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 First Annual Report
-OP   THE-
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, I.S.O., V.D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1903.  3 Ed. 7 Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery. L 3
New Westminster, B. C, April 21, 1903.
The Hon. the Chief Commissioiter of Lands and Works,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report of operations of the steam boiler
and machinery inspection service for the year ending December 31, 1902 :—
The personnel of the service at the close of the year consisted of the Chief Inspector,
three District Inspectors, and one Stenographer and Typewriter, located as follows :—Chief
Inspector, Inspector of District " A," and Stenographer, in New Westminster; Inspector of
District " B " in Victoria; and Inspector of District " C " in Nelson.
As the Inspector of District " A " is located in my office, it is a little difficult to give an
exact summary of the work belonging to and performed by each, as in my absence the
Inspector performs part of my work, and if he is not available I make inspections and attend
to his correspondence. On this account, I have included the whole of the inspections and
tests of material in his report.
The following is a summary, in part, of the work performed in this office, during the
No. of letters inward    1,705
No. of telegrams inward         26
No. of letters outward    2,842
No. of telegrams outward         55
Forms acknowledging receipt of Act, rules, etc       370
No. of Inspectors' monthly reports received and examined ,        36
No. of drawings received, examined, and reported on         87
No. of investigations held ,  1
No. of miles travelled   3,682
I am very pleased to be able to report that there have been very few expressions of
dissatisfaction, either from the steam users or the engineers, regarding the Inspection Act.
In District " A " the Inspection Act has been in force for 3i\ years; the owners of the
steam plants look forward to the annual inspection as a settled thing, and any alterations or
repairs that are to be made are, if possible, put off until the inspection can be made, so that
they can get the benefit of the Inspector's experience and advice. It will be noticed from the
report of the Inspector of this District that there has been a decided improvement in the care
and management of steam plants since the Act has been enforced, and it is very pleasing to
receive, as I do, many letters expressing satisfaction with the suggestions received from the
Inspector from time to time.
The work in District " B," which includes Vancouver Island and the West Coast, has
gone along very smoothly, notwitstanding the fact that the Inspector reports 183 boilers
repaired under his direction and three boilers condemned. So far I have received no complaints from this District.
There are one or two items in the report from the Inspector of District " B " to which I
beg to call your attention, viz., the failure of boiler No. 290 while being tested by hydrostatic
pressure, the case of careless fitting of water gauge on boiler No. 76, and the scalding accident
which occurred in boiler No. 40.
The only complaints received have been one or two from Rossland, where the Inspection
Act was enforced late in 1901. When inspection legislation is first enforced in. any country
the working pressure on some boilers is reduced, on others repairs are ordered which cost
money, and in some cases boilers are condemned as unfit for further use. It is not to be
expected that this can all be done without opposition from some interested parties; and when L 4 Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery. 1903
it is seen from the report of the Inspector of the District that the working pressure has been
reduced on 100 boilers, that 21 have been found unfit for further use without extensive
repairs, that 3 boilers were condemned, and later on 35 were taken out of service (this was
done as soon as new ones could be procured), I think there can be but one conclusion, viz.,
that the owners of these boilers have been convinced that it was in the interest of all parties
concerned that these expenditures should be made, or I should have received more complaints.
It also shows that there were a great number of boilers in this District which needed the
attention of the Inspector.
During my trip through this District last September I met most of the steam users on
whom these expenditures had fallen. These gentlemen almost all stated that they had
considered, at the time the alterations were ordered, it was imposing a hardship they were
little able to bear; but when the old boilers had been taken out and they saw for themselves
how bad they were, and when they took into consideration the extra amount of work that
could be turned out with the new or improved plant, they believed they were more than repaid
for the cost and trouble. In addition, they now have the Inspection Act to protect them
when purchasing additional machinery, as well as the advantage of a periodical examination
by the Inspector; and I am sure that the longer experience the steam users have with the
Inspection Act the more it will be appreciated, as it has been in District " A."
The summary of the total work done in 1902 gives a complete account of the work
performed by the whole of the staff, and the summaries under the heading of " District
Inspector's Report" gives an account of the work performed by the individual members of the
I may say that we have on our report books records of 1,229 boilers that have been
inspected at some time during the last 3J years. We have also located 470 boilers which have
not yet been inspected, although the owners of a great number of these have applied for inspection. The number of complete inspections during the past year was 860, leaving 839 on which
no inspection was made. 321 new boilers were inspected during last year and put into
operation and 57" were taken out of service. I have reason to believe that the boilers to be
installed during 1903 will be very much in excess of last year's record. One firm in Vancouver
are turning out a boiler every five days, and they inform me that they have orders ahead to
keep them busy until next September. But if last year's figures are taken as a basis, we may
estimate that there will be 1963 boilers to inspect during 1903 ; and if we take the 860 boilers
inspected last year as an estimate of the work that can be attended to by the present staff, it
will be seen that there must be a substantial increase in help, if anything like the whole of the
work is to be accomplished.
With respect to calculations from drawings and specifications for new boilers, which during
last year amounted to 114, I beg to respectfully suggest that a small fee be charged, as some
manufacturers have taken advantage of this by sending in pencil sketches and getting their
boilers practically designed by this office. For the accommodation of manufacturers, I have
been doing this work heretofore; but I find that it is taking up too much of my time, and the
result is, part of my regular office work in connection with inspections proper and engineers'
examinations sometimes falls behind. In order that this suggestion may not be misunderstood,
I may say that this charge should not be made for drawings that are submitted with the
manufacturers' affidavits, but only in cases where builders require this office to make complete
calculations from drawings and specifications, and report to them, giving design in whole or in
I beg to direct attention to the items of inspecting and testing material for new boilers.
This has resulted in condemning nearly 10% of the plates inspected. As the cost of replacing
these plates usually falls on the supply houses, they are now more careful regarding quality of
steel sent to British Columbia customers. Too much care cannot be exercised regarding the
physical and chemical properties of the steel to be used in boiler construction. Acid and Basic
Bessemer Steel is quite unfit for boilers, and so is Basic Siemens-Martin Steel if made of
phosphoric pig; the latter, however, if made of good pig, is satisfactory,
Experience has shown that the cold tests of sheered plates and temper-bending tests will
show up bad plates, and as these tests are simple and require no appliances, we are able to
carry them out. With respect to tensile strength, elongations and reduction of area, we are
obliged to rely on the steel maker's reports.
It will be noticed that 332 boilers have been repaired under the Inspector's directions.
These necessitated 95 special inspections after repairs were executed, and 656 additional visits. 3 Ed. 7 Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery. L 5
There have been 21 accidents to engines and boilers. The engine accidents are reported
under District Inspectors' reports. The boiler accidents were the result of low water, and of
burning of the plates, due to excessive scale and sediment being allowed to collect on the fire
sheets. It is pleasing to note that there have been only two accidents resulting in personal
injury; these are reported fully in the District Inspectors' reports.
The defects observed were 2,102, of which 156 were dangerous ; this is the most serious
item in the report; and I hope that as the engineers realise more and more their responsibility
for a number of these defects, and strive to prevent boilers being operated at a higher pressure
than is consistent with safety, that these defects will be materially reduced in future.
The summary of total defects gives a very clear idea of a part of the work which is considered most important, as it is owing to the discovery and proper repair of these defects that
accidents more or less serious are prevented, the life of the plant lengthened, the cost of
repairs reduced to a minimum, and the plant kept steadily in operation, instead of being
suddenly shut down many times during the year to repair different defects which make themselves known by serious leakage.
I may be permitted to explain that the examinations by our Inspectors are the most
thorough that is possible. The boilers are emptied and cleaned inside and out, and the
Inspector, with his testing hammer, goes over every accessible part inside the boiler, inside
the furnaces, and in cases of brick-set boilers, through all flues, and finally examines the
external part of the boiler and its fittings. In this way most of the defects enumerated were
When boilers are being inspected for the first time, careful measurements of all parts are
taken, the attachments of stays.and braces are carefully noted, and sketches are made of the
interior construction. The strength of each part is calculated and the maximum working
pressure fixed. The boiler is then filled with water for the hydrostatic test, which is applied
to one and one-half times the calculated working pressure. Contrary to the opinion of the
general public, the hydrostatic test is of little value unless conducted by an expert, and is a
source of danger if applied by persons who do not understand the physical properties of the
material which is being tested. There is a very general idea that if a boiler is tested to 150
lbs. and does not show serious leakage, it is perfectly safe for 100 lbs. steam pressure. While
this boiler did not burst, nor the stays break, during the above test, it does not follow that
some of the material may not have been permanently injured, and to such an extent that
when steam pressure at 100 lbs. has been acting upon it for a short time the boiler may
The press reports many boiler explosions which occur only a few days after the boilers
have been tested by water pressure, and sometimes mentions that, in order to make sure the
boilers were safe, twice the working pressure was applied during the test; and these are
referred to as " mysterious explosions." The only persons to whom boiler explosions are
mysterious are those who do not understand the subject. Under certain conditions, boilers
will explode as surely as the force of gravity attracts a mass of matter. Both obey natural
law, and if the boiler explodes it is because the forces acting upon the material composing the
structure are in excess of its strength. It is only necessary, therefore, to know the strength
of the material, and the direction and magnitude of the forces acting upon it.
The force generally considered is that of the steam pressure and the strength of the
material, its ultimate breaking strength ; and it is on account of the consideration of these
conditions only that many defects develop and many accidents occur. In addition to the
force due to steam pressure, there are the forces which arise from the sudden or unequal
expansions and contractions of the different parts of the structure; the stresses due to the
weight of the boiler upon its supports ; the stresses due to flanging and forming of the different
parts during construction ; the unequal distribution of stresses at rivet joints ; and the extra
stresses due to plasticity of the structure. Instead of the strength of the structure being
taken as the ultimate breaking strength of the material, it must be taken as the elastic limit
of the material, which from a great many carefully conducted tests, by various authorities, is
assumed to be two-fifths of the ultimate breaking strength; when the elastic limit of material
is reached, any further addition to the load produces permanent set. If this takes place in
the stays, they become permanently elongated, and when pressure below that which produces
permanent set acts on the structure, the flat parts, which were supposed to be held by these
stays, are free to move ; and this continued movement results in crystallization of the sheets,
and, sooner or later, in the fracture of these at the hinging point. L 6 Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery. 1903
Take a boiler tested by a person who does not realise the importance of considering the
elastic limit of the material. Allow a factor of safety of " 4," and assume that the safe
working pressure is 80 lbs. The owner thinks it is safe for 100 lbs., and has the hydrostatic
test applied for 150 lbs. per square inch. The ultimate strength of the material would be
reached when the hydrostatic pressure was 320 lbs., and it is not likely that the boiler would
burst until that pressure had been reached, if it was applied gradually and carefully by
pumping up. The elastic limit is two-fifths of the ultimate breaking strength, and this limit
would be reached when the test pressure was up to 126 lbs., and from that on to 150 lbs. the
material would stretch at the weakest part.
When the steam pressure is applied at 100 lbs., or even at 80 lbs., the parts of the boiler
which originally resisted the alteration of shape have been elongated and are now of little
value ; the strains which should have been taken by these parts are thrown on to others,
resulting in crystallisation, and, sooner or later, in rupture of the parts on which this extra
strain is thrown.
It will be seen from the above that if the hydrostatic test is to be of any value, calculations must first be made, and the test pressure must never exceed, or even approach very close
to, the elastic limit; and during the test the different parts of the boiler must be carefully
gauged and measured to see that there is no alteration in the shape of the structure.
With respect to the defects enumerated in the attached summary, I wish to call attention
to some of the more important. It will be seen that safety valves have not received the consideration from many steam users and engineers that one would think the merest novice-would
bestow on this all-important part of the steam plant. One boiler in District " C " was found
without a safety valve of any description; four safety valves were found inoperative, five have
been found overloaded, and 69 defective in construction ; of which 20 cases in all were
considered dangerous. The defects discovered are all in the old ball and lever type of safety
valve. These are being replaced by the modern pop safety valve on all boilers where alterations to safety arrangements have to be made, and only the latter type are allowed on new
boilers.    In this way I hope to reduce these defects to a minimum.
Under pressure gauges, 158 defective is a large item, but not so dangerous as the defects
mentioned above, unless the engineer alters the safety valve to suit the pressure shown by the
gauge, when the same indicates less pressure than that actually on the boiler. The fact that
48 gauges were found inoperative (as well as four safety valves) shows that there are still a
number of careless engineers.
The next item of insufficient staying or bracing, 84 cases, of which 20 were considered
dangerous, calls for some comment. These defects are not confined to any one particular
District, but are fairly equally distributed throughout the Province, and are, in almost every
case, found on cheap boilers, quite a number of which have been purchased from second-hand
machinery agents in United States and Eastern Canada before the Inspection Act was
enforced. Some few cases have occurred where new boilers have been sent in from the United
States, and one such case I will cite as an illustration. A farmer on the Delta ordered a
threshing engine from an American firm, to carry 150 lbs. per square inch working pressure.
He became suspicious after placing the order, and asked me to have the boiler inspected before
it was taken off the car, which was done. The stays were found to be insufficient, and he
wired the company to that effect. They replied "Accept engine, will make good." A few
weeks ago the company's agent offered the farmer $200 to get the repairs made himself. This
was refused, and the deficiency is now being made good by a British Columbia company at the
American firm's expense. This is a case where one farmer was saved $200 as a direct result
of the working of the Inspection Act. Many other similar cases could be mentioned, but this
serves as an illustration of them all, and such cases constitute one of the reasons for the
general popularity of the Inspection Act.
A case is also given in the report from District " C " of a new return tubular boiler built
in the United States, having four one-inch stays supporting the segment of the head above the
tubes at one end, and seven one-inch stays supporting the segment at the other end ; the latter
even being insufficiently stayed. This means that the four stays would be carrying a load of
about 46 tons if the boiler had been worked at 100 lbs. per square inch. I am inclined to think
that if 46 tons were suspended over a sidewalk by four one-inch rods, there would be a
tendency in most people to walk in the street instead of passing below the weight; and yet
these same people would feel perfectly safe near this boiler head, simply because they would
not realise the danger in the same way as they would if they actually saw the weight
suspended. 3 Ed. 7 Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery. L 7
Under defective riveting I wish to call attention to a case discovered in District "A,"
particulars of which are given in the report from that District. This is the second case of the
same nature that has been found in this District. Both boilers were built by the B. C. Iron
Works, Vancouver, and the Company had failed before either of the defects were' discovered,
so that no action against them could be taken. Men who will do such work, as well as men
who will allow such work to be done, should be dealt with to the fullest extent of the law. It
is fortunate that in both these cases the boilers had only been operated for a short time at a
low pressure before the defects were discovered.
Under the heading "Boilers with fractured plates," 43 cases are reported, six of which
were dangerous. ■ These cases have occurred mostly from two causes, over-pressure and defective
settings. Where lap-joints are used at the longitudinal seams, the part of the shell near the
seams is flatter than the remainder of the circle, and when the boilers are subjected to internal
pressure, the flat parts.of the shell tend to assume part of a circle of the same radius as the
shell itself, and a hinging action takes place at the edge of the lap, usually on the inside.
It has also been found that in most cases where cracks develop in the centre circumferential
seams, the boilers are not properly supported on their settings, the brackets being placed near
the ends, thus throwing additional strains on this part of the boiler, due to its weight. As
the lower part of a return tubular boiler is subjected to severe strains due to difference of
temperature between top and bottom, care should be exercised regarding supports.
"Boilers with burned plates," 73 cases, five of which are dangerous, may be commented
upon, for the reasons that these accidents might be altogether prevented by the owners and
the engineers. The greatest number of these cases occurred as a result of negligence on the
part of the management to have the blow-off pipes removed from back head (where they cannot
be placed nearer the bottom of boiler than five or six inches, on account of the curve of the
head flange) to the bottom of the shell, as requested by the Inspector. The alteration
requires a few feet of pipe and a screwed flange riveted to boiler shell. As these are not
usually at hand when the inspection is made, the-Inspector sees that the boiler is properly
cleaned out at that time, and leaves this change to be made at the next wash-out. Advantage
is sometimes taken -of the Inspector's leniency, with the result that an alteration which would
have cost $5 or $10 and the loss of one day has, in many cases, cost the owners from $150 to
$200, with-the loss of a week or more. This was reported in detail at the time, and is also
mentioned in the Inspector's report. 	
District ■"■ C" has been particularly unfortunate in this respect, having 45 cases out of a
total of 73, the reason for this being the increased latitude given by the Inspector, at the
request of the management of the mines or mills to keep the plants running. In some cases
these defects occurred through the engineers not properly cleaning out the boilers when they
were opened up for that purpose.
The cases of scale or incrustation, 214, of which 22 were dangerous, should be materially
reduced if the engineers and owners of the plants would work together, and see that the
boilers get proper attention, as far as cleaning out is concerned.
In concluding this report, I desire to thank you for your active support of this office in
its efforts to improve the administration of the Steam Boilers' Inspection Service.
I also wish to thank the District Inspectors for the able and efficient manner in which
they have carried out their part of the work.
There is attached hereto, for your inspection, the reports of the various District Inspectors
made to the Chief Inspector of Machinery for the calendar year ending December 31, 1902,
and also list of work done and defects observed by them.
I have, etc.,
■   • •■• • (Signed)        John Peck,
Chief Inspector of Machinery.
Summary of Total Work done in 1902.
No. of drawings and specifications calculated for new boilers  114
ii    boiler plates inspected  55
ii    boiler plates rejected ■..-..-  5
it    boilers built under inspection in B. C  64
ii    boilers built under inspection in Eastern Canada....  24
ii    new boilers inspected   321 L 8
Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery.
No. of new boilers inspected built in B. C	
new boilers not inspected built in Eastern Canada	
new boilers inspected built in United States	
old boilers inspected built in United States	
boilers imported from Eastern Canada (second-hand)....
old boilers imported from United States (second-hand). .
boilers unclassified	
first inspections	
inspections, external and internal ,	
internal inspections only	
external inspections only	
special inspections after repairs	
visits in addition to inspections , ,
boilers subjected to hydrostatic test	
boilers on which pressure was reduced at first inspection
boilers unsafe without extensive repairs	
boilers repaired under Inspector's directions	
boilers considered unfit for further use	
accidents to engines and boilers	
accidents resulting in personal injury not fatal	
inspections completed	
Total horse-power of boilers inspected	
No. of defects observed, as per summary	
n    defects considered dangerous	
Inspection fees earned ,	
Inspection fees collected    	
Miles travelled by the Inspectors	
Letters inward   	
Letters outward	
Telegrams inward	
Telegrams outward    	
Boilers taken out of service	
Summary op Total Defects Observed.
Nature of Defects.
Whole No.
Boilers without safety valves  1
ii      with safety valves inoperative  4
ii      with safety valves overloaded ,  5
ii      with safety valves defective in construction ,  69
ii     without pressure gauges  1
Pressure gauges inoperative ,  44
Pressure gauge defective  158
Cases of insufficient staying or bracing  84
defective stays  3
broken rivets  23
defective riveting  38
broken stays or braces  8
loose stays or braces  72
Boilers damaged by low water  5
Defective settings  70
Boilers with fractured plates  43
ii      with laminated plates  17
ii      with burned plates  73
ii      with blistered plates  2
Cases of sediment on fire sheets  44
ii     internal corrosion  78
ii     scale or incrustation  214
22 3 Ed. 7
Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery.
L 9
Cases of internal grooving,  5
ii     external corrosion  96
ii     defective tubes  59
ii     defective feed water arrangement  121
ii     broken feed valves  1
Serious leakage around tube ends  18
Serious leakage in rivet joints  88
Defective blow-off pipes or cocks ,  148
Defective water gauges ,  48
Broken blow-off pipes or cocks  3
Water columns without blow-outs  6
Cases of broken test cocks  11
Connections to water columns without valves  7
Neutral sheets not stayed  55
Neutral sheets improperly stayed  69
Furnaces out of shape  2
Boilers without fusible plugs  127
Boilers low at front end  27
Cases of serious leakage of fittings  40
No. of hand-holes doors having bolts and dogs burned off  4
Leakage at hanger lugs .. .'  1
Cases of battery of boilers having no check valves  1
Defects in engine frames (broken frame)  2
Defects in engine cylinders (broken flanges)  1
Boilers without hand holes  1
Boilers without stop valves  22
Cases of defective steam pipes  4
Unclassified defects , 79
Total    2,102
(Signed)        John Peck,
Chief Inspector of Machinery.
The Honourable the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit to you the following report with respect to the
examination of candidates for engineers' certificates for the year ending December 31, 1902.
The first work undertaken by me at the commencement of the year was the preparation
of questions for engineers' examinations, and the consideration of a system which should be, as
nearly as possible, uniform, the examinations having to be conducted by each of the Inspectors;
the primary object of these examinations being to insure the safe operation of the steam
plants coming under the jurisdiction of the Inspection Act.
In order to accomplish this, it is only necessary to provide that the men in charge shall
know under what conditions the plants may be safely operated, and that they shall be skillful,
conscientious, and energetic enough to maintain these conditions. They must possess information regarding cause and effect, natural laws and their effects upon matter under varying
conditions ; in short, " how " and " why."
All candidates for engineers' certificates are thoroughly tested as to their knowledge of
the principles of the safety valve, water gauge, steam gauge, appliances for feeding water to
the boiler, the methods of keeping boilers free from corrosion and incrustation, and also as to
their knowledge of adjusting the principal parts of simple engines in cases of necessity. L 10 Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery. 1903
In addition to the above requirements, candidates for first and second class engineers'
certificates are given some questions in respect to compound engines, air compressors, and
other machines usually found in the larger steam plants.
As the men holding the higher grades of certificates are mostly in positions as master
mechanics or chief engineers, and are called upon to make or supervise extensive repairs, they
are expected to possess sufficient knowledge of arithmetic to make calculations regarding the
strength of materials used, and to have a fair idea of the direction and magnitude of the forces
acting upon such material under working conditions. With these objects in view, the
examinations of the past year have been conducted, and I believe with fairly satisfactory
results to all parties concerned.
The Board of Examiners do not contend that the candidates who have passed these
examinations are all highly scientific gentlemen, but that, in their opinion, they possess
sufficient knowledge of steam engineering to operate the plants to which their certificates limit
them, with reasonable safety to the public.
During the past year I have received 566 applications for engineers' certificates ; 359 candidates have been examined ; 203 applications are still on file, and 4 applicants have had their
fees returned, as they had not the practical qualifications required by the Act.
Examination fees collected by Chief Inspector   $1,600 00
n .1 ii        by Inspector District " B"         267 50
Total   $1,867 50
Results of Examinations.
Class.                                   No. Examined. Passed. Failed.
Second  15 ............ 12   3
Third  118   94   24
Fourth  53   47   6
Temporary    168   157  11
Service, Series 1  3   3   0
Service, Series 2...... . 2   2   0
Totals      359           315           44
In District "A" examinations have been held at New Westminster, Chilliwhack and
Kamloops.    These examinations were conducted by the District Inspector and myself.
In District " B " examinations have been held at Victoria, Port Essington, Campbell
Biver, Quathiaski Cove, Alert Bay, Rivers Inlet, Kimsquit, Namu, San Juan, Port Renfrew,
Alberni, New Alberni, Nanaimo, Union Bay, Cumberland, Fanny Bay, Courtenay, Van Anda
and Texada Island. The examinations were conducted by the Inspector of the District.
Eighty-three candidates were examined.
In District " C " examinations have been held in Nelson, Bossland, Fernie, Cranbrook,
Golden, Armstrong and Greenwood. These examinations were conducted by the Inspector
of the District and myself.    One hundred candidates were examined.
Regarding the amendment to the "Steam Boilers Inspection Act, 1901," which provides
for the issuance of " service certificates," I ma}7 say that I have received 24 applications for
service certificates, series 1, and 18 applications for service certificates, series 2.
As there were no rules for the examination of candidates for service certificates, and as
some of the candidates were afraid they would not be able to pass the verbal examination for
the maximum horse-power, the following ruling was given for the Inspectors' guidance in
conducting examinations:—
Ruling No. 1, re Service Certificates, Series 1.
" Applications for service certificates, series 1 : If for simple high pressure type, examination is to consist of questions only in reference to this type; if for compound non-condensing
or compound condensing, with air compressors in connection, questions covering each of these
subjects are to be given. And the Inspectors are to be fully satisfied that the candidates are
qualified to operate such plants with safety.
" Special care must be taken by the examiners to examine the candidates thoroughly in
these matters, if they have no testimonials stating previous experience with similar types of 3 Ed. 7 Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery. L 11
plants, the object being to give the engineer the advantage of operating plants that they have
no experience with only in cases where the examiners are thoroughly satisfied that such plants
can be operated by the candidates with safety.
" The candidate can be examined for service certificate, series 1, for the maximum horsepower, or for one of less horse-power than his testimonials would qualify him, and if later on
he considers himself competent to pass an examination for a certificate of higher horse-power
or type, he can apply for such examination. The fee will be $2.50 as provided by sub-section
(2), section 36, of the Act. But under no condition will certificates be issued for a higher
horse-power than that with which the candidate has had five (5) years' experience in British
Columbia prior to April, 1902."
There were also questions raised regarding the examination of hoist-men at the mines.
As these men, in many cases, have nothing to do with the boiler plant, and have no chance of
getting experience regarding the proper care and management of boilers, they could not
qualify for the examination. I, therefore, gave the following ruling for the guidance of the
Inspectors :—
Ruling No. 2, re Engineers' Certificates for Hoist-Men.
" Hoist-men operating in British Columbia do not require engineers' certificates under
the ' Steam Boiler Inspection Act,' except in cases where they are in charge of a watch and
are responsible for the regulation of the feed water and the general supervision of the boilers
and engines during such period. And hoist-men cannot qualify for engineers' certificates
unless they have had charge of a watch for a period of not less than eight (8) hours per day,
and have been responsible for the regulation of the feed water and the general supervision of
the boilers and engines during such period as is required to qualify him for the grade of certificate for which he has applied.
" Examiners conducting examinations for engineers' certificates must see that the candidates' testimonials certify to the required service as engineer before proceeding with the
As there have been so many more applications for engineers' certificates than could be
examined, I have not objected to engineers operating without certificates, provided they put
in their applications and produce sufficient testimonials to qualify them for the examination.
In this way the engineers have lost no time, even though they could not be examined
when they put in their application forms.
I have, etc.,
John Peck,
Chief Engineer Examiner.
John Peck, Esq.,
Chief Inspector of Machinery, New Westminster, B.C.
gIR)—I have the honour to submit my annual report for the work done in this District
for the year 1902.
There have been a good many changes made in this District during the past year. Quite
a number of shingle mills have been erected and put into operation. The machinery for these
is all new, and installed in the approved style. Boilers and engines of eastern manufacture
have been installed in some cases. The reason for this, I believe, is not because they are
cheaper, but because the mill machinery had to be purchased in the East, and the boilers were
included in the contract.
The boiler manufacturers of B.C. have never been so busy as they were during 1902.
Contracts and demands for new boilers have been so pressing that they have been compelled
to install new and modern tools in their shops in order to cope with the business, and many
orders have been placed outside the Province because local firms could not promise early L 12 Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery. 1903
delivery. The boom is largely due to the lumber industry. For many years, while logs were
to be had close to shore and requiring only a short haulage, horses and oxen were used.
These portions which were easily accessible have been logged out, and now large and powerful
donkey engines are employed, and as many as three or four can be found at each logging
camp all along the Coast. There have been something like thirty-three of these built under
inspection in this District, besides those which were made in District " B " and the United
States. These range from 42" to 60" diameter, from 8' to 11' high, and from 125 to 165 lbs.
working pressure.
The extra work in connection with their inspection has not been so great, as they were
all inspected before going to their different destinations, but the time occupied in the second
inspections on these boilers, now that they are distributed to the most inaccessible portions of
the Province, will be considerable. The camps are invariably isolated from the regular line of
travel, and, consequently, persons visiting them are liable to serious delay.
During last year an effort was made to cover the ground lying between this and " C "
District. In all, about twenty boilers were located and inspected for the first time. Some of
them were in very bad condition, and could not have been used much longer without serious
Two of the boilers, both of locomotive types (firebox), were found unfit for use until
extensive repairs had been made ; the working pressure on one vertical boiler was cut down,
and it was allowed to be used in completing contract, which was nearly finished at the date
of inspection, The others required staying and general overhauling. External corrosion was
much in evidence, and was responsible for most of the costly repairs. In some cases the gross
carelessness on the part of the men in charge was most apparent, especially in the firebox
boilers. Water legs were found with mud well up above fire line, and old wet ashes had been
left undisturbed and in contact with the plates, until serious corrosion had taken place.
Others, again, were so covered with scale as to make one wonder how they ever raised steam,
and when they did, to guess the cost, to say nothing of the risk of injury to life and property.
The absence of good feed-water in and around Kamloops adds much to the cares and
troubles of the steam users, and incidentally shortens the life of the boilers. The feed water
used at one of the largest plants contains 156 grains of solid matter to the gallon. A new
locomotive boiler was installed in this plant and found so difficult to clean that, inside of six
months, it simply grew solid and had to be taken out. The management found it necessary to
put in an extra boiler, so that one could be shut down at a time and thoroughly scaled.
Several compounds have been used with varying success but the weekly shut-down could not
be avoided. I induced them to treat it with coal oil, fed regularly with the feed-water, and
have the blow-off cocks opened several times each day to prevent the sediment settling on the
fire sheet. The manager, in a letter to this office some time ago, spoke in the highest praise of
the results derived from this treatment, and they use it continually.
The Boiler Inspection Act has certainly revolutionized the care and management of boiler
plants as heretofore practiced in this Province. Engineers have been prompted to read up
and acquire more knowledge of the machinery under their care ; thus they are striving to
make a profession out of what, at one time, they were pleased to call a " side job." Steam
users have also come to consider the advantage of properly laying up their plant for extended
shut-downs ; and whereas the engineer at one time was laid off when the fires were drawn, he
is now kept on until everything is laid up in safe condition. These facts are self-evident to
the Inspector at the second inspection.
Of the many defects discovered, there are only two of which I wish to speak briefly, as
they already appear in my monthly reports.
Boiler No. 414 " A " is a 43" x 14' return tubular boiler employed in a small saw-mill for
the purpose of supplying steam for main engine. A further duty was added to the already
overtaxed boiler, that of furnishing a dry kiln with steam. This addition, however, brought
things to a standstill, and the perplexed owner, who thought it a financial impossibility to
purchase another boiler, set to devising some means of increasing the boiler capacity. An
idea occurred to him that if he connected the bottom of the boiler to one end of the kiln,
which was about 4 feet below the level of the lowest portion of the boiler, and the other
end of kiln to steam dome, he could produce a steady circulation through both boiler and
kiln. When everything was connected up the new scheme was tried with apparent success ;
but the owner evidently did not reckon on the water in the boiler following the natural law of
gravitation, and the boiler began to empty its contents into the kiln and out through the 3 Ed. 7 Report of Chtef Inspector of Machinery. L 13
drain cocks, and before they were aware of it the boiler was empty with a fairly good fire
under it. The fireman having discovered that steam was away down and that no water
appeared in the glass, at once'put on the injector, but luckily there was just enough steam to
give it a start and no more. The fire door was opened to apply more fuel, and it was then
noticed that the sheet over the fire was red hot. I was sent for and arrived next day. On
examining the boiler, I found upper row of tubes sagged down; circumferential seams over
fire had pulled down about 'i inch past original position; the rivet heads were curled up at
caulking edge ; two of the sheets were bulged and cracked, and the boiler was rendered useless,
besides running close chances of an explosion. The changes were effected without notifying
the Inspector, who would not have allowed such nonsenical ideas to be carried out, and would
thereby have saved the owners at least $1,000. This was the result of ignorance of a common
Another return tubular boiler was ordered to have blow-off changed from back head to
bottom of shell, so that all dirt and sediment could be thoroughly cleaned out. The owners
promised to have this done right away, but they carelessly neglected it altogether until my
next visit, when I found fire sheet had bulged down 2|". After the hand-hole plates were
taken off, the bottom of the boiler was found covered with a coat of heavy scale about -|''
thick. The plate was cut out and patched. The original plate was f" thick, but when a hole
was drilled through crown of bulge it measured 1-16" thick, the material having thinned out
this much, due to stretching while over-heated. If the change asked for had been made at the
time, this expense would also have been avoided.
The old and doubtful boilers are being rapidly replaced by new ones, and I think that
the total of defects for the ensuing year will be very materially reduced, as the annual
inspection has gradually brought them up to the standard.
I would also draw your attention to the advantage of having boilers built under inspection, thus preventing defects in construction from being covered up by unscrupulous and
ignorant boiler-makers; some such defects are almost impossible to detect after the boiler is
finished. Boilers with serious defects, known to the makers, have been sold and accepted in
good faith for a working pressure of 100 pounds, when their calculated strength only allowed
56 pounds. Fortunately, in these instances, the boilers were not working at more than 75
pounds, and had only been operated about eight months altogether, which, no doubt, explains
why a serious accident may have been avoided.
Two instances have come under my notice in this District. In February, 1902, I was
making first inspection of a 48" x 15" return tubular boiler, No. 413 "A," at No. 2 pump-
house, Pitt Meadows. I made the external inspection first and found everything all right.
The man-hole was placed in back head over tubes and was exceedingly small. The engineer-
had failed to get through it himself and advised me not to try, or I might get in and be unable
to get out again.
However, after repeated efforts, I succeeded in getting inside. I scraped off the loose
scale at the longitudinal joints to have a good look, and when examining this joint at the
middle course I found that two sets of holes had been punched about half-way across this
sheet, thus reducing the strength of the joint from 70% to 41%. The edge of the sheet thus
punched had been put on the inside of the lap, so that it could not be seen from the outside
after it was riveted up. The holes punched by mistake were ingeniously filled up by the
punchings, these were hammered up smooth, and the whole looked very much like the original
plate. This is an example of what unscrupulous and dishonest manufacturers may sell to the
unsuspecting steam user, where boilers are not open to inspection during construction. I
ordered a welt strap to be put on the defective part, of sufficient strength to bring it up to the
percentage of the other joints.
I am pleased to say that everything is going satisfactorily in this District, and no controversies or objections have been raised during my annual inspection, which is very encouraging
to all concerned.
Attached you will please find summary of defects noted on boilers inspected during the
I have, etc.,
(Signed)        Thos. H. Goldie,
Boiler Inspector, District "A." L 14
Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery.
Summary op work done in District "A" in 1902.
No. of boiler plates inspected  27
ii      plates rejected  5
ii      boilers built under inspection in this District  40
n      boilers built under inspection elsewhere and inspected in this District  20
ii      boilers inspected in District " B" inspected here  11
n      boilers inspected in this District, built in Eastern Canada    .... 9
ii      new boilers inspected  71
ii      boilers built in British Columbia  51
No. built in Canada (outside of British Columbia)  37
No. of boilers built in United States, new when inspected  12
n      boilers built in United States, old when inspected  19
n      second hand boilers imported from United States  1
ii      boilers unclassified  6
ii      first inspections ,  143
ii      inspections external and internal  368
ii      external inspections (only)  17
n      special inspections after repairs  23
ii      visits in addition to inspections  137
ii      boilers subjected to hydrostatic test  346
ii      boilers on which pressure was reduced at first inspection  10
n      boilers unsafe without extensive repairs  6
:i       boilers considered unfit for further use  2
ii      boilers on which repairs were made by Inspector's directions  39
n      accidents to engines and boilers  5
ii      inspections completed  346
Total horse-power 15,696.4
No. of defects as per summary  472
n      defects as per summary dangerous  36
Inspection fees earned , $3,011.25
Inspection fees collected  .   2,850.50
Miles travelled  4,548
No. of boilers taken out of service ,  6
ii      boilers transferred to other Districts ,  5
Summary of Defects Observed in District "A."
Nature of Defects. Whole No
Boilers with safety valves defective in construction  23
Pressure gauges defective  31
Cases of insufficient staying or bracing  15
defective stays        3
broken rivets  13
defective riveting        7
broken stays or braces        2
loose stays or braces  28
Boilers damaged by low water        1
Defective settings ,        2
Boilers with fractured plates  12
Boilers with laminated plates            8
Boilers with burned plates  14
Bad cases of sediment on fire sheets        8
Cases of internal corrosion  22
scale or incrustation  65
external corrosion  32
defective tubes  17
defective feed water arrangement  14
broken feed valves ,       1
Serious leakage in rivet joints        9
9 3 Ed. 7
Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery.
L 15
Defective blow-off pipes or cocks  13     ....       1
Defective water gauges , 9     ....       1
Cases of broken test cocks  11
Connections to water columns without valves  7
Neutral sheets not stayed  21
Neutral sheets improperly stayed  4
Boilers without fusible plugs. ,  65
Boilers low at front end  5
No. of hand hole doors having bolts and dogs burned off  4
Leakage at hanger lugs  1 of battery of boilers having no check valves  1     ....       1
Defects in engine cylinders (broken flanges)  1     ....       1
Defects in engine frames (broken frames)  2
Boilers without hand holes  1
Total 472 36
(Signed)        Thos. H. Goldie,
Inspector, District "A."
The Chief Inspector of Machinery,
New Westminster,
B. C.
Sir,—In compliance with your request for a complete report of the work done in Victoria
District during past year, I have the honour to submit the following :—
During the year 1902 I endeavoured to visit all parts of my District, going all over Vancouver Island, Texada and adjacent islands, also as far north as Naas River, inspecting en
route steam plants on Rivers Inlet, Skeena River and Queen Charlotte Sound.
Owing to too long an absence from my office, I had, reluctantly, to pass the steam plants
on Malcolm, Cracroft, Thurlow and Valdes Islands, and regret to say have not had time or
opportunity to visit them since. I estimate there are from 30 to 40 steam plants in operation
on the above Islands, and there are also from 30 to 40 more, in various parts of my District,
not yet inspected. As the owners have not applied for inspection, I cannot give their exact
Some of the principal parts of the District I visited for the second time, and am pleased
to report a general improvement, resulting from the working of the Inspection Act. The
engineers have awakened to a keener interest in their plants and a realisation of their responsibilities with respect thereto, both as to their up-keep and welfare. I have made it my aim
to stimulate these interests and endeavours; to be an educator of well as an Inspector; cheerfully giving my advice regarding, and explanation of, points not understood. At the same
time, I have been equally free in censuring and admonishing the men where want of care was
in evidence, while extra care and vigilance received my commendation.
This policy will help to improve the capabilities of the engineers, and certainly is beneficial to the owners in reducing the expenses of repairs and removals; I frequently quote the
adage " A stitch in time saves nine," and strive to induce the men to act on it.
Besides the ordinary inspection and office work, I have supervised the construction of
many new boilers at the local engineering works, and have seen them properly installed at
various mines and mills. I have also held many examinations for engineers trying to obtain
the necessary certificates. On a separate sheet I give the summary of the inspections made,
also of separate visits, tests, miles travelled, etc. L 16 Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery. 1903
I beg to give you an account of a few of the more noticeable incidents I observed in my
rounds last year. I need not enumerate all, as several were very similar in detail, but will
give you a few of different natures.
Boiler No. 299. This boiler was about 14 years old, and after I inspected it and calculated that it was good for about 80 pounds, I tested it hydrostatically. When I reached a
pressure of about 100 pounds the steam drum cracked circumferentially at its base, thereby
reducing the pressure at once. As the boiler had been running at 90 to 95 pounds, it was
perilously near the bursting point; for if the elastic force of steam had been behind it instead
of cold water pressure, the dome would, in all probability, have been blown right off, with
disastrous results.
Boiler No. 76. This boiler was of locomotive type, and had recently been overhauled and
repaired. The engineer, in replacing the fittings, had put the longer nipple or pipe to water
gauge on top of column, instead of below. The result was, that the water gauge showed 2|"
to 3" of water, while the top of furnace crown sheet was bare and became overheated, and
bulged down between supporting stays. Fortunately, this was noticed before a high pressure
was obtained and the fires were drawn at once ; otherwise, the plate would have drawn from
stays and collapsed, causing an accident similar in results to that of the " Ramona " boiler, on
the Fraser. This shows the need of attention on the part of engineers to the care of details
and apparent trifling matters in connection with steam plants under their care.
To show this more fully, I quote the case of boiler No. 98. This boiler I visited while it
was under steam, to examine a defect reported to me. While on top of the boiler I noted the
remarkable steadiness of steam pressure, showing about 100 His. Believing gauge was not
working freely, I directed the engineer to remove the steam gauge, so as to test same. I
directed him to blow through syphon pipe to make sure it was clear. On opening the cock no
steam issued, and it was only after much jarring and tapping that it started to blow. I found
gauge correct and replaced it on boiler, when pressure only showed about 55 lbs. This boiler
pressure, of course, materially affected the output of steam of the plant, and affected the
efficiency of compressor and other engines run by boilers.
Boiler No. 72 was a return tubular. At previous inspection I noted a tendency of a plate
in one flue to show symptoms of lamination. At the second inspection it showed a further
development, and I ordered the plate to be cut out. On examining this piece, the laminations
were found to pass at a slant almost through the plate, and it was in a very dangerous condition from liability to collapse, allowing free egress for steam and water to rush out, to the
great danger of life and person.
This recalls an investigation held regarding a scalding accident, in which a man was so
severely scalded that he nearly lost his life. It was in boiler No. 40. This boiler was blown
out and cleaned, so far as the hose would wash it. A Chinaman was then sent in to chip off
the adhering scale on flues, etc. The adjoining boiler, No. 41, was under steam, and had a
blow off connected to a larger pipe, into which No. 40 also blew down.
The blow-off cock on boiler No. 40 had been closed after the boiler was emptied, but some
little water had gathered in the bottom, owing to the main steam valve leaking slightly, as also
did the feed. The Chinaman found water in his way when scalding bottom sheets. To remove
it, went out of the boiler, secured the spanner for blow-off cock, opened the same and let water
out. To secure himself, he took the spanner into the boiler with him, so that the adjoining
boiler might not be blown down while he was inside.
Unfortunately, the Chinese fireman attending to adjoining boiler was cleaning fires while
he had an injector feeding to boilers. The result was reduced evaporation and pressure in
boiler No. 41, incidental to operation of fire cleaning, which permitted too much water to get
into his boiler; and when finished with fire cleaning he noticed water "out of sight" on top
of gauge. He ran round to rear of boiler to blow same out (as liability to prime, and damage
to engine, was great). He failed to find the spanner in accustomed place, and instead of
trying to find the cause of displacement, rushed off to an adjoining battery of boilers, secured
their spanner, and ran to open blow-off cock. He had got it but partially opened when agonised
yells came from the adjoining boiler. In his fright, instead of closing cock, he rushed away,
and other firemen and the engineer went at once and shut off the cock. The Chinaman in
boiler No. 40 could not make his e>rit from boiler, as the scalding steam and water were entering boiler between him and the man-hole door. In his agony he forced himself down between
the flues (a space of 5|-"), and in doing so tore the skin off his breast. He was dragged out of
front man-hole more dead than alive.    All that saved his life was his ability to force himself 3 Ed, 7 Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery. L 17
out of the boiler by the narrow opening before mentioned, and to the fact that the  Chinese
fireman had not got cock full open when he rushed away, frightened by the yells of the sufferer.
My inquiry showed that boiler blow-off was closed after boiler was empty; that the
Chinaman had, contrary to plain and repeated orders against opening and closing of valves,
etc., done so when not noticed; and no one was to blame but himself, unless it was those who
were responsible for allowing too much liberty to the Chinese fireman to attend to the feeds
and blow-offs in question. The engineer of watch, when spoken to, claimed that " they had to
allow the fireman to do lots of such work, as they had too much to do in looking after several
engines," thus preventing them from keeping a closer observation on the boilers.
I trust that these few cases will give you a comprehensive view of the general character
of the work done in this District, combined with general summary given in other parts of my
annual report.
I have, etc.,
(Signed)        S. Baxter,
Inspector of District " B."
Summary of Work Done in District "B" in 1902.
No. of drawings and specifications calculated for new boilers  21
plates inspected  28
boilers built under inspection in this District  24
boilers inspected built under inspection elsewhere  5
new boilers inspected    224
boilers built in this District  136
boilers in Eastern Canada, not B.U.I  84
boilers built in U.S  40
boilers unclassified  49
first inspections    224
external and internal inspections  293
external inspections only  16
special inspections after repairs  37
visits in addition to inspection  339
boilers subjected to hydrostatic test  250
boilers considered unsafe for use without extensive repairs    5
boilers unfit for further use  3
boilers repaired under Inspector's directions  183
accidents to engines and boilers  3
accidents resulting in personal injury  1
investigations  4
inspections completed    309
Total horse power 11,495
No. of defects as per summary ,  914
ii    defects observed as per summary (dangerous)  52
Fees earned , $2,486.50
Fees collected $2,138.75
Miles travelled  6,777
Letters inward  393
Letters outward  595
Telegrams inward   11
Telegrams outward  13
No. of boilers taken out of service  16
it    boilers transferred to other Districts •.          12
Summary of Defects in District "B."
Nature of Defects. Whole No.    Dangerous.
Boilers with safety valves overloaded  '        5     ....     2
ii      with safety valves defective in construction      42     ....     5
Pressure gauges inoperative          43     ....     1
n     gauges defective    104     ....     1 L 18
Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery.
Cases of insufficient staying or bracing  32
ii     broken rivets  8
ii     defective riveting  19
ii     loose stays or braces  16
ii     broken stays or braces  3
Boilers damaged by low water  4
Defective settings  59
Boilers with fractured plates ,  18
ii     with laminated plates  6
ii      with burned plates  14
Bad cases of sediment on fire sheets ,  20
Cases of internal corrosion      41
ii       scale or incrustation  54
ii       internal grooving  5
ii       external corrosion  37
n       defective tubes  37
H      defective feed water arrangement  46
Serious leakage in rivet joints  74
Defective blow-off pipes or cocks  90
Defective water gauges  19
Water columns without blow-outs  6
Neutral sheets improperly stayed  65
Boilers without stop valves  22
Cases of defective steam pipes  4
Unclassified defects ■  21
(Signed)        S. Baxter,
Inspector, District " B."
John Peck, Esq.,
Chief Inspector of Machinery, New Westminster, B. C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report for the year ending December,
During the year 1902, 205 boilers have been inspected in this District, embracing the
following types:—Return tubular, 118; locomotive, 27; vertical, 42; marine, 12; water
tube, 6.
Forty-one new boilers have been imported into this District, only one of which was built
in British Columbia. The locations are as follows :—Vernon, 1; Enderby, 2 ; Erie, 1 ; Golden,
2; Wilmer, 2; Peachland, 1 ; Rossland, 3 ; Robson, 1; Phoenix, 2; Boundary Falls, 1 ;
Ymir, 3 ; Ferguson, 2 ; McGuigan, 1; Loop, 1; Fernie, 5; Michel, 5 ; Cranbrook, 3 ; Moyie,
3 ; Marysville, 1 ; Morrissey, 3.    Twenty-six of these boilers have been inspected.
The following is a list of the principal operations in this District:—
Four saw-mills have been burned during 1902; in one case, Robinson-McKenzie Lumber
Company, Cranbrook, both boilers were discarded as unfit for further use. At Lequime and
Powers, Grand Forks, and Blue and Deschamps, Rossland, one boiler has been dispensed with,
and other boilers put in to replace damaged ones. Lloyd-Jones, Kelowna, has had his boiler
overhauled and re-riveted on the top, to enable it to be put into operation again.
The following accidents to engines and boilers have been reported :—Lequime & Powers,
saw-mill, Grand Forks, fly-wheel burst on planer engine; this was caused by belt of saw-mill 3 Ed. 7 Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery. L 19
engine sagging down during repairs on to the governor of planer engine, preventing the balls
of same from revolving and raising to shut off the steam, thus causing the engine to race.
This governor has a safety arrangement for shutting off the steam if belt either breaks or
is thrown off, but in this case the belt remained on the pulley. The mill was partly wrecked,
one piece of the fly-wheel cutting through an 8" x 13" beam of second floor, and continuing out
through the roof. Another piece struck a work-bench at the end of the building, and carried
both the bench and the end of the building out with it. Fortunately, no one was injured.
The engineer was up in the mill babbiting boxes of saw arbor, and before he could reach the
throttle the wheel had broken.    This occurred on July 19 th.
On November 5th the blow-off pipe on boiler at the Fernie electric light plant burst,
scalding the engineer, who was in the act of putting on fresh fuel. This was caused by overheating of pipe, which had been exposed to intense heat of furnace without any protection
whatever. The engineer of this plant was advised, some time before, to have pier placed
in front of blow-off, but neglected to do so.
The bed-plate of a horizontal engine at Fort Steele Brewery, Fernie, was broken through
solid plate just behind bearings. The engineer states that this occurred after the steam had
been shut off, and engine had almost stopped.
Another accident occurred at the Cranbrook Lumber Company's mill, at Cranbrook, due
to the breaking of the crank-pin, and caused the wreck of the whole engine.
The connecting rod at the Moyie Lumber Company's mill was also broken.
At the Snow-Shoe Mine boiler, Phcenix, the plate of the shell over fire was bagged down
about the size of a wash basin and had opened up, the steam blowing out being the first
intimation of danger. This was caused by neglecting to wash out boiler, and allowing the
scale to accumulate on the hot sheet over fire. I was in Greenwood when this report came in,
and at once went up to Phoenix. There I found the boiler-maker putting a patch on the plate ;
the plate had been cut out and patch placed outside of sheet, holes had been drilled and they
were ready to rivet patch on. The size of the patch was about 30" x 36", and it was placed
about 18" from front head, directly over the most intense heat from the fire. Placing the
patch on the outside of the shell would have had the result of forming a pocket for collecting
the loose scale in one spot, and would probably have burned the plate again in a short time.
I advised the management to have a larger patch put on, carrying the seams well up out of
the fire, but as the mine was delayed in consequence of shut-down, and as they were in a hurry
to get started, I did not insist on this, but ordered the patch to be put on the inside of shell
instead of outside.
A short time after this, while I was in the Okanagan Valley, a boiler at the Velvet Mine,
Rossland, was burned. The plate was bagged down about tbe same size as the Snow Shoe
boiler, near back head. The manager of this plant applied to the Rossland Engineering
Works for boiler-maker to make repairs, but they would not undertake to make repairs until
the Inspector had ordered it repaired, and gave as a reason to the manager that the law
required this proceeding, without regard to whatever delay might be occasioned as a consequence !
In this case the fault lay with the management of the Velvet Mine, as on a previous visit,
having noticed the blow-off pipe was in the head of the boiler some distance from the shell,
which would render it impossible to blow out all the scale or mud, leaving a large quantity on
the hot sheet, where it would be liable to damage plate, I had ordered him to have it changed
to bottom of shell. This order was neglected, with the result that plate was burned, and mine
delayed in consequence, which would not have occurred if instructions had been carried out.
There has been a marked improvement in nearly all the plants in this District. On the
Crow's Nest Line this is especially noticeable. At the time of first inspection the majority of
saw-mills were operated with second-hand boilers which had been brought in from the States
and Eastern Canada, and in some cases they were hardly safe at any pressure. When this
was pointed out to the owners, and they were informed that the working pressure of the
boilers was to be reduced, very great dissatisfaction was expressed respecting the Inspector
and the Inspection Act. Since then, however, they have remodelled their mills, and by putting
in larger and better boilers, have been able to keep pace with the increased demand for B. C.
lumber in the North-West, which they could not have done with the power at their command
with old boilers. What they would have done, however, is to keep on increasing the steam
pressure until an accident occurred, if boilers had not been subjected to inspection. In all
cases they were allowed to operate until new boilers could be procured, so that I can safely L 20 Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery. 1903
say this change has taken place without undue hardship to anyone, and in many cases the
increased output had reimbursed them several times over during this season, so that the
Inspector meets smiling faces now instead of the scowls and threats of last year.
The distance travelled to make inspections (nearly 1,000 miles per month) is accounted
for partly by the necessity of having to return several times to same district, in order to
accommodate the steam users. Many of them in the mining districts do not appreciate this,
judging from the trouble they take to avoid inspection altogether, or to make some repair
in order to put boilers in safe condition. The excuses given by some to avoid shutting down
the plants for a day or two to make repairs would be amusing, were there no danger attached.
In one case the manager threatened to take the capital out of the country, and call on the
merchants of a nearby town to rise up and protest against such treatment, if the Inspector
insisted upon his boiler being shut down for repairs which could have been made in 8 or 10
hours. The same manager had the inspection delayed from time to time until almost a year
had elapsed since he was asked to name a date to suit his convenience. The trouble is that
they look upon the Government supervision as an intrusion, and wax very indignant at the
bare idea of anyone telling them what they should, or should not, do to safeguard life and
property. I am pleased to say, however, that this does not apply to the majority of mine
managers and steam users generally, many of whom have asked for inspection simply because
they want to satisfy themselves that the property and employees under their charge were
protected as far as possible.
The objection to inspection of new boilers is sometimes made in this District, on the
ground that it is improbable that well-known manufacturers would send out boilers that were
unsafe. How would they account for the following case of a 60" boiler built in the United
States, by a large manufacturer, that had four 1" stays in one head, and seven 1" stays in the
other (no manhole in either head), and, as a matter of fact, neither head had sufficient staying
for the pressure that was to be carried.
Another boiler was from one of the largest machinery firms in Canada (they called it a
" re-built boiler "), in which courses had been taken from two or three old boilers to form shell,
and the heads from two old boilers that were unlike in regard to the number of tubes in each.
After re-building, the top row of tube-holes were plugged up with dummy tubes, so that from
the outside they looked all right, but when I came to make the internal examination I found
the top row of tubes only 10' long, and no provisions made for the staying of head where tube-
holes had weakened it. This boiler had a laminated sheet over the fire, and a blister had been
cut out 3" long and 11" wide, -f'g-" thick, with still another flake below. This was insured in
the Hartford Insurance Company for $5,000 to carry 105 lbs. pressure, and a good investment,
I would call it, for the owners.
In one of the saw-mills that was burned there was an old low pressure marine type of
boiler, 60" diameter, single riveted, -\" iron plate, patched in every conceivable place, both
inside and outside, that had been carrying 100 lbs. and upwards. At the time of inspection
the owners were informed that the pressure would be materially reduced, after allowing a
reasonable time to get a boiler to replace it. Shortly after this the mill burned down, and
after re-building a new boiler was installed, and when I went to inspect this I found the old
boiler set up alongside of the new one, with a Dutch oven in front of it. I asked the owner
if he intended to use the boiler again, and he said he certainly did, as it had stood a good test
while the mill was burning. He said he had watched the gauge until the hand had made a
complete revolution to 200 lbs., and he did not know how much further it would have gone if
the pin had not stopped it; and he considered, if it could stand 200 lbs. at that time, it surely
would pass for 100 lbs. now. He felt quite hurt when I told him, after examining the boiler,
that 40 lbs. would be the most that would be allowed, even after damage done by fire had been
repaired, as everything had been strained and would have to be tightened up.
At another saw-mill the boiler had head of dome, at flange, cracked two-thirds of the
circumference and was pitted badly from lying out on the damp ground exposed to the weather;
the hand-hole in front head was eaten away almost large enough for a small boy to get into it,
and was in bad shape generally. This was allowed to run for 60 days to enable them to replace
it, after which it was condemned. Toward the end of the year I was asked to inspect it again
in another saw-mill. It had been sold, with the understanding that it would carry 50 lbs., and
the purchaser had gone to the expense of moving it and putting it in a good setting, firmly
believing that the boiler was in good condition, and if there had been no inspection would
probably have had a serious accident. 3 Ed. 7 Report of Chief Inspector of Machinery. L 21
On second inspection of boilers at the Centre Star and Le Roi Mines, Rossland, they
were found in very bad shape, owing to neglect and over-pressure combined. At the Centre
Star two of the marine type boilers had furnaces out of shape, and one of the return tubular
boilers with bagged plate over fire. In the Le Roi plant one of the water-tube boilers had a
tube burst, and the other water-tube boiler, within a few days, had a tube-spring out of sheet,
owing to scale having been allowed to collect and overheat the tubes.
Another of the boilers, in the same plant, a return tubular, ha.d a bag over fire down about
4", 18" wide and 22" long, 18" from front head. This had strained the seam enough to cause
a serious leak. Three other return tubulars in same plant were bagged from -\" to |" over the
fire, from neglecting to keep them clean. They had all been working about 20 % over pressure, which caused the plate to bag with the least overheating.
Several of the boilers in this District have domes with cast-iron heads, or else cast-iron
domes entirely;  these have not been reduced in pressure on this account, however.
All of the above is respectfully submitted.
I have, etc.,
(Signed)        Geo. O. Madigan,
Inspector, District " 0."
Summary of Work Done in District "C" in 1902.
No. of drawings and specifications calculated for new boilers  6
ii    boilers built under inspection in Eastern Canada  15
ii    boilers built under inspection in B. C  1
ii    new boilers inspected  . 26
ii    new boilers built in Canada, not built under inspection  7
n    new boilers built in U. S  3
ii    old boilers built in U. S ,  48
ii    boilers imported from Eastern Canada (second-hand)  1
ii    first inspections  179
ii    inspections, external and internal       149
ii    internal inspections  11
ii    external inspections  86
n    special visits after repairs  35
ii    visits in addition to inspections  180
ii    boilers on which pressure was reduced at 1st inspection  100
ii    boilers unsafe without extensive repairs        21
ii    boilers repaired under Inspector's directions  110
ii    boilers considered unfit for further use  3
ii    boilers subjected to hydrostatic test '  187
ii    accidents to engines and boilers  13
H    accidents resulting in personal injury not fatal  1
ii    inspections completed  205
Total horse power of boilers  8,615
No. of defects observed as per summary  716
ii    defects considered dangerous   68
Fees earned $1,783 88
Fees collected    1,433 98
Miles travelled  11,233
Letters inward  417
Letters outward  495
Telegrams inward     29
Telegrams outward  23
No. of boilers taken out of service  35
No. of boilers transferred to other Districts  . 1 Summary of Defects in District " C."
Nature of Defects. Whole No.
Boilers without safety valves  1
Boilers with safety valves inoperative  4
Boilers with safety valves defective in construction  4
Boilers without pressure gauges  1
Pressure gauges inoperative  1
Pressure gauges defective  23
Cases of insufficient staying or bracing  37
Cases of broken rivets  2
Cases of defective riveting ,  12
Cases of broken stays or braces  3
Cases of loose stays or braces  28
Defective settings  9
Boilers with fractured plates  13
Laminated plates  3
Burned plates  45
Blistered plates ,  2
Bad cases of sediment on fire sheets  16
Cases of internal corrosion  15
Cases of scale or incrustation  95
Cases of external corrosion  27
Cases of defective tubes  5
Cases of defective feed water arrangement  61
Serious leakage around tubes  18
Serious leakage around rivet joints       5
Defective blow-off pipes or cocks  45
Defective water gauges  20
Broken blow-off pipes or cocks  3
Neutral sheets not stayed  34
Furnaces out of shape  2
Boilers without fusible plugs  62
Boilers low at front end  22
Cases of serious leakage of fittings  40
Unclassified defects  58
Total  716
Printed b.v Richard Wolfbxdeh, I.S.O., V.D., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.


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