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SECOND REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL BOARD OF HEALTH OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, BEING FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1897

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 SECOND   REPORT
OF   THE
PROVINCIAL BOARD OP HEALTH
BRITISH   COLUMBIA,
BEING   FOR   THE
YEAE ErTDING DEOEMBEE 31st, 1896.
VICTORIA, B. C:
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majest
1897.  60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 679
REPORT
OP   THE
PROVINCIAL   BOARD   OF   HEALTH.
To His Honour Edgar Dewdney,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg herewith  respectfully to present the Second Report of the Provincial Board of
Health for the year ending 31st December, 1896.
D. M.  EBERTS,
Attorney-General.
February %7th, 1897.  60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 681
PROVINCIAL  BOARD  OF  HEALTH,
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Office of the Secretary,
Victoria, B.C., February 27th, 1897.
Sir :
I  have  the honour to present herewith for your approval the Second  Report of  the
Provincial Board of Health, being for the year ending December 31st, 1897.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
A. T. WATT,
Secretary.
To the Honourable
The Attorney-General,  Victoria  60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 683
TABLE  OF  CONTENTS.
1.—Letters of Transmission.
2.—Members of the Board.
3.—Prefatory Remarks.
4.—Introductory Report of Chairman.
5.—Extracts from Minutes.
6.—Miscellaneous Reports.
7.—Extracts from Annual Reports of Local Boards of Health.
8.—Regulations of Provincial Board. 684 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
MEMBERS
PROVINCIAL   BOARD   OF   HEALTH.
Dr. J. C. Davie, Chairman, Victoria.
Dr. J. M. Lefevre, Vancouver.
Dr. R. E. Waker, New Westminster,
Dr. L. T. Davis, Nanaimo.
George H. Duncan, of the City of Victoria, Esquire, M. D., to be a member of the
Provincial Board of Health, and to hold the office of Secretary of the said Board, vice A. T.
"Watt, Esquire, M. D., resigned.    (Extract from B. C. Gazette, 11th March, 1897.) 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 685
PREFATORY  REMARKS   BY  A.   T.   WATT,   RETIRING  SECRETARY
OF  THE  BOARD.
In presenting this, the second report of the Provincial Board of Health, it is but fair to
say that this report does not by any means represent the whole of the work undertaken by the
Provincial or Local Boards during the past year. A great deal of the work is necessarily
repetition, much of it cannot be reported upon, and much which might be reported upon would
too greatly enlarge the report. In fact, owing to pressure of work in the printing office, the
report as at first prepared has been considerably cut down. This will, therefore, explain the
absence of many things which the Legislature or the public would perhaps wish to hear about.
The showing the Board is able to make is not what it might have been had the members been
allowed to adopt an aggressive policy and keep disease down, instead of merely having to be
content with stepping in and dealing with it when it became epidemic. There have been a
number of more or less serious outbreaks of scarlet fever, diptheria, or typhoid fever in various
parts of the Province. On the appearance of these, the Board has been called upon to take
action, and generally has met with good success. But when the Board is thus summoned to
intervene after the commencement of an epidemic, it is like the proverbial locking of the stable
door after one horse has been stolen. Further outbreak is prevented, but much harm has been
already done. Instead of merely calling upon the Board to take action when the epidemic is
in progress, money enough ought to be placed at the disposal of the Board to enable it to place
the various towns and settlements of the Province in such a good sanitary condition that it
would be impossible for any disease to make headway or become epidemic. This improved
sanitary condition can be brought about by proper attention to such matters as disposal of
waste materials, conservation of the purity of food and water supply, and keeping the air that
we breathe free from contamination. This can be effected only by there being a number of
trained sanitary officers to carry out the regulations of the Board in each locality, and by the
intelligent co-operation of the people for whom they are working. Prevention is better than
cure, and it is also cheaper. The wealth-producing capacity of the Province must depend upon
the health and vigour of its inhabitants. There are no more effectual means of ensuriug
prosperity than that of surrounding the people with all the safeguards to health that modern
sanitation has devised. The harm done by allowing an epidemic to appear can never be
remedied, since the loss by death can never be repaired.
The death-rate of the Province, as shown by the statistical returns, is low. This is owing
to some extent to imperfect returns, and largely to the fact that a great number of the inhabitants are men in the prime of life who have lately come from elsewhere. When the death-rate,
however, from preventable diseases is examined, it is found, considering all the circumstances,
to be high in proportion to the total returns. Yet, while this is so, no noticeable number of
deaths occur in any one part of the Province. But this is because the population is scattered.
Perhaps one or two deaths from typhoid or diphtheria occur in a small settlement of about a
hundred people. But no remark is made upon the fact. When this happens, however, in a
number of small places, the total deaths reach a large figure, which, occurring in a single town
containing the same number of inhabitants as all these small places put together, would cause
widespread alarm and call for the active interference of the health authorities. The people
themselves would be ready to vote large sums of money to improve the water supply, construct
sewers, and to have all possible sanitary precautions taken. The fact that such a state of affairs
actually exists, although not apparent at the first glance, should lead the representatives of the
people in the Legislature to vote at least a good part of the money that would be voted by the
people themselves did they understand the situation and were in a position to vote the money.
The first report of the Board should be considered together with this one. During the
first few months of the Board's existence it was not hampered as it has since been, and was
able to hold meetings and consider the work as fast as it was prepared. But during the past
year the whole work has devolved upon the Chairman and Secretary, neither of whom were
fully paid officials. The Chairman received no salary, while the Secretary was paid at a rate
which would require of him only half his time.    There have been many more matters needing 686 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
consideration than could be reasonably expected to be undertaken under the circumstances
although, as a matter of fact, a very great deal more time and attention was given to the
sanitary work of the Province than was evidently expected of these officials. At any time
during the past year there has been enough work to occupy the entire time of the Secretary,
over and above that which was undertaken by the Chairman. Although no adequate
remuneration was forthcoming, these officials willingly did as much of the work as possible and
have made no personal complaints. However, as the Secretary is now resigning, he will not
therefore be accused of wishing to secure personal advantage when he states that, in his opinion,
his successor should be paid the full salary allowed by the Act and required to devote the whole
of his time to the work, of which there is more than enough to occupy the entire time of the
most energetic and enthusiastic official. The valuable service which Dr. Davie, as Chairman of
the^Board, is able to render the Province ought to be recognised by a suitable honorarium.
Provision should also be made for a quarterly meeting of the Board.
An essential adjunct to the Board of Health is a properly equipped analytical and bacteriological laboratory. Such a laboratory could be easily made part of the new laboratories
fitted out for Mr. Carmichael in the new Parliament buildings. A consulting engineer should
also be attached to the Board, to whom could be referred questions of water supply and sewerage. By the Act the Board is required to pass judgment upon all plans of proposed public
systems of water supply and sewerage, and as there is no engineer on the Board it is essential
that the advice of an engineering expert should be available when required.
There are still a number of matters in the first report of the Board which have not yet
been considered by the Legislature; the most important of these are the suggestions with regard
to the revision of the Health Act, and the Births, Deaths and Marriages Registration Act.
If these Acts are amended as suggested they would be simplified and made more effectual.
In resigning his position on the Board the Secretary regrets to leave unaccomplished many
of the things he had planned and hoped to accomplish. But he hopes that what he has achieved
will pave the way for steady sanitary progress in the Province. He will always be ready to
place at the disposal of the Board whatever knowledge he has acquired concerning the sanitary
requirements and conditions of the Province, and to help on the work of the Board in any other
manner possible. He hopes, in his new position of Superintendent of British Columbia Quarantines, to maintain friendly relations with the Board, and to avail himself of its advice and
assistance, as kindly offered by the Chairman. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 687
INTRODUCTORY REPORT BY THE CHAIRMAN.
May it please  Your Honour:
The history of the Provincial Board of Health is briefly as follows:—
The Public Health Act of British Columbia was passed in the year 1893, but was not
proclaimed until the autumn of the year 1895. A sum of $7,000 was voted by the Legislature
for the maintenance of the Board, and for the purposes of carrying out the Act. Five medical
men were nominated by the Government as the Provincial Board of Health. The Board met
three times during the latter part of this year, and before the Legislature met in the spring of
1896. During this time they did the necessary initiatory work. The Province was divided
into Health Districts; arrangements were made as to Boards of Health and Health Officers,
and pamphlets of questions sent by the Provincial Board of Health to the health authorities
in all parts of the Province to put in possession of the Board all necessary information in
connection with each place. The Board formulated rules, regulations, &c, in brief, adopted a
plan of action whereby to place the whole of the Province in good sanitary condition.
The words " sanitation" and " hygiene" are commonly in people's mouths, but they
convey little or no meaning to the majority. I cannot better explain the meaning of these
terms than by an illustration Take two tracts of land in an untouched section of country,
each of the extent of 500 acres, with a river running through each. Call the first site A, the
second B. Introduce on each site 5,000 human beings with their belongings. In town A the
purity of air, earth and water are carefully ensured. Provision is made for isolation in case
of communicable disease which may be introduced into the community, and such a law as the
Public Health Act of British Columbia is carefully enforced in all its details. In town B no
such regulations exist, but the reverse. The air, earth and water, as will inevitably happen,
become polluted by the filth incident to the aggregation of this mass of human beings. No
sanitary authority or law exists to prevent this. Town A is in a sanitary condition and
governed by hygienic laws. Town B is not. You cannot have communicable disease, epidemic
or endemic, in town A. You can introduce a case of typhoid, cholera, bubonic plague or
small-pox, (fee, into town A and it will do no harm. Town B offers the greatest facilities, on
the contrary, for the occurrence of these diseases in epidemic form. In town A the mortality
tables will show a death rate of from 4 to 13 per 1,000, while town B will have a death rate
of from 25 to 30 or more per 1,000 per annum.
How many of the towns and villages in British Columbia are in the condition of town A?
How many in the state of town B? People commonly speak of death from diphtheria, typhoid
fever, consumption, cholera, etc., as a visitation from God. Modern scientists know they are
nothing of the kind, that the Almighty has nothing to do with such disasters, but that death
from such causes arises from ignorance and the non-observance of the laws of hygiene.
The Legislature met in the spring of 1896, after the Provincial Board of Health had done the
before-mentioned necessary preliminary work; they cut down the appropriation for the purposes
of the Board to $1,500 for the coming year. They practically said that a Provincial Board of
Health was not wanted; that it was an unnecessary expense to the Province. They neither
understood nor believed in the work of the Board.
This is merely a repetition of the opposition to Central Boards of Health which has
occurred elsewhere, as witness what happened in Europe and the United States of America.
The needs of a country, however, the disastrous results which follow for want of sanitary
supervision, and the good accomplished where such Central Health Boards exist, have forced an
acknowledgment of their necessity upon the public. As an example of this I would instance
that in 1849 the Legislature of Massachusetts appropriated $500 to be expended in a
preliminary investigation of the question whether any attempt at sanitation was worth while;
while in the year 1893 we see expended $62,876 under the supervision of her Board of Health.
If such a retrograde proposal were made in Massachusetts by her Legislature as the abolition
of the State Board of Health, that body would cover itself with ridicule and obliquy. 688 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Our Legislature, not guided by the experience of older countries, has declared that our
Board of Health is unnecessary and useless. The exigencies of the Province since such action
upon their part have plainly contradicated this fiat of our legislative body. The Government
has been forced to act in direct opposition to their opinion. The first occurrence of any
moment after the Legislature ceased sitting was an epidemic of diphtheria in Union. This
disease became so prevalent in that district that the Provincial Board of Health was obliged
to take action, with the result that the epidemic was checked.
In the commencement of the year Your Honour visited the Kootenay District, and there
had such representations made to you that you immediately forwarded to the Government the
information that Rossland and others of the mining towns springing into rapid existence were
threatened with that terrible disease, typhoid fever, in epidemic form. A number of cases
already existed. The populace were becoming alarmed, and the results of the epidemic, if it
were not arrested, could not be estimated. The mining industry of British Columbia, and of
Kootenay in particular, will certainly on all hands be acknowledged to be of immense
importance to the Province, but if the news were sent broadcast throughout the world that
the mining centres were hot-beds of disease and death, it is not difficult to conceive that a very
serious blow would be dealt to the development of our mining industry. People would be
afraid to risk their health and lives by going to such a locality. Capital would be kept out of
the country, and the prosperity of the whole Province materially interfered with. As a result
of Your Honour's representations, the crippled Board of Health stepped in at the request of
the Local Government, took the condition of Rossland, etc., into consideration, and issued a
set of sanitary regulations prepared especially for such new centres of population; an
intelligent and energetic Sanitary Inspector, Clive Phillips-Wolley, Esq., was appointed and at
once proceeded to Kootenay to carry into effect the said regulations, with the result that the
principal mining towns have been rid of typhoid fever, have been placed for the time being in
decent sanitary condition, and rendered safe to live in. Towns are springing into existence
throughout this District. The same regulations will have to be carried into effect in each and
throughout the Province, otherwise epidemics of filth-produced disease are certain. The work
of sanitation in British Columbia is barely begun.
Again, representations were made to the Provincial Board of Health that typhoid was
becoming epidemic in Kamloops—Kamloops that has been regarded, and rightly so, as
naturally one of the most healthy spots in British Columbia, where it is proposed to establish
a Sanitarium for the treatment of tuberculous disease of the lungs (consumption); a town to
which the medical men of the Province are in the habit of sending their consumptive patients
for the possible restoration of their health. The health authorities of the town requested that
a member of the Provincial Board of Health should visit the place and solve the mystery as
to why this disease prevailed there. Dr. Walker, a member of the Board, at once proceeded to
Kamloops; he made an exhaustive enquiry as to the state and cause of the epidemic, introduced
sanitary reform, and put into operation the sanitary regulations of the Provincial Board of
Health. Before Dr. Walker's advent forty-seven people in Kamloops had been attacked by
typhoid fever in a brief space of time. As the result of his visit the epidemic ceased as if by
magic. Certainly no more convincing illustration could be adduced than such a result of the
effects of the intelligent application of sanitary science. Gratifying as is such a result, if the
Provincial Board of Health is allowed to carry into effect the Public Health Act throughout
the Province, the benefits accruing will be infinitely greater, for such epidemics, with their
entailed suffering, loss of life and money, will be prevented.
Preventive medicine is the brightest star in the domain of medicine to-day. It has been
termed the " great idea of the age." It is the exact work of central Boards of Health. It
cannot be effected by individual effort, but by centralized authority producing uniform and
concerted action throughout a Province or State.
As a result of the combined experience of the highest sanitary authorities, it is found that
one-third of the total death rate of human beings is preventable. This is the office and work
to be accomplished by the Provincial Board of Health through carrying out the Public Health
Act. This is the work which our Legislature said last session they do not want accomplished.
Through the Provincial Board of Health the Legislature possesses the requisite knowledge to
prevent this one-third of the death rate. If they do not allow the Board to accomplish this
they are directly responsible for this unnecessary mortality and waste of life.^|As^Chair-
man of this Board it becomes my duty to state this matter plainly, in language not to be
misunderstood.    The Provincial Board of Health shall not be blamed if sanitation and its 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 689
wonderful results comes to a full stop in the Province; if epidemics occur and recur throughout
British Columbia; if the towns of the Province gain the unenviable reputation of being
centres of preventable disease ; the odium of all this, with its attendant disastrous consequences, must rest where it is due—on our Legislature—who, through ignorance and ill-
conceived penuriousness, seek to arrest sanitation and the application of hygienic law.
After all, the action of our Legislature is not so much a matter of surprise. The power
which central Boards of Health possess to arrest and prevent disease is simply not known or
understood by such a body of men. Such knowledge is, as a rule, possessed only by experts
in sanitation; by medical men who have made it their special study, men who, as a rule, do
not obtrude their opinions on the public. Our Legislature is not composed of medical men
nor sanitary experts. The question may well be asked : " Whence do you get such power to
centrol disease ? You make a tremendous assertion when you state that one-third of the
deaths which occur should be prevented." The answer is as follows :—Through the work
and investigations of such men as Pasteur and Koch, chiefly by their discoveries in
bacteriology, the exact cause of many diseases which afflict human beings is absolutely known;
not only its cause, but its method of attack, how it is disseminated, how propogated. In brief,
the life history of these bacteria is known. Having this knowledge absolute and exact,
scientifically demonstrated, the means of preventing the disease resulting from the action of
these bacteria is a simple matter. Our power to prevent disease of this class is infinitely
greater than our power to cure. We can prevent the masses from being attacked by them.
Our efforts to cure are confined to individuals, and are exceedingly limited. It goes without
saying from this that prevention is better than cure. Preventive medicine is acknowledged
on all hands to be the greatest medical discovery of the age, and, as has been said before, this
preventive, or, as it has also been called, State medicine, can only be the work and accomplished by a central Board of Health, having control of a whole country or province. Individual
effort is futile. Among the preventable diseases which may be mentioned is diphtheria,
typhus and typhoid fever, scarlet fever, measles, cholera, small-pox, and all diseases having
tubercular infection as their cause. Among this last class is the disease commonly known as
consumption. Now, statistics compiled by careful sanitarians show that tuberculosis alone
causes the death of one-seventh of the whole human race. It has been computed that in the
United States of America the loss of life from this cause represents to the country an annual
loss of $500,000,000. It attacks alike rich and poor. At present no one is safe from this dire
scourge. Contrary to formerly accepted ideas, this disease is not inherited, but acquired by
each individual. Tubercular disease in all its forms results solely from the transmission of
infectious material from the sick to the well. In contrast to other diseases of a communicable
character, while diseases commonly known as such, vide small-pox, diphtheria and typhoid,
occur only at long intervals, tuberculosis is a disease which is continually among us, constantly
doing its deadly work. It has been estimated that it causes one-half of the total death rate in
New York City, which arises from preventable disease. It is also the opinion of the health
authorities of New York City that from thirty to fifty people are daily infected there by
tuberculosis. Now we know the exact cause of this disease. We know how this cause is
sown broadcast, and know also how to arrest this. We have immense power by our
knowledge to prevent this disease, and, as well known, comparatively little or no power to cure
it. It is a disease to be controlled only by central Boards of Health, and in the near future
it will be so controlled.    Yet our Legislature in their wisdom say they do not want this done.
Among the examples of the triumphs of sanitation in the past I would mention that
scourge of seafaring men—scurvy. At one time this disease used to decimate the crews of
ships, in some instances almost exterminating whole crews. Through the inculcation of
sanitary laws this has become a rare disease.
Again, typhus fever, or as it has been called, gaol fever, was at one time exceedingly
prevalent throughout the world. Through the enforcement of hygienic law this disease has
become exceeding rare.
Small-pox is another illustration of the effects of sanitation. Two generations ago fully
one-third of all the faces one saw in a city like London, England, were seared and pitted by
this disease. At the present time the disfigurement of a face from this cause is most
uncommon.
Again, the mortality tables compiled by sanitarians show in the plainest manner the
effects of sanitation. Where sanitation is properly carried out there will be a death rate of
from 4 to 13 per 1,000 per annum.    Where it is neglected, from 25 to 30 per 1,000. 690 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
As the result of the neglect of sanitation, I would remind you of our own epidemic of
small-pox only a few years ago, with its cost in human life, suffering and money. Another
instance was the recent epidemic of cholera at Hamburg. It is well known to scientists that
if the water supply of Hamburg had been under proper sanitary control and the city governed
by competent sanitary authority this epidemic could not have occurred.
Another illustration is that of the Bubonic plague at present raging in India. It must
strike anyone reading the telegrams concerning this epidemic that the natives alone are affected
and killed by this disease, while the white population, living in the same place, escape free. The
explanation of this is a simple one. The natives live in unsanitary conditions. They set at
defiance in every way the laws of hygiene; while the white population, comparatively speaking, obey sanitary law.
Our own epidemics, again, to come nearer home, in Kootenay, Kamloops and Union, this
year, afford illustrations of the neglect of proper sanitary work. Sanitation, if carried out in
British Columbia, will prove to be economic work. The Provincial Board of Health is a
money-saving institution. It will cost far less money to prevent communicable disease by the
enforcement of hygienic law than it will to continually take such measures as will arrest
epidemic disease arising from its neglect.
Again, it is an economic institution through the saving of valuable lives, with the
contingent loss from this source—a loss which is simply not to be computed. The damage to
the reputation of the Province as an unsafe place to live in is also a matter of much importance. The Provincial Board of Health is also an educational body. It is the duty of such a
board—indeed it is part of their method for the suppression of communicable disease—to
distribute information concerning the same by means of pamphlets, etc., educating the public
by this means as to what it is wise and unwise to do in any given case.
Again, another aspect of the matter is this. Two lines of defence exist against the
importation of communicable disease into the Province, the external line, quarantine, and the
internal line, sanitation. The first line of defence, quarantine, is never effectual. It is
impossible to make it perfect. Disease always passes through it and eludes it. It is also a
very serious interference with commerce. Great Britain has for these reasons given up
quarantine. The second line of defence, sanitation, is the true and reliable one. Great
Britain relies wholly upon it. It amounts to this : You place a country in such good sanitary
condition and governed by such sanitary regulations that though disease be brought into it it
is controlled, no nidus exists for its culture and dissemination. Not only will sanitation
control such diseases as are imported into the country, but it also reduces the mortality from
a host of other diseases, conditions which are the direct result of its neglect.
The amount of money appropriated for the maintenance of the Provincial Board of
Health, and for the carrying into effect of the Public Health Act throughout the Province,
need not be large. The cost of our small-pox epidemic a few years ago would have kept the
Provincial Board of Health in existence, and enabled it to do all necessary sanitary work
throughout the Province, for at least 15 years. The five medical men constituting the Provincial Board of Health, if allowed to exercise the powers conferred on them by the Health Act,
will undoubtedly save more lives annually than the rest of the medical profession in the
Province. This is no exaggeration, but a fact known by all medical authorities to be strictly
within the truth.
To conclude, is the Provincial Board of Health to be allowed to effect these results, or are
we to allow poisonous substances, as deadly as strychnia, though less rapid in their results, to
remain sown broadcast throughout our beautiful Province, in the air, in the earth, in the
water 1 To a.ttack and deal suffering, disease and death to its inhabitants ? The answer to this
question remains with our Legislature, who are the representatives of the people, chosen and
sent to the Legislative Hall by the people, to inaugurate wise laws for the protection of the
rights, property, and last, but not least, the lives of their constituents. Our representatives
can no longer plead ignorance of this subject, as an excuse for not doing their manifest duty.
The paltry question of the cost of this work is immeasurably overshadowed by the inestimable good to be effected in the interests of the people of British Columbia.
I have, etc.,
John C. Davie,
Chairman Provincial Board of Health 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 691
EXTRACTS FROM MINUTES.
Minutes of the Fourth Meeting of   the   Provincial Board of Health, held in the
Office of J. C. Davie, M.D., Victoria, B.C., June 3rd and 4th, 1896.
First Day—First Session.
At 2 p.m. Dr. Davie, the Chairman, called the meeting to order. The members present
were:    Drs. J. C. Davie (Chairman), L. T. Davis, R. E. Walker, and  A. T. Watt,   Secretary.
A draft of the minutes of the last meeting had been presented at the close of that meeting
in order that they might be embodied in the report to the Legislature. The minutes, as printed
in the report, were affirmed to be correct, and adopted as read.
The Chairman addressed the meeting, relating the various occurrences affecting the Board
which had taken place since the last meeting. He explained that the regular quarterly meeting
had not been called owing to the unsettled state of affairs with regard to the Board, which
existed at the time the meeting should have been held. Under the circumstances the Attorney-General had notified the Secretary not to call any meeting unless requested to do so.
Regular meetings could not likely be held during the next year, owing to the small appropriation that had been placed at the disposal of the Board. The present meeting had been called
at the request of the Honourable the Premier for the purpose of considering a very serious
condition of affairs existing in the mining regions of Kootenay. A large number of people had
lately been attracted to those districts, and, as yet, very little attention had been paid to sanitation by anyone. The consequence was that a number of cases of typhoid fever had developed
and a good deal of diarrhoea was prevalent. There had lately been very alarming reports from
some of the towns, unfortunately well-founded in more than one case, and the matter was of
serious concern to the inhabitants. Some of the newspapers, particularly in Rossland, had not
been slow in making public the facts and in asking that a remedy be at once applied. The
Secretary and himself had also received direct information from persons who were residents
of Kootenay, or had lately returned from the district. There were some letters also with
regard to the state of affairs there, that would be read at the meeting. The matter was most
urgent, and the Board had an important duty to perform. The work could not be proceeded
with very far unless more money for sanitary purposes could be made available. The $1,500
voted at last session, to do the health work of the whole Province for a year, would not likely
go very far towards doing what was necessary to put the towns of Kootenay in even a fair
sanitary condition, to say nothing of the rest of the Province. And as this vote includes the
salaries, allowances and other expenses of the members of the Board, there could be no adequate
remuneration for the work the Board was being called upon to do. In fact the Board seemed
so crippled from lack of funds that it appeared as though very little could be done. It was
likely, however, that some means would be devised by which a fund needed for the work could
be made available. The matter was one for discussion at this meeting. A subject of great
importance for consideration at the present time was the preparation of a code of sanitary
regulations. The preparation of these regulations would be taken up at the evening session
and to-morrow, when Mr. Smith, Deputy Attorney-General, would be present. Various sanitary topics would also be discussed, in order that the opinions of the members of the Board
might be expressed, with the view of aiding the Secretary in the preparations of pamphlets,
etc., and also that the general policy of the Board witli regard to various matters might be laid
down.
The Chairman then suggested that the reading of the correspondence be proceeded with.
This was done, and the communications were severally discussed. Many of the matters referred
to had already been attended to by the Secretary. The action taken by him was explained to
the meeting and approved.
A batch of correspondence regarding the recent outbreak of diphtheria at Union Mines
was first considered.     A telegram was received on  February  20th, notifying the Secretary of 692 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
the presence of the disease. On the Secretary informing the Attorney-General the Order in
Council appointing Dr. H. P. Millard as Health Officer, in accordance with the recommendation of the Board as made at last meeting, was at once put through, and the doctor was telegraphed to take the necessary steps to cope with the outbreak.
Letters of the same date as the telegram were received from the Government Agent and
Dr. Millard. It appeared that two deaths had occurred in separate families, and that there
were two children then ill. The attending physicians had given certificates of death from
" membranous croup," and were maintaining that the two patients then ill were suffering from
the same complaint. Owing to the suspicious circumstances the Government Agent had
directed two other medical men to examine the cases, and their diagnosis was diphtheria.
About a week had elapsed since the first case had appeared, and no precautions to prevent
the spread of infection had been taken during that time, so that the chances of a number of
cases developing seemed almost certain. The general sanitary condition of the place was bad,
which made matters look considerably worse. The Government Agent wrote: "The snow is
going fast, and I must say the sanitary condition of the camp is anything but what it should
be for the public health." Dr. Millard wrote that the present conditions were very deleterious
to the health of Union inhabitants. Dr. Millard asked that Mr. Scharshmidt, of the Provincial
Police force, be appointed Sanitary Inspector. This was done through Supt. Hussey, and
instructions sent to supervise the work of putting the town in as good a state as possible under
the powers given by the "Sanitary Regulations, 1892." A supply of diphtheria anti-toxine
was forwarded. This was used for immunizing as well as curative purposes with most satisfactory results. The newly appointed Health Officers at once set to work, and soon had the
town cleaned up and free from the disease. On the 28th of February another death occurred
after 24 hours illness. This case was in one of the families in which one of the previous deaths
had happened. No other deaths occurred, although six more cases appeared. The last cases
were all treated by anti-toxine. Proper precautions in the way of disinfection and isolation
were enforced by the Medical Health Officer, while at the same time all house-holders were
required to put their premises into a good sanitary condition. Consequently no further cases
of the disease occurred after five weeks from the time Dr. Millard's appointment was made.
The manner in which two of the last patients became infected is instructive. Dr. Millard
says: " The first of these is in the family of the undertaker who buried the first deceased
children. The undertaker carried the disease into his own household, under the belief that the
children whom he buried had died of croup. This was clearly the fault of the colliery physicians, who maintained that the disease was croup and not infectious." Of the last patient he
says: " The case is that of a man 35 years of age. The source of infection, probably the
decaying vegetable matter which he assisted in removing a few days before taken ill."
Dr. Millard reports having made an autopsy, along with Dr. Jeffs, on the last patient that
died, and finding "the larynx and trachea covered with a partly detached membrane of considerable extent, no doubt diphtheretic." This membrane was afterwards examined by Mr.
Mackenzie, Bacteriologist of the Ontario Board of Health, who reported it of diphtheretic
origin. So there can be no question that the outbreak which occurred in Union was one of
true diphtheria.
A discussion here took place on membranous croup. It was pointed out that a controversy had been going on for very many years back as to whether or not croup was a disease
sui generis. There were many authorities who maintained the identity of membranous croup
and diphtheria. Certain it is that the majority of cases formerly classed as croup would now
be at once diagnosed as diphtheria. The modern idea of the infection known as membranous
croup is, that it is a very rare complaint, only appearing sporadically, and that even though a
physician may believe he has to deal with a case of croup, he should nevertheless take the same
precautions with regard to disinfection, isolation, etc., as should be taken in cases of diphtheria.
Bacteriology would prove that by far the greatest majority of cases commonly supposed to be
croup are cases of true diphtheria. Membranous croup, to any one anxious to safe-guard the
public health, should have a meaning only as a clinical term. The Medical Health Officer
should be notified of every case, in order that the necessary precautions may be taken by the
proper authorities. Extracts from Prof. Osier's chapter on membranous laryngitis (croup) were
quoted as follows: "Inflamation of the larynx with membranous exudation occurs: (1) As a
simple non-specific, non-contagious affection, local in its nature and not occurring in epidemics;
it is unquestionably a rare disease. (2) As an effect of diphtheria in which the disease maybe
limited to the larynx, but  commonly is associated with exudation of the pharynx or tonsils. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 725
Long Lake is kept very fairly pure, but needs more protection from buildings upon its
southern shore.
It is alleged that Diver Lake is to be drained this year for the greater convenience of
the Company in getting the coal which is said to underlie the lake. This is no doubt
necessary for the safety of the workings, but it seems likely that the. exposure of the slimes of
Diver Lake to a summer sun will be attended with some danger to people in the neighbourhood.
There is no public water supply in the Wellington district, either in the new townsite or
elsewhere. The people obtain their water as a general rule from wells dug in their own lots.
Almost every house has its own well, and with a few exceptions the water of these wells is
said to be very good. The welis are, however, a source of grave danger, as in many instances
they are in close proximity to cesspits and are in hardly any instances as far removed from
dwelling houses as the sanitary regulations require them to be.
The obvious and natural source for a public water supply would seem to be at Long Lake,
a big body of water, full of springs and of excellent quality (so it is reported), distant not
more than 200 yards from the principal buildings in the townsite.
The town of New Wellington is only now in the second year of its incorporation, but I
understand that it has been built for five or six years.
Members of the municipal council whom I had the pleasure of meeting informed me that
before the late council " took hold " the use of deep cesspits in the townsite was universal.
After carefully inspecting the townsite in company with Mr. Hogan (one of the aldermen)
and with the local scavenger, I am of opinion that not more than ten per cent, of the houses in
New Wellington have cesspits at the present time, and I cannot refrain from calling attention
to the good work done in a year by a council composed entirely, I believe, of miners with
presumably no previous experience in public business.
The late council has done a great deal to improve the town by the substitution of dry
earth closets for cesspits, by the appointment of a scavenger at extremely low rates, and by
allotting a dumping ground for his use.
The present council has made arrangements for the payment of a small monthly retaining
fee to P. C. McKinnon to secure his assistance in sanitary matters. The aldermen themselves
exercise a good deal of personal supervision, and I have the promise of the present mayor that
the cesspits which still exist will be promptly abolished.
Altogether, New Wellington townsite is a wonderfully satisfactory specimen of a yearling
town, inhabited by workingmen, and " run " by workingmen, but there are some matters which
require prompt attention.
1. A public water supply is badly needed. Wells such as those which exist in New
Wellington are too close to the dwelling houses, and require more attention than they are
likely to receive.
2. The system of earth closets has been introduced, but I saw very few in which the
system was properly carried out. The boxes are most of them of wood, not always watertight,
and not supplied with dry earth. They should be watertight, if possible of galvanized iron,
and regularly treated with dry earth.
3. There is an exceedingly dangerous practice of allowing the fluid wastes of private
houses to run through the lots into the streets, where these fluids either sink into the soil or
run down to the street below. A striking specimen of the results of this system is afforded by
the premises of the Portland Hotel, on Corunna Avenue, with its back upon the Company
ditch. Corunna Avenue lies at a lower level than Victoria Avenue, and, I think, than
Wellesley Avenue. The Portland Hotel has no spare ground round it; its well is in its backyard. The Company's ditch is close to its walls. Immediately above the hotel are butcher's
premises (Quennell's), in which I caught the employees slaughtering. The blood from this
operation drains under the sidewalk past the Portland Hotel to the Company's ditch, and,
together with other filth, stagnates there.
The sawdust of this butcher's shop is kept in a small open shed immediately above the
Portland's well. This shed is used as a public urinal and worse. Where it drains to is obvious.
In addition to this the drainage from the streets above seems to make the same direction on its
way to the Company's ditch. Altogether, I should consider the well of the Portland Hotel
the most dangerous water supply I have seen, and that from no fault of the owners of the
house.
4. In addition to this, the erection of what constitutes some sort of dam by the Company
in the course of its works has stopped almost entirely the flow of the water in the Company's
ditch,  and thereby added to the danger from the filth therein accumulated. 726 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
I should recommend the adoption of the filtration bed system as explained in Doctor
Watt's pamphlet for the disposal of fluid wastes at Wellington until such time as the people
have a regular system of public sewers.
5. The present Municipal Council has not received any copies of our Sanitary Regulations,
and is very anxious to receive a few copies, as with the best will in the world the Council
needs advice.
6. Measures should be taken to compel the foreign element in New Wellington to live up
to the standard of cleanliness adopted by the British people amongst whom these Italians,
Finns, etc., happen to live. Almost without exception the premises complained of are occupied
or owned by Italians or Finns, and generally by Italians.
I have been asked, sir, to forward to the Mayor of New Wellington a copy of my report
to you, a list of the 25 or 30 premises of which I complain in his municipality, and copies of
Sanitary Regulations, instructions re making of filtration beds, etc. I should be glad to have
your permission to do this at once.
Wellington.
Wellington (unincorporated) begins below the railway line and stretches far to the south.
I am informed that almost all of the property in this district belongs to the firm of Messrs. R.
Dunsmuir & Sons, and that the houses are let by them to the present occupants.
There is no public water supply.
The water used by the inhabitants is drawn from wells in the gardens and yards attached
to the houses. I heard no complaint of this well water, but must point out that such a supply
is exceedingly dangerous, especially where, as in almost every house which I visited in Wellington, a deep privy pit is used in close proximity to the well.
The ordinary rule in this district is that each house has its well and its privy pit in the
same enclosure. Some of these privy pits are in a disgraceful condition, e.g., the pit between
the E. & N. Ry. platform and the band stand. This exposes a full pit of filth within five or
six yards of the public road to the, view of people standing on the railway platform.
The premises of Mr. Kennedy, tenant of the principal hotel in Wellington, stand alone in
my experiences of filth, and as they face the station and adjoin the public schools they have,
no doubt, done much to call attention to the bad state of this district.
I found that the people had been complaining for a long time past of the foul smell of the
swampy ground below the hotel between it and the stream leading into Diver Lake. I examined into the cause and found that this unoccupied patch of ground is used as a dumping
ground for tin cans, etc. ; that a big wooden flume conveyed the slops of the hotel onto it ;
that at the back of his yard Mr. Kennedy had a pen of hogs in a very filthy condition ; that a
waste lot, over which the school children have a trail, adjoins the hotel yard through which
the stream above mentioned runs; that upon this was a pile of from ten to twenty wooden
boxes more or less full of human excreta; that the carcases of four hogs, in various stages of
decomposition, lay on and near this stream, and that much other filth had been allowed to
accumulate there.
I called to see Mr. Kennedy and wrote him very severely on this subject. He came over
to Nanaimo to see me ; said that the dead hogs were not his, but that they had died of hog
cholera and that there were others in the bush round the school. These I could not find on a
subsequent inspection, but I found that Mr. Kennedy had had the four carcases and the closet
boxes removed, and had his assurance that he would remove his hog pen and substitute any
system we direct for his present drainage.
Public Schools.
The state of these schools is disgraceful from a sanitary standpoint. The closets are of
the deep cess-pit order, and so filthy that a mere glance at them turned Dr. Davis' stomach
when accompanying me upon one of my visits.
The closets at the junior schools, Wellington and at Northfleld, are almost equally bad,
and I should recommend that both on account of the number and age of the children and for
the sake of example these places should be attended to at once.
There is a well in the school ground.
But a report of this district in detail would be too long to be read. A very short one
would contain a description of these premises which do not violate the Sanitary Regulations.
Doctors and clergymen would not escape.    The want of sanitary precautions is general. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 727
Hogs are kept in several instances in close proximity to dwelling houses, e.g., between
Mr. Archie McKinnon's house and that of the Roman Catholic priest.
A long list in my note book substantiates the assertion that wells so situated that closets
can drain into them is the rule in this district.
Following Wellington Street or Road to its corner where it turns down hill to the old
Wellington Road and South Wellington, I came upon the beginnings of Chinese settlements
(Hop Wah, May Sing, etc.) Hop Wah drains down hill through cess deposit (no pit) into a
stream which I then followed through all manner of filth for a very long way, through wash
houses, Chinese yards, etc , to Mrs. Mahone's, on old South Wellington Road, who (having no
pit) told me that the stream took her deposits away ; to more Chinese and Finn premises with
closets over the water, until it eventually pitched into Mill Stream in the company's meadow
about 400 yards (roughly) east of No. 3 shaft.
A mile below this point, where Mill Stream is perhaps 20 feet wide, a steam pump draws
water which is supplied in two wooden tanks to (perhaps) 18 houses on No. 6 Bluff.
I was not surprised at being told by one of the residents that cows won't always drink
it, and that having no other water supply he and his family lived as much as possible upon milk.
A very serious danger seems to exist here which should be removed. If people cannot
get a safe water supply at No. 6 Bluff they ought not to be allowed to live there.
Rosstown or Rossville.
I am not sure of the name of this little settlement which is practically part of Northfleld.
The same conditions exist here as in Wellington ; privy pits and wells—except that here and
there a private owner has made some attempt at the dry earth system.
A butcher here (Mr. Stephen Roberts) does some pig raising and slaughtering on his lots,
which he keeps very clean, but he drains through his own yard into the road past a Mrs.
Dye's and so into a swamp in which Rosstown collects its filth. Government Road drains
through the Buck Road into this little swamp under the bluff
No. 1/. Cabins.
These are let by the Company, I was informed. They are tenanted by Finns and others.
The pit and well system prevails as elsewhere, but the wells run dry in summer, and I was
informed at No. 4 Fan Shaft that water is there drawn from Diver Lake and supplied to some
people all the year round at No. 4 Cabins in the summer.
If the Board bears in mind the character of Diver Lake and the nature of the ditches
which flow into it (alluded to above) the danger of this source of supply will be duly
appreciated.
Northfleld.
The property here belongs, I am informed, to the New Vancouver Coal Company. The
system of privy pit and well in close association prevails here as at Wellington. Luckily
many of the houses are empty, and therefore the danger is lessened. A terrible instance of
recklessness exists at Northfleld. There are approximately 34 houses on what I was told is
known as Front Street. One side of this street backs on to a swamp. The privies are at the
back of the houses and must drain into this swamp. The privy pits are in an awful condition.
The swamp is narrow, stagnant, and covered with a green scum. Six feet from this swamp
on a surface level with it is a well eight feet deep, from which, a sickly, white-faced child
informed us, the neighbours drew their water.
Hamilton Powder   Works Company's Houses.
From six to eight houses adjoining Northfleld, about one and a half miles from Wellington, the same system of cesspits and wells prevail here as elsewhere in the district.
I need not, sir, express to you my conviction of the serious danger of the conditions
baldly described above, but I should be glad if you would authorise me at once to send
instructions to that very efficient officer, P. C. Stephenson, who accompanied me on my
inspection, to abate such nuisances as he is able to (pig-styes near dwelling-houses, etc.), and
if you would instruct me as to the course to be pursued with regard to the various water
supplies and the cesspit system. I am, &c,
Clive Phillipps-Wolley
Provincial Sanitary Inspector. Nanaimo.
On the invitation of Dr. McKechnie, and at the suggestion of the Board, I made a cursory
inspection of the town of Nanaimo.
No town, probably, could be more advantageously situated from a sanitarian's standpoint.
For its size, it has an enormously long sea front; it drains naturally and rapidly seawards, and
it has a good and sufficient water supply, although I am informed that there is some complaint
on this head in summer. Dr. McKechnie kindly drove me to two out of the three dams. There
were stumps standing in the water which would be better out of it, and I can conceive that in
summer some vegetable matter might spoil the look of the upper dam, but as I saw it in
winter the Nanaimo water supply looked good, pure and sufficient.
The two worst feature to which my attention is directed in Nanaimo were:—
1. The system of draining the slops of private houses through the lots on which they
stand to the street below, and (2) the hideous condition of Chinatown. Chinese should
not be allowed to live amongst white people.
To take the drainage question first. I inspected Milk Street, Wallace Street and others.
A series of greasy black holes under the sidewalk reveals the outlet of the drains ; the sewage
matter runs down the street and soaks in or runs off, as the case may be. In summer the
stench arising from it must be serious. I am informed that Nanaimo has a proper scavenger
system ; that not more than 70 cesspits still exist in the town, and that the dry earth closet
is in general use.
But Chinatown (2) is terrible.
Chinatown lies high and drains into Victoria Road. Its privy pits are of the vilest kind;
its back yards are tiny or non-existent, being entirely built over. Where they exist they are
in many cases swamps of stagnant " slops " thrown from the houses, in which are crowded
ducks, poultry and other live stock. Even at mid day the houses were full of men; the little
dark dens into which the wooden shacks are partitioned off reeked with stale tobacco, and the
stink of men and strange edibles, and in several instances pigs were kept on the premises.
In the case of Yick Hong, men and hogs live under one roof in a densely crowded street,
and not only this, but whilst the styes adjoin the sleeping rooms, blood stains, hogs bristles,
a scraping board, hoisting hooks, boiler, block, grindstone, etc., as well as the fresh leg of a
pig, attested the fact that swine are reared, slaughtered and sold as pork under the same roof
as that under which Yick Hong and his household live.
This was not the only case of the kind seen by me in Chinatown.
The slops, slaughter-house drainage, etc., goes down the middle of the street in many
cases, and in the middle of the street (its brim below the level of the street) is a well.
This is one of the sources of public water supply, I am informed. If the Chinese drink it
"straight" it is another peculiarity of this peculiar people, for in several houses (Quong Tuck's
for instance) we found taps for supplying city water muzzled by a strainer !
Dr. McKechnie informed me that there was so much low fever in Chinatown as to
attract his serious attention last summer, but he is not of the opinion that any of the fever
was typhoid.
Nanaimo Chinatown can be cured in only one way—by fire. The sooner it is done the
better for Nanaimo. I am, &c,
Olive Phillipps-Wolley,
Provincial Sanitary Inspector.
Nanaimo.
March 9th, 1897.
Post Script.—On an occasion subsequent to that upon which I visited Nanaimo's Chinatown, in the company of Dr. McKecknie, I had an opportunity of looking round Nanaimo by
myself, and was much struck with a part of the town to which my former guide had not drawn
my attention.
I refer to the swamps at the back of the main street of Nanaimo, where the water of a
certain arm is cut off by the road embankment built by the New Vancouver Coal Company.
The tide comes up and acts as a scavenger for the left hand side of the street (going from
the Post Office to Pimbury's store), but the right hand side of the street at the back of the
aforesaid Pimbury's   for instance, is in a   most unsanitary condition,   and   bitter  complaints 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health 729
were made to me about it. The fact is that there is not sufficient water admitted by the
present culverts to properly cleanse the swamps dammed in by the embankment; the Union
Brewery pours its washings onto the bank or into the swamp; two Chinese wash-houses
run into it; privies drop into it, etc. The same state of things in a lesser degree exists higher
up at the back of certain eating-houses. When I was on the spot the tide, such as it was,
had gone out; a vile stench (even in cold weather) pervaded the place, and a thick, whitish
scum revealed the vicinity of the eating-house. These swamps and the closets near them,
and the Union Brewery and wash-houses, should be very carefully attended to before the hot
weather comes, and the swamps referred to should either be filled in or such arrangements
made as would admit of the entrance of a big flood of water daily, sufficient to cleanse these
places out. As the trouble appears to have been caused by the builders of the enbankment, it
would seem reasonable that they should be asked to remedy it by the construction of proper
culverts, etc.
Union.
March 16th, 1897.
Sir,—Acting upon your instructions I visited Union; called upon Dr. Millard, saw Mr.
Scharschmidt, P. C, and made a fairly thorough examination of the town.
Union shows signs of having been in a very bad condition some short time back,
but a great deal of work seems to have been done there recently in the way of clearing away
accumulations of garbage, instituting a very rough and ready system of dry earth closets (for
the most part without the earth) and putting in a few box drains.
The town is said to contain (approximately) 3,000 people, of whom a very large number
are Chinese; there is also a considerable Italian element in Union. The town is built in a narrow valley, along the bottom of which is a big ditch which eventually empties itself into the salt
water. The contents of this ditch are not used for drinking, and therefore the contamination
of the ditch by sewage from the houses is not of so much moment as it might otherwise be.
The Union Coal Company has put in a few box drains to drain away the fluid waste from one
end of the town.    These, like the natural drainage, run to this ditch.
Union lies almost entirely upon the southern slope of the valley or gulley, which is excessively steep, and should therefore be easy to drain. Indeed there is probably no town in
British Columbia which could be well drained at so small a cost.
At present the water supply of Union is derived from three taps at one end of the town,
carrying water supplied by the company from a source said to be safe, and from a very large
number of wells. I suppose that 90% of the people drink well water. The wells are, as in
other mining towns, too near the houses and other sources of contamination, but they are deep
and the water appears to be good. In cases where illness has occurred wells have been closed.
It is a matter of congratulation that a system for a public water supply is now in hand, and
will be in operation this summer. Bearing in mind the dangers of contamination fron various
sources, the proximity of cesspits which may have been filled in without emptying, etc., etc., it
would be highly advisable to fill in all wells as soon as the excellent public supply promised is
available.
All the closets in Union used to be of the old cesspit type. Sixty per cent, of them are
now of a primitive earth closet kind, less dangerous certainly than their predecessors, but far
from perfect yet. The typical Union closet of to-day is a coal oil can used without earth. It
does not leak, and it is carried away and the contents disposed of properly by a public
scavenger at intervals, but there should be an improvement upon this 1896 model before the
hot weather of 1897 comes, or the consequences will be unpleasant, if not dangerous. But I
should like to make it perfectly clear before I go any further, that I have no idea of condemning what has been done at Union. The high water marks of garbage piles along the walls of
houses and other indisputable signs, show in what a lamentable condition the town must
recently have been. The enormous improvement effected, mainly I believe through the personal efforts of Mr. Scharschmidt, and in a lesser degree perhaps of Dr. Millard, who takes
the liveliest interest in the welfare of the town, reflects the greatest credit upon these two
gentlemen, and proves conclusively how much good men may do in a short time, but there is
still much left to be done.
On the Cumberland townsite, as it is called, most of the houses are privately owned. As
is invariably the rule under similar ciecumstances, these houses are better kept and better provided with sanitary appliances than the company houses. 730 Provincial Boakd of Health. 1896
In this connection I would suggest that some of the houses in the Italian quarter, where
some recent diphtheria cases occurred, are hardly creditable to a great company, if indeed they
are fit for human habitation.
Although now in better care than Wellington a severe overhauling is needed to make
Union safe. I have had an interview with one of the most trusted officials of Messrs. Dunsmuir & Sons, and was informed that the company had no copies of our Sanitary Regulations;
did not know exactly what we wanted done, but were just as anxious as the Board to put
things into the best possible shape if told how to do it. I obtained some few copies of the
regulations for this gentleman, but, sir, I would suggest that the Board should draw up certain
regulations for the construction of "Company Houses," and the sanitary appliances in connection therewith. With very few exceptions the sanitary appliances of all " Company Houses "
(not those belonging to any one company, but those of all companies alike) will have to be
remodelled at once.
This should be done uniformly and by rule; all earth-closets to be of metal, water tight,
and supplied with earth or ashes. The use of all kinds of wooden boxes (which leak) without
earth or ashes, will cause trouble in the spring.
The schools of Union are the worst feature in the place. I found that according to the
teacher there were 180 children in attendance in his four rooms; that the Government had
spent some money to secure better ventilation, and that in consequence certain rooms were big
enough and sufficiently airy but the closets were in a disgraceful state. The four girls' closets
are pits, contrary to clause 38 of Sanitary Regulations, but the boys have boxes. I was told
that this partial improvement was due to want of funds.
I found the floor of the girls' closets in the most filthy condition, and on remonstrating
with the teacher was told that it had been in that state since last summer, and that there was
no money to pay for scrubbing these floors; that a janitor was paid 35 cents per diem for
sweeping 4 rooms and lighting fires, and that it was not his business to clean out this place, the
cost of which would probably be six-bits!!! The janitor had just "struck." There is another
school-room in the town, of a temporary nature, holding 57 children at present. This is ventilated by a broken window only, and was in a very unswept condition when I saw it. It has
no closets.
At the risk of being told to mind my own business I venture to point out that almost all
the schools I have visited in the Province have been poorly looked after; that there seems
always to be trouble with the trustees; that the Government gets the blame, and that as this
seems to be almost the only instance in which public money is administered by anyone except
the Government Agent, it would seem to be a wise thing to abolish the exception. A Government Agent would, at any rate, see that six-bits were forthcoming where they were as badly
needed as at Union. Whilst on this subject, sir, would not you, from your larger knowledge
of this subject, call attention to the excellent opportunity afforded by unswept school-rooms for
the dissemination of tuberculosis, etc., amongst the very young.
Union Chinatown is the cleanest Chinatown I have ever seen, thanks to the fact that the
Chinese here can drain into the ditch so often mentioned. The local authorities have also
stirred the Chinamen up to some show of cleanliness, but the tiny gardens at the back of every
shack really account for most of the cleanliness observable
John turns his filth into vegetables, which he sells to his white neighbours, and perhaps
as long as these vegetables are not either water-cresses or celery it does not matter much from
a practieal point of view.
I don't know whether " sudden death " is amongst the preventable diseases within our
jurisdiction, but if so I should like, before closing my year's reports, to call attention to some
of the powder-houses in our mining camps, and to the habit of using old water-closets with poor
locks, in exposed situations, as private storehouses for dynamite.
I have, etc.,
Clive Phillipps-Wolley,
Provincial Sanitary Inspector.
To the Chairman, B. G. Board of Health. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 731
Extracts from Annual Reports of Local Boards of Health.
Note.—The reports of the Local Boards of Health were to have been embodied in this
report, but in consequence of the excessive amount of work going through the Printing
Office they have had to be omitted. This is a matter for regret, since many important matters
are referred to in these reports. Some of them have, however, been made public through various
local papers, so that the local interest in them has in this way been satisfied. The reports are
still on file at the Government Printing Office, where they may be consulted by Members of
the Legislature or other persons interested. The various subjects in the reports requiring
attention on behalf of the Board are being dealt with.  60 Vict. Provinical Board of Health. 693
Etiology.—Membranous croup is now regarded by many authorities as always diphtheretic,
and while it must be acknowledged that this is so in a great majority of instances there are
cases, few in number it is true, in which it is not possible to assign this origin. The question
of origin may be settled by the presence or absence of Loeffler's baccilus, which is a definite
criterion of. a diphtheretic pseudo-membrane. The diagnosis between diphtheretic and non-
diphtheretic membranous laryngitis is by no means easy, and, as mentioned above, many excellent authorities hold the diseases to be identical. Naturally the clinical symptoms are almost
identical in the non-specific and specific forms. At the Montreal General Hospital, which
receives annually an exceptionally large number of cases of diphtheria, we were in the habit of
regarding all the laryngeal cases as true diphtheria, even when no patches could be seen on the
tonsils."
These quotations show that the non-contagious form of membranous croup is an extremely
rare disease; that it is almost impossible for the ordinary practitioner, unless equipped with
apparatus for making the necessary bacteriological examination, to differentiate between the
non-contagious and the contagious forms, and that, therefore, the only safe way, as far as the
public is concerned, is to take the same precautions as would be taken in recognised cases of
diphtheria. In view of what is known regarding this subject, it is hard to understand how
any physician can believe he has a case of membranous croup without his also having strong
suspicions that his patient has diphtheria. This aspect of the matter was bcrne in mind when
the word "suspects" was inserted in clause 7 of the "Diphtheria Regulations, 1896," which
reads: " Whenever any physician knows or suspects that any person whom he is called upon
to visit, is infected with or has died of diphtheria, he shall at once notify the Medical Health
Officer." The idea of having the words "membranous croup" inserted in the list of diseases
made notifiable by statute was approved, and the Secretary was instructed to see that it was so
inserted in the draft of the revised Health Act.
The Secretary was also instructed to convey to Dr. Millard and Mr. Scharshmidt the
thanks of the Board for the capable and efficient manner in which they had coped-with the
outbreak. The opinion was expressed that this instance shewed most plainly the value of an
efficient Health Service.
Telegrams and correspondence regarding an outbreak of scarlet fever in Donald, were read.
Two cases of the disease had developed during the month of May. Instructions had been sent
by the Secretary to the Local Health Officer to isolate the cases and take other necessary precautions.
Letters regarding recent cases of scarlet fever in Saanich, were also read. These cases
had occurred some weeks previously, but the Board of Health had not been notified of them.
Mr. Hussey, who acts as Local Board of Health for that part of the Province, had consequently
been requested to inform the various physicians of Victoria that they must report to him any
cases of an infectious nature that occur in their practice in the outlying districts surrounding
the City of Victoria.
The Secretary stated that there was at present a case of scarlet fever in quarantine in
Victoria West.    This was the only case now in Victoria or the surrounding districts.
A case of typhoid fever was reported from Ashcroft by Dr. Williams, who stated that he
was using every precaution to prevent further spread of the disease.
The Secretary stated that he had heard indirectly of cases of infectious diseases having
occurred at various places a few weeks back, but no notification had been received by the Provincial Board. A regulation was needed which would require all cases to be notified to the
Provincial Board by the Local Officers. The matter of dealing with cases of dangerous and
infectious diseases would be much simplified when the regulations and pamphlets regarding
these diseases were ready for distribution, and he thought it would not be long before these
regulations were printed.
A batch of correspondence was read regarding the site of a proposed creamery at Duncan.
Information was forwarded to the Board to the effect that the water of a well to be used would
be contaminated by a cess-pool, and that 400 hogs were to be kept on the premises, and were
to be fed on the skimmed milk, and that there were other sources of danger. The matter was
inquired into by letter, and the Chairman made a personal visit to the place. It was found
that the information given was much exaggerated. It was not the intention of the creamery
people to keep any hogs for the first year or two. After that, if they should keep them, it
would be under proper conditions, and at such a distance from the well that contamination of
the water would be improbable,    The Local Board of Health intended abolishing the cess-pool 694 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
referred to, which was the only one in the place, so that this possible source of pollution of the
well could not longer continue. Well water would have to be used in the creamery, as there
was no other supply, but analysis of water from wells in this village made by Mr. Carmichael,
proved very satisfactory. Mr. Carmichael stated that it was the purest sample of well water
he had examined in the Province. The purity of this water must be largely due to the system
of sanitary arrangements adopted in the village. The privy pits have all been abolished, and
improved pail or earth closets substituted, while an efficient scavenger service has been put into
operation.
The Board was pleased to find that the complaint had very little foundation in fact, and
the Secretary was instructed to refute any rumor that the sanitary arrangements of the proposed creamery were defective. It would be a matter of serious concern to the creamery company should any unfounded rumors of this kind gain circulation, and it is satisfactory that the
Board was in a position to prove such rumors incorrect should anything further of this nature
be heard.
The communications regarding a nuisance caused by wash-houses at Duncans were then read.
The correspondence over this matter, inasmuch as it brings out the fact that municipalities
have no power to restrict the establishment of wash-houses to certain districts, is here given in
greater part :—
Somenos, B.C., April 20th, 1896.
A.  T.   Watt, Esq., M.D.:
Dear Sir.—The following resolution was passed by our Board of Health at their meeting
on the 18th inst.:—
"That a copy of resolution passed at meeting March 21st, re removal of wash-houses to
outside the limits of Duncan townsite, be forwarded to the Provincial Board of Health, and
that they be asked to give us assistance and advice in dealing with the above nuisance, as we,
the Local Board of Health, have been given to understand that we have exceeded our powers
in passing and enforcing the above-mentioned resolution."
Resolution of March 21st.
" That whereas the carrying on of public wash-houses within the limits of Duncan town
site is a public nuisance and prejudicial to the public health, be it resolved that the carrying
on of said business within a half-mile radius of Duncan townsite is, on and after May 31st,
prohibited ; and if carried on in defiance of this order after that date the delinquents will be
prosecuted."
I was further instructed to explain that our Health By-law is substantially the same as
that in force in Victoria, and does not seem to have any clause bearing directly on this matter.
The city has a system of sewage and receives its water supply from a distance—it is, therefore,
little concerned with surface pollution ; but here, where the water is taken from wells, this is
the most difficult problem our Board has to face, and any help you can afford will be gladly
received. I am, etc.,
Jas. Norcross,
Secretary L. B. of H.
This letter was acknowledged on April 24th, 1896, and referred to the Attorney-General's
department.
On May 18th the matter was again taken up and the attention of the Local Board
directed to section 50 sub-section 86 "Municipal Clauses Act,  1896."
A copy of a by-law, re wash-house, passed by Vancouver City under authority of this
section was also forwarded.
It was pointed out that the section provides that a Municipality may pass a by-law " for
licensing and regulating wash-houses and laundries," and that the wording of the sub-section
was not such that the suppression of the business was contemplated by the Act; that had such
been the case then the sub-section would read as does 121 re slaughter-houses—" the prevention, suppression and regulation," etc.
The Board were advised that they might, by regulation, prohibit the emptying of water,
etc., and provide for the proper disposal of everything which might contaminate wells, either
by drainage or by carting away, or in any other manner necessary to effectively abate the
nuisance, the cost of abatement, of course, to be at the expense of the keeper of the wash-house.
The help requested in the matter of the water supply of Duncan was promised after the
question was considered by the Board. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 695
During the discussion of this correspondence, the opinion was expressed that the manner
in which wash-houses were allowed in all parts of cities and towns was most undesirable from
a sanitary as well'as other points of view. The Chinese laundries were chiefly referred to. It
is particularly hard to supervise the sanitary surroundings of the people of this nationality.
Those in Duncan proved no exception to the rule. They were ordered to cart away the wash-
water, but though they took some of it away, they dug a large dumb well beneath the building
and discharged the rest of it into that. This was discovered and stopped. They next piled a
large amount of brush and wood in the back of the yard and drained the waste water under
that. It has only been by constant supervision that they have been kept from committing
serious nuisances, but, notwithstanding, the condition of the wash-houses is anything but
satisfactory.
The Board considered that it was very desirable that an amendment should be made to the
Municipal Act, giving the Council power to restrict the establishment of wash-houses to such
portions of the municipality as they will be least offensive to the public. The matter was left
in the hands of the Secretary.
Letters were read regarding a nuisance at Alberni. This nuisance was brought to the
attention of the Board by a letter from Mr. Robert Pinkerton to the Attorney-General, which
was forwarded on to the Secretary. The following is a portion of the letter :—" Complaint
has been made to me by Mr. Stewart, Cataract Mining Company, that the people of the Duke
of York Mining Company, who are one-half or three-fourths of a mile above them on China
Creek, have their water-closets on a small creek that runs into China Creek, and carries all the
dirt and filth into the water that the people of the Cataract Company have to use. Now anything so outrageous ought to be prohibited. Can you inform me if the Provincial Board of
Health have made any arrangements for outlying districts like Alberni, and has a J. P. any
authority to act in a case of this kind 1"
The Government Agent was communicated with, and he reported having visited the spot,
and having had the nuisance abated to his satisfaction.
However this case shewed the necessity of more efficient sanitary rules than the old 1892
regulations, as such a case as this is not directly covered by these regulations. It was decided
to insert a strong clause in the new regulations under which it would be possible to prevent
the fouling of any stream or lake.
Dr. Walker pointed out that a menace to health such as complained of at Alberni existed
on a much larger scale on the Fraser River. Many of the canneries had built privy closets
over the water. This was a serious matter at Steveston particularly, for the excreta was
passed into the river close to the shore, and was washed along near the banks, and undoubtedly
contaminated the water just in the part of the stream where water was drawn for drinking
and cooking purposes. This fact must account for a large number of the cases of typhoid
fever that appear amongst the fishermen during the salmon season. A great deal of diarrhoea
is always present as well. A number of other insanitary features are to be found in the
vicinity of the fishermen's cabins, which, together with the fouling of the drinking water,
would account for the existing sickness. He thought that the whole trouble could be reached
by the proper enforcement of an efficient code of sanitary regulations. He also referred to the
necessity of a proper inquiry being made by the Secretary of the Board into the conditions
existing there.
Another case of pollution of drinking water was referred to the Board by Mr. Norris,
Government Agent at Vernon, His letter reads as follows :—-'Kindly advise on the following :—The steamer Penticton was seized by the Deputy Marine Marshal under the ' Seaman's
Wages Act,' and tied up near Kelowna, on Okanagan Lake. She has been lying there for the
past two years, during which time she has been robbed of everything of value, and the hull is
valueless. The hull is in a filthy condition, exuding oil, and has been used as a w. c, and is
contaminating the water used by the residents of Kelowna. The people of Kelowna are
asking to have it removed, which I would do at once, but fear legal complications."
The Secretary wrote to Mr. Norris, asking him to communicate with the authorities in
charge of the steamer and endeavour to make some arrangement with them before taking
other steps. Mr. Norris subsequently replied that the matter had been satisfactorily settled,
and that the vessel would be removed.
Some letters regarding the Nelson slaughter-house were then read. The Board decided
that the slaughter-house would have to be removed to a point outside the town, as it was
undoubtedly a nuisance in its present situation. 696 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
The necessity for some regulations regarding slaughter-houses was discussed. It was
brought out that many of these buildings in the Province were in a most insanitary state and
a constant source of nuisance. The meat was liable to be tainted by the foul atmosphere in
which it was often prepared for market. Pigs were frequently kept on the premises, and fed
with the blood and offal, and were the cause of much of the nuisance. Other bad features
were spoken of.
It was decided that the Secretary prepare regulations regarding slaughter-houses, modelled
after those of the Local Government Board of England. Other matters in connection with
these places not covered by these regulations were likewise to be dealt with, viz :—Water
supply, keeping of animals, disposal of offal, etc., etc. The Secretary took note of what should
be the requirements in each connection.
Communications from the City Council of Vernon, regarding the compulsory acquisition
of land for a dumping ground, were read. It appeared that the further use of the old dumping ground was objected to by the owner, and that the Council had endeavored in vain to
secure another piece of land. The memorial sent to the Board shewed that great danger to
the public health would result if the scavengers could not go on with the work of removing
the filth and rubbish accumulating in the city, and that this was impossible until a dumping
ground could be secured. It was therefore asked that the necessary regulations should be passed
by the Provincial Board of Health, under section 20 of the "Health Act, 1893," in order that
the required land might be acquired under compulsion. It was decided to embody the required
regulation in the sanitary regulations.     (See Clause 48.)
Two letters of more importance than any yet considered, were then read. These referred
to the conditions found in the mining camps of Kootenay. One was from the Hon. J. H.
Turner, enclosing a copy of a letter from His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor. The other
was from a prominent resident of the District. The following is an extract from the letter of
this gentlemen who, however, did not wish his name made public: "I am not able to speak
personally regarding the sanitary conditions of the various towns in West Kootenay, but I
can give you an idea of the state of affairs in Bossland and Sandon. In both of these towns
there is practically no system of drainage or sewerage. As a consequence, in Rossland, there
have been a large number of cases of typhoid fever. I understand that this is owing largely
to the water, which the doctors of the place have now advised citizens not to drink. In Sandon
there has been no epidemic so far, but it is the general impression that there can hardly fail to
be trouble in the coming summer during the hot months. The town is built in a narrow valley,
and consists of one long street not more than thirty feet wide. The population is increasing
rapidly, but no steps have been taken to improve the sanitary condition since the. town was
located. I believe that these remarks would apply to nearly all the towns in the District,
except that the situation at Sandon renders it more likely to breed disease than the others.
As the towns increase in size, there will certainly be a great danger of sickness and epidemics,
unless steps are taken to enforce some system in reference to sanatary matters."
The following are extracts from the letter of His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor:—
Government House, Victoria, B. C, May 27th, 1896.
My Dear Premier,—As you are aware, I have just returned from a trip to Trail District,
in West Kootenay. Nothing I can say can add to the very general opinion expressed in
regard to the wealth of that district. Its great possibilities have reached a stage which is
causing a very large influx of people to both the towns of Trail and Rossland.
As is the case in all new mining towns, a considerable amount of sickness is inevitable,
but in Rossland, I am informed, a very serious epidemic of mountain fever, in many cases
turning into typhoid, is on the increase, and the doctors who spoke to me on the subject are
very much alarmed, and fear that when the hot weather arrives a very serious state of affairs
will exist.
I noticed myself that a very large amount of filth is carted into the creeks and gullies.
* * * * j saw mygelf, for at least half a mile, camps of lumbermen with their horses
and mules stabled virtually in the creek, and the creek itself in a most unsatisfactory looking
state, backed up in places by chips, slabs, and dirt of all descriptions.
Trail is not suffering to the same extent as Rossland, but as the Rossland water flows to
the Columbia through the town of Trail, it requires just as much supervision as Rossland. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 697
There appears to be a strong feeling against incorporation, and I would recommend that
the " Health Act " be put in force at once.
********
Believe me, dear Mr. Premier,
Yours truly,
(Signed)        E. Dewdney,
Hon. J. H. Turner, Lieutenant-Governor.
Victoria.
After the reading of these letters a general discussion ensued. The Chairman explained
that Dr. Bowes had already been requested by telegraph to act as Medical Health Officer and
to enforce the provisions of the 1892 Sanitary Begulations. The appointment would, however,
have to be formally recommended at this meeting. There were other places that needed a
Health Officer as well as Rossland, so that the matter might be left over until the other cases
were considered.
The members of the Board all thought that the state of affairs, particularly the letter just
read, was most serious, and would require prompt action on the part of all persons responsible
in order to prevent an extensive epidemic during the summer.
The Secretary said that from personal inquiries regarding other towns, and also from the
answers given to the lists of questions sent out at the beginning of the year, he had become
aware that there were other places in the Province besides Rossland in a condition favourable
to the spread of disease when it should make its appearance. In Rossland the disease had
appeared and caused an alarm. Consequently the Board had been asked to take action. But
the actual situation in Rossland, from the point of view of the sanitarian, was practically not
different from that in other places, for it was the duty of the Board to prevent an outbreak of
disease where it had not yet appeared, as well as to deal with it in cases where it had broken
out. The question, therefore, was not what should be done for Rossland, but what should be
done to improve the sanitary condition of the Province as a whole. Speaking broadly, any
sanitary arrangements suggested for Bossland would, therefore, need to be of a character to be
applicable to the entire Province.
The matter was further discussed, and notes made of what should be embodied in the
regulations.    The drafting of the regulations was left over.
Other correspondence was left over to be taken up next day.
The Board then adjourned until 8 pm.
First Day—Second Session.
The Board re-assembled at 8 p.m.
The time of this session was entirely occupied with the drafting of the regulations.
Mr. A. G. Smith, Deputy Attorney-General, was present to put the rules into legal form.
The Sanitary Regulations of 1892 were taken as a basis, and so amended and added to as
to meet the views of the Board. The Sanitary Regulations of a number of State Boards of
Health and of the Provincial Boards of Health were consulted and drawn upon. Much discussion took place with regard to the various matters to be embodied in the regulations. The
outlines of the regulations were settled upon before the Board adjourned, but, owing to the
lateness of the hour, their further consideration was deferred until the next session.
At 1 a.m. the Board adjourned until the next afternoon at 2 o'clock.
Second Day—Third Session.
The Board re-assembled at 2 p.m.
The further consideration of the Sanitary Begulations was the first matter dealt with.
Mr. A. G. Smith was again present. After a considerable amount of discussion the regulations were finally agreed upon, and the Secretary was instructed to see to having them printed
and to submit them to Mr. Smith for final revision, then to forward them for approval by the
Lieutenant-Governor in Council, as required by section 12, "Health Act, 1893." 698 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
The Secretary was also instructed to append the regulations to the annual report in order
that they might be submitted to the Legislature in accordance with section 17 of the Act. He
was also instructed to append the regulations re small-pox, re cholera, and re scarlet fever and
diphtheria, which had been prepared and approved at the last meeting of the Board, but which
could not be printed in time to go with the first report to the, Legislature.
It was decided that the Sanitary Regulations should be designated " Sanitary Regulations,
1896." The main features of these regulations are as follows : Provision is made for the
effective abating of all classes of nuisances injurious to the public health. The pollution of
drinking water and running streams is made punishable. Public water supply, drainage and
sewerage is dealt with, and a duty imposed on local health authorities of constructing the
necessary works. The abolition of the insanitary privy pit and cess-pool system is called for,
the substitution of earth closets and the adoption of improved methods for the disposal of
waste water is required. A frequent scavengering service must be inaugurated or other effective means, such as burning or burying, emploj'ed for the disposal of faecal matter, garbage
and refuse in each community. Inspection and regulation of slaughter-houses, dairies,
piggeries and market gardens is provided for. The sale of food or drink unfit for use is prohibited. Duties of Local Boards of Health, Medical Officers and Sanitary Inspectors are
prescribed. In Health Districts where no Sanitary Inspector has been appointed the Chief
Constable is required to act as Sanitary Inspector. Other subjects affecting the public health
are comprehensively dealt with. The manner in which these various subjects are handled will
be seen by referring to the Regulations as published in the report.
A question as to how the various Regulations which the Board had made were to be
enforced was then taken up. It was moved that the Secretary send copies of the Regulations
to all those whose business it would be to see that they were carried out, viz.: Medical Health
Officers, Secretaries of Local Boards of Health, and the different Provincial Police Constables.
All the medical practitioners in the Province were likewise to receive copies.
The question of raising money to carry out the sanitary improvements that should be
undertaken under authority of these regulations in outlying districts was then discussed. It
was pointed out that in most cases the Government Agents and Provincial Police could enforce
the Regulations without any cost to the Province. Still it might be necessary in some
places in order to ward off an epidemic of typhoid or other disease that sewers should be put in
or drains made, a better water supply introduced, dumping grounds for use of scavengers
secured, perhaps a crematory established or other similar undertaking. Such works should be
paid for by the people of the town, if for the general benefit of a town, or if more particularly
for the benefit of individual property owners there should be a rate levied in the same manner
that a rate for local improvements is imposed in municipalities. The general appropriation of
the Board should be used only for what would prove a benefit to the Province as a whole,
since the money appropriated comes out of the general revenues of the Province. Of course it
might be proper in certain cases to assist, to some extent, a local undertaking of this nature
as, to some extent, they are of general benefit. Such undertakings, if carried out in municipalities, would receive some aid out of the general revenue for this reason ; and since the taxes
which would go to form this general revenue, if the place were incorporated, is now collected
by the Provincial Government, it would be in proportion to the revenue so collected that
assistance might be given out of a general appropriation for Health purposes. It was pointed
out that it was the evident intention of the Legislature that such work should be paid for
largely on the local improvement plan, since sub-section (2) of section 37 of the Act, which
deals with the organization, etc., of Health Boards in unincorporated portions of the Province
gives power to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to levy special rates and taxes for the
preservation of the public health within any outlying Health District. It was decided to
bring this feature of the matter and the clause mentioned to the attention of the Government.
The Board then discussed the question of the amount of money voted by the Legislature
for the carrying on of the general sanitary work in the Province, and it was pointed out that
the sum so voted for the next year was entirely inadequate to the requirements. The Chairman stated that he had discussed the matter with the Hon. J. H. Turner, after the receipt of
his letter regarding the outbreak of fever in Kootenay, and had pointed this fact out to him.
Hon. Mr. Turner had told him that it would be possible and legal to draw upon the balance
of the appropriation of the current year, until the end of September next, under the terms of
the Supply Bill, and further had stated that the Government would, in all probability, in view
of the urgent necessity that had arisen,  pass an Order in Council under this Act giving the 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 69
necessary authority for the Board to draw upon this balance. The $1,500 would then be
sufficient to carry on the work until the meeting of the Legislature when, if it should be
necessary, a supplementary appropriation would be asked for.
Regarding the work that should be done throughout the Province, the Secretary was
instructed to write to Hon. Mr. Turner to point out the obstacles the Board was confronted
with in carrying out necessary reforms owing to the fact that so small an appropriation was
placed at its disposal for the next year; that the Board considered that whatever the size of the
general appropriation might be, it was not the evident intention of the Act that all the money
that should of necessity be expended in putting a place like Rossland, for instance, in a proper
sanitary condition, should come out of this general appropriation, inasmuch as a provision exists
in the latter part of sub-section 2, section 37, of the Act, whereby the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council was given power to " levy special rates and taxes within the jurisdiction of a health
district for the preservation of the public health therein"; also to state that the Board believes
that if this power were exercised in certain health districts, perhaps along the same lines as
local improvements are effected in municipalities, it would result in much good and at the same
time relieve the people living in towns not as yet organised into municipalities of a very
perplexing problem, and in a manner that would be perfectly satisfactory and agreeable to
them.
The Board then discussed the necessity of obtaining fuller information regarding the conditions present in various parts of the Province. It was stated by the Chairman and Secretary
that there had been a good deal of difficulty in obtaining information about various places
which it was expedient that the Board should be in possession of. After discussion of the subject,
the suggestion was made that one of the executive officers of the Board should make a visit of
inspection to different parts of the Province in order to acquire this information personally.
The following resolution was then passed, and the Secretary instructed to forward it to the
Hon. Mr. Turner :—
" In view of the impossibility of obtaining sufficiently full information regarding the
sanitary conditions existing throughout the Province and the necessity that the executive
officers of the Board should have a personal acquaintance with the various towns and settlements of the Province, and also because of the expediency of these officers advising as to the
inauguration and carrying of the necessary measures of sanitation in these places, it is therefore resolved that the Chairman or Secretary visit the different towns, etc., for the purpose of
acquiring needed information and giving necessary assistance to the local health authorities."
The difficulty of obtaining information by correspondence, it was pointed out, was due
largely to the fact that the correspondents of the Board were in a great many instances nonprofessional men, who, with every desire to assist in the carrying on of the work of the Board,
still did not possess the requisite knowledge regarding sanitary subjects to enable them to do
so efficiently. The Board considered it most essential that there should be some medical man
in each place who could be relied upon to supervise the work being done in each locality, and
advise the local authorities upon all matters relating to public health in the district in which
he resides, and also so that the Provincial Board might be intelligently supplied with whatever
information might be required. The Board then passed the following resolution, which was
also to be forwarded to the Hon. the Premier :—
" Whereas the information obtained by the Board regarding the sanitary conditions of
certain portions of the Province shews that the sanitary conditions are in many cases particularly bad and urgently require remedying, and as the Board considers that the necessary
hygenic measures should be taken under the direction of a Medical Health Officer, it
is therefore resolved that the Board, in accordance with section 35, ' Health Act, 1893,'
recommends that the following medical practitioners be appointed Medical Health Officers for
the places mentioned below :—
For Rossland Dr. E. J. Bowes.
For Trail Dr. Douglas Corsan.
For Sandon Dr. William E. Gomm.
For Revelstoke Dr. E. H. S. McLean.
For Nelson Dr. E. C. Arthur.
And further it is resolved that the Board recommend that those medical practitioners who are
in receipt of an annual grant from the Provincial Government be appointed Medical Health
Officers for their respective districts." 700 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
A discussion took place as to the manner in which these officers should be paid. It was
decided to recommend that where a Medical Health Officer receives an annual grant from the
Government he should be informed that he will be expected to perform the duties of Medical
Health Officer for his district without further pay, unless he is called upon to perform duties
out of the ordinary in connection with an epidemic, in which case payment for actual work
done should be by fees. Where the Medical Health Officer appointed is not in receipt of such
annual grant, it was suggested that a small retaining fee be paid each year.
A number of letters were read regarding the appointment of Medical Health Officers in
other places than those in which the Board decided to make appointments. The requested
appointments were not recommended by the Board, as sufficiently full information as to the
needs of a Medical Health Officer in these places was not to hand. The matter was left over
for further inquiry by the Secretary, who was also instructed to recommend that any appointment be made which he and the Chairman considered necessary after making inquiries.
The Secretary handed in a list of Medical Health Officers who had been appointed in various
municipalities. He reported that there were still about half a dozen municipalities that had not as
yet appointed Medical Health Officers. He believed that the matter was being considered by
the Councils, but in some instances there was no medical man within easy reach, and any appointment made might not be of much service. At present there was no medical man at Mission
City, so that the municipalities near there were unable to fill the office. Some of the Councils,
however, wished to be relieved of the obligation of appointing such an officer, submitting that the
municipality was thinly populated and was considered to be in good sanitary condition. Lack
of funds was also urged as another reason why the appointment should not be made. The
Secretary was instructed to point out to these various Councils that the appointment of a
Medical Health Officer need not entail any very great expense, and that if only a small
retaining fee were paid each year it would likely be found that the resident physician would
be willing to undertake the duties of the office; and further, that in the case of any duties out
of the ordinary being required from the Medical Health Officer, it was to be suggested that
payment be made by fees. The Board believed that some satisfactory arrangement along these
lines might be made, and considered that all municipalities should be urged to appoint a Health
Officer, as it was impossible to properly carry out the requirements of the " Health Act" and
the various regulations of the Board unless such an officer was appointed in each district. It
was decided, however, that the matter of the appointment of a Medical Health Officer should
not be pressed in certain of the less populous municipalities, unless for some special reason,
such as the prevalence of some preventable disease.
Two communications regarding statements made in the annual report from the Municipality of Chilliwhack were read. According to the wording of the local report one would infer
that Dr. Henderson had been appointed Health Officer, and that his services had only been
required in connection with three nuisances. The report reads as follows :—" Dr. Henderson,
as Health Officer, reported only three nuisances in town. First, at Queen's Hotel; second,
pig-sties near butcher shop ; third, pigs kept by Chinaman in town. The parties were notified
to abate the nuisances and, with the exception of the Queen's Hotel, did so. This is all that
has been done."
Dr. Henderson, in his letter regarding this, says :—" I see in the report of the Provincial
Board of Health that my name is mentioned as Health Officer for Chilliwhack, and that
I reported only three nuisances in this locality for the year. This I beg to inform you is quite
incorrect. In the first place, I have not been appointed Health Officer at all; there is no
Health Officer here. And in the second place, the three nuisances I reported were simply
three that the Council requested me to see and report to them what should be done. One
would naturally infer from the report that these were the only cases; but this is not so.
There are matters in connection with drainage, attention to closets, emptying slops, etc., etc.,
that should be attended to, yet nothing is done. The first thing our Council knows there will
be an outbreak of typhoid or diphtheria, and perhaps that will bring them to their senses.
Until then I do not think anything will be done here."
Evidently the wording of the local report was the cause of the misunderstanding.
Rightly interpreted, the report meant " as Acting Health Officer." This was made evident by
a later letter from the clerk of the municipality, stating that the Council of 1895 had not
appointed any Health Officer, but had called upon a local doctor when there was any necessity
of a sanitary inspection being made, and that, as their term of office was about expired,  they 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 701
wished to leave the matter to the next Council. However, there seemed to be no doubt that
there were a number of insanitary features which should be remedied in this municipality.
The Secretary reported having referred this letter to the Council, asking that they should
take what action was manifestly necessary—this to include the appointment of a Medical
Health Officer.
The other letter regarding the report was from Mr. Thos. Lay, of Chilliwhack. He
wrote :—" I beg to draw your attention to the report made to you by the clerk of this
municipality, dated December 31st, 1895, which falls very short of representing the nuisances
which endanger the public health. I would bring to your notice a very serious one, the stagnant pool known as ' Mr. Lay's hole,' on Johnson Street, where the sewage from the livery
stable and boarding house empty or drain into it, causing a stench which is enough to make
any passer-by wish, for the time, to dispense with his nostrils. This particular nuisance has
repeatedly, during eighteen months, been brought to the notice of the municipal authorities.
The nuisance being on the street, of course these officials may have a privilege which your
Board of Health rules do not make public."
This letter had been referred to the Local Board by the Secretary, who had pointed out
that it had full power to have the cause of this nuisance abated, and that it should not delay in
doing so.
A number of other letters of minor importance were read and, where necessary, action
taken regarding them.
A number of the reports regarding the sanitary condition of various places which had
been made on the printed forms sent out at the beginning of the year were next examined, and
some of the main features dealt with by the Board. The Secretary noted the action to be
taken in each instance. Other matters in these reports which were considered not of sufficient
importance to occupy the attention of the full Board were left to be dealt with by the Secretary.
The Board then took up the subject of the pamphlets which it would be advisable to issue.
This occupied the rest of the session, although only a portion of the ground was covered before
adjournment, which was made at 6.30 p.m., the next session to begin at 8.30 p.m.
Second Day—Fourth Session.
The Board met again at 8.30 p.m.
The time of this session was almost entirely occupied with the discussion of subjects
regarding which it was thought it would be advisable to issue pamphlets. Notes were taken
by the Secretary as to what was the opinion of the Board concerning the various subjects.
The drafting of the pamphlets was left in the hands of the Secretary.
Other matters of minor importance were disposed of and the business was finished by
11.30 p.m., when the Board adjourned to meet again when the members should be called
together by request of the Government.
J. 0. Davie,
Chairman.
A. T. Watt,
Secretary.
Minutes of  the Fifth Meeting of  the Provincial  Board   of   Health,   held in the
Office of Dr. J. C. Davie, M.D., Victoria, B.C., Feb. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd, 1897.
First Day—First Session.
At 2 p.m. the Chairman called the meeting to order. The members present were Drs. J.
C. Davie, Chairman ; L. T. Davis, R. Eden Walker, and A. T. Watt, Secretary. Mr. C. P.
Wolley, Provincial Sanitary Inspector, was also present.
The minutes of the last meeting, held June 3rd and 4th, 1896, were read and adopted. 702 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
The Secretary then read the following letters in explanation of the calling of the meeting
at the present time :—
January 12th, 1897.
Hon. D. M. Eberts, Attorney-General,
Victoria.
Sir,—I write to request that you permit the Board to hold another meeting shortly. It
is necessary that a meeting be held in order that our report to the Legislature be considered.
There has been no meeting of the Board since last June, and since that time a good many
things have occurred which I should like to have considered by the full Board.
We wish to have everything in readiness to go on with the work of putting the Province
in as good a sanitary condition as possible when spring opens, and to do so we must commence
to get everything into shape now, as it takes some time to set the machinery of the different
organizations in motion. The members of the Board also desire to have the opportunity, if
you will give it, of discussing with you and the Hon. Mr. Turner matters affecting the future
of the Board. The different members of the Board are each ready to go on with the work,
even though no adequate remuneration for their services may be forthcoming. The matter of
remuneration for themselves they are willing to let stand in the background, but they wish to
place before you the absolute necessity of a sufficient fund being placed at the disposal of the
Board for general sanitary purposes, and also the necessity of there being some authority under
which rates can be levied for necessary local improvements in unincorporated towns. It was
evidently the intention of the Legislature to give such power under section 37, sub-section (2),
'Health Act, 1893,' but the section seems to be not broad enough. There are a number of
other matters we would like to have discussed.
I have, &c,
(Signed)        A. T. Watt,
Secretary.
Victoria, B. O, 21st January, 1897.
A. T.  Watt, Esq., M.D.,
Secretary, Provincial Board of Health,
Victoria.
Sir,—I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 12th
instant, with reference to holding a meeting of the Board of Health.
Under the circumstances mentioned in your letter I think it would be advisable to hold a
meeting of the Board, and you may therefore consider yourself at liberty to make arrangements
for the same.
I have, &c,
(Signed)        D. M. Eberts,
Attorney-General.
The Chairman commented upon the fact that the Board had not been allowed to hold the
quarterly meetings as required by the Act, and said that it had thrown a great deal of work
and responsibility upon the shoulders of the Chairman and Secretary which he would have
preferred having had shared by all the members of the Board. For the information of Dr.
Walker and Dr. Davis, the Chairman then referred in detail to various questions that had
arisen and which had been attended to by himself or by the Secretary.
The next item was the reading of a report which the Secretary had made to the Government after having made a visit to a number of the more thickly settled portions of the Province,
with the object of inquiring into their sanitary surroundings and requirements. This report
was discussed and received and ordered printed in the annual report. Some of the matters
referred to in the report were left over for consideration at a future session, when the same
subjects should be again under discussion.
A letter from the Hon. Mr. Turner, referring to a part of this report, was then read.
This letter, with enclosure—a report from Mr. H. B. Smith, C. E., on the necessity of fluming
Centre Star Creek, Rossland—was ordered to be printed following Dr. Watt's report.
The Secretary stated that in consequence of the report he had made the Government had
appointed a Sanitary Inspector—Mr. Clive Phillipps Wolley—who had proceeded at once to 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 703
West Kootenay, and had spent the latter part of the summer and fall there, and had done
most useful work. The towns he had been able to visit had been, through his efforts, put in a
greatly improved condition. Mr. Wolley had reported from time to time as to the work he
was doing, but as these reports were too voluminous to be all taken up at a meeting of the
Board, Mr. Wolley had been asked to make a general report as to the work he had done, which
could be more easily condsidered in the time at the Board's disposal.
Mr. Wolley then read his report, which was discussed and adopted. Mr. Wolley and the
Secretary took notes regarding various suggestions and directions made.
The report was ordered printed in the annual report of the Board. Some of the subjects
dealt with in the report were left over for future discussion.
The question of asking representatives of the press to attend the meetings was mooted.
It was pointed out that the Board could not very well expect the support of the press in its
attempted work unless the fullest opportunity to know what was done at the meetings was
given to the newspapers. It was decided to ask representatives of the different city papers to
attend the meetings and to report the proceedings should they care to do so.
First Day—Second Session.
The Board reassembled at 8 p.m.
Mr. Wolley was again present. Representatives of the Times, Colonist and Province had
responded to the invitation extended to them.
Dr. Davie gave a short history of the health legislation of the Province, and commented
upon the work the Board had been able to do under the adverse conditions under which it
had been working. He suggested that the Secretary read certain extracts from the minutes
and also some of the correspondence which would serve to show the character of the work
being carried on. This was done. Mr. Wolley also read extracts from his report and commented on the same. The Chairman then made an informal address on sanitation in general
and the sanitary requirements of the Province in particular.
A general discussion ensued concerning various sanitary matters in the Province. The
Board then adjourned to meet again the following day at 2.30 p.m.
Second Day—Third Session.
The first item of business was the consideration of certain portions of Mr. Wolley's report
which had been left over for further discussion. The necessity of there being a number of
sanitary inspectors to see to the organisation of the sanitary service in each community, and
afterwards carry out the regulations of the Board was considered. On motion, the Secretary
was instructed to write the Attorney-General, saying that the Board considered the appointment of a number of sanitary inspectors a necessity, and advised that such inspectors should be
appointed for the following districts :—Two inspectors for West Kootenay, one for Osoyoos,
one for Kamloops, Lillooet and Cariboo, one for Vancouver Island.
During the discussion of the report the fact was brought to the attention of the Board
that many of the creeks and lakes of the Province were being so polluted by sewage or mining
operations or the water of them recorded for mining or irrigation purposes that no sufficient
supply of wholesome water could be obtained for public or domestic use. As a result of the
discussion the following motion was put and carried :—
" Resolved : That the Government be asked to introduce an Act at the next session of
the Legislature providing for the reserving, for public use, an adequate proportion of the
natural unpolluted water supply available in each locality."
The observations of Mr. Wolley regarding the water supply of Nelson resulted in the following motion being passed :—
" Resolved : That the Provincial Board of Health condemn the source of the present
water supply of Nelson as unsafe, and further that the Board suggest to the Government that
whether the present company remain in existence, or a new company be granted a charter for
the supplying of Nelson with water, that the source of the water supply in either instance be
beyond suspicion and approved by the Board." 704 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Other matters in connection with Mr. Wolley's report were dealt with, and some of the
recent correspondence was read by the Secretary. At 5.30 p.m. the Board adjourned to meet
again at 8.30 p.m.
Second Day—Fourth Session
The first matter brought up was the necessity of the Board's being provided with suitable
quarters, and it was moved that a request be sent to the Government asking that the Board
be accommodated with suitable rooms in the new Parliament Buildings.
Dr. Walker's report regarding the outbreak of typhoid fever in Kamloops was then read.
The report was received and ordered printed in the annual report. The Secretary was directed
to forward a copy of the report to the Local Health Authorities at Kamloops with the request
that they carry out the recommendations contained therein. The Secretary was also asked to
call the attention of the Attorney-General to the reference to Kamloops gaol, saying that the
Board considers the remarks of Dr. Walker, and also those of Dr. Watt in a former report,
should receive the fullest consideration of the Government, and that the unsanitary conditions
reported upon should be abated. Dr. Walker observed that the drain from the gaol discharges
over the flat land on the river bank. Directions should be given to have this extended. The
Secretary was instructed to ask that this be done. Other matters in connection with this
report were dealt with, and the Secretary took note of what was required.
The Secretary read a pamphlet which he had prepared, regarding earth-closets, and
which the Board, after discussion, ordered to be printed. It was also decided to issue a small
placard, describing briefly the best form of earth-closet and its proper method of use.
A resolution was passed bringing into force the " Sanitary Regulations, 1896," in Kamloops
in accordance with clause 3 of the Regulations, and the Secretary was instructed to have the
required notice inserted in the B.C. Gazette.
Dr. Walker stated that he had found a number of nuisances outside the city limits of
Kamloops and he had, consequently, telegraphed asking that Dr. Furrer be given authority
to act as Health Officer. The Chairman had accordingly wired to Dr. Furrer to take any
necessary steps to abate the nuisances. However, as he considered that it would be advisable
that Dr. Furrer should be regularly appointed as Health Officer, Dr. Walker moved a resolution, namely :—
" That the Board recommends to the Government that Dr. E. Furrer be appointed as
Medical Health Officer for the outlying district in the vicinity of Kamloops, and suggest that
payment for his services, when required, shall be by fee."
As no report regarding the typhoid in Kamloops had been received it was decided to
telegraph asking if the epidemic had been checked.
Dr. Walker and Dr. Davis were appointed as a special committee to go through the communications and the reports from Local Boards and select, for the consideration of the full
Board, any subject or paragraph requiring such consideration.
At 11 p.m. the Board adjourned until the following day at 2 p.m.
Third Day—Fifth Session.
At 2 p.m. the Board was again in session.
The Secretary read a telegram from Dr. Furrer, Medical Health Officer of Kamloops, saying
that the epidemic had been practically checked ; that there had been only one new case in the
last three weeks. This telegram was favourably commented upon, and Dr. Walker was congratulated upon having had so large a share in bringing about this good result. The Chairman
remarked that this epidemic had been stopped owing to a certain line of action having been
followed, which, on careful investigation, was shown to be necessary. But careful investigation by many eminent sanitarians had proved that such epidemics could be entirely prevented
if certain measures were adopted beforehand to put and keep a place in proper sanitary
condition. And it was virtually to see that these preventive and precautionary measures were
adopted by Local Boards of Health that the Provincial Board was in existence This year, the
Board, owing to lack of funds, had not been able to adopt any such agressive policy against
disease, but had to be content to fight it off when it had made its appearance. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 705
Dr. Watt then brought up the question of the Board's taking some action which would
result in more general adoption of the practice of vaccination. He informed the Board that
he had lately received the Dominion appointment of Superintendent of British Columbia
Quarantines, and would therefore be unable to hold the position of Secretary of the Board for any
great length of time. In his new position as Quarantine Officer he was perhaps more interested
than anyone else in desiring that the people of the Province be properly protected by vaccination,
since, in spite of best endeavours, small-pox or other disease can pass through even the best
equipped quarantine.
He stated that the Williams Head station was at present lacking some of the essential
requisites of a quarantine station. There were no baths in which passengers could be disinfected, and there was no tank on the wharf to hold the bichloride solution necessary to
disinfect a vessel, and there was no sulphur room in which to disinfect the leather trunks and
other articles that could not be passed through the steam sterilizer. The sulphur blast was not
in working order, owing, so he had been informed, to the fact that the last time it had been used
it had taken fire. There are other things about the station which he would have liked to have
shown the Board had the members been able to accept his invitation to inspect the place. Dr.
Watt stated that Dr. Montezambert, General Superintendent of Dominion Quarantines, was
now on his way to the Coast, and no doubt these defects which he had asked to have remedied
two years ago would he removed by the Government, as the importance of guarding this gateway to the Dominion was coming to be appreciated. But even after the Williams Head
Station has been perfectly equipped there may still be loopholes, and there will always be this
danger that the period of incubation of small-pox being fourteen days or longer, and it only
requiring some ten or eleven days to cross the Pacific, a person might become infected just before
sailing and it would be some three or four days after passing quarantine before the rash would
develop or it would be possible to recognise the disease.
Dr. Davie said that the true protection against small-pox was general vaccination, together
with other sanitary measures such as isolation of the sick and infected. And this, the second
line of defence, was within the power of the Province and the Provincial Board to make
effective, and it should be made so. The first line of defence, namely, quarantine, had never
been made effective in any country, in fact, so defective and full of loopholes is it that Great
Britain, the foremost nation in the world in sanitary as well as other matters, had given it up
entirely, and relied solely on its internal sanitary organisations.
The other members of the Board concurred in these remarks.
Dr. Watt then referred to the recent report of the Royal Commission on Vaccination,
which was the result of a seven years' inquiry. This report had confirmed and upheld the
efficiency of vaccination as a protection. The Commission had sought for the best means of
bringing about its general adoption. The conclusion had been reached that if the compulsory
clauses of the Act were modified so as to admit of a person making statutory declaration of
conscientious objection to the practice, that the objection and agitation against the compulsory
enforcement of vaccination would be done away with, and that it would then be possible to
secure the vaccination of more persons than under the present law. Dr. Watt suggested that
the regulations of the Board re small-pox might therefore be modified in the direction of the
findings of the Commission. The suggestion, however, was not taken up by the Board, as the
matter was one requiring a considerable time to go into. After some further discussion, the
Secretary was directed to call the attention of the local health authorities to the clauses
regarding vaccination in the regulations of the Board re small-pox, and to ask them to make
the required arrangements to have vaccination performed in their districts.
The passages in the annual report marked by the special committee and certain matters
in the correspondence were then dealt with.
The secretary was directed to make certain extracts from the reports of the Local Boards
and to insert them in the annual report to the Legislature. He also took notes regarding the
various suggestions and directions concerning both these reports and the subjects referred to in
the correspondence. He was authorised to deal with other matters which, owing to lack of
time, could not be considered by the Board as a whole.
In a number of the reports from Local Boards the sanitary condition of the schools was
referred to as unsatisfactory, hence a motion was carried that the question of school hygiene
be taken up at the next meeting.
A resolution was also passed to bring into force clauses 9 to 27, inclusive, of the "Sanitary Regulations, 1896," in the City of Vancouver.    This was done at the request of the City 706 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Council of Vancouver. The Secretary was directed to forward copies of the Sanitary Regulations to the other cities in the Province, drawing their attention to the desirability of having
the regulations in force in the different cities, and asking if it is the wish of the several Councils that the regulations be brought into force in their respective cities.
It was decided to recommend to the Government the appointment as a Board of Health,
of the gentlemen who were nominated at a public meeting in the District of Nicola, and also
that the Osoyoos Mining Division be created a Health District.
It was moved that Mr. Woolley, Provincial Sanitary Inspector, be asked to proceed to
Wellington and Union Mines, and to report upon the sanitary conditions and requirements of
those places.
A resolution was passed asking the Government to appoint Dr. Williams, the City Health
Officer of Vernon, as Health Officer for the outlying districts in the vicinity of Vernon.
At 4:30 p.m. the members of the Board, accompanied by Mr. Wolley, waited by appointment upon the members of the Executive, and placed before them the necessity of proper attention being paid to sanitation in the various settlements of the Province. Dr. Davie, as spokesman, told of the work the Board had been able to do under most adverse circumstances, and
instanced the good work accomplished in other countries where Central Boards of Health had
been given a fair opportunity of carrying out the laws of sanitation. He said that the same
saving of life and money and prevention of sickness and sorrow might be looked for in this
Province as had been effected elsewhere, if the Board of Health were allowed to go on with
their work and given the little necessary money to do so. The development of the mines of
the Province would be seriously interfered with, and much money kept out of the country if
the impression got abroad that our mining camps were hot-beds of disease and death, and that
the Legislature had not deemed it necessary to vote any money or to take any steps to put
these camps in such a condition that people could live in them with safety, so that their lives
would not be endangered by typhoid fever or similar diseases. If the Province were going to
invite people here to develop our resources, it was the duty of the Legislature to have some one
see that the water which would be given these people to drink should not contain the poison of
disease. Unless they did so the legislators would be just as responsible for the death of these
people, should they die of preventible diseases, as would be the man who invited a number of
children to his house and let them partake of candies in which was concealed a poison like
strychnia.
After considerable informal conversation the members of the Board were thanked by the
Premier for having placed the matter so clearly before the Government, and were informed that
the Board would undoubtedly be granted an appropriation that would enable them during the
next year to go on with the work that had been begun.
The members of the Board then returned to Dr. Davie's office, when the business of the
meeting was concluded. The Secretary read a draft of the minutes of the present meeting, and
was instructed to insert the minutes in the annual report, in order that the report might be
brought up to date.
The Secretary reported that he had inquired into the claims made by some of the outlying districts for the appointment of Health Officers, and that after consultation with the
Chairman he had, following the instructions received at the last meeting of the Board, recommended the appointment of Dr. P. H. Power at Donald, Dr. F. T. Underhill at Mission City,
and Dr. R. E. McKechnie of Nanaimo, Dr. A. H. Thomas of Vancouver and Dr. H. J. Was-
son of Wellington, for the outlying districts near those cities.
The Secretary said Dr. L. C. Arthur, who had been appointed as Medical Health Officer
at Nelson, had resigned, but as Nelson would soon be incorporated, it would not be necessary
to appoint another officer. Dr. Underhill and Dr. Power were also likely to resign, as they
intended leaving their present locations, Mission City and Donald.
The Board then adjourned, to meet again when permitted to do so by the Government.
A. T. Watt,
J. C. Davie. Secretary. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 707
MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS.
Victoria, B.C., August 5th, 1896.
Hon. J. H. Turner, Premier, etc.
Sir,— I beg to report that pursuant to your instructions to make a sanitary inspection of
the Province, I visited the towns of West Kootenay and Vernon and Kamloops, as well as the
coast cities and the canneries at Steveston. I am drafting a detailed report of my observations and the suggestions made regarding the sanitary matters in each place visited. A copy
will be forwarded you as soon as possible.
I desire to say in the meantime, however, that the principal sanitary defects observed have
arisen in consequence of the pollution of the drinking water and the improper disposal of household refuse, execreta, etc. As to the first, I may say that within a mile or two of almost every
place I visited, except places in the Fraser River Delta, a plentiful supply of wholesome water
can be obtained at a comparatively small cost. Rossland and Nelson already have a water
supply, but the systems need extension. In the case of Rossland I have already arranged with
the secretary of the company to make this extension. A new reservoir will be put in and a
small pipe run to supply all the houses in the squatter district. The water supplied by the
company I found to be good and free from contamination. The report that mules were stabled
in the creek from which the reservoir is filled, I found to be incorrect. The water is brought
in a flume from another creek two miles away from these stables. I shall endeavour to have
the Nelson Water Company extend their system also.
In Trail, Sandon and Kaslo a good public supply will be put in during the summer. In
some of the other towns a public supply ought to be introduced. This could be done either by
levying a special rate, as allowed by the Health Act, or by assuring a water company that
Clause 21, "Sanitary Regulations, 1896," providing for compulsory use of public supply, would
be enforced. The latter would be sufficient encouragement for a company to proceed with the
work. The number of houses to be supplied being known, the report of an engineer would
show on what terms a company could put in a supply.
As to the disposal of household refuse, etc., the trouble everywhere is, that there has been
no dumping ground where the garbage, etc., could be disposed of. It has consequently been
left in back yards or thrown into creeks, or carted a short distance and dumped at the roadside
near town. In most of the places visited I got the local health officers to pick out a suitable
piece of land a mile or so from town, where the material can be buried in trenches or burned,
to which people will be obliged to have their refuse removed. The fact that the material has
to be removed has caused, or will cause, people to go into the scavenger business in each of the
larger towns. In some places it will be necessary that some money be spent in building a short
road to the dumping-ground, or in clearing away the vegetation in order that trenches may be
made.
With regard to a system of sewerage in the different towns, in my opinion, there is no
town in the interior where a sewerage system is an absolute necessity at present. If the new
Sanitary Regulations are strictly enforced, the towns will get along almost as well without a
system of sewerage until they are very much more thickly populated. The nuisances I observed
were, with the exception of those arising from privy-pits and the improper disposal of liquid
wastes, not such as a system of sewers would do away with. The general use of earth-closets
will do away with the nuisance from privy-pits, and there are several expedients for the disposal
of liquid wastes which can be made entirely satisfactory. I am preparing a pamphlet on the
latter subject, in which the method recommended is purification by intermittent application to
the soil. Fortunately in all of the towns of the interior the soil is of a gravelly nature and
very porous; and as few wells are in use, even carelessness in the method of application will
not result in contamination of well water. The method, in its simplest form, consists in disposing of the liquid wastes on different portions of the garden or lot, instead of throwing them
on one spot near the back door, where they saturate the soil, sink into wells, and produce 708 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
offensive effluvia. In case of most of the houses there is sufficient available land for this purpose, but in some or the towns there are certain crowded or growing districts where it will be
necessary, either at once or very shortly, to put in a drain or sewer to carry off the wash water,
kitchen water, slops, etc. The mains and branches should be of proper sewer-pipe, unless brick
should prove to be cheaper. These drains ought to be so constructed that they may afterwards
form part of any sewerage system constructed. Until a proper system of sewers is put in, with
means for the purification of the sewage, no water-closets should be allowed to be connected
with these drains. The effluent from them should be made to flow over a small piece of land,
so that the sewage may be purified before entering the streams. The amount of sewage will
not be so great as when water-closets are connected, and will be more easily disposed of.
I understand that a report is being made by an engineer with reference to the draining
and sewering of Rossland. When this report is received I shall have something further to say
on the matter. In the meantime, however, there should be put in some box-drains or flumes
to carry off as quickly as possible the waters of Centre Star Creek and a small creek a few
hundred yards to the right. The waters in these creeks are very much polluted, and in many
places stagnant water is to be found. At Nelson an earthen sewer pipe or brick drain should
be laid down Ward Gully. At present a wooden box-drain runs down the gully, which, owing to
its condition and the use it has been put to, I have to report as most serious menace to the public
health. The drain, which is practically an open one (as the top boards have in many places
been removed), is leaky and cannot be properly flushed. Instead of being sunk in the ground
it is raised on trestle-work several feet in the air, and thus exposed to the glare of the sun it
becomes most offensive. Several houses have lately connected water-closets with this drain,
and it has consequently been converted into one long cess-pool running through that portion of
the town. The drain, moreover, has no proper outfall; what sewage is not retained in the
drain is carried down and deposited behind the court-house. I ordered the water-closets to be
disconnected and proper earth-closets substituted. Because other disposal is at present impossible, kitchen water, etc., is still being allowed to enter; and although by making a better dam
to divert more water into the drain, as I believe is being done, this liquid waste will be more
rapidly carried away, the drain will nevertheless remain a nuisance until a proper sewer or
drain is laid. I would recommend that the water which naturally flows down the gully be
flumed in the present box-drain, which, however, should be sunk in the ground. No sewage of
any description should be allowed to enter into this flume. A small sewer-pipe should be laid;
a nine-inch pipe would be sufficient, as the fall is pretty steep, to carry off the amount of sewage
that would enter for a number of years yet. This sewer would run through about four blocks,
when the effluent could be irrigated over a garden or piece of land some little distance back of
court-house. If this were correctly done no nuisance would arise. By carrying this sewer on
a few hundred yards to the left, sufficient land could be made available to purify the sewage of
the entire town. Householders wishing to connect with this sewer would have to lay proper
pipe house-drains instead of the box-drains at present in use. Branches could be run along the
main streets and paid for on the local improvement plan.
While, as I have said, there is at present no absolute necessity for a complete system of
sewers in any of these towns, some of them are growing at such a rate that it would be
extremely desirable if a suitable system of sewers could be put in at once. But in most cases
it would be a matter of considerable expense. An estimate of the cost would have to be made
by an engineer; when this was received some proposition could be submitted to the ratepayers
and, if approved, could be carried out.
For a work of this magnitude a large sum of money would have to be available to pay
for the sewers at the time of building. If the place were a municipality debentures could be
issued and the cost spread over a number of years. But as these towns are all unincorporated,
unless the Government is in a position to advance the money and collect the interest and
sinking fund each year by means of a tax, then the only way would be by private effort.
Section 37 sub-section (2) "Health Act, 1893," gives power to the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council to levy special rates and taxes for sanitary purposes ; but as this evidently means a
tax levied from year to year, and sufficient money could not be raised by one or two years'
taxes to pay for a system of sewers, therefore, unless some other means can be devised the
simplest way would be that some company should take the matter in hand and charge a
monthly rental for the use of the sewers in the same manner as do water companies. Since
under clause 29 " Sanitary Regulations, 1896," the Local Board of Health can compel owners
to connect their houses with the sewers, a definite calculation could be made as to the amount 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 709
to be received by a reasonable rental. An estimate by an engineer would give the probable
cost of putting in the system, so that it could soon be determined on what terms a company
could do the work. In the event of the towns becoming incorporated, in case the Government
shall have advanced the money, the Act of Incorporation could provide that any existing
liabilities must be assumed by the municipality.
A work of this sort being, to a great extent, of the nature of a local improvement, should,
of course, be paid for by the people immediately benefited. It is in this way that such works
are carried out in other parts of the continent. In municipalities it is, of course, customary
that some aid be given out of the general revenue towards any extensive work such as a
sewerage system. As the trades and liquor licences, real property tax, fines, etc., which
would go to make up this revenue, if the place were incorporated, is now going to the Government, it would be in proportion to the amounts received from these sources that the Government would aid in the work. In fact, the difficulties in the way of raising money and
carrying out necessary sanitary or other improvements tending to further the enjoyment and
safety of life, are of such a nature that a special Act for the better government of unincorporated towns ought to be passed by the Legislature.
I may add that the people generally are perfectly willing, as far as I could find out, to
stand their share of the expense. At Rossland I was invited to a meeting of the Executive
Committee of the Ratepayers' Association and they passed a resolution along these lines, a
copy of which, I understand, has been forwarded to you, after being placed before the whole
Association. Even if no extensive works were contemplated, it would be most advantageous
if a small fund could be raised by special tax to be spent in improving the general sanitary
condition of these towns. Knowing that the money would be spent in the town for the purpose for which it was collected there would, I think, be few who would object to such a tax.
There are, of course, some individuals who say that the Government should do everything for
them and who think that they themselves should do nothing about putting their surroundings
into proper sanitary condition. An examination of their back yards and premises shewed, in
many cases, that they practice what they preach.
In some places the Government is blamed for not putting in a sewerage system ; every
case of fever and every bad smell in the place is attributed to the lack of sewers. Whereas,
in many cases, I believe, the fever could be traced to polluted drinking water, and the bad
smells could be shewn to arise from heaps of garbage and rubbish, manure piles, unclean
closets, pig pens, etc., or from the refuse thrown into creeks and ditches only to be caught on
the banks further down, and sometimes from the improper disposal of liquid wastes for which
a remedy has already been pointed out.
The work of importance is the introduction of a wholesome water supply, or in places
where a public supply is not feasible, then the prevention of the pollution of the existing
supply. It is also necessary that the new Sanitary Regulations, which provide for the proper
disposal of all waste material, should be strictly enforced. If this is done the nuisances
referred to will disappear.
For the purpose of enforcing these regulations it will be necessary, until matters are
placed on a desirable footing, that some of the Provincial Police—at least two—be assigned to
the special duties of Sanitary Inspectors. These officers should be properly instructed and
should devote their entire time to sanitary matters. Quite enough will be found for them to
do. They would travel from place to place spending a few weeks in each at a time. During
their absence the resident officials could see that their more important instructions were
carried out. But to require the present officials to do more than this, or the whole work, is
expecting too much. Most of the Government officials in West Kootenay, at any rate,
already seem to have their hands full, and if left to them entirely, the sanitary work could not
be satisfactorily done. Sanitary work, moreover, is of a special nature and not everyone is
fitted for it. Unless the official goes about his work in an efficient manner very little headway will be made. I would, therefore, recommend that the officers selected be men of
considerable tact who will always rather conciliate than antagonise.
Another menace to public health lies in the fact that in some of the towns squatters have
crowded so closely together that only with the greatest difficulty will these congested districts
be kept from becoming plague spots. In Rossland only one street of the townsite is built
upon ; most of the other houses are erected upon disputed railway lands adjoining, and are so
closely packed together that bad sanitary conditions exist. The district goes by the not
inappropriate name of " sour dough."   House: are built in back yards of other dwellings, or in 710 Provincial Board ok Health. 1896
vacant spaces intended for streets. Stables and pig sties are in close proximity to dwelling
houses. The claimants of this land were notified to remove some of the more unsanitary
buildings. People were using water from a creek flowing through this portion of the town.
This was prevented and water sellers were directed to take water from the public hydrants.
Some means of preventing such a state of affairs should be devised. Squatters should be made
to keep a certain distance apart, say 30 feet. I informed the Local Health Officers that in
order to prevent a nuisance they might make such an order under the general powers of the
Health Act.
From a sanitary point of view, these towns could be much more easily managed if in these
new places springing up throughout the country the townsite were owned by the Government.
Townsite owners are much more likely to devote their attention to selling lots than to improving
streets, making drains, etc. The purchasers, finding that they can get nothing from the former
owners, begin to agitate the Government's making streets, drains, and doing other work of that
nature. Then after the profits have been all reaped, the streets are deeded by the townsite
company to the Government, which is then obliged to keep them in repair. Whereas if the
Government had the selling of the lots in the first place, the transaction would have been a
more paying one and the health of the people in the towns better looked after. If the present
plan is still to be adhered to, townsite owners should at least be required to conform to certain
specifications in the laying out of lots, streets, and lanes. In some of the towns the streets
are far too narrow, and there are but few places where lanes allowing of entrance to the back of
the premises have been planned for. Further, in some cases the lots are only 25 by 100 feet,
an altogether too small space for building a modern sanitary dwelling. For speculative purposes, a lot is a lot, whether large or small. As almost as much is received for a small lot as a
large one, townsite owners have endeavoured to lay out as many lots as possible within their
holdings, regardless of the health or comfort of future inhabitants. It is perhaps not too late
to remedy some of these evils ; if lanes were made it would make a great difference in the
sanitary condition of some of the towns. Certainly no one thing could be of greater sanitary
benefit to a new place than that the streets and lanes should be wide and the lots large enough
to build a comfortable house upon. I should recommend, therefore, that no person be allowed
to lay out a townsite unless it meet with these requirements and the approval of the Surveyor-
General.
I examined several of the lock-ups and found that they are at times overcrowded, especially that at Kamloops. In the latter sometimes four men have been crowded for the night
into one cell, not more than 9 feet in any one dimension. There are only nine cells in the
gaol, and there have been as many as thirty-six prisoners confined there at a time. As many
of these prisoners are Indians, the odor is imaginable. Such overcrowding as this in gaols is
contrary to Dominion legislation and to our own sanitary regulations. Overcrowding in
prisons once gave rise to a disease in England known as " gaol fever." If such conditions are
allowed to exist here, an outbreak of epidemic disease would not be surprising. Even the
worst class of prisoners should not be subjected to such treatment, but men awaiting trial are
no better off. A number of other improvements are badly needed at Kamloops gaol, but
fortunately an appropriation of $500 on the estimates this year will enable the improvements
to be carried out. But as this amount will not build the required number of new cells, a
number of prisoners should be brought down to the Coast. Of course many of these ills are
incident to a growing country, but some action should be taken in this matter without delay.
Although a matter affecting only the welfare of a class, I desire to bring to your attention
the manner in which paralytics and other incurable patients are treated in this Province. For
want of other accommodation, these patients are put into one of the homes for old men or kept
in the lock-ups. Either a home for incurables should be provided or some arrangement should
be made with some of the hospitals that these cases should receive the care they require. This
is, however, a matter that affects city municipalities more particularly.
A matter of somewhat the same nature and requiring the same remedy is the care of
insane patients. These are often put into the lock-up while awaiting medical examination or
removal to the asylum, and certainly their chances of recovery are not increased by their stay
there. There have been instances of suicide in lock-ups, arising probably from the facility with
which a person can hang himself to the bars on the windows or doors. A suitable room should
be provided in each of the city hospitals in which to place for the time being those suffering
from insanity. The principle of treating the insane as criminals is wrong and should no longer
be allowed in practice. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 711
There are some matters in relation to school hygiene which deserve attention, but a committee of the Board is preparing a pamphlet on this subject, which will shortly be considered.
A number of other matters were brought under my consideration while I was away ; but
they are not of such pressing importance, and are chiefly of such a character that they can be
dealt with either by myself or by the Board.
I believe that my trip will be productive of much good. Certainly I am now in a much
better position to judge of the requirements of the towns visited and to understand any
future correspondence I shall have from places in the interior. I may also say that the
importance of my visit was everywhere acknowledged, that I was cordially received, and that
in each of the places I found a number of men who take considerable interest in the sanitary
welfare of their towns. I believe that a Local Board of Health, consisting of three or five
members could be formed with advantage from out the number of these men. This is a matter,
however, that will have to be dealt with later on.
A great deal of work will naturally arise out of my trip. In fact, since the Board has
been established the amount of work has been steadily increasing each month. Now that
people are aware that there is a central authority on health matters many important problems
are being constantly referred to the Board, as well as many minor points in sanitation. Befor
long the Provincial Board of Health will undoubtedly be generally considered a useful and
economic institution. That there is abundant work for such a Board cannot be denied by
anyone who has inquired at all into the sanitary conditions existing throughout the Province.
The regulations already prepared will, if properly enforced, result in much improvement, and
the various pamphlets on sanitary topics, infectious diseases, etc., in course of preparation, will
certainly prove of great assistance to people in dealing with these matters. These pamphlets
are being so prepared as to Vie readily understood by the lay mind, and will contain a summary
of the latest scientific knowledge regarding the subjects treated of. Some of them will be
shortly ready for distribution. In the meantime 1 should recommend that a brief synopsis of
the new " Sanitary Regulations " be published in the different papers throughout the Province.
For this purpose I shall prepare short extracts shewing the duties devolving upon individuals
under the regulations, and these, I hope, may soon be published.
I have, etc.,
A. T. Watt,
Sec'y. Provincial Board of Health.
Victoria, August 6th, 1896.
Dr. J. C. Davie, Chairman Provincial Board of Health, Victoria:
Dear Sir,—I inclose you herewith copy of Mr. Smith's report re sanitary condition of
Rossland, with special reference to fluming Centre Star Creek through the city.
By comparison with the report of Dr. Watt, Secretary of the Provincial Board, I find that
the two substantially agree in the recommendations made.
The Government is anxious to have the condition of Rossland improved as speedily as
possible, and with that end in view would be pleased if you would communicate with the local
Board of Health at Rossland and issue the regulations without delay.
The necessary improvements will be carried on under the direction of the Government
Agent, who, however, will be instructed to consult with the Board of Health and with Mr.
Smith, C.E., Rossland. You are authorised to proceed with the work of sanitation, and it will
be a question for subsequent consideration on the part of the Government whether the expenditure will be charged as a special assessment or taken out of an appropriation for the purpose.
An Inspector of Health has been appointed to see that the regulations of the Provincial
Board of Health are carried out, and will proceed to Kootenay as soon as he receives from the
Board a copy of the regulations in question to guide him in the performance of his duty.
*****
The Government is desirous, in all sanitary matters, to act through the agency of the Board
of Health. I have, etc.,
J.  H. Turner,
Minister of Finance. 712 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Rossland, B.C., July 30th, 1896.
W. S.  Gore, Esq., Deputy Commissioner Lands and   Works :
Sir.—Yesterday afternoon I received the following telegram :—
" Wire me estimated cost of fluming creek, Rossland, to render water impervious to
contagion." (Signed)        W. S. Gore.
I, at once, made a visit to the creek in question, Centre Star Creek, with my partner, Mr.
Dean, a gentleman of considerable experience in public works, and on my return dispatched
you the following reply :—
" Centre Star flume will cost about $3,000 if built according to my ideas. Will write tonight." (Signed)        Henry B. Smith.
Centre Star Creek, from the Nickel Plate mine to its junction with Trail Creek, is acting
as a public sewer for the inhabitants of Rossland, as well as a source of water supply for
domestic purposes for those people living along its immediate banks. The creek is at present
small, about three feet wide and a few inches deep. From the Nickel Plate to the north line
of the townsite, a distance of about 1,100 feet, the channel is much impeded by logs, roots,
brush and rocks. From the north line of the townsite to the junction of Columbia and
Washington Streets, a distance of about 500 feet, the stream flows directly under the present
buildings and is the depositary of all the garbage and other matter from these buildings.
From Columbia Avenue to Trail Creek it flows down steep side hill, having but few buildings
on its banks.
My opinion is that if it is decided to enclose the stream in a wooden flume so as to prevent its being used both as a water supply and an open sewer, the best course to pursue is to
construct small head works near the Nickel Plate Tunnel, grade a four-foot bench along the
east side of the ravine to a point near the north line of the townsite. From thence excavate
a four-foot by four-foot trench parallel to the townsite line, along Idaho Street (a street in the
Corbin addition to Rossland now being laid out by myself) to Washington Street, and thence
along Washington Street southward as far as the Columbia and Western Railway trestle, a
total distance of about half a mile. On the bench and in the trench construct a continuous
three-foot by two-foot covered flume.
It would be a difficult and more costly work to attempt to follow the bed of the stream
owing to the large amount of debris collected in it, the buildings built over it, and the difficulty of doing work in a running stream.
By following the street lines as far as possible the flume could be used as a main sewer
receiving all the drainage of the district north of the townsite.
In addition to Centre Star Creek, another small stream passes through the town joining
Centre Star Creek at Columbia Avenue. This stream is also offensive and needs protection
equally with Centre Star Creek. The flume proposed would catch this stream just north of
the townsite line and carry it safely through the centre of the town.
The surface water flowing into Centre Star ravine below the Nickle Plate could readily
and economically be carried in a small box drain along the natural outlet, Spokane Street, or
along Columbia Avenue into the proposed flume at a point on Washington Street.
A rough estimate of the cost of the work proposed amounts to $2,700, say $3,000. A
proper survey with levels might possibly decrease this amount somewhat, but not materially.
Trusting this information will meet your requirements,
I have, etc.,
(Signed)        Henry B. Smith,
M. Inst. C. E. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 713
Report   of  Dr.   Walker,   re   Typhoid  in   Kamloops.
New Westminster, B.C., January 18th, 1897.
To the Chairman and Members of the Provincial, Board of Health:
Gentlemen,—I have the honour to report the result of my investigation into an epidemic
of fever in the City of Kamloops.
Acting on instructions received from Dr. Watt, Secretary of the Board, to hold an investigation under section 11 of the Health Act, I proceeded to Kamloops on January 14th. The
only information I had were reports and correspondence in the Kamloops Sentinel of December
24th, 1896, and January Sth, 1897, which are herewith presented.
The City of Kamloops is situated on the south-east bank of the Thompson River, immediately opposite the junction of its north and south branches. The soil is gravel, sloping in the
western part of the residential portion directly to the river bank; in the eastern part it is
separated from the river proper by a low-lying stretch several hundred yards wide, which is
flooded in high water.
The water supply is pumped from the river at the place shown in the accompanying plan.
No wells exist anywhere. Privy-pits, dug well into the gravel, are in almost universal use, and
where inside water-closets are used they discharge into deep cess-pools. Waste water, in the
majority of cases, is allowed to flow over the surface of the ground; in some cases into cesspools. Most of the houses on Main and Lome Streets discharge their liquid waste either onto
the foreshore or over the flat low-land before mentioned. In the Chinese quarter, and in some
of the houses occupied by white people, fasces are also discharged onto the foreshore. Little
scavenging seems to have been done, and nuisances exist everywhere.
The history of the present epidemic is briefly as follows: About the first week of December several cases of typhoid occurred, and from that time to the present fresh cases have been
continually springing up. See annexed table. The disease, in the majority of cases, runs a
typical typhoid course. In company with Dr. Furrer, the Medical Health Officer, I visited
about 20 cases, and in most of them the ordinary typhoid symptoms were present. In all 47
cases have occurred, with 2 deaths. Having inspected the town I visited the various physicians, and obtained a list of all cases of fever which had occurred in the past eight or nine
months. The first case was seen on September 20th, at the house marked B in the accompanying
plan. He had then been ill a week, and his stools had been deposited in the privy-pit in the
rear of the building, without any attempt at disinfection. There is also a possibility of stools
passed in chamber having been thrown on ground. When the nature of the disease was
determined the patient was removed to the house marked B2, where he remained two months, till
he recovered. His stools here were mixed with chloride of lime and thrown into the privy-pit,
which is distant about 150 yards from the river. No cause could be ascertained how this man
contracted typhoid.
A second case occurred about the same date, September 20th, at the place marked C, but
some doubt exists in this case as to the diagnosis. This patient's stools were discharged directly
onto the foreshore.
No case arose till the outbreak in the first week of December began. The location and
date of each case is given in the accompanying plan.
Kamloops is supplied with milk by two milk-men. One, McLean, having about 80
customers; the other, Bolta, about 40. Bolta's dairy is situated on the South Thompson, half
a mile above the city, and throughout no cases of fever have occurred in families supplied by
Bolta, with one exception, to be hereafter mentioned.
Previous to November 15th, 1896, McLean's dairy had been situated on the opposite
bank of the river from Kamloops, but on that date he brought his cows over and established
himself on the foreshore, in the place shewn in the plan, below the city. Here his cows drank
the river water, and he washed his cans in water drawn from the river at a place about 300
yards below the houses where the first cases of fever in September had existed. Fifteen days
afterwards the epidemic outbreak made its appearance. All the cases that have occurred were
supplied by McLean with milk, with one exception, that of a young lady, and she, about ten
days before taking ill, attended a public entertainment and drank milk from McLean's dairy. 714 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
A case was also reported in a man residing in the country who, some two weeks before taking-
ill, had partaken of three meals at an hotel in Kamloops where milk used was supplied by
McLean.
The only other possible source of general infection is through the city water supply being
contaminated, and it must be noted that the first case was removed to the house marked B2.
which is above the intake pipe. All his stools, while here, were disinfected before being placed
in the privy pit. The privy pit is sunk in clay and is separated from the river by 150 yards
of earth not readily permeated by water. I think that possibility of infection from this source
is small.
After careful consideration of the above facts I am of the opinion that the milk supply
was most probably the cause of the outbreak in the first place, although it is quite possible
that the water supply may now have become contaminated by some of the numerous cases
throughout the city.
Besides a general inspection of the city I visited the various public institutions, slaughterhouses, etc. McLean's dairy, although situated in so unfortunate a situation, I found clean
and the cows well kept and healthy. Botla's dairy was not well kept, the cows were dirty and
the stable with an uneven floor and very dirty. He should have the floor repaired and the
place generally cleaned up.
Morrison's slaughter house I found in good condition and clean; the well is too near to
both the slaughter house and the pig pens.
Moor's slaughter house is situated immediately on the river bank and, no matter how
well kept, the drainage must discharge into the river and cause a nuisance, particularly as this
is above the intake of the city water works.    I recommended that this place be closed.
The tannery is also liable to pollute the river by discharging its liquid waste into the
stream. I caused a notice to be served on the owner of this establishment warning him that
he must not allow his liquid waste to pollute the river.
I also visited the city dumping ground for refuse, etc. This is badly situated and at high
water the refuse is liable to be washed into the river above the intake pipe A very suitable
situation for a refuse ground could be obtained near the Roman Catholic Mission, about one
mile below the city.
The Hospital is situated near the river above the intake pipe of the water works. I
think that the Hospital cesspool and privy pit afford a possible cause for contamination of the
city water. The building itself is well kept and in a sanitary condition. Dry earth closets
should be substituted for the privy pits. The slop water hopper should be raised above the
level of the ground and trapped. The liquid waste could easily be disposed of by sub-soil irrigation, instead of being placed in the cesspool now in use.
The Provincial Gaol. The sanitary conditions of this institution are very defective. The
closets are privy pits which have not been cleaned out for a long time. The bath room is outside and furnished with two small wooden troughs as baths. Much of the waste water is
thrown on the ground in the yard.
The cells, nine in number, are 6ft. 3in. by 8ft.x7ft. 6in., a cubic space of 375 feet. The
average daily number in the gaol is about 23, so that the majority of these cells must contain
three prisoners, giving only 125 cubic feet to each man. To add to this there is little or no
means for ventilation of cells.
The whole sanitary condition of this institution is very bad.
The Old Man's Home is a pleasing contrast to the last-mentioned institution; it is well
ventilated and heated, and the disposal of the excreta and liquid waste by means of two cesspools is satisfactory.    There are no store rooms, however, and the bath rooms are too small.
Having made the above inspection of the city I met the Local Board and discussed the
situation with them. I pointed out to them that McLean's milk was probably contaminated
and that he should be prohibited selling milk in the city until he had removed his dairy to a
suitable place and had all his utensils cleaned, etc., to the satisfaction of the Medical Health
Officer.    This the Board have done.
I also pointed out that the city water supply might be contaminated, and advised
emptying the reservoir and having it cleaned out under the superintendence of the Medical
Health Officer. In this matter the Board have also taken immediate action. I also recommended that the intake pipe of the city water supply be extended at least 20 feet further out
into the stream, so as to obtain the water at a good distance from the shore ; at present the
intake at low water is only about 12 feet from the bank. 60 Vict.
Provincial Board of Health.
715
I also advised that all privy pits should be cleaned out and filled in and no privy pits be
allowed in the city, but some form of dry earth closet universally enforced. I advised that all
liquid waste, where possible, should be disposed of by intermittent sub-soil irrigation. This
would be easy as many houses have gardens attached. Where cesspools are unavoidable they
should be ventilated and regularly cleaned out. On Main Street, from the physical lay of the
land, I can see no escape from allowing the liquid waste to flow into the river. All drains
here, however, should be carried down to the low water mark, and not allowed to discharge
over the foreshore or flat land, and great care should be exercised to see that no excrement, at
any time, is allowed in these drains;  they should be allowed for slop water only.
I also pointed out to the Local Board the necessity of having a public scavenger, whose
duty it would be to visit every premises at least once a month or oftener, if deemed necessary,
and empty closets and remove refuse. The visits of the scavenger should not be left to the
option of the householders.
My attention was drawn to the fact that parties were cutting ice from the river immediately below the city. As this is in all probability contamainted, I advised the Board to have the
cutting stopped, and to prohibit the use of all ice already obtained from this situation. I
drew the Board's attention to the Health Act and the Sanitary Begulations, and explained
to them that they had ample power to deal with all unsanitary conditions. I should advise
that the Sanitary Regulations, 1896, be put into force in the City of Kamloops, in accordance
with Sec. 3. of said regulations. I have procured specimens of water from the various points
I considered necessary, and would advise that it be immediately forwarded to Dr. Fagan,
Public Analyst, for examination.
So far as I could learn, the law requiring the notification of infectious cases of diseases by
physicians, has not been observed. I would suggest that the Secretary of the Provincial Board
of Health furnish the Local Board with copies of the forms prescibed by the Provincial Board,
with instructions that the law in this respect be strictly adhered to.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
R.  Eden Walker, M. D.,
Member of Provincial Board of Health.
Table showing number of cases of typhoid in Kamloops outbreak, with date on which they
were first visited by physicians :—
December  19, 1896 5 cases.
1
111 MCI     VXJ,    H
15            ,
,     ... (doubtful) 1     ,
cei
liber     1
,        1     ,
3     ,
,      1     ,
5     ,
 1     ,
6
i
7    ,
,      1     ,
8    ,
,      3    ,
9    ,
 4    ,
,         11    ,
12    ,
i                                 2     i
   1     ,
13    i
,        1     ,
16 ,
17 ,
i                               2    t
,       1     ,
18    i
2    i
January
21     M
   1
22    .,     	
 1
23    ,.     	
   1
29    „     	
 2
30    m     	
1, 1897	
 1
 3
2    ii
  1
6 M      	
7 „     	
  1
 1
8    M     	
  1
10     M      	
14    n     	
  1
2
15    „     	
     2 716
Provincial Board of Health.
1896
To the Chairman and Members of the
Provincial Board of Health :
Gentlemen,—I beg to submit my report concerning water sent to me for analyses.
No. 1 is Kamloops City water.
No. 2 is water taken from McLean's ranch.
No. 1 is pure water.
No. 2 is normal in many respects, but contains an excess of albumenoid ammonia. Now
nitrogen in this form represents organic matter undergoing decomposition, which may be either
vegetable or animal in origin. If vegetable, the source being common, the entire river would
be affected, but in this case the albumenoid ammonia found in the city water (which is taken
from the same river) is normal, whereas that taken from McLean's ranch gives evidence of
excess, indicating that pollution occurred between the intake pipe for city water and McLean's
ranch.
I have no hesitation in condemning the water at McLean's ranch, and believe it to be
polluted with animal excreta.
C. J. Fagan,
Public Analyst.
New Westminster, January SOth, 1897.
Results of Analyses of Kamloops Waters.
Physical
character.
Nitrogen.
Chlorides.
Phosphates.
Oxygen     con
Albumenoid
Ammonia.
Free and
Salini
Ammonia.
Nitrates
and
Nitrites.
sumed by organic  matter.
No. 1, Kamloops
City water.. .
No. 2, McLean's
Ranch	
Clear; colourless;
without odor.
Do.
0.0128
0.1265
0.0017
0.0036
None.
Traces.
None.
None.
None.
None.
Notcalculated
Not calculated
Above are calculated as parts per million. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 717
Reports of Sanitary Inspector Wolley.
 o	
January 1st, 1897.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows:—
I was appointed Provincial Sanitary Inspector upon August 15th, 1896. On that day I
left Victoria for Rossland. On my way, I stopped at Revelstoke to make a huried inspection
of that town, taking Constable Vickers with me on my rounds.
I found that the backs of the houses upon one side of the main (and indeed only) business
street of this town, abut upon the river bank, which is here (in August) nearly thirty feet above
water level.
Along the top of this bank the privies of the street are built, some of them with deep
cess-pits which must drain through the bank into the river, and others with rough wooden
troughs to convey the fsecal matter to the stream. When the river is low, these troughs
become too short to answer their purpose, and the result was that, when I saw it, this bank
was covered with garbage, fsecal matter and pigs filth festering in the August sun, and contaminating the waters of the stream from which the people themselves informed me that some
of them drank, and most of them drew their washing water. The only other sources of water
supply* in Revelstoke appear to be six private wells, all of which would be the better for
occasional inspection. I further found that pigs were kept in juxtaposition to dwelling
houses, and that a certain slaughter house upon the Reserve road was in a disgraceful condition, the waste from it having been allowed to drain into a hollow where it forms a swamp of
green and putrid filth, within 30 yards of the public road. The owner (F. McArthy), I was
informed, has been frequently cautioned and ordered to remove his buildings out of town.
He had so far disregarded these notices.
I called the attention of both Government Agent and Constable to these matters ; I
directed the attention of Mr. Kellie, M.P.P., whom I was fortunate enough to meet, to the same;
I instructed the constable in his duty under the Sanitary Regulations; I called on many of
the townspeople and cautioned as many as I found in, of the danger of drinking the river
water in its contaminated condition; but, with few exceptions, the people seemed satisfied that
"running water purified itself in a few yards," and that there was therefore no danger. This
I found to be the creed of the entire country, and, if it contains a fallacy, it would be well to
oppose it.
On August 22nd, I wrote officially to Mr. Grahame, the Government Agent at Revelstoke, enclosing certain notices of circulation, and asking him to take action to secure sanitary
conditions in his town. Either my letter miscarried or Mr. Grahame has not considered the
matter of it worthy of a reply. I had no opportunity of revisiting Revelstoke, and therefore
as Mr. Grahame has not chosen to report, have no knowledge of the result of my visit, but I
beg to call the attention of the Board to the state of this little town, the present gateway
into our principal mining districts, in which, as far as I know, not only Provincial Sanitary
Regulations, but all ordinary sanitary precautions have been totally disregarded.
For further particulars re Revelstoke, I beg to refer you to my journal and to my report
of August 20th, 1896.
Trail.
On August 18th, I made a cursory examination of Trail, and received considerable information and assistance from Dr. Corsan, the present Medical Health Officer of that town. I
propose to speak of Trail later on.
Rossland.
I arrived at Rossland August 19th, and called at once upon Mr. Kirkup, Dr. Bowes and
Mr. Newton, J. P., the chairman of the ratepayers' association. From all of these gentlemen
I received assurances that the presence of a sanitary inspector was urgently needed, and that
in sending one the Government had satisfied a long felt want.
* Since the time of Mr. Wolley's visit to Revelstoke, the sanitary conditions of a part of the town, at
least, have been considerably improved. A public water supply has been introduced for the lower town, and
a Medical Health Officer has been appointed, who is reported to be doing good work.—A. T. W. 718 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
I desire, here, sir, to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. John Kirkup and Dr. Bowes
for their hearty and thorough co-operation with me in the execution of my duties. Any success that I may have obtained is largely due to their support, and to the public spirited attitude of the citizens of Rossland in helping forward reforms when once they understood the
necessity for them.
No citizens could less deserve the censures passed upon them by certain irresponsible
foreign newspaper critics than the men of Rossland.
Upon my arrival, I spent several days in making a complete and thorough inspection of
the town, going with Constable Hooson from house to house, and investigating every nuisance
in person.
I found Rossland in a deplorable condition, but I would call attention to the fact
that this is but the ordinary condition of new mining towns in the first years of their existence, and that compared with the records of certain mining towns on this continent, the ill-
health of Rossland, or any other town in B. O, is as nothing. Where a town grows with the
feverish rapidity of Rossland, it is inevitable that at first sanitary precautions should be disregarded, but I venture to hope that the measures adopted have been taken in time, and that
if insisted upon and carried out with vigour, the health of Rossland from its building will
compare favourably with the health of any mining town on the continent. Upon my arrival
I found that the constables of Rossland, extremely few in number for such a town, had already
compelled the building of a certain number of earth closets, but that the work of sanitation in
addition to their other duties was too much for them.
I found that Centre Star Creek, and a certain swampy piece of land in Mr. Corbin's
reservation, drain into the town of Rossland, and that the water from the sources lodges
under the basements of Columbia Avenue and elsewhere, causing bogs beneath the  buildings.
I found that upon both these water-courses and close to many of the public wells, cess-pits
existed; that these water-courses, running under eating houses and others, were used by the
people as sewers; that in places water was drawn from these water-courses for drinking and
household use; that owing to the misuse of these water-courses, the stagnant or semi-stagnant
water under Columbia Avenue was in a putrid condition, and full of grey slimy growths; that
the stench near the Allen House, and at the backs of buildings on Columbia Avenue, were
intolerable, and that a considerable number of cases of typhoid and mountain fever existed ;
that cases of sore throat were common, and a severe form of diarrhoea accompanied by cramps
in the stomach was epidemic.
I found that most'of the laundries (principally kept by Chinamen) were above the town,
and drained into it; that these men poured their wash slops through their floors in some cases,
and allowed the filthy matter to puddle under their houses and- seep through into wells or
water-courses. I found pigs kept on public streets, cess pits of all degrees of vileness in close
proximity to wells from which water was sold for drinking; a slaughter house, kept by Mr.
Burnes, which was in a very shameful condition and causing much complaint; some
houses with closets absolutely in the rooms, discharging into the stream, which ran below the
floor and thence to the basements of Columbia Avenue and back yards, bad enough to shock a
Chinaman.
I received shortly after my arrival many petitions, one of which had 175 signatures,
praying for relief from the troubles arising from the swamps above referred to, and the wash-
house nuisances.
The minor nuisances (pigs, etc.,) I dealt with at once, and had no trouble in clearing them
out. I organised a scavenger system and appointed a dumping ground. My scavengers are
engaged urfiTer a contract which allows for their dismissal at a moment's notice for cause. I
had circulars printed to be circulated by the scavengers, warning the citizens to clean up their
back yards, clean and fill in cess-pits, and establish dry earth closets, and, having obtained
permission from the Government, proceeded with the construction of a flume to carry off the
waters from Centre Star Creek and the swamps on Corbin's reservation in such a way as to
prevent their contamination, and to keep them out of the people's reach. This flume has been
constructed under the supervision of Mr. Long, C. E., at considerably less cost than was at first
deemed possible, and has, to a great extent, obviated the evil. Such minor matters as the
accumulation of refuse at the back of livery stables, improper cesspits, etc., having been attended
to, I turned my attention to a milk ranche between Rossland and Trail. This has been
destroyed and an excellent new building erected. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 719
The details of my work at Rossland are set out fully in my official journal, and in my
reports to your Board, so that I do not propose to do more than summarise here. Earth
closets have been established throughout Rossland; the scavenger system was working well
when I left; the slaughter house had at least been destroyed, upon my threatening to enrol a
body of special constables and burn it down; a new slaughter house, well outside the town,
has been built, and finding it impossible to do anything else with them, the laundry people
have been turned out of their shacks above Columbia Avenue, and located below the congested
portion of the town.
On August 29th I went down to Trail, a town built upon an extremely light, dry sand,
with a substratum of large gravel and wash, which gives excellent drainage into the Columbia.
A report published in a Victoria weekly by one of its wandering correspondents, to the
effect that the "health of Trail is not good, dysentery prevails, etc.," was very inaccurate, and
it is to be regretted that extreme care is not used in testing the accuracy of such reports, which
may do grave harm to a young town. Diarrhoea and stomach ache were fairly common. They
are in all new towns I believe in the summer, but no cases of fever had occurred, I was
informed, up to the date of my visit, nor any of dysentery. I have no information from the
Medical Health Officer of any cases of dysentery, and the fever cases have been extremely few.
For a new mining town the health of Trail is marvellously good.
Whilst in this town I held a public meeting and, having explained the sanitary laws and
their object, obtained the cordial co-operation of the public and the press, to which I am indebted
for much valuable assistance both at Trail, Rossland Nelson and elsewhere.
At Trail I inaugurated a scavenger system, appointed a scavenger, selected a dumping
ground, insisted upon dry earth-closets, summoned a certain number of people and fined them,
to show that we were in earnest, and I may save space by saying here that the result of this
and subsequent visits is that to my mind Trail, in the hands of Dr. Corsan and a most energetic police officer, Mr. Devitt, is likely to take very good care of itself.
The water supply in Trail is not from Trail Creek, which drains from Rossland and is very
little, if at all, used at Trail, but from an uncontaminated source on a different watershed.
On September 16th I paid my first official visit to Nelson, and reported to Captain Fitzstubbs, the Government Agent, to whose cordial assistance, invariable courtesy and consideration I am very heavily indebted. 1 am indebted, too, to the Tribune newspaper for publication in its columns of many notices relative to and explanatory of the Sanitary Regulations,
and for consistent support in my endeavours to cleanse the town.
I found Nelson in a very bad state indeed, with ten cases of typhoid in the town. On
inspection the principal source of trouble appeared to be in the old wooden flume down Ward
Creek, which was being used as a common sewer. This flume was very slightly built, many of
the covering boards were off, it leaked so badly that more water ran outside of it than inside
of it; the floor of the flume was in no place more than half covered with water; ducks wandered
down it, children put their tin cans and wooden ships into it, it was blocked in many places,
and the wooden flumes connected with it leaked badly. Pigs were kept at the back of an hotel
abutting on it, everyone seemed to use the ravine in which it lies as a common dumping ground,
whilst the flume of the principal hotel was disconnected, and a terrible deposit therefrom lay
under the bridge, adjoining which are the houses in which three of the ten typhoid patients
were living. A cess-pit at the rear of the Miner newspaper office was made at the back of the
cribbing of the ravine, its contents showing through it at a distance, and the flume itself was
knocked out of plumb by having earth from the foundations (apparently of the Miner building)
dumped upon it.
I found, too, that the water-works system of Nelson was very inadequate. The water is
really the soakage from a bog, collected in a small pot-hole, unfenced and open to all manner of
pollution. Very few houses in the town had earth-closets. The slaughter-house is a standing
menace to public health, and the stream running past it was full of animal debris, heads and
guts, whilst the "gardens" in which it is situated were a lair for Chinese hogs. The filth from
the slaughter-house drains into the lake. Pigs perambulated the streets; cows wandered up
the ravine in which the sewer leaked out its filth; the local hospital had a cess-pit from which
an open cut carried the overflow down the hill; the cows of the milk ranch were stabled in the
midst of dwelling houses, and wandered at will over the sources of the water supply, and the
backs of some of the hotels were worse than anything in Rossland.
I spent several days in inspecting all these things and many other nuisances, and got a
slight touch of fever myself, but I shook it off.    I employed the prisoners to clear out the ravine, limed it with lime kindly supplied by the Hall Mines Co., summoned various people, and
finally broke up and burned the wooden flume as the only way of curing the evil. I remained
in Nelson until October 13th, personally visiting the Hall Mines, the slaughter-houses, every
hotel and a very large number of the private houses and even houses of prostitution in the
town, seeing personally to the cleaning up of back yards, control of cattle and pigs, the disposal
of fluid wastes, the destruction of obnoxious drains, the building of dry earth-closets, the prosecution of offenders against the Sanitary Regulations, the choosing of a dumping ground, appointment of scavengers, and a variety of other matters which must be attended to personally and
enforced resolutely if any good is to be done. At the end of that time Dr. Labau reported to
me that "thanks to the aggressive measures taken in Ward Creek and elsewhere the spread of
typhoid fever in Nelson had been checked. There were no new cases reported this week." I
had the water hole of the Nelson Water Company fenced in; I had certain improvements made
in the slaughter-house; had pigs removed from Chinese gardens, and a number of minor
matters attended to.
October 14th I re-visited Rossland by order of the Hon. J. H. Turner, and inspected the
flume and the course of work generally in the town, and found that the typhoid had decreased
considerably. During this, my second visit to Rossland, I took upon myself (unofficially) to
assist certain of the citizens in inaugurating a scheme for constructing a private sewer to drain
Columbia Avenue and some other conjested portions of the town at their own expense. I
understand that this has been completed. On this visit I had to summon a large number of
people and press for heavy fines in many cases, but I may be forgiven for pointing out that I
have conducted all prosecutions myself; that though in many cases the defendants were represented by counsel I have lost none, and that at a public meeting at Rossland, before my
departure, a gentleman whom I had that morning summoned for the second time proposed a
very warm vote of thanks to me for my work, which was cordially indorsed by the meeting,
and which, sir, I had great pleasure in accepting on behalf of  the Board and the Government.
The people of Rossland, at any rate, thoroughly appreciate the work done for them by
your Board; all they want is more of it, but I have very great hope that the flume and private
sewer, between them, will go far towaids carrying off most of the water and waste not dealt
with by the scavengers.
After some days spent between Rossland and Trail I returned to Nelson. I may as well
allude here to an item published in a local paper for the purpose of explaining it. On one day
I had in Trail 41 cases before the Magistrate, or perhaps it is more accurate to say that I had
41 on my list. Some of them were not presented on account of various extenuating circumstances. These were the result of a house to house visitation made by me. The result of them
was, as I intended it to be, a great many cautious and a very few very light fines. Forty-one cases
for one day looks like a very big bag, but I had as much work to do as would have employed
three men, and I had to crowd a great deal into one day. Some of the cases were very bad (a
whole row of houses, for instance, on the river bank without any privies at all), but the people
only needed a caution, and beyond a little good natured chaff in the local paper (a staunch
friend of sanitary reform) I never heard any adverse criticism of my action. On the contrary,
I believe Trail to be a very appreciative friend to sanitary reform.
In this connection I would beg leave to remark, that though there will always be people
in every community who object to any interference, who know better than the most carefully
considered regulations of your Board, the great majority of the people seem to me to be thoroughly level-headed, and to approve of action taken fearlessly and without consideration of
cheap popularity. They prefer strength, though it interferes with them, to vacillation, though
it obliges a few, and I venture further to suggest that whilst the press is a most valuable organ
it does not always express public opinion accurately. The position of newspaper owner is not
obtained either by competition or election.
From October 31st to November 14th I spent in Nelson, engaged in enforcing the regulations, and seeing to the carrying out of the various reforms I had inaugurated. During this
period I regret that I was obliged to take action against our then Medical Health Officer for
flatly refusing to obey the very regulations he had been appointed to enforce, You, sir, know
the story which resulted in the fining of Dr. Arthur. The details of this visit are recorded in
my official journal.
Although the depth of the snow and severity of the weather made it appear that to
achieve any good result a sanitary inspector should have been equipped with snow-shoes
and a diamond drill, in obedience to the expressed wish of your Board, I left for Sandon on 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 721
the 23rd of November. When I reached the town I found it as bad as it had been reported.
The population is guessed at 500, and a good deal of building is going on still. There had
been five or six cases of typhoid in the town during the autumn, and there were still two
when I reached it. The town is built in a narrow ravine, the sides of which are exceptionally
steep. The main street is practically the town. The backs of the liuildings on one side of
this street abut upon Sandon Creek, which has been used as a natural sewer; on the other
side the buildings have their backs against the hill, and in some cases their closets on a level
with their second stories.
But that the spring freshets scour the town every year it must have been a centre of
disease before now. As it is, unless some serious steps are taken, I have very grave fears for
its future.
I did what I could in the circumstances. I met Dr. Gomm, the Medical Health Officer,
at Sandon, and his partner, who resides at Three Forks. In Dr. Gomm the Board has a very
energetic representative. My first eare was to instruct Dr. Gomm on those points in the
Sanitary Regulations upon which the Board lays particular stress, and to point out to him
and to the two constables of the district the best means of enforcing these. I then made a
careful inspection of the town; selected a dumping ground, appointed a scavenger and
inaugurated a scavenging system ; obtained a tender from the leading hardware house for
boxes for dry earth closets ; fixed the rates for scavenging ; obtained a promise from householders upon the creek and the big hotels that they would cleanse the bank of the stream
behind them, and then wrote an article for the local newpaper, explaining the necessity of
precautions insisted upon and their bearing upon the health and prosperity of the town. I did
the same by invitation for the Slocan City papers. I also wrote to the manager of one of the
big mines, calling his attention to the trouble said to have been caused by the fouling of water
by his concentrator, and the necessity for supplying the people in his boarding-house with
unpolluted water.
At Sandon the water is supplied by a company from Tributary Creek, and is said to be
of excellent quality. The creek is tapped at an elevation of 400 feet above Sandon, and is
carried in a flume 3,400 feet.
Cody draws its water from Cody Creek. Both Tributary and Cody Creek are said to be
free from polluting influences. Three Forks used to get its water from Seaton and Carpenter
Creeks, but P. C. Mountain informs me that it now draws its supply from the North Fork.
There are three concentrators upon Carpenter and its tributaries, and another in contemplation or construction, and it will be necessary to watch the effect of these upon the water
supply with great care.
New Denver draws its water, I was informed, from wells and from the lake. If this
means from anywhere near the mouth of Carpenter Creek, it appears a dangerous practice, as
this creek must bring down a good deal of fine lead from the concentrators to the lake.
In view of the number of growing towns in the Slocan District and the amount of work
which the police are expected to do, it would seem essential that either the police force
here should be augmented or special sanitary officers appointed.
I then left for Spokane, via Nelson and Rossland, staying a few days at each on my way,
and giving instructions and a letter to Mr. Lendrum, J. P., for the removal of certain nuisances at Ainsworth. At Nelson I found the fever had abated, but a couple of cases of scar-
letina had occurred. These I took measures to isolate and otherwise provide for. Early in
December there were still a few cases of typhoid or mountain fever in Rossland, but the great
depth of snow made any useful out of door work impossible.
After seeing Mr. Corbin on the Premier's business, with regard to the flume at Rossland,
I returned to the coast, where I have since been employed in various matters within your
knowledge.
I have, since leaving Kootenay, had some correspondence with Dr. Gomm, which shows
that the sanitary work is being vigorously pushed at Sandon.
I have also received a request from Mr. McMynn, Government Agent at Midway, asking
for an outline of my system of inaugurating simple sanitary reforms in a mining camp. This
I have supplied.
Among the most important matters to which I would call your attention before closing
this report are the water supplies of the different towns visited.
At'Rossland the water is shown, by an analysis made by Professor Dawson, at Captain
Fitzstubbs' request, to be of good quality and wholesome, where uncontaminated in its course. 722 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
I see no reason why any water now used in Rossland should suffer contamination, as the
public supply is conveyed from a safe distance above the town, and Centre Star Creek is now-
removed from the people's reach by the Government flume, but the supply is not in quantity
what it should be for so large a town.
At Nelson the water submitted to a similar test was reported upon in the same way, but
it certainly runs great danger of being seriously contaminated here. The supply filters
through boggy flats into a small triangular pot hole about 52 feet along the sides, 40 feet at
the base, and perhaps 5 feet deep in the middle, from which it shelves abruptly to the banks,
and until I arrived this was unfenced There were also buildings going up upon the flats
through which the little feeders of the main stream ran. The Government has put a stop to
building on this flat, but in my opinion so important a town as Nelson should certainly have
a better water system, and I understand that a company now asking for a charter is prepared
to construct one.
The present company (the Nelson Water-Works Company) which is reported to supply
about 150 houses at a charge of $1.50 per month for families not exceeding four, can, at that
rate, barely pay expenses according to its secretary, Mr. Hodgins, CE., who further alleges
that all its takings so far have gone in repairs. On the other hand the people of Nelson complain bitterly of the supply. The present company allege that it can make no money ; the
people allege that the said company is no good to them ; another company is praying to be
allowed to go in and do what the people want in the belief that they can give a good supply
and earn a dividend. This seems a simple proposition. There can be no doubt, at any rate,
that an excellent supply of water can be obtained for Nelson, if necessary, either from the east
Fork of Cottonwood Creek or from Anderson Creek, east of the townsite.
At Trail the water seems good and sufficient for present needs.
At Sandon, I am informed that there is a good water system, but great care must be
exercised to prevent the use of water from the various creeks tributary to Carpenter Creek,
and even of the Slocan Lake near the mouth of Carpenter Creek, which cannot but Vie injurious owing to their impregnation by lead from the various concentrators.
On this head I wrote strongly to Mr. Farrell, of the Alamo Concentrator, but have had
no reply.
When the mill at Ainsworth is working again (in June) the slime from the No. 1 seems
likely to affect the creek.    This should be seen to.
Great care, too, should be exercised to preserve the purity of Slocan Lake around which a
number of small towns seem likely to grow in a comparatively small area.
The water supply of Revelstoke is a matter which needs prompt attention. I have explained this elsewhere.    The life of these towns depends upon the purity of their water.
As to the dry earth closet system now applied to the various towns visited I have, as yet,
heard nothing against it except the expostulations of those who had not tried it, and were
under the impression that your Board was trying a variety of experiments of the working of
which, in similar countries, you had not taken the trouble to inquire.
It would be well, sir, if through the medium of the press some little light could be thrown
upon the laborious and careful methods by which the Board has obtained information from
other Boards and practical authorities in all parts of the world.
If the work of the Board were better known it would be more appreciated, but the men
who prevent disease can hardly expect the same meed of praise as those who sometimes cure
it. The work of the one is seen by the world; only those who think and compare statistics of
health can even guess at the good achieved by prevention methods but, even so, the people, as
a whole, are beginning to realise the vital importance of keeping their towns free from
disease, not because they fear death—any miner laughs at that—but because they realise that
an epidemic may keep away capital and so hit them in the pocket
There are, however, one or two important points in connection with the dry earth system
to which I must refer. The scavengers should be made to obtain and keep on hand a supply
of suitable dry earth for sale to their customers in winter, or on demand, and the people should
have the necessity of using it impressed upon them. A large number complained of the
unpleasantness of the dry earth system. I was not astonished when I found that they used
no earth. Another point is the necessity of keeping your dumping grounds fenced and locked.
If this is not done you cannot insist upon the work being properly done. The answer that
some one else, not officially employed, dumped without burying is so obvious and may be true.
Scavengers should be made to work at night, to use water-tight carts, and to  clean them  out 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 723
of town and not in running streams from which people may drink.    A copy of circular supplied
to scavengers in Kootenay is appended : —
" You are hereby notified to clean up and destroy all refuse and garbage about the premises
occupied by you, and to at once empty, cleanse, disinfect and fill up privy pits or cesspools and
replace the same with regulation dry earth closets having water tight receptacles above ground
which can be removed and emptied by scavengers. The use of dry earth or ashes is insisted
upon. The bearer of notice will explain use of earth if required. Scavengers have been
appointed to keep yards and closets clean and remove offensive matter to city dumping ground
at a charge of $1 per month for private residences.
" If this order is not immediately complied with you will be prosecuted according to the
' Provincial Health Act.'
" Sanitary Inspector Prov. Board Health."
The question of fluid wastes is one which presents the greatest difficulties in young unsew-
ered towns. There is not always enough space for alternate irrigation. The people don't
understand that it is safer to throw slops over the surface than to throw them away 12 feet
below ground ; it is hard on poor people to put them to the expense of having slops carted
away daily by the scavenger. In the case of bath-houses and wash-houses, this would mean
the closing down of the men's business, and it is a little hard upon our people to tell them that
they must go without a bath. Any scheme which your Board could devise for meeting this
difficulty would be a boon to Kootenay. The shallow pits suggested by your Board seem to
give most satisfaction. I have circulated forms such as that herewith appended, and I have
reason to believe that some relief has been afforded.
" To Make Simple Filtration Beds.
" Make two excavations five feet square and two feet deep. Loosen the soil at the bottom
to the depth of three feet. Plank or brick up the sides. Spread three inches of fine sand on
the bottom of the pit. Cover and ventilate it. The cover should consist of hinged lids. A
wire screen should be used to keep out solid particles. The two beds must be used alternately
each day. The earth at the bottom of pit should be loosened from time to time with a spade.
Tn cases where the soil is not porous, remove three feet of soil and dump in a load of gravel.
" By Order of the
"Health Board op B. C."
A plan which I found in operation in one town was this, a wooden trough was run over
a low roof from a bedroom window, the discharge was into a small garden, one of a row, within
a few hundred feet of the principal hotel. Into this uncovered wooden trough a woman (a
Swede I think) was in the habit of emptying bedroom slops. She was then nursing her husband
who had typhoid, so she informed me. I saw the man and stopped the trouble, but did not
prosecute as she was hard up, ignorant and helpless. This perhaps may illustrate the evil your
Board may abate.
The Steamboats.
I was informed at the Nelson hospital that several fever cases had come from the steamboats It was not clearly stated whether these were employees or passengers, but having
received a complaint from a member of the Provincial House as to the state of the steamers
plying between Robson and Trail, I inspected s.s. Trail, found only one closet for its many
male passengers and that stopped up and in a filthy condition. I wrote a very courteous note,
November 21st (of copy in letter book), to Mr. Mara on the subject, but have received no reply.
It should be the right and duty of the Inspector to insist upon proper sanitary conditions on
all steamers and trains in his district.
Slaughter Houses.
These require constant supervision. The one at Rossland has been removed. I have the
promise of the owner that the Nelson slaughter house will also be removed before Spring, and
have made some arrangements for a suitable site. Cement or other floors impervious to water
should be insisted upon, and a separate feeding floor for the hogs, to be cleaned after feeding,
the hogs to be turned out, and the food they leave to be burned after each feeding. Slaughter
houses and hog ranches should be kept off streams draining into waters which may be used for
drinking. 724 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
As I am, I believe, the first Inspector you have employed, I may, perhaps, be allowed to
make one suggestion as to the working of the Board. It is this. A Medical Health Officer to
refer to is an excellent institution, but he cannot be the man to enforce your regulations. A
doctor's practice depends largely upon his popularity. Besides, his action may, sometimes,
savour of breach of confidence. Neither can an ordinary Inspector (like myself) do all the work.
He lacks scientific knowledge. With your pardon I venture to suggest that a thoroughly
qualified medical man, without private practice, to travel through all the camps would be
the best man, the regulations being enforced under his guidance by the Government Agents
and the police who should be under them. It would give the Government Agents more work.
Give them more power and more pay and they won't kick, and the system will save money
and an infinite amount of unnecessary work over details to the Government. No man can
realise the difficulty of applying a hard and fast rule to varying conditions until he has tried
it. No man should be in a better position to apply your laws to the best advantage than the
Government Agent under the advice of such a Health Officer as suggested.
As one of the objections to our sanitary system is that it entails expense upon individuals.
I should like to call attention to the fact that the establishment of a dry earth closet costs
about $10 or less ; that the working of it costs (for a private house) $1 per month, whilst the
Sanitary Inspector himself in his absence was charged about seven months' rent upon a house
for connection with the Victoria sewer.    The Kootenay system is cheaper.
Finally, sir, I would venture to propound a question to our critics. It is this : " Where
are the mining camps in the world with as small a death rate as ours ?"
It would be interesting to ascertain the death rate from preventable diseases for the last
year, say in Rossland and Nelson.
I have, etc.,
Clive Phillipps-Wolley,
Provincial Sanitary Inspector.
Victoria, B. O, March 1, 1897.
Sir,—In obedience to your instructions, I proceeded to Wellington and commenced my
tour of inspection on February 19th, 1897.
I was greatly hampered by the want of a map. The only one which I could hear of in
Wellington was an alleged incorrect plan of the townsite in the hands of the City Clerk.
Should my topography prove inaccurate, I plead the above as my excuse.
As you are probable aware, the Wellington district is much broken up and the dwellings
scattered in comparatively small groups about the country.
The district comprises a small settlement at Departure Bay, a townsite of 80 acres at
New Wellington, the old town of Wellington, and a long road lined with company houses
connecting this with South Wellington, groups of houses near working centres, as at No. 6
Bluff, and a considerable settlement known as Northfleld and Rossville.
The Medical Health Officer for the district is Dr. Wasson, a gentleman to whom I am
indebted for much courtesy. He, however, admits quite frankly that he has not done anything to improve existing sanitary conditions.
In his position it would be in the last degree impolitic to do so, and, as I had the honour
to point out to the Board at the last general meeting, you cannot expect an unpaid or very
inadequately paid officer to sacrifice his practice by incurring the unpopularity which inevitably
attends all attempts to enforce sanitary reforms.
Dr. Wasson reports six cases of typhoid in the last six months. He has one in hand at
present in the new townsite.    It was here that I began my inspection.
New   Wellington Townsite.
This townsite of 80 acres lies mainly on a ridge between Long Lake and Diver Lake,
which appear to be connected by a ditch known as the Company's Ditch.
Long Lake, to the north, is about one mile long by 200 yards wide, whilst Diver Lake, to
the south, is said to contain 33 acres.
The townsite drains naturally towards the lakes, particularly towards Diver Lake, which
is the receptacle for much filth, both from the new townsite and from the old town. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health.
PROVINCIAL BOARD OF HEALTH.
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
SANITARY REGULATIONS.
Regulations of the Provincial Board of Health, approved by
Order of His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor in Council,
dated the 30th day of June, 1896.
WHEREAS it is advisable to make better provision for the due
observance of sanitary laws, and the Provincial Board of Health
has recommended the issuing of the following regulations :
Therefore, His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor has, by and with
the advice of his Executive Council, been pleased, under and by virtue
of the " Health Act," and the " Health Act, 1893," to make the following Rules and Regulations, and to order and declare, and it is hereby
ordered and declared, as follows:—
1. " Health District" or " District" in these regulations means any interpretation      of
district over which a Local  Board  of  Health has jurisdiction, irre- " •?.e^1.tIJ . Dlftnct"
J or " District.
spective of the manner in which such Local Board is by law constituted
or appointed.
'Z. The Rules and Regulations hereinafter contained shall be in Where in force,
force in all parts of British Columbia, except as is provided in clause
3 hereof in the case of City Municipalities, and it shall be the duty of How enforced,
the Local Board of Health to enforce, and cause to be enforced, the
said Rules and Regulations; and every such Board of Health shall
have power, whenever and as often as necessary, to call upon any
person to assist in the enforcement of the same.
3. These Rules and Regulations, with the exception of clauses 4 to Application to City
8 and 41 to 51, all inclusive, shall not apply to or be in force in City Municipalities.
Municipalities, unless the Provincial Board of Health passes a resolu- ii. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
tion bringing the same, or any named clause or clauses thereof, into
force in any city, notice of which resolution shall be published in the
British Columbia Gazette and in a newspaper circulating in the
city. Such resolution may be passed under either of the following
circumstances: —
1. In case the Council of a city requests the same to be put in
force therein by the Board:
2. In case, in the opinion of the Provincial Board of Health, the
sanitary regulations or health by-laws existing in a city are defective
or insufficient.
Officer authorized to 4. All powers conferred upon Local Boards of Health by these or
any other' regulations of the Provincial Board may be exercised, and
the duties imposed by the same be performed, by any officer or agent
thereto authorized by the Local Board.
Duties   of   Local 5. Every Local Board of Health shall—
Bourd
(a.) Conform to the instructions of the Provincial Board of Health, and
observe and execute all lawful orders and directions of that Board :
(b.) Superintend and see to the execution of, with care and diligence, the
regulations of the Provincial Board, or execute or aid in executing the same;
also, within their respective jurisdictions, carry out the provisions of any of
the Health Acts of the Province as shall apply to the Local Board; and
shall provide all such acts, matters, and things as are necessary for the
superintending or aiding in the execution of the regulations of the Provincial
Board or the various Health Acts of the Province, or for the execution of
the same, as the case may require :
(c.) Defray the expenses incurred in carrying out such Health Acts or
regulations in the manner set forth in sections 18 or 37, "Health Act, 1893":
(d.) Meet and organize as soon as practicable after election or appointment :
(e.) Hold regular quarterly meetings, and special meetings whenever considered necessary by its executive officer, also whenever requested by the
Provincial Board of Health or the Chairman and Secretary thereof :
(_/.) Make and keep a record of all proceedings at its meetings, and of all
transactions, doings, orders, and regulations of such Board :
(g.) Cause to be made public the provisions of the various Health Acts of
the Province and regulations of the Provincial Board of Health :
(h.) Provide each medical practitioner practising within its district with
blank forms, as recommended by the Provincial Board of Health, on which
to report to the said Local Board or its medical officer any case of infectious,
contagious, or epidemic disease of a character dangerous to the public health,
and also with blank forms on which to report death or recovery from any
such disease :
(i.) Give notice within twenty-four hours, by telegraph or registered
letter, to the Provincial Board of Health of the first case of such dangerous
disease within its district; and shall further furnish, every seven days, or
oftener if the Provincial Board of Health so requires, a statement showing
the number of new cases developed, the number of those who have died, and
the number who have recovered or are still sick :
(j.) When applied to by the Secretary of the Provincial Board of Health,
give to him such information as it may be able to furnish with respect to
any matter to which the duties of the Local Board relate : 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. iii.
(k.) The Secretary of the Local Board shall, before the first day of December in each year, prepare a report containing a detailed statement of the
work of the Board during the year, and a report of the sanitary condition of
the district, including any reports rendered to the Board by the Medical
Health Officer or Sanitary Inspector. A copy of such report shall be
transmitted by the Secretary to the Secretary of the Provincial Board of
Health.    (Vide sec. io, "Health Act, 1898.")
6. The following shall be the duties of the Medical Health Officer Duties of Medical
.     <> , -,       t j.  •   i '» i •  i   i      • ■   ;    i Health Officer.
m respect of the district for which he is appointed :—
(a.) He shall inform himself, as far as practicable, respecting all influences
affecting or threatening to affect, injuriously, the public health within his
district:
(b.) He shall inquire into and ascertain, by such means as are at his
disposal, the causes, origin, and distribution of disease within the district,
and ascertain to what extent the same have depended on conditions capable
of removal or mitigation:
(c.) He shall, by examination of the district, both systematically at certain
periods (at least once a year) and at intervals, as occasion may require, keep
himself informed of the conditions injurious to health existing therein, and
shall certify, for the guidance of the Local Board, as to any matter in regard
to which the certificate of the Medical Health Officer or a medical practitioner is required as a basis of action or in aid of sanitary measures :
(d.) He shall be prepared to assist and advise the Local Board and its
officers in matters relating to the public health, and to advise on all questions
of sanitation involving action on the part of the Board ; and he shall also
advise on any point relating to health involved in the framing and subsequent working of by-laws and regulations as the local health authorities
have power to make or enforce :
(e.) He shall act as medical inspector of the public schools as well as
advisory officer in matters pertaining to school hygiene :
(f) On receiving information of the outbreak of any contagious, infectious,
or epidemic disease of a dangerous character within the district, he shall
visit without delay the spot where the outbreak has occurred and inquire
into the causes and circumstances of such outbreak, and in case he is not
satisfied that all due precautions are being taken, he shall advise the persons
competent to act as to the measures which may appear to him to be required
to prevent the extension of the disease, and, so far as he may be able, assist
in the execution of the same :
(g.) He shall direct or superintend the work of the Sanitary Inspector, in
the way and to the extent that he shall deem necessary; and on receiving
information from the Sanitary Inspector that his intervention or aid is
required in consequence of the existence of any nuisance injurious to health,
or of any overcrowding in a house, or in connection with the inspection of
food, drink, or drugs, he shall, as early as practicable, take such steps as he
is authorized to take by any statute, by-law, or regulation, or by resolution
of the Local Board, as the circumstances of the case may justify or require :
(h.) He shall inquire into any offensive process or trade carried on within
the district, and report on the appropriate means for the prevention of any
nuisance or injury to health therefrom :
(i.) He shall keep a journal, in which he shall enter his visits, inspections,
and other proceedings, with notes of his observations and any instructions
he nay give. The dates shall, in every case, be carefully noted. He shall
produce such journal whenever required by the Local Board. He shall also
keep a record of all cases of infectious disease reported to him :
(j.) He shall from time to time report, in writing, to the Local Board his
proceedings and  the  measures  which may require to  be  adopted  for the iv. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
improvement or protection of the public health of the district. He shall
report in like manner with respect to sickness and mortality within the
district, so far as he has been enabled to ascertain the same :
(k.) He shall annually prepare a report, in duplicate, for presentation to
the Local Board, for the year ending December 1st, which report shall
contain—
(1.) A general account of the sanitary state of his district, and the
measures which, in his opinion, should be adopted for its improvement :
(2.) A statement of his inquiries and proceedings, and the matters in
regard to which he has given advice or taken action during the year :
(3.) A statement of the causes, origin, and distribution of diseases in the
district, and the extent to which the same have depended upon or
been influenced by conditions capable of removal or mitigation :
(4.) A summary of the actions taken to prevent the outbreak or spread of
infectious disease, and an account of the hospitals or other means of
isolation existing within the district:
(5.) A tabular statement of the sickness and mortality within the district:
Provided, that if the Medical Health Officer ceases to hold office before
December 1st, he shall make the like report for so much of the year as shall
have expired when he ceases to hold office :
(l.) He shall perform all duties imposed upon him by any statute, or by
any sanitary or health by-law or regulation in force in his district, and, in
any case in which it may appear to him necessary or advisable, he shall
exercise any authority conferred upon him by any such statute, by-law, or
regulation, and likewise perform such other duties and lawful acts for the
preservation of the public health as may in his opinion be necessary, or as
may be required by the Board :
(m.) In matters not here specifically provided for, he shall observe and
execute any instructions issued by the Provincial Board of Health, and
lawful orders and directions of the Local Board.
7. In districts where no Sanitary Inspector is appointed the Chief
Constable of the district shall act as Sanitary Inspector, and all the
duties and powers assigned to a Sanitary Inspector may be performed
and exercised by him, or by any constable designated by him for that
purpose.
Duties of  Sanitary      8. The following are the duties of the Sanitary Inspector in respect
nspec or. ^ ^g district for which he is appointed:—
(a.) He shall perform, either under the special direction of the Local Board
or under the directions of the Medical Health Officer, or in cases where no
directions are required, without such directions, all the duties specially imposed upon a Sanitary Inspector by any statute or by-law or regulation in
force in the district, or by the instructions of the Provincial Board of Health,
so far as the same apply to his office :
(b.) He shall, by inspection of his district, both systematically at certain
periods (at least once a year) and at intervals as occasion may require, keep
himself informed in regard to the nuisances existing therein that require
abatement; such inspection shall include inspection from time to time of all
shipping within his district:
(c.) On receiving notice of the existence of any nuisance within the dis
trict or the breach of any by-laws or regulations made for the suppression of
nuisances, he shall, as early as practicable, visit the spot, and inquire into
such alleged nuisance or breach of by-laws or regulations : 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. ix.
20. Whenever it can be shown that danger exists or may arise to Duty of local health
the health of the inhabitants from the insufficiency or unwholesomeness
of the existing supply of water, it shall be the duty of the local health
authorities to provide the district over which it has jurisdiction with
a supply of wholesome water, if a proper supply can be got at reasonable cost, and such local health authority may make reasonable rules
respecting and charges for such water supply, and such charges may
be collected in a summary manner before one Justice of the Peace.
21. When a wholesome public supply of water has been provided, Compulsory  use of
T-o-i public supply.
either by the Local Board or a water company, the Board may compel
the abandoning the use of any well, spring, or other source of water
supply, and require the owner of any house to connect his house
with the water mains of such public supply whenever the same
extend to or pass by his property.
22. All wells which are in use, whether such wells are public or Wells to be cleaned
private, shall be cleaned out on or before the 15th days of March and
October in each year ; and in case the Local Board certifies that any
well should be filled up, such well shall be forthwith filled up by the
owner of the premises.
23. Every well hereafter sunk or dug shall be located at least one Distance   of    wells
hundred feet from any  probable source of contamination, such as a 0f contamination,
privy-vault, cesspool, manure  heap, stable, or pig-sty, and at least
twenty feet from any dwelling house, and at least four hundred feet
from any cemetery or dumping ground ; unless, owing to the physical
conformation, contamination of such well be impossible from such
cemetery or dumping ground. Any like source of contamination
existing within the aforesaid distances from any well now in use shall
be removed where possible, or in default the well shall be abandoned
and filled up ; but this rule shall not apply to wells situated less than
twenty feet from a dwelling house, unless other good cause than proximity to such dwelling house can be shown why such well should be
abandoned.
24. No person shall bathe, or wash, or cleanse any wool, cloth, Contaminating wells
. . . or public supply for-
leathor, skins, or animals, or put or cause to be placed any dead bidde
animal, or part of the carcass of any dead animal, or any decayed or
filthy animal or vegetable matter, in or near any stream or the tributary of any stream, well, spring, reservoir, pond, or other source from
which water or ice is drawn, taken or used for domestic purposes; or
shall cause, permit or suffer any sewage, washings, or other offensive
matter from any sink, privy-closet, cesspool, factory, trade's establishment, slaughter-house, wash-house, tannery, or other place over which
he shall have control, to flow or percolate thereinto, or into any drain
or pipe communicating therewith ; or cause any other thing to be done
whereby the water supply of any city, town, village, community or
household is in anywise tainted or fouled, or rendered unfit for drinking or domestic purposes.
len. 1. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Removal—Change of Residence.
To be under direc-      24. Any person suffering from scarlet fever or diphtheria, and who
tion of Local Board,  ■      i i •      j  ,       i i • • i 1 i   • 11111
is obliged to change his residence or whose removal is ordered, shall
not remove or bo removed from one house to another in the same
health district, except by permission of and under the direction of the
Local Board of Health or its agents.
If from one district      25. Any person ill with, or who has been exposed to, scarlet fever or
to another, notifica-   ,.   , ., , ,     » ,.   .   .   ,
tion also to be given, diphtheria, may remove or be removed from one district to
another, on condition that such removal shall not be effected until the
Local Board of Health of the district where he resides and the Local
Board of Health of the district to which he is going shall have received
notice of the destination of such person and of the nature of the
disease. The Local Boards of Health of both districts shall see that
any necessary disinfection and the precautions described in Rules 24,
28 and 30 are carried out.
Clothing to be first 26. No clothing or other property shall be removed from one infected
house or building to any other, except it be first disinfected as prescribed in Schedule G, or except in a vehicle named in Rule 28, for
the purpose of such disinfection by the Local Board of Health or its
agents.
Expenses to be guar- 21. The Medical Health Officer or the Local Board of Health of the
district to which such person or thing is to be removed may
refuse entrance to their district only when a satisfactory guarantee is
not made that any expenses subsequently incurred on behalf of such
person or thing will be defrayed by the person making such guarantee.
Kind of conveyance 28. No other conveyance shall be used for the removal of persons
suffering from, or who have been exposed to, or who have died of
scarlet fever or diphtheria, other than an ambulance, a private vehicle,
a yacht, a row-boat, or other vessel of the same kind and dimensions,
except by permission of the Provincial Board of Health. No person,
other than the nurse or nurses, the driver or boatman, shall accompany
the patient or approach him on the road. The nature of the disease
shall be made known to the driver or boatman.
No driver, &c, to      29. No driver, boatman, railway conductor, master or owner of any
remove infected per- i i-i- i    „  , •      -i i     •   £    j.   i
son   &c.   without    vessel or public conveyance, shall knowingly carry any such infected
permit, or exposed person or thing, without a written permit from the Medical
Health Officer, or an executive officer of the Provincial Board of
Health, as the case may require.    (Vide Rule 28.)
M. H. 0. to see that      30. The Medical Health Officer shall disinfect, or cause to be disin-
ried out. fected by the owner thereof, the vehicle or boat used for the transfer of
such person, with every thing left therein, in the manner prescribed in
Schedule I, before using again for the transfer of healthy persons.
The Medical Health Officer shall also see that the driver or boatmen
and the nurses shall disinfect themselves in the manner described in 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. li.
Schedule A or C, as the case may require. The Medical Health Officer
shall see that such person, before removal, is clothed in uncomtamin-
ated clothing throughout, and that no infected blankets or other things
are taken along. He shall also see that sawdust or rags are provided
to receive the excreta. After the departure of such person, the
Medical Health Officer shall see that the house and the effects contained therein are disinfected in the manner described in Schedule G.
Funeral—Interment.
31. In case of the death of any person suffering from scarlet fever or M. H. 0. to see that
diphtheria, the body shall be kept isolated up to  the moment  of the ^Tttia? disinfec-
funeral in the room occupied by such person during his illness.    The tion IS carried out.
Medical Health Officer shall be at once notified, either by the physician or person in charge of the body, and the Medical Health Officer
shall cause the body to be enveloped in a sheet thoroughly saturated
with a solution of mercuric chloride in the proportion of 1-500 (two
drams to the gallon). An outer sheet shall also be applied to prevent
evaporation. As soon as possible the body shall be placed in a coffin,
which shall be brought no further than to the door of the sick-room,
and the coffin shall be immediately thereafter permanently closed. It
shall further be the duty of the Medical Health Officer to see that the
funeral be strictly private, the burial in all cases to take place within
twenty-four hours after death. No one shall attend the funeral or
burial of any such person except the officiating clergyman, unless he
be strictly indispensable for the transport or burial of such body. No
such body shall be taken into any church, but shall be conveyed
without delay to some cemetery commonly used for the burial of
persons dying within the district. The Medical Health Officer
shall also see that all the infected apartments, clothing and other
effects be destroyed by fire, or otherwise thoroughly and speedily
disinfected, and that no such apartments be entered or occupied by
members of the family or other persons until they have been so
disinfected. He shall afterwards see that the undertaker and other
persons who have been in contact with the body are disinfected as
prescribed in Schedule A or C, as the case may require, and that the
hearse or waggon and funeral trappings be disinfected as prescribed in
Schedule I.
32. Where no  Medical  Health Officer has been appointed for an Provision where no
outlying district, the Local Board of Health may, for the time being, Medical Health Offi-
J     n ' -' > o> cer ls appointed.
authorize any registered medical practitioner to act as Medical Health
Officer, for the purpose of enforcing these regulations.
Disinfection.
33. The  manner  and  means  of  disinfecting infected or exposed Disinfection,
persons or things, as prescribed in Schedules A to L,  inclusive, hereto
annexed, shall be observed in dealing with scarlet fever or diphtheria. lii. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Short title. 34. These regulations may be cited as the " Scarlet Fever or Diph
theria Regulations, 1896."
For the Provincial Board of Health.
J. C DAVIE,
Chairman.
A. T. WATT,
Secretary.
By Command.
JAMES BAKER,
Provincial Secretary. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. liii.
SCHEDULES.
Schedule A.
Precautions to be taken by, and disinfection of, Physicians, Clergymen, Undertakers and others, whose duties necessitate their occasional
presence in the sick room.
(a.) They shall wear for outer covering a long mackintosh, linen ulster or
sheet, reaching to the ankles. Their feet should be encased in rubber
overalls or other effective boot-covering.
(b.) Immediately on leading the sick room they shall deposit their outer
coat and boot-covering in a tub containing 1:1000 solution of bi-chloride of
mercury (1 drachm to the gallon, Solution " B ") and shall then wash hands
and head in a 1:2000 solution of the same.
(c.) They shall then pass some time in the open air (one or more hours if
possible) before putting themselves in contact with healthy persons.
Schedule B.
Disinfection of Patients.
(a.) Before dismissal from quarantine wash the entire body thoroughly
with soap and hot water, and also give a final bath in a 1:2000 solution
(warm) of bi-chloride of mercury, the patient not being allowed to stay in
the bath longer than five minutes.
(b.) The patient must go from the bath room into an uninfected dressing
room, and there clothe himself in fresh uninfected clothing. He is then
dismissed from quarantine.
Schedule C.
Disinfection of Suspects.
(a.) On admission to station give a bath of soap and water, and afterwards one of bi-chloride of mercury 1:2000, and then clothe in fresh
uninfected clothing.
(b.) Disinfect immediately all clothing and effects as described in Schedule
G, before allowing suspects into their quarters.
(c.) Follow the same course of procedure on dismissal from quarters. liv. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Schedule D.
Disinfection of nurses, drivers of ambulances and other attendants.
(a.) They shall observe the utmost cleanliness, frequently disinfecting
their hands and face, and shall wear only linen or other clothing, which can
be readily disinfected by immersing in bi-chloride solution, 1:1000.
(b.) Before dismissal from quarantine they shall go through the same form
of disinfection as that prescribed for suspects.
Schedule E.
Disinfection of the Dead.
(a.) Envelope the body in a sheet thoroughly  saturated  with a bi-chloride
solution 1:500 (Solution "A").
Schedule F.
Procedure in disinfecting sick room, hospital wards and other infected apartments and contents while the room is occupied.
(a.) Remove at once all unnecessary articles of furniture, such as carpets,
curtains, pictures, etc., for the purpose of having such of them as can be
disinfected by that means disinfected in a steam disinfecting apparatus, if
such is available. If no such apparatus is available remove the articles to a
small unoccupied room; wash such of them as can be wetted without injury
with a 1:1000 bi-chloride solution, and then fumigate with sulphurous acid
gas, as described in Rule (h), Schedule G.
(b.) Destroy by fire all rags, handkerchiefs, etc., of little value ; also burn
the remains of food left by the patient.
(c.) Boil in water for half an hour the dishes and utensils used by the
patient; such of them as are porcelain may be disinfected by immersion
in 1:1000 solution bi-chloride of mercury (one drachm to the gallon, Solution
"B").
(d.) Place all discharges from the patient in a vessel containing an equal
quantity of a 1:500 solution bi-chloride of mercury (two drachms to the
gallon, Solution "A").
(e.) Immerse for two hours all soiled clothing, bedding, etc., in a 1:1000
solution bi-chloride of mercury; afterwards boil in water for an hour, then
wash in the usual way with soap and water. If a steam disinfecting
apparatus has been provided, remove at once such soiled clothing, bedding,
etc., in order that they may be. disinfected by that means in preference to
any other.
(/.) Remove dust from shelves, window-sills and other surfaces by wiping
with a cloth dampened with a 1:500 solution of bi-chloride; wipe all articles
of wood, earthenware, leather, etc., with a cloth dampened in the same
solution; scatter sawdust or tea leaves, dampened in bi-chloride solution
1:500, over the floor, sweep carefully and burn the sweepings. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. lv.
Schedule G.
Procedure in disinfecting sick room, hospital wards and other infected apartments and contents after vacation of the room.
(a.) When a suitable steam disinfecting apparatus has been provided
remove at once such articles as can be disinfected by such means, for the
purpose of so disinfecting them.
(b.) If no such steam disinfecting apparatus has been provided, burn the
mattress used by the patient; also destroy by fire all rags, handkerchiefs,
etc., of little vulue, and burn the remains of food.
(c.) Boil in water for half an hour the dishes and utensils used by the
patient. Such of them as are porcelain may be disinfected by immersion in
the 1:1000 solution of bi-chloride (Solution " B ";.
(d.) Allow all discharges from the patient to remain for two hours in a
vessel containing an equal quantity of the 1:500 solution of bi-chloride
(Solution " A ").
(e.) Immerse for two hours all soiled clothing, bedding, etc. (where steam
disinfection cannot be practiced) in the 1:1000 solution of bi-chloride.
Afterwards boil in water for an hour and then wash with soap and water in
the usual way.
(f.) Remove dust from shelves, window-sills and other surfaces by wiping
with a cloth dampened with the 1:500 solution of bi-chloride. Wash thoroughly articles of wood, furniture, leather, earthenware, etc., with a 1:1000
solution of bi-chloride. Scatter saw-dust or tea leaves dampened in 1:500
solution of bi-chloride over the floor; sweep carefully and burn the sweepings.
(g.) If the ceilings and walls are hard finished (plastered) wash them
thoroughly with a 1:1000 solution of bi-chloride. If the walls are papered
remove all dust and dirt by carefully rubbing with thick slices of bread just
24 hours old. In every case scrub all the woodwork of the room and the
floors with soap and hot water (disinfect the water before throwing out);
then wash again thoroughly with the 1:1000 solution of bi-chloride (Solution
"B").
(h.) Before the walls, furniture, etc., are dry, close all outlets and fumigate
the room by sulphurous acid gas for 24 hours by burning three pounds of
sulphur to every 1000 cubic feet of air space.
(i.) For at least two days following the fumigation thoroughly ventilate
the room by leaving the windows open. lvi. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Schedule H.
Disinfection of ships and rail-cars.
(a.) When necessary disinfect ships and rail-cars in the same manner as that
prescribed for the sick room after vacation by the patient (Schedule G).
(b.) When procedure described in Rules (a)-(g), Schedule G, has been
carried out, i. e., decks and all accessible surfaces disinfected with bi-chloride
solution, in the case of steamships, instead of sulphur fumigation as prescribed in Rule (A), Schedule G, steam under pressure from the boiler may
be turned into the hold, state-rooms, etc.
(c.) To disinfect the bilge-water of ships, a liberal supply of a concentrated
solution (4 ounces of bi-chloride of mercury to the gallon) should be thrown
into the bilge. At the end of 24 hours the bilge should be pumped out, and
replaced by fresh sea water.
Note.—The disinfection of merchandise and mails will be required only
under exceptional circumstances; free aeration will usually suffice. If disinfection is necessary, fumigation by sulphur will be the only practicable
method of accomplishing it, or, in the case of mails, exposure in a suitable
apparatus to dry heat for two hours.
Schedule I.
Disinfection of vehicles and boats used for transporting infected patients.
(a.) Immerse all moveable articles in solution of bi-chloride 1:1000 for two
hours.
(b.) Wash thoroughly all surfaces with solution of bi-chloride 1:1000.
(c.) When possible put the vehicle in a closed place and fumigate by
burning sulphur, as described in Schedule G. Where this course is not
practicable, fumigate the inside of the ambulance or boat.
Schedule J.
Disinfection of privy or cess-pool.
(It is almost impossible to do so if full.    Empty it).
(a.) Add to the estimated amount of fsecal matter an equal amount of :
(1.) Bi-chloride of mercury solution, 1 drachm to the gallon of water (Sol.
" A "); or
(2.) Chlorinated lime solution, 6 ounces to the gallon of water (Sol. " D ").
(b.) Wash thoroughly all exposed portions of the vault and the woodwork
above it with one of the above solutions. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. v.
(d.) He shall report to the Local Board any noxious or offensive businesses,
trades, or manufactories established within the district, and the breach or
non-observance of any statute, by-law, or regulation in respect to the same :
(«.) He shall from time to time and forthwith upon complaint, visit and
inspect the shops and places kept or used for the preparation or sale of
butcher's meat, poultry, fish, fruit, vegetables, corn, bread, flour, milk, or other
articles to which the provisions of any statute dealing with the public health
or of these or any other regulations or by-laws in force in the district shall in
this behalf apply, and examine any animal, carcass, meat, poultry, game, flesh,
fish, fruit, or vegetables, corn, bread, flour, milk or other articles as aforesaid which may be therein; and in case any such article appear to him to be
intended for food for man, and to be unfit for such food, he shall cause the
same to be seized and take such other proceedings as may be necessary in
order to have the same dealt with according to law : Provided, that in case
of doubt arising under this clause, he shall report the matter to the Medical
Health Officer with the view of obtaining his advice thereon :
(f) He shall, when and as directed by the Local Board or Medical Health
Officer, procure and submit samples of food, drink or drugs suspected to be
adulterated, for analysis by any competent analyst (named or appointed by
the Local or Provincial Board of Health), and upon receiving a certificate
stating that the articles of food, drink or drugs are adulterated, cause a
complaint to be made and take such other proceedings as may be necessary
to procure conviction, after which he shall cause all the adulterated articles
to be destroyed :
(g.) He shall give immediate notice to the Medical Health Officer of the
occurrence within the district of any contagious, infectious or epidemic disease,
and whenever it appears to him that the intervention of such officer is
necessary in consequence of the existence of any nuisance injurious to health,
or of any overcrowding in a house, he shall forthwith inform the Medical
Health Officer thereof :
(A.) He shall attend to the instructions of the Medical Health Officer with
respect to any measures, such as the quarantining or disinfecting of a house
or any infected person or thing, or any other measures that may be lawfully
taken by a Sanitary Officer or Inspector for preventing the spread of any
contagious, infectious or epidemic disease of a dangerous character :
(i.) He shall enter from day to day in a book to be provided by the Local
Board, particulars of his inspections and of the action taken by him in the
execution of his duties. He shall also keep a book or books so arranged as
to form, as far as possible, a continuous record of the sanitary condition of
each of the premises inspected, or in respect to which any action has been
taken, and shall keep any other systematic records required. He shall produce any such book whenever requested by the Local Board or Medical
Health Officer, and give any information required that he may be able to
furnish with respect to any matter to which the duties of Sanitary Inspector
relate. He shall also attend all meetings of the Local Board when so
required. He shall from time to time report in writing to the Local Board
his proceedings and the matters in regard to which action should be taken
by the Board.
9. No person shall suffer the accumulation upon or escape from his Deposits   endanger-
-, ., -,;i-i ■, l-iii -j.     ing public heath f or-
premises, or deposit, or permit the deposit, upon any land belonging to bidden,
him or under his control of anything so as to endanger the public health,
or shall deposit, or suffer or permit to be deposited in, upon, on, or into,
any street, square, lane, by-way, wharf, dock, slip, lake, pond, bank,
harbour, river, stream, or water, any manure or other refuse, or
vegetable or animal matter, or filth of any kind, or any dead animal, VI.
Provincial Board of Health.
1896
Examination of
buildings or premises by Sanitary
Inspectors.
Duty   of   Sanitary      10. It shall be the duty of the Local Board or Sanitary Inspector
Inspector as to lands, . .   .
etc. to keep a vigilant supervision over all streets, lanes, by-ways, lots, or
premises, upon which any such accumulation as aforesaid may be
found, and at once to notify the parties who own or occupy such lots or
premises, or who, either personally or through their employees, have
deposited such manure, refuse, matter, dirt, or filth, in any street,
lane, or by-way, or who permit or suffer the accumulation thereof,
to cleanse the same and to remove what is found thereon; and
such parties shall forthwith remove the same, and if the same be not
removed within twenty-four hours after such notification, the Local
Board or Sanitary Inspector may cause the parties so offending to be
prosecuted, and may also cause the same to be removed at the expense
of the person or persons so offending. The Local Board may inspect,
or cause to be inspected by the Sanitary Inspector, at intervals, all
premises occupied by persons residing within its jurisdiction.
11. Whenever it shall appear to the Local Board or to any of its
officials that it is necessary for the preservation of the public health
or for the abatement of anything dangerous to the public health, or
whenever they or he shall have received a notice signed by one or
more inhabitant householders of the district, stating the condition of
any building in the district to be so filthy as to be dangerous to the
public health, or that upon any premises in the district there is any
foul or offensive ditch, gutter, drain, privy, cesspool, ash-pit, or cellar
kept or constructed so as to be dangerous or injurious to the public
health, or that upon any such premises an accumulation of dung,
manure, offal, filth, refuse, stagnant water, or other matter or thing is
kept so as to be dangerous or injurious as aforesaid, it shall be the
duty of the Local Board or Sanitary Inspector to enter such buildings
or premises for the purpose of examining the same, and, if necessary,
order the removal of such matter or thing as aforesaid. If the occupant or proprietor, or his lawful agent or representative having charge
or control of such premises, after having had twenty-four hours' notice
from any such officer or Board to remove or abate such matter or
thing as aforesaid, shall neglect or refuse to remove or abate the same,
he shall be subject to the penalties imposed for infraction of these
regulations. The Local Board or Sanitary Inspector shall abate or
cause to be abated summarily, and by force if necessary, any nuisance
likely to be injurious to the public health.
Notice to put prem-      12. If the Local Board is satisfied, upon due examination by itself
ises  in proper sani- ......
tary condition or to or officer, that a cellar, room, tenement, or building withm its juris-
qui same. diction, occupied as a dwelling-place, has become, by reason of the
number of occupants, want of cleanliness, the existence therein of a
contagious or infectious disease or other cause, unfit for such purpose,
or that it has become a nuisance or in any way dangerous to the
health of the occupants or of the public, it may issue a notice in
writing to such occupants, or any of them, requiring the said premises 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. vii
to be put in proper sanitary condition, or, if it sees fit, requiring the
occupants to quit the premises within such time as the Board may
deem reasonable. If the persons so notified, or any of them, neglect
or refuse to comply with the terms of the notice, every person so
offending shall be liable to the penalties imposed for infraction of these
regulations, and the Board may cause the premises to be properly
cleansed at the expense of the owners or occupants, or may remove the
occupants forcibly and close up the premises, and the same shall not
again be occupied as a dwelling-place until put into proper sanitary
condition; or the Board, if it sees fit, may, subject to the provisions
of section 97 of the " Health Act, 1893," cause such premises to be
destroyed, with the consent of two Justices of the Peace.
13. No person shall offer for sale as food any diseased animal, or Sale of unwholesome
any meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, milk, or any other article of food,        '
drink or drugs which, by reason of disease, adulteration or impurity,
or any other cause, shall be unfit for use.
14. No proprietor or tenant of any shop, house or outhouse shall, Distance of slaughter
nor shall any butcher or other person, use any such  shop, house or '
outhouse at any time as  a slaughter-house,  or for the purpose of
slaughtering any animals therein, unless such shop, house or outhouse
be distant not less than two hundred yards from any dwelling house,
and distant not less than seventy yards from any public street.
15. All slaughter-houses within   the district shall be subject to Inspection of slaugh-
regular inspection under the direction of the  Local Board, and no
person shall keep any slaughter-house unless the permission in writing of the Local Board for the keeping of such slaughter-house has
been first obtained, and remains unrevoked. Such permission shall
be granted, after approval of such premises upon inspection, subject
to the condition that the said houses shall be constructed, managed
and kept in accordance with any specifications, requirements or regulations with regard to slaughter-houses which may be made by the
Provincial Board of Health, and upon such condition being broken the
said permission may be revoked by the Local Board; and all animals
to be slaughtered, and all fresh meat exposed for sale, shall be
subject to like inspection.
16. All milch cows and all cow byres, and all dairies or other places Inspection   of   cow
in which milk is sold or kept for general use, and all cheese factories ie^randCcreameries0r"
and creameries, shall be subject to regular inspection under the direction of the Local Board;   and the proprietors shall be  required to
obtain permission, in writing, of the Board to keep such dairy or
other place where milk is sold or kept as aforesaid, or to keep a
cheese factory or creamery; and the same shall not be kept by anyone without such permission, which shall be granted after approval of
■such premises upon inspection, and upon it being found that such
places  as aforesaid are constructed, managed and kept in  accord- viii. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
ance with any specifications, requirements and regulations of the
Provincial Board of Health, with regard thereto, and it further being
found that the milk is not likely to contain any matter or thing liable
to produce disease, either by reason of adulteration, contamination
with sewage, absorption of disease germs, infection of cows, or any
other generally recognized cause; and upon such conditions being
broken the said permission may be revoked by the Board.
Powers of Local 11. The  Local  Board may  inspect any  slaughter-house,  dairy,
slaughter-houses,      vegetable   or fruit garden without the district, where meat,  milk,
e*c:> without its      butter, fruit or  vegetables intended for sale within the district is
district. ° .     .     •
slaughtered, collected, made, prepared, or grown, and if it is found
that such places or things are in any way dangerous to health, or are
not constructed, managed or kept in accordance with any specifications, requirements or regulations of the Provincial Board of Health,
the Board may prohibit the bringing or sale of any such article of
food within its district.
Water Supply.
Duty of house owner. 18. It shall be the duty of the owner of every house within the
Province to provide for the occupants of the same a sufficient supply
of pure and wholesome drinking water; and in case the occupant or
occupants of any such house or the Sanitary Inspector is or are not
satisfied with the wholesomeness or sufficiency of such supply, he or
they may apply to the Board to determine as to the same; and if the
supply be found sufficient and wholesome, then the expenses incident
to such determination shall be paid by the said occupant or occupants
so applying, or by the Board when the Sanitary Inspector makes the
application, and if the supply be found to be not sufficient and wholesome then they shall be paid by the owner, and in either case the
said charges shall be recoverable in a summary manner before one
Justice of the Peace.
Complaints.   How        19. In case the water supply as aforesaid is drawn from a well or
made, etc. spring, any person complaining of the quality of the water therein
shall make complaint to the Local Board or Sanitary Inspector, in
writing, giving full information as to the location of the well or
spring complained of, and an approximate estimate of the number of
persons or animals using the water from the said well or spring; and
upon receipt of the complaint in writing as aforesaid the Sanitary
Inspector shall, as soon as practicable, procure a sample of the water
from such well or spring in the presence of at least one credible
witness, which sample shall be immediately sealed up by said Inspector
in an air-tight receptacle, and be given or forwarded by him to an
analyst named or appointed by the Provincial or Local Board of
Health; and on receipt of the report of the analysis the Local Board
shall act in accordance with the report. x. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Keeping of Animals.
Hogs. 25. No hog shall be kept except in pens one hundred feet from any
house, well, or public highway, with floors constructed impervious to
water and kept free from standing liquids, and regularly cleansed and
disinfected. The Local Board shall, in order to prevent nuisance, have
power to limit the number of hogs kept in any pen or enclosure.
Stable. 26. The keeper of every livery or other stable shall not wash or
clean his carriages or horses, or cause them to be washed or cleaned, in
the streets or public ways, or otherwise encumber or befoul the same,
and shall keep his stable and stable yard clean, and shall not permit
more than two waggon loads of manure to accumulate in or near the
same at any one time. The Local Board may require that the floors
of all stables shall be so constructed as to prevent leakage, and that
the receptacle or place where manure is deposited shall be so constructed, situated, and kept, that contamination of the soil or surface
or well water shall be prevented.
Diseased animal. 27. No animal affected with an infectious or contagious disease
shall be brought or kept within British Columbia.
Seivers and Drains.
Duty of local health      28. It shall be the duty of the local health authorities to keep in
authorities. ■      n i r i     ■        i    l ■       x    xi i ±
repair all sewers and surface drains belonging to them, and to cause
to be made such sewers and surface drains as may be necessary for
effectually sewering and draining the district within their jurisdiction;
and to cause the sewers and drains belonging to them to be constructed,
covered, ventilated and kept so as not to be a nuisance or injurious to
the public health, and also to cause such sewers and drains to be properly cleansed and emptied.
Compulsory connec- 2!). Whenever any branch, main or common sewer shall extend to
or pass by the premises on which is built any house, the owner thereof
shall cause all water-closets, sinks, wash-tubs, baths, etc., in the said
house or premises to be properly connected with such sewer in accordance with the by-laws or regulations of the local health authorities or
the Provincial Board of Health.
Regulation of house      30. All house drainage or plumbing of all houses or buildings, both
ramage an  p um - pU^i jc an(i private, hereafter constructed or at present in the course of
construction, shall be executed in accordance with the specifications or
plans fixed or approved by the Local or Provincial Board of Health.
Plans to be filed. 31. Before proceeding to construct or re-construct any portion of
the plumbing or drainage system of any house, the owner, or the contractor, plumber or person constructing or having charge of the same
shall submit, for approval of the Local Board, plans and specifications
of the whole plumbing and drainage system of such house, including
branches, ventilating pipes, traps, closets and fixtures, showing location I
60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xi.
and sizes, also a particular description of the building and premises ;
all such plans shall be legibly drawn in ink on tracing cloth, to a scale
of eight feet to the inch, and such plans and specifications shall be
approved or rejected by the Board without any unnecessary delay, if
possible within seven days. If approved, the plans and specifications
shall be filed by the Board; and after a plan has been once approved
of no alteration will be allowed except on the written application of
the owner.
32. No person shall construct, or re-construct, alter or extend any Permittobeobtained
portion of the house drainage or plumbing connected therewith, of any
house or premises, or make connection of such with any branch, main
or common sewer, unless he shall have previously submitted the plans
and specifications as aforesaid, and made application and received a
permit therefor from the Local Board. Blank forms of application
shall be furnished by the Board.
33. The person erecting any building or constructing any house, Inspection to  be
drainage or plumbing shall, from time to time, notify the Local Board
when any work is ready for inspection, and all such work shall be left
uncovered and convenient for examination until inspected and approved
of by the Board, or some person competent to make the inspection
appointed by the Board ; and no such work shall be proceeded with or
finished until such approval in writing has been obtained.
34. If, upon inspection, the drainage or plumbing of any house Defective   drainage
erected prior to the making of these regulations is found to be defective condemned"18
and dangerous to the health of the occupants, the same shall be condemned, and plans shall be filed and new work or alterations shall be
executed in accordance with these regulations.
35. Whenever called upon to do so by the Local Board, the owner plans of drainage
of any house erected prior to the making of these regulations shall already constructed.
forward, to be placed on file, description of the house and drawings
and description of the drainage and plumbing of such house.
Dwelling Houses.
36. No person shall let, or occupy, or suffer to be occupied, as a
dwelling or lodging, any room which—
(a.) Does not contain at all times at least three hundred and eighty- Air space.
four cubic feet of air space for each person occupying the same; or
(b.) Has not a window made to open in a manner approved by the Ventilation.
Local Board; or
(c.) Has not appurtenant to it the use of a water-closet or earth- privy-closet,
closet constructed in accordance with these regulations :
And every room in which a person passes the night, or is found
between midnight and five o'clock in the forenoon, shall be deemed to
be occupied as a dwelling or lodging within the meaning of this rule. xii. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Soil of building sites. 3T. No house shall be built in or upon any site, the soil of which
has been made up of any refuse, unless such shall have been removed
from such site and the site disinfected, or unless the said soil shall
have been covered with a layer of charcoal, covered by a layer of concrete at least six inches thick, and of such additional thickness as may
be requisite under the circumstances to prevent the escape of gases
into such proposed house.
Privy-closets.
Only approved water      38. No privy -closet shall be established or constructed unless the
or      earth      closets , . ,    -i      • , i it , o
allowed. same be a water-closet connected with a public system of sewerage, or,
by approval of the Medical Health Officer, drained into a cess-tank
made of galvanized iron or brick set in cement, branching from which
is a system of subsoil irrigation drains laid between ten to fourteen
inches under the surface, and so arranged that the sewage may be discharged either intermittently or alternately through different portions
of the system ; or unless the privy-closet be an earth-closet of a
pattern approved by the Medical Health Officer, consisting of a watertight receptacle placed above the surface of the ground, and so arranged
that it may be emptied or removed through a hinged door or lid.
Sufficient dry earth or coal ashes to absorb all the fluid parts of the
deposit must be thrown upon the contents of such earth-closet daily
or after each use. The contents of all cess-tanks and earth-closets
shall be emptied and ultimately disposed of as prescribed by these
regulations once a month, or oftener if the Medical Health Officer
thinks fit.
Other   closets   and      39.  All privy-closets, privy-pits  or vaults, cess-tanks or  cesspools
ops^iiools       ri pel i\ i*p(i
nuisances. now in use, unless constructed in the manner specified in the preced
ing rule, are hereby declared nuisances, and the same shall be thoroughly emptied, cleansed, and disinfected and filled with clean earth.
The contents of such privy-vaults or cesspools shall be disposed of as
prescribed by these regulations.
Removal of contents 40. The contents of any privy-vault or cesspool shall not be removed
privy- s, e c. unieg8 previously deodorized by mixing with a sufficient quantity of
dry earth or coal ashes to absorb all moisture, and during its transportation the material shall be covered with a layer of fresh earth,
except the removal shall have been by some approved " Odorless
Excavating Process."
Disposal of Liquid Waste.
Modes of disposal. 41. Every householder shall dispose of all chamber slops, waste
waters from kitchen, sink, laundry, bath or wash bowls or other liquid
waste, either by draining into a public system of sewerage or by one
of the following methods of application to land, subject to the approval
of the Medical Health Officer— 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xiii.
First—Leading into a water-tight cess-tank  made of  galvanized Subsoil irrigation,
iron or brick set in cement, branching from which is a system of subsoil irrigation drains laid between ten and fourteen inches  below the
surface of the soil, and so arranged that the sewage may be discharged
intermittently or alternately through different portions of the system.
Second—By throwing upon or irrigating or submersing different Irrigation or inter-
plots of land in alternation or in an intermittent manner. Where the
land used for this purpose is non-porous or damp, deep absorption drains
shall be laid not less than three feet below the surface of the ground,
or such other artificial preparation of the land shall be made, and such
attention shall be given to removing, spading in or covering with earth
any non-absorbable matters, as in the opinion of the Medical Health
Officer may be necessary.
42. If, on the householder's premises, sufficient or suitable land for M. H. 0. may require
the purpose of irrigation is not available, the Medical  Health Officer °^er manner of dismay compel the removal of any one or all of the liquid wastes hereinbefore mentioned, either by carting away daily or by drainage to such
place as in his opinion they may be safely deposited, or he may require
that the said liquid wastes be passed through an approved filtration
tank or bed before being discharged into any drain or stream or on to
any land.
Disposal of Garbage and Refuse.
43. Every householder and every hotel and restaurant-keeper, or Garbarge and re-
other person, shall dispose of all garbage, for the disposal of which he
is responsible, either by burning, by burying at least three inches and
not more than thirty inches below the surface of the ground, or
placing it in a proper covered receptacle, the contents of which shall
be removed once a week or oftener, if the Medical Health Officer
thinks necessary. Remnants of food fit for use of hogs or other
animals may, if kept in a separate receptacle, be at once fed to such
animals. Other animal or vegetable waste of the kitchen shall, when
removed, be disposed of as prescribed by clause 46.
44. Every person shall dispose of all house sweepings, dust, waste Dry refuse and ashes,
paper, rags, and  similar dry refuse not liable to putrefaction, either
by burning or placing it in a suitable dust bin or barrel to be removed
at least once a month. All ashes shall be placed in a separate covered
receptacle, where they may be kept dry and be removed at least once
a month, unless the same be intended for use in a privy-closet. No
garbage or other waste liable to fermentation or putrefaction shall be
placed in any receptacle for ashes or in any dust-bin. The contents
of the dust-bin and ashes shall be ultimately disposed of as prescribed
by these regulations. Ashes or any of the above-mentioned dry
refuse suitable for the purpose may be used for road making or filling
in low-lying places. XIV.
Provincial Board of Health.
1896
Pollution of Streams.
Depositing refuse 45. No solid refuse or waste matter of any kind shall be deposited
purified sewage and in any stream so as to obstruct its flow, or put into any stream or
other liquids forbid- \a^e g0 as t0 pollute its waters, and no solid or liquid sewage matter
from either public or private sewers shall be discharged into any
stream or lake, but if it can be proved that the best means have been
adopted to purify the sewage, etc., before it enters the stream or lake,
no offence is committed, that is unless the Local Board has notified the
offending parties that the means adopted are insufficient; nor shall any
poisonous, noxious or polluting liquid proceeding from any other source
be passed into any stream or lake unless the best means have been
first adopted to purify the same.
Ultimate disposal of waste Materials.
46. The ultimate disposal of the various waste products of the
community or household shall, unless otherwise prescribed by these
regulations or the Medical Health Officer, be by one of the following
methods :
Sewage may be dis-      I- The effluent of any sewer or system of sewers may be discharged
charged into the sea. jn^0 f^g gea^ jn which case the outf all of the sewer shall be at such
practicable point as in the opinion of the Provincial Board of Health
or Medical Health  Officer shall least endanger the  fouling of any
shore, harbour or inlet.
II. The effluent of any sewer or system of sewerage may be disposed
of by intermittent application to land by any plan approved by the
Provincial Board of Health or the Medical Health Officer.
III. Any kind of waste material may be taken to sea and dumped
not less than one mile from shore, and at such time and place that it
will be carried out by the tide.
IV. Any kind of waste that can be so destroyed may be burned in
an approved garbage destructor or crematory ; but no public crematory shall be built less than 150 yards from any dwelling-house, and
every such crematory shall be so constructed as to consume its own
fumes and prevent the escape of any dust, black smoke or offensive
vapours.
V. The contents of privy-vaults and cesspools, or cess-tanks, and
all waste or dead organic materials which during the process of
disintegration may give rise to offensive effluvia, shall, unless destroyed by burning or utilized by some manufacturing process approved
by the Medical Health Officer or otherwise disposed of as allowed by
these regulations, be mixed with earth and buried in trenches or holes
at a depth not greater than thirty inches nor less than three inches.
VI. Remains of food, slaughter-house offal, or fish offal may be at
once fed to hogs or other animals. Any parts remaining uneaten
after twelve hours shall be at once burned or buried.
Sewage farms, etc.
Dumping into sea.
Crematory.
Contents   of   privy
vaults, etc.
Remains of food. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xix.
as it deems requisite for placing the said district in a position, as
regards its sanitary arrangements, to effectively combat the said
disease.
Notification.
6. Whenever any householder knows or suspects that any person By householder,
within his household has small-pox, he shall immediately, by special
messenger when possible, give notice to the Medical Health Officer.
7. Whenever any physician knows or suspects that any person By physician.
whom he is called upon to visit is infected with or has died of smallpox, he shall immediately notify the Medical Health Officer.
8. Any physician so called shall have, for the purpose of isolating Physician to enforce
the infected person and his attendants and of placing the patient, tine,
attendants, and all other persons residing in the same house and the
house itself in quarantine, all the powers of the Medical Health Officer,
and the duty of ordering and enforcing such immediate isolation and
quarantine shall devolve upon such physician until the Medical Health
Officer has been notified and has had time to act.
9. Whenever a teacher in any school has reason to suspect that any By school teacher,
pupil is suffering from small-pox, or that small-pox exists at the house
of any pupil, he shall notify the Medical Health Officer immediately,
and shall prevent the attendance of said pupil or pupils until medical
evidence that no danger of infection exists has been obtained. (Vide
section 86, sub-section 3, "Health Act, 1893.")
10. When small-pox is present in the Province, any householder Chicken-pox to be
who knows or suspects that any person within his family or household repor
has chicken-pox, shall immediately notify the Medical Health Officer.
1 1.  When small-pox is present in the Province, any physician who Chicken-pox to be
is called upon to visit a person suffering from chicken-pox shall immediately give written notice to the Medical Health Officer.
12. The Medical Health Officer shall immediately give notice by By Medical Health
telegraph to the Provincial Board of Health of the first case of small- Boarci.
pox which shall appear in his district, and shall further furnish every
seven days, or oftener if required, a statement showing the number of
new cases developed, the number of those who have died, the number
of those who have recovered, and the number who are still sick.
13. The Secretary of the Board shall supply to Medical Health The forms supplied
Officers and others required to make returns to the Board, or to give
notices, blank forms of such returns or notices,-and where such forms
are provided all returns shall be made and notices given thereon.
Suspected case.
14. The Medical Health  Officer of every district, or any of his To be treated as a
medical assistants, having received information of a suspected case of xl. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
charge of the body, and the Medical Health Officer shall cause the
body to be enveloped in a sheet thoroughly saturated with a 1-500
solution of mercuric chloride (two drams to the gallon). An outer
sheet shall also be applied to prevent evaporation. As soon as possible
the body shall be placed in a coffin, which shall be brought no farther
than to the door of the sick room, and the coffin shall be immediately
thereafter permanently closed. It shall further be the duty of the
Medical Health Officer to see that the funeral is strictly private, the
burial in all cases to take place within twenty-four hours after death.
No one shall attend the funeral or burial of any such person, except
the officiating clergyman, or unless he be strictly indispensable for
the transport or burial of such body. No such body shall be taken
into any church, but shall be conveyed without delay to some cemetery used for the burial of persons dying within the district. The
Medical Health Officer shall also see that all the infected apartments,
clothing, and other effects be destroyed by fire, or otherwise speedily
and thoroughly disinfected, and that no such apartments be entered
or occupied by members of the family or other persons until they have
been so disinfected. He shall afterwards see that the undertaker and
other persons who have been in contact with the body shall be disinfected as prescribed in Schedules A or C, and that the hearse or
waggon and funeral trappings be disinfected as prescribed in
Schedule I.
Provincial Medical Inspectors.
Appointment. 34. With a view of preventing the introduction and spread of
cholera the Provincial Board of Health, or a committee thereof, may
appoint Provincial Medical Inspectors, who shall possess all the powers
conferred upon any officer or member of the Provincial Board, or any
member or officer of a Local Board of Health in his capacity as a
Health Officer. Such Provincial Medical Inspectors shall perform
such duties as shall be assigned to them by the Provincial Board of
Health, and may board all trains and vessels arriving from or leaving
an infected locality, and every such Inspector may take in respect to
any persons, baggage, freight, and effects any sanitary precautions
authorized by the Provincial Board of Health which in the opinion of
such Inspector are necessary or expedient for guarding against the
introduction or spread of cholera in British Columbia.
Medical Health Offi-     35. The Medical Health Officer of every municipality is without
certoact as mspec- fgjfcbgj. appointment to be considered to be, and it shall devolve upon
tor oi incoming ves- rr > r
sels, &c. him to perform the duties of a Medical Inspector in so far as and inas
much as he is hereby empowered and required to inspect all trains
and vessels and other conveyances arriving within his district from
an infected locality, and to take the same action with regard to such
vessels, trains, etc., as may be performed by or required of Provincial
Medical Inspectors. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xli.
36. Medical  Health  Officers and all other Local  Health  Officers Local officers to as-
shall, whenever required by the Provincial Board of Health, aid such oai inspectors.
Inspectors in providing for and compelling the removal of suspected
or infected persons from trains or boats, and for isolating such persons,
and for supplying them with medical aid at the expense of the Local
Board in all cases where the persons for which such duties are performed are unable to pay therefor, when such persons are resident in
the district by which they are taken care of, otherwise the expenses
attendant upon the discharge of such duties for such poor persons
shall be borne by the Provincial Board.
37. When any vessel coming from an infected locality enters any Medical Health Offi-
port, or when any rail-car or other conveyance coming from an infected j^Jj v° sgels60*™00111"
locality comes into any station or place, the Medical Health Officer
shall act as Medical Inspector, and shall cause, or the Provincial
Medical Inspector may cause, to be made a strict inspection of the
vessel, rail-car, or other conveyance and examination of the passengers,
officers and crew, luggage, clothing, bedding, freight, and other effects
before any person, luggage, freight, or other thing is landed or allowed
to be landed from it; and when any infected or exposed person is
found on board, he or she shall be dealt with in the manner directed
in these regulations, and no baggage, freight, or other thing shall be
landed until it has been thoroughly disinfected, and the vessel or
rail-car or other conveyance shall be likewise disinfected.
38. No vessel, rail-car, or other conveyance shall be permitted to Provincial Medical
depart from an infected locality until an inspection shall have been QUtPoin°r t0 UjSpfot
made in manner provided by the  preceding  rule by a Provincial
Medical Inspector, and until any infected or exposed person found shall
have been dealt with in the manner directed, and until any required
disinfection shall have been carried out.
39. Every person so travelling shall answer truthfully all reason- Persons travelling
able questions which an Inspector shall in the performance of his duty   ° answer 1ues lons-
ask such person with reference to the place such person has been at,
and his stay there, during the fourteen days next preceding such
inquiry being made ; and in case such person refuses to answer or does
not satisfy the Inspector by his answers, the Inspector shall be justified
in treating such person as a suspect.
40. The Medical Inspectors and Health Officers to whom is assigned Regulations govern-
the duty of inspecting trains or boats shall, in respect of the duties ^fs e iea nsPec"
herein mentioned, be governed by the following rules:—
(a.) A Provincial Medical Inspector shall attend at the railway station or
steamboat wharf a reasonable time prior to the departure of every boat or
train going out, and shall, whenever he deems it expedient, take passage
on such boat or train :
(b.) The Medical Health Officer or his Deputy shall meet every vessel or
train arriving within his district: dii.
Provincial Board of Health.
1896
Provincial Medical
Inspectors to make
certain inquiries.
Provincial Medical
Inspectors may be
authorized to perform any duty of
Local Boards.
(c.) He shall notice whether passengers have tickets direct from one
infected locality, or whether the dates on the tickets show that the passengers
have probably stopped over at such locality or elsewhere :
(d.) He shall note the destination of all such persons :
(e.) He shall obtain information as to the quarters whence they have
come, and whether there is any reason to suspect their being infected :
(f) If the Inspector believes that any such person is infected or that his or
her clothing or other effects contain infection, the Inspector shall detain such
person and his or her clothing and effects aforesaid until the period of
incubation is over, and such person and her or his clothing and other effects
shall be at once disinfected :    (Vide Schedule C.)
(g.) In case any person is suspected of conveying contagion, he shall be
detained by the Provincial Medical Inspector or by the Medical Health
Officer until the danger of infection is over, and such person and his clothing
and other effects shall be disinfected :
(h.) The action to be taken in the event of a case of cholera being discovered is shortly as follows :—(a.) Detention, disinfection, and isolation of
persons infected or exposed to infection; (6.) disinfection of clothing, baggage, and other effects; (c.) disinfection of car or boat (vide Schedule H);
(d.) notification of Local Health Officer at place of destination.
41. The Provincial Medical Inspectors shall, whenever directed by
the Provincial Board of Health, investigate the sanitary condition of
any health district with regard especially to the duties laid upon Local
Boards and their officers by the " Health Act, 1893," or by these or
any other regulations of the Provincial Board of Health, and they shall
promptly report to the Secretary of the Provincial Board any neglect
or omission on the part of the Local Board or Medical Health Officer
to carry into effect any Order in Council made under the " Health Act,
1893."    Such Inspectors shall especially inquire into :—
(a.) The appointment of a Medical Health Officer :
(b.) The possession of land for isolation hospital purposes :
(c.) The possession by the municipality of an isolation hospital building, or
tent hospital, or a suspect station :
(d.) The proper equipment of hospital or suspect station in matters necessary for the nursing of the sick and for the care of suspected persons.
(e.) The character of the inspection of water supplies, whether public or of
private wells, and whether contaminated wells are being filled up where
necessary :
(f) The extent to which privy-pits exist, and the progress being made in
their removal and replacement by earth-closets :
(g.) The character of the system adopted for the regular removal by the
municipality of the contents of the earth closets :
(h.) The existence of pig-styes and hog-feeding establishments within
incorporated municipalities :
(i.) The existence and location of a dumping ground for earth-closets and
privy-vault wastes, and for town garbage :
(j.) The inspection, locality and regulation of slaughter-houses, and the
inspection of meat.
42. When the case appears to be urgent, owing to the presence of
cholera in the Province or immediately contiguous thereto, the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may authorize the Provincial Medical
Inspectors, or any of them, to perform any duty belonging to any 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xliii.
Local Board of Health or Medical Health Officer, and which is neglected by such Local Board or Medical Health Officer, the expenses
incurred therein to be paid by the Local Board, saving and except the
salary and expenses of the Provincial Medical Inspector.
43. Subject to the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, Provincial Medical
the Provincial Board of Health may, whenever it deems it necessary, authorized to per^
or may, without such approval being first had, whenever requested by f °™ specified duties
any Local Board of Health, require the Medical Health Officer—
(a.) To order, by a special notice delivered in writing, the closing of wells
known by their history or by their location to have been or likely to be contaminated ; and in such cases where failure to close the same occurs, said
officer shall have the same closed by sanitary police or other person employed
by them, and to cause other wells to be cleansed as provided in the regulations of the Provincial Board of Health :
(b.) To order the removal of the contents and the filling up of all privy-
pits within any health district within a given time, and the replacing of the
same by dry earth closets :
(c.) To supply, at the expense of the Local Board, when not already owned
or contracted for by the proper authorities, one or more scavenger carts and
appliances, by contract or purchase, for the removal of the wastes from
privies, earth-closets, lanes, streets and premises, and for inspection of the
dumping of said wastes, and to acquire, under clause 48, " Sanitary Regulations, 1896," a piece of land for a dumping ground :
(d.) To issue an order requiring all slaughter-houses to be removed outside
the limits of cities, towns and villages, within a given number of days, unless
said slaughter-houses are in keeping with the specifications, requirements or
regulations regarding slaughter-houses issued by the Provincial Board of
Health. He shall also direct that all pig-styes, hog-feeding establishments
and knackeries shall, when deemed necessary by him, be removed outside the
limits of said city, town or village, unless it is otherwise ordered in any
special case submitted to the Provincial Board of Health.
44. When no Medical Health Officer has been appointed for an Provision where no
outlying district, the Local Board of Health may, for the time being, cl^s'apSinted.081"
authorize any registered medical practitioner to act as Medical Health
Officer for the purpose of enforcing these Regulations.
Disinfection.
45. The manner and means of disinfecting infected or exposed Disinfection,
persons or things, as prescribed in Schedules A to L, inclusive, hereto
annexed, shall be observed in dealing wdth cholera.
46. These regulations may be cited as the " Cholera Regulations, Short title.
1896."
For the Provincial Board of Health.
By Command.
JAMES BAKER,
Provincial Secretary.
J. C. DAVIE,
Chairman.
A. T. WATT,
Secretary.  60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xlix.
or quarantined house, isolation hospital, house of refuge, or other like
building, either as a patient, nurse, or other attendant, shall quit the
same until he has obtained a written certificate from the Medical
Health Officer, certifying that all the necessary precautions, as prescribed in Schedule B (Vide also C and D), have been taken, and that
such person is no longer capable of conveying infection.
19. No person shall enter any infected or quarantined house or No person to enter
isolation hospital or house of refuge, without the permission  of the out permission.
Medical Health Officer.
20. Isolation shall not be discontinued, nor shall quarantine be raised Length of quaran-
tdH6    &C.
on such house, until after the removal or burial of the infected patient,
or until six weeks (or longer, if the Medical Health Officer thinks necessary) from the beginning of the illness, nor until after the thorough
disinfection of the persons infected or exposed to infection, and of the Disinfection,
sick room, clothing, furniture, and other effects (Vide Schedule G), or
of the house itself, if the Medical Health Officer thinks necessary.
21. The Medical Health Officer shall cause such disinfection to be Disinfection to be
carried out under his own direction, and at the cost of the head of the jj_ jj q
house so disinfected, except in a case of known poverty, when the
Medical Health Officer shall have the disinfection carried out at the
cost of the Local Board.
22. When a house is quarantined the Medical Health Officer shall Attendant to be
see that there is an attendant provided to fulfil the outside wants of the house is quaran-
dwellers therein.    Such attendant  shall never enter the  house, but tmed.
shall take orders verbally and at a distance, and place at the entrance
of the bouse everything he has been commissioned to purchase. The
services of such person, as well as everything he is ordered to bring,
are at the expense of the head of the house so quarantined, excepting
in a known case of poverty, when these services, as well as the necessaries of life, shall be furnished at the expense of the Local Board.
All such expenses may be recovered in a summary manner. This who shall also act
person shall further act as guard and shall keep a constant watch over as §uard-
the quarantined house and not permit ingress or egress to or from
such house, except to the attendant physician, or to a clergyman or
other person furnished with a permit from the Medical Health Officer.
The physician or other persons aforesaid shall, on leaving the sickroom or house in quarantine, take the precautions prescribed in
Schedule A, before putting themselves in contact with healthy
persons.
23. Any guard neglecting his duties as prescribed in preceding Neglect of duty, &c,
Rule 22, or failing to obey any order of the Medical Health Officer, ^7^" regula-
shall be guilty of an infraction of these regulations. tions. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xlv.
PROVINCIAL  BOARD  OF HEALTH,
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
RE SCARLET FEVER AND DIPHTHERIA.
Regulations of the Provincial Board of Health, approved by
Order of His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council, dated 30th day of June, 1896.
WHEREAS scarlet fever or diphtheria may at any time break out
in the Province, the Provincial Board of Health, subject to the
approval of the Lieutenant-Governor, enacts the following Regulations :—
Interpretation.
1. "Health District" or "District" in these regulations means any interpretation of
district over which a Local  Board  of Health has jurisdiction, irre- " ^,e2.'.t'j Pls*riot
•' ' or     District.
spective of the manner in which such Local Board is by law constituted
or appointed.
Appointment of Officers.
2. On receipt of a notice forwarded by registered letter, addressed to Medical Health
the head of the Council of any municipality or to its Clerk, and signed Ufllcel'-
by the Chairman and Secretary of the Provincial Board of Health,
requesting the appointment of a Medical Health Officer, the Council
of such municipality shall, within five days from the date of receiving
such notice, appoint a Medical Health Officer and make provision for
reasonable compensation for his services, if such appointment and
provision has not already been made. If the Council refuse or neglect
to make such appointment within five days after receipt of such
notice, the Lieutenant-Governor may, on recommendation of the Provincial Board of Health, or of its Chairman and Secretary, make such
appointment.
3. Whenever the Medical Health Officer requires the assistance of Sanitary police
sanitary police for the purposes of assisting in carrying out the health
regulations in force in the district, he shall temporarily employ one or
more persons as sanitary police until the proper authorities shall have
appointed  sanitary police.     If the  Medical  Health Officer j or^the xlvi.
Provincial Board of Health.
1896
Provincial Board of Health require the appointment of any specified
number of sanitary policemen, then such number shall be appointed.
Should the Council of any municipality refuse or neglect to make
such appointments on the request of the Medical Health Officer, such
appointments may be made by the Provincial Board.
Isolation Hospital—House of Refuge.
Acquiring land. 4. The Provincial Board of Health, the Local Board of Health, or
the Medical Health Officer of any health district may, either with or
without prior agreement, take possession of any unoccupied land or
buildings not being nearer than 150 yards to any inhabited dwelling,
for the purposes of an isolation hospital, or for any of the purposes
mentioned in sections 12 and 13, "Health Act, 1893," subject to the
provisions of sections 20 to 25, both inclusive, with reference to compensation and otherwise. Any title acquired shall vest in Her Majesty
or the municipality, as the case may be. The Local Board of Health
or the Medical Health Officer then shall, or the Provincial Board of
Health may, immediately establish and maintain, at the expense of the
Local Board, on said lands or in said buildings, an isolation hospital,
and a house of refuge to which may be removed the healthy persons
from an infected house, that they may be no longer exposed to
contagion, or which may shelter the members of the household while
their house is being disinfected. There shall also be provided, at the
expense of the Local Board, an ambulance and other necessary conveyances, and also a modern disinfecting apparatus for hospital and general
use. The necessary number of physicians, nurses, guards and other
attendants shall be engaged beforehand to be in readiness to serve
when required. The whole equipment and management of such
isolation hospital and house of refuge shall be such as to satisfy an
officer of the Provincial Board of Health. The house of refuge must
be at least 150 yards from the isolation hospital, unless an officer of
the Provincial Board of Health otherwise allows.
Default of Local Authorities.
5. Any default on the part of the authorities of any district in
taking immediate and effective action in carrying out the regulations
of the Provincial Board of Health, or any of the Health Acts of this
Province, or any Health By-law in force in the district, shall be at
once reported by the Medical Health Officer to the Secretary of the
Provincial Board, in order that the said Board may take such measures
as it deems requisite for placing the said district in a position, as regards
its sanitary arrangements, to effectively combat the said disease.
Notification.
By householder. 6. Whenever any householder knows or suspects that any person
within his family or household has scarlet fever or diphtheria, he shall
immediately, by special messenger when possible, give notice to the
Medical Health Officer.
Isolation hospital;
house of refuge.
Ambulance and disinfecting apparatus.
Employment of physicians, &c.
To be reported to
Provincial Board. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xlvii.
7. Whenever any physician knows or suspects that any person whom By physician,
he is called upon to visit is infected with or has died of scarlet fever
or diphtheria, he shall immediately notify the Medical Health Officer. .
8. Any physician so called shall have, for the purpose of immediately Physician to enforce
isolating the  infected person and  his attendants,  and  at   the   time tine &c.
specified by these regulations (Vide Rule 15) of placing the patient,
attendants, and all other persons remaining in the same house and the
house itself in quarantine, all the powers of the Medical Health
Officer; and the duty of ordering and enforcing such isolation and
quarantine shall devolve upon such physician until the Medical Health
Officer has been notified and has had time to act.
9. Whenever a teacher in any school has reason to suspect that any By school teacher,
pupil is suffering from, or that there exists at the house of any pupil
scarlet fever or diphtheria, he shall notify the Medical Health Officer
immediately, and shall prevent the attendance of said pupil or pupils
until medical evidence that no danger of infection exists has been
obtained.    (Vide section 86, sub-section (3), "Health Act, 1893.")
10. The Medical Health Officer shall, within twenty-four hours, give By Medical Health
notice by registered letter to the Provincial Board of Health  of the noard.
first case of scarlet fever or diphtheria which shall appear in his
district, and shall further furnish every seven days, or oftener if
required, a statement showing the number of new cases developed, the
number of those who have died and the number who have recovered,
and the number who are still sick.
11. The Secretary of the Board shall supply to Medical Health The forms sup-
Officers and others required to make returns to the Board or to give piec ° e usec'
notices, blank forms of such returns or notices; and where such forms
are provided, all returns shall be made and notices given thereon.
Suspected Case.
12. The Medical Health Officer of every district, or  any  of his To be treated as a
medical assistants, having received information of a suspected case of
scarlet fever or diphtheria, shall immediately inquire into the facts,
either by consultation with the attending physician or by his own
personal observation, or by both. If the characteristic symptoms are
not sufficiently developed at the time of investigation, the Medical
Health Officer shall keep the case under his personal observation until
the true nature of the disease is discovered. Until the time has
arrived when in the opinion of the Medical Health Officer all cause for
suspicion of danger is past, the suspected case shall be isolated and
otherwise dealt with in the same manner as prescribed for a case of
scarlet fever or diphtheria. The persons living in the same house, or
who have been in contact with the infected patient, shall also be kept
under observation. xlviii.
Provincial Board of Health.
1896
Stating disease, &c,
to be posted up.
Removal of placard.
Patient,  &c,  to  be
isolated.
Or removed to hospital.
House to be quarantined after six hours.
Healthy persons
may remove within
six hours.
Medical Health Officer may remove
healthy persons.
Persons resident in
infected house or in
quarantine to keep
within certain
boundaries, and to
receive certificate on
dismissal.
Placard.
13. Where there is a case of scarlet fever or diphtheria in any
house, the Medical Health Officer shall cause a placard to be posted in a
conspicuous place on the front of the house, on which shall be printed
in large letters the words " SCARLET FEVER " or "DIPHTHERIA,"
as the case may be, and which shall also state the penalty for removal
of such card without the permission of the Medical Health Officer.
14. No person other than the Medical Health Officer shall remove,
or cause to be removed, such placard, and this only after the place has
been disinfected.
Isolation—Quarantine.
15. Each person having scarlet fever or diphtheria shall be imme-
iately isolated with his attendants and nurse in a separate room, preferably in the upper story of the house, and nothing shall be taken out
of such room without having been previously disinfected as prescribed
in Schedule F. The Medical Health Officer may and shall, if he think
necessary, remove him to an isolation hospital or elsewhere, if such
removal can be effected without danger to life ; and besides such isolation of the patient in a separate room, the house and all the persons
who remain therein for a longer period than six hours after the disease
has broken out shall be quarantined.
16. Any person residing in an infected house, other than the
infected patient or patients, and who wishes to leave for the purpose of
changing his residence, may do so within six hours after the disease
has broken out, provided he obtains leave of the Medical Health
Officer, who must see that he takes all the precautions prescribed in
Schedule C.
17. The Medical Health Officer may and shall, when he considers
such action would prevent other members of the family becoming
infected with the disease, order the removal to a house of refuge (which
shall be provided as already prescribed) or elsewhere, of any children
or other members of the family. He may also order such removal in
order that the house may be disinfected. During their stay there he
shall supply them with all necessaries, and he shall see that no such
person shall go or be permitted to go abroad without having first
obtained his permission in writing, nor until the clothing or effects
worn or carried by him or her have been thoroughly disinfected. The
disinfection of such exposed persons and their effects shall be carried
out on admission to the said building, and again on departure, and
shall be as prescribed in Schedule C
18. Any person being resident in an infected or quarantined house,
isolation hospital, or house of refuge, shall not go beyond the lot on
which such building is situated, or put himself in direct communication with anyone from outside, except by permission of the Medical
Health Officer; and no person who has been an inmate of an infected 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xv.
VII. Offal intended for use as fertilizer shall be at once deposited Offal,
on the land and ploughed in or mixed with and covered by at least
three inches of earth.
VIII. The contents of earth-closets, after being further mixed with Contents of earth
earth, and all stable manure, may be deposited on the surface of any
land intended for cultivation, but shall, without undue delay, be
spaded in or ploughed under; or the contents of earth-closets may be
deposited at a dumping ground, in which case they shall be further
mixed with earth and placed in trenches not deeper than thirty
inches, and regularly covered by three inches of earth.
41. No person shall throw, draw off, or allow to run into, or upon, Befouling of streets,
any public ground, street, or open drain, the  contents,  or any part      ''
thereof, of any vault, water-closet, privy, cesspool or sink, or any filthy
matter of any kind.
Acquiring Land.
48. The Local Board of Health may, subject to the provisions of For crematory, sew-
sections 20 to 25, both inclusive, of the "Health Act, 1893," with ground or other sani°
reference to compensation and otherwise, expropriate and take tary PurPoses-
possession of, enter upon, lease, hold or use any land or building,
whether within or without the limits of the jurisdiction of the
Local Board of Health, and not less than one hundred and fifty
yards from any inhabited dwelling, or at such greater distance as
the Provincial Board of Health may designate, for the purpose of
making or establishing a crematory, a sewer, or system of sewerage, a
sewage farm, a dumping ground for garbage, refuse or excreta, or for
the purpose of preventing the contamination of any public water
supply, or for any of the purposes mentioned in sections 12 or 13 of
the Act: Provided, that land used for a dumping ground for contents Conditions in certain
of earth-closets or decomposable garbage only, or as a sewage farm, or ca
taken for the purpose of preventing the contamination of a water
supply, may still be used for agricultural purposes by the persons
previously in possession, but such land so used shall be under the
supervision of the Local Board of Health and Medical Health Officer,
and shall be so managed as regards crops raised or animals pastured
as may be designated by the Board or Medical Health Officer. The
land used for a dumping ground shall not be less in extent than two
acres for every five hundred persons using the same, and an additional
acre for every additional five hundred persons. All waste material
dumped thereon shall be disposed of as prescribed by these regulations,
and the dumping ground shall be otherwise so managed as not to be a
nuisance. Any land used for the purposes of a crematory shall not be
less in extent than one acre, and land used as a sewage farm, or for
any of the other purposes mentioned, shall be of such acreage as the
Provincial Board of Health or Medical Health Officer may designate
after consideration of the circumstances. xvi. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Penal Clause.
Penalty $100, or im-      49. Any person who violates any provision of these regulations
prisonment, or both    ,    ,, ,     ,.  „ .,.,,, , tj.- c
fine  and   imprison- shall be liable, upon summary conviction belore any two Justices or
ment- the Peace, for every such offence to a fine not exceeding one hundred
dollars, with or without costs, or to imprisonment,  with or  without
hard labour, for a term not exceeding six months, or to both fine and
imprisonment, in the discretion of the convicting Court.
Repeal.
50. The " Sanitary Regulations, 1892," are hereby repealed.
51. These regulations may be cited as the " Sanitary Regulations,
1896."
For the Provincial Board of Health.
J. C DAVIE,
Chairm an.
A. T. WATT,
Secretary.
By Command.
JAMES BAKER,
Provincial Secretary. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xvii.
PROVINCIAL BOARD OF HEALTH,
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
RE  SMALL-POX.
Regulations of the Provincial Board of Health, approved by
Order of His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council dated 30th day of June, 1896.
WHEREAS SMALL-POX may at any time break out in the Province, the Provincial Board of Health, subject to the approval
of the Lieutenant-Governor, enacts the following Regulations:—
1. "Health District" or "District" in these regulations means any "HealthDistrict"
district over which a Local Board of Health has jurisdiction, irre- or     lstrict-
spective of the manner in which such Local Board is by law constituted
or appointed.
Appointment of Officers.
2. On receipt of a notice, forwarded by registered letter addressed Medical Health
to the head of the Council of any municipality, or to its clerk, and
signed by the Chairman and Secretary of the Provincial Board of
Health, requesting the appointment of a Medical Health Officer, the
Council of such municipality shall, within five days from the date of
receiving such notice, appoint a Medical Health Officer, and make
provision for reasonable compensation for his services, if such appointment and provision has not already been made. If the Council refuse
or neglect to make such appointment within five days after receipt of
such notice, the Lieutenant-Governor may, on the recommendation of
the Provincial Board of Health or of its Chairman and Secretary,
make such appointment. XV111.
Provincial Board of Health.
1896
Sanitary Police.
Acquiring land.
3. Whenever the Medical Health Officer in any district requires the
assistance of sanitary police for the purpose of assisting in carrying
out the health regulations in force in the district, he shall temporarily
employ one or more persons as sanitary police until the proper
authorities shall have appointed sanitary police. If the Medical
Health Officer or the Provincial Board of Health require the appointment of any specified number of sanitary policemen, then such number
shall be appointed. Should the Council of any municipality refuse or
neglect to make such appointments on the request of the Medical
Health Officer, such appointments may be made by the Provincial
Board of Health.
Isolation Hospital—Suspect Station.
4. The Provincial Board of Health, the Local Board of Health, or
the Medical Health Officer of any health district may, either with or
without prior agreement, take possession of any unoccupied land or
buildings not being nearer than 150 yards to any inhabited dwelling,
for the purposes of an isolation hospital or for any of the purposes
mentioned in sections 12 and 13, "Health Act, 1893," subject to the
provisions of sections 20 to 25, both inclusive, with reference to compensation and otherwise. Any title acquired shall vest in Her
Majesty or the municipality, as the case may be. The Local Board of
Health or the Medical Health Officer then shall, or the Provincial
Board of Health may, immediately establish and maintain, at the
expense of the Local Board, on said land or in said buildings, an
isolation hospital and two suspect stations, one for the special purpose
of observing persons suspected of having the disease, the other for the
purpose of detaining under observation persons who have been
exposed to infection until the period of incubation of the disease shall
have elapsed.    There shall  also be provided, at the expense of the
Ambulance &c., and Local Board, an ambulance and other necessary conveyances, and also
ratus. a modern disinfecting apparatus for hospital and general use.    The
Employment of necessary number of physicians, nurses, guards, and other attendants
shall be engaged beforehand, to be in readiness to serve when required.
The whole equipment and management of such isolation hospital and
suspect stations shall be such as to satisfy an officer of the Provincial
Board of Health. The suspect station must be at least 150 yards
from the isolation hospital, unless an officer of the Provincial Board
of Health otherwise allows.
Isolation Hospital,
Suspect Station.
To be reported to
Provincial Board.
Default of Local Authorities.
5. Any default on the part of the authorities of any district in
taking immediate and effective action in carrying out the regulations
of the Provincial Board of Health, or any Health Acts of this Province,
or any health by-law in force in the district, shall be at once reported
by the Medical Health Officer to the Secretary of the Provincial
Board of Health, in order that the said Board may take such measures xx. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
small-pox, shall immediately inquire into the facts, either by consultation with the attending physician or by his own personal observation,
or both. If the characteristic symptoms are not sufficiently developed
at the time of investigation, the Medical Health Officer shall keep the
case under his own personal observation at the special suspect station
or elsewhere until the true nature of the disease is discovered. Until
the time has arrived when in the opinion of the Medical Health
Officer all cause for suspicion or danger is past, the suspected case
shall be isolated and otherwise dealt with in the same manner as
prescribed for a case of small-pox. The persons living in the same
house or who have been in contact with the infected patient shall also
be kept under observation. And all such persons and the suspected
Vaccination. person also shall be immediately vaccinated with the most active
vaccine matter procurable.
Placard.
Stating desease, &c, 15. Where there is a case of small-pox in any house, the Medical
Health Officer shall forthwith cause a placard to be posted in a con-
picuous place on the front of the house, on which shall be printed in
large letters the word SMALL-POX, and which shall also state the
penalty for removal of such card without the permission of the Medical
Health Officer.
Removal of placard. 1 (J. No person other than the Medical Health Officer shall remove
or cause to be removed such placard, and this only after the place has
been disinfected.
Isolation—Quarantine.
Patient, &c., to be 17. Every person having small-pox shall be immediately isolated
isolated and house . .   . . , . .. .     . .
quarantined. with ms attendant or nurse m a separate room until suen time as ne can
be removed (as provided in sections 61 and 71, "Health Act, 1893")
to an isolation hospital or elsewhere, and nothing shall be taken out
of such room without having previously been disinfected as prescribed
in Schedule F; and besides such isolation of the patient in a separate
room, the house and all persons residing therein, as well as all other
persons who were exposed to infection, shall be quarantined. The
Medical Health Officer shall then, as soon as possible where such
removal can be effected without danger to life, remove such infected
patient to the isolation hospital, tent, or other place as provided. A
patient shall not be discharged from such isolation hospital until
seven days after all crust and scales have disappeared from the skin
and scalp, and until he has been thoroughly disinfected as prescribed
in Schedule B.
Exposed persons to 18. He shall further place, as soon as possible, in another building
or tent, which shall be provided as already prescribed, all persons who
may have been exposed to the contagion, and shall supply them with
all the necessaries until the period of incubation of the disease shall 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xxi.
have elapsed, and on their admission he shall vaccinate all such persons ^are of such persons
with the most active vaccine lymph procurable, unless they have been be observed.
elsewhere vaccinated since exposed  to infection ; and no such person
shall go or be permitted to go abroad until the period of incubation of
the disease shall have elapsed, nor until the clothing or effects worn or
carried by or with him or her have been properly disinfected.    The
disinfection of such exposed persons and their effects shall be carried
out on admission to the said building and again on departure, and
shall be as prescribed in Schedule C.
19. Persons specially suspected shall be carefully isolated, each in a Precautions against
separate   apartment  or  tent  by  himself.    The   remainder  shall be
segregated in small groups. They shall be inspected by the Medical
Health Officer or his assistants twice daily and be under constant
surveillance, and intercourse shall not be allowed between different
groups. The water and food supply shall be strictly guarded to prevent contamination. Cleanliness and disinfection of quarters and
cleanliness of person shall be enjoined and enforced daily. Any person
who develops small-pox shall be immediately isolated in hospital.
A suspect shall not be discharged from such station or place of deten- Discharge of sus-
tion until after he has been successfully vaccinated or proved Peots-
unsusceptible to the vaccine disease, until after he has been officially
treated as a suspect for sixteen days, provided he shall not have contracted small-pox during that time, and until after final thorough
disinfection of his person, clothing, and other effects.
20. Any person being resident in an infected or quarantined house, Quarantined bound-
isolation hospital, or suspect station shall not go beyond the lot upon ary-
which such building is situated, or put himself in direct communication with any one from outside, except by permission of the Medical
Health Officer, and no person who has been an inmate of an infected Certificate to be re-
or quarantined house, isolation hospital, suspect station, or other like celve on lsmlssa
building, either as a patient, suspect nurse, or other attendant, shall
quit the same until he has obtained a written certificate from the
Medical Health Officer certifying that all the necessary precautions, as
prescribed in Schedule B (vide also C and D) have been taken, and
that such person is no longer capable of conveying infection.
21. No person  shall   enter  any  infected   or  quarantined   house, No person to enter
isolation hospital, or suspect station without the permission of the ou^permisTionW1
Medical Health Officer.
22. Quarantine shall not be raised on such house until after the Length of quaran-
removal or recovery (vide Rule 17) or burial of the infected patient,   lne'
and the subsequent thorough disinfection of the persons infected or
exposed to infection, and of all clothing, furniture, and other effects,
and of the house itself, as prescribed in Schedule G. The Medical
Health Officer shall cause such disinfection to be carried out under
his own direction, and at the cost of the head of the house so disin- xxii. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
fected, except in a case of known poverty, when the Medical Health
Officer shall have the disinfection carried out at the expense of the
Local Board.
Attendant to be pro-     23. When a house is quarantined the Medical Health Officer shall
quarantined. see that there is an attendant provided to fulfil the outside wants of
the dwellers therein. Such attendant shall never enter the house, but
shall take orders verbally and at a distance, and place at the entrance
of the house everything he has been commissioned to purchase. The
services of such a person, as well as everything he is ordered to purchase, are at the expense of the head of the house so quarantined,
excepting in a case of known poverty, when these services, as well as
the necessaries of life, shall be furnished at the expense of the Local
Board; all such expenses may be recovered in a summary manner.
Who shall also act This person shall further act as a guard, and shall keep a constant
watch over the quarantined house, and not permit ingress or egress to
or from such house, except to the attendant physician, or to a clergyman or other person furnished with a permit from the Medical Health
Officer. The physician or other persons aforesaid shall on leaving
the infected premises take the precautions prescribed in Schedule A
before putting themselves in contact with healthy persons.
as guard.
Neglect of duty &c, 24. Any guard neglecting his duties as prescribed in the preceding
rule, or failing to obey any order of the Medical Health Officer, shall
be guilty of an infraction of these regulations.
by guard
Removal—Change of Residence.
To be under direction     25. Any person suffering from small-pox, or who has been exposed
of Local Board.        ^ an(j wn0 jg 0"bliged to change his residence, or whose removal is
ordered, shall not remove, or be removed, from one house to another
in the same  health  district, except by permission of  and under the
direction of the Local Board of Health or its agents.
Permission of  Pro-      26. No person ill with, or who has been exposed to, small-pox shall
vincial Board to be i j i_iij.i_x.jj! l      i t    i
obtained if from one remove, or be removed, nor shall the body of any person who has died
district to another. from small-pox, or any clothing or other property that has been
exposed to small-pox, be removed from one health district to another
without the consent being first obtained of the Provincial Board of
Health, or one of its executive officers, who alone decide according to
the circumstances whether or not such permission may be granted,
and who will see that all the precautions prescribed in rules 30 and
32 are taken, as well as any others that may be necessary, if such
permission is granted.
Clothing, &c, to be 21. No clothing or other property shall be removed from one
infected house to any other place, except it be first disinfected as
prescribed in Schedule G, and except in a vehicle named in rule 30
for the purpose of such disinfection by the Local Board or its agents. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xxiii.
28. The Local Board or the  Medical Health Officer of the district Expenses to be
to which such person or thing is to be removed, may refuse entrance
to their district only when a satisfactory guarantee is not made that
any expenses subsequently incurred on behalf of such person or thing
will be defrayed by the person making such guarantee.
29>. Until the publication of notice in the Gazette removing the Importation of rags,
prohibition, no rags or clothing shipped by boat, rail, car, or other c-> P1011 1 e •
conveyance as merchandise from infected localities shall be landed, or
permitted to be landed, in any part of the Province unless accompanied by a properly authenticated certificate from a Health Officer
appointed under the " Health Act, 1893," or from some person
approved of by the Provincial Board of Health, certifying that the
said articles had been properly disinfected before shipment, or were
free from infection.
30. No other conveyance shall be used for the removal of persons Kind of conveyance
suffering from, or who have been exposed to, or who have died of.
small-pox than an ambulance, a private vehicle, a yacht, a row-boat,
or other vessel of the same kind and dimensions, except by permission
of the Provincial Board of Health. No person, other than the nurse
or nurses, the driver or boatman, shall accompany the patient or
approach him on the road. The nature of the disease shall be made
known to the boatman or driver.
31. No driver, boatman, railway conductor, master or owner of No driver, &c, to re-
-, iv i    n   i •      i i   move  infected   per-
any  vessel or public conveyance,  shall knowingly carry any such aon  &0_   without
infected person, or exposed person or thing, without a written order Permlt-
from the Medical Health Officer or Provincial Medical Inspector, as
the case may require.    (Vide Rule 30.)
_*«;
2. The Medical Health Officer shall disinfect, or cause to be disin- Medical Health Offi-
fected by the owner thereof, the vehicle or boat used for the transfer f^tfenfe^^dotf."
of such person, with everything left therein, in the manner described
in Schedule I, before using again for the transfer of healthy persons.
The Medical Health Officer shall also see that the driver or boatman
and the nurses shall disinfect themselves in the manner described in
Schedule D. After the departure of such person the Medical Health
Officer shall see that the house and the effects contained therein are
disinfected in the manner described in Schedule G.
Funeral Interment.
33. In case of the death of any person suffering from small-pox Medical Health Offi-
the bodv shall be kept isolated up to the moment of the funeral in °fT.to s.ee *hat jU!!er_
J r i al is private and that
the room occupied by such person during his illness.    The Medical disinfection is  car-
Health Officer shall be at once notified by the attending physician or
person in charge of the body, and the Medical Health Officer shall
cause the body to be enveloped in a sheet thoroughly saturated with a
1-500 solution of mercuric chloride (2 drams to the gallon).    An outer xxiv. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
sheet shall also be applied to prevent evaporation. As soon as possible the body shall be placed in a coffin (which shall be brought no
further than the door of the sick room) and the coffin shall be immediately thereafter permanently closed. It shall further be the duty of
the Medical Health Officer to see that the funeral be strictly private, the
burial in all cases to take place within 24 hours after death. No one
shall attend the funeral or burial of any such person except the
officiating clergyman, or unless he is strictly indispensable for the
transport or burial of such body. No such body shall be taken into
any church, but shall be conveyed without delay, to some cemetery
commonly used for persons dying within the district. The Medical
Health Officer shall also see that all the infected apartments, clothing
and other effects be destroyed by fire or otherwise speedily and
thoroughly disinfected, and that no such apartments be entered or
occupied by members of the family or other persons until they have
been so disinfected. He shall afterwards see that the undertaker and
other persons who have been in contact with the body are disinfected
as prescribed in Schedules A or D, as the case may require, and that
the hearse or waggon and funeral trappings be disinfected as prescribed
in Schedule I.
Provincial Medical Inspectors.
Appointment. 34. With a view  of preventing the introduction and spread of
small-pox, the Provincial Board of Health, or a committee thereof,
may appoint Provincial Medical Inspectors, who shall possess all the
powers conferred upon any officer or member of the Provincial Board,
or any member or officer of a Local Board of Health in his capacity
as Health Officer. Such Medical Inspectors shall perform such duties
as shall be assigned to them by the Provincial Board, and may board
all trains and vessels arriving from or leaving an infected locality,
and every such Inspector may take, in respect to any person's
baggage, freight or effects, any sanitary precautions prescribed or
authorized by the Provincial Board, which, in the opinion of the
Inspector are necessary or expedient for guarding against the introduction or spread of small-pox in British Columbia.
Medical Health Offi-     35. The Medical Officer of every Municipality is, without further
cer to act as inspect- app0mtment, to be considered to be and it shall devolve upon him to
or of incoming ves-    rr > r
sels, &c. perform the duties of a Medical Inspector in so far as and inasmuch
as he is hereby empowered and required to inspect all trains and
vessels and other conveyances arriving within his district from an
infected locality, and to take the same action with regard to such
vessels, trains, etc., as may be performed by or required of Provincial
Medical Inspectors.
Local officers to as-     36. Medical Health Officers, and all other Local Health Officers,
ical Inspectors. shall, whenever required by the Medical Inspectors appointed by the
Provincial Board of Health, aid such Inspectors in providing for and 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xxix.
vaccination and unvaccinated, shall at the expiration of every succeeding period of two months deliver, if required, to the father or mother
of the child, or to the person having the care, nurture, or custody of
the child, a fresh certificate under his hand according to Form
C appended to these Rules.
50. In the event of a medical practitioner employed under the Certificate of insus-
provisions of these Rules, or any other duly qualified medical prac- cination.
titioner, being of the opinion that any child as aforesaid that has been
vaccinated by him is insusceptical to the vaccine disease, he shall
deliver to the father or mother of the child, or to the person having
as aforesaid the care, nurture, or custody of the child, a certificate
under bis hand according to Form C appended to these Rules.
51. The production of a certificate, according to  Forms A or C, Certificates as a de-
under the hand of a legally qualified medical practitioner shall be a piamt
sufficient defence against any such complaint for non-compliance with
the provisions of these Rules, but the production of a certificate according to Form B shall not be a sufficient defence unless the vaccination
is thereby postponed to a day subsequent to that on which the complaint is brought.
52. In every Health District where small-pox exists, or in which Re vaccination after
in the  opinion of the Provincial  Board  of Health  or the Medical    yeals-
Health   Officer  there  is   danger  of its breaking out owing to the
facility of communication with infected localities, the Medical Health
Officer shall require the vaccination or revaccination of all persons
resident within his jurisdiction who have not been vaccinated within
seven years, and that such vaccination or revaccination shall be carried
out in so far as the same may be applicable in the same manner as for
the vaccination of children.
53. In every such Health District, every person of an age to make
him legally responsible who has not been successfully vaccinated
within seven years (the proof, by marks upon the body or otherwise, thereof shall lie upon the person alleging himself to have
been so vaccinated), or who does not hold a medical certificate of his
or her insusceptibility at the then present time to vaccination, shall
procure the vaccination of himself or herself withen seven days of
being requested in writing by the Medical Health Officer to obtain
vaccination, or within a like period after public notification by the
Provincial Board of Health or Medical Health Officer directing
general vaccination of the inhabitants of the district has been
issued; and in case such vaccination is not successful, every
such person shall have the operation repeated until the same is
successfully performed, or he or she obtains a certificate of insusceptibility to vaccine disease. A proclamation, signed by the Chairman of
the Provincial Board of Health or by the Medical Health Officer, and
published in posters and in at least one newspaper within the Health 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xxv.
compelling the removal of suspected and infected persons from trains
or boats, and for isolating and vaccinating such persons, and for
supplying them with medical aid, at the expense of the Local Board
in all cases where the persons for which such duties are performed
are unable to pay therefor, when such persons are resident in the
district by which they are taken care of, otherwise the expense
attendant upon the discharge of such duties for such poor persons
shall be born by the Provincial Board.
37. When any vessel coming from an infected locality enters any Medical Health Offi-
, , .. ,, „    ' .   j>     ,    -,  cer   to   inspect   in-
port, or when any rail-car or other conveyance coming from an infected coming vessels &c.
locality comes into any station or place, the Medical Health Officer
shall act as Medical Inspector, and shall, or the Provincial Medical
Inspector may, cause to be made a strict inspection of the vessel, rail-
car, or other conveyance, and examination of passengers, officers and
crew, luggage, clothing, bedding, freight, or other effects before any
person, luggage, freight, or other thing is landed, or allowed to be
landed from it, and when any infected or exposed person is found on
board, he or she shall be dealt with in the manner directed in these
regulations, and no baggage, freight, or other thing, shall be landed
until it has been thoroughly disinfected, and the vessel, railcar, or
other conveyance shall likewise be disinfected.
38. No vessel, rail-car, or other conveyance, shall be permitted to Provincial   Medical
, ,» -piii       tj .-i • i" ini i Inspector to inspect
depart from an infected locality until an inspection shall have  been outg0ing vessels, &c
made in manner provided by  the  preceding rule by a  Provincial
Medical Inspector, and until any infected or exposed person found
shall have been dealt with in the manner directed and until any
required disinfection shall have been carried out.
3 J). The Inspector may require any person travelling on any such Certificate of vac-
■ i     •,! , i j? ■     !• vi j.-j2    cination to be pro-
train or vessel eitber to produce tor examination a medical certm- ,juce(j
cate of such person having been vaccinated within the preceding
seven years or being at the present time insusceptible to vaccination,
or to exhibit to such Inspector the marks upon his person of successful vaccination such as to satisfy the Inspector that the same has been
performed within seven years, and on default the Inspector is hereby
empowered to vaccinate such person, or cause him to be vaccinated,
either before he is permitted to board or leave the train or vessel, or
immediately thereafter, at his discretion. Every person travelling Persons travelling to
shall answer truthfully all reasonable questions which an Inspector &"swer 1uestl0us>
or Medical Health Officer shall in the performance of his duty ask
such person in reference to the place such person has been at and his
stay there, during the sixteen days next preceding such inquiry
being made; and in case such person refuses to answer, or does not
satisfy the Inspector by his answers, or refuses to submit to
vaccination, the Inspector shall be justified in treating such person as
a suspect. xxvi. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Regulations govern-      40   xhe Medical Inspectors and Health Officers to whom is assigned
nig Medical Inspect- _ x , a
ors. the duty of inspecting trains and boats shall, in respect to duties herein
mentioned, be governed by the following rules:—
(a.) A Provincial Medical Inspector shall attend at the railway station or
steamboat wharf a reasonable time before the departure of every boat or train
going out, and shall, whenever he deems it expedient, take passage on such
boat or train :
(b.) The Medical Health Officer, or his deputy, shall meet every vessel or
train arriving within his district :
(c.) He shall notice whether passengers have tickets direct from an infected
locality, or whether the dates on the ticket show that the passenger has
probably stopped over at such locality or elsewhere :
(d.) He shall note the destination of such persons :
(e.) He shall obtain information as to the quarters whence they have come,
and whether there is any reason to suspect their being infected :
(f) If the Inspector believes that any such person is infected, or that his
or her clothing or other effects contain infection, the Inspector shall detain
such person, and his or her clothing and effects as aforesaid, until the period
of incubation is over, and such person and his clothing and other effects shall
be at once disinfected :    (Vide Schedule C.)
(g.) If he only suspects that.any person on board, or the effects of any such
person have been exposed to infection, he shall notify the Medical Health
Officer of the locality to which the person is going to meet the train or boat,
and to keep the person thereafter under observation :
(h.) In either of the cases mentioned in the two preceding rules, unless the
person believed to be conveying or suspected of conveying contagion, shows
satisfactory proof of vaccination within seven years or of insusceptibility to
the vaccine disease, he shall forthwith be vaccinated, and if necessary shall
be detained by the Local Health Officer or the Provincial Medical Inspector
until vaccinated by him or some other proper person :
(i.) The action to be taken in the event of a case of small-pox being discovered is shortly as follows :—(a) Detention, disinfection, isolation of persons affected or exposed to infection; (b) disinfection of car or boat (vide
Schedule H); (c) vaccination of all persons who have been exposed to contagion or suspected of conveying contagion; (d) the treatment as a suspect
of any person who refuses to be vaccinated ; (e) notification of the Local
Board or Health Officers at places of destination.
Provincial Medical 41. Provincial Medical Inspectors shall, whenever directed by the
certain inquiries. Provincial Board of Health to investigate the sanitary condition of
any health district with regard especially to the duties laid upon Local
Boards of Health and their officers by the " Health Act, 1893," or by
those or any other rules, and they shall promptly report to the Secretary of the Provincial Board any neglect or omission on the part of
any Local Board or Medical Health Officer to carry into effect any
Order in Council made under the " Health Act, 1893." Such Inspectors
shall especially inquire into:—
(a.) The appointment of a Medical Health Officer :
(b.) The possession of land for isolation hospital purposes :
(c.) The possession of an isolation hospital, or tent hospital, and a suspect
station :
(d.) The proper equipment of hospital or suspect station in matters necessary for the nursing of the sick and for the care of suspected persons :
(e.) The appointment of public vaccinators :
(f) The manner and extent in which vaccination is enforced. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xxvii.
42. When the case appears to be urgent, owing to the presence of Provincial Medical
small-pox in the Province, or immediately contiguous thereto, the auXiri°ed to^er^
Lieutenant-Governor in Council may authorize the Provincial Medical form any duty °f
. Local Board.
Inspectors, or any of them, to perform any duty belonging to any
Local Board of Health or Medical Health Officer, and which is neglected by such Local Board or Medical Health Officer, the expenses
incurred therein to be paid by the Local Board, saving and except the
salary and expenses of the Provincial Inspector.
Vaccination.
43. The Local Boards of Health of every Health District shall Appointment of pub-
each contract with the Medical Health Officer, or with some legally
qualified practitioner or practitioners, for the period of one year, and
so from year to year as such contract expires, for the vaccination, at
the expense of the Local Board, of all poor persons, and at their own
expense of all other persons resident in the district who come to such
medical practitioner or practitioners for that purpose. It shall be a
condition of every such contract that the amount of the remuneration
to bo received under the same shall depend on the number of persons
who, not having been previously successfully vaccinated, are successfully vaccinated by such medical practitioner or practitioners
respectively, so contracting.
44. It shall be incumbent upon the Local Board to arrange suitable Notice to be given of
times and places for vaccination, and to give public notice thereof.        cinationC '   "" Va°
45. The father or mother of every child born in any of the said Vaccination of
Health Districts shall, at some appointed time within three months l   an s'
after the birth of such child, or in the event of death, illness, absence
or inability of the father or mother, then the person who has the care,
nurture or custody of the child, shall within four months after the
birth of the child, cause the child to be taken to some medical practitioner appointed under the preceding sections of these Rules, at an
appointed time and place, for the purpose of being vaccinated, and
then and there shall permit the child to be vaccinated, unless the
child has been previously vaccinated by some legally qualified medical
practitioner and the vaccination duly certified; and the medical practitioner so appointed shall, and he is hereby required thereupon to,
vaccinate the child, or to do so as soon afterwards as it can conveniently and properly be done. This Rule, and Rules 46 and 47,
shall also apply to all children becoming resident in any health district, and such children shall, for the purposes of these Rules, be
considered as children born in the district at the date they became
resident within it.
46. Upon the eighth day following the day on which any child child to be brought
has been vaccinated as aforesaid, the father or mother or other person baok. 8. days a*ter:
r wards to ascertain it
having the care, nurture or custody of the child as aforesaid, shall vaccination  is  sue-
again take or cause the child to be taken to the medical practitioner ces xxviii. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
by whom the operation was performed, or other similarly appointed
medical practitioner in attendance as aforesaid, in order that the
medical practitioner may ascertain by inspection the result of the
operation.
Certificate  to  be 47. Upon and immediately after the successful vaccination of a
successful7 Cma 10n child born in any health district, the medical practitioner who performed the operation shall deliver to the father or mother or other
person as aforesaid a certificate under his hand, according to Form A
appended to these Rules, that the child has been successfully vaccinated, and shall also transmit a duplicate of the said certificate to the
Secretary of the Local Board of the district wherein the operation
was performed.
Certificate of unfit- 48. If any medical practitioner appointed as aforesaid is of opinion
that a child brought to him as aforesaid is not in a fit and proper
state to be successfully vaccinated, he shall deliver to the father or
mother of the child, or other person having its custody, on demand,
and without fee or reward, a certificate under his hand, according to
Form B appended to these Rules, that the child is in an unfit state
for successful vaccination.
Such certificate to       49. Such certificate, or any similar certificate of a legally qualified
remain in force for j.     , ,.,. .. i -i i   i c ■ i      i    -i
two months. medical practitioner, respecting any  child  born  as aforesaid,  shall
remain in force for two months from its delivery; and the father or
mother of the child, or the person having the care, nurture, or custody
of the child as aforesaid, shall (unless they have within each succeeding period of two months obtained from a legally qualified medical
practitioner a renewal of such certificate) within two months after the
delivery of the said certificate as aforesaid, and if the child is not
vaccinated at or by the termination of such period of two months,
then during each succeeding period of two months until the child has
been successfully vaccinated, take, or cause to be taken, to the medical
practitioner so appointed as aforesaid, such child to be vaccinated by
him; and if the said medical practitioner deems the child to be then
in a fit and proper state for such successful vaccination, he shall forthwith vaccinate it accordingly, and shall upon or immediately after the
successful vaccination of the child deliver to the father or mother of
the child, or the person having the care, nurture, or custody of the
child as aforesaid, a certificate under his hand, according to the Form A
appended to these rules, that the child has been successfully vaccina-
ated; but if the medical practitioner is of opinion that the said child is
still in an unfit state for successful vaccination, then he shall again
deliver to the father or mother of the child, or the person having the
care, nurture, or custody of the child as aforesaid, a certificate under
his hand, according to Form B appended to these rules, that the child
is still in an unfit state for successful vaccination; and the said
medical practitioner, so long as the child remains in an unfit state for xxx. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
District, or in case where there is no such paper, then in a newspaper
circulating in the district and which is selected by the Board, warning
the public that this rule is in force, shall be sufficient evidence to
secure the conviction of any person not complying with the requirements of the same within a period of seven days from publication of
the proclamation. And in the case of all children who have never
been successfully vaccinated, and of all children of the age of fourteen
years or upwards, and who have not been successfully vaccinated
within seven years, the father or head of a family resident in the
district, and every schoolmaster or person keeping a school within
the district, and every other person having the care and charge
of children and young persons, shall cause all persons under the care
of any such head of a family, schoolmaster, or other person to be
brought, within seven days of the proclamation of this rule, or sooner
if so required by the Chairman of the Provincial Board of Health or
a Medical Health Officer, or an Inspector appointed under these Rules,
for the purpose of vaccination, to a medical practitioner appointed
under these Rules; and in case such vaccination is not successful,
every such person shall have the operation repeated until the same is
successfully performed or a certificate is obtained that the child is not
susceptible to vaccination.
School Trustees may 54. The Trustees of any School or High School may provide that
no child shall be permitted to attend school without producing a
certificate of successful vaccination, or that the child is insusceptible
to vaccination.
Medical Health Offi- 55. Whenever, owing to the presence or threatened presence of
tiflcateTfrom "school small-pox in any Health District, the Provincial Board of Health or
children, &c. tne Medical Health Officer deems it necessary the Medical Health
Officer shall require a certificate of successful vaccination from each
child attending any public school, or a certificate that such child is at
that present time insusceptible to vaccination. And also, in the case
of students attending High Schools or Colleges, he shall require from
all such students certificates of successful vaccination within seven
years, or a certificate of insusceptibility to vaccination at the present
time. The certificates shall be presented on demand to the teacher or
other proper authority.
Nurses, &c, to be 56. No person shall be employed as Sanitary Inspector, or police-
vaccma e . man, nurse, guard, or other attendant in or about any quarantined
house, small-pox hospital or suspect station, or as an undertaker,
disinfector, or driver of an ambulance, unless he or she has had smallpox or submits to vaccination; such persons shall be vaccinated,
lymph procurable, by the Medical Health Officer.
Hospitals to keep on     5T. The Trustees, Governors, Directors, or other officers or persons
vaccine SUPP y        having at any time the control and management of any hospital or
dispensary, receiving aid from the public funds of this Province, shall 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xxxi.
keep at all times in such hospital or dispensary, an adequate supply
of vaccine matter for the following purposes, viz.:—
(1.) The vaccination by a legally qualified medical practitioner
attached to such hospital or dispensary, at the expense of the
same, of all poor persons who attend at such hospital or dispensary for that purpose during one day in every week:
(2.) The furnishing, on payment of the cost price to each and every
legally qualified medical practitioner, such reasonable quantities
of the said matter as he from time to time requires :
(3.) The furnishing, on payment of cost price to any Indian Agent
or his assistant, such reasonable quantities of the said matter
as he may from time to time require for the use and benefit of
any settlement of Indians.
58. Where no Medical Health  Officer has  been appointed for an Provision where no
outlying district, the Local Board of Health may, for the time being, * er ig Appointed,
authorize any registered medical practitioner to act as Medical Health
Officer for the purpose of carrying out these Regulations.
50. The manner and means of disinfecting infected or exposed
persons or things, as prescribed in Schedules A to L, inclusive, hereto
annexed, shall be observed in dealing with small-pox.
Repeal.
60. The " Provincial Health Regulations, 1892 "; the " Supplementary Provincial Health Regulations, 1892 " ; the " Declaratory and
Amending Health Rules, 1892," and the " Repealing Health Rules,
1892," are hereby repealed.
61. These Regulations may be cited as the " Small-pox Regulations,
1896."
Form A.
Certificate of Vaccination.
I, the undersigned, hereby certify that , aged
of , has been successfully vaccinated by me
(Signed)        A. B.
Dated this day of , 18    . xxxii. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Form B.
Certificate of Unfitness for Vaccination.
I, the undersigned, hereby certify that I am of opinion that
, of , aged , is not now in a fit and proper
state to be successfully vaccinated, and I do hereby postpone the vaccination until the day of
(Signed)       A. B.
Dated this day of , 18    .
Form C.
Certificate of Insusceptibility to Vaccine Disease.
I, the undersigned, hereby certify that I am of opinion that
, of , is insusceptible of the vaccine disease.
(Signed)        A. B.
Dated this day of , 18    .
For the Provincial Board of Health.
J. C DAVIE,
Chairman.
A. T. WATT,
Secretary.
By Command.
JAMES BAKER,
Provincial Secretary. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xxxiii
PROVINCIAL BOAEE OF HEALTH,
BRITISH    COLUMBIA.
RE   CHOLERA.
Regulations of the Provincial Board of Health, approved by
Order of His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor in Council
dated 30th day of June, 1896.
WHEREAS the Province appears to be threatened with cholera
during the present year, the Provincial Board of Health, subject
to the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor, enacts the following
Regulations :—
Interpretation.
1. " Health District " or " District " in these regulations means any "Health District'
district over which a Local Board of Health has jurisdiction, irre- or      18 no "
spective of the manner in which such Local Board is by law constituted
or appointed.
Appointment of Officers.
%. On receipt of a notice, forwarded by registered letter addressed Medical Health
to the head of the Council of any municipality, or to its clerk, and
signed by the Chairman and Secretary of the Provincial Board of
Health, requesting the appointment of a Medical Health Officer, the
Council of such municipality shall, within five days from the date of
receiving such notice, appoint a Medical Health Officer, and make
provision for reasonable compensation for his services, if such appointment and provision has not already been made. If the Council refuse
or neglect to make such appointment within five days after receipt of
such notice, the Lieutenant-Governor may, on the recommendation of
the Provincial Board of Health or of its Chairman and Secretary, make
such appointment. XXX1V.
Provincial Board of Health.
1896
Sanitary Police.
Acquiring land.
Isolation hospital,
Suspect station.
Ambulance, &c.
Disinfecting apparatus.
Employment of
physicians, ko.
To be reported to
Provincial Board.
3. Whenever the Medical Health Officer requires the assistance of
sanitary police for the purpose of assisting in carrying out the health
regulations in force in the district, he shall temporarily employ one or
more persons as sanitary police until the proper authorities shall have
appointed sanitary police. If the Medical Health Officer or the Provincial Board of Health require the appointment of any specified
number of sanitary policemen then such number shall be appointed.
Should the Council of any municipality refuse or neglect to make such
appointments on the request of the Medical Health Officer such appointments may be made by the Provincial Board of Health.
Isolation Hospital—Suspect Station.
4. The Provincial Board of Health, the Local Board of Health, the
Medical Health Officer of any health district may, either with or without prior agreement, take possession of any unoccupied land or buildings not being nearer that 150 yards to any inhabited dwelling for the
purposes of an isolation hospital, or for any of the purposes mentioned
in sections 12 and 13, " Health Act, 1893," subject to the provisions of
sections 20 to 25, both inclusive, with reference to compensation and
otherwise. Any title acquired shall vest in Her Majesty or the municipality, as the case may be. The Local Board of Health or the Medical
Health Officer then shall, or the Provincial Board of Health may,
immediately establish and maintain, at the expense of the Local Board,
on said lands or in said buildings an isolation hospital and two suspect
stations, one for the special purpose of observing persons suspected of
having the disease, the other for the purpose of detaining under
observation persons who have been exposed to infection, until the
period of incubation of the disease shall have elapsed. There shall
also be provided, at the expense of the Local Board, an ambulance and
other necessary conveyances, and also a modern disinfecting apparatus
for hospital and general purposes. The necessary number of physicians, nurses, guards and other attendants shall be engaged beforehand,
to be in readiness to serve when required. The whole equipment and
management of such isolation hospital and suspect station shall be
such as to satisfy an officer of the Provincial Board of Health. The
suspect station must be at least 150 yards from the isolation hospital,
unless an officer of the Provincial Board otherwise allows.
Default of Local Authorities.
5. Any default on the part of the authorities of any district in
taking immediate and effective action in carrying out the regulations
of the Provincial Board of Health, or any Health Acts of this Province,
or any health by-law in force in the district, shall be at once reported
by the Medical Health Officer to the Secretary of the Provincial Board,
in order that the said Board may take such measures as it deems
requisite for placing the said district in a position, as regards its sanitary arrangements, to effectively combat the said disease, 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xxxix.
refuse entrance to their district only when a satisfactory guarantee is
not made that any expenses subsequently incurred on behalf of such
person or thing will be defrayed by the person making such guarantee.
30. Until the publication of notice in the Gazette removing the Importation of rags,
prohibition, no rags or clothing shipped by boat, railcar or other con- c''
veyance, as merchandise from infected localities, shall be landed or
permitted to be landed in any part of the Province unless accompanied
by a properly authenticated certificate from the Health Officer
appointed under the " Health Act, 1893," or from some person approved
of by the Provincial Board of Health, certifying that the said articles
had been properly disinfected before shipment or were free from
infection.
30. No other conveyance shall be used for the removal of persons Kind of conveyance
suffering from, or who have been exposed to, or who have died of   °   e usec'
cholera than an ambulance, a private vehicle, a yacht, a row boat or
other vessel of the same kind and dimensions, except by permission of
the Provincial Board of Health. No person other than the nurse or
nurses, the driver, or boatman, shall accompany the patient or
approach him on the road. The nature of the disease shall be made
known to the driver or boatman.
31. No driver, boatman, railway conductor, master, or owner of No drivers, &c, to
any vessel or public conveyance, shall knowingly, carry any such remov'\i1lf^teermiT
infected or exposed person or thing without a written order from the
Medical Health Officer or Provincial Medical Inspector, as the case
may require (vide Rule 30).
33. The  Medical  Health  Officer shall  disinfect,   or   cause   to  be Medical Health Offi-
disinfected by the owner thereof, the vehicle or boat used for the Infection6 is  carried
transfer of such person, with every thing left therein, in the manner out-
described in Schedule I, before using again for the transfer of healthy
persons.    The Medical Health Officer shall also see that the driver or
boatman and the nurses shall be disinfected in the manner described
in Schedule C.    The Medical Health Officer shall see that such person
before removal is clothed in uncontaminated clothing throughout, and
that no infected blankets or other things are taken along.    He shall
also see that sawdust or rags are provided to receive the excreta.
After the departure of such person the Medical Health Officer shall
see that the house and the effects contained therein are disinfected in
the manner described in Schedule G.
Funeral—Interment.
33. In case of the death of any person suffering from cholera, the Medical Health Offi-
body shall be kept isolated up to the moment of the funeral in the <?er to,se? tllat. the
•* -"■ ... funeral    is    private
room occupied by such person during his illness.    The Medical Health and   that   disinfec-
Officer shall be at once notified, either by the physician or person in 0^'   c'' 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xxxv.
Notification.
6. Whenever any householder knows or suspects that any person By householder,
within his family or household  has the cholera, or has died from
cholera, he shall immediately, by special messenger when possible,
give notice to the Medical Health Officer.
7. Whenever any physician knows  or suspects that any person By physician.
whom he is called upon to visit is infected with or has died from
cholera, he shall immediately notify the Medical Health Officer.
8. Any physician so called shall have, for the purpose of isolating Physician to enforce
. ii- -, -, • temporary quaran
tine infected person and his attendants, and of placing the patient, tine.
attendants, and all other persons residing in the same house, and the
house itself, in quarantine, all the powers of the Medical Health
Officer, and the duty of ordering and enforcing such immediate isolation and quarantine shall devolve upon such physician, until the
Medical Health Officer has been notified and has had time to act.
9. Whenever a teacher in any school has reason to suspect that any By school teacher,
pupil is suffering from cholera, or that cholera exists at the house of
any pupil, he shall notify the Medical Health Officer immediately, and
shall prevent the attendance of said pupil or pupils until medical
evidence that no danger of infection exists has been obtained. (Vide
sec. 86, sub-sec. (3), " Health Act, 1893.")
10. When cholera is present in the Province, or there is imminent Choleraic Diarrhoea
i » ., iiiiii j.i    j. to be reported,
danger of its presence, any householder who knows that any person l
within his family or household has choleraic diarrhoea, shall immediately notify the Medical Health Officer.
11. When cholera is present in the Province, or there is imminent Choleraic Diarrhoea
-, n   ., i       •   • i      ■ n    i i_       ■  -j. to be reported.
danger of its presence, any physician who is called upon to visit any
person suffering from choleraic diarrhoea shall immediately give
written notice to the Medical Health Officer.
13. The Medical Health Officer shall immediately give notice, by By Medical Health
telegraph, to the Provincial Board of Health of  the first case of Board,
cholera which shall appear in his district, and shall further furnish,
every seven days, or  oftener  if  required, a statement  showing the
number of new cases developed, the number of those who have died,
and the number of those who have recovered and who are still sick.
13. The Secretary of the Board shall supply to  Medical Health The forms supplied
Officers, and others required to make returns to the Board or to give   °  e use •
notices, blank forms of such returns or notices; and where such forms
are provided, all returns shall be made and notices given thereon.
Suspected Case.
14. The Medical  Health  Officer of  every district, or any of his To be treated as true
assistants, having received information of a suspected case of cholera. xxxvi. Provincial Board of Health. 1896
shall immediately inquire into the facts, either by consultation with
the attending physician or by his own personal observation, or by
both. If the characteristic symptons are not sufficiently developed at
the time of investigation, the Medical Health Officer shall keep the
case under his own personal observation, at the special suspect station
or elsewhere, until the true nature of the disease is discovered. Until
the time has arrived when, in the opinion of the Medical Health
Officer, all cause or suspicion of danger is past, the suspected case shall
be isolated and otherwise dealt with in the same manner as prescribed
for a case of cholera. The persons living in the same house or who
have been in contact with the infected patient shall also be kept under
observation.
Placard.
Stating disease to 15. Where there is  a  case of cholera in any house, the Medical
be poste   up. Health Officer shall forthwith cause a placard to be posted in a con
spicuous place on the front of the house, on which shall be printed in
large letters the word " CHOLERA," and which shall also state the
penalty for the removal of such card without the permission of the
Medical Health Officer.
Removal of placard. 16. No person other than the Medical Health Officer shall remove
or cause to be removed such placard, and this only after the place has
been disinfected.
Isolation—Quarantine.
Patient, &c, to be \7. Every person having cholera shall be immediately isolated
quarantined. °USe with his attendant or nurse in a separate room, until such time as he can
be removed (as provided in sections 61 and 71, "Health Act, 1893") to an
isolation hospital or elsewhere, and nothing shall be taken out of such
room without having previously been disinfected, as prescribed in
Schedule F; and besides such isolation of the patient in a separate
room, the house and all persons residing therein, as well as all other
persons who were exposed to infection, shall be quarantined. The
Medical Health Officer shall then, as soon as possible, where such
removal can be effected without danger to life, remove such infected
patient to the isolation hospital, tent, or other place provided.
Exposed persons to 18. He shall further place, as soon as possible, in another building
or tent, which shall be provided as already prescribed, all persons who
may have been exposed to the contagion, and shall supply them with
all necessaries until the period of incubation of the disease shall have
elapsed; and no such person shall go or be permitted to go abroad
Precautions to be until the period of incubation of the disease has elapsed, nor until the
clothing or effects worn or carried by or with him or her have been
properly disinfected. The disinfection of such exposed persons and
their effects shall be carried out on admission to the said buildings,
and again on departure, and shall be as prescribed in Schedule C.
observed. 60 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. xxxvii.
19. Persons specially suspected shall be carefully isolated, each in Precautions against
a separate apartment or tent by himself.    The remainder shall be
segregated in small groups. They shall be inspected by the Medical
Health Officer or his assistants twice daily, and be under constant
surveillance, and intercourse shall not be allowed between different
groups. The water and food supply shall be strictly guarded to
prevent contamination. In any group in which cholera appears, the
sick shall be immediately isolated in the hospital, and the remaining
persons in the group shall again undergo disinfection, and be detained
not less than five days thereafter. After five days from last exposure
to infection, any group among which no choleraic disease has developed may be released from quarantine, after a final disinfection of
clothing. Food of a simple character, sufficient in quantity, thoroughly cooked, shall be issued to those detained in quarantine. No
fruit shall be permitted. Cleanliness and disinfection of quarters and
cleanliness of person shall be enjoined and enforced daily. Disinfectants shall be used where there is any possibility of infection. Water
closets, urinals, privies or troughs shall be provided and means used
for their disinfection, as prescribed in Schedule J, before their
contents are discharged into pits of unslacked lime.
20. Any person being resident in an infected house or quarantined Quarantine bound-
house, isolation hospital or suspect station, shall not go beyond the   ry'
lot on which such building is situated, or put himself in direct communication with anyone from outside, except by permission of the
Medical Health Officer; and no person who has been an inmate of an Certificate to be reinfected or quarantined house, isolation hospital, suspect station, or
other like building, either as a patient, suspect, nurse or other
attendant, shall quit the same until he has obtained a written certificate from the Medical Health Officer, certifying that all the necessary
precautions, as described in Schedule B (vide also C and D), have been
taken, and that such person is no longer capable of conveying
infection.
21. No person shall   enter  any  infected   or   quarantined  house, No person to enter
isolation hospital or suspect station, without the permission of the
Medical Health Officer.
ed on dismissal.
infected house without permission.
23. Quarantine shall not be raised on such house until after the Length of quaran-
removal or recovery or burial of the infected patient, and the subsequent thorough disinfection of the persons infected or exposed to
infection, and of all clothing, furniture and other effects of the house
itself, as prescribed in Schedules B. C and G. The Medical Health
Officer shall cause such disinfection to be carried out under his own
direction, and at the cost of the head of the house so disinfected,
except in a case of known poverty, when the Medical Health
Officer shall have the disinfection carried out at the cost of the Local
Board. xxxviii. Provincial Board op Health. 1896
Attendant to be pro-      33. When a house is quarantined the Medical Health Officer shall
quarantined. see that there is an attendant provided to fulfil the outside wants of
the dwellers therein. Such attendant shall never enter the house,
but shall take orders verbally and at a distance, and place at the
entrance of the house everything he has been commissioned to purchase. The services of such person, as well as everything he is
ordered to bring, are at the expense of the head of the house so
quarantined, excepting in a case of known poverty, when these
services, as well as the necessaries of life, shall be furnished at the
expense of the Local Board. All such expenses may be recovered in
Who shall act as a summary manner. This person shall further act as guard and shall
g      ' keep a constant watch over the quarantined house and not permit
ingress or egress to or from such house except to the attendant
physician, or to a clergyman or other person furnished with a permit
from the Medical Health Officer. The physician or other persons
aforesaid, shall on leaving such infected premises take the precautions
prescribed in Schedule A before putting themselves in contact with
healthy persons.
Neglect of duty &.,      34. Any guard neglecting his  duties as prescribed in preceding
y guar ' Rule 23, or failing to obey any order of the Medical Health Officer,
shall be guilty of an infraction of these regulations.
Removal—Change of Residence.
To be under direction 35. Any person suffering from or who has been exposed to cholera,
and who is obliged to change his residence, or whose removal is
ordered, shall not remove or be removed from one house to another in
the same health district except by permission of and under the
direction of the Local Board of Health or its agents.
Permission of Pro- 36. No person ill with or who has been exposed to cholera, shall
^taineofoffrom one renlove> or De removed, nor shall the body of any person- who has
district to another, died from cholera, or any clothing or other property that has been
exposed to cholera be removed from one district to another without
the consent of the Provincial Board of Health or one of its executive
officers being first obtained, who alone decide according to the circumstances whether or not such permission may be granted, and who
will see that all the precautions prescribed in the preceding rules are
taken as well as any others that may be necessary if such permission
is granted.
Clothing, &c, to be      31. No clothing or other property shall be removed from  one
firs dismiecte .       infected house or building to any other place, except it be first disinfected as prescribed in Schedule G, and except in a vehicle named in
Rule 30 for the purpose of such disinfection by the Local Board of
Health or its agents.
Expenses to be 38. The Local Board of Health or the Medical Health Officer of
guaran ee . ^g ^g^,^ ^0 wj1icj1 SUch person or thing is to be removed, may

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