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REPORT Submitted to His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor by the Hon. James Dunsmuir and the Hon. D. M.… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1901

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 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 545
Submitted to His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor by the Hon. James Dunsmuir and
the Hon. D. M. Eberts on their mission to Ottawa as a Delegation from the
Government of British Columbia.
By Command.
Provincial Secretary's Office,
March 15th, 1901.
Provincial Secretary.
To His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor in Council:—
Sir,—In accordance with your instructions, the undersigned beg to report that they
proceeded as a Delegation to Ottawa to lay before the Government of Canada certain matters
requiring adjustment between the two Governments, and to present certain claims of the
Province of British Columbia for increased recognition at the hands of the Dominion.
As you are aware, the matters referred to were fully discussed before our departure, and
were as follows:—
1. Chinese and Japanese immigration.
2. The right of the Province to a greater share of the revenues arising out of the Chinese
Immigration Act.
3. The fisheries.
4. The encouragement of ship-building on the British Columbia coast.
5. Readjustment of the lumber tariff, in the interests of the local industry.
6. Financial relations of the Province of British Columbia and the Dominion of Canada.
7. Co-operation of the Dominion with the Province in the matter of railway development in British Columbia.
8. The settlement of the Songhees Indian Reserve.
9. Readjustment of boundaries of Indian Reserves in British Columbia.
10. The right of the Province to administer the minerals under Indian Reserves.
11. The right of the Province to the foreshores, and the minerals under the same.
12. The salaries of Judges.
13. Amendment of the Naturalization Act, to prevent fraudulent naturalization of aliens.
14. The claims of Robert Angus for compensation for timber seized within the Dominion
Railway Belt.
16. Claims for compensation in connection with small-pox quarantine along the International Boundary Line.
And several other matters of more minor import.
The Delegation left Victoria on the 5th January, and arrived in Ottawa on Saturday,
the 11th, and on that day met Sir Wilfrid Laurier, and arranged for a meeting for the following
Tuesday. Owing, however, to the death of Queen Victoria, news of which was received shortly
after our arrival, and the near approach of the opening of Parliament, which took place on the
6th of February, negotiations extended over a longer period than was at first anticipated. The
Ministers were very busy preparing for the work of the Session and meeting delegations from
various quarters; consequently their time was greatly occupied, and the opportunities of interviewing the several Members of the Administration were more limited than would have been
the case under ordinary circumstances. 546 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
However, we are pleased to report that we were afforded every facility possible of presenting our case to individual Members and the Government as a whole, and were cordially
received. Our representations were courteously considered throughout, and fully discussed.
Subsequent to the preliminary interviews with Sir Wilfrid Laurier, we had conferences on the
17th with Honourable David Mills, Minister of Justice; on the 18th, with Sir Wilfrid Laurier,
Prime Minister; on the 19th, with Sir Louis Davies; on the 20th and 21st, with the Honourable A. G. Blair, Minister of Railways; on the 22nd, with Honourable Clifford Sifton, Minister
of the Interior; on the 25th and 28th, with Mr. Blair; on the 28th, with Mr. Mills, and on
the 31st, with Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Members of the Cabinet. We left Ottawa on
February 2nd. In consideration of the fact that the views of the Delegation were subsequently
crystallized and submitted in the form of a series of letters and memoranda to Sir Wilfrid
Laurier, Prime Minister, and to the several Ministers, to whose Departments the subjects
respectively pertained, it has been deemed unnecessary, as well as inadvisable, to enter into a
report in detail as to the verbal representations made, and the nature of the discussions arising
We have, therefore, the honour of presenting herewith, in order, as a report, the correspondence as a whole, and in so doing have confidence in assuring you that to whatever extent
the Delegation may have been successful in impressing their views on the Government at
Ottawa, and obtaining compliance therewith, they have not neglected in any respect to place
in a full and favourable light the claims of your Government for earnest and immediate consideration.
James Dunsmuir,
D. M. Eberts.
The Premier to Sir.  Wilfrid Laurier.
Victoria, B. C, October 9th, 1900.
Right Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, G.C.M.G.,
Prime Minister, Ottawa, Canada.
Dear Sir Wilfrid,—There are several matters affecting the mutual interests of the
Province of British Columbia and the Dominion of Canada, concerning which the Government
is anxious that I should make representations to you, and I am very desirous, on my own
account as well, that you should have an opportunity of carefully considering the views of my
colleagues and myself concerning them, which, I may say, are shared by a large majority of
the people of British Columbia. The matters in question have, for some time past, been under
discussion in the Legislature, on the' public platform and in the press, and I have no doubt
that on account of the increasing interest felt in the East in the affairs of this Western
country, they have already been brought under your notice. I propose going to Ottawa at an
early date, hoping to have the pleasure of a personal interview, and an intimation from you
as to a favourable time to see you would be appreciated.
In the first place, you will have observed by the various expressions of opinion, and,
particularly from the attitude of the Legislative Assembly, that there is a strong and growing-
feeling regarding the immigration of Mongolians. In the opinion of the Government the
time has fully arrived when some decisive steps should be taken by the authorities, having
complete and effective jurisdiction to permanently end the state of affairs complained of.
The question is not without its difficulties, I admit; but the continued unrestricted
immigration of Chinese and Japanese cannot but result in the agitation now on foot being
persisted in and growing into undesirable prominence. From the representations made by the
Japanese Consul to this Government, it would appear that His Imperial Majesty's Government
has decided to prohibit the emigration of Japanese, or rather to greatly restrict it. It
depends, of course, on how far the proposed restriction goes, as to whether it will be satisfactory or not. It may appear to you unreasonable that the people of British Columbia should
desire to limit the privileges of a nation which has friendly treaty relations with Great
Britain ; but there are local considerations as well as Imperial interests which must be taken
into account. Owing to the geographical relation of Great Britain to the continent of Asia,
this Province is the landing place for  Oriental  immigration to the Pacific Coast, and conse- 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 547
quently the competition to which the labouring classes here are exposed is keenly felt, in a
way that cannot be appreciated in other parts of Canada. This applies to Japanese and
Chinese alike.
I am not at all clear as to whether the powers of the Province can constitutionally be
applied to effect a remedy, but during the recent Session of the Legislature several earnest
efforts were made to encompass the ends in view—with what success will appear when the
legislation comes before your Government for review. What I feel particularly is this, that
an unquestionable remedy lies with the Dominion authorities, and having promised the House
that we would use our utmost influence with your Government, and through the Dominion
Government with the Imperial authorities, to bring about a settlement, I cannot too strongly
urge upon your attention the great desirability of dealing effectively with our representations.
The theory upon which the rights of other nations are based is undoubtedly a strong argument against enacting the restrictive measures which we are so desirous of seeing enforced ;
but it is a condition, not a theory, with which we have to contend. Other things being equal
we could not complain. If the people against whom we desire a measure of protection were,
in their standard of living, on a par with our own, the competition of Japanese and Chinese
would be a legitimate one; but I need not point out to you what has been contended so often
and with so much force against an indiscriminate and unrestricted immigration of Mongolians,
that, without lowering the general standard of living necessary to meet the decrease in wages,
it is not possible for white labour to exist in the face of a system that has grown up under
conditions entirely foreign to Anglo-Saxon communities, wholly inapplicable in this country,
and out of harmony with our institutions. I am not prepared to say that there is not at the
present time, and that probably for a little time to come there will not be, some avocations in
which Chinese and Japanese may be employed with actual benefit to the whole community. I
believe there are. These, however, are limited, and even respecting these it is desirable to
change the conditions as soon as possible. The introduction of machinery will, in time, in all
probability, afford very largely a substitute for such labour, and, in any event, if the employment of Mongolians in a limited way may be justified, it certainly is very undesirable that any
increase in the demand for their services should take place, or that their employment should
not be reduced to an absolute minimum.
A good deal has been said about public sentiment being educated to discourage the
employment of Mongolian labour wherever possible, and while that may be commendable in
itself, it will fail in practice to meet the case; because in large industries, more particularly,
the temptation to obtain the cheapest form of labour, and to utilize it whenever and wherever
available, will undoubtedly exist.
In my opinion, the only satisfactory way to deal with the whole subject is by the increase
of the per capita tax in such a measure as to surely limit the number of immigrants, and by
enactment of legislation, similar to the Natal Act, to regulate their employment while in the
country. It is true that the Dominion Government has increased the per capita tax from $50
to $100 per head, but, as you will have already ascertained, the concensus of opinion, so far as this
Province is concerned, is that it fails to meet the requirements. Sentiment throughout British
Columbia is absolutely opposed to any temporizing with the question. The opposition of the
Imperial authorities must not be allowed to stand in the way of the interests of this, an integral
and most loyal part of the Empire, and if sufficient remedies have been permitted to be exercised
in other colonies, they cannot consistently be refused to Canada, our case being all the stronger
from the fact that by our direct geographical relation as a highway of traffic to the Orient we
are particularly exposed to the evils of such immigration.
We look to the Dominion to afford us relief, and while I am absolutely opposed to an
unconstitutional exercise of remedies by the Province, by the very nature of things, if they are
denied to us by the proper authorities, we shall have a continuance of undesirable and hasty
and ill-advised legislation. It will, furthermore, create an irritation prejudicial to the harmony
which hitherto has always characterised our relations with the Dominion, and which is so
necessary in giving full effect to the objects of Confederation.
I am sending as an appendix to this letter copies of the resolutions which have been
passed during the recent Session of the Legislature, together with copies of the Acts relating to
immigration and the regulation of labour. I also append a list of the resolutions and references
which appear in our Journals and Sessional Papers since Confederation, from which you will
see that it has always been a live question in the minds of the people, and that as time has
gone on the expressions of public sentiment have become more pronounced and frequent.    This 548 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
Government desires to see the question finally and satisfactorily disposed of, and I can see no
reason why it should not be taken hold of now as well as at some future time.
If the Government of Japan intends to adhere to the policy it has announced, it will
possibly dispose of the matter as far as Japanese are concerned, but we want some definite
assurance on that point. I am aware that the difficulties with respect to the Japanese are
greater than with respect to the Chinese, on account of the difference in the status of the two
nations; but the conditions of competition being identical, the problem, so far as we are concerned, is the same in both cases.
While on this subject I wish to call your attention to the frauds which have been perpetrated in connection with the naturalization of Japanese. This would seem to suggest some
necessary amendments to the Naturalization Act in order to prevent the recurrence of such
abuses in the future. The evasions of the Act which have taken place are of the most scandalous nature, and I have no doubt that, after the subject has been thoroughly investigated, you
will have further representations from the Honourable the Attorney-General.
In this connection, also, I desire, on behalf of the Government, to bring again to the
attention of your Government the apportionment of the revenues arising out of the operation
of the Chinese Immigration Act. While only one-quarter of the revenue so derived is returned
to the Provincial Treasury, practically this Province has to suffer the whole of the evils arising
from such immigration. What we beg to propose, and believe to be our right, is that the moneys
remaining over after the expenses of administering the Act are met should be paid to this
Government. The right of the Province to the present apportionment is, I understand, based
upon the material effects of Chinese immigration in the Province, and is regarded as a compensation for resultant local evils. If the principle of any apportionment at all is a right and just
one, then the claims of the Province to the whole of the revenue is equally obvious. I think
that is so clear as not to admit of argument. The numbers of Chinese who find their way to
Eastern Canada are small, and the effect on the labour market, in consideration of the largeness
of the total population, is, in the aggregate, so insignificant as not to be appreciable. On the
other hand, our population is so comparatively limited that any influx of Chinese is felt in a
correspondingly increased ratio.
Another matter for adjustment is the administration of our fisheries, and the apportionment of revenues arising therefrom, based on the decision of the Privy Council. As a matter
of fact, the judgment is not sufficiently definite and clear, and the present status of the question
points to the advisability of a further reference to the Courts in order to ascertain more fully
the respective limits of jurisdiction, and the kind of jurisdiction, that should be exercised by
the respective Governments; or, in the absence of such reference, to a better understanding
between the respective Governments. We feel that the necessity for the development of the
fisheries within Provincial limits demand that the revenues arising out of licences should be
shared by, if not wholly transferred to, the Province. For instance, in 1898-1899 the cost of
the fisheries was $8,500, while the revenue from licences was $46,000. It must be conceded
that very little has been done by your Government towards the encouragement of the fishing
industry, while the cost of preserving order is borne by, and the responsibility of police protection rests with, the Province. This is a state of affairs manifestly unfair, and one which I
hope to see placed on a more satisfactory basis. Since the fishing industry is still in its infancy
in British Columbia, and since the jurisdiction of the Province has been greatly extended by
the recent judgment of the Privy Council referred to, this Government feels a very large share
of responsibility in relation to future development.
Perhaps, however, in a sense, the most important feature of policy affecting the relations
of the two Governments is that of railway development. No other Province of the Dominion
demands the same consideration in this respect. For one reason, the requirements of the
other Provinces have, in the past, been recognised to a much larger degree, and for another,
the physical features of British Columbia present obstacles not elsewhere encountered, and for
still another and more important reason, the per capita contribution of British Columbia to
the Dominion Treasury, compared with the money we receive in return, demands, in fairness,
that we should receive more liberal treatment. It has been pointed out to your Government,
and demonstrated over and over again by statistics taken from the Dominion Public Accounts,
that the per capita contribution is several times that of the average for the whole Dominion.
Added to that, we pay in freight, on all goods consumed, a sum many times greater than that
of the consumer east of the Great Lakes, which adds proportionately to the burden of our 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 549
contributions; and then, to the through rate you have to add the local rate from the terminal
points back to the consumer, which is also relatively very much greater than that paid in the
East. Such facts as these, which have led in later years to a dissatisfaction yearly more and
more finding expression, and one that will eventually develop into an emphatic demand for
better terms, suggest special reasons for your consideration of some systematic and comprehensive effort by the Dominion Government towards railway building and other forms of development in British Columbia.
There is a well-known disposition on the part of the people of Eastern Canada to regard
the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway as a sort of contribution to British Columbia
sufficient for all time to come. The fact is that, by the building of that railway, an outlet in
the whole of the North-West has been afforded for the Canadian manufacturer and the
wholesaler, greater in its benefits than the sum of all the other acts of statesmanship since
Confederation, not to speak of the tremendous possibilities which have been opened up for
trans-oceanic traffic, and the importance which this development has given to Canada in the
eyes of the world. In my opinion, it has made Canada a nation, and, in a large measure,
saved it from the fate of annexation with the United States, which only the vision of a
Confederation of Provinces, united by a railway and cemented by trade interests, could have
averted. As the situation is at the present time, British Columbia is paying for those
advantages and Eastern Canada is reaping them.
We think the form which the co-operation of the Dominion Government should take is
particularly in the direction of railway development. This is especially what the resources of
the Province require, for, as yet, only the rim of the Province has been touched. You are
fully conversant with the advantages which the construction of an all-rail route to the Yukon
would afford, and, with that mainly in view, the Province is anxious to join hands with the
Dominion, for, apart from the desirability of conserving our own trade for our own people,
such an undertaking would assist in the development of the whole northern part of British
Columbia, the richness of which is being demonstrated daily. It would also form a link in an
internal system of development yet to be undertaken. British Columbia is intersected by a
succession of rich mineral belts from the south to the extreme north. Throughout the centre
of British Columbia, for its entire length, extends a great and comparatively level plateau,
admirably adapted for a trunk line of railway, from which would ultimately radiate branch
lines to the Coast through easy passes, everywhere tapping localities capable of remarkable
development and of creating immense traffic—a wonderful natural system of communication,
of which a parallel is not presented in any other Province of the Dominion. Of this great
task, the Province, burdened as it is with excessive contributions to the Dominion Treasury,
cannot assume the sole responsibility. Having this mainly in view, we desire to enter into
negotiations with your Government for the purpose of arriving at some equitable basis of
mutual effort, and especially with reference to an all-Canadian route to the Yukon through
the northern districts of British Columbia.
This is not a new departure. During the Session of 1898, the policy of the Government
of this Province, as announced in the House, was based on views to which, in the main, it
still adheres, a policy rendered the more justifiable and necessary by events of subsequent
development and the more recent phases of the Alaska Boundary question. The then Premier
advocated proceeding towards railway development, having in view joint action based on some
determined ratio of assistance, and announced a policy of co-operation as between the two
Governments. You are familiar with the political events which, since that time, interrupted
the proposed negotiations.
Since the present administration came into power, it has had this matter repeatedly under
consideration, and, during the recent Session, in dealing with charters for railway companies
seeking entrance to the north country, it took strong grounds conformable with the lines laid
down by the Dominion itself during the past several years.
On this point I submit a copy of a report of the Railway Committee, and extracts from
the Colonist's and Times' accounts of the debate which arose when the report in question was
presented to the House.
The Government furthermore held that, until the delimitation of the Alaska Boundary
had been finally effected, it was inadvisable to grant charters for railways to or through
undefined or disputed territory, and until that dispute was settled efforts should be concentrated
upon an enterprise wholly within Canadian territory, and one that would as well open up and
develop new and promising districts in the Province.    This Government is prepared to enter 550 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
upon negotiations at once with such an end in view, and would strongly urge upon you the
great desirability of co-operating with us. Our object is to work in perfect harmony with
your Government in this matter.
The general question of the relations of the Provinces and the Dominion in respect to
railways must also inevitably come up for review and adjustment, and the present is, in my
opinion, a most suitable time to arrive at an understanding. The signs are already not wanting of
a conflict which, as the result of an overlapping control, may some day, if not very soon, become
very serious. The superior rights of the Dominion in respect to jurisdiction and the exclusive
right of eminent domain possessed by the Provinces are, to some extent, irreconcilable, and if
it may not be deemed necessary for that purpose to amend the " British North America Act,"
at least some definite agreement should be arrived at in order to obviate friction and promote
mutual interests. If the several Governments of the Dominion were to confer with a view to
adopting a common policy in respect to railways, a practical and mutually satisfactory solution
would doubtless be reached.
In approaching this matter from the British Columbia standpoint, I fully apprehend the
objections that may arise in Eastern Canada, and, knowing full well the political predominancy
of the East over the West, I can realise to what extent, without a clear understanding of our
position, the influence of the East may be opposed to any of the arrangements I have
suggested. It is not, however, with any feeling of hostility or spirit of sectionalism that we
have opened up the subject. I have the greatest faith in the inherent love of justice and good
common sense of the people of Canada as a whole, and it is only necessary that they should
appreciate more fully the real condition of affairs to coincide with the views here expressed.
If I were asked to outline a policy that would be of the greatest possible benefit to the whole
Dominion, I could suggest nothing that would be more in the interests of its people than I
have in the foregoing.
In the first place, the development of British Columbia in the way indicated would
immensely increase the trade of eastern centres, and afford a vastly increased outlet for their
surplus energy and capital.
From a fiscal point of view, the revenues from customs and inland revenue receipts would
be enormously augmented, just as these were stimulated by the building of the Canadian.
Pacific Railway, and by the opening up of the mining sections and such new districts as the
Yukon and Atlin. We have only to look at the ratio of increase shown in the Trade and
Navigation Returns of the past twenty-five years, and particularly since 1885, to be firmly
convinced of that.
Lastly, and not least, the results of the general development of this Province on a scale
of magnitude which its resources justify would add so materially to the importance of Canada
as to place it easily in the front rank of producing nations, and thereby attract the attention
of the whole world to its advantages. This is a consummation so desirable that it cannot but
appeal to the patriotic instincts of every Canadian, and render his endorsation of such a policy
a necessary and foregone conclusion.
The Government of Canada is entitled to the fullest share of credit on account of the
Crow's Nest Pass Railway, and in that connection I have to observe that in Eastern Canada
the building of that road has been regarded too much in the light of a generous concession to
the claims of this Province on the Dominion. I wish to point out that the demand for a
shorter line through the Crow's Nest Pass came not so much from British Columbia as from
the manufacturers and wholesale merchants of Eastern Canada, who, for business reasons,
appreciated its vital importance to their interests, and while it has been and is of undoubtedly
great benefit to themining interests of the southern interior, it has been a still greater benefit
to those who were thus instrumental in securing its construction. Moreover, its pronounced
success, from every point of view, only tends to affirm the wisdom of pursuing the policy
involved to a logical conclusion in respect to the whole of British Columbia.
In connection with the relations of this Province to the. Dominion of Canada, and the
claims arising therefrom, I am preparing a memorandum more fully dealing with the details,
which I shall submit when I have the pleasure of seeing you personally. I hope on that
occasion to discuss these matters at greater length, and I feel assured that your sense of
justice will accord to my representations the fullest measure of consideration.
Believe me, etc.,
(Signed)        James Dunsmuir,
Premier. 1 Ed 7. Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 551
Appendix to letter to Sir Wilfrid Laurier from Hon. James Dunsmuir, Premier of British
Columbia, re Chinese and Japanese immigration, Fisheries, and all-Canadian railway to
the Yukon, etc., etc.
A. References in the Sessional Papers re Chinese and Japanese immigration, etc., from
1880 up to the present time.
B. References in the Journals of the Legislative Assembly in British Columbia to
Chinese and Japanese question from 1872 up to the present time.
C. Session of 1900:—
1. Extract from Speech from the Throne.
2. Resolution moved by Messrs. Tatlow and Garden.
3. Resolution by Messrs. Helmcken and Smith, and amendment thereto by Messrs.
Mclnnes and Smith Curtis.
4. Question by Mr. Kidd re Japanese fishermen.
5. Question by Mr. Tatlow re Japanese immigration.
6. Telegram from Japanese Consul re Japanese immigration.
7. Vote on Mr. Helmcken's resolution re sub-letting contracts, and amendments by
Messrs. Mclnnes and McPhillips.
8. Vote on Mr. Tatlow's resolution and amendment thereto.
9. Resolution by Messrs.  Hayward and Helmcken re naturalization of  Chinese and
10. Resolution by Messrs. Garden and Tatlow re Natal Act.
11. Vote on Mr. Mclnnes' Bill relating to Labour.
12. Extract from Lieutenant-Governor's Speech, close of Session.
13. Copy of Bill, by Mr. Mclnnes, relating to Labour, withdrawn.
14. Copy of Bill, by Mr. Mclnnes, relating to Labour, given six months' hoist.
15. Copy of Act passed to regulate immigration into British Columbia.
16. Copy of an Act passed to regulate labour on works carried on under  franchises
granted under Private Acts.
D.—1.  Report of Select Committee re Northern Railway.
2. Colonist's report of debate on foregoing.
3. Times' report of debate on foregoing.
[Appendices C and D have been omitted as unnecessary for the information of the House.]
Sessional Papers.
1880.—Petition from the Anti-Chinese Association, Victoria, signed by Noah Shakespeare,
President, asking for protection from the Provincial Government against the Chinese, and
calling the attention of the Dominion Government to the great influx of Chinese owing to
their employment on the Canadian Pacific Railway, and praying that they should not be
employed upon public works of any kind within the Province.     Page 406.
1883.—Provincial Secretary's report to the Executive on the subject of Chinese immigration, quoting the resolution of 1878, passed by the Legislative Assembly.    Page 345.
1884.—Return of papers relating to the Chinese question, printed for the information of
Select Committee on Chinese Immigration, containing a review of the resolutions passed by
the Legislature and the representations made by the Government to the Dominion authorities
up to that time.    Page 229.
1885.—Report of the Hon. Wm. Smithe's visit to Ottawa, one of the objects of which
was the recognition of the right of the Province to legislate against the Chinese or secure the
substitution of effective legislation by the Dominion.    Page 1.
1886.—Destitute condition of Chinese, in which it is pointed out that large numbers of
Chinese have been thrown out of employment by the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway and are in a starving condition, the Province, having protested against their immigration
and employment, looks to the Dominion to provide for them.    Page 347.
Acts to prevent the immigration of Chinese, passed in 1884 and 1885; return of papers
in connection with the same and the report of the Minister of Justice on the disallowance of
such Acts.    Page 349. 552 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
Chinese Regulation Act, 1884: return of papers in connection with the collection of
revenues under the same and the enforcement of the Act.    Page 355.
1890.—Petition against employment of Chinese on public works of the Province; against
employment of Chinese on contracts for public works, or where a grant of money or land is
given in aid of any works, and asking the Government to use their influence with the Dominion
to have a similar clause inserted in all contracts made by them in this Province.    Page 391.
Petition against the employment of Chinese in the coal mines as a measure in the interests
of safety and pointing out the immunity from accidents in the coal mines during the period
that no Chinese were employed.    Page 393.
1892.—Petitions to exclude Japanese and Chinese being employed in coal mines; one
from Nanaimo, Wellington and Comox, signed by about 3,000 persons, and another from
Vancouver, signed by 700 members of the local trade unions.    Pages 465 and 475.
Chinese Immigration Act: report of the Executive Council, approved 3rd March, 1891,
praying the Dominion Government to increase the restrictive character of the Chinese Immigration Act of Canada.    Page 627.
1894.—Copy of report of the Executive Council, approved 29th March, 1893, conveying
copy of resolution passed by the Legislative Assembly, praying that the Dominion Government
might increase the per capita tax on Chinese immigration to $100, and increase the amount
of the revenues returnable to the Province; and reply of the Dominion Government stating
the undesirability of increasing the tax owing to trade relations with China.    Page 1003.
1897.—Report from Minister of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, respecting the desirability
of increasing capitation tax on Chinese, and submitting that British Columbia is entitled to
three-fourths of such revenue, in reply to a resolution of the Legislative Assembly respecting
the same. The minute states that similar representations have been received from British
Columbia, and declines to consider the request.    Page 949.
Naturalization of Chinese and Japanese: papers relating to the proposal embodied in a
resolution of the Legislative Assembly asking that a residence of ten years be required for
naturalization, and the reply of the Minister of Trade and Commerce to the effect that the
suggestion is not practicable considering the relations and treaties existing between the
British Government and those of China and Japan.    Page 1277.
1898.—Chinese and Japanese labour in metalliferous mines: return to an order of the
House for copies of all correspondence relative to such employment.    Page 769.
1899.—Chinese and Japanese immigration: papers respecting the number of Chinese and
Japanese landed in the Province during the years 1897-98.    Page 1383.
Chinese per capita tax: papers respecting the proposed increase of the per capita tax on
Chinese immigrants; report of the Privy Council, approved 15th May, 1899, with reference to
a resolution passed by the Legislative Assembly requesting the per capita tax to be increased
to $500, being adverse to any interference with the Chinese Immigration Act as it stands.
Page 1385.
1872, 26th February.—Motion to tax Chinamen $50.00 per head per annum, lost;
yeas 7, nays  15.    Page 15.
28th February.—Motion to prohibit Chinese labour on Provincial and Federal works,
lost; yeas 5, nays 17.    Page 16.
1873-74, 12th January.—Motion to impose per capita tax on Chinese residents, negatived.
Page 18.
1876, 9th May.—Committee of the Whole for the purpose of considering expediency of
taking steps towards preventing immigration of Mongolian population; report adopted by
House.    Page 46.
1878, 31st July.—Resolution passed by Legislative Assembly against employment of
Chinese on public works, and favouring insertion of clause in all contracts to that effect.
Page 82.
1879, 19th February.—Select Committee appointed to report on the best means of dealing
with the Chinese population and preventing further immigration.    Page 20.
March 28th.—Report of Select Committee recommending an Address to the Dominion
Government asking that measures be adopted to effectually prevent further immigration
of Chinese.    Page 47. 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 553
April 7th.—Draft of Address to Dominion Government by Select Committee, signed by
Geo. A. Walkem, Chairman (now Mr. Justice Walkem), in which representations to the
Dominion Government are very strong.    Page 55.
1880, April 19th.—Petition from anti-Chinese Association.    Page 17.
April 21st.—Resolution passed urging Dominion Government to pass an Act similar in
principle to the Queensland Act.    Page 20.
April 22nd.—Resolution passed requesting the Dominion Government to empower the
Province of British Columbia to pass an Act entitled the Chinese Tax Act, copy of which is
included in resolution.    Page 21.
1882, February 28th.—Resolution passed requesting the Dominion Government to induce
contractors on the Canadian Pacific Railway to employ white labour only.    Page 10.
Report of the Executive Council, approved 9th March, urging on the Dominion Government the desirability of giving effect to the foregoing resolution.    Page 11.
Reply from the Dominion Government, and further representations from the Executive
Council of the Province.    (See pages 232, 233, Sessional Papers, 1884.)
■   1883, January2  6th.—Order in  Council re influx of   Chinese.    (See Sessional Papers,
1884.)    Page 5.
1884, February 18th.—Royal assent to Act Regulating Chinese Immigration.    Page 77.
1883, 7th December.—Committee of the Whole to consider best means to prevent
Chinese immigration; reported that Select Committee be appointed to draft an Act to restrict
the immigration of Chinese;  report adopted.    Page 12.
January 21st.—Reported Acts to regulate the Chinese population and to prevent their
immigration, with Address to the Governor-General on the subject; report adopted. Pages
37 and 38.
Question—by Mr. Duck—as to what had been done by the Government re carrying out
the view of the House on Chinese immigration, with reply of Government.    Page 18.
1885, February 25th.—Resolution regarding disallowance of Act regulating and preventing immigration of Chinese, and making further representations to the Dominion Government
in favour of restrictive legislation.    Page 46.
March 9th.—Royal assent to another Bill preventing Chinese immigration.    Page 72.
February 9th.—Resolution re disallowance of an Act to prevent immigration of Chinese,
and representations to the House of Commons on the Chinese question, praying for enactment
of laws to prohibit further immigration.    Page 30.
February 23rd.—Report of Select Committee on Chinese question.    Page 43.
1885, February 17th.—Amendment to the Chinese Regulation Act, 1884; Bill introduced.    Page 26.
February 25th.—Bill withdrawn, being out of order.    Page 36.
March 11th.—Select Committee appointed to prepare a clause to be inserted in all Private
Bills, regulating employment of Chinese in connection therewith.    Page 47.
March 17th.—Report of Select Committee received.    Page 52.
February 26th.—Motion to insert clause in all Private Bills, withdrawn.    Page 37.
March 1st.—Motion negatived to reduce tax for mining licences, and also to prevent
Chinese from cutting hemlock timber on Crown lands.    Page 38.
February 1st.—Order for Return of licences granted under "Chinese Regulation Act,
1884";  number of arrests and convictions, etc.    Page 11.
February 1st.—Resolution requesting papers to be brought down referring to "An Act
to Prevent Immigration of Chinese," 1884 and 1885.    Page 11.
February 5th.—Return re Chinese destitution.    Page 13.    (See Sessional Papers.)
February 8th.— Return of papers ordered by the House re Acts to Prevent Immigration
of Chinese, 1884 and 1885.    Page 15.    (See Sessional Papers, 1886.)
February 8th.—Papers referring to " Chinese Regulation Act, 1884." Page 15. (See
Sessional Papers, 1886.)
February 19th.—Return of revenue under Chinese Regulation Act.    Page 30.
1887, 22nd March et seq.—Divisions on motion to add Chinese clause to certain Bills,
negatived.    Pages 60. 63, 64, 82 and 86.
1890, March 18th.—Petition re Chinese labour on public contracts.    Page 67.
March 19th.—Petition from miners of Nanaimo, Wellington and Comox against Chinese
working underground in colleries.    Both petitions ordered printed.    Page 69. 554 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
1891, February 5th et seq.—Motions to insert sections providing against employment of
Chinese on work undertaken in pursuance of Private Bills, negatived. Pages 23 to 26, 64, 69
to 71, 88 to 90, 138.
Eebruary 19th.—Resolution favouring reference to the powers of the House to pass
Acts containing clauses prohibiting the employment of Chinese, to the Supreme Court of the
Province, and long amendment thereto. Both motion and amendment were withdrawn.
Pages 40-41.
January 22nd.—Resolution in favour of Chinese clause in all Private Bills ; debate
adjourned.    Page 7.
February 24th.—Resolution in favour of increasing the per capita tax from $50 to $200
and amendment.    Motion as amended, carried.    Page 50.
February 25th.—Amendment not to include Japanese under same restriction as Chinese,
carried, 16 to 14.    Page 53.
February 27th.—Resolution re Chinese immigration, asking that it should be made more
restrictive, passed, 18 to 10.    Page 56.
1892, March 28th et seq.—Insertion of Chinese restriction clause in private Bills, negatived.
Pages 77, 95, 138 and 146.
April 1st.—Resolution re increased restriction of Chinese immigration; previous question
moved and carried, 14 to 13.    Pages 85 and 86.
February 17th.—Petition from 2,689 miners of Nanaimo, Wellington, and Comox against
Chinese and Japanese working underground; ordered printed.    Pages 18 and 21.
February 19th.—Petition from Alberni District re Chinese and Japanese.    Page 24.
February 22nd.—Petition re Chinese and Japanese.    Page 24.
March 3rd.—Petition from Vancouver Trades and Labour Council re Chinese and
Japanese working underground.    Page 37.
March 9th.—Resolution passed for return of correspondence, etc., re resolution of last
Session asking that the Chinese Immigration Act of Canada be made more restrictive in its
provisions.    Page 46.
March 16th.—Presentation of papers ordered by the House respecting the foregoing
Resolution.    Page 62.
1893, 17th February.—Resolution re "Chinese Immigration Act," requesting the
Dominion Government to make it more restrictive in certain ways, carried, 15 to 14. Pages
26 to 27.
March 20th.—Resolution adopted requesting the Dominion Government to increase the
per capita tax to $100, and to give this Province 75 per cent, of the said tax.     Pages 77-91.
Eebruary 23rd.—Mr. Keith's Bill to amend the "Coal Mines Regulation Act, 1888," and
the "Coal Mines Amendment Act, 1890," was negatived by 16 to 12.    Page 35.
1894, 29th January.—Resolution re amendment of the "Municipal Act" to enable Corporations to tax persons or companies employing Chinamen $50 per year for each Chinaman;
ruled out of order.    Page 15.
January 25th.—Resolution adopted praying the Dominion Government to increase the
per capita tax to $100, and expressing the opinion that three-fourths of all moneys received
should be paid to the Province.    Page 10.
February 8th.—Resolution passed praying for copies of all correspondence re Resolution
of 1893, praying the Dominion Government to increase the per capita tax to $100, etc. Page
February 15th.—Copies of the above referred to papers presented to the House.   Page 41.
1895, 22nd December (1894).—Resolution praying that the per capita tax be increased
to $100, and that three-fourths of all moneys received in British Columbia should be paid to
the Province.    Page 55.
January 24th.—Resolution adopted in favour of the Government taking steps against
Chinese holding liquor licences.    Page 88.
February 8th.—Section introduced to amend "An Act to further amend Act 44 Victoria,
Chapter 19," against employment of Chinese or Japanese; negatived, 17 to 10.    Page 114.
1896, February 12th.—Question as to steps to test the constitutionality of the section of
the " Coal Mines Regulation Act" prohibiting the employment of Chinese underground.
Page 37.
1897, February 15th.—Resolution adopted urging the desirability of increasing the per
capita tax to $100, and that three-fourths of all moneys received should be paid to British
Columbia.    Pages 12 and 34. 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 555
April 20th.—Return of papers re increase of capitation grant.    Page 120.
April 26th.—Return asked for as to number of Chinamen who are tenants of the Crown.
Page 131.
April 26th.—Enquiry as to steps taken to prevent employment of Chinese in the mines
of the Union Colliery Company.    Page 131.
April 30th.—Resolution urging on Dominion Government the necessity of Chinese and
Japanese residing ten years before becoming naturalized.    Page 141.
March 18th.—Government asked as to what action it would take with reference to a Bill
from the recent decision of the Supreme Court re " Coal Mines Regulation Act."    Page 64.
April 28th.—Resolution requesting the Dominion Government, re treaty with Japan, to
make such stipulations as will prevent unrestricted immigration of Japanese into Canada.
Page 136.
1898, 6th April.—"Coal Mines Regulation Act" read a second time, 17 to 19.   Page 107.
February 28th.—Return of correspondence re employment of Chinese or Japanese in
metalliferous mines in the Province.    Page 32.
1899, February 7th.—Act to amend the "Coal Mines Regulation Act"; second reading, page 43 ; third reading, page 46.
February 2nd.—Resolution re employment of Chinese and Japanese, making representations to the Dominion Government, withdrawn.    Page 38.
January 18th.—Return of copies of all correspondence between the Dominion and
Provincial Governments with reference to the legislation against Japanese.    Page 20.
February 24th.—Return showing number of Chinese and Japanese that have become
naturalized British subjects in British Columbia.    Page 95.
January 11th.—Question as to communications received by the Provincial Government
from the Dominion Government, relative to a protest by the Emperor of Japan against the
" Labour Regulation Act, 1898."    Page 11.
January 11th.—Resolution adopted to memorialize the Dominion Government to increase
the per capita tax on Chinese, and to urge the claims of the Province to three-fourths of the
revenue.    Page 10.
January 16th.—Resolution requesting the Dominion Government to furnish information
regarding the number of Chinese and Japanese landed during 1897-1898.    Page 16.
February 25th.—Long resolution adopted requesting the Dominion Government to
increase the per capita tax on Chinese to $500.    Page 99.
January 25th.—Order of the House for Return showing number of Chinese and
Japanese naturalized since 1890.    Page 27.
February 20th.—Return ordered showing number of Chinese and Japanese naturalized
in British Columbia to the present time.    Page 65.
February 14th.—Debate on resolution asking for copies of reply sent by the Province to
the Dominion Government, relative to the suggestion that the "Labour Regulation Act, 1898,"
be repealed, adjourned.    Page 53.
February 16th.—Resolution carried.    Page 58.
February 16th.—Resolution re enforcing the Sanitary Regulations re Chinese.    Page 57.
1900, 8th January.—Return ordered of all correspondence, etc., between the Dominion
and Provincial Governments, relative to the disallowance of the "Labour Regulation Act,
February 1st.—Amendment to "An Act to amend the Coal Mines Regulation Act."
Debate on same defeated by 18 to 17.
February 2nd.—Bill introduced to regulate the length of hair that may be worn by
employees in metalliferous and other mines.
February 9th.—Resolution against admission of Mongolians to the rights of citizenship,
and memorializing the Dominion Government to change the naturalization laws to that
effect.    After several amendments, motion carried, 28 to 2.
February 12th.—Adjourned debate on the "Coal Mines Regulation Act." 556
Report of Delegation to Ottawa.
Stratford, 17th October, 1900.
My Dear Mr. Dunsmuir,—I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your very important
letter. The character of the questions submitted for the consideration of the Dominion
Government is such that it would be far preferable to have them discussed verbally rather
than in writing.
I am most happy indeed, to have the expression of your intention to visit Ottawa at an
early day. I would specially ask you to come as soon as possible after the elections are over.
It would take fully a week, if not more, to go over the ground covered by your letter, in order
to have some satisfactory results. If you would kindly let me know the date that I should
expect you, I would make my arrangements accordingly, as I propose to take a short trip
either in November or December.
Until I have had the pleasure of a personal interview with you, I will refrain from any
observation with reference to the subjects mentioned in your letter. In the meantime, let me
assure you that I will endeavour to meet your wishes in the most friendly spirit, though I can
see some very serious difficulty in successfully handling some of the subjects to which you
Believe me, etc., etc.,
(Signed)        Wilfrid Laurier.
The Hon. J. Dunsmuir,
Premier, British Columbia,
Victoria, B. C.
Victoria,  13th November, 1900.
Right Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, G.C.M.G.
Prime Minister, Ottawa, Canada.
Sir,—I am directed by the Hon. James Dunsmuir, Premier, to acknowledge the receipt
of your favour with reference to his proposed visit to Ottawa to interview you on the relations
of the Province of British Columbia with the Dominion of Canada, and to state in reply that
Mr. Dunsmuir cannot leave for the East at as early a date as you suggest and as he originally
intended, but that he will endeavour to go to Ottawa about the middle of December, or some
time before the next Session of the Dominion House of Commons. I am further directed to
say that the Premier would have written you personally and at greater length, but has been
obliged to leave for San Francisco on business.
I have, etc.,
(Signed)        R. E. Gosnell,
Private Secretary.
Quebec, November 22nd, 1900.
R. E. Gosnell, Esq.,
Private Secretary to the Premier,
Victoria, B. C.
Dear Sir,—I am directed by Sir Wilfrid Laurier to state that the most suitable time for
him to receive the Hon. Mr. Dunsmuir, at Ottawa, would be at the beginning of the month of
January, 1901.    If this would be convenient to Mr. Dunsmuir, please let me know.
Yours truly,
(Signed)        Rodolphe Boudreau,
Private Secretary. 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 557
Victoria, 7th December, 1900.
To Right Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, G.C.M.G.,
Prime Minister, Ottawa, Canada.
Sir,—I am directed by the Honourable James Dunsmuir, Premier, to say in reply to a
note by your Private Secretary, dated 22nd November, that it is his intention to go to Ottawa,
for the purpose indicated in previous letters, about the first week in January proximo. I am
further directed to convey the thanks of the Premier for arranging for an interview.
I have, etc ,
(Signed)        R. E. Gosnell,
Private Secretary.
British Columbia's Share of Chinese Head Tax.
As is pointed out in the letter to Sir Wilfrid, any refund to British Columbia of the head
tax was based, in the first instance, on the right of British Columbia to compensation for local
evils arising out of such immigration, and that, therefore, logically, as the evil effects of Chinese
immigration were almost wholly local the Province was entitled to, if not all of such revenue,
the greater portion of it,
Of late years, frequent resolutions have been passed by the House asking for a return of
three-fourths of such revenue. In this connection a table of population is submitted showing
the relative populations of Canada and British Columbia for the different census periods, and
to show how much greater British Columbia is affected than the rest of Canada.
The percentage of Chinese in British Columbia was, therefore, sufficient to have a very
material effect on the labour market, while in the East it was infinitesimal in its effect.
At the present time, while the Chinese and Japanese number about 15,000 in a population of 150,000, there are not more than 3,000 or 4,000 in Eastern Canada, in a population of
about 5,500,000, and these do not, to any appreciable extent, enter into competition with the
whites as they do in British Columbia. There can, therefore, be absolutely no question as to
the rights of the Province in regard to the revenue claimed.
The Legislature has frequently asked for three-quarters of the revenue from the Chinese
head tax.
Chinese and Japanese Naturalized in 1900.
Japanese. Chinese.
"Victoria     240 38
Nanaimo          1 1
Vancouver       437 41
New Westminster     232 3
Chilliwack     173
1,083 83
Total number of Chinese and Japanese naturalized 1,166
Population of Canada and British Columbia.
1871. 1881. 1891. 1901.
British Columbia       36,250 49,500 98,500 150,000
Canada 3,500,000 4,250,000 4,840,000 5,500,000
Average population.               1871-81. 1881-91. 1891-1901 Total average.
British Columbia       43,000 75,000 125,000 81,000
Canada 3,900,000 4,600,000 5,000,000 4,500,000 558 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
Between 1871 and 1881 the average population of British Columbia was       43,000
Of which there were Indians 26,000
Chinese    3,000
In Canada for the same period 3,900,000
Less Indians and Chinese     125,000
Between 1881 and 1891 the average population of British Columbia was       75,000
Of which there were Indians - 24,000
Chinese '.    6,000
In Canada for the same period      4,600,000
Less Indians and Chinese     120,000
Between 1891 to 1901 (estimated), British Columbia       125,000
Indians 23,000
Chinese and Japanese 12,000
In Canada for the same period 5,000,000
Less Indians     115,000
In 1891 the Chinese were Jy of the population of British Columbia, and -g\v of the population of Canada.
In 1891 the Indians were \ of the population of British Columbia, and J^ of the population of Canada.
At the present time the Indians and Chinese are ^o °^ the population of British Columbia,
and -[ig of the population of Canada.
The Chinese in Canada east of the  Rockies in 1891  were an insignificant part  of the
population—about 400.
At present they may possibly number 2,000. 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 559
Co-operation in Railway Development.
Russell House, Ottawa, 28th January, 1901.
Right Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, G.C.M.G.,
Prime Minister, Ottawa, Canada.
Dear Sir Wilfrid,—I beg to enclose herewith a memorandum containing certain statements of fact respecting the financial relations between the Province of British Columbia and
the Dominion of Canada, to which your attention is respectfully directed. They are, I submit,
worthy of your most serious consideration, inasmuch as upon the statements in question are
based the claims for increased recognition laid before you by myself and my colleague, the
Honourable the Attorney-General, and inasmuch, too, as they crystallize and enforce the
arguments advanced in our various interviews.
Intimately associated with the question of re-adjustment of financial relations is that of
the problem of railway development in British Columbia, which has become a matter of serious
concern to the Government. It has occupied the attention of the Government of the Province
for several years past, and the conviction has become strong in the minds of the public, as well
as of the Administration, that it forms part of the duty of the Dominion Government to
co-operate with the Province of British Columbia in giving effect to a comprehensive policy of
railway construction by means of which mutual assistance will be rendered in a fixed and
definite ratio.
In my first letter to you, Sir Wilfrid, I intimated that in view of the inadequate return
to the Province for the revenues contributed to the Dominion, a sense of injustice being done
had been created in the public mind which would ultimately result in a Provincial agitation
for better terms. I feel confident that the statement of receipts and expenditure, and the
memoranda which accompany this, are sufficient to convince your Government that the
demand for better treatment is well founded, and that political wisdom alone would dictate the
expediency of anticipating any general movement of the kind suggested by adopting a policy
such as has been suggested. I feel sure, too, that a spirit of fairness to all parts of the Dominion,
independent of political considerations, will prompt you to give our representations that
measure of consideration which their importance merits.
In considering the subject, the peculiar circumstances and physical conditions by which
the Province is surrounded, must have special cognizance. These may be enumerated as
(a.) Its remoteness from the populated centres of Eastern Canada and the seat of Government:
(b.) Its vast extent, wide -distribution and diversity of resources, and its sparseness of
(c.) Its rugged exterior and the physical obstacles to communication and development.
All these things on the one hand have rendered the cost of living greater, and the problem
of development much more difficult, than in the eastern Provinces; while, on the other hand,
the wealth of natural resources and the potential character of the population attracted to the
country have had marked results of a national as well as provincial character. In other
words, under serious disadvantages of a peculiar kind the Province so handicapped has nevertheless made remarkable development, with a corresponding influence on the progress of the
whole of the Dominion.
We claim that on account of the very large per capita contributions of the Province to
the Dominion, as compared with the rest of Canada, it is entitled to greatly increased recognition in the way of expenditure on works of public development; but even if the ratio of
our contributions were not as three to one, as it is at the present time, the material results to
the Dominion arising out of the greater development of British Columbia would, as a business
arrangement, more than compensate for the outlay involved by reason of any comprehensive
scheme that might be mutually undertaken by the two Governments.
The problem, therefore, is this :—
First, the Province is entitled to increased subsidies or financial assistance in some form.
Second, the direct results to the Dominion will justify increased expenditure without in
any way increasing- the financial burdens of the Dominion as a whole. 560 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
Since 1885, the year in which the completion of the C. P. R. took place, the revenues
from the Province of British Columbia to the Dominion of Canada have more than trebled,
and the ordinary revenues have exceeded the expenditure by the latter in British Columbia
by $16,310,000, or by an average of over $1,000,000 per annum. This increase has become
greater, as is shown by the accompanying statement, each year since 1885—the result largely
of internal railway and mining development.
Owing to the closely associated interests of the Province and the Dominion in respect to
railways, it is now practically essential to their construction, in a country where traffic has to
be created and the cost per mile is so heavy, that railway companies should receive assistance
from both Governments. This is to say, as a matter of fact, that the Provincial lines of railway, aided by the Province to a limited extent, will not be constructed without additional aid
from Ottawa, and vice versa. Since so large a part of the. Province still remains undeveloped
by railways, and such railway development has such a quickening effect on the revenues of the
country, and is so essential to all other forms of development, it is highly important that an
agreement should be reached whereby the two Governments should unite on certain definite
lines with a view to creating a comprehensive system of communication—first, as to the
general direction and extent of the lines to be built at present and in the future; and second,
as to the principle or mode of assistance. In other words, a joint railway policy is what
we suggest. Since so much depends on joint action, that action, so far as possible, should be
uniform and well-defined.
As pointed out in my former letter to you, the peculiar physical contour of British Columbia lends itself to a system already indicated by the natural water-ways and valleys of the
country. Now that there are already practically two main trunk lines traversing the southern
part of the Province east and west, and a promise of a third line further north through the
Yellow Head Pass, it is important that a system of local lines as colonization roads and feeders,
with radial branches to the Coast, should be considered. To illustrate, I quote from the
chapter on "Railways" in the "Year Book of British Columbia":—
" No reference has been made to the main line of the C. P. R. through British Columbia,
which was built and completed some time ago as a consummation of the national idea of a
transcontinental railway linking all the Provinces together, and none at this late date is
necessary to elucidate its magnitude, importance or results. It is its own living witness.
Leaving it out of the question, however, in so far as it answers the purpose for which it was
constructed, the main problem of railway construction is yet to be dealt with, and the exploitation of the Canadian Yukon gold fields is helping in the solution in a most wonderful way.
The railway of the future is neither the Penticton line nor the British Pacific, nor any one
yet built or projected, but one of which all these would become tributaries and essential links.
Reference is made to a railway from the south to the north, extending through the great
interior plateau of British Columbia, and as far north as the mineral belt is accessible, and
having its outlet, it may be, in Alaska at the mouth of the Yukon, and connecting ultimately
with the Siberian Railway now pushing eastward to a Pacific port. It has long been talked
of as a possibility but has never until the present entered the pale of practical politics. The
recent live issues respecting routes to the Yukon have brought it prominently to the front,
not only as a possibility but as a probability as soon as the financial resources of the country
will permit or capital is available. The maps accompanying this book will show the various
routes that have been advocated, and it will be observed that they all, somewhere, culminate
in this line, which marks itself out as the undertaking in chief. With the resources of the
various sections south to north developed there is not necessarily any rivalry in the conception
of the different routes, not even of the one from Edmonton; because, taking the Boundary
Line as a start, and following up the Okanagan Lakes to and by way of Vernon to Kamloops, from Donald and Golden, from Revelstoke and from Kamloops, through to Canoe River
Valley; from Ashcroft through Cariboo; from Bute Inlet to Quesnel; from Edmonton via
Tete Jaune Cache; from Kitimaat to the proposed Stickine and Teslin line; or from any of the
ports at present in Alaska—there is a raison d' etre for the existence of each. They would
all form feeders to the central line, which in turn, as a main artery of the system, would afford
them traffic and incidentally develop a series of very rich districts, through which smaller
networks of vein communication would be distributed. Instead of acting as rivals they would
materially assist in the success of each other, and altogether would constitute the most complete exemplification of the benefit of an all-Canadian and British Columbian route to the
Klondike." 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 561
I append a map with lines drawn showing existing railways, and also possible railways,
suggested by natural routes of travel, which, as development goes on, will, from time to time,
be built. I suggest that the two Governments should come to an understanding as to how
far this principle should extend, and in which directions it could be made applicable in future
railway construction. The promulgation of a policy based on these lines would give a definite
bent to railway building, to settlement and development in general in the future.
As to the ratio of assistance to be given by the Dominion of Canada and the Province
of British Columbia, respectively, to railways in British Columbia, in view of the contributions
by British Columbia to the Federal Treasury, and in view of the relative benefits derived by
the Dominion, as shown by the accompanying statement, we suggest that such assistance
should be in the proportion of two-thirds to one-third. That is to say, if the total assistance
decided upon be $12,000 per mile, the Dominion should pay of that amount $8,000 a mile
and the Province $4,000 a mile; and in that proportion throughout. The necessity for
co-operation on some such definite and well-understood lines is very evident if results in the
very best interests of the Dominion and the Province are to be obtained. Owing to the
peculiar relations of the Province and the Dominion in respect to railway control and the
over-lapping jurisdiction referred to in my former letter, there will, without some concerted
policy, always exist danger of conflict of authority and the lack of unanimity necessary to
carry out railway enterprises successfully.
For the present it is proposed that the two Governments should co-operate in building
the following lines as part of the general system:—
From Midway, in the Boundary Creek District, to the Coast, at some point south of the
Fraser River, having a ferry connection with Vancouver Island:
From the present terminus of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway to some point on the
north end of Vancouver Island:
From some point on the British Columbia sea-board, say at Kitimaat, to some point on
the northern boundary of the Province, to form part of an all-Canadian line to the
With regard to the first-named line, so many representations have already been made to
your Government regarding its advantages from a business point of view, and the rich character
of the country to be opened up thereby, that I feel it will be unnecessary to go into many
details in order to impress you with its importance. A very strong feeling exists in the
mercantile community in favour of a more direct connection between the Coast cities and the
interior mining districts, which would be served by such a line. The incidental development
along the line itself would be very great. Numerous and important mineral discoveries have
been made throughout all the country from Midway to the Hope Mountains, and that entire
district is now regarded by authorities as one of the richest in minerals in the Province, containing as it does copper, gold, silver, coal and iron. I would also call your attention to the
fact that east of the Hope Mountains, in what is known as the Similkameen District, are
large areas of pastoral and some very rich agricultural lands; while on the south side of the
Fraser River there exists one of the largest areas in the Province of arable lands, much of it
very fertile delta or alluvial deposits. There is a considerable agricultural population in the
Fraser Valley, to whom increased railway communication would be of great commercial
The proposed line from the present terminus of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway to the
north end of Vancouver Island would pass largely through a mineralized district, and, if built,
without doubt there would follow a mining development quite unsurpassed by that which has
taken place, or is likely to take place, in any part of the Province. It is true that the agricultural resources of Vancouver Island are not so extensive as they are in some other parts of
British Columbia, although there exists in numerous localities good farming lands in small
areas; but this railway would serve other resources in an important degree.
It may be stated, as a fact, that from the Straits of Fuca to the north end of the Island,
including the Island itself, the islands in the Gulf of Georgia and the adjacent coast of the
Mainland, there is embraced, in contiguity, a greater combination of rich resource within a
similar area than exists in any other part of Canada—large and extensive deposits of coal, iron,
copper, gold, auriferous black sands, silver, building stone, slate, and other economic material;
the largest compact area of timber in the Province; and important fisheries. All these various
interests would contribute to the proposed line of railway and in their turn would be made
available for the investment of capital and the development of lucrative industries. Apart
from the lumber business, the utilization of our great supply of pulp wood and the settlement 562 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
of many agricultural valleys referred to would justify the undertaking. This line of railway
would also form an important factor in the northern trade which is becoming every year more
and more extensive. Pending the construction of the all-Canadian railway to the Yukon it
could be utilized in connection with ferries from the Mainland at Vancouver to Victoria, and
from the northern terminus to Skagway, for the transportation of loaded sealed cars, which
could be carried across the strip of country in the United States without breaking bulk or
examination by the U. S. Customs officials, thus obviating delays and every possibility of discrimination by the U. S. Customs officials against Canadian goods. When the proposed all-
Canadian line is built, this same system of car transfer could be established between its
terminus, or that of any other railway to the Coast, and the Island Railway. I need not refer
to the advantages to be derived by our Coast cities from the establishment of such a system,
which could be undertaken immediately the Island Railway is built. 1 may say, by the way,
that the advantages of the situation are now enjoyed by the Puget Sound cities of the United
With reference to the proposed all-Canadian line to the Yukon, this, so far as British
Columbia alone is concerned, would open up a new and important district and render available
mining and agricultural resources of which, however, not so much is known as of many other
districts; but if we may reason from analogy the conclusion is fully warranted that for the
whole distance the minerals and other resources of the country would yield profitable traffic
for a railway independent of what the Yukon country would contribute and the incidental
advantage to Canadian interests in having a railway exclusively throughout its own territory.
This much, however, is common knowledge, that throughout the Kitimaat Valley there
are thousands of acres of agricultural lands, and portions of the valley, towards the foot hills,
are covered with splendid bodies of merchantable timber. Very rich and large bodies of
quartz have been found on the Skeena along the line of the proposed railway. Placers have
been washed successfully on the streams flowing into the Skeena. The Bulkley and other
valleys, at no great distance from Hazelton, are, agriculturally, very rich, and the late discoveries of the finest coal, within easy reach of the proposed line, are reported equal in extent
to those of the famous Crow's Nest Pass, and of equal merchantable value.
The fact, must also be taken into consideration that the great Omineca country being
worked on a large scale for gold would receive very much cheaper transportation than at
present, which would enable those operating less rich properties, in a small way, to increase
their volume of work. This road would also afford an outlet to the miners now working and
prospecting on the head-waters of the Nation and other rivers. I need scarcely call your
attention to the fact that this line traverses a portion of Cassiar, where, in the seventies,
millions of dollars were extracted from the diggings. Miners are again taking up that country,
and large hydraulic plants have been erected during the past year. Lately, too, very strong
bodies of copper-bearing rock have been located.
I have not included in the foregoing any other undertakings. The lines already referred
to are those we deem for the present to be the most pressing and important. There is still,
however, a larger area of the Province to be taken into consideration, into and through which
lines of railway will be built in due time, your assistance to which would be asked when the
time has arrived to consider them as immediately in prospect. The whole interior of central
and northern British Columbia presents a wide and rich field for exploitation, which, by the
very nature of things, in a rugged country such as it is, cannot be opened without the construction of railways and numerous roads and trails.
I beg to remind you again that the Province of British Columbia is contributing at the
present time about two million dollars to the Federal Treasury in excess of expenditure.
This in itself would seem sufficient to entitle the Province to receive very large subsidies for
purposes of development; but, apart from that altogether, it is not unreasonable to assume
that, if the developments suggested were carried into effect, within five years the population
directly resulting therefrom would be increased fifty thousand. At the present rate of taxation—which per capita is, roughly, $25 per head—such an increase would augment the revenue
to the Dominion by a million and a quarter dollars annually, a sum in itself, together with
one-half of the present annual net contribution of the Province to the Federal Treasury, more
than sufficient within fifteen years to recoup the Dominion for its share of the total outlay
necessary to build three thousand miles of railway.
As an illustration of the rapidity with which the population has found its way into parts
of the Province opened up by railways, the most conspicuous example is that of Kootenay.
Within ten years it has developed from a wilderness to a populated district, having numerous 1 Ed 7. Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 563
thriving towns and villages producing largely in gold, silver and copper, and contributing in
an important degree to the revenues of both the Province and the Dominion. This was alone
made possible by the railway and steamboat lines, and the numerous minor accessories in the
way of roads and trails which traverse it in various directions.
If the Province of British Columbia had returned to it each year a fair proportion of the
net revenue contributed, it could itself undertake the problem of railway development, but I
have hesitated for the present to concur in a suggestion that -has been made to offer to the
Dominion a commutation of all existing claims for an annual allowance of one million dollars
a year for fifty years, to be applied to internal development. My hesitation is due not to the
extravagance of the proposal, because I regard it as a wholly reasonable one, under the
circumstances, but to the apprehension that it would so seriously disturb present Federal
relations as to be regarded as impracticable. Upon mature consideration the Delegation have
decided to appeal upon the merits of our cause to the Dominion for such a measure of
increased expenditure, on the lines suggested, as would fairly compensate the Province in
I do not know that I can now add more in support of what has already been presented
in our various interviews and memoranda ; and I now await the reply of your Government
to our representations.
Believe me to be, etc.,
(Signed)        James Dunsmuir,
Memorandum re Financial Relations.
This subject forms a most important part of the case of the Province, and upon it depends
almost every other claim to recognition now being made. For the purpose of arriving at a
basis of claim, the contributions of the Province to the Dominion Treasury in the way of taxes
and all other incidental contributions, and of the expenditures of the Dominion, directly or
indirectly, on account of the Province, have been ascertained year by year from the Public
Accounts and Reports of the Auditor-General since 1872, the first year of Confederation so
far as this Province is concerned, up to the present time, and estimated on a basis of previous
years up to July 1st, 1901.
The principal source of revenue has been, of course, the Customs and Inland Revenue,
but, in order to make the account complete, everything going to and coming from the
Dominion has been included, except a few incidental items of revenue and expenditure, which
do not alter the account materially and would in the aggregate about balance each other. In
respect to the Customs, comparisons have frequently been made between the revenue
contributed by British Columbia and the revenues contributed by other Provinces, but, taking
the other Provinces individually, it is impossible to arrive at any just or accurate statement of
their contributions to the Dominion, for the reason that the goods entered at the various ports
where the Customs collections are made are distributed throughout the other Provinces by the
wholesale trade, but in the case of the Province of British Columbia nothing imported through
the Customs is exported to Provinces in the East, and therefore everything imported is
consumed locally, and the tax is paid by the people of the Province.
As a basis of comparison, British Columbia must be taken in a relation to the rest of
Canada as a whole. The statement of revenue and expenditure which accompanies the
argument was carefully prepared and is substantially correct. No revision would materially
alter the results ; in some few instances the amounts set down are estimated. As a matter of
fact, no two compilations would agree in detail, and in any event, as all details are not available in the Public Accounts and Auditor-General's Report, by Provinces for the whole period
included, only access to departmental records would give absolute accuracy.
There is a way to arrive exactly at the per capita consumption and contributions of
revenue for every Province, that is, for each year hereafter, and it is most important that it
should be done in connection with the forthcoming census-taking, or under the auspices of
the Department of Trade and Commerce. It is quite practicable, and, if carried into effect,
would show accurately the volume and kind of inter-Provincial trade, the consumption in each
Province, the amount of duty and freight paid—in brief, show the exact status of inter-
Provincial relations. 564 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
In considering the subject of British Columbia's contributions to the Federal treasury as
compared with the expenditure by the Dominion of Canada in that Province, reference must
be had of what is general or national in its character and what is local. The Province is also
chargeable with its fair share of the general expenditure.
Important public undertakings, such as through lines of railway, canals, coast protection,
and marine service, are national, and are not chargeable locally, being for the general benefit.
It is pointed out elsewhere, with the exception of the construction of the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway in the Province, all such matters are included in the statement, in
order that it may be made as full and fair to the Dominion as possible.
It is also pointed out that no distinction is made as to public works charged to capital
and those charged to revenue, wdiich, if done, would materially lessen the annual expenditure
debited to the Province.
As will be seen by the statement submitted, the Province is debited with such expenditure as is necessary on account of the Indians, which, by the Terms of Union, devolve on the
Dominion Government, notwithstanding that the Province handed over 500,000 acres of its
best land as reserves; such as the Esquimalt Graving Dock, which is largely for the use of
Imperial warships maintained for the defence of the Empire; such as the construction and
maintenance of lighthouses, the marine service of the " Quadra," etc., etc., which are in the
interests of navigation, and which, on the Atlantic coast, would not be charged to Nova Scotia
or New Brunswick; and such as the mail service between Victoria and San Francisco, which
is of general as well as of local benefit; and with all the subsidies for local lines of railways.
On the other hand it may be held that, as the Canadian Pacific Railway was originally
built in conformity with one of the Terms of Union with British Columbia, it was specially for
its benefit, and that a share of the cost should be charged to the Province. This is untenable,
inasmuch as being a railway in the interests of Canada, it not only is a national undertaking,
but has proved to be of inestimable benefit to the Dominion and to the Empire, far surpassing
in relative importance local benefits; but apart from all that, the people of British Columbia
pay directly and fully for every individual, and all collective, benefit received, in the way of
freight and passenger rates. Such considerations dispose absolutely of the old and much-
abused contention that the people of British Columbia are indebted to the rest of Canada for
the Canadian Pacific Railway, and that forever they must regard that as a bar to further
recognition. In the same way it would be unfair to Ontario to charge to its account the great
cost of canals built in and through it, such canals simply completing the line of inland water
communication from Lake Superior to the Gulf of St. Lawrence necessary in the interests of
the carrying trade of all Canada. The same is true of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway, which
is part of the general system and not a branch, in the essential sense of that term, and in this
connection it must always be borne in mind that it was constructed not because British
Columbia asked for it, but because the commercial interests in the East demanded it. As a
matter of fact, however, the Province has paid the whole cost to the Dominion of the Canadian
Pacific Railway construction in British Columbia.
Since 1872, the revenue contributed by British Columbia to the Dominion, up to July
1st, 1901, will have amounted to, roundly, $42,000,000. Taking the average of the population for the three census periods, 1871 to 1881; 1881 to 1891; and 1891 to 1901, at 81,000,
and that of all Canada at 4,500,000 for the same periods—had the whole of the people of the
latter contributed in the same ratio per capita, the revenue would have amounted to $2,333,-
250,000 instead of $886,360,000.
In other words, -gT of the population has contributed about -^ of the revenue of Canada
in 30 years.
Conversely, if the contribution of British Columbia, for that period, had been on the
same basis as the rest of Canada, it would have amounted to only $15,957,000.
Taking the population at 5,250,000 and 125,000, respectively, the per capita contribution
of all Canada in 1899 was $8.93 per head, and that of British Columbia $25.67 per head.
If the revenue from British Columbia had been on the same ratio as the rest of Canada,
it would have amounted to only $1,116,250, instead of $3,194,808.
Taking the customs and excise alone, which amounted in 1899 to $34,958,000 for the
Dominion, and $2,627,500 for the Province, on the same basis of population, the per capita
contributions are $6.65 and $21.02. Had the whole population of Canada contributed in the
same ratio as British Columbia, the taxation derivable from inland revenue and customs would
have been $110,250,000, instead of $34,958,000. 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 565
Conversely, if British Columbia had contributed in the same ratio as the rest of the
Dominion, the revenue from British Columbia from these sources would have been only
In 1899, our Provincial contributions to the Dominion Treasury, from all sources, were
$3,208,788 ; and our share of all expenditure by the Dominion was $1,334,618.
If the whole of Canada had contributed in the same ratio, the revenue of Canada for
that year would have been $134,767,000, instead of $46,741,250.
Now then, coming to the statements of contributions to the Dominion Treasury and the
expenditure from the same in British Columbia, the result of computation covering a period
of thirty years, is as follows :—
The total amount expended by the Dominion in the Province up to 1st July, 1901 —
estimating the expenditure for the present year—will have been $28,968,091 ; the total contributed by British Columbia to the Dominion during the same period will have been
$42,475,349 ; leaving a balance in favour of the Province of over $1 3,500,000.
The expenditures in the Province include the $750,000 paid to the Esquimalt and
Nanaimo Railway Company as a subsidy, and all the other railway subsidies; the debt of the
Province assumed by the Dominion in 1872 and interest on the same, and everything else
directly or indirectly connected with the  Province, which has been paid for by the Dominion.
While the Province has a clear surplus of over $13,500,000 to its credit, apart, of course,
from its legitimate share of the cost of government of Canada as a whole, on the other hand,
the liabilities of the Dominion, which were $122,000,000 in 1872, have risen to $350,000,000
in 1900. The position of British Columbia, therefore, is, that it has not only practically paid
its own way and recouped the Dominion for everything that it has cost, directly or indirectly,
but, in addition, has become liable for its share of the debt of the Dominion, which, on a per
capita basis, amounts to $9,500,000.
The practical aspect of the case is this :—A province has a certain population and contributes a certain revenue. What it pays as imposts to the treasury is, per capita,
its impost or burden of government. Computations on that basis in various ways show, as a
general and almost invariable result, that for a whole period of years the burden has been two
and three-quarter times that of the rest of Canada, taken as a whole.
Dominion expenditure in the Province is, of course, greater per capita than that of the
rest of Canada, but not in the same ratio, inasmuch as, taken together, there is a clear and a
large surplus of revenue over expenditure.
That it is not true of the whole of Canada is shown by the general result that the net
debt created since 1872 is over $190,000,000, and the gross debt over $230,000,000. The
excess of expenditure over receipts has been $233,506,525.
In addition to the burden of government by direct imposts, there is the indirect impost
on dutiable goods from the East upon which duty had previously been paid. The amount of
this duty may be roundly estimated at between $250,000 and $500,000 ; but, added to this, is
the aggregate freight bill of the Province, which, on account of its remote position from the
centres of supply, increases the cost of living so materially, in effect 25 or 30 per cent. The
consumer in this Province pays not only a through rate from Eastern Canada, which varies
from $1.50 to $3.50, but also the local rate back from terminal points, which in some cases
equals the through rate. In Eastern Canada, on the other hand, shorter distances from
terminal points, the freight does not exceed 10 or 20 cents, at the outside, per 100 pounds.
In fact, taking all things into consideration, the cost of living on a similar standard is
generally conceded to be about 35 per cent, greater than in Eastern Canada.
In this connection, too, we must also consider the very much greater cost per capita
involved in the development and government of a Province like British Columbia, where the
physical features are so rugged and distances so great, and communication so difficult and
expensive, and the population is comparatively sparse.
So far as its products are concerned, British Columbia must compete in markets with
other provinces and other countries in which the cost of production is very much less.
Were it not for the great natural wealth of the Province, and the natural attractions for
people with money, the drain upon its resources by the burdens referred to would have placed
it, financially, in an unenviable position.
It was the disadvantages of position and other circumstances in Confederation that led to
the recognition of better terms for Nova Scotia, the financial relations of which were several
times adjusted. 566 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
To overcome the natural disadvantages under which British Columbia has laboured, it
requires population, and, to acquire population development on a comprehensive scale is
necessary. In view of the disproportionate revenue it has contributed to the Dominion, and
the outlet it has afforded for the products and energy of Eastern Canada, it claims a commensurate share of financial assistance.
In connection with this subject consideration must be taken of the character of the
population of British Columbia and Canada, respectively, for several periods. It will be seen
that in British Columbia, heretofore, Indians and Chinese have formed a large percentage of
the population. It is necessary to point out that the Chinese—living on a very low basis—
consume but little compared with the rest of the population, and pay duty and add revenue
to the Dominion revenue in a similar proportion. The same is true, but not to the same
extent, of the Indians of the Province. So that the burden of taxation has largely fallen on
a small white population, a fact which adds very materially to the claims of the Province for
increased recognition.
In 1871 the total white population was 32,250 ; in 1881 there were 29,000 Indians and
Chinese out of a total population of 49,500 ; and in 1891 the Indians and Chinese numbered
33,000 of a population of 100,000.
Expenditure. Receipts.
1872 Unoofiqii $376,318
1873 \ *U29,694 \ 385,645
1874  831,302 388,919
1875 :  744,341 461,732
1876  768,185 549,870
1877  638,586 463,120
1878  686,997 495,784
1879  704,262 601,469
1880  679,638 531,133
1881  677,226 695,330
1882  632,085 790,233
1883  1,075,907 1,081,774
1884  689,893 1,015,924
1885  750,796 1,118,945
1886  1,058,856 1,064,937
1887  728,166 1,083,447
1888   892,112 1,111,370
1889  896,384 1,276,286
1890  929,640 1,471,060
1891  1,005,809 1,862,145
1892  1,011,730 2,067,369
1893  1,167,581 1,883,646
1894  1,188,461 1,788,760
1895  1,008,187 1,602,756
1896  960,038 2,029,759
1897  1,106,110 2,291,135
1898  1,183,779 3,240,087
1899  1,192,192 3,194,808
1900  1,495,394 3,455,531
1901 (estimated)  2,589,760 3,750,000 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 567
Revenues,  1872-1901.
Customs $28,326,792
Warehouse fees    48,776
Petroleum inspection  7,664
Casual  4,519
Chinese immigration  1,445,571
Excise  4,163,042
Weights and measures  21,463
Gas inspection  8,652
Electric inspection  2,322
Methylated spirits  5,012
Casual  530
Post Office  2,365,561
Money orders  49,609
Premium, discount and exchange  58,447
Interest on investments  257,536
Telegraphs  119,799
Penitentiary  53,729
Experimental Farm  5,174
Esquimalt Graving Dock  218,868
Sick Mariners' Fund  127,063
Steamboat inspection ,  48,004
Examination of masters and mates     4,004
Casual t  44,419
Fisheries  352,000
Superannuation    45,000
Dominion lands and timber  600,901
Miscellaneous  340,892
Estimated, 1901   3,750,000
Total $42,475,349
Expenditure,  1872-1901.
(1901 estimated.)
Public Debt (Interest)  $ 865,037
Premium, discount and exchange  43,336
Sinking Fund    872,448
Redemption  471,093
Charges, management  185,846
Lieutenant-Governor  243,000
Administration of Justice  1,027,665
Penitentiary  765,190
Experimental Farms   . .   .  114,187
Quarantine  145,883
Immigration    40,351
Pensions  500,000
Militia  207,444
Public works and buildings  1,319,698
Harbours and rivers  1,006,341
Dredging  472,107
Telegraphs  1,054,514
Agency Public Works   ,  84,240
Mail subsidy  661,190
Dominion steamers  542,656
Carried forward  10,622,226 568 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
Brought forward $10,622,226
Lighthouses  677,150
Meteorological  18,315
Marine Hospitals  99,585
Steamboat inspection  41,127
Fisheries  103,360
Hatchery      69,661
Indians  1,852,213
Subsidies ,  6,472,719
Dominion lands    '  160,895
Customs  1,651,052
Excise  255,995
Weights and measures  22,951
Gas and electric light  9,412
Esquimalt Dry Dock      651,052
Post Office  3,611,020
Estimated, 1901   1,450,000
Railway subsidies     1,139,760
Chinese immigration  328,957
Miscellaneous  225,793
Total $28,968,091
[Note.—The table giving the several amounts, of which in the above is shown the aggregates,
is printed separately elsewhere.]
Fisheries and ShipJouilding.
At Ottawa, January, 23rd, 1901.
Sir Louis H. Davies,
Minister of Marine and Fisheries.
My Dear Sir Louis,—Pursuant to your request made during our interview on the subject of the fisheries, I have the honour to submit to you a written proposal embracing the views
of the British Columbia delegation as to what, in their opinion, should form a reasonable and
fair settlement of the matters in dispute between the two Governments.
Accompanying this is a memorandum in which is set forth briefly the considerations which
have influenced the British Columbia Government in asking for a re-adjustment of the present
relations in respect to the administration and development of our fisheries. Consequently, it
will be unnecessary in this letter to enter as fully into the merits of the case as I otherwise
The right of the Province to fishery revenue arising out of licences, as far as inland waters
and rivers are concerned, is admitted, and I shall not discuss that phase of the subject. The
right of the Province to fisheries within territorial waters, or the three-mile limit, is still an
open question, with, I am advised, a strong probability in our favour in case of a reference to
the Courts.
It has been suggested, however, that on grounds of public policy an arrangement should
be entered into whereby the Dominion would continue the administration and control of all
the fisheries of the Province, and the Delegation are, subject to the will of the Legislature,
agreeable to negotiate terms of settlement on that basis.
I recognise that the Dominion Government, with the accumulated experience of years and
the machinery of administration already in existence, can, at least for a few years to come,
more economically and with greater efficiency, continue the work of your Department than
could the Province.
I recognise, also, that in case the foreshore fisheries are held to belong to the Dominion,
it is undesirable that there should be divided control, which probably would result in conflict
of authority. It is obviously better that either one or the other Government should be in
complete control. 1 Ed. 7
Report of Delegatio4 to Ottawa.
The foregoing obseivarious
administration o£ the fi's/     '     f^ ^^ 8ubJe°t  <§o the qualification  that in  the  past the
British Columbia   but in ftf^t +    HOt always gjJrVen entire satisfaction to the Province of
interests, and an average of        d i ™ "* >^Past'  no Government can fully satisfy all
In apportioni'io- the moi& (-•    r? ls th^best that can reasonably be anticipated,
the terms upon which -i r^nr.rc     Z lnterestsj^f the Province in the fisheries, and in determining
consideration should be had "AT  *?$&
Krst-The benefit derivedUnV^
Provinnoc anri j.   ., ne Past M\r0m the fishery expenditure in relation to other
Second Jl^SBJ^^earisj|^g out of our Fisheries;
present status of dWrTisheries;
-The possibility of their development in the future,
le first two are dealt with in the Memorandum.
from the Province to the Dominion should be made,
It is to our minds an incontrovertible fact, in view of all the circumstances and the special
conditions of the Province, that its fisheries have not received the consideration which their
importance warranted. We are fully justified in assuming that the policy of the Department
of Marine and Fisheries has not been to make a profit out of the fisheries in the same way as
it is desirable in the case of the Post Office system and the Inter-Colonial Railway. With
this in view, it may be stated that the Fishery revenue contributed by British Columbia to
the Dominion since 1872 has been about $300,000 while the expenditure within the Province,
up to June 30th, 1900, has been about $175,000.
The fishery expenditure in the Eastern Provinces in the past has each year many times
exceeded the revenue. Since 1872 the total fishery revenue of the Dominion has only
amounted to $1,280,000, while the expenditure has been about $7,500,000.
The delegation do not ask for a refund of the excess of the revenue contributed, or any
money grant upon the relative disproportion of expenditure as between the Atlantic and Pacific
Coasts, but in view of the great importance of promoting shipbuilding on the Pacific Coast, we
feel justified in asking that a sum of $100,000 a year for ten years be paid as a bonus towards
encouraging that industry. In this connection, attention is directed to the letters appended
to the Memorandum.
I wish to impress most strongly upon your attention how very important this matter is.
Owing to the scarcity of ships, freight rates have been for some time and are now very high,
and this condition of affairs affects very seriously the lumber, coal and fishing industries. Mr.
Hendry points out in his letter how other conditions also affect the lumber trade, particularly
the discrimination in favour of Puget Sound ports.
Shipbuilding on the Pacific Coast is still very limited—practically in its infancy; and on
account of the limited character of the industry at present there are only a few skilled workmen who find constant employment, and consequently the price of labour is very high,
so high, indeed, as to seriously hamper any enterprise of this character. With sufficient
encouragement to overcome the present disadvantages, ships could be built to render shippers
independent of foreign vessels, and inducements afforded to a sufficient number of skilled
mechanics to enable the industry to be conducted on a large scale in competition with Puget
Sound and elsewhere. It would not only create a new industry, but establish a fleet and
afford those transport facilities necessary to the development of maritime trade. Every
natural condition is favourable to such a development, and, once under way, the direct return
to the Dominion would far exceed the outlay. I refer not only to the revenues arising from
customs and excise consequent upon increase of population and industry, but to harbour dues
and other incidental revenues arising out of shipping.
Being thoroughly familiar with the conditions affecting the carrying trade of the Coast,
I can urge it the more strongly upon your consideration, and in view of the efforts the United
States are making in a similar direction, it is all the more important that immediate action be
The present status of the fishing industry has been fully referred to in the Memorandum.
Since 1876, from zero it has steadily grown to a value of one-fifth of that of the whole of the
Dominion, with, in 1899, a revenue of $45,000 arising out of fishing licences, and in 1900
It is conceded that the fisheries of the Pacific Coast are still practically undeveloped, and
that great possibilities exist in respect not only of salmon, but of halibut, cod, " skil," herring,
oolachan, smelts, sardines and other well-known and highly-prized food fish of our Coast, with
a proportionately increased revenue from year to year. 570 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
Our inland lakes and rivers, too, under careful cultivation, are capable of large production,
and with the growing development of the mines of the interior there will follow a large population and ready market.
In view of present conditions and the possibilities of the future, based on the growth of
the industry in the past, it is fair to assume that the revenue will ultimately reach $100,000
per annum.
We are agreeable, therefore, to recommend to the Government of British Columbia that,
in lieu of an annual payment of $50,000 by the Dominion to the Province, the control of the
fisheries be allowed to vest exclusively in the Dominion. It is understood, of course, that such
an arrangement is subject to ratification by the Legislative Assembly of British (yolumbia.
Yours very faithfully,
(Signed)        James Dunsmuir.
Memorandum re Fisheries.
Under the decision of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the "Fisheries
Case" (1898 Appeal Cases), the respective rights of the Provinces and the Dominion are still
very much in doubt.
In a general way the fish, as a property or asset, would seem to belong to the Provinces,
but jurisdiction in respect to legislation and the right to licence remains very much involved,
with still further rights to be determined in regard to fishing within the three-mile limit.
There is no doubt, however, that the Provinces are entitled to a~ very much larger share
of control, though not of regulation, and to obtain revenue by licensing.
However, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council showed a disinclination to determine abstract rights, or to discuss academically the issues involved, desiring rather that
definite issues should be submitted to them. Their Lordships laid down certain principles as
to the rights of the Dominion and the Provinces, but intimated very clearly that a number of
cases might arise under their decision which would have to be decided according to the special
circumstances in each case.
It is plain, therefore, that the issues are so involved that the " spheres of influence " of
the Dominion and the Provinces, respectively, would only be ultimately defined after a number
of definite cases had been submitted, involving litigation and delay. The wisest and most
practical course would seem to be that of settlement by convention. An agreement might,
therefore, be suggested, defining, without litigation, what share of control each of the Governments should exercise.
In the preliminary report of the Deputy Minister of Marine and Fisheries (1899), reference is made to an understanding with the authorities of the several Provinces to allow the
matter to remain in abeyance. This would imply, at least, that an arrangement had been
made with British Columbia to continue the administration of the fisheries, as in the past,
but by reference to the several Departments no correspondence can be found bearing on the
The second part of the case, so far as the fisheries are concerned, refers to the claims of
the Province to greater consideration. In the past the condition of affairs has given to the
Federal authorities the entire revenue derivable from the industry, with no comparable returns,
so far as British Columbia is concerned, in respect to expenditure of public money and the
development of fisheries on the Pacific Coast.
The disparity is so great as to render it extraordinary that it should not have suggested
itself to the Dominion authorities.
For the fiscal year ending 1898-1899, the report of which is the last published, the total
fisheries revenue for all of Canada was $76,447.75, of which British Columbia alone contributed $45,801.75, or about three-fifths the entire amount of revenue.
On the other hand the expenditures on account of the fishery industry in Canada, including cost of administration, fish hatcheries, fishery protection service, fishery bounties .and other
expenditures, amounted in the same year to $408,754.93, of which British Columbia's share
was $12,195.61.
Considering the extent of the sea coast of British Columbia and the great value of the
fisheries requiring development, special encouragement should have been given, as has been
done for some years in the Maritime Provinces, in the nature of the services referred to. 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 569
The foregoing observations are made subject to the qualification that in the past the
administration of the fisheries has not always given entire satisfaction to the Province of
British Columbia, but in the future, as in the past, no Government can fully satisfy all
interests, and an average of good results is the best that can reasonably be anticipated.
In apportioning themonetary interests rot the Province in the fisheries, and in determining
the terms upon which a transfer of control <rom the Province to the Dominion should be made,
consideration should be had of three things:—-
First—The benefit derived in the past from the fishery expenditure in relation to other
Provinces and to the revenue arising out of our Fisheries;
Second-_The present status of our fisheries;
Third-_The possibility of their development in the future.
The first two are dealt with in the Memorandum.
It is to our minds an incontrovertible fact, in view of all the circumstances and the special
conditions of the Province, that its fisheries have not received the consideration which their
importance warranted. We are fully justified in assuming that the policy of the Department
of Marine and Fisheries has not been to make a profit out of the fisheries in the same way as
it is desirable in the case of the Post Office system and the Inter-Colonial Railway. With
this in view, it may be stated that the Fishery revenue contributed by British Columbia to
the Dominion since 1872 has been about $300,000 while the expenditure within the Province,
up to June 30th, 1900, has been about $175,000.
The fishery expenditure in the Eastern Provinces in the past has each year many times
exceeded the revenue. Since 1872 the total fishery revenue of the Dominion has only
amounted to $1,280,000, while the expenditure has been about $7,500,000.
The delegation do not ask for a refund of the excess of the revenue contributed, or any
money grant upon the relative disproportion of expenditure as between the Atlantic and Pacific
Coasts, but in view of the great importance of promoting shipbuilding on the Pacific Coast, we
feel justified in asking that a sum of $100,000 a year for ten years be paid as a bonus towards
encouraging that industry. In this connection, attention is directed to the letters appended
to the Memorandum.
I wish to impress most strongly upon your attention how very important this matter is.
Owing to the scarcity of ships, freight rates have been for some time and are now very high,
and this condition of affairs affects very seriously the lumber, coal and fishing industries. Mr.
Hendry points out in his letter how other conditions also affect the lumber trade, particularly
the discrimination in favour of Puget Sound ports.
Shipbuilding on the Pacific Coast is still very limited—practically in its infancy; and on
account of the limited character of the industry at present there are only a few skilled workmen who find constant employment, and consequently the price of labour is very high,
so high, indeed, as to seriously hamper any enterprise of this character. With sufficient
encouragement to overcome the present disadvantages, ships could be built to render shippers
independent of foreign vessels, and inducements afforded to a sufficient number of skilled
mechanics to enable the industry to be conducted on a large scale in competition with Puget
Sound and elsewhere. It would not only create a new industry, but establish a fleet and
afford those transport facilities necessary to the development of maritime trade. Every
natural condition is favourable to such a development, and, once under way, the direct return
to the Dominion would far exceed the outlay. I refer not only to the revenues arising from
customs and excise consequent upon increase of population and industry, but to harbour dues
and other incidental revenues arising out of shipping.
Being thoroughly familiar with the conditions affecting the carrying trade of the Coast,
I can urge it the more strongly upon your consideration, and in view of the efforts the United
States are making in a similar direction, it is all the more important that immediate action be
The present status of the fishing industry has been fully referred to in the Memorandum.
Since 1876, from zero it has steadily grown to a value of one-fifth of that of the whole of the
Dominion, with, in 1899, a revenue of $45,000 arising out of fishing licences, and in 1900
It is conceded that the fisheries of the Pacific Coast are still practically undeveloped, and
that great possibilities exist in respect not only of salmon, but of halibut, cod, " skil," herring,
oolachan, smelts, sardines and other well-known and highly-prized food fish of our Coast, with
a proportionately increased revenue from year to year. 572
Report of Delegation to Ottawa.
i Provincial jurisdiction. The cruisers aim to protect the fisheries
pit, jurisdiction over which is still claimed by the Dominion,
lieu of such benefits as are and have been conferred on the Eastern
Drotecting the fishing industry in the way of fishery protection service,
atcheries and the establishment of oyster and lobster fisheries, fishing
matters, that a sum should be donated annually to bonusing ship-
inlets, which are withi
within the three-mile 1
It is submitted, ir
Coast in fostering and
experimental work in 1
bounties and kindred
building on the Pacific
The rights in and
tion of ship-building, t
Columbia has laboured
of the Maritime Provi
of $100,000 should be
as a bonus to encourag
As appendices to
(a.) Copy of le
October, 1!
(b.) Letter to 1
(c.) Letter from
Trading Cc
;o the fisheries for the future may be considered apart from the ques-
at in view of the disadvantages under which the Province of British
in the past, as compared with the advantages enjoyed by the fisheries
ices, and as some measure of compensation, it is suggested that a sum
3t aside each year out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund for ten years,
: ship-building on the Pacific Coast.
his Memorandum are submitted :—
ter to Sir Wilfrid Laurier from  Hon. James Dunsmuir, dated 2nd
[on. James Dunsmuir from the lumbermen of the Province of British
John Hendry, President of the British Columbia Mills, Timber and
Honourable James Dur, imuir,
Otta wa, Ont.
Dear Sir,—The i
Columbia appears to us
hope that some steps m
From its extended
its position on the one
other, it should certain]
of its own to carry acr<
others for this most im
Viewed merely as
encouraged at first we ]
from what has already
proved our timber to b<
is well adapted to be
desirable settlers and fi
Two of the most it
coal and lumber—requ:
Province exports largel
of our own instead of 1
competitors and who ta
discriminating rates ag;
This is especially t
being charged to load i:
trade of the Province w
The necessity of I
apparent from the fac
marine, which will furt]
seriously interfere with
Vessels of the type
of Washington at a cos
$60 per ton for those fi
established, vessels coul
hope that the Governi
industry is fairly establ
latter of promoting building and owning of sea-going vessels in British
of such importance that we beg to address you on the subject in the
ly be taken towards its accomplishment.
coast line, our Province is emphatically a Maritime Province, and from
hore of the Pacific, whilst large consuming communities occupy the
f be a ship-building and ship-owning one, possessing a merchant marine
'SS the Pacific our own productions instead of being dependent upon
lortant accessory to trade and commerce.
in industry, ship-building is a most important one to introduce, and if
sel sure would soon attain to large dimensions. The experience gained
)een done in this line in United States territory to the south of us has
pre-eminently suitable for ship-building and spars, so that our Province
the field of such an industry, which would, without doubt, attract
rnish good employment for numbers of mechanics.
iportant productions of our Province are of considerable bulk—viz.,
ring a considerable number of vessels for their transportation. The
[ of both, and could increase its exports were it provided with carriers
sing almost wholly dependent for carriers on those who are chiefly our
se advantage of their position to hamper the extension of our trade by
inst British Columbia loading ports.
le case in the lumber trade, Is. 3d. to 2s. 6d. per 1,000 feet more freight
i British Columbia than on Puget Sound, thus greatly hampering the
ith all the ports in Australia, China, South America and Africa.
speedy acquisition of carriers owned in the Province is the more
; that the United States Government propose to bonus its merchant
er increase the disadvantages the trade labours under, and probably
its successful prosecution.
best fitted for our trade in the Pacific are built in the adjoining State
; of about $65 per ton for those of from 600 to 800 tons, and about
)m 800 to 1,000 tons register tonnage. Until the business got fairly
i not be built at the same price in British Columbia, and we therefore
lent may grant some assistance to equalise the difference until the
shed.    We would suggest the granting of a bonus equivalent to $15 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 573
per ton register on all vessels of 600 tons built in the Province within a stated term after the
passage of the Act.
We feel sure that such a course would result favourably to the Province by, firstly,
establishing an important industry which would employ a large number of men; secondly, by
creating a fleet of vessels owned in the Province, thereby attracting and fostering a sea-faring
population, whilst their outfitting, supplying and repairing would largely increase business in
our ports; and thirdly, that by the possession of such a fleet our export trade would be extended
and increased to the advantage of all.
I am addressing you on this subject at this time in the hope that whilst at Ottawa you
might be able to induce the Dominion Government to gra«t assistance to this undertaking,
which I think British Columbia is entitled to ask for in view of similar assistance granted to
other industries in the Eastern Provinces.
Vancouver, B.C., January 16th, 1901.
Yours very truly,
(Signed) John Hendry.
Victoria, December 12th, 1900.
The Honourable Jas. Dunsmuir,
Premier of British Columbia.
Sir,—The undersigned, who are interested in the shipping of the Province, realise the
urgent necessity of protecting the Province against the unjust discriminations of American
shipping against our ports, and we would respectfully ask your Government to assist in
establishing the industry of ship-building in British Columbia.
We would ask a bonus for five years, amounting to $10 (ten dollars) per ton register, on
each vessel built in this Province, either of iron, steel, or wood, from 450 tons
register and upwards.
Further Bonus.
We further ask that $5 (five dollars) per ton register be given as a bonus to all iron,
steel, or wood ships constructed in the Province, for a further term of five years after
the expiration of the first five years.
Cost of Building.
We submit that the cost of building a vessel in the Province of about 800 tons register
is about $80 per ton, or $64,000.
We estimate that the wages spent on construction would be about 75 per cent., or
$48,000 on a ship of 800 tons.
Number Employed.
Probably 50 men would be employed for 9 months in building a ship of 800 tons, and,
reckoning the usual estimate of 4 persons depending on each man for a livelihood,
there would be 250 people gaining a maintenance for 9 months for each vessel
constructed here.
General Benefit.
Every industry in the Province would benefit directly or indirectly by the establishment
of this industry. Even the agricultural community would derive benefit from the
increased circulation of money spent in ship-building.
It is estimated that $36,000 per annum are spent in freight to each vessel of 800 tons
loaded in the Province, which should be spent here instead of going away. 574 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
United States ports discriminate against our lumber to the extent of 60 cents per one
thousand feet, and this is a clear loss to our mills—the 60 cents per thousand feet is
probably the average profit at the present time.
We contend that we are justified in asking a bonus for several reasons—
1. The higher prices for materials imported, consequent on duties and heavy freight:
2. It is necessary to get Government assistance in establishing a ship-building plant
here :
3. The bonus is required to induce outside capital to come into the Province.
We have, etc.,
(Signed)        John G. Cox.
The Province of British Columbia, with its extensive shore line, is emphatically a
"Maritime" Province, and must depend for its future advancement and prosperity on the
extension of its over-sea commerce, while its possession of ample supplies of timber of unsurpassed fitness for the purpose, seems to indicate it as peculiarly adapted to be the seat of such
an industry and branch of commerce as ship-building and ship-owning.
This is the more evident from the fact that the type of vessel best suited for trade in the
Pacific is that of the wooden vessels constructed on this Coast, a large fleet of which, built in
the States of Washington, Oregon and California, have been operated in the trade of the
Pacific with the most marked success.
Two of the principal products of the Coast, and of our own Province in particular, lumber
and coal, are commodities of considerable bulk, requiring a large number of vessels for their
transportation, and the trade in lumber alone from Puget Sound and British Columbia with
countries on the Pacific and with Africa amounted last year to 200,000,000 feet, of which
British Columbia contributed only 60,000,000 feet.
This trade is certain to expand with the further development of these countries, notably
Australia, China and South Africa. The tonnage in the Pacific adapted to the trade is far
below the requirements, so that not only would there be assured business for the vessels, but
their existence would assist greatly in the expansion of other business.
If we consider the subject with reference to British Columbia alone the situation is, that
we have our natural products of lumber and coal on the one side of the Pacific, while large consuming communities requiring these very products occupy the other. The natural outcome of
this condition is that one or the other of the two should own and operate the vessels engaged
in their mutual trade, and, from the fact that our Province is better adapted for ship-building
than these countries are, that one should be British Columbia.
We are not in a position to give statistics as regards the coal trade, but considering the
lumber trade alone we find that during 1900 sixty (60) vessels loaded cargoes in British
Columbia for the markets already mentioned, the aggregate amount of freight paid on the
transportation of our lumber being very nearly $850,000.00. British Columbia should build
and own the vessels for this trade, and profit, in the first place, by the establishment within the
Province of the ship-building industry giving employment to a large number of mechanics and
other labourers; and secondly, by the owning and operating of these vessels, thus keeping to
the Province the large sums paid to others for the transportation of our products, whilst in
addition there would be the advantages to be gained in the growing up of a hardy sea-faring
population within its limits.
The importance to the Province of ship-building and ship-owning has been considered in
the foregoing remarks only in reference to that industry by itself, but it becomes of still
greater importance when considered in relation with those branches of trade of the Province
which require vessels for the prosecution of their business, and for which they are at present
almost wholly dependent on those owned by our greatest competitors. This is particularly the
case in the lumber trade; the vessels best suited for the trans-Pacific trade being chiefly owned
in San Francisco, and largely owned, or controlled, by those interested in the lumber trade,
who take advantage of their position to hamper the extension of British Columbia's trade by
making discriminating rates against British Columbia loading ports to the extent of 2s. 6d. per
1,000 feet in comparison with loading ports on Puget Sound. 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 575
It is evident that to secure business the British Columbia manufacturer must make good
to his customer this difference in freight by a proportionate reduction in price or lose the
business^ and as competition is extremely keen, and prices cut down to the lowest possible
point, this cannot always be done, and the business is consequently lost to the Province.
As already mentioned, the entire shipments of lumber from Puget Sound and British
Columbia combined, the same kind of lumber being produced by both, were in 1890 200,000,000
feet, of which British Columbia shipped only 60,000,000 feet, while the producing capacity of
the mills in British Columbia situated so as to be able to engage in this foreign trade is at
least 175,000,000 feet per annum if the mills are operated only ten hours per day. Of this cut
about 120,000,000 feet would be available for this foreign trade, or nearly double the business
done last year, whilst the mills on Puget Sound shipped during the same period 140,000,000
feet, of which 63,000,000 feet, being 3,000,000 feet in excess of the entire quantity shipped by
British Columbia, was taken by our sister colony of Australia, which would certainly give the
preference to British Columbia on equal terms, especially as the timber of British Columbia
has the preference at equal prices. British Columbia, therefore, has done but half the business
that could be done with its mills running day time only, whilst the Puget Sound mills have
been taxed to their utmost, working day and night to supply the demand, and this condition
is almost entirely owing to British Columbia not having a merchant fleet of its own.
A great increase in this trade is confidently expected in the near future, but it is a certainty that the business will go past us unless prompt steps are taken to promote the creation
of a fleet of home-owned vessels. This is the more necessary that there is now under the consideration of the United States Government a " Ship Subsidy Bill," which, if it goes into effect
in its present form, will make it impossible for British Columbia manufacturers to compete in
prices with manufacturers in the United States.
This measure provides that United States vessels trading from a United States port to a
foreign port, shall receive a bonus per register ton of 1^ cents per 100 miles of distance for
the first 1,500 miles, and one cent for each additional 100 miles of the outward voyage, and
the same on the inward. Applying this to, say, a voyage to Australia, the distance being
roughly 6,500 miles, the bonus would be 22J cents for the first 1,500 miles, and 50 cents for
the remaining 5,000 miles, or a total of 72|- cents per register ton on a voyage to Australia.
On the carrying of the ordinary type of vessel used in the Pacific in the lumber trade, this
would amount to about 55 cents per M. feet, so that an American vessel would demand,
if to be loaded in British Columbia, the 2/6d., or 60 cents already referred to, plus the bonus,
which would be forfeited if she sailed from a British Columbia port in place of one in the
United States, thus making, in all, a discrimination of $1.15 per 1,000 feet against British
Columbia, a difference completely beyond the power of the British Columbia manufacturer to
This measure will, therefore, have the effect not only of greatly stimulating the increase
of the United States merchant marine, but also of capturing almost entirely the trade of the
Pacific for United States manufacturers. This must be so evident that it is of the utmost
importance that the Government take prompt steps to counteract and, if possible, forestall the
disastrous effects to be apprehended from such legislation by the United States.
It cannot be expected that at the commencement vessels can be built as cheaply in British
Columbia as they now are on Puget Sound, where the industry has been established for many
years, with extensive and fully equipped plants and a large force of mechanics, well used to
the work, to draw from. There would be difficulties to surmount in the inception of the
industry in British Columbia, wages and supplies would be higher than south of the line, and
it would be necessary to offer a substantial inducement to cause parties to embark in the
business and establish proper plants in the Province. This should take the form of a bonus
per register ton on the vessels built, so that it would be available also for any one inclined to
take up the business of owning and operating vessels, and not merely go to enrich a shipbuilding company.
The period during which such assistance would be necessary, it is difficult to estimate,
but when it is considered that vessels require a considerable time for their construction, it
may be suggested that ten years would not be too long a period in which to expect the industry
to become fairly established.
The subject is of such importance to the Province, and the necessity for prompt and
energetic action so great, that it is hoped it may engage the earnest and favourable attention
of the Government at the earliest possible date. 576 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
Representations to Hon. the Minister of the Interior.
At Ottawa, Ont., January 28th, 1901.
The Honourable Clifford Sifton,
Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, Ont.
My Dear Mr. Sifton,—I beg to hand you herewith, memoranda of the British
Columbia delegation, respecting the following matters, already discussed during several interviews you were good enough to afford us :—
(1.) Establishment of a mint in British Columbia.
(2.) Proposed Dominion Mining Commission.
(3.) Delimitation of the Southern Boundary Line of British Columbia.
(4.) Representations respecting the lumber tariff.
May I request the honour of an early reply.
I would also beg to have a definite proposal in the matter of the Songhees Reserve, so
that, if possible, a basis of settlement may be reached during our visit to Ottawa.
Yours very faithfully,
(Signed)        James Dunsmuir.
Memorandum Regarding Establishment of Mint in British Columbia.
This matter has been the subject of various resolutions in the Legislative Assembly. Of
course, in Crown Colony days there was a local mint, situated at New Westminster, which
resulted in the circulation of most of the gold producod in the Province.
On the 12th of April, 1897, a resolution was passed in the Legislative Assembly that the
Lieutenant-Governor urge upon the Dominion Government the desirability of taking into early
and favourable consideration the question of establishing a Mint in British Columbia.
A similar resolution was passed on the 25th of March, 1898; and again on the 17th
February, 1899; the latest being on the 27th of August, 1900, at the last Session of the
British Columbia Legislature.
The following figures, taken from the Statistical Year Book, strongly support the claim
of British Columbia as the most desirable location for the establishment of a Mint.
The gold out-put of the Provinces for 1899, was as follows :—
Ontario $     420,444
Yukon    16,000,000
Saskatchewan  15,000
Quebec  4,916
British Columbia      4,202,473
Nova Scotia         617,604
Total $21,260,437
The primary object of the establishment of a Mint is to retain in the Dominion its own
gold product, for the first change of hands which it undergoes at all events, and it seems
apparent that this object would be defeated in the event of the Mint being located elsewhere
than on the Pacific Coast. The United States have a branch mint at San Francisco and a
purchasing agent for gold at Seattle, and it will be useless to attempt to compete with either
of these institutions should the item of distance, with the necessarily added cost of transportation and insurance, be increased by the establishment of the Mint in any other part of
It is estimated that the gold out-put of British Columbia for 1900, when all returns are
at hand, will be found to be at least five and a half millions of dollars. 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 577
It may be stated that, as far as they can, the Municipal Councils and Boards of Trade of
the Province are doing all in their power by endeavouring to secure practically co-operative
transportation companies, to improve the passenger accommodation on the Canadian boats, or
those making Victoria and Vancouver their home ports.
If the same charge be made at a Mint in British Columbia for assaying gold, and equal
facilities for turning it into cash as are offered by the American authorities at Seattle and
San Francisco, there is no reason why any of the product of Canadian placer mines should
find its way out of Canada in the first instance. By the present lack of such facilities, British
Columbia particularly, and Canada generally, loses a most valuable part of the trade incidental
to the northern mining industry, that is, from returning successful miners, which at present
all goes to the United States cities, principally Seattle and San Francisco.
On the 29th of March, 1898, the following Minute of Council was passed by the British
Columbia Executive, and a copy forwarded to the Honourable the Secretary of State, in
accordance with a resolution of the Legislative Assembly :
" Whereas the establishment of a mint in Canada will be of great benefit, commercially
and otherwise;
"And whereas the Province of British Columbia is the most suitable Province wherein
such mint should be established ;
"Be it therefore resolved that an humble address be presented to His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor, requesting him to communicate with the Dominion Government
urging upon the Government the desirability of the establishment, at the earliest
possible date, of a mint, such mint to be erected in the Province of British Columbia."
In a communication to the Minister of Mines from the Provincial Mineralogist on this
subject, the existing conditions are summarised and remedies suggested.
He states that practically all the gold from the north goes directly to the United States,
either from the banks in the north or is brought down by returning miners. The gold brought
down by the latter is at once converted into cash, a very large percentage of which is spent in
the city where such cash is received in the purchase of supplies, either for immediate consumption or to be again taken north.
It may be fairly stated that Seattle owes its present size and importance as a coast city
to this particular trade, produced and developed by the gold taken, either directly or indirectly,
out of Canadian placers.
The reason why the gold is taken to Seattle is because the United States assay office
there buys it at a higher price than is or can be paid for it in British Columbia. The gold is
bought in Seattle at exactly the same rate as if handed in to the Mint at Washington, the
United States Government paying the express and insurance charges on the bars from the
branch office to the mint, so that the only deduction made from the gross value of the dust is
the assay charge.
Gold brought to Victoria or Vancouver is taken to a bank and by the bank sent to the
British Columbia Government assay office. The charges there are practically the same as the
Seattle assay office, but the bank in British Columbia has to send the bars to the mint, and in
addition to again paying assay charges has to defray the cost of expressage, insurance and
other charges, and at the same time provide for a fair business profit. The price obtained for
gold dust taken to Seattle is higher, therefore, than that paid in British Columbia cities by the
above charges, which amount to about two per cent, on the gross value of the gold.
To meet this competition, British Columbia must be in a position to offer at least as good
terms as Seattle, and the Provincial Mineralogist makes the following suggestion, as an alternative proposal, in case the mint should not be established in British Columbia.
The Government of British Columbia to be authorised to purchase, as agents for the
Dominion Government, all gold offered, at the same rate as that paid by the United States
Government; the Local Government establishing the necessary offices and being responsible
for all losses. The gold to be handed to an agent appointed by the Dominion Government,
and the weight and fineness of the gold to be guaranteed by the British Columbia Government.
The Provincial Mineralogist points out that, of course, the assay fees will not begin to
pay the expenses of an assay office, and the difference would have to be borne by the local
Government, who would also be responsible for the gold and the correctness of the weight
and assays. 578 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
The Dominion Government would have to pay the expressage, interest, and other charges
on value during transit.
This proposition, if carried into effect, would at least have a tendency towards securing
the retention of the gold in Canada, and at the same time attract the trade which the Canadian
cities now lose by the gold being taken elsewhere, but, in view of British Columbia's position
as a gold producer in the Dominion, it should be clear to anyone that that Province is the one
entitled to the mint when one is established.
Dominion Mining Commission.
From the press, as will be observed by the Appendix to this Memorandum, it is learned
that the Dominion Government propose issuing a Mining Commission, presumably to inquire
into conditions affecting silver and lead mining, smelting, refining, transportation and marketing of ores.
The Province of British Columbia also proposes to issue a Mining Commission to inquire
into matters affecting internal control and development of mining. The respective scopes of
these two Commissions should be quite distinct, and the Honourable the Minister of Mines
for British Columbia has suggested to the delegation to ascertain definitely from the Honourable
the Minister of the Interior, at his earliest convenience, what subjects the Dominion Commission is intended to cover; and further intimated to the Delegation his great willingness to
assist the Dominion Commission in every way possible in their inquiries.
Memorandum by the Honourable the Minister of Mines.
The Minister of the Interior (Hon. Clifford Sifton) stated on several occasions during his
recent visit to the Kootenays, that it was the intention of the Dominion Government to
appoint a Commission to inquire into the mining industry of Canada, and principally British
Columbia. As to the scope of this Commission nothing was said by him, so far as can be
ascertained from newspaper reports, but that it will deal with the silver-lead question seems
Mr. McBride (Minister of Mines for British Columbia), when in the Kootenays recently,
was interviewed by members of the Rossland Board of Trade and Chamber of Mines, on
which occasion Mr. J. B. McArthur, president of the latter, and also president of the election
committee of Mr. W. A. Galliher, M.P., made, inter alia, the following remarks:
" Mr. Sifton is going to take up the question of the advertisement of the mineral resources
of British Columbia, and in fact of the whole of Canada. I am not prepared at the present
time to disclose all he says, but he is going to take it up energetically in connection with the
Yukon. He is also going to take up the silver-lead question, and there is no doubt whatever
in his mind that the Government will protect that industry, and an important announcement
will be made by him shortly; in fact, something will be done within the next sixty days."
In an interview with the Vancouver Province newspaper, reported in its issue of the 24th
of November, 1900, Hon. Clifford Sifton is reported to have said:—
" I may as well tell you now that the importance of the mining industries of this Province
have never been so fully borne upon me as during this last trip of mine. It is a subject of
great scope, and one that must be treated with all possible care and consideration. I shall
therefore urge upon my colleagues the advisability of appointing a strong and thoroughly competent Commission -to inquire into the whole matter and report at an early date. The
Commission, if appointed—and I have every reason to believe it will be—would deal not only
with mining hut also with matters of smelting and refining; in fact, it would take up and
report upon the whole connection which the mining industry has with the general business of
the country, including of course its relation to the customs tariff and the bearing which that
has on it"
The Minister further added that action on the report of such Commission could safely be
looked for within a year, inasmuch as the administration was fully alive to the requirements
of the mining districts as well as of the coast. 1 Ed.' 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 579
On the 12th December, 1900, a meeting of the Associated Boards of Trade of British
Columbia was called at the request of Mr. G. O. Buchanan, of Kaslo, at which meeting it is
learned that two letters, one to the Hon. Mr. Sifton, and the other to the Hon. Mr. Fielding,
were submitted by Mr. Buchanan, containing proposals as to the Mining Commission, and that
these proposals were adopted.    It is  assumed that  these  letters are on file,  and  therefore
unnecessary to produce here.
Memorandum respecting thf, Southern Boundary Line of British Columbia.
Owing to physical difficulties the work of the Survey Commission in British Columbia is
incomplete, portions of the Boundary Line being only imperfectly indicated, so that in places
it is uncertain as to whether certain mining claims are in Canada or the United States.
Trouble has already occurred in the Mount Baker District.
It is asked that an arrangement be made without delay for an exact delimitation of the
Boundary Line.
In this connection, the Provincial Mineralogist writes to the Minister of Mines for the
Province as follows:—
" I would again beg to call to your attention the fact that the Southern Boundary Line
of this Province has never been regularly marked except at points widely separated, and that,
in consequence, a number of mineral claims are in debatable ground.
" I refer particularly to Tobacco Plains, Boundary Creek District and Mount Baker
District. Disputes have already occurred and much bad feeling has been engendered which
would not have been had the line been marked plainly and finally.
" This is strictly within the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government, and I would
suggest that proper representations be made to Ottawa that this boundary line be run this
coming summer by joint survey with the United States authorities."
Memorandum respecting the Lumber Tariff.
Representatives of the lumbering industry have interviewed the Government of British
Columbia, and also several of the Ministers of the Federal Government, with reference to
certain conditions.detrimentally affecting their interests.
So far as the Province is concerned, the lumbermen have asked two things :—
First.—To continue the rebate on dues on account of lumber exported, which, for the
purpose of assisting the industry, the Province has allowed for some years past;
Second.—To urge upon the Dominion authorities the claims of  the lumber industry to
The case of the lumbermen has already been fully presented by Mr. C. M. Beecher, and
others, in a recent interview with the Honourable the Minister of Finance and the Honourable
the Minister of the Interior, and is also contained in the letters which are appended.
The Delegation cannot too strongly urge upon the Dominion Government consideration of
these representations. The disabilities under which the lumber industry of the Province at
present labours are :—
(1.) Tariff discrimination ;
(2.) Discrimination by ship-owners in favour of Puget Sound ports as against British
(3.) High freight rates as the result of a scarcity of ships.
The remedy of the first grievance lies in either a reciprocity of tariffs or in a reciprocity
in timber products.
In regard to the two latter, the remedy suggested is the bonusing of ship-building,
whereby British Columbia will possess a fleet of its own, and its industries will become
independent of foreign ship-owners and foreign ports.
A separate memorandum on the subject of the bonusing of ship-building has been submitted to the Honourable the Minister of Marine and Fisheries. 580 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
In the matter of a tariff on lumber, the millmen of British Columbia claim that they are
entitled to equal consideration with Manitoba and the North-West. The increase in trade
and population on the Coast, through the prosperity of the lumber or any other industry,
means an increased market for the products of the North-West Territories. Moreover, since
the British Columbia mills entered the North-West market, the price of lumber has been
reduced $5.00 per thousand, and that of shingles from $3.00 to $1.75 per thousand, so that
the prairie farmers have profited accordingly.
To illustrate the conditions existing as between British Columbia and the Pacific Coast
south, it may be stated that for the year 1900 the total of cargo and rail shipment was
777,043,447 feet, while that of British Columbia was approximately 85,000,000. There are
444 mills in the State of Washington, with a daily capacity of 8,380,000 feet; in British
Columbia there are 97 mills of 3,645,000 feet daily capacity; the capacity of the shingle
mills in the State of Washington is 28,700,000, and that of British Columbia 4,000,000.
The States of Oregon and California approximate in production that of the State of Washington, where there are about 24,000 operatives employed in the lumber industry alone. The
State of Washington has a market of 75,000,000 persons, with Canada as an additional
outlet, while the mills of British Columbia are excluded from the market of the United
States and have, at the same time, to compete in its own territory with the American mills.
It is stated that, in consequence of a tariff being imposed on American lumber equal to
that imposed by the United States on Canadian lumber, the North-West Territories will
suffer. Apart from the fact that the British Columbia millmen have agreed not to increase the
present prices, it should be borne in mind that the North-West Territories products are all
protected, and a market is easily found for them in British Columbia. The mill-owner pays
duty on his machinery and other equipment for his mill and business. British Columbia
being a large consuming Province, and mostly a non-manufacturing one, imports very considerably, and is, therefore, a heavy contributor to the Federal treasury in customs dues.
At Ottawa, Ont., January 28th, 1901.
The Honourable Clifford Sifton,
Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, Ont.
Re Marquette Claim.
My Dear Mr. Sifton,—I hand you herewith copies of the correspondence in the above,
the facts in connection with which are set forth in the report of the Deputy Commissioner of
Lands and Works.
It appears from that report, that on the 2nd June, 1896, in pursuance of an application
by J. B. Marquette, attorney and agent of Robert Angus, a licence was granted to cut
timber on a limit at the head of Stave Lake; and that on the 3rd of August, 1897, a renewal
of the licence was granted by the Provincial Government. At the date of the granting of
this licence the boundary of the Railway Belt was defined by Dominion Order in Council,
approved 27th May, 1887, which boundary, so far as it relates to the limit in question, is
coloured green on the map attached to the correspondence sent herewith. On the 2nd of
July, 1896, however, the Deputy Minister of the Interior communicated to the Provincial
Government that the Dominion Government had decided to accept the alternative mentioned
in the Order in Council of the Provincial Government of the 6th December, 1895, which
provides that—
"The Province shall accept as the boundary of the Railway Belt the line laid down and
marked out by the Dominion Order in Council, approved on the 27th May, 1887, and by the
map attached thereto * * * * , or the nearest section line to the boundary
of the Belt, which would be found by actual measurement, as may be found by the Minister
of the Interior most convenient."
The changes effected in the boundary belt by this decision were general throughout the
Province, and there was nothing at the time to call particular attention to its effect at Stave
Lake, the position of which was not shown on the Dominion maps furnished to the Provincial
Lands and Works Department. 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 581
The Crown Timber Agent for the Dominion, at New Westminster, seized and confiscated
200,000 feet of lumber, valued at $1,400, belonging to Mr. Angus, on the ground that the
timber was cut from property within the Forty-Mile Belt; and Mr. Angus makes a claim for
compensation to the Provincial Government.
There is no question that, when the licence was first granted, the limit was outside of the
boundary of the belt as then determined. Such being the case, the Deputy Commissioner of
Lands and Works points out that it is difficult to understand the harsh action of the Agent
of the Dominion Government in seizing the logs cut by Angus, and of thereby bringing upon
him great financial loss; and that it might have been expected that the Dominion Government
would respect the licence which was legally, and under full authority, granted by the Province.
I submit the claim for your careful and, I hope, favourable consideration.
Yours very faithfully,
(Signed)        James Dunsmuir.
At Ottawa, Ont., February 2nd, 1901.
The Honourable Clifford Sifton,
Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, Ont.
My Dear Mr. Sifton,—Adverting to our conversation in the matter of the Songhees
Indian Reserve, at Victoria, and in conformity with your request, I beg to submit the following proposal :—
Proposai   re Songhees Reserve.
(1.) The Dominion of Canada t( surrender, absolutely, to the Province all their rights
to the nineteen acres set fo. the use of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway as a
right of way; and to so much of that part of the Songhees Reserve as lies north
of the present travelled Esquimalt Road and east of the Craigflower Road:
(2.) The Dominion of Canada to be authorised to sell the residue of the Reserve and
apply the proceeds, together with such moneys as they have in hand attached to
this Reserve, to the re-habilitation of the Songhees Indians upon another Reserve
satisfactory to the Dominion, to be provided for by the Province, the Province to
have the reversion in any surplus available over and above the cost of such
Adjustment of Indian Reserves.
I would also call your attention to tne fact that it is advisable that joint action should be
taken at an early date by the Dominion and Local Governments as to the adjustment of
Indian Reserves in British Columbia, other than the Reserve above mentioned.
In some instances large tracts of very valuable agricultural lands are held by a very
small number of Indians. Under the earlier Orders in Council referring to Indian Reserves
it appears that it was the intention, from time to time, as there was a diminution or augmentation in the number of a tribe, to decrease or increase the boundaries of the reserve. I
would, therefore, beg respectfully to point out to you that this would be an opportune time to
take up the question, and would ask you to take steps to carry out the intention of the
Government as shown in the Orders in Council referred to. I would accordingly suggest that
a Commission be appointed, one Commissioner to be appointed by the Dominion Government,
one by the Provincial Government, those two to appoint a third Commissioner as Umpire;
the scope of the Commission to be such as will have the effect of carrying out the terms of
the Orders in Council referring to the adjustment of the reserves. I think, under the
circumstances, I could agree with what you said during our conversation yesterday, that,
taking everything into consideration, it might be inadvisable to appoint as Commissioner any
person from the Province of British Columbia.
Co-operation of Mining Commissions.
May I also take the liberty of calling your attention to the scope of the proposed Mining
Commission to be appointed by the Dominion, and to express the hope that at an early date
we will hear from you on the subject as to who the Commissioners will be, the date on which 582 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
they will probably sit, and the scope of the Commission. As I mentioned to you yesterday,
the question of appointing a Provincial Commission to look into mining matters is receiving
the attention of the Local Government, and possibly it might be advisable that the two
Commissions should sit contemporaneously, and probably before a definite conclusion was come
to by either Commission the Commissioners would be able to exchange views on the different
matters which had come before them.
Administration of Minerals under Indian Reserves.
Further adverting to our conversation, I would propose that the Local Government be
empowered—at their own expense—to administer the base minerals, including coal, lying
under Indian Reserves, the Dominion receiving for the relinquishment of any right of administering the base minerals, including coal, under Indian Reserves, one-half of any royalty
and taxation on - coal, and half of the taxes, either direct or revenue by way of royalty,
collected on base minerals other than coal, and gold and silver (which are clearly within the
right of the Province). Any arrangement made under this proposal to be without prejudice
to the rights of the Province or the Dominion to the minerals under Indian Reserves, but
solely for the purpose of promoting the mining industry in the Province.
It is understood, of course, that the reversionary right of the Province to the Indian
funds so derived shall remain intact.
The above proposals are, of course, made subject to ratification by the proper authorities.
Yours very faithfully,
(Signed)        James Dunsmuir.
Salaries of Judges, &c.
At Ottawa, Ont., February 1st, 1901.
The Honourable David Mills, Q.C.,
Minister of Justice, Ottawa, Ont.
My Dear Mr. Mills,—You are already in possession of my views on the subject of
increasing the salaries of the Supreme Court Judges of British Columbia, and I would also
remind you of the question of increasing the jurisdiction of the County Court Judges of Vancouver Island to include the whole of the Island. I am pleased that you are willing to
recommend the appointment of further County Court Judges in British Columbia when and
so often as the Local Government name territories in which, in the opinion of the Local Government, there is a sufficient amount of work to warrant the appointment of a County Court
We have had a great deal of trouble with reference to the improper naturalization of
aliens, and I would respectfully suggest in this connection that the Naturalization Act should
be so amended as to empower a Judge of either the Supreme or County Court, upon cause
shown, to declare null and void any naturalization papers which have been improvidently or
fraudulently obtained or issued.
Yours very sincerely,
(Signed)    D. M. Eberts. 1 Ed 7. Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 583
Expenses connected with Quarantine.
Victoria, Sept. 28th, 1900.
The Honourable the Attorney-General,
Victoria, B. C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit a copy of a letter I sent to the Minister of Agriculture
asking for a refund of expenses incurred while carrying out quarantine regulations on the
boundary line during the small-pox epidemic last February and following months. I also
enclose a copy of Mr. Fisher's reply.
I had an interview with Dr. Montizambert about September 1st, and he requested me to
send a full account of expenses. I herewith enclose this account for your approval and direction
regarding same.
I have, etc.,
(Signed)        C. J. Fagan,
Victoria, B.C., August 20th, 1900.
The Honourable Sidney Fisher,
Minister of Agriculture,
Ottawa, Canada.
Sir,—I had the honour to write to you on May 22nd, asking for a refund of expenses
incurred by this Board during the small-pox outbreak in the States of Washington, Montana
and Idaho. As I then stated, our Government, thinking only of the safety of the country,
undertook to guard the boundary line. This was done with such effect that only nine cases
got an entrance to British Columbia. You will recognize the need of immediate action when
I tell you, I myself saw cases with small-pox pustules on their faces, walking around the town
of Republic; and I was told on reliable authority that a man, with the disease well advanced,
travelled ninety miles in a Spokane railway car; there wer$ then fifty cases in the City of
Spokane, a town with which we had constant and continued communication. When I saw
and heard of such occurrences, I considered it was my duty to act promptly, and I think
events have justified our action. I believe it is no exaggeration when I say that the number
of cases occurring in the three states to the immediate south of us—Washington, Idaho and
Montana—numbered well into the thousands. Our communication with these states was
constant, yet we only had nine cases. We did well for ourselves, but I also think we did well
for Canada.
Now, a great deal of this work did not belong to us. We did it because it was left
undone, and by so doing we undoubtedly protected not only British Columbia but many other
We started our quarantine arrangements on January 25th, and carried them on rigidly
till some time in May, when I was advised by your department that now the Dominion Government would undertake this work. - This action, I am told, resulted from the fact that smallpox appeared in Winnipeg. Now, I am sure it will only need my calling your attention to
this matter to have it righted. We have paid out considerable sums for work which it now
appears should have been done by the Dominion Government. The work was done well, and
with due regard for economy. Although it was to me a great source of worry, looking to
results, I do not regret it. I only feel sorry, that being alive to the public needs, should cramp
the limited resources of this Board.
I have laid this matter before Mr. Morrison. He told me that it was only a question of
placing the matter before the Minister to have it righted. I therefore leave it, with confidence,
in your hands, and will be pleased to answer all questions and give full particulars and proof
of services.
I have, etc.,
(Signed)    C. J. Fagan,
Secretary. 584 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 1901
Ottawa, August 27th, 1900.
C. J. Fagan, Esq.,
Secretary, Provincial Board of Health,
Victoria, B. C.
Dear Sir,—I beg to acknowledge yours of August 20th, in regard to the claim of your
Board for compensation for the work done in connection with small-pox in British Columbia.
Dr. Montizambert is at present in the West, and I cannot answer you further until his
return. Probably you will see him when he comes from the Yukon to British Columbia and
can discuss the matter with him, so that he will be fully cognizant of the other side of it
when he returns to headquarters.
I am, etc.,
(Signed)        Sidney Fisher.
Accounts paid by the British Columbia Government for Quarantine Services
DURING  THE   SMALL-POX   EPIDEMIC,   FROM  JANUARY   22ND   TO   May   10th,   1900.
Astley,  W. J. —January 22nd to February 2nd.—Services  as   Quarantine  Officer
between Waneta and Northport;  travelling expenses re same    $ 55 35
Allan, M. E.—February 15th to February 27th.—Board and lodging of Quarantine
Officer Wright on duty between Rossland and Northport        12 25
Armstrong, G. S.—January 28th to May 9th.—Services as  Quarantine Officer at
Northport at $100 per month ; three telephone messages re same      343 63
Brown, J. R.—January 30.—Re small-pox—Stage fare to Osoyoos and return to act
as guard     2 00
Banbury, I.—January 26th to February 28th.—Board and lodging for Quarantine
Officer Hislop at Midway        85 50
Boidrick, F.—February 19th to May 31st.—Services as  Special Constable to assist
Quarantine Officer at Huntingdon, at $2.50 per day      235 00
Cunningham, G.—March 1st to May 10th.—Salary as Special Constable to assist in
quarantine work at Midway ; expenses re same      165 00
Cummins, H. C.—February 2nd to May 10th.—Salary as Quarantine Officer between
Northport and Nelson; travelling expenses re same ,      278 25
Cameron,  A.—February 5th to February 28th.—Salary for quarantine duties at
Cascade        57 50
Cameron,   J.   G.—January   29th  to  May   10th.—Salary  as  Quarantine  Officer  at
Creston ; expenses re same , •      287  35
Curtis, D. S.—January 16th to May 19th.—Drugs, vaccine, disinfectants, &c, supplied to Huntingdon Quarantine       138  40
Davidson, J. N.—February 2nd to March 31st.—Board and lodging for Quarantine
Officer Cummins at Waneta and Fort Sheppard Railway      112  25
Dolan, J.—January 30th.—Sending a man back across Boundary line who escaped
Quarantine Officer at Port Hill, Idaho  1  50
Dufuesue, J. C.—March 28th to April 31st.—Salary as Quarantine Officer at Myer's
Creek        35 00
Darraugh, D. J. — January 27th to February 19th.—Hire of saddle-horse for two
days, and board and lodging while acting as Constable to assist Quarantine
Officer at Grand Forks        33 00
Dinsmore, J.—January 31st to March 10th.—Board, hire of horse for two days, and
telephone messages to Dr. Jakes, re quarantine work at Carson        71  45
Fagan, C. J.—January 25th to March 23rd.—Trip through the Kootenays and
Washington, via Spokane, re small-pox epidemic; travelling expenses re
small-pox         169 65
Farish, J. C.—January 26th to May 4th.—Salary as Quarantine Officer at Huntingdon, at $100 per month; travelling expenses re same, $23.33      347 33
Folger,  0. H.—February  18th to May  9th.—Guard at Covert's Rand,  Boundary
Quarantine        55 00 1 Ed. 7 Report of Delegation to Ottawa. 585
Great North-Western Telegraph Company.—January  22nd.—Telegram re small-pox
from Quarantine Officer ac Spokane     59
Henderson Bros.—February 5th.—Four tubes of vaccine supplied to Dr. Sutherland
at Blaine Quarantine  4 00
Hill,  0.  P.—January 24th  to March 31st.—Board  and  lodging for  Quarantine
Officer at Port Hill, Idaho        93 00
Hislop, C. G.—January 24th to May 11th.—Services as Quarantine Officer at Midway and Carson, and travelling expenses re same      294 40
Jakes, R. W.—February 28th to May 10th—Salary and travelling expenses as Quarantine Officer at Kettle River boundary      203 20
Kirkup, J.—January 26th—Travelling expenses to Midway, re quarantine duties . . 7 50
Lambly, C. A. R.—March 2nd to May Sth—Salary as Special Quarantine Officer
guarding boundary line in the Similkameen Valley, Osoyoos, &c, $234.50;
also salaries paid to W. Haynes and C. E. Pittendrigh as assistants to Quarantine Officer at Fairview, $227.50      462 00
Lister, R. B.—February 27th to March 19th—Fares travelling to New Westminster,
Huntingdon, &c, acting as Constable at Huntingdon quarantine, and board
and lodging while assisting Quarantine Officer at Huntingdon        37 05
McMynn, W. G.—January 24th to February 25th—Hire of horse and telephone
messages, re quarantine at Midway        18 00
Miller,  R.—January 20th to February 22nd—Sixteen  meals supplied Quarantine
Officer Wright, on duty between Sheep Creek and Northport  4 00
Merryweather, W. G.—January 23rd to February 5th—Board and lodging for Quarantine Officer Wright, on duty between Sheep Creek and Northport  17 75
Moulton  & Co.—January  26th to April 27th—Board and lodging for Dr. Farish,
Quarantine Officer at Huntingdon; rent of building for fumigating mail, &c..     227  50
McDonald, E. A.—February 23rd to March 31st—Fifty-seven meals at 50 cents,
supplied Quarantine Officer Wright between Sheep Creek and Northport....       2850
McLeod, A.—January 30th to April 8th—Services as Health Inspector, at $2.50 per
day, at Fernie quarantine      172 50
McAulay, E. J.—March 18th to April 9th—Guard at White Camp, on Boundary
Line        55 00
McMynn, W.G.—April 20th—Expenses incurred in enforcement of the small-pox
regulations at Midway  3 75
Palmer, C. H.—January 22nd to  January 31st—Salary as  Quarantine  Officer  at
Kootenay River boundary, expenses re same        41 80
Paterson, A. N.—January 31st to March 13th—Lodging of Quarantine Officer Wright
on duty at Sheep Creek for 41 days at 50 cents           20 50
Phillipps, M.—February 1st to April 16th—Salary as Quarantine Officer at Tobacco
Plains, on Boundary Line       125 00
Ritchet, F.—February 11th to March 31st—Fifty-five meals supplied Quarantine
Officer Wright while on quarantine duties between Sheep Creek and North-
port, at 75 cents      41  25
Redman, J. B.—February  13th to February 22nd—Special Constable at Nelson, on
Boundary Line, near Grand Forks, at $2.50 per day        20 00
Rankin, G. W. A.—March 16th to March 20th—Guard at Carson, at $2.50 per day,
during quarantine        10 00
Rogers, F.—March 5th to April 30th—Team and buggy for Dr. S. Smith, re quarantine work at Grand Forks        45 50
Steel, R.  J.—February 10th to February 12th—Services as Special Constable at
Waneta quarantine; expenses re same         15 50
Short, A. A.—January 29th to May 11th—Salary as Quarantine Officer at Myers
Creek; expenses re same      274 00
Smith, R. B. S.—March 8th to March 10th—Services as Quarantine Officer at Grand
Forks; expenses re same      161 50
Sutherland, A. A.—January 25th to May 1st—Services as Quarantine Officer at
Blaine; expenses re same      161 00
Teetzel & Co.—February 15th—Expressage for one bottle of disinfectant for use of
Quarantine Officer at Waneta  75 586
Report of Delegation to Ottawa.
Wright, P.—January   22nd to May   10th—Salary as Quarantine Officer at Sheep
Creek and Northport; travelling expenses re same       328 80
Winter,   C.—January 26th to   May   10th—Services   and   expenses  of   Quarantine
Officer at Osoyoos      218 50
Wells, W. L.—March 20th to April 9 th—Salary as Night Guard at Carson during
quarantine        50 00
White, R. B.—February 9th to May 10th—Salary and expenses of Quarantine Officer
at Osoyoos      240 00
Widdicombe, J.—February 28th to May 10th—Salary and expenses of Quarantine
Officer at Grand Forks      191  40
Total $6,059 65
Official Precedence.
At Ottawa, January 31st, 1901.
The Honourable Sir Wilfrid Laurier,  G.C.M.G.,
Premier, Ottawa, Ont.
Dear Sir Wilfrid,—I send to you, herewith, a file of the correspondence which has
taken place between the Dominion Government and those of the Provinces of Ontario and
British Columbia, relative to the question of precedence of Provincial Ministers and Speakers,
and the terms upon which the title " Honourable " should be conferred upon them for life.
This matter has been before you for discussion during our visit, but I send you now the
correspondence for your information. As most of the documents are originals, will you
kindly return them to me, at Victoria, when you have perused them.
Yours very faithfully,
(Signed)        James Dunsmuir.
Ottawa, 4th March, 1901.
The Honourable James Dunsmuir,
Premier, Province of British Columbia,
Victoria, B. C.
Sir,—I have the honour, by direction of the Right Honourable the President of the
Council, to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 28th January last, respecting the financial relations between the Province of British Columbia and the Dominion of
I have, etc.,
(Signed)        John J. McGee,
Clerk of the Privy Council.
Victoria, 6th March, 1901.
Sir Wilfrid Laurier,  Ottawa. '
Would be pleased to have your immediate and kind consideration of our communications.
House in Session and much depends on nature of your reply, particularly with reference to
railway development, fisheries and questions Oriental immigration and British Columbia's
share of capitation tax.
James Dunsmuir. 1 Ed. 7
Report of Delegation to Ottawa.
Ottawa, Ont., March 6th, 1901.
Hon. James Dunsmuir, Victoria.
Will try to give you an answer as early as possible.
Wilfrid Laurier.
12 th March, 1901.
Rt. Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier,
Prime Minister, Ottaiva.
Government strongly urged bring down papers connected with delegation to Ottawa.    If
agreeable to you, will comply.
James Dunsmuir.
Hon. Jas. Dunsmuir,
Victoria, B.C.
I have no objection at all.
Ottawa, Ont., March 12, 1901.
Wilfrid Laurier.
victoria, b. c. :
Printed by Richard Wolfkndkn, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1001.  568a.
OF THE  PROVINCE  OE B.  C.,  1872-1901.
Public Debt:
Premium D. & E	
Sinking Fund	
Charges, man	
Administration of Justice, Judges, i
Experimental Farms	
Pensions, &c	
Public Wokks:
Buildings '.	
Harbours and Rivers	
Mail Subsidy	
Dominion Steamers	
Light Houses	
Marine Hospital	
Steamboat Inspection	
Dominion Lands	
Weights and Measures	
Gas and Electric Light	
Esquimalt Dry Dock	
Post Office	
Chinese Immigration	
Estimated 1901	
Railway Subsidies	
1872-3. 1874.
1877. 1878,
8,455 -
1884. 1885. 1886. 188
149 669
212, lb
- id,340
I 2,056
I -17500"
6 1,952
2,3! 9
I 4'/S
5 175
. (8,500)
. (3,750)
Tc|al, 30 years.
500,000 ,
Total, 30 years.
ll 625
Warehouse Fees	
Petroleum Inspection	
Chinese Immigration	
J    437
Weights and Measures	
Electric Light Inspection	
Methylated Spirits	
Post Office	
.   106,873
Public Debt:
Premium Dist. & Ex	
. -8,500
Public Works:
1 367
Experimental Farm	
Esquimalt Graving Dock	
Marine :
127 063
Steamboat Inspection	
Examination of Masters and Mates	
Dominion Lands and Timber	
Estimated, 1901	


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