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EIGHTH REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES INCLUDING PROCEEDINGS OF THE NINTH ANNUAL… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1907

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 EIGHTH   REPORT
OP   THE
SUPERINTENDENT OP FARMERS' INSTITUTES
including proceedings of the
NINTH   ANNUAL   CONVENTION
OF   THE
CENTRAL FARMERS' INSTITUTE, B. C.
1906.
THEGOVERNMENTOF
THE PROVINCE of BRITISH COLUMBIA
PRINTED   BY   ORDER   OF
THE   LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY   OF BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
VICTORIA, B. C:
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, I.S.O., V.D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.  7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 3
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B. C, July, 1907.
Hon. R. G. Tatlow,
Minister of Agriculture,
Victoria, B. C.
Sir,—
I have the honour to transmit herewith the Eighth Report of Farmers' Institutes of
British Columbia for the year 1906, embodying the proceedings of the Ninth Annual
Convention of the Central Farmers' Institute.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
J. R. ANDERSON",
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.  7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 5
EIGHTH    REPORT
SUPERINTENDENT  OF  FARMERS'  INSTITUTES
OF
BRITISH    COLUMBIA,
EMBODYING
Minutes  of the  Proceedings  of the  Ninth  Annual   Convention
of the Central Farmers' Institute.
An analysis of Farmers' Institute matters during the year will be found under my address
before the Central Farmers' Institute; there is, therefore, no necessity of repeating it here.
Altogether, the progress in the affairs of Farmers' Institutes has been most satisfactory, and
affords a matter of congratulation that year by year the benefits conferred by the demonstrations and addresses by the practical people employed are being more appreciated.
Local speakers, I am pleased to say, are coming forward and are, therefore, available in
increasing numbers; still the number is far short of our wants, and I must again take this
opportunity of impressing upon the officers of Institutes the desirability of bringing out local
talent by means of supplementary meetings.
Delinquencies on the part of Secretaries, in respect to a closer observance of the provisions
of the Act and Rules, I feel it incumbent on me to again descant upon. I have referred to
this matter in my address previously alluded to.
I have again to ask the indulgence of the Bella Coola Institute for apparent neglect to
meet their wishes in respect to speakers and demonstrators. The claims of this Institute are
fully recognised, and it is only on account of the isolated position of the district, rendering a
trip there of much longer duration than it is usually possible to bestow, that it has been found
impossible to give that enterprising section the attention it certainly deserves. It is the
intention, provided nothing intervenes to prevent it, to arrange a series of meetings at Bella
Coola in May next, which programme I trust to see carried out.
The most favourable dates on which to hold the regular meetings is a question of great
difficulty, as alluded to in my last report, and it is the intention to.try the experiment of holding the next spring meetings at a later date, in conformity with the wishes of a number of the
Institutes. Personally, from my experience of the various conditions prevailing in this
Province, I doubt if a more suitable time can be selected than that on wdiich the meetings
have heretofore been held.
The specimens of San Jose scale asked for by the Central Farmers' Institute at its last
meeting have been received from Dr. Fletcher, the Entomologist of the Central Experimental
Farm in Ottawa, and distributed amongst the various Secretaries for use of the members.
These specimens are most useful for the purpose of the identification of that pernicious insect,
but few people being sufficiently acquainted with its appearance to be able to identify it. Sets
of minerals used in agriculture, also recommended by the Central Farmers' Institute, were
obtained from the Chief Geologist in Ottawa, and likewise distributed amongst the various
Secretaries. M 6 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
By natural evolution, as old methods are found to be inadequate, new ones have to be
thought out, and therefore it is necessary to inaugurate new departures, and whilst I have
been fairly successful in the experimental work I have instituted, I feel that it is a matter of
regret that I have not been accoi'ded permission to attend the annual meetings of the International Association of Farmers' Institute workers, as I feel assured that the interchange of
experience and a discussion of methods cannot fail to be of the greatest benefit.
The following is a list of speakers who gave addresses and demonstrations during the last
year, and their subjects :—
Robert Thompson, of St. Catherines, Ont.—"Poultry Houses and Incubators"; " Profitable
Poultry Keeping for the Boys and Girls"; "Swine Breeding and Feeding"; "Corn for Grain and
the Silo"; " Small Fruits and Fruit Trees " ; "Gathering and Marketing Fruit" ; "Successful
Co-operation " ; " Cold Storage " ; " The San Jose Scale and other Orchard Pests " ; " The
Future Farmers and their Education " ;  " Home Life on the Farm."
Dr. S. F. Tolmie, Victoria—"Glanders"; "Hog Cholera"; "Milk Fever"; "Other
Diseases of Swine"; "Other Contagious Diseases of Animals"; "The Horse, Points of
Selection " ; " Care of the Horse from Colthood to Market" ;  " Live Stock Judging."
J. R. Carmichael, Victoria—" Fruit Cultivation " ; " Co-operation "; " Dairying."
F. M. Logan, Victoria—"Dairying"; "Feeding and Care of Dairy Animals " ; "Judging
of Animals."
J. R. Anderson, Victoria—" Fruit Cultivation " ; "Co-operation"; "Fertilizers and Soil
Cultivation " ;  " Institute Matters."
W. C. McKillican, Seed Division, Dominion Dept. of Agriculture—" Selection of Seed " ;
" Explanation of the Seed Act" ; " The Evils of Impure Seed " ; " Loss through Poor Seed."
Rev. W. E. Dunham, Victoria—" Buildings, Fixtures and Poultry Yard Methods," with
model illustration; "Incubators and Brooders," with demonstrations; "Care of Young Stock,
Housing, Feed, &c" ; " Raising Stock for Market," illustrated type and practical demonstrations
in killing, trussing and dressing; " Fattening Stock for Market," with detailed comparison of
methods, e.g., crates, pens and loose; "Raising Stock for Layers and Breeding," showing types
and giving a talk on the obtaining and handling of eggs; " Best kinds of Fowls and the
Climatic Conditions necessary for Successful Raising of same"; " Diseases and how to
Handle them."
Miss Laura Rose, of Guelph, Ont.—" How to Make the Dairy Bring in Larger Profits";
" Defects we Find in Butter, their Cause and Remedy "; " Butter Making on the Farm ";
" The Dairy Cow " ; " Cheese, its Food Value, and Simple Receipes " ; " The Making of Bread
and Buns"; "As Others See Us"; "The Womanly Sphere of Woman"; "The Head, the
Hand, the Heart, the Tripod of Successful Work "; " One Eye in the Town, the Other in the
Field."
Andrew Elliott, of Gait, Ont.—" Breeding and Care of the Dairy Cow " ; " Beef Cattle " ;
"Feeding and Care of Sheep" ; " The Bacon Hog" ; "The Draft Horse" ; "Building up and
Care of the Soil" ; " The Necessity of Clean and Good Seed."
Prof. E. R. Lake, of the Oregon Agricultural College, Corvallis, who speaks and demonstrates on Fruit in all its phases, Commercial Fruit Growing especially.
Fred. Earl, of Lytton, demonstrator on Fruit Packing.
Prof. Frank T. Shutt, Chemist, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa—" Soils and their
Management"; "Mineral Salts in the Soil, how to Counteract Excess"; "Fertilisers, Barnyard and Commercial" ;  " Composition and Growth of Plants, Functions of Leaves and Roots."
Rev. Thos. Menzies, Comox—" Bee Culture."
R. M. Halliday, Comox—" Corn Culture."
Wm. Duncan, Comox—" Corn Culture."
John Shopland, Saanich—" Success with Sheep."
W. R. Robb, Sandwick—" Co-operation."
H. F. Pullen, Comox, " Clearing Land."
W, C. Grant, Gordon Head—" Fertilisers."
Geo. Stewart, Keating—"Commercial Fruit-Growing."
Maxwell Smith, Vancouver—" Horticulture."
W. E. Scott, Ganges Harbour—" Fruit-G rowing."
R. Layritz, Garnham—" Fruit-Growing."
J. A. Grant, Victoria—" Commercial Fruit-Growing."
Thos. Cunningham, Inspector of Fruit Pests—"Insect Pests." 7 Ed. 7
Farmers' Institutes Report.
M 7
Mrs. Johnson—" Poultry."
J. T. Collins, Salt Spring Island—" Labour Question" ; " Institute Work " ; " Poultry for
Winter Laying " ; " Co-operation for Farmers."
H. Bose, Surrey Centre—"Hemp Growing."
James Fox, Coquitlam—" Rearing of Sheep."
E. A. Atkins, Coquitlam—" Poultry Industry of British Columbia " ; " Duck Raising."
Thos. A. Brydon, Victoria—"Planting and Care of Fruit Trees"; "Commercial Fruit
Growing."
J. D. McGuire, Salmon Arm—" Fruit Growing."
J. W. McCallum, Salmon Arm—"Benefits of Institute."
W. V. Leonard, Salmon Arm—" Meteorology."
B. J. Cornish, North Vancouver—"Pruning."
Geo. A. McBain, North Vancouver—" Spraying."
Martin Burrell, Grand Forks—" Fruit Inspection."
R. S. Bevan, Creston—" Fruit Pests"; "Cultivation of Local Talent."
A. Okell, Creston—" Irrigation."
O. J. Wigan, Creston—"Chemical Fertilizers"; " Strawberry Culture " ; "Spraying";
" Packing Fruits."
C. C. French, Creston—" Fruit Pests."
Jas. Compton, Creston—" Cultivation of Local Talent."
J. W. Dow, Creston—" Pruning."
Detailed Statement of Institute Meetings During 1906.
Institute.
Lillooet   	
Bella Coola	
Central Park ...
Alberni	
Comox	
Cowichan	
Nanaimo, Cedar
Victoria	
Metchosin	
Islands 	
Delta	
Surrey	
Langley	
Richmond	
Mission	
Chilliwack	
Kent	
Maple Ridge . . .
Matsqui	
Spallumcheen.. .
Okanagan 	
Osoyoos.......
Kamloops	
Salmon Arm....
North Vancouve:
West Kootenay.
East Kootenay..
Number of Meetings.
Eveninj
8
1G
9
4
6
4
9
5
4
4
8
4
4
7
7
4
7
3
10
10
149
Attendance.
14
80
146
28
221
122
139
11
123
108
39
184
30
32
63
444
210
116
35
253
46
2,204
Evening
51
183
56
122
128
258
278
630
330
135
139
120
26
85
240
89
288
200
170
221
246
102
155
183
313
333
5,081
No. of
No. of
Addresses.
members
16
32
6
60
7
220
8
39
10
39
11
149
16
149
15
210
26
161
18
53
6
55
18
59
12
55
5
97
4
57
8
41
4
51
15
52
8
77
10
184
16
146
11
161
20
70
8
80
5
50
23
94
27
40
333
2,481
Funds
on hand.
5 75
92 90
63 05
235 00
44 82
5 70
15 80
120 68
56 92
32 55
80 30
102 45
38 26
118 17
27 60
40 21
104 54
159 59
47 38
86 06
102 94
103 43
3 98
90 05
5 28
3 80
$1,787 21 REPORTS, ADDRESSES, PAPERS, ETC.
Bella Coola Farmers' Institute.
Secretary's   Report.
As Secretary-Treasurer of the Bella Coola Farmers' Institute, I have the honour to
present my fourth annual report.
The cash receipts for the last year were $150.10, with an expenditure of $57.20, leaving
a cash balance of $92.90.
Sixty members were enrolled during the year, showing an increase of eight over the
previous year. There was also an increase of one in our women's membership, giving us a total
of eight women members. I would say here that we cannot encourage the women too strongly
to assist us in Institute work. In the first place, our financial interests are increased according to the number of members, and it is possible to secure a very large membership, considering
the number of women among us. I regret to say though, up to this time, we have not
encouraged women members, and I would not blame the few women members we have got if
they left us. We must be careful to encourage everything that has a tendency to promote the
general welfare of the Institute. Wives and daughters, come and join our Farmers' Institute
and see if you cannot take some of the conceit out of us.
After being re-elected as your Secretary last year I became desireous of showing my
appreciation of the confidence you had repeatedly shown me, so I fell to thinking what I could
do for the Institute. It appeared to me, judging from the difficulties we had met with at
home in our efforts to farm, and from the experience we already had obtained in Institute
work, that where encouragement was mostly needed was in clearing land. As you are aware,
I tried in a poor and simple way, to lay these thoughts before you on October 30th, but I
dare say I did not deserve your attention, as timber is now considered too valuable an article
to burn. At the same time, we cannot remain idle, and most of us possess more or less bush
that will never be of any commercial value. Therefore, I still maintain, in order to stick to
the work we have begun with a view towards accomplishment, we must continue to make grass
grow where none grew before.
The Exhibition of farm produce held on October 30th, was reported to Mr. J. R. Anderson, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, including a description of the size and quantity of the
various products which were exhibited. Mr. Anderson kindly published the report in the
Victoria "Daily Colonist," and further complimented us on our successful undertaking.
At our last meeting of the Institute our President, Mr. C. Carlson, offered some good
suggestions for Institute work, and a new year is before us for accomplishments. I trust
before another year is past, some good results will be shown. Possibly the proposed Farmers'
Hall will have become a reality, if we make a conscientious effort to adhere to the plans which
are already under good progress.
In conclusion, I wish to thank the members of the Institute for the great patience they
have invariably shown me in my poor efforts to carry on Institute work.
A.  Hammer,  Secretary-Treasurer.
President's Report.
The past year has for the farmers of Bella Coola been the most prosperous in the history
of the settlement. The crops were heavier than in any previous year. While this fact may
not, on the face of it, be traced to improved methods of farming, yet one inevitable effect of
the information obtained, if followed, will be better results from the cultivation of the soil,
and information of such kind members of the Farmers' Institute are receiving, and will
receive, from the sources with which the Institute is connected. The importance of education
along the lines which promise the best results, and an intelligent application of the same,
cannot be laid too much stress upon.    Therefore, to supplement the literature received from 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 9
Governments, both of Province and Dominion, I would recommend that the Institute start a
library on agricultural and kindred subjects ; this library could be added to from time to
time and be kept in a centrally located place, where it could be easily accessible by the
members. In connection with this, let me mention : I am glad that the Institute has taken
the first steps towards the erection of a building for meeting purposes. In this house there
ought to be such a library, with some journals on the same subjects. In that way an
intelligent class of farmers will grow up, with benefit to themselves and our land.
The time has now come when we ought to press upon the Government for a visit of an
expert in agriculture, who could give us advice from extensive education and experience. It
is now several years since the Deputy Minister of Agriculture paid us a visit, which was
appreciated very much; therefore, I would recommend that both our Secretary and delegate
to the Central Farmers' Institute be instructed to apply for a speaker to come here this year.
At the present stage of farming in Bella Coola it is my belief that dairying, as carried on
here up till now, is not profitable; more attention to be given to fruit, poultry, and perhaps
hogs. Our access to markets has heretofore been rather difficult, but 1 am all but certain that
by the time the orchards become commercially bearing, and the other industries mentioned are
developing, we will have a market close to our doors.
In view of the fact that the price of timber is now advancing by leaps and bounds,
clearing of land as heretofore carried on should be abandoned. If the timber on the land
cannot be profitably used, it will pay better to let it stand than to burn it. In this way our
clearings and fields may not grow larger, but I believe that the timber will prove more valuable
than the land cleared. Let us rather pursue intense farming on our small clearings, than
extensive farming at the expense of our timber.
I regret to say that, partly owing to my being absent so much during the autumn, there
has not been as many meetings held as there ought.
Chr. Carlson, President.
Bella, Coola, B. C, January 26th, 1907.
Anniversary Exhibition.
Under date of November 10th, 1906, Mr. A. Hammer, Secretary of Bella Coola Farmers'
Institute, sends the following interesting letter to the Deputy Minister of Agriculture :—
As usual, we celebrated October 30th, commemorating the landing of the colony twelve
years ago. In connection with this occasion, the Farmers' Institute had arranged an exhibition of farm products, and awarded $40 in prizes. The exhibition proved quite a success.
All the produce, which consisted of both fresh and canned fruits and nearly all kinds of
vegetables and grain, was handsomely arranged in a shed erected for this purpose.
The apples were of an immense size, especially the Gravenstein and Bismarck, some
measuring nearly five inches in diameter; and as to flavour and colour, I do not think they
can be beaten. There was quite a variety of apples. The Baldwin and King of Tompkins,
although of good size and flavour, were not very highly coloured. The Wealthy showed up
charmingly ; this apple is a great favourite in Bella Coola. The Russet, Stark, Duchess of
Oldenburg, Red Astrachan and Blenheim Orange were all splendid specimens of apples.
The vegetables also were something extraordinary. Uncle Sam, Dakota Red and
Carmen No. 1 potatoes were of monstrous size, some weighing as much as two and one-half
pounds. The onions, carrots, sugar beets, mangels, corn, cabbage, pumpkins, etc., etc., were
simply marvelous.
Three judges were appointed, who worked hard all day before rendering their decision
over what produce should win the honours. I had reckoned on Mr. C. Carlson, the President
of the Institute, representing the Institute on the occasion, but as he was absent from the
valley I took the responsibility upon myself, and addressed the people, with an effort to
encourage the Farmers' Institute movement. I made a few suggestions as to work we might
take up during the near future. For instance, I have noticed, in my efforts to promote the
farming interests here, that we invariably run up against one great difficulty, and that is the
insufficiency of cleared land. I do not mean to criticise anyone for not having been industrious
enough in clearing their farms; but as our Farmers' Institute funds are supposed to be
expended for the pui'pose of encouraging farming, I see no better way than to encourage
the clearing of land. Suppose that we would offer a fair prize, or a number of prizes, to the
settlers who, during the course of a certain time, have accomplished the most in clearing M 10 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
land. If this would not encourage farming, I do not know what would. Then I am of the
opinion that better results would show if logging bees were started. I have had enough
experience in the art of clearing land to know that a group of men can work to better
advantage than single-handed. As to awarding prizes for the largest patches cleared, possibly
a little difficulty would be experienced in judging, but there are difficulties everywhere. Give
the most industrious farmer several cases of stumping powder, or something that will encourage
him to continue his work with renewed efforts. The main question with us is to get larger
farms, and you are aware that it is no small matter to hew out a farm in a thick forest.
However, substantial progress has been made, and in the course of another few years many an
acre of primeval forest will have been transformed into cultivated fields.
A. Hammer, Secretary.
Islands Farmers' Institute.
Secretary's Report.
During the year just past we have had five evening meetings on Salt Spring Island with
an average attendance of 27, but have not been able to get up an afternoon meeting. Two
attempts have been made, both failures. On the other hand, both on Mayne and Pender
Islands, the afternoon meetings have been most successful. On Pender Island we have had
two afternoon meetings, with an average attendance of 50; two evening meetings, the largest
attendance being 58. On Mayne Island we have had three meetings, one afternoon and two
evening; largest attendance, 54; average attendance, 38. There has been a slight falling off
in the membership, yet at the same time the meetings have been better attended.
The apple-packing contest again took place on Pender Island and was most satisfactory,
giving the judge, Mr. F. Earl, a hard task. Prizes were given, both to lady and gentlemen
packers.
Mr. F. Earl's demonstrations in apple-packing were particularly good, and it is the wish
of all who were fortunate in seeing them that we shall again have him with us at future
meetings.
This year, for the first time, we have had a lady lecturer (Miss Laura Rose), who proved
a success and had good audiences, and will have a hearty welcome should she again pay us a
visit.
Our Farmers' Institute Library is still growing; we have now up-to-date books on Stock,
Crops, Fruit, Dairying, &c, for the use of members. A list of the books is under preparation,
to be distributed to every member.
Cheap powder has proved a boon to farmers, and although not so much has been used
this year, owing to lack of help, still there has been a saving of $160 on the quantity used.
Things are looking brighter for another year; already we have received more new members
than in any year before. For some reason a few old members dropped out last year. Several
new features will be introduced during the year, which I have no doubt will cause a considerable increase in the membership.
There is a strong feeling in the district in favour of local speakers instead of Eastern.
J. T. Collins, Secretary.
Surrey Farmers' Institute.
Secretary's Report.
In making my report for the year 1906 of the Surrey Farmers' Institute, I am pleased to
say that the Institute continues to flourish. During 1905 we had a membership of 59 ; on the
31st December we had a cash balance on hand of $102.45. During the year we held 10
meetings at different points in our district, attendance being 247 and the number of addresses
given 18. 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 11
During the year 15 members of the Institute sowed trial plots of hemp, so as to test the
suitability of our soils and climate for this crop. The general conclusion aridved at is that the
hemp should be sown about the middle of April, so that it can be cut and cured not later than
August; our climate is not suitable, as it is not possible to cure the hemp after the middle of
September.
H.  Bose,  Secretary.
Langley Farmers' Institute.
Secretary's Report.
I have much pleasure in submitting the report for the year 1906. The number of members
shows a slight increase, being 55, against 41 for 1905. The financial statement shows a balance
of $38.26, against $33.11 for the previous year.
There were six meetings held during the year, four in the Town Hall, Langley, and two
at Port Kells. The spring meetings were addressed by Dr. Tolmie and Mr. Logan. Dr.
Tolmie's address on "Glanders" was much appreciated. The outbreak of that disease in
Vancouver had aroused a desire among the farmers to learn more about it. These meetings
were attended by 87 persons.
The fall meetings were addressed by Mr. A. Elliott and Miss Rose. Mr. Elliott is an old
friend whom we are always glad to see. Miss Rose's addresses on " Butter-making on the
Farm," and " Successful Work," were well received. These meetings were attended by 72
persons, a considerable number of them being ladies. The people were of the opinion that a lady
lecturer was a step in the right direction, and expressed a wish to hear Miss Rose again at
some future time.
The annual ploughing match, which was held on the farm of Mr. R. Hutchinson, of
Langley Prairie, and to which the Institute granted the sum of $15, was a success. There
were seven entries, and about $50 distributed in prizes.
William F. Hine, Secretary.
Andrew Elliott's Report of his Work in British Columbia.
Agreeable to instruction, I would beg leave to report to your department regarding
judging and Farmers' Institute work done during the term just closed.
Five years have elapsed since I last judged live stock and attended Institutes in British
Columbia, and during that time I notice a marked improvement in the live stock exhibit,
particularly is this the case in horses. In the draught classes many animals were shown that
would not have taken an inferior place in any show in America. There is a tendency in some
cases to glorify size in opposition to quality; that ought above all things to be avoided. An
exceedingly good representative of the hackney horse was shown. A more general use of such
a stallion would in a few years add tens of thousands to the horse value of the country.
Cattle, both beef and dairy breeds, show that they have been bred with judgment, and
fed and cared for in such a manner as to lead to the highest development in their respective
lines.
I notice that in sheep there has been great improvement in breeding to type and in fitting
for exhibition.
Hogs also show marked improvement and several exceedingly good repi'esentative herds
were shown. Every endeavour should be tirade to induce farmers to use only pure bred sires
in breeding all kinds of live stock, and of still further making exhibitions more educative in
their character, by judges explaining type and reasons for their awards.
British Columbia is easily foremost in the Dominion as regards the manner in which her
fruits are packed and put on the market. In the near future, if she grasps the opportunity,
she will have undisputed control of the market of the Great North-East, as well as retaining
and extending her hold of markets across the Pacific as an outlet for the product of her
orchards. In Farmers' Institutes Miss Rose and myself attended 34 meetings, holding at several
places two meetings per day, and in spite of excessive rain, darkness and mud, we had a
wonderfully good attencance. I found a much more acute interest in Institute work since I
last attended meetings in the Province five years ago, showing that farmers are more and more
awakening to a realisation of the benefit to be derived from attending such meetings and
studying literature issued by the Department of Agriculture. The success of our meetings
was very much enhanced by the presence of Miss Rose, women in greater numbers attending
the meetings, and one and all expressing delight at the new departure in Institute work in the
Province. Everywhere we were received with kindness and courtesy, and, speaking for Miss
Rose as well as myself, we would heartily thank you for your thougbtfulness in arranging our
itenarary in such a manner as to make our work a pleasure indeed.
I cannot close without expressing to you personally our appreciation of the many kindnesses bestowed upon us during our sojourn amongst you. Everything possible was done by
you and your department to further the success of our work, while those with whom we came
in contact have done much to make that work a pleasure.
Again I would refer to the work done by Miss Rose. From opinion everywhere expressed,
her work has been appreciated as that of no one heretofore employed, and everywhere has the
hope been expressed that she would again favour the Institutes with her services.
Matsqui Farmers' Institute.
Report by the Secretary op Meetings Held March 19-20,   1906.
The regular spring meetings of the Matsqui Fanners' Institute were held in the Municipal
Hall on Monday, March 19th, and at. the Matsqui School House on the 20th, in the afternoon
and evening at each mentioned place. The speakers chosen were Dr. S. F. Tolmie, Dominion
and Provincial Veterinary Surgeon, and J. R. Anderson, Esq., Deputy Minister of Agriculture,
Victoria. The weather was extremely fine and the the attendance on each occasion fairly good.
The President, Mr. R. H. Phillips, occupied the chair as usual, and called the meeting to order
by asking the Secretary to read the minutes of the last meeting, which were adopted as read.
Several communications were then read and received, notably one concerning stumping powder,
which can now be got from Victoria or Nanaimo by the recent Government concession at $5.75
per case in ten-case lots, delivered at this price to either Mission, Matsqui or Abbotsford, the
price really being $5.25 per case, either at Victoria or Nanaimo, and can be got only for the
bona fide purpose of stumping and clearing of land.
The President, who was the delegate attending the Central Farmers' Institute meeting,
gave a resume of the proceedings and was thanked for his attendance and report.
Mr. Anderson was first introduced and stated he was sorry to see no ladies present and
strongly recommended daylight demonstrations, both in animals and orchard work. He told
how he had tried to get local speakers from time to time to address the various institute
meetings, but had failed in a great measure; said he was glad to notice that on every chair
paper was provided for each person to jot down any question they thought fit to ask as the
lecturers proceeded ; congratulated Matsqui Institute both for the number of members on its
books and the practical, progressive work it was doing, and enjoined all persons to become
members and make it and all kindred institutions a greater power for good.
The Chairman then introduced Dr. Tolmie, the speaker fpr the occasion, whose subject
was that of " Glanders," and who spoke in part as follows :—
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—The subject I have been called to speak upon, that of
glanders, has caused considerable trouble and quite a number of horses has been destroyed
lately and an agitation created in some parts against what has been done. This disease shows
itself by affecting the horse, ass, and man ; cattle 'and fowls are immune and cannot be given
the disease. On looking into history, we find this disease mentioned as far back as 344 B.C.,
showing it to be a very old disease, and it was not until the seventeenth century that it began
to be treated, and up to the nineteenth century it was doubtful if it was contagious. In France,
in the year 1882, this was proved to be the case, and in 1891 the Mallein test was discovered
by a noted Russian surgeon. The farther north we go the disease is less existent. In Australia
and Tasmania, up to the present, it has not reached. The symptoms of the disease are a
glutinous discharge from the nostrils, ulcerated and ragged at the base,  and glands enlarged 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 13
inside both jaws, and as the disease increases the animal becomes very dejected and run down.
A clinical case of glanders is one which can be seen by the naked eye, but there are internal
cases which cannot be detected by the naked eye ; hence a test has to be applied, and I venture
to say this Mallein test has received more abuse this past six months than anything else I know.
Dr. Rutherford is a very high authority on this subject, in fact, none better. The Mallein
used is prepared by Dr. Higgins, of Ottawa, by a sterilised preparation of chicken broth and
subjected to a high test of 131 degrees, Fahrenheit, killing all germs. No animal is destroyed
witbout a thorough examination and proof existent that the animal has this disease ; nor is
the Dominion Government willing or ready to pay large sums for anything approaching such
work as this. In some cases it is not an easy matter to discover the disease when dead.
Nodules are found in various ways in the lungs and iii many other parts of the body. The
Government has found it very necessary to enforce the present restrictions by the outbreak of
this disease in horses sent from Canada to the Boer war, when only a few out of one consignment arrived alive. The Canadian Government found this disease greatly on the increase,
even to the extent of 500 in the Province of Manitoba alone. In London, in 1894, orders
were given to kill all horses showing clinical disease, and ten years later, in 1904, there were
twice as many cases known to the authorities to exist.
I can assure you it is no pleasure for me or my associates to kill glandered horses, and
how much more grievous do you think it would be to be a party to the condemning and killing
of animals that we knew to be free from disease? I am just as much interested as any one.
I am glad to say we have not found an infected horse on the ranges. This disease is incui-able
in both animals and man, and in the latter it is a most loathsome and painful one. It is communicable to man when the virus comes in contact with a sore, or into the mucous membrane
of the nose, mouth or eyes, and to horses through drinking troughs, pails or feed-boxes, as well
as infection being spread by the congregating of horses on market clays. The bacillus of this
disease succumbs to bright, scorching sunlight.
A question was here asked,  Is it more contagious than formerly 1
Answer : Yes, it is increasing in virulence, human glanders is also on the increase. One
physician, in walking the London hospitals, thought he could discover twelve cases existing
under different names. England is now, more than ever before, seeking to copy Canada in
establishing her rules and regulations, and no known country in the world pays such a high
indemnity at present for slaughtered animals as does the Canadian Government. The Mallein
test is well beyond the experimental stage. Our stables are too dark, sunless and airless ;
the buildings are unfit for animal habitation, and in these places we meet with it in its most
virulent and acute forms.
Question : Would it not be best to treat only clinical cases, and, where found, to kill
them only ?
Answer : No, you could never expect to stamp it out by any half measure. Our object is
to prevent its introduction and arrest its extension, and I feel sure that the efforts put forth
by the Minister of Agriculture, and every official connected with the Veterinary Staff, should
be aided by every horse-breeder and farmer in the length and breadth of our beloved land,
and it will require the combined efforts of all concerned to aid in this much-desired end. The
great advance in values, owing to increased demand and scarcity of good horses, should induce
the farmers to go more into horse-breeding, so that the demand may be retained and the output increased.
The learned doctor asked for further questions to be submitted, not only upon the present
question of glanders, but of any other subject relating to stock or diseases.
Question : What do you consider the best cure for milk fever 1
Answer : When this occurs it is generally a good advertisement of the superiority of a
milking cow or herd, though it can be brought on by injudicious use of feeding just before
calving time, and the best known plan at the present time is to inject air into each teat and
as injected to tie it, thus scattering the great flow of blood in the udder back to the head and
other parts of the body. This can be done by an ordinary bicycle pump and small rubber
pipe, in the absence of a machine which can be bought for the purpose. By carefully following
this plan, 95 per cent, of the cows can be saved.
Question : Can you recommend a cure for red water in cattle?
Answer: No, not a satisfactory permanent cure ; this question has not been thoroughly
solved ;
Question : What is a good remedy to assist cows in cleaning 1 Answer: Epsom salts, ergot of rye, tincture of iron and tincture of turpentine and salts,
and failing this, to remove the same, which is not a difficult process.
Several other questions were asked in connection with hogs and their diseases, which
were answered. The speaker thanked the audience for their marked attention and sat down
amidst a round of well-merited applause.
Mr. J. R. Anderson was the speaker for the evening meetings, and prefaced his remarks
by saying that in the afternoon he had deplored the absence of the ladies, but on this occasion
he felt highly delighted at such an audience, and could address them as both ladies and
gentlemen. He went on to say : I feel it is very difficult to speak after the able address
delivered to you by Dr. Tolmie this afternoon, and it seems presumptuous on my part to have
to speak to you on a subject regarding which you already know so much, that of " Soils and
Fertilizers." These alluvial deposits on the Fraser, from disintegration of the rocks, doubtless
have been washed down from hundreds of miles. All these disintegrated rocks contain plant
food of various kinds, principally potash and phosphoric acid, most of which is in an unavailable form for the use of plants, and herein lies the value of chemical analysis, but it is not
safe to trust altogether to such analyses, as they usually give the quantity of the various
elements without saying how much is immediately available; so I would urge upon the
farmer to do experimental work on his own account, and by that means to determine for
himself in a great measure the lacking plant food in the soil. Besides the two elements
mentioned, there is a third, one that costs most to buy in the form of artificial fertilisers, but
which can be obtained for practically nothing by the use of leguminous crops, which alone of
all the various families of plants have the faculty of obtaining this valuable fertiliser from the
air, about 78 % per cent, of which is composed of it, and depositing it in the soil for the use
of other plants.
Hard wood ashes is about the best and cheapest form of potash. The value of these ashes
is not sufficiently recognised, but I am also well aware that hard wood is not here available. In
Eastern Canada the Americans are very much alive to this question, and buy quantities of it.
Now, we have heard a great deal about culture bacteria lately, and seen where its use is highly
recommended; but from close observations I have made and correspondence I have secured
from eminent experts, I am led to the conclusion that it is not quite all it is claimed to be.
This culture must be used within three months of its first manufacture, or it is of no use at
all. Prof. Wood says it must be used within 30 days, and Prof. Shutt is of the opinion they
are practically worthless. Far better to take the soil from a field where a clover crop has
been grown and inoculate the soil of the proposed clover field by sowing it with the inoculated
soil at the rate of about 100 lbs. to the acre, and so save the expense of purchasing any of the
culture. The close-observing, scientific, up-to-date farmer may and does discover deficiencies
in his soil for the growing of some root or grain crop; hence he will try to make good that
deficiency, which can be done by artificial fertilisers, but nothing will take the place of humus.
It is an absolute fact that, sooner or later, you will have to resort to the ploughing in of
green leguminous crops, and all the barn-yard manure it is possible to get. In almost every
barn-yard there is a large amount of waste, besides a great deal hardly ever carted away on to
the land. There is no better plan of preserving manure than to get it on the land as soon as
possible after it is made ; especially should the liquid part be utilised, by some tankage system
or absorption of some material such as peat soil.
Lime is valuable, but it is not a fertilizer; its mission is to liberate and set free the plant
food. Hard clay land, with lime, can be brought into a much more friable and warm condition. Lime can be bought now very reasonably in Victoria, at from $8 to $9 per ton. Peat
lands generally are rich in nitrogen, but of a sour nature, hence the advantage of a good
dressing of this commodity. Sorrel growing on land shows its sourness, and would be greatly
benefited by a top dressing of from 20 to 40 bushels of lime per acre about every fifth or sixth
year, by being carted on the ground and left in small heaps to air slack, and then spread—
though there was a superstition in England that this made rich fathers but poor sons.
The function of nitrogen is to produce a rich green leaf. Potash is requisite for a
high production of fruit. Finely ground bone is doubtless the best and longest lasting
fertilizer. I have no hesitancy at all in recommending dairy farming on the Lower
Fraser Valley, though I know the labour question is a serious one, as butter takes but little
out of the soil. The speaker strongly recommended the ploughing in of a good leguminous
crop every third or fourth year, and in closing urged more persons to become members of the 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 15
Institute, as by so doing they were helping themselves. The amount was only 50 cents a year,
and Dr. Tolmie's lecture this afternoon, and other valuable information imparted, was readily
worth this sum. You are now working on very profitable lines. Your Institute possesses two
good, fine pedigreed boars and a complete large spraying outfit, and if others will only rally to
the work, other business doubtless can be profitably entered. There is no mistaking the fact
you have good and progressive officers at the head, who are leaving no stone unturned, and I
take great pleasure in congratulating you on the numerical, financial and prosperous state of
your Institute.
Some questions were asked and answered, and a hearty vote of thanks was given each
speaker at the close of his address, and •' God Save the King " brought the meeting to a
termination.
John Ball, Secretary.
Duck-raising in British Columbia.
By E. A. Atkins.
Within the last five years duck-raising has developed into a flourishing industry. Prior
to that time the duck was not considered a profitable fowl to raise; its flesh was never prized
very highly by the masses. Duck-raising is now to be recommended to farmers as a profitable
source of revenue, and by careful attention to the work, as knowledge increases, the scope of
the industry may be extended. The average farmer has all the facilities for raising a goodly
number of ducks, and can, with a little outlay, add considerably to his income. The profits
are the very best, and good incomes may be made when once the business is thoroughly mastered.
But the beginner should not jump at the conclusion that the results are easily obtained. Duck-
raising is an arduous task, one that requires an apprenticeship and absolute knowledge of the
business before success is reached. To have success in raising ducks, the business must first be
learned. The beginner must then start modestly, and increase his operations as his knowledge
of the work increases. The buildings should be arranged to secure good drainage and be convenient to each other, this reduces the labour to a minimum. The incubator cellar should be
convenient to the brooder house, that is, if you use a brooder ; the brooder house to the
growing house and pens, and these to the killing house, that is, if you want to fatten and kill,
but this market calls more for live ducks than dead ones, on account of the Chinese trade. The
feed house should be located conveniently to the brooder and growing houses and the breeding
pens. This will save much labour, for the task of feeding the growing stock four times a day
and the breeding stock three times a day is no small one. Watering must also be thought
about. The duck is differently constituted from the hen, and it must be cared for under
different conditions.
A hen needs warmer houses and drier surroundings than a duck. A house for ducks can
be built plain and comfortable and have no finishings whatever; it should be built of rough
boards or logs. If of boards, 12 x 1-in. and joints covered by 3 x 1-in. battens. The roof
should be made watertight and covered with tar paper, shakes or shingles, but in this country
it does not need tar paper if you sheet the rafters inside with cedar or rough boards, and if it
does not cost too much, stuff moss between shakes and ceiling. The outside should be well
drained, if it is on flat, low land ; if on a gravelly hill, it does not want draining, so long as the
floor is dry. I favour the use of board floors in all houses for chickens, but it is not necessary
for ducks, though it is easier to clean a board floor than an earthen one, but cover the floor
with straw or dry leaves, The house must not be damp; while they are given water on the
outside, they must have comfortable quarters in which to warm up or dry out. A house 12 x
14 feet will accommodate nicely a flock of a dozen. I think it much better not to use nests,
for a duck is liable to injure herself by falling over the strips in front of nests, or other obstructions that may be in the house. Conveniences for supplying drinking water to breeding and
growing ducks are varied, and almost any contrivance will answer the purpose. One way is
to take a beef tin and turn it up side down on a tin plate or the top of a lard can for young-
ducks just hatched. Don't let them get into the water for at least a week after hatching, and
not even then so as they can get wet. After they are two or three weeks old, just dig a
shallow hole in the ground and fill it with water; it will soak away the first two or three days,
but it soon gets watertight, and if it gets a little dirty no matter, the ducks like it the better M 16 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
and they will do better. A duck is half hog in its ways. The food of the duck is such as to
require drink when eating, as it is comparatively dry and cannot be eaten as hurriedly as grain.
When feeding always replenish the water troughs or fountains with pure, fresh water.
The food for the duck, to have the best results, must be both vegetable and animal in
nature (but if meat is too high give milk if you have it, but I have raised ducks without either).
If the birds are raised in confinement this diet must, in a measure, be imitated to get the most
satisfactory results. As the duck has no crop, the food passes directly from the throat to the
gizzard, and, as a consequence, the food must be in a soft mushy state, but not sloppy. Too
much hard grain does not agree with these birds and they cannot thrive on it. Boiled potatoes,
mixed with shorts, is good once a day, but what I feed mostly is half bran and shorts and some
barley, whole or cracked corn mixed in it, about a pint for 20 ducks, three times a day for
laying ducks. For young ducks a variety of food is best. When ducks are raised for breeding
they must be fed differently from those intended for market; they must not be forced like the
others and less fattening food must be given them. Feeding stuffs should be mixed in a trough
or bucket large enough to hold the quantity without running over the edges, and not too sloppy,
as I said before. Warm water should be used for mixing when the weather is excessively cold.
A second trough or bucket should be had to mix the green feed in, such as cut rye, oats, clover,
or any other green feed, but the simplest way is to have lots of lettuce and pull them up by
the roots and lay them on the ground in a row and place a weight on their roots so that they
cannot move.    It saves time of cutting up and makes the ducks work to pull it to pieces.
Now, about hatching, if you use an incubater I have the best results by keeping the
temperature from 98° to 102°.    If you can keep it at 102°, all right, but don't let it get over 103.
Co-operation.
By W. R. Robb, Comox.
" Co-operation " is the subject I have chosen to write upon, because I think it is a question
above all others at the present time to which farmers should turn their attention. The whole
world is combined and it is full time the farmers should awaken to the forces that are arrayed
against them. Farmers, as a class, have been more separated from each other in their various
interests and concerns, than any other body of people. They have, until lately, been a host of
individualities. There has been among them an utter lack of cohesion and support to each
other. Such co-operation is far from being impractical, and if farmers would only reflect upon
their important position as the providers of the most important necessaries of life and the
magnitude of their interests, such mutual co-operation would become the most serious, or
important foundation of their future effort. The farmer, from the earliest time, has sold
wholesale and bought retail; he has, in all ages, been the prey of monopolists and capitalists.
To-day he has the manufacturers with high protection arrayed against him. There are the
beef trusts, railway companies, and the elevator companies, and all these concerns make
him pay toll for being a farmer; while here in Victoria there is a combine among the
hardware merchants to prevent one another from under-selling the other. For example, if
you wish to buy fencing wire, each one of them will give you tbe same quotation. The question of co-operation has taken deeper root in England than in any other country. Statistics
show that it affects more than one and a half million people, and more than a hundred million
of pounds sterling is turned over yearly. But this affects only the wage earner. The farmer
has not been in it until lately, but the tenant farmers have been obliged by the severe pressure
of severe competition of other countries, with cheap labour and improved methods, combined
with cheap land. For instance, the importation of Danish butter into England, the cattle
from the Argentine and United States, the cold storage of beef and mutton, wheat from India
and our own North-West. All this has compelled them to act together for self-defence, in
organising and combining to sell their products direct to the consumer, and thus to eliminate
that bugbear, the middleman. They also purchase whole cargoes of guano and nitrate of soda
to fertilise the land ; also vast quantities of oilcake for stall-feeding. Various attempts in the
past, both in the United States and Canada, have been made by farmers to co-operate and
better their condition. Thirty years ago, about, the Grange movement started; then the
Patrons of Industry. I recollect the late Dr Tolmie thought it was the panacea for all the
ills of the farmers. Both these movements confined themselves to buying only, and not to
selling. 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 17
The object and aim of this paper is to try and impress upon the farmers the great necessity of selling retail and buying wholesale. I believe in the fruit districts of the Upper
Country there exists a combination among the fruit-growers to sell their fruit to the best
advantage. This is secured by means of having a representative of their own who handles all
their fruit. I see no reason why this combination should not double its capacity and purchase
wholesale, and then distribute the goods among the members of this combination, that which
each may then require.
In the dairying districts of this Province the creameries are a distinct success, but they
are, as yet, one-sided; they form themselves into an association to make and sell their butter
only. With very little more trouble they should be able to double their profits by purchasing
most of the things they require, by purchasing them wholesale. The same committee that
manages the creamery should be able, without much more time or trouble or expense, to do
the purchasing for the partners in the creamery. The secretary, by raising his salary, could
see to the distribution of the goods purchased by the committee of management. I would
advocate going slowly at first and feeling their way gradually; then gradually extending thir
operation, as experience and confidence in the practical results thus attained were acquired
Commercial Fruit-Growing.
By Prof. E. R.  Rake.
As to Site.—Select only the best, if you are going to raise fruit as a business. It should
be well drained, both as to air and water. Soil should be eight to twelve feet deep or more,
i. e., it should be that many feet above the permanent water table. Fruit trees of the temperate zone do not like wet feet, and at no time should the water stand more than a week or two
about the roots of fruit trees. The aspect of the site may be, preferably, west, north-west,
north-east, or south-east, other things being equal. The presence of considerable bodies of
water is a factor that counts for much in the matter of site and may entirely annul the
question of aspect as to points of compass. Not very steep or uneven land should be planted,
because of the inconvenience and expense in spraying and other operations. Soil should be
moderately heavy for long keeping quality; lighter soils are suited to early varieties.
As to Trees.—Select only yearlings, of vigorous, thrifty, clean growth, not too large ;
prune off all wounded roots with a clean under cut ; plant as soon as possible after getting
them from the nursery. Buy of only first class firms of high standing and as near home as
possible. Start the heads low ; herein lies a great advantage in planting moderate size one-
year-old trees. They have to be cut back less. Do not let the branches which are to form
the head issue from the stem less than six to nine inches apart, preferably the latter. Not
more than three or four leading branches to form the head.
Heads may be trained to vase or pyramid forms, according to taste of grower. Each
form has its advocates. We prefer pyramids, especially for all moderate growers. If vase
form is adopted, then cross-wire and staple the branches four or five feet above the formation
of the head. This treatment prevents the breaking down of the head when a heavy crop is
borne, and the consequent ruin of the tree.
Prune thoroughly. Keep the tree open, vigorous and clean, with an abundance of fruit-
wood formed well in. Do not permit fruit-wood to be rubbed or cut off the young trees. It
is forming at points where it will be needed later. Thin out the branches enough so that the
sunlight may reach all parts.
As to Varieties.—In the first place, grow only that kind of fruit in which you delight.
The personal equation is an important factor in any business, and particularly so in the
growing of high-class fruit. Keep out of the business unless you intend to grow only the best.
When you have selected the kind of fruit that suits your temperament, confine your plantings
to a few standard varieties. New varieties are for the amateur ; let him experiment. With
a few varieties you can hope to have a product that can be shipped in quantities, as car-load
lots. That old adage, " Don't put all your eggs in one basket," is not altogether judicious
advice in this matter of commercial fruit-growing. The markets that pay top prices are those
that take large quantities of well-known varieties of merit. To produce a large quantity of
first-class fruit, the average grower must confine himself to a very limited number of varieties,
two or three at most. M 18 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
Other things being equal, the chief part of one's planting should be of long-keeping
varieties, except he be growing for a purely local market, a course not usually to be commended,
unless the planting is being made in a section where the area of fruit land is limited in proportion to the market. A fruit-growing locality should settle upon one or two leaders and push
those. Then it can command the attention of the buyer ; otherwise it may be obliged to seek
him.
As to Tillage.—-Give clean tillage, unless you are under a ditch, then you may grow other
crops, providing you return to the soil plant food enough to make up for what these secondary
crops are taking off. On general principles, grow only an orchard. One crop at a time is
enough, except that you may need humus in the soil, in which event you may grow a clover
crop occasionally. Till liberally with a scarifier or an acme harrow. These kill the weeds and
keep a " dust mulch" on the surface two to three inches deep.
As to Spraying.—Spraying is as much required to-day as is tillage. Fungous and insect
pests are now so prevalent that only he who does a good piece of work in this line can reasonably hope for first-class fruit. The present day apparatus and remedies, if well applied at the
proper time, will do effective work against these pests. Every grower must expect to possess
a working knowledge of the more destructive fungi and insects. Free literature is abundant,
and every fruit-growing community should vigorously insist that inspection of nursery, orchard
and market-place should be vigorously enforced. In this lies much of the success of the
orchard interest of any region.
As to Harvesting.—The greatest care must be exercised in the harvesting of the crop.
Fruit must be handled like eggs, for no first grade fruit can be bruised if one is to sell it at a
profit.    Low trees are an advantage in this work, as in spraying and pruning.
Preliminary to harvesting is the work of thinning. With apples, pears, peaches and
plums this phase of orchard care must be strictly attended to. No part of the care is more
important. No two fruits should touch. In fact, if they can be not closer than four inches
apart it will be the better, and with the larger varieties six to eight inches is close enough.
As to Packing.—Herein lies the most important part of the work, if a good product is in
hand. A well packed box of uniform, high coloured, clean fruit sells itself. It needs no
advance agent. If with these qualities it possesses good flavour and keeps well, markets are
already made for it. Still, besides all this, it is necessary to appeal to the public through a
tasty package and an appropriate and fetching label. Bring your fruit and pack up to standard
and then label it, so that all may know its source, grade and quality. It is really of little
moment who grows the fruit, as far as the consumer is concerned, so long as the pack, grade
and quality are reputable and up to standard, or even a little above.
Every district should have a characteristic brand, pack, package and label, and insist that
all products marketed under that brand shall be top notch of its kind or grade.
United effort is the price of community progress in fruit-growing as in all other lines of
endeavour A common pride, as well as a common interest, should impel every fruit district
to the self-enforcement of such regulations as will ensure a high class product, packed and
shipped in a high class manner.
Poultry Industry of British Columbia.
By E. A. Atkins.
The subject chosen for this article is one that might occupy several pages, for in writing
on the poultry industry in the West, the advantages of raising poultry here over some other
sections, the profit to be derived therefrom, and the many other phases which would naturally
come under the head of such an article, many volumes would be required to deal with each
detail, but space or time will not allow of such an extension. I shall, therefore, endeavour to
relate, in as brief a time as possible, something of what has occurred in the poultry industry
here in the past, conditions as they exist to-day, and what we naturally may expect in the
future. The history of the poultry industry in the West is not ancient, although it did not
begin yesterday, but it is only during the last five or six years that the raising of poultry has
attained that magnitude where it can rightly be styled one of the industries of the country;
to-day it is almost at the zenith of its prosperity; never before has such interest been shown
in the business, and never of late years have such prices been paid in this country according to 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 19
the supply, for eggs or stock, and never has there been such a demand as at present. The
industry is increasing, it is true. In the past two or three years the number of breeders has
increased over one hundred per cent., and the number of birds and eggs being raised is
approximately over three times the number being raised two years ago. But the country is
also increasing in population, and although the industry increased two or threefold for several
years, as long as the West increases in the same proportion as it has done for the past two or
three years, the demand will more than exceed the supply.
Here then, is an industry, only one of many in the West, which is not overrun, and which
offers magnificent returns on a small investment, for be it understood, from the start, thousands
of dollars, nor hundreds even, are not needed to secure a fine start in the poultry industry
here. The writer is a firm believer in that old maxim, "Learn to crawl before you try to
leap." And his experience of several years amongst poultry has shown the wisdom of starting
in small and increasing as occasion demands. In certain sections of the East poultry-raising
constitutes the principal industry of that locality. We cannot hope for that in the West at
present, yet I am assured that this industry will some time become centred in the West to a
much larger extent than in any other section of Canada.
Conditions govern every industry, no matter of what nature or character, and the conditions, climatic and otherwise, in the West, are to-day, and always will be, more favourable
to poultry-raising than in any other section of the country. Our climate, for instance, west
of the mountains, contains no winter, comparatively speaking, with its intense cold and storms;
which are such drawbacks to poultry-raising in the East, but instead we have a rainy season.
The eastern breeder, uninitiated to these conditions, believes that rainy seasons are a drawback
to poultry. They claim that birds are more subject to roup and other diseases in a damp
climate than eastern birds; but it is not so. Our birds thrive to a far better extent here in
the West than those of the East. Roup is not prevalent in the West, nor, in fact, any disease.
Our birds are healthy and strong.
One of the greatest necessities, if we are to breed for eggs, market or plumage, is a
sufficient supply of green stuffs for the poultry. In the East, during the winter season, it is
impossible to even make an apology to supply the demand. In the West, owing to that same
rainy season, we have green stuffs the entire year round.
In Vancouver, the writer is informed on good authority, some of the poultry buyers keep
young stock, bought from farmers, both in New Westminster market and up-river points,
which is sold to the hotels and steamboats. These birds, dressed, bring an average the year
round of $10 and $11 a dozen. Now, why cannot the farmers get these prices themselves?
These buyers get these birds on each trip, either to New Westminster or up the river, at an
average of $3.50 to $4 qer dozen. Now, it costs the buyer more to raise those birds than it
ought the farmer, still he makes a good living out of it.
The writer admits that there are a good many who fail in the business, but in nine cases
out of ten these failures are due entirely to negligence on the part of the breeder, and in no
way reflects discredit on the country or the industry. I maintain that where a person enters
into the poultry industry, gives it the attention it deserves, using a little common sense,
instead of an axe when in a little difficulty, that person can make money easier and quicker
out of the poultry business than from any other branch of farming.
Note the remarks "from any other branch of farming." The writer especially calls
attention to it for the reason that if the poultry industry is to attain to any magnitude in this
or any other section of the country, it must be taken up by the farmer principally ; the city
man or woman may enter into the business to some extent, but here prices and valuations of
property, high prices of food, lack of room, etc., make it impossible for the industry to grow
to any magnitude, unless also taken up by the farmer. On the other hand, the farmer with a
few acres, who farms, raises fruit stock, is better prepared to raise poultry than any other
class. Not alone has he the room, but he has the facilities for raising his own grain, and this
is one of the most important methods of saving in the poultry business.
Almost every farmer in the country raises some chickens or poultry, to a large or small
extent, and in a good many cases the birds are housed in some out-of-the-way place, under an
old barn or in a rickety, leaky shed. They receive no attention whatever, yet the eggs alone
from these uncared for flocks more than supply the home demand in every case, and bring in
a few dollars annually from the sale of surplus eggs and stock, to the markets. Imagine, then,
what opportunities are being neglected every day by the farmer. For only a few dollars he
can erect comfortable, warm houses for his poultry, sufficient to house several hundred birds. At less than market price, by far, he is able to raise his own grain for his fowds, and with
proper attention can make the poultry pay better money on the investment than any other
branch of his business. It requires no more attention to raise pure-bred stock than scrub
stock, after one has become established, and there is an enormous difference between the two.
Scrub stock is just what the word implies—the poorest stock imaginable. Pure-bred stock
means that that variety of bird has for years been especially bred up in those characteristics
which would make it a more valuable bird to the market or breeder, and a more profitable
layer.
The writer has attempted to give some idea, in the above, of the immense possibilities of
profit in poultry culture, whether for eggs or birds for market. It is to be expected that at
least some few will see the subject in the same light as he, and this article is written with the
sole hope of inducing more breeding of good poultry in British Columbia.
Now, in conclusion, I might say that you will have to be your own judge of what breed
of fowls are best suited to you. But, by becoming a member of the Farmers' Institute, you
will receive literature which will tell you the different kinds of fowl and for what they are
best adapted. 7 Ed. 7
Farmers' Institutes Report.
M 21
CENTRAL FARMERS' INSTITUTE.
NINTH   ANNUAL   CONVENTION.
The Ninth Annual Convention of the Central Farmers' Institute of British Columbia
was convened on the 5th day of March, 1907, at 11 a.m., in the rooms of the Department of
Agriculture, the following delegates being present:—
J. R. Anderson, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Superintendent.
Collins, J. T , Islands Farmers
Brandrith, W. J      Burrard
Dodding, D Lillooet
Peatt, A. H Metchosin
Wilson, P. H Chilliwack
Phillips,  H. R , . . , Matsqui
Randle, Jos Nanaimo-Cedar
Venables, Arthur Okanagan
Spencer, G. A Alberni
DeHart, F. R. E Osoyoos
Evans, James Salmon Arm
Harris,  Henry Langley
Hammer, A Bella Coola
Curry, V. D Kamloops District
Mars, James Maple Ridge
Baker, N. T Kent
Buckingham, W. E , Richmond
Abbott, Wm. T Mission
Gale, A. E Victoria
McKenzie,  R. D Surrey
Johnstone, James West Kootenay
Davie, Alex Delta
Long, Robert ; , East Kootenay
Institute.
Mr. J. R. Anderson, Deputy Minister of Agriculture : I have a letter from Mr. J. C.
Metcalfe, of Maple Ridge and Coquitlam, expressing his inability to attend as delegate on
account of illness, and suggesting Mr. James Mars as substitute. This course is rather
irregular, but I will leave it for you to decide as to whether you choose to accept him as a
delegate from Maple Ridge.
Mr. Mars : There is a certificate there, Mr. Anderson. I was elected as a delegate on
Saturday night, but we had not the form there.
Mr. Anderson : That will do. Now, hei'e is another case. Mr. Jos. Whelpton was
elected as a delegate from Kent. This is the only certificate that I have, and now Mr. Baker
presents himself this morning with a letter from someone else. I consider this to be most
irregular, and Secretaries ought really to be spoken to about doing this sort of thing.
Mr. Baker : Mr. Anderson, I can explain, if you wish.
Mr. Anderson : Well, I suppose that the delegates want some sort of an explanation.
You see the letter does not even come from one of the officers. I believe he is not a member
of the Institute, and it says Mr. Baker is coming in place of Mr. Whelpton. Mr. Baker has
been here before, and you all know him, and he is a reputable man, but it is an irregular way
of doing things.
Mr. Baker c Well, I will explain how I came to be sent down. On Sunday, about
4 o'clock, Mr. Cunningham, who wrote that letter, said to me : "I see you are going down .to M 22 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
Victoria to-morrow," and I said I did not know of it, as I had not heard anything about it.
Well, he said he had just been to Mr. Whelpton, as he states in that letter, and Mr. Whelpton
had told him that it was impossible for him to come down, and that he had sent word to me
to go instead. However, I did not get the word. I then tried to find the Secretary of the
Institute, but I could not find him ; he was away. So Mr. Cunningham wrote the lettei', and
certified personally to the fact that Mr. Whelpton expected me to come. Therefore, I came,
and I am in your hands,  gentlemen.
Mr. Anderson : You see it puts the onus upon me of accepting a man who is not
authorised.
Mr. Curry : May I speak on this matter? I just wish to say a few words. Doesn't it
really rest with the meeting rather than with the Superintendent as to this man's position
here ?
Mr. Anderson : I would much rather leave it to the meeting.
Mr. Gale : I think it is for the meeting to decide the question really.
Mr. Brandrith : Mr. Chairman, we have had Mr. Baker with us two years previous. We
know he is all right, and we can take his word. And seeing that they have some 18 inches of
snow at Agassiz, it is not an easy matter for them to get around ; and seeing that this business
was all done at the last moment, on a Sunday, I think he should be allowed to take his seat,
and I make a motion to that effect.
Mr. Gale : I second that motion.
Motion carried.
Mr. Anderson : I quite agree with that. We all know Mr. Baker very well, as he has
been a representative here on several occasions ; but I would like the delegates to pull up the
secretaries about these things, as it is too bad that occurrences of this kind should happen.
Mr. Baker: Mr. Anderson, I can assure you that when I go home I shall have a letter
of explanation forwarded to you, signed by the Secretary and President of our Institute.
Mr. Anderson: As far as you are concerned, it is all right. It is the fault of the
secretaries in being so negligent in matters of this kind.
Mr. J. R. Anderson, Superintendent, was unanimously moved to the chair.
Moved by Mr. Brandrith, and seconded by Mr. Venables, "That Mr. J. T. Collins act as
Secretary."    Carried unanimously.
Mr. Collins : I thank you, gentlemen, for the honour you have done me.
The Chairman : The Minister will address you if you are now able to hear him. While
we are waiting, a committee on resolutions might be appointed.
Mr. Curry : The Chairman will appoint the committee, I suppose.
The Chairman : I appoint the Secretary, Mr. Collins ; Mr. James Evans, Mr. Wilson,
and Mr. Brandrith. That is one for each portion of the country. I think that will be
sufficient. I have prepared here, gentlemen, as far as was possible, a list of the delegates and
the subjects which they are to bring up. There are several copies of them, which you can make
use of. As the secretaries did not send me a list (as they have been requested to do on several
occasions) of the subjects that the delegates were to bring up, I am unable to present a full
statement.
Hon. Richard McBride, Premier, and Hon. Mr. Tatlow, Minister of Agriculture, having
entered the room, were loudly applauded.
The Chairman: Gentlemen, the Premier and the Minister of Agriculture, being now
present, they will be pleased to say a few words to you.    (Loud applause).
Address by the Hon. Richard McBride, Premier of British Columbia.
Mr. Anderson and Gentlemen,—It is indeed a pleasure to me to have an opportunity
of saying a word of welcome to the Central Farmers' Institute at this, their annual gathering.
Generally, the experience has been that when the members have come to Victoria to transact
their yearly business, the House has been in session, and to a considerable extent the Members
of the Legislature have had the advantage of exchanging confidences with the Institute and
enjoying the good counsel of the same body. I think that those of us who are directly connected with the Local Parliament are bound to acknowledge that here and there when legislation
has been deemed necessary in the interest of agriculture, a great deal of help has come to us as
a result of the deliberations of your body. I know that the good work in the past can well be
taken as an index of what we may expect of this Association in the future. So far as the
Local Government is concerned, you may depend upon it, gentlemen, that at all times we will 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 23
be more than anxious to meet your wishes and conform to your views, so far as we may be
eaabled to do so in the public interest. I do not think I am at all extravagant in the observation when I say that, in the history of agriculture in this country, never before have we had
a Minister who has taken such a lively and active interest in the business of his Department
as has been done by my honoured colleague, Captain Tatlow, in so far as the interests of
agriculture are concerned. We have been obliged to meet with some very serious obstacles,
you may say, in the way of making of the agricultural industry in this Province the success
that you would all like to see it, but in the end I think it may be claimed that the work has
been pretty well done.    (Applause).
With regard to the fruit-growing industry, you know the achievement of this past year,
and you know what was done in the two preceding years. Then, when you speak of the
stock-raising and the dairy farming branches of the industry that are under the supervision of
the Department, I think the reports from all over the country go to show conclusively that
everything has been done in a very satisfactory condition indeed. Then, with respect to the
work carried out by the officials, which has to do with the inspection of fruit pests and other
departmental details, I think the same observations will obtain. And it must be admitted
that in the person of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Mr. Anderson, you have a very
zealous official indeed.
My colleague, when he addresses you in a moment or two, will very likely tell you that,
in addition to the other work that has been attempted by the Government during the past
three years, it is proposed during the current season to make a move in the direction of
bringing about better conditions in the Dry Belt (Hear, hear), so that more irrigable land may
be brought under cultivation, and so that the public interests in that section of the country
may be better conserved all around.     (Hear, hear.)
Let me conclude, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, with the wish that this may be in every
way a very successful gathering, and that the result of your deliberations may be so splendid
as to encourage the farmers of British Columbia, the fruit-growers and the stock-raisers of the
country, more than ever to persevere in the splendid work of husbandry. Now, it is scarcely
in my line to deliver an address to a professional body such as I have to meet this morning,
but since, for some years past, it has been my good fortune to represent a farming constituency
in the Parliament of this country, and since during that term 1 have been connected with one
of your local, organisations, in a measure I feel that I can speak with some assurance on the
general question of agriculture in British Columbia.    (Loud applause.)    Thank you, gentlemen.
Address by the Hon. the Minister op Agriculture.
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—I assure you it gives me great pleasure to have once
more an opportunity of welcoming you all at this annual meeting of the Institute, and to have
a chance of exchanging views with you, and going over some of the resolutions which you
passed and left to be looked into by the Government at your last annual meeting. It is also
a great pleasure to know that the period of prosperity which has been coming upon us gradually
for the last few years still shows signs of increasing, and that the industry you represent here
to-day has kept pace with the progressive movement, and has taken its right stand in being
one of the most important industries in British Columbia. The fact of its position is evidenced
by the statistics we have to hand. At the same time we know there is a very large amount of
money we, unfortunately, have to send out of this Province every year for products which could
be so well raised among us profitably. Yet still that amount is decreasing year by year in
proportion, and we have been able to show that in the last year the importations into British
Columbia were nearly half a million dollars less than the year before, and that is balanced by
the increased product of the Province; and while we still import over six and a half million
dollars worth of products, yet the fact that we are on the right side and are gradually reducing
that amount is a matter, I think, for everyone to congratulate themselves upon.
Now, gentlemen, last year when we met here you passed a number of resolutions, which
you asked us to look into and deal with to some extent before we met again. With your leave
I would like to take up a few of those matters now.
First was the question, which was a very old one in the Province, that of stumping powder. You asked us to make arrangements to try and obtain stumping powder on better terms
for the farmers and those who wished to clear their lands. By an arrangement which we made
with the Hamilton Powder Works, we pay cash for carload lots, and they agree to distribute it, one or more boxes from time to time as the farmer needs it, and in quantities to suit the
farmer, from their works at Nanaimo or Victoria, the farmer paying at the rate of $5.25 per
box f.o.b. During the last year we have sold some five carloads of powder, 1,936 cases having
been supplied up to the 22nd February; the exact price of same, I think, being over $10,000.
Now, I am in hopes that this year will show a much larger increase in the amount you
are able to handle, as we are prepared, as long as there is a demand for it, to carry out our
share by purchasing the powder and keeping it in stock. And I hope in time to come we will
be able to find better means of supplying powder. I thought it might be of some interest to
you, gentlemen, and I brought up the memorandum I received showing the distribution of this
powder, so you will get an idea of where it all goes.
The next resolution is, " That as the fruit industry is of such vital importance to the
country, and that we cannot impress too much on the growers the importance of keeping up
the good standard now obtained, we respectfully request the Agricultural Department to appoint
one or more practical men to give demonstrations and addresses during the present year in the
planting and care of orchards."
Well, gentlemen, this matter has been complied with, as far as possible, during the season,
by the out-door demonstrations given by speakers at the Institute meetings. And we fully
realise that it is of the utmost importance, and we have made every effort to comply with
the request by engaging the services, when practicable, of prominent horticulturists in the
Province, and also sending outside the Province when we thought it to the advantage of this
important industry. We have done all we could possibly do during the past year in this
regard, and this present year we hope to increase the good work in this direction.
Then, again, you ask for assistance for the Fruit Pest Inspector, " That the immense
amount of work entailed on the Provincial Fruit Inspector makes it imperative that more
assistance be placed at his disposal, and that the Provincial Government be respectfully
requested to provide Mr. Cunningham with the assistance required." Well, I may say that in
conformity to that resolution, this has already been done. We have given Mr. Cunningham
an assistant, and a stenographer to help him with the work in his office in Vancouver, and have
given him authority to engage more assistance whenever he thinks it necessary to do so. At
the present time he is very actively engaged in the inspection of orchards on Vancouver Island
and adjoining islands, and he has been given more assistance for that purpose. He will be
going up country in a very short while and will continue the same good work in the Interior,
as it is our intention to have a thorough inspection of the fruit orchards in our country, and
we believe that the fruit-growers should have the advantage of the best advice possible on the
subject. Mr. Anderson reminds me that, while we are doing that, we are also taking up the
question and work of inspecting the Indian orchards, because there is no object in our having
our farmers' orchards inspected and the Indian orchards on the other side of them in a bad
condition. So that, in this way, we are taking up the work of inspecting the Indian orchards,
with the consent and assistance of the Indian Department, I am glad to say.
Regarding your resolution on dairying, as follows:—" The meeting is gratified to learn
that the Government intends to appoint a Dairy Inspector for the Province, for the development and inspection of dairies, and request that this appointment be made immediately." I
may say that at the time we were considering the making of this appointment we had Mr.
Logan sent out by the Dominion Government, in connection with the Live Stock Association,
and Mr. Fisher, the Minister of Agriculture at Ottawa, very kindly allowed us to make use of
Mr. Logan in connection with the creameries. The work Mr. Logan has done in the past year
has given very good satisfaction, and I would like to see him placed in a position to do even
more this coming year, and have less work to do, if possible, in connection with the live stock,
and devote more of his time to the creameries. (Applause.) And I would be very glad to
have an expression from this Institute on the question as to whether the work of the inspection
of creameries has been satisfactory, and whether they wish the Government to go along on the
same lines as in the past. And if not, what suggestions you wish to make to us as to how the
creamery work should be conducted.
Timber Licences.—" That the Dominion and Provincial Governments be urged to institute
measures for the better regulation of timber licences and the cutting of timber in the Dry Belt,
to the end that the volume and purity of the sources of water shall not be impaired."
As regards that resolution, I have to say that the Dominion Government, by an Act
passed last year, entitled "The Dominion Forest Reserves Act," withdrew from sale, settlement and occupancy, and made forest and game reservations of some eight large townships 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 25
of British Columbia, extending from the Shuswap Lakes very nearly to the Fraser River.
These reserves are all in the Railway Belt, and no doubt are going to have great effect in the
conserving of the water supply in that portion of the country.
The Provincial Government last year took up the question in a small way of the protection of forests from forest fires. The amount spent last year was about $3,000. This year, I
may say, I think, in the presence of the Premier, that it is our intention to take up the question on a much larger scale. (Applause.) We propose to spend a great deal more money and
have a larger force to look after the timber of the country, as we are thoroughly alive to the
amount of loss the country has annually been put to owing to these forest fires. And, as I say,
we intend to take the best means of sending outside for the fullest information, regulations
and rules that have been made by other Provinces, and we hope it will be settled satisfactorily,
and that we may be able to have good legislation passed for the protection of our forests.
The question of an endowment for an Agricultural College is one I am not at the moment
prepared to say much about. However, I think the Premier will allow me to say this : We
are considering the question of setting aside certain reservations of lands in connection with
education, and later on this question may be included in it. I am sorry that you have met
before the meeting of the Legislature, because I think the question is one that will come up
before the House, and I would ask that you wait until the debates on this subject have taken
place in the House, when the Government will be more prepared to deal with this question.
I have another resolution here, the " Extinguishing of Bush Fires," which I have spoken
about before.
Experimental Stations.—" That the Dominion Government be requested to establish
Experimental Stations on Vancouver Island, in the Dry Belt, and in the Kootenays, and that
the representatives of British Columbia in the House of Commons and in the Senate be
requested to use their influence to have the same established."
In respect to this resolution, I may say that it was sent forward with all the other resolutions affecting Dominion Government matters to Ottawa immediately after last year's meeting;
and as regards this particular one, Mr. Templeman wrote us, under date of July 6th, as follows:
" I am in receipt of yours of the 28th June, in which you ask if the reported establishment of two additional Dominion Experimental Farms in British Columbia is correct. In reply
I have to say that nothing definite has yet been agreed to respecting the immediate establishment of additional farms. The general problem of establishing more Experimental Farms
throughout the Dominion, which would include several in British Columbia, has been under
consideration, and will be taken up and disposed of as soon as possible."
Other than that we have had no definite information regarding the matter. And in view
of this meeting we telegraphed Mr. Templeman to find out as to whether he could make any
further statement on the matter, but up to the present time we have not had any reply.
The question of adulteration has been already taken up. We have sent forward the
resolutions on this subject to Ottawa, but have had no reply to them as yet. But we understand that the amendment to the Pure Food Act is going to be taken up by the Dominion
Government, though they have not given us any definite answer on the question.
With regard to irrigation, you say, " That whereas in several districts of the Province
conditions exist with reference to the problem of irrigation such as will seriously retard the
settlement of the same, and is bound to lead to endless and costly litigation if not immediately
remedied." And then you go on with the resolution, asking that certain things be done. The
Premier has alluded to this just now, and has told you what he intended to do. He intends
to place a sum on the Estimates for the purpose of having reports made on the available water
that can be had, so that within a very few months we ought to be in a position to know just
exactly what can be done in this respect, and we will go on with this work just so soon as the
Legislature grants us the necessary financial assistance to carry out the work.
With respect to the reports of the Department of Agriculture, I may say that we have
not issued agricultural reports for the last few years, because when we were retrenching in
other matters we thought it advisable to retrench in this as well, and the $4,000 or $5,000
which it cost the Government to bring out this report we thought advisable to expend in other
ways. But now that the Province is in a better financial position I am going to take the
matter up with Mr. Anderson, and if it is possible to get out a report at a reasonable cost, that
will be a credit to the Department, I think that we might do so.    (Applause.)
I think these are practically all the questions that I could deal with to any advantage
just now. M 26 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
I have here an interesting report by Mr. Logan on the dairying question and creameries,
which I dare say some of you might like to look at, and I will leave it on the table for you.
And I hope that in a short time, when he gets out in the country, he may give me a subsequent
one, but I think this will be of use to you.
In leaving you now, gentlemen, I can only say that when you come to the end of your
deliberations you will, no doubt, have other resolutions which you think it necessary to pass,
then I will have much pleasure in coming up here and discussing them with you. (Applause.)
And at the present Session of the House we will always be only too glad to give any assistance
to your wishes and carry out same, in so far as we are able to do so in the best interests of the
Province.    (Loud applause.)
The Secretary : I think before we adjourn that we should have all the resolutions handed
in.    As yet we have but very few.
Mr. J. R. Anderson (Chairman): Well, I hope you will hand them in before we adjourn,
so that we will be able to go on witb the business when we meet.
Moved by Mr. De Hart, seconded by Mr. Gale, " That an adjournment be taken until
2 p.m."    Motion carried.
Meeting adjourned until 2 p.m.
Afternoon  Session.
Convention re-assembled at 2 p. m.
Mayor Morley was introduced by the Chairman.
Mayor Morley's Address.
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—I owe the Institute an apology for not keeping the
appointment I had with Mr. Anderson this morning to address you, and I also owe Mr.
Anderson an apology. But my civic duties prevented my being with you. However, gentlemen, I am heartily glad indeed to be with you again this year and say a few words to you and
welcome you to our City. Great things have happened since I last had the pleasure of
welcoming the members of your Institute to Victoria—not only in Victoria, but in all the
municipalities and districts throughout the Province. I do not suppose that there has ever
been better times throughout the whole of the Province than at the present time, and we have
every reason to congratulate ourselves on this condition of affairs. We have had one of the
most prosperous years, I suppose, that we have ever known, and the promise of what is waiting
for us is still better than what we have experienced. (Applause.) I only sincerely trust that it
will pan out as good as it appears.    (Cries of hear, hear.)
I wanted particularly to meet with you gentlemen to-day, just to say a few words in
regard to what we are planning this year, and which really concerns you more than it does the
City; that is with regard to our agricultural exhibition.
If your Chairman and yourselves will excuse me, I will take up a few of your moments in
discussing local matters. With regard to the exhibition we propose holding this year, we have
made it possible to increase the number of our exhibits, as we have purchased a very large
block of land surrounding our old exhibition grounds, and have also appropriated a considerable sum of money to enable us to increase the capacity of our buildings, and are now in a much
better shape than ever before, so that when the farmers, who have always taken a very keen
interest in the agricultural exhibitions held in the City of Victoria, come to us this year they
will find that we can give them better accommodations for stock, better race-track, better
grounds for stock-showing purposes, and better facilities for exhibits in the building. It is our
intention to make this year's exhibition second to none west of Winnipeg. Of course, we shall
always look upon New Westminster as being a pretty fair rival. -Still, we do not intend to let
New Westminster " rule the roost," as we have done before. We have some good men on our
executive. Dr. Tolmie we have with us, taking a very large and active interest in the making
of this exhibition a success, and I am sure we will have a record-breaker this year, I invite
you all, gentlemen, to come to our exhibition, and I am sure you will see something worth
seeing.
Now, with regard to your visit in Victoria, I only regret that my time is so much taken
up that I cannot personally go around with you.      Most of you gentlemen, I am glad to say, are 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 27
well acquainted here, and I sincerely trust that you will not only feel at home in the City, but
make yourselves thoroughly at home during your stay. Now, many of you, like myself, are
growing a few gray hairs, and I am just going to give you a little bit of advice before I leave
you. The time is not far distant when many of you want to give up the farm to your boys,
and the time is now ripe whilst you are in this beautiful City of Victoria to pick up a nice
little home here and come and settle down. There are a lot of pretty homes still left, and I
advise you strongly to look them over before you leave and take your choice. You will never
find a better place to live in. The climate is beautiful and we are all prospering. The country
is a splendid place to live in, I know, for I have tried it myself. But then there comes a time
when you want to stop work and give up the farm and have a good time. So, gentlemen,
before you go, look around our beautiful City and make up your minds to settle down here.
Don't forget to spend a little time also in looking over the Parliament Buildings.
I do not know that I can say anything more, gentlemen, except that I sincerely hope that
the work of the Institute will be equally beneficial this year, if not more so, than' it has been
in the past year. I know you are here for business more than pleasure, but I hope you will
find time for both.
We have with us another very valuable executive meeting convening here, that of the
B. C. Municipalities, in which I have no doubt many of you gentlemen are deeply interested
and closely in touch with their work, and I hope that some of you will find time to give a little
of your attention in that direction also. They will help you and you will help them, I have
no doubt. The work of these different municipalities has a great deal to do with the success
of the farming districts, particalarly when they have to deal with the keeping of your roads in
order and clean, so that your families can enjoy life above reproach.
I thank you, gentlemen, for giving me this opportunity of addressing you, and all that I
can say is that I hope when you go away from Victoria you will have gained in every sense of
the word, and have had a real pleasant time, and we will all be glad to have you come again.
(Applause.)
The Chairman : If it is your pleasure to hear my address now, I will proceed. I do not
know that it will be a very long one, or of very great interest.
Superintendent's Address.
I regret to say, in beginning this address, the same complaint exists as on former occasions.
That is, the want of proper reports to the Department from the different secretaries, so that
an address can be made with the figures before me, in order to make it of real interest. Some
of the reports were only received by me yesterday, and some even now are incomplete. You
can thus imagine that, in order to get up anything to address a meeting of this kind, how
difficult a matter it is with such incomplete reports. So you will take these figures that I give
you now as they are given. They are pretty nearly right, but there may be some alterations
to make in the future. In connection with that, I may again call your attention to the fact
that many secretaries do not realise the fact that it is their duty to make proper returns
according to the Act. Very often returns are not made for a long time after the meetings
occur, and in some cases they do not make them at all until they are asked for them. Now,
that is not right. The Act requires that the meetings should be reported within a week of
the holding of the meeting, and if that were done there would be very little trouble. Nevertheless, many of the secretaries are careful about making the returns, and with those there is
little or no trouble. I assure you that if you were to look at all the telegrams and letters I
have to send away on account of the laxity of the secretaries you would be astonished.
I will read out the number of meetings held last year and the year previous. In 1905,
230 ; 1906, 220, a decrease of ten meetings. The attendance in 1905 was 5,892 ; anl in 1906,
7,431, showing a very satisfactory increase, as regards attendance, of 1,539. In spite of the
fact that there were ten less meetings, the attendance was much greater, showing that there
was a great deal more interest taken in the affairs of the Institute than has been taken in the
previous years. In 1905 there were 300 addresses made, and in 1906 there were 333. The
membership in 1905 was 2,183, and in 1906, 2,484, an increase of 301. That is a most healthy
increase, more so than it has been for some years ; in fact, at any time, I think. The funds
on hand amounted to $1,630 in 1905, and $1,690 in 1906, an increase of about $60.
Now, the membership shows a remarkable difference this year to previous years. This
year the Central Park (the old Burrard) Institute, which had its name changed, shows a M 28 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
membership of 220, against 87 the year before. Now, that shows a wonderful improvement,
all owing to the secretary, who the year previous was very lax in his duties. With a little
care, you see that the improvement has been very great. Victoria follows with 210, against
213 tbe year previous. These are the only Institutes having over 200 members. Spallumcheen is first below, namely 184, against 71 the year previous. Metchosin, which thus far has
led with regard to membership, has fallen to fourth place, and now has 161 members, as against
212 the previous year. Osoyoos, a tie with the last, also having a membership of 161, as
against a membership of 136 the previous year. Cowichan and Nanaimo, each has a membership of 149, the former as against 135 the pi-evious year, and the latter showing no difference.
Okanagan is the only other Institute with a membership over the century mark, having a
membership of 146, as against 143 the year previous.
Referring to the subject of funds on band, the financial statements handed in are by no
means all that could be wished for. I take this opportunity of reminding the delegates that
the duties of the Auditors are not of a perfunctory character, as they seem sometimes to consider. They are officers of the Institute, and it is their duty when a financial statement is
presented to them to see that the statement is a correct one before it is signed. In one instance
I had to send a statement back, pointing out two very material differences, and which the
Auditors had never given their consideration. Now, that is not right. And that is not what
an Auditor is appointed for. He is appointed to see that the financial statement is the proper
one to be sent in to the Superintendent, and that the receipts and expenditures are as they are
represented to be in the statement.
The number of organised Institutes remains as it was the year previous, viz., 27, divided
as follows :—Islands, 7; Lower Mainland, 11; Upper Mainland, 8: North, 1. The membership in 1906 for the Islands was 803, and in 1905, 900. Quite a falling off. I should perhaps
read it the other way. The membership for the Lower Mainland in 1905 was 623, and in 1906,
814, showing a satisfactory increase in the Lower Mainland. In the Upper Mainland there
was a membership of 601 in 1905, and 807 in 1906. You will see that there was quite an
improvement. In the North, the membership remains pretty nearly the same, 59 in 1905,,
and 60 in 1906.
These figures show a satisfactory increase in membership in all these districts, except the
Islands, where there is a falling off of nearly 100 members. The average for the Islands is the
highest, closely followed by the Upper Mainland with eight Institutes, 807 members. The
Lower Mainland membership falls a good deal below, viz., 814. The membership for the three
divisions are pretty nearly alike.
The attendance at meetings is divided as follows:—Islands, 2,277; Lower Mainland,
2,144; Upper Mainland, 2,789 ; North, 221. Total, 7,431. The average attendance at meetings is highest on the Upper Mainland. There were four morning meetings, attended by 146;
67 afternoon meetings, attended by, 2,204; and 149 evening meetings, attended by 5,081.
These figures show that morning and afternoon meetings are not gaining in favour, although
the members attending the afternoon meetings show an increase. I look for a material change
this season in that respect, on account of the inauguration of the judging classes, which have
found great favour. It is several years ago now since I undertook to have score cards printed
for judging live stock. These remained on hand for several seasons until this last season, when
we made the experiment of holding judging classes at several points, and they have been
eminently successful. At every place where these judging classes have been held we have
been asked to repeat them. There have been several supplementary meetings where judging
classes have been repeated. I am very glad that this matter has been taken up, and it is the
wish and hope of the Department that before long the same sort of classes will be undertaken
regarding the judging of fruit. And if we inaugurate that, score cards will be gotten up in
the same way as they are for the live stock, and the fruit will be judged by points, so that
those interested in fruit will have an opportunity of perfecting themselves in judging of the
quality of fruit. And I hope also, during the season, to issue a bulletin on those very subjects
of judging, so as to give the people generally an idea of the points of animals. I hope that we
will be able to get cuts to show the different points in different animals. It is, of course, somewhat difficult to get good cuts representing all the points of an animal, but efforts are being
made to obtain them.
For several years we have also had a number of lantern slides on hand, slides of insects
and other subjects. These have not been utilised, because of the simple fact we had no lantern
to exhibit them.    The authority to purchase a lantern has been given, and it is the idea of this 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 29
Department this year to illustrate lectures with lantern slides. This has been found very
successful in Ontario and other places where Institute work has been carried on, and I hope
during the coming season that this will be undertaken in many of the Institutes. When I
was in Portland, the other day, I had occasion to go with Prof. Lake to visit one of the
establishments that sold these lanterns. They are very portable, will go into a small trunk, and
are very excellent lanterns. In that way one can obtain a very fair idea of the subject when
properly illustrated.
Lessons on fruit-packing were undertaken this year in one of the Institutes, and I am
very much pleased to say that they gave a great deal of satisfaction. One of our young men,
growing up in this country and the son of Mr-.- Earl, the veteran fruit-grower of Lytton,
acquired his knowledge of fruit-packing right on his father's ranch. I got him to go over to
Hood River, in Oregon, where he obtained some new points, so that he was able to undertake
the judging of fruit-packing at some of the Island meetings, and I have had the most flattering
reports of his ability. It is a great satisfaction to be able to get any of our young men to do
these things, and I hope in the future that we shall be able to utilise his services to a much
greater extent.
The engaging of a lady lecturer was another departure. I was able to get Miss Rose, of
Guelph, to give a good many lectures, and everywhere she went we had the most flattering
reports of her as a speaker and the interest she ci'eated. I have been asked to get Miss Rose
out again, but I do not know whether I shall be successful in doing that. She was paying a
visit to the Pacific Coast last year, and we were in that way able to secure her services. She
is a most excellent lecturer, talks principally on dairying, and has created a most favourable
impression.
The distribution of literature during the last year has perhaps not been as great as it
could be wished for. Nevertheless, there has been a great quantity of literature sent out—
something like 20,000 pamphlets of different kinds. So you may imagine that it has taken a
great deal of time and involved a good deal of work, with only one man to do it. I hope this
year to be able to secure literature of different descriptions, published by ourselves, and also to
purchase some.
Regarding the transcript of addresses made at Farmers' Institute meetings, the Act provides that a certain number (two, at least) shall be provided by each Institute to the Superintendent during the year. That is a thing that the Institutes have fallen very short of. I am
not provided with the requisite number of addresses. I quite recognise the difficulty of
obtaining copies of addresses, inasmuch as most of them have been made viva voce and, therefore, not taken down on account of there being no available stenographer. Nevertheless, a
great many people can take down notes sufficiently intelligible to write out an address from
them afterwards. And I wish that the Secretaries of the Institutes would be instructed on
that point. It is really not following out the Act on their part, and puts me in the position
of not being able to furnish any of these most valuable addresses to the public when making
my report. I have been able to secure a few this year, mostly, I may say, those that I was
able to obtain myself from the speakers; but that should not be left to me. If each Institute
were to supply two papers, there would be a report containing a great deal of valuable
information.
Regarding local speakers, of which I have spoken several times, needless to say, it is always
the wish to obtain as many as possible, and also speakers from the adjoining States. Of course,
it is a matter of difficulty to get people to come over here from Oregon and Washington, people
qualified to speak, inasmuch as their duties generally keep them at home, but we have been
able this year to obtain the services of some very celebrated and efficient people. It is always
the aim of the Department to obtain the services of local speakers in preference to any others.
Improvement in supplementary meetings has been quite marked during this last year, I
am glad to say. On a previous occasion I remarked that in that respect also officers of the
Institutes had failed to conform with the Act. The Act requires that at least two supplementary meetings should be held during the year, and in looking over the returns I find a great
many have failed to comply with that provision. Last year this has been remedied in a great
measure, but again I call attention to the fact that a great many of these meetings were held
under my personal auspices, with a gentleman whom I was able to get from Ottawa. Now,
that is not right. The Superintendent should not be depended on to arrange the supplementary
meetings. Those are meetings which should be held under the auspices of the directorate of
the Institute, and I sincerely hope that those Institutes which have not heretofore conformed to the provisions of the Act will take the opportunity of doing so this coming year. On the
other hand, some of the Institutes have not only complied with it, but have considerably overrun it.
I am pleased to congratulate you on the great improvement in Institute matters generally.
The sentiment of the people is shown by the increased attendance at the meetings, and by the
request to the Department to hold meetings at places which a few years ago were not considered as ever likely to ask for meetings. For instance, in the Slocan, where it was supposed
there was nothing but mining, there have been several meetings held during this last year,
and it is a great revelation to go to places of that kind which only a few years ago were
inaccessible, and where now you find fruit eulture and other agricultural pursuits carried on.
I do not think I have anything more to say to you, gentlemen. I thank you very kindly
for giving me your attention, and I hope we will have a very successful session.    (Applause.)
The Chairman : Is the report of the Committee on Resolutions ready ?
Mr. J. T. Collins : We have not all the resolutions in, but we have a few to go on with.
We were not able to complete our report, and will not be able to do so until all the resolutions
are handed in.
The Chairman : Perhaps you had better read the headings of those you have there.
The Secretary (reading): Action of Government supplying a Fruit Pest Inspector, with
ample assistance; resolution respecting Government returns—agricultural returns; Fruit-
Growers' Association; licence for carrying guns ; dog tax; respecting the appointment of a
practical man to attend the Institute meetings on fruit-growing and packing; need of better
cattle guards on railways; making a close season for prairie chickens, and also a gun tax ;
authorisation of the date of meeting of the Central Farmers' Institute; stumping powder in
municipalities ; experimental farms for Vancouver Island ; power spraying for demonstration;
to create a local market in Bella Coola; a combination of the Institutes to arrange for speakers;
Bella Coola asking for a speaker during the season ; fruit-growing in Dry Belt; and also those
that you have tabulated here.    Shall I give those ?
The Chairman ; No, they ought to be in shape for the resolutions.
Well, gentlemen, the Committee have not completed their resolutions, but there are some
resolutions here which I suppose we might go on with this afternoon.
The Secretary : Is the Bella Coola representative here ? (Reading) " Bella Coola will
appreciate a speaker during the coming season—about the month of May or September. The
subjects that would be of interest to us are fruit-growing, pruning and fertilising."
The Chairman : This is somewhat of a local character. Something like the change of
names of the Institutes last year, which we decided ought to be relegated to the Department.
I do not see what the Central Farmers' Institute can do with a resolution of this kind.
However, I leave it to you, gentlemen.     You have heard the resolution.
Mr. Davie : I move that the matter be referred to the Superintendent.
The Chairman : I think that matters of this kind, which do not concern the Central
Farmers' Institute, had better be dealt with by the Superintendent.
Mr. Abbott: I second that.    Motion carried.
Mr. Hammer: Yes, I think that is the best plan, Mr. Chairman.
Exhibition of Fruit in England.
Moved by Mr. Curry, seconded by Mr. Peatt,—
" Resolved, That this meeting appreciates the action of the Government in sending an
exhibit of fruit to Great Britain, thereby making known to the world the glorious possibilities
of British Columbia for fruit-growing, and a continuation of this wise policy would be greatly
appreciated."
The Chairman : This is an academic resolution, which I do not think requires any comment.
Mr. Curry : I was just about to say that I did not think it required any speech from me.
You surely all appreciate the Government's action in sending an exhibit to Great Britain, and
the great amount of advertising it has given the Province in consequenee, and I feel certain
that the meeting will pass it unanimously.    Motion carried.
Mr. W. J. Brandi ith : Mr. Chairman, before you proceed with the resolutions, don't you
think it would be well to appoint a committee to report on your address ? 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M   31
Mr. Evans : Isn't it out of order for the Superintendent to appoint a committee to report
on his own address ?
The Chairman:  I am quite willing that some one else should appoint the committee.
Moved by Mr. Harris, seconded by Mr. De Hart,—
" That the Committee on Resolutions take up the address of the Superintendent and
report on same."    Carried.
Agricultural Statistics.
Moved by Mr. J. Randle, seconded by Mr. W. T. Abbott,—
" Whereas it is very inconvenient and unsatisfactory for the secretaries or officers of the
Institute to fill in the Government returns :
" Be it Resolved, That the Government take other means to get such returns."
The Chairman: I presume the returns mean those for the agricultural products.
Mr. Randle : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, this was a matter that was brought up at
the Director's meeting just before my coming to Victoria. Of course, it was a matter that I
was not conversant on at all. I never saw the returns till then that were supposed to be filled
up. Now, this is a copy of the returns that I have reference to, and according to clause 8 and
clause 9, there are certain penalties inflicted. Clause 8 makes a $20 fine for not filling this
up. Now, it appears to me that it is an impossibility to get secretaries or officers of the
Institute to fill up this form, because from what I can see they would have to make a personal
canvas of every member of the district, which would take in the neighbourhood of, say, two to
three months to fill in these returns. Now, where is the secretary who can do this, and who
will get remuneration for doing it? As I understand it from talking to several of the members,
there have been very few of these returns made. If the law requires us to make these returns,
why should they not be made ? If it is too cumbersome to make them, then the law ought to
be rescinded. I do not think it necessary or wise to saddle more on the Institutes than it is
possible to expect from them. I do not think it necessary for me to say anything more on
that. All you have to do is to look at the returns and you will see the amount of labour
involved.
Mr. Abbott: I may say I seconded that resolution to relieve the officers of this work. I
know it was circulated in our neighbourhood, and men threw them aside, and said they would
not fill them out, as it involved too much labour.
Mr. J. T. Collins : Mr. Chairman, I would like to say one or two words on this subject.
I think these returns are absolutely necessary to have. At the same time, there is a considerable amount of work involved in getting them filled in, not only in filling them up but
getting the information. In my district, I did not say that I would not fill them up, but what
I kicked at was this : I took a lot of time a little while ago in filling up the returns and there
was no use made of them. I know that was not the Superintendent's fault by any means, but
after all the work I think something should have been done with them Now, we heard from
Captain Tatlow that a new report is to be issued, and I think we should do all we can to support this work. At the same time, to get that information, it means out-of-pocket expenses to
whoever is getting it out. I know, in my district, to get this information I would have to
travel all around this Island and I would be out of pocket, and I know our Superintendent has
no funds to pay for that, and I should be very sorry to see this resolution pass in that way.
Mr. Venables : With regard to these reports, I have had them up in the Okanagan, and
in order to comply with them and get the proper information I had circulars printed and sent
them out to every man who was liable to make a return, and I did not make it necessary for
them to put their names to their returns. I must have sent out circulars to about 130
members, and out of those 130 about 15 returns were sent back, some of them in such a state
that it was impossible to make head or tail of them. I then went to our Government Agent,
asking for his assistance, and he said it would be impossible to get them made out, as it would
involve weeks and weeks driving about the country. And, as a matter of fact, half the time
when you went to a place you would find that the man was away, so, under the circumstances,
I think a different system should be adopted, and if the returns are absolutely necessary I
think the Government should appoint an agent to make the same.
Mr. Peatt: Mr. Anderson no doubt is aware that there was some trouble about the same
thing some years ago, and it is an impossibility to get any man to do that unless he is paid to
do it. M 32 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
Mr. Phillips : Our Secretaries complain over and over again about it, and they say it is
almost impossible to get these returns, and if these returns are not made out accurately they
are no good. Our Secretary also drew attention to the $20 fine, and in our neighbourhood I
know he could not get this information in a month.
The Chairman : I quite agree with what the speakers have said on the subject. I know
it is quite impossible, under the present system, to get them filled out accurately, and I think
this resolution is a very good one. It has been a source of great trouble to me, inasmuch as I
have to make up these returns and I have to guess at a good deal, and that is not satisfactory.
Mr. Baker : Haven't any of the Secretaries filled up these reports ?
The Chairman : Oh, yes.
Mr. Baker : I know that for. the last two years there has been a man going around our
district and has taken up considerable time in doing this work, and he has very accurately
taken an account of everything that has been produced in the district, and made up a statement of the whole affair. Of course, when giving him these statements, the farmers have not
always got a correct account of everything they produced; but then they give it as fair as
possible, and really the work comes on our part, after all.
The Chairman : Of course, as far as that goes, supposing it was done in all the districts
like it is done with you, taking it in the aggregate, it could not be very far wrong. If you
get within $10,000 of the product of a country you would be pretty close to it.
Mr. Harris : It appears to me that there is something wrong about this system of getting
returns. For you only get a part of the people when you get these returns from the Institute,
as there are not half of the settlers who are members of the Institute, and what is the use
getting this information from the members of the Institute and leaving the other settlers out ?
Mr. Venables : I do not do that; I send to every resident of the district.
Mr. Harris : The proper party to get it from is the Assessor, if you want to get it at all.
Motion carried.
The Chairman : I assure you it will relieve me of a great deal of worry if something is
done in this regard, and it is a very important matter.
Gun Licence.
Moved by Mr. Peatt, seconded by Mr. Brandrith—" Resolved, That the Government be
asked to pass an Act to impose a licence of $3 a year on all persons carrying guns, bond fide
farmers and their sons over 16 yTears of age to be exempt."
Mr. Peatt : In moving that resolution, I did so because I see by the papers that the Gun
Club has taken it up, and I brought this resolution to help them in their movement. I think
it is a good resolution, and I want you gentlemen to support it.
Mr. W. J. Brandrith : Mr. Chairman, I had another object in seconding that resolution.
We live not far from the city, and hoards of people and irresponsible boys come around our
neighbourhood with guns, and it makes it very unsafe to life and property. And if we had a
tax put on guns, it would help to do away with that very unsatisfactory state of affairs. As
it is now, we are bothered to death with these people coming out from the city to shoot, and
I do hope that something will be done to abate this nuisance. I think this is a very wise
resolution, and I have much pleasure in seconding it.
Mr. Venables : Mr. Peatt spoke about the Gun Club. Well, I may say that my son is
the Secretary for our local Gun Club, and we have been in correspondence with the Vancouver
and Victoria Gun Glubs, and they are only asking that a licence of $2 for carrying a gun be
imposed, and, perhaps, if you would alter your resolution to that amount it would be better.
Mr. Peatt: I do not mind having it altered to $2.
Mr. Venables : They are asking for a licence of $2, and have a printed petition setting
that out. But, then, they do not say anything about exempting the farmer, and I do not
agree with that part of the resolution, although I am a farmer. I think everybody should pay
the fine, or nobody.
Mr. Peatt: I think that, as the farmer raised the grain for all this game, he ought to be
exempt.
Mr. Brandrith : I will be willing to have that amount altered to $2.
Mr. Randle: I think I proposed a resolution of that same kind last year, and I have not
altered my opinion at all. I believe that the country is too young at the present time to put
on a gun tax, and if the country is desirous of getting good marksmen, they are not going to
get them by putting on a gun licence and restricting the rising generation from using a gun. 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 33
According to this resolution, there is a tax on everyone that carries a gun, and the only one
that is exempt at the present time is the farmer and the farmers' sons. If there is to be a tax
imposed, I do not think a farmer or a farmer's son should be exempt. If the country is
taxed, tax everyone alike. But my opinion is that it would be very unwise to put on a gun
tax at the present time. The country is young, and there is a large extent of our country
where there has scarcely been a human foot trod over it, and how are you going to get this
land opened up and know the resources of the country if it is not by those who pack the guns ?
The pioneer of the country is the one who goes away out in the woods and takes his rifle along
with him and explores the country. If it bad not been for him, this country would never have
been opened up as well as it is at the present time, and it is my opinion that it is not opened
up nearly enough yet. There are lots of resources on this Island and in this Province that
we know nothing about, and they will not be known until the hunter and the man that packs
his gun goes through this country and finds them out. That is the way that many of our
most important industries have been found out, and 1 think it would be very unwise to put
on a gun tax at the present time.
Mr. J. T. Collins : Respecting the gun tax, I am sorry not to be able to agree with the
two last speakers. I think the farmer should be exempt. At the present time there is a
great deal of vermin on the farm, and if the farmers are not allowed to carry guns how are
they going to get rid of this vermin ? There are some farmers who probably could not afford
to pay a tax, and if they are not allowed to carry a gun the vermin will increase, and the
farmer will be compelled to raise game for the benefit of the Gun Club. I believe in certain
things that the Gun Club has done. At the same time, I am very much against other things
that the Gun Club has done. For instance, they have come up in my district and shot game
out of season. It is rather trying to a farmer, just because a member of the, Gun Club holds
a licence, to see him run all over the place shooting game in season and out of season. I think
we should be very cautious in recommending the granting of those licences throughout the
Province, in the young state the country is now in. I should certainly strongly oppose a gun
tax being imposed on a farmer. Some years ago I remember when this case came up in the
Old Country in the same way. We never objected to paying the game tax, and I do not think
anyone in any country would ; but the gun tax is a different thing. In the Old Country we
have a game tax, which amounts to from three to five guineas a year.
Mr. Venables : Two guineas.
Mr. J. T. Collins : Two, is it ? I think it is more than that. I think I have paid
three many a time. But, at the same time, there is also the gun tax. That is a tax of ten
shillings for carrying the gun. It seems to me that the farmer should be exempt from the tax
for shooting on his own place. If he goes on another man's place and shoots, that is a different
thing. I would not consider then that he was a farmer. So, in that way, we will have to be
very cautious as to the way we recommend the imposing of this licence. For my part, I
would like to see a gun tax for game. At the same time, I would like to see the farmers
exempted for the sake of killing off the vermin on their farms.
Mr. Phillips: You will understand it reads "farmers and farmers' sons." Now, gentlemen, I have a son of 13 or 14, and he can handle a gun pretty well, and when a wild cat
comes along is he to be debarred from using a gun, just simply because he does not hold a
licence?    I do not approve of that, as I think it is going back to the Old Country system.
Mr. Spencer: I think the difficulty might be done away with if you just impose the
tax on those using rifles. I think the shot-gun does not matter ; there is no danger with it.
It teaches youngsters to shoot; even the 22 rifle teaches the youngsters how to shoot and it
does not do much harm.    It is the very heavy rifles that do the harm.
Mr. Wilson : I do not suppose it is the intention of the Gun Club to suggest to the House
that guns be taxed for all purposes ; that is to say, for the killing of vermin, for instance. I
would naturally suppose that would be exempt. It is simply for the purpose of a man shooting
game, and I think everyone should be taxed for carrying a gun for snooting game, whether he
be a farmer or any other professional man. For this reason—one speaker thought the country
was too young for the imposition of a game licence. I think the time has now come when the
game of this country has to be protected, and we cannot expect it to be protected unless there
is a revenue raised for that purpose, and the revenue coming from that licence would be for
the purpose of paying the Game Warden, and so on. I think that everyone in the whole
Province who carries a gun should pay the licence, so as to raise revenue to have a Game
Warden appointed for the purpose of protecting the game.    I know that in our District of M 34 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
Chilliwhack the Game Association circulated a petition to the Government asking them to
impose a gun licence and there was also a place on that petition for the farmers to say whether
they themselves thought bona fide farmers should be exempt, and I think out of 120 farmers
who signed that petition there were only about 20 who signed against the licence. They all
realised that something ought to be done for the protection of the game, and they were all
willing to contribute something towards it.
Mr. Davie : I can hardly agree with Mr. Wilson, of Chilliwhack, for this reason : Our
Institute is situated near two cities. I like to go out to shoot, but when I do go out it usually
takes me two or three days to shoot a bird ; but I know of some who shoot a great many in a
day. Now, the farmer is the man who feeds these birds, and I think it would be unjust to
make a farmer pay $3 a year tax when, perhaps, he does not kill three birds in a year. I will
tell you my experience in shooting. I have the name of shooting one pheasant in my life.
There was a lady visiting us who said that she wanted a pheasant, and I started out to get
one for her, and on my way I met an Indian who had just shot some pheasants and I bought
one from the Indian and brought it home, and that is the only pheasant I have ever had the
name of shooting. I do not think that it is the farmer who kills off the game, but it is these
men and boys from the city, and I do not think it fair to saddle a farmer with any gun tax.
All the game the farmer shoots I think he earns.    I know that is how it is in my case.
The Chairman : I will read the resolution again as it now stands :—
"Moved by Mr. Peatt, seconded by Mr. Brandrith—
"Be it Resolved, That the Government be asked to pass an Act to impose a licence of
$2 per year on all persons carrying guns, bond fide farmers and their sons over 16 years of age
to be exempt."    Carried.
Close Season for Prairie Chicken.
Moved by Mr. Venables, seconded by Mr. Wilson—
" That the Government be asked to make a close season for prairie chickens for not less
than two years, and that districts be set apart in various sections of the country where game
may breed undisturbed."
Mr. Venables : Gentlemen, this resolution that I have been asked to place before you also
included another section, asking that a gun licence of not lees than $2 be imposed ; but owing
to the previous resolution having been carried, it is useless for me to address you on that and
press for the carrying of that resolution. The other part of the resolution is one which I
think would be a very good thing for this Central Farmers' Institute to endorse. There are
prairie, chicken all around us. Of course, on the Island there are none, but in our part of the
country they are getting very scarce indeed, and as the town increases and the people come
out to shoot the game gets less and less every year. We have talked this question over a great
deal among ourselves, and we think if we could get the endorsement of the Central Farmers'
Institute to our resolution it would strengthen the hands of the Government in doing something of the kind that our resolution proposes; and with regard to the preservation of the
game, I feel sure that it requires but very few words from me to show the advisability such
preservation would mean to this Province, and it would mean a very great public asset to this
Province before a great many years.
Mr. Randle : Before that resolution is put, I think we want to be very careful. We are
asking the Government to establish a game preservation. That means that this land will be
locked up from intending settlers, and be used for no other purpose than the preservation of
game. Now, there is not enough land in this Provinoe to use for settling purposes, unless you
go away to some remote portion of the country, some uninhabited part, or some almost
inaccessible part of the country. All the land at the present time is locked up either by
speculators or timber leases, or something else, and at the present time I cannot say that I am
in favour of this resolution, unless more light can be thrown on the matter. It seems to me
that this is only a means of locking up a little more of the valuable land of this Province. If
you can arrange this game preservation by still leaving the land open for settlement, then I
might be able to vote intelligently on that matter, but if the land you are going to reserve for
game purposes is going to be locked out from intending settlers, then I think we ought to be
very careful before dealing with this subject.
Mr. De Hart : I look on this resolution in the same way Mr. Randle looks upon it.
Taking into consideration the very small space that is not settled, I think it would be unwise
to set apart a preservation for these few birds. 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 35
Mr. Evans : I think it is only a waste of time talking on this resolution. I think Nature
has preserved a great deal of this Province in the past and will do so for the next 90 years to
come.
Mr. Spencer : How would it be to arrange that the birds near town should be preserved ?
I don't suppose you mean breeding.
Mr. Venables : I consider there ought to be a place where the birds can go where they
cannot be interfered with. For instance, in an orchard wdiere no one ever shoots. In my
own neighbourhood, I know of an orchard of some 80 acres where no one ever thinks of firing
off a gun, and the birds seek this place for refuge, and directly one goes out to shoot you can
see them fly awa}' to this orchard. Now, if you had a small section of the country, say two
or three hundred acres of land, which was never shot over, the birds would go there and breed
and increase very rapidly.    But by all means let them have a place where tbey can go.
Mr. Spencer: If you made a law that they were only to shoot at a certain distance out
of town, then the place nearer town they could breed there. Now, with us all the pheasants
are close to town, close to salt water, and it would lessen the danger of people being shot if
they stopped shooting pheasants and game near the town.
Motion lost.
Stumping Powder for Rural Municipalities.
Moved by Mr. Gale, seconded by Mr. Peatt,—
" Resolved, That the Government be requested to make an arrangement with the powder
company to supply the rural municipalities with stumping powder at the same price they are
supplying to the farmer."
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, in moving that resolution I wish to express the
appreciation of myself and district that I represent for the Government's action in giving
cheaper powder to the farmers. But there is one little step further they might go, which
would be an added benefit to the rural municipalities. And that is, if they could see their
way clear to interview the powder companies and get the same terms from them that have been
extended to the farmers. 1 think it would be a step in the right direction. I know that our
municipality has tried to secure powder at the $5.25 rates from the factory and they were refused.
The company told them that if they wanted to get it at the same rates the farmers were
getting it at, they would have to get the Government to take the matter up with the company.
So I think it is quite possible, if they were approached by the Government, they would meet
us in that regard. Now, there are many of the municipalities throughout the Province that
are using quite a quantity of powder in the opening up of roads, and if they could get powder
at the reduced rates it would mean a saving to the farmer, because it all comes out of their
taxation. There is really not very much to be said on the subject. It is quite plain that
what is beneficial to a municipality is a benefit to the farmers, and it only remains for the
Government to make the same arrangements with the powder companies, when the same
privilege would be accorded to the municipalities as well.
Mr. Peatt: I do not think the Government would have the slightest difficulty in making
the arrangement.
Mr. Evans : This is a question which has not come before our municipality, but it may be
that we took advantage of the Institute, or the Government, for our municipality got all the
powder they needed through the Institute this year. We had no difficulty whatever in getting
it.
Mr. Harris : Well, gentlemen, I know there is a great deal of powder used in the municipalities, and I am of the opinion that what is used is for the benefit of the people, as well as the
benefit of the Government, in having the roads put in as good shape as possible, and the
cheaper we get the powder for the municipalities the better it is for everyone. I heard one
gentleman remark that in his municipality they were getting the powder from the Institute,
but I was told last year by one of the members of the Institute that no one could get the
powder at the reduced rate unless he happened to be a member of the Institute. And in
speaking to those gentlemen I said, if that was the case, we ought to arrange to get it on a
straight forward basis and know where we stood, and know what we were doing, and not lead
anyone astray on this powder question. We might just as well get the matter settled now as
later. The Government now gives a security for whoever gets the powder, and I have no
doubt the municipality will be able to get it just as well as the farmers, because it is for the
benefit of everyone that they should get it at the reduced rates. M 36 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
Mr. Phillips : I may say, in our municipality we wanted eleven boxes of powder. It was
for contract work, and Mr. Ball wrote down to see about getting it, and he got a favourable
reply and was able to get it at the reduced rate. At the same time I do not see why we
should call upon the Government to give the miner the same preference you give to the farmer
and members of the Institute.
Mr. Curry : This powder question always comes up, and it is a nice question. We can
all talk on it. For my part, I do not see why the municipality, the miner and the individual
cannot take the benefit of these reduced rates. It opens up the development of the country,
and why should the contractor not get his powder cheaper, and in that way you get your house
built cheaper ? I think the best way to get over this is to get all the municipalities to join
the Farmers' Institute, and then we will all get cheap powder.
Mr. J. T. Collins : There has been one subject brought to my notice by one of the
speakers, and that is, it has been stated here that no one but the members of the Farmers'
Institutes can get this powder at the reduced rate. I would like to know whether that is so,
or whether other than the members can get it. I have been getting the powder, and have
made no distinction in that regard as to whether it was to be used by a member of the Institute
or farmers at large. And I would like to know whether it would be wise for the Secretaries
to refuse to get powder for the farmers who were not members of the Institute. 1 would like
an expression of opinion on that.
The Chairman : There is no distinction made, as far as that goes. If a non-member
wants it he can get it.
Mr. DeHart: I think, when the fee to join the Farmers' Institute is so small, they should
all become members, and then they can get the powder the same as we get it.
Mr. Randle : Mr. Chairman, the question is now raised as to whether the farmer should
get his powder at the same price as members of the Institute. Now, in my own district they
have refused to give farmers orders for powder at this reduced rate unless they were members
of the Institute. If a farmer cannot afford to pay 50c. to join the Institute, I think he has
no right to get his powder at $1.25 less than he is now paying.
The Chairman : You are out of order and not talking to the question.
Motion carried unanimously.
Wild Mustard.
Moved by Mr. Gale, seconded by Mr. Peatt—
" Whereas a large portion of the most productive lands of this Province have become
infested with wild mustard, which seriously reduces the yield per acre of grain and other crops,
and is constantly in danger of spreading to other lands that are not yet infested;
"Therefore, be it Resolved, That we request the Government to purchase a power
spraying outfit, to give demonstrations of its usefulness in destroying the wild mustard."
Mr. Gale : This is a question that has perhaps been brought up before this Institute for
the first time; but it will be none the less worthy, I have no doubt, on that account. The
power spray, so far as I can find out, would be a very fine thing to adopt in our orchards, in
addition to what is asked for in this resolution. Up to the present time I can find no one who
has sufficient faith in this spray to put enough capital in it to demonstrate whether it is a
good thing or not. We see a great deal of advertising about it, especially on the American
side, as to what can be done in the way of spraying orchards and destroying wild mustard
seed where lands have become infested with this noxious weed. It is a particularly live
question in our district. We have there some very good land, what is known as the McClure
Estate, which is infested by wild mustard. And that is not the only estate, as there are
several other localities infested in the same way. They have tried rotation of crops, and all
sorts of things, but nothing seemed to do any good in the way of eradicating it, and there is
only one help left, and that is this power sprayer. They have them in the States, and some
have a large pipe at the end where they can spray a distance of seven or eight feet. When
this sprayer is passed over a field when the mustard is in bloom, they claim it is very efficient
in destroying it. They also claim that the mixture of bluestone which they use is not
destructive to the grain. I may say that this sprayer is unknown to me, and it is with the
object to see if we cannot get the Government to purchase one and undertake to demonstrate
its usefulness to the farmer that I have brought this resolution before you ; because if it were
once shown in a district that the power sprayer was beneficial in the way I have mentioned,
and it could be used on a co-operative basis among the fruit-growers, there is not the slightest 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 37
doubt that many of the localities would invest in power sprayers, and get their work done
better and quicker. As it is now, you find a great many of the fruit-growers use a little
" jimcrack " spray that is not worth anything, and the trees are therefore not properly sprayed.
There is certainly a great deal of room for improvement along these lines. And I would
throw out the suggestion that possibly the Fruit Inspectors would be the proper authorities
into whose hands to place the management of a sprayer of this kind, because it could not only
be used in demonstrating its benefits with regard to doing away with the mustard seed, but
could also be used in the orchard, and there is great room for improvement in the spraying
methods along that line.
Mr. Peatt: I hope that the Government will see its way clear to purchase one of these
sprayers and bring one out in our district, because the mustard there has become a regular
pest. In the Saanich District I have seen acres and acres of potatoes destroyed with this
mustard, and no matter how careful you are, if your neighbour is not careful, you will have
your whole farm covered with mustard.
Mr. De Hart : I might say that in Ontario, at the Experimental Farm at Guelph, they
have demonstrated the usefulness of the sprayer you have spoken of, and you can get any
information you like from there, and could also get a machine from there. I know, ten years
ago, when I left Ontario, they were practising with those sprayers.
Mr. Evans : For my part, I would be very sorry to see the Government attempt such a
thing. This is no longer an experiment; it is an actual fact that they can destroy the
mustard seed.
The Chairman : I quite agree with what Mr. Evans said, and what Mr. De Hart has said
also. This is not an experiment. There is a Bulletin, No. 11, which was issued in 1903 on
the question. Everyone knows the effect that spraying has on wild mustard, and it does seem
to me a resolution of this kind had better not be carried.
Mr. Curry : Just a word. I rather think that it is a matter which can be fairly well left
for the farmers themselves to settle. It is pretty much on a par with the Relief Fund down
at 'Frisco. They have a million and a half dollars on hand, and the people won't get away
from the place until that has been spent. Now, if the Government starts out cleaning the
farmers' fields, the farmers will quit trying to clean their fields. I object very strongly to the
putting of that resolution.
Mr. Harris : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I have seen this mustard seed growing ever
since I was a boy, and we never let them seed. We used to pull them out by hand when they
were in bloom. That is what these gentlemen ought to do, and if they had done that years
ago they would not have so many of them now. Some of them grew in Langley, and last
summer a man had them pulled the second time, and tried to get clear of them in that way.
But the only way tqi get clear of them is to draw them out by hand, and it is the same with
the Canadian thistle. Some people say you can spray the Canadian thistle and kill it, but I
heard Dr. Craig say one time that he saw the roots of a Canadian thistle eight feet down in
the ground, and I believe it to be true, because I saw them four feet down myself. The only
way to get rid of these things is to draw them out and burn them.
Motion lost.
Water Clauses Act.
Moved by Mr. V. D. Curry, seconded by Mr. Dodding,—
" Resolved, That it is of the utmost importance to the farming and fruit-growing industries
of the Dry Belt of British Columbia that some amendments be made to the Water Clauses
Consolidation Act at the coming Session of the Legislature, especially in the line of defining
the ' duty ' of water ; and that this meeting respectfully suggests that this ' duty ' be defined
as one cubic foot per second for 55 acres of land, this being the same as exists according to the
laws of Colorado, the lowest on the Continent of North America, and in the opinion of this
meeting ample for British Columbia.
" Further, that the Government take into consideration the necessity for passing legislation
governing the storage of water for irrigation purposes, and the right to the use of water stored
and conserved."
Mr. Curry: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, this is a question that has come up repeatedly
before the Farmers' Institute, and you will, I hope, pardon me for taking up a little of your
time on this subject, because I think it is most important, as you will have to deal with it
either to-day or to-morrow, and because it means the bringing under cultivation a large area of M 38 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
some of the most beautiful fruit sections in British Columbia. Other countries have been compelled to make a duty on water. The simple thing is to define how much a man shall use on
an acre of land. Make the maximum amount large enough to cover all possible use, and so it
will be impossible for a man to go beyond that. In Wyoming and Arizona, a cubic foot of
water has to do duty for 70 acres of land. We are asking only for 55 acres, and the rainfall
and conditions of soil are practically alike in both cases. So you can see we are allowing a
great deal more water for our country than they are in Arizona under similar conditions. We
are taking the lowest maximum duty on the Continent of North America as our guide, namely,
that of Colorado. We have to tie the country down to some standard of water for the land
each man cultivates, and I will point out to you why. The water, according to the present
Water Clauses Consolidation Act is measured at the ditch-head, and it does not matter if there
is no duty on the water, that man might run his water through a sieve to his ranch, and if it
took 1,000 inches to get down there and produce 100 inches, there would be no way to prevent his
having that entire amount. I know of one man who had the first right to water in Campbell
Lake, and he had 600 inches running through a ditch, and a large percentage of that was
wasted in transit—I will not say how much, because I have not the exact figures here with me.
But if a man is tied down to a certain percentage of water, and which is measured at the ditch-
head, you can see that he will in self-defence be compelled to fill up his ditch or flume in such a
way as to conserve the water. In certain districts I know of many people having had to do without water where "first rights" had water to waste, and if these "first rights" had been tied
down to the actual amount necessary for their needs, the other parties would have had sufficient
water to carry on their operations, which would have made the country much more prosperous.
As to the storage of water, we all know that there is a large quantity of water running off the
mountains and valleys, which disappears before the time comes for irrigation. It is a difficult
matter for individuals to take up the storage of this water on their own account. It is for the
Government to take hold of this question, and produce some kind of a system that can be
worked out successfully in the interests of everyone. For instance, a measuring device at the
ditch-head is a most cumbersome method, and it is most imperative that the Government
should take this matter up, and the sooner they do it the better for the country, because it
will then bring this question of water into a better condition. Now, we have the promise of
the Premier in his speeches before the election that they were going to take up this question
of irrigation and appoint a Commission, if they were elected, to go into the question of storage
of water. That is all right as far as it goes, and we are indeed very glad to see that they are
living up to their promises, because it will work good to the country and bring in a lot of
settlers. But then, gentlemen, it does not go far enough. There should be a clause added to
the Act so as to prevent people from controlling practically the whole thing in the Upper
. Country.    (Applause.)
Mr. Dodding : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, as a seconder of this resolution I wish to
say this. We live in the Dry Belt and we feel that the irrigation question is a burning one.
We have land there, but the land is practically of no use until we have a different system of
dividing up the water so that everyone will be able to get sufficient for his needs. The way
it stands now, it is not satisfactory. One man controls it all, and if another goes to law with
him he can get no satisfaction. But if the Government fulfils its promises and helps us as it
is proposing, this condition of affairs can be rectified. For instance, in my district : A man,
say, has a record for water just before me; he can take out his supply of say 300 inches of
water and leave me practically dry. He can use it as long as he wishes to use it, and then
turn it off on to me after my crop has been spoiled for the lack of it. If this water were to be
divided so that each one could take a certain quantity for so much land, then we would all
get our proper share. In the Nicola Valley there are hundreds of acres of land where no
water is to be got, and until the Government or a company form reservoirs, or an irrigation
system, there will be no water to be had for that land, and it will remain practically useless.
I have great pleasure in seconding the resolution.
Mr. DeHart : Before putting this resolution, there is one clause in it which I do not
think is right. And that is with regard to what the Government should allot to a certain
amount of land. I think that is a matter that should be left to the engineers to decide who
look into this question. Although this country may be very much like the Colorada District Mr.
Curry speaks of, at the same time our water supply may be very different indeed. We may
have more or we may have less. And I think that is a question which should be left to the
Government engineers as to what amount of water should be given to the different properties. 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 39
I quite agree with Mr. Curry that the Irrigation question is the most important in the Dry
Belt. A number of settlers have gone in there, and orchards have been planted by them that
require water. Now I have a ranch that I bought when I came to the Okanagan Valley a few
years ago, which was a hay ranch. We grew four or five hundred tons of hay the first year.
This land has now all been sold and subdivided into ten-acre blocks. Some of these blocks
being bottom land, especially when planted in potatoes, requires no irrigation. Whereas,
when it was planted in hay, we had irrigation running on it all the time from the 1st of May
to end of July. The incorporated City of Kelowna now takes in this property, and I hold a
record belonging to the property of 600 inches; a second record of 100 inches belonging to
the old townsite; and there is another record of 200 inches for the City of Kelowna ; and I
am satisfied that 150 inches would do for Kelowna, and the outside ranches would then have
the benefit of this water. Therefore, I think if that clause of Mr. Curry's were left to the
Government engineers to decide, it would be better.
Mr. Curry : Well, now, gentlemen, Mr. De Hart has touched the vital point of the whole
resolution, and I cannot allow that portion to be struck off without at least giving a strong
fight for it. The usefulness hinges exactly on that point. We are not putting as our maximum
the smallest amount that any other civilised country in America is using, but we are putting
the maximum amount, and I know it to be ample for our needs in the Upper Country; and
when the Government engineers look into the question they can say what the maximum
amount should be, and they may not give half the amount allowed in this resolution. All we
want is to establish a maximum duty, so that under any condition a man will get a cubic foot
per second for 55 acres. In that way we tie down these old records, so that they cannot hog
all the water at the expense of any community, but will be treated just the same as every one
else. In that way new settlers will come in and orchards will be planted, that will mean
much for the success of that Upper Country. Of course, there will be a few people who will
rebel against these new conditions, on account of their having gone to the Government some
forty years ago and obtained a record of 1,000 inches of water to cultivate a few acres of land.
This method, gentlemen, as proposed in this resolution, will work in the interests of everyone
in the Dry Belt, and I am sure is deserving of your support.
Carried unanimously.
Mr. Harris : Mr. Curry has stated that this is one of the most important matters brought
before this meeting, and I may say that I agree with him in this, and I just want to say a
word or two on this question myself.
The Chairman : Well, now, Mr. Harris, I allowed the mover to close his debate because
no one got up to speak in the meantime, and if any gentlemen had expressed a wish to speak
to the motion he would have been accorded the privilege ; but no one got up, so, therefore, I
asked the mover to close the debate.    I think I was right.
Mr. Harris : We did not have any laws of that kind laid down when we started.
The Chairman : Well, the motion has carried now, so that closes the debate.
Packing Fruit.
Moved by Mr. Gale, seconded by Mr. Peatt—
" Resolved, That the Government secure speakers from Hood River, Oregon, so that we
may learn from them the best methods of growing, packing, and marketing our fruit."
Mr. Gale : I have not any doubt whatever but that motion will pass, because it is a
question in which we are all interested. There is no question but that we produce some of
the finest fruit that is grown, and it goes without saying that the people on the Pacific Coast
have the best up-to-date methods and best system of packing. But I think that, as far as we
are concerned, in and around Victoria District, we are far behind in the matter of marketing.
While, perhaps, there is yet a lot we can learn in the growing of our fruit and the selection of
our varieties, and possibly in the packing, there is one thing on which we are desirous to gain
a great deal of information, that is, the method of marketing, as adopted in the Hood River
country ; and if we could get a practical man, well up in all these subjects, to come over here
and lecture to us, 1 know it would be very helpful indeed. At the present time we are doing
business through commission houses, and you all know that is not the most satisfactory way of
doing business. There are better methods to be adopted, and when we get strong enough we
hope that our Fruit Association will be able to handle its own business. And it is with the
view of getting information as to the method they adopt over in Hood River, where they have
their associations handling their business and manufacturing their own packages, that this resolution is put before you. It appears that they have been able to increase the sale of their
products very largely through the organisations they have got there, and it is with that object
I wish to impress upon our worthy Chairman and our Government the advisability of getting
us speakers from that district.
Mr. Peatt : I do not think it is necessary for me to take up the time of the meeting with
any further remarks.
Mr. J. T. Collins : I think, as we were talking the matter of fruit over, it would be
advisable to ask Mr. Cunningham to come in and give us some information on this subject.
The Chairman : Mr. Cunningham is not available just at present.
Mr. J. T. Collins : Speaking of Hood River, I had recently a conversation with young
Mr. Earl, who has been over there, and he said that they were far ahead of us in the way of
marketing their fruit, but not in the way of packing. But at the same time their co-operative
principles, as to the way they were managing the growing and cultivation and sale of their
fruit, was very much ahead of us in this Province, and I have, therefore, great pleasure in
recommending this resolution.
Mr. Abbott : I represent the fruit-growing interests of our district, and I think it would
be very satisfactory to have something like that come along.
Mr. W. J. Brandrith : I am in accord with the motion as far as it goes, but I think it
can go a little further. I think they should define what subject the man from Oregon should
talk about, because if it is co-operation I should think that Mr. Sheppard, who is the manager
of the Hood River Union, would be a very proper man to give us some information. But if
it is on the question of varieties of fruit, it is all right to have a man from Oregon to go into
the Upper Country, but it would be a waste of time to bring him on the Island.
Mr. Evans : I take exception to Mr. Brandrith. We don't want them in the Upper
Country.
The Chairman : I may say I was recently over in Oregon, and I asked them whether, in
the event of my making arrangements this coming season for speakers from there, if anyone
would be able to come, and they quite agreed that they would certainly give us all the time they
possibly could, if they could spare the time.   The great difficulty is getting them to spare the time.
Mr. Phillips : I do not quite agree with this resolution. We have prided ourselves on
our fruit that we have sent to London, and which took so many prizes, and if we have men
that can raise such fruit as this in our own Province surely the}' can inform us on these matters,
instead of bringing men from Oregon to throw light on the subject. It seems to me like
throwing water on our own people here, as if we could not do anytbing over here without someone coming over from the other side and showing us.
Mr. Randle: I think we have just as good men in this Province as any place ; and I
move, in amendment to this resolution, that this matter be left in the hands of the Superintendent to give us people that he thinks are proper. I do not think it is necessary to go outside to Hood River, or Oregon, or anywhere else. Our fruit has the name of being the finest
in the world in London, and I do not see why we should do anything to discourage the
report that is going around.    I think it is a kind of a slur on ourselves.
Mr. DeHart: I am quite in accord with the last speaker, that we should get as many
speakers from home as possible.
The Chairman : Are you speaking to the motion ?
Mr. DeHart: I am seconding his amendment.
Mr. Randle : I will make that as an amendment. Not that I am against anyone corning
from Hood River, but I consider in passing a resolution of that kind, it belittles our men in
this country.
The Chairman (addressing Mr. DeHart): Are you finished ?
Mr. DeHart: No ; I do not get a chance to speak. I was just about to say that I am in
favour of the amendment, as I think we should get some speakers from home, and at the same
time have some outside speakers come in as well. The most valuable man that passed through
this Province was Prof. Lake. He came along and showed us the variety of apples which,
with carefully-kept records, for 20 years, had made them the most money. Now, we say that
we have in British Columbia the finest fruit in the world, and they proved so in London. At
the same time, why do our Spitzenbergs sell 'for $1 and $1.25 a box when Hood River sells for
$3 a box ? There must be something wrong somewhere. The same thing might be asked with
regard to our Newtown Pippins, as they sell for 90c. and 95c. a box when the Hood River
sells for $2 a box.    In Ontario they will tell you that the barrel system is good enough for 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 41
them. My opinion is that the box system is the best. I think that for production of fruit
and cultivation, it is all right to engage local speakers on those subjects. I do not wish by
any means to infer that the people of Canada are not so brainy as these men in the United
States, but in the matter of marketing they have had more experience.
The Chairman : They are getting the box system in Ontario now, and are ordering carloads
of boxes from British Columbia.
Mr. DeHart: I venture to say that from 75 % to 90 % of their apples are barrelled to-day.
Mr. Collins : The last speaker said the trouble seemed to be in the marketing. I had a
talk with young Mr. Earl, and he told me that the apples on the other side were no better,
and, in fact, they were not as good as the British Columbia apples, but, at the same time, they
were getting $1 a box more for their fruit on the other side. He said that in Hood River
they are in a position to say " We want $3 a box for our apples," and they get it. But we
cannot do that, simply because we do not co-operate. In Hood River they co-operate in every
way. They have their special packer, and no case of apples ever goes out without passing
under the professional packer's notice, and there is no apple goes out of Hood River unless it
is properly inspected and is up to the mark, and in that way they can command better prices
than we can, where there is no regular system of marketing. I think the great thing is to
have a system in the sale of fruit.
The Chairman : The amendment to this is as follows :—
" Moved by Mr. Randle, seconded by Mr. DeHart—" That the matter be left to the
Superintendent of the Central Farmers' Institute to choose speakers from where he thinks
most fit."
Amendment carried ; original motion lost.
The Chairman : It makes very little difference anyway, as I have to pursue this course in
any case. It is a very difficult matter to get efficient speakers, especially on the subject of
fruit.
Mr. De Hart : Professor Lake was such a valuable man to the Okanagan last year that I
would hate to see him turned down this year.
Dog Tax.
Moved by Mr. Peatt, seconded by Mr. Harris—
" Be it Resolved, That the Government be asked to pass a tax of $2 per year on all dogs
in the district, each farmer being allowed to keep two dogs free from taxation."
Mr. Peatt: I think I brought this up last year, and I must say that the dogs are a pest
in our district. I do not know how it is in other districts, but they are certainly a pest in
ours. Some of the farmers there keep no less than half a dozen dogs, and I know of one
farmer who has eight, and they are continually worrying the sheep and cattle. I have been
asking the Institute to pass this resolution for the past two years.
Mr. Harris : Mr. Chairman, I just seconded that motion because I know it is necessary
in lots of cases. Up by us there is an Indian Reserve, and they have fifty or more dogs, and
they are running at large all over the country and getting after sheep and everything else.
They don't feed them and the dogs just take what they can get; and I guess it is the same in
other places.
Mr. Davie : Mr. Chairman, I am a farmer, but at the same time I want to see every dog
in every municipality in British Columbia taxed. I have suffered a great deal by dogs
worrying our sheep, and I would like to see a tax put on every one of them. While I am on
this question I would like to ask for a little information. How is it in British Columbia, have
municipalities the power to impose a dog tax and remunerate the farmer for whatever damage
is done by the dogs ? As I understand it, they have the power to impose a tax, but have not
got the power to put that tax to one side to partly pay the farmer for sheep that are worried
by these dogs.
The Chairman: I suppose the municipalities have that matter in their own hands
largely.
Mr. Davie: We are led to believe we have not got the power to do that; that we have
the power to tax the dogs, but have not the power to remunerate the man for the loss of his
sheep or worrying of his sheep. If this is the case, I would like to see some legislation made
to give the municipalities power to remunerate.
Mr. Baker : I think on the Statute Book you will find that the man who owns the dog
has to pay the damages. M 42 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
Mr. Harris : I would like to say a few words. With regard to the Indian dogs, you have
absolutely no control of them. We have not, at any rate, in our district. The Indian there
can keep as many dogs as he likes, and he can let them kill as many sheep as they like, but
we have to suffer, and nothing can be done to remedy the situation.
Mr. Wilson : In Chilliwack we have a by-law enforcing the dog tax, and any dog found
running at large is destroyed, provided no tax has been paid for it. We are not supposed to
know who it belongs to.
The Chairman : Would it be possible to have this resolution laid over until that matter is
looked into ? The question raised by Mr. Davie is one which, perhaps, can be embodied in the
one resolution. If, as Mr. Davie says, the municipality has not the power to use the moneys
from the dog tax for the remuneration of the sheep worried by the dogs, which I believe is
given them in Ontario as well as in Manitoba, then the Government might be asked to amend
the Municipal Act so that the municipalities may be given that power. I think we could
arrange it in that way.
Moved by Mr. DeHart, seconded by Mr. Peatt—
" That the resolution be laid over until to-morrow, so that the same may be looked into."
Carried
Endowment of Agricultural College.
Moved by Mr J. T. Collins, seconded by Mr Brandrith—
" Wrhereas it is of the greatest importance in the agricultural interests that a system of
education in the science of agriculture should be inaugurated :
" And whereas no provision has been made for such a purpose :
" Be it Resolved, That the Government be asked to make a reserve of land for the purpose
of an endowment for an agricultural college."
Mr. J. T. Collins : That is a matter that we have had before us on several occasions, and
why I brought it up this time is because the Minister of Agriculture has partially given his
promise that a reserve of land will be made ; but he does not say anything about an agricultural college, and I think an endowment will be made for a college in Victoria which is not
altogether an agricultural college. What we want, gentlemen, is an agricultural college, something like they have in Guelph. We all know the good the Guelph college has done. At the
same time, Guelph cannot do us very much good here, because the conditions are very much
different. But if we could get an endowment now, when land is so cheap—we have plenty of
Government land of very little value—if we could get that, in a few years it will be very
valuable, and it would create a good endowment to an agricultural college. If this land is set
apart for a college not necessarily an agricultural college, I doubt whether the agriculturist
would get much benefit. I think we should press this resolution; and if we do so, I am sure
the Minister of Agriculture will help us in it. In a few years all this land will be valuable,
and we would have some difficulty in getting it, and if we can get it now, so much the better.
Mr. Brandrith : Mr. Chairman, it is scarcely necessary for me to say anything on the
subject. It is the third time the matter has been brought up before this Institute, and it has
always been carried unanimously. You suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the word " forest " should
not be struck out. I may say that I suggested that to the mover, because we have thousands
of acres that are not set aside, and it leaves it an open question as to whether we get prairie
or mountain or forest land. I certainly think it is about time that British Columbia was
doing something towards getting an agricultural college for our children. At the present
time we have to send our children out of the Province to be educated along agricultural lines,
which, I should think, ought not to be. And I think the country is large enough now to
support an agricultural college, and rich enough. And, therefore, I have very much pleasure
in seconding the resolution.    Motion carried.
Moved by Mr. Brandrith, seconded by Mr. DeHart,—
" That Mr. Thomas Cunningham be requested to address the meeting to-morrow morning
at 10 o'clock, on the work of the Horticultural Board."    Carried.
Assistance to Fruit Inspector.
Moved by Mr. Curry, seconded by Mr. Jas. Evans,—
" Resolved, That this meeting approves the intention of the Government to supply the
Fruit Pest Inspector with ample help to deal with the problem in a thorough manner this
coming season." 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report M 43
Mr. Curry : I might say, gentlemen, unfortunately for the Province of British Columbia
as a whole, and some of our districts in particular, we have a very serious pest in the Upper
Country, in one portion at least, and I am told it is also in other parts—that is the codling
moth. You all know the ravages of the codling moth in the East, and of the millions of
dollars that are being spent yearly by the different cities in the Eastern Provinces to eradicate
this terrible pest. It is now in one of the districts of this Province— I will not mention the
name—and something will have to be done very shortly to eradicate it. Last year the trouble
was Mr. Cunningham was handicapped for want of help, and the spraying and taking care of
the infested district was done in a most unsatisfactory manner, and, in fact, only partially
done, and it might just as well have been left alone. But I have been told, since coming
to' Victoria, that Mr. Cunningham has now been supplied with proper and ample help,
and he has authority to add to his help, and is going to take up this question of the codling
moth and other pests thoroughly this coming season, and will put a competent man in the field
to take charge of it. In that way he will try to eradicate it, but I thought it only right that
we should endorse the Government's action in this matter, because if we can get it out while
it is young and in its infancy, it will cost us practically only a few dollars, but if it is left to
run on it will cost us millions of dollars.    Motion carried.
Institute Speakers at Supplementary Meetings.
Moved by Mr. Peatt, seconded by Mr. Gale,—
" Be it Resolved, That the different Institutes combine to make arrangements for speakers
other than the regular speakers provided by the Government, and each Institute pay its share
pro rata of expense."
Mr. Peatt: In support of that resolution, I wish to say that I was of the opinion if two
or three Institutes combined together and arranged for a speaker for, say, Metchosin, Saanich
and perhaps Cowichan, it would be better. Heretofore they have been very poorly paid, and
if we combined together we might be able to get a man from Oregon, or some place else, and
pay a man to lecture in the three districts.
The Chairman : It seems to me that this might be a matter to be left in the hands of the
local Institutes.
Mr. Peatt: I thought it would be a matter that would go through you.
The Chairman : I will be very glad indeed to do all I can for you.
Mr. Gale : I can see the idea in this resolution, and I take great pleasure in seconding it.
In certain localities the conditions are different and they require different speakers. And
there is no doubt if different speakers can be got for Cowichan, Saanich and Metchosin, and
perhaps the Islands, it would be better for them, and those four Institutes could combine
together and help pay the cost of getting those speakers that they saw fit to have, and they
could hold those as supplementary meetings, and there would be no charge on the Government.
And this would perhaps be an opportune time for us to meet with representatives from the
different districts and Institutes that would not be offered to us at any other time, because we
never meet representatives from the Saanich Institutes except on occasions like this, and I
think if we could get this matter arranged satisfactorily with regard to these speakers it would
be productive of some good.
Mr. Randle : As I understand the wording of that resolution, it is to combine the whole
of the Institutes, and it appears to me if that is passed in that way it will work a hardship on
some of the Institutes, for the different Institutes would have to agree to having speakers that
were not suitable for their district, and they would in duty bound have to agree to certain
speakers, and this would incur unnecessary expense. Of course, as far as having certain
speakers for those districts within a reasonable distance apart, it would be all right for them
to combine if they wished, and get these speakers for supplementary meetings.
The Chairman : This does not bind any Institute to do anything. It is just an academic
resolution.
Mr. Curry : It seems to me that before we pass a resolution of this kind we should have
an expression of opinion from our different Institutes. This is a question, I think, which has
come up here before, having first been fought out in our local Institutes at home, and in that
way we might be taking on ourselves something we might regret when we got home. Notwithstanding what our Chairman says, I fancy that we would be bound by it.
Mr. Abbott: Of course, you understand that where we have the regular speakers the
Government pays for them, but if we want an extra man we pay for them ourselves. M 44 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
Mr. Buckingham: By the wording of the resolution, it "resolves" that we do this. I
think if we simply recommend the different Institutes join together and procure speakers
for supplementary meetings it would be better.    I would move that as an amendment.
Mr. Venables : The Institutes have to pay the expense of supplementary speakers now.
They have to do it whether we recommend it or not.
Mr. Peatt: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, the idea of that resolution is to lessen the
expense of each Institute in procuring supplementary speakers. I thought we might combine
and get one man to do the whole thing at a less cost.
The Chairman : Do you want to alter this ?
Mr. Peatt: Yes, you might change it to the word " recommend," if that would suit better.
The Chairman: With the consent of the mover, this resolution is altered to read now as
follows:—
Moved by Mr. Peatt, seconded by Mr. Gale,—
" Resolved, That this meeting recommend the different Institutes to combine to arrange
for speakers other than the regular speakers provided by the Government, and that each
Institute pay its share pro rata of expense."    Carried.
Moved by Mr. Harris, seconded by Mr. DeHart,—
"That Mr. Palmer be asked to address the Central Farmers' Institute to-morrow at 11
o'clock, on the labour question."    Carried.
Veterinary Act.
Moved by Mr. Alexander Davie, seconded by Mr. Buckingham,—
" That the Central Farmers' Institute respectfully request the Government to pass a
Veterinary Association Act, to raise the standard of the veterinary profession and at the same
time to protect stock-men."
The Chairman : I may say, in reference to this, I think that matter is in hand, and it is
unnecessary to bring this in, as there is an Act before the Government at the present time.
Mr. Davie : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, the reason I made that motion was at the
request of one or two members of the veterinary profession. They asked it in this way. They
were of the opinion, if we recommended this to the Government, it would strengthen their
hands. I am aware myself that this Act is coming before the Government. At the same
time, they requested me to have a resolution of this kind brought before this meeting, as they
considered, if we would be good enough to pass it, it would strengthen the hands of the
veterinary profession and the veterinary men, and at the same time protect the stock-men.
The Chairman : It is a very necessary Act, and it is quite as necessary to have a qualified
veterinary doctor as a qualified doctor for human ailments.
Motion carried.
Sleigh Road at Bella Coola.
Moved by Mr. A. Hammer, seconded by Mr. Jas. Mar,—
" In order to create a local market in Bella Coola, more agricultural lands must be opened
up; and we are of the opinion that a great traffic would be created that would benefit a large
number of people, if a sleigh road were built from Bella Coola into the Interior."
Mr. Hammer: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, this is a very important question to the
northern part of British Columbia and the district I represent. In support of the resolution,
I can safely say that the Bella Coola Valley, which I am representing, is the largest and finest
valley on the Northern Coast, which is adaptable to fruit-growing and agricultural purposes.
It also contains large timber resources, and several good copper mines have been located in the
district, which, I am credibly informed, will in the near future rank among the best in the
country. Now, there are a great number of people who are anxious to go into the Interior,
but are debarred from doing so on account of the very bad condition of the roads and trails.
There is a waggon road now extending up the valley about 22 miles. Beyond that there is
only a packing trail, which needs improving. Now, we are expecting a great rush in there
this summer, and we know that there are plenty of people anxious to settle in the country, but
they cannot get in on account of the conditions that exist there now with regard to roads. As
Secretary of the Bella Coola Institute, I have received a good many letters from people all
throughout Western Canada and the Territories, who are anxious to come in there, and I have
never encouraged anyone to come, because the only way to get in is by means of a pack-trail.
There are, of course, people settled in there, but to bring in large families would be very difficult. 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institues Report. M 45
And it is a very trying matter to bring in farming machinery, such as mowers, ploughs and
hay-racks, on horseback, and it requires several horses to pack a mower. So you will see that
something requires to be done, sooner or later, to open up that country. The last steamboat
(the "Camosun") that went up there was overcrowded. People had to sleep on the floor of a
large steamer like that, so you can see there are people anxious to settle in there, but they want
better trails. Now, we have asked the Government already for $3,000, to be expended on this
trail as soon as possible in the spring, because something has to be done to improve conditions
for the rush that will be bound to go in there this summer. Something has to be done for
them, and we thought if we could get the Central Farmers' Institute to endorse this, it would
strengthen the resolution of our Institute, and I think, gentlemen, you will all be willing to
support me in this. There is room in that district for a great number of people, and that is
what we want in Bella Coola, so as to create a local market for us. As it is now, there is no
encouragement for people to go farming, as we have not got the market for our products. We
can, of course, sell a few dozen eggs and a few pounds of butter, but there is no encouragement
to farm on a large scale. And you can imagine what a traffic this would create through Bella
Coola if these thousands of acres of really good agricultural and fruit lands were opened up.
And we believe we should have this traffic, because there is no other valley that can be settled
all the way into the Interior as ours. It seems to me that this valley, even now, is settled
some 75 miles up into the Interior and north of it. Of course, there is some worthless land here
and there. But there are settlers living now 75 miles up along the valley, and I may say about
that point there was a slide there which was very difficult to climb. Last fall the Government
expended $1,000 on the roads, and in order to avoid this slide they continued right up through
the valley, but the work was not finished, and it must be finished in the spring. Now, if this
road is built there will be a farming district all the way from the Coast into the Interior and
people can go in there, and if we have a sleigh road they will be able to bring their goods and
provisions in. That is all I have to say, gentlemen. I believe if the Farmers' Institute would
support this resolution it would carry some weight with the Government. As I have said
before, it has already been laid before the Government, and perhaps they will take the matter up.
Mr. Gale: What would be the cost of this road you speak of 1
Mr. Hammer: Well, all we ask for this coming spring is $2,000 or $3,000.
Mr. Gale : How many miles of road is it ?
Mr. Hammer:—Well, from the wharf at Bella Coola to Ootsa Lake is 135 miles. There
is a waggon road of 22 miles and a trail for perhaps another 50 miles, so there would only be
about 25 miles.
Mr. DeHart: How many acres of land would this road open up ?
Mr. Hammer: It would open up the districts and land surrounding Ootsa and Francois
Lakes ; and the Chilcotin people want to come in there and bring their provisions in, as it
would be cheaper than the way they have to bring them in now. Again, if this road were
opened up, it would also benefit the City of Victoria, and would benefit the whole of the country.
Mr. Randle : What kind of a country would this road go through ?
Mr. Hammer: Well, Bella Coola Valley varies; but after you get to the head of the
Bella Coola Valley there are open meadows extending all the way into the Ootsa country,
thousands and thousands of acres of land. I know stock has wintered in there and were in
fine condition when they left, but when they arrived in Bella Coola they were in poor
condition, owing to the difficult trail they had to travel over. But even during this last
winter, which was an unusually severe one, the cattle were wintered up in the higher country
around there and were reported to be doing well and rolling in fat, and no losses had occurred
during the last winter; so you can see for yourself what we could do if we had a good road,
and this country must certainly be opened up; it is the best grazing country around. There
is none better, and there are hundreds of people anxious to go in. Therefore, we must have
some way to get them in, so as to encourage people to come into our country and help us.
The little farming community in Bella Coola does not amount to anything. The Government
has spent considerable money in the Bella Coola Valley. If they will but continue the trail,
and we get a good trail for the start, it will help us out considerably, and in a very short time
the traffic will demand better roads. So we are satisfied if we only get $1,000 to expend on
that trail, because we feel satisfied if we get the travel in through there the traffic will in a
very short time demand better roads.
Mr. Evans : I would suggest to my friend, from the experience that we have had in our
country, that he ask for a waggon road, because in our part of the country, when they made a waggon road they usually simply made a very good sleigh road, and when you ask for a
sleigh road they will give you a good trail.    You ought to ask for a waggon road.
Mr. Harris : I think we ought to recommend this resolution, because this road is going
to be a great help to the people who are there, and it is certainly difficult for them to be without good roads, and not able to get those settlers in that are anxious to go in. But I advise
my friend not to ask for a sleigh road. It is one of the last things to ask for. They only
make it three feet wide. If you ask for a waggon road you might then get it, but don't ask for
a sleigh road.
Mr. Hammer : We don't like to ask for too much, but if we get a good sleigh road, what
we are asking for now in the start, that will be all that will be required for a number of years.
Mr. Collins : Perhaps if you asR for a waggon road, you will get the sleigh road.
Mr. Hammer : We are asking for a good sleigh road. It is just like this with us : A
waggon road could not be built in their next summer, and a sleigh road can, and the people
could come in over this sleigh road, and we want something that can be put into service right
away.    The waggon road would be a big expense and cost a great deal of money.
The Chairman : Mr. Hammer knows his requirements best, and I think the motion, as he
has put it in, is very good.
Motion carried.
Safety of Waggon Roads during Railway Construction.
Moved by Mr. Dodding, seconded by Mr. V. D. Curry,—
" Resolved, That where, during construction of a railway, a waggon road is diverted, that
the railway company be compelled to put in a road which is reasonably safe for the travelling public; and, further, that such road shall be divided from the railway by a substantial
fence, wherever the track and   road run side by side."
Mr. Dodding: As you all know, we have just had a branch of railway run through our
country, and our waggon road, as a result of the building of such a road, has been very
unsatisfactory. My own team has been run off the road and several others beside, and in one
part of the road I noticed that there was no fence between the waggon road and the railroad ;
they are running close by each other, and the river is close by, and it is not at all safe, and
the road above is very unsatisfactory. I think, therefore, that there should be more protection
given.
Mr. Curry : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I have much pleasure in seconding the motion.
I have had occasion while travelling to see the unsafe condition of some of these roads, and to
a stranger coming through it is very dangerous indeed to have the line of railway so near the
road and no protection guards of any kind. For instance, the Nicola road was built along where
the natural waggon road ran, and they went to work and excavated into a great gravel cliff,
and between that and this cliff they ran the waggon road. Well, the time I passed by there
they were putting in posts close to the railroad track, and the waggon road went right along
on the other side of that. For an inexperienced driver driving along there it would be quite
dangerous. And I think protection should be given, and if necessary there should be a high
board fence between the railroad and the waggon road, which will prevent the view of the
track and the train from the horses, and it would afford better protection to life. It is all
very well for these railroad companies to run through our community and destroy our farms
and roads, but it is not a square deal to choke us up a bluff like this and compel us to drive
our wives and children along a place like that.
Mr. Baker : Now, at Agassiz, we have a road running along the railway similar to what
this gentleman says, only it does not run along a bluff. It is very inconvenient and very
dangerous, and there is a very great danger to a colt or inexperienced horse, or driver who is
not used to it. As a matter of fact, we are very careful when we go to buy a horse to get one
that will not be scared of the trains, if we can possibly get one. I have had a very narrow
escape from a serious accident myself. I think this question is a very serious one and we
should make it as impressive as possible.
Motion carried.
Institute Speakers.
Moved by Mr. Abbott, seconded by Mr. Phillip,—
" That the Government send to our Institute meetings a practical man on fruit-growing
and packing." 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 47
The Chairman: I don't quite understand that. Are you supposed to refer to any one
particular Institute 1
Mr. Abbott: That refers to our supplementary meetings.
The Chairman : That was dealt with in another resolution.
Mr. Abbott: I think my motion has been touched on a good many times to-day, and Mr.
Tatlow said it had already been done, but it has not yet been done in our district, where there
is not so much dairying going on as fruit-growing. And when these meetings are on and
these people come to lecture to us none of our men turn out. I feel ashamed of our Institute
when there is such a poor attendance, and I asked the members why they did not come, and
they said " He did not interest us. Why don't they send a man down who can interest us in
fruit ?" Now, that is the reason I bring in this motion. We have had very good speakers, so
far as the dairying is concerned, but it does not interest our district, and I just want to remind
the Government, when sending a man to our district, that they send a practical man who can
address us on fruit-growing.
Mr. Phillips : In seconding this resolution, I wish to say there was pretty nearly the same
motion passed last year. At our supplementary meetings last year they engaged Mr. Brandrith to address us. Now, our district is both fruit and cattle, dairying and everything else.
We have been very well satisfied with the speakers that we have had, but still, I think, it
would be of advantage to the district if there was a speaker appointed who could lecture and
demonstrate solely on the growing of fruit and taking care of the orchard.
Mr. Davie : Mr. Chairman, just excuse me. But doesn't it look as if we were taking the
matter out of the hands of the Superintendent ?
The Chairman : The Superintendent is always very glad to do what he can to get the
proper speakers for each district.
Mr. Abbott: When sending in our request from the different Institutes, we are asked to
name the subjects that we would like to have taken up at our meetings, and I think that quite
covers the motion.
The Chairman : I always conform as much as possible to the wishes of the Institutes.
Motion carried.
Canada Thistles.
Moved by Mr. Dodding, seconded by Mr. Evans,—
" Resolved, That the Provincial constables be instructed to see that the Canadian thistles
are cut before the seed ripens ; also, to enquire about the thistles on the ranges."
The Chairman : This perennial question is something like the perennial thistle. Perhaps
I had better explain a little what we are doing on this subject. There is an Act dealing with
the Canadian thistle, under which the Department has authority to appoint agents who will
carry out the provisions of the Act, and it is always done when requests are made; but it is
impossible to take up the question unless some definite request is sent in. Now, if Mr.
Dodding or Mr. Evans will send to me a request, asking that a constable be appointed, it will
be done immediately.
Mr. Dodding : That was understood ; but the trouble was the constable went to work too
late, and did not start in to cut the thistle until the month of August, when everyone of the
thistles had bloomed and had been spread about the country, so we all had the benefit of the
bloom. Now, we want to have a constable sent out at a certain time to look after these
thistles before the thistle blooms and is ripe, and we want him to look after the thistles on the
mountain ranges as well.
The Chairman: The Act is quite definite on that point. It defines the responsibility of
everybody in connection with the cutting of the Canadian thistle, and no matter whether the
Government owns the land or private owners, they have to be governed by the Act in that
respect.
Mr. Abbott: I might state that has been our grievance for a couple of years; but last
year I went to Mr. Anderson and had him appoint a constable, and we had satisfactory
results.
Mr. J. T. Collins: I may say in my district the Canadian thistle was not cut at all, and
we could not find anyone responsible for cutting it, and they were allowed to go to seed. I
think the resolution is all right in its way. I thought it was the duty of the constable to see
that all these thistles were cut.
The Chairman : No, I do not think so. M 48 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
Mr. Baker : Mr. Chairman, in the municipalities I think the path-masters are always
instructed in regard to these thistles being cut. They are instructed by us, at any rate, to see
that the Canada thistle is taken care of.
The Chairman : That is under your municipality by-laws.
Mr. Davie: I would ask, Mr. Chairman, who are responsible for thistles and obnoxious
weeds growing on the Indian Reserves ?
The Chairman : The Indian Department.
Motion carried.
Cattle-guards on Railroads.
Moved by Mr. R. D. McKenzie, seconded by Mr. A. Davie,—
" Resolved, That this Institute impress upon the Government the necessity of better
cattle-guards and fences on railroads for the protection of stock."
Mr. McKenzie: As you are aware, the lower Fraser is pretty well cut up by railways,
and in consequence of these railways the farmers are suffering a good deal by stock being killed,
so I do not think there will be any trouble in having this resolution carried through. There
should be some protection given by the Company, and if there are any cattle killed it takes a
very long time indeed to get any remuneration from the railway. In some cases you never get
anything for the damages. The fences and cattle-guards that they have are very poor, and
these could be improved, I think, to offer better protection to the cattle and the farmers, and
I think this resolution is a step in the right direction.
Mr. Davie : I do not think it is necessary for me to say very much on this question; the
resolution speaks for itself. We have the same conditions in our country, and I know if any
of the cattle are killed on the track we don't get anything for it.
Mr. Gale : The same thing applies in my district. The Victoria Terminal Railway runs
through there, and they use the barb wire fence-guard, and it is very bad for the cattle. I do
not think the resolution calls for it, but I think it would be a very good thing if that barb
wire were done away with and the plain wire put on instead. However, I am heartily in
sympathy with any resolution that will give more protection to the animals, and the cattle-
guards they have now are practically no use whatever, for the cattle walk right over them.
Mr. Harris : I think this should be attended to, because the railways are coming into the
Province pretty thick now. Up in the Yale District the railroad crosses the Yale Waggon
Road three times in one and a half miles, and forms an S. This is going to make it pretty
dangerous to people travelling, and we need more protection, there is no doubt, and the
Government can do a great many things to remedy this. I think the resolution will go through
all right.
Motion carried.
Sunday a Close Season for Game.
Moved by Mr. Brandrith, seconded by Mr. N. E. Buckingham,—
" That the Government be requested to make Sunday a close season during the game
season."
Mr. Brandrith: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, my object in moving this resolution is to
try and get a little peace and quietness on the Sabbath day. The Institute I represent lies
between two cities, and from early morn till late in the evening, in the game season, it is
nothing but pop, pop, pop. This is not only annoying to people who are attending Divine
Service on the Sabbath, but it is also dangerous to life and limb, and if Sunday were made a
close season it would help to do away with that annoyance and danger.
Mr. Buckingham : I have great pleasure in seconding this resolution, for the same reason
as has been given by the mover. I do not know whether this necessarily has to do with the
Dominion Lord's Day Observance Act. If that is put into force, it would have the same
effect as this resolution, and I would be very pleased to see it put into effect. We live a few
miles out of Vancouver, and Sunday is the day when all the sports come out from the city to
shoot, and we simply have no peace at all. The only way we could have our farms to ourselves
was by passing a Game Protective Association law, and allowing no one to come on to our
island to shoot. As it is now, the B. C. Electric Railway Company comes out, and they just
scatter these sports all over the islands,  and they come out in hundreds from Vancouver to *7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 49
shoot, so that, as I say, we have no peace at all with them. The Sabbath Day is made a day
of sport more than it is the day of rest, and I think that it is too bad that such things exist.
I have much pleasure, I am sure, in seconding this resolution.
Motion carried.
Moved by Mr. Currie, seconded by Mr. Evans—
" That the meeting adjourn till to-morrow morning, at 10 a.m."    Motion carried.
SECOND  DAY.
Wednesday, March 6th, 1907.
Mr. Robert Long, East Kootenay, and Mr. James Johnstone, West Kootenay, present.
The Chairman,—The Minister of Agriculture requested me to say he would probably be
going out of town this morning, and if there was anything the delegates wished to see him
about he would be glad to be informed about it. He will not be back in time this evening to
meet you before your meeting breaks up, as I presume we will be adjourning this evening. I
told him I did not think there was any question at the present time we wished to hear him
on specially, and if there was anything at all it might be brought up to-morrow by a committee
of the delegates, but there had been nothing transpired up to the present time requiring his
presence.
Mr. Collins : I think it would be better to appoint a committee to meet the Minister.
The Chairman : That can be done at the end of the proceedings, if necessary. In accordance with the resolution passed yesterday, Mr. Cunningham, the Inspector of Fruit Pests, is
present, and will make an address. I am glad to bear witness to the efficiency of Mr.
Cunningham during the incumbency of his office. Had the same policy been pursued from the
first as is now pursued, I am certain that the conditions in the older part of the Province—for
instance, in Victoria, which, I may say, was the whole Province in days gone by, where fruit
trees were planted years ago—the conditions existing now would have been remedied long ago.
We have now a very great work in front of us, but Mr. Cunningham is able, I think, to cope
with it. His heart is certainly in the work. He may make mistakes sometimes, but we all
make mistakes; we would not be human if we didn't; but you can depend upon it, when he
does make a mistake, it is done without intention. I shall be very glad to have Mr. Cunningham address you now, gentlemen.    (Loud applause.)
Mr. Cunningham's Address.
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—I thank you personally for the kind reference to myself, and I thank you for the opportunity of affording me a minute or two to talk to you on
matters that pertain to my department. Mine is not the most pleasant business in the world,
and there never has been a time in my history when I have felt that I needed the moral support of this Institute as much as I do now. We are engaged at the present time in a very
important and forward movement, one that is far-reaching in its consequences, but yet attendant
with very much embarrassment and considerable difficulty. This business should have been
attended to many years ago, and would have been attended to earlier in my official history had
it not been for the political uncertainty of the country. That is the fact, gentlemen. We
have not had a Government until now that we considered was of sufficient strength to enforce
wholesome regulations, and, in fact, wholesome laws, and enforce them regarding the protection
of the country from the horticultural standpoint. It is very true we have a Minister who is
thoroughly in accord with this movement, but he is only one of the Cabinet, and no one
Minster can do all that he would like to do ; he has to consult his colleagues, and none of them
are as keenly alive to the necessity of this forward movement as he is. So that,"sizing up the
situation, I may just state to you plainly and honestly that this work would have been done
years ago if we had been as strongly fortified as we are to-day with a Government that was
strong enough to enforce its mandate, such as this Government is now able to do.
It is not a pleasant thing to be drawn into Court, as you all know, gentlemen, to enforce
horticultural regulations. I have carefully avoided all legal conflict while I have been in office,
and have never had any legal conflict since the time I assumed this office. (Cries of " Hear,
hear.) I have managed always, as far as I was able, to enforce the regulations against the
importation of diseased nursery stock, diseased fruit and diseased grain (for we are handling
grain now as well as fruit).     I have managed to get around the difficulty without involving M 50 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
the country or the Board of Horticulture in a legal controversy. I think that is the wisest
policy, and I shall continue to do so. We don't invite conflict. We have our own difficulties,
of course, especially as the influences of the people East of us are not in sympathy with our
forward movement. Now, I do not wish to reflect upon the Eastern people, the Ontario
Government, or the Government at Ottawa in reference to their legislation and all that sort of
thing, which we must consider does affect our actions in this country. This is the only
Province in the Dominion of Canada which has a system of fruit inspection and an inspection
of nursery stock, and we are the only Province that has taken this strong stand in reference to
the defence of the country against infectious diseases. We stand alone on this, and we have
achieved success, and the very successes we have achieved have invited, I won't say the
hostility, but the jealousy perhaps, of some of our friends in the East. It is not a very pleasant
thing for the Government at Ontario and the Government at Ottawa to realise this fact, that
after their long years of experience, and the possession of numerous experimental farms and
having large areas devoted to horticulture, they are not in a position to face us at the Exhibition
in London, and that they cannot risk the competition for the higher honours and awards that
are given by the British Horticultural Society. Twice in succession have they backed out at
the last moment from making their exhibits, and it is not pleasant for them to realise this fact,
and they are naturallv a little jealous of British Columbia's success. And these very successes
that we are achieving year after year place us in this position—that we have to be cautious
that we don't incur the hostility and unfriendliness of our friends in the East. I do not know
what the effect is going to be in British Columbia as regards the legislation passed at Ottawa
on the question of the standard and quality of fruit, but certainly some of the horticultural
legislation at Ottawa has been exceedingly important. We have so far been able to meet this
legislation, and I was greately impressed with this fact in a lawsuit at Vancouver in the case
of a local fruit company suing the C. P. R. for damages to an orchard. Specimens of the infected fruit were presented as evidence to show that this orchard was in a bad and unhealthy
condition, and boxes of this fruit were put on the table. But the lawyers who had charge of
this case for the railway company very quickly produced this fact—that the Dominion Government had carefully considered this question of fruit infection, and had made an allowance of
ten per cent, in their first class quality. So I could see then it was an eye-opener to me, and
that it was a dangerous thing, and I regarded it as such, because I know if it were ranked on
the inspection and rejection of infected fruit, this very same argument would be put up against
us to put us out of Court; so, as far as we are concerned, this legislation of the Dominion
Government on the question of standard and quality of fruit has been exceedingly unfortunate
for us. I take the ground, and I think every gentleman on the Board will take the ground,
that only first class apples should constitute a box of fruit (applause); that there should be no
ten per cent, permitted to be pa,cked in a box of apples. So I take and continue to hold that
position, and I have the experience of the world and the fruit-growers behind me, especially of
our friends to the south of us.
Now, another thing that has caused me embarrassment this year is the deliverance of the
Entymological Society of Canada. I think that is their term. It belongs to the eastern part
of the Dominion and is a large and influential society. They met in convention last October
or November—November, probably—and they took up the question of the inspection of fruit,
and after debating the question and thoroughly thrashing it out among themselves they came
to this conclusion : That it was not right to inspect and reject apples or pears showing infection of the San Jose scale. That news was telegraphed all over the Province of British
Columbia, and after a day or two the commission merchants of Vancouver took up the question
in the press, and they made an attack on me personally and the B. C. Board of Horticulture
for enforcing the inspection of fruit in British Columbia, inasmuch as this higher authority
and the Dominion Government had pronounced it as being unnecessary and not to the advantage
of commerce. Well, I took up the question, and I wrote a nice strong letter to the Dominion
Entymological Society, taking this ground : " That it is an unfortunate decision you came to.
It is unfortunate for yourselves, and it is embarrassing for us. You know our system of fruit
inspection, and you know that we do not permit infected fruit to be imported into the Province,
nor do we now permit our deceased fruits to be sold in the market; so that this decision of
yours will embarrass us. But it is also unfortunate for yourselves. How : Why 1 Well,
just in this way. Just so long as you permit careless, slovenly orchards to sell their infected
fruit you will have diseased orchards. There is no getting away from that. And the only way
you can compel some men to take care of their trees and prune them is to cut off their revenue, 7 Ed. 7 • Farmers' Institutes Report. M 51
so the man is forced to this : He must cut down his trees or clean them altogether, or put them
in a condition that they will produce wholesome fruit, so that you have actually done your
Horticultural Society a serious injury." And in the same paper that conveyed to them this
intelligence was a record of a sale of Ontario fruit in Bristol, England, at what do you think 1
At two shillings a barrel—sold at auction at two shillings a barrel. The barrels
cost two shillings at the factory, and the apples had been brought to Bristol,
England, and then sold by auction at two shillings a barrel. Now, I said to those
gentlemen, "Here is the result; here is one of the results of your mistakes, and you
will have such results as long as you make such mistakes." And I said, "This is the right
way to look at it. Just so long as men make these mistakes, so long will you have diseased
fruits, and just so long will you have these unsatisfactory sales." Now, then, in the same
month, British Columbia apples were sold at 18 shillings for 45 pounds. Now, put these two
results together, gentlemen. The Ontario entymologists deciding against the inspection of
fruit; the Ontario fruit sold in Bristol, England, at two shillings a barrel, and British Columbia,
taking a different position, in the same month sold her fruit in London at 18 shillings for 45
pounds. It is the survival of the fittest at all times, gentlemen, and holds good in everything
in life ; so that I really think we have need to be very careful that we are not encroached upon,
and that we are not interfered with by our Eastern friends. The chances are that we will have
some difficulty with them. I don't like their legislation with reference to those berry-boxes ; I
do not think it was proper legislation. This thing was threshed out before, and it is not right
to say to British Columbia " You must not sell your small fruits by the pound (16 ounces), but
you must pack them in a certain quart measure, and it does not make any difference whether
you put half a dozen berries in this box or till it up, you conform to the law." Now, when this
legislation was being forced upon the fruit-growers of British Columbia, this extraordinary
position was taken by some Dominion Government officials. They said, " That is the law, vou
must conform to it, and you must have this size of a berry-box, but it does not at all follow
that you must fill the box." Now, you can see that that is not honest legislation. That is a
low moral standard for any man to take on the question of weights and measures—a low moral
standard, and that same low moral educational standard is producing bad effect in Ontario. I
have a case in mind of a large exporter of Ontario buying up all the No. 3 fruit he could find, with
the one X brand of fruit mark on it. He bought it at the very lowest price and it was third
class fruit. Well, they shipped that fruit to Portland, State of Maine, the terminus of the
Grand Trunk Pacific, and after they were shipped through there they had their man go down
and add two additional X's, making it XXX, and this fruit was then shipped to wherever they
could find a market for it as Al fruit. So you see where all this leads to. This dishonesty is
having its proper effect, and just so long as that sort of thing is permitted we will have this
trouble. We are proceeding on a different basis altogether in British Columbia. We say,
" Clean fruit in clean packages, honestly packed and high quality," and we expect to get the
best price for it, and we are getting our prices for it.
Now, I am very glad to say that our friends south of us are taking a very advanced
position in reference to the inspection of their orchards and the sale of infected fruit. Three
very important lawsuits have recently been decided—one in Washington and two in Oregon—
proving we have behind us in our policy the most successful horticulturists on the Continent,
and they have the very same system as we have adopted here. One of the cases in question
was where an Inspector in Oregon had cut down a large plantation of San Jose scale infected
Italian prunes and he was sued in the Courts for damages; but when it was brought before
the Court the Judge not only gave a verdict in favour of the Inspector, but delivered a very
wholesome lecture to the careless fruit-grower, pointing out that this cutting down was done
in his own interest, and it was necessary such an important industry should be protected. He
said the prosperity of the State was involved in this question, and all the damages and costs
were assessed to the man who brought the damage suit against the Inspector. Then there was
a Fruit Inspector in Portland who adopted the unfailing method of taking a coal oil can and
going along to the different fruit stores, and wherever he found infected fruit he poured coal
oil all over it. One man sued out an injunction to restrain him from this, but the Court decided
the Inspector was right, and that he should not only have put coal oil on it but he should have
burned it all up. Then there was another case tried in the Yakima County the other day—
the Inspector there destroyed 1,100 boxes of apples on account of the San Jose scale infecting
the fruit. The Court, in summing up the case, said the only fault he found was that they took
too much time examining the fruit that was there to see what was good out of it, that they
should have destroyed the whole of the 1,100 boxes.    (Applause.) M 52 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
As you all know, gentlemen, Washington is our great competitor in the North-West, and
to show you how forward and advanced they are in horticultural legislation, I will read you a
clause from their amended horticultural laws, section 14.    (Section read.    See page M 78.)
Now, gentlemen, that is the forward movement in Washington. We have got to learn
something from that. The very important step that we are now taking in British Columbia
to compel the cleaning of orchards is not nearly as strong as this law, and that law has been
upheld in Yakima. So, you see, they are in line with us, and we are in line with them in this
regard. Now, if our good friends in Ontario would take a leaf out of our book and their book
it would be a great deal better for them. We have shown what we can do, and this little
handful of people settled on the Pacific Coast have taken the foremost position in horticulture,
which augurs well for the future. The result of it all is that lands that were a drug on this
market a few years ago at from $15 to $20 an acre are now being sold to Manitobans who
want to go into fruit-growing at $50 and $200 an acre. Now, I hold that this is one of the
results of our far-seeing policy, and we are now trusting to Providence for the result, and we are
coming out all right.
Now, coming down to the inspection of orchards, as you can well imagine, it is not a
pleasant thing to have to tell a man he must either clean these trees or cut them down, and I
have cautioned our men as to how they should approach the owners of orchards on these matters, so that we may have as little friction as possible, and yet at the same time an entire
enforcement of the law. It has been a year of great difficulty, and I do not know when in my
experience I have had so many problems to solve, some of them quite unexpected. One particularly I might mention was the inspection of rice. We are not an unit on the necessity of
proper rice inspection, and from all the information I can gather I think that we have a perfect
right to insist that all infected grain of whatever kind coming into the Province must be
inspected. We don't exclude it. We don't embarrass commerce at all. But say that this rice
or grain—particularly if it is infected with any disease likely to be dangerous to the fruitgrowers of this Province—must be inspected and treated accordingly. I had a letter from
Japan a short time ago, and it was a very important one, setting out the result of the distribution of this rice scale in Japan. And the writer, after giving a life history of the insect, makes
this statement, that this insect takes hold of cereal foods in grocery stores, and once it gets
a footing in the grocery stores it is impossible to get it destroyed without fumigation and
cleansing of the entire premises. Taking that view of it, any grain which will carry infection
into the grocery stores or places where we get our cereals should not be admitted. This weevil
is a dangerous insect to have, and it is our duty to try and eliminate it wherever it is to be
found, for no one would like to take his porridge in the morning and feel that it was infected
with this weevil. It is very true what the rice millers say, that this weevil is eliminated by
their process of cleaning, but at the same time the sacks are there. They are carried into the
fibre of the sacks, and are brought into the grocery stores and other places where it is likely to
do very serious damage. That is the position, gentlemen, I am taking in regard to its inspection, and the Government is backing me up in it. And if the rice is infected and constituting
a danger to any industry in the Province, we must insist upon its being inspected. That is all
additional work on the part of the Inspector, and I am explaining this all to you because some
of you may think we are taking a great deal more care than we have any right to do. But I
want to convince you that we are on the right side, and we will continue to be on the right side.
We also have the inspection of corn, as there is what they call a corn weevil, and
there is the inspection of peas because of the pea weevil. I remember a time when Ontario
had the whole of the British trade in peas, but they lost that trade on account of the pea weevil, and that most profitable trade has been lost to them largely on account of this infestation
of the pea weevil. Well, we don't want to have the same experience here. We want to stop
the business before the infection comes in, so we now insist upon the destruction of all weeviled
peas. We destroyed a lot of them last summer in Vancouver and here, and we expect to do
the same again. Now, the result of all this is that the largest dealers in the States have made
contracts with our own growers. This is the work we are doing, gentlemen, and as I said
before, I hope to have your cordial co-operation in it. I have nothing to gain personally by
carrying on this campaign ; I am here to defend the country, and by God's help I will do it as
long as I am in that position. I look to a higher power for help, and leave my responsibility
with that higher power. I am responsible to my Maker for the continuance of my duty faithfully ; and I hope to continue on with this campaign of orchard cleansing until we eliminate
all those dangerous pests out of the country.    It is done elsewhere and it must be done here. 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes*Report. M    53
The spread of the San Jose scale is increasing in Ontario, and they will never be able to
grapple with it so long as they continue selling scale-infected fruit. Why, what happened in
the Dominion Government the other day ? A deputation was sent to Ottawa from East Kent,
beseeching the Dominion Government to come to their relief in defending the orchards from
the San Jose scale—a new settlement altogether. So it shows this, that it is necessary to control this scale there, as it is spreading from place to place until it will gradually put them out
of business. We don't want that experience here. We want to maintain our regulations not
only as stringently as they are maintained now, but to increase them, and to keep in line with
our friends across the boundary.    They are on the right track, and so are we.     (Applause.)
I went over to Seattle in November to take a look at the condition of affairs there, and
whilst a few years ago that city used to be the depot for the whole of the infected rubbish for
the coast of Washington, I can assure you, gentlemen, that I did not find a dozen infected
boxes of fruit offered for sale in the whole of Seattle—not a dozen ; so you can see that they
are enforcing their laws over there, and we propose to do the same thing here.
Now, I think I have said as much as I ought to say, and if you have any questions,
gentlemen, you would like to ask, or any information you would like on any point, I will be
pleased to explain.
Mr. Evans (Salmon Arm) : There is one grievance that fruit-growers in our part of the
country have—I am speaking now of the nursery men who send us trees that are supposed to
be of a certain variety, and when we get them and go to the trouble of planting them we find
later on that they are not what we ordered, and we can get no compensation of any kind.
Mr. Cunningham : There is a nursery law, and if you find you have been deceived as to
the variety of fruit you ordered, all you have to do is to get a judgment against them, and
they will have to make a refund.
Mr. Evans :—I consulted the Attorney-General on the matter, and the advice I got was
that if I found, when they arrived, they were not true to name I need not accept them, but
once having accepted them the responsibility rests with me. That is the advice I received
from the Attorney-General.
Mr. Cunningham : Of course, he cannot understand the fact that it would be a very
difficult matter to define the varieties when you receive them. You have to plant them first
and get results before you can tell. Then you have your remedy if they are not what you
ordered.
Mr. DeHart: With regard to nursery men selling fruit trees, and their riot turning out
to name, I may say that there is no nursery farm now that will guarantee their trees to name.
But if they do not turn out true to name, they will guarantee you a refund of the money they
received for those trees. For instance, take any of the large nurseries, they may perhaps
have 50 men budding, and when you send men to bud perhaps from 2,000 to 5,000 varieties
of trees it is an easy matter for them to make a mistake and put one variety or more in the
wrong row and get them mixed. It is no advantage to them to sell you a wrong variety, and
they are not anxious to do it.
Mr. Evans : I can produce the agreement and it is not what you say. They agreed to
sell me a certain quantity of trees of a certain variety. Mine is not the only case where they
have not sent the trees true to name. And I contend that if they continue to do this, one
orchard in such cases would be damaged to more than $2,000.
The Chairman : What remedy would you propose ?
Mr. Evans : I propose that we should have more. As the law stands now it is a fraud,
and it is best to have it struck off the books altogether. Don't send us away making us think
we have protection when we haven't.    Two thousand dollars is no protection.
The Chairmon : You take legal proceedings and get judgment and you will see how you
come out.
Mr. Brandrith : Did you show the lawyer the contract ?
Mr. Evans : Yes, and that was the advice I got. If the trees were not true to name I
need not accept them.    But as far as the $2,000 is concerned, it is not very much protection.
Mr. Gale : About those berry boxes—I understood at the fruit-growers' meeting the other
day that the one-pound boxes would not be allowed to be used here this year under any
condition. I am under the impression, though, it can be used, provided it is marked as
containing a pound.
Mr. Cunningham : I have always held that the only honest way to sell berries is by the
pound. Any lady who buys berries in that way can know whether she is getting the worth
of her money or not.    This four-fifth's of a box is nonsense.    Well, I thank you, gentlemen. M 54 Farmehis' Institutes Report. 1907
Mr. Evans : I would like to ask Mr. Cunningham as to whether he has appointed any
Inspectors for the Upper Country.
Mr. Cunningham : Yes ; there will be a whole lot of them out there next week. As I have
said before, there was a delay in this business, as the thing could not be attempted until quite
recently.
Mr. Baker : What time are they coming up to Agassiz ?
Mr. Cunningham : They will be along there some time next week, and I hope you will
treat them well. I think a great deal more can be done by pleasant co-operation than by
conflict.    Be his friend and he will be yours, and he comes there as a friend to help you.
Mr. Baker: I would like to ask a question. There are orchards up where I am on
rented ground. There is one orchard in particular that is owned by a man in Victoria, and
we cannot get in communication with him. The orchard is in bad condition, and I have it
myself this year, and I don't want to go cutting a man's trees down without his knowledge,
but I would like to know about it.
Mr. Cunningham : We can give him ten days' notice in which to put them in shape, and
if he does not meet the regulations he will have to suffer.
Mr. Venables : Are you taking care of the orchard for him ?
Mr. Baker : I rent his place and there is nothing said about the orchard.
Mr. Curry: I am interested in this fruit tree question. As a matter of fact, I represent
the Aberdeen Estate, and from my experience in nursery ^tock I am perfectly satisfied that
no self-respecting nursery man will attempt to sell a man trees other than what he asks for.
He won't substitute a tree knowingly, but, as Mr. DeHart has said, it is impossible to prevent
mistakes creeping in. A nursery man does not want these mistakes to creep in, as it hurts
his own business, and these mistakes often occur through careless help—perhaps being too
lazy to go down the orchard and pick out the proper variety, and takes a variety nearer
unknown to his employer. I have known of that to occur. But, I will venture to say that
Mr. Evans will not find the whole of his orchard substituted.
Mr. Evans :  I find over one-half substituted.
Mr. Curry :  Where did you get your trees from ?
Mr. Evans : I did not get them from Aberdeen, or it is altogether likely the whole of them
would have been substituted.    (Laughter.)
Mr. Currjr: Well, all I can say is this : That when there is one particular variety we
are out of, we cannot supply that any more, but strike it right off our list.
The Chairman : This discussion is not in order, but of course it is an interesting one, and
we may take a few moments, but I must ask any speaker to speak but once.
Mr. Johnstone: I think it might not be out of place to make a remark on a matter that
came to my notice the other day with reference to the advantages of co-operation of the
Dominion and Provincial authorities with reference to the inspection of fruit exposed for sale.
Now, it is impossible for the Dominion Government to have an Inspector at every town to see
that every box is marked with the growers' name, and that it is marked true to its variety and
grade. Now, the man who inspects that box to see that it is marked right should also be an
Inspector of fruit posts. Now, the other day, in Nelson, I noticed a large amount of boxes of
apples not marked with the owner's name, and when I went to the Provincial Inspector he
said that it was not his business to attend to that part of it. Well, now, surely it could be
possible to have one man attend to both, for when he takes a box of apples and looks for infected fruits, the first thing he does is to look at the outside of the box to see if it conforms to
the regulations."
The Chairman: I think if you brought it up in the form of a resolution the matter could
be taken up intelligently, and at the present time it is mere desultory conversation. I think
that would be your best plan. Draw up a resolution, embodying all these things in full. I
take this opportunity of stating that the Dairymen's Association of British Columbia meets
here to-morrow, and I am asked to extend an invitation to all the delegates present here to
attend that Convention. A great many of you are interested in dairying, and it is one of the
branches of agriculture that is coming to the front, and one which is worthy of all support. I
hope that a good many of you will be able to remain over and attend that Convention. It
was called for to-morrow evening, but if we get through to-day it will be held in this room tomorrow morning.
Mr. Venables: Mr. Chairman, before we proceed with the other business, I think we
ought to move a vote of thanks to Mr.  Cunningham for his very able address.    We have 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M
listened to him with great attention, and we feel that he is doing a great work, and we intend
giving him our utmost support in every way. I beg to move a very hearty vote of thanks to
Mr. Cunningham.
Mr. J. T. Collins : I have very great pleasure in seconding that. I think Mr. Cunningham
has really done his duty in the fruit line, and I was pleased yesterday to see the great support
given to Mr. Cunningham by everyone in the room, and I think it sbould be a matter of congratulation to him the way be has done his duty and the stand he has taken.
The Chairman : Gentlemen, you have all heard the resolution, and I take a great deal of
pleasure in putting it, inasmuch as Mr. Cunningham and I have always worked together in
these matters, and I heartily endorse what Mr. Collins has said on the subject.
Motion carried unanimously.
Mr. Cunningham : Gentlemen, I am very thankful for this endorsement of my services. I
want, as I said before, your help. It is not a matter that concerns me personally at all, but I
am loyal to British Columbia. (Applause.) I am loyal to fruit-growing in British Columbia,
and I have spent the greater part of my life in preparation for the duties I am now discharging.
I gave up a very profitable business for horticulture, and while I made a financial mistake I
have succeeded in other ways, and after all there is something better than money. There is
the consciousness of doing something for your fellow-men, doing something to help your country,
and leaving a name after one's death that will be of value to you, and that has been my object,
gentlemen. I thank you exceedingly for your vote of thanks, and hope that I shall have your
confidence and co-operation during the whole of the year, and that we may all be able to work
together.    (Applause.)
The Chairman : Has the Committee any more resolutions ready?
Mr. Collins : We have a few more.
Mr. DeHart: Mr. Palmer was to have addressed the meeting.
Mr. Collins : I saw Mr. Palmer last evening and gave him your request, and he will
address you some time to-day.
Experimental Stations.
Moved by Mr. James Johnstone, seconded by Mr. J. T. Collins,—
" That the Dominion Government be requested to establish Experimental Stations on
Vancouver Island, in the Dry Belt and in the Kootenays, and that the British Columbia
representatives in the House of Commons and in the Senate be requested to use their influence
to have the same established."
The Chairman : There was something said about this yesterday, Mr. Johnstone.
Mr. Collins: That was as regards the endowment of a college.
The Chairman : No; it was mentioned that a telegram had been sent to Mr. Templeman,
but so far no reply had been received from him on the subject.
Mr. Brandrith : It was mentioned by the Hon. Capt. Tatlow yesterday. The same subject
was brought up last year.    There has been no resolution on it this year.
The Chairman : I did not say there was a resolution. But I was calling Mr. Johnstone's
attention to the fact that this matter had been brought up last year and was referred to in
this way. That the Dominion Government had promised, through Mr. Tern piemen, that the
subject of experimental stations would be taken up. Mr. Templeman was telegraphed to on
this subject by me only three days ago, asking him to give an explicit answer to this, and as
yet I have received no answer.    I only wish to call Mr. Johnstone's attention to that fact.
Mr. Brandrith : Mr. Chairman, I might say that in March last, at a Convention of the
Fruit-Growers' Association, that same resolution was made at the Conference. We then had
the assurance of the Minister of Agriculture, Mr. Fisher, that the matter should be taken into
the Government's serious consideration, and we just want to keep them considering this until
they consider it finally.
Motion carried.
Dairy Inspector.
Moved by Mr. Buckingham, seconded by Mr. McKenzie—
" Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting, it would be in the interests of the dairy
industry of this Province that a duly qualified man be appointed as Dairy Inspector, who
could devote his whole energy to this work." Mr. Buckingham : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, we have at the present time an Inspector
appointed for that work, but he is also an employee of the Dominion Government, and it is
impossible for him to devote the whole of his time to this work, and I think that the dairy
industry is growing and requires more attention, and it is one that should be looked after, as-
it is one of the coming great industries of the Province. And when you consider the amount
of money expended and sent out of the Province every year for butter alone, it is necessary
for us to look more closely into this question of furthering the interests of our industry in
British Columbia. The only way it can be looked after is by proper dairy inspection. I,
therefore, think this resolution will recommend itself to all right-thinking men, and I do not
wish to take up your time in discussing it, but certainly think it is a step in the right direction.
Mr. McKenzie : I have nothing to add, Mr. Chairman.
Motion carried.
Mr. Harris : Mr. Chairman, Mr. Palmer is now present, and I would move that we now
hear Mr. Palmer.
Mr. J. T. Collins : I second that.
Motion carried.     (Loud applause).
Address by Mr. R. M. Palmer.
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—I am very glad indeed to be present with you at your
meeting here for a short time, and am only sorry that I cannot be present during all the time
of your deliberations. I think I must congratulate you upon the success of your efforts yesterday, so far as they have been recorded in the daily press, and it is evident that your work is
having its legitimate effect.
Now, gentlemen, I have no long speech to make to you. One reason for that is that I do
not think I have quite recovered yet from the effect of my recent trip. I cannot recommend
the winter for an ocean trip across the Atlantic, and then when you add to that 3,000 miles of
ice and snow on the railway train, it all tends to throw one out of condition. I feel, however,
that you would like to have a few words, both as to the results of our fruit exhibits in the
Old Country, and also, as I understand, in regard to the immigration question, in so far as it
affects British Columbia. A great deal, I believe, has been already reported in the British
Columbia press in regard to those successes of our fruit exhibits in Edinburgh, London and
elsewhere. Personally I do not know what has been said in the papers, as I have not had an
opportunity of seeing them, but probably you have been kept pretty well posted as to the
different exhibitions and the results which have been achieved. Briefly, we were successful in
taking the gold medal at Edinburgh, five bronze medals and 11 silver medals. I do not suppose that any organisation in any country ever succeeded in carrying off so many honours in
one season as did British Columbia.
We did not meet with as much competition—I suppose you might call it—at the Colonial
Fruit Show in London as we anticipated. There was an exhibit there of Nova Scotia
apples, and a very good one too, but the press and the judges of fruit there did not seem to
think that the exhibit compared at all favourably with that of British Columbia, and I think
that is borne out by the awards made, and they succeeded in securing one silver medal, as
against the eleven which were awarded to the British Columbia exhibit.
I notice that my friend Mr. Johnstone is present here, and I will have the pleasure of
turning over one of the medals to him before he goes home. I want to state that although
the exhibit sent by Mr. Johnstone was not as large as that sent by some of the other sections
of the Province, it arrived in a very good condition, and that is a very important factor. I
think we all owe a debt of gratitude to the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. for the great interest
they have taken in the undertaking we had in hand, and for the successful arrangements
which they put into effect for the safe arrival of our fruit in London. Everything they could
do was done to ensure the safe carrying of the fruit, and to facilitate the arrangements for
handling it en route. The result was that it arrived in the best possible condition, and any
fruit that left British Columbia in good condition arrived at its destination in good condition.
You will understand that, in an exhibit made up from some thirty different points, there
would be same lots which were not so well packed, and also some which were unavoidably not
so well cared for as others, and that will always be the case with an all-round exhibit, but
nine-tenth's of the fruit would come pretty nearly being perfect. This was borne out^ too by
the results which were achieved in the marketing of these fruits, apart from the exhibit.    As 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 57
you are aware, there were two objects in view in forwarding these exhibits. The principal
one was to advertise our Province, its resources and capabilities, and the second one was to
prove the market value of our fruit after we had got it there, and there was no way of
doing this so well as by placing it on sale in the open market. This was done at Glasgow and
at Covent Garden in London. The fruit was sold under the hammer, so there was no special
effort to secure extraordinary prices for it. The fruit was sold just on its merits. I mention
this because people think an exhibition price could be secured, but our fruit was not sold in
that way. Well, in Glasgow, the results of the prices were so great that when the returns
were sent down they came with a letter of apology for getting so much for the fruit. I have
been almost afraid to state what the actual prices were, because it might mislead some people.
The highest price realised in Glasgow was 18s. 3d. a box, sold under the hammer, and the
highest price realised in London was 14s. for similar fruit. Some varieties, such as Baldwins
and Spies, which don't, as a rule, sell at a big price in London, sold at prices from 8 to 11
shillings per box.
Well now, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, unless there are, some questions which you
would like to ask me about later in reference to the fruit exhibits, I will now pass on to the
question of immigration.
Mr. Harris : I would like to ask you for what variety you got the 18s. a box 1
Mr. Palmer : The Newton Pippins and the Spitzonbergs. Competent judges freely admit
that the British Columbia fruit is equal, if not superior, to any fruit wbich finds a way to
those markets. It is purely a question of proper grading and packing, and given those, tbere
is a bright future for the fruit-growers of British Columbia in such markets as Glasgow,
London, Edinburgh and Liverpool.
Mr. J. T. Collins : While you are on the subject, do you mind telling us which you consider the best district in British Columbia for growing the Newton Pippin ?
Mr. Palmer : The Interior.
Mr. Collins : Well, they are not adapted to this district ?
Mr. Palmer: They are best adapted to the Interior.
Mr. Collins : We can grow a more profitable kind in this district ?
Mr. Palmer : Yes, I think so, on the whole. Now, gentlemen, in regard to the question
of immigration; the greater part of the time which I spent in the Old Country was really
devoted to this question. The net results have, I think, been spread abroad through the press.
The Provincial Government, as you know, has been able to make what I think a very satisfactory arrangement with the Salvation Army, under which immigrants will be selected in the
Old Country, taken charge of, and brought through to destination, and on arrival here will be
placed wdiere they are required. Now, there are a number of organisations dealing with the
immigration question in England and Scotland, and all are, more or less, copying Salvation
Army methods. There is this to be said, however, with the exception of the Central Immigration Board, tbere was no Old Country organisation which extended its work to Canadian
branches to take charge of these people after they had landed here. As you are aware, that
is one of the most important questions we have to deal with in British Columbia; these people
have to be placed after they arrive. And in this connection I would just like to say a word
to you as farmers and employers of labour. The old style of things has passed away. The
Old Country immigrant, in the majority of cases, will be a man who looks forward to having
a home of his own, and it will be necessary, if you desire to obtain the best class of labour and
retain it, to make permanent provision for the taking care of these people. You must get
cottages for them; you must provide accommodation which will be as good as they have been
accustomed to in the Old Country; and with the wages this country is able to afford, it will
give you the best kind of labour and will prove a very important factor in the building up of
our Province. There will be, of course, some single men who will go from place to place, but
the policy of the Salvation Army is to send out the men with small families; and, I think,
when you look at the best and broadest interest of our Province, that that is the best thing to
do, and it behooves us to see that these men are properly taken care of when they arrive here,
and that their conditions are made as homelike as possible, and we will then be able to overcome the conditions we now have to face.
There has been, I think, some understanding as regards the labour conditions existing in
the Old Country.    Even in the time I was over there it was almost impossible to get a thorough
grasp of the situation, because every district there has its own peculiar conditions, both in regard
• to labour and in regard to industries.    For instance, you go down into the agricultural districts M 58 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
and you find a state of affairs which cannot be regarded as satisfactory to all. There was some
correspondence through the papers in regard to the difficulty of obtaining labour in the agricultural districts in the Old Country, while I was there, and one prominent farmer made the
statement that he was unable to secure labour although he had offered as much as half a crown
a day. (Laughter.) Well, gentlemen, the low price that has been paid for agricultural labour
in the Old Country has had the result of driving labour from the country to the towns and
cities to secure employment, and in spite of the most successful industrial occupations in all
.parts of the country you have the surplus labour in the towns. You have redundant prosperity
on the one hand and a large number of unemployed labour on the other. Well, gentlemen,
this is our opportunity, which we must take advantage of, and I think we can claim now to be
in a fair way to take the advantage of it.
There are some people in the Old Country who disagree with the Salvation Army. They
say, You are sending our best people away to Canada, and our answer to that is we do not
want anything but the best people. We are certainly not responsible for the conditions of
life in the Old Country. Our duty, as we have already stated, is to make the best possible
provision for the people who are sent to us, and to see that they are made very comfortable
after they get here. I am glad to say that one small family who came here from Tunbridge
Wells, has been eminently successful since their arrival, and I am sorry that I have not got
the letter here which particularly refers to this case, which just proves over and over again
the opportunities that exist. These people were unable to make a living in Tunbridge Wells,
so they were persuaded to come out to this country, and the man on arrival found employment
at $4 and $5 a day, and the wife also found employment, and much more than they were able
to make in the Old Country.
Mr. Venables: What was this man engaged in in the Old Country ?
Mr. Palmer: He was what you would call a handy-man; he could do almost anything;
but his princijoal business was small trading in Tunbridge Wells. Well, when he came to
Victoria he hired himself out as a plumber's assistant, a thing which would never enter his
mind if he had stayed in the Old Country. I do not know whether I should have mentioned
this. But, at any rate, this man writes home to his friends, telling them in glowing terms
what he has been able to do in the short time he has been out, and you may certainly expect
his friends and relations will flock here too before long, and will be only too glad to share in
the prosperity of the country.
Well, now, there is another point in connection with this labour question. From what I
have stated, you will gather that the largest number we may expect will not come direct from
the country districts. The greater number of them will come from the neighbourhood of the
towns, and the outskirts of the town, and it may be, at first, more or less of them will be
unhandy, and it will be necessary to have some patience with them. A great number of these
people move up to the town from the country. Some of them have had experience with
country life and<some have not. But, judging from the experience of last season, when some
8,000 of these people were sent out by the Salvation Army and distributed throughout the
length and breadth of the country, where proper judgmerrt and care was exercised they made
an excellent class of labour.
Now, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I do not think I have anything more to say to you,
unless you wish to submit some questions to me.
Mr. Curry : When do they expect to send out these consignments of immigrants ?
Mr. Palmer : They are coming every steamer.
Mr. Curry: Do you say that the Salvation Army has the proper machinery to handle
them when they come out ?
Mr. Palmer: Yes; in Vancouver they have a head office, to which you are requested to
send your applications for help. There are samples of these applications here which I can
leave with you to see.
Mr. Johnstone: Then in that case, what do you say is a fair price to offer these people,
who know nothing about our work out here and whom you have to teach ?
Mr. Palmer : Well, a great many of these immigrants have been selected by the Salvation
Army for this kind of work.
Mr. Johnstone : Well, for the fruit-growing I want a number of men, and I would not
know what to pay these men. 7  Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 56
Mr. Palmer : If you make your application to the immigration branch of the Salvation
Army, they will be able to give you all this information as to what you should pay, and if they
give you a green man they will not expect you to pay the same as for one who understands
that class of work.
Mr. J. T. Collins : What is the current wage they would expect ?
Mr. Palmer : The current wages—what do you pay now ?
Mr. Collins : From $1.50 to $3 a day.
Mr. Curry : Do they expect us to pay the prices we are paying now for labour ?
Mr. Palmer : The question as to the value of labour will settle itself when the labour is
brought into the country.
Mr. Randle : Don't you think the time has now arrived when the Government should
regulate the price of labour ?
Mr. Palmer : I would be sorry for the Government if it had to do anything like that.
I have a letter here which was issued by the Salvation Army, and which bears directly on
this question, in which they state that during the past three years they have been successful
in bringing to this country nearly 20,000 of very desirable immigrants from Great Britain,
and next year they hope to be successful in developing this important branch of this work
through the agency of this Salvation Army, and there should be some very good mechanics
and labourers of all kinds for whom they desire to secure positions. Now, in carrying out
this immigration work, I will give you an instance of how it works. While I was in London
an application came to the Salvation Army for 30 or 40 skilled shipwrights, and the Salvation
Army were able to supply these, because their organisation extends to every village and
hamlet in the Old Country, and whatever kind of labour you want you can get. There is no
branch of any industry there which cannot spare some men, if the opportunities offered for
immigrating are good enough.    That is exactly the position as it stands, gentlemen.
Mr. Johnstone: What I would like to know is this : I want some men to blast out
stumps, and I would rather pay an experienced Canadian $4 a day to do this work than get a
greenhorn at it for $1 a day, and I would like to know what wage I should pay one of these
men who come out to do this work. Now, I don't want to be "jewing" these men down, and
I am asking you now what you would consider a fair wage to pay these greenhorns. It would
not pay me to pay a new man from England the same as I have been paying men from the
Hood River district for drawing out stumps.
Mr. Palmer : Drawing out stumps is skilled labour, and no one would expect you to pay
an inexperienced man $3 to $4 a day to draw out these stumps. He would be very likely,
I think, to draw himself out if you put him at that kind of work. You could offer him $25 a
month for that.
Mr. DeHart: Well, Mr. Palmer, I do not think Mr. Johnstone would have to pay the
man any wages if he put him drawing out stumps. One day would be about as long as he
would last.
Mr. Curry : Some of them up in our country pay for the privilege of working.
Mr. Gale : I was in consultation with a gentleman here lately who was going to the Old
Country the latter part of this month. That was Mr. Hobbs. He is a man of some property
and reliable, and he said if the Government would give him lantern slides he would hold
meetings in the rural districts and would undertake to bring out a number of men from the
agricultural districts, and he would give his services free if they would supply him with
literature and lantern slides of interest to agricultural districts. I think it would be useful to
the Government if they could give him this.
Mr. Palmer : Well, it is really a matter for the Department to deal with, and if you
would ask your friend to be good enough to come and see me, we will consider his proposition.
Mr. Gale : I will do so.
Mr. Palmer : I have here copies of two publications by the Salvation Army. One is the
" New Settler," a review of twelve months' work, and the other is the " Immigration Gazette."
These I will leave with you for the benefit of the delegates present, so that you can post yourselves as to what the Salvation Army is doing. Their plan is to send some 60,000 people to
Canada this year. They have already commenced on this work. Dating from the middle of
this month, they have special steamers which they charter, and which they load with entirely
their own people. These people are brought over in charge of their officers, who take charge
of them and lecture to them on the conditions of the country and the life they expect to lead,
and do everything in their power to prepare the people for the conditions which they will meet when they come to their new homes. There are a number of us who know what that means.
I may say personally, after a thorough investigation of the work and methods of the Salvation
Army, I am firmly convinced that they are working on the very best possible lines for the
good of the people in the Old Country, and for our good in Canada and British Columbia in
particular.     Gentlemen, I thank you for the kind attention you have given me.
Mr. Curry : I move that a vote of thanks be given to Mr. Palmer for his able services
rendered in British Columbia in all branches of agriculture and horticulture.
Mr. Johnstone : I have very much pleasure in seconding that resolution. I know our
success in London is largely due to Mr. Palmer; because I have had several letters from my
friends who attended the exhibition in London, and they laid special stress on the splendid
manner in which my exhibit was set up. Of course, their letter was written with a view to
specially complimenting me, but they said it was so beautifully set up. Now, I know I did
not set it up, and I know, when there was special stress placed upon the way it was set up, it
was a very large factor in securing the awards which were given to Mr. Palmer.
Motion carried unanimously.
Mr. Palmer : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I wish to thank you very much indeed for
your kind expressions, and I appreciate them very highly. I might say, in reference to Mr.
Johnstone's remarks, I appreciate the expression very much indeed on this account : In setting
up of the London exhibit, we had a very short time indeed to do it. We had some 250 cases
of apples to be opened up and placed on exhibition, and stages had to be erected, and all this
had to be done in a period of 30 hours, working day and night. There were two nights I do
not think I got any sleep. Anyway, we got our fruit set up in what I considered a satisfactory
manner, and it achieved the results I have spoken of before. I have with me some of the
medals that you might look at, if you would care to take up the time in doing so. This is the
gold medal awarded by the Scottish Horticultural Association, and this is one of the gold
medals awarded by the Royal Horticultural Society. Mr. Johnstone, I have very much
pleasure in presenting you with your medal.
Mr. Johnstone : I feel very highly honoured indeed, and I know it was largely due to
your setting up that I have obtained it.
Mr. Palmer : We could not set up the fruit if you had not sent it. Would you also take
charge of one for the Kootenay Fruit-Growers' Association, Mr. Johnstone ?
' Mr. Johnstone : Certainly ; and  I beg to thank  you  on behalf  of  the Fruit-Growers'
Association for the way in which you have secured this medal for us.
The Chairman : I have just received a telegram from the Hon. Mr. Templeman at
Ottawa, in reply to the telegram I sent on the question of the experimental farms. It is
addressed to me, and dated at Ottawa, 6th March, 1907 :—
" Minister of Agriculture thinks first experimental station will be established on Island,
and later on in Dry Belt. Dr. Saunders will examine possible sites this summer and will
report." (Signed)        " W. Templeman."
Certificates for Entire Horses.
Moved by Mr. Baker, seconded by Mr. Dodding,—
" That no entire horse shall be allowed to stand for service for hire unless accompanied
by a certificate of soundness and freedom from blemish from a duly qualified veterinary
practitioner."
Mr. Baker : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I think this resolution speaks for itself. Our
friend, Mr. Cunningham, has given us an address on sound fruit. Well, I think it is just as
essential, if not more so, that we have sound horses. I will be gentle with it and say it is just
as essential. Now, gentlemen, we are all well aware what a blemished entire horse means, as
regards their use for breeding throughout the country. Now, when a man brings a horse to
my place for service, I cannot say whether he has got a blemish on or not; and it may have
disease, but I would not be able to tell as to that until that disease or blemish begins to
develop in the colt, and instead of my realising the full value of that colt, on account of that
blemish, I may probably only get $100. I have had experience in this matter, and, therefore,
it is a subject in which I am deeply interested. The horse I have in mind should have
brought me $300 or $350, but when the man came to examine it and buy it he said it was a
nice horse, but he was blemished, and he did not want it.    He had a tuft on his hind leg, and 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 61
a blemish on his knee, just exactly as his sire had. Some people think these blemishes are
not apt to develop in the offspring, but they are. I think this resolution will commend itself
to every man here, and I will not add anything further.
Mr. Dodding : In seconding this motion, I may say that it just touches me to the point.
I have been a great loser through sires that have not been right. I lost two of my best mares
just in the same way as the sire died, and they were both affected in the same way, in the
legs. And, therefore, I think it is very necessary to prevent these things, and these horses
should have the very best doctor that can be had.
The Chairman : Before putting this question, let me say. The resolution is very good as
far as it goes, but it apparently does not suggest any remedy. It reads : " That no entire
horse shall be allowed to stand for service for hire unless accompanied by a certificate for
soundness and freedom from blemish from a duly qualified veterinary practicioner." This is
merely an expression of opinion.    Now, what do you suggest can be done ?
Mr. Curry : Have a certificate from a duly qualified Government Veterinary Inspector.
The Chairman : Well, this is simply an expression of opinion. We may all express an
opinion, but how do you propose it should be done ?
Mr. Curry : We cannot pass the laws.    We are only asking the Government to do this.
The Chairman : It is not asking anything. It does not ask that legislation should be
passed to remedy this.
Mr. Baker : If it does not suit you can add something to it.
The Chairman : Well, put it like this—that the Government be asked to bring in legislation on the subject.
Mr. Baker : Well add that to it.
The Chairman : Now, if this will suit you, I will read it:—
"Moved by Mr. N. T. Baker, seconded by Mr. D. Dodding,—
" That no entire horse shall be allowed to stand for service for hire unless accompanied by
a certificate of soundness and freedom from blemish from a duly qualified veterinary practitioner,
and that this Government be asked to bring in legislation dealing with the question during the
present Session of the Legislature."
Mr. Davie : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I would like to say a few words in opposition
to this. I would be sorry myself to see a measure like that put before you. A man will
probably invest from $1,000 to $5,000 to get a good horse, and perhaps that horse will develop
some very small blemish. Then, what is the consequence, if this resolution passes ? Why, he
has to keep it in his barn.
Mr. Baker : That is where he should keep it.
Mr. Davie: I fail to see it. For instance, if we were to take the fall show at New Westminster, the horse that took the first prize at the Victoria Fair, last fall, one man in New
Westminster said that he was not sound. Well, now, gentlemen, that is a matter of opinion,
and if that resolution were to go into effect, then that borse would be turned down. As far
as I am concerned, I feel that we cannot have too many imported Clydesdale stallions in this
country, and I do not think the time is ripe to pass a resolution of that kind.
Mr. Curry: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I might say just a word on that. In looking
over the horse-breeding industry of Canada and the United States, and some parts of the Old
Country—take France, for example—we find there that the Governments make the closest
kind of inspection, and in France a horse cannot be considered an entire horse unless it is sound
by Government inspection and Government standard. And what is the consequence ? Why,
the French horses are building up so that they are reckoned the finest horses in the world.
You cannot have a good class of horse if you allow an indiscrininate lot of broken-winded, rundown horses to travel at large in this country. And while I quite admit this—you may make
a mistake in the examining of a horse, and the Inspector may occasionally pluck a good horse—
I think, in the interest of the many, it is better that thing occur than to have such a lot of
worthless brutes travelling through the country.
Mr. Buckingham : Mr. Chairman, I feel fully in accord with this resolution that has been
brought in. But the question to me to be considered is whether the time is ripe for this kind
of legislation in this Province. We are young yet, and, of course, it has been already said in
connection with another industry in which we are all greately interested, that we want to lay
the foundation on a good basis when we first start out. But, you know, at the present time
there are men who have their money invested in this class of horses, and if this resolution were M 62 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
put into force it would mean a great loss to those men. I think we can draw it a little milder,
as I understand there is already a movement on foot by the Stockmens' Association. They are
asking that a Lien Act be put through. And if we could make this so that a horse owner wlio^
has not a certificate from a veterinary surgeon would not be able to take any benefit or advantage of this Lien Act, it would be better, I think, for the present, instead of making the hard
and fast rules and regulations as that resolution makes.
The Chairman : Do you wish to make an amendment ?
Mr. Buckingham : Perhaps that would be a better way. I am heartily in accord, as I
say, with this resolution.    The only question is whether or not the time is quite ripe for it.
Mr. DeHart c I move for an adjournment of the debate until this afternoon.
Mr. Buckingham : I second that.
Motion carried.    Meeting adjourned till 2 p.m.
Afternoon Session.
The meeting was called to order at 2 p.m. -
The Chairman : We were on the question of the resolution moved by Mr. Baker and
seconded by Mr. Dodding, regarding entire horses, and Mr. Buckingham has put in an amendment to it; but he has not got a seconder for it, 1 see.
Mr. Buckingham : I think there is a seconder to that.
The Chairman : Oh, yes, Mr. Harris.    I see his name here in the corner.
Moved by Mr. Buckingham, seconded by Mr. Harris, in amendment—
" That while we may be in accord with the principle of such a resolution, yet we feel that
the country is not ripe for such legislation at the present time."
Mr. Buckingham : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I do not know that I have anything
more to say on this question than I have already said, as I think I have fully outlined my
views on it in speaking to the question before. As I stated, I felt quite in accord with the
resolution, but, in the amendment, I wish to state that I feel that the country is not ripe for
such legislation at the present time. Now, gentlemen, I do not think that all these unsound
horses come from the sires, but mares are often used for breeding purposes when they are not
fit for any other kind of work. And that is a mistake, and I think that a great many of our
unsound horses come from the dam side just as well as the other side. I have nothing more
to say on that.
Mr. Harris : I seconded that amendment, gentlemen, because I feel it is a question that
should be taken up. I think there are far more mares—unsound mares—bred than there are
horses, and that brings so many unsound horses into the country. I think probably the time
is not ripe for this question at all.
Mr, Peatt : Mr. Chairman, in the case of the mare being unsound the owner suffers, but
in the case of the horse the whole of the community suffers, and I think it is quite time that
resolution was passed.
Mr. Gale : It seems to me that the resolution is far too sweeping.
The Chairman : Are you speaking to the amendment?
Mr. Gale : What I wish to say is, that my opinion is that the time is already ripe for an
improvement of any kind, and certainly for the improvement of our stock, and we ought to be
able and willing to introduce legislation to improve them. But the question is whether or not
good horses might not be affected under the system that has been proposed. They might be
plucked under this system and not be able to obtain a certificate of sounduess, not because
they had blemishes that were transmissible, but simply blemishes from a selling point. It
seems to me that the veterinary should state in his certificate whether the blemish is transmissible or otherwise, and define what the blemish consisted of.
The Chairman : I might say a word or two on this. From the remarks that have been
made, the opinion seems to be that the dam is often at fault. It is a well-known principle in
stock-raising that the sire is half the herd ; and, therefore, the bringing forward of the argument that the dam is responsible for a great deal of it is rather a weak argument, and it had
better be left alone. 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 63
The Chairman : Here is an amendment to the amendment:—
Moved by Mr. Curry, seconded by Mr. Wilson,—
"That the Government be asked to pass an Act that no entire horse shall stand for hire
unless the owner has secured a certificate from the Government Veterinary Surgeon saying
that the horse is sound enough to be used for breeding purposes."
The Chairman : If this amendment is acceptable, the other two might be withdrawn,
provided the movers and seconders are willing.    Mr. Baker, are you willing to accept this ?
Mr. Baker : Mr. Chairman, that embodies the whole of it only in a little milder form, and,
as far as I am concerned, I am satisfied with it, only it is rather a strange thing to withdraw
a motion, but if the Institute thinks the amendment is better let them accept it. I think the
amendment covers the whole ground.
Mr. Curry: I do not think it is necessary for me to speak to my amendment. I will let
it stand on its own foundation.
Mr. Davie The view that I take on this question may be considered wrong, but I do not
think it is though.    Where do we find the best horses to-day ?    Is it in England or Scotland ?
Mr. Curry : And France.
Mr. Davie : I think the highest price paid for a horse was £37,000, and was sold in
England to a Frenchman. That horse was raised without any veterinary examination.
However, I think that Mr. Curry's amendment will do no harm, as I do not think it will affect
any of the horses that we have. In the Lower Fraser we have not horses enough. That is our
trouble.
Mr. Curry : I may say my .reason for bringing in this amendment was because I felt the
resolution as presented would have passed, and I felt it was too strict in the present condition
of the country, so I modified it, and I think in its present form it is quite harmless.
The Chairman : After all, it is not a question of our legislating on this matter. We
merely place it before the Legislature, and I think we can safely trust them with it.
Amendment to the amendment carried, disposing of the original resolution and
amendment.
Fall Shows to  be Held in Rotation.
Moved by W. J. Brandrith, seconded by D. Dodding—
" Resolved, That this Central Farmers' Institute recommends that the Agricultural
Associations throughout the Province be requested to fix the dates of the fall exhibitions in
rotation, as a matter of economy ; and we recommend that the Agricultural Department use
its best endeavours to secure a succession of itineraries."
Mr. Dodding : I am just the seconder of that motion.
The Chairman : We had better leave this, perhaps, as Mr. Brandrith is not here. (Mr.
Brandrith entering.)     Will you speak to this resolution regarding fall fairs, Mr. Brandrith ?
Mr. Brandrith: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, my object in bringing up that resolution
is to endeavour, if possible, to save a very considerable item of expense in connection with
sending judges from one section of the country to another. Some years ago the British
Columbia Fruit-Growers' Association furnished judges for the fruit departments in the
Province, and we have had to send men to Vernon, and then have them come back from there to
Vancouver, and a couple of days later they would have to leave Vancouver for Armstrong,
and then come back to Vancouver again, and then go to Kamloops. This was an entirely
unnecessary expense, and one journey should be able to do the whole work. And I think the
Department of Agriculture, which supplies the sinews of war for these agricultural shows,
should take some step towards remedying that state of affairs. I have nothing more to say,
Mr. Chairman.
Mr. Dodding : I take pleasure in seconding that motion.
Mr. Curry: I suppose I am on my feet all the time. I feel like that, at any rate. But
I have been the President of our Agricultural Association in Kamloops, and I have been
particularly interested in agriculture for a number of years, and in taking up this matter, and
looking over years back, I find that our agricultural shows in Kamloops were always in
conflict with the rest of the districts around. There was no give and take. For instance,
take the beautiful City of Victoria ; they have the climate, and they are not satisfied with
that. We are satisfied with having the most glorious exhibition in British Columbia, and are
satisfied to bring our stock down here to help along their show, but they arbitrarily say, "We M 64 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
will have our show on a certain day, and there is no use of your talking to us about it." Now,
I would like a little give and take in that sort of thing, so that we can regulate our dates for
our shows so it will be better all round. These larger cities on the Coast have dictated to the
whole of the Interior, and we have always had to arrange our dates to suit them.
Mr. Spencer: I am heartily in accord with Mr. Curry. As a matter of fact, I believe
for the past two years, in our district, we have had to hold our exhibitions away back in
October. Well, it is generally very wet at that time, and it simply means a failure of our
exhibition, and we should be able to get ours earlier than that, and the date we wish to have
it on is September 20th.
Mr. Johnstone : In this connection I have had a good deal to do with this sort of thing,
and I would ask that the Government appoint a committee to see if it could not be arranged
better than it is at present. Speaking of Nelson, it would not make any difference to us
whether it was a week earlier or a week later, only it is better for us to have it at a time
suitable for the other societies, because, if we have it in rotation, we can get better entertainment. We can get troups that are going through, and in that way they could make their
rounds at less expense, and it would be better for all, because we would then be able to secure
these entertainments at a much less cost than if they had to be one week at the Coast, and
from there to Kamloops, and back again to New Westminster, and so on. It may be that
this arrangement is too late for this year, and, if so, we might be able to arrange better for
next year.
Mr. Venables : The Okanagan Association met last week, and I attended the meeting.
Mr. Anderson forwarded me copies of a letter he had received from Mr. Beattie, Secretary of
the Kamloops Association, asking that the itinerary should be arranged in order. But when
the matter came up at our Agricultural Association, our Secretary said that he had written to
Mr. Beattie on the matter, but thev had already fixed their date. Having initiated the idea
of an itinerary, Kamloops had already fixed their date independent of everyone else, and before
the thing could be discussed; so, therefore, under the circumstances it would be a rather hard
job to fix a date that would suit all parties. But I am instructed to say, if a committee were
formed to act in the matter and endeavour to get an itinerary fixed so that the shows might
come in rotation, we are willing to be bound by their arrangement and fall in line.
Mr. Brandrith : Mr. Chairman, I would like to hear a few words from you on the question.    You are interested in it and should be able to throw some light on the subject.
The Chairman : This is a matter which has been engaging my attention for several
years—in fact, ever since the exhibitions have taken place in the Province, and the same
difficulty has arisen every year. I do not know that Mr. Curry was quite right in his
assertion that the smaller associations were dictated to by the larger associations. That I am
not prepared to say anything about, but I am prepared to say this : That all the rural associations have tried to fix their dates a few days before the larger exhibitions, and the consequence is
that most of the rural exhibitions take place either on the same day or within a few days of
each other. The Department is asked to furnish judges for these exhibitions, and the consequence is, under those conditions, it is impossible to do so. They can only be sent to one or
two places, and the others have to go without. The great benefit to be gained by these
exhibitions is the knowledge acquired regarding the qualities of agricultural products, stock,
and so on, and unless we have good judges those benefits and lessons are all lost and they are
valueless. I have repeatedly attempted to have this matter arranged so that a succession of
itineraries might be arranged—say, one embracing those portions of the Upper Country that
are contiguous to each other ; and another one in the Lower Country, on the Lower Mainland ; and a third one on the Island. And, possibly, it might be still more divided, but to
have three itineraries going, it could be arranged to have competent judges sent to every
exhibition. Now, I thoroughly agree with this resolution. I think if this matter were left
to the Department to suggest to the different associations a date for each, these itineraries
could be fixed, and if it was not agreeable to certain associations it could be altered, or the
objecting association could take its own course. It would then be up to them to supply their
own judges or do what they like about it. I think, under the circumstances, it is certainly
in the interest of every association in the country that something of this kind should be
done. I can assure you that, as far as I am concerned, I would like to put it out of my hands.
It is not a matter that is of an agreeable nature, and at present I have a little more work
than I can do, so you may depend upon it that, in supporting this resolution, I am not doing
it with the object of attempting to coerce or assume any authority in this matter.    I wish 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 65
every association to have the benefit of the lessons that are obtained from these shows, and,
therefore, I hope that this course may be adopted in the future. We cannot expect it this
year, but next year, so that everyone will be satisfied in the matter.
Mr. Abbott: Why couldn't it be done this year ? There are not many districts that
have set their dates yet, and by dividing it up in these different sections we could get far
better results and would be able to get judges from the Department.
Mr. Buckingham : This matter came up before our Institute in accordance with a circular
we received from Mr. Anderson, and we think our Institute and the Agricultural Society were
both heartily in accord with the movement. Of course, there is one difficulty in the way, and
that is the question of having the itinerary to follow one another. If we have it before the
two larger exhibitions, in some cases it comes too early, and if we have it after the larger
exhibitions then it comes too late and the bad weather comes upon us. Now, for the last few
years at Richmond, our exhibitions have come on at the same time as the Victoria exhibition
has been held, and that has been to the disadvantage of a good many of us. I do not see why
this matter could not be arranged for the exhibitions this fall. I think it could if they would
all get together, and I do not know when we are going to have a more representative gathering
than we bave at the present time, and if a committee could be appointed they could arrange
it. Our Agricultural Society left the thing pretty well in my hands, and if a date were
arranged we are prepared to abide by the decision of the committee appointed by this meeting
to arrange for the agricultural show. I would like to see this matter arranged, as we do not
want to hold our exhibition to come in conflict with any of the exhibitions on the Fraser, or
any exhibitions in Vancouver or Victoria.
The Chairman : I wish to say, in reference to the letter referred to from me, that I did
not bring forward the question on this occasion. It was brought forward by a letter from Dr.
Tolmie. He is one of the Directors of the Victoria Agricultural Association, and one of our
foremost men, and a gentleman whose opinion carries a great deal of weight in these matters.
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman, the district I come from usually has an exhibition in the fall,
and while I represent them at this meeting I could not speak for them on this question, because
I received no instruction from them on a question of that kind. At the same time, I fully
appreciate all the advantages to be gained by an itinerary as suggested by Mr. Anderson, and
I think if correspondence was had between the Department and the various agricultural
associations the itinerary could be arranged as suggested.
Mr. Phillips : I might say, gentlemen, we are trying to form an agricultural society in
Matsqui, and at our preliminary meeting I submitted this communication, and we thought it
far better to leave it in the hands of the Secretary of the Department. For my part we would
be very sorry to see our day the same day as Langley, or the same day as Mission ; but if it
were arranged so that one could be held on one day and the other on the next day, one judge
could go around and at a much less expense. We were heartily in favour of it, provided it
went through.
Mr. Wilson: Just before the motion is put, let us get down to business with regard to
dates. This is merely asking that the Department take it up with the different associations,
and I agree with one speaker that we would never have a better time than we have now. And
I think that the majority of the delegates present have had instructions from the different
agricultural societies with regard to this question, and why not let us get down to business
when we adjourn the meeting of this Central Farmers' Institute and let us arrange these things
and not put it off any longer ? As far as Chilliwack is concerned, I may say, Mr. Chairman,
that the letter you sent up was read before our agricultural society, and I was instructed to get
a date set for our society which would be acceptable to our district. Of course, there are
certain dates which would be more acceptable than others, but we are ready to meet any
arrangement you might make in that regard.
The Chairman : This motion would not interfere with anything you suggest.
Mr. Wilson : That motion simply asks the Department to take it up with the agricultural
associations.
Mr. Venables : This has just been given to Mr. Anderson to strengthen his hands.
Motion carried.
Obstruction of Water-courses.
Moved by Mr. J. T. Collins, seconded by Mr. A. E. Gale,—
" Whereas in many cases the water-courses are obstructed by silt and other debris, owing
principally to the neglect to have the obstruction removed at the proper time : M 66 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
" Be it therefore Resolved, That the Government be urged to have any water-courses
inspected, and the owners of the property through which water-courses pass compelled to keep
such courses clean and clear of all obstacles :
" We respectfully suggest that such work might be undertaken by the present Inspector of
Roads and Bridges."
The Chairman : Is there just one Inspector of Roads and Bridges ?
Mr. Collins : I know he comes up to us at times. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, we know
there is a remedy for this, and we can get the matter done, but it is a most expensive way.
In the first place, in order to have it remedied we have to employ men at $4 or $5 a day, and
in order to fight it after that the thing has to go to the County Court, and we know if we
take it into Court it is expensive, and our land is being ruined before we can get any proper
redress. There are several swamps in our district, and some of the best land is to-day covered
by swamp, and the borders of the swamps require drainage. In order to properly drain this
land it would mean a considerable expense, and the person who wanted to drain five or six
acres of his land would probably have to drain his neighbour's land for perhaps two or three
miles below. If we could get the Government to allow the Inspector of Roads and Bridges,
when he is doing his rounds (not to make a special trip) to look into this, I think it would
facilitate the matter greatly, and it could be more easily adjusted in that way and be much
cheaper and much more satisfactory.
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I do not think I can add any more to what the
mover of that resolution has said. The application would really be of no benefit to our district,
because we are now formed into a municipality. Mr. Collins, I think, two years ago, moved
a resolution along similar lines. It would not affect our district, but I do think it would be a
great improvement to those districts which are not formed into a municipality. I know getting
anything done through a Finance Committee is pretty expensive.
Motion carried.
Inspector of Fruit Pests and Dominion Fruit Marks Act.
Moved by Mr. Johnstone, seconded by Mr. Brandrith,—
" That the Provincial and Dominion authorities should arrange so that when the Provincial
Fruit Inspector is examining fruit for disease he should also have authority from the Dominion
to enforce the Fruit Marks Act."
Mr. Johnstone : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I simply bring in this motion as a matter
of economy. I had occasion the other day, in Nelson, to see a large number of boxes of apples
that had come in from the States, and they were not marked according to the Fruit Marks
Act. In fact, they had no marks on them at all. Forgetting for the moment that this was
not our Fruit Inspector's business, I asked him to see that these people who shipped them were
forbidden shipping any apples in that shape, and he said that it was not his business to look
after the marking, as it was the Dominion Government's Fruit Marks Act. I know it may be
a difficult thing for the Dominion Government to appoint the same man as is appointed by the
Provincial Government as Fruit Inspector, but it seems to me they might try to do it, and have
the same man carry out both works. For instance, when the Provincial man is taking up a
box of apples to examine it to see if it is in proper condition, the first thing he does is to look
at the outside of the box to see how it is marked, and it does not take him half a second to
find out. I think it would be in the interest of economy if the Provincial man were empowered to act for the Dominion in that respect. If the Dominion Government will not concede
that, then we must simply have an Inspector, and have a man there to look into these matters,
and this, I think, would be a very unnecessary expense under the circumstances.
Mr. Brandrith: I seconded that resolution with the object of bringing it before the
meeting, and see if something could be done in the way of having the Provincial and Dominion
Governments act together in this matter, and if it could be done, it would be a step in the
right direction.
Motion carried.
The Chairman: It would be a very desirable arrangement if it could be done. In the
case of the Inspector of Animals, I arranged when I was in Ottawa a few years ago that our
Inspector should also undertake the Dominion work, and I do not see why it could not be done
in this case. 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 67
Sunday Observance Law.
Moved by Mr. A. E. Gale, seconded by Mr. W. J. Brandrith,—
"Whereas the Dominion Government has passed an Act called the 'Sunday Observance
Law,' and has virtually placed the enforcement of it in the hands of the Local Legislature;
" And whereas the said law will seriously hamper many of the most important industries
of this Province if it were enforced;
" Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That we earnestly request the Provincial Government
to introduce legislation at the forthcoming Session to exempt all industries in British Columbia
from the operations of the Act."
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, in moving that resolution, I had in mind several
industries which operate in British Columbia, the chief one in my mind being the fruit industry.
Being myself a fruit-grower, I find it necessary at certain stages of the season, particularly
with reference to strawberries. We have to pick them on Sunday, because if we picked them
on Saturday there is no market for them, and if this law were to be put into force, as I understand it, there is a penalty of $20 for everyone that is found breaking the provisions of the
law, and a person picking perishable fruits would come within the operation of the law. This
would deprive us of the opportunity of picking our strawberries on Sunday, and if we were
debarred from picking on Sunday for Monday morning's shipment, it would mean a great loss to
us indeed. Now, we are looking forward to a big business in the North-West for our Victoria
District strawberries this coming season, and if we are hampered in that way it is going to be
a very serious handicap against our industry. Not only that, but there are other works in the
district from which I come will also be affected, notably the Cement Works. That is employment giving work to a large number of men, and it is of such a complicated nature that if they
had to shut down their works on Saturday night it would be Tuesday before they could again
get in running order. That may seem an extravagant statement to make, but such is the case.
For if the fires are once let down it takes them a full day to get them in running order again.
It is a big plant, and it is a big thing for this country to have it in operation ; and I think it
would be a serious mistake to put anything in the way of legislation to retard the progress of
the country in the way I speak of. Among other things, there is the Sunday newspaper, which
would also be affected. Now, we all enjoy reading a good, clean, wholesome paper on Sunday
morning ; but if the law becomes operative, and if this Legislature permits it, we won't be able
to read our Sunday newspaper, and we could read a good many things worse than that. I do
not wish to give the impression that I advocate making the Sabbath a day of work, but there
are certain industries which, in order to carry them on successfully, are compelled to work on
the Sabbath, and often against their own inclination. I think that is all I wish to say on the
subject.
Mr. Brandrith : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I seconded that resolution for the purpose
of bringing it before the meeting. I cannot say that I believed in all of Mr. Gale's arguments,
but at the same time there are some I do believe in. I don't believe in picking strawberries
on Sunday. The railways are going to run on Sundays, and steamboats are going to run on
Sundays, and electric railways are going to run on Sundays, Sabbath law or not. They are
going to run, and they are quite willing to carry your strawberries. In our district, I may
safely say that very few strawberries are picked on Sunday. My object chiefly in seconding
that resolution was to bring it before the meeting.
Mr. Gale: I would like to point out one fact in connection with Mr. Brandrith's
remarks.
The Chairman: You will have an opportunity to reply later in closing the debate.
Mr. Johnstone: I think, Mr. Chairman, that that resolution is far too sweeping. I
happen to have lived in some of the most God-forsaken countries on the face of creation, where
people cared neither for God nor man, but the business in which I was engaged—that of smelting
and looking after the coke oven—never did work on the Sunday. In the proper making of
coke there was one day in the week it was not necessary to draw the oven, and we made that
day Sunday ; but when I came to British Columbia and engaged with the company here in the
same line of business, I found they were drawing their oven every Sunday. Now, I feel that
we can avoid working on Sunday, because one day in the week is an absolute necessity for a
rest, in order to secure proper health and also for the enjoyment of human beings. And if we
can arrange to have that day fall on Sunday, it is all the better to have it on that day.    Now, M 68 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
as to Sunday newspaper, I think the Sunday newspaper is a very good thing, for this reason :
If we compel the people not to have a Sunday newspaper, then the newspaper men have to
work on Sunday to get out their Monday paper, because where they have not got a Sunday
newspaper they will be sure to have a Monday one. I think that resolution is by far too
sweeping, because, as it stands, it would mean that there is no virtue in this Sunday Law.
Mr. Abbott: Possibly I grow as many strawberries as anyone here, and I have never
picked any on Sunday, and I never will.
Mr. Curry : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, my opinion is this, the fewer laws you make
to curtail a man's liberty to do as he likes, so long as he is not interfering with his neighbour,
the better. I am not in favour of the Sunday Observance Laws where they are too arbitrary,
for we can see the effect of it in a lot of things. The Lord's Day Alliance people have brought
in a large number of-clauses to that Act, and some of them were cut out, and now they want
to put in a few more. If we are to be bound by that law, we will have the old conditions
that we had under Cromwell, if we allow this thing to go on.
The Chairman : I certainly think the law goes too far in some, instances in curtailing the
liberties of the people, as I think a great deal can be left to the conscience of the individual,
for it is well known that we cannot legislate people into being good. I think we might as
well leave that alone, and the less restrictions that are put on the people the better. Personally, I have always observed the Sabbath, but at the same time I do not think that we should
impose our ideas on everyone else, because people have different ideas.
Mr. Evans : I might say that, in our part of the country, there is a denomination there
that keeps Saturday for Sunday, and I do not think that we should legislate for those people.
They are right in their own way, and I do noc see why we should impose our laws on them in
that respect, as they are as conscientious as we are. While I am not entirely in favour of
that resolution, at the same time I do not think it would be wise to have the Sunday Observance Law in force in this Province in the condition it now is.
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman, there have been one or two gentlemen who have made cracks
at me about picking strawberries on Sunday, but their conditions are different to what we
have in our district; and if they took into consideration that they are a good many miles
nearer the market than we are in our district, I think they would see it furnishes us with a
good reason for picking strawberries on Sunday. For my part, I would be very glad if I
could see my way clear to get along without working on Sunday, as I do not wish to do so ;
but, as a matter of fact, we cannot, and we give our labourers the chance of taking their
Saturdays as a day of rest instead of having Sunday, and usually they do so, and that has
been the best arrangement we have been able to make so far. For my part, I quite agree
with one of the last speakers, who said that he did not want to see the liberty of any
individual interfered with on the Sabbath question, because, after all, you cannot legislate a
man into any religious belief; you have to leave him to his own resources in that matter. It
seems to me to be a sort of inquisition almost to do so, and that is not a desirable state of
affairs. Taking British Columbia generally, I think you will find that it is a pretty orderly
and law-abiding place. There may be good provisions in this law, but taking it as a general
principle, I think if we were to enforce it generally it would seriously handicap many of our
most important industries.
Motion lost.
Mr. Davie : Is it the wish of this meeting to hear Mr. Logan ? I, as one member of the
committee, would like to hear him.
The Chairman : Mr. Logan will be speaking at the Dairymen's Association meeting.
Mr. Harris : Mr. Chairman, I would like to hear Mr. Logan, and particularly with
regard to his travels through the Westminster District.
The Chairman: Well, gentlemen, I will leave it to you. I known that some of the
delegates want to get away to-night, and we have still some work to do.
Mr. Phillips : I move that Mr. Logan be invited to address us.
Mr. Brandrith : I second it.
Mr. Collins : I move, in amendment, that we first get thro ugh with our work, and then
ask Mr. Logan to address us.
Mr. Johnstone : I second it.
Amendment carried. 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 69
Dates of Fall Fairs.
Moved by Mr. P. H. Wilson, seconded by Mr. H. Harris,—
" That when the Central Farmers's Institute adjourns, the delegates from districts which
have agricultural societies meet as a committee to arrange dates for the holding of the fall
fairs throughout the different sections of the country."
Motion carried.
Fruit Growers' Association.
Moved by Mr. Curry, seconded by Mr. Alex. Davie,—
" Resolved, That this Institute here assembled view with pleasure the work of the B. C.
Fruit Growers' Association, and sincerely hope they will continue the good work as in the
past."
Motion carried.
Experimental Farm on Vancouver Island.
Moved by Mr. Gale, seconded by Mr. Peatt,—
" Resolved, That the Provincial Government again urge upon the Dominion Government
the desirability of establishing an Experimental Farm on Vancouver Island, and that it be
located on the Saanich Peninsula."
The Chairman :  I think you had better withdraw that, Mr. Gale.
Motion withdrawn.
Waggon Roads.
Moved by Mr. J. Johnstone, seconded by Mr. R. J. Long,—
" That the West Kootenay Farmers' Institute, feeling the necessity for the opening up of
the country' by waggon roads, beg to memorialise the British Columbia Government, through
the Central Farmers' Institute, to give this whole matter their most careful attention, and, as
far as this particular district is concerned, their wish is that the part of the country between
Robson and Nelson should receive particular attention."
Mr. Johnstone : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I will not take up the time of the meeting
on this question. It is simply a request that more roads be built in the country, and I feel
that we all realise the necessity for building more roads, and while the special request to pay
particular attention to the Robson and Nelson roads is a local matter, I feel that it is necessary
that we should have more roads in the country. I will not take up more of your time,
gentlemen, but will leave it with you to consider.
Mr. Long : I think the same in the matter, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, and do not
think it necessary to add anything.
Mr. Curry: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, just a word. If the gentleman would alter
that a little bit I think it would be better. If they would ask for good roads generally
throughout the country, and not in particular, we might feel then a great deal more willing to
pass this resolution, because we all want good roads, and we would all be willing to ask the
Government to get in and make good roads, so that if these gentlemen will change it it would
be better.
The Chairman : You must remember you are living in a district where there are good
roads, and there are some pretty bad roads in the district mentioned.
Mr. Randle : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, in regard to this motion, I do not think that
we should select any particular district. That is a local affair entirely, and the local Institute
ought to see to that and not the Central Farmers' Institute. There are lots of roads throughout the country which need attention besides those particular ones. For instance, there was
the case of Bella Coola that was brought before us. They were trying to have the same kind
of thing passed, and if we keep on passing these resolutions we will have next year resolutions
from every one of us to have special roads fixed by the Government, and I think this is really a
matter which should be left to the local Institutes to take up.
The Chairman : Well, on a previous occasion a resolution of this kind dealing with a
private road was thrown out. You have to consider whether this is a matter to be considered
by the Central Farmers' Institute. This is a motion which deals with the subject of'roads
generally, as well as in one particular part of the country. By leaving that part in about the
special districts it might be killed, so it might be well to change the form of it somewhat. M 70 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
Mr. Johnstone : I might say that it was simply a copy of a resolution which was passed
at our local meeting, and was only a suggestion that, as far as the local district is concerned,
that road should receive attention from the Government. But the idea is for this meeting to
look into the question of the roads generally, and not into our part particularly, and when the
Government is looking over the country generally it might look at this particular section of
ours. This is meant as a general resolution, and not a particular one at all, and I will certainly
score that part out that makes it a local matter. I would not ask this Association to request
the Government to build a road in the Kootenay.
The Chairman: Then you wish to have that part struck out and make it a general
resolution 1
Mr. Johnstone: The Association will be only too glad to have that struck out. It was
only intended when that matter came before them they should pay attention to it as well.
The Chairman : Do you wish to strike out that last part, in so far as this particular
district is concerned ?
Mr. Johnstone : Yes, I should think it would be necessary, because we do not expect the
Central Farmers' Institute to ask for special roads for us.
The Chairman : Then the resolution will read in this way, and I think it will commend
itself to the meeting :—
" Moved by Mr. J. Johnstone, seconded by Mr. R. J. Long—
"The Central Farmers' Institute, feeling the necessity for the opening up of the country
by waggon roads, beg to memorialise the British Columbia Government to give this whole
matter their most careful attention."
Mr. Evans : I cannot support that motion unless that resolution makes it for the whole
Province. I think the Central Farmers' Institute should impress upon the Government the
necessity of opening up all the country roads. As it is now, we have a number of industries
from which the Government is deriving a revenue, which, when they have exhausted their
supply, will be left only the land to be used for farming industries. That is usually what is
left in any country after these mines have been closed up, and I think that the Government
should take more active steps than what they are doing at present in the interest of the
farming industry, in the way of roads, streets and bridges, and I think that resolution should
read the " whole Province."
Mr. Johnstone : That is the intention.
Mr. Spencer: Mr. Chairman, I would like to say that I contend the Government should
repair the roads in our district before any new roads are built. It is a very dangerous thing,
indeed, to travel over them in their present condition.
Mr. Curry : I move in amendment, " That this Central Farmers' Institute strongly urge
the Government to take steps to put the roads of British Columbia in the best possible
condition."
Mr. Johnstoue : Well, I will second that, as it is quite satisfactory to me.
Mr. Curry : Or have the original motion read that way and I will be satisfied.
The Chairman : Yes, I think the motion as it stands now is very commendable indeed.
I will read it again.
"Moved by Mr. Johnstone, seconded by Mr. R. J. Long,—
" The Central Farmers' Institute, feeling the necessity for the opening up of the country
by waggon roads, beg to memorialise the British Columbia Government to give this whole
matter their most careful attention."
Motion carried.
Change of Name.
Moved by Mr. Dodding, seconded by Mr. Brandrith,—
" That the Central Farmers' Institute enquire the reason that the name of the Lillooet
Farmers' Institute has not been changed to that of,Nicola."
The Chairman : This is a private matter and has really nothing to do with the Central
Farmers' Institute, and it was so decided last year, when this matter came up and was
summarily disposed of at that time. I might say, in explanation, that when that matter
came .up last year Mr. Cleasby, who was the delegate for Lillooet, was told, when this motion
was brought forward, it had nothing to do with the Central Farmers' Institute, and it was
thrown out.    Mr. Cleasby arranged with me that on his returning home he would send me 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 71
word just exactly what their wishes were in regard to the matter, and on receipt of his letter
I was to lay the matter before the Government, but Mr. Cleasby has never written me. I
believe the Secretary said that he had mentioned the matter, but I looked over the whole of
the correspondence in the Department and could not find anything at all about it. Now, it
is a very simple matter to adjust if the Secretary of the Institute or the Directorate would
meet together and decide upon some definite plan of dividing the district and send it on to
me, when I will immediately forward the same to the Executive for consideration; but it is
not a matter for the Central Farmers' Institute. It is really Mr. Cleasby's fault this has not
been settled.
Resolution withdrawn.
Tax on Dogs.
Moved by Mr. Peatt, seconded by Mr. H. Harris,—
" Be it Resolved, That the Government be asked to pass an Act to impose a tax of $2
per year on all dogs in the rural districts, each farmer to be allowed to keep two dogs free of
tax."
Mr. Peatt : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I do not know whether that will meet with
the approval of all the representatives here, but it is certainly a great annoyance in our
district having so many dogs running at large. Hotel-keepers all keep dogs, and they worry
the sheep terribly.
Mr. Harris : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, my reason for taking this up was this : At
present time we are formed into a municipality, but there are a great many dogs around there
that come from off the Indian Reserve, and they do a lot of damage there sometimes. They
have perhaps 50 dogs on that reserve, and they come into the municipality and do a great
deal of damage at times. We cannot do anything with the Indians for this, but we can
tax the people in the municipality for owning these dogs, and I would like to see some way of
getting this matter settled, and I would like to see this resolution pass.
Mr. Davie : Mr. President, I would like to ask the mover of that motion why he should
let the farmer have two dogs exempt from taxation, and why, if you are going to tax the
dogs, you do not tax every dog ?
Mr. Randle : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, that matter was brought up last session, and
it was threshed out pretty well then. We were talking a little while about the Sunday Act,
and it was generally felt there was too much restriction on everything, and yet we are going
to put more restriction on everything, it seems, as we go along. Now, I do not see any
necessity for putting on a dog tax at all. We really have two taxes ourselves. The municipalities have a dog tax, and the cities have a dog tax, and if some of these farmers are not
already formed into a municipality they can form themselves into one, and then put a tax on
in their own municipality and not affect the whole country. For my part, I do not care how
many dogs people have, so long as they do not destroy property.
Mr. Spencer : I would like to say, in our district there seems to be an awful pile of dogs
running around, and there are a great many of them that get shot. Well, they certainly w^ould
get shot if they wandered over to our place and destroyed property, and I know how annoying
it is at'times.
Mr. Phillips : Does this resolution mean a Government tax, a municipal tax, or simply in
unorganised districts.    It should only affect unorganised districts, in my opinion.
Motion lost.
More Literature.
Moved by Mr. Venables, seconded by Mr. Johnstone,—
" In view of the call for literature, the Government be urged to circulate a considerably
larger amount than has been the case in 1906."
Here is another on the same lines:
Moved by Mr. Collins, seconded by Mr. Wilson,—
" That the Department be requested to send out more literature on agriculture and fruit
than it has during the past year."
They are one and the same thing, so one had better be withdrawn.
Mr. Collins: I will withdraw mine, and let Mr. Venables resolution stand.
Mr. Venables : This question of literature I consider is the principal question in  the
Farmers'   Institute.      The demand for it is very large, and any new member that joins, joins M 72 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
more for the literature than anything else. That has been my experience as secretary for six
years, and last year there has been a great deal of complaint because very little literature has
been issued. Mr. Anderson has said that some $20,000 have been sent out in literature, but
when that is divided among all the members of the different Institutes it leaves a very small
amount for each. In 1902 and 1903 a very large number of bulletins were sent out, and in
that way our people were rather spoiled, but at tbe same time I think we should get as much
literature as it is possible, because it does a great deal of good.
The Chairman : Of course, gentlemen, as far as I am concerned, I find it is a matter of
some difficulty to get out literature and buy literature. In the first place, the funds are not
always on hand. I have asked for increased appropriations for the Farmers' Institutes, but
these appropriations have not always come. The Farmers' Institutes are now increasing, and
I trust the Government will now see their way to grant a further larger appropriation to me
to carry on this work. I quite agree with this resolution, as I think more literature is needed.
I do not think there is much necessity for discussing it. Of course, gentlemen, you must
remember this in regard to the literature; a new member joining cannet expect to get the back
liturature. Very often it is exhausted, and in any case he can only be really entitled to the
literature that is issued after he joins. It is unreasonable for them to expect that all the
literature issued previous to their joining should be given them ; but, of course, whenever it is
possible, it is always done.
Motion carried.
Report of Committee on Resolutions
Mr. J. T. Collins : We have not been able to give a proper report this time. You see, the
resolutions have been coming in all the time, and it is impossible to give a proper report.
Another year, I think, Mr. Chairman, we should follow the way we have done hefore, and
simply say that no more resolutions can come in after a certain day, because, otherwise, it
means the Committee on Resolutions cannot do their duty. We have gone through the
resolutions as far as they go, but we have had something like ten resolutions handed in since
we sat this afternoon.
Salvation Army Immigrants.
Mr. Gale : Mr. Chairman, I rise for information with regard to securing labour from the
Salvation Army immigrants that they are bringing out here. The applications for labour, are
they to be forwarded to Vancouver or to your Department ?
The Chairman : I am not in a position to say, but I should think that the Minister of
Agriculture is the proper party to address, though I am not in a position to give definite information on that point.
Mr. Abbott: I might say that we are recommended to apply to Vancouver.
The Chairman : It appears that Adjutant Wakefield is the man to be applied to.
Mr. Gale : It appears that there are applications which have to be made out, and I would
ask that a number of these forms be sent out to the different Institutes, and if the Secretaries
had them they could make them out whenever required.
Committee to Meet the Minister.
Moved by Mr. Collins, seconded by Mr. Curry—
" Resolved, That the Chairman be asked to appoint a committee to meet the Minister
to-morrow morning, and put before him the most important resolutions passed by the Central
Farmers' Institute."
Motion carried.
The Chairman : I suppose a committee of three would be sufficient ?
Mr. Collins : Yes, I think so.
The Chairman : I will appoint the mover (J T. Collins), the seconder (V. D. Curry), and
Mr. Phillips for the Lower Fraser.
Mr. Collins : Mr. Chairman, there is one other resolution, and I think that will finish the
resolutions, unless there are more to come in.
Dog Tax to Compensate for Depredations.
Moved by Mr. Davie, seconded by Mr. Buckingham—
" Resolved, That this meeting of the Central Farmer's' Institute ask the Provincial
Government to give municipalities the power to create a fund from the collection of dog taxes
to compensate owners of sheep having the same worried by dogs." 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 73
Mr. Davie : I might just say a word or two, Mr. President. I am asking the passing of
this resolution for this reason : Municipalities have the power to collect a dog tax, and in
Ontario and the Eastern Provinces they give the municipality the power to create a fund to
compensate owners of sheep for losing sheep by dogs. We have not, it seems, got that power,
and we are asking the Government to give us the power.
The Chairman: Do you mean to say that the municipalities have not the power to do
it of their own accord ?
Mr. Davie : Well, I do not know whether we have or not, but our legal adviser says we
have not.
The Chairman : What do you do with the money collected from this source ?
Mr. Davie : We put it in the general fund. The owners of the sheep that are damaged
or killed say, when that tax is paid, they want it paid into the general fund for compensating
the owners for their losses.
The Chairman : That seems reasonable enough.
Mr. DeHart: Mr. Anderson, there is a law in Ontario to that effect at the present time.
They charge a dollar for the male, and $2 for the female, but the tax goes there to the benefit
of the owner of the sheep. I think they get two-thirds of the value of the sheep in case of
any loss.
Mr. Davie: We are led to believe that the municipalities in British Columbia have not
the power to create that fund.    We have taken legal advice, and that is what we are told.
Motion carried.
Vote of Thanks.
Moved by Mr. Curry, seconded by Mr. DeHart—
" Resolved, That the thanks of this meeting be tendered to the stenographer for her able
assistance and close attention to the business of the meeting."
The Chairman: I can assure you I am most heartily in accord with this resolution.    I
suppose no one wishes to contradict it ?
Motion carried.
Moved by Mr. Curry, seconded by Mr. DeHart,—
" Resolved, That this meeting of the Central Farmers' Institute here assembled acknowledge the hearty assistance given our industry by our Deputy Minister, J. R. Anderson."
Mr. Curry : I do not think it is necessary to talk to that motion, as I feel everyone will
be heartily in accord with it.
Motion carried unanimously.
Mr. J. T. Collins: I have great pleasure, Mr. Anderson, in according you the hearty
thanks of the meeting.
The Chairman : Mr. Curry, Mr. DeHart and gentlemen, as you have been good enough
to pass this resolution, which is always a matter of satisfaction, of course, and whether I
deserve it or not it is encouragement for the future, to stimulate one in their efforts to forward
the agricultural interests. I do not think anyone can say I have been backward in my wish to
forward it. Perhaps I have not done all I could do. Perhaps I have not done as well as
someone else might have done. But, at any rate, I have done what I imagined was in the
best interests of agriculture generally, and it is very gratifying to find that a representative
assemblage of this kind gives voice in the manner indicated in this resolution. I thank you
very kindly for your vote of thanks.    (Loud applause.)
Expenses of Delegates.
Moved by Mr. H. B. Phillips, seconded by Mr. H. Harris,—
" That on account of the increase in hotel expenses, we respectively ask the Department
to increase the indemnity from $2.50 per day to $3.50."
Motion carried.
The Chairman : I really don't know how this will be received. When I said $2.50 a day
it was just an arrangement. A great many of the delegates charge $2.50 as a matter of fact,
and there are a great many whose expenses come to a great deal less. But I said, " Let us
make it all around $2.50." I do not know whether the Minister will agree to any more, but
I will be very glad to put it before him. M 74 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
Mr. Harris : I would ask that Mr. Logan be called in to give us an address. (Loud
applause.)
The Chairman : Mr. Logan, the delegates of the Central Farmers' Institutes would like
to hear you talk as to what you know, and what you don't know, about agriculture. I think
that would suit them very well.
Address by Mr. Logan.
Mr. F. M. Logan : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I assure you that I esteem it an honour
to be at least called upon to come in here and occupy a little of your time. However, I shall
not say very much. I have been very busy these last few days trying to get out a catalogue
for our spring fair, so have had no time to prepare an address. I thought I would just say a
word in connection with our Dairymen's Association, which meets to-morrow night. 1 do not
know whether this has been spoken of or not.
The Chairman : Yes, it was mentioned.
Mr. Logan : However, gentlemen, the Dairymen's Association of the Province meets
to-morrow evening, and I would be only too glad to have all of you present and take part in
the discussion as you see fit. I expect Dr. Tolmie will be here to give us an interesting address
on the subject of dairying, and I have also asked two or three others who can give us very
valuable information. Perhaps Mr. Anderson has given you some figures with regard to the
dairy industry in the Province, and I need not dwell long on it. I simply want to say that
the past year has been very encouraging indeed. There were two creameries started in the
Province and one cheese factory. The output of several of the creameries—in fact, nearly all
the large creameries—amounted to 15 to 20% over their last year's business. This is very
encouraging, especially when the creameries in some provinces of Canada are going backward,
and in other provinces about standing still. Although we have increased our output, there is
still room for a large increase. One gentleman stated at the Eastern Dairymen's Association,
which met in Ottawa a few weeks ago, that if all the farmers were keeping as good cows as
some of the farmers are, we could increase the value of the dairy output of Canada $30,000,000,
without increasing the number of cows at all. Now, that seems like a strong statement to make,
but when you consider that the average cow in Canada is only making about 125 pounds of
butter, while some dairymen in Canada are getting on an average of 400 pounds a year per
cow, you can see the possibilities in the business. And it is better cows that the farmers of
this Province and every other province need. Labour is too expensive and too scarce to be
milking a lot of poor cows. I was impressed by what one of your representatives said yesterday—that he could not afford to milk the kind of cows he was keeping, but that he was going
to keep less cows and buy the very best he could buy. Now, I think that was a very wise
conclusion that he came to. I would not recommend him to buy less, but keep more, and keep
better ones, and if more of the farmers came to that conclusion they would be better satisfied
with the dairying business.
Then another encouraging feature in dairying in this Province is that the price obtained
is considerably higher than any other province in Canada, as we get an average of 5c. a pound
more for butter than is obtained in any other province. For instance, the price of butter last
year, on an average, was about one cent, or a little over a cent, in advance of the previous
year. One cent a pound may not seem very much, but in the output of the creameries it
amounts to an increase of about $16,000.
Now, there has been during tbe past years a difficulty, which apparently has never been
overcome, in the way of over-stocking the market in the month of June. At this time, when
the grass is at its best, the creameries turn out about double the amount of butter that they
were turning out previous to that time, and when all that surplus comes on the market it
invariably floods it, and one or two creameries will get scared and drop the price and last year
the price went down from 25c. to 21c. That was a difference of 4c. a pound. I figured the
number of pounds made in the month of June, and it just meant a loss of $15,000 to the
farmers, that drop for one month. I have tried to work out a plan by which that could be
obviated, and I called a meeting at the time of the New Westminster Fair, and I had representatives from nearly all the creameries in the Province, and we talked it over, and decided
to form what is called a Creamery Owners' Association, and not more than three members
from one creamery were to be allowed to become members of that Association. The principle
idea was to co-operate more in the selling of their product. 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 75
Now, last year, as I say, the price dropped from 25 cents to 21 cents. One or two
creameries who put their butter up in the form of boxes were able to sell their butter just a few
weeks later for 25 cents a pound, whereas a short time before that, had they sold it, they
would have only got 21 cents for their fresh butter. That goes to show, had they stored that
butter for a few weeks (and it can be stored for a \ cent per lb. a month in the cold storage),
they could have sold it afterwards for 25 cents to 26 cents a pound. At the second meeting
of this Association we appointed a committee to get together to talk over the matter of the
price of butter before it was dropped, and if it was thought by this committee necessary to drop
the price of butter it could be done; but there is an agreement now that no one creamery can
drop the price below the recognised price which is agreed upon by this committee, unless the committee say it is necessary to do so. If this agreement is carried out by the different creameries,
it will mean a saving to them of some $15,000 to $20,000 each year. You will say that the
consumers are getting the worst of it; you make the money for the farmers, but the consumers
have to pay more. Well, the way I look at it is this: No farmer can afford to produce butter at
less than 21 cents a pound. After the expenses are taken out, that means about 18 cents for
his butter at the farm. Now, the price of land and the price of labour is too high to make
butter for 18 cents a pound ; so, if this price is not kept up somewhere in the vicinity of 25
cents, the farmers are going to go out of the dairying business, and it will mean that the consumer will have to pay more for his butter than he is paying at the present time.
There is*anotber feature which can be taken up along with the dairying industry, and
could be worked to advantage with it, that is pork-raising. When we consider that this
Province is importing something like a million dollars worth of pork and bacon every year, it
seems ridiculous—a million dollars going out of this country for pork and bacon which might
all be produced in this country at a profit. Pork at the present time is selling alive for 7^c.
a pound, which means 10c. to 10|c. for dressed pork.
The Chairman : Twenty-five cents for bacon retail.
Mr. Logan : Well, that is certainly a paying price. I have heard men say that they can
produce dressed pork at 6 cents a pound, and this statement has been made by intelligent men
who have kept account of their expenses. Now, if they can get the present prices they are
paying for pork and bacon, it would certainly be a profitable business to engage in. Some
will say that you cannot produce pork in this country on account of the scarcity of grain. I
was just talking with Mr. Evans, one of our representatives here, about that question, and he
said he was able to buy the best of barley in Alberta, landed at Salmon Arm, for $18 a ton.
Now, if it only cost $18 a ton to land it at Salmon Arm, it would not cost more than $19 per
ton to land it at the Coast, and if barley can be purchased at $19 a ton, and pork is worth 11
cents a pound, there is certainly money to be made in pork-raising. Then a great many men
winter their pigs on roots—that is to say, breeding sows—feeding them largely on mangels.
Pigs will do very well on mangels with very little grain. I will not say anything more on
that subject, but will leave you to think it over.
I would like to say something to you in connection with the Spring Fair we intend holding at New Westminster, and which will run over to March 22nd. There are quite a number
of entries in already, and we will have something like 25 shorthorn bulls for sale at that time,
as well as four stallions, and a number of cows, pigs and sheep, so when you go back to your
districts, if you hear of anyone wishing to buy pure bred stock, I will be only to glad to let
you know what we have on hand. I am getting out a catalogue, which will be sent out as soon
as it is finished, wdiich will probably be this week, with the names and pedigrees of all the
different animals that are to be sold. We would be glad to have any of you come to the sale
who can. We also give prizes for the judging of animals, which will be a very interesting
feature of the fair. There are a number of entries in for this competition, and we will be glad
to have any come and take part in it that would care to do so. In some places where Dr.
Tolmie and I have conducted the judging classes, they have taken well. We were over
in Ladner last year and had a class of 20 to 25. They were quite taken with it, and we were
there last week again and had about 46 who took part in the judging, so it seems to be
very interesting to those who attend. I think there is no way of interesting young men in
live stock more than in the judging of it. They learn the different parts of the animal in that
way, and they learn what a good animal should be like, and take more interest in the formation of the animal if they learn to judge them ; so be sure and send your boys along, even if
you cannot come yourself, to take part in this contest. I no not think that I need take up any more of your time, I thank you for listening to
me, and I appreciate very much the courtesy I have received during the past year that I have
been here. I have tried to improve matters a little in the way of live stock associations, and
in connection with the dairy work, so if my efforts have resulted in any good to the farmers
of this Province, I am sure I am only too glad. I am not sure whether I will remain with you
another year or not. I will have to decide before long, as the Ottawa Department, by whom
I was sent out here, wish me to decide in the near future what I intend doing. However, I
like the Province of British Columbia the best of any I have ever been in. I wish to extend
my thanks to you all.    (Loud applause.)
Report on Superintendent's Address.
Mr. J. T. Collins read the report on the Superintendent's address as follows :—
" We, your Committee appointed to report on the Superintendent's address, beg to report :
" That we are pleased to see an increase in the membership, and also a large increase in
the attendance. We regret that the Spullumcheen and Comox Institutes were not represented at this Institute. We are pleased to see the increased number of Institutes wbose
membership exceeds 100.
" We are of the opinion that the increase in the attendance is largely due to the practical
demonstrations which have been given, and would recommend that they be extended and
continued.
" We quite agree with the comments of the Superintendent on the neglect of the
Secretaries to send in reports at the proper time, causing needless trouble and labour to the
department, and would urge the delegates to advise their Secretaries to comply with the Act
in this respect.
" We beg to express our appreciation of the literature supplied during the past year, and
would suggest that as much as possible be supplied this year of the same high grade,
" We wish to place on record our appreciation of the valuable services rendered to
agriculture by the Hon. Capt. Tatlow, Minister of Agriculture.
" Your Committee wish to express the thanks of the Institute for the able manner in
which the Superintendent has discharged his duties.
"John T. Collins.
" W. J. Brandrith.
"James Evans."
Mr. Harris :  I move that the report be received and adopted.
Mr. Randle : I second that, if he embody in that resolution that it be attached to the
Annual Report.
The Chairman : It has been moved and seconded that the Report on the Superintendent's address be received and embodied in the Annual Report.
Motion carried.
Vote of Thanks to Mr. Logan.
Mr. Wilson : I beg to move a vote of thanks for Mr. Logan's attendance here and for his
excellent address.
Mr. Peatt : I have great pleasure in seconding that.
The Chairman : It has been moved, Mr. Logan, that a hearty vote of thanks be extended
you for your able and valuable address.    Let it be signified by rising.     (All rising.)
Motion carried unanimously.
Mr. Logan : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I assure you that the vote of thanks^ is
appreciated. I may say that I am becoming more interested in British Columbia and British
Columbia people, and the more of them I meet the better I like them. I think there is a
great future for this Province. I have been pretty well all over Canada, and it seems
to me you have the best land in Canada, and you have also the best climate in Canada,
without a doubt. I was back East this winter, and I can assure you I had to be wrapped
up in a fur coat the most of the time, and wishing all the time I could get back to British
Columbia. But there is certainly room for improvement here. You are all prosperous
now; times are good, and you are perhaps wasting money in ways that you should not. It
seems to me, if you would stop and study the trend of events more, you would see that you
could make improvements and changes in several ways.     For instance, I do not think the 7 Ed. 7 Farmers' Institutes Report. M 77
young men on the farm are becoming interested in farming as much as they might, and we
are perhaps paying more interest to live stock than we are to the boys and girls of the farms.
No country can prosper or improve unless the people are improving, and the boys and girls of
Canada, and of this Province, are only improving as they become better educated. So I would
just throw out a hint to the farmers that they want to get the young men, the boys, more
interested in farming questions and in the affairs of the Province.
I won't take up any more of your time except to say I thank you for this vote of thanks,
;and hope to meet you all soon in your various localities.    (Applause.)
Vote of Thanks to Secretary.
Mr. Harris : Mr. Chairman, I would like to move a vote of thanks to our worthy Secretary
for the able manner in which he has attended to his duties.
Mr. Buckingham : I second it.
Motion carried.
The Chairman: I am sure he has discharged his duties on several occasions most ably
indeed, and I hope we will see him often with us in the future.
Mr. Collins : Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I have to thank you for the kind vote of
thanks you have extended to me, and I can only say that it is a great pleasure to me to do
-what I have done on these occasions. It is not very hard work, and it gives me pleasure to
be able to do anything that is in the interest of agriculture.
Mr. Abbott : I move that we now adjourn.
Mr. Wilson: Just before we adjourn, I move that the delegates present who represent
any of the agricultural societies should stay behind to arrange for dates for the fall fairs.
The Chairman : Those gentlemen who come from districts where there are agricultural
societies had better remain after adjournment and discuss the matter of itinerary of fall shows.
I regret that some of the members are not here.
Moved by Mr. Abbott, seconded by Mr. Gale,—
" That the Convention now adjourn."    Motion carried. M 78 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1907
HORTICULTURAL LAW OF STATE OF WASHINGTON, U, S,
Section 14 of the Amended Act of 1905.
(Referred to by Mr. Cunningham in his address, page M 52.)
14. Any person or persons who shall bring into the State, have in their possession, or offer
for sale or distribute or give away fruit trees, shrubs, fruit or other material infested with any
kind of insect pest injurious to fruit, fruit trees or plants, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor,
and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty dollars nor more
than five hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail not less than sixty days nor
more than one year : Provided, that for each repeated offence the person or persons convicted
may be punished by a fine of not less than two hundred dollars nor more than eight hundred
dollars, or by imprisonment not to exceed two years. Any person or persons who shall sell,
offer for sale, distribute or give away any tree or trees, root or roots, grass, cuttings or scions
infected with insect pests, spores or fungus growth, shall be deemed guilty of a misdeameanor,
and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty dollars nor more
than two hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail not less than fifteen days nor
more than thirty days. A repetition of the offence shall subject the offender to increased
penalty not over the maximum above stated. Any nursery trees, shrubs or plants which
have been shipped from and to any place within the state for distribution or for planting,
and which are infected with any injurious insect, larves or fungus growth, shall be disinfected
under the direction of the inspector of the county where such trees and plants are taken, and
the cost of such disinfection shall be charged to the owner of said articles and shall be a lien
on such trees, shrubs or plants until paid, and the person in possession of such articles being
held subject to lien shall have a legitimate claim against the party from whom he received the
articles for reimbursement of costs, including cost of collection, and shall have recourse against
the bond of the person furnishing the articles, and such claim may be enforced in any court
of competent jurisdiction of the State. That any agent, tree dealer or salesman who shall
solicit orders for fruit trees or nursery stock shall leave with the person giving such order a
duplicate of the same, and attach thereto a certificate to be signed by such salesman or agent,
naming the nursery from which such nursery stock will be supplied and its location.
victoria b. o.:
Printed by RrcHAKB Woifenden, I.S.O., V.D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1903.

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