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being an account of
flrobmce of ^British Columbia.
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty.
Wonderful Mine, Slocan.
(See page 52, Bulletin No. 3.)  60 Vict. Beport of the Minister of MiNEa 495
of the
To His Honour Edgar Dewdney,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Mining Industries of the Province for the year 1896 is
herewith respectfully submitted.
Minister of Mines.
Minister of Mines' Office,
26th February, 1896  60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 497
To the Hon. Jas. Baker,
Minister of Mines.
I have the honour to submit the following tables of the mineral production of the mines
of British Columbia.
In compiling these statistics I have sought to assemble for the first time from the best of
sources available all statistical information of the mineral out-put from the commencement of
mining operations in this Province up to the beginning of the present year, 1897, and the
returns in Dr. Geo. M. Dawson's very valuable report on the " Mineral Wealth of British
Columbia, 1888," the "Mineral Statistics," by Elfric Drew Ingall, as published in the annual
reports of the Geological Survey of Canada, and the returns in the annual reports of the
Minister of Mines for British Columbia have been supplemented by returns sent in by the
Gold Commissioners and Recorders, and by the smelter and customs returns collected by the
Bureau of Mines.
These statistics are as complete as it has been possible to make them, considering the
imperfect records kept during the earlier years of production, and that as yet the mine-owners
have not been required to give full statements of their mines' out-put, the nearly complete
smelting returns given below having been obtained by their courtesy. However, these figures
will serve not only to show the total production to date, but also to demonstrate the recent
commencement of lode mining and the rapid increase now being made in the amounts of gold,
silver, lead and copper now being produced in these new mining districts which but a few
years ago were trackless wildernesses of mountain, river and forest.
Total Production for all Years.
Gold, placer $ 57,704,855
Gold, lode  2,177,869
Silver  4,028,224
Lead  1,606,427
Copper  254,802
Coal and Coke  33,934,427
Building stone, bricks, etc  1,200,000
Other metals  25,000
$100,931,604 498
Report of the Minister of Mines.
The next Table shows the rapid increase in production during the last seven years, the
increase for 1891 over 1890 being due to the larger export of coal, the output of which for that
year of 1,000,000 tons, being the largest ever reached by our collieries. In the year 1892 the
influence of the production of the lode mines began to be felt, and since then the very marked
increase in production has been carried by the quickly growing value of the gold, silver, lead
and copper produced.
Production for each year from 1890 to 1896 (inclusive).
Year. Amount.
1890  $2,608,608
1891   3,546,702
1892   3,017,971
1893   3,588,413
1894   4,225,717
1895   5,655,302
1896   7,146,425
Table III. gives a detailed statement of the amount and value of the different mine products for 1895 and 1896, but it has as yet been impossible to collect statistics concerning the
amount of building stone, brick, lime, fire-clay, tiles, etc., hence these tables do not contain
any particulars this year about the mining of the economical materials which, of course, should
be here included.
However the increase in the value of the precious metals produced, and the baser metals,
especially of lead, is marked, and the total increase for 1896 over 1895, very gratifying, the
total production of the mines, other than coal, having increased from $2,834,000 to $4,816,000.
Amount and Value of materials produced  1895 and  1896.
Gold, Placer	
n     Quartz	
$   481,683
$   544,026
17,146,425 60 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Production of Metals per District.
$  282,400
$   384,050
I     81,000
$     82,900
Keithley Creek          „        	
Kootenay, West	
Trail Creek     „        	
Osoyoos          Division	
Yale                      ..
Placer Gold.
Table V. gives the yearly production of placer gold as determined by the returns sent in
by the banks and express companies of gold sold to the mints, and from returns sent in by the
Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders. To these yearly amounts one-third was added
up to the year 1878, and from then to 1895, one-fifth, which proportion was considered to
represent approximately, the amount of gold sold of which there was no record.
' The gold output is now beginning to steadily rise as the operations of the large hydraulic
mining companies in Cariboo begin to assume such a scale, that with larger water supplies and
the mines more opened out for work, a much larger amount of ground can be washed.
This placer gold contains from 10 to 25 per cent, silver, but the silver value has not been
separated from the totals. 500
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Yield of Placer Gold per year to date.
1858 $   705,000
1859  1,615,070
1860  2,228,543
1861  2,666,118
1862     2,656,903
1863  3,913,563
1864  3,735,850
1865  3,491,205
1866  2,662,106
1867  2,480,868
1868  3,372,972
1869  1,774,978
1870  1,336,956
1871  1,799,440
1872  1,610,972
1873  1,305,749
1874  1,844,618
1875  2,474,004
1876  1,786,648
1877  1,608,182
1878 $1,275,204
1879  1,290,058
1880  1,013,827
1881  1,046,737
1882  954,085
1883  794,252
1884  736,165
1885  713,738
1886  903,651
1887     693,709
1888  616,731
1889  588,923
1890  490,435
1891  429,811
1892  399,526
1893  356,131
1894  405,516
1895  481,683
1896  544,026
Production of Lode Mining.
The next table shows very clearly the fact that lode mining in this Province has just
fairly begun, and that the progress now being made, is decided and very satisfactory.
The gold production of course consists mostly of the output of Rossland mines as per
smelter returns, but there are added the gold saved by amalgamation in the Oeoyoos District,
as at Camp McKinney, in the Nelson District as at the Poorman Mine, and the product of
small lots of gold ore sent out to the smelters from other parts.
Some silver ore is known to have been sold prior to 1887, but no record has been obtained
regarding these small sales.
Production of Lode Mines.
$8,067,322 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 501
Production of Coal and Coke.
In Table VII. is given the total number of long tons (2,2408>s.) of coal and coke for each
year as reported to the Government by the different collieries in the Province. The production
of coke is small, but will be now rapidly increased when the coke ovens, now being perfected
at the Union Mines at Comox, and the coking coal of the Crow's Nest Pass, will have begun
the regular supply of this fuel to the smelting centres. For the last two years the output of
coal has been declining by reason of the increasing competition of British and American coal
in the Pacific Coast markets of the Uuited States where most of the coal exported from British
Columbia is sold.
Coal and Coke production per year to date.
Year.                                                 Tons (2,240ffi>s.) Value.
1836-52       10,000 $    40,000
:              1852-59      25,396  101,592
1859 (2 months)        1,989  7,956
1860       14,246  56,988
1861       13,774  55,096
1862       18,118  72,472
1863       21,345  85,380
1864       28,632  115,528
1865      32,819  131,276
1866      25,115  100,460
1867       31,239  124,956
1868       44,005  176,020
1869       35,802  143,208
1870      29,843  119,372
1871-2-3     148,459  493,836
1874      81,547  244,641
1875     110,145  330,435
1876       139,192  417,576
1877     154,052  462,156
1878     170,846  522,538
1879     241,301  723,903
1880     267,595  802,785
1881.     228,357  685,171
1882     282,139  846,417
1883     213,299  639,897
1884    394,070  1,182,210
1885    265,596  1,096,788
1886     326,636  979,908
1887    413,360  1,240,080
1888    489,301  1,467,903
1889     579,830  1,739,490
1890     678,140  2,034,420
1891 1,029,097     3,087,291
1892    826,335  2,479,005
1893     978,294  2,934,882
1894 1,012,953  3,038,859
1695    939,654  2,818,962
1896 ,   846,235  2,327,145
Totals    11,248,759 tons. $33,926,602
Coke    1,565 tons $7,825 502
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Production in detail of the Metalliferous
Yale                   n
*   785,491
*Platinum, 1895, $3,800; 1896, $750. 60 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Mines for 1895 and 1896.
Total for Divisions.
Totals for Districts.
$   977,229
3,818 556
$ 47,642
	 504 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
The Operation of the Bureau of Mines.
The organisation of the Bureau of Mines, in accordance with the " Bureau of Mines Act,"
Chap. 3, 1895, was begun in January, 1896, by Wm. A. Carlyle, Ma. E., Provincial Mineralo
gist, and Herbert Carmichael, Assayer and Chemist, but awaiting the completion of the new
Government buildings, in which will be proper rooms for offices, assay and chemical laboratories, and for collections of ores, minerals, rocks, etc., this organisation cannot yet be perfected
along those lines it is now proposed to follow. Necessarily a large amount has been done, and
yet remains to be done, in arranging the methods of work to be followed in collecting and
systematically recording all information pertaining to the mining industry of the Province,
which is now assuming such proportions as to attract the attention of capitalists and mining
men, who are demanding authoritative statements and statistics concerning these newly opened
mineral resources.
It is proposed to—
(a.) Ascertain the name and progress of every mine or mining company, keeping a comprehensive directory of their locality, ownership, kind of ore mined and conditions of property:
(6.) To visit and examine, from time to time, the different mining districts, and to issue
reports to the Hon the Minister of Mines, descriptive of them, and their progress in mining
(c.) To collect full and accurate statistics of the mine, out-put, number of men employed, etc.:
(d.) To maintain a laboratory for assay and chemical analysis, for which will be charged
the customary fees, and to determine, free of cost, specimens of rock, mineral or ore that may
be sent in, and give all possible information concerning the occurrence or probable commercial
value of such, with hints concerning the best methods of treatment, etc., etc.
(«.) To maintain student laboratories, for instruction in assaying, blow-piping, mineralogy,
geology, etc., etc.
(f.) To assemble and systematically arrange in a public museum specimens of mineral,
ore, country rock, building and other economical mineral materials from the mines; and also,
for comparative study, specimens of the same from other mining countries, models, maps, etc.:
(g.) To assemble, for the use of the Bureau and also the public, a library of the best reference books and papers relating to the art and industry of mining and metallurgy, mining
magazines, reports, tables of statistics, etc.:
(h.) To establish and equip a plant for testing, metallurgically, the different kinds of ore,
coal, coke, etc., etc.
Work of the Year.—Bulletins.
In January and February a series of lectures was given at Victoria, Vancouver and ]New
Westminster, on ores and ore deposits, chemical and metallurgical subjects by the Provincial
Mineralogist, Mr. H. Carmichael and Mr. W. Pellew-Harvey. In the spring the Provincial
Mineralogist visited the State Bureau of Mines in San Francisco, where, by the kindness of
Mr. J. J. Crawford, State Mineralogist, who is doing excellent and valuable work in his
Bureau, the methods of conducting the work incident to an organisation of this kind were
studied and much important information gained. Besides issuing the regular reports, Mr.
Crawford is having written, by men thoroughly experienced in the subject under discussion,
monographs of especial value to every miner and metallurgist, and copies can be got by remitting to him sixty to seventy-five cents for each of these bulletins, that are now highly recommended :—
No. 2.—Mine Timbering, by W. H. Storms.
No. 5.—The Cyanide Process, by Dr. A. Scheidel, E. M.
No. 6.—California's Gold Mill Practices, by Ed. B. Preston, M. E.
No. 9.—Mine Drainage, Pumps, etc., by Hans C. Behr.
On May 28th, the Mineralogist, accompanied by Mr. Carmichael and Dr. Newcombe, left
by small steamer for Barclay Sound and the Alberni District, where many points of work were 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 505
visited, although it was almost too early in the season to examine several parts of the district,
to which the trails had not yet been opened through the snow. On return to Victoria Bulletin
No. 1, on the Alberni Mining District, was issued.
Towards the end of June the examination of Rossland Mining Camp was begun, and in
August was published Bulletin No 2, on the Trail Creek District, a report to which the writer
could have done much more justice, both to the district and to himself, by taking more time in
its compilation, only it was thought that as great interest had been aroused, and many were
being attracted to this new gold field, that a prompt report, even if not so long and more
detailed, would prove more serviceable by supplying official information just when the demand
for such was urgent.
After visiting Rossland, the Slocan, Nelson and Ainsworth Districts were examined as far
as time would permit, the object aimed at being to obtain as wide an acquaintance as possible
concerning the general conditions of the mining industry, ore bodies, shipping facilities, etc.,
and data gained has recently been published in Bulletin No. 3, on the Slocan, Nelson and
Ainsivorth Districts.
A short visit was paid East Kootenay, a district of great promise, that this year will
attract much wide interest by the reason of the discovery of fine bodies of silver and silver-lead
ores and of large gold-bearing quartz ledges, and a large influx of mining men and prospectors
is now promised, like that of the early days in the sixties, when thousands of men were working along the gold placer diggings of Wild Horse, Perry and other creeks. A short account of
this district is embodied in this Annual Report and also the three bulletins mentioned, and
important reports from the other districts in the Province, by the Gold Commissioners and
Mining Recorders.
The foundation of an excellent library has been laid by the purchase of some of the best
books on mining, metallurgy, geology, mineralogy, etc., all of which are at the disposal of those
who may wish to come and consult them, but cannot, however, be taken away from the building.    Among these books are:—
Transactions of American Institute of Mining Engineers (complete series).
The Mineral Industry (complete series).
Mining, Iron and Steel.
Mining and Ore Dressing Machinery (Lock).
Practical Gold Mining (Lock).
Text Book of Ore and Stone Mining (Le Neve Foster).
Modern Copper Smelting (Peters).
Metallurgy of Lead (Hoffman).
Matte Smelting (Lang).
Ore Deposits of the United States (Kemp).
The art of Ore Dressing in Europe (Kunhardt).
System of Mineralogy (Dana).
Geology (Dana).
Geology (Sir Wm. Dawson).
Geology (Shaler).
Ore Deposits (Phillips).
Geological Survey of Canada (complete).
Reports and Bulletins, Bureau of Mines, California.
Smithsonian Institute Reports.
Mining Reports of New Zealand.
Arkansas Geological Survey.
Mineral Resources of the United States (Chas. D. Wolcott).
Reports of the Bureau of Mines, Ontario.
Reports of the Inspector of Mines, Nova Scotia.
Reports of the Commissioner of Mines, Colorado,
etc. etc. etc.
Among the periodicals taken are the Engineering and Mining Journal (New York), the
Mining and Scientific Press (San Francisco), the Canadian Mining Review, the B. C. Mining
Record, the Western Mining World, the Canadian Engineer, Mining, Etc., and shortly other
books and mining magazines will be added to this nucleus of excellent publications. 506 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
The many thanks of this Department are due to the Geological Survey of Canada, the
Director of the Bureau of Mines, Ontario; the Inspector of Mines of Nova Scotia, the State
Mineralogist of California, the Director of the Geological Survey of the United States, the
Director of the Geological Survey of Arkansas, Hon. Henry M. Teller, Senator for Colorado;
the Commissioner of Mines of Colorado, the Minister of Mines of New Zealand, and others, who
have kindly forwarded copies of their reports, etc., to this Bureau.
The Assay Office.
This office has been removed, pro tern., to the old printing building, but when finally
installed in the proper quarters will be thoroughly equipped with all the best appliances for
rapid and accurate work. If not brought in too late an endeavour is always made to give the
assay results on the same day the samples are sent in for assay, and all assaying is charged for
by Order in Council, after the following schedule of prices: —
Bureau of Mines, 1st July, 1896.
The following are the fees charged in the Government Assay Office, Victoria, for mineral
assays, and for the future all applications for assays—no matter from what quarter they may
come—must be accompanied by the cash for the fee, otherwise the Government Assayer has
strict orders not to perform the assay:—
Gold and silver    $ 1 50
Lead    1 50
Copper  3 00
Iron  3 00
Mercury  5 00
Tin  5 00
Antimony  5 00
Zinc  5 00
Nickel, qualitative assay  5 00
Nickel, quantitative assay. ...      10 00
Cobalt, qualitative assay  5 00
Cobalt, quantitative assay  10 00
Chromium, qualitative assay  5 00
Chromium, quantitative assay  10 00
James Baker,
Minister of Mines.
Mr. Carmichael is not only performing his duties as assayer most satisfactorily, as is
attested in one way by the large increase in the revenue for 1896 from assay fees, but is showing much zeal in, and doing every endeavour to forward the work of this Bureau, with which
he has been intimately connected since its inception.
Mineral Collection.
During the past season a large collection was made of ores, minerals and rocks, which
will be properly arranged when the Mineral Museum is ready for occupancy, and valuable collections have been promised from Butte, Mont., the Coeur d'Alene Mines, California, Colorado
and elsewhere, and with the collections now in the Provincial Museum a very interesting and
needed museum will be connected with this Bureau.
By consulting all the authorities available, from reports of the Government officers, and
by the collection of smelter and customs returns by this Bureau, a comprehensive statement of
the mineral production of British Columbia is given in the opening pages of this report, and
from this time on it is intended to issue regular reports, at present half-yearly if possible. The
data concerning the production of the economical mine products, as building stone, bricks, etc.,
will also be collected, and thus increase the totals that are being yearly augmented rapidly. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines.
Lode Mining.
We desire to emphasise strongly the fact that lode mining in this Province has but just
begun, that in reality it has assumed important proportions only during the last four years, and
the figures given above will clearly indicate the rapid progress now being made, with every
promise that this class of mining, now firmly established, the latent mineral resources so long-
untouched and unknown will prove one of the most profitable and important industries in this
Much appreciation must be expressed of the great interest in the mining industry, as
shown by the Hon. the Minister of Mines, and for his efforts to aid its progress as far as lay in
his power; also many thanks are due Mr. Tom Kains, Surveyor-General, for his valuable assistance in the prompt preparation of maps, etc., for the reports, and to Col. R. Wolfenden, Queen's
Printer, for the careful editing and the issue of bulletins and reports with utmost dispatch.
The demand for dynamite powder and black powder, especially the former, is keeping pace
with the progress of mining, and in three establishments in the Province are explosives being-
manufactured for mining purposes. Of the dynamite powder, commonly known as giant, the
two grades, No. 1 and No. 2, are manufactured and shipped by the usual means of carriage to
the mine centres. Two of the largest companies have branch establishments on the Island of
Vancouver, of which—
The Hamilton Powder Co., of Montreal, have works at Northfield, near Nanaimo.
The Giant Powder Co., of San Francisco, Cal, manufactures near Cadboro Bay, a few
miles from Victoria.
A third and small plant is making dynamite powder near Balfour, near the entrance to
the West Arm of Kootenay Lake.
At Victoria all the commercial acids are being made at the Victoria Chemical Works,
near the outer wharf, such as sulphuric, nitric and hydrochloric, and if metallurgical processes
are introduced into the Province, such as chlorination plants, all chemical supplies such as
acids, bleaching powder, etc., will be procurable from this manufactory at the lowest market
prices.    This firm supplies all acids to the powder manufacturers.
By Mr. John Bowron, Gold Commissioner.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith for your information the 22nd annual report
on the mining industry in Cariboo District, accompanied by the customary statistical information.
Both placer and quartz mining have received more than the usual attention during the
past season.
The principal sources of the gold supply at the present time are the hydraulic claims, the
profitable working of which depends on the amount of water supply obtainable under pressure.
This season being the driest ever known, those claims that secured a few weeks' run only were
deemed fortunate, while many of the regular producers were unable to clean up at all, hence
the comparatively light increase in the product, considering the number of men engaged, as
compared with other years. A large majority of those employed were engaged in development
work on both placer and quartz claims. 508 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Hydraulic Mines.
The hydraulic claims on Mosquito Creek and the Black Jack hydraulic claim on Williams
Creek have contributed their usual quota to the general output, but the Forest Rose claim on
Williams Creek, for the reasons mentioned above, was unable to make a clean up.
The Waverley claim on Grouse Creek, which has so long disappointed its shareholders,
was enabled to make a clean up on bedrock for the first time this season, and as a result a
dividend of $1.00 per share was declared. This claim will doubtless pay dividends for the
next thirty years.
On Dragon Creek, a tributary of Willow River, a Seattle company which has acquired
two hydraulic leases has, under the management of Mr. Gust. Lange, been pushing ahead the
preparatory work with vigor, and will be in readiness to take advantage of the spring freshet.
This is a very promising mine.
Mr. Seymour Baker, of London, representing an English syndicate, has acquired by
purchase a group of hydraulic leases situated on the east bank of the Fraser, below the mouth
of the Cottonwood River.
Preparations have been made during the season to operate these claims next summer. A
large ditch about fifteen miles in length is being constructed, upon which work will be continued during the winter, and it is proposed to have the hydraulic plant placed upon the
ground in the early spring. I have not had an opportunity to visit this mine, but I understand the prospects obtained warrant the belief that it will soon become a valuable property.
The Marquette and Menominee Hydraulic Mining Co., of Michigan, having purchased
the rights of a Chinese company operating on Cunningham Creek, which has hitherto been
worked to much disadvantage, owing to the indifferent nature of the appliances used, have
made surveys for a ditch, and acquired adequate water rights, and will place on the ground a
large hydraulic plant in time for next season's use.
The Cariboo Mining and Development Co, of Seattle, having acquired a group of leases
on the left bank of Antler Creek, have during the season constructed a large ditch to bring
water on to their claims, which they believe to be a blind channel of Antler Creek, which view
appears to be justified from the prospects obtained from ground-sluicing before cold weather
set in. This company will also put on a plant during the winter to be ready for operations in
the spring.
In addition to the companies named there are a number of strong syndicates formed to
operate hydraulic claims on Lightning, Williams, Slough, Antler and Cunningham Creeks, to
say nothing of the extensive works undertaken or companies formed to work the gravel
deposits on the Quesnelle River and at Horsefly, on which Mining Recorder Stephenson will
report. We, therefore, confidently predict for the season of 1897 unusual activity throughout
the district in the development of our placer mines.
Creek Diggings.
On Willow River, Mr. F. C. Laird is nobly fighting against adverse circumstances in his
endeavour to reach the deep channel in his claim. A shaft has been sunk 100 feet through
gravel and 105 feet through bedrock, and a drive is now being run some 600 feet to tap the
channel.    Mr. Laird's report on his work will be found appended hereto.
The Slough Creek Mining Co., of Slough Creek, are also persevering with their work.
After having been beaten in their attempt to sink a working shaft through the gravel and
slum, they decided to continue their drain tunnel on towards the mouth of Nelson Creek until
bedrock is reached, and then sink in rock and drift out into the channel. In running the
drain tunnel they have experienced much difficulty from the quantity of slum, water and large
boulders encountered, which necessitated the running of a "balloon" drive to cutoff the surface
water. The work is now progressing favourably, and Mr. Sargent, the secretary of the company, has promised a report upon the same, which, if received, will be. appended hereto.
As the ground owned by the last two companies mentioned, and the territory lying
between and adjacent thereto, will doubtless attract much attention in the future, I have
caused a map to be prepared to accompany this report showing the position of the various
The Big Valley Creek Gold Mines, Ld., holds a group of four claims on Big Valley and
Iwo Bit Creeks.    Development work has been prosecuted since June last under the superin- 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 509
tendence of Mr. W. Adams, M.P.P. A tunnel of somewhat over 700 feet in length has been
run, but bedrock in the channel has not yet been reached. Wherever rim rock was encountered
in running the tunnel heavy gold was found, leading to the belief that when the bottom of the
channel is reached a valuable mine will be developed. This company has recently completed
an incline, run down near the face of the drive, which will facilitate the disposal of the dirt.
Work will be prosecuted during the winter.
Big Valley Creek is situate about fifteen miles north-east of Barkerville, the surface of
which was worked to a limited extent in the early sixties, paying about wages, which at that
time were from $8 to $10 per day, but the bottom of the deep channel was never reached.
This company has also sunk a shaft on the side hill to a depth of eighty feet to test the value
of the ground as a hydraulic proposition, but as yet bedrock has not been reached.
On the Urquhart claim, just above Dunbar Flat, on Lightning Creek, good prospects of
very coarse gold were obtained. The owner, Mr. Walter Urquhart, feels confident that he
has discovered a spill from the Dunbar lead, and that he has nearly a thousand feet of it. He
is prepared for carrying on work during the winter, and expects to be taking out pay dirt
In the South Wales leasehold, comprising the Old Spruce, South Wales, Lightning and
Ross claims, a good strike has been made on a bench about ten feet higher than the old worked
channel, and between it and the lower end of the Butcher bench. The owners, Messrs. Jones,
Tregillus and Price, have expended an immense amount of labour in reaching this ground, the
existence of which had been proved before by a party of prospectors, who had the misfortune
to lose their shaft and block the drainage before they were fairly on the bench, and after
several ineffectual attempts to open it again were forced to give it up. The present company
took up the ground in 1890, and have worked it continuously ever since. It is impossible to
state the exact extent of this bench, but from surface indications it is nearly 100 feet wide,
and may be from 400 to 1,000 feet in length, and as it lies between ground that yielded richly
in the past, and is paying now, there is reason to believe that this is a valuable property.
The sale for taxes of the three real estate claims adjoining the upper line of the old Eleven
of England Claim, has made possible the amalgamation of the Water Lily, Amalgamated and
Bay State with the Eleven of England leasehold under one company, known as the Consolidated Eleven of England Company. This is a very good property, and its development will
give a decided impetus to the mining industry on Lightning Creek.
It is to be regretted that the Lightning Creek Mining Co. and the Antler Creek Mining-
Co , who acquired last season what are regarded as valuable properties on Lightning and Antler
Creeks, respectively, and who hold by Acts of the Legislature special privileges, have not yet
commenced work upon their holdings, although several well-known men of experience have
reported thereon. It is hoped that these companies will be in a position to commence active
operations shortly.
Hydraulic Elevator.
On Williams Creek the Cariboo Gold Fields, Ld., have continued to prosecute their extensive works with vigor. Bad ground was encountered in the drain tunnel, which is intended to
reach and drain the works, being over half a mile in length. They were compelled to suspend
work during the spring freshet, thus causing some three or four months' delay before the water
drained off sufficiently to allow work to be resumed. Fair headway is now being made. This
company has met with serious drawback in getting its heavy iron pipe hauled from Ashcroft
and placed on the ground, the freight rates being almost prohibitive. With its usual perseverance, however, a contract has been recently let for the transportation of the pipe, and, the
road permitting, a large quantity will be brought in during the winter. This is but one instance
of the difficulties to be encountered in the development of a mining camp 300 miles from a railway or other good means of communication. Mr. Champion, the present manager of the company, has kindly consented to furnish a report on the work, which I append hereto.
New Mines.
It is satisfactory to note that there is a disposition shown among some of the new arrivals
in Cariboo to leave the beaten track of the old prospector. Half a dozen applications are just
to hand for leases on a small creek, called Lake Creek, described as being 30 miles north of
Cottonwood River. The demand for leases still continues, some 250 having been applied for
during the season. 510 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Some recent discoveries have been made, of the extent and importance of which it would
at present be premature to judge, but that they will be contributors to the gold yield of the
district in the future is a fact that cannot be gainsaid.
The first I will refer to is a discovery made by Messrs. Wendle, Campbell & Co., on Pleasant Valley Creek, on the east side of Valley Mountain. This party, working only 25 feet
square of ground to bedrock, the depth being from 15 to 20 feet, took out about $1,000.
When their water supply was exhausted they at once started to bring in a ditch some two miles
in length, which was completed too late to be of service this season. The company is now
engaged in running a tunnel, and as soon as water can be obtained in the spring they will
doubtless do well. AH the ground adjoining this claim has been located, on which prospecting
is now going on.
Messrs. Isaac, Johnson, Cockell and Walker have been running a tunnel through bedrock
on Stewart's Creek, a tributary of Big Valley Creek, about 3 miles above the Big Valley Creek
Gold Mining Co.'s work. The distance run is about 500 feet, which brought them into the
channel, and they were rewarded by finding excellent pay gravel, as high as $2 to the pan
being obtained. But for the scarcity of water the company would be taking out good pay from
now on, being well situated for working during winter. All the adjoining ground has been
located and is now being prospected.
Parties prospecting on Bear River, 16 miles to the north-east of Barkerville, report finding-
diggings that will pay $4 per day to shovel into sluices. This ground is very extensive, and
with the necessary water supply and improved appliances can be made to pay handsome dividends.
River Dredging.
This branch of our mining industry may be said to be still in the experimental stage.
Three scows, fitted with powerful machinery, were constructed at Quesnellemouth during last
winter and spring, all of the suction type, although differing somewhat in the machinery used.
The first put in operation was that constructed under the superintendence of Mr. Underwood,
of Chicago, to operate on the lower part of the Quesnelle River. When put in operation it was
found that although the heavy machinery (two 75 h. p. engines) did its work perfectly, much
difficulty was experienced in keeping the screen at the mouth of the pipe clear, owing to the
presence of numerous small boulders, thus preventing the auriferous gravel from being brought
up into the sluices. The presence of gold in paying quantities when worked under favourable
conditions was proven, and it is understood that the company proposes to put in either a bucket
or dipper dredge at once.
The Youngs dredge, built to operate on the Pittsburg and Cariboo Gold Dredging Co.'s
leases at Cottonwood Canyon, on the Fraser River, after experiencing the usual mishaps incident to new undertakings in remote localities, and anticipating the difficulty experienced by
the Underwood dredge, made use of an appliance for removing such rocks as were sucked up
against the grating at the end of the suction pipe. For some days the dredge did good work,
bringing up some coarse gold, but as it was not found to be in paying quantities the dredge
was removed to another place, which gave very satisfactory returns until their pump burst,
leaving them powerless to continue the work. Mr. Youngs, who was in charge of the work,
informs me that $60 in coarse gold was obtained from the last eight hours' operation. Work
will be resumed by this company in the early spring.
The Alexandria Dredging Co., whose holdings are on the Fraser River, below Quesnellemouth, constructed, under the management of Mr. McCaskell, a suction dredge of somewhat
lesser capacity than the two former, which commenced operations about three miles below the
mouth of the Quesnelle River, and is said to have paid more than wages. As it was quite late
in the fall before the dredge was started, only two or three weeks' run was made. before the
cold weather set in. The best evidence that this dredge at least is not a failure is the receipt
of the royalty on the gold won from Mr. Heimick, of Vancouver, the secretary of the company.
This is the first revenue of the kind paid into this office.
Very much interest has been engendered in our quartz mines during the season, presumably in consequence of the proof that our ores are adapted to the cyanide process of treatment,
which Mr Marsh claims that he has demonstrated beyond question. Be this as it may, never
before has so much confidence been manifested in our ledges as is evidenced in the unusual
arge number of locations made. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 511
Messrs. Thompson & Marsh, the lessees of the Government Reduction Works, are entitled
to much credit for the push and energy displayed in carrying out the undertaking of placing a
cyanide plant in the works. These gentlemen are the holders of an option on the Black Jack
mine near Barkerville, on which they have expended a large sum of money in putting it in
proper shape for working, and although they have at present suspended operations I understand this is but temporary.
Mr. Tatlow, of Vancouver, has bonded the Wintrip real estate claim, and is now engaged
in running a tunnel on one of the ledges. This property, which contains three distinct ledges,
adjoins the Black Jack mine, and is regarded as a most valuable proposition.
Two claims on Burns' Mountain have been bonded and first payments made, and it is
expected that a large amount of development work will be done on these and several other
locations in the vicinity next season.
As the years roll on the necessity for preserving, in a permanent form, some authentic
record of the amounts produced from the famous gold-bearing creeks of the district becomes
more manifest, I have therefore had prepared to accompany this report a map of Williams
Creek, showing the present locations as well as the position of all the old claims of the early
days, accompanied by a table stating the amount of gold produced from each particular locality,
from the early days to the present time.
In the compilation of the table accompanying this map I am indebted for information to
nearly all the old miners now resident in the district, and would especially mention the names
of Capt. G. W. Robinson, and Messrs. H. McDermott, W. Hodgkinson, Wm. F. Anderson and
Harry Jones.
The estimated gold product for the year is as follows:—
Barkerville Polling Division $ 78,900
Lightning Creek    „       50,000
Quesnelle „       48,100
Keithley, Quesnelle Forks and Horsefly ,    200,000
Estimated product from 1st to 31st December, including desultory
mining, of which no account could be obtained      10,000
Total $387,000
By Mr. Fred. C. Laird, Manager.
In giving a report of the work done on this claim for the past year I beg to state as
When I made my last report to you we had finished our tunnel to rim rock, and had built
a small shaft house to sink a shaft from the surface of the ground to the rim rock, connecting
with the tunnel. Last winter we completed the shaft, making it six by twelve feet in the clear,
and in three compartments. The shaft to rim rock is just 100 feet deep. Early last spring we
began to grade out the hillside, in order to place our large shaft house and machinery, and get
the machinery up the hill. Three months were spent in grading, building a tramway seven
hundred feet up the bill, and hauling up the machinery by steam power. After getting buildings and machinery in shape we continued our shaft 112 feet deeper through the rock.
Leaving the last twelve feet of this shaft for a sump we broke out early in November into
the tunnel, through which we expect to reach the channel of Willow River. We are now
working day and night at this tunnel, and are progressing at the rate of 100 feet a month.
The tunnel is six by five feet in the clear, and will be about 600 feet long when completed.
We are now 160 feet in the tunnel. We use an Ingersoll-Sergeant drill and a blasting battery.
We have had as usual many difficulties to surmount. The rock has been most difficult to work
on account of its softness. All of the tunnel has to be timbered, and a great deal of extra
work has been caused by rock caving.
Our plant now consists of main shaft house, 45 x 25 feet, boiler house 30 x 20 feet, and
blacksmith shop 12 x 18 feet. Our other buildings consist of seven houses, stables and powder
house. 512 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Machinery comprises a fifty-horse power boiler, a pair of thirty-five-horse power engines,
one 18-inch Cornish pump, two 12-inch Cornish pumps, one horizontal steam pump, a sixteen-
horse power hoisting engine with upright boiler, besides the rock drill already referred to, and
tools of all kinds.
We are thoroughly equipped to push the work, and barring unforseen accidents we confidently expect to reach the channel of Willow River by March 15th next.
From the surface of the ground to bedrock in the channel, as determined by the borings,
it is 100 feet. In order to reach the channel, however, we have had to run a tunnel into the
hill 620 feet long, sink a shaft to the rim 100 feet deep, continue the shaft 112 feet in rock,
and then run a tunnel in the rock about 600 feet long, making in all nearly 1,500 feet of work.
From Mr. W. H. Fife, President.
The work of development upon the property of the Slough Creek Mining Company has
been continuously prosecuted during the entire year, but owing to the open winter season last
past progress was slow during the early part of the year. Development work has been confined principally to the running of drainage tunnels, for the double purpose of draining the
surface water from the high rock at the mouth of Nelson Creek, that it may be worked for its
gold, and for the further purpose of draining the water so that we may proceed with the sinking of our proposed bedrock shaft and drive out to the old channel. The character of the
ground through which we have been running the tunnels has been that of a loose wash, with
large boulders throughout the entire distance and filled with surface water.
In order to complete the work of running the lateral extension of the main drain tunnel
it was found necessary to open for its entire length, about 700 feet, an old abandoned drainage
tunnel run by Nelson Creek miners many years ago, which in caving had not only drawn
the surface water to it, since its abandonment, but had allowed water to accumulate as
in a reservoir. This was a laborious undertaking and occupied much time, but it has been of
great benefit. It was further found necessary to run a "balloon" drive between the lower
tunnel and the old Nelson Creek tunnel referred to. As a result of these two undertakings
the lower tunnel is nearly free from water, and the work of continuing it to the bedrock is
progressing favourably, and so soon as the rock has been reached it is our intention to begin
the construction, at once, of a working bedrock shaft to the old channel.
By S. J. Marsh, M.E., Barkerville.
In giving a resume of quartz mining so far as it has come to my notice during the past
summer, I may say that prospectors have been particularly active in looking for and locating
quartz claims. Development work has been performed to the extent of $100 or more on a large
number of claims, and on several a large amount has been expended. The results are most
encouraging. In many instances large bodies of ore have been uncovered, and in no case that
has come under my notice has bona fide work failed to show most beneficial results.
Many important facts have been demonstrated by this work, a few of which are:—
(1.) The limestone bands are closely related  as to their position to the larger and well
defined veins:
(2.) The country rock (slate) in the vicinity of richer portions of large veins, is mineralized with pyrite, and carries gold in varying quantities:
(3.) There are large bands of siliceous slates carrying gold, sometimes in paying quantities:
(4.) Free gold exists in all decomposed ores and siliceous slates, while very little, if any,
exists in ores where decomposition has not taken place to some extent: 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 513
(5.) As depth is obtained the veins show less faulting and better defined walls.
Some of these facts are of great importance, and will be of value to the prospector who
carefully studies the condition of the country, as well as to those who may wish to go more
deeply into the nature and origin of the deposits of placer gold in this district.
In regard to practical reduction tests, as you are aware, a most complete test plant, using
the McArthur-Forrest cyanide process, has been added to the Reduction Works, and the same
put in first-class condition.
Since 17th August 265 tons of ore have been treated by the above-named process, and
while I am not at liberty to give the exact figures I may say that the results obtained have
been most satisfactory.
In this connection much important data has been gained, and the cyanide process has been
placed on a solid basis here, and its scope of usefulness determined.
One fact, however, should be mentioned in regard to treatment by cyanide, lest it be
regarded as a " cure all."
The heavier sulphides here, as in other places, have not as yet yielded to it except to a
small degree. Finer crushing and agitation, with perhaps some modification of the present
process, may overcome the difficulty, and while this will require some more experimental work,
the fact is established beyond doubt that these sulphides, which may be easily separated by
concentration, and which compose but a small part of the weight of the ores, may be successfully treated by chlorination, while the tailings and slimes will readily give up their gold to
A concentrating plant will be added to the works this winter, also a small chlorination
test plant, and a small cyanide plant to treat black sand from placers, which has been successfully treated during the summer.
From data carefully collected and estimates made, I may say that the average ore can be
treated on a basis of fifty tons per day, by the combination of the two processes above referred
to, for $2.98 per ton, exclusive of mining and royalty.
Of the work laid out for next season I am not at liberty to speak. I may assure you,
however, that a large amount of important work will be done.
The assurance of a railway would give more impetus just now than anything else to the
development of quartz mines, as eventually a large amount of machinery must be got here,
which at the present freight rates would be very expensive.
By James Champion,  M. E., Superintendent.
As a statement of work done on the Cariboo Gold Fields, Limited, during the past year I
beg to report as follows:—
Since the last yearly report the drain tunnel (owing to very bad ground) has been driven
only 800 feet, making the total length excavated to date 2,100 feet, leaving about 500 feet
more to be driven to strike bedrock.
The No. 5 shaft has been sunk and connected with the tunnel at a, perpendicular depth of
43 feet. On this shaft we have built a shaft-house 50 feet long, 25 feet wide, and 20 feet
high, and have erected a steam-engine to hoist the gravel, which is washed in a "dump-box"
as it is taken from the tunnel. We clean up the dump-box on the first day of each month,
and I am pleased to state that our " clean-ups " have been very encouraging.
New blocks have been put in the Williams Creek flume, which is 2,200 feet long, 14 feet
wide, and 6 feet deep; we have also put in a partition in the centre of said flume for the
convenience of repairing at low water, when we can turn all the water of the creek in one
compartment while we are repairing the other. Each compartment is 6 feet 7\ inches wide
by 6 feet deep in the clear.
The ditch from Jack of Clubs Creek to Lightning Creek is completed, and we are now
running water through the ditches from Lightning to Williams Creek, a distance of seven
miles. 514 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
The ditch from Williams Creek to a point opposite proposed elevator shaft is also completed; length of ditch, three-quarter mile.
The Eye Opener ditch has been cleaned out and enlarged the whole length of the ditch.
The clean-up from the Eye Opener claim this season was so satisfactory that we have put
in place ready for next season a new monitor having 4 and 5-inch nozzles, and 1,800 feet of
12-inch pipe, which will give a pressure of 350 feet. This monitor will be worked in conjunction with the old one.
Mr. S. Tingley has taken a contract from the company to deliver all the elevator pipe
from Ashcroft to Quesnelle; about 100 tons has been delivered. The balance of about 300
tons is at Soda Creek, and will be delivered at Quesnelle, according to contract, by the first of
March. The company's teams are now hauling the pipe that has been delivered at Quesnelle
to this place, and we expect to get all the pipe delivered at Barkerville by the first of August
next, and have the pipe and elevators in place ready to work before the end of next season.
By F. E. Young, General Manager.
The Pittsburg and Cariboo Gold Dredging Co. was incorporated in West Virginia June
3rd, 1895, with an authorised capital of $200,000, the stock being taken by Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, capitalists.
A new form of suction dredging machinery, patented by the writer in Canada, November
15th, 1895, was adopted and built during the following winter and spring, and commenced
active dredging operations in the Fraser River at Quesnelle in July, 1896. Only traces of
gold were found at that point, and the plant was soon removed to the lease of the company
above the mouth of the Cottonwood River, at the foot of Cottonwood Canyon, which was then
prospected thoroughly, little or no gold being found on the bars for the first 1 \ miles, above
which the canyon narrows to about 400 feet and the water becomes very deep, the bottom
having practically no gravel on the bedrock, which is every where exposed.
In this deep water, in the crevices of the bedrock, coarse heavy gold was found in pieces
running as heavy as 84 cents, with many from 25 cents upwards, and in quantities sufficient
to pay well had the dredge been operated continuously there. A few days after this pay was
found the main shell of the centrifugal pump was broken, suspending operations for the season,
it then being late in October.
The end of the suction pipe of this dredger is provided with a chisel or plow blade adapted
to loosen up the gravel on the bed of the river, or to disintegrate and break up the surface of
the bedrock bottom so as to free the gold lodged in the crevices, which is then easily lifted by
the pump. The dredger is essentially a steam propelled scow, 26 feet by 80 feet, on the bow
of which is placed a turntable carrying an 8-inch sand dredging pump, with steel suction pipe
and connections, and a double drum hoisting engine, connected so as to rotate the turntable
through an arc of 180°, and adapted to handle the steel suction pipe and plowing device so as
to loosen up the gravel and break up the surface of the bedrock on the bottom of the river.
The stroke of the plow ended, suction pipe is, to and from the turntable, radially a distance of
about 25 or 30 feet, thus covering a very large area of the river bed without having to move
the boat.
The results of the first season's work, while not financially satisfactory, are of great value
from the knowledge gained of this branch of mining. They prove, first, that much of the
river bed contains so little gold as to be no value for dredging.
Second—Bars which carry good pay above low water mark often carry little or no gold
below it.
Third—Coarse gold once deposited in deep water in the bed of the river practically never
Fourth—Pay streaks found on the bed of the river are often as sharply defined as if found
in a vein of quartz. A few feet below where good pay is obtained not a trace of gold will be
found. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 515
Fifth—No form of dredger yet devised can be expected to give good results under all the
differing conditions found on the Fraser River.
Sixth—Where the gold lies on bare bedrock, or but slightly covered with gravel, a suction
dredge is far superior to any other form.
Seventh—Where the gold is fine and distributed through deep bodies of gravel a good
form of dipper or bucket dredge is preferable, but the bottom should be afterwards worked over
with a suction dredge to clean the bedrock.
Eighth— Below low water mark the gravel rarely exceeds six feet in depth over the bedrock or clay, and averages less than two feet.
Ninth—The location of valuable pay streaks in the bed of the rivers can only be done by
systematically prospecting every portion of the stream by means of a small steam dredger, after
which machines of large capacity properly designed to meet the conditions where the pay is
found can be made to yield large returns, and bring this branch of mining to the front as one
of the best paying propositions in the country.
By Mr. W. Stephenson, Mining Recorder.
Sir,—I have the honour to inclose herewith the estimate yield of gold for 1896 of the
Keithley Division of Cariboo District, which if not fully coming up to our expectations at least
shows a considerable increase over last year, which taken into consideration with a very poor
mining season, owing to the want of rain experienced all over Cariboo District, gives a very
fair showing for this section. Development work in this section has not been pushed to the
extent that I expected it would have been during this last season, in some cases the want of
water expected to be obtained from small streams to be used in prospecting has been the cause,
and in other cases the cause is not very apparent; but as a whole there has been a considerable
amount of preliminary work done, also quite a number of new locations made, which promises
well for the coming season's work. Even at the present time there is work for all those who
wish to work, as the Golden River Quesnelle Company are employing all the men they can get
on their dam works at the outlet of Quesnelle Lake. This Company, since they commenced
operations, have been pushing their work as fast as men and money can make it go.
In the way of new developments there is little to report except in the case of one company, the "California Consolidated," holding three mining leases on Roses Gulch. This company, with a limited supply of water, has opened up a cut in their ground, obtaining good
results for the work done, and there is little doubt that with a good water supply would have
a valuable mine.
On the Horsefly River the Horsefly Gold Mining Company (the old Harper leasehold)
have their hydraulic elevator plant in place, and expect to commence operations early in the
coining spring.
The Horsefly Hydraulic Mining Company, on the Horsefly River, owing to scarcity of
water, have only had part of a season's work in this mine. The cement still bothers them for
hydraulic working, and there is talk of turning it into a drift mine, with a plant for crushing
the cement. The prospecting claims on the Horsefly have not yet succeeded in getting on to
pay, still they are sanguine of making a strike some day in the near future.
On the South Fork of the Quesnelle River the Cariboo Hydraulic Mining Company have
steadily pursued the even tenor of their way, the necessary force of men .being employed in the
mine, with another force employed in constructing several miles of new ditch, which was needed
to bring the water in at a higher level to the mine, so as to obtain a greater pressure for their
hydraulic pipes for next season's work. The results from the Company's work for the season
are deemed quite satisfactory, over $127,000 being obtained for the season's work, and this
with a very limited supply of water for the last two months of the working season; the last two
wash-ups showing a great improvement over any ground worked during the first part of the
season. Outside of this Company's work very little gold has been obtained from the South
Fork of Quesnelle River during the season. 516 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
On the North Fork of Quesnelle River there has been a very considerable amount of work
done during the season in the way of preliminary work and prospecting, also quite a number
of new locations made.
The Victoria Consolidated Company commenced work early in the spring on Keithley
Point with a good supply of water, and were progressing favourably until the freshet carried
out the bridge which conveyed their pipes across the river; this put an end to their hydraulic
work for the season. I have not learned what their intentions are for the prosecution of their
work on Keithley Point.
On the other locations on the North Fork prospecting and preliminary work has been
going on during the season, and there is little doubt but that some valuable mining properties
will be developed on the North Fork during the coming season.
On the main Quesnelle River the companies owning mining leases have not carried on
work for the season to the extent expected, some of them doing only enough work to hold their
leases. It is to be hoped the coming season will see more active work carried on in this section.
On Keithley, Harvey, Snowshoe and other creeks in this vicinity work was carried on as
usual while the water lasted, but as a whole this has not been a favourable season for miners
on those creeks, the season being very backward in the spring, and following that a heavy
freshet, after which the water failed altogether for the remainder of the season.
Re mineral claims in this division there is little to note, there being only four new locations made for the year, and on those previously located very little has been done in the way
of development or prospecting.
By James  Porter, Gold Commissioner.
Sir,—I have the honour to inform you that owing to the scattered state of the mining
population here and the great distance they are apart, etc., and the expense that would necessarily be incurred in visiting all points in order to gather anything like accurate information,
I regret to say that I am not in a position this season to frame a mining report and to furnish
you with mining statistics.
I think that the output of gold for the season might be computed as being a trifle less
than that of last.
During the summer some prospecting was done in various directions, but so far I have not
heard of anything of importance being discovered. Very little or no attention has been paid
during the season towards quartz development here.
A few days ago a gentleman representing Mr. C. F. Law, of British Columbia mining
renown, came here, and the object of his mission is to visit some sections of the district where
quartz is known to exist. He at once started out intending to secure some samples of rock
from these ledges.
I have received a letter from Mr. Law, saying that if he could get anything promising
from here that it was his intention to come in here early next season.
There is plenty of quartz known to exist here, and I do not see why some of it should not
be sufficiently rich to pay. So far but little attention has been paid to this place, and I honestly believe that if prospecting was turned in this direction that something of importance
would be discovered. Some good openings are also here for hydraulic mining, and it is my
honest opinion that if some attention was paid to this sort of mining that it would prove to be
a good investment. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 517
By W. A. Carlyle, Provincial Mineralogist.
A short examination was made of those parts in East Kootenay where mining was being
actively carried on, but with the exception of mines such as the North Star, Moyie Lake
Mines, and the placer mines on Wild Horse Creek, little work other than assessment work was
being done. However, in the southern part of Fort Steele District the prospectors were very busy
during the past season, both in the Selkirks and Rocky Mountain Ranges, and a large number
of claims were staked off in close vicinity to the North Star Mine and on the St. Mary's River,
Bull River, Perry Creek, and their tributaries. The construction of the Crow's Nest Pass
Railway, which now seems to be an assured fact, will certainly stimulate far greater activity,
for there is no doubt whatever but that this part of the Province should be thoroughly explored
as means of ingress and egress improve, as already some very valuable properties have been
discovered and developed, and many locations have been made, which work will greatly enhance
in value and importance.
Hitherto means of communication have been such that considerable time had to be consumed in reaching any part, and prospectors and mining men have been attracted to other
parts more easy of access, but with a more extended steamboat service on the rivers, new roads
and trails, and with keener interest aroused by the progress of mining in other parts of Kootenay, the Division of East Kootenay is on the eve of receiving much greater interest, with every
probability that her latent resources will prove very valuable.
At Golden, in the office of the Gold Commissioner, is an excellent collection of samples of
ore, mostly argentiferous galena and tetrahedrite ores, also copper ores, from the various lodes
uncovered in the district.
Running north and south for over two hundred miles, flanked on the east and west by the
towering ranges of the Rockies and the Selkirks, is the wide and beautiful valley through
which flows the Columbia River to the north, and the Kootenay River to the south, to join
waters at Robson in West Kootenay. This valley is ten to thirty miles wide, and gently rises
to the foot-hills along the main ranges, which are often bold and craggy and rise in lofty peaks.
Steamers.—From Golden, on the C. P. R. R., a very comfortable steamer of the Upper Columbia
N. & T. Co., Capt. F. P. Armstrong, leaves for the Upper Columbia every Tuesday morning
when navigation is open, and runs for most of the season as far as Mud Lake Landing, 113
miles, where passengers and freight are transferred by a horse tram, 4f miles, to the Upper
Columbia Lake, where another steamer runs to Canal Flats, about 15 miles, and thence by the
stage to Fort Steele, 46 miles, stopping over night at Hanson's, at Wasa Creek, 12 miles from
Fort Steele, one of the best hostelries in Kootenay. When navigation ceases a weekly stage
runs between Golden and Fort Steele, carrying the mails. To the south steamers of the same
navigation company run down the Kootenay River from the North Star Landing, 6 miles above
Fort Steele, to Jennings, and at high water these boats go as far north as Canal Flats, or about
4 miles from the steamer landing on the Columbia. Anticipating a large influx of men and
supplies from the south during the present year, Capt. Armstrong intends establishing a daily
steamer service, as long as the depth of water will permit, between Fort Steele and Jennings.
Roads.—A good waggon road extends from Golden to Fort Steele, whence roads radiate
to Wild Horse Creek, Perry Creek and St. Mary's River, North Star Mine, Cranbrook, and to
Tobacco Plains and across the border to the south.
Trails.—(a.) The Dewdney or Moyie Trail runs from Cranbrook south-west past the St.
Eugene Mines, on Moyie Lake, to the landing on Kootenay River, where stop once or twice a
week steamers on the Kootenay Lake service. This was the trail traversed by the placer
miners in the early sixties. 518 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
(b.) The Toby Creek Trail, or Well's Trail, starts a few miles north of Windermere, and
crossing the Columbia runs up Toby Creek to the Divide, thence down Hamill Creek to Argenta,
at the north end of Kootenay Lake.
(c.) From Carbonate, south of Golden, a road for part way and trails lead up the different
branches of the Spillimacheen River and into the McMurdo District. Of course there are
many other trails, such as over the Crow's Nest Pass, etc., etc.
Ore.—Shipments are made by the steamers on the Kootenay Lake south to Jennings in
the United States, and thence by G. N. R. R. to the smelters. The smelter at Golden has
never yet been blown in, as no ore has so far been obtainable, but the development of the
northern part of the Golden and other districts may yet supply these works, which were built
rather prematurely.
All the time available in this short visit of inspection was directed to the examination of
those properties working in this district, and for notes regarding the discoveries on Perry
Creek, Wasa and Bugaboo Creeks and the Dardanelles Mine, the writer is much indebted to
Mr. Jno. E. Hardman, of Montreal, a mining engineer of wide experience and very high reputation, with whom the writer had the pleasure of travelling for three or four weeks.
North Star.
This valuable property comprises the North Star, 0. K., Dreadnaught and Buckhorn,
Crown-granted; and the Rowan, Daffodil, Cromarty, Notre Dame, Dorval, Maverick, Good
Luck, Canton, Full House, Brandon, Stemwinder and Ontario, mineral locations, owned by the
North Star Mining Co., Ltd., Montreal. Pres., D. D. Mann; Sec, H. S. Holt, Montreal;
Business Manager, N. W. Curran, Fort Steele.
These claims, 1,500 feet square, are located on a gently sloping mountain one mile south
of Mark Creek, and 23 miles by waggon road west of the North Star landing on the Kootenay
River six miles above Fort Steele, and 2,600 feet above the landing, or 16 miles directly west
of the river. This lode was located in June, 1892, by Jos. Bourjouis, the locator of the War
Eagle, Centre Star and Lily May, at Rossland, and since that time it has been so developed as
to expose one of the largest bodies of silver-bearing galena ore yet uncovered in the Province;
but it is to be hoped, and strongly recommended, that the company will follow the policy of
extending the development work and keeping it well in advance of the mining of ore, and not
rest content in simply working out the large body of ore now in sight, without the exploratory
work so essential to the success and productiveness of any mine.
Geology and Ore-Deposit.
There was no time to study the geological conditions, but the rock inclosing the ore found
in these and adjoining claims is dark grey with a fine-grained, hard and tough texture, apparently of igneous origin, except for slight evidences of bedding planes on the Sullivan Group,
indicating the probability of its being very highly altered stratified rock. In the mine is rock
looking much like the typical miner's "porphyry," running in places as tongues into the mass
of solid ore, as if a dyke were there, but this might be simply the country rock altered near the
The Ore.—(a.) Is primarily a very clean, solid, argentiferous galena, rather fine-grained,
with only a small amount of zinc blende, while underlying it along the foot-wall is the "iron-
ore," or iron and maganese oxides, assaying about 20 ozs. in silver per ton. The assay value of
the ore as per smelter returns is:—
Silver, 23.5 ozs. to 45.3 ozs. per ton; lead, 53 to 68%.
(b.) The upper part of the ore-shute has been decomposed to a mass of reddish-brown,
black and yellow oxides and carbonites of iron and lead, with beautiful specimens of moss-like
metallic silver and crystals of cerussite. There is a large amount of this ore, and unlike the
"carbonate ore" in the Slocan it carries a higher silver value than the crude or solid galena
ore, the values from smelter returns being:—
Silver, 52 to 60.8 ozs. per ton; lead, 49 to 57%.
In shipping ore a mixture is made of both kinds of ore and then sacked in jute sacks (made
in Montreal) so that 16 sacks of the ore weigh one ton, and this is not low grade ore by any
means, as is shown by the smelter returns on between two and three thousand tons sold during
the past season, when the net or yield values averaged per ton:—
Silver, 30 ozs.; lead, 55 %. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 519
Such ore was worth $52.40 per ton, and left a very good profit, after deducting costs of
mining, transportation, smelting and duty.
Ore Body.—The existence of the ore-body was betrayed by the large amount of galena
float on the surface, but it was not until much prospecting work (much of it very useless) had
been done that the magnificent ore-body was found, the value and significance of the decomposed
material first found apparently not having been appreciated until proven to be the richer
carbonate ore overlying the unaltered galena.
The strike of the ore-body is nearly true north and south, and the dip to the east at an
angle of 40° to 50°, the apparent greater flatness being due, it is believed by the writer, to a
series of faults running north and south and dipping west that have faulted and lifted up
the ore-shute in a series of short steps, a condition of affairs, if demonstrated to be such, that
may be also found in other claims along this ore-bearing zone, but in nowise detrimental to
their value, as dislocations or breaks are found, with few exceptions, in every mine.
The large size of the ore-body is shown in the mine workings. Shaft No. 1 was sunk 67
feet, and at 30 feet a short cross-cut to the west entered the ore, and along this level for a
distance of 290 feet north and south a solid body continues, with fine ore in both breasts of
the drift, with a thickness of 8 to 20 feet of ore, consisting of solid galena overlaid by decomposed or " carbonate" ore, which in one place was fully 15 feet thick. Along the dip this shute
is known to be continuous for a width of 40 to 60 feet, and a large amount of ore now stands
ready to be broken down. A cross-cut tunnel, 300 feet long, strikes this shaft at a depth of 60
feet, and continues west in barren ground 90 feet, the rock in the tunnel to the east, i. e., in
direction of the dip of the lode from a point 25 feet from the shaft changing from its very hard,
solid character to a soft decomposed material with no ore, but at 105 feet east of the shaft the
tunnel passed through a body lijr to 3| feet wide, strike north and south, dip east 60°, of soft
yellow-coloured material, assaying 20 to 25 ounces of silver per ton, with no assay made for
lead. Whether this is the continuation of the lode on the dip faulted up to its present position
remains to be proven. Shaft No. 2, sixty-five feet north of No. 1, is sunk to the main work
level, and then follows down the foot-wall for 22 feet, along which the ore-body is 6 to 8 feet
During the coming season contracts are reported to have been made for the shipment of
5,000 tons of ore to the American smelters from the Landing, down to which the ore will be
hauled on sleighs while winter lasts.
Timber and Timbering.
The claims are covered by small, dead, black pine, and larger timber has to be hauled up
to the mine in which the stopes are timbered up after the method of square setting, while the
main tunnel, when necessary, is also well timbered.
Not much water comes into the mine and can easily be handled by steam pumps when
work is done below the tunnel level.
In the shaft-house is a small steam hoist and a pump, and there were several large ore-
houses filled up at the time of visit (October) with sacked ore. At shaft No. 2 is a horse
whim, and a third shaft was being fitted up. There are good log buildings for the offices and
assay laboratory, boarding and sleeping houses.
(a.) A waggon road has been built from the Landing, 23 miles, to the mine, at a cost of
$11,000, and in summer time a four-horse team will take down five to six tons of ore a day,
and in winter six to eight tons, at a contract price of $5 per ton, horses being changed at the
stables, half-way between the mine and the river.
(6.) The steamer during the season of 1896 ran from the 26th May to 22nd of August,
and carried the ore to Jennings Landing at a contract price of $4 per ton.
(c.) The freight charges to the smelter at Great Falls, Montana, from Jennings was $4.50
per ton, while the smelter or treatment charge was $17 per ton for crude ore and $15.50 for
" carbonate " ore.
The cost of labour was the same as in the Slocan District. 520 Report of the Minister of Mines. .       1896
Other Claims.
The company has done a little prospecting on some of its other claims, and to the west of
the main ore shute, which is being worked on the North Star and Dreadnaught, it was
claimed that more ore of the same character had been found in probably parallel leads.
The Sullivan Group.
The Shylock, Hamlet and Hope mineral claims, owned by Jno. W. Cleaver, Pat. Sullivan,
et al, Fort Steele, and bonded to Col. Ridpath, Judge Turner, et al., Spokane, are situated on
Sullivan Hill, north of Mark Creek, and about 1| miles north of the North Star, and two
miles by trail from the road.
On this group there are large surface showings of mineral, not only of solid lead ore, but
of concentrating galena ore, for which purposes the very ample supply of water and water-
power of Mark Creek, 4,000 feet distant, will be easily available. Little prospecting had been
done, but this work had been sufficient to indicate the relative importance of this property
and the existence of an ore zone extending north and south, along which the ground has all
been located between the claims of this group and the North Star. From the exposures of
mineral there are evidently more than one lead in this belt, which further developing will
prove up. The three claims of the property lie across this belt, and there are evidently two
distinct ore-horizons, one on the Hope, the other on the Hamlet, or 12 to 1,500 feet apart.
The Hope.—On this claim for 7 to 800 feet there runs in a north and south direction a
heavily mineralized belt, with a strong iron capping of typical gossan, and in shallow surface cuts
are large exposures of mixed galena ore with considerable iron oxides resembling haematite,
and a little iron pyrites, blende and mispickle. About 800 feet south of this showing of ore
is a large exposure of light coloured, fine grained rock, more or less permeated with galena for
a width of nearly 125 feet, in which a few pop-holes had been fired. The galena is generally
arranged along the many small cracks in the rock mass, and if the amount of sulphides
increase as depth is attained this may prove to be a large mass of concentrating material.
The Hamlet.—About 1,500 feet west of these croppings on the Hope, some excellent out-
croppings of more or less solid galena ore had been stripped on the Hamlet Claim, and in
stripping off the surface debris, large boulders of fine and coarse grained galena, exposing in
situ at one place a body of solid galena ore eight feet wide. The dip and strike of this ore
had not then been determined, but Col. Ridpath had just arrived with men and supplies sufficient for a short campaign of prospecting. West of this exposure of ore, other galena in place
was uncovered, but beyond the many evidences of the presence of ore, probably in abundance,
but little could be really learned from the little surface work done. Near by on these claims
is highly altered rock with decided bedding planes, but also eruptive rock that in some places
might be classed as a diorite, and this eruptive rock appears to be associated with the mineral.
Other Claims.
As a result of the opening up of the fine ore-shute on the North Star, many locations
were made in this locality along this belt during the past season, and on some of these properties, with only a little work done, this galena ore has again been found, while there are strong
evidences of this belt along the strike, especially when crossed by the North Star road, where
all the wash and the rock material is very heavily iron stained.
The Quantrelle, Utopia and Stonewall Jackson, lying south of the Sullivan Group, owned
by F. P. Norbury, C. M. Edwards, et al., had some ore reported exposed in the work done for
assessment purposes, and these claims are said to have been sold to some gentlemen in Scotland.
The vein has been traced by open cuts for nearly 300 feet, with, in one cut, 6 to 10 inches of
solid galena, assays of which gave 18 to 23 ounces of silver per ton, and 55 to 57% lead. On
the Stonewall Jackson there is said to be a quartz vein 12 feet wide, with some galena in the
decomposed surface material, but, as on nearly all the other claims, little work has been done
to show what the true conditions are.
The Midnight, lying immediately north of the North Star, has had considerable work
done, with the disclosure of vein material.
The Deane and All-Over are owned by R. O. Jennings, C. D. Porter, and the Kansas City
Smelting and Refining Co., and have been prospected to some extent, uncovering some mineral
in place. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 521
Work has been done on other locations, but during this year this locality will be developed
to a much greater extent; claims of comparatively recent location will be properly prospected,
and if more large ore-bodies are opened up, quicker transport facilities may be supplied, as a
branch of the proposed new railroad can be built with very little trouble up along the foothills to the proximity of these mines.
St. Eugene Group.
On the south side of Moyie Lake, 33 miles south-west of Fort Steele, reached by the Dewd-
ney Trail, is an important group of claims extending south, up the mountain side from the
lake, of which the St. Eugene, Peter, Loretta and Rose (the last two fractional claims), Crown
grants applied for, are owned by J. Cronin et al,., with a part interest bonded to Jno. A. Finch,
who has been so successful in West Kootenay.
At an elevation of nearly 1,400 feet above the lake, in the flat-lying, highly-stratified
shales, quartzites and silicious limestones, a vein of nearly solid galena is being developed, in
a systematic manner, with a large amount of fine ore accumulating on the dump awaiting the
advent of a railway for good transportation facilities, as it is believed that the Crow's Nest
Pass R. R. must pass along this side of Moyie Lake, or within a very short distance of this
mine, and then these large bodies of lead-silver ore will become very valuable. The strike of
the vein is nearly east and west, with a dip of 65° to 80° south, and in the upper tunnel, No.
1, 170 feet long, for the first 40 feet there was found only mixed ore or galena, quartz, and
country rock, then followed the more solid ore, in which at 65 feet an upraise to the surface for
40 feet passed through nearly solid ore, which from this point in the tunnel to breast continues
as a solid glittering mass, 4 to 5 feet wide, of coarsely crystalline galena, while the face of the
drift on the day of examination (Sept. 30th) was all ore, or solid clean galena. At the mouth
of the tunnel a shaft was being sunk 6 by 10 feet, on a dip of 65° to 70°, and from top to bottom, or for nearly 35 feet, this working was all in solid galena ore, 5 to 6 feet thick, with the
bottom all in ore. Tunnel No. 2, 100 feet below No. 1, was run as a cross-cut for 100 feet, and
then for 300 feet along the supposed (but barren) course of the ledge, with but a short distance remaining to connect with the shaft above mentioned, which connection may serve to
show whether this tunnel has been following the vein fissure, or simply parallelling it.
On the surface, this vein has been well traced for 800 feet, especially above the upper
tunnel, where open cuts disclose mineral for nearly 600 feet, while to the west this vein passes
through several claims to be described. For the most part the galena is very coarsely crystalline, with a very little zinc blende, and several stringers or veinlets run off from the main vein
into the country rock, but the vein is pretty well hidden under the debris, on removing which
the ore en masse has been found.
On the dump the ore taken out in development work, was being piled up, and it was
claimed that in one large pile of clean galena ore the average values ran 45 to 50 ounces silver per ton, and 65 to 70% lead.
In another pile was collected a large amount of concentrating ore that would concentrate
about 2J tons to 1, but no ore was being extracted, except that mined in the exploration of
this property, which will be able to ship a large amount of this silver-lead ore as soon as the
means of easy shipment are supplied.
There is an abundant supply of good timber, good mine buildings had been erected, and
should a concentrator be erected at the lake, then an aerial-rope tramway, dropping down
1,200 feet, can easily be constructed to bring ore down to the railroad or the mill; but in the
meantime Mr. Cronin is contenting himself in developing these claims, and twelve men were
Between the St. Eugene Group and Moyie Lake, ore has been found in three claims, and
work was done during the past season, showing the continuation of the ore zone for nearly
4,000 feet.
Moyie and Queen of the Hills.
These two claims, owned by F. Houghton, C. E., Montreal, E. P. Davis, et al., were
located on the south-west of the St. Eugene Group, in June, 1893, and starting on the upper
or eastern end of the "Moyie" claim, and extending into the "Queen of the Hills," or about 1,500
feet westerly of Mr. Cronin's workings, the upper tunnel runs in on the vein, with 25 feet of
the ledge matter, carrying galena, carbonates and iron oxides, and then for 50 feet to the face
exposes a vein of solid coarsely crystalline galena, with some blende, 2 to 4 feet wide, narrow- 522 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
ing at the face of the tunnel.    On the dump were piled 2 to 300 tons of this ore, said to run
45 to 50 ounces silver per ton, and of course with a high percentage of lead.
On the surface there appears to be two leads, 4 to 500 feet apart, the southern one of
which is thought to be the extension of the St. Eugene vein, and several small cuts were made
in the iron-stained cap-rock, disclosing the galena more or less decomposed with quartz in the
very silicious limestone country rock. On the lower or western end of the "Moyie," 600 feet
lower down the mountain side, the lower tunnel was in 30 feet prospecting for ore that was
showing immediately across the side-line in cuts on the Lake Shore claim.
Thr Lake Shore.
This claim and the Legal Tender a fractional claim, owned by Chas C. Farrel et, al., lie
between the Moyie claim and the lake, and are crossed by the Dewdney trail. In several cuts
and strippings galena ore, more or less mixed or scattered, has been exposed, ore that has
assayed from 40 to 60 ounces silver per ton, besides the lead value. A working tunnel had
been started and was in 40 feet, with only a few inches of galena showing, but more work will
be done in the search for more continuous ore bodies, which may be found below in a less
scattered form. There is a good supply of mine'timber, and a new cabin was being constructed
below the workings near the trail.
Tracy Creek.
On Tracy or Wasa Creeks several veins have been located in the mountains of the
Rockies, and also nearly as far south as the Boundary Line, on which work is now progressing.
The Tracy Creek mines are a few miles east of Wasa (or Hanson's), and about 5,000 feet
above Kootenay River, and at present comprise two groups.
The Stella and Cashier, owned by G. Scott, A. Murtz et ah, Fort Steele, were located in
October, 1895, on the north side of Tracy Creek basin. The rocks are stratified, mostly
slates, with bands or dykes of eruptive rocks, and the quartz vein running N. E. by S. W. and
dipping at a flat angle or 28°, contains iron pyrites, galena and tetrahedrite, assays of which
have given from picked samples 130 ounces silver and $13 in gold per ton; also 14 % copper
and 5 % lead. A little work had been done, but supplies were being sent up to keep two
men employed all winter sinking an incline on the lead.
On the Skylark and Rover, south of the Stella Group, Capt. F. P. Armstrong is running
in a 200-foot tunnel on a galena vein of about 8 feet of mineralized calcareous quartzite, in
which much solid galena ore is seen, both coarsely crystalline and of the steel galena variety.
This vein can be traced throughout one claim with a strike S.E. and N.W. (mag.), and a dip
of 50° south, and shows very plainly in the face of the cliff, with bunches of the solid galena 8
to 12 inches wide. x\ssays yield 30 to 35 ounces of silver per ton, and 65 to 75 % lead, and
should mining operations be undertaken a good waggon road can easily be built right to these
Perry Creek.
Considerable excitement has been aroused by the discovery and location of several very
large quartz ledges on the north side of Perry Creek and west of Saw-Mill Creek, which flows
into Perry Creek, a tributary of the St. Mary's River and a stream much washed in the
seventies for placer gold, two or three miles above which placer ground, or by roads and trails
25 to 30 miles westerly from Cranbrook, these quartz leads are now located. For 5 miles
west and 2 miles east of Ellwood Creek, a small branch of Perry, the country has been all
located along the course of three, if not more, quartz ledges which have proved to be auriferous,
but to what value had not then been determined.
The three ledges seen by Mr. Hardman were running N. 10° W. and S. 10° E., or parallel
with the stratification of the country rock or slates, and standing nearly vertical about 1,200
feet apart. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 523
Vein No. 1, the first met with on going up from the Creek, running about north and
south with a dip from 50° to vertical, is 1J to 2 feet wide, and can be traced through 7 claims.
Although 13 claims (or over 3 miles) had been staked off along this lead, on which claims
owned by John Sherwood some surface work had been done, showing up the vein of whitish
granular quartz containing some iron pyrites and magnetite, from which free gold can be got
by crushing and panning samples.
Vein No. 2 is 1,200 feet west and 9 to 11 feet wide, on which are claims pegged off by
Jno. Sherwood, Chas. Ell wood (in August, 1896) and others, but little work had been done
except on the "Snow-Shoe" and "Sour Dough" in a 9-foot vein of solid quartz, with a
little iron pyrites, which had been clearly traced through 7 claims, or for nearly 10,000 feet,
while 2 miles south of these claims the vein is said to be again shown in some shallow cuts.
Assays of $6 in gold per ton had been got from this vein, and also fair prospects by panning.
Vein No. 3, or the "big vein," still further west about 1,200 feet from No. 2, is a quartzose
band in the slates over 40 feet wide, from which the locators claim to have got assays of $4 to
$15 in gold. Over four miles of locations have been made along this ledge in October, but
very little work had been done, although much will be done, as many claims have at the
present time been bonded or sold, and during the coming season much attention will be
directed to this creek, and also to the ground along the tributaries of the St. Mary's and Moyie
The timber on the Perry Creek locations is small and scanty, and if mills are erected they
will have to be down on Perry Creek, where is abundant water for milling purposes, about 500
feet below the small vein or No. 1, and 900 feet below the 40-foot vein. The mountains are
all much rounded and not cliffy, and should these veins prove to be rich enough in gold to pay,
there will not be much difficulty in getting in the necessary stamp mill machinery, etc.
The Dardanelles,
On the tributaries of the Wild Horse Creek, famous for the production in the past of its
placers, many mineral locations have been made, on one of which, the Dardanelles, mining was
being done. This claim and the " Mother Lode " and " Ethel," owned by Banks Bros, and
O. S. Frigeele, Fort Steele, lie on the mountain side 2,000 feet above Wild Horse Creek, and
1| miles by a steep trail from the arrastra on that creek (10 miles east of Fort Steele). The
quartz vein, 2 to 3 feet wide, striking N. W. by S. E., and dipping S. W. at an angle of 23° to
33°, contains a small amount of iron-pyrites and galena besides the gold values (not ascertained),
and can be traced for 4,000 feet in the country rock of slate. It is being developed by an
incline, in which the maximum width of ore is 4 feet, but at 130 feet the vein has split in two
or bifurcated, the upper part being about 10 inches wide, while the lower, dipping at an angle
of 45°, is only 3 inches wide. The ore is roasted in heaps at the mine, then rawhided down to a
new arrastra near by an overshot wheel, the arrastra being 9 feet in diameter, 2 feet 4 inches
deep, with 5 to 800 pound drags, arid equipped with 3 copper plates and blanket sluices. As
no clean-up had been made no details as to amount of gold being saved could be secured.
The Invicta Gold Mining (Placer) Co., Ltd., England
This English Company having secured about one mile along Wild Horse Creek, from
which much gravel had been washed during the last thirty years, during the past season began
the installation, under the superintendence of Mr. J. W. R. Young, M. E., of a requisite plant,
sluices, etc., for the hydraulicing of the large bank of gravel shown in the engraving, but as
there had been a long delay in the transportation of piping, monitors, etc., but little washing
could be attempted during the season, although about 70,000 cubic yards were moved, that
yielded, according to the annual report of this company, 7 cents per yard.
The bank is now about 5,000 feet long, and washed back 6 to 800 feet from the creek by
former holders of small claims, and now stands nearly vertical, showing several more or less
uniform strata dipping easily towards the creek, of which the (a.) upper stratum of 50 feet to 60
of top dirt carries no value; (b.) the next stratum or "red-dirt" is about 20 to 25 feet thick, and
so far has proved to be most profitable; (c.) the blue-dirt stratum, 35 feet thick in places, is so
solid that it has to be broken up by dynamite before hydraulicing; (d.) the alternate layers of
clay and conglomerate of considerable depth, are to be tested for their values, and these lie on
the bedrock of highly tilted chloritic slates. A large amount of dirt on the bedrock has not
been tested, but two shafts are being sunk this winter for this purpose,  which, if profitable, 524 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
may have to be washed out by driving in a tunnel from an advantageous point down the
creek, and then washing the dirt into sluices laid along this working.
There is a considerable number of rounded boulders too large for the sluices, that accumulate, and as yet no derricks have been supplied for their removal, in case the ground now
underlying is washed out down to the gutter.
Dump.—A large amount of boulders collect at the outlet of the sluices, which are then
extended out towards the stream as these pile up; the finer dirt collects more or less in the
stream, but is all sluiced out by the yearly freshets.
Water—Is supplied by two ditches on the north side of the creek, of which the "China"
ditch, 3| miles long, supplies, when running full, 1,000 miners inches of water, and the "Victoria" ditch, 4| miles long, 1,500 inches, the former supplying the water to the monitors in the
pit, under a head of 250 feet, the latter of 350 feet. The water usually begins to rise about
the middle of May, with a good head about June 1st, which lasts from 3 to 4 months and then
begins to decrease rapidly, so that effective hydraulicing can only be done for about five
months in favourable seasons.
Plant.—From the pressure boxes at the ditches, two pipe lines, 1,300 feet apart, consisting
of steel pipe of 16 to 10 gauge and 22 to 12 inches in diameter, lead down into the pit where,
when the water supply is full, one No. 4, one No. 3, and two No. 2 monitors are used. Water
is also used by letting it cut down the bank by running over the edge as shown in the engraving.
Sluices.—There are two about 650 feet long each, 3 by 3 feet, with a grade of 8 inches to
16 feet. No mercury is used or under-currents, as there is claimed to be no fine gold, 95% of
the yield being saved in the upper 100 feet of boxes.
An electric light plant of 12,000 candle power is driven by a Pelton wheel, and serves to
light all the workings and permit night working.
Cost of Labour.—Pipemen receive $3.50 per 12 hours, and whitemen for other labour $3,
and Chinamen $2.50 per 10 hours. During the coming season the company will be so equipped
for work that they may avail themselves of the full water supply, and thus handle a much
larger amount of dirt, and plans for future working of the property will be perfected.
Nip-and-Tuck Gold Mining Co.
This placer mining company of Vancouver, has rights over the placer ground below the
Invicta ground, but on the south side of Wild Horse. There is a ditch about 5 miles long for
the water supply, and as Mr. J. H. Cunard, Superintendent, was engaged near the head of the
water-way on the day of visit, he could not be seen for further particulars, but a very good
clean-up is said to have been the result of the season's washings.
Quite a number of Chinamen are washing on small leases, and down in the canyon they
were building a large flume, so as to be able to work out the creek bottom in low water.
The building of the Crow's Nest Pass R. R., and the demand for coal, and more especially
coke, are attracting much attention now to the large deposits of coal that will be made available by this railway, and by the splendid coking qualities of this coal, or of a large part of it,
and the subjoined report by Dr. Selwyn, late Director of the Geological Survey of Canada,
will be of great interest at this present juncture. From the analysis given it will be seen that
an excellent coke, very low in ash, can be produced; a coke not excelled by any other made in
the west; and as large smelting works are now being constructed, this fuel supply will be
a valuable factor in the smelting of the ores of this Province within her own borders. With
the advent of the railway, the oil fields described will also receive that exploration their surface indications warrant.
Report on the Coal Fields.
In connection with this may be quoted the following extracts from the Summary Report
on the operations of the Geological Survey of Canada, for 1891, giving an account of a visit of
Dr. Selwyn, C. M. G., into these coal fields and oil fields, in the summer of 1891:—
"On the 31st of July, Colonel Baker joined me here, and on the following day we camped
at the east end of Crow's Nest Lake, and on the next day, 2nd of August, we reached the coal
prospecting camp, situated about 1,200 feet above the trail, on the ridge which runs in a 1
H?¥      , •■■'
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o 60 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
north-easterly direction between Marten Creek and Michel Creek, and form the west side of
the valley of the west branch of Michel Creek. From this ridge a number of spurs, with
steep intervening gullies, descend abruptly to the trail; in these, and on the intervening ridges,
a wonderful series of coal seams is disclosed, one above the other from near the level of the
trail to the summit of the ridge. No exact measurements were taken, and it may be that some
of the lower cannel seams are the upper ones repeated by faulting. The out-crops which can
be seen on the ground are as follows, twenty seams in all, showing a total thickness of 132
feet of coal:—
(Peter seam) 15 feet.
(Selwvn seam) 6
No. 1 to 10,
(Jubilee    i
5  .
are    can
(Williams n
„ '
nel coals.
These   4   are
..   2
cannel coals.
..   2
II     '
"The number and thickness of these seams in the above table are as supplied by Mr'
Fernie, who has superintended all the exploratory work that has been done on the seams.
Between the eastern out-crops I examined, and the western ones close to the junction of Marten
Creek and the west branch of Michel Creek, is a distance of about two miles along the steep
mountain side, to the north of the trail. Within this distance the out-crops were seen of nearly
all these seams, either on the ridges or in the sides of the ravines which score the face of the
mountain. The few hours I was able to spend on the ground, while not sufficient to enable
me to affirm the absolute correctness of the details of the table, were, however, ample to enable
me to see that there is in the Crow's Nest Pass, between the eastern summit, 4,330 feet above
tide, and the valley of Elk River, in British Columbia, an area of not less than 144 square
miles, that is destined to be one of the most valuable and most productive coal fields in Canada.
A rough calculation would give about 49,952,000 tons per square mile. If one-half of this is
available, there are in each square mile 24,976,000 tons. The average elevation of the field is
about the same as that of Canmore and Banff, or between 4,000 and 5,000 feet. From Pincher
Creek westward to Elk River the Pass presents no difficulties for railway construction. The
eastern entrance to the Pass in Alberta is 3,800 feet, and where it comes out on Elk River is
3,300 feet, the highest intervening summit being 5,500 feet. A better route to the Elk River,
however, than that of the present trail, would be to follow down Michel Creek, from near the
eastern summit, and thus avoid the western and higher summit, and reach Elk River about
ten miles above the mouth of Coal Creek. The distance through the Pass from Lee's Lake,
Alberta, to the Elk River, is about thirty-seven miles.
" On the 4th August, after devoting the forenoon to a further examination of the Marten
Creek seams, we proceeded through the Pass and reached Elk River at 6 p.m. No coal seams
were seen until about four miles above the mouth of Coal Creek; here, at the mouth of a steep
rock gulley, about 200 yards to the right of the trail, a fine seam of coal, 7 feet thick, had been
cut into.    The section exposed showed, in descending order:—
Shale 10 feet.
Hard ferruginous band    1      n
Coal    1.6  ii
Shale    7.6 „
Coal    7.6  ,i
"Cherty conglomerate and massive gritty sandstones are seen both above and below; the
dip is about E. 10 degrees, N. 15 degrees—20 degrees. A close search along the mountain
side, between here and the water-shed at the head of Coal Creek, would almost certainly disclose the out-crops of many more of the Marten Creek seams.
" On the 5th August we descended the Elk River Valley about seven miles, then turning
to the left ascended the mountain, a steep climb of 1,500 feet.    Here on top of a broken-down 526 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
et, 100 feet from No.   6
ii    100
„      7
„    100
ii          i,      8
„    100
„      9
„    100
„    10
„    200
i,    11
cliff of massive sandstone, about 50 feet thick, we came to the first of a series of coal seams,
the dip being E. 20, N. 35, and the seam 25 to 30 feet thick, with a shale parting about 2 feet,
barometer 24.93. Ascending 130 feet, over shales and brown thick bedded sandstone, forming
a similar broken-down cliff of about 50 feet, a second seam of coal was reached, also 30 feet
thick, bar. 24.80.    Above this four more seams were examined:—
No. 3 15 feet, bar. 24.57
„ 4    4    „ „    24.50
„ 5       7    „ „    24.42
„ 6 30    „ ,,    24.35
" Above No. 6 there are six more seams which were not visited, but the particulars of
which, given to me by Mr. Fernie, are as follows:—
No.   7 10 feet.
„      8    4
i,      9    7
,,    10    2
„    11    7
„   12   4     ^^^^
" The distances are approximate only; they have not been measured.
" The above gives a total thickness of 148 feet of coal against 132 feet in Marten Creek
area on the eastern side of the basin, while in other respects the seams correspond so closely as
to make it almost certain that, except where cut out in the valleys, they are continuous
beneath the whole intervening area. For much detailed information respecting the Crow's
Nest Pass, the annual report of the Geological Survey, Volume I., Part B, 1885, already
cited, and the accompanying map can be referred to.
" Many of the seams are first-class coking coals and other are good gas coals, but none of
them are anthracites. For analyses of those of the Jubilee and Peter seams, Marten Creek,
see Annual Report of the Geological Survey, Volume III., Part IL, pp. 12s to 15s, and for
those of the "cannel" seams, Volume IV., pp. 7r and 8r."
Report and Analyses of Samples of Coal.
The following is the report and analyses of the various samples of coal made by G. C.
Hoffman, Esq., F. Inst. C, Chemist and Mineralogist of the Geological Survey of Canada:—
Coal.—From the Peters seam, second crossing Marten Creek, Crow's Nest Pass, Rocky
Mountains, British Columbia. Seam said to be 14 feet thick. Geological position, cretaceous
Kootanie series. Taken thirty feet in from outcrop. Locality referred to by Dr. Geo. M.
Dawson in Annual Report for 1895, p. 75b.
"This coal has crumpled, foliated structure; shows slicken-sides; colour, greyish black to
black; lustre, resinous; that of the slicken-sided surfaces occasionally inclining to vitreous;
firm, fracture, irregular; slightly soils the fingers; does not contain any interlaminated calcite,
but occasionally here and there a delicate film of iron pyrites; powder brownish-black; it communicates a faint brownish-yellow tinge to a boiling solution of caustic potash; resists exposure
to the air.
"Specific gravity, 1.3052 (temp., 15.5 degress C). Weight of one solid cubic foot, calculated from the specific gravity, 81.57 pounds.
" Analyses by slow and fast coking gave:—
Slow Fast
Coking. Coking.
Hygroscopic water  1.79 1.79
Volatile combustible matter  25.45 33.04
Fixed carbon    69.14 61.55
Ash  3.62 3.62
100.00 100.00
Coke per cent    72.76 65.17
Ratio of volatile combustible matter to fixed carbon 1 to    2.72        1 to    1.86 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 527
An ultimate analysis gave (exclusive of sulphur, ash and hygroscopic water) :—
Slow Fast
Coking. Coking.
Carbon   80.51 85.57
Hydrogen      5.20 5.53
Oxygen and nitrogen      8.37 8.90
Sulphur 51  ,
Ash      3.62 	
Hygroscopic water      1.79 	
100.00 100.00
"Calorific power, experimental, determined by Thomson's Calorimeter:—
Indicated power of fuel in calories  . 8,050
Indicated evaporated power, 14.99 pounds of water (at 100 deg. C.) per pound
fuel, deducting the units of heat necessary to vaporize the hydroscopic and combined
water of combustion of the fuel, we have an indicated power of fuel in calories. ... 7,790
Indicative evaporative power, 14.1 pounds of water (at 100 deg. C.) per pound
fuel, and these latter figures will express the greatest effect obtainable from this fuel
in generating steam. Calorific power, theoretical, calculated from its chemical composition :—
Expressed in calories 7,990
Pounds of water (at 100 deg. C.) evaporated by 1 R). fuel 14.39
Deducting from these figures the heat units required to vaporize the hygroscopic and combined water, and water of combustion of the fuel, we obtained the
following values:—
Expressed in calories 7,730
Pounds of water (at 100 deg. C.) evaporated by 1 lb. fuel 14.39
Which gave the closest approximation to the available heat. It yielded by slow coking a noncoherent coke; by fast coking a compact, firm, coherent coke in concentratic layers, in which
the form of the particles of coal from which it has been derived is entirely obliterated; gases
evolved during the coking burnt with a yellow, luminous, smoky flame. Colour of the ash,
white, with a faint, reddish tinge; exposed to a bright red heat it does not become agglutinated; at a most intense red heat it becomes slightly fritted."
Coal.—From the Jubilee seam, second crossing Marten Creek, Crow's Nest Pass, Rocky
Mountains, British Columbia. Seam said to be 30 feet thick. Geological position, cretaceous
Kootanie series. Taken fifty feet in from outcrop. Locality referred to by Dr. Geo. M.
Dawson in Annual Report for 1885, p. 75b.
The description given of the immediately preceding coal, viz., that from the Peter seam,
applies also to this one, the only difference being that this coal did not contain any visible
iron pyrites, and communicated a very pale, brownish yellow, and hence a somewhat more
decided colour to a boiling solution of caustic potash.
" Specific gravity, 1.3088 (temp. 15.5 deg. O). Weight of one solid cubic foot, calculated
from the specific gravity, 81.80.
"Analyses by slow and fast coking gave:—
Slow Fast
Coking. Coking.
Hygroscopic water  1.89 1.89
Volatile combustible matter  24.88 30.41
Fixed carbon  68.86 63.38
Ash  4 37 4.37
100.00 100.00
Coke, per cent    73.23 67.70
Ratio of volatile combustible matter to fixed carbon 1 to    2.77 1 to    2.08 528 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
"An ultimate analyses gave (exclusive of sulphur, ash and hygroscopic water):—
Slow Fast
Coking. Coking.
Carbon    80.04 85.82
Hydrogen      4.94 5.30
Oxygen and nitrogen ,      8.28 8.88
Sulphur 48 	
Ash      4.37 	
Hygroscopic water      1.89 	
100.00 100.00
"Calorific power, experimental, determined by Thompson's Calorimeter:—
Indicated power of fuel in calories 8050
Indicated evaporative power, 14.99  pounds  of water (at  100 C.)
per pound of fuel.
Deducting the units of heat  required  to  vaporize  the hygroscopic  and combined water, and
water of combustion of the fuel we have an—
Indicated power of fuel in calories 7990
Indicated evaporative power, 14.51 pounds of water (at 100 deg.
C.) per pound of fuel.
And these latter figures will express the greatest effect obtainable from this fuel, when used in
generating steam.
"Calorific power, theoretical, calculated from its chemical composition:—
Expressed in calaries , 7990
Pounds of water (at 100 deg. C.) evaporated by 1 lb. of fuel. . . . 14.88
Deducting- from these figures the heat units required to vaporize the hygroscopic and combined
water, and water of combustion of the fuel, we obtain the following:—
Expressed in calories      7618
Pounds of water (at 100 deg. C.) evaporated by 1 5>. of fuel. . . . 14.18
Which latter gives the closest approximation to the available heat. It yields, by slow coking
a non-coherent coke; by fast coking, a compact, firm, coherent coke, in concentric layers, in
which the form of the particles of coal from which it has been derived, is entirely obliterated;
gases evolved during coking, burnt with a yellow, luminous, smoky flame. Colour of ash, white;
exposed to a bright red heat, it remains unaffected, at a most intense red heat it becomes fritted."
Coal.—From second crossing, Marten Creek, Crow's Nest Pass, Rocky Mountains, British
Columbia. There are said to be four seams of this particular material at this locality, having
a thickness of respectively, 3, 4, 5 and 6 feet Geological position,   Cretaceous, Kootanie series.
"Structure compact, made up of more or less spherical or lenticular shaped nodular grains
of pitch-black colour and brilliant lustre, thickly disseminated through a matrix of dull grayish-
black coaly matter. Does not soil the fingers; tough; sonorous; fracture somewhat irregular,
with a tendency to large conchoidal; powder, brownish-black; it communicates a reddish-
brown colour to a boiling solution of caustic potash. Takes fire in a lamp-flame, burning with
a yellow, luminous flame which, however, dies out almost immediately after withdrawal from
the source of heat. Resist exposure to the air. From a microscopic examination of thin
slices of this coal, it is inferred that the aforementioned nodular grains consist of an altered
resinous matter.
"Analyses by slow coking and fast coking gave:—
Slow Fast
Coking. Coking.
Hygroscopic water  2.10 2.10
Volatile combustible matter  44.41 57.71
Fixed carbon  43.63 30.33
Ash  9.86 9.86
100.00 100.00
Coke, per cent    53.49 40.19
Ratio of volatile combustible matter to fixed carbon 1 to .98 1 to .52 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 529
"It yields by slow coking, a bulky, coherent, highly vesicular coke; by fast coking, a firm
and lustrous coke in concentric layers, in which the form of the particles of coal from which
it has been derived is entirely obliterated, and of about the same, or if anything, less bulk
than the original coal. When heated in a covered crucible, it produces a very large amount of
gases which burn with a yellow, luminous, very smoky flame. Colour of the ash, pale reddish-
white, when exposed to a bright red heat it remains unaffected, at a most intense red heat it
becomes slightly sintered.
"This material constitutes an excellent gas coal, not only by reason of the large amount
of volatile combustibe matter it is capable of affording, in which respect it is superior to a very
large number of cannel coals, which are employed for gas-making, but also from the fact that
this would appear to be of superior quality for illuminating purposes."
Report on Oil Fields.
The following are extracts from Dr. Selwyn's report of his visit in 1891, to the oil fields,
situated in the south of East Kootenay (see Summary Report, Geological Survey of Canada,
1891, pp. 9, 10):—
"Cameron Falls Brook is a rapid mountain stream eight or ten yards wide. After following it up about a mile and a half on the left bank, Mr. Fernie, my guide, remarked that we
must be close to where the oil had been seen. He had scarcely spoken when, while still in the
saddle and on the trail eight or nine feet above the brook, I noticed a powerful odour of
petroleum. Descending to the edge of the water and stirring the stones and gravel in the bed
of the stream, considerable quantity of oil at once rose to the surface and floated away. Crossing
to the right bank, some inches above the then level of the stream, here, skimming off the
surface of a shallow pool, a wine bottle full was soon collected. This can now be seen in the
Geological Survey Museum. Sixty or seventy yards below where the oil was seen, a rocky
reef of gray silicious dolomite crosses the creek and rises into a steep bluff on the left bank; on
the right bank, seven or eight feet above the creek, a broad, thickly timbered flat extends for
150 yards to the base of the bordering mountains, which culminate six miles to the south-west
at the boundary monument, 6,000 feet above sea level. No work whatever has been done to
test the nature of the oil sources. A comparatively small outlay for some shallow sinking or
boring on the flat above described would do this.
"On the 24th, we proceeded down the valley, and about four miles north of the 49th
parallel the trail came down to the level of the brook, and here, on the edge of a beaver clam
pool, there were ledges of dark blue shale dipping E. 30°, N. 12°. Lifting layers of this at and
below the water, a quantity of dark green circular parches of oil rose to the surface, and a precisely similar result followed by stirring- up the mud in the bottom of the pool. This place is
about 15 miles in a direct line west, 10 degrees south, from the occurrance on Cameron Falls
Creek, the main watershed of the Rocky Mountains and Mounts Kirby, Spence and Yarrell
intervening, oil is said, by the Indians (the Stoneys) who frequent this region, to occur at other
points, in the Akamiria Brook Valley, both above and below that recorded. The Akamina
joins the Flathead River in Montana, about four miles south of the International Boundary.
The Beaver dam oil is of a dark greenish-black, and does not apparently differ much from that
of Cameron Falls Creek. Preliminary tests might be made here by sinking a shallow shaft in
the shales at the Beaver dam pool, and by boring on the sandy and gravelly flat country about
two miles and a half north of the boundary line.
At about a mile and a half higher up, the creek leaves the high mountains, which border
its upper course in a north-easterly direction up to the main watershed some twelve miles distant, and here, at the edge of the water, on the left bank, I found hard, dark flinty shales like
those at the Beaver dam pool on the Akamina, dipping S. 25 degrees, 30 degrees, W. 25
degrees. Directly the layers of this rock are raised, the oil rises and spreads over the surface
of the water in such abundance that a short time suffices, with the aid of a tin cup, to collect
a bottle full. Here, also a considerable quantity of gas escapes from the cracks and joints in
the rock, and ignites freely on the application of a match.
"Less than half a mile higher up, on the right bank and on the opposite or west side of
the valley, oil was again found issuing from the base of the bank or drift, which has here filled
the valley and causes the stream to make a sharp bend eastward to the base of the opposite
mountain. No rock was exposed here, but every stone in the bed of the creek, especially on
being broken  or rubbed,  gave out a strong odor of petroleum.    The oil collected here, a 530 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
sample of which can be seen in the Museum, differs entirely in appearance from those of the
Cameron Falls Creek and Akamina or Kish-e-ne-nah Creek. Some of it was of a light lemon-
yellow, but most of it nearly the colour of pale brandy and with a very powerful petroleum odor."
Some prospecting work was done during the past season, most of it in the Selkirks, but
also some in the Rockies, and from the very fine samples of ore seen, and the reports of the
characteristics of the ledges, a large and rich section of the country is awaiting easier means of
access, and the transport of ore to smelting centres.
The Thunder Hill property, lJr miles west of Upper Columbia Lake, was standing idle,
the ore having proved unsuitable for concentrating, for which purpose a mill was erected on
the lake, but recently this property has been tested for its gold values, but with what result
is not known. The ledge is reported to be very large, and if it contains gold in paying quantity, it should be thoroughly exploited.
Bugaboo Creek.—Six miles west of the Spillimacheen Landing or Galena, Mr. F. W.
Aylmer of Golden, was working the "Balrath" group of two claims, on which crossing the
slates and quartzites, was a wide vein strike, N. W. and S. E., dip 70°, about 16 feet wide, of
which 11 feet were solid fine-grained opaque quartz, and 5 feet broken slate and quartz
stringers. A cross-cut tunnel, 150 feet long, cuts the vein, where is 9 feet of quartz carrying
about 20% iron pyrites. Mr. Aylmer has got assays of $2.50 to $36 in gold per ton, and if it
proves^to be profitable enough for milling, there is abundant and excellent water power right
at the mine.
Toby Creek.—Prospecting was in progress in this country, now opened up by a trail, and
veins 10 to 22 inches wide of silver-bearing galena were being located.
Vermont Creek.—From Well's Landing, 30 miles north of Golden, a sleigh road leads
back 22 miles up the south fork of the Spillimacheen to Vermont Creek, where on the
"Minnie," "Ruth" and "Charlotte," located in 1893, Capt. Armstrong had mined over 150 tons
of galena ore, carrying zinc blende.
McMurdo District.—Some prospecting was being done, and assessment work, but nothing
was doing on the "Bobbie Burns" and "International," gold quartz veins situated along
branches of the Spillimacheen.
Some have waited long and patiently for the wave of mining interest to flow through this
large territory, and it will not be long now before the hidden resources here will receive that
careful examination they merit.
The chief statistics are—
1895. 1896. Increase.
Free Miner's Certificates         404         537           33 per cent.
Other Mining Receipts   $ 2,203  10 $    2,873  26    76       „
Value of Mineral Output    17,575 00      154,427 00 779      „
The value of the output from placer mines has decreased in consequence of several
properties formerly worked by hand passing into the hands of hydraulic companies, who did
not get their plant into operation until the best part of the season was over. The wash-up
for the balance of the season was satisfactory to the proprietors, and both companies on Wild
Horse Creek are now well prepared for next year's work. A little desultory placer mining
was done on other creeks, but the proceeds were small.
The output from lode mines is practically confined to shipments from the North Star
Mine. This would have been larger but for accidents to two of the largest steamers transporting the ore, one being laid up for a month, and another being sunk at the beginning of the
best stage of water. The shipments from this mine consisted of 2,544 tons of ore, yielding
83,220 ounces of silver and 3,179,807 lbs. lead.
Development work has been done on the Sullivan group, on Mark Creek, on the Cronin
group, on Moyie Lakes, on the Dibble group, on Lost Creek, and on a few others, while the 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 531
work on the bulk of the claims has been confined to the necessary representation. The Cronin
group has much ore on the dump, but will not make shipments until the construction of the
Crow's Nest Railway, which is expected to pass close to the mine.
During the past season some capital has been secured, and the spring of 1897 will see
more men at work on development than any previous season.
Fine prospects, on which little work has been done, are numerous, and capitalists who
are willing to assist in development work, can find profitable investments.
The number of prospectors in the district has increased, but the majority of them have
only enough capital to locate and represent their claims, and without more financial strength
the progress of mining will be slow.
If the Provincial Mineralogist could visit and make a report on the district at an early
date next summer, it would be of great advantage to the mining interests, for a thorough
examination by a thoroughly competent person, will be of more value than the information
which I could give as to the mineral character of the different localities.
As a great influx of prospectors and investors is expected next season, I add to my report
a list of the localities in which lode mines have been located or worked during the season,
together with a description of the means of access to the office of each division mentioned. I
consider that the district has a good number of useful trails; they have not always been
located to the best advantage, but they are being gradually and systematically improved, and
in laying out new trails, the question of gradual gradients is kept in view, and where advisable
the trails are built on a location fit for a waggon road.
Means of Communication, Etc.
In this district, the Mining Recorder for each division, has his office in the town from
which the division is named.
Fort Steele is centrally located for its division, and is a good point for the purchase of
supplies. It can be reached from Golden, B. C, on the C. P. R., and from Jennings, Montana,
on the Great Northern Railroad, by steamer during the season of navigation, and by stage
during the rest of the year, and by the Moyie trail from West Kootenay via Goat River, and by
the St. Mary's trail from Kootenay Lake via Pilot Bay. The trunk road from Golden to Fort
Steele is in good order, and fit for the transportation of heavy loads; waggon roads radiate
from Fort Steele to Cranbrooke, to a point on the St. Mary's River near Mark Creek, to the
placer mines on Wild Horse Creek, and to the International Boundary Line at Tobacco
Plains.    With the exception of the last, these roads are in good order.
Windermere is situated on the trunk road on the line of navigation from Golden. It
is in a good farming country where produce can be purchased at reasonable prices. The
northern part of the division situate at the head of the Kootenay is, from want of trails, difficult
of access, though not distant from stations on the C. P. R. in Alberta.
Golden is on line of the C. P. R., and is well supplied with stores. All supplies for points
south are sent from this place by boat or waggon, to the different landings from which the
trails diverge.
In the Donald division, the trails are built from the different railway stations. The
northern part of the division is almost unexplored.
How access can be obtained to the different localities mentioned in the above list:—
Fort Steele Mining Division.
MarK Creek is reached by a waggon road, from the North Star steamer Landing, on the
Kootenay. This road will serve as the outlet for many claims with which it can be connected
at a small expense. The mouth of Perry Creek is not far from the end of the St. Mary's
waggon road, and it is intended to continue this road some distance up the creek in 1897.
The other tributaries of the St. Mary's, can be reached by a good trail, completed in 1896,
from the end of St. Mary's waggon road to the head of Lansdowne Creek. This new trail
was located with easy gradients, and enables horses to carry a good load; at the summit it
connects with a West Kootenay trail from Pilot Bay. The Moyie claims are near the old
Walla trail, and can be reached either from Fort Steele or from Rykerts. Weaver Creek can
be reached by a trail from Cranbrooke. All the claims on the east side of the Kootenay are
reached from the steamer landings and the trunk road by comparatively short trails. 532 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Windermere Mining Division.
Some of the claims on Findlay Creek are easy of access, others are situated beyond the
A good cattle trail was completed in 1896, from the Columbia River, along Toby Creek
and its North Fork to Hauser Lake in West Kootenay ; there is also a trail up the South
Fork to the summit of the Selkirks.
The claims on Horse Thief Creek are difficult of access at present. Short trails to
Windermere mountains diverge from the trunk road.
Vermillion River, at the head of the Kootenay, is very difficult of access for reasons
given above.
Golden Mining Division.
Bugaboo Creek is reached by a trail from Spillimacheen Landing, 50 miles by river from
Golden. A trail from Carbonate Landing, 20 miles by river from Golden, reaches the claims
on the three forks of the Spillimacheen ; there is also a sleigh road from Vermont Creek on
the South Fork to the North Fork Trail, and thence to Wells Landing on the Columbia River,
30 miles above Golden. There is a trail up Fifteen Mile Creek, from its mouth. A trail was
constructed in 1896, from Golden Landing to a point on Canyon Creek, above the Canyon,
and thence upward.
All these trails lead into the McMurdo Country, and will be a great help to the numerous
prospectors who are likely to enter this division in 1897, as supplies can be packed in on
horses to the very summit of the Selkirks.
Trails from the C. P. R. line, lead to the claims on the Kicking Horse and its tributaries.
Donald Mining Division.
A good trail, eight miles in length, was constructed in 1896, from Donald to Bald
Mountain. The trail to Porcupine Creek, from a point on the C. P. R., between Donald and
Beavermouth, is not in good order, but passable.
A trail is being constructed by yearly instalments from Bear Creek Station to Prairie
Mountain. It is now practicable for men on foot with heavy packs, and it is intended to make
it passable for horses in 1897.
A short trail from Beavermouth Station leads to the claims in that vacinity.
An expensive trail on the east bank of the Columbia leads from Donald to Kinbasket
Lake. It has been little used lately, as prospectors have given very little attention to that
section of the division. 60 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Mining Operations in East Kootenay, 1896, as per Records.
Fort Steele Mining Division.
Black Currant
South Fork,
St. Mary's Lake
Middle Fork,
West Fork,
Hell Roaring
Moyie Lake
Moyie River
Wild Horse
Bull River,
Land Creek,
Elk River,
Creek,   St.   Mary's   River.
Creek, tributary of Moyie River....
,i Kootenay River.
Windermere Division.
Findlay         Creek, western tributary of Kootenay.
Toby                 H                   M                      Columbia.
Horse Thief      n                      n                                 n
Windermere Mountain, east of                          n
Vermillion River, head of Kootenay River	
Golden Mining Division.
Bugaboo Creek, western tributary of Columbia
South Fork of Spillimacheen, m m
Middle Fork, „ „
North M ii ii
Fifteen-Mile Creek, „ ,,
Spillimacheen Mountain, near western bank, Columbia. ..
Jubilee Mountain, „ M
Steamboat Butte, h n
Kicking Horse River, near C. P. R	
Donald Mining Division.
Bald Mountain, south of Donald	
Porcupine Creek, n 	
Prairie Mountain, east of Glacier	
Beaver River, h 	
Beavermouth, near C. P. R	
Kimbasket Lake, 30 miles north of C. P. R	
Blaeberry Creek, eastern tributary of Columbia
Total for East Kootenay	
O  r^
m 2
a) 3
2 S
m O
id   Ih
Nature of Ore.
Galena and copper.
Copper, galena.
Galena, copper.
Galena, gold copper.
Grey copper, gold.
Galena, copper, iron.
Galena, gold.
Copper, gold, galena.
Copper, galena.
Ochre, copper.
Galena, gold.
Galena, bismuth.
Gold, galena.
Gold, galena, copper.
Copper, galena.
Galena, copper.
Not reported.
Not reported. 534 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
(See Bulletins at end of Report."
By J. D. Graham, Gold Commissioner, Revelstoke.
Returns from Mining Recorders.
Revelstoke. Illicilliwaet.  Trout Lake.      Lardeau.
Mineral claims recorded         135 64 208                128
Placer claims           h                     3 ... 1
do               re-recorded               1 ... ...                 ...
Placer leases held          26 ... 1
do           applied for            9 ... 1               ...
Certificates of work recorded               28 33 93                  20
Bills of sale recorded           77 39 80                  28
Gold Commissioners' permissions recorded         24 3 ...                 ...
Payments in lieu of assessment         ... ... ...                     1
Revenue Collected.
Free Miners' Certificates    $1,507 $275 $   535          $271
Mining receipts      3,701.35 506.50 1,244.45       676.75
Placer Claims—French Creek and Consolation Creek Claims.
This property laid idle during a portion of the year, through a dispute amongst the partners, hut this has been settled, and since re-commencing work they have averaged about $200
a week in gold dust; a good showing when taking into consideration the fact that only one
man is employed drifting out of the five men employed at the mine. Quantity of gold taken
out since report, $1,600.
Honduras, Nugget, Gold Hill, Chicago and Royal.—These properties have been acquired
by the French Creek Mining Co., registered, incorporated under the laws of the State of
Michigan; capital, $2,000,000. No work has been done beyond testing the ground, with a
view to installing a large hydraulic plant next year. A saw-mill plant is at present stored at
Revelstoke for this company, having been received too late to be forwarded on to its destination.
The owners of this property took advantage of the amendment to the Placer Act, and
paid in the amount in lieu of doing the necessary work, and they are sanguine that they are in
possession of a good property, and intend installing a very large hydraulic plant next year.
Fairhaven, Bellingham Bay and True Blue.—These properties have had no work done on
them this year beyond testing the ground, to find out the necessary plant required. The
owners have notified me that they intend taking advantage of the amendment to the Placer
Act, and pay in the amount in lieu of assessment work. They are very wealthy Chicago
gentlemen, and intend installing a large plant this next spring, or working it with the French
Creek Mining Co., which would be more advantageous to both parties on account of dumping
ground. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 535
Little Falls (creek claim).—This is considered to be good property, being an extension of
the Consolation Mine.
McCulloch Creek.
Ophir Bed Rock Flume Co. (creek diggings).—This company have sunk a shaft through
solid rock, 8 by 8 by 32 feet deep; run a tunnel 6 by 6, 72 feet in length, through solid rock;
cross-cut through solid rock for 22 feet, and run up stream on vein rock for a distance of 75
feet; 8 men have been employed all the year, and about $400 in gold have been taken out.
This company is at present on the bed rock of the creek, and it is expected will be repaid for
all their trouble and expense in opening up this claim.
North Star (creek diggings).—This claim will be worked all this winter. No gold has
been taken out.
Camp Creek.
Imperial, Unique, Senate.—The owners of the Imperial claim sank a shaft on their
property about 15 feet deep, but were driven out by the quicksands. The owners of the
Unique and Senate have been working sinking shafts and putting in flumes, etc., with a view
of opening up next season.
Hidden Treasure.—Eight men were employed on this claim last winter, and took out
about $400 in gold; since worked out.
Big Hole.—Four men were employed on this claim last winter, and took out about $800
in gold; since worked out.
Columbia River.
Columbia Hydraulic Mining Co. (Reg.).—This company installed an expensive hydraulic
plant this year, which has proved a success; amount of gold taken out, $1,427.
Mr. Nason has been employed for two seasons superintending the work of the Columbia
Hydraulic Mining Co.; at the same time he has devoted a good deal of his attention examining
the various creeks as to their condition for hydraulic mining, etc.
Smith Creek.
Several claims were worked on this creek during the summer.    No gold was taken out.
Four new leases were issued lately on this creek, and application made for seven more.
The British Columbia and United States Mining Co., an incorporated company, have made
arrangements with holders of the various leases to work this creek as an hydraulic bedrock
flume proposition, and have arranged to install a very extensive plant next spring. This will,
no doubt, depend on transportation facilities; at the present time it is very unsatisfactory
packing up supplies, but it is hoped that a steamer will be placed on the river from Revelstoke
to Death Rapids, which will leave only about 20 miles of packing, instead of 60 to 70 as at
Mineral Claims.
McCulloch Creek, Ground Hog Basin.—This season the old time interest in the Big Bend
country was partially revived, on account of the location of veins carrying free gold.
Thirty one claims in this basin were recorded during the season, in addition to ten others
located late in the fall of 1895.
Assessment work was done on a few of the claims, and by all reports they have improved
as depth was attained.
Many of the claims in this basin have been bonded to English capitalists, particulars of
which are more fully set out later on.
Orphan Boy Mining Co.—The Orphan Boy mineral claim is situated on McColloch Creek,
Big Bend district, and lies south-east of the Last Chance mineral claim, about 65 miles north
of Revelstoke.
The officers of the company for the year 1897, are: Pres., J. W. Haskins; Vice-Pres., H.
N. Coursier; Secy.-Treas,, H. A. Brown; Directors, C. P. Carlyon and T. C. Whitney.
The company has sunk a shaft 45 feet, and run a drift 117 feet, the face of the drift is in
solid ore, and shows up a lead of 10 feet in width, the assay value and mill tests of which are:— zs. $ 140
Gold. Value.
No. 1 Assay, sulphurets of iron      7    c
ii 2       M      talc or casing      \
ii 3       n      decomposed quartz      3.6
ii 4       ii      quartz showing no free gold      \
ii 5       n      cream quartz  64
n 6 mill test      1.96
ii 7 ii       cyanide (silver, 2J ozs.)	
n 8 H       tunnel rock	
ii 9 n it	
The estimated quantity of ore on the dump now is 1,200 tons, average value of which is
calculated at from $20 to $25 in gold per ton. The company are employing 9 men at the
mine, at an average daily wage of $3, and intend, and have made arrangements, to vigorously
prosecute the work with this staff all winter.
Negotiations are on with the Merrall Mill Company of San Francisco, for the erection of
a 20-ton hydraulic quartz mill, as soon as it can be placed in the spring.
Ole Bull, Rosebury, C. and D., Big Bend Belle, 0. K., Golden Hill and Golden Eagle.—
The above claims have been bounded to Messrs. Erbsloh and Ferguson of London, England,
the representatives of some English capitalists, for a very good figure; 5% was paid down, and
with the balance to be paid by the 1st November, 1897.
It was the intention of Mr. Erbsloh to have proceeded with development work this
winter, but on account of the lateness of the season, Mr. LaForme the packer, could not manage
to pack in their supplies, having all he could arrange to get up before the snow fell, which
unfortunately, falling earlier than was expected, compelled Mr. LaForme to shoot all his pack
train of over 30 horses, which was caught out in a very severe storm that formed a bad
ice-crust on the snow ; a very serious loss to him, being the second time this has occurred in
four years.
Mr. Erbsloh and his associates intend to push development work as soon as navigation
opens, with a view of testing the properties. Two assays from the Big Bend Belle gave $42
and $34 in gold. Development work was done on six of the above claims, which show a good
vein carrying free gold.
Beaver, Holy, Magnet, Seattle, Little Lake, Bennett and Mammoth.—The above claims are
situate in Ground Hog Basin, and are bonded to the B. C. Exploration Co. of London, England,
for a good round sum, and development work will be pushed as soon as supplies can be got in.
French Creek.
Bella, Golden Curry, Eric, Rose, Pearl and Silver King.—These claims are all free gold
propositions, and were bonded this fall at very good figures, to Messrs. McCallum and Potts,
who intend pushing the development as soon as the spring opens up communications with the
Big Bend.
Downie Creek—Keystone Mountain.
Thirty-four claims were recorded this year in the vicinity of this mountain, which lies
about 5 miles east of Boyd's Ranch, on the Columbia River, and about 4 miles south of the
mouth of Downie Creek.
The claims on this mountain are covered with an iron capping, and on two claims upon
which work was done, assays were obtained, one of 30| ounces silver, 62% lead, and on another
of a trace of gold, 41 ounces silver and 43J% lead. This is supposed to be an outcropping of
the leads at the head of Downie Creek, which run in a north-westerly direction.
Head of Downie Creek.
In my report last year, I made mention of some new discoveries at the head of the north
fork of the Illicilliwaet, which turn out to be at the head of the south fork of Downie Creek.
These properties, numbering 21, have turned out to be fully equal to what was expected. Mr.
John Grant, of Detroit, Mich., has bonded 19 of these, and he is at present in London,
England, making necessary arrangements to work them next year, while at the present there
are seven men up there at work opening up two of the claims. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 537
I enclose a copy of a report furnished me by Mr. Leak, M. E., who examined this
property this year, and from inquiries I have made, he has not exaggerated the value of
the properties.
Twelve claims were recorded this year in this vicinity, and assessment work was performed
on seven claims.
Carnes Creek.
Homestake, Hard Pan, Aberdeen, Roseberry, Salisbury; Arsenic and Imperial.—The above
claims are owned by parties in Revelstoke, who have done considerable development work on
them. Assays made this year show the quality of the ore as improving with depth, and running as high as $45 in gold, besides in silver. Most of these properties have been bonded to
an English syndicate, and no doubt will be opened up next spring. There are other claims
owned by parties in Seattle, which show up favourably with development work, and eight
claims were staked and recorded on this creek this year. Carnes Creek has an advantage over
many of the other claims in the Big Bend, in that the distance is only 28 miles from Revelstoke.
Jordon Creek.
Considerable development work has been done on the claims on this creek; they will
doubtless be heard from next summer.
Near Revelstoke.
Early in July this year quite an excitement was raised by discoveries made on the hill at
the back of Revelstoke of rock carrying gold, where 10 claims were recorded as located on the
mountain, but the excitement soon died out, and little or no work was done on any of them.
I would beg to point out that lack of transportation facilities so far has acted as a detriment to the Big Bend country. This season opened very late, in fact the snow was on the
mountains till July, then came the floods, that practically cut off all communication with the
Bend for about 5 weeks by trail. This could be avoided by a steamboat running up as far as
Death Rapids, by which it would be an easy matter to transport supplies to the various creeks
flowing into Goldstream, that flows from the east into the Columbia above the rapid, above
which point the trails follow the higher benches. There is a possibility of a steamer being put
on the Columbia next season, to run above Revelstoke.
Considering the excitement in the Rossland District, which has been the Mecca of all
mining men, this section has done fairly well when the shortness of the season is taken into
consideration, and I have every confidence in this section. It is but a question of a short time
when it will be found that the north end of West Kootenay is equal, if not superior, to any
part of it, but as before stated transportation facilities are wanted for the rapid opening up of
this part of Kootenay.
The section has not even as yet been prospected, alluvial diggings alone having been the
principal thing looked for by the placer miner, for whom there is no fascination in quartz leads,
only in the small particles of gold buried in the rivers and streams.
This division has not made as much progress as I had expected, considering the surface
indications on the claims in this division, most of which carry gold, silver, copper and lead.
It is to be hoped that parties owning claims will open them up, or dispose of them at
reasonable figures, to others who are willing to do so.
Sable Creek.
There are eight claims located on this creek, four of which are owned by the Sable Creek
Mining Co., on which development work was done on the Agnes, the average assay of the ore
being $21 in gold, 16% copper and about 60 ounces silver.
Boyd Creek.
There are about 20 claims located on this creek, on four of which assessment work was
done, assays of these averaging 200 ounces in silver per ton, and a little copper. 538 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Pool Creek.
There are about 14 claims located on this creek. On the Black Bear a shaft has been
sunk about 10 feet, showing a large body of ore. On the Hunter and Trapper a cut has been
opened up for about 16 feet, which shows up a good body of ore carrying grey copper. Wise
West, a cut on this claim, shows up a large body of ore of low grade.
Lexington Creek.
There are about 15 claims located on this creek. There are 9 claims on the Lexington
lead; assessment work was done on 5 claims, and shows up a large body of low grade ore about
three feet wide.     The Silver Bow claim shows up a small body of very high grade ore.
On N. E. Arm.—There are about 20 claims recorded on this arm of Upper Arrow Lake.
Assessment work has been done on the Young Canuck and Great Western, which are
concentrating propositions, and their ore is improving. This property is on the water front and
easy of access.
Trout Lake Waggon Road.—Ten claims have been staked on this road. Assessment
work has been done on the Lucky Four, which shows up pretty well.
On the east and west side of Upper Arrow Lake, about 21 claims have been located,
they are all iron-capped and carry values in gold. On the Mammoth and Haldon, assessment
work has been done, and they seem to improve with depth.
Galena Bay.—Eight claims are located on the Bay, all carrying gold, an assay of $44 in
gold having been obtained from the Royal Canadian, while from two other claims, assays went
$34 and $40 in gold respectively.    No development work has been done on any of these claims.
Since my last report this section of the West Kootenay District has made a good deal of
progress, more especially in the properties controlled by the Lillooet, Fraser River and Cariboo
Gold Fields, Ltd., who are operating very extensively in this division, and the following is a
detail of the operations of this company:—
The Lanark.
At the Lanark mine previous to 1896 the vein had been tapped at three levels above the
lowest or 400-foot level, though very little ore was shipped, owing to lack of facilities for
getting it to the railroad, the ore shipped being packed at great inconvenience and expense
down the mountain. Late in July a cross-cut was started in the lowest or 400-foot level, and
about the middle of September the vein was struck. Owing to lack of room for storing ore, nearly
every available space having been packed full in the mine from the development work, and
it not being expedient to dump ore outside owing to snowslides, but very little work has been
done in the vein at this level. A tunnel was driven in the vein sufficient to show that it is in
excellent condition at this level, and an upraise was started to connect with the levels above,
and has been driven up 120 feet along 3\ feet of solid galena of very high grade. The vein
here is 25 feet thick or wide, out of which nothing has been taken except for the necessary
opening for the upraise. In the No. 3 level the tunnel is being extended to connect with the
upraise just mentioned, and at this point the entire face of tunnel is in solid galena.
At the Isabella mine, about the beginning of December a shaft was started about 100 feet
from the mouth of the lowest tunnel, and by the end of the year will he down 35 feet, the ore
from which runs 69 ounces silver per ton and 30 % lead. There is now in course of construction, and soon to be finished, an aerial tramway to be 6,550 feet in length, with a fall of 2,640
feet. The capacity of tramway at first will be 100 tons in 10 hours, to be increased to 150
tons in 10 hours by the addition of more carriers or buckets, and the capacity per day will
then be 375 tons in 24 hours with 30 carriers of 500 pounds capacity, each running at a speed
of 5 feet per second. The tramway is divided by an intermediate station into two sections of
the same length and fall, and running by gravity develops a surplus of 11 h. p. The ropes in
use, which have been specially made, are—
1 stationary carrying cable 1 f\ diameter, 3,300 feet long, loaded side. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mtnes. 539
1 stationary carrying cable f-in. diameter, 3,300 feet long, empty side.
1 endless traction rope f-in. diameter, 6,600 feet long.
The longest span between towers is 2,900 feet. Breaking strain of ropes, 200,000 pounds
per square inch.
There is also under construction a concentrator plant, the building of which is 50 by 130
feet. The machinery consists of rock breaker, three sets of rolls, elevators, revolving screens,
with ten jigs, and four 6-foot Frue vanners. The power is furnished by two 8-inch and two
16-inch horizontal turbines, developing 200 h. p., and are connected to a 4-foot by 7-foot flume,
giving 40 feet head; length of flume, 2,600 feet, running from a dam across the Illecillewaet
River. The mode of ore treatment is known as coarse concentration, to which the Lanark ore
is particularly favourable, sizing and separating. The nominal capacity of this mill is 100
tons in 24 hours, but the features of the Lanark ore are so favourable that this will be about
doubled. Of the power mentioned above, 40 h. p. will be used for electric lighting and 60
h. p. for Lanark mine by electric transmission, to be used for mining operations as well as
lighting the underground workings. A well equipped plant, with dynamos, is under construction. The whole concentrator plant has been constructed with a view to doubling the present
capacity without disturbing any existing conditions, or without any additions to the tram or
power plants. An assay office is being built, with a commodious laboratory and every
convenience for assaying and analyzing the ore of the district. There is constructed and in
operation a well equipped saw-mill, cutting lumber from the large quantity of good timber on the
property. There is under construction, and nearly completed, a commodious store building,
eight commodious 8-roomed cottages, an ample bunk-house for workmen; also office building
to accommodate the different departments have been erected, and a boarding-house or hotel is
being built which will have dining-room accommodation for workmen, as well as officials and
other boarders. At the Lanark mine there is estimated to be in sight somewhere in the
neighbourhood of 100,000 tons of ore, which will concentrate about three and one-half tons
into one.
Round Hill.
On this claim, Crown-granted, there is a shaft 24 feet deep, showing in the bottom 8 to 9
feet of galena and carbonates, the assay values of which are, taking samples across the vein, (a)
galena, $82.43 per ton of 2,000 pounds and 74 % lead; (b) oxides and clay containing
carbonates, $16.43 per ton. Galena from another shaft 45 feet deep assayed $62.04 in silver
with 62 % lead, all ore containing strong traces of gold. Still further north 150 feet a tunnel
has been driven southward 40 feet on the vein of quartz and galena, and at the north end of
this tunnel a shaft has been sunk 45 feet upon a vein, which at the bottom of the shaft shows
a good foot-wall and hanging-wall 6 feet apart, while the ore is of a mixed character or pyrrho-
tite, chalcopyrite, blende, and galena. There is ample water power in the vicinity of this
claim, which is less than a mile from the 0. P. R. and about six miles from Illecillewaet in a
north-westerly direction. There is plenty of timber on the claim for mining purposes; and
lower in the valley the timber is of excellent quality for milling purposes.
On this claim, adjoining the Round Hill on the south, a shaft has been sunk to a depth
of 84 feet, on which at the bottom are galena, pyrrhotite and blende, assays of which varying
from $20 to $75 in lead and silver. A tunnel has been run in 165 feet, and will, when
continued 250 feet further, cross-cut all the veins and meet the shaft at a depth of 208 feet.
Fish River.
The Dunvegan mineral claim shipped 48 tons of ore to the smelter in San Francisco this
season, the ore assaying 90 ounces silver and 72 % lead to the ton, netting a good profit to
the owners, who have bonded the property for $15,000 with a probability of a sale being
accomplished, as this is a good property.
The Alma mineral claim is a southerly extension of the Dunvegan, and will be developed
next summer. It has a good surface showing, samples assaying 90 ounces silver and 72 %
The Scotia, Elizabeth, and Edinburgh mineral claims, on the south-east side of Fish River,
owned by the Fish River Copper and Silver Mining Company, have a good surface showing,
and a tunnel has been run in 160 feet to tap the vein, but more work is to be done upon this 540 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
property next season. There are ten tons of shipping ore ready for shipment, assays from
which run from 175 ozs. to 320 ozs. silver, 80% lead; carbonates having assayed 1,207 czs.
silver, and $12 in gold per ton.
The Annie mineral claim is the southerly extension of the Scotia mineral claim, and a
tunnel has been run 150 feet along the vein, with a fair showing of mineral, a good dump of
shipping ore having accumulated, assaying 80 ozs. silver per ton, and 72% lead.
The Agnes mineral claim, the southerly extension of the Annie, also has good surface
showings, assays from which giving 80 ozs. silver per ton, and 72% lead.
The Heronback mineral claim, the southerly extension of the Agnes, has a good surface
showing of mineral, assaying 80 ozs. silver, and 72% lead.
On the Salmon, the southerly extension of the Heronback, there are also good surface
prospects of mineral, assaying 80 ozs. silver, and 72% lead.
The seven claims as above mentioned are good properties, and are located upon a strong
vein about 8 feet wide, carrying ore along the hanging wall, and there is a plentiful supply of
timber and water.
On the Blue Bell mineral claim, situated about one mile south-east from Illecillewaet, and
owned by Benjamin Green, the vein is 3 feet wide, in which a shaft has be sunk 45 feet deep
in mineral, which assays 120 ozs. silver, and 72% lead, and this property is bonded, and will
be developed next spring as soon as the snow disappears.
The Silver Bow, Copper Crown, and Copper Hill mineral claims, situated seven miles
northerly from the C. P. R. R. at Flat Creek, and owned by the Fish River Copper and Silver
Mining Company. A tunnel 90 feet has been driven in on the vein at one place, and a second
tunnel, 70 feet long, lower down the mountain. The hanging wall is quartzite, the footwall
green slate. Eighteen tons of ore were shipped in 1894, and netted the owners a good sum.
Assays from this group gave 66% copper, $25 in gold, and 8 ozs. silver per ton. The company
intend developing this property largely next summer.
On the Sanquhar mineral claim, situated about two miles from Illecillewaet, on the north
fork slope, a shaft has been sunk 30 feet at one place, and about 12 tons of ore are on the dump,
while at another point another tunnel is in 75 feet in a greenish rock, highly charged with
copper pyrites and grey copper, carrying $1.50 per ton in gold. The galena from this property
carries 111 ozs. silver, and 72% lead.
On the Summit Lode claim, the southerly extension of the Sanquhar, a tunnel has been
driven in 75 feet, and in about another 20 feet will tap the hanging wall of the vein, the face
of the tunnel being now in a greenish rock highly charged with copper pyrites and grey copper,
the rock carrying $1.50 in gold per ton. Assays from the property give 111 ozs. of silver and
72% lead.
The Jumbo mineral claim, situated on the north fork slope, has an outcrop of a large
vein, showing 9 feet of quartz at one place, in which one tunnel has been driven 130 feet upon
a vein showing in the face 6 feet of quartz, highly mineralized, while another tunnel further
down the mountain has been run 110 feet, showing a well mineralized face. Assays from this
property of concentrates give 320 ozs. silver and $5 in gold per ton. There are good water
power and plenty of timber adjacent to the property. There are supposed to be 180 tons of
concentrating ore on the dump.
The North Star mineral claim, situated in Ground Hog Basin, about one mile from the
Jumbo, has a good showing of Galena ore, and 10 tons of shipping ore lie on the dump, and a
tunnel is being driven to tap the vein at a considerable depth. This property has been bonded
to a Vancouver gentleman, who will commence work next spring as soon as the snow disappears.    Assays of ore from this claim give 125 ozs. in silver, and 72% lead.
The Georgie and Reggie mineral claims situated about 19 miles from Albert Canon on
the north fork, and about 600 feet from the trail built this summer to Downie Creek, are
owned by David and Emily Woolsey, and have been bonded for $10,000. Six men are working driving a tunnel 160 feet to tap the vein at a considerable depth. An assay of the ore
from these claims gave 2 ozs. 17 dwt. in gold, 1,155 ozs. in silver per ton, and 13.9% copper.
The above information was furnished, as regards the Lanark and Isabella, by Mr. Brooks,
local manager of the Lillooet, Fraser River, and Cariboo Gold Fields Co., Ltd., and, as regards
the other claims, by Mr. Walter Scott, the present Mining Recorder at Illecillewaet. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 541
Since my last report I am pleased to be able to state that this section has taken a step
forward, and by all indications will be one of the best mining sections in the Province.
Experts who have examined the section all express themselves well pleased with the leads,
which they state are equal to anything in the lower Kootenay country.
I enclose copy of Mr. Tom Taylor's (the Mining Recorder) report, which I think will give
a very clear description of affairs in this camp during the season.
Mr. Taylor's Report.
Much outside, capital has been interested in mining operations here, and considerable
valuable work has been done during the last few months, but owing to the lateness of the
season's opening-up, it was very late before operations could be commenced with any degree of
activity. Nevertheless, it appears from the results already obtained that the bright future
so often anticipated is on the eve of realisation.
The properties already taken up have been sold at very liberal figures, and several more
changes are about to be consummated. Altogether, judging from present appearances we may
safely predict that with the opening of communications in the spring this division will rank as
another of Kootenay's producers.
Placer mining seems to have been almost entirely neglected, owing, no doubt, to the fact
that a keener interest is being taken in quartz mining.
One of the greatest detriments to the camp has been the lack of transportation facilities.
To partly overcome this, a sleigh road was projected and partially completed, connecting with
Arrow Lakes at a point called Rosenheim, on Galena Bay. On the completion of this road,
which is being constructed on railroad grade, a much shorter and better route will be laid open to
the public, and will, for a time at least, answer the requirements of the camp. To the Lillooet,
Fraser River, and Cariboo Gold Fields, Limited, is due the credit of this enterprise. As the
company has ample means and are the possessors of some very rich and encouraging looking
properties, which they are now developing, it is not at all unreasonable to suppose that, as
their properties develop and as a speedier means of communication becomes an absolute necessity, they will ultimately connect their mines with navigation by rail; in fact, to this end
engineers are now engaged making surveys.
Of the properties that are actually engaged in development, the Great Northern ledge
seems to have taken the advance.
The Great Northern Group.
On this ledge there are eight locations, as follows :—Silver Queen, True Fissure, Great
Northern, Hillside, Broadview, Old Sonoma and Banff.
The Great Northern and Hillside claims are bonded to a Montana Company. They have
done during the past season about 300 feet of tunnelling, tapping the lead at different depths,
and a splendid showing has in every instance been the result, with ore running from 18 to 200
ounces of silver per ton, 1 to 14% copper, and $2 to $12 in gold. About 200 tons of ore are
now being forwarded to the smelter.
The Broadview, Old Sonoma, and Phillipsburg are bonded to the Lillooet, Fraser River
and Cariboo Gold Fields Co., Ltd., which company is confining development work to the Broadview at present, where they have in the last five months expended $10,000. A shaft has been
sunk to a depth of 85 feet on the ore, and levels are being extended to tap the vein in depth ;
but actual development work has only just begun, it being the intention of the company to
keep a large force of men at work during the winter months.
Several hundred tons of ore are ready for shipment, the average value of which is about
$100 per ton.
The old Sonoma has a cross-cut 60 feet, tapping the ledge, the average assay of the ore
being 145 ozs. in silver, 7% copper, and $4 in gold per ton.
The Trite Fissure has had considerable surface development, the lead having been stripped
and ore quarried 150 feet by 80 feet by 2\ feet deep, with some 600 tons of ore on the dump.
Camps, outhouses, etc., are erected.
The Silver Queen has no development further than the annual assessment required, and
looks extremely well on the surface. 542 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
The Silver Cup.—This mine has just forwarded a consignment of 20 tons to Tacoma Smelter;
the average assay from which at the mine is about 400 ozs. silver and $18 in gold per ton.
From 60 tons shipped some time since, the net result was $175 per ton.
A force of nine men has been employed since 1st October. The shaft in the ore has been
sunk to 110 feet, and a 400-foot tunnel is now being driven to tap the vein at a depth of 100
feet below the present bottom of the shaft, 130 feet being now completed. Seven new buildings have been erected, and a new shaft-house and about three miles of rawhide trail and three
miles of sleigh road completed. This property, also the Free Coinage adjoining, is the property
of Messrs. Farrel and Dunn, of Vancouver.
The Sunshine and Towser claims are 1st and 2nd extensions on the Silver Cup, and have
remarkably fine showings on the surface. The claims have recently been bonded to the Lillooet,
Fraser River and Cariboo Gold Fields Co., Ltd., who are at present erecting winter quarters,
etc., and when this work is completed a large force of men will be employed, and it is confidently expected that by next spring these claims will be in shipping shape. Samples of the
ore taken from the surface, on the average, assaying in silver about 200 ozs. to the ton.
The Badshot Group consists of five claims situated in the lime belt and on the head-waters
of Gainer Creek, and is a very promising group; on the Badshot claim a shaft has been sunk
100 feet, and a tunnel to tap the bottom of the shaft is now being extended. About 60 tons
of ore, averaging in assay 225 ozs. silver, 75% lead and a small percentage of bismuth, are now
ready for shipment. The vein at the bottom of the shaft is about 3 feet wide, with a rich pay-
streak of 8 inches.    Three men are engaged in developing.
The Black Prince, near the Badshot, has a tunnel about 200 feet long. The vein is from
9 to 18 inches wide, of a very high grade ore, and adjoining the Black Prince are the Contact
and High Grade claims; good prospects, but with no development work done.
Gainer Creek empties into the South Fork of the Lardeau Creek, about ten miles from
Trout Lake, and has its source at the foot of the lime belts, in which are located the Badshot
Group, Black Prince and other well-known properties. South of this belt, for about four miles,
is a succession of contacts, every thousand or two thousand feet, in each of which is a vein
clearly defined for miles, making surface prospecting very easy, the formations being lime schists.
The ore on the surface is galena, with some iron carbonates and oxides, but it is all of a rather
low grade, and no development work has been done to demonstrate its value underground.
About fifty locations were made in and about this creek during the past season.
The Wagner Group, near the head-waters of Haley Creek, has opened up very encouragingly for the amount of development work done. The ledge has been tapped in depth, and a
solid vein of ore exposed two feet wide, assays from which run very high in silver, but, owing
to lack of easy access, this group and the surrounding country have not had the attention that
the surface showings and formations merit; however, on the opening up of other properties in
the vicinity, no doubt, at no very distant date, better transportation facilities will be effected.
Francis Jewell Group, of four claims, is situated at the head-waters of Hall Creek and
near the Wagner Group. No development work of any account has yet been done, but this
and the Wagner Group are under bond to a Spokane syndicate.
Abbott Group consists of seven claims near the head-waters of Haley Creek. The Lillooet,
Fraser River and Cariboo Gold Fields Co., Ltd., have a bond on these properties, on which
they have drifted 400 feet, to tap a ledge at depth, but owing to its situation and inaccessibility (at this season of the year) development work for the present season has been suspended.
Duncan River above Hall Creek, which has been hitherto almost neglected, has, during
the past season, been the scene of much active prospecting, and many good finds have been
made, in all sixty locations having been placed on record in this office.
The Pool Group between the north and south forks of Lardeau Creek, consist of seven
claims. During the past year very little has been done in the way of developing, but the ledge
can be traced for a distance of two miles verying from twenty to forty feet in width, and is very
heavily capped with iron. At a depth of 25 feet or 30 feet on the May Bee claim, some very
rich specimens of native copper were obtained, the galena carrying from 20 to 40 ounces in
silver and $6 to $12 in gold per ton. Negotiations are under way for the bonding of this
group to an English company.
On the Seven Mile Group there are five locations, and on the Black Eagle about 60 feet
of open cut and tunnelling have been done, the vein being about 14 inches in width, with
average assays of 100 ounces in silver per ton. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 543
North Fork of Lardeau Creek.—Several locations have been made on this creek during
the past season, but the old locations have remained undeveloped, with the exception of the
Pilot Knot Group, which has been tapped in depth by a tunnel 160 feet long. The vein has
been exposed with about 18 inches of width, carrying 150 ounces in silver and some copper.
Of the new locations on this creek, probably the most promising is the Big Five Group,
consisting of five claims, negotiations for a bond on which are now pending. Some very high
copper-glance ore has been secured near the surface, and the lead is well defined and traceable
for several thousand feet.
The Home Ledge has 13 old locations and several recent ones. The lead is a very strong-
one, and very strongly capped with iron, and is traceable for miles, but it remains as yet
entirely undeveloped.
The Glengarry, near the head-waters of the north fork of Lardeau Creek, is a very strong
and well-defined ledge, and with an average assay value of about 140 ounces silver per ton
and a fair percentage of copper, and on the same lead are the Edna, Alice, Victory, Jim Dandy
and others, all very promising prospects.
The American is situated about 14 miles down Trout Lake from Trout Lake City, and has
a vein of solid shipping ore of about 12 inches wide exposed. Considerable development work
has been done, and a quantity of ore is now sacked for shipment, the grade being about $100
per ton.    A bond is being put through with a Vancouver syndicate.
Trout Lake.—Several locations have been made near the shores of the lake, on veins
carrying gold and copper.
Canyon Creek, at the foot of Trout Lake, has attracted considerable attention this year ;
eight locations have been made, and the ore from surface assays 160 ounces in silver per ton
and 75% lead.    The ledge is well-defined in the formation of granite and slate.
By P. Leake, M. E.,  Revelstoke.
Previous to the year 1896, not much attention had been paid to this part of West
Kootenay; but owing to the discovery of the Downie Creek properties, now owned by Mr. J.
Grant, the Government has built a trail from Albert Canyon to the head waters of this creek.
On this trail several rich and extensive ore deposits have been discovered, among which
we may mention, the Grant Group of claims on the head-waters of Downie Creek; the Sir
Walter and adjoining claims, owned by Mr. T. McPherson; the claim owned and worked by
Mr. Ben Green., etc.
Geology.—Proceeding along the trail in a north-easterly direction up the Ileeillewaet
River, we pass over an extensive belt of compact limestone, and continue in this formation
until we reach the properties on Downie Creek. As we pass up the valley, large boulders of
granite can be seen. To the east of the limestone a belt of granite traverses more or less the
whole range, and the cropping can be found possessing various dimensions from Upper
Kootenay Lake to the Big Bend.
The formation on both sides of this granite belt contain highly mineralized quartz veins;
the granite is evidently intrusive, and appears to have had an intimate connection with the
occurrance of the metalliferous deposits found in the adjacent areas on both sides of it.
The mineral belt, which passes from Kootenay Lake through Illecillewaet, Downie Creek,
and north to the Big Bend, is extremely well-defined, and evidences of its existence occur
throughout the entire distance. It is also a high grade belt, containing silver, gold, copper,
lead, and as you proceed further north, nickel.
The Downie Creek properties occur in the stratified limestone a small distance west of the
transition of the granite. This is a similar case to many of the Cornwall mines, where almost
the whole of the mineral wealth of that country occurs within a distance of some two or three
miles on each side of the junction of granite and killas, and to a marked degree is this seen
near St. Just and St. Ives.
The veins found on the Waverly and Montague and adjoining claims on Downie Creek,
are inclosed in walls of calcite,  and a tunnel has been driven on the   Waverly close to the 544 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
hanging wall, showing a continuous body of highly mineralized ore (at this point about 6| feet
wide), composed of quartz, galena, tetrahedrite (grey copper), with some hydrous ferric oxide,
resulting from the decomposition of iron pyrites, and occasionally stephanite (brittle silver)
and cerargyrite (horn silver). Of six samples taken from this portion of the vein, the average
amount of silver per ton was 104 ounces, some picked specimens running as high as 1,400
ounces per ton. The total width of the vein is about 40 feet, containing 9 feet of good ore, 6
feet on hanging wall and 3 feet on footwall, the vein, in conformity with others found in this
district, having a north-westerly and south-easterly trend, and an easterly underlie of about 2
feet to the fathom. The cropping can be traced for many claims showing it to be continuous
and following its natural course; and about 1,600 feet west of this vein is also found a parallel
vein, having the same course and dip, the ore being much of the same character, containing,
however, more gold but a less percentage of copper. The Tangier Claim is on this vein, and
assays taken went 100 ounces of silver and 1^ ounces gold per ton.
Owing to the richness of the ore found in such considerable quantities, the district is
without doubt destined to become one of the most active camps in the Province.
From the Sir Walter and adjoining claims (1 6 miles from Albert Canyon) some very high
silver assays have been obtained, viz:—300 and 1,000 ounces; the veins, however, are not so
wide as the Downie Creek ones.
By Mr. Jno. Kirkup, Mining Recorder.
Mr. Kirkup submits the following information with  reference to  records,   etc., for this
division during the year ending December 31st, 1896, as follows:—
Records of Mineral Claims ,  2,588
Bills of Sale, Bonds, etc  . 2,690
Certificates of Work  1,211
Certificates of Improvement  93
Free Miner's Certificates  4,200
Number of claims working, about  175
Number of miners employed  1,500
Output of mines not obtainable	
By Mr. A. Sproat, Mining Recorder.
The following are the statistics of  the  Slocan  Mining Division  for the year ending 31st
December, 1896:—
Number of Records (location)  1,179
it        Certificates of Work issued      749
Money paid in lieu of work on 12 claims	
Number of Bills of Sale recorded  1,170
ii         Bonds and Agreements recorded  106
ii         Certificates of Improvement issued  27
ii         abandonments recorded  25 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 545
By Mr. F. S. Farquier, Mining Recorder.
The following are the  statistics of the  Nakusp  Record  Office  for the year ending 31st
December, 1896:—
Number of placer locations  1
ii        quartz        n                   254
n transfers recorded       169
ii claims or interests transferred       264
ii abandonments recorded  I
M Certificates of Work recorded         127
Average number of men engaged in mining        110
Amount of revenue from Mining Receipts $1,428 50
Free Miner's Certificates    1,052 00
By Mr. Jno. Keen, Mining Recorder.
Kaslo, B. C, 1897.
The following are the statistics from this office for the year ending December 31st, 1896:
Number of Mineral Claims recorded  813
Certificates of Work  458
paid $100 in lieu of assessment work  5
documents recorded  571
abandonments  21
Free Miner's Licences issued  929
By Mr. J. H. Rashdall, Mining Recorder.
The following are the statistics of the Nelson Record Office for the year ending December
31st, 1896:—
Number of Locations recorded  2,544
Transfers  807
,i        Certificates of Work  323
ii        Free Miner's Certificates  1,138 546 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
By Mr. J. G.  Rykert, Mining Recorder.
There have been ninety (90) new locations made since January 1st, 1896, divided almost
equally in Duck Creek, White Grouse and Sutter Districts in this division. There has been
little more than assessment work clone on any of these. On the locations made previous to
this year nothing but assessment work has been done.
Cause.—The prospects are nearly all mined by parties unable to control capital, and
having to work out to get money enough to do their work. There is no doubt that some of
the richest ore found in West Kootenay has been found in this division. One claim I speak
of as personally knowing carries ore assaying $72 in gold and 18 % copper to the ton, and no
telling how wide the ledge is.
The ore all through the Duck Creek country so far worked carries gold in more or less
quantities, and copper and silver.
It has been a very quiet season, as nearly all new comers went through to the Slocan or
Trail country, and we have had very poor steamer facilities—one boat in two weeks.
I do not look for anything better until the Crow's Nest Pass Railway is built, as we are,
as you might say, cut off from everyone and everywhere.
Report by Capt. Fitzstubbs, Gold Commissioner.
A long and carefully prepared report on this district was forwarded by Capt. Fitzstubbs,
and also very full statistics on the mineral output, but as descriptions of these mining divisions
are contained in Bulletins Nos. 2 and 3, and the data of the mine production had already
been obtained, his report has not been embodied in this Report, except the statistical
information from the offices of the Mining Recorders.
By F. Soues, Gold Commissioner.
Sir,—I have the honour to inclose herewith the Mining Statistics for Lillooet District,
and my annual report for the year 1896:—
The total yield of gold from the district (ascertained from reliable sources only) is $33,665,
showing a decrease from the annual returns for the last seventeen years, at least. The total
ascertained district yield for the past 17 years is $1,185,023; an annual average of $69,707.
It should be borne in mind that the above amount is really the returns of desultory work done
by Chinese and Indians. There certainly have not been over half a dozen white gold-producing
miners in the district during the year.
I attribute the low point reached in production to the discovery of rich gold-bearing quartz
on Cayoosh Creek in April last, which caused a great influx of the mining element, all apparently having the one aim in view, the discovery and location of mineral claims, and as such were
non-producers. With reference to the mining leases at and near Lillooet, reported last year as
bonded to the Lillooet, Fraser River and Cariboo Gold Fields Co., I believe the whole of them
have been abandoned.
Placer Mining.
Placer mining has been entirely neglected, and the same may be said in regard to hydraulic
mining leases, with one or two exceptions. The mining claims on Scotty's Creek, referred to
in my last report, were worked in the early summer, but as they have not been re-recorded I
infer they are abandoned. Doubtless the boulder element to be contended with in that creek
has again proved too strong for limited means and appliances. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 547
Much excitement in this class of mining has prevailed since the location of a rich gold-
bearing claim on Cayoosh Creek in April last, followed by the location of several claims on Poole
Creek, Pemberton Portage, in June last, alleged to carry gold, silver and copper. I append
sketch plans of the locations on both creeks, courteously furnished me by Mr. P. Burnet,
Provincial Land Surveyor, who has been on the ground the greater part of the season, and may
be taken as correct, and will serve to illustrate and locate my remarks in reference to the
claims on both creeks.    Dealing first with Cayoosh Creek:—
The whole of the claims recorded on this creek during the past year may, with the exception of the "Ample," "Whale," and "Gold Eagle," be dismissed with brief reference, as there
has been no development work, except of the most superficial kind, done on any of them.
I regret to say that several of the latter class have been sold and re-sold. Speculation of
this nature is not to be desired. We have world-wide proof, if proof were wanted, that it can
only result in disaster to an infant industry in this district, not only to claims utterly worthless, but also to those that have proved their title to merit by development.
The present " Mineral Act" requires every one recording a mineral claim to make oath
before the Mining Recorder that he has found "mineral in place." Let us have value in place
also, proved by development, then sale or speculation.
The Golden Cache Mines Co.
With reference to the " Golden Eagle." In a personal interview with Mr. Noel, the
Manager of the mine, he informs me that there are at present twelve men at work, and have
been engaged in running a tunnel on the ledge, which is now in 66 feet. The tunnel is 6 feet
wide by 7 feet, and is all in gold-bearing ore, uniformly distributed throughout its entire length.
About 300 feet of the ledge has been uncovered, and taking this as a basis of calculation, and
estimating it to contain similar gold-bearing ore to that in which the tunnel has been run,
mining experts and others, I am informed, claim that there is at least a million dollars in sight.
The gold in the "Gold Eagle" is contained in a matrix, exactly the same as that in several
places in the " Bonanza " Group on the opposite side of Cayoosh Creek, and is described by
Dr. Dawson in his report of 1895, page 99, as "the greater part of the rocks met with in the
cross-section afforded by Cayoosh Creek may be described as black or blackish argillites, often
lustrous, sometimes much wrinkled and corrugated, and occasionally micaceous with very fine
mica. Many of them are more or less distinctly calcareous. Near the ' Bonanza' Mine a
rather notable development of black and probably slightly graphitic argillites occurs."
The company now owning the " Golden Eagle " group of five claims, I am informed, have
a ten-stamp mill ready to erect as soon as the road, which they are constructing from the end
of the Government Road up Cayoosh Creek to their mine, can be finished.
The Bonanza.
Unfortunately the very severe snow-storm early in last month put a full stop to all work
of that nature, and with little chance of it being resumed before March at least, as the snowfall was deep and we are liable to similar storms during the next two months. The other
claims on this creek, which may be referred to, are the " Bonanza " group of six claims, located
in the fall of 1887, and the "Ample" and "Whale." On these claims a considerable amount
of development has been done, notably on the " Bonanza " group. The Lillooet and Fraser
River and Cariboo Gold Fields Co. had a prospecting and development bond on the three lower
claims of the " Bonanza " group last year, which is fully reported on by their manager, Mr.
Hughes, in my last annual report.
This company's operations were confined to the lower claim, through which the creek runs,
and were continued up to this spring, when the forces were withdrawn and put to work on the
"Ample" and "Whale," and continued there the greater part of the summer, when work was
stopped on them also. The time limits of the prospecting bonds with that company have
expired with regard to both properties, without coming to further arrangements 548 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
History of Cayoosh Creek.
A brief review of the history of Cayoosh Creek may not be out of place at this time. The
miners arriving in this Province in its early mining history, 1858 and onwards, were largely
from California, and the best of them with but a limited knowledge of placer mining, acquired
in the previous decade from the discovery of the placer mines in California. Quartz mining
was unknown then to the great majority of them.
They brought with them the erroneous impression that gold would never be found in
payable quantities in the granite masses of the Cascade Range. In fact, gray-haired veterans
can be found in the Province to-day who still hold that prejudice. Hundreds of these miners
wintered in Lillooet, and thousands of them have passed by Cayoosh Creek to and from
Cariboo. The gigantic mass of Mount Brew, to the south-west of the Town of Lillooet, and
the granitic talus scattered from its base across Cayoosh Creek, and extending out to the north
shore of Seaton Lake, there to be met by a similar formation, was sufficient evidence to the
early gold-hunter in this Province to avoid Cayoosh Creek as worthless. Whether I am correct
in this hypothesis is immaterial, the fact remains that it continued untouched and in a state of
nature until the spring of 1886, when a flock of Chinese quietly settled down on it, and Mr.
Phair, Mining Recorder, reported to me in December of that year that he had recorded for
them 190 claims, and for white miners 16, and Mr. A. Smith reported to me at the same time
that during that year he had bought 725 ounces of Cayoosh Creek gold, adding his belief that
there was as much more in the hands of the Chinese miner. In 1887, parties here grubstaked two miners, and sent them out to endeavour to locate the sources of the gold found in
the creek. They left here in August of that year, and followed the north-west side of the
creek some 15 or 20 miles miles above the Chinese claims, but without finding anything, either
in the creek or mineral in place. They returned by the south-east side of the creek, and at a
point within the lines of the "Mary Ann" claim, on Mr. Burnet's plan, discovered a large
boulder, composed of quartz and slate, which had evidently been broken off the mountain-side
high above them. Without appliances to break the boulder, they built a fire on it, and after
heating it well, poured water on it, and thus broke it up, when gold was easily to be seen in it.
It was an easy matter then to trace the line of descent, and after a little search the place was
found on the " Bonanza " ridge, at a point between the second and third location up from the
river, and where gold-bearing specimens could be found here in abundance.
The prospectors returned here, and the six claims were recorded on the 12th September,
1887. The find soon leaked out, and the next claim recorded was on the 26th October of that
year, about 2,000 feet above the creek, and nearly opposite the "Bonanza," and afterwards abandoned. From that time on to spring of this year a few claims were annually recorded, as a rule
only to be abandoned, without any attempt at development or exploration. In December,
1887, Mr. A. W. Smith reported his purchases of gold for that year at $65,696, a large proportion of which was from the Chinese claims on Cayoosh Creek. In 1888 his purchases amounted
to close on $60,000, seven-eighths of which was estimated to be from Cayoosh Creek. In 1889
the amount bought by Mr. Smith dropped to $39,000, with the exception of about $100
worth, all bought from the Chinese miner. Summed up, the Chinese were the discoverers of
gold in Cayoosh Creek. From Mr. Smith's accurate returns, we find that he bought from
them in three years gold amounting to, in round figures, say $103,000. To be well within the
mark, allow one half of that amount as carried away by them, and we have a total of $154,500
for the three years. The whole of this was taken from, say five miles of the creek, and all
below the line of the "Bonanza" group.
Resultant on the discovery of the river claims was a lease issued to the Vancouver Enterprise Co., situated below the limits of Mr. Burnet's plan. This company was formed for the
purpose of diverting the river from the present bed, and working it and its surroundings to
bed-rock. Numerous obstacles to this plan came in the way, the company spent a large
amount of money in various plans for development, and finally bonded their lease to the
Lillooet, F. R., and Cariboo Gold Fields. This company spent a good deal of time and money
in exploration and development, and put in powerful pumps to enable them to reach bed-rock,
but failed in the undertaking. That part of the creek bed, ancient and modern, is still
This is the history of the creek from its discovery to the present time. From my observations, there are three kinds of gold in the creek, the finer kind uniformly distributed through
the ore found in the  " Golden Eagle."    The  coarser and richer specimens,  found  in  the 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 549
" Bonanza" group, and the still coarser specimens found in the river bed workings by the
Chinese, some of them going as high as $70. It is a well established fact, I think, that coarse
gold, released by whatever agency from its rocky matrix, moves but a short distance, even in
swift-running rivers. In the " Golden Eagle " and " Bonanza " group are the sources of at
least a portion of the two first named kinds. In my opinion, the source of the third kind has
not yet been located, and most likely will be found below the line of Cottonwood Creek.
Facilities for Mining.
I have referred to the geological disturbances, that are in striking evidence everywhere on
Cayoosh Creek, in former reports, and again draw attention to them. Mr. Hughes, in his
report to me last year, also refers to them particularly.
I would infer that quartz mining on this creek will be beset with many difficulties, which
will require careful thought and skilled management in dealing with and overcoming them.
The blanket ledge will be in evidence, possibly rich, but suddenly vanishing or twisted out of
shape and lost for a time. Wide areas of the numerous small quartz veins and auriferous
schists may be worked profitably, on the open face or quarry system, and in turn they will be
blocked by intrusive dykes of worthless material. It is evident that if the infant industry of
quartz mining on this creek, beset as it is by the numerous natural obstacles as indicated, is
to be placed on a remunerative and lasting basis, the whole matter cannot be too carefully
dealt with now. I need not point out that the reckless speculation, to give it the very mildest
term, indulged in for the past few months, aggravated by the almost total absence of development, will never accomplish this, and, if continued, will inevitably result in adding another
name to the long list of mining failures in this Province.
With the modern application of electricity to mining, the value of Cayoosh Creek, as a
motive power, cannot be overestimated. Timber for mining purposes and fuel, in the
neighbourhood of the mines is none too plentiful, and, from the very rugged nature of the
country, will always be difficult to get at, and form a very large item of expense, in any
undertaking there. The Cascade Range, locally known as the Cascades but in reality the
eastern margin of the "Coast Range" of mountains, is here broken by a deep valley commencing
at Lillooet and ending at the junction of Fraser and Harrison Rivers, approximately about
160 miles in length. Cayoosh Creek has its source in Duffy Lake, a small sheet of water
situated in a deep gorge on the eastern side of the valley described, and almost in the centre.
(A mile or two west of Duffy Lake, the water-shed flows to the west, falling into Lillooet Lake,
and finally reaching the Fraser River at Harrison mouth). From the lake it flows through a
narrow and winding lateral valley of the eastern Cascades, falling into the Fraser below the
town of Lillooet, at an elevation of 692 feet above sea level. Where it passes through the
"Bonanza" group the elevation is 1,300, shewing a rise of say 600 feet in 10 miles. From a
point a short distance above the "Bonanza," the rise would not average as high in the next
10 miles. In August, 1863, I made the ascent to the summit of the Cascade Range, to a point
west and immediately above Duffy Lake, and from the amount of piled and apparently
perpetual snow, that late in the season, I have no hesitation in saying that the supply of water
in Cayoosh Creek will never fail.
Poole Creek, Pemberton Portage.
The discoveries of minerals on this creek were made in June last, and all come within
the provisions of the "Mineral Act" of last session of the Legislature.
The first recorded claims are said to be on ledges, with a seam width of from 40 to 60
feet; hanging wall, slate; foot wall, granite; and reported to Mr. Phair, Mining Recorder, as
being wonderfully rich in gold, silver and copper. I am not aware that there has been any
development work of any moment, done on any of these locations, the width of seams and the
nature of hanging and foot walls may therefore be taken with reservations. "Poole Creek"
or more properly "Birkenhead River," is situated on the old Pemberton Portage, and about 50
miles south-west from Lillooet, and is situated on the western slope of the Cascades, the waters
of Birkenhead River falling into the upper Lillooet River, and thence into Lillooet Lake. I
note that Mr. Burnet in his sketch plan, has given the name of "Blackwater" to the group of
claims already recorded, and for the sake of brevity in future, that name, perhaps, should be
adhered to.    I am not aware that any geologist of note has ever visited this section.    My own 550 Report of the Minister of Mines. 189
recollection of it, after 30 years, is a confused mass of granite mountains, towering aloft to the
line of perpetual snow. Ingress to Blackwater, at present, is from Lillooet, via Seaton and
Anderson Lakes and Pemberton Portage. It can also be reached from Howe Sound by a
very rough trail.
Bonaparte Valley.
Mineral Claims.—The first claim located in this valley was recorded in July of last year.
Mr. Ahearn, the owner of that location, reports to me that he has run a tunnel 35 feet by 5 feet
by 7 feet, the greater portion timbered, the nature of the ore, sulphide, iron chlorides, sulphur,
arsenical iron and silicates, carrying gold, silver and copper. The character of the formation
generally diorite and porphyry. Between walls 51 feet, contacts dolomite, lime and quartzite.
Assays made from the ore gave gold, $1.20; silver, 3 to 78 ounces; copper, 6 per cent. Mr.
Ahearn proposes running in one hundred feet, and then cross-cutting to walls. A group
consisting of 8 claims, situated further down this valley, were located in July last, by the
British Columbia Development Co.; and Mr. Ogilvie, the resident manager, furnishes me with
the following information:—"The claims are situated on what may be termed a large blow-out
of porphyry and quartz. The ore is tetrahedrite and galena. Active development commenced
at the end of August last. Tunnel No. 1, driven in 101 feet; tunnel No. 2, 65 feet; Humming
Bird tunnel, 191 feet; shaft sunk, 44 feet. We have struck a vein in the Humming Bird
tunnel, in the "Avoca" claim, and also the same ore in shaft. The sample of the former gave
42 ounces of silver, and copper 18.04% per ton, and the sample of the latter, 50 ounces silver,
and copper 22.80% per ton. A good bunk-house, magazine and blacksmith's shop have been
erected, and everything in good shape for the winter, and indications seem to be improving as
work progresses on the mines."
The development work done on this group of mines is in marked contrast with that of a
similar nature in any other portion of the district during the past year. Dr. Dawson, in his
report for 1895, page 85, describes at length the geological conditions existing in the above
portion of Bonaparte Valley.
Big Slide Quartz Mines.
This property has changed hands during the past year. Seven claims have been located
on the supposed line of the lode in the Big Slide, late in the season, but no development work
has been done on them.
On Bridge River eight mineral claims were located during this month, but no work has
been done on them.
Hydraulic Mining Leases.
With the exception of the Bridge River Gold Mining Co.'s claims on the Horseshoe Bend,
Bridge River, and the Mulholland & Co. claim on the South Fork of that river, no work
has been done on any of the leases in the district.
Dredging Leases.
In my report of last year I stated that this class of mining in my district was " an
unsolved problem," and I regret that I must again repeat it. One company only commenced
work early in the season at a point on the river immediately below the bridge near Lillooet,
and were met by numerous difficulties, the most serious of which was the wire cable required
to span the river was found to be short, necessitating a new cable 1,100 feet in length, which
had to be brought from Eastern Canada, and caused great delay. Their plant is worked by
a 12-horse power engine. Having made a start it was then found that the belts slipped as soon
as the load of gravel was lifted above the surface of the water, and they were again compelled
to stop work until they can procure a chain belt to run in cogs, with which appliance the
company believe the plant will work satisfactorily. So far they have been unable to prove
that there is gold in the river bed where they have commenced work.
Bridge River.
I have for years past, notably in 1886 and 1889, endeavoured to draw attention to this
(in my opinion) the richest, and at the same time most neglected, portion of the district, and
may  at this  time  and  place be permitted  to refer to it at length.    Referring to the very 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines 551
imperfect Provincial map, a line drawn from the junction of Big Creek with Fraser River
to the headwaters of Jorvis Inlet, would form the centre of the locality to which my remarks
will refer. I also append sketch plan of Bridge River from Fraser River to the South Fork,
the data for which is furnished me by Mr. McDonald, District Road Superintendent, who is
well informed as to that portion of the river. I am not aware that this portion of the Province
has ever been visited by any of our eminent geologists, and trust that Mr. Carlyle, Provincial
Mineralogist, may be able to pay it a visit in August next (the best time), and give us the
benefit of his scientific knowledge.
From a personal residence of 34 years in the district, at Pemberton, Lillooet and Clinton,
and during the whole of that time, with exceptional opportunities of learning the amount of
gold obtained and the localities, I may be supposed qualified to deal with the matter intelligently and correctly. With the decade ending 1869 official public reports, with regard to
mines and mining in this district, are conspicuous only by their absence. The early miners
into this Province, 1859-60, worked their way up the Fraser River, testing all the tributaries
for gold. Bridge River in those years was located and worked, and from that time on to the
present, by white, Indian and Chinese miners, year by year, with varying success. The richest
finds and largest nuggets were obtained in the decade referred to. With the decade ending
1879, we have official mining statistics, commencing in 1874, in some of which annual reports
place has been found for Lillooet District and the estimated returns. In others the district
has been entirely ignored.
From 1860 to the discovery of Cayoosh Creek, Bridge River has been the principal source
of the gold obtained. If the old mercantile books of Mr. Smith, Mr. Foster, and other traders
doing business in Lillooet in the sixties, and the records of the now almost forgotten Dietz &
Nelson express line, then carrying express and treasure between Victoria and Lillooet, could
be now examined, the result would be a very startling array of figures of the amount of gold
obtained from Bridge River and the Fraser River benches and oars in the immediate neighbourhood of Lillooet. In the early sixties the principal workings were from the mouth up to
the head of Deep Canyon, from which point the river flows through a long marshy section some
50 miles. The river bed here is smooth, sandy, with fine gravel, in which only fine colours
have been found. Above this stretch, Tyaughton Creek has produced considerable coarse gold.
Gun Creek so far has produced only fine gold, and in limited quantity. Coarse gold is found
in Cadwallder Creek and the South Fork. Mr. A. W. Smith showed me a sample of 6 ozs. of
very coarse gold, which he bought from an Indian last week, whose claim is located at a point
above Gun Creek, and below Cadwallder Creek. The lower 13 miles of the river is now
covered by an Indian reserve, sketch plan of which I append, and the wisdom of thus practically
locking up so much of a well-known auriferous stream may be questioned. The valley of
Bridge River for a considerable distance is paralleled by the valley in which are situated Seaton
and Anderson Lakes, and at one point on Seaton Lake the distance to Bridge River, at Jack's
Landing, is only about six miles. The division between these two valleys is a high and much
broken up ridge of mountains, with numerous streams (not shown on the Provincial map),
falling into the above-named lakes.
The whole of the creeks, notably McGillavray Creek, are auriferous. The ridge of
mountains referred to widen out to the south-west, reaching a summit, on the south side of
which the watershed is to the head of Birkenhead River, on which the " Blackwater"
claims have been recorded this year. In 1864 I was shown gold by an Indian, which ho
found at the headwaters of Lillooet River. On the north-western side of the line first referred
to, gold has been found in various places.    (See my report for 1886.)
It will be noted from the foregoing brief and imperfect references that Bridge River and
its tributaries have been in places highly auriferous, with a possibly barren zone above the
deep canyon, and further that it has a wide-spread surrounding of mineralized rocks. The gold
found in the river is unmistakably different to that found in the Fraser River bars and
benches, and in form and size of the pieces bears a strong resemblance to the gold found in the
placer workings in Bendigo, Victoria, in the early fifties, with this difference, that Bridge
River gold shows much more recent release from its rocky matrix, in fact, at least one-third of
the pieces still hold imbedded pieces of quartz.
In other lands, placer mining has, with few exceptions, whether in wide areas of alluvial
deposits, in ancient or modern river beds, led up to the discovery of the rocky matrix, from
which the alluvial gold was obtained. Placer deposits, in a few years, led to the discovery of
the famous Comstock lode.    Placer deposits located the Treadwell mine on Douglas Island. 552 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
The fabulously rich placer mines of Ballarat and Bendigo, discovered in 1851, in two
years located the reefs, some of which on Bendigo, have "lived down" over 3,000 feet, and
been continuously worked for over 40 years. The experience on Cayoosh Creek, shews that in
little more than one year, the matrix, of at least a portion of the gold found in the creek,
was located.
I have shewn that the bed and tributaries of Bridge River have added to the golden
wealth of the District and Province for the past 36 years, and after all these years, we are yet
unable to show from whence this annual supply has come. It must be borne in mind that the
great majority of the miners working on the river for the past quarter of a century, have been
Indians and Chinese, and whose efforts are invariably directed to the river banks and adjacent
benches. A limited number of white miners have annually been at work, but their energies
have been persistently directed to the river bed, schemes for diverting its course for a short
distance, and hydraulic mining, involving a large expenditure, with, too often, no results.
During the mining season, it will always be a difficult stream to deal with, on account of the
volume of water it carries, and as a rule, a heavy fall along the line of all known auriferous
portions of the bed and banks. The topography of the river and its water-shed need hardly
be referred to here, a repetition of Cayoosh Creek, on a larger scale, the greater portion is at a
high attitude, all more or less subject to summer frosts, and unfit for agriculture. The usual
broken up and rugged nature of the Cascades prevails, access to it is by the primitive and
often dangerous trail from the mouth of the river, or by trail from Seaton Lake, over a high
divide to Jack's Landing. Doubtless this want of easy access, has, in the past, been an
obstacle to the development of that part of the  District.
Indian Reserve on Bridge River.
I have no hesitation in asserting that, for every dollar obtained from the bed of the
Cayoosh Creek, twenty dollars have been taken from Bridge River, and would indicate for
careful prospecting for the matrix which undoubtedly has furnished the supply found in the
lower river from its earliest history, a radius taking in from the head of the deep canyon, the
lower portion of the North Fork and Horse-Shoe Bend, down to the line of the Indian Reserve.
Of course, time and energy need not be wasted on the 13 miles of the Indian Reserve, as under
the present Mineral Act, the locator of a mineral claim must make oath, that it is not situated
within "any Indian Reservation." The history of the river up to the present, is, that there is
a long sluggish stretch from the head of the deep canyon, for nearly 50 miles in which nothing
but fine colours of gold have been found. Above this is a wide spread zone, embracing
Tyaughton, Gun and Cadwallder Creeks, and the South Fork, all auriferous and yielding a
quality of gold identical with that found in the lower river, and I would infer that, within this
zone, careful prospecting should be made for the lodes, which undoubtedly have furnished the
supply found in the beds of the above-named streams. In addition to gold, I have already shown
that silver and galena have been found in the neighbourhood. Copper and float pieces of
cinnabar have also been found at different times. In brief, the whole of that portion of the
district, from Blackwater Camp on the south-east, to Chilco River on the north-west, thence
by the Chilcotin River to Fraser River, with the latter as a base line, is practically unknown
territory from the prospector's point of view, with the exception of portions of Bridge River,
one of the main central arteries. Of the existing geological conditions nothing whatever is
known, so far as I know.
Five mineral locations were made on Cadwallder Creek in October last, and three others
this month, in the neighbourhood of the Horseshoe Bend, but all too late for any development
at this season. The Horseshoe Bend is under lease to the Bridge River Gold Mining Co., who
propose commencing a tunnel, as soon as the season will permit, to run from the lower to the
upper caulk of the shoe. The tunnel will he about 800 feet in length, and, when the river is
diverted into it, will lay bare and dry the curve of the shoe, about | of a mile. The river
benches at this point are covered by hydraulic mining leases, from the upper part of the Indian
Reserve to the North Fork. Although not within my province, I may be permitted to urge
the necessity of a road as a means of ingress to the Bridge River Valley, and as a base to fall
back on, and I believe there are no engineering difficulties in the way to the construction of a
waggon road from the mouth of the river to the North Fork, a distance of about 16 miles.
In this class of mining there has not been anything done, and no prospecting licences have
been issued for the district this year. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 553
The following abstract shows the mining transactions in Mr. Phair's office at Lillooet, and
my office here, for the year:—
Recorded Mineral Claims 220
Conveyances of                      n                87
Abandonments                       n                3
Certificates of Work            n  16
Water Grants for                  n                3
Recorded                       Placer Claims  9
Re-recorded                             n                7
Conveyances                           n                10
Water Grants recorded        u                8
Dredging Leases in force  13
Hydraulic Mining Leases in force  34
ii                      ii             applied for  7
Free Miner's Certificates (Revenue) $1,067 00
Mining Receipts, general          n              4,408 65
Marshal Bray, Gold Commissioner.
1 have the honour to submit my first annual report for the Nanaimo Mining Division for
the year ending 31st December 1896, with the customary statistics.
The information is rather meagre at this early stage of development, as nearly all the
mineral claims in this district were located in 1896. I only had 22 records of mineral claims
in this office at the end of the year 1895, and in August, 1896, Texada Island records were
transferred to this office from New Westminster office, and 100 records were so transferred.
For the first year this Mining District has made a good showing, which is as follows :—
303 mineral claims recorded.
367 free miner's certificates issued.
34 certificates of work recorded.
3 certificates of work issued.
95 conveyances of mineral claims recorded.
3 water grants issued.
2 leases of mining lands for hydraulicing issued.
1 placer mining claim recorded.
The assays from the rock taken from many of the claims show gold and silver in
paying quantities, and a few claims show copper and lead, but, as 1896 being the first year,
not much development work has been done ; in fact, on most of the claims no more has been
done than the necessary assessment work required to hold the claims ; but no doubt the year
1897 will record the development of many valuable gold and silver mining properties in this
The following mineral claims have done considerable development work during the year
1896 :—
The Van Anda, on Texada.—A shaft has been sunk 60 feet to first level, and the level
has been run 100 feet, and the shaft has been sunk 30 feet below the first level, and they are
now stoping out rock for shipment. This claim is about one-half mile from Sturt Bay, which
is a good safe harbour, and is connected with the mine by a good road. The company are
preparing to put up a wharf. The company has shipped a few tons of ore to Tacoma to determine the value of the ore, and it has run from $25 to $50 per ton.
The Victoria group of claims, on Texada Island.—A shaft  has been  sunk   50 feet on the
ledge, and it assays well. o
02 554 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
The Raven, on Texada Island, are running a tunnel, with good results.
The Silver Tip, on Texada Island.—A shaft sunk 60 feet on good ore.
The Lorindale, on Texada Island.—A shaft sunk 35 feet, and another shaft sunk 20 feet,
both being on good ore.
The Nutcracker, on Texada Island.—A shaft sunk 18 feet on good ore.
The Bobby Burns, on Valdes Island.—They have run 80 feet of tunnel on good ore.
The Hetty Green, on Valdes Island.—They have run 100 feet of tunnel on good ore.
The Daniel Webster, on Valdes Island.—They have a shaft 40 feet deep on good ore.
The Poodle Dog, on Channe Island.—They have run 80 feet of tunnel on good ore.
The above-named claims on Valdes and Channe Islands show a vein of about 6 feet wide
running through them, and a shipment to the Tacoma smelter gave returns of $31.20 per ton,
and they will soon be steady shippers.
The  White Pine, on Thurlow Island.—They have run 125 feet of tunnel on good ore.
On the Alliance group, in Dunsmuir District, they have sunk one shaft 50 feet deep, and
one shaft 16 feet deep, and run 35 feet of tunnel, all in good pay ore.
There are two other companies in Dunsmuir District who have taken out tools and
provisions, and intend putting in the winter in developing their properties. This portion of
the district badly needs a trail from the east end of the Nanaimo Lakes and along the north
shore of said lakes, and thence on to the Nitinat River ; the distance is between 25 and 30
miles. You will perceive by my statement enclosed that there are 82 mineral claims recorded
out there, and there is no trail to take in provisions and tools.
Mr. Dick, the Inspector of Mines, intends making a personal inspection of many of the
mineral claims in this district, and he will be able to give you in his report a more detailed
and satisfactory report as to the nature of the rock, ores, etc., etc., than I am in a position to
give, as I have not been able to spare the time to make a personal inspection, and have had to
get my information from the owners of the claims and others who have seen the several claims
I have mentioned.
By W. S. Gore, Gold Commissioner.
I have the honour to hand you herewith a report upon the mining transactions which
came within my jurisdiction during the last year. This is the first report of the kind that I
have had the pleasure of presenting. Heretofore there have been but very few mining locations
made on the coast, and the claims which had been recorded were not prospected with any
very satisfactory results; it is therefore gratifying to note the comparative magnitude and
importance of the past year's transactions. I have also appended a complete detailed list of
all the Crown Grants for mineral claims which have been issued by the Government up to the
date of this report, which will be a matter of public interest and convenience, as will also be
the list of Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders, which is annexed.
No. of Free Miner's Certificates issued 690
ii    Mineral Claims recorded 342
ii    Placer n n            25
ii    Certificates of Work      60
n     Certificates of Improvement      1
Grants of Water Right    13
ii    Layovers    11
H    Placer Leases    22
n    Conveyances    83 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 555
Revenue Derived.
From Free Miner's Licences $3,460 00
ii    Mining receipts generally    3,117  10
Total     $6,577 10
The mineral claims above referred to, are situated principally in the vicinity of Phillips
Arm and Loughborough Inlet, and at various other points on the coast of the Mainland, also
on the southern portion of Vancouver Island, and consist chiefly of gold, silver and copper, in
combination of varying proportions. Nearly all of the mining locations in Victoria District
are easy of access by water, and the prospects for successful mining at these places during the
ensuing season are bright.
Heretofore this has not been regarded as a mining district of any importance, and the
number of claims taken up has been small. Notwithstanding the transfer of Texada Island
from this to the Nanaimo District, the number of claims recorded at the office of Mr. Robson,
Mining Recorder, during the past year, has been beyond all precedent, and the other business
in connection with the office has correspondingly increased, as will appear from the following
comparative statement:—
1895. 1896.
Free Miner's Certificates issued    468 1,150
Mineral Claims recorded    182 518
Certificates of Work issued      12 37
Conveyances, from 1889 to 1896, 81; during 1896, 81.
As a majority of these claims have been located during the latter part of the year, very
little development work has been done yet, and one cannot speak with any certainty respecting
the actual value of these mining properties. Generally the rock is low grade, but reports of
assays in several cases have been very encouraging; some of the claims located on Harrison
Lake having shown over $200 in gold to the ton. The Mineral locations are spread over a
large area, including Harrison Lake and River, Glacier Lake, Mission, Chilliwhack, Sumas,
Stave Lake, Pitt Lake, Burrard Inlet, Howe Sound, Squamish River, Malaspina Strait, Jarvis
Inlet, Powell Lake, and elsewhere adjacent to the Straits of Georgia and Fraser River. The
amount of prospecting done during the summer has been very large, and there is every reason
for expecting that a considerable amount of development work will be done during the coming-
For some time negotiations have been going on, looking to the establishment of a smelter
and refinery at Vancouver or New Westminster, but no definite arrangement has yet been
concluded. Such an establishment would greatly tend to stimulate the development of local
mines, as it would probably reduce the cost of treating the ores. A large proportion of the
claims located in this district are adjacent to navigable waters, and the ore could be laid down
at very small cost, either on Burrard Inlet or Fraser River; and if a smelter were in operation
at either of these points, the low grade ores could be worked at a profit. The mining outlook
in this division for 1897 is very hopeful. 556
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Name of Claim.
Name of Grantee.
51 65
Date of Grant.
Golden Eagle	
Clayoquot ..
H.  Saunders	
Section 198..
31st Oct.,   1895
F. J. Claxton et, al	
30th Mch., 1892
Burns Mountain M. Co.
Quesnelle Quartz M. Co.
St. Laurent	
Victoria ..   	
Cariboo .
B. C. M. &M. Co	
Burns Mountain M. Co.
B. C. M. & M. Co
C. D. Rand	
Quesnelle Quartz M. Co.
0. D. Rand	
B. C. M. & M. Co
C. D. Rand	
B. C. M. & M. Co
Lot   92, G. 1
„ 62, 63,
93 n
200 „
201 „
198 „
52, 53, 54,
55,56,G. 1
117     „
94 ,,
199 »
177     //
1st Nov., 1889
25th Feb.,
1st Mch..
11th Dee.,
16th Sept., 1884
16th April, 1890
1st Mch., 1889
11th Dec, 1894
25th May, 1893
East Koootenay.
Black Horse 	
Fort Steele .
Diamond E  	
Port Steele  .
Maud S	
Mountain Daisv	
Mill Site	
Number One	
North Star	
Port Steele .
Fort Steele .
0. K	
Robert E. Burns  	
Southern Cross	
Port Steele .
Syenite Bluff	
Thunder Hill	
E. B. Osier et al	
M. Drainard	
North Star M. Co	
M. Drainard	
E. B. Osier et al	
Carbonate Mountain M. Co
North Star M. Co	
A. Granger    	
J. F. Armstrong	
Wm. Rosamond	
D. Oppenheimer et al,      ...
Geo. deWolf   	
Geo. Gore	
S. Redgrave  	
P. Dick	
R. Fotheringham	
Geo. Hoggarth	
Carbonate Mountain M. Co
North Star M. Co	
H. E. Foster	
North Star M. Co	
S. Redgrave  	
R. Fotheringham	
Carbonate Mountain M. Co
S. Redgrave 	
Wm. D. McKay	
H. G. Low	
Jas. Brady	
Jno. McKay	
Lot 134,
G. 1
9th Sept., 1889
18th April, 1895
17th May,  „
18th April, ,,
9th Sept., 1889
16th May, 1893
17th „
loth Dec,
11th Nov.
7th June.
29th Oct.,
30th May, 1893
loth Sept., 1893
10th Feb.
15th Dec,
11th May.
17th „
5th Dec,
17th May.
27th Sept.
5th Dec.
16th May,
15th Sept.
29th Oct.,
19th Mch.
16th Nov.
15th Sept.
,1893 60 Vict.
Report of the Minister of
West Kootenay.
Name of Claim.
Name of Grantee
Date of Grant.
American Flag	
Ainsworth . .
Ainsworth . .
Ainsworth ..
Trout Lake .
Ainsworth ..
Ainsworth ..
Ainsworth . .
Goat River .
Ainsworth ..
//           ..
//           ..
Ainsworth . .
Ainsworth . .
Chas. Hall et al	
Lot 142, G. 1
„    143      „
„    173     „
„   407     »
„    452     „
„    562      ,,
„   713     „
„   737     ,,
a    722      //
„    765     „
„    750      „
„   730     ,,
„    973     „
„    945     „
„ 1206     „
„   978     „
„     50     „
„    147     „
,,    174     „
„    540      „
„    451
n    556     a
„    482      „
„    674      „
„    698     ,,
„    569     „
„    636     ,,
„    538      „
,,    785      „
„    751      „
„    901     „
„    534     „
„ 1053     „
„    938     „
„    961      „
n 1284      „
„    979     „
„      12      „
,i    146      „
„    200      „
„    203      „
„   417     „
„    558      „
„    478      ,,
„   699     „
„    568      „
„   721     „
;,    744     „
„    924     „
„    921      „
,,   981      „
„    694     „
„    804     „
„    992     ,,
„    586     „
„    956     „
„    904     „
„    960     „
„ 1205     „
„    734     „
„    517     „
„    141      „
„    236     ,
„    243     „
„    259     „
„    241      „
„    453     „
1st Dec,   1890
E. W. Herrick et al	
13th Feb.,  1891
7th Feb.,  1891
H. Selous	
20th Mar., 1893
5th Dec,  1893
1st Nov., 1894
A. V. Westlv	
N. D. Moore	
A. B. Hendryx	
H. Abbott	
Adams & Brandon	
10th Dec,  1894
4th Jan.,   1895
28th Mch., 1895
14th Jan.,   1896
Atlantic Cable    	
Blue Bell	
26th Jan.,  1896
20th May,  1896
3rd July,  1896
27th July,  1896
25th Sept., 1896
3rd Dec,  1896
D. M. Drumheller	
Ema R. Rugh	
Wm. Caldwell	
A. W. McCune	
W. A. Hendryx	
A. D. Wheeler	
A. W. McCune	
J. A. Whittier	
15th Feb.,  1888
Black Bird	
Blue Bird	
Blue Jay  	
Black Chief	
Bon Ton	
Black Bear	
3rd Sept., 1890
23rd Jan.,   1893
8th April, 1893
4th Sept., 1893
21st Nov.,  1893
Sth May,   1894
6th April, 1894
10th Aug., 1894
12th Nov.,  1894
17th May,  1895
6th Peb.,  1895
Shafer G. & S. M. Co
R. C. Adams	
Columbia M. Co	
W. H. Brandon et al	
Le Roi M. Co	
11th Feb.,  1896
Brandon k Adams	
Hall Mines Co	
26th Feb.,  1896
18th Mar., 1896
30th April, 1896
28th July,  1896
14th Oct.,   1896
7th Dec,  1896
3rd Dec,  1896
9th Dec,   1884
Blue Bird	
Big Chief No. 2	
Bugaboo ..   .   	
E. Bousquet	
H. Bostock	
Caledonia C. M. Co	
McCraney et al	
A. W. McCune et al 	
Geo J. Ainsworth 	
Crow Fledgling	
Corbin & Kennedy	
3rd Sept., 1890
7th Dec,  1891
D. W. Corbin, et al	
E. D. Ainsworth	
0. Durant et al	
M. Clair et al	
R. C. Adams	
Columbia M. Co	
A. B. Hendryx	
J. H. Currie	
Copper King	
I st April,    1893
27th Nov., 1893
20th Mar., 1894
12th April, 1894
12th Nov., 1894
16th Mar., 1895
30th Aug.; 1895
11th Peb.,  1896
Cons. St. Elmo	
Crown Point	
C. &C...	
15th Jan.,   1896
C. Dougherty	
Trail M. Co	
Ed. Haney	
J. C. Gore	
21st July,   1896
25th Feb.,  1896
'6th Mar,   1896
27th May, 1896
20th Oct.,   1896
24th Sept., 1896
19th Aug., 1896
25th Sept., 1896
14th Oct.,   1896
Crown Point	
Wm. Braden	
Chas. Warren et al	
Ed. Mahon	
Commander M. & S. Co	
Kendrick & Ogilvie	
Caledonia Con. M. Co	
22nd Oct., 1896
Fox, Kelly & Cook 	
M. D. Mahoney	
Empire Con. M. Co	
J. C. Rykert, Jr   j
S. S. Bailey j
12th Sept., 1891
22nd Dec, 1891
31st Dec,   1891
23rd Jan.,  1893
5th Dec,  1893
' 558
Report of the Minister of Mines.
West Kootenay.—Continued.
Name of Claim.
Deer Park	
Delaware No. 1  . .
Early Bird	
Evening Star	
Eddie J 	
Freddie Lee	
Grizzly Bear ....
Golden Wreath..
Golden King ....
Great Western ..
Grand View	
Golden Drip ....
Gold Hill	
Golden Chariot..
Great Western . .
Great Eastern ...
Grey Copper ....
Golden Queen . . .
Gold King	
Gold King	
G. R. Sovereign .
Happy Find  ....
Hendryx No. 1..
Hendryx No. 2..
Hidden Treasure
Homestake .   ...
Hattie Brown . ..
High Ore	
Ivy Leaf	
I. X. L	
Iron Horse	
Trail . .
Trail . .
Name of Grantee.
Slocan ....
Slocan . ..
Nelson . ..
Slocan . ..
Trail ....
Nelson . ..
Slocan   . ..
Nelson . ..
Trail . .
Trail . .
Ainsworth ..
Nelson . ..
Trail Creek
Slocan   . ...
R. M. Sherman	
Wm. Strachan	
F. A. Mulholland	
Hall Mines Co	
Delaware M. & M. Co.
Geo. W. Coplin	
C. Van Ness    	
Columbia M. Co	
Grady, Briggs & Latz
J. L. Retallack	
D. M. Drumhellar ....
S. St. Ongeei al	
D. C. Corbin   	
Argonaut G. M. Co...
W. Dainard et al	
Minnesota S. Co	
Jno. H. Fink et al . . ..
EricG. M. Co	
J. R. Cook et at	
Geo. C. Howe	
Freddie Lee M. Co. ...
F. Fletcher et al	
E. 0. Carpenter	
A. J. Marks 	
Freeburn M. Co	
R. A. and A. C. Pry. .
Cottonwood G. M. Co
Kootenay M. & S. Co
Cottonwood G. M. Co .
Thos. McGovern	
A. H. Kelly	
T. M. Dormitzer	
A. Beamer	
R. C. Daniel	
A. Jackson	
Trail Creek
W. C. Yawkee	
H. H. R. Chapman .. .
A. B. Campbell et at . .
J. A. Whittier	
J. H. Thompson et al .
G. W. Coplin	
Jas. Garrison	
D. M. Lennard etal...
L. J. McAter	
0. Bordau	
G. W. Peterson et al. .
Corbin, Kennedy et al.
J. C. Rykert et al	
Kootenay M. & S. Co .
A. B. Hendryx	
Colwell et al	
M. Stevenson 	
W. Strachan	
S. M. Wharton et al . .
Harman & Hendryx...
Meade & McLaren . .. .
M. S. Thompson et al
High Ore M. & S. Co. .
E. Bousquet	
J. E. Boss	
W. R. Will etal	
Durant & Tarbet	
Behne et al	
R. McFerran  	
G. Pahl el al	
S. St. Onge	
39 00
Lot 613, G. 1
390 „
932 „
907 n
1225 ,,
103 ,,
414 „
567 «
719 »
566 ,,
801 ,;
695 „
803 „
951 „
1107 „
742 ,,
980 „
1277 „
233 „
301 '„
475 „
374 „
588 „
977 ,,
957 »
105 „
495 „
726 „
496 „
6S5 „
539 „
690 „
640 «
691 „
692 „
753 „
928 „
984 „
580 „
581 „
997 „
994 „
1061 ,,
1229 „
915 ,,
1226 „
202 „
258 „
461 „
462 „
411 „
557 „
371 »
936 „
724 „
1047 „
1049 „
641 ,,
1054 „
234 „
416 „
559 „
472 „
738 „
679 „
795 „
Date of Grant.
29th Oct.,
5th Dec,
12th Feb.,
20th May,
28th Oct.,
27th Feb.,
19th Oct.,
12th Nov.,
11th Feb.,
14th Aug.,
5th Nov.,
17th Jan.,
27th Feb.,
30th April,
27th May,
21st July,
4th Dec,
1st Dec,
4th Sept.,
1st June,
13th Aug.,
23rd April,
22nd July,
4th Dec.,
2nd June, 1891
23rd Mar.
15th   n
23rd „
29th May,
4th Mar.,
2nd ,,
4th Oct.,
10th Dec.,
9th Mar.,
30th April,
9th May,
22nd „
27th July,
14th Aug.,
28th Sept.,
8th Dec.,
15th „
14th n
7th n
31st a
1st Aug.,
15th Mar.,
20th a
14th Nov.,
4th Jan.,
27th Feb.,
6th Mar.,
16th „
30th April,
14th Sept., 1891
20th Mar., 1893
27th Nov., „
27th April, 1894
4th Jan., 1895
12th July, i,
16th Jan., 1896 60 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
West Kootenay.—Continued.
Name of Claim.
Iron Mask	
Ida Fraction	
Ida No. 2	
Jay Gould	
Jim Crow	
John W. McKey	
Jim Fair	
Josie Mac	
Kootenay Chief	
Kootenay Bonanza....
King William	
Kalmar    ..
Little Donald	
Let-her-go, Gallagher .
Le Roi	
Last Chance 	
Little Phil	
Last Chance  .........
La Belle	
Last Chance  	
Lake Side	
Lilly May  	
Lost Boy	
Little Pittsburg	
Long Tom 	
Lucky Queen	
Mountain Chief	
Maid of Erin 	
Mile Point	
Mountain Chief No. 2.
Mill Site (Rattler) ....
Mountain View	
Mountain Boomer ....
Mill Site	
Monte Cristo	
Mill Site	
Morning Star	
Mill Site	
E. W. R	
Number One	
New Jerusalem	
Newmarket , .... ,, ,,,
Name of Grantee.
Trail Creek .
Pat. Clark	
C. Schmidt et al	
Minnesota Silver M. Co...
Trail Creek .
J. A. Mulrony et al	
Ainsworth . .
Josephine M. Co	
Shafer G. & S. M. Co	
E. Mahon	
Trail Creek .
F. C. Loring	
Trail Creek .
Trail Creek .
E. Mahon	
J. A. Finch et at	
Sam. T. Arthur    ...
Ainsworth . .
Geo. J. Ainsworth	
Ainsworth . .
A. D. Wheeler	
Trail Creek .
P. Aspinwall	
Hall Mines Co., Ltd	
Trout Lake .
H. Abbott	
Ainsworth ..
Jas. Smith et al	
Wm. Lardner	
Ainsworth ..
G. J. Ainsworth	
J. P. Stevens et al	
II                       .  .
A. D. Wheeler	
Trail Creek .
LeRoiM. & S. Co	
Ainsworth ..
A. W. McCune etal	
E. Mahon	
E. Ramsay	
Ainsworth ..
Thos. McGovern	
E. H. Tomlinson	
Goat River..
Trail Creek .
J. H. Field et al	
J. B. Jones et al	
Argonaut G. M. Co., Ltd. .
A. B. Campbell et al . . . .   .
Hall Mines Co., Ltd	
Trail Creek .
0. Bordau et al	
H. Bostock	
E. A. Powys et al	
Trail Creek .
Ainsworth ..
A. D. Wheeler	
Jno. Miles	
John McDonald	
S. S. Bailey	
Julia A. Wright	
W. H. Smith	
Trail Creek .
E. D. Carter '...-
E. S. Topping et al	
E. &H. Mahon	
N. D. Moore	
Trail Creek ,
S. St. Onge et al	
Byron N. White Co	
Trail Creek .
A. Cessford et al    .
A. B. Campbell et al	
The Hall Mines Co., Ltd..
Trail Creek .
Monita G. M. Co. of B. C..
Ainsworth . .
T. J. Lendrum et al	
Geo. W. Coppen et al	
Ainsworth . .
Revelstoke Mining Co.
16 53
Lot 989, G.
,, 688
i, 990
„ 743
n 1060
„ 552
„ 554
„ 409
,i 536
i, 686
/, 965
., 968
n 969
,, 1230
i, II
,, 140
,i 93
n 697
a 245
,i 766
„ 822
,, 1012
,, 1011
n 13
« 92
i, 87
i, 240
„ 178
,,' 410
,i 247
i, 477 ■
i, 717
-i 727
„ 786
,i 729
„ 952
„ 986
„ 906
a 1052
„ 942
„ 940
„ 386
„ 1184
„ 294
„ 90
» 402
„ 246
„ 498
,, 500
„ 214
„ 474
,i 560
„ 682
„ 740
„ 736
i, 802.
„ 590.
„ 955
„ 985
„ 943
,, 910
,i 689
„ 716
„ 104
„ 89
,, 144
„ 235
Date of Grant.
21st May,
18th Mar.,
6th Aug.
24th July,
28th     a
20th Nov.,
21st      ii
14th Feb.,
Uth Jan.,
20th May,
12th Nov.
4th Mar.,
4th Dec.,
9th Dec,
1st       n
15th Jan.,
23rd Dec.,
13th Nov.,
14th Mar.,
Not issuec
8th Dec,
9th Dee.,
16th Jan.,
15th     „
23rd Dec,
4th May,
14th Feb.,
4th April
3rd Oct.,
25th Feb.,
5th Oct.,
11th Feb.,
30th April
22nd May,
20th     „
21st July,
28th     ,,
15th Dec,
Uth     „
Not issued
loth Jan.,
5th Sept.,
23th Jan.,
17th Mar.,
14th July,
19th Sept.,
3rd Nov.,
11th May,
23rd Sept.,
20th     a
17th Jan.,
9th April
3rd     „
22nd May,
28th July,
30th Sept.
10th Dec,
27th Feb.,
25th Jan.,
1st Sept.
14th    „
tt 560
Report of the Minister of Mines.
West Kootenay.—Continued.
Name of Claim.
Nickel Plate
No. 1	
Northern Belle..
North Star	
Nest Egg	
New Denver .   ..
0. K	
Old Abe	
011a Podrida ...
Old Timer	
Pool man	
Paris Belle...   .
Palo Alto	
Pauper's Dream
Queen Bess ....
Queen Victoria.
Royal Charter..
Round Hill ....
Ruby Silver....
Rockingham ...
R. E. Lee	
Red Mountain. .
Silver King ....
Silver King ....
Silver Queen ...
Slocan Star ....
Slocan Boy	
Storm Cloud ...
St. John	
Surprise No. 2 .
Silver Cup	
Southern Cross.
St. Louis	
St. Elmo  	
Spotted Tail . . .
Silver Star	
Ainsworth .
Trail Creek
Nelson ....
Trail, B. C.
Goat River.
Trail Creek
Ainsworth .
Trail Creek
Ainsworth .
Nelson ....
Nelson ....
Goat River
Trail Creek
Ainsworth .
Trail Creek
Nelson ....
Trail Creek
Ainsworth ,
Nelson . . .
Name of Grantee.
Ainsworth ..
Trail Creek .
Trail Creek .
Ainsworth . .
Ainsworth .
it      . ..
Slocan ....
Slocan .
Slocan .
Goat River
Trail Creek
Ainsworth .
Sloean ....
Trail Creek
Neosho Mining Co ....
E. Haney et al	
A. H. Sonneman et al .
J. A. Pinch	
Frank Barnard etal,...
Nest Egg M. Co., Ltd
Thos. F. Wren etal
Jno. M. Harris et al .
Kelly et al	
John J. Cole et al	
John H. Field et al ...
Frank C. Loring	
R. S. Howard et al ...
G. E. Pfunder el al . ..
Rich. Ashworth	
A. D. Wheeler	
C. Hussey et al	
S. S. Bailey et al	
John Miles	
John H. Field el al ...
P. Clark etal	
Paris Belle Mining Co.
A. W. McCune   	
PhcenixG. M. Co....
Ed. Mahon 	
J. R. and A. Stussi ...
Palo Alto G. M. Co ...
Caledonia Con. M. Co .
Arabella Coy	
Wm. Glynn et al 	
J. J. Baker et al	
A. H. Kelly	
A. E. McCallum   	
D. P. Strobeck	
W. P. Russell	
D. J. Burke et, al	
G. and L. Alexander. .
Chas. Sweeny	
J. M. Harris et al	
W. A. Hendryx	
Chas. Hall et al	
A. D. Wheeler	
E. W. Herrick	
Pacific Bullion M. Co
R. A. and A. C. Fry .
Ed. Dempsie	
Byron M. White ....
E. J. Hale et al	
Geo. C. Howe	
Shafer G. & S. M. Co
A. Behne et al	
A. H. Kelly etal	
M. Grady etal	
Slocan .
J. A. Whittier et al...
Slocan Surprise M. Co
Chas. Holten	
J. H. Field etal	
Thos. Smirl et al	
R. E. Lemon et al
Walter C. Adams	
Jos. Brown et al	
P. C. Loring	
Chas. Schmidt et al
H. Bostock	
Jno. Elliott et al	
Acres.     Description.
Lot 302, G. 1
537 i,
687 n
644 „
797 ,i
1048 ,,
958 „
612 ,,
412 „
678 „
783 „
799 „
974 „
1057 ,i
250 ,,
148 i,
101 „
499 „
728 „
782 „
925 „
531 a
971 i,
953 ,,
903 „
1150 „
950 ,,
733 ,,
1163 „
215 „
368 „
232 „
201 „
675 „
515 .,
579 ,i
1000 i,
624 „
49 ,,
141 „
137 „
145 „
212 „
105a „
238 „
545 „
626 „
300 „
556 ,,
472 „
684 „
718 „
564 ,,
563 i,
512 „
514 „
768 ,,
784 „
964 „
970 „
752 „
935 ,,
923 . „
988 „
939 i,
911 a
Date of Grant.
Sth July, 1892
3rd May, 1895
27 th Dec,  „
30th April, 1896
6th Aug.,  „
10th Nov.,  „
30th Sept., n
22nd Oct.,  ,,
20th Mch., 1893
20th April, 1895
11th Feb., 1896
2nd April, n
9th April,  ,,
21st July,
29th July,
3rd Sept.,
7th Feb.,
17th Mch.,
29th Aug.,
11th Feb.,
21st July,
Not issued.
28th Feb.,
16th Mch.,
19th Aug.,
Not issued.
21st Sept.,
14th Oct.,
15th Oct.,
22nd Sept.,
27th May,
16th Nov.,
5th Sept.,
1 Sth Feb.,
22nd „
•21st July,
10th Sept.,
28th i,
21st Oct.,
15th Feb.,
1st Dec,
3rd Sept.,
11th Nov.,
21st July,
29th Jan.,
15th Dec..
27th May,
5th Sept..
4th Nov.,
21st n
11th April,
5th Mch.,
12th Feb.,
Uth „
11th „
15th i,
22nd May,
26th July,
11th Feb.,
16th Mch.,
10 Feb.,
18th Mch.,
30th April,
27th May,
21st  „
28th July,
25th ,i
1896 60 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
West Kootenay.—Concluded.
Name of Claim.
San Francisco . ..
St. Paul	
San Joaquin
Tough Nut	
The Dandy	
Tam O'Shanter.
Try Me	
Two Jacks	
Twin Lakes
True Fissure
Trilby No. 2 ....
Uncle Sam	
War Eagle	
White Bear	
Yankee Girl
Young Dominion
You Know	
Yorkee Joke . . . .
Trail Creek
Nelson . ..
Nelson . ..
Nelson . ..
Nelson . ..
Slocan ....
Trail Creek
Trout Lake
Trail Creek
Trail Creek
Ainsworth .
Trail Creek
Nelson  ....
Trail Creek
Nelson ....
Ainsworth .
Trail Creek
Nelson ....
Trail Creek
Trail Creek
Ainsworth .
Name of Grantee.
Martin Salmon et al	
Silverine G. M. Co	
W. A. Campbell	
San Joaquin G. M. Co....
Jno. L. Retallack	
Fitch et al	
W. W. Sprague	
Fox, Kelly et al	
Montreal-Kootenay M. Co
Harold Selous	
J. M. Squire	
S. S. Bailey	
Pacific Bullion M. Co ... .
Alamo Min. Co	
A. B. Campbell et al	
Thos. Downs	
Ross Thompson 	
Beaver G. M. Co 	
J. M. Harris et al	
B. C. Syndicate et al	
Revelstoke M. Co	
Fitch etal	
A. B. Campbell et al	
H. McGlynn et al	
Hall Bros, et al	
Jos. Bourgeois et al	
Jno. A. Finch	
W. J. C. Wakefield	
Wm. Lynch et al	
S. S. Bailey et al 	
W. G. Goepel	
N. E. Lay et al	
Koot. &Col. Pros. M. Co.
Canadian Pacific M. Co
H. Mann et al	
J. Bourgeois et al	
J. J. Cole	
H.  Selous	
J. E. Boss	
W. G. Benham	
E   Mahon	
Ed. and H. Mahon  	
W. Perdue et al	
H. Miller et at  	
G. 1
Date of Grant.
25th Sept., 1896
14th Oct.,       i,
15th     ,i
3rd Dec,      n
2nd June,
12th Sept.,
24th Jan.
10th April,
20th Mch.,
17th  „
15th Sept.,
27th Feb.,
21st May,
21st July,
25th Sept.,
22nd Oct.,
4th, Dec,
13th Feb.,
5th Dec,
21 st May,
24th Aug.,
29th Nov.,
5th April,
30th  „
9th Dec,
26th Mav,
23rd Mch,
25th Feb.,
23rd Sept.,
11th April,
30th Aug.,
25th Jan.,
5th April,
25th Sept.,
20th Mch.,
17th Jan.,
18th Mch.,
19th Aug.,
23rd Sept.,
21st July,
13th Feb.,
Brown Extension
Bell Location . ..
Drake n ...
Foster    n
Iron Clad	
Lone Prospector.
McB. Smith  ....
Ward Location ..
Hiram      »
Harvey    n
Lillooet Foster Gold M. & M. Co
 E. Bell	
 M. W. T. Drake	
 F..W. Foster	
 ; Geo. Henderson	
 | J. O'Brien	
 i Jno. O'Brien	
 !Jas. McB. Smith	
 P. H. Ward	
 ! Hiram Gould	
 H. W. Harvey	
10th Nov.
28th Sept.
28th n
10th Nov.
10th  //
28th  ,,
28th ,,
5th Dec,
9th Feb.,
9th  „
28th Sept.
" 562
Report of the Minister of Mines.
New Westminster.
Name of Claim.
Name of Grantee.
Date of Grant.
ii          Extension..
„         No. 2	
New West'r.
Geo. deWolf	
H. Abbott et al	
Lot 1648, G. 1
i,   1608    n
„   1609    „
„   1607   /,
1st Mch., 1895
10th April, 1893
//                          It
G. Bower et al ..   .:	
Sayward and Coast.
Bobby Burns   .
Daniel Webster
Hetty Green ...
Moss & McKay
Poodle Dog
Channe M. Co.
McKay & M. Moss
Channe M. Co	
Lot 201a
„   203a
„   202a
Sec. 9, Blk. 1
Lot 204a, R. 1
2nd Dec..
3rd      „
2nd     „
20th Oct.,
2nd Dec..
American Boy	
B. C. Copper M. Co
Belle Scott	
Big Sandy	
Brown Bear	
Bonanza Queen   ...
Black Diamond....
Cole, Geo. W	
Copper Queen	
Copper Mine	
City of Paris	
Dark Horse	
Eureka G. M. Co ..
Gentle Annie	
Gold Cup	
Golden Crown	
Great Hopes	
Jenny Long 	
Joe Dandy	
King William	
King Solomon	
Knob Hill	
Lake View	
Last Chance	
Murphy, C. &  J. . .
Mary Reynolds	
Kamloops. .
Osoyoos ....
Kettle River.
Osoyoos ....
Kamloops.. .
Kamloops. ..
Osoyoos ....
Osoyoos  ....
Osoyoos ....
Kettle River.
Kettle River.
Osoyoos ....
Kettle River.
Kettle River.
Osoyoos ....
Kettle River.
Osoyoos ....
Kettle River.
Kamloops. ..
Kettle River.
Osoyoos .
Osoyoos .
Kettle River.
Osoyoos ....
Kettle River.
Kamloops. ..
Wm. Palmer	
J. A Mara	
R. L. Rutter	
R, G. Sidley	
B. C. Copper M. Co	
Nicola M. & M. Co	
Hidden Treasure M. Co.
D. J. Buchanan	
Wilkinson et al	
Thos. Rabbitt et al	
S. Mangott et al	
Geo. W. Cole	
Nicola M. & M. Co	
J. Monaghan	
E. J. Roberts	
Jno. Moran	
Jno. Douglas	
Jno. Stevens et al	
Jno. Stevens	
R. C. Adams et al	
R. Wood	
Eureka G. M. Co	
Jno. Douglas	
F. Richter et al ..
F. R. Kline	
J. E. Boss et al...
Wm. T. Smith ...
Nicola M. Co
Jno. Hepburn ....
W. J. Porter	
Jno. P.  Harlan...
Nicola M. Co
Thos. J. Jones ...
E. Hammond
Nicola M. Co
Jno. Moran	
E. J. Roberts ....
C. J. Lundy et al .
Jno. Stevens	
H. White etal ...
Jno. Stevens et al.
Murphy, C, et al.
Jno. Hepburn ....
Lot 273,
a   271
G. 1
592 "
14th May, 1889
12th June, «
27th Sept., „
2nd June, 1891
4th Sept., 1895
23rd April, 1896
16th Mch., 1887
28th Jan, 1889
23rd July, 1888
17th June, 1892
5th Sept., 1893
22nd May, 1894
25th Oct., 1878
16th Mch., 1887
14th May, 1889
1st June, 1892
7th April, 1894
23th Jan., 1895
4th Nov., »
18th Jan.
13th Mch.,
18th Jan.,
7th July,
12th April,
12th June,
30th May,
21st     „
4th Sept.,
25th „
16th Mch.,
15th Oct.,
29th July,
28th Sept.,
16th Mch.,
16th Jan.,
6th Sept.,
16th Mch.,
9th May,
1st June,
24th Feb.,
4th April, 1894
10th Sept.,    //
4th Nov., 1895
3rd Dec, 1878
15th Oct.,   1888
1896 60 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Name of Claim.
Morning Star ....
Mill Site	
McKay & Murphy
No Surrender ....
New York	
Number 7  	
Old Ironsides	
Oro Denoro	
Riske (older ledge)
Robert Dunsmuir.
a       Millsite . .
Roderick Dhu....
Silver Crown.   ...
Tubal Cain	
True Blue  	
Victoria S. M. Co.
Withrow Location
Wide West	
Wynn, M	
Western Girl	
Kettle River.
Vernon ....
Kamloops. .
Kettle River.
Kettle River.
Kamloops. . .
Kettle River.
Kamloops. ..
Kettle River.
Kettle River.
Kamloops. ..
Vernon .
Yale ...
Vernon .
Kettle River.
Name of Grantee.
S. Mangott	
Jno. Douglas	
C. Yacher	
McKay & Murphy	
D. Melntyre	
Nicola M. Co 	
Thos. Babbitt	
Jno. Douglas	
J. Schofield	
S. Mangott	
J. D. Shorts	
E. D. Reynolds 	
Jno. Stevens	
W. A. Corbett	
P. S. Barnard	
R. Lewis Rutter	
L. W. Riske	
Silas Field	
Wm. Wilson	
Hidden Treasure M. Co
Jno. P. Roddick 	
E. D. Reynolds  	
E. J. Roberts	
Margaret J. Wood	
Sheohan et al	
Thos. Elliott etal	
Ed. Hammond	
F: Farrell et al	
Nicola M. & M. Co ....
Hidden Treasure M. Co
Victoria S. M. Co	
F. C. Vernon	
C. B. Brash	
Jno. Irving	
L. W. Riske	
E. D. Reynolds	
Jno. Stevens    ..
D. Mcintosh	
20 66
443, G. 1
609     „
667     n
27    „
194     „
591     „
79     ,,
610     ,,
623     a
274     ,,
557    a
573     a
589     „
692     „
652     „
618     I,
195     „
192     „
673     i,
255     a
78     „
445     „
446     „
446     „
598     „
384     „
583     n
582     „
442     „
588     „
586     n
254     ,,
23     „
193     ,/
218     n
344     „
306     n
444     „
554     „
574    „
599     „
Date of Grant.
3rd Aug.,
28th Jan.,
4th May,
20th Mch.,
22nd May.
28th Sept.
16th June.
28th Aug.'.
4th Sept.
10th Jan.,
24th Feb.,
Kith Mch.
18th Jan.,
7th July, 1875
18th Feb., 1887
21st July,  «
2nd June, 1891
16th April, 1890
20th Mch., 1893
3rd Jan., 1894
4th April, »
16th Mch., 1896
1889 564
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Mining Divisions.
Cassiar, Etc.
Stickeen . ..
McDame . ..
Laketon . ..
Omineca .
Kamloops ...
Kettle River
East Kootenay—
Fort Steele	
West Kootenay-
Revelstoke ....
Illecillewaet. . .
Trout Lake ...
Ainsworth ....
Trail Creek ...
Goat River	
Alberni . .
New Westminster
Name of Recorder.
James Porter   Laketon, B.C
a  i ii
a   //
"  j "
John Flowen  Port Simpson
Ezra Evans . .   .
Jno. Bowron ..
W. Stephenson .
W. S. Gore
G. C. Tunstall  ..
Wm. Dodd ....
H.  Hunter	
L. Norris	
C. A. R. Lambly
W. G. McMynn .
J. Stirret 	
F. C. Lang	
G. Goldie	
C. M. Edwards.
M. Phillips
J. I). Graham .
R. J. Scott
C. Minhenuick
T. Taylor	
A. Sproat	
John Keen....
R. F. Tolmie..
J. Kirkup ....
J. C. Rykert . .
M. Bray	
Thos Fletcher .
F. Soues	
C. A. Phair . ..
D. Robson	
Manson Creek..
Quesnelle Forks .
Victoria, B.C
Granite Creek .
Windermere ..
Fort Steele . ..
Tobacco Plains
Lardeau ....
Trout Lake .
New Denver
Rossland . ..
Rykert's ....
Clinton .
New Westminster
Name of
Gold Commissioner.
James Porter....
W. S. Gore ....
W. S. Gore ..
Jno. Bowron
W. S. Gore
G. C. Tunstall  ..
// ...
C. A. R. Lambly
J. F. Armstrong
J. D. Graham .
N. Fitzstubbs .
M. Bray	
Thos. Fletcher
F. Soues	
F. Soues	
W. S. Gore . ..
Laketon, B.C.
Victoria, B.C.
Victoria, B.C.
Barkerville, B.C.
Victoria, B.C.
Kamloops, B.C.
Osoyoos, B.C.
Donald, B.C.
Revelstoke, B.C.
Nelson, B.C.
Nanaimo, B.C.
Alberni, B.C.
Clinton, B.C.
Clinton, B.C.
Victoria, B.C. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 565
By G. C. Tunstall, Gold Commissioner.
I have the honour to submit the annual mining report for the Kamloops and Yale Divisions of Yale District, to which is attached a statement of the particulars connected with the
Harrison Lake mines, kindly forwarded by Mr. J. R. Brown, of the Harrison Hot Springs, to
whom, and also to Messrs. S. McCartney, of Savona; W. Dodd, Mining Recorder at Yale, and
H. Cancellor, of North Bend, I am deeply indebted for information supplied on this and former
Placer Mines.
Tranquil!e River.
I regret to say but little placer mining was prosecuted the past summer on Tranquille
River, which is the principal producer of alluvial gold in this division.
A few Chinese and white men find employment, with small returns for their labour. These
placers have been steadily worked for a period of thirty-six years, and it is surprising they
should still be able to attract the few miners who work on this stream.
Gilbert Smith, who has a leasehold at the junction of the North and South Forks, has
finished the construction of his ditch, but was unable to work any ground, owing to the dry
season, which caused a scarcity of water.
The Thompson River Hydraulic Mining Co. obtained a leave of absence from their property last summer.    I understand it is their intention to resume piping next season.
Some seven or eight Chinese, who have resided on this creek for a number of years, manage
to make a comfortable living by combining mining with gardening.
J. Russell, whose claim paid $3 per day to the hand, has had it included in a mining leasehold of eighty-one acres, which will be worked by the hydraulic process, the increase in the
height of the bench of gravel rendering ground-sluicing no longer profitable.
Scotch, Creek.
About ten or twelve Chinese worked on this Creek the past summer, with what result I
have been unable to learn.
Thompson River.
Messrs. Bellamy, Macdonald and Jones have two leases of mining ground at the Horseshoe Bend. A grant of water has been obtained for hydraulic mining, with the intention of
actively prosecuting work in the spring.
Salmon River.
Messrs. James and Ross Mahon have two mining leaseholds on this river, which have, so
far as known, yielded no profitable returns.
The yield of gold for the past year is estimated at $3,500, of which amount the Bank of
British Columbia purchased $3,100.
The mining receipts are as follows:—
Free Mining Certificates    $1,467 00
General Mining Receipts    1,898 25
$3,365 25
The above figures exceed the revenue from the same source for 1895 by $2,169.10. 566 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Mineral Claims.
Coal Hill Mines.
Coal Hill derives its name from a deposit of excellent coal found a few years since, about
three miles south of the town. A tunnel was run a considerable distance, but the broken up
condition of the seam and an insufficient thickness led to its abandonment.
This was the first discovery of mineral of any kind made on the mountain, which is probably destined to become one of the principal mining camps in the Province.
It is situated in the midst of a pastoral country which, since the advent of the first white
settlers, was only deemed valuable for pasturing cattle. Starting from Kamloops a constant
succession of grassy, rolling hills, dotted with pine trees, ascend to an elevation of 3,300 feet
above the level of the sea. From every point of view the scenery is of the most pleasing and
picturesque character, which never fails to attract the admiration of the beholder.
The mountains of the Gold Range are here clothed about two-thirds of their height with
bunch-grass, the support of numerous herds of cattle. Above that the timber line intervenes,
embracing within its limits an abundant growth of pine and fir, principally the latter.
The country is everywhere accessible to persons riding on horseback, and an excellent
waggon road already exists, to which an extension of about a mile will intersect some of the
principal claims, and afford all the facilities that will be required for transportation.
The Veins.
The general trend of the veins is east and west. They lie in a diorite formation, and exist
under similar conditions to those found in the Rossland District, accompanied by the characteristic iron capping, which is a prominent feature of those deposits. The ore is also of the
same character, being chalcopyrite, assaying from five to thirty per cent, in copper, and from
$4 to $8 in gold. The vein matter is diorite. The lodes average in width from 4 to 20 feet,
and the locations now extend over an area of about 20 square miles. Fuel is abundant, and
an unrivalled climate, in addition to short railway communication, completes the advantages
which very few mining camps possess.    Two hundred claims have been recorded to date.
The first discovery was made in June by Louis Bennett, who brought some of the ore to
Kamloops, and described in a vague manner the situation of the vein from which it was taken.
Unaware of its value he left shortly for the mica mines at the headwaters of the Thompson
River, without taking any steps to locate. This led to a search on the mountain, which resulted
in the mineral claim known as the Python being staked and recorded. The richness of the
deposits soon spread, and within two or three weeks numerous prospectors were roaming in
every direction in quest of mineral wealth.
Messrs. Cobbledick and W. T. Newman, two gentlemen possessed of great mining experience, who are acting for capitalists in England and the Dominion, have inspired general confidence by becoming interested in some of the most important mines. The latter is the author
of " Hidden Mines, and How to Find Them," a work which has attained an extensive sale, and
is considered indispensable to every miner and prospector. The following is a summary of the
particulars connected with some of the most important locations, on which more or less work
has been accomplished:—
The Python.
A vein can be traced on the surface a considerable distance, exhibiting in some places a
width of from 20 to 30 feet, with an average width of 8 to 9 feet. A shaft 60 feet deep has
been sunk, from which about 30 tons on the dump will average from 15 to 18 per cent, copper,
and $5 in gold to the ton.    Four men are employed.
The Guerin, or Lucky Strike.
The Guerin Fractional claim, adjoining the Sunrise on the north, has a hole about 8 feet
deep, showing a mass of ore 5 feet wide, which assays 22 per cent, in copper. This claim has
been bonded to Mr. Cobbledick for $13,000.
The Chieftain.
This claim is situated near Sugar Loaf Mountain. The ore is of the same character as
that found in the claims previously mentioned, and  averages from  5  to   15 per cent, copper, 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 567
and from $4  to  $5  to  the  ton in gold.    A shaft is down 30 feet, in ore the whole distance.
The vein varies from 4 to 10 feet in width.    Work will be prosecuted during the winter.
The Iron Mask.
The Iron Mask is situated about four miles south-west of Kamloops. Two cross-cuts
have been run across the lode for distances of 20 and 30 feet, respectively, without encountering the hanging wall. The foot wall is a trap dyke. The direction of the vein is north and
south. The average value of the ore is $60 in gold and copper. From 18 inches to 4 feet
adjoining the hanging wall is clean ore. A full force of men will be employed during the
The Canada.
This claim belongs to the King Mining Co. It is situated on Jocko Creek, about 7 miles
south-west of Kamloops. A shaft, 27 feet, has been sunk, showing a vein 6 feet wide. The
company has bonded the mine for $4,000 until the 1st July, with a cash payment of $400.
Thora H.
The Thora H. adjoins the Python on the south. The croppings on the surface assay $8
in gold and 8 per cent, copper. The lode can be traced on the surface 500 feet; it averages
30 feet in width. A shaft has been sunk to a depth of 15 feet in low grade ore, containing
pockets and stringers of a high grade character. Messrs. Hoare and Keiper are the principal
owners.    The former is connected with the Everett Smelter, Everett, Washington.
Sunrise No. 2.
Is about two miles west of Kamloops, at the foot of the mountain, and about 200 yards
from the railway track. Two veins of mineral intersect this property—one of asbestos, from
8 to 12 inches wide, of first-class quality, exhibiting a tough fibre capable of being manufactured into textile fabrics. The other lode is composed of diorite, assaying from $8 to $12
in copper to the ton.
North Thompson River.—Gypsum.
About 20 miles north of Kamloops, on the east bank of the Thompson, a large deposit of
gypsum of excellent quality can be distinctly traced for a couple of miles up the mountain
side. It is within a mile of the river, and will therefore admit of cheap transportation to the
Canadian Pacific Railway, which is an important factor, to allow of profitable returns.
Glen Iron Mining Co., Cherry Creek.
This company is engaged completing a contract to supply the Tacoma smelter with 500
tons of ore.
Adams Lake Group.
After a series of exhaustive tests made by the owners of this group of mines, some six or
seven in number, with the object of determining the value of the ores, and ascertaining the
most economical and efficient process for working them, no doubt exists as to the profits that
will accrue from their treatment. A company has been incorporated, with a capital of
$400,000, for the active prosecution of development next spring. Fifty thousand dollars is to
be expended in the construction of a cyanide plant with a capacity of treating from 50 to 60
tons per day. These mines exhibit immense bodies of ore, and their wealth will add to the
material prosperity of the district.
Stump Lake Mines.
Many of the vacant locations which had been recorded ten or eleven years ago have been
relocated, with additional new ones. It is stated that work will be commenced on some of the
mines on which large amounts were expended in former years.
Rockford Group.
An important mining discovery was made last fall at Rockford, in the Nicola Valley, a
short distance east of the waggon road.    The find  consists of three quartz veins, running 568 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
parallel to each other, which possess a width of 17, 5, and 3 feet, respectively. The assays
from surface croppings show returns of $10.50 in gold and 7\ ounces of silver to the ton.
These locations are situated about two miles south of the Stump Lake silver mines. The
results obtained are very encouraging, and undoubtedly prove these deposits to be richer than
any yet found in that section of the country. The rock is free milling, and that feature will
greatly add to its value.
Grand Prairie Group.
About twelve claims have been taken up at Grand Prairie, at the rear of the settlement.
The F. C. Jones Mining Co. have four locations, named the Alice Hay, Henrietta, Forest
Queen and Key. The vein is from \\ to 2\ feet wide in the Henrietta, and extends through
the other claims, on which more or less work has been accomplished. A shaft, 30 feet deep,
has been sunk on the Henrietta. The assays range from $15 to $20 in silver, gold and copper.
The proportionate value of each metal I have not been able to learn.
Copper Creek Cinnabar Mines.
The Cinnabar Mining Co. have prosecuted development with diligent activity under
adverse conditions with a force of twenty men. In the early part of last summer the work
was confined to the Yellow Jacket, in which about 550 feet of tunnelling has been completed
and 200 feet of upraises. Prospecting with the diamond drill was also carried on, and the
results have proved very satisfactory to the company. By this means large bodies of low grade
ore have been discovered which can be worked to profitable advantage. The superintendent,
Mr. Veatch, has now turned his attention in the Rose Bush claim to what is known as the
Big Dyke, the tunnel being in some distance in good furnace ore. Should the present prospects
continue this supply alone will provide for present requirements. There is every indication
the deposit is permanent and will increase in size with depth.
Cinnabar mining in this section of the country is destined to become an important and
profitable industry, and the company deserve credit for the perseverance they have exhibited
under great difficulties.
A furnace, with a capacity of 25 tons, is ready for erection, and will be in operation
before the spring.    The facilities for delivering the ore from the mine are completed.
Hardie Mountain Cinnabar Mines.
The cinnabar locations at Hardie Mountain exist in a similar formation to that which
prevails at the mines previously mentioned, and are situated about three miles distant in a
northerly direction. The work performed has been of a superficial character, owing to a lack
of means and difficulties imposed by surface water. Mr. Irving is pushing a tunnel in the
Columbia, one of the group of claims taken up in this vicinity. It has reached a distance of
135 feet. The prospects are improving every day, and the ore shows up better as the work
proceeds. This tunnel will prospect the deep ground, and also assist the drainage. Assessment work on the other claims show good bodies of ore, averaging from 1 to 2 J per cent.
These properties are attracting attention, and it is probable a good company will be formed to
proceed with development in the spring.
Deadman's Creek Cinnabar Mines.
Deadman's Creek lies about eight miles east of Copper Creek. The same deposit of
cinnabar shows up again on this creek. A number of claims, which yielded favourable assays,
have been recorded. The Cariboo, Lillooet and Fraser River Gold Fields Co. own most of the
locations which are favourably situated, being within a comparatively short distance of the
C. P. Railway and easy of access.
Chris Creek Cinnabar Mines.
Chris Creek is a tributary of Deadman's Creek. Several locations were made on this
creek last summer. Very little work has, however, been effected. The ore is precisely the
same as that at Hardie Mountain, and is evidently a continuation of the lead at Copper
Creek.    The assay value is from 1 to 2\ per cent. \\\-"
•    '3 '   '"     V >
■:■    :   ' ■.. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 569
Copper Creek Copper Mines.
Very little outside of assessment work has been done last season on this group of copper
claims near Kamloops Lake. Development work has been delayed pending the result of
arrangements with a view of their being bonded, the present owners not being in a position to
undergo the expense involved in prosecuting the necessary mining improvements. The latest
reports state that the deal is about completed, and work will be in active progress next
Placer Claims.
Hill's Bar.
The Columbia Co., owing to scarcity of water, did little more than prospecting the
past summer, the yield of gold being $800. The ground is reported rich. It is the intention to utilise a larger and more permanent supply of water to permit of more extensive
Siwash Greek.
This creek is a tributary of the Fraser, and empties into that river 41 miles above Yale.
It is situated on the left bank, and is reached by means of a cable. A good trail leads to the
mines. A large amount of gold was taken from this stream in early days, where sufficiently
favourable conditions existed for its extraction. The heavy flow of water encountered in
sinking has prevented the deep ground from being bottomed, notwithstanding many attempts
to overcome this obstacle. However, a few miners still persist in attempts to reach the bedrock. Most of the mining leaseholds have had little or no work done on them for the same
reason as above stated—too large a quantity of water to handle.
Five Mile Creek.
A large camp of Chinese miners are working here, obtaining moderate wages.
Eight Mile Creek.
Messrs. Hogar and Gardner have undergone considerable expense in bringing water on
their property, which is an hydraulic mining leasehold of about 10 acres. The summer's work
has proved to be unprofitable; but little gold was obtained, although a large amount of gravel
was washed.
Indians and Chinese, also a few whites, were rocking in this vicinity.
Boston Bar.— Ottawa Mining & Milling Co.
This company was prepared to wash about the end of June last, but in consequence of
the exceptionally dry season, and accidents to the flume by land slides, the monitor was kept
at work for only about three weeks. The washes-up amounted to $1,830, which is a very good
return, considering the disadvantages encountered. The company is fully satisfied with the
richness of its ground.
Wendell Co.
This company's property is close to 4-Mile Creek, whence the necessary supply of water
is obtained. They were engaged in ground-sluicing for a short time, but had to shut down
owing to shortness of water. 570 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
North Bend.
Two mining leaseholds have been granted in the vicinity of North Bend, one opposite
Salmon River, the other near Keefer's. The gravel in the last mentioned is reported as being
rich.    The gold found is coarse.
Mining has been carried on to a limited extent between North Bend and Lytton.
Keefer's, Cisco, Kanaka Bar and Lytton are localities mined principally by Indians with
Mr. T. Earl has secured a lease of ground formerly in the possession of the Van Winkle
Hydraulic Mining Co.
Sual Claim.
This property, situated opposite Lytton, has been leased by Mr. Feason, who is experimenting with the Newman Gold Saving machine, a device for saving the fine particles of gold
which are usually carried through the sluice boxes and lost.
River Dredging.
Dredging on the Fraser River has so far been attended with no favourable results. The
large dredge belonging to the B. C. Gold Mining & Dredging Co. lay idle last summer at Ruby
Creek, and the one at Lytton, owned by the Fraser River Mining & Dredging Co., worked
above that point for a few days and then suspended operations.
The Beatty Co. are constructing at Boston Bar a scoop dredge, provided with powerful
machinery. This is a kind of dredge much used for harbour excavations. The. shovel, which
is under perfect control of the machinery, can be swung around and submerged anywhere within
a certain radius, and is capable of bringing up at each hoist ten tons of gravel. This is deposited in sluice boxes and washed. The large boulders are to be hoisted on scows and dumped
at a distance down stream. By this means the scoop will be able to perform its work in a
much more efficient manner. This scheme seems to possess more features capable of attaining
success than any of the others, where the strong current can be avoided.
After a two years' test of the dredges at present in use for obtaining gold from the bottom
of the Fraser River, provided with centrifugal pumps (which are utter failures) and buckets,
and equipped with the best machinery and appliances that experience and ingenuity could
suggest, the only reasonable conclusion that can be arrived at is, they are unable to surmount
the obstacles presented by a powerful current and an accumulation of large boulders.
I may remark these disadvantages do not exist in the Clutha River, New Zealand, the
only stream known where this branch of mining has yielded profitable returns, which have
encouraged similar enterprises in this Province and elsewhere.
The following is the yield of gold the past year for the Yale Division of Yale District,
which is perfectly reliable, being the respective amounts purchased by the merchants at the
different points mentioned:—
Agassiz $     500
Hope  112
Yale  13,350
Spuzzum  3,042
North Bend  2,912
Keefer's  3,200
Lytton  14,939
Spences Bridge  1,240
Ashcroft  14,391
Shipped direct to Victoria by Ottawa Hydraulic and Wendell
and Columbia Companies  2,922
Taken away in private hands and unaccounted for  5,000
 ■ $61,608
Free Miner's Certificates issued $   971 00
General Mining, Receipts    3,032 15
4,003 15 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 571
Mineral Claims.
At Hope considerable attention has been paid to prospecting for mineral claims, with the
result that a number of claims have been staked off and recorded.
Yale Creek Group.
The favourable reports of mining experts on these mines, have resulted in the forming of
a company for their further development.
A large amount of work was performed on these mines in former years. The necessary
steps have been taken to obtain Crown grants in favour of the Gold Queen and other adjoining
claims, preparatory to making arrangements for working them.
By J. A. Veatch, Superintendent, Savonas.
The Cinnabar Mines is situated on the north side of Kamloops Lake, about six miles from
the west end, in Kamloops Division, Yale District.
The present company acquired the Rose Bud, Blue Bird, Hill Side, Lake View and Yellow
Jacket by purchase early in 1895, and since have located two adjoining claims.
Development work was commenced immediately after the property was acquired, and in
August, 1895, two retorts were erected under the superintendence of Mr. H. L. Lightner.
They were only operated a few weeks when the high grade ore of the Rose Bud was exhausted,
that process not being suited for the reduction of the lower grade of ore, but in the short time
they were operated more than 100 flasks of quicksilver were reduced and shipped from the
mine. The present reduction works under construction are a granza (coarse ore) furnace of
between 25 and 30 tons daily capacity, of modern pattern, and a system of transporting and
handling the ore that will enable us to mine, transport and reduce it at a minimum cost.
The exploratory work consists, on the "Rose Bud" claim, of a tunnel 340 feet in length,
cross-cuts aggregating 260 feet, an upraise to the surface, with drifts at different levels aggregating 150 feet, and a stope of considerable size, from which stope a large proportion of the
ore reduced was extracted.
On other parts of this claim several small drifts and surface excavations have been made;
the workings known as the Big Dyke and No. 8 tunnel are also on this claim, or at least in
part, and here a tunnel has been run 120 feet, with two cross-cuts just commenced, an upraise
to the surface 80 feet in height. Here there are also comparatively extensive surface excavations, and present operations are confined to this part of the mine. On the " Yellow Jacket"
there have been run two tunnels, one 90 feet in length, the other 260 feet, with four cross-cuts,
aggregating 330 feet in length; two connections with the surface, 80 and 100 feet respectively,
the latter having two levels, with drifts amounting to 220 feet in length.
In the face of this tunnel and beneath the level of it more than 1,200 feet in all have been
drilled with a Sullivan diamond drill, while there has also been a considerable amount of surface
exploring done in the same vicinity, and on the remaining claims a small amount of surface
The country rock is " picrite," a dark green highly acidic rock of Tertiary volcanic origin.
It is rent by fissures of varying width, the smaller filled with a dolomite gangue and containing
the high grade ore, the larger with a rock graduating from tufa to rhyolite, much of it containing disseminated minute crystals of cinnabar. This ore-bearing rock is highly ferrated on
the surface, and usually completely serpentized beneath. The deposits are everywhere badly
faulted and dynamically crushed, but to treat on this subject completely would require a volume
alone. 572 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
By John R. Brown.
Trout Lake Mines.
Discovered October, 1895. Formation of country rock, syenite and ferruginous slate,
in the contact between which is a belt of highly silicious schist intermixed with quartz, both
impregnated with iron and copper sulphurets, forming a mineral zone of considerable width,
and carrying gold and silver values averaging on the Black Diamond claim, where it is shown
up to advantage, about $4 per ton, a capital concentrating proposition being capable of reduction
from 15 to 20 to 1, with probably greater values when more depth is reached. The general
direction of this belt is north-west and south-east.
In the ferruginous slate the country rock lying to the north of the syenite are to be found
belts of serpentine, metamorphic slates. Very large lodes of mineralized quartz, all having the
same general direction, north-west and south-east, and extending for a great distance in this
belted manner, occasionally, however, showing on the surface traces of disturbance in the
shape of folds, breaks, etc., sometimes in waves. I do not think that there has been much
glacial action at this point, and consequently more work is left for the miner.
Since the discovery of these prospects last year about sixty locations have been made,
and of these about twenty have been secured by development, the rest being probably
This is, however, no test of the value of the camp as a future mining centre, for while it
may prove it to be no poor man's camp I feel confident that it will eventually turn out to be
a very large producer of perhaps low grade ore, but with a fair margin of profit between cost
of extraction and treatment and value of ore.
On the Discovery claim, located by Geo. Black, an open cut of about 20 feet in length
and a tunnel of about 40 feet
This work cross-cuts the vein, or more properly speaking, a portion of it, as the breast of
the tunnel is still in vein matter, rock very easy to work. The work, however, has been done
in a bad place, no dump, while much better results in depth could have been gained at other
points. The showing is very satisfactory, however, and from this point I obtained my samples
for assay, etc.
This property has been to some extent assisted by natural forces in the shape of a waterfall, which has cut down the country rock overlying the vein. This water-fall, with a very
large head, offers great advantages in the future working of the property.
The Empress group of claims, six in number, about one mile north-west of the Black
Diamond. While this group is not quite so close to the syenite, it was known that a shaft of
some depth would strike the vein of the Black Diamond, while the outcroppings in the overlying belts in the ferruginous slate or iron capping gave promise of the discovery of valuable
ore shutes, similar from the character of the outcrop to the Rossland mines; hence the selection
of these locations offering, as they do, a double advantage. A tunnel, which is now in about
100 feet, and a cross-cut about 20 feet long, starting near the breast of tunnel, is so far the
amount of development work. The rock has from the start been very hard, and while encouraging, inasmuch that almost from the start bunches and stringers of mineral have been found,
they have in most cases been of too low a grade for shipment. That ore shutes of considerable
value and size will be found eventually, judging from the outcroppings, I think is very
probable, while the success of the other properties lying above and below these, on the contact
already described, will also justify the owners in holding these claims, as this contact can be
reached, as before stated, by sinking. As to other development work in this camp, the owners
of a consolidation of several claims, under the direction of Mr. Cecil Smith, have done several
hundred dollars' worth of tunnelling and sinking, but the work was not sufficient to demonstrate
anything. A few other claims have had assessment work done on them, but in many instances
without regard to location, but simply to hold the claims.
As to other portions of your district in the neighbourhood of Harrison Lake, very
favourable  reports are  coming in.    At Silver Creek a large quartz vein has been discovered 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 573
and located on for two miles. Vein, 17 feet wide in slate; surface assays $26 in gold to ton.
A rich section extends from this point to Yale, about thirty miles distant, the country rock
being diorites, serpentines and slate.
In prospecting over a large extent of country during the past summer and fall, embracing
parts of both Yale and New Westminster Districts, I was astonished at the superficial evidences
of great mineral wealth when crossing many of the different formations. Often it was no
longer a question of seeking but of selection, a veritable " embarass de riches." The more I
see of the coast country the more firmly am I convinced that not far in the future it will
contain as many producing mines as all the combined producers of the interior.
By Hugh Hunter, Mining Recorder.
I have the honour to forward my annual mining report for the Similkameen Division of
Yale District for the year 1896:—
Hydraulic mining was not a success this season owing, in a large degree, to the inadequate
supply of water.
The Granite Creek Mining Co. have completed the flume on their property, and had about
a month's piping with a full head of water, but were unable to clean up on account of severe
frost, which came unusually early for this section of the conntry.
Mr. W. J. Waterman piped on his claim at the mouth of Friday Creek for about three
months, prospecting the ground, and had to cease work on account of too little water.
The Anglo-American Co., on the South Fork of the Similkameen River, had a large force
of men at work for about three months, but shut down as the wash-up was not satisfactory.
The Tulameen Mining Company, whose property is about three miles below Granite Creek,
had a force of five men prospecting. They worked about four months, when they were compelled to shut down for want of water.
Several placer claims have been worked out, and others were idle during the season, the
owners having obtained leave of absence pending the sale of their property.
On the Tulameen River and its tributaries fifty-three mineral claims have been located.
The ore is generally grey copper and galena. An assay of some ore taken from the Siberia
Mineral Claim gives returns as follows:—
Lead, $7.80; silver, $55.64; gold, $2.07.
Several claims in this portion of the district have been sold, and others have been bonded.
The Star Mining Co., of Terra Haute, Indiana, have acquired three locations at the headwaters
of the Tulameen. A tunnel twelve feet long has been put in on the Sutter Mineral Claim,
which shows a ledge of galena eighteen inches wide. This and other properties will be worked
extensively next season. On the Similkameen and its tributaries thirty-one locations have been
made. The ore is principally peacock copper, which assays about 60 per cent, copper, with a
small proportion of silver and gold. As little work has been done on any of these, I am unable
to report more fully as to their merits.
On the Iron Mountain, near the Coldwater, twenty-four mineral claims have been located.
The mountain appears to be one huge deposit of mineral, and at one time it was located by a
Vancouver company for its iron. A Victoria company took up three claims adjoining each
other, namely, the Victoria, Charmer and Islander, and on sinking a shaft on the Charmer they
found a valuable deposit of mineral, carrying gold, silver and copper. The shaft is now twenty-
two feet deep, and shows a solid body of ore from top to bottom. At a depth of four feet an
assay was made, which shows silver and copper to the value of $40.90, and a trace of gold.
Work will be resumed on this property in the spring, as soon as the season opens.
Free Miner's Certificates issued  175
Mineral Claims recorded, 108; placer, 13  121
Transfers—Mineral Claims  22
Certificates of Work issued  11 574 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
By C. A. R. Lambly, Gold Commissioner, Osoyoos, B. C.
I have the honour to submit the annual mining report and statistics, for the Osoyoos
Division of Yale District, for the year 1896:—
Camp Fairview.
Work has been carried on in this camp during the latter part of the year with greater
energy than at any time for the past two years, and a number of claims have been sold and
bonded at prices ranging from $200 to $75,000. Of the old claims worked during the year the
following are the only ones that have been worked to any extent, viz.: The " Morning Star,"
"Joe Dandy" Group, "Stemwinder" and "Smuggler."
The Morning Star.
In the north-east shaft, at a depth of 100 feet, a drift of 50 feet has been driven on one
side of the shaft and the same on the other, and the shaft has also been continued 50 feet in
depth. On the south-west shaft a drift of 20 feet has been run along the vein. Average
milling test, $15 to $20 per ton.
The owners, Messrs. McEachern and Mangett, are at present engaged in sinking a shaft
for the purpose of ventilating the mine.
The Joe Dandy Group.
This group consists of the "Joe Dandy," "Atlas," "Daisy," and "Belmont" claims. On
the "Belmont" a tunnel of 20 feet has been run; on the "Daisy" a shaft of 30 feet has been
sunk; on the "Joe Dandy" a new tunnel has been run for 60 feet to tap the ledge, and a winze
sunk through to the old tunnel. This group is owned by the British Columbia Development
Company.    Mr. John R. Mitchell, general manager; Mr. Ballard, foreman.
Twenty-three men are at present at work, which force will be increased as room is made
for more men to work in.    There is about 100 tons of ore on the dump.
The Stemwinder.
On this claim an open surface cut of 12 feet has been run; altogether the development
work on this claim consists of about 600 feet of tunnels and shafts. This claim is bonded to
Messrs. Rhodes & Co., who, it is expected, will shortly take hold of it with a view of developing the property.
The Smuggler.
A drift of 20 feet has been run from the bottom of the 100-foot shaft along the vein, which
is about five feet in width.
The following are claims which have recently been opened up, most of them being new
The Comstock.—A tunnel of 50 feet and a shaft of 100 feet has been sunk.
On the Tin Horn the work consists of two tunnels; the first of 65 feet, and the second of
50 feet.
On the Randolph a tunnel of 50 feet has been run, and a further contract of a 50-foot
shaft has recently been commenced.
On the Reco, Ocean Wave and Quartz Queen, a 50-foot tunnel has been run on each.
Work is also being pushed forward on the following claims:—
California, Ironclad, Fannie Morris, Nightingale, Sundown, Elmore, Shamrock, Highland
Chief Snow Bird, Winchester, Silver Bow, Mammoth, Gold Hill, Rob Roy, Grey Eagle and Iron
Mask. Messrs. Dier and Davidson, who have lately acquired these claims, have about 20 men
steadily at work, and intend testing each of their claims.
The Buckhorn, owned by Messrs. Elliot and McDougall.—On this claim a shaft of average
dimensions of 4 feet by 7 feet has been sunk for 38 feet, during the past year. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 575
On the Occidental, owned by the same parties, a 17-foot shaft, 4 feet by 7 feet, has been sunk.
On the Oro Fino an open surface cut has been run for 40 feet and a shaft sunk 12 feet, by
the owners, Messrs. Gwatkin and Winkler.
It is confidently expected that Camp Fairview will soon rank as one of the foremost
mining camps in the District.
Camp McKinney.
On the Cariboo and Amelia the mill has been running continuously during the year, and
has produced 8,743 ounces in gold, valued at $116,243, and 371,036 lbs. of concentrates, of a
value of $14,980; total output of the mine for the year 1896 is $131,223.
The work consists of 540 feet of drift on the second and third levels, and 6,456 tons of ore
stoped and milled. At present the work is being carried on at the third level, at a depth of
175 feet from the surface. About 30 men are constantly employed. I am informed that the
owners intend shortly to increase the capacity of the mill to 15 stamps.
The  Minnie-ha-ha.
This claim, which lies south and west of and nearly adjoining the " Cariboo," has one
shaft sunk 45 feet, and a second of about 15 feet. The vein averages about 18 inches in
width.    The claim has recently been surveyed and a Crown grant applied for.
On the Lemon an open cut, 20 feet in length by 6 feet by 9 feet, was run on the east side
of the main shaft. The cut penetrates the shaft at a depth of about 10 feet below the surface.
The vein, which crosses the claim diagonally and has been traced on the surface for a distance
of 1,700 feet, is a true fissure vein, running north-east and south-west, and is capped by iron
to a depth of 10 feet. The east wall is quartzite and the west wall a black slate. Mr. Greevy,
the owner, informs me that arrangements have been made for extensive development work
during the coming season.
The   Victoria Group.
This group consists of the Victoria, Queen, and California claims. Mr. Bash, who has
charge of the development work for a Victoria company, has done a very considerable amount
of surface work, having built a waggon road for about three-quarters of a mile to connect the
claims with the Camp McKinney road, costing between $200 and $300 ; he has also erected a
number of very substantial buildings on this property, and has had from 15 to 20 men continuously at work since the middle of September last. Two tunnels have been run on the
Victoria, at a distance apart of about 700 feet, No. 1 in the centre of the claim and No. 2 at
the extreme edge, close to the "Old England" claim. No. 1 has been driven 135 feet, and
No. 2 97 feet; both tunnels are very securely timbered. It is expected to tap the ore body at
a depth of about 125 feet on No. 1, and about 100 feet on No. 2. The ore lies in a talco-slate
and diorite contact, running almost due north and south with the formation. Twenty-five
assays have been made, giving an average of $65 to the ton.
Old England.
On this claim there are three veins running more or less parallel in a northerly and
southerly direction the entire length of the claim. The dip of the veins is easterly. The
main or centre vein is over 20 feet in width, and at a depth of 75 feet may be described as
follows :—Commencing at the hanging wall is a gouge or salvage some 10 to 18 inches in
thickness, composed of talc, impregnated with sulphides, adjoining which is a rich streak of ore
some two or three feet in width, following which, towards the foot-wall, there are streaks of
quartz and talc, intermixed, containing sulphides and galena, carrying gold. The shaft follows
the hanging wall at a dip of about 45° for 50 feet; thence straightens to about 70°. The shaft
is 6 feet by 8 feet 8 inches, securely timbered. A tunnel has been run a distance of 90 feet,
with the object of tapping the vein at a depth of about 200 feet from the surface. The east
vein is exposed by an outcrop of about 50 feet in length, and has been cross-cut 8 feet in ore
carrying copper and iron sulphurets. This vein also crops out on the " Homestake," which is
to the north of the " Old England." On the west vein a tunnel of about 30 feet has been run.
The vein is 4 feet in width, and carries galena and sulphurets. The centre and east veins can
be traced continuously through the claim, and the three veins are not more than 80 feet apart.
The Homestake adjoins the " Old England " on the north end. The centre and east veins
of the " Old England " have been traced through this claim.    A tunnel to tap the east vein has 576
Report of the Minister of Mines.
been commenced and run about 60 feet about the centre of the claim.    A prospecting tunnel
of some 30 feet has been run lengthwise on the east vein.    The character  of  the ore is gold
quartz, containing copper.
The Le Roi and War Eagle.—Messrs. Copeland and Younkin, the owners of these claims,
have sunk a shaft of about 25 feet by 8 feet by 10 feet.    They have about 100 tons of ore on
the dump.    These claims were located in the spring of 1896.    Assays average about $30.
A very considerable amount of prospecting  and  a certain amount of development work
has been done on Keremeos Creek and along the Similkameen Valley, and at Osoyoos Lake, on
Kruger Mountain.    Many new location are in process of development.
Following is an abstract of the mining records and free miner's certificates issued in this
Division for the year 1896 :—
Free miner's certificates issued 167
Claims recorded     303
Certificates of work issued     Ill
Permits to re-locate      3
Abandonments      2
Bills of sale recorded    87
Bonds and agreements recorded    25
Water grants recorded          3
Certificates of improvements issued      1
White's Bar, situated on the north fork of Rock Creek.
Five claims have been worked on this bar during the year 1896, but only about $700 has
been taken out.
Considerable prospecting work has been done with a view of testing the bar, but as yet
with no great results. Good pay, it is thought, could be had if the bottom of the creek bed
were reached, but the outlay required to attain this object would necessarily be heavy.
The Ah Mat China Company, placering at the mouth of Rock Creek and on Rock Creek,
have taken out in the neighbourhood of $6,000 during the past year, several of the partners
in this concern having recently sold out and returned to China.
There are five claims belonging to the company.
The following is taken from a report furnished by Mr. Wm. G. McMynn, Mining Recorder
for the Kettle River Mining Division:—
The mineral development and progress generally of this division during the year 1896 has
been very marked and encouraging.
During the past year there have been more free miner's certificates issued, and more
location, conveyance and certificate of work records made in this district, than during the
whole of the previous three years.
The following table will show at a glance the progress which has been made since the
Kettle River Mining Division was established, and a Mining Recorder's office opened, in the
year 1893:—
Free miner's certificates
Location records	
Certificate of work records  .
Conveyance records	
Certificate of improvements.
Mill site leases	
Water grants	
9 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 577
The total amount of work done this year on assessments alone, valued at $100 each,
would aggregate the sum of $56,600, and it is also pleasing to note the very marked increase
in conveyance records, which tends to indicate that this work " pays." Of course on a great
many of these claims much more work has been done than is required to hold them under
the "Mineral Act," and a few of them I might mention as examples, viz.:—
Graham's Camp.
On the Potter Palmer mineral claim a tunnel has been run 61 feet in length.
Smith's Camp.
On the Last Chance mineral claim a shaft has been sunk about 65 feet in ore showing
some native silver, and on the Golconda and Iva Lenore mineral claims shafts have been sunk
about 40 feet each.
Deadwood Camp.
On the Mother Lode mineral claim work was commenced about the middle of last
September by the Boundary Mines Co, and a tunnel was started in the hill-side so as to crosscut the ore body. The maximum depth that will be reached in this tunnel is about 100 feet.
The tunnel is now into the hill about 135 feet, and for the last 93 feet has been continuously
in ore, which seems to be gradually improving as depth is gained. The ore body at this point
is probably 150 feet wide.
An option was secured last June, for nine months, on this claim by John Weir for the
Boundary Mines Co. for the sum of $14,000—10% cash, 45% to be paid in six months (which
has been duly paid), and the balance due in nine months, viz., next March, when, without
doubt, this payment also will be made.
Copper Camp.
On the Copper Mine mineral claim (which was bonded last May for six months to the
American Exploration Co., of New York, for the sum of $30,000—10% of which was cash),
several cross-cuts have been run on the surface at various points to test the width of the vein.
Near the lower end of the claim a shaft was sunk to a depth of 50 feet, starting on the
porphyry contact, and cutting through ore into the lime foot-wall. From the bottom of this
shaft a drift was run to strike the ore body, and then a cross-cut was made through the ore to
the porphyry wall, a total distance of about 85 feet from the bottom of the shaft. Some very
good ore was found in this shaft, assaying as high as 27% copper, but ore in the cross-cut was
lower grade.    So far as explored, the vein lies very flat, but may straighten with depth.
This bond was allowed to mature without being taken up by the above-named company.
Providence Camp.
A shaft has been sunk on the San Bernard mineral claim to the depth of 75 feet, and a
drift of 15 feet, with cross-cut.    This vein is small, but carries very rich silver-gold ore.
On the Combination mineral claim a shaft has been sunk 35 feet, also showing up rich
silver-gold ore.
Skylark Camp.
The Skylark mineral claim, which was fully described in my last year's report, was
bonded, together with the Denver mineral claim (which is its northerly extension), to Mr. C.
Rueger, of Butte, Montana, during the month of last May, for the sum of $15,000, viz., $7,500
cash, and the balance of $7,500 to be paid on or before the 30th day of last November. Mr.
Rueger shortly afterwards started further development work on the Skylark claim, with evidently
very satisfactory results, as the last payment of $7,500 was duly made, and Mr. Rueger still
continues the work on this property.
Central Camp
(which includes White's, Atwood's, and Douglas' Camps).
The Number Seven mineral claim was bonded last May to Mr. John Weir, for the
Boundary Mines Co. of New York, for the sum of $13,200.
A shaft was then down on this claim about 40 feet, and since then has been continued to
a depth of 140 feet.    From the bottom of this shaft a short cross-cut was run to reach the ore 578 Report of the Minister of Mines. 189
body, which had been left in the shaft about the 70-foot level, and, when found, a drift was
run alongside of it for a distance of about 60 feet. This ore is found to be of good grade
throughout. In the opposite direction, from the bottom of this shaft, a tunnel was run to
cross-cut the large quartz ledge which runs parallel to the smaller ledge on which the shaft is
sunk, and is on the surface, about 130 feet from it. At a distance of 115 feet in this tunnel
from the bottom of the above-mentioned shaft, a quartz deposit was found, but it bears no
resemblance to the surface ledge, and at the present time this tunnel is being continued in the
same direction.
Provided work is continued on this claim, the bond on it is good until the 15th day of
next February, when, there is little doubt, the last payment in full will be made.
On the Gold Dollar mineral claim, in the same camp, an incline shaft has been sunk
about 40 feet, with a drift of 10 feet, and at the bottom of another shaft 25 feet deep a tunnel
has been run a distance of 50 feet.
Wellington Camp.
A considerable amount of development work has been done during the past year by the
individual owners of the different mineral claims, especially on the Golden Crown, Winnipeg,
Jim, and Buttercup.
Greenwood Camp.
On the Old Ironsides mineral claim a shaft has been sunk 70 feet. On the Gold Drop
mineral claim a tunnel has been run 100 feet to cross-cut the ledge; also a shaft sunk to the
depth of 50 feet, showing up a fine body of copper-gold ore. This claim was transferred
during the past year by the original locator, Mr. Joseph Hetu, to Mr. Frederick C. Innes, of
the City cf Vancouver, for the sum of $15,000.
The Snowshoe mineral claim has been prospected by a number of holes, driven by a
diamond drill to a depth of over 100 feet.
On the Stemwinder mineral claim a new shaft has been sunk to the depth of 65 feet, and
a cross-cut at the 50-foot level of 15 feet, which is said to show up a body of gold-copper ore
assaying $40 per ton; also a cross-cut tunnel has been run about 75 feet in order to connect
with the old workings, and a winze sunk on the ore about 30 feet.
Summit Camp.
A shaft has been sunk on the R. Bell mineral claim about 100 feet deep, and on the Oro
Denoro claim a tunnel has been run about 35 feet in length.
Long Lake Camp.
On the Alice claim a shaft has been sunk 50 feet, and on the North Star claim another
shaft sunk 65 feet.
On the Lake View mineral claim a tunnel has been run in on the ledge for 100 feet.
On the North Fork op the Kettle River.
A great amount of development work has been done during the past year, but chiefly by
the individual owners of the different claims, although lately a number of joint stock companies
have been formed to work these properties.
On the Pathfinder mineral claim a shaft has been sunk 30 feet, with a cross-cut of 25
feet, all in ore, which is said to assay $22 in gold and copper, and lying between a formation
of diorite and porphyry.
On a claim, near the " Pathfinder," called the Standard, a 40-foot cross-cut in similar ore
has been run.
On the Columbia claim, on Volcanic Creek, a drift has been run 30 feet.
On the Napoleon Bonaparte mineral claim, which lies between Volcanic and Boulder
Creeks, a 40-foot shaft has been sunk. And on the Bonanza claim, lying between Cedar and
Lynch Creeks, a 50-foot shaft has been sunk, and it is intended to continue development work
throughout the winter on this claim.
On Pass Creek, which drains the country from Summit Camp and Long Lake Camp into
Kettle River, a number of new locations have been recorded during the past year and on
some of them a large amount of work has been done, with encouraging results. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 579
On the Iron King and Kupper Queen claims 60-foot tunnels have been run.
On the Twins and Blue Ridge claims 40-foot cross-cuts have been driven; and on the
Garnet and King Bee claims about $700 dollars expended in development work.
Round Christina Lake a few new locations have been recorded, and development work has
principally been done by the owners themselves.
On Boundary Creek, about 10 miles north of Greenwood City, a great number of new
claims were recorded this fall, and the prospects of another flourishing camp, which is now
called " Kimberley," are very good.
A number of new claims have also been discovered this season around the mouth of
Rock Creek and on Kettle River ; further up, at James and Cedar Creeks.
Only three new placer claims have been recorded in this division this year, viz, one at
Boundary Creek and two on tributaries of the Fourth of July Creek, representing in all eleven
Annexed is the statement of the mining revenue for the Kettle River Mining Division for
the year ending 1896 :—
Mining receipts general $7,240 45
Free miner's certificates—945  at $5,  3 at $10,  1 at $15,
(substituted) 8 at $1 . ,    4,778 00
No quantity of ore has been shipped from this district during the year 1896, so far as I
have learned.
The following is Mr. Tunstall's report, the Mining Recorder for the Vernon Mining
You will perceive that this report is one of the best since the division was created.
The outlook for 1897 is still more promising. There have been incorporated during the
past year three companies, the particulars of which I attach.
Morning Glory Mining Co, Limited.—Treasury stock, 300,000 shares; nature of ore,
gold-bearing quartz, with white iron.
The hanging wall or country rock is granite, with the foot-wall the same. Average
width of vein, 6 feet, traceable on the surface for a distance of 400 feet, in a westerly course.
A shaft 80 feet in depth has been sunk on the vein here, 41 to 5 feet wide, and showing signs
of widening, and the ore extracted has given assays of $37.60 and $39.40 in gold, and about
4% copper.
Camp Hewitt Mining and Development Co.
Incorporated in December, 1896 ; capital, $1,000,000 in $1 shares; working capital
500,000 shares at 10 cents.    This company owns eleven claims.
The Lake Vieiv.—The ore on this claim is copper and iron-pyrites, carrying gold and
silver, and sample assays have run $87 in gold and copper, and $10 in silver.
The Gladstone.—A shaft has been sunk on this claim for 15 feet, the width of the vein
being 3 feet of solid ore.    Assays run $67 and $45—gold, $4 ; silver, $8 ; copper, $33.
Silver Star Mining Co.—Capital, $400,000 ; shares at $1 ; shares sold, 3,700, at par. A
shaft, 26 feet, has been sunk. The ledge is about 5 feet in width, with a dip of 20° south, the
foot-wall being black argillites, and the character of ore galena and iron sulphides, carrying
gold.    Assays, silver, $50, gold, $8, from samples taken from the surface.
Bachelor mineral claims, Nos. 1 and 2.—On No. 1 a 30-foot shaft and on No. 2 a 10-foot
shaft have been sunk on the dip of the vein, the foot-wall being composed of porphyry, the
hanging wall of granite, and the width of the vein from 3|- to 8 feet. The character of the
ore on these claims is iron sulphides, carrying gold. An assay was taken at a depth of 10
feet, which ran $22 in gold.    At the surface assays run in gold $480.
I append an abstract of the mining receipts for the Vernon Division for the year 1896:—
Claims recorded      215
Certificates of work issued    50
Transfers recorded    44
Free miner's certificates issued 247 580 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
By S. S. Fowler, A.B, E.M, Nelson, B.C.
The Boundary Creek portion of the Kettle River Mining Division of Yale, two years ago,
meant a territory of about 150 square miles in extent, drained by a small stream which joins
Kettle River from the north at Midway, where the river first crosses the International
Boundary. To-day the term " Boundary" has lost its special significance by reason of the
rapid extension of the area in which valuable minerals are found, to points far distant from the
nucleus which first gave the district its reputation.
The records of the Government Office at Midway showed, on the 1st of January, 1895,
that there had been staked, up to that time, about 370 claims, many of which were of course
re-locations. On the 1st of January, 1896, all but 127 of these old claims had ceased to exist;
but in the year 1895 771 new locations were made, and during 1896 the number was 1,279.
This sudden taking on of a new life, in 1895, was largely due to an influx of prospectors
from Trail Creek; while in 1896 it may be attributed, in a great measure, to the failures
experienced by the many men who rushed into the Colville Reservation after its opening, by
Act of Congress, to mineral locations in February of that year.
The result has been that although the great majority of locations are in that part of the
country drained by Boundary Creek, where the first claim was staked by W. T. Smith in May,
1886, many hundreds are scattered all the way from east of Christina Lake, near the eastern confines of the district, westward to the 119th meridian near the mouth of Rock Creek, a distance
nearly 40 miles; and from the International Boundary northward for twenty miles, up the
valleys of the main Kettle River, Boundary Creek and the North Fork (of Kettle River).
The valleys and water-sheds of these three southerly flowing streams form three natural
parts of the Kettle River Mining Division, all connected by several transverse valleys. Each
of these parts deserves special consideration, and each has already begun to be known by a name
of its own, as its future and even present prospects demand. The central one or " Boundary,"
however, is the oldest and best known, and because it possesses features common to the others,
as well as many peculiar to itself, it is made the subject of this article.
The topography of the district, while it affords a considerable diversity, is not very different
to that of all the great interior plateau of British Columbia. Whilst mountainous, its highest
points seldom exceed 5,500 feet in altitude above the sea, and the greater number of its many
well rounded mountains do not exceed 5,000 feet—Kettle River, at the mouth of Boundary
Creek, being about 1,800 feet above sea level. The ruggedness and nakedness of many parts
of Kootenay are not at all in evidence, for these rounded hills are splendidly forested to their
very summits, with a very great variety of coniferous trees. The eastern, southern and western
slopes are open and afford a prolific growth of bunch-grass, and along the valleys are many
ranches which are specially adapted to diversified farming with the aid of irrigation.
The climate the year round is all that one can desire. The mean temperature for the year
ending June 30th, 1896, was 42.8 degrees, and the total precipitation was 13.3 inches.
The geological features of this region are varied and interesting. Not having made a
special study, and without assuming more than a general understanding of them, I may say
that for several miles east of the North Fork there is an area of Archaean gneisses and siliceous
and micaceous schists, which are the basal rocks. West of the North Fork we come into an
extensive series of metamorphic schists, quartzites, crystalline limestones and some clay slates,
all of which form a large part of the ridge lying between North Fork and Boundary Creek.
This series is apparently repeated through a distance of three or four miles west of Boundary
Creek, when these probably pre-Cambrian rocks are found to be overlain by Devonian or
Devono-carboniferous limestones, which form the summit and western limit of the Boundary
Creek watershed, within that part of the latter at least, which is best 'known. West of this
summit is a series of Cretaceous sandstones and shales continuing to Rock Creek, eight or ten 60 Vict. Report of the. Minister of Mines. 581
miles. Through this series the last-mentioned limestones may be seen protruding at points
along Kettle River; but after crossing Rock Creek the schists and quartzites again appear in
the vicinity of Camp McKinney, and these in turn are succeeded, on nearing the valley of the
Okanagan, by a recurrence of the Archrean rocks first mentioned.
Throughout this extent of territory these stratified rocks are found to be penetrated by,
or underlain and overlain by, eruptive rocks of different ages and diverse natures. These
eruptives are all more or less intimately associated with the mineral deposits of the district,
and a thorough knowledge of them (to be derived only from a comprehensive and accurate
geological survey) is much to be desired.
Avoiding more technicalities than are necessary, these eruptive rocks include granite,
syenite (?), felsite, trachyte (both often porphyritic) and "diorite." The felsite and trachyte
often pass under the name of "porphyry." The "diorite" is meant to signify all those basic,
heavy, hard and dark coloured rocks which, scientifically, may properly be called by other
names; the term is much burdened, as porphyry has been for many years, but it is convenient
and not inexcusable.
The granites are probably the oldest eruptive rocks hereabouts. They are found in the
valley of Boundary Creek, about eight miles above its mouth, and from there northward.
Diorite, including the lighter coloured varieties, is the predominant eruptive rock, and occurs
throughout the region in dykes of greatly varying width, with a strike somewhat north of
west. These penetrate the granite and all the other rocks, except possibly the more recent
limestones and porphyry, as at the head of Copper Creek.
The porphyritic rocks are prominently associated with the limestone and the Cretaceous
Besides these, considerable areas are known to afford schistose rocks, essentially composed
of magnesian minerals, such as chlorite, hydro-micas and talc, together with serpentine and
dolomite. A large part of these rocks are probably alterations of an eruptive original, and
they are especially in evidence in the southern part of Boundary Mountain, as at White's and
Attwood's camps.
Ores and Ore Deposits.
The Boundary District is essentially a gold district. The great bulk of the ores is a
mixture of the various iron sulphides with copper pyrites, all more or less auriferous. This
class of ore is notably associated with the basic eruptive rocks, which are of so widespread
occurrence in southern British Columbia, and with the older metamorphic rocks near or at the
contacts of these with the former. The magnesian rocks above referred to also afford this
ore. This mineral mixture occurs in bodies which at times are so elongated as to give the
impression that they occupy fissures, and again at others it occurs in apparently isolated shutes
of limited horizontal extent; finally what seem to be well-defined blanket deposits hold the
ore. The croppings of several of these deposits consist of very large masses of (frequently
polaric) magnetite, through which are disseminated copper and iron pyrites. W7here denudation and wearing action have had sufficient opportunity these cappings have been removed,
and calcite, specular hematite and quartz appear as the normal accompanying gangue. This
class of ores has a wide range in value, but, excluding the extremes, may be said to carry about
$15 in gold, with two or three ounces in silver, per ton, and five per cent, copper. It is
exemplified by many of the prominent properties of the district, among which are the "Emma,"
and "Oro Dinero" in Summit Camp; "Stemwinder," "Gold Drop," "Knob Hill," and "Snow-
shoe" in Greenwood; "Winnipeg" and "Calumet" in Wellington; "City of Paris," "Lexington," " Golden Rod " and " Oro " in White's Camp, and the " Mother Lode," " Sunset," and
"Great Hopes" in Deadwood Camp.
In the granites along Boundary Creek and in the siliceous rocks by which they are
flanked—in other words in the more acidic rocks—fissure veins of varying width are found,
which afford quartzose dry silver ores and some large bodies of presumably partly free milling
gold quartz. In the former case the minerals present with the quartz include small amounts
of galena, zinc blende and iron pyrites with ruby silver, &c, as in the Skylark Camp; and in
the vicinity of Long Lake, beside the above, tellurium and tellurides of gold and silver, with
more or less free gold at the surface, are found. All these dry silver ores contain gold.
Their veins are from a few inches to five or six feet in width, and the greater part of the value
is often concentrated in a narrow pay streak. An idea of the values of this material is had
from the statement that in 1894 a shipment of 85 tons of sorted ore was made from one
property, and the metal contents were 16,947 ounces silver, 101 ounces gold, and 7,836 lbs. of 582 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
lead. Small shipments from other claims have been made, showing gross values of about $100
per ton, but the average value of unsorted ore may be placed at about $50 per ton.
These ores are found over a considerable part of the district, and notably on the "Jewel"
and "Dinero Grande" claims in Long Lake Camp; "G. A. R." and " D. A." in Providence
Camp; "Skylark," "Crescent" and "Last Chance" in Skylark Camp; "Nonesuch," "Boundary
Falls " and " Ruby " in Smith's Camp, and the " No. Seven " and " Lincoln " in Attwood's
and White's Camps, respectively, the latter affording grey copper as the principal source of
The milling ore mentioned above occurs on the "O.B." and "Big Ledge" claims, south of
the " D.A."    It affords values from $15 to $40 per ton.
The Devonian limestone, which extends north and south from the head of Copper Creek,
is cut through by several dykes of porphyry and felsite, and along the contacts of these with
the limestone are bodies of copper ores. In the southern part of this belt the mineral is copper
glance and copper pyrites, the latter of which in places seems to be a constituent of the felsite.
In the Copper Camp the ore is entirely in the contacts, has a quartz gangue, and is almost
entirely copper glance, oxidized at surface and partly again reduced to metallic copper. These
ores, while they carry only a small amount of the precious metals, sometimes give assays of
over thirty ounces in silver. The copper tenure is about seven or eight per cent, only, but
this grade could probably be improved by wet concentration of the sulphide.
This class of ore is found on the " Copper Mine," " King Solomon," " Copper Queen," &c,
in Copper Camp, and the copper pyrites and some copper glance are found on the " Bruce,"
" Texas " and other claims in Graham's Camp, four miles west of Midway.
Coal Measures.
The Cretaceous rocks carry no metallic minerals as far as I know, but for some distance
along Kettle River, from four miles west of Midway, they show occasional croppings of coal.
Up to the present time the best of these is near the mouth of Rock Creek, where the seam is
about four feet thick. Although prospected to a very limited extent this coal appears to be
quite up to the average Cretaceous coal in quality, and it has undoubtedly been brought to its
present stage as a coal by the heating and distilling influence of the abundant trachyte (?) flow
of this vicinity.
The analyses of this coal, which have been made up to the present time, have been of
samples from the immediate surface, which is much broken and has absorbed impurities from
the overflow of Rock Creek. I give two of these analyses by the Messrs. Guess Bros, of
Midway, as follows : —
No. 1. No. 2.
Fixed carbon ,   65.5 68.85
Volatile matter    28 .3 15.7
Ash         6.2 15.44
Omitting from consideration the locations of 1895 and 1896 as of two recent date to have
produced definite results, the present state of development of the older mineral claims in the
Kettle River country is not such as their resources should have made it; although of the one
hundred and twenty-seven valid claims shown of record at the end of 1895, but located prior
to that year, probably over fifty can show an expenditure of five hundred dollars each. And
yet the required assessment work on these one hundred and twenty-seven claims shown by
records to have been done is over $40,000, which means that those claims which have received
less than $500 worth of work have, on the average, done twice as much as the law requires.
Nevertheless, without an attempt at accuracy, I think I am safe in saying that there are not
more than three shafts over one hundred feet in depth, and not over thirty shafts between
fifty and one hundred feet deep. This is simply another way of saying that outside capital
has cast no more than a passing glance at the district. Another reason for the lack of further
development is that many of the deposits are so large that they are really discouraging to the
owners, most of whom, as usual, are men of limited means, not to say actually poor. For the
same reason, when the owner has performed what the law requires for his maintenance of title,
he has really accomplished little, and as likely as not failed to work his ground at a point
which might have shown better results.
In other words, these very large surface showings require a proportionally large expenditure for the proof of their worth.
- 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 583
Of course the chief want of Boundary is cheap transportation. Even the high grade dry
ores of the district can do little more than bear the burden of sixty or seventy miles of waggon
haulage when added to the other necessary expenses. So much the less then can the low grade
sulphide ores be profitably exported.
With a railway system in operation it is doubtful if a well equipped smelting plant adapted
to the treatment of these ores could not be profitably operated in the district; for with the
certainty of abundant ores of varied character, as pure limestone as can be desired, and an
apparently excellent metallurgical coal at hand, no other material is needed. But the railway
under ordinary circumstances will wait until the production of tonnage, either directly or
indirectly dependent upon the mineral resources.
To those who are already interested in the Boundary District the necessary tonnage seems
to be in sight, but whether this has been proven to the satisfaction of those upon whom the
railway builder is dependent remains an open question. Thus again we are brought face to
face with the immediate necessity of an ample and well directed mining capital, which is
certain to meet with its just reward.
The camp is situated about 56 miles from Penticton, at the south end of Okanagan Lake.
It is eight miles north of the International Boundary Line, and 32 miles west of Midway, at
mouth of Boundary Creek on Kettle River. Altitude, 4,600 feet. The camp lies on a rolling
plateau spur of a rounded mountain mass, of which Bald Mountain is the centre. This peak,
4 or 5 miles north-west of the camp, is a dome of granite (so I am told), which has been pushed
up under the gneisses which lie west of it nearly to the Okanagan and the Cambrian (?) schists
and quartzites, which extend east of it for a long distance. Bald Mountain is about 7,000
feet alt. These quartzites, etc, are highly tilted, and at Camp McKinney strike about north
and south. Cutting these at right angles is a fissure vein (strike east and west, dip vertical)
of quartz, on which are located the "Okanagan," "Amelia," "Cariboo," "Alice," "Emma,"
"Maple Leaf" and "Eureka" claims. Through all of them the vein is traced, and more or less
Most of the work, and in fact the only work which amounts to much, is on the "Cariboo"
and "Amelia," the property of the Cariboo M. M. & S. Co, of Spokane. This company erected
a ten (850 lb.) stamp mill in the spring of 1894, which has been in operation with success ever
since. The ore carries about 3% of concentrates, that are shipped to the coast smelters, via
Penticton and C. P. R.
The mine is worked now through a shaft 170 feet deep, from which drifts run east and
west. Tne several shafts and winzes foot up about 250 feet, and total drifts and cross-cuts,
etc, about 2,000 feet.
The published reports of the company show that about $250,000 in gold have been produced, out of which about $125,000 have been paid in dividends, and about 18,000 tons of ore
have been milled.
The only other property which is being worked is the " Victoria" and "Old England"
claims, about 3 miles east of Camp McKinney, but no details are available as to the work being
carried on. 584 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
By A. Dick, Inspector op Mines.
I have the honour, as Inspector of Mines, to respectfully present my report for the year
ending 31st December, 1896, for your information, in accordance with the " Coal Mines Regulation Act" of British Columbia.
The collieries in operation during the past year of 1896 were:—
The Nanaimo Colliery, of the New Vancouver Coal Mining & Land Company, Limited.
The Wellington Colliery, owned by Messrs. R  Dunsmuir & Sons.
The Union Colliery, owned by the Union Colliery Company; and
The West Wellington Company, owned by the West Wellington Coal Company, Limited
The output of coal for 1896 amounted to 894,882^- tons, produced by the several collieries
as follows:—
The Nanaimo Colliery  320,575i|
The Wellington Colliery  339,896A£
The Union Colliery  233,610'
The West Wellington Colliery     800
Total output for the year 1896    894,882-^
Add coal on hand 1st January, 1896      33,450^§
Total coal for disposal, 1896    928,333^
The export of coal by the collieries for 1896 was 634,237^, as follows:—
The Nanaimo Colliery    232,436ii
Wellington „             235,916^
Union ii           165,885
Total coal exported in 1896    634,237f£
Add home consumption in 1896    261,983i|-
Coal on hand 1st January, 1897        ....      32,111^
Total    928,333
The returns for the year show a home consumption of coal amounting to 261,983-||- tons,
as against 188,394 tons last year (1895). It must, however, be noted that the coal used in
the collieries is, in most instances, under this heading.
In addition to the above home consumption of coal for 1896, we imported into British
Columbia 21,059 tons, and 670 lbs of coke. Of this there came direct, 9,822 tons from the
United States to Nelson, and from all appearances we may expect to see this market for coke
in British Columbia growing both in the Kootenay and in the Coast districts. We will also
expect to see this market supplied with coke from the mines of the Province. At present the
Union Colliery at Comox can supply all the coke that is required in British Columbia, and
with a first-class article equal to any that can or may be imported. The fixed ash in this Union
coke is 8.5 per cent, so that a trial of it will speak for itself, of which l,240i| tons was manufactured during the past year, giving great satisfaction.
The coal exported was shipped at the Port of Nanaimo, Departure Bay and Union (near
Comox) on Vancouver Island, in British Columbia. The exports were principally made to San
Francisco, San Pedro and San Diego, in California, U.S.A    Shipments were also made to the
I 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 585
States of Oregon and Washington, and to Alaska and Petropavloski, and the Hawaiian Islands.
In order to show the standing of the British Columbia coal in the Californian market, I append
the following returns for the year ending 31st December, 1896:—
Californian Market.
Where From. Tons.
British Columbia  551,852
Australia  273,851
English and Welsh  156,368
Scotch  8,356
Eastern (Cumberland and Anthracite)   17,907
Seattle, Franklin and Green River  128,917
Carbon Hill and South Prairie   255,293
Mount Diablo and Coos Bay  110,237
Japan  2,247
Total 1,505,660
Included in the above statement of annual supplies are the quantities received at Port
Angeles and San Pedro, aggregating 154,875 tons for the two places, so that the quantity of
coal taken into the Californian market during the past year was over 10% less than in 1895.
The total arrivals of coke into California for the year have been 36,132 tons. This is 50%
more than in 1895. Fully 75% of this coke was imported from England and Belgium. Now
that the owners of the Union Colliery at Comox, B.C, have begun the manufacture of coke on
a large scale, having now 100 ovens from which they are turning out a first-class article, they
have begun to make regular shipments to California, where it finds a ready sale. These shipments of coke, it is expected, will lead to a decrease in the importations to California from the
countries already referred to. These ovens will also supply the Kootenay District, where there
is a good demand for coke of such high quality for the smelters. A market for a limited
quantity will also be found in Vancouver and Victoria.
I have, already, in a previous report, made mention of this colliery, which is owned by the
New Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company, Limited, with head offices in London,
No.  1  Shaft.
No. 1 shaft is situated within the limits of the City of Nanaimo. It has proved valuable
property, and has been the principal producing mine of the Nanaimo Colliery. Taking appearances as an indication, I may say that it contains a sufficiency of coal to give employment to
a large number of men for many years to come.
With the exception of the shaft and a small area around the shaft bottom, the workings
of this extensive mine are under the waters of Nanaimo Harbour, and beneath the surface of
Protection (or Douglas) Island and Newcastle Island, both in the Gulf of Georgia, most of the
working faces being at present under the last named island. The workings of this mine are
for the most part dry, but not dusty, and are quite safe from any influx of water, there being
a thickness of rock and earth varying from 450 to 1,300 feet between the bed of the harbour
and the workings of the mine. These workings are carried on on the pillar and stall as well
as on the panel system. The pillars (coal) are large, and contain fully two-thirds of all the
coal that was originally in the mine, and are purposely left of large dimensions to protect the
mine from the pressure of the large superincumbent and weighty body of water above it.
These pillars, after they have served their purpose, will be gotten out at some future day. At
present they are a paramount necessity to the safety of the mine.
With the exception of the slope, the only workings from this No. 1 shaft is what is known
as the No. 1 north level. The level itself, has not been extended during the past year, but
workings from it (the level) have been extended in 1,100. The coal found under the north
side of Newcastle Island is generally hard, and of the usual good quality, and is from three to
twelve feet thick. It is overlaid by a strong rock roof, but in some places this roof is much
cut up with "slips," which make it very dangerous. 586 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
No.  3 Level.
There has not been much mining done here during the past year, but in this level, as in
No. 1, there is a great field of coal in the pillars, which have not as yet been taken out. As
all these (pillars) contain good coal, their removal will prove very remunerative to the Company,
the "dead" work being all finished.
The Slope.
The slope has been mentioned in a previous report as being down 1,500 feet, in a northerly
direction. During the past year it has been continued, without any intermission, until it is
now down 1,900 yards, and is 1,300 feet under "tidal" water. I am sorry to say there is as
yet but very little coal. In pushing the work, indications of soon having the coal appear, but
these indications again change for the worse, and so on. The place where the coal ought to be
is always there, but it is generally filled with rock or soft coal, or both combined. This slope
and No. 1 level are the principal exploring places in the mine, and it will be a great relief to
the management when they get good coal in both or either of those places, which I hope will
soon happen.
The ventilation is good, the supplying motor power being a large "Guibal" fan 36 feet
in diameter, and twelve feet wide. When I was down in December there were 44,100 cubic
feet of air passing per minute for 120 men and 18 mules. This mine is ventilated on the
separate split system, with Protection shaft as the "intake." To the level and inside incline
(or panel) there were 12,600 cubic feet of air passing per minute, for 56 men and 6 mules, and
to the outside panel or (long incline), 14,500 cubic feet, for the use of 64 men and 12 mules.
In addition to the above there were 17,000 feet going, to keep the old works clear from gas,
both in No. 1 and No. 3 level old works. Ihe total amount for slope and shaft is 23,000 feet.
In the No. 1 level, great care is taken to prevent the accumulation of coal dust, which, as you
are doubtless aware, has, by modern experience, been proven to be a dangerons explosive. This
dust is carefully swept from the sides and roof and other places of lodgement in the level and
carefully disposed of. It is in this No. 1 level that the coal is being hauled out by electricity.
It is no uncommon thing to see 90 cars in one train being rapidly moved by this new motive
power. Those who may be desirous of obtaining a description of the system in vogue here,
can do so by reading my report of 1894. The system has proved quite a success. It is now
working for a distance of 5,600 yards from the bottom of the shaft.
Protection Island Shaft.
This is also the property of the New Vancouver Coal Co., and is situated on the south
point of Protection Island.
This mine opens out from the north and south sides of the shaft, with slope going to the
east. These are situated 1,720 feet below the surface, under the entrance to Nanaimo harbour,
and are down 1,690 yards. When I say below the surface, I mean to say the surface of
"tidal" water. These slopes have been much troubled with faults and with coal of a soft
nature. In the upper levels, to the north and south sides of these slopes, the coal has been
good and productive, being worked on the pillar and stall system.
On the north side of the shaft is what is known as the " diagonal " slope. This is being
driven in a north-easterly direction, being now 1,490 yards long, and 1,200 feet below " tidal "
water of the Northumberland Channel. This slope has passed through some very fine coal,
but now for quite a distance the management have been troubled with faults and soft coal.
The slope is now the only place being worked down here. About 500 yards down this slope
there is another branch slope to the eastward. This is now down 750 yards in good coal all
the way, but here the large " down-throw" is encountered that has already been crossed in the
slope, so that they are now working the coal from both sides on the pillar and stall system.
The ventilation is good, the "intake" being Protection shaft, with No. 2, or fan shaft, in
the City of Nanaimo, as the " upcast." This mine is ventilated on the separate split system.
When I last examined this mine there were 25,200 cubic feet of air passing per minute to the
diagonal and side slopes. This quantity was for 37 men and 4 mules. Down the slope on the
southern side there were 18,720 cubic feet of air passing per minute for the use of 42 men and
2 mules.    After the air has passed along, it is carried away on the return to the fan-shaft. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 587
No. 5, Southfield.
This mine, as mentioned in my last report, is the property of the New Vancouver Coal
Co., and is the southern part of their large estate. The workings of this shaft are all to the
eastward. The management have been much troubled here with faults, and have not as yet
got clear of them. The coal now mined here is very good and hard, and of good quality. In
some places it is 12 feet thick. It is worked on the pillar and stall system, leaving as much of
the faulty ground as possible in the pillar.
Ventilation is very good. When I was down in December, there were 36,880 cubic feet
of air passing per minute. This was for 56 men and 11 mules. It was divided as follows :—
18,000 feet of air per minute, for 30 men and 2 mules, to the east incline; 18,880 feet of air
per minute to the east level, for 26 men and 9 mules. This mine is free from dust, and otherwise in good order. In addition to the air current above mentioned, a large quantity goes out
by the No. 4 slope, with which this mine is connected.
Quite a large amount of prospecting has been done by this company, both by "pick and
shovel" and by the " bore." At the present time of writing one "bore hole" is down fully a
thousand feet, and still have not reached the required depth. On their property close to the
"Extension" mine (owned by the E. & N. R. R. Co.), a considerable amount of prospecting
has been done by pick and shovel, with the result of opening up a good seam of coal, into which
they have driven a slope to a distance of 75 yards. This " find " has the appearance of being
what is known commercially as Wellington coal. It is hard and of good quality, and it is
hoped that it will lead to the finding of quite an extensive field.
These collieries belong to Messrs. R. Dunsmuir & Sons, and are situated in North
Nanaimo, six miles from the City of Nanaimo. Departure Bay is the shipping point of these
collieries, where the Company have erected extensive wharves for the accommodation of the
shipping, and which are furnished with every modern facility for the loading of coal.
No.  1 Pit, Wellington.
This pit is near the eastern boundary of the Wellington Estate. It is connected, underground with No. 5 pit. In a previous report I mentioned that the mining in this pit consisted
of a good deal of rock work, but during the past year, I am pleased to state, a change has
taken place, and the pit is now one of the producers of the Wellington coal. As all the coal
to the rise of the shaft had been worked out on the long wall system, a slope was put down
to near their southern boundary, and in that direction they have found a large extent of coal
before them, which is hard and  of the usual good  quality.     It is here they are now working.
Ventilation is good. When I was down in December, there were 16,000 cubic feet of air
passing per minute, to supply 35 men. Of the foregoing current of air, 10,000 feet went to
No. 5 fan-shaft and 6,000 feet to the return at No. 1 pit. The air goes down the slope and
into the level, and returns along the coal face, which is worked on the long wall system. It is
also in this pit that a stratum of "fire clay" may be found 30 feet in thickness.
No. 3 Pit, Wellington.
At the time of my last report, the management were having the water pumped out and
the pit otherwise cleaned up. Everything went well until the month of October, when a fire
broke out in the lower working of No. 4 pit, which necessitated for the third time the introduction of water from the Millstone River to extinguish the fire in No. 4. At the present time
this water is being removed by pumps, consequently no mining is going on here.
No. 4 Pit, Wellington.
This is also the property of Messrs. Dunsmuir. This mine has, on two different occasions,
been filled with water on account of fires. During the past year it had once again, and for
the third time to be flooded to subdue a fire, which had broken out in the lowest part of the 588 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
mine, and to which I referred in my remarks on No. 3 pit. The water introduced, filled
the lowest parts of this and No. 3 pit. The quantity introduced was only sufficient to
submerge those places which were on fire, and as they happened to be in the lowest part of the
mine, the water did not interfere with the working of the remainder of the pit, as it did not
encroach upon the roads or airways. The only delay caused was a month, which was taken
up in the introduction of water. The coal mining in this pit is confined to the extraction of
the pillars (coal), and as the management know exactly what amount they possess in this form,
I am in a position to state that mining will be carried on here for several years to come.
Ventilation is good. From tests taken by me in December, I ascertained that at that
time there were 63,840 cubic feet of air passing per minute on the return airway, for 150 men
and 35 mules, and supplied in the following manner, viz.: split to the east side, 24,688 feet of
air for 60 men; to the slope, 20,540 cubic feet of air per minute for 50 men; to the south
side, 15,420 cubic feet of air for 40 men, leaving 3,192 feet of air to be accounted for, and
which passed along and into the old workings. In addition to supplying the men already
enumerated, this current or supply of air furnished breathing material for 35 mules scattered
throughout the mine. Notwithstanding that very little gas is found in this mine, still the
greatest care is taken as to the ventilation, so as to obviate all chances of accidents. After
the pillars have been taken out, it will not be possible to enter the old workings, but at the
present time, the firemen and shot-lighters give these old workings a careful and continuous
examination, as to the existence or collection of gas.
No. 5 Pit, Wellington.
This pit still upholds its record as the greatest coal producing mine of the whole colliery.
Much of the coal mining carried on here has been on the "long wall" system; but at present
it is from the pillars and stalls that the greatest amount of the coal is obtained. The taking
out of pillars (coal) also furnishes a certain amount. The area of coal in sight in this mine
justifies me in stating that this mine will work for many years to come. This pit is connected
with Nos. 1 and 6 pits by good travelling roads.
Ventilation is good, though at times there is considerable powder smoke after blasting,
but this smoke is soon carried away by the excellent ventilation. Observations taken by me
in December, showed that there were 90,500 cubic feet of air passing per minute at the foot of
the upcast shaft for 185 men. Carried on the separate split system, this air was disposed of
as follows; to the east side, 26,300 cubic feet per minute for 62 men and boys; to the side
slope, 8,400 feet for 25 men; to the north-west level, 35,400 feet for 65 men; to Nos. 2 and
3 levels, 11,200 feet for 33 men at work there. The balance of air unaccounted for escapes to
the fan-shaft, and through the old workings. There is little gas seen in this mine, yet as a
precautionary measure in that part of the mine where they are taking out pillars, and where it
is impossible to get into the back to examine it, the men work with locked safety-lamps. This
pit is free from dust. In addition to the manager, this mine or pit has a staff of assistants,
who give a very careful examination to the pit in every detail, and any serious change in the
ventilation would be detected at once.
No.  6 Pit,  Wellington.
This is another extensive mine of the Wellington collieries. Coal was first mined here on
the pillar and stall system, then with a division on the long wall system, but at present time
mining is confined to taking out the pillars, which are all of coal. These are found on the
north, east and west sides. The rest of the pit was worked on the long wall system, which
leaves nothing to be taken out. There is quite a large area of coal embraced in these pillars.
In addition to these pillars, there is still a large strip of coal on the southern side, between
this pit and what is known as the East Wellington pit. The coal is here known to be good on
both sides.
Ventilation is good. The motive supplying power is a fan worked by steam. My
December observations indicated 37,900 cubic feet of air passing per minute, on the separate
split system, and was disposed of as follows: to the east level, 20,400 feet per minute for 24
men and 5 mules; to the east incline, 7,000 feet for 14 men and 2 mules; and to the west side,
10,500 feet for 18 men and 4 mules. Each of these divisions has a separate return airway,
until they arrive close to the upcast shaft. 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 589
No.  1 Shaft.
In my last report, I stated that this mine was now the property of Messrs. R. Dunsmuir
& Sons. During the time which elapsed between the period of the shutting down of this
mine under the former ownership, and the taking of it over by its present proprietors, the pit
filled with water, and at the time of my last report, I stated that the water had been pumped
out, and that a few men were at work in the mine. Work was carried on for a few months
getting out coal, but work was stopped and matters came again to a standstill. The only
work done here at present is pumping the water out, and keeping- the pit dry. What the
cause of the stoppage is, I cannot tell.
All the upper works and pit-head gear of No. 2 shaft, were destroyed by fire during the
dry weather, which prevailed at the latter end of last summer.
This property also belongs to Messrs. R. Dunsmuir & Sons, and lies to the south side of
the New Vancouver Coal Co.'s Southfield. There have been some extensive improvements
made here during the past year, amongst which is the addition of a large hoisting engine with
powerful boiler, capable of taking out of the mine a large amount of coal per day. For the
first ten months of the year, they pushed the levels with much energy. They have got what
is known as the north level, in about 800 yards from the slope. The greater part of this
distance is in good coal. At the present time, no work is going on in the mine itself, but
great improvements are being made outside. During the summer a switch was run in from
the E. & N. R. R, so that when everything is ready to resume the taking out of coal, it can
be shipped immediately to Victoria for sale, or elsewhere for exportation. Large bunkers and
other facilities for handling coal are now being built. The coal found in this mine is of very
good quality.
Ventilation is good. When I last took observations, there were 9,000 feet of air passing
down the slope per minute for only 7 men employed. This mine will certainly give a good
account of itself before another year is out.
This mine is mentioned in a previous report as being situated on the south slope of Mt.
Benson, and is the property of the E. & N. R. R. Co, being included in the railway grant.
The Company have been prospecting this property very extensively during the past year. The
No. 1 slope is now down 700 yards, in a southerly direction; the coal being good all the way,
and varying in thickness from 6 to 11 feet, and having a return airway to the same. About
two miles in a south-easterly direction from No. 1 slope, they have the coal again. Here it is
known as the No. 2 slope. At the outcrop, the coal was 15 feet thick. The last time I was
there they were working 8 feet of the coal, and they did not know much was over them, as
they had not seen the roof since they started. They were then down 80 yards, the coal being
hard and of good quality. From all indications, and from what is now known of this field,
Douglas District is going to be the great coal producing centre for the next generation.
The mine is west of and adjoining the Wellington colliery, owned by Messrs. Dunsmuir &
Sons, and is owned by the West Wellington Coal Co, (Ltd. Ly.) There has been considerable
work done here since the above Company purchased this property.
This mine is entered by a slope going in a southerly direction, and heading to under the
Millstone River. The coal is found not far below the surface, and is from 4 to 6 feet thick,
and is of the usual good quality for which the Wellington coal is celebrated. This slope is
not far down, as this Company has only recently commenced operations; but they have already
two levels whence they are taking the coal. From the mine they have a second outlet, which
serves as a return airway in their ventilating system. The Company has been shipping coal
to Victoria via E. & N. R. R, where they find a ready sale for all they can ship.    Their 590 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
wharf is situated in Nanoose Bay, distant about six miles, and connected with the mine by
means of a wooden tramway. This mine has only recently become the property of this
Company, and they are getting the works into good working order, so that we may expect to
see this a producing mine, and also stirring times before the year is out.
No. 2 Slope.
This colliery is the property of the Union Colliery Co, and is situated near the farming
district of Comox. I mentioned in my previous report that this slope was down 700 yards.
It has, however, been idle for the past six months. This stoppage has not been due to the want of
coal in the working, but on account of the dullness of trade The management has, however,
kept the water pumped out regularly, so that when trade revives they will be in a position to
resume operations at two days' notice.    This improvement in the market I hope to see soon.
No. 4 Slope, Union Colliery.
This slope is the most extensive mine in the Union Colliery, and is now down 2,400
yards, with an easy grade all the way. From this slope, at about 100 yards from the entrance,
there branches off to the east, and at an angle of 45 degrees, a slope known as the No. 2 slope,
which runs almost on the true dip of the coal. Although not so long, but having a greater
dip than No. 1, it is now almost down to the level of the main slope. From this last named
slope there branch of on each side, and to the east and west, three levels. These are called 11,
12, and 13 levels. The character of the coal in each of these three levels to the east and west
of this slope is the same. It is good and hard, and from 5 to 7 feet thick. In the diagonal
slope the coal is about the same in quantity and quality as in the main slope. This diagonal
has also three levels on each side of the slope, running to the east and west. The two slopes
(main and diagonal) are connected through the No. 11 level.
Ventilation is good. In December there were 55,589 cubic feet of air passing per minute
on the intakes for 183 men and 12 mules. From the intake the air was split in the following
divisions inside of all the doors :—The first division is where the No. 2 branches off the No.. 2
slope at the junction of the diagonal slope, part of the air going down the diagonal and part
down the main slope. At this split, by test, I found that there were 24,574 cubic feet of air
passing per minute down the main slope. The air is carried down this main slope to the
bottom, where it is again split into two separate currents, the one going to No. 13, the lowermost of the levels on the east side. The remaining levels on the west and east sides obtain
their air from the No. 13 level on each side. I found at the foot of the main slope, where the
split was, that 15,387 cubic feet of air passed per minute into No. 13 level on the west side, to
supply 64 men and 4 mules, and 9,187 cubic feet of air to the east side, to supply 28 men and
2 mules. To return to the point where the split existed at the junction of the main and
diagonal slopes, I found that 22,168 cubic feet of air passed into the diagonal, and thence into
the lowermost level, where it was again split to supply the levels on the west and east sides of
the slope. To the west there went 7,075 cubic feet of air, for 31 men and 2 mules, and to the
east there went 15,093 cubic feet of air per minute, for 60 men and 4 mules. There are therefore 8,847 feet to be accounted for. This quantity escapes at the doors of the different levels
of the slopes ; but it is not lost, as it is caught there and taken into the levels. This mine is
free from dust.
All the appliances and arrangements about this mine are of and on the most improved
system for the saving of labour and the handling of coal.
I may mention before completing my remarks upon this mine that when I was down in
the course of duty in December last there were no men at work at that time.
No. 5 Shaft, Union Colliery.
This shaft and the machinery are fully described in my report of this mine in 1896. I
further stated that the work was at that time at the bottom of the shaft and in good coal.
Since that report was written, work has been carried more away from the shaft, and in the
course of so doing many troubles and faults were met with.    These faults sometimes raised the 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 591
coal and sometimes lowered it. To make my meaning more plain to those unacquainted with
coal mining, I might explain that by raising the coal I mean that the working face would meet
with rock, when the coal would be either up or down. If " up," I use the expression "raising"
the coal; if down, I use the expression "lowering" the coal. To resume : besides the faults
met with, the work would sometimes meet with a " want," by which I mean that the coal
would sometimes give out and run into dirt. They have had very good coal to the south,
which is worked on the "long wall " principle, and works well, when clear of faults; but in the
levels they met with one fault after another, but they expect to get clear of these soon.
Ventilation is good; motive furnishing power being a large Guibal fan worked by a
steam engine. In December, when I was there, I found by examination that there were
34,570 cubic feet of air passing down the shaft, where were 46 men and 1 mule. This mine
is ventilated on the separate split system, the divisions being, at the bottom of the shaft, as
follows :—To the east side, 18,110 cubic feet of air per minute for 30 men; to the west level
16,460 cubic feet of air per minute for 16 men and 1 mule.
In addition to the extensive prospecting done in this colliery, this company has erected
near the shipping wharf a " Luhrig" coal washer. This is used for washing the screenings
from the lump coal, and gives as a result five different sizes, from " nut" to fine coal dust.
I mentioned in my last report that at that time a contract existed for the erection of
100 ovens for the manufacture of coke, for which the coal from the Union Colliery is well
adapted. The foundations (stone) of the buildings were laid in the fall of 1895, and in the
spring the company imported a large shipload of fire-bricks and other blocks of the same
material, as well as milled clay to complete the buildings. A large number of men were at
once put to work, and in the course of time a block containing 100 ovens, having a double
front, with 50 ovens on each side, was erected. Between the two sets of ovens is a flue to
conduct the gas away which comes from the coal while in the course of being transformed into
coke. This gas is utilized by being burned as fuel to generate steam to work the engine.
To reiterate this, coke is made from the screenings obtained from the " Luhrig" washer,
which would not have been saleable if it had not been for this great and enterprising outlay of
money. The coke manufactured at these ovens is a very fine article, and the company is now
finding a ready market for its sale in California. Special rates have, I understand, been
obtained from the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. for the carriage of coke from these ovens into
the Kootenay country, by which the Union Colliery Co. will be able to compete successfully in
price with coke imported from the U. S. and elsewhere. There can be little doubt that, as
our rich mineral claims become developed, many more smelters will be erected in British
Columbia, which will consume more of this superior coke.
In and about the Coal Mines of British Columbia for the year 1896.
January       8—Thomas  Gemmall,  fireman,  and Ah Wing,  bratticeman,   were  very slightly
burned about the face and  hands  by an  explosion  of gas  while at work
repairing brattice in the No. 2 slope, Union Colliery.
8—Evan Morgan, miner, working in No. 1 pit, Wellington Colliery, was seriously
injured by being jammed by a car in the mine.
10—Albert Parrott, miner, working in No. 1 shaft, Nanaimo Colliery,  got his leg
broken by a fall of rock while at work.
23—Alexander Rowan, mule driver, was injured about  the leg by being  jammed
between two mine cars while at his work in No. 4 slope, Union Colliery.
24—Joseph Wilson, miner, was slightly injured by a fall of coal while at his work
in No. 4 slope, Union Colliery.
24—Thomas Jenkins,  miner,  working in No.  4  slope, Union Colliery, was burnt
about the face and hands by an explosion of gas.
February    4—William Bray, miner, was killed by a fall of coal while at work in Protection
Island shaft, Nanaimo Colliery.
ii   .       8—Joseph Potter, miner, working in  No.  4  slope,  Union  Colliery,  was slightly
burned.    There  was  a  cave  on  his  road,  a short distance from the face.
This broke down the brattice, and as Potter was taking away the rock he
required some tools, and went into the face to get them ; hence the result. 592
Report of the Minister of Mines.
February   17—John Nord, miner, working in the No. 1 mine,  or shaft,  Nanaimo,   had a leg
broken by a fall of rock while at work in his stall,
n 19—James Harley, miner, while at work in his stall in  No. 1 shaft, Nanaimo Col
liery, had his collar bone broken by a fall of coal.
ii 20—Z. Donatto, miner, in No. 1 shaft, Nanaimo Colliery, was slightly burned about
the face and hands, by igniting a quantity of loose powder in the mine.
ii 21—John Gray, miner, working in No. 5 shaft, Union Colliery, was slightly burned
by a small quantity of gas, which he kindled while at work.
ii 21  -George McLean, miner, working in No. 4 slope, Union  Colliery,  had his jaw
broken by being struck with a stringer while in the act of putting it into
its place to support the roof.
ii 21—A.  Lelland was  killed by  being  crushed between  the  weigh-house and the
workman's car, while attempting to get on the car while in motion, near the
No. 4 slope, Union Colliery.
ii 27—Owen Bradshaw, miner, while at work in  Protection shaft, Nanaimo Colliery,
was slightly burned about the face and one arm, by the ignition of a small
quantity of gas.
5—George Smith, labourer, working in No. 4 slope, Union Colliery, was hurt about
the head and shoulders by a fall of rock while at work.
26—Ah Hee, Chinese  runner in No. 4 slope,   Union Colliery,  had  his leg broken
by a mine car while at work.
10—William Moore, miner, was severely injured by a fall of  coal while at work in
No. 5 shaft, Union Colliery, and died the following morning.
13—George Hards, boy, running in  Protection  shaft,  Nanaimo  Colliery, had  his
thigh bone broken, by being jammed between a mine car and a prop.
13—Thomas Walker,   miner,   working in No. 4 slope, Union Colliery, was slightly
hurt about the back by a piece of rock while at work in his stall.
22—Caleb Evans, miner, and Ah Creep, labourer, were slightly burned by a blown-
out shot in the No. 5 shaft, Union Colliery.
29—William Jackson, miner, had his leg broken by a  fall of rock while at work in
his stall, in No. 6 pit, Wellington Colliery.
6—Ah Yum, labourer, at Union Colliery, while going to his  work in the  workman's car, and sitting at the window during the time the car was in motion,
was struck by  a  timber of the  trestle,  from the effects of which he died
to-day.     The accident happened on the 5th (the day before).
2—John Alexander, miner, was killed by a fall of rock   while at his work in the
No. 5 pit, Wellington  Colliery.    He  was blasting down rock,   and  went
below a piece that had been loosened by a shot, when it came down on him.
10—Charles Gorion, miner, working in No.   4 pit,  Wellington,   was  killed by the
giving away of a stringer while at work in his stall.
12—Frank Prime, miner, working in No. 1 shaft, Nanaimo  Colliery,  had  his arm
broken by a small piece of rock falling on him while at work in his stall.
25—Fred Turner, brakeman on electro-locomotive, had one arm broken  by a piece
of rock falling on him ; car going off the rails.
25—James Glen, miner, had one of his legs broken by a fall of rock, while at work
in his stall in No. 5 pit, Wellington.
4—Angus McLellan, miner, got one rib broken by a fall of coal while  at work in
his stall in No. 5 pit, Wellington.
9—John O'Connell, pusher, in No. 5 pit, Wellington,  got his  collar bone broken
by being jammed between two empty cars.
29—William Thomas, miner, had several of his ribs broken   by being jammed by a
loaded car against the coal face while at work.    He was starting a level off
the slant from the diagonal slope Protection Shaft, Nanaimo Colliery.
29—John Naomi, runner, in No. 5 pit, Nanaimo Colliery, had his thigh dislocated and
foot severely cut by getting entangled in a rope that he was using for
lowering cars down an incline.
4—Peter Masuggo and Dominic Valezano, miners, got burnt on the head, face,
and hands by an explosion of gas at a cave they were clearing in the No. 5
pit, Wellington.
7—The first-named, Peter Masuggo, died in the Nanaimo hospital to-day.
August 60 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 593
September 10—R. Hamilton, miner, working in the No. 5 shaft,  Union  Colliery, was slightly
burned on the neck by the ignition of a small quantity of gas.
October       2—Tai Suen, miner, working in the No.   5  shaft,   Union  Colliery, was seriously
injured by coal falling on him while at work in his stall.
ii 3—The above Tai Suen died to-day from the injuries received.
ii 6—Joseph Nanaivell, miner, was injured about the back by a fall of rock, while at
work in his stall, in Protection Island shaft, Nanaimo Colliery.
November 12—Richard Spear, shot-lighter, Protection Island Shaft, Nanaimo Colliery, was
severely injured about the body by being thrown from and  jammed by a
run of loaded cars.
ii 16—James Dickie, timberman, in the No. 6 pit, Wellington Colliery, was slightly
burned about the face and hands, by gas when going over a cave of rock.
ii 16—Thomas Wilkinson, miner, was injured about the head, by a fall of rock, while
at work in his stall in the No. 6 pit, Wellington Colliery.
December    2—William Lockhart, miner, working in No. 5 pit,  Union Colliery, was slightly
burned about the face and hands by an explosion of gas.
n 12—Chee-He-Chung,  switchman,  in  No. 4  slope,  Union  Colliery,  was killed  by
falling between the mine cars while at work.
,i 23—W. J. Pollard,   miner,  working in No. 1  pit,  Nanaimo  Colliery, had his leg
broken by a run of loaded cars.
ii 29—Robert McGargle, miner, working in No. 4 slope, Union Colliery, was burnt on
the face and hands, by firing a little gas in a hole in the roof.
ii 31—John Bowen, miner, working in No. 4 pit, Wellington, got his arm broken and
crushed about the body by a fall of coal while at work in his stall.
It is with sincere regret that I have again at this time, the close of another year, to make
out the above long list of accidents, although there is a decrease in their number below that
of last year.
Some of the accidents enumerated were quite slight, but on the other hand, some of them
very serious. In some of the cases, months elapsed before the man injured could return to his
work. In the above list, you will observe that there is a total of 47 accidents, 38 of these
being reported as slight, or serious, and 9 fatal. Of the 38 casualties, 5 were from the
falling of or injuries from coal, 8 from rock, and 11 from explosions of gas, 2 from shots, 8
from accidents in connection with the cars in the mine, 1 from powder, 1 from a rope and 2
from injuries from stringers. Of the 9 fatal accidents, 3 were caused by falls of coal, 2 by
rock, 1 by explosion of gas, 1 with cars in the mine and 2 on the railway, not below but on
the surface, so that the number of fatal accidents in the mine is reduced to 7. I have made
enquiries into the circumstances and causes incidental to all of these accidents, as soon as
possible, after receiving word of their having happened, and on many occasions I have been at
the spot before the notice from the manager had reached me. In looking over the list you
will observe that nearly all of the accidents mentioned, happened while the men were at work
in their places. With respect to the fatal accidents, an inquest was held in nearly every case,
so that if the minute incidents in connection with the fatalities are required, these can be
obtained from the evidence filed with the inquisition, in the office of the Honourable the
In addition to the workmen who is supposed to use ordinary precautions for his own
safety, there is a large staff of men employed to look after and care for the safety of those at
work. For instance, there are the manager, overman, fire-man, shot-examiners and many
other persons having authority, all of whom are constantly on the move throughout the mine,
not being long in one place unless their presence may be required. Fire-men and shot-
examiners always have safety lamps with them, so that they may be always on hand and
prepared to examine all places where gas might suddenly appear, or where there is any likelihood of this, the most dreaded of all dangers in connection with coal mining existence. All
of the old workings that can be got at are frequently examined, the more especially when the
men are engaged in taking out pillars (coal). In these cases, examination of the back part is
impossible, as everything in the rear has mostly fallen in, and the examination is therefore
confined  perforce to what is termed as the "gob" or the place in which the refuse is thrown.
I have once more to record that the miners of the Nanaimo Colliery, are as yet, the only
workmen that have availed themselves of the privilege allowed them under General Rule 31,
"Coal Mine Regulation Act."    This privilege is the examination, by a committee of them- 594
Report of the Minister of Mines.
selves, of the mine and its condition as to safety. The results of these examinations are
posted up in a conspicuous place for the information of the men, and also entered in a book
kept for the purpose. The workmen have, therefore, the benefit of the results of their own as
well as the examination made by the management.
This system is not followed in either the Wellington or Union Collieries by the employees,
and I think that it is a great oversight on their part. I have reason to believe that the
managers of both of the collieries just named would be pleased if their workmen would take
advantage of the privilege referred to, and examine into the condition of the mine at least once
a month. It would give the workmen a better idea of the condition of their working places
by personal observation, and thereby do away with much friction which should not exist. The
manager and the men would better understand each other, and I am also convinced that the
manager would give them every assistance in making these monthly examinations.
Although there has been quite a decrease of casualties and fatal accidents in the mines
during the past year, there is yet room for improvement that way, as many of the accidents
recorded could have been prevented had greater precautions been used; but we will yet hope
that our mines may yet be worked so that casualties will be a thing of the past, as they
should be if all the means at our disposal were properly used; indeed, if they were now, good
results would be sure to follow.
I append hereto the Annual Colliery Returns for 1896.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
Archibald Dick,
Government Inspector of Mines.
West Wellington Colliery Returns for 1896.
Output of coal from
September to
December, 1896.
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
About 800
No. of tons
for exportation.
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1896.
No. of tons unsold,
including eoal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1896.
Number of hands employed.
Wages per day.
Total hand
s employed, a
Miners' ear
nings, per da;
Name of Seams or Pits—West Wellington.
Value of Plant—About $2,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, etc, and number of same—One slope; seam, 5 to
6 feet thick; 2 levels; no shaft.
Description and length of tramway, plant, etc.—Wooden tramway, about 6| miles, to Nanoose
Bay; 1 steam pump and hoist,
West Wellington Coal Co, Ltd. Ly,
E. H. Heaps,
Managing Director. 60 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Nanaimo Colliery Returns for 1896.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31st, 1896.
Tons.        cwt.
320,575        13
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
Tons.        cwt.
91,406 8
No. of tons
for exportation.
Tons.        cwt.
232,436        11
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1896.
Tons.        cwt.
6,334 10
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1897.
Number of hands employed.
Total hands employed    981
Wages per day.
$2.37 to $3.50
$1 to $2
$1 to $1.25
. $3 to $5.
Name of Seams or Pits—Southfield No. 2, Southfield No. 5, No. 1 Esplanade Shaft, No. 1
Northfleld Shaft, Protection Island Shaft.
♦Value of Plant—$350,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, &c, and number of same—Southfield No. 2,
worked by slope, seam 6 to 10 feet; Southfield No. 5, worked by shaft, seam 5 to 10
feet; No. 1 Northfleld Shaft, worked by shaft, seam 2 feet to 3 feet 6 inches; Protection Island Shaft, worked by shaft, lower seam 4 feet, upper seam 6 feet; No. 1
Esplanade Shaft, worked by shaft, seam 5 to 12 feet.
Description and length of tramway, plant, &c—Railway to Southfield, 6 miles, with sidings ;
railway to No. 1 Shaft, 1 mile, with sidings; railway from Northfleld Mine to wharf
at Departure Bay, 4J miles; rails are of steel, 56 lbs. per yard, of standard gauge, viz,
4 feet 8| inches; 8 hauling and pumping engines, 15 steam pumps, 5 locomotives, 238
coal cars (6 tons), besides lumber and ballast cars; bunkers with a capacity of 3,700
tons; fitting shops for machinery repairs, with turning lathes, boring, drilling, planing,
screw-cutting machines, hydraulic press, steam hammer, &c, &c. ; diamond boring
machinery for exploratory work (bores to 4,000 feet); 150 horse-power electric plant
engines, boilers, dynamo; 4 30 horse-power 8-ton locomotives, and 1 15 horse-power
locomotive; hauling and lighting equipment; wharves, 2,000 feet frontage, at which
ships of the largest tonnage can load at all stages of the tide.
Samuel M. Robins,
Superintendent. 596
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Wellington Colliery Returns for 1896.
Output of coal for 12] No. of tons
months ending sold for
December 31st, 1896.   home consumption.
Tons.        cwt.
339,896       15
Tons.        cwt.
103,129 4
No. of tons
for exportation.
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1896.
Tons.        cwt.
235,916 5
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1897.
Number of hands employed
Wages per day.
$1 to $2
$1 to $1.50
Total hand
Miners' earnings, per day   $2.50 to $3.50.
Name of Seams or Pits—1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 Wellington, and 1 and 2 East Wellington.
Value of Plant—$150,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, &c, and number of same—7 shafts, with slopes,
airways, and levels ; 3 air shafts.
Description and length of tramway, plant, &c—5 miles of railway, with sidings and branches ;
6 locomotives ; 250 coal cars ;   13 stationary engines; 9 steam pumps; 4 wharves for
loading vessels, and bunkers.
Output of fire-clay—286 tons; sold, 286 tons. R. Dunsmuir & Sons.
Union Colliery Returns for 1896.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31st, 1896.
Tons.        cwt.
233,610        —
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons
for exportation.
Tons.        cwt.
165,885        —
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 18S
Tons.        cwt.
13,333        —
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1897.
Tons.        cwt.
14,410 —
Number of hands employed.
Total hands employed
Wages per day.
52.25 to $3.50
$1 to $1.25
to $1.35
Miners' earnings, per day $2.50 to $4.50.
Name of Seam or Pits—Comox.    Value of Plant—$125,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, <kc, and number of same—No. 2 Slope; No. 4
Slope, with airway and levels ; No. 5 Shaft, with airway and levels.
Description and length of tramway, plant, <fec.—12 miles railway, 4 feet 8J inches gauge; 4
locomotives; 150 coal cars (25 tons each); 1 second-class passenger car; 1 combination
passenger car;  1 diamond drill; 4 stationary engines; 5 steam pumps; 5 electric pumps;
1 dynamo;  1 steam saw-mill;  1 Luhrig coal washer; 100 coke ovens (Beehive pattern);
2 wharves ;  1 pile-driver.
No. of tons of coke sold—416^ tons.    Coke on hand—642 tons.
ii ii        fire-clay sold—126. Jamf,s_Dunsmuir, President. Scale tffeeJ^   	
lOoa       w lUOt.      aOoo     &aott    4«e<?      j,~Qoo
t»mmit==r=t -       . I I 4-1
7$ ctccom/tcxtty W'/Se^reTS ^/a?^^7'^ *m&
No.              Name. Output.
t Tiger.. .. ~|
\ Rfcfa&ld' f Not bottomed.
4 John Bullj
5 Columbia $      25,000
6 Farmer  25,000
7 Union  50,000
Marysville  300,000
9 Phelan  250,000
10 Hart  250,000
11 Oram  75,000
12 Adams  300,000
13 Elliott  100,000
14 Bruce  100,000
15 Rankin  75,000
16 Prince of Wales  250,000
7 Chee Chee  50,000
Raby  500,000
19 Dead Broke  150,000
20 Prarie Flower .... .. 100,000
2i Cameron  800,000
22 Forest Rose  480,000
23 California Tunnel ... 25,000
24 Watty  300,000
25 Tinker  300,000
26 Moffatt  250,000
27 Last Chance
28 Beauregriard........ 100,000
29 Star  50,000
30 McLean    . .. 50,000
31 New York  50,000
32 Grizzly ......   ...... 50,000
33 Caledonia  750,000
34 Never Sweat  250,000
35 Nevada  25,000
36 Morning" Star  50,000
37 Lillooett  100,000
37a Mosier  50,000
$ 6,430,000
Brought forwari
Wake-up Jake
Saw Mill    	
J- Loring	
Foster Campbell ..
{ Black Jack and \
[ Burns Tunnel . f  '
High Low Jack ...
Mucho Oro	
Bell & Fulford ....
San Francisco...   .
N.B.—The figures given in this table of outputs are
approximate, and cover the ground worked from the lower
end of the Ballarat Claim to McCallum's Gulch, a distance
of 2% miles.
Output. No.               Name. Output.
$ 6,430,000
50,000 Brought forward.$13,575,000
850,000 75 Adams  75,000
150,000 76 Greer  135,000
350,000 77 Abbott i  150,000
300,000 78 Tontine  50,000
125,000 79 ia-Ft. Davis v 15,000
75,000 80 Little Diller  25,000
175,000 81 Point „  100,000
100,000 82 Steele  600,000
350,000 83 Tyack  75-000
50,000 84 Six-Toed Pete  50,000
150,000 85 Cornish )
500,000 86 French  j"    '"'  200,000
50,000 87 Browse  100,000
600,000 88 Steadman  50,000
150,000 89 Dutch BUI  200,000
10,000 90 Red Jacket  25,000
25,000 91 Scott  25,000
10 000 92 Wilson  200,000
' 93 Wheal Mary Ann .. 100,000
135,000 94 Casket  50,000
350,000 95 Excelsior  50,000
350,000 96 Forward  100,000
75,000 97 Co. 0  55»ooo
675,000 ^ Rising Sun I
10 99 Allen .. >  75,00c
50,000 100 Sunflower. J
50,000 101 Jenny Lind  125,000
75,000 102 Wide West   ....,   . 125,000
100,000 103 Deadwood  25,000
275,000 104 Reed  125,000
300,000 105 Hurdy  25,000
175,000 106 Downie  100,000
50,000 107 Perseverance  25,000
50,000 108 Phoenix "^
250,000 109 Bradley-Nicholson J- 680,000
75,000 no British Queen .... J
50,000 in San Juan  55,000
$i3.575>ooo Total $i7.355-ooo
Eureka Gulch, McArthur's  Gulch
and Valley Mountain  200,000
Williams Creek, Bedrock Flume... 200,000
Walker's Gulch  100,000
Conklin's    do ...,  765,000
Sundry Claims  500,000
McCallum's Gulch  200,000
Total Output, Williams Creek .., $19,320,000


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