and other seeds to each Institute.
In reference to the distribution of literature, it has been generally very acceptable. I
regret to say, however, that one Institute complained it was not good enough in quantity or
quality to suit them.    On the contrary a great many of the Institutes have expressed their 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 33
gratification at the quantity and quality of the literature that has been distributed, and, considering that it is all supplied to the members at the low cost of half a dollar each per annum,
it certainly cannot, I think, be classed as scanty. The President of the Bella Coola Institute
says they appreciate very much the abundance of the literature supplied by the Department,
and they consider it the main-stay of the Institute. It must be borne in mind that the
publication of these bulletins is a costly affair, and in reference to the Acts that were asked
for at the last session of this Institute, for distribution, I had the authority of the Minister
to have several of the principal Acts published, and those were distributed. There are other
Acts which are not of such importance, which, perhaps, we will be able to have printed this
Special Rates.
I am glad to say that I was enabled this season to arrange for a special rate for the
members who attend this Convention from the Upper Countay, namely a cent a mile. That
is the rate I have been getting from the Canadian Pacific Railway for some years past for
people employed by this Department in different public capacities, and this year I had it
extended to the members of the Institutes, which I consider to be very gratifying. In reference to this, I may say that the C. P. R. are taking a great deal of interest in the matter of
agricultural and horticultural industries. The Second Vice-President, Mr. Whyte, had Pro
fessor Green, of Minnesota, all through the Okanagan Valley last summer, and he made a
report to the Company which was afterwards referred to me, and on which I made a report,
and they expressed themselves in these terms : " We wish to do something on our Board
towards assisting to develop the resources of this Province and we want you to say in what
way we can assist." Naturally, I said in freight and passenger rates to people who are
engaged in educating the farmer in what he can do, and they expressed their wish to do everything in their power in reason to assist the farmer in this country.
Scrub Cattle.
In the matter of scrub cattle, to which the Minister alluded, I may say an Act was
brought in, and, as he told you, it was a matter of such difficulty to define what a scrub
animal meant that the matter was eventually dropped, but you will have an opportunity of
looking at copies of the Bill afterwards, if you wish. The people of Nicola passed a resolution,
which I will read to you :—" It is the wish of the people of this part of the district that Mr.
C. L. Smith should return to our valley. His remarks on building up a herd, and the vitriolic
manner in which he scored the breeders of scrub cattle, especially scrub bulls, pleased even
those who are somewhat careless, and I am satisfied his lectures have done a power of good,
for after the meeting each and ever}' farmer present who was not a member immediately
joined the Institute."
Unquestionably, the scrub bull question is a most serious matter, but you will recognise
it is a difficult matter to adjust; and the wild horse question is equally difficult. I had an
Act prepared by the Deputy Attorney-General, which provided two years, or any other period
which was considered advisable, should be given for the rounding-up, branding, and bringing
into proper subjection of wild horses, after which time any horses running at large would be
dealt with in another manner. Well, that is a matter which was referred to the Hon. Mr.
Fulton, as he is a member from the Upper Country. Of course, this only refers to the people
of the Dry Belt, but it is a difficult matter, and I do not know whether it can be dealt with
Licensing of Nursery Stock Vendors.
The Licensing of nursery stock vendors under the Horticultural Board Act is another
question which has come up during the last year, and to which the Hon. Minister alluded
this morning. There will be something brought before you regarding this matter later on.
There has been some opposition offered to some of the provisions of the Act by some of the
nursery-men, but, on the other hand, the growers of fruit are unanimous, as far as I know, in
upholding the Act, as they recognise it is framed for their protection, and, in any case, the
Act as it stands really aims more at extra-provincial nurserymen than our own local nurserymen.
Bella Coola.
I took occasion, during my official visits last year, to go through the Kootenays, and
Bella Coola, and several places which had not been previously visited by me, and the result of II 34 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
the visit to the Kootenays is that the organisation of an Institute will take place there during
this month—on the 11th, I believe. I took occasion, when going through Bella Coola, to go
through the valley, and I found there a great deal more was being done than possibly a great
many of us believed. The people who.went to Bella Coola had not been very well provided
with this world's goods, but in spite of the fact that they have had to work out a great deal
through the summer months, a great deal of work has been done, and there is every promise
of future prosperity for the district.
The Ootsa Lake country, which is at the back of it, is more easily got at through Bella
Coola than any other way, and I predict that during this present year there will be a large
population going through there, which will make Bella Coola quite a centre.
Noxious  Weeds.
The Noxious Weeds Act is one which will be brought before you. I was before the
Agricultural Committee in connection with this Act. The Thistle Prevention Act and the
Noxious Weeds Act, that stand on the books at the present time, will be by this Act repealed,
and the different recommendations that have been made by this Institute during the last
several years are embodied in the present Act. I think our friend, Mr. Graham, when he was
a member of the House, -had something to do with an Act of this kind, and also Mr. Kidd.
There always seems to be some opposition, but we will have this matter properly threshed out,
I hope, this Session. I have a good deal of evidence and papers to present to you on this
Farmers' Institutes and Meetings.
I was speaking of Professor Lake a little while ago. He wrote some letters which
possibly you have seen, as I had some of them published in our papers. These letters are of a
most complimentary character to the country.    In reference to the Institutes, he says:—
" In no other portion of the Pacific North-West has the work of Farmers' Institutes
received as much attention as in British Columbia. The Farmers' Institutes there are organised societies which hold regular meetings. The regular meetings are arranged by the Deputy
Minister of Agriculture in series and able speakers are provided."
Now, that is the verdict of a gentleman who is a stranger to us here, and who is favourably impressed, not only with the country, but with the Institute system; and it behooves us
all to do what we can to keep it up to the highest standard. There is no question but that
there is a marked improvement in the methods of farmers since the Institute system was
As to the subjects to be brought before the meeting ; I addressed the secretaries of the
various Institutes, requesting them to send me in the names of the delegates, and the subjects
which are to be brought up, and these have been tabulated and will be presented to you
directly. I daresay there will be other matters to be brought forward. I notice the powder
question is again up for discussion, and I hope it will result in something; but as the Minister
has said, if we ask for something of a reasonable character we might be able to get it.
Now, as to the places for meeting : I may say that the tendency is to confine the meetings
to particular localities in a great measure, and I have endeavoured to always have them
divided as much as possible, in order that all members of the different Institutes should have
an opportunity of attending Institute meetings without having to travel great distances. The
Lillooet Institute covers quite a large area, as it takes in the whole of Nicola and Lillooet
right down to Lytton. It has been asked that this Institute be sub-divided and re-named. I
do not think there will be any objection to the re-naming of it, but I do not know about the
sub-division of it. It is certainly a very large district, but it is comparatively sparsely
The Nanaimo Institute has decided not to hold any more meetings in Cedar District.
This is not at all gratifying to hear. I have been at meetings in Cedar District when very
few attended, and it is on account of the failure to secure attendance that the Institute finally
decided to stop holding meetings in that section.
As regards successful meetings, I have studied this matter a good deal, and I find, in the
first place, that the Secretary is the principal man in the matter. He is the man that runs
the whole concern pretty well, and except when the Directors meet, or when the Institute is
in session, the Secretary is the man who is doing the business. Furthermore, I have found
that those Institutes which combine an occasional social programme with their ordinary busi- 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 35
ness programme have always the largest membership. That is followed out in a great
measure in the Island Institutes here, and I find that not only does it increase the membership,
but it increases the attendance very much, and in that way the meeting is productive of a
great deal of good. Some of the Institute meetings I have been to never have anything of a
social character, nor an attendance of ladies, and those Institutes are invariably the ones that are
least successful. Now, there is something in all this, and I think it is well that these matters
should be considered. There is no harm in having a little social entertainment, a song or
something of that kind, after the business programme is over, and it is certainly productive of
a great deal of good in the work of the Institute.
The out-door demonstrations have also been very successful, in so far as we could have
them, and demonstrations in regard to animals, fruit-culture and matters of that kind, during
the afternoon and morning sessions, have been very well attended, and they had the effect of
increasing the number of afternoon meetings, and as we go on, I dare say it will be found that
morning meetings will also get more into favour.
Regarding spring meetings, it was decided last year that we should have them about
March, or the middle of March and early in April. This is followed out as well as possible,
and I do not know that there is a better season of the year in which to hold them, although I
had a report from Matsqui asking that the meetings should be put off until the 1st of June.
Now, the 1st of June, I think, is out of the question.
Mr. Noble : I think the 1st of May is the best time.
Mr. Venables (Okanagan): In our country the roads are very bad about then.
Mr. Chairman : It is very hard, in a country like this, to decide on a question of this
kind, and to know when is the best time to hold the meetings. Take this part of the country,
the roads are fine and the season is well advanced in April, and then go to another part of the
country, and you find there is snow on the ground in March. A little while ago the Secretary
of the North Vancouver Farmers' Institute wrote to me, and asked whether the Farmers'
Institute Act gave the power to the Institutes to hold and dispose of land. I referred that
letter to the Deputy Attorney-General, and he gave it as his opinion that the Act gave the
Institute powers in that respect. However, one of the members who came to see me afterwards is still of the opinion that the Act does not give the Institute those powers, and I again
referred the matter to the Attorney-General. ■ An amendment has therefore been prepared by
the Deputy Attorney-General, which deals with the question of holding and disposing of land.
The question of forestry is one I have very much at heart; it is a question which not
only affects the lumbermen and the prosperity of the country generally, but it affects every
farmer in the Province. It affects them very materially, and very intimately. This is a
question on which an expression of opinion might be given. I have prepared a resolution
which will be submitted to you dealing with this matter. I think we should strengthen the
hands of the Government and try and get something done in the way of the preservation of
the forests from fire and waste and reservations of forest lands.
Diseases of Animals.
At a meeting last year, when I was in Ottawa, the matter of diseases of animals came up
and in talking the matter over with the Minister of Agriculture I took the opportunity of
expressing the views of our Government on the question. I made the proposition that one of
our Inspectors should have the power, whilst inspecting animals for the Province, to inspect
for the Dominion as well, and that the Dominion Government should bear a part of the
expense. Well, they went a little further than that, and appointed one of our Inspectors,
namely, Dr. Tolmie, to act as a Dominion Inspector. Consequently, a great many of the
diseases which previously were subjects of expense to this Government are now being borne
by the Dominion Government; and in the matter of other expenses, it is divided up so that,
altogether, it has been a very good arrangement for the Province. Animal diseases have not
been very prevalent. There has been some hog cholera introduced, as far as can be ascertained,
from the North-West Territories, whence it spread through a portion of the Island and Lower
Mainland, and a great many had to be slaughtered as a result. This is a Dominion Government matter, which recompenses people for the slaughter of hogs for hog cholera. H 36 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
In the matter of tuberculosis, that has been kept down in a great measure, but there has
been a good deal of lump jaw. During last summer a peculiar class of opthalmia occurred in
the dry belt. It was diagnosed by the Inspectors as resulting from the dry season, but cattle
don't frequently suffer very much from it.
The disease amongst horses in the Upper Country, on the Upper Fraser, has been dealt
with. It was diagnosed as fistulous withers. It is rather peculiar, and seems to be of a
contagious character. Lumps appear on the withers and become offensive; and horses with
this disease, in rubbing against trees and other places, contaminate other horses. However,
every precaution has been taken, and I think the disease is now pretty well eradicated.
With regard to other pests, I may say that a number of cows have died from eating
poisonous weeds. Hemlock is one of the principal causes, and that poisoning generally occurs
in the early spring-time, when green food is not much in evidence and cattle roving about in
the fields will pick up anything green. The roots of hemlock growing in soft mud come up
very easily and are eaten by the cattle.
Complaints have reached me from Chilcotin, where cattle brought in from the summer
ranges on to the winter ranges had suffered in a very peculiar manner. A specimen of a
plant, one of the supposed causes of this suffering, was sent to me. It was in a very mutilated
condition. I made out, however, that it belonged to the Astragalus family, to which also
belongs the loco weed. Now, loco weed generally affects horses, not very often cattle, but in
this instance a great many cows have suffered, and it appeared to me that it was probably the
cause of the trouble. There has been more or less correspondence on the matter, and the cause
will possibly be ascertained in the near future.
We were talking of the Game Act some little time ago. I have a letter here from Mr. E. M.
Wiltshire, of Clayton, in which he says :—" Pheasants have committed great damage out here
in grain and potatoes. At the rate they are increasing in many parts of the country, it will
soon be impossible to grow potatoes, as they will dig the seed out from under the sod as soon
as it sprouts. They are not natural game, and justice demands that the close season should
be removed.    I sincerely trust you may use your influence to this effect."
I do not know that Mr. Wiltshire will have many supporters in this contention.
The Mayor, who has been invited, intended to have been here this morning to address a
few words of welcome to you, but he will not be able to be here until three o'clock this afternoon ; and Mr. Peck, the Inspector of Steam Boilers, will attend here at four o'clock, so it
will be advisable that we give Mr. Peck a chance of speaking at that time, in order that he
may explain the workings of the Steam Boiler Act, as a good deal of exception has been taken
to this Act since it was passed by the House; and I think after Mr. Peck sets forth his views
on the workings of the Act a great many of the misconceptions of the Act will be removed.
I do not know that I need detain you any longer. There will be a good many subjects I
will bring up before you later on, and I trust that our session here will be of the most harmonious
and profitable description.
It was then moved by Mr. Venables, seconded by Mr. Noble, and carried—
" That Messrs. Collins, Brandrith and Matheson be appointed a Committee to report on
the Superintendent's address."
Chairman: The questions which have been submitted to me by the Secretaries of the
different Institutes are as follows :—
Qualification of Delegates.— Cancellation of present qualification of delegates to Central
Farmers' Institute.
Chairman : I am rather suprised that anyone should have brought this question up. As
a matter of fact, you will remember that some time ago there was an amendment made by
which only farmers should be represented on this Board, and I think it was a very sensible
thing, because we don't want lawyers and other people to represent the farming interests.
Furthermore, I would suggest hereafter that not only shall a delegate be a member of the
Institute, but that he shall be a member of the particular Institute he represents. That
question arose this year as to a gentleman who was not supposed to be a member being sent
down.    I think it is well to decide that question.
Canadian Thistles.—Destruction of thistles on Mission Townsite. By W. T. Abbott,
Mission. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 37
The appointment of an Officer " not a farmer " to see the Act enforced regarding the
destruction of foul weeds, and more especially the Canadian Thistle. By R. M. Woodward,
Some plan of dealing with Canadian Thistle.    By J. A. Halliday.
Seeds.—To urge the passing of the Seed Control Act.    By S. H. Shannon, Surrey.
Pure Seeds.    By James Evans, Salmon Arm.
Noxious weed seeds in grass and cereals supplied to the public.   By Wm. Towlan, Matsqui.
That the Government be urged to enact a measure to prohibit the importation of foul
seeds, either in feed or seed grain.     By R. M. Woodward, Nicola.
Noxious Weeds.—To deal with the Noxious Weeds Act, to make it more effective. By
S. H. Shannon, Surrey.
That whereas a number of noxious weeds are appearing to an alarming extent in our
neighbourhood, and particularly the weed known as the "Chinese," or "Prickly Lettuce";
And whereas no eflVt is being made by the Government to arrest the progress of this pest;
Be it Resolved, That our delegate to the Central Farmers' Institute be instructed to bring
the matter up before that body with a view to their influencing the Government to amend the
(if not already amended) Canadian Thistle Act to include other noxious weeds, and to put into
immediate force all legislation bearing on this most important matter. By D. Matheson,
Speakers at Meetings of Farmers' Institute.—Appointment of local speakers. By S. H.
Shannon, Surrey.
The Superintendent be requested to select speakers that are familiar with the raising of
stock on the ranges ; also irrigation, fruit-raising, etc., in the Dry Belt.    By R. M. Woodward.
That speakers on theoretical and practical irrigation be provided. By H. V. Chaplin,
Water-Courses.—The Government be asked to appoint an Inspector of water-courses.
By A. Gale, Victoria.
Water-courses.    By J. T. Collins, Salt Spring Island.
Nitrogen Bacteria.—That the Federal Government be asked to supply clover bacteria.
By A. Gale, Victoria.
Stumping Powder.—Cheap stumping powder for clearing land. By A. Gale, Victoria.
Cheap stumping powder, by Jas. Evans, Salmon Arm.
That the Government, through the Central Farmers' Institute, be asked to give a bonus
of stumping powder for use of settlers in clearing their land.    By D. Matheson, Spallumcheen.
That the Central Farmers' Institute urge on the Government the necessity of providing
stumping powder at a much cheaper rate than that now charged, either by supplying direct to
districts, or by some system of bonusing retailers, so that they supply Institute members at
cost, or less.    By W. J. Harris, Maple Ridge.
Government to pay a percentage on powder used in clearing land. By J. A. Halliday,
To ask the Government to do something towards procuring cheap stumping powder. By
N. T. Baker, Kent.
Stumping Machinery.—The advisability of urging the Government to proceed with a
series of experiments in stumping machinery.
Unadulterated Goods.—Unadulterated goods.    By James Evans, Salmon Arm.
Board of Horticulture.—Compulsory spraying and inspection of orchards. By James
Evans, Salmon Arm.
That the Government appoint a practical Entomologist for the Province. By H. V.
Chaplin, Osoyoos.
That an Inspector be appointed under Pests Act.    By H. V. Chaplin, Osoyoos.
Increase of bonds for nurserymen.    By James Evans, Salmon Arm.
Timber Lands.—Why 16 quarter-sections of best fruit land at Salmon Arm are covered
by timber berths, with no more timber left on them than is required by the actual settler.
By James Evans, Salmon Arm.
Indian Reserves.—Why 2,000 acres of Indian reserve, with two Indians living on land
(such land the garden of Salmon Arm), is allowed to stand idle ; the Indians willing to sell
all or part of holdings.    By Jas. Evans, Salmon Arm.
Inspectors of Animals.—A stricter supervision of creameries by the Stock and Health
Inspector, and more frequent visits to the settlements.    By J. A. Halliday, Sandwick. H 38 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
Dairymen's Association Act.—That the Creamery Act be amended by the Government to
include pork-packing and other industries in connection with farming.
Animals Act.—Limiting any one family to more than two dogs. By A. H. Peatt,
Mr. Chairman.—The Animals Act has already been amended this session, and I know
it was in regard to dogs particularly.
That the Government be urged to enact a measure to compel the stockowners to provide
one bull for every thirty head of breeding cows on the range.    By R. M. Woodward, Nicola.
Thoroughbred entire stock.    By Wm. Leeson.
Inspection of entire horses.
Trespass.—That a resolution be brought forward to have the Trespass Act amended so
that conviction can be had for trespass.    By A. H. Peatt, Metchosin.
Game Act.—That a resolution be brought forward to have an Act passed for a licence of
$10; a bona fide settler to be exempt.    By A. H. Peatt, Metchosin.
That a resolution be brought forward to have an Act passed to stop the sale of game. By
A. H. Peatt, Metchosin.
Amendment to Game Laws.    By Wm. Leeson.
Conservation of Water.—To again take up the matter of appointing an engineer to report
on the feasibility of conserving the waste water for irrigation purposes. By Andrew Noble,
Literature.—That the Department prepare and issue annually to each member of the
Institute an index pamphlet of the literature issued and sent out to members during the year.
Andrew Noble, Kamloops.
Experimental Farm.—That this Institute urge upon the Government the advisability of
making representations to the Dominion Government of the merit in establishing an Experimental Farm in the Dry Belt, for the special purpose of solving the problem arising in connection with mixed farming in the arid and semi-arid belt of this Province. And, further, that
until such Experimental Farm is an accomplished fact that the Provincial Agricultural Department should obtain all information possible from the U. S. Experimental Farms in the Western
States relative to mixed farming in arid districts, and circulate the same among the members
of Farmers' Institutes.    By Andrew Noble, Kamloops.
That an Experimental Farm be started in Dry Belt.    H. V. Chaplin, Kelowna.
Tobacco Growing.—That the Provincial Government urge the Dominion Government to
foster tobacco growing in British Columbia.     By H. V. Chaplin, Osoyoos.
Range Riders.—That the Government be urged to appoint a range rider for the Nicola
District, taking the territory from Spence's Bridge to Douglas Lake. By R. M. Woodward,
Market.—Establishment of market.    By Wm. Leeson, Alberni.
Roads.—Opening a road to Comox Valley.    By Wm. Leeson, Alberni.
That the Central Farmers' Institute discuss the improvement of roads, and press upon the
Governments (Dominion and Provincial) the necessity of aiding the municipalities financially
in the construction of new roads and bridges; also, to urge upon the Government to give a
practical demonstration of road building at some central points in the Coast District. By W.
J. Harris, Maple Ridge.
Marl, Limestone.—Samples of marl, limestone, &c, for distribution among Farmers'
Assessment Act.—Assessment Act.    By J. A. Halliday, Sandwick.
Crows.—By J. T. Collins (Islands), Salt Spring Island.
North-West Creameries.—Government aid to N. W. Creamery butter. By J. T. Collins,
Salt Spring Island.
Mr. Brandrith : It is evident from this list that these resolutions were intended to be
brought up, but are not concluded, so I would suggest that you nominate a committee to formulate these resolutions.
Mr. Chairman: It is a pity, after the long notice that was given, all resolutions have not
been sent in.
Mr. Brandrith: It would simplify matters if we were to have a committee appointed.
Mr. Chairman : I suppose a committee of three will be sufficient for this purpose. I,
therefore, nominate Mr. Collins from the Islands ; Mr. Noble from the Upper Country, and
Mr. Brandrith from the Lower Mainland. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 39
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman, do I understand that there are to be no other resolutions
included in the discussions than those tabulated 1
Mr. Chairman :  No ; for I suppose there will be others brought forward.
Moved by Mr. Harris, seconded by Mr. Noble, and carried—" That the meeting now
adjourn until 2 p. m."
Afternoon Session.
On opening the meeting at 2 p.m. the Secretary presented an interim report from the
Resolution Committee.
Mr. Chairman : It is in order for someone to make a motion that the report of the
Committee be adopted, and that the Committee be given further time.
Moved by Mr. Harris, seconded by Mr. Venables, and carried,—
" That the report as read be adopted and the committee be given further time."
Noxious Weeds.
Mr. Chairman : There are several people here mentioned in connection with the question
of Canadian thistles. (Reading.) " Destruction of thistles on Mission townsite. By W. T.
Abbott. The appointment of an officer, ' not a farmer,' to see the Act enforced regarding the
destruction of foul weeds, and more especially the Canadian thistle. By R. M. Woodward,
Nicola."    Has anyone got a resolution on that subject 1
Moved by Mr. R. M. Woodward, seconded by Mr. Noble,—
"That the appointment of an officer, 'not a farmer,' be made, to see the Act enforced
regarding the destruction of noxious weeds, more especially the Canadian thistle."
Secretary (J. T. Collins): I think that questions 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 should come under
Canadian thistle—that is, taking them in rotation.
Mr. Chairman : Well, yes ; because there is no question but that all of these are under
the same heading and tend to the same point. The Act that was spoken of this morning
deals with the whole subject. This resolution is really only dealing with one particular part
of the subject. There is a second resolution, to the effect that the Government be urged to
enact a measure to prohibit the importation of foul seeds, either in feed or seed grain.
Moved by Mr. Brandrith, seconded by Mr. Gale, and carried,—
"That the question of noxious weeds be allowed to lie over until an opportunitj' be had
of looking at the Bill, now in hands of delegates."
Mr. Chairman: The next question is that of speakers at meetings of Farmers' Institute.
(Reading) :—
" Appointment of local speakers.     By S. H. Shannon, Surrey.
" The Superintendent be requested to select speakers that are familiar with the raising of
stock on the ranges; also irrigation, fruit-raising, etc., in the Dry Belt.    By R. M. Woodward.
" That speakers on theoretical and practical irrigation be provided. By H. V. Chaplin,
Have you any resolution to offer 1
Mr. Woodward : This is merely a suggestion, asking that you send us speakers acquainted
with our needs. I believe when you were up last year there was something said in that line
as to having speakers, and the question of irrigation is one that would interest all the farmers ;
but I suppose the people in the Lower Country don't require it; they require drainage; but
in the Upper Country, where I come from, we want irrigation.
Mr. Chairman : There is no notice before the meeting, and as no one seems to be
prepared with a resolution, we will pass on to the next question—Water-Courses.
Moved by A. Gale, seconded by Jno. T. Collins,—" That the Government appoint an
Inspector of Water-Courses."
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman, with regard to this resolution, I wish to say that it has been
represented to me that the present system under which the Water-Courses Act has been H 40 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
administered is through the fence-viewers, and it seems to me that it is the cause of a great
deal of annoyance, and there is always more or less expense attendant upon it. If any trouble
arises they have to call in the fence-viewers and pay them $5 a day; and it is said that when
you do call them in, you cannot get any decision from them, and it generally results in your
having to go to the Courts to get the matter straightened out; and it was thought that if
the Government could see its way clear to appoint a permanent staff of officials it would be
more satisfactory, and would do a great deal of good. For instance, in our own district, the
roads and streets and bridges, the work on these is carried out through Mr. Campbell, and it is
thought that possibly he might be able to include that of being an Inspector of Water-Courses
among his other duties as the Superintendent of the road system. I think that most of you
gentlemen present are perfectly familiar with the present state of affairs, and would perhaps
be more able to throw more light on the subject than I am, and I would like to have any
gentleman interested in this subject give his views on this. There are other matters of far
more importance which have been pressed upon me, and which I will deal with later on.
Mr. Collins : Mr. Gale, gentlemen, has rather taken the wind out of my sails, as he has
dealt with the matter quite at length and fully, but I agree with him that the present system
is unworkable, and does not work at all in the way it was expected it would, and I see no
reason why the Roads Inspector, as Inspector of Bridges, could not take up this work. He
would come there as a stranger and do his duty. I can assure you, in my little island, there
are several plots of land which are really unworkable on account of the ditches further down,
they are generally stopped up. I am speaking feelingly, and my ditch is flooded with water
on account of my neighbour's obstruction. One year I cleared out this ditch at my own
expense, but I hardly think that it is expected of me to benefit another person's property
when I only get half the result, and I am of the opinion, if the Government could see its way
clear to get one of the officials to do this work, it would work all right.
Mr. Towlan: Mr. Chairman, I have had some experience in the same thing, and I am of
the opinion of these other gentlemen that there ought to be some other way of doing the
Mr. Chairman : It seems to me that this resolution, as it is now, will not receive any
consideration at the hands of the Government. They will simply say there is no appropriation
for the purpose. Now, if you embody in that your ideas regarding the Road Inspector, it
might be all right; but, I think, just as the resolution stands now, it will have no effect whatever, for the reason mentioned.
Mr. Collins : We could embody as to the Roads Inspector; we are not asking for a new
Inspector to be employed.
Mr. W. J. Harris, Maple Ridge: I have something to say in connection with that. I think
if they would withdraw that resolution we could, perhaps, frame one which would have more
effect. In our case, while the Government should do the draining, we have had to do that at
our own expense; and I think if the Government's attention could be drawn to that condition
it might relieve you and give you what you are seeking, and if you withdraw that resolution
until we get something more forcible that would suit us all, it would be best. I think what
is suggested in this resolution is very necessary, and would not ask to withdraw that, but I
think we could formulate a resolution which will be more effective.
Mr. Gale : I will be pleased to withdraw it.
Stumping Powder.
Moved by James Evans, seconded by W. J. Harris,—
" Be it Resolved, That the Government bonus powder factories in some central portion of
the Province, retaining the power to control the price of powder."
Mr. Jas. Evans : I have very little to say to that, but it is understood generally throughout the Province that we require a very much cheaper powder, and I think that this motion
is one that covers the ground, and the method proposed here is the most effective way of
reducing the cost of powder to the farmers. It seems that we cannot get any statistics with
regard to the manufacture of powder, and I think we are a little in the dark about that. I
know in our section of the Province there are at least 75,000 acres of land to be cleared, and if
we could only save a dollar a ton even on this powder, it would mean a great deal for us. The
future of this Province depends on the powder question, and I think the method which we
have outlined in this resolution is the safest way of doing it, and if we could get it at the
actual cost it would mean a great deal for us and for the Province in general. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 41
Mr. Noble: There was a gentleman who came to the Dominion Hotel last night, and we
were speaking of stumping powder, and he said he would be only too glad to come here and
meet you all—that is to say, if you would permit him to come—and he says that he will supply
the Board with powder at $5 a box, and will give the party buying it an interest in the
factory. I think that would be a very good idea. In speaking to this resolution, I may say
that I think it speaks for itself. It has been before this Institute practically from its first
inception, and the farmers have been continually making application to the Government to
get cheaper powder. In some cases they have got it, but in such a burdensome way it was of
very little benefit to the farmer. We know of contractors who have large contracts who make
their own powder and have their own powder works, and I think, in the interests of the
farmer, if the buying of this powder could be got in a more co-operative way, with the assistance of the Government, it could be worked to advantage and we could get it much cheaper.
As Mr. Evans stated, there were a good many thousands of acres in this Province that require
to be cleared, and we need stumping powder to clear it, so that this is a matter which should
be attended to, because it is one of our great wants. You .heard what His Honour the
Lieutenant-Governor said about the cost of clearing the land, and when it comes from an
authority like that it should have some weight, and we who have to come up against it every
day should know something about it. The Government should be urged to give us powder
more cheaply than we can buy it at present, and we should insist upon the Government the
urgency of the case.
Mr. J. T. Collins : This powder is a very sore question and affects most of us. It is a
question we have been hammering at for I do not know how many years, six or seven years
anyway, and I was very sorry to hear the Minister of Agriculture say to-day, or rather infer,
he could not do very much for us, for if he gave us a bonus on powder in the districts where
it was required, then the other people in the other districts where they do not want it would be
wanting something else ; but I would like to remind you that in other districts they are getting
something else. What does the dyking cost, for instance, and what good does it do us here 1
I do not think we are asking too much at all when we ask for something in the way of cheaper
powder. We can do nothing without powder. It is all right to have stumping machines, but
we are not all in the position to get these machines, and even then you have to supply powder
in the long run to move these stumps. Those who have had any experience at all in powder,
and I have had some little experience, have found it is the cheapest way to clear land; and
instead of getting powder cheaper, as we expected we would, we are now paying more money
for it, we find, just simply because we don't hang together and make somebody give us cheaper
powder, either the manufacturer or the Government. Now, can we not split this powder combine in some way? I was glad to hear Mr. Noble say that there was some gentleman who was
willing to give us cheaper powder, but I am rather afraid when this gentleman comes forward
he will want something more than we can give. Let us ask for a bonus on powder, and I
think we must tell the Hon. Capt. Tatlow that he is doing something for the others. He is
doing a great deal for them in the way of dyking, and then what about the Westminster
Bridge 1 Wasn't the Government money spent there, and why can they not spend a few
thousand dollars a year in assisting to clear land 1 Perhaps you will not agree with me when
I say that some of the best land in British Columbia cannot bo cleared on account of a lack of
stumping powder.
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman, it gives me great pleasure to support the resolution on stumping
powder, because that is'the most important subject before the people in our district to-day,
and I am quite in accord with the mover and seconder of this resolution; we want to get a
rebate. From letters I have in my possession I can show that the companies would not
expect the Government to take a whole car-load at one shipment, but they would expect the
Government to pay down the amount of the car-load, and the farmers could then present their
orders and get their powder from the magazine when it was required. For instance, an
Institute in the Upper Country might send down for a ton or two, and get it filled out of that
one car-load, and Cowichan might require a ton or two, and they might do the same. These
figures, I think, throw more light on it, and I noticed in the Minister's address this morning
he mentioned in connection with the stumping powder that the Government would want to
know approximately the amount of money which would be required in the event of a rebate
being given. By to-morrow I will undertake to supply this information, because I will interview the powder companies myself, and I think they will be ready to give us the information
as to the amount of stumping powder used at the present time, and it would form a guide for
us to know what amount of money would be required to provide for a rebate of say $1 per box. H 42 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
Mr. E. Nordschow : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, this powder question is of very great
importance for the part of the country where I come from (Bella Coola). The country there
is heavily timbered, and we have been working now for ten years, and we have only been
using stumping powder for this last year, and we have not had much experience in the use of
stumping powder, but we have found out during the last year that it is about the only way
we can clear the land. (Cries of hear, hear.) Now, for ten years—since 1894, when we
came—it has cost us from $25 to $150 an acre to clear the land, and still roost of the stumps
are left in the ground. There are trees up to seven feet in diameter, and the land is heavily
timbered, but the soil is excellent for agriculture, and, as you all know, gentlemen, according
to the Government Survey Report of 1902, there is an area of farming land in that valley of
80,000 acres. Now, the only way for us to clear that land is to use stumping powder, and we
have to pay $8 a box, besides $2 for caps and fuse, which will make it $10; and, as far as we
can find out, we need a box for a quarter of an acre just to blast the stumps, and that is laying
it on the surface, so it will be an awful expense to clear the land; but, at the same time, the
soil there is excellent for farming, and, gentlemen, I can prove it by our Superintendent of the
Farmers' Institute who visited us there last season, and he knows the only way for us to clear
the land is by stumping powder, and we will be very glad in our district if a resolution is
passed here to get some reduction in the price, so as to make it possible for us to use the
Mr. W. J. Brandrith (Burrard) : Mr. Chairman, the district I have the honour to represent is very much interested in this question of stumping powder likewise. Ours is a heavily
timbered section of the country, and until the timber is removed it is of very little value, and
when the timber is removed the soil is not of the very best, and it makes it very expensive to
get a piece of land to grow potatoes on, and we have to pay $7.50 for a case of powder, and
caps and fuse in addition, and it takes about four boxes, or cases, to blast out the stumps on
an acre. I know this from practical experience, as I have used that much myself. It was
said here last year at this Institute that it was not a wise thing to ask the Government to aid
the settler on the timber lands, because it would be entering the thin edge of the wedge, and
other people would want concessions from the Government also. Now, our friends from the
" Dry Belt" are all asking for the conservation of water	
Mr. Noble (interrupting):   And we want powder too.
Mr. Brandrith (continuing): And our friends on the Lower Fraser have had from the
Government $871,928.87 expended in dyking. Now, the area that is reclaimed by these dykes
is not anything in comparison with the area that might be reclaimed with that expenditure on
the high land, and I contend that it is up to the Government to do something for the " high
land " people. I am quite willing to help our friends in the interior, because they have a fine
country up there, and good climate, and they certainly need good water, for you cannot even
have a good Scotch without you have good water.    (Laughter.)
Mr. Towlan : I am perfectly in sympathy with the resolution, as I am quite sure that
some of the stumps need a great deal of powder before you can take them out, and I know of
some stumps on which you could use a whole box of powder before you could get them out;
and if it is going to take a box of powder for each stump, you will see that it is going to
require a good many boxes to clear an acre; and at that rate it would be out of the question
to clear the land or buy powder. I would like to see a way of getting cheaper powder, and,
therefore, this resolution is one which I would like to see pass.
Mr. Matheson: Mr. Chairman, I suppose I live up in the " Dry Belt," but at the same
time there is a lot of land there that needs powder, and wants to be cleared, and I know up
there we all try to help ourselves a great deal, and when there is a need and cry for anything
we work together. This resolution I consider is a very good one, and I would not want to
depart from the idea of it, and if the Central Institute here could work together at a meeting
of this nature, and find out pretty nearly the amount of powder that would be used in this
Province for a year, it would do a great deal of good, and I think every branch of the Institute could take a share in that work. I believe powder keeps only for a certain length of
time—that is, it retains its strength only for a limited period, about six months. Well, we
could ask the Government to build small magazines here and there at the most available parts
of the district, and hold powder there for the farmer's use. It would be a very small cost,
and I do not see why the Institutes of British Columbia could not buy powder from the
actory as cheap as any other wholesale man, and in that way we would save the wholesale
nd middle-man's profit, and they have a large profit on powder.    The report we have here is 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 43
rather a conservative one. Where I come from w6 require a very small quantity of powder,
and I think if the whole of the Institutes combined together throughout the Province to get
a carload, I do not see why we could not get it as cheaply as the wholesale man could get it.
Mr. N. T. Baker: I am informed that down on the other side of the line they get powder
for $4.50 a box.
Mr. Chairman :  Where is that 1
Mr. N. T. Baker : Down in Washington State ; and I do not know why it is so high here,
unless it is the duty. Now, if it is the duty that makes it so dear here, it would be a good
idea to ask the Government to give us free duty. It is a fact that we need a rebate on powder
in some way, and until this Institute gets it I don't suppose they will stop asking for it. I
use a little powder, and if I could get powder for $4 or $5 a box, I would use a great deal more.
Mr. Shaw: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I think I can bear out the information that
Mr. Gale has already given you. I come from a District where powder is manufactured, and
our President had a conversation with the Manager of the Powder Company about the manufacture of it, and he stated that powder bought in large quantities, or bought by the Government in car-load lots, could be sold at $5.50 a box. That powder could be disposed of in small
quantities to the farmer as his needs called for it. He said that it was not necessary to store
a car-load of powder, as, in the course of manufacture, they would make provision for the
demands made upon them by the Government; and in that way I think it would be a very
easy matter for the Government to undertake it, seeing that they use a large amount of powder
themselves—that is, in the way of making roads and clearing for the preparation of roads. I
think myself that cheap stumping powder is a crying need in the Province to-day. We have
a lot of good land that is valuable for farming purposes, only the timber and stumps are in the
way, and it is a very serious matter to get rid of those stumps without the assistance of powder ;
and if the Government could see its way clear to adopt the plan that the manufacturers are
prepared to meet, I cannot see where there would be any difficulty in the matter of getting it
cheaper. At the present time the powder at the works costs $6.75 a case; that has been
raised 75 per cent, within the last year. Now, if the Manager were asked, what is the cause of
the raise in powder, he would tell you the war in Japan. A gentleman said to him, " You are
surely not supplying Japan with powder," and he said " No; but the cost of the raw materials
is increased—the sulphur is up." Well, I do not think that the powder contains 75 per cent,
of sulphur, and at all events our cry is that we want it for less than we are getting it, and if
it is possible for the Government to get it for less we would very much like them to take the
matter in hand.
Mr. Chairman : This resolution reads to the effect that the powder factory be bonused—
that is the gist of this resolution—bonusing the powder factory.
Mr. W. J. Harris : Well, Mr. Chairman, I do not know that it makes any difference how
we get it as long as we get it for less money. Perhaps we have made a little mistake in drawing
it up, but the intention is the same. This is the fourth year that this has been up in this
Institute, and I think we will have to endeavour this year to get some definite answer from
the Government before we go home. (Hear, hear.) We have been talking to some of the
members here of the different Governments in the past four years, and we have had pretty fair
promises from them that something would be done, but so far none of them have over been
put into force. Now, I think, we want before we leave Victoria to find out whether we are
going to get something done on this powder question. It is one of the big needs of the day
for timber lands. One gentleman said it would take one to three boxes for an acre, but in our
case it would take nothing like this, but a great deal more, for there are lots of stumps that
are eight and nine feet across, and a few boxes are no use. We ought all to endeavour before
we leave Victoria this time to find out whether we are going to get it. It is the same question
that comes up every year, and when we go back to our Districts we are in the same position
as before we came down, and know no more than when we left. We go back and tell them
what we have done, and that is all there is about it. I think we ought all to stay with it, and
then the Government will do something for us if we just endeavour and stay with them, and
not put the question off.
J. R. McLaren (Alberni): I heartily agree with every word that has been spoken in this
matter, and I think the remark of the last speaker is a very important one, and one that we
ought to make up our minds on to see that it is carried out. For my part, I need not go home
without seeing some progress made on this question, and I will certainly be blown up if I don't
see that something important is done.   I am very glad to see that this meeting is so unanimous H 44 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
on this important subject. The remarks that have been made with reference to what has been
done for other Districts—namely, dyking lands in Dry Belt Districts—should be very strong
arguments why we in the timber districts should have some help from the Government, and I
may say that every farmer in my District is in want of powder, and he cannot get on without
it. The District will be at a stand-still unless we can get cheaper powder than we are getting
at present. We are now paying $7 a case, not speaking of fuse and caps, so it is utterly prohibitive, and we cannot go on improving our land and making money to pay the Government
taxes unless we get some assistance from the Government to clear the land and provide funds
with which to pay and meet the demands of the Government.
Mr. Noble: I think, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, it would be a good plan to invite the
gentleman I alluded to to see you ; for if we can get that powder for $5 a case, it would be
cheaper than anyone has mentioned yet.
Delegate : What kind of powder is it ?
Mr. Noble : Well, the best way would be to have the gentleman here, and he could explain
it to you.
Mr. Buckingham : I happen to be one who represents a District which, perhaps, does not
need very much stumping powder, and reference has been made to it already here; and I want
the gentlemen to understand here that while we don't need it in our District, yet we are
heartily in sympathy with the needs of other Districts in this Province in the way of stumping
powder. Any person who rides through the timber districts, as I have done, and has seen the
deserted homes and places where men have gone to live, and have struggled for a few years and
then picked up what little they had left and gone away again, simply because they could not
make a living, will realise the need of this powder in clearing land. I think the cases I have
mentioned are the strongest argument that can be brought forward as to the necessity for this
powder, in order to enable the settler to clear his land. We hear of delegations coming down
here to ask the Government for aid—take the mines, for instance—and they say, on account
of certain taxation, the mining industry is at a stand-still, and that they must have certain
concessions made to it, otherwise mining cannot be made a paying industry, and the Government yields to these demands; but the farmers have been asking for this question to be settled
for years and years, in order that they may be able to make for themselves homes in this
Province, and we have never yet had a reply to our requests. Whilst I believe that the
question is a burning one, and a most necessary one, yet I do not quite fall in with the
resolution as it stands to-day, for it seems to me it is asking the Government for more than we
are going to get. If it can be simplified in some way, it might bring about better results. The
thought came to me that if the Government could be asked to give a bonus for every box of
powder, or on the amount of powder that was used by the farmer in the actual clearing of
land, it would perhaps simplify matters. I only make this suggestion, and perhaps I am a
little out of order in doing this. I think, though, if this were done we might then be able to
make some progress. There are bonuses made in this way on things that are used. Now, in
the Eastern Provinces there is a bonus given on certain things that are imported into the
country, and if this could be done so that a bonus could be given for every box of powder used
in the clearing of land, it seems to me it would solve the question. Gentlemen, I want you to
understand that the Delta people are perfectly and heartily in accord with your request, and
if there is any other representative here from the Delta land you will find we are ready to
stand by you in getting this request granted from the Government.
Mr. James Evans: Mr. President, in rising to this question of bonuses on stumping-
powder, I am well aware, with all the rest of the speakers who have sat down previous to me,
that it is one of the greatest questions that affect the element of British Columbia lands today ; but the question also arises, will the Government agree to a reasonable proposition
asking for a bonus for stumping powder ? For the simple reason, the workers of our mineral
wealth are entitled to the same consideration as the farmer, and they, with the same justice,
ask that they be supplied with cheaper powder, so as to help develop our mineral resources.
I believe, as one of the delegates has suggested here, that we should make this more co-operative, and work together shoulder to shoulder. I do not think that we should be beggars to
the Province, but everyone should stand together. There are too many staying on land that
are living off the public treasury, and this should not be the case, but everyone should be able
to help himself. I am aware that in my District it will cost a great deal to clear the land, as
it will take more than four boxes an acre to clear the land, for I can assure you that I have
put more than four boxes of powder on one stump alone, so you will see it will take more than 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 45
one box to clear an acre. At the present time I am contemplating clearing a little bit of
land—not half an acre—and it will, I am sure, take more than four boxes right there; and I
think we should be very careful when we are making a resolution to ask the Government for
something; and I think we should lay this resolution over for the time, and appoint a committee to make some suggestions and draw up some resolution that will embody these different
resolutions, or suggestions rather, and something that will be fair to all concerned. Therefore,
I would move "That the question of bonus on factories for powder be laid over until tomorrow and a committee be appointed."
Mr. Collins : I beg to second that.
Mr. Chairman : Before I put this question, I would like to say a word or two. I think
that is the most sensible thing that can be done under the circumstances, as this motion as it
stood could not commend itself to the Government. The idea of asking the Government to
bonus a factory cf any kind is, I think, asking too much. What would the other factories in
the Province say ? There are other ways of reaching the question, if a bonus is going to be
given. I heard a good deal as to the Islands wanting powder. As far as I can see, there are
more requests for powder up in the Upper Country than on the Islands, so it is a question for
the whole of the country. There has been another phase of the question spoken of just now,
and that is that certain industries have been bonused, such as dyking and so on. Very well,
there has been a lot of money spent on dyking, but it must be understood that that is not a
bonus at all; the people must pay that back again. I was up in Nicola last year; Mr. Woodward was there; and the question was brought forward at a meeting that the people running
ditches for irrigation should have some assistance from the Government, and I then instanced
this question of stumping powder. I said : " You don't require stumping powder right here,
but you do want irrigation. Supposing the Government consented to bonus irrigation schemes,
what would the powder people and other interests say ?" You see it is a far-reaching question,
and, therefore, must be looked at from a broad standpoint, and I am, therefore, very glad to see
the motion to refer the question to a committee has been made. The suggestion that the Government should buy a car-load at a time, and allow those who want it to take it from the factory
as required, seems to be a reasonable proposition and would answer well for those who are in a
position to go to the factory and take it away ; but how about those who cannot do so 1 The
District from which Mr. Nordschow comes, for instance, where they have only occasional
passenger steamers, which are not allowed to carry explosives t The benefits, therefore, of
this plan would not be equal to all parts of the country. However, gentlemen, we will leave
this motion for a few minutes, as the Mayor is here, and would like, with your permission, to
address you.     (Applause.)
Mayor Barnard's Address.
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—I assure you it gives me a great deal of pleasure to be
able to be here to-day and bid you welcome to our City in the name of Victoria citizens. This
city is, to a large extent, identified with the farming interests, and we in the City of Victoria
fully recognise that whatever conduces to the benefit of the farmers and farming also helps
the city. We feel, to a great extent, our interests are identical, and in any way that we can
further the interests of the farmers, we are at the same time furthering those of ourselves.
Therefore, we are always glad to see a gathering such as I see here to-day, because it simply
means a number of the best men, representing an industry which is, I think, almost the most
important industry in the Province, are gathered together with a view of concerted action for
their own general improvement, which, as I said before, is for the improvement of the cities.
We are particularly interested in its welfare, and speaking now also as a member of the Tourist
Association, we are particularly interested in the development of fruit-growing, for the reason
that we feel that its results are going to be enormously beneficial to the Province as well as
Vancouver Island. We think, in Victoria, that the fruit grown on the southern portion of
Vancouver Island is equal to any fruit that can be grown in the Province, or, for that matter,
any fruit of its kind in the world. The fact of the rapid development of the North-West
Territories is, of course, providing an ever-increasing market, which will, I think, far out-grow
the supply at all times, and the result of it will be, I think, a very large development in the
direction of fruit-growing on this Island, as well as on the Mainland, and it will have a very
beneficial effect on the Province generally. It means a highly desirable class of immigrants,
or settlers. It means that the land, instead of being held in large tracts, will be cut up into
smaller holdings, which will give us exactly the kind of population we want in the country— H 46 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
that is, a good, strong, agricultural class, who will take their part in the Government of the
country and direct its legislation, and which will generally conduce greatly to the welfare of
the Province.
I may say that, speaking of the Tourist Association of which I made mention a few
minutes ago, the City of Victoria subsidises it to a considerable amount every year. This
year we are giving the sum of $4,000, and about the same amount is collected from the
different citizens. This is used in advertising the City of Victoria—not only the City of
Victoria, but also the surrounding Districts— and we have always made it a special point to
call attention to the fruit-growing possibilities of this part of the country. The result of all
this is becoming quite noticeable now, and there is never a week passes but we get enquiry
after enquiry, asking if land can be obtained, and for general information of that kind. Well,
gentlemen, that is all going to do a great deal of good, and I do not think that the prospects
for this Island were ever as bright as they are at this present moment. I am possibly a bit of
an optimist, but I certainly look for a tremendous development in the near future, within the
next four or five years, and I am sure that the development is not going to be confined to the
cities. In fact, if it is to be confined to the cities it will not amount to very much, but I
think we will find that the agricultural communities will also go ahead by leaps and bounds,
and I am sure the work of the Farmers' Institutes will all help to that end.
Once again I bid you a very hearty welcome to Victoria, and I hope we will see you all
here often.    (Applause.)
Mr. W. J. Harris : Mr. Chairman, I have great pleasure in moving a vote of thanks to
the Mayor for the kind words he has given us to-day, and having known the Mayor for a good
number of years, I think I can say that he is fully in earnest.
Mr. Patterson : I have much pleasure in seconding the motion.
Carried unanimously.
Moved by Mr. Evans, seconded by Mr. Collins,—
" That the question of a bonus to a powder factory be laid over until tomorrow, and that
a committee be appointed to draft a proper resolution on the matter."
Mr. W. J. Harris : I move that Mr. Harris, of Langley, and Mr. Evans, of Salmon Arm,
and my friend Mr. Noble, be put on that Committee.
Mr. McLaren : I propose that Mr. Anderson's name be added.
Mr. Chairman : I suggest that Mr. McLaren's and Mr. Collins' names be added, leaving
mine out, and then there will be five.
Motion carried as amended.
Speakers at Farmers' Institute  Meetings.
Moved by Mr. Shannon, seconded by Mr. Buckingham,—
" That the best interests of the farming communities of British Columbia require that
spring meetings of the Farmers' Institute be held in March, instead of April, and that local
speakers, including ladies, be obtained, if possible."
Mr. Shannon : I may say, in regard to the change in dates asked for in the spring
meetings, we find it difficult to attend in April, as our spring work usually comes along about
that time, and I think if we decided to have them held in March, when we were not so busy,
the attendance would be much greater. Of course, I am only speaking for the Lower Mainland. I do not know how this will affect our delegates from the Upper Country, but I assure
you for the Lower Mainland this change is very desirable. As speakers are brought at
considerable expense, the more people we can get to attend the meetings the better ; it is for
the community at large. With regard to local speakers, it is a matter I put in because I think
that our Superintendent is only too glad to get local speakers, and I may say that the best
meetings I have attended were where the local speakers addressed them. So far as lady
speakers are concerned, I do not know that we have any in British Columbia, but I see that
they are lecturing in Ontario and other parts and are doing a great deal of good, especially in
the way of domestic science and matters concerned with the house.
Mr. Buckingham : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I can heartily endorse the remarks that
have been made by the mover of the resolution, and I may say that at the last annual meeting
this question was taken up, and we found it would be in the interest of the Institute if we 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 47
could have our meetings held earlier. We feel that the busy times comes on in April, and
there is no attendance here at all when the farmers are busy. As regards the question of
having local speakers, we feel that it is far better to have men who are acquainted with the
conditions of the Province, rather than having men who live away in the Eastern Provinces,
and are not versed in the conditions existing in this Province. I may say that one of the
best meetings I have attended, and which aroused the greatest interest, was one that was
addressed by a local speaker, Mr. A. C. Wells, of Chilliwhack. He did not give us a great,
long lecture, but he said that he was giving one on his own experiments, and he told us we
could ask questions, and gain information in that way; and I think that is the best way,
where we can exchange ideas with regard to the working of our farms, and as it has already
been said by the Chairman, that some of the Institutes where he has been he has hardly seen
a lady in the meeting, and there was, as a consequence, a very small attendance. Now, this
is something which, I think, we want to encourage, and if we can introduce lady speakers
throughout our Institutes I think it will tend to increase the attendance, for, as you know,
anything that the ladies are not interested in is never very successful, and when we get the
ladies interested then I think the Institute will attain a success that it has never as yet
Mr. Towlan : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I have been asked to speak on this question.
It seems that up in our district they are not favourable to having the meetings held in
the month of April. They ask to have them held in the beginning of June. Notwithstanding, I think, as far as the time is concerned, they would be satisfied as long as it was
changed to a little earlier, or a little later. I think as regards there being ladies introduced
to our meetings, it would be a very good idea. The last meeting we held in our Institute we
had ladies, and Mr. Brandrith can bear me out in that, and there were any amount of ladies
there—about 40 or 50 of them, so they are not scarce in all the districts. I dare say it would
be a good thing to have lady speakers—they could probably handle the chicken question better
than the gentlemen.
Unadulterated  Foods.
Moved by Mr. J. N. Evans, seconded by D. Matheson,—
" Be it resolved, That all packages of foods offered for sale in this Province be so stamped
that the intending purchaser can immediately tell by whom it was produced and what the
contents are."
Mr. J. N. Evans (Cowichan): In our part of the country we have had to purchase $10
worth of stuff for every dollar's worth that we have had to sell, and as soon as we had anything
to sell we concluded it would be better to put our names on it and show what it was, and if it
was not what it was represented to be it could be thrown in the water; and this has been
done ; and, gentlemen, there is a lot more stuff that is sold and is not what it is represented
to be, and which should be thrown in the water also. Our mills bring in oat husks from the
North-West and mix it with shorts and sell it for chop, and then they put a little salt in it to
give it a better taste; but, unfortunately, they put a little too much in it—I guess the salt
was the only palatable thing in it; and that is not the only thing; and the result is that we
farmers have to put up with this sort of thing and have no means of getting posted on these
things; and I thing there should be a first-class farm paper in circulation among us, and the
Government should make it up, as we are not getting any kind of information we ought to be
getting; and I think if we knew where we could get good brands of the things we want it
would mean a good deal for us.
Mr. Matheson: I don't know that I should have seconded that motion. At the same
time, I think it is very important to a farmer that he should get what he pays for. He is
supposed to buy chop and get chop, and for my part I think that all the mills class their mill-
feed and charge accordingly. I did not know that they put any salt in it, and if they do I
don't know that it would hurt anything. Salt costs as much as the feed and it makes it more
palatable, but we at the Armstrong mill never put it in. I do not think it ought to be put
in, and I heartily agree with the resolution in that way, and I think that everything we buy
should be stamped for what it is, and no more.
Mr. Chairman : This means all packages of food. Now, do I understand that it means
food for the human being, or just for animals and beasts ? H 48 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
Mr. J. N. Evans: Both. Now, I think with these resolutions we should have the aid
of some person with experience. I myself am not posted enough to put resolutions together
in parliamentary order—I am not capable of doing it, and cannot put the resolutions in in
proper form. Each one of us is struggling to get out resolutions to the best of our ability,
and, believe me, I am here to represent our Institute the best I can, but my education has
been sadly neglected in my youth, and I cannot write these things out and word them as they
should be.
Mr. Chairman : But that is the intention of it 1
Mr. J. N. Evans : Yes, everything the farmer buys, either for stock or man.
Mr. Matheson : I think we passed a resolution on this last year, and I think there was a
committee appointed to draw up the proper resolution, and, in fact, we graded the mill feed—
certain grades, first, second and third—that it ought to contain so much per cent, of feed, and
so much per cent, of weeds and strings—I think they had strings in it last year instead of
salt—and I do not know whether the Government did anything with it or not, but I know
there was a Bill regarding the question before the Dominion Government, and there is at
present, I believe, but whether the Government of this Province has any power to act in this
matter, I don't know.
Mr. Chairman : It is a matter for the Department of the Interior to deal with. The
resolution you passed last year was referred to that Department in due course, but if you
choose to pass another resolution now, re-affirming that passed last year, it also will be
forwarded. There is nothing else that we can do. You will find your resolution on page 62
of last year's report.
Mr. J. N. Evans: It seems to me that that is very limited, and I want it amended so
that it will include the resolution I have made.
Mr. Evans then moved, and Mr. Matheson seconded,—
" Be it resolved, That all packages of foods offered for sale in this Province be so stamped
that the intending purchaser can tell by whom it was produced, and what the contents are."
Board op Horticulture.
Mr. Chairman : The next question refers to the Board of Horticulture :—
" Compulsory spraying and inspection of orchards.    By Jas. Evans, Salmon Arm.
" That the Government appoint a practical entomologist for the Province. By H. V.
Chaplin, Osoyoos.
" That an inspector be appointed under Pests Act.    By H. V. Chaplin, Osoyoos.
" Increase of bonds for nurserymen.    By Jas. Evans, Salmon Arm."
Moved by Mr. Jas. Evans, seconded by W. Towlan,—
" That the fruit industry is seriously menaced by insect pests and fungous diseases;
"Therefore, be it resolved, That the Central Farmers' Institute recommend a compulsory
spraying of orchards with a view to their eradication."
Mr. Evans : In speaking of the resolution I have just moved, my idea is that in my part
of the country we should have an Inspector there, a man capable of demonstrating the spraying of orchards, and how they should be sprayed, and he should have the power to compel
people to spray their orchards according to the latest improved methods. Our orchards are
pestered with oyster-shell bark lice, and they get in there before we know it. They claim that
certain sprays would kill it, but there they are still, and our idea is that we should have an
Inspector up there who will compel all the people to spray their orchards, and not only compel
them, but give them a demonstration as to how it should be done.
Secretary: Mr. Chairman, here is another resolution very much on the same lines, viz.:
" That owing to a large number of new settlers coming into the Okanagan Valley from
the Prairie, the Government be asked to appoint an Inspector who is capable of making outdoor demonstrations in spraying."
Mr. Chairman : The Act provides for only one Inspector, and the Inspector is certainly
doing a very great deal of good work, and I do not know that this could lead to anything,
inasmuch as there is no intention, from what the Minister has told me, of increasing the vote
for these matters, and I do not suppose that an Inspector would work for nothing.
Motion withdrawn. Mr. de Hart : I only came in very late to the Institute meeting. In fact, I had no idea
of coming here to prepare any subjects which Mr. Chaplin has written you about, and I knew
nothing about them until this paper was handed to me to-day. I may say that there are a
large number of settlers going into our valley who have been growing wheat, and they have
forgotten everything they ever knew about fruit on account of growing wheat for so many
years, and they know nothing about trimming an orchard, and we want practical men who
will be sent up there and who will notify them when their orchards are infected with pests,
and who will demonstrate to them how the orchard should be treated.
Mr. de Hart, therefore, moved, and Mr. Matheson seconded,—
" Resolved, That the immense amount of work entailed on the Provincial Fruit Inspector
makes it imperative that more assistance be placed at his disposal, and that the Provincial
Government be respectfully requested to provide Mr. Cunningham with the assistance
Mr. Evans : What power has the Inspector got ? Can he compel a man to spray an
orchard 1
Mr. Chairman : Yes.
Mr. Matheson : I wish to say that I had a letter from Mr. Cunningham about the amount
of trees that were shipped into British Columbia this last fall, and the number that were
destroyed on account of fruit pests, especially on account of the San Jose scale. There was
one order that came from Eastern Ontario in which I had some of this scale myself, and was
inspected before it came from the East, and I believe it was inspected again at Revelstoke and
allowed to pass; but when it came into Armstrong the car was immediately sent back, the
trees taken to Victoria, and the whole shipment was immediately destroyed on account of the
San Jose scale.
Mr. Chairman : To Vancouver, you mean, do you not 1
Mr. Matheson : Yes, not Victoria; and Mr. Cunningham gave me a report on that shipment, and he said that he destroyed some 2,500 trees besides that in the shipment that came
in last fall, besides sending a car-load back to Oregon. Well, in view of the danger that
stands before us of pests coming into the Province, it does not matter how close we inspect
them, I think there ought to be closer inspection of orchards than there is. Take it with us,
I do not think there is a single man in this country, if his trees were full of San Jose scale,
would know what it is. I know three years ago I had an orchard of my own which was not
doing well, and I thought the trouble was that perhaps it wanted water, and there were others
in the same way, a demonstrator came along and he demonstrated to me that it was the oyster
scale that was causing all the trouble, and people not knowing what these pests are, whole
orchards may be destroyed before we know what the result is, and I think the fruit industry
of this Province is too important to be neglected in its early stages. If we let these pests get
a start in the Province it is going to cost the Province a great deal more than the salary of
one practical man for looking after the orchard. For my part, I do not think that one man is
sufficient in going around this whole Province to simply protect the orchard from these pests.
I think we can congratulate ourselves in having a man like Mr. Cunningham in charge of that
business just now, and I think that he should be stationed some place to watch the imported
fruit trees coming in here.
Mr. N oble : I think, in order to get at the root of that trouble, the Inspector should go
to the point where it starts, and let him inspect the nurseries and find out what kind of trees
they are going to send into the Province, before they are allowed to come into British Columbia
at all.
Mr. N. T. Baker : We mustn't forget this, that there are a whole lot of new trees, being
set out in this Province that need looking after, and it is not so much the trees that come in
that are affected, but it is those trees that are set out now which are the ones that will be
attacked and spoiled. I have got quite a few young trees myself, and I calculate putting in
more, and I am not by any means a horticulturist. I do not know very much about it, but I have
read some on this subject and have the head knowledge, but do not know anything about all
these pests, and I want a man who will come there and show me about this, and once we have
the matter demonstrated to us we can take care of the young trees ourselves. I think this
resolution is a good idea and I heartily endorse it.
Mr. Brandrith : Before the question is put I would just like to draw the attention of the
Institute to the difficulty that the ordinary individual has in finding the San Jose scale.    In H 50 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
the first place, you have to have a powerful microscope to find even a full-grown specimen, and
if you have a microscope you can see them, but if there were hundreds of them on the tree
and you had not a microscope they would escape your observation. With regard to the remarks
of my friend, Mr. Noble, as to sending the Inspector to where the trees come from, that would
be impracticable, because they come from every State in the Union. We have them every
year coming from Oregon, Washington, Ontario, Japan and many other places, so you see that
idea would be impracticable. I think the Horticultural Board has done wisely and well in
establishing the Examination Station at Vancouver, as every shipment of nursery stock has to
be inspected there, and I can assure you this is done systematically and thoroughly, and I
know that anything that escapes Mr. Cunningham and his assistants has to be something like
the San Jose scale—very small indeed. (Hear, hear.)
Motion carried unanimously.
Inspection of Steam Boilers.
Mr. Chairman: Gentlemen, we have here now with us Mr. Peck, Chief Inspector of
Boilers, and as the question of running steam engines has come up on several occasions, Mr.
Peck was good enough to say he would come and give any information that lay in his power
with regard to the working of the Act; and I think it would be well to hear what Mr. Peck
has to say, because he has to go away to-night, and perhaps when he has finished his discourse
a great many of the apparent difficulties in the working of this Act will be explained away.
Mr. Peck, Chief Inspector of Boilers : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the Central
Farmers' Institutes, I am sure it gives me very great pleasure to be here this afternoon, and
be able to have an opportunity of discussing with you a few points in connection with the
Central Farmers' Institute. The Deputy Minister has been good enough to say that I was
kind enough to come. I think I might say that he was kind enough to make an arrangement
by which I could meet you gentlemen, and explain the situation with regard to steam boilers
and the working of the Act. We find in connection with our Department, and I think that
this is not an exception, that all the difficulties we have to contend with are through misunderstandings, and I trust this afternoon, in a few minutes, I may be able to explain what I think
were some of the misunderstandings at your last meeting, judging from what was said in connection with the working of the Act. I might, perhaps, be first permitted to go into a word
of explanation, as I understand that is a part of the object of my visit here, the object
that the Department has in view being to provide for the inspection of steam plants and the
examination of engineers. As I understand it, the Institutes are thoroughly in accord with
the Department, so far as the inspection of the plants is concerned. I judge that from reading
this report. The matter of engineers, however, I understand is a question on which you are
not all of the same opinion. Now, with reference to the misunderstandings on that, I may
mention that it seemed, from looking over this discussion, that the impression of the Institute
was that the greatest difficulty that existed was the necessity of a farmer having to practically
serve twelve months apprenticeship before he could legally qualify himself to operate his own
plant. If that were really so it would certainly be a hardship. The Act provides for
the issuance of temporary certificates. For instance, we take the case of a farmer getting
a new machine, and he has had very little experience, and all that it is necessary for
him to do is to notify the Inspector that he wishes to operate this machine, and that
he wishes to have a temporary certificate, and the Inspector sends that on to me, and
I issue a temporary certificate. Mr. Anderson pointed that out last year, but I notice that
one of the members stated that the temporary engineers were not to be employed for more
than one month. Well, that again is a misunderstanding. That applies only to section 35,
in which liberty is given to any steam user, if his engineer is absent through any cause—any
unavoidable cause—he can, without reference to anybody, put on the best man that he has in
the vicinity. The object of the Department here is, of course, to provide for a certain measure
of safety, without hampering in any way the industries of the country. We all realies that
no industry in British Columbia can be hampered in any way by any kind of legislation. I
think we all agree on that, and so far as our Act has worked out in the last six years it has
proved to be effective in our case, with the possible exception of this Institute, as it, in taking
the matter up last year, thought it might possibly hamper you in some way, by your being
compelled to have a certified engineer.    Now, this temporary certificate is not confined to a 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 51
month, but it is allowed to go on for a year. Now, with the time under the temporary certificate, it would put a man who has had no previous experience that he would be able to qualify
at the end of the year for his certificate of competency, and then he comes up for examination
and gets a certificate of competency and the thing is all finished. That is the Act as it stands
at present on the statute books, and there is no possibility of its being interpreted in any other
way, and the slight mistakes that cropped up last year in your meeting was the wording of the
latter end of section 35, which does not apply to a temporary certificated engineer, but to a
temporary engineer who is employed without any certificates at all. He must not be employed
for more than a month without the consent in writing of the Chief Inspector. That, I think,
is a wise precaution, and we have not an instance of where it has worked any hardship.
Now, gentlemen, I do not know that there is anything else that I have to say in connection
with discussion of last year, further than I might say I think almost all the farmers who own their
own plants at the present time have certificates, and I presume, if it is still the wish of this Committee that some change should be made, fhat will be taken into serious consideration by the
Department, but I feel, as Chief Inspector, that we have got along so well with the Act in its
present shape, it would not be wise to alter it. I think there have not been any cases come to
my attention where it has inflicted a hardship, and if there were a case of hardship pointed out,
we should certainly take steps at once to remedy the evil; but when it is only pointed out that
there might be a hardship, and when that occurs through some misunderstanding of the
interpretation of the Act, it seems to me that it would be well to consider the advisability of
making changes before they are made. The object of having certificated engineers is to give
you a certain amount of protection. Men might come around to you and tell you that they
are engineers and you engage them to run your plant for you and entrust your property to
them, and you have no opportunity of finding out that they are not engineers until they do
you a certain amount of damage. For instance, a man comes along to you and he says he is
an engineer, and he wants you to expend a certain amount of money, say on your plant, before
he will go on with the work, and you go to work and spend the money, and instead of your
finding that work to be an advantage to you, you very soon find it is a disadvantage. Of
course, you can always check that up if you refer this matter to an Inspector, and you will find
that an Inspector will be willing to give you all the information that is in his power, for they
not only want to see that the plants are kept in a safe working condition, but their services
are at your disposal at any time, in an advisory way. Of course, if we suggest a certain thing
and you don't feel like carrying it out, we say all right. We don't compel you to carry it out,
for we are only suggesting this to you to increase the value and safety of your plant, and you
will understand that these men who have from 300 to 400 boilers under their notice, and
inspecting them year after year, have an opportunity of getting information that is almost
impossible for other men to get, even though they might be engineers of years and years
experience. The engineer's experience is merely with one or two plants, but an Inspector's
experience is with several hundred plants.
I do not think that I will waste your time, gentlemen, any longer, excepting to ask you
if you think the Act is all right at present; and if you are of that opinion we would like you
to express it in some way, so that we would feel that you are satisfied. We realise, gentlemen,
that we are your servants, and if there is anything wrong we want to correct it, but we do
not want to make an alteration which will not be an improvement. If you can show us any
way to improve the Act, we want to have your ideas, and have you feel that we are in line
with you, but we don't want to make a retrogade movement if we can help it. We have had
six years of that Act, and so far it has gone on very satisfactorily, and we want to go very
slowly and carefully in making amendments.
Mr. Collins: Mr. Chairman, I would like to say one word on this point. Last year I,
among others, was rather sore about the wording of this Act. We thought it was working a
real hardship. I thought so myself. I had a steam plant, and I thought I knew all about it,
but I have found out that I do not know all about it, and when I sat for an examination, as
is required by the Act, I thought it would be very difficult and I would not be able to answer
the questions ; but, to my surprise, when I started in and sat for my examination I found they
were all practical questions, and they were all simple questions, and they were questions that
if a man in charge of a steam boiler could not answer, then he was not fit to have charge, and
I may say that I consider the slight expense of the examination is a very good investment. I
thought when I went into the room I knew all about the steam boiler, but found when I came
out I had a different idea, as I came out with the idea I knew nothing.      I quite agree with H 52 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
what Mr. Peck has said about one engineer having charge of only one engine or plant and he
thinks he knows all about it; but then take the Inspectors, they see so many plants, and so
many different improvements, and by inspecting our boilers they are not doing us a hardship,
but are doing us a good, as they are probably saving our lives, and they are certainly saving
the lives of our boilers. I am beginning to think that the Act is a very good Act, and that
we had better let it alone. We thought last year it was not possible to get a certificate unless
we had served an apprenticeship, and that was considered very hard. We also thought that
we could not get a temporary certificate for more than a month, but we find from what Mr.
Peck has told you that the temporary certificate will be granted for twelve months, and at the
end of that twelve months, that year goes, as it were, as an apprenticeship. The Act is not
quite as plain, perhaps, on that point as it might be, but from what Mr. Peck has said, I take
it that that twelve months goes as if the man served an apprenticeship of twelve months in a
shop. I might say, gentlemen, that there is nothing to be afraid of as regards that examination.
I have to thank Mr. Peck for the very great courtesy he has shown in coming here to-day, and
for the kindly way he has answered these several questions, or misunderstandings. I might
say also that Mr. Peck showed me very kind consideration when I was trying for my examination ; he told me that I could go right ahead with my steam boiler until they were ready to
examine me, and I do not think we want anything more than that. What we want is to protect ourselves, and this Act really compels us to protect ourselves and the lives of our boilers.
I would like to have an opportunity of saying a few words later on.
Mr. Matheson : I would like to ask Mr. Peck if there is any difference between the
responsibility of a man running a portable engine and one running a stationary engine, as
regarding his certificates. We have a little creamery up where I am, and we find it a little
difficult to get a man who can run both, and I did not know, of course, whether there was any
more responsibility attached to a stationary engine than a portable engine.
Mr. Peck : I may say, Mr. Chairman, that there is no difference in the Act. The 4th class
certificate allows a man to operate on a steam plant with a horse-power up to 25 h.-p.; the usual
horse-power of these plants is from 5 to 15 h.-p. I understand the question is whether this
temporary certificate applied in the case you mentioned—it certainly does. One thing I might
say, and which I have forgotten to mention, is this—that if the engineer happens to leave his
plant there is a possibility of his being fined. That has also been provided for. If a man
holding a certificate, no matter whether he is the owner of the plant or not, if he is absent
from that plant from any unavoidable cause he can put on any man to operate it in the meantime ; but I think you will find the Act is pretty elastic, and it gives us practically everything we require. Of course, it must be administered somewhat judicially. Any Act could
be made a serious hardship if people went ahead and misinterpreted its meaning, and we should
try to interpret every Act as reasonably as we can.
Mr. Harris : I move that a vote of thanks be tendered to Mr. Peck.
Mr. Collins : I second that motion.
Motion carried unanimously.
Mr. Peck : Thank you, and I might say that any information you want at any time we
will be pleased to give you, and are always willing to explain these things to you.
Mr. Chairman : Regarding this boiler question, it appears to me that perhaps it would be
well to pass some resolution in order that the Chief Commissioner may be satisfied, and if you
are perfectly satisfied with it I think it would be better to say so.
Mr. Harris : I think that silence gives assent.
Mr. Matheson : It seems to me that the Act is working well at present, and until we
have some special complaint about it it would be better to leave it alone.
Increase op Bonds for Nurserymen.
Mr. Chairman : I see here, under the head of Board of Horticulture, " Increase of bonds
for a Nurseryman. J. Evans, Salmon Arm." Have you any resolution, or do you wish to
bring it forward, Mr. Evans 1
Mr. Evans : I was instructed to bring it forward. I think the bond, as it at present
stands, is for $2,000, and that is considered to be insufficient; for if there were a bad shipment
of trees shipped through here and allowed to pass, the damage those trees would do to one
orchard would amount to that; and say a man who spends five or ten years raising an orchard,
or even sometimes his life-time, you see how serious a thing it is for him, and where would we
get back on him on the strength of $2,000 1    I do not wish to press that really. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 53
Releasing op Timber Lands.
Mr. Chairman : The next question is in regard to timber lands—
"Why sixteen quarter-sections of best fruit land at Salmon Arm are covered by timber
berths, with no more timber left on them than is required by the actual settler. By James
Evans, Salmon Arm."
Moved by Mr. James Evans, seconded by W. Towlan,—
"As the agricultural interests of this Province are being greatly impaired by the unnecessary holding of some of our best agricultural land by speculators and lumbermen, after all
timber of any commercial value has been removed, and the land is a great deal more valuable
for agricultural than timber purposes, as in the case of Timber berths 66, 72 and 119, located
at Salmon Arm;
" Be it resolved, That clause 2 of section 10 of regulations governing the granting of
yearly licences and permits to cut timber on Dominion lands in British Columbia be repealed,
and the following clause inserted :
" That this licence shall not be allowed to interfere with the settlement of any lands
within the ' berths' which may be desirable for settlement, the Minister of the Interior to be
the judge of the fact and the only recourse of the licensee against the ruling of the Minister
in favour of permitting settlement within such ' berths' to be that he (the licensee) may,
within sixty days after receiving notice to the above effect from the local agent of Dominion
lands, remove all timber on such lands which may be over ten inches on the stump;
" Be it, therefore, resolved, That negotiations be entered into by the Dominion Government with the owners of the above-named timber, viz. : 66, 72 and 119, for their immediate
release, and that a copy of this resolution be forwarded to the Hon. the Minister of the
Mr. Evans : In the settlement of Salmon Arm there are something like between two and
three thousand acres of the most valuable agricultural land in the settlement being held for
speculation by the Columbia River Lumber Company, and we have tried to get homestead
entries on this land, and they say if we can get the consent of the owner of the timber limits
we can get the land, but this land is in the hands of the gentlemen I have named. Now, I
believe in protecting the timber industry of this Province, but here there is no more timber
left on the land than is absolutely necessary for the full development of the agricultural
industry, where this land is located, and I have the statement that if the Dominion Government would grant an equal area of land some place else they would accept it in lieu of this.
My idea is that there is very little timber left on this land. I know myself, for I have been
up there, but this company is holding this land apparently for the particular purpose of trying
to force the Government to granting them timber land in some place else. Now, it might be
well for the Government to grant them an equal amount of timber some place else where the
land is of no use, and I think there ought to be something done by the Dominion Government
in regard to this matter, and I think there is a clause which states that the timber lands must
not interfere in any way with the settlement of the land.
Mr. Chairman : This resolution reads " That negotiations be entered into by the Dominion
Government with the owners of the above-named timber lands "	
Mr. Evans : Yes; and I might state that we are about to send in a Petition to Ottawa,
having nearly 100 names on it, to that effect, that negotations be entered into with the owners
in that way, and giving the same amount of timber on a similar area some place else, and I
think that would not do any harm, for there is no one who presses their claims harder than
the farmers.
Mr. Chairman : You wish, then, that a copy of this resolution be forwarded to Ottawa?
Mr. Evans : That is the idea.
Mr. Towlan : My reason for seconding this resolution is because it seems to me it is rather
peculiar that the Government should allow these companies to hold land after they have got
what timber they wanted off it, and it seems to me that it would be a very good thing to have
this land left open so that it could be offered to the settler for sale as soon as possible, and it
is both to the disadvantage of the Government and the settlers to have the land held in that
way, and, therefore, I am perfectly in sympathy with the motion.
Motion carried. H 54 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
Indian Reserves.
Mr. Chairman : " Indian Reserves—Why 2,000 acres of Indian Reserve, with two Indians
living on land (such land the garden of Salmon Arm), is allowed to stand idle, the Indians
being willing to sell all or part of holdings.    By Jas. Evans, Salmon Arm."
Mr. Chairman : Mr Evans, the Committee have decided to pass that over.
Mr. Evans: I certainly was not aware of that, because I consider it is a very serious
matter, and I think that the Dominion Government should be asked to purchase the Indian
Reservation, or any portion not necessary for the Indians, and to throw same open for settlement	
Mr. Collins : The Committee recommends that it should be sent to the Dominion Government, as it has nothing to do with this Government.
Mr. Chairman : I think it had better be put in the form of a resolution. In my travels
last year I noticed a great many of the Reserves not being used, and I advised the Government in my report that it was considered to be a hardship by settlers that the Indians should
be allowed to hold such a large extent of land, as it was a source of infestation on account of
weeds. The land was quite beyond the wants and needs of the Indians, and, therefore, I
considered it was a matter for readjustment. I think all that is necessary is that the Dominion
Government should be asked to look into the matter of readjustment.
Moved by Mr. Evans, seconded by Mr. A. de Hart,—
" That the Dominion Government be asked to purchase all Indian Reserves, or any
portion thereof, not necessary for the support of Indians occupying same, and throw them open
for settlement."
Motion carried unanimously.
Conservation of Water.
Moved by A. Noble, seconded by R. M. Woodward,—
" That the attention of the Piovincial Government be called to a resolution passed at last
year's meeting of this Institute, requesting the Government to appoint a competent engineer
to ascertain the amount of land available in the Dry Belt, and the source and probable cost of
storing water for irrigation purposes, and to impress on the Government the great necessity of
preventing the waste of water so much required for agricultural purposes."
Mr. Noble : This is a question very much like the stumping powder. If the Government
is going to assist the farmers on the stumping powder question, why shouldn't it assist agriculturists with regard to the conservation of water, as this is a very important question with us.
Now, there are a great many small streams and lakes in our districts, and if those lakes and
streams were checked up and dammed the water would be there ready for us to irrigate our
land with in June, July and August, whereas the way it is now, it is simply running to waste.
Of course, it is just a question as to whether the Government would assist in doing anything
like that, but we would like them to send an engineer out and see what the probable cost
would be, and as to how the water could be dammed, and we would be willing to pay something in the way of that expense.
Improvement of Roads.
Moved by Mr. W. J. Harris, seconded by Mr. Noble,—
"That the necessity of the improvement of roads be pressed upon the Dominion and
Provincial Governments, and the necessity of aiding rural municipalities, financially, in the
construction of new roads and bridges; also to urge upon the Government to give a practical
demonstration of road-building at some central points in various districts."
Mr. W. J. Harris : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I do not know but what this is one
of the most necessary things that we require at present in this Province—good roads and good
road-making. There is not a gentleman present who does not know of the vast extravagance
in making roads, and of the money that has been expended and wasted in so-called roads, and
which are not roads, and the time has now come when that agitation is not only throughout
this Province, but throughout the whole of America. The States in the United States are all
making large appropriations for making good roads, and those roads are under the supervision .
of an expert.    Now, I think it necessary for our Government to take this matter up, and have 5 Ed. 7 Faemers' Institutes Report. H 55
them give us practical illustration of the way a road should be made, and compel all road
contractors and road superintendents to work on certain lines to improve the roads and make
them as they should be. I do not think there is anything I could say which would bring the
matter more strongly before this Institute than the Resolution itself. I am sure that there is
not a delegate present but is aware of the great amount of money that is expended in roads
year after year, and which is wasted. Municipalities are just the same. Some grafter gets
in to be superintendent of a road who knows nothing about a road, and cares less, and
employs a large amount of men who also know nothing about the roads, and the result is,
when they finish, the road is in a worse condition than when they started.
Mr. Noble : Up in Kamloops we have a first-class superintendent of roads, Mr. Stevens,
and Mr. White is the foreman, and I know our superintendent looks after his business in good
shape. He employs a gang in the spring who clean up the ditches, and I can say this, that
the money expended there by a man like him—a practical man—is well spent, but at the
same time I agree with Mr. Harris' resolution. If they could have the roads graded, and
gravelled, and stoned, it would answer the purpose at a very small expense, and it would make
it very much better for the farmers driving heavy loads.
Mr. Chairman : This resolution asks that the improvement of roads be pressed upon the
Provincial and Dominion Governments	
Mr. Harris: I will explain that. There are certain streams the Dominion Government
claim are theirs, and we ask the Dominion Government to assist us in building bridges across
these streams.
Mr. Chairman : Then you ask the aid of the municipality ?
Mr. Noble : In building those bridges. You see, the streams are in the municipality,
but are owned or occupied by the Dominion Government, and we ask the Dominion
Government to assist in constructing those bridges.
Motion carried.
Speed of Motor Vehicles.
Moved by Mr. Peatt, seconded by Mr. DeHart,—
" That the meeting is in the main in full accord with the general provisions of the Act
regulating the speed and operation of motor vehicles on highways, passed on the 10th February,
1904, but would submit the advisability of amendments as follows :—
" (1.) The infliction of a much heavier penalty for violating the provisions of the Act.
" (2.) The total prohibition of the driving of motor vehicles on roads of less than 15 feet
graded width."
Mr. Peatt: This resolution was handed to me by my Institute, and I may say it was
passed by a very large majority at the annual Institute meeting at Metchosin. The Sooke
roads are very narrow, and these motor cars do a lot of damage to horses, several people
having been upset out of their rigs on account of them.
Mr. DeHart : I second the motion. Where I come from there are practically no motor
cars, but in my own home I may say there are several, and a good many people have been
hurt when driving by motor cars frightening the horses. These cars are new to the horses. They
are something like the street-cars, and they drive by at a high rate of speed, and I know of a
case of a lady who was driving with her children who were all thrown into a ditch on account
of a motor car passing. I think this resolution is in the right direction, for it is just as well
to use precaution.
Motion carried.
Amendment of Dairy Association Act.
Moved by Mr. Matheson, seconded by Mr. James Evans,—
" That the Creamery Act be amended by the Government to include pork-packing and
other industries in connection with farming."
Mr. Chairman : I presume you mean the Dairyman's Association Act, Mr. Matheson ?
Mr. Matheson : The reason I was asked to take this up is this : Up in our valley we
find the benefit of co-operation, and I think pork-packing is something to be encouraged.
Last year we found a great difficulty in disposing of hogs, and more especially at a paying
price. The feed was high and hogs were plentiful and we could not sell them, and when we
did sell them we did not sell them at anything that would pay us for our trouble, because the H 56 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
feed was pretty high. We find that the whole pork affair is a monopoly, or, I may say, is one
concern in this Province, especially in the Upper Country, and we have come to the conclusion
that if we don't help ourselves we must give up this branch of the industry, and it is very
important that we should hold on to it. We find also, in working a corporation on a small
capital, we have to borrow considerable money, and we can get the money from the bank
according to the asset we have to show, at the rate of 7 %, and if the asset is not very good
we get it for 8 %, and we find by the time we get through paying the bank up in full, that
the interest really costs us about 10 %, and we thought by having that Act amended so we
could borrow money from the Government on the same principle as they loan it to the
creameries, that it would probably be a considerable help to us, because if we got the same
amount, or more—I suppose we could get more, according to the size of our plant—we could
get the money for 5 %, and that would give us a chance of saving 5 % on the amount of capital
we had to borrow. I hunted up this other Act—what is the name of it now—the Act they
passed a few years ago to help people to clear land, and so forth, and to assist the farmers ?
I do not know the title of it, but I found in reading through this Act that it does not apply
to us. At the first glance it would appear all right, but when you read the Act through it is
rather cumbersome, and it is hard for an ordinary man to understand it, but if it is for the
purpose for which it was framed I find it applies to any commercial business, because in
making out your item of cost you are not allowed to declare a dividend. It provides for the
paying of the necessary sinking fund and interest, and if it leaves a balance it must go into
the stock. It is very good in that way, because we cannot have capital large enough to run a
business, but in a corporate affair like this the farmers want as much as they can get out of it.
They want profits when they sell, and want profits at the end of the year, and 1 thought in
that way the Government would see its way clear to amend the Act for a purpose of this kind,
because there could not possibly be any loss in it, because it would be simply a loan at a
cheaper rate of interest than it could be got at the bank, and in a matter of this kind the
security is good, and I thought this was the easiest way it could be got at.
Mr. Chairman : This does not say anything about a loan, Mr. Matheson.
Mr. Harris : He refers to the Creamery Act.
Mr. Jas. Evans : I have very little to say in regard to the resolution. I am perfectly in
favour of encouraging the pork-packing industry. I 'believe that we import about a million
dollars worth of pork into this country, and it is a very poor kind of pork indeed that we get.
We ought all to be in favour of that pork-packing industry in British Columbia.
Mr. Noble : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I would like to make a few remarks on the
resolution. I think the best thing we could have would be a pork-packing industry in the
Upper Country. I do not think it would be a very favourable thing down here, on account of
some diseases, the hog cholera principally.
Mr. Chairman : In regard to this resolution, I do not see any effect it would have, except
that Part 3 of the Dairyman's Association Act, relative to co-operative creameries, would be
amended to include pork-packing and other industries in connection with farming.
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I have a resolution handed into the Committee
on Resolutions that comes nearly under the same head as that, and I don't know but what it
would be wise to include the two resolutions under the same vote, because my resolution is
towards the same principle, granting a sum of money not exceeding $2,000—that is, a loan of
money to a co-operative fruit preserving and canning factory. It is just such another resolution as this is, and perhaps the Chairman might see fit to include it in the same resolution,
and I think the two are worthy of our support.
Mr. Chairman : This would hardly include a motion of that sort under the Dairyman's
Association Act. In fact, I do not see that pork-packing can come under that Act, although
it is in connection with it, but the canning of fruit certainly is not.
Mr. Noble : Well, it would be something like butter-making, and all like that.
Mr. Chairman : I think you had better reconsider your motion. Perhaps in company
with Mr. Gale you might get up another resolution. I do not think that the inclusion of
pork-packing with the Dairyman's Association Act would commend itself to the Legislature.
Mr. Towlan : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, it would seem to me that pork-packing is an
industry which would pay itself if anyone would take it up. By the way it is now, when you
go to buy bacon and see the prices you are charged, it seems to me if an industry were started
up it certainly would pay, and it would seem as if there were a fortune in it, that is, if it could
be carried on in a proper way. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 57
Mr. Matheson : I was thinking if we could have it to cover all these industries it would
be best, and have them started the same as they do with the creameries. That was my object.
We want it to give us power to borrow money from the Government for all these different
industries, and I will withdraw my resolution now to have it amended.
Meeting here adjourned till 9 a.m., 1st March.
Victoria, B. C, 1st March, 1905, 9 a.m.
Pursuant to adjournment, the meeting opened at 9 A. M., the Secretary submitting the
Report of the Committee on Stumping Powder.
" Your Committee, after considering the question of stumping powder, and hearing all the
evidence of attempts in the past to supply stumping powder at a reduced rate, is of the
opinion that if the Government will use its influence with the manufacturers to supply bona
fide farmers (for the purpose of clearing land) with stumping powder of standard strength at
the rate of $5 per box of 50 lbs. at the factory, in quantities to suit, the arrangement will be
eminently satisfactory to the farmers of the Province.
"Your Committee, therefore, recommends a resolution be adopted, setting forth that in
view of the value of cleared lands in comparison to unimproved lands, both in the matter of
added wealth and increased revenue, the Government be requested to take up this question,
which is of such vital importance to the farmer, and try by the means indicated to give the
required assistance.
(Signed)        "James Evans,
,, "J. R. McLaren,
ii " A. Noble,
ii "H. Harris,
"Jno. T. Collins."
Moved by Mr. Noble, seconded by Mr. McLaren,—" That the Report be adopted as read."
Motion carried.
Mr. Gale: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I said I would undertake to get the information
with regards to the stumping powder used in the Province. I interviewed both the Giant
Powder Co. and the Hamilton Powder Co. this morning, and in looking casually over their
books they said that the amount used was 3,000 pounds per month for each company. They
tried to give me a detailed statement to be read before you. I thought this was necessary, as
the Minister suggested that if there was any appropriation they would want to know what
amount would be required for the stumping powder. My idea is that the Government be
requested to purchase powder in carload lots, thus effecting a saving as offered by both the
manufacturing companies of $1.50 per box, and also giving a rebate of $1 per box. However,
the committee which has had this matter in hand has seen fit to put it in different wording
to that, and I am not here to put any obstacles in the way of anything that may be accomplished. All I wish to do is to support any reasonable proposition by which we can secure the
cheaper powder, and if we can do it in that way I think $5 would be satisfactory to the
farmers, but we have sent down our delegates here year after year, asking that something be
done on this question, and I was sorry to notice that the Chairman seemed to think it was
rather an impracticable scheme. For my part, I think it is a very practicable scheme, and I
think it is only carrying out the lines of the proposals adopted by some of the Institutes, and
our own Institute in particular in Victoria District. I might say that we are now buying grass
and clover seeds in the same way as suggested here with regard to stumping powder—that is, by
lumping our orders and getting it through the Institute—and we are saving 10% as a result,
and that is effecting a considerble saving, and on 100 pounds of clover seed we make a saving
of $1.80; and another way we make a saving is in the purchase of binder twine, and what we
are now asking for is to be given an opportunity of purchasing the powder at reduced rates,
which we are not able to do ourselves, and we are asking the Government's assistance in this.
It seems to me that the matter is very simple.    The Government will simply order a carload H 58 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
of powder, of ten tons say, from the factory, and it will be deposited to the order of the secretaries of the different Institutes throughout the Province, and they will order such amounts
as are required for the various Institutes, and each order will be accompanied by the cash and
forwarded by the secretary of the Institute ordering the powder, so the Government will not
have to stand any loss in connection with the transaction.
Mr. Chairman : Mr. Gale, there is no motion before the meeting. If you wish to make a
motion you may do so and then speak to it, but the report of the committee has been adopted.
Now it is in order that a resolution should be adopted, in conformity with that report,
which will embody any other matters which you might consider necessary, and of which
you spoke just now. You might make your suggestions to the Government as to how
this might be arranged and done. I think the arrangement of buying a quantity of powder
and keeping it stored with the different manufacturers at the disposal of the farmers is a very
good suggestion, but it should be put in the form of a resolution.
The Secretary : Wouldn't it be better to lay it over until later, when Mr. Gale will have
this further information.
Mr. Chairman : Yes, and then draw up a resolution embodying all you have said, and
have it put in practical form.
Mr. Gale : I will bring in a resolution later on.
Moved by A. E. Gale, seconded by Mr. D. Matheson,—
" Whereas agricultural products are amongst the most important industries of the Province;
" And whereas the establishment of co-operative fruit preserving and canning factories,
pork-packing establishments and allied industries ought to be encouraged;
" Be it, therefore, Resolved, That the Provincial Government be urgently requested to
amend the Farmers' Institute Act by extending the principle in force under the Dairy Association Act, of loaning to such co-operative associations such sums of money as may be agreed
upon by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council."
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, it gives me much pleasure to co-operate with the
gentleman who is moving re co-operative pork-packing and allied industries. We did not know
at the time of bringing our resolutions in that we should so co-operate, but it seems only right
that they should come under the same head. The Farmers' Institute Act seems to be a very
wise measure in providing the means of carrying on all industries of a co-operative character,
but it seems lacking in that feature—not providing for any assistance in the way of a loan for
the pork-packing or the fruit industry by the Government; and I think that the fruit industry,
as also the pork-packing industry, are things that could well be taken up, as they would be the
means of producing a great amount of wealth in the Province. I know in our particular
district we have been to some trouble and expense in organising a canning factory, which is
for the purpose of using up the surplus small fruits of inferior grades of apples, plums and pears,
and it is very difficult to get outside capital interested, and all we ask in these things is that
the Government should come to our assistance and back us up. We find that in the case of
the creameries the moment the Government will advance the $2,000 at 5 % for a term of years
that the general investing public are ready to come forward then and advance the money
readily at the same terms, but we don't find that readiness in regard to the fruit and the other
industries mentioned, and I think it only needs the backing of the Government to get the
assistance from the general public the same as is extended to the creameries, and I think the
advantages are so manifest that everyone present will support it.
Mr. Matheson: I think the mover of the resolution has gone into it very fully, so that it
will not be necessary for me to say but very little. I think it very important for the farmer,
at the present stage of things now in this Province, and, in fact, all over this continent, to get
all the assistance he can, and I do not think there was ever a time in the history of the world
when there was so much need for it as now. We find that in almost everything we produce
other people are taking the value of our labour, and really what I consider a little too much so,
and especially in this pork-packing industry—in fact, the live stock generally. It seems to me
that there are combines and trusts formed all over this continent, and when you get the
monopoly over one thing or another, those men are always pleased to take every advantage
they can to suit their own ends. It seems that the Government under the present laws is
hardly in a position to interfere much, and, as far as I can see, the only substitute to that the 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 59
public have—which is really the Government—is to ask Government aid, in what ever way it
can be done without any loss, to help these industries. I think the farmers in general are
more crushed in this way than mostly any other line of business. Therefore, it has been my
aim for some time past to advocate along this line, so that the farmer may be placed in a better
position, and that is the object of this resolution, and I think everyone will support it.
Motion carried unanimously.
Bounty on Wild Animals.
Mr. Chairman: The Noxious Weeds Act has to be considered sometime to-day, and as
someone told me yesterday that Mr. M. Baker is anxious to say something on the matter, it is
well that we should appoint some particular time to consider it, and I will have something to
say on it also; so we will take that up later, and in the meantime will take up the resolution
with regard to bounty on wild animals.
Moved by Mr. E. Nordschaw, seconded by Mr. W. Towlan,—
"Whereas bears are becoming destructive to stock, and have in several instances attacked
people, and it is not considered safe to travel through certain parts of the settlement during
the summer months :
" Therefore, be it resolved, That the Central Farmer's Institute suggests to the Government the placing of a bounty of $5 on bears in Bella Coola."
Mr. Nordschaw: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, this is rather an important question to
our district of Bella Coola. The Farmers' Institute asked me specially to lay this matter
before the Central Farmers' Institute, and I will try in a few remarks to describe to you the
necessity of supporting the resolution, as it means the protection of life and property. In the
first place, I will cordially invite you all to Bella Coola to hunt bears.
Secretary : But will you pay our expenses ?
Mr. Chairman : Oh, you can make your expenses with the bounty.
Mr. Nordschaw : I have said, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, that in several instances
stock has been attacked by bears in the pastures. We let our stock run at large in the timber,
and the bears attack them there, and there have also been a few instances of where the bear
has come up to the stable-yard during the night, attacked cows, and caused a great deal of
damage to them; and in one or two instances, as a result of the bear attacking them, cows
have had to be killed. Of course, when the people in the house hear the noise they rush out,
but by the time they get out the bear has escaped. Now, that is an instance, as far as the
animal is concerned, showing the bear is very destructive, and it is not only dangerous for
animals but it is not safe for people to be out, as the bears attack them also. They are very
plentiful up in Bella Coola, and the reason why they are getting so plentiful is on account of
the bear during the summer months being worth nothing. It is only in the spring for a short
time that the hide is worth anything, and again late in the fall; so there is no encouragement
whatever to kill the bear. Consequently, the bear increases quite a bit, and I am safe in
saying that there are more bears now in Bella Coola than there were ten years ago, before we
came out here. In several instances the bears have attacked people, and I will mention one
or two. A gentleman by the name of Carl Christopherson was attacked by two grizzlies. It
was on his way home from his work—he had a tea-pot in one hand and a dinner-pail in
another; there was a female bear with two cubs and another big bear; the bear went after
him, and there was nothing whatever for Mr. Christopherson to do only to holloa and use the
kettles by banging them together and make all the noise he could ; and finally the bear turned
around and looked at the cubs, and in the meantime Mr. Christopherson was walking on, and
as soon as the bear saw him move on he went after him again, and Mr. Christopherson went
through the same performance with him again by looking him face to face. Mr. Christopherson came to the conclusion that he had better stay there perfectly still for a while, and in
about 15 minutes after that the bear walked off. That was a grizzly. Frank Johnson was
another gentleman who was attacked by one of these bears, and there was another gentleman
in company with him—this was last fall—I do not know the name of the other gentleman,
but Mr. Johnson is a stock rancher in the interior, and two bears attacked them.
Mr. Chairman : What kind of bears ?
Mr. Nordschaw : They were grizzly, and they came after these gentlemen, and the men
started in to climb a tree, and this Mr. Johnson did not get up high enough and the bear
jumped up and caught at him, but he managed to. get away from him and get up higher in the H 60 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
tree, and they had to stay up in that tree four or five hours before someone came along. There
was an Indian missionary up there, who was also attacked by a grizzly. He had another
Indian along with him at the time, and they came to a hand-to-hand fight with the bear ; the
grizzly got the best of him, for the grizzly got the missionary down on his back on the ground,
and he had his forepaws on his chest, and was just ready to attack him when the other Indian
fired a bullet from behind and killed the bear, and that was the only thing that saved the
missionary. Then there was a Mr. Carlson; he was attacked by a black bear, a female, and
two cubs; he is our Provincial Constable up there, but the bear did not mind attacking the
constable at all; but, fortunately for the constable, he got out of it all right. The bear
attacked him twice in the same day, and when he was going away she went after him again,
and what he did was to stop still and face her. The best thing we find is to stop still and
face the bear, but that is not very safe, as you all know; and 1 could keep on with incidents
for two or three hours, and in setting forth these instances, gentlemen, you will all see the
necessity of the bounty we ask for, so as to encourage the people to come there and shoot the
bears during the summer months. I might explain to you, perhaps, why bears are so numerous
in Bella Coola in the summer months; it is because salmon is so plentiful in the main river,
and all the side streams and sluices fill up, and there are a great deal of salmon in them also;
that is right up in the settlement; and in the evening the bears go down to the lakes to fish;
the females go along, of course, with them, and the first thing you know you are attacked by
a female. It is not safe to be out, there are quite a number of them up around there, so I
hope gentlemen you will help in the matter of getting some assistance from the Government
for us, so as to protect our lives and our property.
Mr. Chairman : Might I suggest, Mr. Nordschaw, that you make a slight alteration to
this, because I know, as it stands at present, it would not commend itself to the Government.
It asks for a bounty on bears, and you know to ask for a bounty on bears means an enormous
sum of money, and if you asked for a bounty on grizzly bears it would mean that something
might be done, for it would not come to such a large amount.
Mr. Nordschaw : That point was discussed in our Institute and we did not see any distinction. When we say female bear it does not make any difference whether it is a black or a
grizzly, as they both do the same amount of harm, and another thing is that the black bear is
more destructive to animals than the grizzly bear. The grizzly bear would hardly attack stock
but the black bear will; the grizzly bear will attack people more than the black bear will; we
did not know which one to specify, so that is why we said bears. But, gentlemen, it will be
a great step in the right direction even if there is a bounty placed on one kind of bear.
Mr. Towlan : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, my reason for seconding this motion is
because it seems to be that the bears are getting so numerous, attacking both animals and
people, that the Government should be asked to give some assistance to prevent this, and I
am in perfect sympathy with the motion that something should be done.
Mr. Evans: I really think that the stumping powder—say cheap stumping powder—
would remedy this to a great extent. It would clear up these big stumps, and clear away the
bear. I am quite in favour of the motion, but would suggest that the resolution should state
"killed in settled districts."
Mr. Nordschaw : I will accept that.
Mr. Evans: I would suggest certain summer months be named, because in the winter
months the hides of bears should pay for the killing anyway, and if they were to pay the
bounty in the summer months, when the hides are of no value except for bear meat—which
some people care for, but I don't—this would make it better, I should think.
Mr. Chairman : Will you accept that amendment, Mr. Nordschaw, " killed in settled
districts during the summer months "?
Mr. Nordschaw : Certainly.
Mr. Chairman : Then the resolution now reads :—
" Whereas bears are becoming destructive to stock, and in several instances have even
attacked people, and it is not considered safe to travel through certain parts of the Province
during the summer months;
" Therefore, be it resolved, That the Central Farmers' Institute suggests to the Government the placing of bounty on bears killed in settled districts during the summer months."
Motion carried. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 61
Fruit and Produce Exhibited for Sale.
Moved by Mr. Matheson, seconded by Mr. De Hart,—
" That in view of the fact that a large quantity of fruit and produce has been exhibited
on the New Westminster, Vancouver and Victoria markets purporting to come from Districts
in which it was not grown, that the Fruit Inspectors be requested to do all in their power to
put a stop to the abuse."
Mr. Matheson : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, it has been the custom for a good many
years back to ship a great deal of vegetables from the Upper Country, notably potatoes from
Ashcroft. These sell at a higher price than those grown on the Lower Mainland ; I think
there has always been a difference of $5 a ton. It is the same with our up-country fruit. We
send choice fruit down to Victoria, Vancouver and Westminster and all over, and it has been
reported that there has been fruit shipped into these cities and exhibited in the windows of
the different stores as being up-country fruit, and which is not up-country fruit at all, but
fruit which was grown on the Lower Mainland, and the consequence is that it misrepresented
the real value of the fruit. We don't want to bring down the good name of the Upper
Country by exhibiting an inferior fruit and vegetables and having them put in our name. If
they are as good as ours, we would . not have any objection. We want to see good fruit and
good vegetables, and it is a well-known fact that on the Lower Mainland they cannot grow fruit,
and especially apples, as well as we can in the Upper Country, and, consequently, we get a
high price for our fruit, and the exhibiting the fruit will not affect the price as much as the
name; the name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and I think when an apple loses its
name it loses a great deal of the value, and I think the abuse—as I think it really is so—
should be stopped.
Mr. De Hart: As Mr. Matheson has expressed my sentiments very clearly, I will not
add anything further, as I feel very much the same as he does. I know through the different
parts of the North-West, Calgary and so on, when I was trying to sell British Columbia fruit
it was a very hard proposition to overcome. They would say, " British Columbia fruit is no
good ; it has no flavour "; but now, since Macpherson and Co. have started up their business
in Calgary, they have been convinced that such is not the case, and our Okanagan fruit has
had a very heavy sale there, as well as in Regina, Brandon, and in the North-West Territories ;
whereas before, when they thought they were buying British Columbia fruit without a flavour,
they would not touch it at any price, and the hardest thing we have to do up in the Okanagan
Valley is to make the people believe we can grow fruit up there as well as they grow fruit in
Mr. W. J. Harris : I was not aware of any fruit grown in British Columbia that had not
a good flavour. I have been to several exhibitions where our fruit has been exhibited, and it
has always taken the prizes. There was a gentleman from Ontario came to our place the other
day, and he made the remark that our fruit was not as good flavoured as in Ontario—our
apples—and I said to him, " Just wait until we get up to the house and I will show you the
kind of apples we have "; so when we came up I handed him out some two or three varieties,
and he said that those were just as good as could be grown in Ontario. As far as the resolution is concerned, I am quite willing to support it, because it is necessary, I think, that all
fruit should be graded, and be sold according to its quality.
Mr. Towlan : Well, as far as vegetables are concerned, I will tell you a story that happened
myself. I sent several tons of potatoes one year to the Westminster market, and that year
potatoes were selling at $16 a ton ; all my potatoes were sold at $21, and they told me my
potatoes were the best that were put on the market, and, therefore, our potatoes were considered equally as good as the Ashcroft potatoes. Our fruit I consider to be as good as any
fruit in British Columbia, and we always have it branded on the box.
Mr. Evans : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I think that there is a good deal of fruit that
comes on to the market that is not branded, and does not show where it comes from. I saw
no less than five boxes for sale yesterday here in Victoria that did not show where it came
from, and it seems to me that this resolution, if it were carried out, would overcome a great
deal of this difficulty, for a retailer can. tell you what he likes. He dumps it out in his window
and breaks up the box, and how do you know where the fruit comes from ?
Mr. Chairman : As a matter of fact, I do not know how you are going to overcome this
trouble. This resolution simply calls for the enforcement of section 8 of the Rules and Regulations of the Board of Horticulture. II 62 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
Mr. Matheson :  I would like to say, these abuses in regard to fruit take place principally
after the boxes are opened, and they exhibit them in the windows or some other show place.
Motion carried.
Courses in the High Schools.
Moved by Mr. W. J. Harris, seconded by Mr. W. Towlan,—
"Resolved, That there shall be three distinct courses in the High School, viz.:—Commercial, Science and Arts. That pupils, on entrance, may have the choice of either of the courses.
That the pupil may take any special subjects out of the other courses in addition. That the
development of the individual pupil, according to his or her own ability, be the aim of the work
in the school. That the adoption of the foregoing will make it possible for some pupils to complete their course of study in a much shorter time than at present."
Mr. W. J. Harris : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, with regard to the agricultural portion
of this resolution I will explain this to you, as I think this course is highly necessary. The
object of the resolution is this : As you well know, at present any pupil entering the High
School for a higher class of education is compelled to take the whole of those courses. Now,
this a commercial age, and most of our young men entering upon life (that is, taking it from an
agricultural standpoint) prefer to take an agricultural course. They do not wish to take up
all of the higher branches. If they enter now they are compelled to take those three branches,
which occupy three years ; whereas, if they merely took a commercial course, as the resolution
sets forth, they could do it in a shorter time; and the object of this resolution is to put those
three courses by themselves, Commercial, Science and Arts, so that they could take either one or
two of those studies. That is the object of introducing this resolution, and I see by a meeting
of the school trustees held recently that they have also taken this very matter up, and have
recommended it to the Government; and I think that the Farmers' Institute has as much to
do with education as anything else, because the farmer should be educated, for if there is any
class of people requires an education it is the farmer, especially a commercial education. We
are placed at all times at a disadvantage in dealing with the commercial world, because we are
ignorant of commercial transactions, and if this could be taught in our schools it would be
much better than to leave us at the mercy of men with whom we transact our business. That
is the object of the resolution, and I am sure it will have the support of the Central Farmers'
Mr. Towlan : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I am in sympathy with that resolution. Life
is too short to be fully instructed in all these different branches, and I know from experience
that a great deal of the education the children get in these schools is never put into practice,
and it is, therefore, unnecessary and of no benefit to them, but if they were educated in the
branches they want to follow it would be a great advantage to them, and I think it ought to
be made optional with them when they go into the High School that they can take up any one
of the courses they want to follow.    I am in perfect sympathy with the motion.
Mr. Evans : I believe, Mr. Chairman, that there other resolutions dealing with the school
question.    Might it not be as well to bring them all in ?
The Secretary : Yes, there is one.
Mr. Harris: I think it would be better to pass this resolution by itself. I would prefer
to have this pass by itself, owing to the need of a commercial course.
Mr. Gale : As I understand it, it is to curtail the number of subjects included in the High
School course.
Mr. W. J. Harris : The object is that a pupil can choose either one of those three courses,
or more, especially among the farmers they desire that their boys should have a commercial
course, and they just want them to take that one course—the commercial course—for the time
being, and if the course laid out in this resolution is followed it would enable the pupils to get
through their studies in a much shorter time.
Motion carried unanimously.
Centralisation of Rural Schools.
Moved by Mr. D. Matheson, seconded by Mr. Jas. Evans,—
"Whereas, in many of the districts of the Province, Rural Schools are established within
a few miles of each other;
" And whereas very many of said schools have fewer than twenty scholars enrolled; 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 63
"And whereas the expense of maintaining such schools is greater than if they were consolidated at one central point;
" And whereas consolidation would greatly benefit the scholars, in that teachers in one
division would confine themselves to two classes, as against five or six under the present system;
" Be it, therefore, Resolved, That the Government be strongly urged to at once try the
experiment of consolidation, and that the most advantageous district in the Province be chosen
for such experiment."
Mr. Matheson : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, this question of centralising the schools
came up three years ago at one of these meetings. At that time it was thought that it was
perhaps outside of the province of the Institute to deal with it at all, and others thought it
was almost an impracticable course to take, but last year I was very pleased that the Minister
of Agriculture announced in his address this very subject and took it into consideration, and
I am very pleased to see it is now incorporated in the Act as passed at the present time. I
have been studying quite a bit about this question of late, and taken up the experiments and
results of the other parts of the country where I did not know that this scheme was being
carried on, but where, apparently, it has been carried on for some years back. David Lahi
was, I think, the father of this system of consolidation, and, as far as the history of these
schools goes, none of them have ever gone back to the old system. I read an article in one of
the papers recently, written by one of the directors of the school, which related to the centralisation of schools in the Macdonald system. I think there are three or four of them in
operation. Some of them run at various costs, according to the trouble and the distance to
collect the children at one point. It costs, under their system, a little more than it did
previously, but, of course, the system under which they run is a more expensive one than I
think would be necessary for us to adopt. In this address there is mention made of a private
school, which is run under the corporation of three schools in Prince Edward Island—that is,
they have centralised three schools in that district. They had four teachers and they simply
wanted to experiment with the matter, and instead of building a school large enough to hold
all the scholars they gathered together, they took an old church that was abandoned by some
denomination, and took it and put the seats out of the old schools into it and fitted it up so it
was possible to teach all the children that were in the neighbourhood. The children were
brought in waggons to the school, and it took two teams to convey the children backward and
forward. One team cost them 50 cents and the other $1 a day, just according to the distance
they had to travel. The previous cost per pupil was $11.89, and under the present system it
is $9 and so many cents. It amounted to a saving, at any rate, of $2 at least, and they had
four teachers under the old system, and then when they moved the children all together they
had only three teachers ; they dispensed with one, so I suppose that made the difference in the
amount of the cost per head of the children. It was maintained, when this matter came up
before us before, that this county was not adapted for this purpose; and as far as that goes, I
think our country as equally adapted for that purpose as any other. We have six schools that
we figure out could be consolidated together.
Mr. Chairman : You mean six separate districts ?
Mr. Matheson : Yes, six separate districts; in one school district we have three teachers
and in the other five. I consider, if all these schools were centralised, two of the teachers
could be dispensed with, because, as it at present stands, in one school where the three
teachers are there are about 100 children, and in the other five districts, taking the average
during the year, I do not think it would average over 15 children to the different schools.
Adding that number together, of those five districts you would have about 75 children. If
three teachers can teach 100, I think three teachers could teach 75, provided they were all in
the same building, and under that system we would save the salary of the two teachers, which,
I think, would be about equal to gathering the children to the central places. Besides, in the
schools I have mentioned, in Prince Edward Island, there are from 74 to 84, and the children,
I think it can be shown, take more interest in school when they gather there and are
associated with other children, and there is no doubt but what it helps to make them brighter
and take more interest in their studies, and this has been the experience of the test they made
in the Macdonald School. Now, there are several reasons why this should be done, especially
in a country like this. I have seen it in all my travels, that where the children are educated
in larger cities and larger schools they are. brighter for it. I have seen cases where
children have attended the country schools, and the parents would find that their children
were  not equally bright  as  those  children who had the advantage of a city education, H 64 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
and they would send their children to the city schools to get higher branches of education
there, and we all know the influence it has on children in sending them to these large cities.
We read articles in mostly every paper we get hold of written by philanthropists, or somebody
that takes an interest in our national life, of the tendency of people to move into the larger
cities, especially young people, and I do not think there is any better way of giving them a
test of the cities than by sending them to school there. There are some, when they are sent
to school, do not take as much interest in their subjects as they ought to, but they take notice
of the life of the city, and in that way they gain the experience. Now, that is what I want
to see happen with regard to our district schools; the children will be gathered there and
change ideas, and we can train them up on the same line as they do in the cities. Besides,
children that have not the means to get a higher education would by this method be in a
position to get a High School education at any rate, and if they had any notion of following a
profession, the chances are they would have the means of getting there if they had a High
School education. Another question that the Government might possibly think about is as to
what they would do with the old schools. They would say, there they are left and abandoned,
and so much loss on the hands of the Government. Well, now, I do not know how other places
are, but I do not think in our part of the country the Government would lose a single cent
on these buildings, because, as a matter of fact, when these school-houses were built the
Government got the land free from some farmer, and I consider that even if they paid the
value for the land, it has enhanced in value since then enough to compensate them for the
building; and, as a rule, these buildings are built on some central spot where some one would
like to live, and they would have no difficulty in disposing of them, and I know if they were
put up for sale there would be no loss whatever accruing from these buildings.
Mr. Chairman : Mr. Matheson—Time !
Before proceeding any further I wish to say Mr. Urquhart appears here as a delegate
from Comox, as it appears Mr. Halliday has been taken ill.
Moved by Mr. Brandrith, seconded by Mr. Collins,—
"That Mr. Urquhart take Mr. Halliday's place as delegate from Comox."
Motion carried.
(Discussion continued.)
Mr. Jas. Evans : I really do not think there is much more explanation required with
regard to this motion. For my part, I cannot understand why such a thing has not been done
in the Province long ago. In our district it seems a waste of money the way the schools are
carried on, just because one party has a pull with the Government and another party has a
pull, and they each get a school where there is no necessity for it, right within walking distance
for the children of each school. This is really merely an undertaking of the city school system
in rural districts, for at the present time we all know that the farmers' children do not get the
same advantages as the city children, and if we want them to get a better education we have
to send them off to the city. Now, I think we should have a way of educating the farmers'
children at home so that they will get an equally good education as by sending them to the
city schools, as the farmers pay the same taxes for education ; and this new system I think is
a very good one for the farmer, to centralise the schools so they would all be brought together,
and then in that way it would not cost the farmer such a large amount as he would have to
pay if he sent two or three of his children off to the city to get a common education. That is
about all I have to say on the matter, and if the Government wish to experiment they cannot
get as satisfactory a place as at Salmon Arm.
Mr. N. T. Baker: I just want to speak a few words in regard to central schools. I may
say that I have been so situated that part of the time I have had to send the children to the
school in the country where there was one teacher, and then the balance of the time would
have to send them to the city. Well, I may say that all the education the children got that
was really any good was got in the city schools, for in the country schools they would learn
something I did not want them to; and with regard to this idea of central schools, I am
heartily in favour of it, as I think it would be workable, and, in fact, I know it would be
workable in the district where I live.
Mr. E. N. Shaw : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I was asked to support a measure
of this kind if it was brought up before the meeting, and if there were no resolution
brought forward to bring a resolution in myself. The same thing applies in my district as in
Mr. Matheson's.    We have as many as five schools practically bunched together up there, 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 65
and in centralising these schools there would not be any children who would have any farther
to walk than a mile, or a mile and a half at the outside. Now, we know the advantages that
there are in graded schools, and in ungraded schools it is often the means of preventing
children from acquiring a more rapid education on account of the brighter ones having to
wait on the duller ones to enable the teachers to make classes. In graded schools there are
fewer subjects taught in one class. Therefore, it enables the children to go rapidly along.
As far as the cost is concerned in inaugurating this system, I do not see that it would be a
great deal of extra expense, because the old schools would be utilised possibly for different
purposes. For instance, the people in rural districts are sometimes at a loss for a public hall;
these schools could be disposed of in that way, and the farmers themselves would in some
instances be quite willing to acquire the property. I might say, if this amendment to the
School Act is put in force, it would be a great hardship on the farmer where the schools are
so numerous as they are to-day, and if these schools were centralised it would be better for
tbe farmer, and the cost on him would not be so great. Otherwise, it would be almost impossible for School Boards, under the new system of collecting taxes by the municipalities, to
collect taxes equivalent to the demands of the Bill, and I think by centralising the schools it
would get away with this difficulty considerably, not only from an economical standpoint, but
from the standpoint of individual benefit to our children, who in the future are to govern and
to occupy the positions that we hold to-day.
Mr. Wilson : Mr. Chairman, it seems to me that we are losing a lot of valuable time in
discussing this question. As I understand this School Act, the Government is taking the
matter up of providing for the grading of the schools, and until this is definitely settled I think
it is a waste of time to discuss it.
Motion carried.
Entire Horses.
Moved by Mr. N. T. Baker, seconded by James Evans,—
" Resolved, That in the opinion of the Central Farmers' Institute, entire horses should be
inspected, and if found sound and free from blemish and well developed, a licence should be
issued by the Government."
Mr. N. T. Baker : I do not think this resolution needs a great deal of explanation, as all
farmers know the need of a resolution of this kind. I may say that I was requested by our
Institute to bring a resolution of this kind before the Institute here, and I think it is of great
importance to the farmers of this Province that a Bill of this kind be passed, and that this
work should be carried on. For instance, a man might come along here with a horse that
looks all right, and you have simply just to take his word for it, and you have nothing else to
depend on, and you buy the horse at a good figure, and in a short time you find there is a
blemish in him that he has inherited from the sire. I know this for a fact, and I have talked
to a good many members of this Institute about this, and they are all agreed that something
should be done.    I do not think I have anything more to say.
Mr. Jas. Evans : I think the question speaks for itself, and if there was something that
could be done in that line it would be a great benefit indeed, for often owners of horses know
that something is wrong with a horse and try to put it off on unsuspecting people, and this
is something that should be looked after in some shape or form. I do not know which method
would be the most practical, and I expect that there will be a good many difficulties in the
way, just like the scrub bull question, the more you go into it the more difficult it gets.
Mr. Chairman : As a matter of fact, it really asks for an amendment of the Breeders and
Live Stock Act of 1902. This Act requires the registration of animals in the Department of
Agriculture, and a printed copy of such breeding is then issued. Now, in reference to that
Bill, it has not been very much enforced. Advantage has been taken of it in some instances,
but the fee of 50 cents was found to be utterly inadequate. The Government is required to
print the certificates, which alone, the King's Printer says, cost from $3 to $5. I mentioned
in Ottawa, when I attended a meeting of the National Live Stock Association there last
March, that it was impossible for me to say if a certificate that was presented to me was
genuine or not. On the face of it, it seems an absurdity that anyone should be required to be
acquainted with something like 300 certificates that are issued by different associations. The
same difficulty has occurred with the C. P. R., who transport live stock imported for breeding
purposes at reduced rates—that is, registered live stock—upon the presentation of the certi- H 66 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
ficate to an agent of the company. The agent, of course, does not know a genuine certificate,
and the consequence of it is that the railway company is now likely to withdraw that privilege
Mr. N. T. Baker : As I understand it, it is not a question of the registering of stock ; it is
a question of diseased or blemished animals. I had occasion to see this thing practised myself.
It is simply a means of planting a seed which would be productive of great evil. As I understand the resolution, it is to have a voluntary examination of the animal, and to have a
certificate issued by the veterinary surgeon to say whether the animal is fit, or sound, or not.
Mr. Chairman : I quoted the Act as saying that it would have to be an amendment to
this particular Act.
Mr. Baker : In the case of any horse, the idea is to have it licensed or examined, so as to
find out whether it is free from blemish or not. That is the idea, not to find out its pedigree,
or whether it was registered, or anything like that.    We want a sound horse.
Mr. Patterson : As I understand the resolution, I do not think it has anything to do
with the breeding, and I would not consider it would have to be an amendment to that said
Act. I think that should be a special Act in itself, demanding a certificate of soundness from
some Government Inspector of any entire animal used for the service of the public, showing
that the animal was free from disease or hereditary unsoundness.
Motion carried.
School Buildings for Institute Meetings.
Moved by Mr. Towlan, seconded by Mr. Matheson :—
" Resolved, That the Minister of Education be requested to allow the use of school-houses
for the holding of Institute meetings, where other buildings are not available."
Mr. Towlan : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I have been asked to bring that up before
you, the reason being that most of our Institute meetings have been held in the Municipal
Hall, and in our district it was considered to be advisable to hold some meetings in the other
end of the district, and there was some talk, I understand, of getting a place to hold the
meeting; and the way things are at present with regard to the Education Act, the Trustees
are opposed to give the school; and we thought it would be wise to bring the matter up here
to see if it were possible to have the schools given for that purpose, just in the cases where it
was actually necessary, and where there was no other place to hold the meeting. We do not
want to interfere with the education of the children, but think in cases where we cannot find
another building suitable, we might have permission to use the school. I think that is all the
explanation that is required.
Mr. Matheson: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, when I first heard the resolution I
hesitated a little in seconding the motion, but after a little consideration I thought it was just
what was wanted. I think if the speakers of the Institute could appoint a time when we could
hold the meeting in the school-house, the children could then get the benefit of the meeting
and be present when the speaking is going on. I think it ought to be a part of their education, and that would be one chance for them to get a knowledge on these matters that are
discussed at our meetings.    Therefore, I heartily endorse the resolution.
Mr. Venables : I might say, up in the Okanagan District we have never had any trouble
in that respect. We have two outlying districts, and in both of those districts we always
have the use of the school-houses whenever we want them. I simply write the school teachers,
and ask them to make the arrangements, and there has never been any difficulty.
Mr. De Hart: Last year we had some trouble in getting the school-house in our District,
for the teacher had gone away and there had been a new lock put on the school-house and we
were locked out.
Mr. Jas. Evans : I think it would add a great deal to the attendance of our Institute
meetings if we could get the school children to attend.
Mr. Towlan : I think it might be well for me to explain that it is not within the teacher's
powers to allow the use of the school	
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, in South Victoria District we have been in the
hauit of getting the use of the schools, but we have to pay $1 for the use of them. I think
Mr. Matheson suggested the meeting might be held when the school children were there, but
I do not think that would be advisable, because we do not wish to interfere with the scholars'
education, but at any time when the school was not in session and we needed the building I
think it would be a good thing to have the use of it, and then they could attend if they so
desired.    It would be a good thing then. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 67
Mr. Shaw : Mr. Chairman, we had a little difficulty in our district in that matter. As a
matter of fact, we have not any other building suitable for holding a meeting outside of the
public school-house. I made application for the use of the school and it was granted, but
immediately after the meeting I was asked for a dollar to go towards the expense of the janitor
for cleaning the school. I thought, surely the people benefited enough by the meeting itself,
or the Trustees did, and we should not have been called upon to pay the dollar. We want to
have it stated, or understood, that we have authority to use the school for that purpose without
having to pay any remuneration for the privilege.
Mr. Chairman : Can the Trustees not give you permission ?
Mr. Shaw : They did give us permission, hut after giving us permission they requested
the payment of $1 for the janitor for cleaning out the school.
Mr. Patterson : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, as regards doing away with the afternoon
for these lectures, I think it would be a great benefit, in the interest of agriculture, if children
were allowed to attend at the meeting and listen to what we have to say on this very important
subject. It is the only time they have a chance to hear these lectures, and I think it would
be a great improvement to the child, as well as all concerned. It would be as good an education
as a child living in an agricultural district could have.
Mr. Harris: Where I come from, we usually make the arrangements a couple of weeks
ahead, in the way of asking the Trustees for the school, and we hold our meetings there in the
afternoon—perhaps about 3 o'clock,—and we always invite the teachers and children to be
present to hear what we have to say, and I think we all enjoy it. I see there is a gentleman
here who was present. I think it is a good thing for the children, and if they could get more
of this information—say an hour's lecture at a time—it would do them good.
Mr. Brandrith : When we have such speakers as Professor Fletcher, and Professor Shutt
from the Dominion Experimental Farm, addressing our meetings, I would like to know what
more interesting speeches one could have, and I certainly do not think there is anything better
in the school curriculum for the children. I do not quite agree that they should have the
school-house in Kelowna. This resolution calls for the use of the school-house where no other
building is available, and a rising city like Kelowna should have a public hall. I don't quite
agree with Mr. De Hart on that.
Motion carried.
Range Rider for Nicola.
Moved by Mr. R. M. Woodward, seconded by Mr. Noble,—
"That the Government be urged to appoint a range rider or mounted police for the Nicola
District, between Spence's Bridge and Douglas Lake."
Mr. Woodward : The object of this mounted police is to attend the different round-ups of
stock, and also the " potlatches " among the Indians. There are a great many cattle killed at
the " potlatches," and there is no way of finding out who they belong to, and also there are a
great many cows go astray, perhaps wandering from 4 to 15 and 20 miles away, and there is
no one to report on them, and a great deal of horse stealing. There are no police there that
we could get to go after them (except specials), and I think it is the opinion that there should
be a petition go in to the Government on those lines.
Mr. Noble : I quite endorse Mr. Woodward's resolution on that. It is very necessary,
for if you turn a horse out on the hills you will never pick him up again ; he will be stolen. I
had an example of that, as I turned one out on the hills, and she was seen for three weeks, and
after that she was never seen. She was stolen off the range ; she never died. And we thought
if there was a range rider appointed we would overcome this difficulty.
Mr. Chairman : This applies for a particular service. I would advise that you make it
Mr. Noble : Have a range rider appointed for the different districts.
Mr. Woodward : I was instructed by our branch of the Institute to bring this matter up.
Mr. Chairman : Do you second this, Mr. Noble ?
Mr. Noble : Yes, but I was not very sure but what it meant the whole country.
Mr. Matheson : I think if it could be amended so that it would include all the stock
country it would be more suitable.
Mr. Woodward : I might say that the Nicola and Kamloops District are too large districts
for one man to attend to.     The object is to have one appointed for the Kamloops and one for H 68 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
the Nicola District. We don't wish it understood that we want a man to herd our stock. He
is to be a mounted police—a Provincial police as well. There are no police in the Nicola
District at all, with the exception of specials.
Mr. Evans : I am quite in favour of the idea, but I think it is a question which should
come before the Stockman's Association, rather than the Agricultural Department.
Motion lost.
Mr. Noble : If that applied to range riders it would cover the whole country.
Mr. Chairman : The meeting is not unfavourable to the idea, but making it a particular
service like this does not commend itself.
Mr. Evans : Make it universal and there will be no trouble.
Mr. Matheson : I would like to know whether there is an Act on the Statutes to keep
track of the brands of cattle, especially in the Upper Country ?
Mr. Chairman : Yes, there is an Act. The Provincial Secretary, Hon. Mr. Fulton,
recently asked that an amendment be made to it; that was put in the hands of the Attorney-
General, and the amendment is now being prepared. I think it would be well, before you do
anything, to see Mr. Fulton and ascertain what his ideas are on it.
Mr. Noble : I might tell you that the brands are all taken in Kamloops—the brands of
the horses. The only thing about that is that they should be stricter, and the horses should
be examined by the person who is appointed to examine them.
Mr. Chairman : There is no motion on that question.
Copies of Acts for Distribution.
Moved by Mr. Jas. Evans, seconded by Mr. De Hart,—
" Be it resolved, That the Government furnish the Secretaries of the different Institutes
with copies of the different Acts pertaining to Agriculture."
Mr. Chairman : This scarcely requires a motion, as it would only mean in this case that
25 copies of the different Acts are to be sent out. It was not like last year, where I had to
have 2,500 copies printed.    I would be very glad to do this.
Mr. Jas. Evans : Some time ago I was talking to the Deputy Provincial Secretary here
in regard to this matter, and he told me if we requested a copy of any Act we would get it.
I do not know what Act I was speaking of at the time—it was an Act that embodied a great
many things. Anyway, he said that the Institute was strong enough to get it if we wished it.
We apparently come down here year after year ignorant of what is on the statute books, and
we bring in resolutions that are conflicting with these statutes.
Motion carried.
One Bull for every Thirty Cows.
Moved by Mr. Woodward, seconded by Mr. Noble,—
" That the Government be urged to enact a measure compelling stock-raisers to provide at
least one bull for every thirty head of cows, or less, on the ranges."
Mr. Woodward : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, the object of this resolution is to protect
those who have stock, and bulls on a range, against those who possibly have only ten or
fifteen cows, and who turn them out without a bull. There are quite a number of head
of cattle without any bulls on the range.
Mr. Noble : This is a very important question. If you have a few thoroughbred bulls,
the man who does not have the same gathers his cattle there together with yours, and they
will be there with your stock, and I think this is a matter which ought to be seen to. Of
course, most of the ranges now are fenced in, and that works out all right itself.
Mr. Chairman : I may say that this has been brought up before, and there is a good deal
of difficulty about it, but there is no doubt that it is a matter that must commend itself to
everyone, the only trouble is how to carry it into effect.
Motion carried.
Forest Reserves.
Moved by Mr. J. R. McLaren, seconded by Mr. A. F. Venables:—
" Whereas the delegates of the Central Farmers' Institute, in Convention assembled, are
of the opinion that the conservation of the forest wealth of the Province, one of its principal
sources of wealth and bearing as it does so intimately on the agricultural interests, is of the
first importance; 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 69
" Be it, therefore, resolved, That the Government be asked to use all means in its power
to prevent destruction of forests, whether by fire, or by wasteful methods of lumbering ;
" And be it further resolved, That the Government be asked to use its influence with the
Dominion Government, or otherwise, to make a reserve of a tract of forest as a National Park,
to the end that at least a remnant of our original forest may be reserved for posterity;
" Resolved, That in the best interests of the country, it is desirable that reserves should
be made of forest lands."
Mr. McLaren : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I think this matter has only to be brought
before you to receive your heartiest approval. We all know what a sad thing it is to see a
whole piece of beautiful forest land burning and going to destruction. We know, too, how
reckless many people are with regard to leaving embers of their fires in a bush, and I think
the Government should be asked to insist very strongly upon the strict enforcement of the
" Forest Fire Act," so as to prevent this wasteful destruction of our timber. With regard to
the reservation of a National Park, that, I think, is a matter which you will heartily approve
of. In some parts of the country which I have travelled through in coming to this meeting
it is a delight for the eye to look upon. It is a pleasure to go through it at all times, and if
such a park, or other parks like it, could be preserved, I think posterity would rise up and
thank us.
Mr. A. F. Venables: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I have great pleasure in speaking to
this resolution. I quite agree with all Mr. McLaren has said on the subject, and think that
very strong measures should be taken by the Government in the matter of forest fires. Each
year, in the district where I come from, if it is at all a dry season, we are enveloped in smoke
for six and seven weeks at a time, so that we cannot see clear for a mile away. These fires,
in a great many instances, are started by Indians, by setting fire to the grass on the mountains so there will be a better growth next year, and this destroys acres and acres of timber
and also the camps. The question of a National Park should be endorsed by everyone in this
meeting, and, for my part, I heartily endorse it. The park in Vancouver is an object lesson
to anybody who has had the privilege of going through it. Now, if we decide on having a
park, it is a question of where the park is to be. I suppose the whole Province would want
it in every district, but that would be a matter for the Government to decide, as to the best
location, and I think it would be a good idea if we could incorporate into our park something
like they have in the Yellowstone Park, California—that is in the way of game—and have
game produced in the park. It would add materially to the advantages that would accrue to
the country.
Mr. J. A. Collins : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, this question of forest fires has been
taken up lately by the general public, and I might say that I saw on our wharf a notice
respecting bush fires, so they seem to be taking notice of the thing. The question of a National
Park is not a new question. It is a thing we have talked of before, and I think now is the
time to ask the Government to set apart a tract of land for this purpose. We have large
tracts of land of beautiful timber on the Island, and in a few years probably this land will be
taken up, and it certainly will if we get this new railway through British Columbia, and we
will not again have the chance we have now. The land will be enhanced in value, and it will
be very much more difficult to set aside a tract in a few years than it is now. I think, gentlemen, we should impress upon the Government the advisability of setting apart a tract of land
in the near future for a park, of not less than 1,000 acres anyway.
Mr. Matheson : I am heartily in accord with this resolution. I think that posterity
would applaud us if we did so. I know where I was raised in the Old Country that there is
no doubt it was a forest country like this at one time, whether there were such huge trees or
not I don't know, but, according to the stumps discovered, 14 to 15 feet in diameter, there is
no doubt but they had huge trees too, and they have no forests now like we have here, and I
think if we could do this it would repay us.
Mr. Evans : If we cannot get cheaper stumping powder posterity will have the whole
Province as a National Park.
Mr. Chairman : This is a matter that certainly commends itself to me. I have had
experience during this last year to see the ravages effected by the fire. The timber is of some
use when it is left standing without being burned, but it very soon becomes valueless when it
is burned, and stands as a monument to the folly of mankind. H 70 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
Game Act.
Moved by Mr. J. R, McLaren, seconded by Mr. A. F. Venables,—
" Resolved, That the Game Laws be applied more strictly in the way of prohibiting
farmers from killing deer outside of the bounds of their own farms, and prospectors also,
except for their own needs when out in the mountains working at their calling."
Mr. J. R. McLaren: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I was given instructions at our
Institute meeting to inform the meeting here that complaints were being made that farmers
and farmers' sons were making a point of going all over the country killing more deer than
was necessary, so I was asked to get the support of this meeting in having a stop put to the
practice. Prospectors also were found to be doing the same thing, and the party who was the
means of giving me these instructions stated that men calling themselves prospectors would
come in open day, and in the close season, into the town loaded with deer, and no one dare
lay a hand on him, just because he was a prospector. Now, I ask you if that is right, that a
man because he is a prospector should be allowed to break the law in that open and shameless
fashion. It is too bad. I hope this resolution will commend itself to you, and you will consider
that this sort of thing should be put a stop to. Of course, we know that the Act so far
covers these points of complaint, but still, when people ask the constable why he cannot arrest
these people who break the law in this shameless fashion, he says he cannot do anything. He
says if he finds fault with them he only gets abused, and instead of being backed up by the law
he is set upon, and that is where we want a stricter enforcement of the law. We want to
know distinctly what the constable's powers are, and we want to find out his position, and to
find out if there is any way of putting a stop to this shameful, promiscuous killing of deer.
Mr. Chairman : The idea of this resolution is to apply the Game Laws more strictly. I
understand you to say they were defective ?
Mr. McLaren : Only in their application, I may say, sir, as far as I can make out, but
this party was complaining at the Alberni meeting to the effect that the constable had no
power to interfere to arrest a man.    That is the point I was discussing.
Mr. A. F. Venables : I have been asked to second this resolution, and I am always very
pleased to second anything that will tend to the preservation of game in this country. I am of
the opinion that the reason the constables have no power is because prospectors were allowed to
shoot game when they were out prospecting. I think that is the position of the law. And,
therefore, a man has only to say he has been out prospecting, and he is allowed to shoot deer in
close season or at any other time. In our own district the farmers are certainly not the aggressors. The farmer very seldom shoots more than he wants for his own needs ; but as regards the
prospectors and Indians, they want a very heavy hand laid on them. They come down with
waggon-loads of deer to Vernon, and it is very difficult for a white man to go up there and find a
deer now, and when I went there seven years ago you could find all you wanted, and I am very
pleased to strengthen the hand of the Government in passing a new Game Law that will put
a stop to all these grievances.
Mr. Evans : I think if the prospector were allowed to kill deer in isolated districts it
would be all right, that is where they cannot get anything else ; but the'object of the law is
where they can get other provisions, then they have no more right to kill than anyone else,
and if it was amended to say they should be allowed to kill them in isolated districts.
Mr. Collins : I may say that, since the passing of the last Game Act, there has been more
deer killed out of season on Vancouver Island than ever before. Before this Act was passed
one would never see a deer killed out of season; but now, since the Act was passed, farmers
are allowed to kill deer at any time. It was intended by that Act that they should be
allowed to kill deer on their own lands.
Mr. Venables : It should apply to farmers and anybody else. No man should be allowed
to kill deer out of season.
Motion carried.
Prohibiting the Sale op Grouse.
Moved by Mr. A. H. Peatt, seconded by Mr. A. E. Gale,—
" That the Government be asked to amend the Game Act so as to prohibit the sale of
Mr. Peatt: In speaking to that resolution, I may say that the grouse are getting killed
out entirely in our district, and I know of one instance of one man killing 70 grouse in a day
and bringing them into Victoria and selling them, and they will very soon all be exterminated
if they are not protected, 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 71
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I cannot add anything to what the mover has
said. In our district the grouse are almost all exterminated, and there seems to be nothing
for it but to prohibit the sale, as we know that grouse are a large asset to the Province.
Mr. J. N. Evans : If I understand it right, the Game Laws in this Province are different
in the various localities, and so they should be, for the grouse in our part of the country are
a pest. I have known orchards which they have destroyed in the winter time, and you cannot
find a man in that country who is not looking out for them with a gun every day, so as to
shoot them and get rid of them ; so if the gentlemen down here wish to have that law passed
it should read " west of the Cascades."
Mr. Peatt: I have not the least objection to having that inserted in the resolution, " west
of the Cascades."
Mr. Collins : Mr. Chairman, there has been considerable discussion about this grouse
question, and there is no doubt but that unless some law of this kind is passed, in a few years
we will not see any grouse left in the country at all. I think if a law were passed to stop the
sale of game, we will then have one of the best preserves in the world. There are plenty of grouse
now for breeding purposes, but after the first week or two of the open season you can scarcely
see a grouse—in my part of the Island, at any rate.
Mr. Brandrith : I would be very pleased to see this resolution pass if there was a time
limit put in. For instance, you might put in " for the next five years," and I will then support it willingly. If you do not do this there might be a possibility of the Island being overrun with grouse.
Mr. Chairman : It is in the power of the Legislature to amend this at any time.
Mr. Shaw : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, it is a common practice in my district for
people to make a livlihood out of disposing of game, and the fact of the matter is, when a
person wants to go out and get a bird for his own use he cannot find one, and it is no uncommon thing on many occasions for a man to have shot 100 to 150 birds, but at the present time
there is hardly a bird in the place. e
" That the Government be asked to amend the Game Act so as to prohibit the sale of
grouse west of the Cascades."
Motion, as amended, carried.
Gun Licence.
Moved by Mr. Peatt, seconded by Mr. Brandrith,—
" That the Government be asked to tax all persons other than bona fide farmers and
farmers' sons of sixteen years and over, $10 for the privilege of carrying a gun."
Mr. Peatt: In speaking to this resolution, I may say that the country out our way is
overrun with people carrying guns, looking for game, and breaking our fences, and there is
hardly an animal out there but is covered with fine shot	
Mr. Brandrith : In rising to endorse that resolution, I can only repeat the remarks of Mr.
Peatt. They do worse damage than what Mr. Peatt has mentioned, for they carry nippers
along with them, and cut our wire fences, and not infrequently we find a dead calf or a dead
sheep as a result of their shooting. Many of the boys that come out from the cities, Vancouver
and Westminster—some of them not 14 years—know little about a gun and its dangers, and
we find that not only is our live stock endangered but our own lives. Not very long ago,
perhaps not over four months, I was going along the Slough road in the Delta, and the shot
came whistling along; I could hear it rattling along just ahead of me, and I very nearly got
the benefit of it; so I think this resolution is a step in the right direction. We are not asking
the Government in this case to put its hand it its pocket, but in the pocket of the man who
wants to carry a gun.
Mr. Towlan: I am perfectly in accord with this resolution, and it will be a great check
on a lot of these boys that come out carrying guns, and if they do go out it will be a source of
revenue to the Government; they will have to pay their fine. I am in sympathy with the
Mr. Patterson : Mr. Chairman, isn't there an Act in force now prohibiting boys under 16
years carrying guns ? I heartily endorse the resolution, because I know in the Delta this
shooting business becomes a pest. The city people from Vancouver, Victoria and Westminster
come over there to shoot, and I consider they are a pest.    (Hear, hear.)
Mr. Buckingham : I feel like holding up both my hands and feet too in endorsing this
resolution, for in the pheasant season we need eyes in our back as well as in the front of our H 72 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
head, the way the shot comes whistling around you. I can give you one instance of where a
man came up there from Vancouver, who pointed his gun at a man for telling him to keep off
his place.
Mr. Chairman : I do not know whether there is a licence to prevent a man doing that, but
I quite endorse what Mr. Patterson has said. I went up to Ladners—not for shooting, but to
attend the fair—and the steamer was loaded down with sportsmen from Victoria. I thought
that was the total contingent, but I found that that was a very small proportion, as there were
many more who had come from Vancouver and Westminster.
Mr. Evans : I know in our part of the country the farmers' boys are just as dangerous as
the city boys, and I propose striking out that part of the resolution and including everyone.
Mr. Matheson : 1 think the tax is too high. Take in the Old Country, a man has to pay
a tax—so much taxes, that is, for everything he carries—but it only comes to 10*. 6d. I would
like to see some protection, but at the same time I think this tax is too high.
Mr. Chairman : I think that might safely be left in the hands of the Legislature.
Motion carried unanimously.
Moved by Mr. Peatt, seconded by Mr. De Hart,—■
"That the Trespass Act be so amended that convictions for trespass can be secured."
Mr. Peatt : As I understand the Act now, and I have had the advice of a lawyer, and he
says you cannot get a conviction under the Act on account of the Sunday Laws, and it is
practically unworkable as it is now.
Mr. De Hart: I understand the same thing, that the way the law is now the Act is so
framed you cannot get a conviction for trespass in the Province, and I think if the Trespass
Act was amended, as well as the Game Act, it would stop a good many people from being a pest.
Motion carried.
Meeting here adjourned till 3- o'clock p. m.
Afternoon Session.
Convention re-assembled at 2 p. m.
Mr. Chairman : Now gentlemen, we have about 15 or 20 resolutions to put through this
afternoon, and we should get through to-night, inasmuch as the Dairyman's Association meets
to-morrow, and there is really nothing to keep us longer than this evening if we only attend to
business and put things through in quick time.
Noxious Weeds.
The Noxious Weeds Act is the first on the list this afternoon, and I think, before any
resolutions are brought forward, I had better read you what is said on the question, and then
you will be in a better position to form your own ideas in the matter, I will just read to you
a memorandum which I made when I was up before the Agricultural Committee of the House
(reading) :—
"The Central Farmers' Institute at its 2nd annual meeting in January, 1900, adopted a
resolution to strike out the word ' and,' in the first line of the Noxious Weeds Act, and substitute the words 'sells or' therefor; also to strike out the words 'from one farm to another,'
in the fifth line, and substitute therefor the words ' to any farm'; also to strike out the word
'or,' which occurs in the sixth line, before the words 'farming mills,' and substitute therefor
the words ' or by any other means.' "
These are substantially the amendments proposed by the present Bill. At the 3rd annual
meeting of the Central Farmers' Institute, December, 1900, on the question of Noxious Weeds
coming up, the Chairman, Mr. Donald Graham, said :—
"That in his section of the country the question of noxious weeds was getting to be a
burning one. He said they were getting more weeds in the Upper Country than in the lower
part of the country. As an illustration, he mentioned the tumbling mustard. This has
increased to such an extent that some of the land had been ploughed up and left fallow. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 73
Prickly lettuce was another example; he had seen whole fields which were completely taken
possession of by this pest. He believed that the Act proposed by Mr. Kidd in 1899 included
these weeds, and he would like Mr. Kidd to explain why the Act was withdrawn.
" Mr. Kidd, alluding to the Noxious Weeds Bill which he had introduced, said the
Government, when he brought in the Bill alluded to by Mr. Graham, almost stood aghast at
the prospect of having to eradicate the Canada thistle on wild lands belonging to the Government, and it was for that reason that the Bill had been withdrawn. He said that the Bill in
question was introduced on the lines of the Canada Thistle Act, and was incorporated with the
Noxious Weeds Prevention Act, and asked for a repeal of that Act. If the Government were
relieved of the responsibility alluded to, it might probably be passed. Mr. Kidd in closing his
remarks, said, as a member of the House, he would do all in his power to get the Bill through.
He knew the thistle well; it was a thistle from the Old Country, and as a youth he had had a
great deal of trouble with it.
" Mr. Miller said it was certain that if the present Government had been in power last
year the matter would have been attended to; there was no doubt but that the Act would have
been passed. In his opinion, however, they should make a special effort to put this measure
before the Government. If they took no notice of it, the Government would come to the
conclusion that they did not want the Act passed. It was a most necessary one and applied
to the whole Province.
"The following resolution was then adopted :—'That in the opinion of this Institute, it is
advisable to carry out the resolution passed last year on the subject of noxious weeds.'"
At the sixth meeting of the Central Farmers' Institute the following resolution was
adopted :—" That the Government be asked to take steps to introduce a Bill to extend to other
noxious weeds the Canada Thistle Act."
Mr. Justice Martin suggests that section 11 of the proposed Act should be amended by
substituting "Judges of the County Courts" for "Judges of the Supreme Court."
The proposed Act alluded to is one that I had prepared, by which the Noxious Weeds
Act and Thistle Act are to be repealed and embodying the various recommendations made, and
amongst others the inclusion of the following weeds, viz.: Penny cress, perennial sow thistle,
pigweed, lamb's quarter, prickly lettuce, Russian thistle, wild buckwheat, tumbling mustard,
wild mustard, wild oats, Canadian thistle and some others.
Now, these particular weeds were asked to be introduced in the Bill at different times by
the Central Farmers' Institute, and in consequence of that the Bill I allude to was prepayed.
In that Bill the following words occur : " Any person who imports, sells, or offers for sale, any
grain, grass, clover or other seed, or any seed grain among which there is seed of Canadian
thistle," etc. I put in the word "imports" intentionally, and was astonished, when reading
over the printed Bill, to find that word deleted. The reason I had that word put in particularly
was because there is stuff imported under the name of grain which cannot be called "grain."
I have a sample of that kind in my hand which you can examine. This was imported as grain.
I had a small quantity picked over and found it contained ball mustard and many other weed
seeds. These are a few of the seeds I happened to identify on examination with a glass, and
that is why I had the word " imports " put in, for I do not think that we should be made the
dumping ground for such rubbish, which is prohibited from being sold in the North-West
Territories. The mere fact of carrying it from the cars to the warehouse would contaminate
the whole country, so you will see how important it is to have the word " imports " in the Act.
Dr. Fletcher, in his evidence before a Select Committee, or a Standing Committee of the
House in Ottawa, says :—
" It may surprise some of you, gentlemen, to hear that I have made a collection of the
names of the various weeds which in different parts of Canada have been reported to me as
the very worst in the Dominion, and I have that list now up to 27. That means, not that
each of those weeds is a very bad weed, or even the worst weed, because it was for the man
who reported it. I think you can understand, Mr. Chairman, what the man meant who said
that wild rose was the worst weed for him, because it was one of the worst in his locality;
and so can Mr. Stewart, from Southern Manitoba; but people from Ontario could not. In
Quebec we have the perennial sow-thistle as the worst weed. The Canada thistle could in
most parts of Ontario be called the worst weed, and so in different localities. All through the
North-West a weed which is generally execrated is the sweet grass, but this grass is very rare
in many parts, and to-day is being sought for by Americans for making baskets. Letter after
letter came to me last autumn asking where roots of this grass could be obtained.    This is the H 74 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
scented grass from which the Indians make baskets. Here is a grand opportunity for some
of our farmers' boys to deal profitably with this pest, because it is the worst weed in many
districts. Even to mention the name of stinkweed would make people in the North-West hold
up their hands in horror, because this is a weed which, more than any other, has caused men to
leave their farms. Men have taken up other land rather than fight this persistent enemy, which
has given them such trouble in the past."
Referring to the North-West Territories, you will find that many of the provisions in our
proposed Bill are taken from the North-West Ordinance, where they have good reason to know
that a great many farms are being ruined from neglect from this cause. It has been said that
there is a Bill introduced in the House of Commons, at Ottawa, which deals with this question,
and that there will be no necessity to take up the question. I telegraphed to the head of the
Seed Department, at Ottawa, and he sent me this answer : " Bill passed second reading practically same as last year," and he states he will send me a copy. This copy has not been
received, but here is a copy of the Bill of last year. It says : " No person shall sell, offer or
dispose, or have in his possession for sale, for the purpose of seeding, any seeds of cereals,
grasses, clovers or forage plants unless they are free from the seeds of the following weeds."
These are the two principal sections, and they say nothing about importing or selling other than
for seeding purposes. Now, having put you in possession of these facts, you will be in a better
position to deal with the question, and you may have some amendments or suggestions to bring
Secretary : Here are two resolutions—
Moved by Mr. A. D. Patterson, seconded by Mr. Shannon,—
" To strike out the word ' grain ' after ' any,' on the first line; and furthermore, to strike
out the words ' purchase or sell,' and to substitute therefor ' sell or offer for sale.'"
Mr. A. D. Patterson : Mr. Chairman, in looking over this Bill you will find in section 3
the words, " any persons who sells, or offers for sale, any grain, grass, clover," &c. The first
line includes any grain. Now, I propose to show that in oui; district, if that Bill were to be
put in force as it is now, it would be the means of putting us out of business. For instance, if
I rented a farm, the first year on that farm in a grain-growing district, as you all know, is the
hardest, and if I were not allowed to sell that grain, where would I be if I could not sell my
grain just because of there being a few noxious weeds ?
Mr. Noble : You can put it through the fanning mill.
Mr. Patterson : I know, but it would be impossible to get it perfectly clean. I allude to
all descriptions of seed grains, grass seeds. And then in section 4, " No person shall sell,
barter or otherwise dispose of any kind of grain or noxious weeds without first destroying the
germinating qualities of such seeds." That is a matter which I will leave for some one else to
deal with, because I do not see how a person is going to destroy the germinating qualities of
those seeds without destroying his grain.
Mr. Shannon : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I am perfectly in accord with what Mr.
Patterson says. We have to deal with the question as fairly as possible, and not make it too
hard on the grain-growers of this Province, as grain-growing is one of the principal occupations
the farmers are engaged in, and while I would like to see the matter dealt with strictly, yet
at the same time I would not like it too strict. The worst weeds we have to deal with in our
part of the country are sorrel and wild buckwheat. Of course, most of the sorrel can be removed,
but the buckwheat would have to be fanned in order to remove it, and that is an expensive
process after the grain is threshed to put it through a fanning process, as you all know that
dealers, when they come along to buy your grain, will not pay any more for your clean grain
than if—well, than if it contains a few of thdse seeds. I know great harm is being done to
the grain in Langley on account of weed seeds ; they are getting to be a great nuisance, and the
people are having quite a job to get rid of them on account of the dampness of the country,
which seems to be favourable to their growth.
Mr. Matheson : In regard to section 3, I think it applies specially to seed grains, and I
think it will not probably be so difficult to get over the matter as one might at first suppose ;
but take people in business in grinding grain, they do the fanning, and up in the Okanagan
Valley the mill does the cleaning for us. All the grain, in fact, most all the seed and all the
grain, is cleaned at the mill. It goes there, of course, for sale, and is put up for sale at the
mill, and you cannot screen all the wild oats from the wheat. You can make the grain
tolerably clean, but you cannot screen them all out. There is no fanning mill in existence
that will take them out altogether, and I think that section would come pretty hard on us and 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 75
everyone in business. And then again, with regard to section 4 ; this refers to chop. Well,
we get grain from Manitoba and all parts of the country, and it does not matter how closely
they screen those grains, there still will be some weed seeds among them. Now, will you ask
a person to destroy first-class wheat simply because it has a few weed seeds in it, when it can
be crushed for chop ? Where there is considerable of wild oats and other weeds in among the
wheat, we simply make a grade of it. We have four or five different grades of feed in the
mill. Take, for instance, the Seed Act. I am not very familiar with it, but I think you will
find that that seed is graded—not altogether that it must not have any of these seeds in, but
so much per cent. I would like to see the Act put in force in some way that was practicable,
but not one that will put us out of business.
Mr. Chairman : Then I suppose you are in favour of this amendment, that is, to strike out
the word "grain," in the first line ?
Mr. Matheson : Yes, I am in favour of that.
Mr. Chairman : And to strike out the words " purchase or sell, barter," and to substitute
therefor the words " sell or offer for sale," in the first line of section 4.
Mr. Matheson: Yes.
Mr..Collins: I think, gentlemen, we have been running away from the question when we
have been talking about chop food. There is nothing said here about chop food, it is simply
grain, and when we get such stuff as that which you have just been looking at dumped upon
us, it is simply chicken wheat.    I think we will be wrong if we advise that word taken out.
Mr. Chairman : Mr. M. Baker is here, and as you all know, Mr. Baker is a grain merchant
of long standing, and it might, perhaps, be well to hear him.
Mr. M. Baker (Victoria): Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I am indeed very happy to meet
you on an occasion of this kind. I claim to be the oldest dealer in grain in British Columbia.
The first grain that was raised on the Fraser River I sold in my place here. I would like to
say that I differ very much with the remarks I have heard some of these gentlemen make with
reference to grain. In the first place, if Mr. Patterson was going on a new farm he would be
liable to get lots of these weed seeds. I know Mr. Patterson is a thoroughly honest man—or
his family is, at any rate—and he only wants to sell people what is right. Now, his grain may
have 65 % of all sorts of noxious weeds in it. I will say that I buy a ton of grain from Mr.
Patterson, and pay him the regular price per ton, and when I get it to my place of business I
find that I have not got exactly what I paid for. Or, say I buy a ton of oats, and 100 lbs. of these
oats are wild seeds—not exactly wild buckwheat, but bell vine—and I am paying him for
2,000 lbs. of grain when I only got 1,900 lbs. Is that fair to me? I am taking this matter
up, gentlemen, entirely from a business standpoint. Now, this grain I see here, there are
growers in the Province of British Columbia importing this grain as chicken feed and dairy
feed. When a farmer takes that and feeds it to his cattle he never made a bigger mistake in
his life. Now, I will show you the manufactured article, and I will let you see what it is when
it is manufactured, and what those grain merchants are selling to the farmers. The farmers
get it very cheap, that is true, and they think if they get a ton of this chop for $15 they have
struck a good thing. Every farmer knows that you cannot produce grain at any profit to the
farmer for $15 a ton, and when you buy that kind of stuff it is simply rubbish that is ruining
your farm ; and I think the Act is not too strong at all—that is, the present Act that has
been brought in by our Local Government. (Cries of " Hear, hear.") I think it would be the
best thing you ever did in your life if, instead of boiling that stuff for your cattle and feeding
them, you would take and burn it all up, because every pound you feed of it to an animal it
goes on your farm, and these weeds are there. You can malt it, for when you malt it the germ
is dead; or burn it. Those are the two ways to get rid of it. Take lobelia seed, it spreads
like sixty; it eats out the moisture and you have no crop. This seed cannot be seen unless
you place it on a piece of paper and take a pair of glasses. Well, just as soon as that lobelia
seed ripens it falls to the ground, and you can never get rid of it from your ground. You have
a weed there that you call the oxeye daisy, and once you get that on to your farm it does not
take long to spread. As soon as it gets on your farm, your farm is gone. No one knows how
much trouble there is when you once get it in your ground. When I first came here there was
something that the Hudson's Bay Company brought in, and that was the sorrel seed. Now,
this sorrel seed does not grow very long in your delta lands; it thrives better in poorer lands
than that, and once it gets in a place it is also very bad. Five per cent, of all the grain you
produce in this country is weed seeds. I have bought grain on the Fraser River myself, and it
went 150 pounds of bind weed to the ton, and I will give you an example of that in my ware*- H 76 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
house now, and demonstrate to you that I am correct. I heard a gentleman make a remark as
to the cleaning of this grain. It is the simplest thing if you know how to do it. It is by
means of a small box, and this does not cost you any more than $2, so as to clean your grain.
All you have to make is an incline 12 feet long, 2 feet wide, and put on your wire, £ of an inch
mesh, over that, and all you have to do is to pour your grain on that. It would be wise for
you gentlemen to come down to my store, and I will show you how it is done, and it will surprise you to see how it takes out the wild buckwheat or bind weed and everything that grows
in your country, so there is no need having these seeds in your grain.
Now, gentlemen, I don't want to take up all the day in talking to you on this matter,
but I would ask you to do all you possibly can to stop the importing of this kind of stuff. It
will be a grand thing you have done if you stop that alone. That stuff was simply brought
here in carloads, and Mr. Anderson, your Chairman here, I give him the credit for the stopping
of it. This is the gentleman that stopped this business, and all the credit is due to him. There
has been a whole carload, or more, brought into this Province, which is enough, and more than
enough, to pollute the whole Province of British Columbia.
Mr. DeHart: May I ask if that stuff came from an elevator in the North-West ?
Mr. Baker: Yes.
Mr. DeHart: Well, if such is the case, I might inform you that there is a penalty of $50
on anyone selling stuff of that kind—that is for the first offence—so you can easily put in a
claim for that.
Mr. Baker: That does not help us now that it is in. It is our own troubles we are looking after now. I have been buying grain from almost every farm in British Columbia, from
beginning to end, and I find that we are getting oxeye daisy, and once you get it in it is very
hard to get it out (producing samples). These are the tailings from the mill. It came from
a grist mill, and it ought to be stopped.    I have tried my best to have it stopped.
Mr.  Noble : I do not see how you pay freight on that.
Mr. Baker : Well, farmers are willing to pay $15 a ton for that, instead of paying $25 for
good, but they forget that that goes out on their meadows in the spring. I would like to see
every man hold up his hand to stop this sort of thing, because every year it is getting worse
and worse.
Mr. Patterson : Will you permit me to ask Mr. Baker this question, Mr. Chairman ?
Did you ever, when you came to Delta, offer a man 50 cents more for clean grain than dirty
Mr. Baker: Yes; I have given him $1.50 a ton more for it.
Mr. Patterson : They won't give us any more margin for clean grain than they will for
dirty grain—I know that for a fact. If I have clean grain they will give me so much per ton,
and they give my neighbour with his dirty grain the same price as I get for my clean, and I
have never known Mr. Baker to do so.
Mr. Baker : What is that ?
Mr. Patterson : I had some wheat for sale, and you asked me the price for it, and I told
you the price and that it was clean wheat, and you said to me, " Oh, I can get wheat from
Manitoba at the same price," and that is the way the dealers in this country treat you.
Mr. Baker: He is talking now about wheat. Why, they don't send in wheat from
Manitoba with any of those filthy weeds in it. I have never had a car, nor ever seen a car,
with all that trash in it.
Mr. Patterson : Mr. Baker, I have seen a carload of wheat shipped in here from Manitoba
supposed to be for chicken feed, and it was a disgrace to bring it in to any country.
Mr. Baker: These gentlemen know that this stuff is coming in, and yet they are holding
up their hands to get more of it.
Mr. Chairman : This is departing from the question.
Mr. Buckingham : Will the cleaner you speak of take out wild oats ? What is a farmer
going to do, if he has not a chance to eradicate these seeds out of his land that have already
got in ? The land I went on to four years ago there was more than two-thirds wild oats when
I threshed my grain. I asked the previous tenant how it was, and he said the reason of it
was that he went to a dealer in Westminster and bought the seed from this feed man, who
guaranteed it to him as being seed grain cleaned. This was the whole cause of this wild
oat seed being there.
Secretary : Isn't it a very easy matter to get wild oats out with the fanning machine ?
Mr. Baker: Well, most of the fanning machines that they get here in this country are
not adapted to do that. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 77
Mr. Brandrith : I would like to ask Mr. Baker the food value of a ton of those seeds
when it is cut up.
Mr. Baker : I do not think it is of any value at all.
Mr. Matheson : Can you take wild oats out of wheat thoroughly, Mr. Baker ?
Mr. Baker : No; but I can take the wild oats that people here call wild oats—what you
call wild oats is that with a little brush with it.
Mr. Patterson : Are you prepared to pay a higher market value if that Bill passes ?
Mr. Baker: Yes; I will give $1 a ton more for every ton of oats that have gone
through the mill. I can handle 600 or 700 tons a year, and I will give that much more per
ton for it when all these different seeds are taken out. I might say that when we put these
into closed warehouses there is more moisture in these weeds than there are in the oats, and
it forms a small heat and colours our oats.
Mr. Buckingham : Can you give us the difference between the so-called wild oat and the
wild oat you have referenee to ?
Mr. Baker : The wild oats grow in California. It is hairy right from the top to the
bottom, and the horses, after they have eaten it for a week, there is a ball forms and sticks
into the horse's jaw.    Now, that is the pure wild oats.
Mr. Shaw : Is it possible to eradicate the wild oat by cultivation ?
Mr. Baker : Well, it is very hard indeed to get out—it is something like that plant
lobelia.    The blame thing, it is the hardest thing to get off the ground.    You can burn it off.
Mr. Matheson : Well, these wild oats we are talking so much about, you consider them
pretty good food 1
Mr. Baker: I don't consider it is wild oats.    I say it is not the proper wild oats.
Mr. Matheson : We consider wild oats good food, and I may say when they get in your
ground it compels men to cultivate their soil more, and if we have a crop of them we consider
them the best crop we have. They are the best food you can feed a milch cow, and most
every animal is found of them, and I do not think that they are very hard to eradicate.
Mr. Gale: You have stated that you will give $1 more for grain that is cleaned by a
fanning mill. Now, will you give $1 a ton more for this grain that has been cleaned, and
had this wild oat taken out of it ? It has been stated that the wild oat cannot be taken out
of grain, so will you do that ?
Mr. Baker: Yes, of the class that has just been mentioned; I don't object to that at all.
That is not wild oats, gentlemen.
Secretary : I think, Mr. Chairman, we are rather confused about this wild oat. The real
wild oat we are told is grown in California, and is not the oat we find here.
Mr. Woodward : I would like to know about putting the grain through these mills	
Mr. Baker : Well, I will tell you. Every man here that has ever been in the East knows
that our grain is so much larger than it is in Ontario, that the Ontario mills don't suit our
grain at all. What you have to do is to take your grain and get your mills made to suit your
grain. The Canadian mills are no good for our grain. Now, as I have said, gentlemen, if
any of you would like to see the way the grain is treated, I will only be too happy to show
you; so, if you have not a fanning mill, you can easily get this wire for 50 cents a yard, and
you will have no difficulty in making it. It will all run through, every tit of it. It is made
two feet wide and No. 8 mesh.
Mr. Baker was accorded a vote of thanks.
Mr. Chairman : You have heard the resolution moved by Mr. Patterson, and seconded by
Mr. Shannon—To strike out the word " grain " after " any," on the first line of section 3, and
to strike out the words " purchase, or sell, barter," and substitute therefor the words " sell, or
offer for sale," on the first line of the fourth section.    Has anyone anything to say to this ?
Mr. Gale : I thing it could be amended to advantage in the way it was suggested in the
rsmarks at the opening of this discussion. I pointed out there was to be the word "imports."
It should be added to the amendment. Have it included, because I think it would help to
prevent the importation of the stuff we have been examining. I think that is a very important
feature of this discussion.
Mr. Patterson: I think, Mr. Chairman, it would be well to.include that word "imports"
there, if my seconder is willing.
Mr. Shannon : I am perfectly willing.
Mr. Chairman: There is now this addition to the resolution—To insert the word
" imports " after the word " who," on the first line. H 78 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
Mr. Patterson: That'is right.
Mr. Woodward : Am I to understand that the word " grain " is to be taken out ?
Mr. Chairman : Yes.
Mr. Woodward : I cannot see where we are to be protected if you take the word "grain"
out.    It is grain we want, and we want it clean.
Mr. Chairman: I wish you to understand it clearly. It is to strike out the word "grain"
after "any" on the first line of section 3 ; to strike out the words "purchase, or sell, barter,"
substituting therefor the words "sell, or offer for sale," on the first line of the 4th section;
and to insert the word "imports" after the word "who" on the first line of section 3.
Motion carried unanimously.
Secretary : Here are a number of other resolutions offered on the same question :—
Moved by Mr. R. M. Woodward, seconded by Mr. N. T. Baker,—
" That section 3 be amended by striking out the words ' wild oats, burdock, pigweed, red
root, lamb's quarter,' and the words 'or who shall knowingly convey from one place to another
any of the above-named noxious weeds or grains, either in threshing machines, fanning mills,
or by any other means.' "
Mr. Chairman : I may say, gentlemen, that these words are pretty nearly what have been
on the Statutes for a number of years, viz.: "The conveying of weeds from one farm to another."
It has been repeatedly asked that those words be changed and words substituted to make it
general; and as it stands now, weed seeds can be conveyed to farms from other sources and
there is no penalty. It seems to me it would be a very foolish thing to strike out those words
Mr. Matheson : It seems to me it would be a very foolish thing, because that is the way
those wild seeds are scattered on the highways by means of these threshing machines and fanning mills, and it seems too bad that the Act was not on the statute books and enforced years
ago, for we would not then have so many wild seeds along the highways as we have to-day.
Mr. Chairman : I think those two sections had better be put separately, because some
people might vote to strike out the weeds mentioned, and not be agreeable to strike out the
other words.    How would that suit the mover ?
Mr. Woodward : That would be all right, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. Chairman: In section 3, it is proposed to amend the section by striking out the
words " wild oats, burdock, pigweed, red root, lamb's quarter." Are you ready for the
Mr. Woodward : The reason for having those words struck out is this, the wild oats are
volunteer oats really. I do not think, as far as I know, that there are any of the California
wild oats in this country. These wild oats that we have, there is a good kernel to them, and
they make fine feed. Wild oat hay makes the very best hay, and the other weeds, such as the
wild pigweed, are natives of the country.
Mr. N. T. Baker: The reason why I seconded this for Mr. Woodward is because a good
many of these weeds are all over the country and are quite harmless. For instance, the
burdock, that is an easy weed to kill, and it is not too bad. I am quite in accord with the
striking out of those words.
Motion lost.
Mr. Chairman : Now it is proposed in the same section to strike out the words: "Or who
shall knowingly convey from one place to another any of the above-named noxious weeds,
seeds or grains, either in threshing machines, fanning mills, or by any other means."
Mr. Woodward : The words " any other means " should be struck out of my motion.
Mr. Chairman : You are willing to have fanning mills and threshing machines left in ?
Mr. Woodward : Yes; my reason for doing so is because it is impossible to thoroughly
clean a threshing machine after it has been threshing for a few seasons. I have been threshing
long enough to know you can clean it—what we call thoroughly, but not so that there are no
foul weeds in the machine; so that a neighbour, if he has a spite against you, can find weeds
enough in that machine to put up a case against you and have you fined $20. In section 5 it
provides that all threshing machines shall be thoroughly cleaned before they are taken from
one place to another. I think that is all right. We generally try to have all our threshing
machines cleaned before they are moved from one place to another, and I think that would be
quite sufficient. We want the Bill to work, but we don't want to have it so that it works too
much of a hardship in places where there are so many foul seeds. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 79
Mr. Chairman : The proposer of this now proposes that the words " threshing machines
and fanning mills " be the only words stricken out of the proposed Bill.
Mr. N. T. Baker : That has my consent.
Mr. Chairman : So that reduces the motion. The motion now would be that the words
from " threshing machines and fanning mills " up to " means " shall be stricken out.
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman, I think it would be wiser to leave " threshing machines and
fanning mills " in, provided you put another word in it, that is, put in a word to qualify it,
that they should clean them as much as possible. Then, I say, it would be a wise thing. That
would be as near as we could get to perfection.
Mr. Woodward : I think section 5 covers that.
Mr. Baker : I might say the reason why I seconded this was that it is pretty hard to get
a fanning mill or threshing mill that can be made absolutely clean, so that any one who
wanted to would be able to find a case against a man who operated any one of those machines.
Mr. Buckingham : Section 5, I think, covers it—"Any person knowingly."
Mr. Shaw : By striking out those words, Mr. Chairman I think you simply spoil the fifth
section. For instance, one man is trying all he posssibly can to keep his place clean, and
another man takes no precaution whatever, and is the means of conveying these foul weeds to
his neighbour's farm, and if you delete those words you leave him the option of going along
with a mill charged with foul seeds to plant on your place.    I certainly object.
Motion lost.
Mr. Chairman : Section 4, it is proposed to strike out this section altogether, " No person
shall purchase or sell, barter, or otherwise dispose of, or remove from any premises any bran,
shorts, chopped or crushed grain, or cleanings containing seeds of noxious weeds, without first
destroying the .germinating qualities of such seeds."
Mr. Woodward : In reference to this section, I might say, in running these foul "seeds
through a mill, my experience is that it destroys the germinating qualities of the seed. Take
the ordinary foul seed—wild oats, for instance—the process of grinding absolutely kills the
seed; it breaks it up. There has never been any bran or shorts that I have seen that goes
into a mill that ever, had any small seeds in it. I think that that should be struck out, and
if parties wish to buy chop feed, and if the foul seed is not killed in it, they ought to take
their chances.
Mr Chairman : In that case, that stuff that Mr. Wilson is looking at would be allowed to
be sold.
Mr. Woodward: Provided it was ground fine enough to kill the seed.
Mr. Baker: I seconded Mr. Woodward's motion, but I did not thoroughly, in my own
mind, understand that fourth section.    I think it ought to stay where it is.
(Seconder to motion withdraws.)
Mr. Chairman: Section 6—To amend section 6 by striking out the words "effectually
destroy," and by substituting the words " cutting down to prevent the seeding of." With
regard to that section it is simply a copy of the Thistle Act, and has been standing on the
Statutes for a number of years, and heretofore it has not worked any hardship, and I do not
think it would be advisable to do anything with it.
Mr. Woodward : It seems to me it means the destruction of the root, and we all know
that the Canadian thistle root is pretty hard to destroy. It takes years to destroy the Canadian thistle and to thoroughly eradicate them. Prior to 1891, I do not think there was a
Canadian thistle growing out here, but one season there was a carload of oats brought in from
the North-West Territories, and when it came to be unloaded at Spence's Bridge, there were
about eight inches of thistle head shook out of that car, and we were forced to use some of
that for seed, and the place was thoroughly seeded with Canadian thistle. I thought it would
be a hardship on us if those thistles had to be thoroughly eradicated from the soil; but merely
to cut them and see that they were cut would keep them from spreading and going to seed.
Mr. Chairman : Have you ever heard of any hardship inflicted under this Act ?
Mr. Woodward : No; but this law has not been looked after. It should have been
looked after long ago. ' We want something that can be worked, but not something that will
work a hardship. To eradicate these weeds would take a fortune, but if they were cut down
that would be the proper thing to do.
Mr. Abbott (Mission): In our municipality thistles are allowed to grow, and no one looks
after them.    Now, will this provision be effectual in having them destroyed 1 H 80 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
Mr. Chairman : The Government has gone to the expense of employing men to have the
Canadian thistles cut down and eradicated in the Mission townsite, and the owners of the
property have not paid a cent towards the work.
Mr. Baker: In Agassiz, we send a man around to cut them and it is charged up to the
property, and the municipal owner pays for it.
Mr. Patterson : I move that the balance of this Bill should stand as it now reads.
Mr. Shannon : I second that motion.
Mr. Woodward : While we are on this Bill, I had a motion for the appointment of a man
to look after these things.    I think we had better have that brought up at the same time.
Mr. Chairman : That had better be brought up separately. In amendment to the resolution of Mr. Woodward, it is moved by Mr. Patterson and seconded by Mr. Brandrith,—
" That the Noxious Weeds Act, as now amended, pass."
Motion carried.
Appropriation in aid of Dominion Exhibition.
Mr. Patterson : As Mr. Trapp is now here, and as he has another meeting to attend, I
would like to bring in a resolution now if it is not out of order.
Leave granted.
Moved by A. D. Patterson, seconded by Mr. Shannon :—
" That this Institute is of the opinion it would be in the true interests of the country if
the Government would put on the Estimates a sum of not less than $25,000, for the purpose
of making the Dominion Exhibition the success that it deserves to be."
Secretary : That is worse than the powder question.
Mr. Patterson: I believe that the Province will derive that amount of good from this
Exhibition, as an advertisement. I think the Government has spent $25,000 to less advantage
than they would in granting it to this Exhibition. They have spent it to less advantage to
the Province. Take the people from the East and the American side—people who have never
seen this Province—they will come in here and open up new industries, as well as settle here;
and I claim that if that amount is given it will be a benefit to the Province to that amount.
I will not take up any more of your time in discussing this, because I would like to hear Mr.
Trapp, address you on this question.
Mr. Shannon : I am in perfect accord with this, and if it is in order I would like to hear
Mr. Trapp, who is the President of the Dominion Exhibition.
Mr. Trapp: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I was going to say, in the first instance, that
this sum we ask for is a sort of a "buzzer" to you ; but when you consider what this is for, it is
different. Last night I met an old friend of mine, a very conservative gentleman, Mr. Donald
Graham, and he said that the Provincial Government should not give less than the Dominion
Government have promised to give to this Exhibition, as it would be money well spent. Now,
I take it, coming from Mr. Graham, as it has done, that we can take that for what it is worth,
and I consider, sir, even if the Government could afford to give double that, it would be money
well spent; but wo are not asking for all that, though if they did give it, I assure you, gentlemen, it would be money well spent and would do a great deal of good to this Province.
Probably, gentlemen, very few of you have gone into the merits of this Exhibition. In New
Westminster we have taken this up. Of course, it was a very hard thing to turn the Exhibition in this direction in the first instance. We thought at times we would be turned down,
but we moved heaven and earth to get this Exhibition here, on account of the Lewis & Clark
Exhibition being held in Portland, and we thought with the two working together we could
make this a large success, on account of there being a large tide of travel coming from the East
on that occasion to the Portland Exhibition, and the Lewis & Clark people have expressed
themselves as being anxious to join us in any scheme to turn the travel in this direction, and
I think, sir, we will succeed in doing that. I may say, sir, we have been studying this matter
in all its bearings, and we have come to the conclusion that we will have to spend $120,000.
I will give you shortly in a nutshell how we expect to get the money. In the first place, we
expect to get $50,000 from the Dominion Government. Now, that in itself appears to be a
large sum of money, but we don't get all that; there are some strings on that. A great deal
of that has to be paid out for transportation of exhibits, and then, possibly, some of the exhibits
will have to be returned, and then the Manufacturers' Association will have to put up buildings according to their own plans, and all this is to come out of this grant, which will reduce 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 81
it considerably. We expect to get $20,000 or $25,000—say $20,000 for sure—we will cut it
down to the very lowest margin, and make it $20,000, from the Provincial Government. Then
we expect to get $10,000 from New Westminster City and $10,000 from Vancouver and her
merchants and from the transportation companies, and $90,000, or more, from the gates. On
the other hand, we expect to give away $150,000 in prizes. We expect to pay $30,000 for
the buildings and improvements, clearing of the grounds, &c; $5,000, or more, for advertising;
$10,000 for printing; and $5,000 for freights. The one balances the other. Of course, with
more time at my disposal I could go more fully into this, but I cannot trespass upon your time
at the present to go into all these particulars. We expect to get the Lumber Manufacturing
Division of British Columbia to put us up a large building. We have approached them and a
committee has been appointed. Mr. Hendry, of Vancouver, is their chairman, and he has told
us that they are going to do all in their power to make this a success. He says it is the
opportunity of British Columbia. The opportunity has never occurred before, and for his part
he is going to leave no stone unturned to help out this Exhibition, and they are prepared to
put up a very large building—a very large log building —which will be used for the mineral
exhibit. Now, there will be two of the main industries of the country rej>resented in that one
building, sir, and in that way we are trying to get all our industries represented. We have,
through the Dominion Government, applied to China, Japan, New Zealand, Australia and to
a number of other places outside of Canada, for exhibits. Some we have promises from, and
others we have yet to hear from. As far as the mineral exhibit is concerned, I may say that
we have already a number of promises from some of the large concerns. Just to show you
what a mineral exhibit can do for you, I might mention a little incident. Some few years ago
there was a mineral exhibit at New Westminster. Some mining expert was travelling
through there at the time, Mr. Fraser, I think it was, a gentleman at the head of the " Nickel
Plate,"—I do not know whether it is Mr. Fraser, but it is a gentleman at the head of that
institution—and he saw some ore exhibited there that set him thinking, and he went to work
and you have two mines now in operation as a result of that little Westminster Fair. We
expect this year to get people from all quarters of the globe, as it is a Fair for the whole of the
Dominion, and we want to look at it from that particular standpoint; and if ever British
Columbia had a chance to show what she can do, and show her resources, it is on this occasion.
I do not think I need trespass on your time any longer, but I will just leave this in your hands,
and I feel sure, if you can prevail with the Government to grant this request, it will be money
well spent, as we all must realise it is a step in the right direction. This is no local matter.
It is a matter for the Province of British Columbia and the Dominion of Canada, and if we
all join hands, and each one of us puts our shoulder to the wheel, I have no doubt myself as to
the result.
Mr. Gale : This is a large question, the asking for an appropriation of $25,000. It is a
great undertaking, it is quite true, and I hope as heartily as anyone that it will be successful,
but I don't know that the people who have charge of that Dominion Exhibition in Westminster have exactly treated our Victoria people on the square. We have set aside our
Victoria Exhibition in deference to them, and we have given them other assurances of our
co-operation, and we have written them if they will in return hold over their fall fair next
year in deference to our sacrifice this year. As yet we have had no answer to that, and I
would like to have an expression of opinion from this gentleman as to whether we can hope
for anything in that direction.
Mr. Matheson : I think we had better leave those things out of the question. We have
the question of the Dominion Exhibition before us, and other things can be settled after this.
I think it is only once in a lifetime we get this, and perhaps once in 200 years that we
get this opportunity, and I think the Province is in a state now that it wants something of
this kind. It is developing, and it has got to be known in different parts of the world where
they did not know we had a Province like British Columbia—that is, in the light that we see
it to-day. It was supposed to be nothing but a sea of mountains, and now it has turned out
to be a fertile valley, raising the finest fruit on the Continent. At the Chicago Exhibition
there was more prominence given to this Province than any other part of the Continent for its
size. I think it would be too bad if we are going to put any damper on this Exhibition
through any feeling.
Mr. Chairman : Well, gentlemen, it is for you to say what you will do with the motion.
Motion carried. H 82 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
Mr. Trapp : Allow me, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, to thank you very heartily for passing
this resolution, and if you will kindly allow me one minute, I will explain this matter which
Mr. Gale has brought up. The terms on which Victoria was to give us their grant this year
were thoroughly threshed out, and at our meeting we decided to write you a letter on what
we had decided, and the reply, if it has not yet reached headquarters, is on the way. I
know this is a part of the contents : That New Westminster thanks very heartily the co-operation and kindness of Victoria in allowing their grant to pass on to them, and in foregoing
their Exhibition in our favour this year, but as far as guaranteeing or binding down their
successors in office, it would be impossible for us to do that, as, for instance, I have no idea
who is to be the President next year.
Enforcement of Thistle Act.
Moved by Mr. Woodward, seconded by Mr. Noble,—
" That the appointment of an officer, other than a farmer, to see that the Act regarding
the destruction of weeds, more especially the Canadian thistle, be enforced."
Mr. Woodward : In regard to this motion, we have been without an officer for several
years, and the consequence is that the Canadian thistle has been allowed to run wild. It is
often the case that a neighbouring farm is full of thistles, and the other farms adjoining have
no thistles on them, and it will not be long before the farm having the thistles will allow the
seeds to spread, and these go on to the adjoining farms, and they, too, soon are bothered with
this thistle, and I think that this should be looked after carefully. Therefore, I give my
support to the motion.
Mr. Chairman : I may explain that the Act, as it stands now, gives the power to the
Department here to appoint a person to carry out the provisions of the Act, and anyone who
is recommended to the Department is appointed, and if the people of Nicola wish to have any
officer appointed to carry out the provisions of the Act it will be done.
Mr. Woodward : That was the idea in bringing in that motion, so that the Government
would appoint someone there, either a constable or any officer they saw fit, whose duty it
would be to look after this.
Mr. Chairman : It really does not require this resolution, for all you need to do is to
write a letter to the Department, asking for the appointment of an agent, and it will be done.
Mr. Urquhart: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, we have a gentleman in our district and
he refused to act. Now, the committee last year asked the Government to appoint an officer
and pay him a nominal sum, and this was not done.
Mr. Chairman : The Government's answer to that being that there is no appropriation.
It would be beyond their means to make an appropriation to pay Inspectors all through the
Motion lost.
Collection of Poll Tax.
Moved by Mr. Matheson, seconded by Mr. Hy. Harris,—
" Resolved, That a great deal of what is known as the poll tax is not collected throughout the Province;
" And whereas the new School Act comes heavily on the municipalities and school
" Therefore, this Institute respectfully asks the Government to vest the power to collect
the above tax in municipalities and organised districts, that 50 °/0 be retained by the municipalities and that the balance be paid over to the Government."
Mr. Matheson: Mr. Chairman, for the last 20 or 25 years, I think, this poll tax has been
in force—perhaps much longer, but in that time, I think, it can be safely said that one-half
of it has never been collected, especially from the floating population of British Columbia;
and I think if the matter was left in the hands of the municipalities every cent of this would
be collected, and I think it would be far better. I do not know whether municipalities or
districts have any right to this poll tax or not, but it is certainly for school purposes, and I
think it would pay the Government to do it in that way, because they would get as much as
they get now anyhow, and it would help these municipalities and these organised districts to
pay these school taxes and demands that are being made on them. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 83
Mr. Hy. Harris : I think this resolution is a good thing, and as Mr. Matheson has
said, a great deal of this poll tax has never been collected, and it will be collected a great
deal cheaper than it costs the Government if it is placed in the hands of the municipalities.
I have been told since I have come down here that this poll tax costs half of what is
collected to collect it in a good many places, and I think it could be collected for 5 or 10 per
cent, if the municipalities were to do the work, and they would do all they could to do it
thoroughly. As the new School Act reads, it is going to come very heavy on the municipalities, and, in fact, as a result of it, lots of the schools will have to be closed in order to reduce
the expense; and this motion, I think, is a step in the right direction and I give my hearty
support to it.
Mr. Towlan: I have a resolution something to the same effect, and my reasons for it are
these : In the first place, the cost of collecting this poll tax, I am told, is something like 20 %
or more, and if this were to be handed over to the municipalities they could collect it much
more cheaply, and there would be more collected. I think that this resolution covers the one
I put in, and, therefore, mine would be of no use, so I will let mine go in favour of it.
Mr. Chairman : I must confess I am rather in the dark about the matter, but I presume
the mover and seconder know something about it.
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman, it seems to me that this resolution is a little premature. It
would be a wise thing, of course, in the event of the present School Bill passing; but as I
understand it, the Bill has not yet passed, and it is likely to be amended very much before it
is passed, and I think it should be, for as the Bill is now it works a very great hardship on the
farmer and the municipalities. I believe in the new Bill they are proposing to make the
Secretary of every School Board of Trustees an Assessor for the purpose of raising extra
revenue, and collecting more taxes for schools from the farmer. I would have the resolution
read in this way, in case the School Act now before the House passes, that instead of raising
the revenue in the manner proposed, the poll tax be used for the purpose, which would obviate
raising a further tax. I think, then, it would be a very wise thing. It would need someone
in the Assessor's Department to go into this thing thoroughly, so that we would then know
what amount of revenue it was necessary to raise; for as the Chairman says, we are all more
or less in the dark, but I think that would be a wise thing in the event of the present Act
Motion carried.
Excise on Tobacco.
Moved by Mr. F. R. De Hart, seconded by Mr. James Evans,—
" Resolved, That whereas there are portions of British Columbia capable of growing a
high-class cigar tobacco;
" And whereas the excise law is so framed as to give an undue advantage to the foreign
grower over the home grower, inasmuch as the manufacturers have a refund from the Dominion
Government of ten cents per pound on all cuttings from the imported leaf;
" Therefore, be it resolved, The Central Farmers' Institute, in session assembled, respectfully ask the Provincial Government to recommend to the Dominion Government that a
modification of the present law be made, so as to at least place the home grower on a par
with a foreign grower."
Mr. De Hart: In regard to this question, I was asked by our Institute to bring the matter
up. Kelowna used to grow quite a lot of tobacco and quite a lot of cigars were made there,
and quite a trade was worked up; but we find that, on account of the Dominion Government
giving a rebate of 10 cents a pound on all cuttings and clippings from the leaf on foreign tobacco,
we cannot compete favourably with the foreign article; and this resolution is to ask that the
home-grown tobacco be placed on the same level as the foreign-grown tobacco coming into our
country, and if ten cents a pound is allowed to them, we should also have the advantage of
this rebate.
Motion carried.
Stumping Powder.
Moved by Mr. A. E. Gale, seconded by Mr. Brandrith,—
"Whereas the Government has shown a desire to assist farmers in the clearing of land, by
granting an appropriation of $4,000 for the purchase of a steam logging outfit;
"And whereas the said appropriation has lapsed; H 84 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
" And whereas practical experience has demonstrated that the use of stumping powder is
absolutely necessary for the removal of the large stumps we have to contend with;
"And whereas the powder companies are willing to reduce the price from $6.75 to $5.25
per box, if purchased in carload lots;
" Now, therefore, be it resolved, That the Government be urgently requested to purchase
powder in carload lots, and also to give a rebate of $1 per box on every box of stumping powder
ordered through any Farmers' Institute in the Province of British Columbia."
Mr. Gale : I think we haye pretty well canvassed this subject before. There has been a
great deal said on the question, and I am very pleased to see such a uniformity of opinion with
regard to this subject. For years past, there have been a variety of projects brought forward,
in order to assist the farmers in the clearing of their land, but this year we find that everyone
is unanimous on the question of stumping powder, and that stumping powder is the thing
required, and all that is necessary is to get the powder at a low rate. I have communicated
with the different powder companies, and find that they are willing to meet the Government
if the Government will meet them in buying the powder in large quantities, and what we are
asking is that the Government will order a carload of powder at the rate of $5.25 a box and
pay for it, and it can be distributed by the powder company to the different Institutes throughout the Province, and the farmers can get it from the Institutes in whatever quantities they
want, and obtain a rebate of $1 a box on every box they buy through the Institute in that
way. I want to say, in connection with this subject, that no matter how long the powder is
kept, I have it on the authority of one of the managers of the powder company, the powder
does not deteriorate in quality. They agree to hold the powder subject to the Government's
risk. In case of accident or explosion the money will be lost to the Government, but they will
take the same protection for the Government as they would for themselves, and just the same
as if the Government did not own a carload of powder there. I think this is a thing that
ought to recommend itself to every farmer, because we are all very much interested in the
clearing of land. I have also the information the Minister wanted on this subject, and that is
as to the amount of money that would be required in obtaining this rebate. I am informed by
the Giant Powder Company that the amount sold annually by their company to the farmers is
500 cases. That does not include the amount sold to loggers, contractors and others. It is not
proposed to ask the Government to supply them, because these orders that we are asking for
would come through the Farmers' Institutes. The Hamilton Powder Company tell me they
have been in the habit of selling, approximately, 700 cases a year, so you have a total of powder
required for the farmers of 1,200 cases, or, in other words, three carloads, as there are 400 cases
in a carload, and the amount required to carry that proposition through for a year would be
only about $2,800, which is much less than the Government proposed to appropriate for the
use of a stumping machine, and also for the cost of carrying on the wages and expenses of the
operation of the plant. I think this is a feasible scheme, and we ought to insist on the Government giving us some aid in this direction. It is a small matter to ask for, in comparison with
what has been asked for in connection with other industries, such as the dyking, and many
other things that might be mentioned, and which are not more deserving of assistance.
Mr. Chairman : I might call attention to the fact that this resolution does not coincide
with the report that was brought in.
Mr. Evans : I would like to read you this article which appeared in to-day's paper. It is
in connection with what was brought up by Mr. Gale. This refers to stumping powder, and
is dated Revelstoke, January 18th :—"To Revelstoke belongs the credit of the invention of a
stump destroyer, which bids fair to be a boon to the settler on forest lands. The invention
is the work of E. E. Adair, who has patented it in Canada and the States. It consists of a
portable stove, made in say two sizes, to meet the different diameter of stumps. The stove is
made of sheet iron, is fitted with a tight flange at the bottom ventilators and chimney. A
perfect draught is thus secured. It is claimed for it that it will burn out any stump to the
last remnant, and at the same time be a safeguard against the spread of fire, which is often
attended with such serious consequences in dry seasons."
Mr. Gale : I thought our friend had more experience in the clearing of lands, because, of
necessity, he would require to dig out the roots underground ; otherwise he could not burn
Mr. Henry Harris : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I am very glad to hear the report that
this last gentleman has made on the question of stumping powder. While, perhaps, we did
not do anything with the question of stumping powder in past years, yet we were always in 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Itstitutes Report. H 85
sympathy with the powder question, but, of course, we did not always take a good hold on it.
I am proud to say that I was on that committee which was enquiring into this question, and
I think we have got a pretty good report on it. Now, as far as the remark is concerned about
powder keeping for one or two years, it will do no such thing. I know of powder that had
only been kept a month, and it was no good. Two years ago the manager of one of the
powder companies told me that he would not guarantee the powder for more than three
months, and I may say that he told us that right here in this building. I know, from my own
experience, I have tried about thirty sticks at a time, and the powder was no good, and it
would not go off at all. There was one thing I expected to see, and that was the Minister of
Agriculture in here this afternoon, as we wanted to get a little information on it.
Mr. Chairman : The Minister is in the House at the present time, but I might call
attention to the fact that Mr. Gale has said it would require about $2,800 to carry through
this project. Well, now it must be borne in mind that, supposing this arrangement were to
be carried out, I suppose that there would be double, or even treble, the amount of powder
immediately used than is being used now. You have asked for an appropriation of $2,800,
and it would probably require nearer $5,000 or $6,000.
Mr. Hy. Harris : Yes, Mr. President, but I understand that this powder will be sold for
cash, just as fast as the powder is required, and the Government will not lose anything.
Mr. Buckingham: Do you say, Mr. Chairman, that that resolution does not coincide with
the report ?
Mr. Chairman : No, it does not.
Mr. Buckingham : Well, for my part, I am heartily in sympathy with the powder
question, and I don't at the present moment feel like supporting that in its present form until
it is put in accordance with the report of the committee.
Mr. Chairman: This resolution rather stultifies the report of the committee.
Mr. Gale : Well, Mr. Chairman, I think the gentlemen here are sticking out for details
and are grasping at a shadow. Now, the whole object in framing the resolution in that way
was simply to point out in the form of- a resolution, in precise language, how we expect the
Government could accomplish what we desire, and not leave it in any vague or indefinite
terms. I say that the resolution does state in specific terms what is wanted, and I have gone
to the trouble of getting information as to what the powder company will do for the Government and on what terms; and I have not any doubt, if the Government will take this matter
up in a business-like method, the company will give the Government six months' credit on
the capital invested, and then it would not require any bonus. And if there are some even
who object to a bonus, I am willing to put in some word in this resolution that will qualify
even that, so if we cannot secure the one we will be willing to take the other. Don't let us
quibble over details. We have been down here year after year and have never got anything,
and we want to get something definite this year, and if we cannot agree among themselves we
cannot expect to impress ourselves very favourably upon the Ministers.
Mr. Chairman : Alluding to the report of the committee, it recommends the Government
to try and make an arrangement with the powder companies to reduce the price of powder to
$5 per box of 50 pounds. That would be at the rate of 10 cents a pound at the factory, and
I see here $5.25 is mentioned. That part which recommends the Government to buy a carload is all right, to my mind, and might easily be done ; and as to the depreciation in the
value of the powder, if the Government bought a carload it would not necessarily be put to one
side, but it would be delivered as it was wanted, and the Government would have to make
special arrangements with the powder company as to the disposal of it.
Mr. Shaw : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, couldn't this resolution be spread over the
report. The resolution embraces the manner and means of acquiring it, and the report simply
expresses the desire that we want it, but there are no specific means mentioned in the report,
so I think the two could be embraced in one.
Mr. Chairman : The report is adopted already, Mr. Shaw. We have now to deal with
the resolution.    (Resolution re-read).
Motion carried.
Range Riders.
Moved by Mr. R. M. Woodward, seconded by Mr. A. Noble,—
"Resolved, That in the opinion of this Institute, the best interests of the farmers and
stock-raisers east of the Cascades would be conserved if range riders (mounted police) be
appointed.    Therefore, we recommend to the Government such appointments." H 86 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
Mr. Chairman : Mr. Woodward gave his views on this, this morning.    In fact, it was
threshed out pretty well.
Motion carried.
Inspection of Nursery Stock.
Moved by Mr. Jas. Evans, seconded by A. E. Gale,—
" Whereas, the fruit industry is becoming a very important one ; and
" Whereas the action of the Board of Horticulture, in refusing admission to the Province
of trees and fruit infected with insect pests and fungous diseases,  is for the undoubted
advantage of the fruit-growers of the Province ;
" Be it, therefore, resolved, That this Institute endorses the action of the Board of Horticulture in this matter, and that a copy of this resolution be transmitted to the Minister of
Motion carried.
Tax on Dogs.
Moved by Mr. Arthur H. Peatt, seconded by Mr. Urquhart,—
" That the Government  be asked to impose a tax of  $2 per annum  on all  dogs, each
farmer being allowed to keep two (2) dogs free."
Motion carried.
Mr. Gale : On a question of privilege, I would like to correct a statement I made with
regard to the estimate on stumping powder, as the correct amount required would be only
$1,290; but estimating that the amount will be doubled under the new rate, that, of course,
will make it come to $2,400.
Alberni-Comox Road.
Moved by Mr. McLaren, seconded by Mr. Urquhart,—
" Be it resolved, That the Central Farmers' Institute be asked to urge upon the Provincial
Government the necessity of opening up a road between Alberni and Comox."
Mr. McLaren : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I will not take up your time in discussing
this at length. It is a matter that will be of great importance to Alberni. This road would
open up one of the finest valleys on the Island, and be the means of opening up our Province
also.    With these remarks, I will leave the matter with you.
Motion carried.
Dominion Experiment Station.
Moved by Mr. A. Noble, seconded by Mr. Woodward,—
" That we again call the attention of the Dominion Government to the great necessity
that exists for an Experimental Station, or farm, to be located in the Upper Country, known
as the Dry Belt, as the present farm is of very little use to farmers living in the Dry Belt, on
account of its situation."
Mr. Chairman : I may say, in reference to this resolution, that a petition is being circulated asking for an Experimental Farm to be established on the Island. It says : "We do
hereby petition our present Government to establish an Experimental Farm on Vancouver
Island." Then it goes on to say why it is wanted. I don't know whether it would be agreeable to the mover and seconder to include Vancouver Island in the resolution, but I would
suggest that course.
Mr. Noble : I am quite agreeable to that. Why we want an Experimental Farm in the
Dry Belt is on account of the different varieties of apples we are growing, and to find out
what might be suitable to a dry climate.
Mr. Chairman : I will read you the resolution as it now stands : "That we again call the
attention of the Dominion Government to the great necessity that exists for Experimental
Stations, or farms, to be located in the Upper Country, known as the Dry Belt, and on Vancouver Island, as the present farm is of very little use to farmers living in the localities above
Motion carried. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 87
Bounty on Crows.
Moved by Mr. Shaw, seconded by Mr. Peatt,—
"Resolved, That, considering the great damage done by crows in the Coast Districts, a
small bounty be given for killing the said crows."
Mr. Shaw : This has been a long vexing question. It has come up for discussion before,
and those whom this resolution benefits particularly are our people in the Coast country. They
are a serious hindrance to the development of fruit, and occasion great loss to fruit-growers on
the Coast, and especially those who live in close proximity to the water. It is a common
practice for the crows on the Coast to feed on the shell-fish, and when the tide drives them
from that they resort to the fruit and become a very serious pest, and destroy, I am safe in
saying, from 25 to 35 % of the crop in apples alone. On the question of cherries, the crow is
intolerable, and as for watching him, it is out of the question. He will get up in the morning
before daylight, and will continue the whole day long at his work, unless you are continually
watching him, which it is impossible to do. I think a small amount, say of 5c. or 10c a head,
would be a great incentive to destroy this pest. Instead of decreasing, they are increasing
very largely. I know in our district, a few years ago, we did not have over 50 or 100 crows,
but I am safe in saying that we have now from 1,000 to 2,000 within a very small area; so
they are largely on the increase, and I think it would be only a matter of self-preservation to
ask the Government to assist us in that way. We have heard a great deal of bears to-day,
but I claim the crows are just as bad as they are. They don't attack the human family, but
they attack that by which the human family live, so I will be pleased if the Government give
this very serious consideration. I would not make this resolution applicable to those districts
where crows are a benefit to them, but I would make it applicable to particular sections where
it has been proved beyond doubt they are a serious destruction.
Mr. Chairman: This question was brought to the attention of the Government some time
ago, and circular letters were sent out to every section of the Province and to the adjoining
States, and from the replies received the Government did not feel justified in putting any bounty
on crows. There were some sections which went so far as to say the crow is a benefit, whilst in
another section in the Upper Country the crow was reported to be such an awful pest that
they advocated a bounty of 40 cents ; so, you see, it is very hard to say what to do. However,
there is no harm done in passing this resolution, but I merely mention these facts in case you
are disappointed in the result, for the Government may say that, in view of having all these
different reports in before them, they would not feel justified in taking any action.
Mr. Shannon : I make exception, of course, to the sections where they claim the crow is
a benefit, but would ask that this apply to the sections where the crows are a pest and
Mr. Chairman : Well, you had better say for killing crows in sections where they are
proven to be harmful.
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I am heartily in sympathy with this resolution.
I am of the opinion that some means ought to be found for destroying crows, for I quite understand that they are very destructive to fruit and a source of loss to fruit-growers. I think,
however, there are other ways of killing crows than by the bounty. Putting poison at the end
of poles and put them on the trees, that would accomplish the same result; for if people have
to pay $10 to carry guns to shoot them, it would soon make it rather expensive shooting. Put
the poison on liver or something else that they would eat, and they would soon leave your
trees alone.
Mr. Shaw : I adopted the method which has been proposed by this gentleman, and I am
sorry to say, as a result of it, I only destroyed one crow out of hundreds. I took the liver
from an animal newly killed, and I sprinkled the liver with strychnine. I inserted a pole
into this liver, and put it high enough that no animal could reach it, and put the liver there in
sight of the crow. There was a crow sitting there, and watched me doing it, and he waited
there until he saw me fix it, and when I had fixed it he just moved away and went on to
another tree. I claim that is a fact. As far as the gun licence is concerned, this bounty will
be a sort of revenue to pay for the licence.
The resolution was then amended as follows :—
" Resolved, That, considering the great damage done by crows in the Coast Districts, a
small bounty be given for killing the said crows in districts where they are proved to be harmful."
Motion carried. H 88     . Farmers' Institutes Report. 190t
Assessment Act.
Moved by Mr. Shaw, seconded by Mr. Jas. Evans,—
" That section 28 of the Assessment Act of 1903 be enforced, so as to make the assessment
in the district more equitable."
Mr. Shaw : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, my district is a little remote from the Assessor
and he claims it is a hardship to visit the district, and in that way our assessments are not
properly made ; and I bring forward this resolution on the assumption that a person who never
saw a farm is very liable to make a mistake in assessing the real value of the same, and in that
way there is a provision made in the Act for local Assessors and Collectors to be appointed by
the Lieut.-Governor. I.may say that a good deal of revenue is lost by the Assessor failing to
comply with the Act. A great deal of the poll tax in the past, too, has not been paid by persons
that were liable to pay their share of the taxes, and in this way I claim it is not just for those
who are only assessable for property to pay the poll tax. There are others living where I come
from who do not own property, but have the same privileges as those who do in the way of
using the roads and the schools, and they are not called upon to pay taxes. The point I make
special reference to is section 28 of the Assessment Act:—
" It shall be lawful for the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, from time to time, to appoint
in and for each Assessment District one or more persons to act therein as Assessor or Assessors,
Collector or Collectors, for the purpose of this Act; and to prescribe regulations for governing
them in the performance of their duties, and likewise to appoint the portion or portions of any
district within which any such Assessor or Collector shall act."
Now, it is simply for the extension of this that I am requesting the Government to do this,
and it will be the means of enabling them to obtain a larger revenue. In fact, the expense
will be mere nothing, and the revenue derived from it will be in favour of the Government.
Motion carried.
Dairy Instructor,
Moved by Mr. Wilson, seconded by Mr. Urquhart,—
" Whereas dairying has become one of the most important factors of agriculture in this
Province :
" And whereas it is essential that the highest possible standard of quality of our dairy
products may be attained, in order that we will be in a position to compete successfully with
the imported products, thereby holding for ourselves the markets of the Province, to which we
are justly entitled ;
" Therefore, be it resolved, That this Central Farmers' Institute urge upon the Government the necessity of the appointment of a thoroughly competent dairy instructor, whose duty
it shall be to inspect all farm dairies and creameries, their equipment and utensils, and to give
instruction where necessary in the proper care and handling of milk and cream, and their manufacture into first-class dairy products."
Mr. Wilson : I think, Mr. Chairman, as you have been good enough to point out, this
resolution speaks for itself, and I will only offer a few remarks. The idea is for this man to
get around among the patrons of the different creameries and instruct them where he sees
it is necessary, so that we will in that way get at the root of the whole matter; which is
certainly the commencement of the manufacture of good butter. With these few remarks, I
will now leave the matter in your hands.
Mr. Towlan: I have been asked by our Matsqui Institute to oppose this, and I may say
that the best thing I can do is to read you a copy of a resolution which was passed by that
Institute, and which I promised them I would bring up here:
"Moved and seconded—That the delegate of Matsqui Farmers' Institute be instructed to
inform the Convention that in view of the plea advanced by the Government of shortage of
funds as a reason for their action in throwing a portion of the cost of education on the School
Districts, this Institute will not sanction a request for the expenditure by them on the lines
of the above resolution."
Now, the resolution referred to is on the same lines as the one you have just had before
you, viz., resolution passed by the Chilliwhack Farmers' Institute at their annual meeting held
January 28th,  1905, as follows :— 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 89
" Moved by Jas. Bailey, seconded by P. W. Wilson :
" Whereas there is urgent need of a Dairy Inspector of farm products and creameries in
this Province, their sanitation, utensils and equipments, in order to attain highest possible
standard of quality, that we will be able to retain our home market against all competition;
" And whereas the services of an instructor are urgently needed in the care and handling
of milk and cream, and their manufacture into first-class quality of butter;
"Therefore, be it resolved, That this Institute urge upon the Government, through the
Central Farmers' Institute and the Dairyman's Association, to inaugurate a system of instruction and inspection under the supervision of a thoroughly competent Dairy Instructor."
I, therefore, have been asked to oppose the motion as brought forward by Mr. Wilson.
Mr. Chairman : Well, gentlemen, what will you do with the motion before you ?
Motion carried.
Fruit-Growers' Association.
Moved by Mr. Harrison, seconded by Mr. McLaren,—
" That the Central Farmers' Institute appreciate and indorse the work being done by the
British Columbia Fruit-Growers Association."
Motion carried.
Local Agricultural Paper.
Moved by Mr. Evans, seconded by Mr. Matheson,—
"That, in the opinion of this meeting, it is most advisable that the Government should
give their support and assistance in every possible way in the development of a local paper
devoted to the agricultural interests, so as to enable us to have British Columbia's interests
dealt with from a British Columbia standpoint."
Motion carried.
Government Creamery Butter.
Moved by Jas. T. Collins, seconded by A. Urquhart,—
" Resolved, That in view of the fact that butter is sold in the local market as 'Government
Creamery Butter' at a lower price than it can be produced in the Provincial creameries, that
action be taken to stop the sale under that name."
J. T. Collins : Gentlemen, I will not detain you long on this question. Butter is being
sold in town called " Government Creamery.Butter." Now, I want to know what is the
meaning of "Government Creamery Butter?" People, no doubt, when they are buying this
butter, are under the impression that it is creamery butter, made in the town, and under the
auspices of our Provincial Government. Well, that .is a mistake, for there is no butter
made under the auspices of our Government here. I think this butter comes from the
North-West, and I am told that there are creameries in the North-West bonused by the
Dominion Government, and no doubt this is some of that butter. I do not know whether I
am right or not, but that is my information, and that there are bonused creameries there. If
so, I think we should petition the Dominion Government to remove this bonus, as it is against
our interests in this Province. The butter is no better quality than ours at all, but, at the
same time, it goes under the name of Government Creamery butter, and I think that name
should be taken away, and it should be sold for just what it is—butter.
Mr. Urquhart: In seconding that resolution, I do not think by any means that the
Dominion Government bonus any butter in the North-West. In fact, I have a letter at home
saying that they do not. There is some Ontario butter coming in here; it comes here in
bulk, and then they get special labels made for it here in Victoria and call it Government
Creamery butter, but it is not Government Creamery butter. Just the same way that there
were labels with the name Cloverdale Creamery butter, and there is no Cloverdale Creamery,
it is said.
Mr. Harris : Oh yes, indeed, there is a Cloverdale Creamery.
Mr. Urquhart—I did not know that—this was several years ago. There may be one
now. Well, I think the Institute should take some steps towards the protection of the
making of butter in British Columbia, and not have this other butter come in here under a
false name and be sold as creamery butter in competition to our British Columbia Creamery. H 90 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
Mr. Chairman : When I was at Salmon Arm, in December last, the representative from
Salmon Arm, who is present here to-day, brought a sample of alleged creamery butter and he
showed it to me. I asked him to have a sample of it sent down to me, so that I could have a
prosecution entered, as the Act provides for prosecution under those circumstances. In fact,
there was a prosecution entered in one case for an attempt to sell butter here marked creamery
buttery which was not creamery butter. I think this motion commends itself to us all as
being highly proper.
Motion carried.
Prescription for Hog Cholera.
Mr. Chairman : I have here a prescription for hog cholera, handed to me by Mr. Noble:
For 100 Hogs.
Bluestone (sulphate copper)   4 lbs.
Sulphur    3 lbs.
Black antimony , . . .   3 Sas.
Lime   \ pail.
Wood ashes ,	
Saltpetre    2 table spoons.
It is to be mixed together, and put in the troughs where they eat.
Mr. Noble : Gentlemen, this is a very good receipt to prevent disease among your hogs,
and I can tell you from my experience for the last 15 or 16 years. I have handled 200 hogs
a summer, and I have never had a death yet since I have been using this, but before that we
would lose half of them sometimes.
Mr. Chairman : Gentlemen, this completes the business before the meeting, there being
no other resolutions before us. It will now be necessary to make an appointment with the
Minister of Agriculture. There are some of the delegates who wish to go away to-night, and
others will possibly wait over until to-morrow, and if the Minister could not meet us now it
would be well to make an appointment with him for the morning.
Mr. Harris : Isn't there a report on the Superintendent's address ?
Secretary : We have not really had time to take it up, on account of every moment being
Votes of Thanks.
Mr. Venables : I think this is the proper time to propose a vote of thanks to the Chairman, who has presided over the meeting so ably, and made such quick time.
Mr. Shannon : I second that motion.
Motion carried.
Mr. Brandrith : I have another pleasant duty before me, and that is to propose a vote of
thanks to our able Secretary, whose valuable aid we could not have done without.
Mr. Shaw : I second that.
Motion carried.
Mr. De Hart: Before closing, there is one other vote of thanks I wish to propose, and
that is to our Stenographer.
Mr. J. R. Anderson : I take pleasure in seconding that.
Motion carried.
Mr. Gale : Before closing, Mr. Chairman, I wish to say a word on the subject of getting
bacteria for the soil. I intended bringing in a resolution on that, but have not had an opportunity. I may say that some of our neighbours out in the Saanich District are getting some
of this bacteria for the inoculation of the soil, and they get it through the Department of
Agriculture in the United States. It is not sold on the market here. I understand that this
material is capable of reproducing itself after you once get a supply of it. I have not had an
opportunity of reading very fully on this subject, but what I have read proves that it is a
matter of great importance, and I thought if I could get the support of this Institute so as to
get a supply of this bacteria, it would enable a distribution to be made to those farmers who
cannot get a crop of clover. All of us know what it is to get a crop of clover for the enrichment of the soil, and to bring in the nitrogen from the atmosphere. If we could get some of
this bacteria it would be a splendid idea, for it seems to me to be a splendid way of enriching 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 91
the soil at a very small cost. I can grow clover on my land without inoculation, but I think,
from what I have read on the subject, that we can get a larger store of nitrogen by means of
bacteria than you can without the inoculation. That is what I am informed, so if the Department of Agriculture could see their way clear to take up this matter, I think it would be a
great benefit to the agricultural interests of this Province.
Mr. Chairman : I might say, in reference to this matter, this bacteria is not manufactured
commercially at the present time. I have a communication here which I received only last
week from the Department of Agriculture of the United States, in which they inform me that
they would be very glad to send me a small quantity, and here is what was sent, with directions
for using it, but until it is put on the market as a commercial article we cannot obtain it in
any quantity.
Mr. Baker : Would that apply to alfalfa, too ?
Mr. Chairman : Yes.
Mr. Shaw : I heartily concur in what my friend from Victoria says, as, according to the
best authorities and newspapers at the present day, by using a small portion of this and inoculating several parts of the soil, it has a very quick way of spreading itself.
The Hon. the Minister of Agriculture here entered and took his seat.
At the request of the Minister, the Secretary read the resolutions passed by the meeting
regarding Stumping Powder, Noxious Weeds, Dominion Exhibition Grant, Inspection and
Licensing of Entire Horses, Government Creamery Butter, Establishment of Co-operative
Fruit-Preserving and Pork-Packing Establishment, Amendment to Game Act and Fruit Pest
Hon. Capt. Tatlow (Minister of Agriculture): Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, having heard
the resolutions adopted by you, I can only say, in parting with you now, that I will do the
very best I can to have every attention possible given to the recommendations you have made.
With respect to the question of stumping powder (applause), it seems to be the most
prominent one before me, and, as far as the first resolution is concerned, I will consult with
the officials in the next day or two to see what arrangement can be entered into with the manufacturers to get them to comply with the first proposal, that they should sell powder at the rate
of $5 per box of 50 lbs. We will certainly enter into communication at once with the companies represented in the Province to see what can be done in the matter (applause). The
other matter is one, of course, on which I cannot give you an answer now, as this will have to
come before the Executive—the rebate of $1 per box. I would like to say, in connection
with that resolution, some specific estimate would have to be given, so as to be placed on the
Estimates for this purpose. Do I understand that you would ask that to be clone up to the
extent of $4,000 ?
Mr. Gale: If I have the privilege, I will just say a word or two in reference to this. I
caught the hint from the remarks of the Hon. Capt. Tatlow, when he addressed us at the
opening of our session, that he would like such information as is indicated here; and following
out that hint, I went to the Giant Powder Company, and also to the Hamilton Powder Company. From the Giant Powder Company I asked for information as to what was the approximate amount of powder used by the farmers throughout the Province in one year. I got the
information from that Company that they sold to the farmers approximately 500 cases of
powder—stumping powder; and the Hamilton Powder Company stated they sold approximately 700 cases, making a total of the two companies' sales for one year, 1,200 cases, or, in
other words, 3 carloads. So, in asking for a bonus of $1 a box, it will only amount to $1,200
a year, but admitting there will be an increased amount sold at the low rate, and say doubling
the amount, it would make it come to $2,400 per annum that would be required for the
Government to give.    I think that is all the information I can give on that subject.
Hon. Capt. Tatlow: Thank you. I will take this up as soon as this Institute is closed,
and will talk the matter over with Mr. Anderson, and, at any rate, we will enter into communication with these people, and will then be in a position to advise the Executive when the
Estimates are brought down.    That is all I can say on that subject.
With reference to the Westminster Dominion Exhibition, the Government this morning
had a resolution from the Member for Westminster presented to them, and the Executive is
considering it. Of course, there will be something given them—they have asked the sum of
$25,000, and in regard to this I may say that the Government will co-operate as far as they
can with them in the matter.    (Applause.) H 92 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
With reference to the Noxious Weeds Act, I will ask Mr. Anderson to take this matter
up with the Agricultural Committee of the House again. They sent this up to the Farmers'
meeting for them to consider it. I am perfectly ready to go on with the Act, but I was
anxious to see what arrangement was arrived at between the Institute and the Agricultural
Committee of the House, so as to know what amendments you wished inserted in it.
In reference to the assistance for Mr. Cunningham in connection with the inspection of
fruit, I had some conversation with Mr. Cunningham on that subject the other day when he
was here and he thought that he would be able very shortly to place some proposal before me
for the carrying out of this work successfully. He had an assistant who has left him, and at
present he has nobody.
In regard to an Engineer to make surveys to find out the available amount of land in
the Dry Belt, if you will remember, last year Mr. Fulton and I were both with you, and
took this matter up, and we brought it to the attention of the Government. W'e were not
able to get anything done for several reasons, one of them being the expenditure had been
extended to its limit. However, I brought this matter before the Government, and I asked
Mr. Green to make provision for what you have asked for. It is a matter for the Public
Works Department, and I will bring this to Mr. Green's notice again.
The matter of placing co-operative preserving factories in the same position as creameries,
so that they will be able to get assistance from the Government on certain lines, is a matter
which will, of course, have to be taken up with the Executive. It is a matter which only
they can pass upon, and as soon as Mr. Fulton sends me down these recommendations this
will be placed before them.
The matter of creamery butter, that was brought up by Mr. Collins, and denied that
there was any such creamery butter, but I will undertake to get the Government to forward
an official communication to the Ottawa Government in regard to this. I will get the Executive to forward that.
Mr. Collins : We object to the name on the label, " Government Creamery Butter."
Hon. Capt. Tatlow : Meaning, of course, Dominion Government Creameries. I presume
that is what it means.
Mr. Collins : Yes ; it is very misleading.
Hon. Capt. Tatlow : Well, we will communicate with the Department of Agriculture in
Ottawa, and explain to them the objection that is made here to-day, and explain that it is not
fair treatment to our creameries to have to come in opposition with bonused creameries.
Witli reference to the amendment to the Game Act, I was in hopes we would have this
Bill ready to place before you, but Mr. Fulton is inserting some few points in it and has it in
his possession. As far as I know, however, the sale of grouse will be prohibited. You are
speaking of blue grouse, and I think that the blue grouse should be included with willow
grouse in the Act.
I suppose you want an amendment to the Trespass Act, and have the informer get a
portion of the fine.    I think that is the only way you can get this settled satisfactorily.
Mr. Collins: It has been suggested that there was some clause that rendered it unworkable—the Sunday clause, I believe.
Hon. Capt. Tatlow : We brought this up once before, and a very large number of the
Legislature objected to it so strenuously that, I think, out of 20 there were only 4 in favour
of it. That was a tax of $2 or $3. At any rate, we. were unable to get it considered, but I
think, with regard to the blue grouse, I can assure you that will be done.
I will ask the Attorney-General to look into the question of the Trespass Act and see
what can be done to meet your views, and I might say not only with these, but with all the
motions which I have not seen I will do my best to take them up with the Government. I
am not going to make any promises here that they will all be granted, especially where they
entail any financial responsibility, but we will certainly do the best we can for you. I can
assure you our good-will is with you, and, as far as we are able, we will do the best we can
for you, and foster the industry which you represent.
As I said before, we are most fully impressed with the importance of it, and to my mind,
and to the minds of the rest of my colleagues, agriculture is the most permanent industry of
the Province, and while the other industries which have been established here do us a great
deal of good for the time, yet when they go they leave very little behind them, and they are
not doing as much towards the up-building of the country as the industries which you represent ; and in that way, I think, it is only right and fair that every effort should be made by
us to assist those industries you represent. Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 93
I may say, in our Assessment Bill of last year, although we had to increase your taxes
very considerably, we, to the best of our ability, tried to make them fall as lightly as possible
on the farming industry, and more especially on the poorer farmer. We thought the one man
who should be helped was the farmer who came here with little or no capital; and whether
we were successful I cannot say, but 1 have to say this, in framing that Act that was one of
the most essentially important parts we considered.
Mr. Harris : There is one question I would like to ask before closing. As soon as you
got any information about the stumping powder, will you authorise our Superintendent to let
the Institutes know if there is any prospect of getting cheaper powder, because we want it as
soon as we can ?
Hon. Capt. Tatlow : Mr. Anderson will take up that correspondence, and as soon as he
can bring me a feasible plan I will place it before the Government, and it will be our object
to make it as satisfactory as possible.
Secretary : I would like to propose a vote of thanks for the cordial way the Hon. Minister
has met our recommendations, and I hope he will do all he can for us.
Mr. Brandrith : I second that.
Motion carried.
Hon. Capt. Tatlow ; I cannot add any more, except that I hope that we will all meet
here together next year, and if we do, I hope then that at least some good will have been done
by meeting here to-day.    (Applause).
Mr. Chairman : I understand that there is to be a report brought in by the Committee
on the address of the Superintendent, so I presume we had better have a short session
to-morrow morning—say 9 o'clock—just before the Dairyman's Association meets in the
morning; they meet at 10.
Mr. Brandrith : I think it very necessary that the Superintendent's report should be
dealt with.
I move we meet here to-morrow at 9 a.m.
Motion carried.
Meeting here adjourned till 2nd March, 1905, at 9 a.m.
Victoria, B. C, 2nd March, 1905, at 9 a.m.
Report on Superintendent's Address.
On the opening of the meeting, the committee's report on the Superintendent's address
was presented by the Secretary, reading as follows :—
"We, your Committee on the Superintendent's Address, beg to report as follows :
" That while the returns show an increase in membership of only 93, it is gratifying to
know that there is an increase, and also to know that the attendance at the meetings shows a
large increase over the previous year—a very satisfactory evidence of the appreciation of the
efforts of the Superintendent to provide speakers who can give addresses on subjects suitable
to the needs of the community.
"We agree that personal canvassing is the only way to increase the membership of the
Institute, and we recommend that greater efforts be made in the direction of providing social
" We recommend that local Institutes exchange speakers at supplementary meetings, and
that these be held more frequently than in the past.
"The literature supplied by the Department has been very much appreciated.
"We realise that co-operation in all our undertakings is the keynote of success, and we
recommend that the Department of Agriculture foster every undertaking of this kind as much
as possible.
"When, possible, we agree that out-door demonstrations be given, they having given satisfaction in the past, and we also agree that afternoon meetings be held where possible. H 94 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1905
"We realise that the work of the Institute has been of inestimable value to the farmers
of British Columbia, and hope that the work will be continued.
" Respectfully submitted.
" John T. Collins,
"D. Matheson,
"W. J. Brandrith."
Moved by Mr. Towlan, seconded Mr. Hy. Harris,—
"That the report be adopted."
Motion carried.
Minerals now used in Agriculture.
Mr.' McLaren : There is one matter which I would like to have brought up before closing,
that is in regard to the minerals used to advantage in agriculture. I omitted making a
resolution in regard to this before, and thought that some other member would bring it up.
Now, my idea is this, that a specimen of these minerals should be sent to the different Institutes
by the Department, for the purpose of instruction. That would be very useful, and very much
appreciated, I am sure.
Mr. Chairman : You mean for the purpose of identification ?
Mr. McLaren : Yes.
Mr. Chairman: Perhaps you had better put in a resolution on that, Mr. McLaren.
Mr. McLaren : Very well.
Clover—Methods of Sowing.
Mr. Chairman: Mr. Noble would like to give us his experience about getting a catch of
clover.    Perhaps it would be of some benefit to you.
Mr. A. Noble : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I heard yesterday that there was some
difficulty in getting a catch of clover down in this country. Now, experience is the only way
you can learn. I have tried every way, but this has been the most successful. First, get the
ground ploughed and harrowed, and then sow right on the top of the snow, just when it is
going away, in March; that is the best.
Mr. Peatt: It would kill it if you sowed it in the fall.
Mr. Noble : No, I have tried that, too, with timothy, and we have very good timothy, but
to sow it on the top of the snow in the spring, that is where you get a good crop. You see the
ground is pulverised by the frost, and the seed just gets covered, and that is all you require.
Of course, every man has his own ideas, and I thought I would express mine.
Mr. Collins : I quite agree with Mr. Noble. I had some difficulty in this regard when I
came out from the Old Country, as I thought I could do the same as I did there. The best
catch of clover I have had is by sowing in the snow, or rather on the frost, and the best time I
have found to do this is about the month of February, in the early part, and I have had very
good catches indeed, with very little trouble, by simply sowing it on the frost in April.
Mr. Matheson : What kind of soil ?
Mr. Collins : Well, ours is a kind of shaly loam. We cannot get a catch at all by sowing
later on, as the ground is too dry when we begin to cultivate. The clover comes up very
nicely, but then dries up, but when we get the clover in on the frost in February it comes up,
and it has the advantage of the spring rains, and it seems to get a root in the ground. I quite
agree with Mr. Noble.
Mr. Paterson : I would like to ask what he would do in a country where you have no
snow or frost.
Mr. Noble : You have the rain, which is just as good.
Experiments with Grasses and Clovers.
Mr. Paterson : Mr. Paterson, the member, has a farm down in the Delta, of which I am
manager, and he has gone to a good deal of expense experimenting with the different kinds of
grains and grasses. There are forty acres we are experimenting on this spring, and last year
we sowed different kinds of clover—alsike, mammoth clover, etc. We sowed that on top of
the soil, plowed it early, and harrowed it early, and sowed it, and gave it a light harrowing
after it was sowed, and there was very little clover came up; it was killed out. But we are
going to try it again this year, and try a spring seeding.    Last fall we sowed 11 acres of oats. 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 95
As a rule, down there, we get a lot of volunteer oats, and sometimes they come up in the
harvest very well. We started an experiment. We sent to Scotland for eight bushels, Australia eight bushels, and we are sowing six kinds of seed oats to see which will do the best.
Mr. Noble : Trying an experimental farm of your own ?
Mr. Paterson : Yes, there are six acres we are trying an experiment on. In the spring
we will put different kinds of seed grasses, and in another year we may be able to give you
the result of our experience in the cultivation of different kinds of grains on the Delta lands.
Mr. Collins : I just wish to say one word on alfalfa. We have been told it will not grow
in this country. The reason I think is because we don't give it a chance. Alfalfa, when it is
sown first in the Old Country, has to be cultivated like beets or turnips. At the commencement it is a very tender plant, and unless great care is taken to keep down weeds or outside
crop it will not do well, but if it goes along all right for the first year you will find the second
year it will grow all right, and I am sure you will find it will grow in this country. To give
you an instance, six years ago I had a sample of alfalfa seed sent me from England, and there
is alfalfa there to-day where I planted it, and why we don't get alfalfa in this country is
because we don't give it proper treatment.
Mr. Evans: I may say, as far as alfalfa is concerned in ou r country, the trouble is we
cannot stop it from growing.
Pure Seed Bill.
Moved by Mr. Shannon, seconded by Mr. Paterson,—
" Resolved, That this Central Farmers' Institute endorse the Pure Seed Bill now before
the House of Commons, Ottawa."
Mr. Chairman : I think that will commend itself to all members here without discussion.
Motion carried.
Moved by Mr. Baker, seconded by Mr. Matheson,—
" Resolved, That this meeting feels that good work has been done in the past year in cooperation, and that the interest in this important matter be kept alive by earnest work of the
members of this meeting."
Mr. Matheson : I would like to read a report of our work up there in Armstrong. Of
course, it is no great business at all, and I don't know that it is so very stimulating this past
year on account of the light crop up there, but at the same time I took pains to get a copy of
the work of the year to show the people what co-operation means.    It says :—
" Dear Sir,—As per your request, I give you herewith a condensed statement showing
results of our business for the year ending December 31st, 1905 : Total shipments fruit, produce and hay, 102 cars; total value of shipments, $30,813.82; total expenses, including all
losses, as well as travelling and handling expenses, $2,432.38; cost of doing business, 7.8 per
cent.    Net profits on capital invested, 29J per cent.
" Our losses from bad accounts have been less than J of 1 per cent.
" The volume of business was greatly reduced owing to the short vegetable crop. Our
most modest estimate for 1905 is 150 cars, and a volume of over $50,000.
" One of the greatest difficulties in the conduct of any business composed of farmers is
the trouble of confining them to the lines as originally intended when organising. A great
many feel that an organisation like ours should dabble in everything. It would seem to the
writer that all organisations of this kind should confine themselves to farmers' products as
grown in their district, and, instead of trying to deal in other merchandise, endeavour to make
their own business the strongest of its kind and line, and make their shipments better than
others can do with only a limited organisation.
" Yours truly,
" F. T. Jackson, Secretary."
Motion carried.
Mr. Chairman : I am sure the letter just read you by Mr. Matheson will be a great
incentive towards co-operation. Several districts have taken advantage of the Act and formed
themselves into societies. H 96 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1901:
Minerals used in Agriculture.   -
Moved by J. R. McLaren, seconded by W. J. Brandrith :
" Be it resolved, That whereas samples of marl, limestone, and such minerals as are used
in agriculture, would be useful for purposes of instruction and identification if placed in the
hands of Institute members, such be provided to the different Institutes by the Department."
Motion carried unanimously.
Printing Report.
Moved by H. Harris, seconded by Jas. Evans,—
" Resolved,—That the Government be requested to issue the report of this meeting as
soon as possible, in order that delegates may be in a position to report to their respective
Institutes at the earliest possible moment."
Motion carried.
Seed supplied by the Central Experimental Farm.
Mr. Noble : Let me express myself in a few words in regard to the samples of grain sent
out from the Dominion Government. I would advise every farmer and every Farmers'
Institute to take an interest in this question, and get their 5 pounds of seed grain from the
Department at Ottawa, because, from my personal experience, it is a splendid policy, and you
can then find out what kind of grain you want, and what your soil is suitable for. If you
write to the Experimental Farm at Ottawa you can get anything you want, and I think it is
a fine thing for the country to have this farm, and you should appreciate it far more than you
do, for I hear that the farmers in this Province are not taking the interest in it that they
should do.
Specimens of Injurious Insects.
Mr. Matheson : I would like to say a word or two. There are several fruit pests we have
in this country that we farmers are not acquainted with ; for instance, take the San Jose scale.
I think, if it were possible to have samples of these distributed by the Department of Agriculture, it would be a good thing, so that we would be able to identify them.
Mr. Chairman : I know what Mr. Matheson means. It certainly would be a good idea
to have such things on exhibition, the same as the samples of seeds I have sent out. I will,
therefore, try and obtain proper specimens and supply them to the Institutes. As to the other
question of obtaining seed, any letter directed to the Director of the Central Experimental
Farm, Ottawa, will always get recognition in the shape of seed, and I know, as a matter of
fact, that those people who have taken any interest in getting seed have very often obtained
very good results. One was obtained in Mr. Evans' district by Mr. Duncan, who had oats sent
him.    The oats have now spread all over the country.    This was the Ligowo oat.
Mr. Collins : I may say that at Salt Spring Island there are samples which have come
from the Experimental Farm and have spread all over, and doing good work. If the three
pounds that are sent you are taken care of you will have a nice crop the next year, you will
Mr. Matheson : I know in our part all the new varieties develop from these samples,
especially oats. Take seed grain up in our valley, and I suppose it is the same all over, it gets
foul, and the consequence is, if you want to put in a large quantity of seed, you have to
import it from the North-West, and we find that over one-quarter of the seed oats we receive
from the North-West do not germinate. There have been hundreds of dollars lost in trying
oats from the North-West. Their oats are very often green when they cut them, and they
kiln dry them so as to make them fit for market, and that kills the germ.
Mr. Woodward : We have some experience in Nicola, and have had very good success
with the samples sent us from the Experimental Farm. It has made quite an improvement
there, especially in grain and potatoes.
Mr. Gale : On this discussion of seeds I would like to mention this : I was present at a
meeting of the Victoria Fruit-Growers' Association about a month ago, and Mr. Palmer
introduced a gentleman to the meeting there. This gentleman has large business connections,
and he says they were prepared to take 150 tons of potatoes and 250 tons of oats, but they
must be ready for shipment by the 15 th August.    I  thought it advisable to mention this 5 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. H 97
before this body of farmers, because they all come from different sections of the Province, and
it is possible that some sections may benefit by it. The gentleman explained that he found it
necessary to send out of the Province to California to get what he required last season. He
explained also that nothing but a white-skinned potato would suit their market. So far as
my experience goes, I find that most of our early potatoes are red-skinned potatoes. However,
if anyone knows of a good variety of white-skinned potato, it would perhaps be of interest to
Mr. Woodward : We have a very good crop of Beaver potatoes, white skinned, and they
are a splended potato for an early potato, and, in fact, I have kept them until the season for
potatoes has come again ; but the trouble with us is that we are too far away from the railway
to ship, and the rates are too high, and it would not pay to ship them out, but I know that
our potato is the best potato I know of for general use.
Moved by Mr. Brandrith, seconded by Mr. McLaren,—
"That the meeting do now adjourn."
Mr. Chairman : Before putting that motion, I would like to thank all the delegates
attending this Convention for the unanimous courtesy they have extended to the Chair, and
for the business-like way in which they have conducted the business of the Institute. I think
this has been a record meeting, inasmuch as we have got through business in practically a
couple of days, and have covered a great deal of ground. I thank you very kindly for the
courtesy you have extended to the Chair.
Motion carried and meeting adjourned sine die.  INDEX.
Alberni-Comox Road , 86
Assessment Act  88
Alfalfa  95
Acts for distribution  68
Agricultural Paper, local  89
Bulls, to regulate number of  68
Board of Horticulture  48
Bonds for Nurserymen  52
Butter, Government Creamery  89
Bella Coola  33
Chairman's Address  31
Care and Feeding of the Horse—By H. Clark  17
Central Farmers' Institute, Report of  27
Conservation of Water ,  54
Courses in High Schools  62
Centralisation of Rural Schools  62
Crows, Bounty on      87
Clovers and Grasses, experiments with .          94
Clover, methods of sowing  94
Co-operation  95
Crop Rotation—By Thos. McMillan  21
Delegates to Central Farmers' Institute, qualifications  36
Diseases of Animals  35
Dogs, tax on.... ,  86
Dominion Exhibition, appropriation in aid of  80
Dominion Experiment Station  86
Dairy Instructor  88
Dairy Associations Act Amendment  55
Experiments with grasses and clovers ,  94
Fruit Trees and Small Fruits—By R. Thompson, St. Catharines  ■.'. 19
Fruit-Growing—By Prof. E. R. Lake  23
Fruit exhibited for sale  61
Forestry   35
Forest reserves            68
Fruit-Growers' Association  89
Farmers' Institutes and meetings  34
Foods, unadulterated ,  47
Gun licence  71
Government Creamery butter  89
Game Act      70
Grouse, prohibiting the sale of       70
Horse, Care and Feeding of the—By H. Clark, Comox  17
Horses, entire  65
Hog Cholera  90
Indian Reserves     54
Insects, injurious specimens of  96
Letter of transmittal  3
Lieutenant-Governor's Address  28
Literature . ,  32
Milk Fever in Cows and Preventive Treatment—By H. G. Reed  19
Motor Cars, speed of  55
Minerals used in Agriculture     94, 96
Minister of Agriculture's Address  28 Page,
Mayor's Address  45
Nursery Stock, licensing vendors of ,  33
Nursery Stock, inspection of ,  86
Noxious Weeds 34, 39, 72
Pork-packing     ,  58
Produce exhibited for sale  61
Poll Tax, collection of  82
Pure Seed Bill  95
Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes  5
Lillooet Farmers' Institute, Secretary of  10
Dr. S. F. Tolmie, re meetings attended by him 11, 12
Mr. D. Drummond  12
Mr. R. Thompson  13
Bella Coola Farmers' Institute, President of  16
Thos. M. McMillan and Dr. H. G. Reed  14
Matsqui Farmers' Institute, Secretary of  15
Surrey          n                 n                 n            16
On Superintendent's Address  93
Report, printing of  96
Releasing of timber lands  55
Roads, improvement of ,  54
Range Riders 67, 85
Railway rates  33
Seventh Annual Convention of Central Farmers' Institute ,  27
Special rates  33
Scrub Cattle ,  33
Speakers at meetings of Farmers' Institutes 39, 46
Stumping Powder, Report of Committee on 40, 57, 83
Steam Boilers, inspection of  50
Superintendent's Address  31
Seed Bill, pure  95
Schools, High, courses in. .  62
Schools, Rural, centralisation of  62
School buildings for Institute purposes ,  66
Seed supplied by Central Experimental Farm  96
Subjects of speakers 7-10
Trespass  72
Thistle Act, enforcement of  82
Tobacco, Excise on  83
Timber lands, releasing  53
Votes of thanks  90
Water, conservation of      54
Water-courses    ,  39
Wild Animals, bounty on      59
victoria, B.C.
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, I.S.O., V.D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.


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