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Printed by Richard Wolfenden, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty.
1897.  60 Vict. Crown Lands Surveys. 799
To His Honour Edgar Dewdney,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I respectfully beg to submit the following Reports on the Surveys of Crown
Lands during the year 1896.
Chief Commissioner of Lands and  Works.
Lands and   Works Department,
Victoria,   B.  C, February 1st,  1897.  60 Vict. Crown Lands Surveys. 801
Lands and Works Department,
Victoria, B. 0., February 1st, 1897.
Tlie Hon. 67. B. Martin,
Chief Commissioner of Lands and   Works,
Victoria, B. C.
Sir,—In accordance with the custom which has prevailed in the Department during past
years I have the honour to submit a brief statement, giving an outline of the business of this
branch of your office down to the close of the calendar year 1896, and at the same time to
forward for your consideration the individual reports of the gentlemen who have been entrusted
during the past season with Government survey work.
The maps heretofore published under your direction, and that of your predecessor in office,
have been during the past year in great request, and in order to fully meet the continually
increasing demand it has been found necessary in several cases to carefully revise them and
issue second editions.
The rapid development of the mining regions, especially in Cariboo, Kootenay and
Southern Osoyoos Districts, has created an unprecedented demand for maps of those sections,
and the present supply is being distributed very rapidly, notwithstanding the fact that a small
charge per dozen is made to stationers and others who deal in such articles. All the maps in
the list below have been reproduced from original drawings prepared in your department, by
the Colonist Frinting and Publishing Company, Limited, of Victoria:
Map, subdivision work in Clayoquot District    2,000, 1 colour.
Sketch maps of the various mining camps to accompany
Mining Report 10,000, 1
Cariboo District    3,000, 1
Province of British Columbia (small), to accompany Report
of Minister of Mines    5,000, 2      ..
West Kootenay District      5,000.
ii ii ii        to   accompany    Bulletin   No.    3,
Bureau of Mines    5,000, 3      n
Osoyoos District    5,000, 3      »
The photo-topographical map of a portion of West Kootenay was completed and forwarded
during the summer, through the Colonist Printing and Publishing Company, to Messrs.
Mortimer & Company, lithographers and engravers, of Ottawa, who were familiar with the
character of the work required, having reproduced similar maps for the Dominion Lands
Branch of the Department of the Interior. I regret to state that the proof recently received
is such an inferior sample of lithography that portions at  least  of the  map  will   have to  be 802
Crown Lands Surveys.
drawn over again on the stone before it can be accepted by this Department. The ensuing-
delay is very much to be regretted, especially as the time consumed in its preparation has,
owing to unforseen contingencies, already been considerably prolonged. The information on
the map having been plotted from photographic plates obtained from known points in a
systematic triangulation must necessarily be reliable, and doubtless will prove of great
advantage to engineers, road builders, prospectors and others, besides giving a much more
accurate idea of the character of the country than can be obtained from any maps heretofore
Work in the Draughting Office.
The large increase in the volume of business connected with the draughting office has
been somewhat of a strain upon the staff employed, and although no additional assistants have
been called in the work has been kept fairly well in hand. Judging from the number of field-
books received at this office up to date of writing, the outlook for 1897 promises to be as far
in advance of 1896 as that year surpassed 1895.
The increase in the number of field-books is quite apparent, as will be noticed from the
schedule below, and if such increase be maintained, in order to promptly keep pace with the
work, additional draughtsmen will have to be employed. The plotting of mineral claims
demands very careful work, and should bo entrusted only to those who are thoroughly
conversant with the provisions of the Mineral Act, and who possess a fair knowledge of the
method of keeping notes in the field.
Work in Drawing Office.
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Tracings of Red Mountain and Trail Creek Tramway. Tracings of Port Agusta for Navy
Reserve on spit. Tracings of Quesnellemouth and Barkerville. Plan of swing bridge, Fort
Steele. Plan of Rossland Camp, 200 ft. = 1 in., showing land grant. School house, Colwood.
Lock-up, Mission, Okanagan. Twenty-four maps of Mining Division, West Kootenay.
School, West Burnaby.    Lock-up, Mission City.    School, South Vancouver.    School, Trail.
Owing to the importance of the mineral interests now being rapidly developed in this
Province, and the activity displayed in the survey of mineral locations, it was considered
expedient to adopt such regulations as would enable your Department to prepare, from time to
time, comprehensive maps of the various districts, which would, besides including the general
topographical features of the country, accurately show the relative positions of all surveyed
claims to each other. Such a desirable result would indeed prove a boon to every one
interested in our mining country, and any scheme which would, at reasonable expense, hasten
the time when the public could be furnished with such useful information would doubtless
receive the approbation of the majority. The first step, therefore, in the work outlined above
was taken last season when instructions were issued to five surveyors to erect mineral monuments throughout those sections of the country where prospecting and mining operations were
the most active. The location of these monuments and their subsequent connection together
is a matter requiring considerable judgment and experience by the surveyor, while  none but 60 Vict. Crown Lands Surveys. 803
the best of instruments are employed in the necessary lineal and angular measurements. The
ordinary method of covering the country with a net-work of triangles expanded from an
accurately measured base, was the scheme adopted in connecting the monuments together,
though a few, owing to peculiar physical features, were located by the usual process of traverse
from some of the known points in the system of triangles.
During the course of a hurried visit, in July, to portions of the Kootenay and Osoyoos
districts, where this character of survey was being prosecuted, I was very much disappointed
to find the atmosphere so charged with dense smoke as to make survey operations of all kinds
almost impossible. This state of affairs is, however, so intermittant that it would not be
advisable to abandon work completely, as a number of necessary details can readily be performed during the hazy weather and everything prepared for the rapid continuation of the
work when the atmosphere clears. Still, these delays are very discouraging to all parties
concerned, and perhaps the person suffering most is the surveyor, who being able to show
comparative little progress is, by many, held responsible for the vagaries of the atmosphere.
A severe attack of mountain fever added to the smoky state of the atmosphere, were the means
of considerably shortening my visit to the districts mentioned above, and I reluctantly
returned to Victoria after assisting to measure a base at Rossland and superintending the
commencement of the work in the Kettle River country, through which district I passed on
the homeward journey.
The reports of the different surveyors who have been engaged upon Government work
during the past season are herewith appended, and furnish details of a much fuller character
concerning the location and nature of the work than it is possible to place in a short synopsis.
T. S. Gore.
Some years ago in the compilation of a large scale map shewing all alienated lands
throughout the country lying between North Bend on the south, Clinton on the north,
Sicamous Narrows on the east, and Chilcotin on the west, the writer found a great dearth of
information in the region lying between Lytton and Lillooet. The latter town being located
from traverses by our own surveyors and those of the Indian Department, carried up the
Bonaparte River, along Hat Creek, and thence by Marble Canyon to Clinton and the Fraser
River. As there was no check upon the work involved in this rather circuitous route it was
considered advisable to have a proper traverse made of the Fraser River between the points
mentioned, and while connecting together all isolated surveys met with during the progress of
the work, if any land suitable for settlement purposes were found to lay it off in accordance
with the provisions of the " Land Act," besides completing such other work as seemed advisable for the surveyor to perform. Mr. T. S. Gore accordingly was detailed for this service,
and after arming himself with all possible information derived from the records of this office,
was further instructed to survey such of the old pre-emption claims scattered throughout portions of the districts of Yale, Lillooet, and Cariboo which had not already been dealt with,
and which have repeatedly proved a source of considerable trouble to your Department.
Besides attending to these duties, Mr. Gore, acting under special instructions from the Deputy
Commissioner, made an examination, in conjunction with Mr. Stevenson, Road Superintendent,
of the " Big Slide," with a view of determining the best method of overcoming that natural
obstruction to the maintenance of a waggon road between Lytton and Lillooet. His report is
herewith appended, that portion referring to the road examination being printed in the report
of the Public Works branch of your Department.
H.   Fry.
As a result of the exploratory work performed in the vicinity of the northern coasts of
the Province by the late Mr. Corrigan, an exhaustive statement of which appeared in the
report of Crown Land Surveys for the year 1895, Mr. Henry Fry was instructed to subdivide certain portions of the country favourably spoken of by the former surveyor, and which,
owing to its comparative accessability would probably be the first to come under the notice of
the intending settler. His work, therefore, was directed to the valleys of the Ah-Ta and
Wakeman rivers, and to the country in the vicinity of Kingcome Inlet and Bond Sound. Mr.
Cotton had, at the close of the season of 1894, performed certain subdivisional surveys at
Kingcome Inlet, but owing to the advanced state of the season was compelled to abandon the
work before its completion. In continuing the work Mr. Fry carried his surveys up the Kingcome River some thirteen miles beyond the point where Mr. Cotton's operations ceased, and 804 Crown Lands Surveys. 1896
succeeded, before the close of the season, in adding some 8,500 acres of surveyed land to that
already laid off at the mouth of the Inlet. The total area laid off during the summer's operations was between 15,000 and 16,000 acres, as stated in his report herewith appended.
The section of the country allotted to Mr. McGregor, for the prosecution of mineral
monument surveys, was that in the vicinity of Rossland, where extraordinary activity has been
displayed in the development of mineral locations. Owing to the comparatively advantageous
topographical features of the country, and a somewhat favourable condition of the atmosphere,
his work appears to have been carried on with perhaps a greater degree of regularity than is
noticed in the result of other surveyors engaged at similar work in other less favoured localities.
His maps have just been completed and copies forwarded to the Geological Survey Department
at Ottawa, where they will be utilised in the preparation of a general geological map of
Southern Kootenay, now about to be issued. It is the intention of your Department to have
the maps resulting from the survey of mineral monuments, roughly lithographed and copies
forwarded to each practising surveyor in the Province, thus assisting them in furnishing to
this office all possible information respecting the relative positions of each surveyed mineral
The country lying between Slocan and Kootenay lakes was, during past seasons actively
prospected and considerable mining development performed. In consequence it was considered
advisable to erect mineral monuments throughout those portions of it where the greatest
demand for such existed. Mr. Drewry's familiarity with that section of the district rendered
him specially adapted for the performance of this service. He was, however, unfortunate
enough to meet with serious and long continued delays owing to the prevalence of bush fires
in the neighbourhood, which so completely charged the atmosphere with smoke as to render it
impossible to carry on the work with any degree of vigour. The returns of this survey have
not yet come to hand, but the utility of this character of work is apparent from the fact that
already surveys of mineral claims have been deposited in this office which refer to monuments
erected during the course of last season's operations. Mr. Drewry again refers to the destruction by fire of our mountain forests, and his remarks thereon are well worthy of perusal.
The Boundary Creek and Kettle River countries have shewn that in the near future some
very large mines will there be in operation, and as comparatively few surveys of mineral
locations have been performed, it was not considered advisable to further delay the erection of
suitable monuments, to which the numerous claims could be tied. Mr. Jno. A Coryell was
entrusted with the eastern or Kettle River section of this country, and, notwithstanding the
fact that smoke considerably retarded his operations, he was able to cover a fairly large tract
of ground. His report will be found interesting reading, as he gives a fair synopsis of the
physical features of the district, besides treating the numerous mining camps and their
characteristic ores in a comparatively exhaustive manner.
C. deB. Green.
Mr. C. deB. Green's work was located in the region lying westward from Fourth of July
Creek, and included the Boundary Mountain country, in which several notable mining camps
are located. On the plain adjacent to the town of Midway he was enabled to lay out an
admirable base of some seven thousand feet in length, and in expanding from it the country
afforded every opportunity of obtaining a series of well-conditioned triangles. Smoke here, as
it proved elsewhere, was very troublesome during a lengthened period of the season, and delay
was met with in the delivery of suitable iron bars for the mineral monuments. From a casual
examination of his plan, which has just come to hand, Mr. Green has, however, apparently
covered a comparatively large tract of country.
Texada Island, owing to its accessability has, for some time, offered a comparatively
advantageous field for the prospector, and several mining locations there situated give great 60 Vict. Crown Lands Surveys. 805
promise of very handsome returns on the capital invested. Surveys for private individuals
have, from time to time, been prosecuted upon portions of the island, but they were so disconnected that it was, heretofore, found to be impossible to shew upon a map the lots laid out
upon the southerly side in their correct relative position with those surveyed upon the northern
shore. Mr. W. D. McKay was, therefore, instructed to run a line across the island and make
the desired connections and, at the same time, to erect mineral monuments in those places
where prospecting and development work was the most active.
His survey was not of such an extended character as some of those carried on elsewhere,
but besides performing the services above indicated Mr. McKay laid out some 1,200 acres of
land into suitable lots for settlement purposes.
Board of Examiners.
The first meeting of the Board of Examiners for the year 1896 was held, according to
statute, on the first Monday in the month of April, when four out of the five candidates who
had previously given notice of their intention to present themselves for final examination commenced to write upon the subjects prescribed by the Act to entitle them to commissions as
Provincial Land Surveyors. Only one gentleman of these was successful in reaching the
required standard of requirements and was, in consequence, granted a commission after having
taken the required oaths of office and allegiance.
Five gentlemen gave notice of their intention to present themselves for final examination
at the October meeting ; of these, two failed to put in an appearance and the remaining three
passed successfully, one being a rejected candidate at the former meeting, and the other two
being authorised Surveyors from the Dominion or from some of its Provinces were, according
to the Act, called upon to undergo an examination simply upon the subjects pertaining to the
system of survey as adopted in the Province of British Columbia. At this sitting of the Board
one preliminary candidate presented himself and, after a searching examination, having
obtained the required percentage of marks, was granted an official certificate to that effect,
and is competent to enter into articles of indenture to some authorised Surveyor.
The following are the names of the gentlemen added during the past year to the authorised list of Surveyors for the Province :
Anderson, J.  D Trail.
Cautley,   R. W Vancouver.
Moore, Chas Victoria.
Shaw, C. A. E Victoria.
Section 6 of the "Provincial Land Surveyors' Act, 1891," provides that " no person shall
be admitted to be an articled pupil to a Provincial Land Surveyor unless he has previously
passed an examination before the Board of Examiners," etc. In accordance with this provision of the Act a preliminary certificate was granted to Mr. George Becker, of Victoria.
Persons who have attended certain colleges or who have followed some of the branches of
surveying in other countries frequently request to be informed what procedure they must
adopt to be permitted to practice surveying in this Province. As such questions involve a
proper interpretation of the " Provincial Land Surveyors' Act," and a careful examination of
the applicants' indentures, certificates or diplomas, the Secretary naturally is reluctant to offer
his individual opinion and feels that, in justice to the candidate, an expression of opinion
should be obtained from, at least, a quorum of the Board. At present it is difficult to obtain
the proper number for a quorum owing to the fact that several of the local members of the
Board have removed from Victoria and, in consequence, are unable to attend as promptly as
when they res'ded in the city. This fact will account for any delays which may have occurred
in the correspondence connected with enquiries of the character above mentioned.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
Surveyor-General. 806 Crown Lands Surveys. 1896
BY T. S. GORE, P. L. S.
Victoria, B. O, 7th January, 1897.
T. Kains, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on my survey in Lillooet District
during the past season.
As directed in your instructions to me, in reference to the survey of old pre-emption claims
scattered through the Districts of Yale, Lillooet and Cariboo, I furnished myself with all the
information obtainable at the Lands and Works Office of surveys already made. I then went
to Lytton, and having engaged an Indian with pack horses and made other necessary preparations, I commenced operations by making a traverse of the Fraser River from Lytton northward, to connect isolated surveys already made, and also the pre-emption surveys I undertook
as I went along. I carried the traverse to the " Big Slide," about thirty miles from Lytton on
the east side of the Fraser, crossed there and continued it on the west side, to connect with
James Dickey's place, Lot No. 292, Lillooet. District.
Acting under special instructions from the Deputy Commissioner of Lands and Works, I
made an examination of the Big Slide, in conjunction with Mr. Stevenson, Superintendent of
Roads, with a view to finding the best location by it for the waggon road from Lytton to
Lillooet. I also took triangulations across the Fraser River in two places below the Big Slide,
to obtain the length of bridging that would be required to cross with the road. As I have
already stated in my report upon the location of the waggon road, I would not deem it advisable to cross the river on account of the excessive cost of a bridge there. It is quite feasible to
build the road between the foot of the slide and the river. In this connection 1 wish to report,
that on my return to Lytton I came by way of an Indian trail that leaves the Lillooet and
Clinton waggon road eight miles above Lillooet, and goes through a valley by the Fountain
Lake, and comes out on the Fraser River again about two miles below the Big Slide. The
grade through this pass would be very good for a waggon road, and the work light; it is already
passable for a waggon for nearly half the distance, and is used by the Indians for a sleigh road.
It is about eighteen miles, and though it would increase the distance to Lillooet a little over
the projected route along the river, I think it would be much more cheaply constructed, and
be an infinitely better road when built, and much easier to maintain. The snow in winter,
on account of its going over pretty high ground, may possibly be a drawback to this location.
But before this road is made beyond Lachore's ranch, I would strongly recommend that this
route be investigated.
The valley of the Fraser, between Lytton and Lillooet, is very narrow and rough, and there
is but little land fit for cultivation that has water convenient for irrigation, but what is already
I surveyed five pre-emption claims between Lytton and the Big Slide.
From Lillooet I travelled up the west side of the Fraser, surveying all pre-emptions on the
west side of the valley as far as the Chilcotin River. I then came back and crossed the river
by the ferry at Churn Creek, and surveyed all the claims in the vicinity of Alkali Lake and
Dog Creek, and thence down the east side of the Fraser, aud between that and the Cariboo
waggon road as far south as Pavilion Mountain, and then snow and bad weather coming on,
I ceased operations for the season.
A summary of the work accomplished is as follows :—36 miles of traverse line, 38 preemptions and 6 applications to purchase, surveyed two triangulations for bridge and exploration work for road. 60 Vict. Crown Lands Surveys. 807
There is a limited amount of Government land still available for settlement, but I do not
think more than a dozen good locations could be made along the valley from Lillooet to the
Chilcotin, unless some systematic irrigation schemes were carried out for bringing in water in
one ditch for several ranches. This would particularly apply to large benches along St. Mary's
or Churn Creek, north of Empire Valley. There is plenty of water in the creek, and it is, I
believe, only a question of ditching some eight or ten miles, to make available thousands of
acres of good agricultural land all ready for the plow.
As far north as I went, to the Chilcotin River, all kinds of small fruit do exceedingly
well, and vegetables are better both in quality and size than I ever saw grown elsewhere.
From Lytton for about sixty miles north along the Fraser River, is particularly well suited for
fruit growing, owing to the warm summers and delightfully bright and open winters that prevail in that part of the Province. All fruits of the temperate zone appear to grow to perfection on the few places that they have been tried. I was very much astonished to see how few
ranchers have set out fruit trees. The only conclusion I could come to was, that many of them
did not know of any other fruit besides imported dried apples.
In the vicinity of Empire Valley, Dog Creek and Alkali Lake, there are large tracts of
pasture land that will ultimately all be purchased and fenced in by cattle ranchers. I think it
would be advisable to have this land subdivided into sections, as it is at present, many men
that own 160 acres fence in a thousand. This is very unfair to other ranchers, and 1 think
would be obviated to a great extent if the land was all surveyed and proper maps of the country
I have, etc.,
T. S. Gore, P. L. S. 808 Crown Lands Surveys. 1896
Victoria, B. O, January 15th, 1897.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the survey made by me during
the past season in the Coast District : —
Acting under your instructions, the party left Victoria on July 1st, 1896, on the steamer
" Danube," arriving at Alert Bay on Friday, July 3rd, and Kingcome Inlet the following Tuesday.
On examining the river, found it too high to work to advantage, and therefore began the
survey of the Ah-Ta Valley.
A continuous survey was made from the mouth of Kingcome River to the Indian Reserve
on Bond Sound, the land being subdivded into 160 acre lots, comprising in all 2,000 acres.
The greater portion of the valley consists of swamps and beaver meadows, on the edge of
which there is good alder bottom land.
From these swamps a stream 30 feet wide flows towards Bond Sound, and at its mouth is
a large meadow of about 100 acres, growing a heavy crop of grass, suitable for hay or pasture,
flooded at extreme high tides.
The timber is chiefly hemlock, but there is a large quantity of cedar and spruce near Bond
Sound that would pay for logging.
Having completed the survey of the Ah-Ta Valley, we moved camp to the valley of the
Wakeman River on July 30th.
In this valley, 4,800 acres were surveyed, the river being taken as a boundary for the first
three miles, when so much evidence was found that the river is constantly changing its channel,
I considered it advisable to survey the remaining portion of the valley in blocks of 40 acres
The soil is a rich loam of good depth, on gravel subsoil, and the adjacent mountains of
granite formation.
The timber consists of alder, cottonwood, hemlock and spruce, the latter plentiful and of
first-class quality, growing principally along the river banks, on a strip of land averaging a
quarter of a mile in width. Between this and the foot of the mountain lay beaver meadows
and swampy land sparsely timbered with scrub pine and cedar.
At 6 miles from the mouth of the river a large clearwater stream flows into the main river
from the east, the valley of which connects with the Lahaw River, a tributary of the Kingcome River.    This stream is navigable for canoes for 3 miles.
The survey was continued one mile further up the main river, where the work ceased.
Beyond the portion surveyed, the bearing of the river is N. 150° W. for 7 miles, and the
estimated area of good flat land unsurveyed 8,000 acres.
On September 3rd the party returned to Kingcome River and commenced work on the
west bank at the north-east corner of the Indian Reserve.
From this point the survey was continued up the valley for 13 miles, in which distance
we laid out 8,500 acres. At the sixth mile a large stream of clear water comes into the main
river from the east, and the main valley is 2| miles wide.
At the eleventh mile the Lahaw River, a large clear water stream, joins the main river
from the west.     This valley connects with the Wakeman River.
The main features in the Kingcome Valley are similar to the Wakeman; the water in the
river muddy and very cold; the soil alluvial deposit of rich sandy mould, the best timber
growing on a narrow strip of land adjacent to the river, while towards the foothills open
swamp and beaver meadows are found, growing scrub cedar and pine; in many of the swamps
cranberries are plentiful. 60 Vict. Crown Lands Surveys. 809
The climate is mild, the first light frost occurring on September 26th. Grain and fruits
of all kinds yield heavy crops.
The main drawback to the valley is the overflow from the river at high water. This is
caused by immense timber jams, some half a mile in length, and there can be little doubt were
they removed the channel would be of sufficient width to carry all the water.
There was little or no game in the valley at the time we were there, but the Indians and
settlers report deer plentiful during the winter months. The Kingcome River is famous for
its run of oolachans, perhaps the best on the Coast, and, with the exception of the sockeye and
cohoe, every known species of salmon frequent the stream.
Hand logging is being carried on along the shores of the inlet and for a considerable
distance up the river.
During the spring and autumn months about 200 Indians live on the Reservation, where
the Episcopalian Church has successfully established a Mission School under the superintendence of the Rev. Mr. Hall of Alert Bay.
It is respectfully suggested that in the survey of valleys like the Kingcome and Wakeman,
where the river runs through low flat land, consisting of sandy loam with gravel subsoil, that
it would be better not to make the banks the boundaries; the accumulation of drift timber
may, at any time, change a channel, in fact, the valleys above mentioned shew many such
changes;  some of recent date, varying from a hundred yards to a quarter of a mile.
The timber throughout the country is very large and of great length ; one tree on the
Wakeman, 8 feet in diameter and over 200 feet in length, lay across the main channel, and was
used by us as a bridge. It is firmly lodged and will, without doubt, catch all the drift and
divert the stream.
For this reason I have, for the greater portion of the season, surveyed the land in squares
of 40 chains.
I have, etc.,
Henry Fry, P.L.S.
Tom Kains, Esq.,
Surveyor-General,   Victoria, B. C. 810 Crown Lands Surveys. 1896
j. HERRioK McGregor, p.l.s.
Victoria, B.C., January 21st, 1897.
Sir,- -1 have the honour to submit the following report upon my season's work in the
Trail Creek District:—
In accordance with your instructions of the 26th June last I left Victoria on the 27th of
that month and arrived at Rossland, accompanied by one man, on the 1st of July.
My object being to carry on a triangulation survey of the Rossland mining camp and
adjoining districts, and to erect mineral monuments in such a manner as would facilitate the
tying on and connecting of various groups of surveyed mineral claims, and claims to be hereafter
surveyed, it was necessary for me to spend two or three days in looking over the country before
commencing my work.
Having chosen a suitable location for the measurement of a base line, about half a mile
from the town, I engaged two men and went into camp on the 4th of July.
The first three weeks were spent in setting signals at each end of my base line, setting
expansion signals, and in placing monuments and signals on several prominent points within a
radius of three miles from Rossland. Cutting away intervening timber on the hill-tops also
occupied several days, and I was thus able to keep my party at work through the month with
a loss of only four working clays—a very small loss considering the number of forest fires in
every direction, and the consequent heavy smoke.
As you are aware the 31st July and 1st August were spent in measuring the base line,
with your assistance.
The smoke clearing slightly about this time I completed my instrumental readings from
each end of the base line, and by the 15th of the month had occupied nine monument stations.
On the 17th we moved camp about seven miles to Violin Lake, a narrow body of water
about a mile in length, which lies between Lake and Lookout Mountains, and drains southward
into Nigger Bar Creek, which empties into the Columbia River in American territory.
From this point we placed several signals, and after making track surveys of a few miles
of trail we moved camp again on September 3rd, pitching our one tent on top of Lookout
Mountain. The smoke was very thick all through the month with only occasional fine days,
and we did not complete our work on this mountain until the 15th, after several rain and snow
A week was then spent in connecting various surveys to my scheme of triangulation, and
on the 24th I hired two pack horses and moved camp several miles west of Rossland, to a point
3,000 feet above the town.
From here we placed and occupied monuments on Spokane, Record and Porcupine Mountains, and on the 5th of October, after another snowfall, moved again to the Jumbo waggon
road. Camping by the roadside for a few days wo made several survey connections and track
surveys, and moved camp on the 9th.
After placing monuments near the " Ivanhoe" mine and near the waggon road at
" Barney's," we moved southward to the International Boundary Line. Here we connected
with the "Helen" group of mines on Grouse Mountain, which are only approachable at
present by a trail some four miles in length, leaving the Northport waggon road at a point
about four miles south of the Boundary Line.
After occupying one or two auxiliary stations and placing a monument on Malde Mountain we returned to Rossland, where I broke up camp on the 23rd October.
I re-occupied one of my main stations on the 26th, and made two attempts to continue my
work north of Red Mountain, but bad weather having set in I decided that further work was
not to be done economically, and left for Victoria on the 2nd of November, leaving Rossland
with six inches of snow on her streets. 60 Vict. Crown Lands Surveys. 811
The result of my work is a fairly complete triangulation and topographical survey of sixty
square miles, from Record to Lookout Mountains, and from the Boundary Lino to about a mile
north of Red Mountain.
This district being so thickly covered with mineral claims, a large percentage of which
will warrant continuous development, necessitating surveys for the purpose of obtaining Crown
Grants, I thought it advisable to place monuments somewhat more frequently than was specified in my instructions, and on the sixty square miles surveyed I established twenty iron and
ten wooden monuments.
In all cases these monuments were placed near points where active development is being
pushed, and where mines are likely to be in operation before many months. The belt of developed claims in fact, reaches much farther to the north and west than I was able to cover in one
season, and as many surveys are sure to be made early this year beyond the limit of my triangulation, I would respectfully submit that it would be highly advisable for your Department to
issue instructions to Provincial Land Surveyors that in all cases where they are called on to
survey isolated claims, or isolated groups of claims, they should place and connect with a monument which could be tied into the triangulation survey at a later date.
The iron monuments placed by me were made by cutting two-inch iron pipe in lengths of
three feet six inches, one end being hammered to a point and a plug of solid iron one and a half
inches square by eight inches in length being welded in to the other end. The wooden ones
are from five to six feet in length and eight inches square, faced from top to bottom. Both iron
and wooden monuments are marked with the letters M.M. and with a number, and upheld by
well built stone cairns, and in nearly all cases they are placed over a hole drilled in the solid
rock. Where there was no solid rock I either drove a wooden hub into the ground, or placed
a heavy flat stone, with a hole drilled into it, beneath the monument.
1 am now engaged on, and will shortly have completed for the use of your Department, a
map of the Rossland District, prepared in two sheets of 24 by 32 inches. This map is on a
scale of 1,500 feet to one inch, and will show the location of all monuments, heights and positions of mountain tops, creeks, waggon roads and trails, etc., as well as the location of about
250 surveyed mineral claims.
I would strongly recommend the immediate printing and publishing of this map, as its
value will largely depend upon the promptness with which it is placed before the public. At
the present moment there is a very large demand for information regarding the mining camps
of this Province, and there is no better manner of supplying this information to mining men
and capitalists than by supplementing the reports of the Provincial Mineralogist by a series of
complete and reliable maps.
Reports will shortly be issued by the Dominion Government containing the results of the
work of Messrs. McConnell and McEvoy, of the Geological Survey, who occupied a good part
of last season in an exhaustive study of the Trail Creek District.
The topographical features of the country covered by my survey differ somewhat favourably from the other well-known mining- camps of West Kootenay. The mountains are comparatively low and easy of access, presenting very few difficulties to the builders of trail, waggon
road or tramway. The streams of sufficient volume and fall, to be of great value as producers
of power, are plentiful, and, thanks to the good supply of timber on the mountain sides, are
subject neither to freshet nor drouth.
All but one or two of the hills are well timbered, and some of the creek valleys are
splendidly stocked with good milling timber which is rapidly being turned into lumber by the
several saw-mills now in operation, but it must not be forgotten that a district such as that of
Rossland, consumes an enormous and constantly increasing amount annually, in the form of
props and timbering for tunnels, shaft linings, lumber for building, and fuel for smelters, railroads, and engines for mining machinery, etc.
The whole of West Kootenay is well supplied by nature with this great factor in the
development of a mining country, a factor as essential to the profitable extraction of mineral
as the ore bodies themselves, but I think that I am safe in saying that for every acre of timber
that is put to a profitable use, ten are destroyed by the carelessness, or worse, of those whom
self-interest should prompt to exercise more caution.
It is not an easy matter to trace all bush fires to their source, or to discover and punish the
culprit when there is one, but were the whole of West Kootenay constituted a fire district and
one or more forest rangers appointed, a recurrence of many of the fires which caused much
annoyance and no little fear to the inhabitants of Rossland throughout last summer, could
easily be prevented. 812 Crown Lands Surveys. 1896
Although a considerable number of location posts have been destroyed or obliterated by
these fires, it was satisfactory to observe that the Provincial Land Surveyors of Rossland have
in almost all cases protected their survey posts by large cairns of rock, a practice which will
prevent much future trouble.
In connecting with surveyed claims it was brought to my notice, that while in the
majority of surveys all the boundaries of the claim had been run and marked out by hubs, pickets,
and blazed trees, an occasional survey has been made in which the surveyor, possibly at the
request of his employer, for economic reasons, has contented himself with running the centre
and end lines, thus establishing the four corners, but leaving the side lines uncut. That such
surveys should be allowed works a hardship on the surveyor who feels himself bound to carefully run out all boundaries, and is also a handicap to the surveyor of claims adjoining those
incompletely demarkated. As there is nothing in the legislative enactments concerning
mineral surveys, to make it clear that all side lines should be clearly marked out on the
ground, I would suggest that instructions to that effect should be issued from your Department to ensure similarity of method in the making of such surveys.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
J. Herrick McGregor, P. L. S.
Tom  Kains,  Esq.,
Surveyor-General,  Victoria, B. C. 60 Vict. Crown Lands Surveys. 813
Victoria, B.C., January 25th, 1897.
Sir,—Acting under you r instructions, dated June , I proceeded to West Kootenay to
commence a triangulation survey of Ainsworth and Slocan Mining Divisions, in conjunction
with which mining monuments were to be established and surveyed claims connected therewith.
The Ainsworth Division extends along both sides of Kootenay Lake, with East Kootenay
as its eastern boundary and the height of land between Kootenay and Slocan Lakes as its
westerly limit. The oldest locations, several of which are being worked as mines, are situated
near the Town of Ainsworth; but on Kaslo Creek and its tributaries there are also many
locations and mines of importance, while along Crawford Creek and its tributaries, east of the
Lake, many claims have been staked, a number of which are being actively developed, and
promise to add another important mining camp to those already established.
As some work had previously been done in Ainsworth Division, most of the past season
was devoted to the Slocan.
The area generally, although erroneously spoken of as " the Slocan," comprises that portion of Ainsworth Division drained by Kaslo Creek, and the part of Slocan Division lying east
of Slocan Lake. Comparatively little is heard concerning this portion of the country, but it is
nevertheless the scene of considerable mining activity, and it is thought that the value of its
mineral output during the past year will about equal that, excepting coal, of the balance of
the Province. There are upwards of forty shipping mines, the product of which is largely
high grade silver-lead ore, in some cases also carrying gold in paying quantity. Concentrators
have been, or will be, built for various properties, to permit the marketing of low grade ores
which will not bear shipping and treatment charges unless first concentrated. Hundreds of
claims have been staked since 1892, and a large percentage of these are being developed,
while transportation facilities are gradually improving with the development, so that an
increased output may be anticipated. In passing, it may be pointed out that an inconsiderable
sum spent in keeping open the main trails and roads already constructed by private enterprise
or by the Government, would be a real aid to the development of the district and the transaction of business therein.
Although the present output is small as compared with that of states to the south and
other foreign mining areas, it is sufficient to prove that the Slocan District is one of great
promise; and the comparison points to and emphasizes the fact that, although much has been
done, there still remains a great deal more to do in the way of development work before this
district can be ranked among the world's chief producers. Therefore every reasonable aid
should be afforded.
One drawback complained of on every side, and which may fairly come within the scope
of this report, is the lack of an accurate and authoritative map of the mining country. All
the published maps I have yet seen are wrong in important particulars. This is what may be
expected until a survey is made; because it is only by first making a survey that an accurate
map can be had. The value of such a map in interesting outside capital is well known.
When proposing undertakings abroad, it has often been found decidedly awkward to have to
explain that the map shown is not right; and yet if this were not done future examination
would disclose the fact and perhaps discredit the  whole proposal.    Again, it is a known fact 814 Crown Lands Surveys. 1896
that, although members of the Geological Survey staff have been engaged in examining the
mining areas for some years, the publication of a comprehensive report on the geology of the
district has been very greatly retarded by the absence of an accurate topographical map.
The men of Slocan have thus far received comparatively little aid in developing that
area; and as the value of a reliable map would be many times the cost of preparation, such
assistance should be rendered. It cannot well be undertaken as a private enterprise, on
account of the cost of survey and publication, and, therefore, should be given at the public
expense, because it is the public which would ultimately be benefited.
Your attention is again directed to the destruction by fire of our mountain forests. Each
succeeding season marks a considerable diminution of the area covered by trees, the evil effects
of which loss even now, at the commencement of development, are being felt in the mining
country through scarcity of timber and lack of water.
Both Ainsworth and Slocan Divisions have been so devastated by fire, mostly owing to
human agency, that comparatively little timber suitable for mining work remains where it can
be easily reached. There is a large quantity which has been killed by fire, but this soon
becomes unfit for use underground where the safety of human lives is at stake; it may
serve for building and as fuel for some years, but even for these purposes its value grows
rapidly less. As deep mining is resorted to, an increasing quantity of timber will be required,
and must be brought from distant sections at considerable cost and consequent reduction of
As much of the green timber left in these districts is held either under grant, lease, or
licence, it might be advisable for the Crown to hold those areas which are covered by timber
principally suitable to mining work, and grant permission to miners to eut timber for their
own use from any Crown lands upon payment of a small royalty.
By observation in various countries and under many conditions, it has been proved that
trees superinduce precipitation and conserve moisture, thereby assisting in a regular volume of
flow in streams, and the prevention of floods at one period and no water at another. In the
districts under discussion difficulties are already arising from irregular water supply. This
feature may be expected to become more pronounced as the sheltering forest growth is
removed from the mountains, hence in erecting mills for concentration or other purposes, it
will be necessary to provide for the use of steam power during part of the year. Thus it will
be seen that the rapid waste of our mountain forests, in addition to more wide spread effects,
means a direct increase in the expense of all departments of mining development, and thus
constitutes an additional tax by which none are benefited.
Therefore the advisability of some measure for the protection of the remnants of our
mountain forests before they have entirely disappeared, is earnestly recommended to your
Synopsis of Survey Operations.
I departed from Victoria on June 27th and went as rapidly as possible to Nelson, arriving
there on the morning of July 1st. After some difficulty in obtaining suitable men, we left
Nelson on July 6th and went to Crawford Creek, east of Kootenay Lake, where a considerable number of mining locations were reported, for the purpose of deciding the best positions
for mining monuments and connecting them with the triangulation stations in that vicinity.
Exploratory work led to the selection of two points on Hooker Creek and one on Crawford
Creek, but before these could be connected with the triangulation points on the peaks, dense
smoke filled the air making such work impossible.
We then returned to Kootenay Lake and went via Kaslo to Bear Lake, situated at the
head of Kaslo Creek, near the divide between Ainsworth and Slocan Mining Divisions.
Having been visited by you, it is unnecessary to explain the advantages of this point as a
central camp for our intended operations. The dense smoke continued with but one break of
a few days until well along in September, but during this time a base was measured by carefully traversing a portion of the Kaslo-Slocan Railway, triangulation marks were fixed,
monuments were placed at points where they would be required, and supplies were packed to
several localities to permit rapid movement from point to point when clear weather came.
These operations from the central camp covered an area of about one hundred and sixty
square miles. 60 Vict. Crown Lands Surveys. 815
During partially clear weather in August we worked along the range of mountains lying
between the North and Middle Forks of Carpenter Creek and the headwaters of Kaslo Creek.
Monuments were planted near the " Nonpareil group," on Goat Creek, on the " Wellington "
mine, and in the valley of Kaslo Creek. A post was also placed in a cairn at a triangulation
point on London Mountain, and claims in that vicinity might be connected therewith.
Our next journey was up Jackson Creek to a camp which had been previously placed near
its head. A large area of country was covered and a great number of mineral claims tied in,
mostly by triangulation, although it was sometimes necessary to run connecting traverses.
Cairns were placed on prominent peaks within a radius of several miles and monuments
planted in Jackson Basin, on the Dardanelles mineral claim, and a low peak lying to the
north-east, and also at the head of McGuigan Creek, near the R. E. Lee mine.
On returning from Jackson Basin, the triangulation point on London Mountain was again
occupied for the purpose of taking instrumental readings on various marks which had been
placed for that purpose. It was also found necessary to slightly change the plan of the base
work in order to obtain well conditioned triangles.
We next moved several miles to the " Alamo " mine, near the head of Howson Creek,
where a considerable number of claims are situated. We occupied one principal triangulation
station and placed a monument near the junction of the west line of the " Alamo " and the
south line of the " Idaho." All the surveyed claims in this vicinity were tied in and the
connection of others was obtained from Mr. H. T. Twigg, P. L. S., who had done considerable
surveying in that section.
While completing this work a heavy storm began which lasted either as rain or snow for
nearly three weeks, being followed by a week during which the thermometer ranged from 5° to
19° F. below zero, something unprecedented in that region. Then snow and rain storms again
set in greatly delaying the closing of survey operations, because some work had been left in
the valleys and on low points under the belief that it could be done when snow prevented
work on the high peaks. But the early snowfall was so heavy and came so suddenly that it
made any work difficult and tedious.
The last set of absolutely necessary readings having been completed, camp was at once
broken up and I started for Victoria, which I reached on December 19th. I am now engaged
in computations necessary to platting the survey, and as soon as possible will furnish you
with a plan showing- the location of mining monuments and their connection with mineral
claims already surveyed.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
W. S. Drewry.
'I'. Kains, Esq.,
Surveyor-General. 816 Crown Lands Surveys. 1896
Grand Forks, B. O, 16th December, 1896.
T. Kains, Esq., Surveyor-General,
Victoria, B. G.
Sir,—I have the honour to forward herewith the following report of my operations for the
season of 1896, in accordance with your letter of instructions of August 1.0th, inst., to commence and extend a net-work of triangles throughout the eastern portion of the Kettle River
Mining Division of Yale District, from a carefully measured base line :—
Enlisting the services of three members of my last party engaged on Government surveys,
who had proven to be able and willing assistants, the party moved to camp at my projected
base line at Grand Prairie on the 11th August, completed the purchase of camp outfit and
supplies at Grand Forks and Carson (our nearest market), and commenced the work of setting-
up signals at the survey stations, as directed. I assisted Mr. Green, P.L.S., in measuring his
base line at Midway, and moved to my camp on 13th August, from which date the field work
was carried on as expeditiously as possible until the 10th December. On that date the unprecedented fall of snow made further continuance of the field work impracticable, and I therefore
returned to Grand Forks and dismissed the party. Continued forest fires throughout this district, and immediately south of the International line, greatly retarded the instrumental work
until September 23rd, and resulted in the destruction of millions of feet of valuable mining and
milling timber during the season. Until that date the work of locating stations and expanding from the base line, had to be carried on by reference to my approximate map of the district,
and known peaks, and the points so located were found, with few exceptions, to be satisfactory
when the smoke cleared away.
The portion of the district embraced in the season's operations extends from the mountain
slope on the west of Fourth of July Creek, to include the mineral groups along the mountain
slope along the east of the North Fork of the Kettle River, and from the International line
about 15 miles north, to include the Cedar Creek and Pass Creek groups of mineral claims.
Establishing my base line on the level prairie land of Grand Prairie, in Township 71, from
thence I extended the survey throughout the above district; mineral monuments were established with reference to future surveys, and all existing surveys were tied with, as set forth in
your instructions.
The signal adopted was that used upon the Massachusetts State Survey, and consists of
three stout poles, which form a tripod, framed with the signal staff by a half inch bolt passing
through its middle and the ends of the tripod legs, with flag or drum and skirt of red and white
cloth, and the feet of frame rip-rapped or sunk in pits.
The mineral monuments consist of flat-topped pyramids of masonry, three feet high and
six feet base, having a vertical axial aperture, closed with an iron pipe two inches in diameter,
and four feet in length, the top of which is closed by a square plug of wrought iron upon which
the letters M. M. and the number of mineral monument are marked thereon, together with a
cross to indicate the exact point for connection. From the monuments, connection by course
and distance was taken to two or more bearing trees or rocks, and the exact point to which the 60 Vict. Crown Lands Surveys. 817
connection was taken is indicated by an arrowhead marked thereon. The true meredian at
each monument is ascertained from the astronomical bearing given of such points, and adjoining stations, from the mineral monuments.
The eastern portion of the Kettle River Mining Division of Yale District extends from
the Fourth of July Creek to the summit of the Gold Range of Mountains along the International line, a distance of 30 miles, and is traversed by the main branch and the North Fork
of Kettle River. The former rises in Marsh Lake at the summit of the Gold Range in
latitude 50° 15' N. thence traversing a valley from one-half to one and a half miles in width,
for a distance of 132 miles, it crosses the International line at the mouth of Boundary Creek
where the town of Midway is located. From thence it courses through the Colville Indian
Reservation for eight miles south, and re-enters the district again near the mouth of the
Fourth of July Creek. The town of Carson is located at this point, with the town of Nelson
on the American side. From thence Kettle River traverses an open valley, from one to four
miles in width, of level, grassy bench land, with park-like strips of yellow pine from 6 inches
to 40 inches in diameter. The mountain slope on the north is covered with a growth of
excellent bunch grass for 16 miles, where Kettle River again crosses the International
boundary and courses through the Colville Reservation, about 35 miles, until it empties into
the Columbia River. Four miles below Carson, at the mouth of the North Fork of Kettle
River, the townsite of Grand Forks was surveyed early in this season, and a town of about
300 inhabitants has sprung into existence, representing the usual business interests, trades
and professions of a mining town. Three additions have also been surveyed, having in view
the developments of the mining interests during the past two seasons and the hope of early
railway transportation. Twelve miles east from Grand Forks the range is broken by Christina
Lake, a navigable sheet of water running north and south, about 18 miles in length and from
2 to | of a mile in width, and connected with Kettle River by Christina Creek, one and a
half miles in length. A large number of mineral claims have been located along the several
creeks tributary to this lake on either slope and at its head, and along the Dewdney trail to
Sheep Creek, showing large bodies of copper-iron sulphide ore with gold and silver-lead bearing
quartz veins of high grade ore. This development has again brought into life the town of
Cascade City as the supply point for the Christina Lake camps. This town is situated at the
mouth of Christina Creek and at the foot of Cascade Falls, where Kettle River drops 110
feet through a narrow canyon a half mile in length and furnishes an energy of 11,000 horse
power at the period of lowest water. To develop this energy, and to develop and distribute
electrical power throughout this district a charter is now being applied for. The townsite
company have bridged Kettle River at the townsite and connected either way with the
Marcus-Grand Prairie stage road. All of the bench and bottom land along Kettle River
Valley, from Carson to Christina Lake, is either pre-empted or purchased, and also along the
valley of the North Fork for 12 miles from its mouth to the Government Reserve at the
mouth of Pass Creek, comprising an area of 24,000 acres, of which 4,000 acres is either agricultural or meadow land.
Of the agricultural land, 1,500 acres were cultivated this season in crops of hay, oats and
vegetables, with 20 acres of orchard in excellent condition. The excess of demand over supply
in this district makes farming the most profitable of any portion of Yale District. The present
prices have brought in American produce from the lower Okanagan and the Big Bend country,
coming by waggon road from points as far distant as 200 miles.
The range of hills between the Boundary and Fourth of July Creeks, and north to
Atwood and Brown's Creek, is known as Boundary Mountain, upon which the older developed
mineral groups known as Central, Wellington, Greenwood, Skylark, Providence and Summit
camps are located.
Fourth of July Creek rises in the West Fork at the Snowshoe claim in Greenwood camp,
and in the East Fork at the Hoffman meadows, in a timbered basin of about 1,000 acres of
good arable land, about seven miles north from which a small stream known as Deer Creek
empties into the North Fork of Kettle River five miles from its mouth. The ridge between
Kettle River and Deer Creek rises about 1,800 feet above the valley and is known as Eagle
Mountain. The north slope is heavily timbered with fir and tamarac and in the Fourth of
July Creek basin with fir, tamarac and cottonwood from 6 inches to 36 inches in diameter.
The south slope is steep and rolling grazing land and traversed by two small creeks known as
Newby and Hardy Creeks. Between these creeks the mountain is well timbered with fir and
tamarac 12 inches to 28 inches in diameter.      Hardy Creek rises in a small deep lake at the 818 Crown Lands Surveys. 1897
summit around which the Babe group of claims is located. This ridge and the mountain slope
is all located as mineral ground showing veins of lead and silver-bearing quartz from a few
inches to six feet in width in the Birdina and Eagle groups, and of iron and copper sulphide
ore and pyrites in veins from 3 feet to 100 feet of iron capping. Assays from the former have
given 80 and 100 ounces in silver, and from the latter $80 in gold and copper are obtained.
On the west of Fourth of July Creek the group known as Camp McKinney No. 2, Taylor's
group in Wellington camp, and the Golden Crown, Winnipeg-Calumet group were tied with.
The claims in these groups shew smelting ore of copper and iron sulphides from 3 feet to 50
feet in width in diorite and diabase, and in large serpentine dykes at the Winnipeg group.
The ore assays four per cent, copper, and from $3 to #300 in gold per ton. The mountain
slope between the Dewdney trail and Taylor's Creek is all located in mineral claims and is
known as Camp McKinney No. 2. In Taylor's group in Wellington Camp development work
has been carried on during the past 5 years The veins are quartz with lead, iron and copper
sulphide ore and an iron sulphide carrying gold and copper from $3 to $15 in value, per ton,
and some free gold. The Winnipeg group is located at the summit of the slope to Fourth of
July Creek, about 1|- miles north from Taylor's Creek. The ore is an iron sulphide and assays
from $7 to $300 in gold and 3% copper. It closely resembles the Rossland War Eagle ore
and known as pyrrhotite.
Between Hardy Creek and Deer Creek, the mountain slope breaks off in precipitous limestone bluffs, from which two kilns were supplied during the season, furnishing a lime of good
marketable value. Two miles north from Deer Creek, the range is traversed by Fisherman
Creek, which rises on the Oro Denoro claim in Summit Camp, and is five miles in length.
The route along this creek is traversed by a miners'trail, and affords the easiest and most direct
route for a waggon road to Summit Camp, the construction of which is urgently required by
the mining interests. At the mouth of this creek, a hill about a mile in length, known as
Granite Mountain, extends to the river, and was located this season for mineral ground. The
formation is granite and sienite or gabbro, through which small veins of rich iron and copper
sulphides crop to the surface. A half mile from the mouth of Fisherman Creek, a 12-foot vein
of graphite crops in the creek bed. From the' head of Fisherman Creek, a low pass extends
south to the Fourth of July Creek basin, and north to Brown's Creek, dividing the ridge along
the North Fork of Kettle River from Boundary Mountain. Between Fisherman Creek and
Brown's Creek, the pass widens at Loon Lake, one half mile in length. On either side of this
pass, the Emma group on the west, and the Cordick-R. Bell group on the east, form what is
known as Summit Camp. The ore bodies are from 10 feet to 50 feet in width ; copper pyrites
carrying gold, and iron sulphide ore; formation, granite and limestone, and diorite and limestone contacts ; assays, 3 to 20 % copper, $3 to $10 gold, and some of the ore as high as 200
ounces in silver. The Emma claim has one lead developed by a shaft 100 feet in depth in solid
magnetic iron and copper ore. The Oro Denoro claim shows five distinct leads of quartz and
pyrites, and of iron-copper sulphide ore. The R. Bell shows high grade copper pyrites in
quartz, and has a large amount of development work already done, and now in progress.
Lime Creek empties into the North Fork of Kettle River about two miles north from
Fisherman Creek, and affords the most economical route for a waggon road from the valley to
the important mineral groups along either side of Brown's Creek. Between Fisherman and
Lime Creeks the mountain rises in steep broken rock bluffs, to a narrow ridge running parallel
to the valley, and at an altitude of 2,000 feet above the river. The south slope to Fisherman
Creek is timbered with scattered fir and pine, and affords good pasturage during the summer
months. The north slope to Brown's Creek was heavily timbered until this season's forest fires
destroyed the major portion.
The Seattle mineral claim shows a cropping of stringers of iron-copper sulphide ore for a
width of 200 feet, and was incorporated this season for $6,000,000. It is situated one-half
mile south from Lime Creek.
The rock outcrops between Lime and Brown's Creeks, show limestone, agglomerate, porphyry, and diorite.
Pass Creek empties into the North Fork of Kettle River from the west, about one and a
half miles north from Brown's Creek, from which it is separated by a broken rocky spur of the
Long Lake range, and known as Garnet Mountain. The north slope is more or less timbered
with fir and tamarack from 6 inches to 18 inches diameter, but forest fires have destroyed the
timber along- the summit and on the slope to Brown's Creek, and left a net-work of down timber.    The formation is limestone, diorite, granite, gabbro and quartzite, in which large bodies 60 Vict. Crown Lands Surveys. 819
of iron and copper sulphide ore outcrops in widths from a few feet to 50 feet. Assays give
values in gold and copper, from a trace to $80 per ton in gold, and from 3 % to 20 % in copper,
from several locations on this mountain, the whole of which was located this season for five
miles westerly. Two and a half miles from its mouth, Pass Creek forks, the branch from the
north traversing a low pass extending to the North Fork of Kettle River, and is known as the
North Fork. A half-mile further west, it again forks, the branch rising on the divide to
Brown's Creek, being known as the South Fork, and the branch draining the pass extending
from Long Lake north and east, is known as the West Fork. Between the west and north
forks of Pass Creek, the mountain slope rises to the high mountains of the Boundary Creek
divide, in reefs of granite, porphyry, and quartzite. Cleared of timber by the forest fires of
August and September, this slope will present to the prospector a new field of operations for
1897, with possibly an extension of the high grade ore bodies of Long Lake Camp. The mountain between the north forks of Pass Creek and Kettle River is known as Iron Mountain, on
the south slope of which about 15 claims were staked and prospected this season ; the formation and ore bodies being similar to Garnet Mountain. The south slope affords good pasturage, and is timbered with open pine and fir, 6 inches to 24 inches in diameter. The east slope
breaks in steep bluffs to the Kettle River Valley.
The range of hills between Christina Lake and the North Fork of Kettle River is known
as the Christina Lake divide, and rises to an altitude of 3,000 feet above the valley, breaking
to Kettle River in rocky spurs, ridges and knolls more or less timbered with fir, pine and
tamarac 3 inches to 24 inches in diameter, and with thick, scrub tamarac and fir towards the
summit. The creeks of this slope are Overton, Sand, Snowball, Mud, Boulder, Volcanic,
Pathfinder, Cedar and Lynch Creeks, emptying into the North Fork at one mile and two to
four miles apart. From Overton Creek, which empties into the North Fork a half-mile from
its mouth, to Edwards Ferry the mountain slope affords excellent pasturage during winter and
summer months ; the peculiarity of that section being the chinook winds from the east which
clear the range from snow. The rock outcrops and reefs show schist, sienite, granite and
quartzite, the two latter of which is the prevailing rock of the divide and Christina Lake
slope. Numerous veins of quartz and of iron sulphide ore crop to the surface, upon which a
large number of mineral claims have been staked and are in process of development. Overton
Creek rises behind a conical shaped peak from which the mountain slopes to Kettle River in
three narrow rocky ridges of granite, gabbro and quartzite. A well-defined vein of iron
sulphide ore crops to the surface in five claims on this slope, from 3 feet to 12 feet in width
and, with other veins and quartz ledges, has caused the whole slope to be located from Overton
Creek to Sand Creek. The latter is about five miles in length. The mountain slope on either
side of Sand Creek, for 3 miles from its mouth, is well timbered with pine and fir 12 to 36
inches in diameter, and from thence to its head with a thick growth of small fir and tamarac.
Snowball Creek rises near the head of Sand Creek and empties into Kettle River near the
mouth of Fisherman Creek. From Sand Creek to Boulder Creek, which is opposite to Lime
Creek, the mountain slope breaks to the valley in bare rocky bluffs and ridges sparsely
timbered with fir and pine 6 to 24 inches in diameter. The country rock is granite, gabbro,
quartzite and porphyry. A large number of claims were staked this season on iron cap showings along this slope with veins of iron sulphide ore from one to three feet in width were noted,
and carrying gold and copper from a trace to high grade values. As yet but little development work has been done, and the thick undergrowth on the upper slope has retarded
prospecting. From Boulder Creek to Lynch Creek, a distance of 8 miles, the formation
seems to belong to the diorite belt of Greenwood and Summit Camps. The mountain slope
between these creeks is all located as mineral ground with ore outcrops from one to nine
hundred feet in width, of high and low grade lead, silver, iron and copper sulphide ore-
Development work is being carried on by several locators on Boulder and Volcanic Creeks,
and by the English and French mining company on the ridge between. This company has
stocked a group of five claims under the Provincial laws for $1,500,000. Along Volcanic
Creek, staked from its mouth for 1A miles, the Grand Forks Gold Mining Company has 3
claims, and are incorporated under the laws of British Columbia ; capital stock $1,500,000,
and the Elsie-May Mining Company under the laws of the State of Washington with a capital
stock of $1,000,000.
The ridge between Volcanic Creek and Cedar Creek is known as Volcanic Mountain. An
immense body of arsenical iron ore crops to the surface in the Volcanic and Iron Cap mineral
claims for a width of 780 feet.    It is a contact formation between granite and lime, dissemin- 820 Crown Lands Surveys. 1896
ated through with innumerable fractures of porphyry, basalt and diorite dykes, indicating that
the overlying breccia was a volcanic overflow. The character of the ore, found in place below
the decomposition of an arsenical capping, is a pure sulphide, generally low grade, but is an
easy smelting ore. The dykes in their upward ascent appear to have pushed out masses of
melted rock forming intrusive sheets of porphyry and phonolite. This ore body was first
examined by the Canadian Geologist, Bowman, who is credited with expressing great possibilities in this property if developed by a tunnel. For this purpose a company was formed in
Seattle who expended about $5,000 and then abandoned the property. Upon relocation it
became the property of a member of the former company, who carried on the tunnel work
with two working partners until local capitalists purchased this working interest. Chicago
and Colorado capitalists were then included in the enterprise, under the name of the Olive
Mining Company, and the above claims, together with the Wolverine claim on Brown's Creek,
were stocked for $20,000,000.
The Pathfinder group of claims is located on the summit of the Cedar Creek slope of
Volcanic Mountain. The ore of this group is an iron sulphide with gold and copper. On the
Pathfinder claim, a vein of solid iron sulphide ore has been crosscut and developed by shaft to
the extent of $2,000 in labour. The vein is 25 feet wide in place, with a capping 105 feet in
width ; average value of the ore mined is $22 per ton in gold and copper. The country rock
is pophyry and diorite. On the Standard claim in this group, the ore is crosscut for 40 feet,
with but one wall in sight. In appearance the ore of this group closely resembles that of the
Winnipeg, and Rossland War Eagle claims.
The spur between Cedar and Lynch Creeks is known as Bonanza Mountain, and the group
of claims which cover this mountain and its slopes is called Knight's Camp. The formation is
granite, porphyry, diorite and quartzite, through which numerous veins of iron and copper
sulphide ore outcrop, from a few feet to ten feet in width. The Bonanza group of claims is
stocked for $1,500,000, under the name of the Bonanza Mountain Gold Mining Company, and
development work is being carried on. Assays of $57 in gold and 17 % copper, have been
obtained in this group. The mountain slope on the south affords good pasturage, and is timbered with open fir and pine from its base. The west slope breaks to the valley in precipitous
bluffs of granite and porphyry, and the north slope is covered with a small growth of fir, pine,
tamarack and poplar scrub.
Roads and Trails.
The district is connected with the Canadian Pacific Railway service at Penticton by a
Government waggon road, over which Her Majesty's mail is carried by a tri-weekly stage to
Greenwood City on Boundary Creek. From this point the Grand Forks stage line makes triweekly trips to Carson and Grand Forks. Prior to the construction of the Penticton waggon
road, a waggon trail had been made through the Colville Indian Reservation from the Marcus
ferry, by the efforts of Spokane and Marcus business interests, which have since held the bulk
of the district trade. Two private stage lines traverse this route ; one leaving Grand Forks in
6 trips a week, connects the same day at Marcus with the Spokane and Northern train for
Spokane ; and the other makes bi-weekly trips, Greenwood City and Marcus being the terminal
points. During the past season the branch road to the Winnipeg group, was continued through
Greenwood Camp to Greenwood City by the Townsite Company, and is now in general use.
A Government waggon trail traverses the west side of the iSlorth Fork of Kettle River Valley,
from the Grand Prairie settlement for 6 miles, thence crossing to the right bank by ford; it
was brushed and graded to Brown's Camp this season. Many miles of miners' trails are cut
and blazed throughout the district, making the several mineral groups accessible by saddle and
pack-horse. The district is also traversed by the Dewdney Trail, from which a branch has been
opened to Rossland, and brings that city within a day's ride from Grand Forks.
The valley of Kettle River falls to the Columbia River at a grade of 6 to 10 feet per mile,
and is the easiest and shortest route for railway communication to reach the district, by extension from the Spokane and Northern Railway at Marcus. The valley of the North Fork of
Kettle River was examined by C. P. R. engineers, who failed to find the pass from Christina
Lake to Columbia River through the Sheep Creek range. They followed the East Fork of the
Kettle River to its head, from whence the pass is drained into the Columbia River by Bow- 60 Vict. Crown Lands Surveys. 821
man Creek, and pronounced the route as feasible. The altitude at the summit is about 4,500
feet above sea level, and the approach on the Columbia River slope is difficult for construction
through the canon for 15 miles on Bowman Creek.
The pass through the Sheep Creek range of mountains by way of McRae Creek and the
South Fork of Dog Creek was first explored by myself and C. McRae, and the altitude at the
summit found to be 3,800 feet above sea level. Its feasibility was confirmed by the explorations of the Columbia & Western engineers during this season. The same engineers carefully
explored the route for the proposed extension of this railway westerly to Penticton, and
adopted the route by way of the North Fork of Kettle River, Brown's Creek, Atwood Creek
and Boundary Creek, thence along Kettle River to Rock Creek, and following Rock Creek and
its South Fork the Okanagan slope was gained at Anarchist Mountain near 9-Mile Creek.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
John A. Coryell. 822 Crown Lands Surveys. 1896
BY C. deB. GREEN, P. L. S.
Sir,—I have the honour to report with regard to survey of Boundary Mountain for
mineral monuments, for which I received instructions from you on August 7th, 1896. That
I began the work upon that date and carried it on under very unfavourable conditions until
November 30th. The area embraced in such survey lies between Inghram Creek on the west
and July Creek on the east, the International Boundary on the south and Kimberly Camp on
the north.
From August 20th to September SOth the country was filled with dense smoke, which
made rapid progress impossible. From October 1st to October 28th there was much favourable weather. At this date my party was reduced to two men, one of whom cut his foot so
severely that he lay in Greenwood City hospital until December 15th.
I continued the work with one man until November 30th in continual bad weather,
beginning with snow on October 30th and ending with ten days of zero to forty below zero.
Considering it impossible to carry on the work satisfactorily under such conditions, with
three feet of snow on the summits, and the general opinion being that winter had set in, I
left the work in some part incomplete and left the field.
I am making plan and field-notes of the work as far as it goes, which will be in your
hands within a few days, together with diary kept during the work.
I estimate the time needed to complete the survey at one month.
The mineral monument pipes, 2| inches diameter, 3' 6" long, capped with iron caps and
stamped with number of monument upon the cap, were ordered on August 7th from the local
hardware store, which undertook to get them made in Vancouver better and cheaper and as
quickly as they could be made upon their premises. They did not come to hand until November 3rd, and this caused great delay in the work, since it necessitated another journey to each
M. M. point to set the pipe, and before many were set the monuments were frozen so bard
that it was quite impossible to get the pipe into them.
Mineral monuments are built 6x6x3 of large stones, or in some cases stone walls and
earth centre where stones are scarce.
The Signals, or Trig stations, are made permanent for probably ten years, and can be
readily relocated and renewed by the stone triangle laid upon the ground inside tripods, which
are made of small trees cut 16 feet long and about 4 inches diameter, pointed at small end
to fit into 2" augur holes in 12"xl2"x4" blocks of sawn'pine with 2" hole in centre to receive
mast, on which red flag 2 yards long is tacked. The apex of the tripod is covered for 4 feet
with white calico tacked to legs of tripod, which are braced together by two braces nailed on
to each side, and which are spiked to three logs upon the ground weighted down with large
boulders. The ground inside these logs is covered with stone forming flat triangle round the
centre hub.
This signal is therefore fairly permanent for the life of the timber in it, and can be seen
in fair weather with a good glass at 10 miles very clearly.
In the centre of the block and screwed into the butt of the mast is a hook from which
hangs a string to which a plum bob can be attached by which to obtain the centre of any Trig
station, and by means of which any station destroyed can be exactly located over its hub.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,  •
Chas. deBlois Green.
Tom Kains, Surveyor-General, Victoria, B. C. 60 Vict. Crown Lands Surveys. 823
BY W. D. MacKAY, P. L. S.
Rossland, B. O, November 25th, 1896.
Tom Kains, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B. C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report of the surveys made by me during
the past season.
In accordance with your instructions, I proceeded first to make a connection between the
surveys already existing in the northern part of Texada Island. I first ran a random line
from the north-west corner of Lot 25 to the south-west corner of Lot 20, for the most part
along the waggon road going from the Irene Mine on the west coast of the island to a point
near Raper's claim, as shown on the accompanying map. This road could with a small outlay
be made very serviceable, as the gradients, with one or two exceptions easily remedied, are
good, and the material throughout of good quality for road building. The road could be
extended as far as the east coast of the island at small cost, and a very good line could be
In order to close my survey I ran a line true south from the south-west corner of Lot 20
for a distance of over a mile ; then ran a traverse line to the north-west post of Lot 25. I
placed legal posts 40 chains apart along the line going south.
The portion of the country traversed by this survey is all of a hilly, rocky nature, rather
thickly timbered, and altogether unfit for agriculture.
On completing the connection between the existing surveys, I proceeded to establish
mineral monuments in various portions of the northern end of the island.
Mineral Monument No. 1 is placed near the north-west corner of Lot 25 and connected
with the post. The monument consists of a stone planted in the ground and marked on the
top with a cross and on the side with " M. M. No. 1," and a mound of stones of the dimensions laid down in your letter of instructions placed to the north of the monument. True north
from the cross on the stone is a cross-cut in the rock 202 links distant.
Mineral Monument No. 2 is located close to the shaft of the Van Anda mine. It is
similar in construction to M. M. No. 1, with the exception that the smoke from forest fires
was so thick that I could not take an observation of the polar star, so did not lay out a true
north line from the monument. Monument No. 3 I placed about two miles north of No. 1 on
a prominent point on the coast. I considered that as this part of the island is very thickly wooded
a monument built on any of the hills would be very difficult to find. There is also no meredian
line laid down here, for the same reason as for No. 2. No. 4 is on the west coast of the island
on a rocky cape, and easily found. I was able to lay down a meredian here. No. 5 is at the
head of Gillies Bay and is of similar construction to the others.
After establishing the Mineral monuments, I surveyed into lots of 160 acres about 1,200
acres of land in the north-western portion of the island. This land is for the most part well
adapted for farming purposes. There is a good deal of alder bottom running through it, and
on the high land the soil is good and would raise fruit and cereals. A large portion of it has
been burnt over, and is now thickly covered with small second growth timber, which would
not be difficult to clear.
With the exception of the land above mentioned, that portion of the island covered by
my surveys is of a rocky, hilly nature. Various iron and copper ores are to be found cropping
out in every direction ; in fact, the surface showings seem to indicate large bodies of valuable
mineral deposits, carrying iron, copper, gold, and silver. 824 Crown Lands Surveys. 1896
While near the Van Anda mine, I went down the shaft at the invitation of Mr. Blewitt,
the superintendent. The shaft had then been sunk about 60 feet, and a drift run, following the
lead as nearly as possible, for 30 feet. The hanging wall of the vein had been found, and a
large body of copper and iron ore, carrying gold and silver, had been exposed. Mr. Blewitt
had also discovered several other promising veins on the Van Anda property.
The island at the north end is well watered—several lakes, fed and discharged by considerable streams, are situated in different parts, as shown on the map accompanying the
The weather throughout was fine, but the smoke from forest fires was very thick, and
prevented me from taking observations at all the mineral mountains.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
W. D.  MacKay,
P. L. S.
Prhitti'l li> Riciiarii U OLKKNDKN. Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent. Majesn


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