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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES FOR THE YEAR ENDING 31ST DECEMBER, 1900, BEING AN ACCOUNT OF MINING… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1901

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 ANNUAL REPORT
MINISTER OF MINES
FOR   THE
YEAR ENDING 31st DEOEMBEE,
1900,
BEING   AN   ACCOUNT   OF
MINING OPERATIONS FOE GOLD, COAL, ETC.,
PROVINCE  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
THEGDVERNMENTOF
THE PROVINCE OF SRITISH COLUMBIA
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, Printer to the King's Moat Excellent Majesty.
1901.  1 Ed. 7
Report of the Minister of Mines.
703
REPORT
OF   THE
MINISTER OF MINES,
1900.
To His Honour The Honourable Sir Henri Gustave Joly de Lotbinieke, K.O. M.G.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The Annual Report of the Mining Industries of the Province for the year 1900 is herewith respectfully submitted.
Minister of Mines' Office,
March 11th, 1901.
RICHARD McBRIDE,
Minister of  o
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« 1 Ed. 7 Report of the Minister of Mines. 705
REPORTS
-by-
WILLIAM FLEET ROBERTSON, PROVINCIAL MINERALOGIST,
To the Hon. Richard McBride,
Minister of Mines.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my Annual Report on the Mining Industry
of the Province for the year ending December 31st, 1900.
The following statistical tables give the total mineral output of the Province to date, and
show in considerable detail the actual mineral production of the past year, as based on smelter
or mill returns; also a summary of the production of each of the last four years, thus illustrating by comparison the progress made in productive mining during this period.
To facilitate comparison with information previously given, I have retained, as closely as
was possible, the general form already established for such tables and for the Report.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
William Fleet Robertson,
Provincial Mineralogist.
Victoria, B. C, March 11th, 1901.  1 Ed. 7 Report of the Minister of Mines. •     707
MINERAL PRODUCTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
METHOD OF COMPUTING PRODUCTION.
In assembling the output of the lode mines in the following tables, the established custom
of this Department has been adhered to, viz.: The output of a mine for the year is considered
.that amount of ore for which the smelter or mill returns have been received during the year.
This system does not give the exact output of the mine for the year, but rather the amounts
credited to the mine on the company's books during such year.
For ore shipped in December the smelter returns are not likely to be received until
February of the new year, or later, and have, consequently, to be carried over to the credit of
such new year. This plan, however, will be found very approximate for each year, and
ultimately correct, as ore not credited to one year is included in the next.
In the Lode Mines tables, the amount of the shipments has been obtained from certified
returns received from the various mines, as provided for in the "Inspection of Metalliferous
Mines Act, 1897." In calculating the values of the products, the average price for the year
in the New York Metal Market has been used as a basis. For silver 95 per cent., and for
lead 90 per cent., of such market price has been taken. Treatment and other charges have
not been deducted.
TABLE I.
Total Production for all Years up to and including 1900.
Gold, placer $ 62,584,443
Gold, lode  12,812,860
Silver  13,649,809
Lead  7,619,956
Copper  4,362,583
Coal and Coke  49,140,917
Building stone, bricks, etc  1,950,000
Other metals  34,640
Total $152,155,208
TABLE II.
Production for each Year from 1890 to 1900 (inclusive).
1852 to 1889 (inclusive) $ 71,981,634
1890   2,608,803
1891   3,521,102
1892   2,978,530
1893   3,588,413
1894   4,225,717
1895   5,643,042
1896   7,507,956
1897   10,455,268
1898   10,906,861
1899   12,393,131
1900   16,344,751
Total $152,155,208 708
Report of the Minister of Mines.
1901
Table III. gives a statement in detail of the amount and value of the different mineral
products for the years 1898, 1899 and 1900. As it has been impossible as yet to collect
accurate statistics regarding building stone, lime, bricks, tiles, etc., these are estimated.
TABLE III.
Amount and Value of Mineral Products for If
1899 and 1900.
1898.
1899.
1900.
Customary
Measure.
Qua ntity.
Value.
Quantity.
Value.
Quantity.
Value.
Gold, placer	
Ounces	
32,167
$      643,346
67,245
|   1,344,900
63,936
$ 1,278,724
it     lode	
110,061
2,201,217
138,315
2,857,573
167,153
3,453,381
Silver	
„     	
4,292,401
2,375,841
2,939,413
1,663,708
3,958,175
2,309,200
Copper   	
Pounds 	
7,271,678
874,781
7,722,591
1,351,453
9,997,080
1,615,289
Lead	
31,693,559
1,077,581
21,862,436
878,870
63,358,621
2,691,887
Coal	
Tons, 2,240 lbs
1,135,865
3,407,595
1,306,324
3,918,972
1,439,595
4,318,785
Coke	
fl                II
35,000
175,000
34,251
171,255
85,149
425,745
151,500
206,400
251,740
$10,906,861
$12,393,131
$16,344,751
TABLE IV.
Production of Mineral by Districts and Divisions.
Divisions.
Districts.
Name.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1898.
1899.
1900.
$    389,360
$     381,900
I     684,527
Cariboo Mining Division	
$  159,500
214,860
15,000
$  180,000
193,300
8,600
$  162,000
510,000
12,527
Cassiar District	
107,300
161,370
6,042,975
819,380
523,666
6,187,859
467,479
Kootenay, East, District	
2,855,851
6,020,783
159,801
694,880
2,619,852
2,470,811
97,631
297,930
879,185
1,740,372
.3,229,086
41,286
349,465
787,082
2,063,908
2,739,300
81,028
Trail Creek        n    	
Other parts   	
Lillooet District .   	
47,814
432,512
69,558
315,865
88,493
Yale District	
1,422,465
Osoyoos   (Grand   Forks-Kettle
364,112
7,560
60,840
234,167
6,609
75,089
1,358,383
4,800
59,282
Coast Districts (Nanaimo, Alber-
3,725,530
4,094,903
4,805,153
110,906,861
$12,393,131
$16,344,751 1 Ed. 7
Report of the Minister of Mines.
709
PLACER  GOLD.
Table V. contains the yearly production of placer gold to date, as determined by the
returns, sent in by the banks and express companies, of gold transmitted by them to the mints,
and from returns sent in by the Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders. To these yearly
amounts, one-third was added up to the year 1878, from then to 1895 and for 1898 and 1899,
one-fifth, which proportions are considered to represent, approximately, the amount of gold
sold of which there is no record. This placer gold contains from 10 to 25 per cent, silver, but
the silver value has not been separated from the totals, as it would be insignificant.
1858   $   705.000
1859  1,615,070
1860  2,228,543
1861  2,666,118
1862  2,656,903
1863  3,913,563
1864  3,735,850
1865  3,491,205
1866  2,662,106
1867  2,480,868
1868  3,372,972
1869  1,774,978
1870  1,336,956
1871  1,799,440
1872...  1,610,972
1873  1,305,749
1874  1,844,618
1875  2,474,004
1876  1,786,648
1877  1,608,182
1878  1,275,204
1879  1,290,058
TABLE V.
r Gold per Year to Date.
1880	
. .$1,013,827
1881	
..   1,046,737
1882	
1883	
954,085
794,252
1884	
1885	
736,165
713,738
1886	
903,651
1887	
1888	
1889	
693,709
616,731
588,923
1890	
1891	
1892	
1893	
1894	
1895	
1896	
1897	
1898	
490,435
429,811
399,526
356,131
405,516
481,683
544,026
513,520
643,346
1899	
1900  	
1,344,900
..   1,278,724
Total	
$62,584,443
TABLE  VI.
The information as to production in the earlier years is obtained from the
Statistics and Mines" for 1896, Geological Survey of Canada.
Production of Lode Mines.
: Mineral
Year.
Gold.
Silver.
Lead.
Copper.
Total
Oz.
Value.
Oz.
Value.
Pounds.
Value.
Pounds.
Value.
Values.
1887..
$
17,690
79,780
53,192
70,427
4,500
77,160
227,000
746,379
1,496,522
3,135,343
5,472,971
4,292,401
2,939,413
3,958,175
$
17,331
75,000
47,873
73,948
4,000
66,9.35
195,000
470,219
977,229
2,100,689
3,272,836
2,375,841
1,663,708
2,309,200
204,800
674,500
165,100
Nil.
Nil.
808,420
2,135,023
5,662,523
16,475,464
24,199,977
38,841,1,35
31,693,559
21,862,436
63,358,621
$
9,216
29,813
6,498
Nil.
Nil.
33,064
78,996
169,875
532,255
721,384
1,390,517
1,077,581
878,870
2,691,887
1
$
26,547
1888..
104,813
1889..
54,371
1890..
73,948
1891..
4,000
1892..
99,999
1893..
1,170
6,252
39,264
62,259
106,141
110,061
138,315
167,153
23,404
125,014
785,271
1,244,180
2,122,820
2,201,217
2,857,573
3,453,381
$12,812,860
297,400
1894..
1895..
1896..
1897..
1898..
1899..
1900..
324,680
952,840
3,818,556
5,325,180
7,271,678
7,722,591
9,997,080
16,234
47,642
190,926
266,258
874,781
1,351,453
1,615,289
781,342
2,342,397
4,257,179
7,052,431
6,529,420
6,751,604
10,069,757
Total.
630,615
22,570,953
$13,649,809
206,081,558
$7,619,956 35,412,605
$4,362,583
$38,445,208 710
Report of the Minister of Mines.
1901
TABLE VII.—Production in Detail of the
Year
Tons.
Copper.
Ounces
Value.
Ounces.
Value.
Ounces.
Value.
Pounds.
Value.
$
$
*
1897
1898
1899
1900
1897
1898
1899
1900
1898
1899
1900
6,250
7,975
9,000
8,100
10,000
10,743
9,665
25,500
750
430
626
3,750
40,000
22,500
1,853
1,615
969
750
125,000
159,500
180,000
162,000
200,000
214,860
193,300
510,000
15,000
8,600
12,527
Quesnel         n      ....
1898
1899
1900
1897
1898
1899
1900
' .300
75,000
800,000
450,000
37,060
32,300
19,380
15,000
"120
 2,479
1897
1898
1899
1900
1899
1900
2,497
1,971
716
86,868
18
94
600
850
500
500
12,000
* 17,000
» 10,000
10,000
116,657
69,780
33,516
960,411
1,627
2,219
69,760
38,623
18,970
560,303
921
1,295
397
2,147
69
15
300
348
1897
1898
1899
1900
1897
1898
1899
1900
1897
1898
1899
1900
1897
18B8
1899
1900
1897
1898
1899
1900
5,556
1,728
3.760
50,014
52,762
58,302
94,378
33,567
30,691
21,607
25,520
68,804
111,282
172,665
217,636
1,781
fi-21
294
622
524,578
167,147
268,165
352,167
961,124
692,367
483,659
109,870
3,641,287
3,068,648
1,891,026
2,121,176
110,068
170,804
186,818
167,378
116,657
121,510
48,463
96,416
313,697
92,515
151,781
205,454
574,752
383,225
273,751
64,098
2,177,490
1,698,496
1,070,320
1,237,495
65,821
04,539
105,173
97,648
69,761
67,256
27,430
56,249
203
24
91
28
2,076
3,823
16,569
31,612
193
60
14
5
97,024
87,343
102,976
111,625
9
346
118
208
1,888
578
41,520
76,459
342,308
653,106
3,860
1,194
284
10.3
1,940,480
1,746,861
2,127,482
2,306,172
180
6,923
2,439
4,297
3,453,644
1,955,083
1,370,513
36,929
172,682
' 30
235,196
 600
239,840
5,979
Trail Creek     n
1,819,586
5,232,011
5,693,889
2,071,865
90,979
629,411
996,431
300
552
300
250
6,000
11,040
6,000
5,000
335,435
(Revelstoke,   Trout
Lake, Lardeau.)
1,120
196
1897
1898
1899
1900
755
900
1,557
5,713
1,874
2,130
2,135
1,845
37,480
42,614
42,700
36,905
118
260
1,300
2,497
2,360
5,200
26,858
51,588
Yale 	
702
1,539
65,426
1897
1898
1899
1900
1897
1898
1899
1900
1897
1898
1899
1900
6,098
14,820
13,084
103,426
1
638
}580
440
382
180
1,175
378
330
240
2,934
3,042
3,736
2,877
8,800
7,632
3,600
23,500
7,560
6,600
4,800
58,680
60,840
74,720
57,542
6,074
17,824
11,086
18,1.33
133,480
356,480
229,028
374,628
1,174
2,719
112,145
(Grand Forks, Kettle River.)
5,672,177
918,325
16
9
(Ashcroft, Kami'ps.)
27
1,700
2
45
47
297
tricts (Nanaimo, Alberni, W. Coast V. I.,
1897
1898
1899
1900
1897
1898
1899
1900
1897
1898
1899
1900
290
1,159
14,901
14,346
250
5,000
47
405
6,159
2,925
940
8,100
127,241
60,430
1,426
2,145
24,358
36,39.3
853
1,187
13,787
21,232
51,950
84,381
654,972
2,193,962
2,597
Victoria).
114,620
355,202
703
14,050
etc., other metals, etc)
3,272,836
2,375,841
1,663,708
82,309,200
5,325,180
7,271,678
7,722,591
9,997,080
169,362
215,944
287,343
554,796
25,676
32,167
67,245
63,936
613,520
643,346
1,344,900
81,278,724
106,141
110,061
138,315
167,153
2,122,820
2,201,217
2,857,573
13,458,381
5,472,971
4,292,401
2,939,413
3,958,175
266,258
874,781
1,351,453
§1,615,289
• Estimated.   1100 oz. Platinum in 1898, $1,500. 1 Ed. 7
Report of the Minister of Mines.
711
Metalliferous Mines for 1897, 1898, 1899, and 1900.
Lead.
Totals for Divisions.
Totals for Districts.
Pounds.
Value.
1897.
1898.
1899.
8
1930.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
$
8
125,000
8
8
8
325,000
$
389,360
8
381,900
684,527
159,500
180,000
"" 162,000
200,000
214,860
193,300
510,000
15,000
8,600
12,527
37,060
107,300
819,380
467,479
75,000
800,000
	
452,479
37,060
32,300
19,380
15,000
163,796
133,368
66,294
2,215,560
2,291,451
2,286,603
881,167
38.494,077
82,036
77,746
35,423
1,639,848
911
3,466
126,848
67,262
144,261
14.3,433
261
163,796
133,368
61,393
2,210,151
5,409
1,901
81,354
3,543,237
1,978,297
3,588,577
3,366,962
440,545
6,765,703
6,042,975
6,187,859
6,020,783
159,801
297,930
349,465
789,215
694,880
679,245
23,286
63,299
1,099,336
920,162
669,768
826,310
879,185
787,082
30,707,705
27,063,595
16,660,910
19,565,743
3,280,686
2,619,852
1,740,372
2,097,280
2,063,908
2,470,811
3,229,086
2,739,300
2,291,451
366,064
129,884
82,036
12,412
6,221
15,482
157,977
97,631
41,286
81,028
39,840
47,814
69,568
88,493
39,840
47,814
69,558
88,49.3
226,762
432,512
315,865
1,420,725
142,982
364,112
4
25,100
234,167
6,609
7,560
4,800
58,680
60,840
75,089
57,542
9,390
9,390
19,437
255,648
450,914
19,437
255,648
450,914
150,000
150,000
150,000
206,400
251,740
150,000
206,400
251,740
	
38,841,136
31,693,559
21,862,436
63,358,621
1,390,517
1,077,681
878,870
82,691,887
$ 7,717,551
$ 7.322.766
  1    £ 8.302.904  	
11,600,221
11,600,221
} Iron Ore    § Building Stone, $250,000; Iron, $1,740. 712 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1901
TABLE VIII.
Coal and Coke Production per Year to Date.
Coal.
Years.                Tons (2,240 lbs.) Value.
1836-52   10,000  $ 40,000
1852-59   25,396  101,592
1859 (2 months)    1,989  7,956
1860.   14,246  56,988
1861   13,774   55,096
1862   18,118  72,472
1863   21,345  85,380
1864   28,632  115,528
1865   32,819  131,276
1866   25,115  100,460
1867   31,239  124,956
1868   44,005  176,020
1869   35,802  143,208
1870   29,843  119,372
1871-2-3  148,549  493,836
1874   81,547  244,641
1875  110,145  330,435
1876  139,192  417,576
1877  154,052....  462,156
1878  170,846  512,538
1879  241,301  723,903
1880  267,595 , 802,785
1881  228,357  685,071
1882  282,139  846,417
1883  213,299  639,897
1884  394,070  1,182,210
1885  265,596  796,788
1886.....  326,636  979,908
1887  413,360  1,240,080
1888  489,301  1,467,903
1889  579,830   1,739,490
1890  678,140  2,034,420
1891 1,029,097  3,087,291
1892  826,335  2,479,005
1893  978,294  2,934,882
1894 1,012,953.....  3,038,859
1895  939,654  2,818,962
1896  896,222  2,688,666
1897  882,854  2,648,562
1898 1,135,865  3,407,595
1899 1,306,324  3,918,972
1900 1,439,595  4,318,785
Total 15,963,471 tons. $48,271,937
Coke.
1895-6        1,565  $     7,825
1897       17,831  89,155
1898 (estimated)   ,      35,000  175,000
1899       34,251  171,255
1900       85,149  425,745
Total     173,796 tons. $ 868,980 1 Ed. 7
Report of the Minister of Mines.
713
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o 1 Ed. 7
Report of the Minister of Mines.
715
PROGRESS   OF   MINING.
It is with great satisfaction that we can this year again point to our statistics as proof of
our rapidly increasing importance as a mining community.
Our total yearly output, while in itself not inconsiderable, is not as yet very large in
comparison with that of some of the older mining countries, but it must be remembered that,
lode mining in British Columbia is the growth of the last six or seven years.
It is not the amount of the present output so much as the wonderfully rapid growth of
the mining industry indicated thereby, which causes our present satisfaction and confidence in
the future.
As has previously been said in the Reports of this Department, our actual growth as a
mining community must and will be measured by our actual output, as shown by reliable
statistics, and it is such actual output alone that can give us, as a Province, a standing among
the mineral-producing countries of the world.
It is, therefore, best to let the statistics of the output actually made speak for themselves,
and attention will simply be directed to the preceding tables.
Table I. shows the total amount which the mining industry of the Province has already,
though but in its infancy, contributed to the wealth of the world, and gives details as to the
minerals from which such amount was derived.
As may be seen, the wealth so contributed amounts to $152,155,208, which has been
chiefly derived from—in order of importance—gold, $75,397,303; coal and coke, $49,140,917;
silver, $13,649,809, and lead, $7,619,956.
Table II. shows the amounts contributed yearly to make up this grand total, and the
rapidly increasing sums credited to the recent years illustrate, as nothing else can, the growth
during these years of mining in the Province.
From this table it will be seen that the value of the mineral output of the Province for
the year 1900, the closing year of the century, amounts to $16,344,751, as against an output
of $12,393,131 for 1899, an increase of $3,951,620, and a proportionate growth for last year
of nearly 32 per cent.
Table III. shows in detail the amount and value of the mineral products for the last three
years, and it is interesting to note the increases made in the various products during this time.
Calculated out into percentages, the following is what this table shows:—
Placer gold in 1900 shows a    5
Lode gold
ii
21    %
Combined gold
ii
12* %
Silver
it
39   %
Copper
ti
!»*■%
Lead
n
206   %
Coal
n
10   %
Coke
ii
148J %
Other materials
tt
22   %
Total output
it
32   %
decrease from 1899, and
increase over
99 % increase over 1898.
57 %
66 %
3 % decrease from
85 % increase over
150 %
27 %
143 %
66 %
50 %
These figures speak so eloquently of the growth of the industry that further comment
seems scarcely necessary. 716
Report of the Minister of Mines.
1901
Table IV. shows the various districts and mining divisions, and the total value of the
output which has been derived from each during the last three years.
Table V. shows the yield of placer gold for each year from 1858 to date, and it will be
seen that the yield for 1900 was $1,278,724, which amount—although less than that of 1899—
was greater than any other previous year since 1879.
Table VI. shows the production of the lode mines of the Province since 1887. "Mining,"
in the popular acceptation of the term, means lode mining, as distinct from coal mining and
placer mining, and it is to lode mining only that Table VI. refers.
The growth of lode mining in the Province is better shown by Table
Lode Mining.     VI. than it could he in any other way.    It will be seen that in  1894 the
total  value  of   the  output   from   the   lode   mines of   the   Province   was
$781,342,  in which year we may be said to have had our beginning as a mining community.
We had then practically an unproven country, no railways ran through the mining districts,
and there were no facilities for the treatment of ores.
In 1895 the value of the output of our lode mines had grown to $2,342,397, and it has
increased year by year, reaching the sum of $6,751,604 in 1899, while in 1900 it amounts to
$10,069,757, an increase over last year of $3,318,153, and equivalent to a gain of 49 per cent.,
a growth which is certainly a subject for congratulation.
The number of producing mines has this past year also increased materially, for in 1899
the total number of mines shipping over 100 tons during the year was 43, while in 1900 some
60 mines shipped each over 100 tons, and 39 other mines shipped various quantities of less
than 100 tons.
Of the mines producing in 1899, most of them still remain in the list for 1900, although
a few have dropped out this year for one cause or another; but the greatly increased tonnage
of ore mined, 93% greater than in 1899, is made up from the increased output of the older
mines, an argument in favour of the persistency of the ore bodies.
The list of producers contains, however, a number of new mines that may be said to have
graduated from prospects into producers, and the following table, which speaks for itself,
shows the distribution of the mines and the men employed:—
Table Showing Distribution of Mines Shipping in 1900.
No. of
Mines
Shipping.
No. of
Mines
Shipped
over  100
tons in
1900.
Men Employed in these Mines.
Below.
Above.
Total.
Cassiar :
Atlin	
East Kootenay:
Fort Steele	
1
4
3
12
10
28
9
6
4
17
5
1
3
4
288
24
113
281
539
668
26
35
367
85
4
90
11
45
224
184
332
12
25
243
139
8
378
35
West Kootenay:
Ainsworth	
Nelson	
2
8
13
9
2
4
15
3
158
505
Slocan ....   	
Trail	
723
1,000
All other Divisions	
Lillooet District	
38
60
Yale District:
Osoyoos, Grand Forks and Kettle River....
610
224
99
60
2,430
1,309
3,739 1 Ed. 7 Report of the Minister of Mines. 717
Table VII. shows in detail the production of the metalliferous mines in each District and
Mining Division of the Province for 1897, 1898, 1899 and 1900.
Table VIII. illustrates the coal and coke production.
COAL.
The coal mining industry of the Province still continues to increase in importance, and
has again, this year, broken all previous records with a total output of 1,590,179 tons, of
which amount 150,584 tons were converted into coke, producing 85,149 tons and leaving a net
production of coal of 1,439,595 tons. Of this production, 914,183 tons of coal and 51,757
tons of coke were exported.
The Vancouver Island Collieries made a gross output of 1,383,376 tons of coal, of which
47,353 tons were used for coke-making, producing 19,234 tons of coke, and leaving a net production of coal of 1,336,023 tons. Of this product, 906,215 tons of coal and 12,799 tons of
coke were exported.
The Crow's Nest Pass Collieries made a gross output, of 206,803 tons of coal, but half
of it, viz.: 103,231 tons, was used for coke-making, producing therefrom 65,915 tons, and
leaving a net coal production of 103,572 tons. Of this production there was exported to the
United States 7,968 tons of coal and 38,958 tons of coke.
As will be seen, the output of our collieries this year—coal and coke—has increased in
value about 16% over last year's output, and there is every indication that another large
increase will be made during the year 1901, especially in the output of the Crow's Nest
Pass Collieries, which are at present only being opened up, and which will have to supply at
least two new smelters, besides a regular increase in consumption at the older ones.
GOLD.
The gold production of the Province for the year 1900, including both placer and lode
gold, was worth $4,732,105, an increase over 1899 of $529,632.
This again " breaks the record " of gold production in British Columbia, and this year,
as heretofore, does gold take first place in our tables of production.
The only decrease noted in the preceding tables is in the production of
Placer Gold. placer gold, and this is due to the heavy falling off in the Atlin District.
In 1899 the cream of the placer gold in that District was skimmed off
from the shallower workings, leaving only the deeper workings, which will, generally speaking,
require to be worked by hydraulic methods. The necessary hydraulic plants are being
installed, but from the nature of things could not be expected to make any very serious output for the first year.
Disregarding the production of Atlin District during the past two years, the remainder
of the Province shows an increased placer gold output in 1900—compared with 1899—of
$283,824, due largely to the successful working of the hydraulic plants in the Cariboo
District, notably that of the Cariboo Hydraulic Mining Company, at Quesnel, which is practically the only plant of this sort in the Province so far completed as to do systematic work,
although several others ought to be in shape for the season of  1901.
The general placer output throughout the interior and northern part of the Province has
not been very large this past year (1900), owing to the high water in the early spring, and
later to the construction of the Yukon Telegraph Lines, which caused such a demand for
labour at good wages that the placer claims were neglected. 718 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1901
Hydraulic plants in British Columbia are now just beginning to be
Hydraulics.        productive, and next year we may expect to see a considerable output from
the Cariboo, Omineca, and Atlin Districts.
On the west coast of Vancouver Island, a number of hydraulic leases have been taken
out for beach deposits of black sand carrying gold. This branch of the hyclraulicing industry
is new to the Province, and this past year (1900) yielded some $12,000, or more than the cost
of the installation of plants, so that next year good returns may be expected.
Dredging in British Columbia has, so far, been a failure, but many
Dredging.        companies   have   tried   it   and  are still   trying it,  confident  of   ultimate
success.
The river bottoms carry gold in quantities greater than many of the successfully worked
deposits of New Zealand and elsewhere, but the conditions are different in this Province, the
gold being in very fine, flat flakes, hard to save, while the rivers are rapid and large boulders
are frequent. It has yet to be demonstrated that a dredger has been invented that will
successfully overcome these difficulties, but the prize offered for so doing is great enough to
induce repeated attempts.
The output of lode gold for the year 1900 amounted to $3,453,381,
Lode Gold.        being   $595,808   greater   than   the  previous  year, and   equivalent  to  an
increase of 21%.
This increase is due largely to the operation of gold properties in the Nelson and Lillooet
Districts, as well as to the increased tonnage of the Rossland  gold-copper properties and to
the opening up of the gold-copper properties of the Boundary District.
The gold produced from lode mining for the year 1900 has been obtained, approximately,
as follows :—
From direct smelting, combined with copper    $2,583,905
From combined amalgamation and concentration  869,476
$3,453,381
SILVER.
Silver and lead are very closely associated in British Columbia, so much so that over 90%
of our silver production for 1900 is derived from silver-lead ores.
The total amount of silver produced this past year was 3,958,175 ounces, worth
$2,309,200, an increase in value over 1899 of $645,492, or equivalent to 39%.
This increase has been chiefly caused by the output of South-East Kootenay, which this
year has produced 960,411 ounces of silver as against 33,516 ounces in 1899.
The Slocan has made an increased production of 230,151 ounces, largely accounted for
by the increased tonnage of the District.
The silver derived from copper-silver ores has been increased by the output of the
" Boundary" District and the increased output of the Coast Districts, but has been diminished
by the temporary shutting down of the Hall Mines, in the Nelson District, and the lesser
silver values found in the ores of the Rossland Camp, Trail Creek District.
LEAD.
The most notable feature of the year's development has been the increase in the production of lead. The output for 1900 amounts to 63,358,621 lbs., valued at $2,691,887. This is
an increase over the previous year of $1,813,017, equivalent to 206%. T-A. IB IE. IE
SHOWING    MINERAL    PRODUCTION
Off
BRITISH    COLUMBIA
MOI
UJId
0000
1858
1859
I860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868 18
69 1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
893
1894
1896
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
4,800,000
4,700,000
4,600,000
4,500,000
4,400,000
4,300,000
4,200,000
4,100,000
4,000,000
3,900,000
3,800,000
3,700,000
3,600,000
3,500,000
3,400,000
3,300,000
3,200,000
3,100,000
3,000,000
2,900,000
2,800,000
2,700,000
2,600,000
2,500,000
2,400,000
2,300,000
2,200,000
2,100,000
2,000,000
1,900,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,300,000
1,200,000
1,100,000
1,000,000
900,000
800,000
700,000
600,000
500,000
400,000
300,000
200,000
100,000
000,000
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This increase has been brought about chiefly by the energetic development of two or
three mines in Fort Steele Division, although all the lead-producing districts, except Ainsworth, have shown a material increase in production.
The Slocan Mining Division has heretofore always held first place in the list of our lead
producers, having an output in 1897 of almost 31,000,000 lbs., and although in 1899 it fell as
low as 16,660,910 lbs. it has again increased in 1900 to 19,565,743 lbs., a gain over the previous
year of about 17%.
However, the increase in Fort Steele Division of from 881,167 lbs. in 1899 to 38,495,079
in 1900 has earned for it the right to be considered the lead-producing centre of the Province.
COPPER.
The fine copper produced in 1900 was 9,977,080 lbs., worth $1,615,289, an increase in
value of   19.5% over the previous year.
More than half of this (5,672,177 lbs.) was produced from "Boundary Creek" ores, that
district entering the field as a copper producer for the first time, while the output of the
Coast mines has more than doubled, being for the year 2,193,962 ft>s., a production second
only to that of the Boundary District.
Rossland shows this year a copper production less than half that of the previous year,
despite an increased tonnage of about 26%. The copper contents of these ores in 1899 was
33 lbs. to the ton of ore, while in 1900 it was only about 10 lbs. to the ton.
The output of the Nelson District this year shows a considerable decrease, but this is
owing to the largest producer of the district having temporarily suspended shipments pending
the installation of new machinery and development of the mine.
IRON ORE.
Iron ore is as yet only mined in this Province as a flux for lead smelting, and the copper
and other ores carrying an excess of iron, which have now been discovered, are rapidly
replacing this barren flux, with the result that the tonnage of iron ore mined is decreasing,
and this year amounts to only 580 tons.
OTHER  MINERALS.
There is no record this year of any production of platinum, but the
Platinum. metal is reported as having been found in the neighbourhood of Dease
lake, in the extreme northern part of the Province, as well  as on the
Thompson river.
Building The  production   of  building   materials,  such   as   stone,   brick,   lime,
Materials. cement, etc., has been estimated, as no statistics are available.
GENERAL DEVELOPMENTS OF THE YEAR.
A detailed account of the work done in each District will be found in the body of this
Report and mention will only be made here of the more general developments of the year.
In the Atlin-Bennett District the appreciation of the value of the
Placer Gold.       bench claims is of importance, and while it is early yet to speak with certainty, the indications are that the benches will prove more valuable than
the creek bottoms. 720 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1901
The new placer discoveries in the Chilkat portion of this District caused quite an excitement last fall and there will probably be a heavy rush into that section in the spring. The
indications are promising, and the summer will prove what are the values existing.
In the neighbourhood of Dease lake, Liard Mining Division, the outlook for successful
hydraulic operations is good, and the coming year will see at least one company in operation
there.
In the Cariboo District the work of the year has been chiefly development—installation
of hydraulic plants, of which several are in course of construction—greatly stimulated by the
successful season of the pioneer company, the Cariboo Hydraulic.
In the Lillooet District several properties have been developed, showing quartz carrying
gold—free and associated with iron sulphides. Five thousand seven hundred and thirteen
tons of these ores have been crushed and have yielded very satisfactory results, and confidence is expressed in the future of this section.
As  among the developments   of   the   year   may   be   mentioned   two
Coal. or  three  shafts and  tunnels driven in new localities in the Crow's Nest
coal fields. These have proved, by actual work, the results of the prospecting done previously, and have shown the fields to be very extensive and the coal of good
quality, suitable for making a first-class coke.
In the Nicola valley coal fields there has been a good deal of development work done
this past year, with results which are reported as highly satisfactory. A number of new
finds have been made in the same locality, but as yet no shipments have been made.
In Southern Cassiar, in the neighbourhood of the Babine river, a number of coal locations
have been made this past year, and a large number of licences to prospect taken out. Little
development has been done to prove the ultimate value of this field, but the results so far
obtained are said to be very encouraging. The distance from any railway will, of course, hold
this section back for some years yet.
The coal fields on Quatsino sound, West Coast of Vancouver Island, have this past summer received some systematic exploration—with what results has not yet been learned. This
coal is of good quality and in fair sized bed, but the measures are suspected of being faulted
and the extent of the field has not as yet been well defined. Should these coal areas
prove of consequence they will have an important bearing on the Pacific ocean carrying trade.
On the Coast a number of copper properties have come into promin-
Copper. ence.    At Howe sound the immense deposit of low-grade copper ore has
received much attention, and there is little doubt but that within a short
time large concentrating works will be started for its treatment.
Vancouver Island copper properties have stood development well—the Mount Sicker
claims having this year made considerable shipments. On the Alberni canal two copper
properties have been developed sufficiently to prove the existence of large bodies of copper ore
containing low gold and silver values. Some preliminary shipments of the ore have been
made, on which the smelter returns showed 10% copper.
On the West Coast of Vancouver Island new discoveries of copper have been made and
some small amount of development work done, but not sufficient to prove the values of these
properties.
On Texada Island—notwithstanding the financial difficulties of the principal company—
the copper mines have more than held their own. 1 Ed. 7 Report of the Minister of Mines 721
Throughout the "Boundary" country other copper-gold properties have continued to be
developed, notably the "Mother Lode" at Greenwood, which, this coming year, together with
cert