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FIRST REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL BOARD OF HEALTH OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, BEING FOR THE QUARTER ENDING DECEMBER… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1896

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 FIRST   REPORT
OP  THE
PROVINCIAL BOARD OF HEALTH
OP
BEITISH   COLUMBIA,
BEING for the
QUARTER ENDING DECEMBER 31st, 1895.
VICTORIA, B. C:
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1895 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 467
REPORT
OF   THE
PROVINCIAL BOARD OF HEALTH.
To His Honoitr Edgae Dewdney,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg herewith respectfully to present the First  Report  of the Provincial Board of
Health for the quarter ending 31st December, 1895.
February, 10th, 1896.
D. M. EBBRTS,
Attorney- General. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 469
PROVINCIAL BOARD  OF HEALTH,
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
-:©:-
Office of the Secretary,
Victoria, B. C, Jan. 23rd, 1896.
Sir:
I   have   the   honour  to  present herewith  for  your  approval the  First  Report of  the
Provincial Board of Health, being for the quarter ending December 31st, 1895.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant
A. T. "WATT,
Secretary.
To the Honourable
The Attorney-General, Victoria. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 471
TABLE  OF  CONTENTS.
1.—Letters of Transmission.
2.—Proclamation.
3.—Appointments.
4.—Introductory.
5.—Chairman's Inaugural Address.
6.—By-laws governing Provincial Board.
7.—Extracts prom Minutes.
8. ii ii     Correspondence.
9. n ii     Reports op Local Boards of Health.
10.—Circular to Local Boards op Health.
11.—Pamphlet on Disinfection.
12.—Appendix "A":
(a.) Revised Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages Act.
(6.)        ii        Coroners' Act.
(c.) ii        Health Act.
13.—Appendix "B":
(a.) Regulations, re Small-pox.
(b). n re Cholera.
(c.)     M     re  Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 473
[L.S.] E. DEWDNEY.
CANADA.
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Victoria,  by the  Grace of God,  of the   United   Kingdom,  of Great  Britain and  Ireland,
Queen, Defender of the Faith, &c, &c, &c.
To all to whom these presents shall come—Grfeting.
A PROCLAMATION.
D. M, Eberts, \ TT7HEREAS it is provided by section 105 of an Act passed by the
Attorney-General, j VV Legislature of British Columbia in the fifty-sixth year of Our
Reign, intituled " An Act respecting the Public Health," that the said Act shall not come
into force until a day to be fixed by Proclamation of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council,
notice of which shall be published in the British Columbia Gazette; and whereas Our said
Lieutenant-Governor, by and with the advice of the Executive Council, has been pleased to
proclaim, by an Order in Council in that behalf, the twenty-seventh day of September, one
thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, as the day on which the said Act shall come into
force.
Now KNOW ye, therefore, that in pursuance thereof We do hereby proclaim the said Act
to be in force as from the twenty-seventh day of September, one thousand eight hundred and
ninety-five.
In Testimony Whereof, We have caused these Our Letters to be made Patent,
and the Great Seal of the said Province to be hereunto affixed: Witness, the
Honourable Edgar Dewdney, Lieutenant-Governor of Our said Province of
British Columbia, in Our City of Victoria, in Our said Province, this twenty-
fourth day of September, in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred
and ninety-five, and in the fifty-ninth year of Our Reign.
By Command.
JAMES BAKER,
Provincial Secretary.
APPOINTMENTS.
His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, under the provisions of the " Health
Act, 1893," has been pleased to appoint the undermentioned members of the Provincial Board
of Health, namely:—
John Chapman Davie, of the City of Victoria, Esquire, M. D.
John Matthew Lefevre, of the City of Vancouver, Esquire, M. D.
Richad Eden Walker, of the City of New Westminster, Esquire, M. D.
Louis Thomas Davis, of the City of Nanaimo, Esquire, M. D.; and
Alfred Tennyson Watt, of the City of Victoria, Esquire, M. D.
His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor in Council has been pleased to appoint John
Chapman Davie, of the City of Victoria, Esquire, M. D., to be Chairman of the Provincial
Board of Health.
His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor in Council has been pleased to appoint Alfred
Tennyson Watt, of the City of Victoria, Esquire, M. D., to be Secretary of the Provincial
Board of Health.
194228 474 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
INTRODUCTORY.
(By the Chairman.)
In considering this, the First Report of the Provincial Board of Health, it must be remembered that the Board has only been in existence for three months. The first year of any
new department of Governmental work must of necessity be to a very great extent preparatory
and constructive. It is impossible that a Provincial Board of Health can spring, Minervalike, fully armed from the Legislative Jove. People in the western part of North America
are proverbially impatient of results. Even in the first month of existence enquiries were
made as to what the Board was doing to justify its establishment. A resume of its labours
up to the present date is, therefore, not uncalled for.
The members present at the first meeting of the Board, held in Victoria, October 30th
and 31st, were : Dr. Walker, of New Westminster; Dr. Davis, of Nanaimo ; Dr. Watt,
Secretary of the Board, and the Chairman. Dr. Lefevre, of Vancouver, is in Europe, and his
aid and counsel up to the present time have consequently not been available in the important
matter of initiating the work of the Board.
The Board has to acknowledge valuable assistance rendered to it by A. G. Smith, Esq.,
Deputy Attorney General, and Mr. R. T. Elliott, Secretary to the Commission for the Revision
of the Statutes, who have been present at the meetings when work requiring legal knowledge
has been under consideration.
The first work undertaken by the Board was the reading and consideration of the "Public
Health Act, 1893." Acting on the advice of the Attorney-General, and by consent of the
Commissioner for the Revision of the Statutes, a number of amendments to the Act were suggested by the Board. These provided chiefly : for the centralization of the powers conferred
by the Act in the Provincial Board of Health, in order to obtain uniform and concerted action
throughout the Province. It was also thought advisable to suggest a radical alteration in the
constitution of Local Boards of Health for the more efficient working of the Act; and to add
clauses authorizing the inspection of dairies, vegetable gardens, and canneries, as the same was
not provided for by the Act. Several minor alterations have likewise been suggested. The
Act, thus modified, will be found appended to this Report. The " Registration of Births,
Deaths, and Marriages Act," as it exists, has proved to a great extent inoperative. The Board
has consequently made such suggestions as iu their opinion will secure a complete return on
these subjects from all parts of the Province, thus making it possible to issue a reliable return
of the vital statistics of the Province as required by the Act.
The "Coroner's Act" also received consideration at the hands of the Board, and some
suggestions were made with a view to making it more efficient. The Act referred to, with the
amendments which, in the opinion of Board, are advisable, will also be found as an appendix
to the Report.
The next work which engaged the attention of the Board was the division of the Province into Health Districts. The division recommended was that corresponding to the
territorial jurisdiction of the Government Agents, and also that each Municipality remain a
Health District, as at present. This plan was at once agreed to by the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council. Such a division of the Province into Health Districts, it will readily be seen, is
absolutely essential for the purposes of a proper fulfilment of the objects of the " Health Act."
l/ The Local Boards of Health in municipalities, represented by their respective health
officers, and the Government Agents in outlying districts, will be the channel through which
the Provincial Board of Health will act, institute such sanitary reforms as may be necessary,
and from whom the Board will seek information of local hygienic conditions.
Circulars asking for information of the sanitary condition existing in each Health District
have beeen prepared by the Board, and sent to each Local Board, or their equivalent—the
the Government Agents in each Health District—with the object of putting the Central
Board in possession of the same, in order that the Provincial Board may advise intelligently
as to what measures are necessary in each locality to place the same in a proper hygienic condition, and thus to protect the lives and health of the residents of such districts. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 475
Special regulations have been prepared by the Board for approval by the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council concerning small-pox, diphtheria, cholera, and scarlet fever. A pamphlet
has been prepared on Disinfection, for distribution throughout the Province. Reports from
Local Boards of Health have been asked for, received and considered. Much correspondence
with Provincial Boards of Health and the Central Boards of Health of the principal adjoining
States of the Union has taken place, and reciprocal notification of contagious disease has been
arranged for between such Boards of Health and this Provincial Board.
A resolution has been passed concerning the necessity of appointing health officers in
each district where possible. By resolution, the Board has recommended each Health District,
which is a centre of population, to obtain a modem disinfecting apparatus. The Board has
also recommended the establishment of isolation hospitals and suspect stations, or their
equivalents, in all health districts, as immediate isolation of the first case or cases of the
serious contagious diseases, and the suspects connected with the same, is of the first
importance in putting a stop to such disease, and preventing the possibility of its becoming
epidemic.
The Board has also had under consideration the establishment of a sanitarium for the
treatment of consumption (tubercular diseases of the lungs), and has recommended the vicinity
of Kamloops as the proper site for the same. It has passed resolutions in accordance with the
foregoing recommendations.
The establishment of bacteriological and analytical laboratories was also discussed, and
resolutions concerning each were passed.
By resolution, the Board suggested some amendments to the " Contagious Diseases of
Animals Act."
Nuisances at Nelson and near the Jubilee Hospital at Victoria, were dealt with by the
Board.
By resolution, it was decided to make widely known section 69 of the " Public Health
Act," by which householders are required to give notice of the presence of contagious disease,
and the penalties for neglecting such notification.
Forms for notification of the various preventible diseases have been prepared.
The sanitary condition of the Fraser River canneries was also considered. Numerous
cases of typhoid fever have occurred at these points from the existence of unsanitary conditions. The drinking water must have been polluted. The Board has instructed its Secretary
to visit these canneries and report on the condition of affairs ; upon receipt of his report, the
Provincial Board will take such steps as will, they hope, put an end to the disease named in
these localities.
The Board has made arrangements for a regular supply of vaccine lymph (calf lymph)
and anti-toxine, for the use of the public, to be obtained from the Board at cost price.
Circulars detailing the method of using the above have been prepared, which will accompany
each package issued.
Copies of the " Public Health Act," have been sent to each Local Board of Health.
Committees (from amongst the members of the Provincial Board) have been appointed to
bring in reports on various subjects, viz., food adulteration, school hygiene, heating and
ventilation of buildings, sewage and house plumbing, disposal of excreta, water supply, etc.
Dr. Bryce, Secretary of the Ontario Board of Health, and Dr. Montizambert, Superintendent Dominion Quarantines, being in the Province last October, the Secretary and Chairman took the opportunity to interview them, and many subjects pertinent to the work of
boards of health were discussed.
Numerous other subjects received consideration at the hands of the Board, which will be
found detailed by referring to the minutes of meetings of the Board.
It will thus be seen that though the Board has been in existence but a short time, many
questions of great importance have received attention at their hands, and that a foundation
has been laid and a plan of campaign adopted to apply the recent discoveries of sanitary
science to the whole Province for the benefit of the inhabitants of the same, present and
future.
The objects of the Board, briefly stated, are: The arrest of the zymotic diseases by
isolation of patients and exposed persons ; disinfection of infected material, and the use of
preventive and curative lymphs when such exist; general sanitation securing the purity of air,
water, and earth, the removal of all filth and nuisance incident to the aggregation of human
beings in towns, etc. 476 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
That the Provincial Legislature has been wise in the creation of a Provincial Board of
Health, the results obtained in England and the United States, by constitution of similar
Boards, prove beyond a doubt.
The Board is anxious to get forward quickly in their scheme for the application of
hygienic law to the Province, as its present condition is one of constant menace to the
welfare, present and future, of British Columbia.
John Chapman Davie,
Chairman Provincial Board of Health.
CHAIRMAN'S INAUGURAL ADDRESS.
To the Members of the Provincial Board of Health.
Gentlemen,—It is with great pleasure that I welcome you to this the first meeting of
the Provincial Board of Health of British Columbia. The Board has been called into existence
by the Health Act of 1893, the said Act having only now been proclaimed or carried into
effect. The Act enumerates our duties and powers. Provincial Boards of Health exist in all
the other Provinces of the Dominion. They exist in all the States of the American Republic,
which are in anything approaching an advanced stage of civilization; also in Great Britain
and in the more civilized European countries. Their existence is an indication of the educational status and the degree of civilization of a country. Their creation has invariably resulted
in the saving of human suffering, in the prolongation of life, in an immense monetary gain
and in a materially lower death-rate.
Boards of Health are to some extent miniature legislative bodies, their sphere being all
that relates to health and life in the Province or State where they exist.
Disraeli, in the House of Commons, made use of the following memorable words : " The
public health is the foundation on which repose the happiness of the people and the power of
a country.    The care of the public health is the first duty of a statesman."
The wisdom of this statement is beyond dispute. Good health is the greatest boon and
blessing that can be conferred on mankind. Without it, neither life, wealth nor honourable
position can be enjoyed. With it, poverty and hardship can be endured. The opinion of
Lord Beaconsfield quoted above, impresses upon us that this Board of Health has most important and onerous duties to perform. The questions which we shall have to consider and advise
upon are momentous. Many of them difficult and complex, and the advice which we shall
give, as the result of our deliberations, will be fraught with great power for good or evil.
They will require our earnest attention and diligence, all our acumen and knowledge.
It has been said that medicine has made comparatively little advance during the present
century. This is perhaps true, in so far as it alludes to the cure of disease with drugs. As
regards surgery, the Nineteenth Century has witnessed an entire revolution in its methods
and results. The " modern miracles " of surgery are being performed, saving life and suffering,
by surgeons in all educated communities. Almost all parts of the body are examined, and
many diseased conditions which previously caused death are successfully dealt with by the
surgeon. These results are, in a great measure, due to "sanitation" as applied to surgical
methods; or, to use terms more familiar to the public, to antiseptic and aseptic methods of
operating. As regards medicine, the greatest advance made has been in the prevention of
disease; or, to use the modern term, in "preventive, medicine."
The chief object aimed at by the establishment of a Central or Provincial Board of
Health is, to have a body who will take such action as shall guard the public from illness and
death arising from preventible diseases by means of efficient sanitation.
The province of sanitary science is very extensive, as anything which promotes health
and longevity comes within its scope. The prevention of disease and the protection of life
are, of course, reckoned amongst the most important of its functions.     When we reflect that 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 477
one-third of all the deaths that occur are preventible—that is, result from the lack of efficient
sanitation—the relations of health to material prosperity stand out in clear relief. As the
same is true of the attendant cases not terminating fatally, estimated by some as thirteen
cases of illness for each death that occurs, the value of thorough sanitation is manifest.
Regarded from a mere monetary point of view, such illness and death means an immense loss
in cash to the State or Province where it occurs. There are several elements, however, not
included : one is the enormous tax upon the material resources of the people that unnecessary
sickness involves. The ignorance, poverty, idleness, and even crime, which result directly
from sickness—to say nothing of the burdens of prolonged ill-health and invalidism—these
are appalling to contemplate. The enterprises abandoned, hopes ruined, and lifelong misery
entailed when the breadwinner of a family is stricken down cannot be estimated in dollars
and cents. The rapid decline in self-respect, and in the whole moral tone of a family that
have to be assisted by public charity when in health they have been self-supporting, has been
carefully watched, and the ease with which the vicious and dangerous classes of a community
are recruited from this source shews how closely sanitary science is related to sociology and
political economy.
There is another feature, viz., the large percentage of infant mortality, which is due to
unsanitary influences. No class of the population succumb so easily to unsanitary environment, or are so depressed by foul air, in fact, the infantile mortality is a sure indication as to
the healthfulness of any locality ; as one-third of the total mortality in many places occurs in
children under five years of age, the additional tax upon the prosperity of such countries
emphasizes the lessons already taught. Should our farmers allow one-third of the lambs,
calves, and other young animals to perish, because the proper conditions of life were not
supplied, a storm of popular indignation against such cruelty would be awakened, but as it is
only human beings who are allowed to perish, no attention is excited.
In order to control this mass of disease and death, occurring from preventible causes, it
has been found wise and necessary in any Province or State to have a complete organization
consisting of a Central Board of Health, with Local Boards and their necessary officers throughout the country, to carry into effect the instructions, regulations, etc., of the Central Board.
In British Columbia, hitherto a few Local Boards of Health have existed, and have done good
work no doubt, so far as lay in their power; but the efforts of such Local Boards, taking the
welfare of the Province as a whole into consideration, cannot but prove to be more or less
conflicting, and inadequate. A central authority is necessary in order to make the action of all
the Local Boards rapid, concerted, and uniform; particularly so in the event of any threatened
outbreak of one of the zymotic diseases, while the establishment of a state of cleanliness
(general sanitation) of the whole Province—including pure water, pure air, and clean earth,
etc.,—will create what all sanitary authorities agree to be a condition of things under which
preventible disease cannot thrive, as environment of uncleanness and filth it cannot be to well
understood afford the most favourable conditions for the development of disease.
The United States of America during the recent epidemic of cholera in Europe contemplated the establishment of a Central or National Board of Health for all State Boards of
Health to take instructions from, so as to ensure concerted and efficient action in the interests
of the whole of the nation as regards cholera, instead of allowing the disjointed efforts of the
individual State Boards which—no matter how well intended—could only result in confusion
and jeopardize the safety of the whole country.
Some instances of successful sanitation may be mentioned here. One of the first and most
important was the prevention of scurvy by Captain Cook—a disease which, up to the latter half of
the Eighteenth Century, decimated our armies and fleets, frequently, also, prevailing amongst
the civil population. Captain Cook, in his first voyage of discovery round the world, in 1772 to
1775, proved beyond a doubt that this disease could be banished from every ship's crew, and
that it could be entirely eradicated on land and sea. Hitherto it had been a cause of great
mortality among seamen, and to quote one instance out of many, in Anson's Famous Expedition, some 30 years previous to that of Captain Cook, out of a total of 900 persons who
accompanied him, 600 died before the expedition returned, and chiefly from scurvy. During
Captain Cook's three years' voyage, on the other hand, only four deaths occurred out of 118
men—three from accident and one from consumption. Captain Cook thus earned for himself
a foremost place amongst the sanitary reformers of the Eighteenth Century, but England
took years to learn the lesson which he taught, and many more lives had to be sacrificed
before it became compulsory that lime juice should form a part of the commissariat of every
seagoing vessel.    Another instance of the influence of sanitation was that in  regard  to  "jail 478 Provincial Board of Health. 189!
fever." This disease was continually breaking out in jails, and so obtained this name, and
from the discharged prisoners and debtors it spread by meams of infection to other classes of
the community. This disease was what is now called " typhus " fever, and is due to filth
and overcrowding. As the result of the labours of John Howard, the prisons of England have
been rid of this disease, and instead of being breeding-places for fever, have been proved by
careful investigation to be far healthier than the homes of citizens.
Another great sanitary triumph calling for special notice was the discovery of vaccination
by Jenner. That hideous and terribly fatal disease, small-pox, after the disappearance of the
plague, became the severest and most dreaded of the epidemic diseases in England. Between
the years 1771 and 1781 small-pox was the cause of 100 out of every 1,000 deaths in London.
Vaccination was commenced in 1796, and soon effected a diminution of this mortality. Thus,
according to well authenticated returns, while the mortality was 88 per 1,000 deaths in the
last ten years of the eighteenth century, it has fallen progressively as vaccination has become
more generally used, from 64 to 11 per 1,000 deaths during the first six decades of the present
century; and if we still have recurrent outbreaks of the disease, it is because there are thousands of people living at the present day who have never been protected by vaccination, and
many thousands more who have been imperfectly vaccinated. Sanitarians are agreed that by
compulsory vaccination and re-vaccination this disease can be stamped out entirely. It is
strange that while small-pox is one of the most dreaded diseases it is the one from which any
person may absolutely protect him or herself, so that no degree of exposure to its infection can
injure the individual.
One of the best evidences of the effects of efficient sanitation is the successful manner in
which England prevents Asiatic cholera from gaining a foothold on her shores. She adopts
no quarantine regulations—a strict quarantine would be too great an interference with her
commerce; but by isolation of any imported case, the disinfection of material which might
contain the bacillus of the disease, a system of notification, and the following up of any person
or persons from an infected locality, general cleanliness (or sanitation), especially strict precautions to avoid the infection of drinking water—she makes an epidemic or spread of this disease
an impossibility.
In this connection I may speak of the cholera epidemic that has been raging in China,
Japan and Honolulu this last summer. The threatened importation of the disease from those
countries was certainly in the mind of the Lieutenant-Governor when he caused the Health
Act to be proclaimed. Concerning the disease in China we have little authoritative information, but there is reason to believe it was widely prevalent. The cholera, as you know, was
introduced into Japan by soldiers returning from the Pescadores Islands and Manchuria after
the late Japan-China war. The disease was carried to, and appeared in nearly all of the thirty-
nine provinces of the main island, and in the other islands as well. It was estimated that
in the six months ending October 10th there were in Japan 52,218 cases of cholera, with
36,075 deaths.
Cholera, according to the general theory, was brought to Honolulu by the steamer Belgic,
with 538 Chinese immigrants on board. On October 9th word was received that up to date
there were 87 cases of the disease in Honolulu, 63 of which had died. From the high mortality
it is evident that the disease is of a virulent type.
Although the disease, owing to the cold weather, is now in abeyance, we have, on the
indisputable authority of Dr. Koch, who discovered the cholera bacillus, grounds for expecting
the recurrence of cholera for a number of years in the localities in which it has once appeared.
Speaking after the European epidemic of 1892 Dr. Koch stated :—
" I think it is more necessary to emphasize the efficacy of the measures we have adopted,
as we may certainly count on more cholera years. Our experience shows us that it has generally lasted ten years before the cholera has disappeared from Europe."
The opinion of this great authority is coincided in by the majority of leading sanitarians
of the world, and it is of the utmost importance that this Province should be prepared to meet
this enemy should it make its appearance at any time. Knowing what we do concerning this
disease it will be an easy matter, it is believed, to control it very quickly should it appear,
providing sufficient means are at command for this purpose, hence legislation appropriating a
fund for this purpose, and continuing it, is of vital importance to the Province.
I would point out that any efforts towards improving the general sanitary condition of the
Province made, owing to the fear of this disease, will not be lost should no epidemic appear,
since the same measures that tend to prevent the spread of this or other epidemic disease are
the very ones that prevent the spread of disease in general. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 479
In the seventeenth century the mortality in the city of London was 80 per 1,000 ; in the
eighteenth century it was 50 per 1,000 ; in 1871 it was 22.6 per 1,000, and had been at this
rate for some years previously ; but coincidentally with the passing of the Public Health Act,
in 1872, the death rate commenced to fall, and continued to fall regularly, until in 1881 it was
18.9 per 1,000. If, then, the death rate in 1881 had been only equal to the average rate preceding the Public Heath Act of 1872, there would have died, according to the Begistrar-General
of Great Britain, in that one year alone, at least 92,000 persons, who, as it was, survived.
And this saving of life, he frankly stated, was " the direct product of money and labour
expended in sanitary improvements." But this saving of life is still further augmented by the
lowered death rate of more recent years, for in his preliminary report of 1889 the Registrar-
General estimates that more than 600,000 persons in England and Wales were alive at the end
of that year, whose deaths would have been recorded during the nine years, 1881-89, had the
rate of mortality equalled that which prevailed during the ten years, 1871-80.
It is estimated that sanitary measures save the lives of about 70,860 persons yearly in
Great Britain at the present time. Much yet remains to be done, for Sir Joseph Fayer informs
us that about 125,000 persons still die yearly from preventible diseases. The consequent sickness causing that number of deaths would represent 78^ millions of days' work lost, with a
money value of £7,750,000.
Again, in 1859, the annual death rate in the British army stationed in India stood at 69
per 1,000.    It has been reduced to 14.84 per 1,000 by the enforcement of sanitary regulations.
Unprecedented progress in human knowledge has characterised the present century in the
domain of " Preventive Medicine." The advance made has been immense, and the indications
are that we are still only on the first rung of the ladder. Sanitarians have established beyond
the region of doubt the fact that many diseases are preventible; consequently, by the observance of given laws, man in a measure possesses the power of preserving health, avoiding disease,
and prolonging life.
As an illustration of the results of non-observance of proper sanitation we have only to
look back at what happened in British Columbia in 1892. One or two cases of small-pox were
imported into the Province from the Orient; the laws of sanitation were not carried out; the
disease became epidemic; a large number of deaths occurred ; a great amount of suffering and
illness resulted amongst those who contracted the disease but recovered ; the public were in a
state of panic; a very large pecuniary loss was sustained by individuals and the Province at
large; trade was paralyzed for months, and British Columbia suffered a blow from which many
think she has hardly yet recovered. Gentlemen, if we, the Board of Health, do our duty, no
recurrence of such a calamity is possible. The time to prepare for such an invasion of the
Province by any disease is not when the thing arrives here but during the time of peace, so to
speak, by this Board instituting efficient measures of general sanitation ; by the establishment
of isolation hospitals and suspect stations; by our issuing effective rules and regulations to be
observed and carried out by the various local boards of health and local health officers
throughout the Province.
Again, typhoid fever at one time was epidemic in the cities of the Province. Sanitarians
have proved beyond doubt that this disease arises only in one manner, viz., by the contamination of milk or drinking water by foecal matter containing the bacillus of disease. If a city-
have a proper plan of sewerage; if all houses in such city are connected with the same by
scientific and common-sense plumbing; if the water supply is pure, and no deposits of foecal
matter are allowed to exist in cesspits, &c, no epidemic of typhoid can occur. The inhabitants of such a city will be practically free from this dangerous disease. The few cases which
did occur would be those imported from other localities. It is the duty of this Board to urge
that each city and town in the Province be placed in a like sanitary condition. The contagion
from the imported cases would be harmless, especially if such hygienic regulations were carried
out as this Board will formulate.
It will be the duty of the Provincial Board of Health to recommend the division of the -^
Province into health districts, and to cause the formation of Local Boards of Health  in such
districts, as provided for in the " Public Health Act," in order successfully to carry out  the
objects and provisions of the Act.    The work to be performed consists to a great extent of
two general measures :
1st—The removal of local conditions of filth and nuisance, polluting air, water, and earth:
2nd—To combat and prevent the reckless dissemination of contagion.
To ensure the latter, isolation hospitals or their equivalent should be established in each
health district throughout the Province.    The liberty of the subject is more or less infringed 480 Provincial Board of Health 1895
upon by the Health Act, and necessarily so. All must, however, admit the justice of the
principle that no man has a right to use his liberty of action to the detriment of his fellow
citizens to such an extent as to put their very lives in danger.
It will be the duty of the Provincial Board of Health to recommend the adoption and
issuing of such rules and regulations concerning the subjects specified in sections 9 and 12 of
the "Public Health Act," as after due deliberation we shall deem expedient.
To place the Provincial Board in possession of exact knowledge concerning the hygienic
conditions which exist throughout the Province, a pamphlet of questions pertinent to this
subject will require to be devised and sent by this Board to the Health Officer in all health
districts. The answers to these questions will give us such information as will enable the
Board to deal intelligently with any subject concerning any given locality.
The Board will also do well to make a careful study of the " Health Act, 1893," with a
view to a thorough understanding of its scope and provisions, and probably to recommend
the introduction of such amendments into the Act as will cause it to become more efficient,
chiefly in causing a greater centralization of the powers conferred in the Provincial Board of
Health, and of adding some clauses to meet local conditions not specified in the Act.
The " Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages Act," is also defective, in that it is
practically inoperative in obtaining a full return of the births, deaths, and marriages occurring
in the Province. The return to the Legislature is presented a year later than it should be.
The Board, to enable it to make a reliable return of vital statistics, as required by the
Health Act, will require the amendment of this Registration Act.
The " Coroners' Act " is also defective, and suggestions for its improvement will probably
emanate from the Board.
It will also become the duty of the Board to obtain and keep in hand for the benefit of
the public supplies of vaccine and anti-toxin e, and other attenuated lymphs as they become
known, and the " handwriting on the wall " indicates that in the near future there will be a
great extension of this method of preventing zymotic diseases.
The establishment of a special sanitarium in the Province for the treatment of consumption
(tubercular diseases of the lungs) is a matter the Board may well take into consideration, more
especially as the Province is fortunate in having within its boundaries a tract of country considerable in extent, the conditions of which, as regards elevation, dryness of the atmosphere,
etc., presents the exact conditions which experience has proved give the best results in the
treatment of this disease. It would be impossible for me to enumerate all the subjects which,
as we go on in our work, will engage the attention of the Board. They are epitomized in one
sentence in section 9 of the " Public Health Act: " " The Provincial Board of Health shall
take cognizance of the interests of health and life amongst the people of the Province." Certainly no body of men could have a wider, more important, or useful field of labour. That
the members of the Board will individually and collectively do their utmost to carry out this
great work successfully, the public of the Province may rest assured. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 481
BY-LAWS   GOVERNING   THE   PROVINCIAL   BOARD   OF   HEALTH.
1st. The Board shall meet quarterly on second Wednesday in December, March, June,
and September, at Victoria, and at such other times and at such places as may be fixed by
resolution of the Board.
2nd. Special meetings of the Board shall be convened by order of the Chairman, or, in
event of his absence, by the Secretary, or upon the requisition of any two members.
3rd. All meetings shall be called by the Secretary, by circular mailed to each member,
giving at least three days' notice.
4th. The Chairman shall preside at all meetings of the Board when present, and nominate
all special committees. He shall also have the privilege of voting upon any question at all
meetings, but shall not vote twice upon the same question. When the Chairman is absent
from .any meeting, the members present shall elect one of their number to preside, who shall,
for the time, possess all the rights and perform all the duties of the Chairman.
Sth. The Board shall annually appoint Standing Committees, consisting of two members,
upon the following subjects :—
(«.) Epidemics :
(b.) Sewage and disposal of excreta :
(c.)  Water supply :
(d.) Food and adulterations :
(e.)  School hygiene, heating and ventilation of buildings :
(/".) Legislation :
(g.) Publications :
(h.) Finance.
6th.  The order of business shall be as follows :—
(a.) A quorum (i.e., three members) being present, the Chairman shall take the chair
and call the Board to order :
(b.) The minutes of the last meeting shall be read.    If correct, adopted :
(c.)  Communications and accounts may be presented and disposed of :
(ft?.) Reports of Committees may he made and considered :
le.)  Resolutions may be offered and discussed :
If.) Miscellaneous business.
7ch.  When cases occur  not  provided for in  the above rules, the practice and rules laid
down in May's Parliamentary Practice shall govern. 482 Provincial Boaud of Health. 1895
EXTRACTS   FROM   MINUTES.
Minutes of the First Meeting, held in Victoria, in the Office of J. C. Davie, Esq.,
M.D., October 30tii and 31st, 1895.
First Session.
The Chairman, Dr. Davie, called the meeting to order at 2 p.m. He then read the
proclamation bringing into force the " Health Act, 1893," and the Order in Council appointing
as members of the Board J. C. Davie, M.D., J. M-. Lefevre, M.D., R. E. Walker, M.D., L. T.
Davis, M. D., and A. T. Watt, M.D., and appointing J. C. Davie, M.D., to be Chairman of the
Board and A. T. Watt to be Secretary.    All these members except Dr. Lefevre were present.
Dr. Davie welcomed the members, regretting the absence of Dr. Lefevre in Europe. He
then gave an inaugural address, which on motion of Dr. Davis, seconded by Dr. Walker, was
ordered to be published.
The Chairman suggested that the Secretary read through the Act, and that it be discussed
section by section, in order that members of the Board might understand what they are called
upon by the Act to do and what powers they possess.
The reading of the Act and the discussion thereon occupied the rest of the afternoon
session.
At the reading of section 4 re salaries and allowances of members of the Board, the
Chairman intimated that the Government had been pleased to remunerate the members of the
Provincial Board of Health as follows :—The Chairman, $1,800 per annum, the Secretary,
$1,500 per annum, the other members of the Board a per diem allowance of $25 for the first
day and $20 for each subsequent day while in attendance on meetings of the Board.
Dr. Walker and Dr. Davis considered this amount satisfactory, provided it was understood that the per diem allowance should be for the days necessarily spent away from home,
and that travelling and other necessary expenses be allowed. The Secretary was directed to
refer these points to the Attorney-General, and also the question of the remuneration to be
received by the members of the Board, other than the Chairman and Secretary, while working
on any committee on which they may be appointed.
Sections 6 re duties of Secretary and 9 re duties of Provincial Board were laid over for
discussion at the evening session.
Section 27.—After consideration the Board arrived at the opinion that this section, unless
it may be interpreted to include any extension or alteraton of any existing public water works
or sewerage system, does not give sufficient powers to the Board. The Secretary was instructed
to refer this matter to the Attorney-General.
Section 28, re appointment of Medical Health Officer by Municipal Council.— It was
decided to take action under this section at the evening session.
Section 35, re appointment of Health Officer for outlying districts.—It was decided to
take no action in appointment of Health Officers in outlying districts until the Province has
been divided off into Health Districts.
Section 37, re Local Boards of Health and Health Districts.—It was stated by the
Chairman that the Attorney-General had verbally requested that the Board recommend some
suitable division of the Province into Health Districts. This matter was left over for
consideration at the evening session.
Section 45, re annual reports of Local Boards.—The Secretary was instructed to call the
attention of the Local Boards of Health to this section, with the request that they send in the
required reports before the 15th day of December in each year.
Section 58, re inspection of dairies, &c.—The opinion was expressed that Local Boards of
Health should have the same powers for the inspection of dairies and vegetable gardens as
they have tor the inspection of slaughter-houses and ice under sections 47 and 48. The
subject was postponed for further discussion, with the intention of leaving it in the hands of
a committee (Legislation). 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 483
Section 69, re notification of infectious disease by householders.—It was considered
advisable that this section, and the penalties attached thereto in case of refusal or neglect
of the requirements of the same, should be made generally known. The matter was left to a
committee (Epidemic) to be subsequently appointed.
Section 72, re notification of infectious disease by physicians.—The Board recommended
that a copy of the Act be sent to each medical practitioner in the Province by the Secretary;
and that forms for notification be supplied to each practitioner, either by the Local Board of
Health or the Provincial Board of Health, in accordance with the specification to be submitted
at next meeting by a committee to be appointed later (Epidemic).
Section 78, re disinfection.—It was decided to appoint a committee later to draw up the
regulations required under this section (Epidemic).
Section 82, re disinfection.—It was decided to recommend that each city obtain a modern
disinfecting apparatus.    The matter was deferred to a committee (Epidemic),
Section 86, re notice of infectious disease where persons are attending school.—The
Secretary was instructed to draw the attention of all school teachers, Medical Health Officers,
and Local Boards of Health to this section by forwarding marked copy of Act.
Sections 87 and 89.—It was left to a committee to be appointed later to call the attention
of municipalities to the necessity of making immediate preparations for the isolation of
infectious cases and of persons who have been exposed to infection (Epidemic).
The other sections regarding infectious disease, provisions against infection, <fec, were left
to be dealt with by the same committee (Epidemic).
It being six o'clock the Board then adjourned till 8 o'clock.
First Day—Second Session.
The first business undertaken was the matter of the appointment of Medical Health
Officers in municipalities. After considerable discussion it was moved by Dr. Walker, seconded
by Dr. Watt,
"That the Provincial Board of Health considers it necessary that a Medical Health
Officer be appointed in each municipality, and that the Board does instruct the Secretary to
write to the Council of each municipality enclosing a copy of the " Health Act, 1893," and to
draw the attention of the Council to sections 28, 29, 37, 38, and 41 of the same, and in
the case of city municipalities, also to draw attention to section 30, with a request that each
Council forthwith appoint a Medical Health Officer in accordance with such sections."
The motion was adopted.
On discussing section 6, it was recommended that the Secretary keep the following books
(and open any other that may be found necessary), viz.:—
Minute Book.
Account Book.
Letter Book (copying).
Book for Vital Statistics.
Book showing sanitary condition of Municipalities and Health Districts.
Newspaper Clipping Book.
Section 37, re formation of Health Districts.    This section was discussed in detail.
The Secretary stated that he had obtained maps of the various municipalities, and also a
map of the Province specially prepared to show the territorial jurisdiction of the various
Government Agents. It also shows the municipality s. He had also obtained lists of the
names and addresses, &c, of the different Municipal Clerks, Government Agents, and Provincial
Police officers.
On motion the Secretary was instructed to forward the following letter to the Attorney-
General, for the consideration of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council:—
" The Provincial Board of Health begs leave to intimate that in order to carry out the
provisions of the 'Health Act, 1893,' it is necessary that the Province be divided into Health
Districts.
" The municipalities, whether cities or otherwise, are, by the Act referred to, constituted
Health Districts, and the Provincial Board of Health would suggest that the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council divide the remaining portion of the Province into Health Districts, on
the basis delineated in the map of the Province showing the territorial jurisdiction of the
various Government Agents." 484 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
On motion the Secretary was authorized to obtain and keep on hand a supply of vaccine,
preferably calf lymph, in tubes, obtained, if possible, from Arch. Young & Son, Edinburgh,
and also to obtain and keep on hand a supply of diphtheria anti-toxine, procured, if possible,
from the Institute of Preventive Medicine, London, England.
The Secretary was further instructed to notify, on the arrival of the lymph and anti-
toxine, each registered medical practitioner and Board of Health in the Province, that the
Provincial Board of Health has on hand a supply of vaccine and anti-toxine, which it is
prepared to deliver at cost price. The Secretary was also directed to issue a circular giving
instructions regarding the use of vaccine in tubes.
The Chairman and Secretary reported interviews with Dr. Bryce, Secretary of the
Ontario Board of Health, and with Dr. Montizambert, Superintendent Dominion Quarantines,
during their recent visit to Victoria, in which conversations were held upon vaccination and
use of anti-toxine, on many other sanitary topics, and upon the organization and workings of
the Board.
The Secretary mentioned that on a trip through Chinatown he had shown the visiting
doctors the unsanitary conditions under which the Chinese live, and had pointed out the
dangers that the country was constantly exposed to in the immigration from Canton, a place
of far more unsanitary conditions than any spot in Victoria.
The Secretary presented a number of by-laws, regulations, sanitary pamphlets, etc.,
which he had obtained two years ago during interviews with the Health Officers of various
eastern cities, among them New York, Philadelphia, Washington, etc. He also stated that
he had visited isolation hospitals, quarantine stations, etc., in those places. He reported
having written lately to the other Provincial Boards of Health and to a number of State
Boards of Health, asking for copies of health acts, by-laws, regulations, annual reports,
reports on vital statistics, pamphlets on sanitary matters, suggestions for organization, and
other information.
It was then moved by Dr. Walker, seconded by Dr. Watt :
That the Secretary be instructed to write to all Provincial Boards of Health, and to the
State Boards of Health of Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Montana, North and South
Dakota, and to state that this Board is ready to notify them of any case of small-pox or outbreak of other infectious disease in this Province, provided these Boards are willing to furnish
similar information, and that he also ask from these and other State Boards of Health a copy
of their annual reports and reports on vital statistics, etc.
The motion was adopted.
The chairman then appointed Drs. Walker and Davis a committee to frame by-laws and
regulations for the guidance of the Provincial Board of Health, requesting that the committee
present their report at next session.
At 11 p. m. the Board adjourned to meet again at 2 p. m. the following day.
Second Day—Third Session.
The Board resumed proceedings at 2 P. M., October 31st, the Chairman presiding.
The report of the committee appointed to draw up By-laws and Regulations for the
governing of the Board was the first consideration.
The submitted rules and regulations above were discussed severally, and after some slight
amendments were adopted.
On motion, the By-laws were ordered to be published in the Annual Report.
The Board next occupied itself with discussing section 6, re duties of the Secretary, and
section 9, re duties of the Board, clause by clause.
It was thought impossible to bring in, before the next session of the Legislature, any
report on vital statistics which would be of more value than the usual one sent in by the
Registrar-General.
After some discussion and consultation with Mr. S. Y. Wootton, Registrar-General, who
was summoned to explain the working of the Acts regarding Registration of Births, Marriages
and Deaths, it was decided to instruct the Secretary to write to the Attorney-General as
follows:—
" The Provincial Board of Health begs leave to draw the attention of the Attorney-
General to the difficulty which it meets with in endeavouring to secure full and complete 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 485
returns of the births, marriages and deaths occurring in the Province. The Acts relating to
the registration of births, marriages and deaths are in some respects not carried out in
particular as regards the registration of births. The Provincial Board of Health would therefore suggest to the Attorney-General, that he cause the said Acts to be so amended, and such
instructions sent to Deputy Registrars and Government Agents, as shall ensure a full and
complete return of these statistics. The Board would also suggest that such returns be made
quarterly."
It was moved by Dr. Walker, seconded by Dr. Davis, and adopted :
"That a special committee, consisting of the Chairman and Secretary of the Board, be
appointed to wait upon the Attorney-General to confer with regard to the above subject
should he so desire; and that the said committee explain to the Attorney-General that it
will be impossible to bring in before the next session of the Legislature any report on vital
statistics which would be of more value than the usual one sent in by the Registrar-General,
owing to the imperfect returns of births, marriages and deaths, and inaccurate death certificates, and to the present lack of information possessed by the Board as to the population of
different portions of the Province ; and also, that the committee request that some arrangement
should be entered into by the Provincial Government with the Department of Indian Affairs
whereby the Indian Agents should collect the vital statistics of the Indian population of the
Province and forward the same to the Provincial Board of Health ; and also, that the committee advise that the penal clauses of the ' Registration of Births, Deaths and Marriage Act'
be made known, by publication or otherwise."
In further discussion on section 9, the Secretary was instructed to prepare a circular to
be sent to the various Health Officers or Local Boards of Health, asking for information in
regard to sanitary conditions and management of contagious diseases, such circular to be
printed with blank spaces left for answers to questions.
A number of questions were suggested, of which the Secretary took note.
At six o'clock the Board adjourned to meet again at eight o'clock the same evening.
Second Day—Fourth Session.
At 8 p.m., the discussion of the special clauses marked for further consideration was
re-opened.
In order to expedite matters it was decided to now appoint the standing committees, as
required by the By-Laws.
On motion the following committees were appointed :
Epidemics—Drs. Watt and Davie.
Sewage and disposal of Excreta—Drs. Walker and Lefevre.
Water Supply—Drs. Davis and Watt.
Food and Adulterations—Drs. Davie and Watt.
School Hygiene, Healing and Ventilation of Buildings—Drs. Lefevre and Davis.
Legislation—Drs. Davie and Walker.
Publication—Drs. Watt and Lefevre.
Finance—Drs. Lefevre and Walker.
A lengthy discussion took place upon the work of the various committees. It was then
decided to plan out only such work as could be accomplished by the committees during the
four weeks between this and the next meeting of the Board. The duties of the several committees were then assigned as follows :—
The Committee on Epidemics—To draw up regulations to be enforced on the outbreak of
any of the infectious diseases, small-pox, cholera, diphtheria, scarlet fever, etc., etc.; to point
out the necessity of each municipality or Health District securing, first an isolation hospital,
second, a suspect station; also to report recommending that each city obtain a modern steam
disinfecting apparatus; to prepare forms for notification by physicians and others of cases of
infectious disease, and to recommend means for making section 69 and penalties generally
known:
The Committee on Sewage and Disposal of Excreta—To report on proper methods of
(a) house plumbing, (b) connection with sewers, (c) ventilation of house drains and sewers,
(ii) disposal of roof water; best means of disposal of sewage, excreta, refuse, etc., in such
places as towns, villages, and country places where no regular system of sewerage exists : The Committee on Water Supply—To point out, first, the best sources of supply of drinking water; second, how to guard against contamination of such; third, the conditions that
are required to render well water safe for human consumption in localities in which wells are
of necessity in use.
The Committee on Food and Adulterations—To indicate the proper method of inspection
of meat at slaughter houses and elsewhere, and of certifying as to the condition of the same;
and also to point out the proper method of inspection of dairies, etc., and of the inspection of
milk :
The Committee on School Hygiene, Heating and Ventilation of Buildings—To report on
the following :—
(a.) The cubic air space to be allowed each pupil:
(b.) Water-closet accommodation :
1/ (c.) Length of school hours :
(<l.) Corporal punishment :
The Committee on Legislation is to deal with the question of granting the same powers to
Local Boards of Health for the inspection of dairies and vegetable gardens as they have for
the inspection of slaughter houses and ice ; and also to take into consideration certain amendments to the "Health Act," to the "Registration Act," and "Coroners' Act," which the Board
believe should be suggested.
The Committees on Publication and Finance were assigned no special duties at this
meeting.
Communications were then read from Dr. W. A. deWolfe Smith, Medical Health Officer
of New Westminster ; from Dr. Geo. H. Duncan, Medical Health Officer of Victoria, and
from Mr. F. S. Hussey, Superintendent of Provincial  Police.
On motion the communications were ordered to be received and filed, and the Secretary
instructed to acknowledge each of them.
He was directed to reply in effect :
To Dr. W. A. deWolfe Smith, that this Board can take no action at present upon the
first point raised in his letter, and that the other portions of his letter will be considered at
the next meeting of the Board :
To Dr. G. H. Duncan, that the points raised were now receiving, or would receive, consideration at the hands of the Board :
To Mr. P. S. Hussey, that he refer to sections 53 and 54, " H. A., 1893," and informing
him that the proper course to adopt, in the first place, is to write to the Local Board of
Health for Victoria City, asking that it abate the nuisance complained of.
During the discussion, on the request made by Dr. Duncan in his letter, that the Provincial Board of Health recommend to the Dominion Government that Dr. Montizambert,
Superintendent of Dominion Quarantines, be sent to China and Japan to inform himself as to
the sanitary conditions of those countries, the Chairman informed the meeting that in the
course of a conversation with Dr. Montizambert when he was in Victoria about two weeks
ago, regarding the clanger constantly threatening the Dominion from those countries, he had
advised that vaccination and disinfection of the persons and effects of all immigrants for this
continent should be carried out before embarkation at the ports of departure. In reply, Dr.
Montizambert stated that he held the same views, and would urge in his report that such
procedure be taken.
The Secretary was then instructed to prepare the necessary vouchers for the payment of
the members of the Board.
On resolution the next meeting of the Board was fixed for Wednesday, the twenty-
seventh day of November, 1895.
The Chairman then thanked the members for their close attention to the business brought
before the Board and the expeditious manner in which the proceedings had been carried out.
The meeting then came to a close.
A. T. Watt,
Secretary.
J. C. Davie. 59 Vict, Provincial Board of Health. 487
Minutes of the Second Meeting of the Provincial Board of Health, held in Victoria
in the Office of J. C. Davie, M.D., November 27th, 28th, and 29th, 1895.
First Day—First Session.
The Chairman took the chair at 2 p. m., November 27th, 1895, and called the meeting to
order.
The minutes of the last meeting were read by the Secretary, and were adopted as read.
A communication from Mr. Thorburn Allan, of Nelson, B. C, dated November 19th,
1895, directed to the Chairman, regarding nuisances in that town, arising from a slaughterhouse and pig-styes kept in an unclean condition, was then read.
The Secretary pointed out that action could be taken under the " Sanitary Regulations,
1892," as these regulations were still in force in all parts of the Province other than the city
municipalities.
There was some discussion as to whether to proceed under the " Health Act, 1893," or
under the "Sanitary Regulations, 1892." The opinion prevailed that the latter covered the
case more fully, and that it would be advisable to proceed under the Regulations.
It was then moved by Dr. Walker, seconded by Dr. Davis, that the Secretary be
instructed to write to Mr. N. Fitzstubbs, Government Agent at Nelson, B. C, inclosing a copy
of Mr. Thorburn Allan's letter, and also to send him a copy of the " Sanitary Regulations,
1892,'' calling his attention to Rules 3, 5, 6, and 15, with a request that he take immediate
action under these Rules and abate the nuisance contained of; and also that the Secretary
acknowledge the communication from Mr. Allan, and state that Mr. Fitzstubbs, Government
Agent at Nelson, has received instructions to abate the nuisances complained of.
The motion was adopted.
A communication dated November 1st, 1895, from Mr. A. G. Smith, Deputy Attorney-
General, regarding the per diem allowance to Members of the Board, other than the Chairman
and Secretary, was received and filed.
A communication dated November 16th, 1895, was then read from Hon. D. M. Eberts,
Attorney-General, acknowledging receipt of the resolution adopted at the last meeting of the
Board, re appointment of Health Officers, re Health Districts, re Vital Statistics, and stating
that they would receive due consideration from the Government. The letter was ordered
received and filed.
The Secretary stated that he had submitted the resolution re appointment of Health
Officers to the Attorney-General's department because it was an important resolution., and
because certain complications might arise in case of refusal of the municipalities to take the
desired action. It would therefore be advisable to have the approval of the Department in
whatever was done in this respect.
Dr. Davie, as convener of the Committee on Legislation, asked leave to submit his report
at this juncture.    This was agreed to.    Dr. Davie then reported : —
First, with regard to Health Districts, he had interviewed the Premier and Attorney-
General and had pointed out the advisability of the suggested division, and that they had
agreed that such a division would be the most practical and easily controlled. He also urged
that the Government deal with the question immediately as the Board was hampered in the
work of organizing the Local Boards of Health throughout the Province, until some such
division was made. He was informed that the matter would be brought up at the next
meeting of the Executive.    The meeting, the Chairman stated, was taking place that afternoon.
Second ■ -Regarding the resolution on vital statistics, Dr. Davie stated that, as the Board
is already aware, it became apparent upon consideration of the statute law on the subject, that
important amendments to that law were necessary. He had therefore, as requested, presented
to the Attorney-General the views of the Board and the difficulties experienced and anticipated
in attempting to deal with the question of vital statistics, owing to the imperfect working of
the Acts at present in force relating to the registration of births, deaths, and marriages. He
had also mentioned the defects in the Coroners' Act and the Health Act. Having been referred
to the Honourable Theodore Davie, acting under a commission to revise the statutes, Dr.
Davie brought to his attention the views of the Board. These the Commissioner assured him
would receive every consideration.    It was then arranged by Dr. Davie and the Commissioner 488 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
that the Acts should be considered in detail at a meeting of the Board, and that Mr. R. T.
Elliott, Secretary of the Commission, should attend such meeting and confer with the Board
regarding these Acts. The Commissioner stated that suggestions made by the Board would,
if approved, be embodied in his revision of the Statutes and thus submitted to the Legislature.
The Chairman then remarked that in his opinion the most useful thing the Board could
do at this meeting would be to go through these Acts and submit, for the approval of the
Commissioner for the Revision of the Statutes, such suggested alterations as would make these
Acts most effective. Mr. Elliott could be in attendance to-morrow if the Board concluded to
deal then with the matter. The Board decided to consider the Acts on the following after
noon. A special committee consisting of Drs. Walker and Davis was appointed to meet in
the morning at 10.30 and make a preliminary study of these Acts.
A communication from Dr. McKechnie, Medical Health Officer of Nanaimo, dated
November 19, 1895, was read. The Secretary was instructed to acknowledge the communication and state that the matters referred to in his letter were now receiving, or would receive,
consideration by the Board, to thank him for the information given and also to say that he
would receive a further communication from this Board.
Letters from the State Boards of Health of Michigan, Pennsylvania, New York, Rhode
Island and the Board of Health of the Province of Quebec and the Health Officer of the
District of Columbia, were read. They were ordered received and filed, the Secretary to
acknowledge the receipt of the same, and to thank each for the information and documents
forwarded to this Board, etc.
The letter of Dr. W. A. DeWolfe Smith, Medical Health Officer of New Westminster,
dated October 26th, was again read and reconsidered. The Secretary was instructed to
inform him that the Board now has an opportunity of utilizing his suggestions as the Statutes
are being revised and that the Board will avail itself of the opportunity to do so.
A letter from Mr. Gosnell, Provincial Librarian, dated November 12th, was read, with
enclosed letter from King & Company, Booksellers, London, England, forwarding a catalogue
of Local Government Board publications. The letter was received and filed, the Secretary to
acknowledge same and thank Mr. Gosnell for his kindness.
It was moved and seconded that the Secretary obtain the published reports and papers of
the Local Government Board, England, for the last five years, and that he obtain them
regularly as issued in future.    The motion was carried.
The Secretary was also instructed to write to the Secretaries of the State Board of Health
of Massachusetts and of the Board of Health of the Province of Quebec, and to one or two
others, asking that they kindly forward a list of the Journals and Works on Sanitation that
they consider authorities on the subject.
The Secretary made a verbal report of the work accomplished by him since the last
meeting of the Board. All the work assigned to him had been done, except sending out copies
of the Health A.ct to medical practitioners and school teachers. There were not sufficient
copies of the Act available.
The opinion was expressed by the Board that it would be better to wait until the Act as
amended could be distributed.    The matter was therefore left in abeyance.
The Secretary also stated that he had not sent out circulars to the municipalities because
he had come to the conclusion that the questions prepared at the first meeting would not elicit
sufficiently full information. He then exhibited a circular sent out by the Quebec Board of
Health, which was very complete. He was of the opinion, if the proposed circular were
modelled upon the Quebec circular, a much greater amount of valuable information would be
secured.
The Quebec circular was read through and was adopted as the model from which the
Secretary was to prepare the circular to be sent out. He was instructed to proceed with its
preparation, and to send it out as soon as possible.
Before the meeting closed a telephone message was received from the Attorney-General
to the effect that the resolutions and suggestions re Medical Health Officer, re, Health Districts,
re Vital Statisticts, made by the Board at the last meeting, had been agreed to by the Executive Council.
The Secretary was instructed to make the necessary communications, etc., with Government
Agents, when he received the written notification from the Attorney-General's Department.
At 6:30 p. m. the Board adjourned to meet on the following afternoon at 2 p. m. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 4<s9
Second Day—Second Session.
The Board assembled at 2 p m.    Dr. Davie took the chair and called the meeting to order.
The first business before the meeting was the considcreation of the " Births, Deaths, and
Marriages Registration Act."
The Board took under consideration, section by section, the draft of a " Births, Deaths,
and Marriages Registration Act," prepared by the Commissioner for the Revision of the
Statutes, and submitted for the consideration of the Board. The following suggestions were
made at the reading of the sections specified :—
Section 2.—Dr. Watt suggested the employment of Indian Agents as Collectors of
Statistics under this Act.
Section 3.—The suggestion was made that District Registries conform to the Health
Districts.
Section 4.—The suggestion was offi-red that whenever possible Clerks of the Municipalities
be District Registrars.
Mr. Elliott pointed out that under another section of the Act the Lieutenant-Governor
could appoint whom he pleased and define the Registration Districts.
Section 7. — The suggestion that the time for registration of births he made 60 days, and
that of marriages quarterly.
Section 16.—It was suggested that undertakers' powers to give certificates of death be
struck out.
The other sections of the Act were approved as read.
The following general suggestions were made by the Board :—
First.—That the medical certificate of cause of death be altered by striking out the last
line.
Second.—That a tabulated epitome of the provisions of the Act be published.
It was then moved by Dr. Walker and seconded by Dr. Davis, that the Board record its
approval of the draft of the "Births, Deaths, and Marriages Registration Act" submitted, and
recommend that the usefulness of the Act be further extended by embodying in it the
suggestions made by the Board, the matter to he left in the hands of the Committee on Legislation.
The motion was adopted.
The " Coroners'- Act."
The next item of business was the discussion, section by section, of the draft of a
"Coroners' Act" prepared by the Commissioner for the Revision of the Statutes and submitted
for the consideration of the Board.
The draft was approved as read, the Board making the following general suggestions:—
(a.) In every case in which an inquest is held a post-mortem examination should be held,
and medical evidence based on that post-mortem examination be given.
It is submitted that the circumstances attending or surrounding any death which
necessitate the holding of an inquest, almost, if not invariably, necessitate also the holding of
a post-mortem examination. That in all cases where an inquest is necessary the only evidence
which can effectually establish the direct cause of death must he given by a medical man as a
result of his examination of the body; and this statement is made without in the least
detracting from the value of the evidence of witnesses who speak as to the circumstances
surrounding or leading up to the death. The holding of a post-mortem and the taking of
medical evidence in every case would also have the effect of rendering the office of Coroner
purely judicial, and would establish a uniform basis for all inquisitions returned by Coroners
throughout the Province.
(6.) The evidence of the medical witness be accepted in lieu of the "view of the body" by
the jury.
The adoption of the first suggestion would enable the present suggestion to be carried out.
The viewing of the body by the jury is a most disagreeable and in very many instances an
entirely useless work. Every shadow of reason for it would be removed by ensuring the
obtaining of reliable medical testimony, and the exemption of jurors therefrom would, in all
probability, enable Coroners to obtain the services of the best possible class of jurors.
(a.) Payment to the medical witness of his witness fee, together with a fee of fifteen dollars,
for holding a post-mortem. 490 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
The labour and time involved in making a thorough post-mortem examination renders the
above fee reasonable in the extreme. Such an examination conscientiously performed by a
competent practitioner sets at rest, in most cases, all doubt as to cause of death, and, in cases
where further enquiry or investigation is necessary, affords information which can only subsequently be obtained with extreme difficulty and at great expense. The degree of professional
skill called for in such examination renders it desirable that they be undertaken by practitioners of undoubted standing, and it is needless to point out the justice of establishing a fair
scale of remuneration, and the necessity of preventing work of this class being left to men of
inferior standing in the profession. It may also be pointed out that the aggregate cost of all
inquests, including post-mortem examinations, throughout the Province involves only a small
annual sum, even should it be deemed wise to study economy in connection with a matter so
closely connected with our laws for the protection of human life.
(ci.) Power to Coroners to appoint a deputy or deputies whenever occasion arises.
A power given to Coroners to appoint a deputy or deputies, as occasion may require,
would, it is submitted, be found to be in the public interests, and would guard against inconvenience and delay arising from the absence or illness of a Coroner. No objection, apparently,
can reasonably be urged against it, provided, in his choice of deputies, a Coroner be restricted
to duly qualified medical practitioners.
(e.) Payment of Coroners for examinations made in cases where an inquest is not found
to be necessary.
A moderate fee should be provided for Coroners to meet their expenditures of time and
money in cases in which no inquest is deemed necessary after due enquiry in all the attendant
circumstances.
(f) That in all cases hereafter arising the office of Coroner be filled by the appointment of
a duly qualified medical man, and that the scale of remuneration to Coroners be raised to
an amount equal to the fees received in cases in ordinary practice involving a like expenditure
of time and Labour.
A resolution was then moved by Dr. Walker and seconded by Dr. Davis, that the Board
record its approval of the draft of the " Coroners' Act" submitted, and recommend that the
usefulness of the Act be further extended by embodying the general suggestions made by the
Board, the matter to be left in the hands of the Committee on Legislation.
The motion was adopted.
At 6 p.m. the Board adjourned, to meet again at 8 p.m. the same day.
Second Day—Third Session.
The Board re-assembled at 8 p.m., Dr. Davie in the chair.
The first business before the Board was the consideration of the Health Acts.
Mr. Elliott was again in consultation with the Board.
It was moved by Dr. Watt, and seconded by Dr. Walker, that the " Health Act, 1893,"
and " Health Act," chap. 55, "Consolidated Acts, 1888," be considered section by section, and
that suggestions for amendment be noted, in order that a draft Act may be drawn up and submitted for the consideration by the Commissioner for the Revision of the Statutes.
This motion was adopted.
The reading of the Acts named was then proceeded with. The discussion that took place,
and the suggestions that were made at the reading of the sections, are noted after the sections
specified :—
Section 2.—It was decided to leave with Mr. Elliott the re-drafting of the interpretation
clause of this section.
Section 4.—In the last line but one the word " may " is changed to " shall."
Section 6.—The words, " and he shall * * * * Municipalities," in the body of the
section, are struck out.    (Made compulsory in section 37.)
Section 9.—Discussion.—The Secretary pointed out that this section confers simply
advisory powers on the Board. It might be questioned whether the Board had now any power
to draw up sanitary regulations, or regulations of any sort except such as are specified in
section 12, in which power is given to issue regulations whenever the Province appears to be
threatened with any formidable epidemic of disease. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 491
During the discussion the fact was emphasized that while much sickness and many deaths
are caused in the Province by epidemic disease, a much larger proportion of sickness and death
is attributable directly or indirectly to unsanitary conditions. Epidemic disease itself was, in
many cases, to be attributed to bad sanitary conditions. It was quite as important, therefore,
that the Board should have power to issue general sanitary regulations as to issue epidemic
regulations. In the latter case the Board is dealing with disease caused by bad sanitary conditions prevalent in the Province; in the former the Board, by removing the causes (i. e., bad
sanitary conditions), is thus preventing disease becoming- present in the Province.
The Chairman observed that the extent and nature of the duties of the Board were chiefly
summarized in this section
That these were duties of the first importance could be seen by a perusal of the section,
the first half of which was again read :-—
" The Provincial Board of Health shall take cognizance of the interests of health and life
among the people of the Province; they shall especially study the vital statistics of the
Province, and shall endeavour to make an intelligent and profitable use of the collected records
of death and of sickness among the people ; they shall make sanitary investigations and
inquiries respecting causes of disease, and especially of epidemics ; the causes of mortality and
the effects of localities, employments, conditions, habits, and other circumstances upon the
health of the people ; they shall make such suggestions as to the prevention and interception
of contagious and infectious diseases, as they shall deem most effective and proper, and as will
tend to prevent and limit as far as possible the rise and spread of disease."
This section and also section 12, it was pointed out, had been taken nearly word for word
from the Ontario Health Act enacted in 1882. Two years' experience of the Ontario Board,
however, proved that these sections did not give sufficiently extensive powers to the Board, as
the extracts read from the Second Annual Report of the Ontario Board of Health show. The
following quotations refering to these sections were read :—
"From a perusal of this list of duties, it is apparent that they have a very wide scope,
and are of very great importance, and that the people of the Province might look for large
and beneficial results from the execution of them. Now, while it may be admitted that the
performance of these duties has resulted in much good, it must be apparent that all the results
that might be expected do not necessarily follow the labours of the Board. The reason of
this is evident from the perusal of the terms of the section already referred to, from which it
will appear that the powers of the Board are simply of an advisory character, and while it
may have abundant powers to will and advise, it has little power to do, or to put in operation
needed reforms.
" Hitherto the sanitary work of the Board has been mainly of an advisory character.
Experience, as illustrated throughout this report, has shown that an advisory Board, simply,
cannot obtain the accomplishment of the work, and hence a Board with more extended powers
would seem to be a logical necessity. Such has been the experience of New York State and
of Great Britain, as well as of several European countries. The relation of Government
Board to Local Boards has been shewn, but it may be a matter of interest to state some of
the powers and duties of the Local Government Board of Great Britain. This Board is the
supreme authority in all matters relating to the public health ; and it has also all the powers
and duties of the Poor Law Board. It has a general power over the acts of all local authorities, and various powers relating to public water supplies, etc. All the powers and duties
incident to the superintendence of the registration of births, marriages and deaths are vested
in it, and it issues regulations regarding drainage and all sanitary matters of a similar nature,
public baths and wash-houses, town improvements, etc. It may, from time to time, make
investigations under the Public Health Act, and it may direct the union of certain districts
into sanitary districts, and enforce performance of duty by defaulting local authorities. Such
a Board was the result of the experience which years had brought of the inadequacy of voluntary municipal action for the proper performance of local sanitary work. It has been already
seen how, under the Act of 1848, the purely municipal method had been tried and failed; and
it may further be asserted that it is due to the action of the Local Government Board that in
public health work England has attained the first position amongst European and other
countries. 492 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
"In the light of such examples as this gained concerning public work in England, we are
forced to consider simply the two questions, viz.: First, the Government having undertaken
the duty of protecting the interests of the people by the establishment of a Provincial Board
of Health, can it effect the desired end by the powers which it has at the present time given
to this Board 1 And second, if such powers as the Board possesses, do not enable it in some
large measure to accomplish the desired result, is it not absolutely necessary that such
increased power be given it as will effect that desired end 1 The whole review of the work
of this Board shows that satisfactory results cannot be accomplished by it as at present
constituted ; and hence, the Board urges upon the attention of the Government the great
importance of its work, and the vast issues depending upon it—the preservation of the lives
and health of the people ; and it asks for power in some degree adequate for the purposes of
which it is presumably created."
It was remarked that in this Province it was even more important that the Board should
have the increased powers referred to, because much of the Province is not formed into municipalities. Hence the people living in the outlying districts have not inaugurated needed sanitary
improvements, and even in many newly formed municipalities in this Province sanitary
reforms have not been begun. It is equally important that this Board, by promulgating an
efficient sanitary code, should bring about the needed reforms in the sanitary conditions of
these municipalities as well.
It was further pointed out that in Quebec when the Board of Health of the Province was
established some time after that in Ontario, the Legislature took care that the new Board
should not be hampered in the same way as was the Ontario Board. A section of the Public
Health Act, of Quebec, as amended up to 1st of July, 1895, was then read. The section is a
similar one to the one discussed, and in it are defined the duties and powers of the Board.
Their duties are similar to those of this Board as defined in section 9, "Health Act, 1893,"
except that instead of the clause reading, "They shall make such suggestions as to the prevention and interception of contagious and infectious diseases, as they shall deem most effective
and proper, and as will tend to prevent and limit, as far as possible, the rise and spread of
disease."
In that Act this clause appears :—
" It is the duty of the Board of Health to establish such rules as it may think fit, for
preventing the pollution of water-courses, wells, reservoirs, and other sources of water supply ;
for causing all nuisances or possible cause of disease to disappear; for regulating more
especially the manner of constructing and maintaining public and private sewers, drains,
closets and cess-pools; for regulating the sanitary condition of houses, cow-sheds, stables, pigsties and yards; the manner of disposing of bodies of animals, sweepings, refuse and manure,
as well as the keeping of places for depositing night-soil and similar substances ; the manner
of building and keeping slaughter-houses and other establishments which are not provided for
by the provisions of these Statutes respecting industrial establishments; for the preservation
tion or the improvement of public health; for the prevention as far as possible, or the
mitigation, of epidemic, endemic or contagious diseases of men and animals; with power to
revoke, renew, or alter any such regulations, or substitute any new regulations as to it appears
expedient."
Similar sections were read from the Health Acts of Manitoba and New Brunswick, and
it was found that these Boards also have  the almost identical powers with the Quebec Board.
A further discussion ensued on the duties and powers of the Board. The sections 10, 11
and 12, were read and considered. It was concluded that these sections and section 9 should
stand as they were, and that a new section should be drawn up giving to the Board power to
make general rules and regulations regarding sanitary matters, Mr. Elliott in drawing up the
section to bear in mind the section of the Quebec Act just read.
Mr. Elliott explained that by drawing up an entirely new section and letting these
remain unchanged, the new section would give the Board what is known in law as ordinary
powers, and that under section 12 the Board would have what is known in law as extraordinary powers in case of an epidemic.
The new section reads as follows :—
(2.) The Provincial Board may, subject to the approval and consent of the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council, make and issue such general Rules, Orders and Regulations as the said
Board may deem necessary for the prevention, treatment, mitigation and suppression of disease,
and may from  time to  time,  subject  to the like  approval  and consent as aforesaid, alter or 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 493
repeal any such Rules, Orders and Regulations, and substitute new Rules, Orders and Regulations; and the said Board may by such Rules, Orders and Regulations provide for and
regulate—
(ffl.) The management,  maintenance, functions,  duties and jurisdiction of Local Boards,
Local Health Officers, and Sanitary Inspectors :
(b.) The prevention and removal of nuisances :
(c.)  The cleansing, purifying, ventilating and disinfecting of houses, churches, public and
charitable institutions, buildings, and places of assembly,  railway stations, carriages
and  cars,  as  well as other public conveyances,   by  the owners and occupiers and
persons having care and ordering thereof :
(d.) The inspection of hospitals, gaols, orphanages, reformatories, houses, churches, buildings, and places of assembly, railway stations, carriages and cars and all other public
conveyances :
(e.) The construction,  maintenance,   cleansing and disinfection  of  all drains, sewerage
systems, sewers, privies and pigsties :
(/.) The method of the carrying on of all noxious or offensive trades or business, and the
summary abatement of any nuisance or injury to the public health arising or liable
to arise therefrom :
(</.) The inspection, licensing, method of constructing, furnishing, equipping and maintaining,  cleansing and disinfecting all slaughter-houses and other places in  which
animals are killed and their meat prepared for sale or to be used for food, and all
canneries, fish-houses, smoke-houses, and warehouses in which fish are cured, packed,
or prepared for sale or to be used as food :
(h.) The interment of the dead, and the conduct of funerals :
(i.) The isolation or placing  in  any hospital or building provided for quarantine  or
isolation purposes of any person having any infectious or contagious disease, or any
disease dangerous to the public health :
(j.) The  reporting  to a Medical  Health  Officer by  every medical  practitioner of any
person under his treatment for any infectious or contagious disease,  or any disease
dangerous to the public health :
(k.) The vaccination of all children born or residing within the Province :
( I.) The   vaccination   of all  persons  entering or  residing in the Province  not already
vaccinated, or not sufficiently protected by previous vaccination:
(m.) The supply and quality of vaccine matter :
(u.) The prevention of the use of noxious manures and fertilizers, and of manures and
fertilizers dangerous to the public health :
(o.) The  regulation of  the situation,  equipment,   management and   maintenance of all
creameries, dairies and market gardens :
(p.) The  prevention of  the pollution,  defilement,  discolouration, or fouling of all lakes,
streams, pools, springs, and waters :
(q.) The imposition, levying and recovery of penalties upon and from any person who
shall violate any Bules, Orders or Begulations made hereunder; and
(r.) Generally, all such matters, acts, and things as may be necessary  for the protection
of the public health and for ensuring the  full  and  complete  enforcement  of every
provision of this Act.
Sections 14, 15, and  16.    These sections were considered to properly belong to section 12.
A new section was drawn by making section 12  to  be  sub-section numbered  (1), the clauses
to be designated by (a), (b), (c), &c.
Section 14 to be sub-section (2).
Section 15 to be sub-section (3).
Section 16 to be sub-section (4).
Section 13.—This section was then placed after the new section.
Section 27.—It was pointed out that a similar provision in the  Ontario  Act  had  been
declared defective by the courts of that Province.    Mr. Elliott was requested  to re-draw this
section, embodying the provisions of section 3 of  the  "Health  Act,   1895,"  Ontario,  except
the  concluding sentence of sub-section (5), beginning with the words " But this shall not "    *
* * and ending with " a valid award."    The new section should be drawn so as to
provide also that any extension or alteration of any existing public water-works or sewerage
system should not be proceeded with until the plans, etc., have been approved by the Board. 494 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
The new sections read as follows :—
" 23. When the establishment of a system, or the extension of any existing system, of
water-works for the purpose of providing a public water supply is contemplated by the municipal council of any municipality or by any person, persons or body corporate, it shall be the
duty of such municipal council, person, persons or body corporate, whether incorporated by
Special or Private Act of Parliament or otherwise howsoever to submit to the Provincial
Board the plans and specifications of the proposed system of water-works, and an analysis of
the water from the proposed source or sources of supply, verified by affidavit stating that the
plans and specifications so submitted are those to he used and followed in the construction of
such proposed system, that the particulars set forth in the said analysis are true, and that the
water analysed was taken from the proposed source or sources.
" (2.) It shall not be lawful to construct, establish or operate any such system of waterworks or any extension of any existing system of water-works as aforesaid, without first
obtaining from the Provincial Board a certificate signed by the Chairman and Secretary
certifying that the plans, specifications and analysis so submitted, and the proposed source or
sources, have been considered and approved by the Board, and that the proposed system or
extension may, with safety to the public health, be constructed, carried out and operated.
" (3.) If in the opinion of the Provincial Board alterations are necessary in the plans or
in the specifications of such proposed system, the certificate aforesaid may specify the alterations so deemed necessary, and it shall not be lawful to construct, establish or operate the proposed system or extension unless and until such alterations have been made in the said plans
and specifications.
" 24. When the construction or extension of a common sewer or of a system of public
sewerage shall be contemplated by the municipal council of any municipality, or by any person
or body corporate, it shall be the duty of such council, person or body corporate, to submit to
the Provincial Board all plans and specifications in connection with the construction or extension of such common sewer or system of sewerage.
"(2.) The Provincial Board may call for, and such council, person, or body corporate,
shall furnish as soon as may be, such further information and data, in addition to the said
plans and specifications, as the Provincial Board may deem necessary.
"(3.) It shall not be lawful for any such council, person or body corporate, to construct
or extend any common sewer or system of sewerage without first obtaining from the Provincial Board a certificate signed by the Chairman and Secretary, stating that the proposed
construction or extension may be carried out, and the constructed or extended common sewer
or system of sewerage maintained and operated without injury or danger to the   public  health.
" (4.) If in the opinion of the Provincial Board, for the purpose of guarding against
injury or danger to the public health, alterations are necessary in the plans and specifications,
or in both the plans and specifications submitted as aforesaid, the said certificate may specify
the alterations so deemed necessary, and it shall not be lawful to construct, establish or operate the proposed system or extension unless and until the alterations specified in the said
certificate have been made and adopted.
" 25. The decision or certificate of the Provincial Board with regard to the construction
or extension of any common sewer or public system of sewerage, or of any system of
water-works or public water supply, shall be subject to appeal to the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council, such appeal to be made and taken within one month after the filing of the decision or
certificate in the office of the Minister of the Department to which the Provincial Board is
attached ; and such decision or certificate, when not so appealed against, or when confirmed
or amended and confirmed upon appeal by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, shall be binding and conclusive in all respects : Provided that whenever, in reference to any of the matters
aforesaid, it shall appear that any change of circumstances or conditions has arisen or exists,
the Provincial Board may make further enquiry and may file a further or supplemental
decision or certificate, which shall be subject to appeal in manner and have in all respects the
force and effect aforesaid."
Section 30.—All words after Council, line eight, are struck out.
Section 33.—This section is amended by adding " and to be awarded and fixed by the
Provincial Board of Health, subject to the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council."
Section 34.—This section is amended by adding after the word "shalJ," in line one, the
words "be the Chief Health Officer and Sanitary Official for the municipality or district to
which he is appointed, and shall " 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 495
Section 37.—Sub-section (1) of this section reads: "There shall be a Local Board of
Health in each municipality and such board shall consist of the council of such municipality."
This is amended by striking out the words " of the council of such municipality," and substituting :
" (ffl.) In city municipalities, of the Mayor, who shall be ex-officio Chairman of the Board,
the Police Magistrate, the City Engineer and the Medical Health Officer, and City Municipal
Clerk :
" (b.) In District or Township Municipalities, of the Reeve, who shall be ex-officio Chairman of the Board, the Clerk of Municipal Council, the Medical Health Officer, and a Justice
of the Peace, resident within the Municipality, to be appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council :
" (d.) A Union Board, shall consist of the Mayor or Reeve of each Municipality in the
Union, the Medical Health Officer, and a Justice of the Peace, resident in each Municipality in
the Union, to be appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council."
Sub-sections (2), (3) and (4) are embodied in anew section, and appear as sub-sections (1),
(2) and (3). The new sub-section (1) is amended so that the Provincial Board is given power
to carry out its provisions with the consent of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council.
Section 37.—Discussion.—Much discussion took place over the suggested changes, but the
members of the Board were unanimously of the opinion that Municipal Councils do not make
efficient Boards of Health. That the Board is supported in this opinion by authoritative
opinion, can be proved by reference to its correspondence. An extract of a letter by a Medical
Health Officer of this Province to the Provincial Board, referring to the present formation of
Local Boards of Health, was read. The following is the extract :—" You may readily see the
Board of Health may, and generally does, consist of gentlemen who have no knowledge whatever of health matters, and hence frequently arise difficulties in carrying out what the Medical
Health Officer may regard as being of imperative necessity, dollars and cents frequently being
the main consideration on their part."
The letter goes on to suggest that the Local Board of Health consist of the Medical Health
Officer, the City Engineer, the Chief of Police, and one or two selected members of the Council.
" By this provision is made for administrative and executive officers ; unity and continuity
of action being also obtained."
Section 37.—During the discussion it was shown that in New York State, which has one
of the most efficient systems of local health organizations, that the Local Boards of Health in
towns and villages consist of the official corresponding to our Mayor or Reeve—"Supervisor"— the Justices of the Peace, and the Municipal Clerk. Under its old law Municipal
Councils were constituted the health authorities in cities, but according to The Second Annual
Report of the State Board of Health, this system is shown to he unsatisfactory, and to give
opportunity for mal-administration and misapplication of funds. "It was found," says the
report, " and has been often illustrated, that the identity of the Municipal Legislative Board
with the Health Board offers not only temptation and facilities for mal-administratiou, * * *
but that expertness and efficiency in the sanitary service are rarely attained under such
circumstances. It was for this reason that the Legislature, in 1881, provided that it should be
the duty of the Common Council of every city in the State (except in a few instances) to
appoint a Board of Health, to consist of six persons who are not members of said Council, and
that the Mayor shall be a member ex-officio, and also be President of the Board ; of the six
members so appointed (and ' one of whom shall be a competent physician ') two are appointed
annually after the first Board is filled."
Reference was also made to the rather complicated local health organizations of Great
Britain and Ireland. It was pointed out that the local health authorities were distinct from
the Municipal Councils, and that the members, elected by popular vote, held office for three
years. The plan of having the Municipal Council the health authority had long been superseded.
It is evident that the experience of health matters in New York and other States, as well
as in England, goes to prove that the old methods of regulating sanitary affairs, however well
meant, have failed to achieve the desired results. And it seems quite clear that some other
body than the Municipal Council is required for performing sanitary work. The reasons for
this change, as summed up in the Second Annual Report of the Ontario Board of Health,
were read :—
"(1.) Sanitary work, to be of much value or of a comprehensive nature, must be undertaken with a clear idea of the dangers to be averted and the good to be attained ; and it must 496 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
he remembered that it is a scientific work, and that scientific methods must be adopted. This
being the case it is not sufficient that any person who may or may not have studied, or be
willing to study, such subjects, should be appointed a member of a health committee simply
because he has been elected a Municipal Councillor. Unfortunately, the attempts at sewerage
systems and water supply found in many of our cities and towns make the force of this remark
too evident.
" (2.) Assuming that there are members of Councils qualified to be health officers, it is
manifestly impossible for them, with the many other municipal matters requiring their attention, to give that time and care to sanitary measures which their difficult and important nature
requires.
" (3.) The annual election of Councillors prevents, in too many cases, their taking a broad
view of what public health necessities may require, since in many instances these may involve
the adoption of extensive sanitary schemes, the immediate effect of which the popular mind
may not at the time be capable of appreciating, and the good results of which cannot at once
be seen. Naturally, then, members of Councils are averse to advocating any measure which
will make them unpopular.
" Other reasons than the foregoing might possibly be adduced, but these are sufficient to
prove the necessity for a change in the present law."
Although these reasons were set forth some years ago, and have been repeatedly
re-stated in annual reports since that time, it was only last year that the Legislature perceived
the force of the reasoning and enacted legislation to do away with the old system, as will be
seen by section 2 of the "Public Health Act, 1895, Ontario."
It was shown that this section provides in effect:—
That the Local Board of Health of towns or villages shall be composed of the Mayor or
Reeve, Clerk and three ratepayers, to be appointed by the Municipal Council. These latter
hold office for three years after the first Board is filled, one retiring each year;
That the Local Board of Health of cities shall be composed of the Mayor and six ratepayers appointed and serving in the same manner, save that two retire each year.
The Board after full consideration arrived at the conclusion that the plan as suggested
in the amended section, would be the best suited to this Province. Public opinion is demanding everywhere "for sanitary, aesthetic and commercial reasons," that organized effort be made
for the betterment of conditions concerning public health.
The advantages of such composition of a Local Board were summed up :—
There will be a stability and continuity about a permanent Board which is not possible
with an organization composed of the members of the Municipal Council and therefore subject
to annual changes in membership.
The appointing of the Mayor or Reeve as ex-officio chairman forms not only a necessary
connecting link between the Board and the Council, inasmuch as sanitary matters touch in
many ways the work ordinarily looked upon as being the duty of the Municipal body, but
ensures harmonous co-operation in the joint efforts of the two bodies.
The presence of the Police Magistrate enables the Board to have competent legal assistance when needed and advice in the complications and knotty points likely to arise in the
work of the Board.
The City Engineer will be a most useful member of the Board. His opinion and advice
is constantly required in all matters relating to sewerage, drains, water supply, etc.
The Medical Health Officer is a fit and proper member by virtue of his profession, since
physicians naturally take a deep interest in sanitary matters and are always active in whatever tends to the improvement of the public health. The Medical Health Officer is certain to
be well informed, and will take scientific and intelligent views of health matters. He can do
more efficient work as a member of the Board than as at present. In the former case he can
move resolutions and speak fearlessly in support of them, which perhaps, no one else would
care to do, and this rrot by mere permission as when before a Board of Aldermen. The
position of the Medical Health Officer when not a member of the Board is altogether different,
his measures are brought forward by inducing an uninformed and usually unwilling Alderman
to move them. The difficulty is thus greatly increased of carrying necessary resolutions to
which some may object.
The Municipal Clerk as a member of the Board having a voice and vote, will, from his
knowledge of municipal affairs, make a valuable member of the Board. The duties of
Secretary will naturally devolve upon him. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 497
The Justice of the Peace is usually one of the most intelligent men of the community
and alive to the public well-being. It is therefore natural to suppose that he will take a deep
interest in matters affecting the public health. His judicial experince would also prove of
use, and the dignity of his office will sustain the Board especially in communities where
sanitary laws are but little observed.
It was brought out in further discussion of this section that in no other Province of the
Dominion is the Local Board of Health now composed of the members of the Municipal
Council, and that in nearly all the States of the Union the Local Board is also separate from
the Council.
The Board therefore strongly recommends the adoption of the proposed plan for the
formation of Local Boards of Health.
Section 42.—This section being unnecessary, as section 35 covers the ground, is left for
repeal.
Section 43.—This section is changed so as to read—
"The Municipal Council of every municipality shall in each year vote such sums as are
necessary for the carrying on of the work of the Local Board for such year within the
municipality."
Section 46 was reached and considered by the Board by 11.30 p.m., when an adjournment
was made till the following afternoon at 2 p. m.
Third Day—Fourth Session.
The Board re-assembled at 2 p. M., there being present Drs. Davie, Walker, and Watt. Dr.
Davis was absent, having been called to Nanaimo to hold an inquest.
The business taken up was the consideration of the " Health Act, 1893," from section 46
to the end, and also the consideration of the " Health Act," chap. 55, " Consolidated Acts,
1888."
Section 46.—It was suggested that this section be changed to read :—
" The Provincial Board shall have power to adopt and enforce through the Local Boards
such regulations regarding the source of supply and place of storage of all ice procured,
imported, or stored for sale or consumption within the Province, as shall, in their opinion, be
the best adapted to secure the purity of the ice and prevent injury to the public health. The
powers and duties of each Local Board in the enforcement of such regulations shall extend to
the supervision of ice supplies, whether obtained within or without the limit of the municipality, whenever the ice is intended for use within the municipality in which such Local Board
has jurisdiction."
Section 49.—This section is left without change, and immediately following it are placed
sections 91 and 92, and the two new sections regarding milk and vegetable supplies.
Section 50.—This section is placed after section 63.
Section 53.—This section is changed to make the owner of the premises on which a
nuisance exists or arises responsible for the abatement of the nuisance
Section 58.—This section is left for repeal, a new section being drawn to cover the ground.
Section 61.—In this section all the words after "life," in the last line but one, are
struck out.
Section 69.—In this section the words "Local Board of Health," in line 5, and "or to
the," in line 6, are struck out, and before the word "district," in the same line, are inserted
the words "municipality or."
Sections 70 and 71.—The words "attending physician," wherever they occur in these
sections, are struck out.
Section 78.—In this section all the words after the word "officer," in line 6, are struck
out.
Section 79.—This section is left for repeal, its requirements being provided for in preceding
sections.
Section 80—In this section, in the first line, the word " such," is struck out, and after the
word " conveyance," in the same line, the words " who has conveyed therein any infected
person or thing " are inserted. 498 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
Section 81.—In this section all the words after the word "first," in the third line, are
struck out, and the words " complied with the regulations of the Provincial Board of Health
as to disinfection or otherwise in that behalf " are inserted.
Section 72.—In this section the words " Local Board of Health or," in the sixth line, are
struck out, and after the last word in the section is added "and if there be no Medical Health
Officer, then to the Local Board."
In the discussion relative to sections 69 and 72 it was clearly brought out that the Medical
Health Officer was the proper person to receive the notification. Sending notice to the Local
Board might cause a delay with serious consequences.
Section 74.—In this section, in line 3, after the word " until" the words " the regulations
of the Provincial Board of Health in that behalf " are inserted, and in line 4 the words " or
Health Officer " are struck out.
Section 77.—In this section, in line 4, the words " attending physician " are struck out.
The Medical Health Officer is the official responsible for the proper disinfection and
quarantine of cases of infectious disease, and he should be the person who should supervise all
such cases.    The family physician is in numerous cases too lenient.
Section 88.— In this section all the words after " made by the," in the fifth line, are struck
out, and the words "Provincial Board of Health " substituted.
Section 90.—In this section the words " by the Health Officers or Local Boards of Health,
subject to revision and alteration," are struck out.
Section 91.—This section is changed to give power to the Provincial Board to enforce the
provisions through Local Boards.    The new section to follow after section 49, as also section 92.
Section 105.—This section, being obsolete, is struck out.
Section 106.—This section is struck out, and the words "The 'Health Act,' being chapter
55 of the 'Consolidated Acts, 1888,' is hereby repealed," are substituted.
Section 1.—Omitting the words " 1893," this section becomes the last section of the Act.
Some minor changes, not affecting the text, were left to be made by Mr. Elliott.
At 6 p.m. the Board adjourned, to meet again at 8.30 the same evening.
Third Day—Fifth Session.
The first business taken up by the Board on assembling again at 8.30 was the receiving
of reports of Committees.
Dr. Davie, as convener of the Committee on Food and Adulterations, stated that he had
considerable material prepared, but would ask that he be allowed to leave his report over for
further elaboration and consultation with other authorities.    Further time was given.
The members of the Committees on School Hygiene, etc., and Committee on Water
Supply, and the Committee on Sewerage, also asked for further time to report, making practically the same statement as that made by Dr. Davie.     Further time was given in each case.
The Committee on Legislation had already made its report at the first session.
Dr. Watt, as convener of the Epidemic Committee, read the report of that Committee.
The reading of the report occupied the rest of the session. It was ordered that the report be
type-written, and that it be considered at next meeting.
It was moved by Dr. Walker, seconded by Dr. Watt, that clause (1) of By-laws and
Regulations governing the Board, by which the meeting of the Board would be required to
be held on the second Wednesday of December, 1895, be suspended, and that the next
meeting of the Board be held on the second Wednesday in January, 1896.
The motion was carried.
The meeting then came to a close.
A. T. Watt,
J. C. Davie. Secretary. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 499
Minutes of the Third Meeting of the Provincial Board of Health (First Begular
Meeting postponed from 11th Dec,   1895), held in the Office of J. C.
Davie, M. 1)., Victoria, B. C, Jan'y 8th, 9th and 10th, 1896.
First Day—First Session.
At 2 p. m. the Chairman took the chair and called the meeting to order. The members
present were Dr. J. C. Davie, Chairman; Dr. L. T. Davis, Dr. R. E. Walker, and Dr. A. T.
WTatt, Secretary.
The Secretary read the minutes of the last meeting.    The minutes were adopted as read.
The reading of the correspondence and reports of the Local Boards of Health was then
proceeded with.
(Note—The discussion arising out of these and the instructions regarding them given to
the Secretary are recorded after each letter or report specified, when such are of moment, in
the proceedings.)
A letter dated January 7th, 1896, from the Attorney-General's Department about the
anti-toxine now in cold storage, was read.    The letter was received and placed on file.
The Secretary reported that he had received the vaccine and anti-toxine which had been
ordered from England.
A letter dated 23rd Dec, 1895, from the Attorney-General regarding the resolutions
made at the last meeting of the Board and forwarded to him, namely :—re Medical Health
Officers, re Health Districts, re Vital Statistics, was read.
The last portion of the letter read as follows :—
" 3. In regard to the third resolution (re Vital Statistics), I understand that the Chief
Justice, who is at present compiling a revision of the statutes under a commission for that
purpose, has been informed of the amendments to the Act relating to Vital Statistics, which
the Board would like to see effected. 1 have remarked that section 6 of the Act imposes a
duty upon you of preparing an annual report in relation to Vital Statistics. The chief
difficulty that has always existed in the collection of these statistics, and the enforcement of
the Act relating thereto is, that it has been an adjunct of the Land Registry Office, and as
such has possibly not met with the attention whicb it deserves. In Ontario, they have met
with the same difficulty, which has been overcome by conferring upon the Secretary of the
Board of Health the office of Registrar-General of Vital Statistics, and I would like the views
of the Board upon the advisability of the adoption of this course in this Province. Power is
given to do so by the last three lines of section 6, to which I have previously referred.
"I have, etc.,
"D. M. Eberts,
"A. T. Watt, "Attorney-General.
" Secy. Prov. Board of Health,
" Victoria, B. C."
In regard to Health Districts, the Secretary was instructed to write to the Attorney-
General asking that a notice be published in tire British Columbia Gazette stating that the
districts over which the Government Agents have charge, are gazetted as Health Districts.
In regard to the suggestion of the Attorney-General, that the Secretary of the Provincial
Board of Health be appointed Registrar-General of Vital Statistics, a discussion arose.
During the discussion the following extracts bearing on the necessity of this step were read :—
" Vital Statistics are the foundation of sanitary effort, and the basis of the work of
Medical Officers of Health. It is desirable, therefore, that all persons interested in sanitary
science should know what data are at their disposal and how to use safely the various statistics
placed before them. Most of these figures are of interest, namely, as tests of the sanitary
conditions of the populations to which they refer. They should relate, first, to their numbers;
second, to the marriages, births, and deaths that Lake place amongst them; third, to their
diseases, fatal or non-fatal; fourth, the duration of their lives ; fifth, their average size and
strength ; sixth, their social and mental condition. It is further desirable that these statistics
should relate both to the past and to the present time, in order that correct comparisons may
be drawn between them." (Extract from Dr. Ramsay's article in Stevenson & Murphy's
" Treatise on Hygiene," Vol. ll.) 500 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
" The importance of this subject is too lightly appreciated by the general public.
The correct registration of the three great events in human life, to wit :—Birth,
marriage and death, makes the foundation upon which all progress in public hygiene necessarily
rests. As well might merchants disperse with day books and ledgers, as Boards of Health
with frequent and regular reports and records of birth-rates and death-rates, the causes of
mortality and the special places of its prevalence.
It is not only a basis and guide for sanitary work, but is also a direct safeguard against
the danger of spreading contagious diseases by keeping watchful observance of their occurrence
and restricting the transportation of contagion from sick or diseased persons. * * *
It is also of concern to the public welfare and safety as a means of detecting crime. Its
relation to infanticide, to the practice of criminal abortion, to the detection of the frequent
and fatal results of quackery and even in some cases to that of wilful murder, will suggest
itself to intelligent officers of justice.
The full and accurate registration of Vital Statistics is indispensable also to the student
of social science. All those problems which concern the social relations of mankind, the
influences which control the gradations of society, the habits and practices which tend to
elevate or depress communities in their physical and moral standing, depend largely for their
true interpretation upon a careful study of Vital Statistics. The high appreciation of recorded
facts by those concerned in the business of life insurance and annuity companies bears strong
testimony to their value.
Finally, the individual citizen, corporations, public institutions, colleges, hospitals,
churches, all have an occasional monetary or property interest in the faithful registration of
Vital Statistics, because there are innumerable instances in which such records have settled
disputed claims to property and other civic and legal rights where other evidence has been
wanting to establish them.
The above considerations are not present in the popular mind and hence the registration
of Vital Statistics is not credited with the importance to which it is justly entitled." (Extract
report 1894, State Board of Health of Connecticut.)
The Board unanimously approved of the suggestion of the Attorney-General, and on
motion the Secretary was instructed to write him asking that the appointment be made as
soon as possible.
Letters were read from the State Boards of Health of California, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Maine, Indiana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina,
Washington, Wisconsin, Territorial Board of New Mexico, and Provincial Boards of Ontario
and Quebec, and from the Superior Board of Health of Mexico. They were ordered received
and placed on file, the Secretary to acknowledge the receipt of same and to thank each for
information and documents forwarded to this Board.
The Secretary stated that he had already received most of the reports, etc., mentioned in
these letters, and that they would prove of invaluable assistance to the Board.
It was moved that this Board record its approval of the resolutions re inter-state notification enclosed with the letter from Michigan, and that inasmuch as this Board desires to
place itself in line with the other Boards in this regard, the Secretary be instructed to prepare
the required forms ; that he send them as prescribed to other Boards of Health as necessity
arises ; and also that this letter and enclosure be spread on the minutes. The motion was
passed, and the letter here follows :—
"Lansing, Michigan, Dec. 17th, 1895.
" Dear Doctor.—Replying to your letter of December 5th, the resolutions for the interstate notification of dangerous communicable diseases, were adopted by the National Conference
of Sate and Provincial Boards of Health at their meeting in Toronto, October 6th, 1886, and
additional resolutions were adopted at another meeting in Washington, September, 1887. I
cannot say just how many States and Provinces were represented, but I think all that had in
existence a Board of Health, probably nearly all the States and Provinces in America. I send
you herewith another copy of the resolutions. If this office can at any time be of service to
you it will give me pleasure. " Very respectfully,
" Henry B. Baker,
" Secretary of State Board of Health of Michigan.
"A. T. Watt, M.D.,
" Secretary, Provincial Board of Health.
" Victoria, B. C" 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 501
[Enclosure.]
Inter-State Notification of Dangerous Communicable Diseases.
The following are the resolutions adopted by the National Conference of State and Provincial Boards of Health, at Toronto, October 6, 1886 :
(Also presented to and adopted by the American Public Health Association, October 8, 1886.)
Whereas, It is necessary for the protection and preservation of  the public health  that
prompt  information should  be given of  the existence  of cholera,  yellow fever, and smallpox ; be it
1. Resolved, That it is the sense of the National Conference of the State Boards of Health
that it is the duty of each State, Provincial and Local Board of Health in any locality in
which said diseases may at any time occur, to furnish immediately information of the existence of such disease to Boards of Health of neighbouring States and Provinces, and to the
Local Boards in such States as have no State Board.
2. Resolved, That upon rumour or report of the existence of pestilential disease, and
positive definite information thereon not being obtainable from the proper health authorities,
this Conference recommends that the health officials of one State shall be privileged and
justified to go into another State for the purpose of investigating and establishing the truth
or falsity of such reports.
3. Resolved, That wherever practicable, the investigations made under the preceding
section, shall be done with the co-operation of the State and local health authorities.
4. Resolved, That any case which presents symptoms seriously suspicious of any of the
aforenamed diseases, shall be treated as suspicious, and reported as provided for in cases
announced as actual.
5. Resolved, That any case respecting which reputable and experienced physicians disagree as to whether the disease is or is not pestilential, shall be reported as suspicions.
6. Resolved, That any case respecting which efforts are made to conceal its existence, full
history and true nature, shall be deemed suspicious, and so acted upon.
7. Resolved, That in accordance with the provisions of the foregoing resolutions, the
Boards of Health of the United States and Canada represented at this Conference do pledge
themselves to an interchange of information as herein provided.
At the National Conference of State and Provincial Boards of Health, at Washington,
D. C, September, 1887, the following resolutions were adopted :—
1. Resolved, That the Conference reaffirms the principles contained in the resolutions
adopted by it at its meeting in Toronto in 1886.
2. That the communicable diseases hereinafter mentioned, prevalent in certain areas or
which tend to spread along certain lines of travel, be reported to all State and Provincial
Boards within said area or along said lines of communication.
3. That in the instance of small-pox, cholera, yellew fever and typhus, reports be at once
forwarded, either by mail or telegraph, as the urgency of the case may demand ; and further,
that in the instance of diphtheria, scarletina, typhoid fever, anthrax or glanders, weekly
reports, when possible, be supplied, in which shall be indicated, as far as known, the places
implicated and the degree of prevalence.
"The report having been read it was voted that the vote, on its adoption, be taken by
States. The vote being so taken was unanimous in its favour by all the States and Provinces
represented by delegates present."
In accordance with the suggestion contained in the letter from New Hampshire, referring
to works on sanitation, the Secretary was instructed to procure the reports of the American
Public Health Association for the last five years, and it was further suggested that the Chairman or Secretary join the Association.
Of the works mentioned in the letter from Dr. Bryce, Secretary Ontario Board of Health,
the Secretary was instructed to procure the following :—
"Sternberg's Bacteria." " Engineering News," New York. Publications of "Sydenham
Society."    " Annales de LTnstitut," Paris.
A second letter from Dr. Bryce was read. The portion of it dealing with a Home for
Consumptives at Kamloops was specially considered by the Board. The portion reads : " I
am charmed with Kamloops as a health resort for consumption. Cultivate the idea of having
an eligible site set apart by the Government for a western sanitarium." 502 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
A lengthy discussion ensued. Each member of the Board had, through his private prac
tice, become aware of the desirability of Kamloops, or its vicinity, as a resort for consumption;
all spoke enthusiastically of benefits received by patients whom they had sent there.
Dr. Davie described the sanitarium at Davos-Platz, Switzerland, and the manner in which
the fresh air treatment is carried out at that place. The climatic treatment of consumption,
and iu connection with this the climate of Kamloops, was discussed. It was the opinion of
each member of the Board that the requirements of a suitable climate are a pure atmosphere
comparatively dry, the maximum amount of sunshirre, an equable temperature that is one not
subject to rapid variations, and medium or high altitude. These conditions are pre-eminently
characteristic of Kamloops. The coast range of mountains precipitates most of the moisture
in the air wafted from the Pacific. The question of temperature, whether hot or cold, is not
an essential in treatment of phthisical patients, although the equability of the temperature is
of the greatest importance. Patients do equally well in those localities where steady cold
combined with sunshine, prevails, as in those where the temperature is uniformly high. Such
uniformity is found in Kamloops during the winter and summer months, respectively. Altitude is a consideration of importance. While the rarefaction of the air in high altitudes may
be of some benefit in early cases, in more advanced cases harm is done. When, after living in
high altitudes, persons attempt to reside at the sea level they experience difficulty. A moderate
altitude, such as that at Kamloops, some 2,000 feet, is probably the most generally suitable ;
higher altitudes are within easy reach, to which patients may resort in the summer time.
The treatment of consumption in sanitaria is being advocated by medical men the world
over. Consumptive patients but seldom do well when treated in city hospitals or in their own
homes. The unsanitary environment in which many of the less well to-do are obliged to pass
their lives, and the lack of proper food, clothing, etc., which conditions are, in fact, predisposing causes of the disease in the first instance, naturally prevent progress towards health when
the disease has once declared itself. Moreover, it must be borne in mind that patients treated
at home are a constant source of infection to other members of the family. The contagiousness of tuberculosis is now well established ; it has been conclusively proved that hereditary
influence plays an infinitely less important part in transmission of tuberculosis than does the
direct transmission by bacilli from one person to another. Besides the advantage that a source
from which disease may spread is removed, it is found that consumptives treated with proper
method and cire iu sanitaria in suitable climates, frequently quickly improve in health.
Efforts are being made in Eastern Canada toward the establishment of homes for consumptives. Some have been already established. The Chairman reported a conversation with
Dr. Bryce, who had been commissioned to investigate the climatic conditions of Kamloops and
Calgary. The favourable report he is making on Kamloops will no doubt lead to the establishment of such an institution there, when sufficient funds for its erection and maintenance
are guaranteed. Dr. Bryce mentioned that theC. P. R. Company would probably offer certain
inducements towards the project. The Chairman considered that the existence of such a home
would be, for many reasons, highly beneficial to the country.
An increase in the population may be looked for. With the patient come his friends. A
large number of people were attracted to California because of its being one of the first places
to become favour-ably known as a resort for persons with weak lungs ; its priority owing, perhaps, to the fact that the first transcontinental railroad had its terminus in that State.
Hundreds of families have removed from the Eastern portion of the continent to California
because one member of the family had there regained health, and had therefore taken up his
abode in the State. The same thing will occur when Kamloops becomes known as a health
resort. A climate such as Kamloops possesses is now considered more bracing and more beneficial in cases of incipient phthisis than the warm resorts frequented in the South. For these
and many other reasons the Board held that the matter was one that should be carefully considered by the Government.    It was, therefore, moved and adopted :—
"That the Secretary communicate to the Attorney-General the views of the Board in
regard to the climatic treatment of consumption, and to the advantages Kamloops presents for
such treatment; and state that the Board wishes to recommend that an eligible site, within a
few miles of Kamloops, be set apart on which to build a home or homes for consumptives, the
land to be available for any of the Eastern Provinces which may wish to establish such a sanitarium ; and ask that the Provincial Government take into favourable consideration the
question of appropriating a sufficient sum to erect and maintain such an institution for the
treatment of persons suffering from tuberculosis in British Columbia." 59 Vict. Pronincial Board of Health. 503
It was also moved and adopted that the Secretary communicate with Dr. Bryce, informing
him what action the Board has taken in regard to the suggested sanitarium at Kamloops.
Certain portions of the letter from S. Carolina the Board ordered spread on the minutes,
since these touch directly on the requirements of this Board :—
"It is very important that the latter officer (i. e., the Attorney-General) especially should
be a member of the Board, as legal questions are continually arising which require legal advice
before the Board can act intelligently.
* #   • * * * *
" In our experience ***** many measures of the greatest importance, from a
sanitary point of view, fail to become law, simply because Boards of Health have no one
properly to represent them in the Legislative halls."
The suggestion in the letter of having some legal professional man connected with the
Board, and also of having some person to represent the Board in the Legislature, was considered
a good one.
The Secretary informed the Board that he had asked Mr. Smith, Deputy Attorney-
General, to be present when the Board were considering the regulations regarding small-pox,
etc. The Board considered that it would be well to ask Mr. Smith to be present when any
question requiring legal assistance is likely to be before the Board. It was suggested that it
would expedite much of the business if Mr. Smith were a regular member of the Board; since
this Board is attached to the Attorney-General's Department the Attorney-General would
naturally be the representative of the Board in the Legislature.
First Day—Second Session.
The Board re-assembled at 8 P. M. The Chairman called the meeting to order and the
reading of the correspondence was proceeded with.
The annual reports were read from the Local Boards of Health of Chilliwhack, Delta,
Dewdney, Kent, Langley, Mission, Nanaimo, North Cowichan, North Vancouver, Richmond,
South Vancouver, Spallumcheen, Sumas, Surrey, Vancouver, Vernon and Victoria.
Letters from Kamloops, Maple Ridge and New Westminster, to the effect that the
required reports would be forwarded, were read.
They were ordered received and filed, and the Secretary was instructed to embody
extracts from certain of them in the annual report.
The Secretary was instructed to write to Municipal Clerk of North Cowichan, asking for
plans, etc., of proposed water works in accordance with section 27 " Health Act, 1893."
The Secretary was instructed to draw attention to the omission of the report of Medical
Health Officer of Chilliwhack and ask that it be forwarded ; and also, to ask for further
particulars regarding the nuisance at Queen's Hotel.
The Secretary received instruction, of which he took note, to write to the Medical Health
Officer of Nanaimo, asking further particulars regarding certain subjects in his report.
In the report from Richmond the necessity of the careful supervision of the canneries
about Steveston was commented upon. A discussion arose on the unsanitary conditions of the
Fraser River canneries. Dr. Walker described the condition of the camps about these canneries
during the fishing season, and stated that typhoid was prevalent during the summer months.
After a full discussion the Board decided to request the canneries to provide earth closets for
the employes, and to request the local authorities to see that a proper system of scavenging is
enforced and that a Medical Health Officer and Sanitary Policeman are appointed. The full
discussion is not spread on the minutes because the Board, on motion, resolved to send the
Secretary to personally investigate the sanitary condition of the Fraser River canneries and
surroundings, and report thereon at next meeting of the Board so that any unsanitary condition
may be remedied before the fishing season commences.
A discussion took place on the reports from various Municipalities, in which the statement
was made that the sanitary condition was so good that they did not require the services of a
Local Board of Health or a Health Officer.
It was remarked that such expressions of opinion are only the result of ignorance concerning the laws of sanitation. The writers seem to be labouring under a misapprehension.
If, as they say, no sanitary precautions have been taken the good health of the community 504 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
must be due to the beneficent climatic influences. It is obvious therefore that the people of
these municipalities keep their health, not because of Local Health authorities, but in spite of
them. It is well known, as was pointed out by different members of the Board, that sanitarians have a greater problem to solve in rural communities than in cities, which are supplied
with good water and with efficient sewerage and scavenging systems. Many farm houses are
notably in an unsanitary condition. Manure heaps are allowed to remain until the ground is
saturated. Slops are thrown out of the back door. General filth and garbage is allowed to
accumulate about the house and yards. Privy pits (holes in the ground) are used. WTells are
contaminated from all these sources. These very reports, which, on the face of them might
show that there is no need of Boards of Health, really furnish the most conclusive proof as to
their necessity, since people surrounded by unsanitary conditions (as is the case in all communities where they have not been educated in sanitation) are unaware of the dangers to which
they are exposed and hence do not guard against them.
It was observed, moreover, that in these as well as in other reports, the idea prevails that
because there has been no outbreak of contagious disease there is therefore no necessity of
sanitation. Whereas, as the Board wished to emphasize, attention to general sanitation is
equally important, if not more so, than the regulating of epidemic disease.
Reports of various States and Provinces concerning the outbreak of contagious diseases,
which had been received by the Secretary, were placed before the nreeting.
Among these reports was the notification from the Grosse Isle Quarantine Station of a
case of scarlet fever landed at that station from the steamship Siberia. One of the passengers
from this vessel was destined for Victoria. The notice was sent under section 31, "Dominion
Quarantine Regulations."
The Secretary was instructed to write to Dr. Macnaughton Jones asking if the provisions
of section 31 "Dominion Quarantine Regulations" applied to the Williams' Head Quarantine
Station, and stating that the members of the Provincial Board of Health would be glad to
visit the Williams' Head Station the latter part of the second week in March if he would
extend an invitation for them to do so.
The Secretary reported having been informed by Mr. Hussey, Superintendent of Provincial Police, that the sanitary condition of Union, B. C, is unsatisfactory. From the information received it was obvious that action should be taken immediately. The Board decided to
recommend the appointment of a Health Officer. On motion, the Secretary was instructed to
write to the Attorney-General recommending the appointment of a Medical Health Officer for
Union, B. C, and to suggest the name of Dr. Millard as a suitable person to receive the
appointment.
A letter with enclosure, bearing on this subject was received and filed from Mr. A. H.
Scaife, Editor of "The Province" newspaper. The Secretary was instructed to acknowledge the
receipt of the communication, and to inform Mr. Scaife that the sanitary condition of Union,
B. C, is now receiving the attention of the Board.
Other communications of minor importance were received and dealt with.
At 10.30 p. M. the Board adjourned to meet at 2 p. m. the following day.
Second Day—Fourth Session.
The Board re-assembled at 2 p.m.
Mr. R. T. Elliott was present to consult with the Board in regard to the draft of the
Health Act he was preparing. He gave the Board information about the new Act, but as it
was still in the printers' hands, he could not present it.
Some further suggestions were made by the Board, of which Mr. Elliott took note. The
Secretary was directed to embody the suggestions in the proper place in the minutes of the last
meeting.    This was accordingly done.
The subject of the Board having powers respecting contagious diseases of animals, as has
the Quebec Board, was brought up.
Mr. Elliott remarked, in explanation of the omission of a clause in this regard from the
amended Act, that he had considered it advisable to recommend the Board instead to have
amended the "Contagious Diseases Animals Acts, 1891 and 1895," in such a way that the
necessary powers would be given to the Board.
The Board coincided in this view. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 505
Considerable discussion ensued upon the near relation of diseases of animals to those of
human beings.
It was pointed out that certain of the diseases of animals are communicable to man
through contagion, among which were mentioned glanders, anthrax, rabies, diphtheria, and
others, and, most common of all, tuberculosis. The parasitic diseases were also referred to.
Besides these, other contagious or non-contagious maladies render the meat or milk supply
positively dangerous. The fact was also emphasized that deterioration as a result of disease of
the quality of the meat and milk supply may be a cause of human disease. Attention was
also drawn to an important question of human interest involved in the consideration of the
contagious diseases of animals, that is, the pecuniary loss to the country by the spread of
animal plagues. It was pointed out that the same principles applied in dealing with contagious diseases of animals as in dealing with those of man, although the methods of procedure
are somewhat different. In many States and Provinces this branch of sanitary service is
considered to come directly within the province of the State or Provincial Boards of Health.
In some States a veterinary surgeon is a member of the Board, in others the Board has as
consultant a competent veterinarian.    The latter course would have to be pursued by this Board.
After some further discussion, in which, because of the closely allied nature of the work,
the necessity that the Board should directly supervise the workings of these Acts was brought
out, the following resolution was passed :—
"That the Secretary be instructed to communicate with the Attorney-General and
suggest the advisability of amending the 'Contagious Diseases Animals Act, 1891, 1895,' so as
to confer power on the Provincial Board of Health to issue general orders, rules, and regulations regarding the duties of Inspectors and Officers acting under these Acts, to prescribe tests
for disease, modes of isolation, treatment, and the disposition of diseased animals, and so as to
place the Inspectors and Officers appointed under these Acts under the general control and
direction of the Provincial Board of Health."
The Board then adjourned, to meet again at 8 p.m. the same day.
Second Day—Fourth Session.
When the Board re-assembled at 8 p. m., Dr. Watt, as convener of the committee on
epidemics, made the following report, which was discussed and adopted part by part :—
" Your committee on epidemics, to whom was assigned the drawing up of regulations to be
enforced on the outbreak of any of the infectious diseases, small-pox, cholera, diphtheria,
scarlet fever, etc., and of pointing out the necessity of each municipality or health district
making immediate preparations for the isolation of infectious cases and of persons who have
been exposed to infection; and of recommending that each city obtain a modern disinfecting
apparatus ; and of preparing forms for notification by physicians and others, of cases of
infectious diseases ; and also of recommending means by which section 69, re notification by
householders of cases of infectious disease and the penalties in case of refusal or neglect
attached thereto, will beg leave to submit later, a draft of regulations re small-pox, re cholera,
re scarlet fever and diphtheria.
" First, however, your committee begs leave to submit the following recommendations and
resolutions :—
"In regard to the necessity of each city obtaining a modern disinfecting apparatus, your
committee begs leave to state that such an apparatus is urgently required, and to recommend
that a circular letter be sent to each city municipality urging that the Council obtain, as soon
as practicable, a modern disinfecting apparatus for hospital and general use ; the letter also to
state that this Board is prepared to give all required information on the subject."
This portion of the report wits received and adopted.
" In regard to the means of making known section 69 and penalties ' Health Act, 1893,'
your committee would recommend the following :—
"First—That the Provincial Board of Health at regular intervals, say monthly or quarterly,
and in times of epidemic more frequently, insert this section and penalties attached thereto,
in case of refusal or neglect, in the advertising columns of the newspapers circulating most
widely throughout the Province.
"Second— -That posters containing this section and penalties, be put up at the usual places
for proclamation, as often as necessary, and in times of epidemic that circulars containing the
same be widely distributed." 506 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
Mr. Smith explained that the Provincial Secretary had contracts with various papers by
which departmental information is generally disseminated throughout the Province.
On motion, the Secretary was instructed to communicate with the Provincial Secretary,
asking that section 69 and penalties be inserted for one week in the papers with which the
Government has contract, and also to order printed at the Government Printing Office posters
containing this section and penalties, which he was then to circulate throughout the different
portions of the Province.
This part of the report was then received and adopted.
"Regarding isolation hospitals your committee submits the following resolution for
consideration :—
"Whereas section 89 of 'Health Act, 1893,'provides that in case smallpox or other
disease dangerous to the public health, breaks out in any municipality or outlying district, the
Local Board of Health, in case an isolation hospital shall not have been already provided,
shall immediately provide such hospital or other place or places for reception of the sick and
infected :
And since the Provincial Board of Health deems it necessary that the accommodation for
isolating infectious diseases shall be ready beforehand, the Provincial Board of Health requests
therefore that each Local Board of Health shall take immediate steps for the procuring of
such hospital in any of the four methods laid down in section 89 of 'Health Act, 1893,' or in
outlying districts, or in township municipalities shall make arrangements beforehand with
some trustworthy householders (having no children) that they shall receive and nurse persons
requiring such accommodation, or shall make such other arrangements beforehand as will
secure the isolation of infectious cases."
On motion by Dr. Davis seconded by Dr. Walker, this portion of the report was adopted
as read.
" Regarding suspect stations your committee submits the following resolutions for
consideration of the Board :—
" Whereas both the small-pox and cholera regulations provide that in case of outbreak of
small-pox or cholera, the Local Board of Health shall provide proper suspect stations, and
whereas the regulations regarding scarlet fever and diphtheria, provide that in case of outbreak of either of these diseases, some suitable building or tent shall be provided by the
Local Board of Health, to be used as a house of refuge, and since the Provincial Board of
Health deems it necessary that such accommodation be ready beforehand, the Provincial Board
of Health therefore urge that each Local Board of Health shall take immediate steps for the
procuring of some suitable building, tent or other place of shelter, for the accommodation of
such persons as under the above regulations will be sent to these places of refuge."
On motion, this part of the report was received and adopted.
Regarding forms for notification of infectious diseases, Dr. Watt stated he would present
his report after the regulations were considered. As. Mr. Smith, Deputy Attorney-General,
was now present, he would suggest that the Board proceed to the consideration of the regulations.
A draft of the regulations re small-pox was then read and discussed clause by clause.
The discussion of the first half of the regulations occupied the rest of the session. The Board
made a few slight emendations, but otherwise approved entirely of this portion. The other
half of the regulations was left over for consideration at another session.
At 12 midnight, the Board adjourned to meet again at 2 p. m. the following day.
Third Day—Fifth Session.
The two subjects before the Board for discussion at this meeting, were; a pamphlet on
disinfection, and a draft of the cholera regulations prepared by Dr. Watt as convener of the
Committee on Epidemics.
The pamphlet on disinfection was approved. Some minor changes and additions were
suggested by different members of the Board and were embodied in the pamphlet.
The Secretary was directed to have copies of the pamphlet printed for general distribution throughout the Province, and also to insert this pamphlet in the Annual Report.
The Cholera Regulations were adopted as read, and the Secretary was instructed to
forward them to the Attorney General for his approval, and also to append them to the
Annual Report.
At 6 p.m. the Board adjourned to meet at 8 p.m. the same day. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 507
Third Day—Sixth Session.
The Board re-assembled at 8 p. m.
Mr. Smith was again in consultation with the Board.
The first business taken up at this session was the consideration of the final sections of
the small-pox regulations. Some changes were made in the wording of some of the clauses,
after which the regulations re small-pox were adopted in their entireity and ordered to be
appended to the Annual Report.
The next matter considered was the regulations re scarlet fever and diphtheria. These
were adopted and were ordered to be appended to the Annual Report.
The question of the report to the Legislature was brought up. A' draft of what it was
proposed to insert was submitted and approved, and on motion the matter was left in the
hands of the Chairman and Secretary.
The remainder of the report of the Epidemic Committee was then read and adopted as
follows :—
" Regarding forms for notification of infectious diseases your committee begs to submit
for approval the following forms. These forms are to be so printed, gummed and folded that
they may he readily sealed without the use of an envelope, so as to keep them from perusal
until opened by the person to whom they are addressed.
A.—Form of notice from physician to Medical Health Officer, giving notice of a case existing.
Form A.—Notice Infectious Disease.
 189
A case of....	
exists at No Street.
in the family of	
Name of patient       Age	
Name of school attended by children of that house	
Measures employed for isolation and disinfection	
 M. D.
B.—Form, of notice from physician  to   Medical Health   Officer,  giving  notice of death from
infectious disease.
Form B.—Notice of Death from Infectious Disease.
 189
A case of death from	
has occurred at No    , ; Street
in the family of	
Name of deceased       Age   	
Name of school attended by children of that house	
Measures employed for isolation and disinfection	
 M. D. 508 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
C.—Form of notice from physician to Medical Health Officer giving notice of recovery from
infectious disease.
Form C.—Notice of Recovery prom Infectious Disease.
 189
Name       Aged	
Who was suffering from has recovered.
Patient resides at No Street
in the family of	
Name of school attended by children of that house	
Measures employed for disinfection	
    M. D.
D. — Form of notice from school-teacher to Medical Health Officer.
Form D.—Notice op Infectious Disease.
 189
I have reason to suspect that a case of	
exists at No , Street
in the family of  ,	
Name of patient       Age	
I have therefore forbidden the attendance at school of the children of that house.
    Teacher
of   School.
E.—Form of Notice from Medical Health Officer to Teacher given notice of a case existing.
Form E.—Notice Infectious Disease.
 189 .
A case of	
exists at No Street.
in the family of	
Name of patient      Age	
Name of children attending your school from that house	
Please forbid their further attendance until they bring you a certificate from me that
danger of infection from that house no longer exists.
 M. H. O. 59 Vict.
Provincial Board of Health.
509
F.—Form of Notice from Medical Health Officer to  Teacher giving notice of recovery from
infectious disease.
Form F.—Notice of Recovery from Infectious Disease.
.189 .
This is to certify that ,	
Names of scholars      _	
From the house of Mr	
No Street
May now be re-admitted to your school, the proper precautions  against the danger of transmitting infection having been taken.
 M. H. O.
G.—Form of Notice from Medical Health Officer to Provincial Board of Health giving notice
of a first case.
Form G.—Notification of a First Case of Contagious Disease.
District or Municipality of	
   189 .
To the Secretary of the Provincial Board of Health,
Victoria, B. G.
In compliance with the Regulations of the Provincial  Board of Health,   it  becomes my
duty to inform you that a case of has appeared in this District,
on the 189
(Signature).
M. H. O.
Remarks :
II.—Form of Weekly Retitrn from Medical Health Officer to Provincial Boaret of Health.
Form H.—Report on Contagious Diseases.
District or Municipality of	
189
To  the Secretary of the Provincial Board of Health,
Victoria, B. C.
In compliance with the Regulations of the Provincial Board of Health, it becomes my
duty to furnish you with the following statement showing the progress of .	
in this district.
Numbeb oi' Sick
7  days ago.
New Cases
since 7 days.
Have Recovered
since 7 days.
Have Died
since 7 days.
Ake Still Srcx.
(Signature).
M. H, O, 510 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
According to directions received at the first session of this meeting, the following form
to be used in notifying other Provincial and State Boards of Health of the existance of smallpox, cholera or yellow fever in this Province, was submitted by the Secretary and approved
by the Board.
Provincial Board of Health of British Columbia.
Office of the Secretary.
Victoria, B. C, 18    .
Sec. State Board of Health	
Dear Sir :—In compliance with the agreement embodied in resolutions adopted by the
National Conference of State and Provincial Boards of Health respecting Inter-State Notification of the occurrence of Communicable Diseases, you are hereby informed that	
case of     ....
ha... . been reported to this office as existing in ,
 in this Province.
History	
Precautions taken
Should any further facts of importance to  you in connection with these cases  become
known to this office, you will be promptly informed concerning them.
Respectfully yours,
., Secretary.
The other standing committees asked for further time ; this was granted.
The following resolutions were moved by Dr. Watt and seconded by Dr. Walker :—
" 1st. Resolved, Since it is desirable that an analytical laboratory be established in connection with the Provincial Board of Health, the Secretary be instructed to communicate with the
Attorney-General, asking that the Board be allowed the use of the apparatus of the Provincial
Laboratory; and also that the services of Mr. H. Carmichael, Government Analyst, be placed
at the disposal of the Board when so required."
The resolution was passed.
" 2nd. Resolved, In view of the desirability of ultimately establishing a bacteriological
laboratory in the Province in connection with the Provincial Board of Health, that the Secretary be instructed to communicate with the various City Councils and Hospital Boards in the
Province, and also with the Dominion and Provincial Governments, for the purpose of ascertaining what encouragement and financial support each of these bodies would be prepared to
give toward the establishment and maintenance of such laboratory ; the correspondence to be
considered at the next meeting of the Board."
The resolution was passed.
The estimates for the fiscal year 1896-1897 were next considered.
On motion, the Secretary was instructed to write to the Attorney-General and respectfully request that the sum of $5,000, as a contingent fund, be placed in the Estimates for the
coming year, in case of an epidemic ; and also that the sum of $10,050 be placed in the
Estimates for the ordinary expenditure of the Board, the Secretary also to forward a detailed
statement of how this amount was arrived at.
A draft of the minutes was taken as read in order that they might be inserted in the
Report to the Legislature*.
At 1 a.m. the Board adjourned until the next regular meeting, 11th March, 1896.
Note.—These minutes are inserted in the Quarterly Report, as they are the minutes of a
meeting which should by by-law7 have been held on the second Wednesday in December, 1895.
A. T. Watt,
J. C. Davie. Secretary. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 511
EXTRACTS FROM CORRESPONDENCE.
Special Letters from Medical Health Officers.
"New Westminster, B. C, October 26th, 1895.
" Sir,—I have been requested by Dr. Walker, one of your members, to submit to the
Board of Health for the Province any suggestions or remarks that might bear upon the health
of the community.
I beg, therefore, to call the attention of the Board to the position of the Medical Health
Officers of the different cities of the Province.
Thus, according to section 30 of the "Health Act, 1893," Health Officers "shall hold
office during the pleasure of the Council. No such Health Officer shall have any right of
action against the Municipality for dismissal, or wrongful dismissal, etc."
This section is apparently based upon, or taken from, section 33 of the "Ontario Health
Act," R. S. 0., Ch. 190, but that Act is much more equitable, for it says : 'Provided, always,
that the Municipal Council may at any time, upon a two-thirds vote of its members, dismiss
any Medical Health Officer/or a neglect of duty.'
I think you will agree with me that in this Province (as elsewhere) Medical Health
Officers should be as independent as possible of the local authority, and I would suggest that
some steps be taken to put them on a similar footing to Medical Officers of Health in
England, where, as I understand, a Medical Officer of Health once appointed holds his place
during good behaviour, and cannot be dismissed without the sanction of the Local Government Board, which corresponds (in a way) to the Provincial Board of Health. This is also
what obtains in Manitoba.    (See sections 106,  107, 108 of the Manitoba Health Act.)
I would also call your attention to the New Westminster Sanitary By-Law, 1890 :—
Section 3 (a.) makes it the duty of the Medical Health Officer to report to the Chairman
of the Board of Health, the Sanitary Inspector, or the Mayor of the city, the existence
within the city of any case of contagious disease, and to advise with the said officers, or any
of them, as to the steps necessary to be taken in the premises.
Section 5 makes it the duty of every physician practising in the city to report to the
Medical Health Officer, or to one of the officers named in sub-section (a.) of section S, any
case of contagious disease which he shall be called upon to attend.
Section 6 provides for the inspection by the Medical Health Officer of slaughter houses,
distilleries, breweries, etc., and for a report to be made to the City Clerk.
Section 7. It shall be the duty of the City Clerk to Lay before one of the officers named
in sub-section (a.) of section 3 of this by-law, with such speed as the nature of the case may
require, any report which may reach him under the provisions  of the  two preceding sections.
I am sorry to trouble you with these lengthy extracts, but I wish to show the mixed and
unsatisfactory state of the health by-law under- which we work here, and as I have no doubt
that the same state of things exists to a greater or lesser extent in other places, I beg to suggest to the Board either, first, the adoption of a set of model health by-laws, as in England ; or
second, the adoption of a resolution providing that all health by-laws, before their adoption,
must be submitted to, and approved by, the Provincial Board of Health.
I would also call your attention to the antiquated way in which the scavenging of the
city is done. The scavenger is supposed to go up and down the main street of the city so
many times a week, ringing a bell to attract the attention of those who may require his
services. These services have to be paid for by those who call on him. As a matter of fact
the bell ringing is dispensed with, but the scavenging has to be paid for, and thus the poorer
members of the community, who are perhaps most in need of a scavenger, are to an extent
deprived of his services. 512 Provincial Boaed of Health. 1895
I have endeavoured, in this lengthy and rambling communication, to bring before the
Board a few of the many matters which I think require attention in this city. There are
others, such as the construction of sewers, compulsory water service, proper registration of
births, marriages and deaths, and the causes of deaths, but I have already taken up too much
of your time, and the member of the Board from this city can describe to you at length the
system (or lack of system) of drainage which at present obtains here.
" I have, etc.,
"W. A. DeWolf Smith,
" Medical Health Officer, New Westminster.'
" Victoria, B. C, October 29th, 1895.
" Gentlemen,—Allow me to bring before you the following matters which my experience
as Medical Health Officer of this city has shewn to be of such importance as to deserve your
consideration :—
1. In this city the sewerage system is in its infancy, and in not a few streets remote
from sewer pipes, closet and house drains are led to the street, in some cases they are conducted
into wooden box-drains—hence vile nuisances. At present there is no law dealing with such
cases.
2. The law should be amended so that all wells and springs of water shall be closed so
soon as the city water connection can be made, and the water supply should not be cut off
from people who fail to pay water rates.
3. Perhaps the most important point I can draw your attention to is the subject of
Dominion Quarantine at Williams' Head. My visit last year to China and Japan, together
with my association with the health officials in these countries, impressed me with the necessity
for the disinfection of the baggage of oriental immigrants before passing Williams' Head
Quarantine. I need but invite you to recall the experiences of the members of your Board as
medical men during the year 1892, the year of the small-pox epidemic here, to further impress
on you the necessity of greater protection to Canada against the diseases liable to be imported
by these oriental immigrants, and in view of this fact, I would suggest the advisability of your
Board recommending the Dominion Government to send Dr. Montizambert, Superintendent of
Dominion Quarantine, to China and Japan, to fully acquaint himself with the sanitary conditions of those countries, since the natives of these places will not supply information on
health matters.
I trust that these hurried remarks will receive the attention of your Board, presided
over by your able and experienced Chairman, and if at any time I can give you any information, I shall always be happy to place it at your disposal.
" I have, etc.,
"G. H. Duncan,
" Medical Health Officer,  Victoria."
"Nanaimo, B. C, November 19th, 1895.
" Gentlemen,—Regarding sanitary affairs in the City of Nanaimo, I beg to report as
follows :—
We have been singularly free from any serious outbreaks of disease during the past two
years, with the exception of measles, an epidemic of which has but lately subsided. Typhoid
fever is almost unknown ; cases which have occurred here having been imported from outside.
There have been a few cases of scarlet fever recently, but it is not spreading, as the infected
houses are promptly quarantined. There have been no cases of diphtheria for a couple of years,
with the exception of one case which came from Vancouver last spring.
Our sewerage system is conspicuous by its absence, there being only open ditches on
either side of the road throughout the greater part of the town, and even these in a great many
instances have defective outflow. The want of a sewerage system, in my opinion, constitutes
the greatest menace to health we possess here.
Human excreta is supposed to be deposited in boxes which are cleaned at least once
monthly by the scavenger. There is a city ordinance compelling the closing of all privy pits,
but a number still are in use which I would like to see filled up. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 513
The water supply of the town is fairly good, but could be improved by having stumps,
etc., cleaned out of the reservoirs. During the hot weather these imparted a taste to the water
which prejudiced the public against it, but from a qualitative analysis I made of the water I
can report it as fairly good. The water works company, by curtailing the use of the water
during the summer thereby acknowledged an insufficient supply, which should be remedied.
There are quite a number of wells throughout the town in use, but as we have had no cases of
illness directly attributable to the use of such water, I cannot condemn them, although on
general principles I should like to see all wells done away with in towns.
An effort is being made to have the milk supply better looked after, and in this connection I would like to say a word concerning the use of certain preservatives in milk. By
using such, a milk dealer can with considerable impunity neglect the requisite cleanliness to
cans, etc., which is ordinarily needed to keep milk from spoiling rapidly. So the use of such
preservatives tends to encourage carelessness in the handling of milk, which is distinctly
prejudicial to its wholesomeness. I would therefore recommend that either the use of such
substances should be prohibited or else milk dealers using such should be compelled to have
their cans marked, so that their customers would be made aware of the fact.
Nanaimo is urgently in need of an isolation hospital to handle cases such as small-pox,
diphtheria, etc., which may any day make their appearance amongst us.
I would also draw your attention to a great laxity in the manner of certifying deaths.
The nrunicipal law merely requires age, name, and place of death—not even the cause of
death—and no medical certificate is required. This leaves a big loophole for crime; for anyone
can cause the death of another with impunity so long as he is careful enough in his methods
not to arouse the suspicions of his neighbours and thus escape having the death talked about.
An effort was made to have this remedied this year, but without success.
Any other matters which your Board would like to hear from me in reference thereto will
be cheerfully attended to."
"Yours, etc.,
" Robert E. McKechnie, M.D.,
" Health Officer."
CIRCULAR LETTERS TO CLERKS OF MUNICIPALITIES AND GOVERNMENT
AGENTS.
Copy of Letters sent to Municipal Clerks in the Province.
"Victoria, B. C, Nov. 25th, 1895.
"Sir,—I am instructed by the Provincial Board of Health, to call your attention to
section 45, "Health Act, 1893," a copy of which I send you by this mail, and to ask that
your annual reports be forwarded to me before the fifteenth day of December, each year,
beginning with 1895.
I am directed to request that this report shall be accurate, and as far as possible,
extensive and complete, in order that the Board may have full knowledge of the sanitary
conditions and particular requirements of your district.
"I have, etc.,
"A. T. Watt.
" Secretary.
" Clerk of Municipality," 514 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
" Victoria, B. C, Jan. 4th, 1896.
" Sir,—I have been directed by the Provincial Board of Health, to call your attention to section 28, "Health Act, 1893," a copy of which was forwarded you some time
ago. The Board considers the appointment of a Medical Health Officer necessary for each
municipality, and requests that you appoint one forthwith. I also call your attention to
sections 32 and 38 of this Act, by which if you deem expedient you may, under certain
conditions, unite your municipality with one or more others into one Health District. In the
latter case you will then, acting under section 32, proceed to the appointment of a Health
Officer for such union Health District.
Kindly communicate your action on this matter to this Board.
" I have, etc.,
" Clerk of Municipality."
[A. T. Watt,
" Secretary.
"Victoria, B. C, Jan. 4th, 1896.
" Sir.—I am directed by the Provincial Board of Health, to call your attention to section
30, 'Health Act, 1893,' a copy of which was forwarded you some time ago, by which you are
required to appoint a Medical Health Officer for your municipality. Kindly forward to this
Board the name of your Health Officer.
" I have, etc.,
"A. T. Watt,
" Secretary.
" City Municipal Clerk  B. C."
Copy op Letter sent to Government Agents.
"Victoria, B. C, Jan. 4th, 1896.
" Sir,—I have been directed by the Provincial Board of Health, to call your atten"
tion to section 37, sub-section 3, of 'Health Act, 1893,' a copy of which is forwarded
you to-day under separate cover. By this section you are constituted a local Board of Health
for the portion of the Province in your charge not formed into a municipality. You are
requested to acquaint yourself with the provisions of this Act in order that you may be prepared to take action, and you will be required to do so should necessity arise. You are
requested also to inform yourself as to the sanitary conditions of your district and to keep this
Board informed regarding the same. It is expected that you refer to this Board any matter
with which you find yourself unable to deal efficiently.
Will you kindly send me the names and addresses of the physicians practising in your
district, and mention those who would be available as Medical Health Officers.
" I have, etc.,
"A. T. Watt,
" Secretary.
" Government Agent at  . ... B. C." 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 515
CIBCULAR  LETTER TO THE STATE AND PROVINCIAL BOARDS OF
HEALTH.
Copy of a Letter   sent  to all States of the Union, to Mexico, and to the Health
Officers of various American Cities.
" Victoria, B.C., Nov. 8th, 1895.
" Dear Sir,—I have the honour to inform you that a Provincial Board of Health has
recently been formed for British Columbia.
I shall be greatly obliged if you will forward me any information in your possession
which will be of service in organizing the Board. I should like copies of your Health Act,
By-Laws, Begulations, Reports on Vital Statistics, and, if available, the annual reports of
your Board for the past five or more years, also any pamphlets or circulars relating to sanitary matters.
For this and other information you may be kind enough to send I shall thank you
sincerely.
I am, etc.,
To the Secretary A. T. Watt,
State Board of Health of " Secretary.
Copy of a Letter sent to adjacent States,   and to all   Provinces in  the Dominion,
and the North-West Territories.
"Victoria, B.C., Nov. 8th, 1895.
" Dear Sir,—I have the honour to inform you that a Provincial Board of Health has
recently been established in British Columbia.
I shall be greatly obliged if you will forward me any information in your possession
which would be of service in organizing the Board. I should like copies of your Health Act,
Rules and Regulations, Reports on Vital Statistics, and, if available, the Annual Reports of
your Board for the past five or more years, and also any pamphlets or circulars relating to
sanitary matters.
For this and any other information you may be kind enough to send, I shall thank you
sincerely.
I am instructed to say that this Board is ready to notify you of any case of small-pox
or outbreak of any other contagious disease in this Province, provided you are ready to
reciprocate.
I am, etc.,
To the Secretary A.  T. Watt,
State Board of Health of    " Secretary. 516 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
SOME   CONGRATULATORY   LETTERS   RECEIVED   FROM   STATE  AND   PROVINCIAL  BOARDS OF HEALTH, AND  OTHER  CORRESPONDENCE
WITH THE SAME BOARDS.
" Philadelphia, Nov. 20th, 1895.
" Dear Doctor,—I learn with much pleasure, by your favour of the 8th inst., just at
hand, that British Columbia has swung into the line of progressive States and Provinces in
the establishing of a Provincial Board of Health. The State Board of Health of Pennsylvania
sends greetings, and heartily welcomes your Board into the sanitary fraternity of the North
American continent. It will give me pleasure to forward you copies of such of our documents
as will be of use in aiding you in the matter of organization and inauguration of your great
work. Yours very truly,
Benj'n Lee,
Secretary Provincial Board of Health, Secretary.
Victoria, B.C.,"
"Montreal, Nov. 2nd, 1895.
" Dear Sir,—Your letter announcing the appointment of a Provincial Board of Health
in British Columbia reached this office during my absence to attend the American Public
Health Association in Denver. I must offer you our sincere congratulations, and assure you
that it is always a great pleasure for us to see the developments sanitation is taking in each
Province. As we may be called to help each other, I may say that this Board will always be
pleased to answer, to the best of its capabilities, any demand that will come from your Board.
I am sending you our regulations and also other documents which may be of some use
to you. The Queen's Printer is at present working on our report, the French copy of which is
nearly completed. I will mail you copies as soon as they be delivered to us. This is our first
report, but we will hereafter issue one annually, having now annual vital statistics to publish.
Yours most sincerely,
Elzear Pelletier,
Secretary Provincial Board of Health, Secretary.
Victoria,  B. C."
"Montreal, 29th Nov., 1895.
" Dear Doctor,—I beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 20th instant, and
to say that this Board will certainly notify you of the existence of small-pox in the Province.
I am, etc.,
Elzear Pelletier,
Secretary Provincial Board of Health, Secretary.
Victoria, B. C."
" Fredericton, Oct. 11th, 1895.
" Dear Sir,—Yours of the 30th ult. to hand and contents noted. I am pleased that a
Provincial Board of Health has been established in your Province. I will send you to-day or
to-morrow some Annual Reports, Rules and Regulations, and blank forms, &c, issued by our
Board.
Yours sincerely,
G. E. Coulthard,
Secretary Provincial Board of Health, Secretary.
Victoria, B. C." 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 517
" Provincial Board of Health, Ontario.
" Toronto, November 29th, 1895.
" Dear Doctor,—I am in receipt of yours of the 20th instant, and I am glad to know
you received safely the various reports and pamphlets of this Board. As requested, I forward
you as many of the other reports and of the Registrar's Department as are available, some
having gone out of print.
Regarding inquiries in the matter of Inter-State notification, I send you form of notification that has been used by our Boards and other Boards for years. I would suggest that you
notify neighbouring States and Provinces of your desire to reciprocate in the forms of notification according to the agreement entered into.
lam charmed with Kamloops as a health resort for consumption. Cultivate the idea of
having an eligible site set apart by the Government for a Western sanitarium.
Wishing you all success in your new work,
I remain, etc.,
Peter H. Bryce,
Secretary Provincial Board of Health, Secretary.
Victoria, B. C."
" New Hampshire State Board op Health.
"Concord, N. H, December 2nd, 1895.
" Dear Doctor,—I take pleasure in sending to you, by same mail with this, some printed
matter issued by this Board. I should be pleased to exchange publications with you in the
future.
Will you kindly write me the full personnel of your Board, in order that the same may
be incorporated in " Sanitary Authorities of the United. States, Canada and Mexico," published
annually by the American Public Health Association. I have sent you a copy of the same
with the other printed matter.
Fraternally yours,
Irving A. Watson,
Secretary Provincial Board of Health, Secretary.
Victoria, B. C."
"New Hampshire State Board of Health.
"Concord, N. H, December 23rd, 1895.
" Dear Doctor,—Your letter of December 5th was received some time since, but I have
had no opportunity to reply to it until now. I am pleased to know that the Province of
British Columbia has established a Board of Health. Please accept my thanks for the information furnished concerning the personnel of the Board.
The transactions of the American Public Health Association constitute almost a library
of sanitation in themselves, and are indispensable to the library of a State or Provincial Board
of Health. Complete sets are getting to he rare, the Treasurer having not more than two or
three now on hand. Twenty large volumes have been published ; the price of the complete set
is seventy dollars. I can scarcely give you a list of the valuable works on sanitation, since
they are so numerous. If you will obtain the catalogues of the larger medical publishers you
will find a list of such works. Of the sanitary journals, I consider that we have none in this
country that are first-class in every particular. * * * *
1 enclose herewith a blank application for membership in the American Public Health
Association, and would most cordially invite you to become a member. The Secretaries of the
various State Boards of Health of the United States, of the Superior Board of Health of
Mexico, as well as of the Boards of Health of the Provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia
and New Brunswick, are members of the Association.
Very truly yours,
Irving A. Watson,
Secretary Provincial Board of Health, Secretary.
Victoria, B. C." 518 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
" Ohio State Board op Heath,
"Columbia, Ohio, November 26th, 1895.
"Dear Doctor,—Your favour of the 9th inst., reporting that a Provincial Board of
Health has recently been formed for British Columbia, was duly received and I am greatly
pleased to receive the information. I shall send you a package containing printed matter
such as you request. I am unable to furnish you with a complete set of our annual reports,
but I will send you such as I have. We have an organization known as ' The National Conference of State Boards of Health,' of which I am Secretary and Treasurer. Your Board will
he entitled to representation, and I trust you will be able to attend the next meeting.
You will meet there most of the State Board of Health men of the United States and
Canada, or at least their executive officers. The time and place for next meeting have
not yet been determined, but you will receive a notice in due time. Wishing you success in
your work. I am, etc.,
C. O. Probst,
Secretary.
Secretary Provincial Board of Health,
Victoria, B.  C."
" Maine State Board of Health,
"Augusta, December 7th, 1895.
" Dear Sir,—Please receive my congratulations for the formation of a Board of Health
for your Province and my best wishes for the usefulness of its work.
I take pleasure in sending you a pretty complete list of everything which has been
published by this State Board of Health, with the exception of some of the reports of this
Board which I cannot now supply.    I send all by mail.
Yours, etc.,
A. G. Young,
Secretary.
Secretary Provincial Board of  Health,
Victoria, B. C."
" State Board of Health, Michigan,
"Lansing, November 21st, 1895.
"Dear Doctor,—Your letter of November 9th, relative to a Provincial Board of Health
for the British Columbia, is before me, and I am glad to know that such a Board has been
established, and anything this office can do to be of assistance to you or to the Board, it will
give me pleasure. In accordance with your request, I have sent you by American express,
charges pre-paid, a package containing five latest published reports of this Board. I also send
you a copy of the First Annual Report of the Board, and some other publications of the office
which I hope may be of use and interest to you.
Very respectfully,
Henry B. Baker,
Secretary.
Secretary Provincial Board of Health,
Victoria, B. C." 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 519
" State Board of Health op R. I.,
"Providence, R. I., November 22nd, 1895.
"Dear Doctor,—I am pleased to receive your advice of the formation of a Board of
Health for your Province. As to information in organization of the Board, I should refer you
to the other Provinces of Canada, as your laws and methods of procedure differ so much from
the States. Write to Peter H. Bryce, Toronto, Ontario, or E. P. Lachapelle of Quebec, both of
whom are active in the newer demands of State sanitation.
Reports will be sent to you of the years 1890 to date.    The report  for  1894  is not yet
out,   but   your   Board  will  be placed on our  mailirrg list.    I  also send you copies  of our
Monthly Bulletin which I trust will reach you as regular as issued.
If we can be of any further service, please inform us.
Yours, etc.,
Gardner G. Swarts,
Secretary.
Secretary Provincial Board of Health,
Victoria, B. C."
" New Jersey State Board of Health,
"Trenton, November 25th, 1895.
"Dear Sir,—Replying to yours of November 9th, we take pleasure in forwarding to you
the printed documents which you refer to, and shall at all times be glad to co-operate with
your Board in efforts for the promotion of the public health, and for the advancement of the
cause of hygiene. Yours, etc.,
Henry Mitchell,
Secretary Provincial Board of Health, Secretary.
Victoria, B. C."
" Colorado State Board of Health,
"Denver, January 3rd, 1896.
" Dear Doctor,—I trust it is not even yet too late to send greetings  and wishes for
long life and success to the Board of Health of British Columbia.
Answer to your letter of November 9th was delayed through  an  inadvertence.      I take
pleasure in sending you by this mail the recent publications from this office.
Yours, etc.,
Henry Sewall,
Secretary Provincial Board of Health, Secretary.
British Columbia."
CORRESPONDENCE RE NUISANCES.
" Provincial Police Department,
" Victoria, B. O, October 29th, 1895.
" Sir,—I have the honour to call the attention of the Provincial Board of Health to the
existence of a nuisance which is caused by the drainage taken from the Royal Jubilee Hospital
by box drain, and emptied into a small and sluggish stream of impure water which crosses the
Cadboro Bay Road near Foul Bay Road, immediately beyond the city limits.
This stream, after receiving the hospital drainage, runs through some fields in which, as
I am informed, milch cows and other cattle are in the habit of feeding and drinking the filthy
water of the stream above mentioned.
I have, etc.,
Feed. S. Hussey,
Secretary Provincial Board of Health, Superintendent.
Victoria." 520 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
" Victoria, B. C, November 9th, 1895.
" Sir,—Your communication re nuisance caused by Jubilee Hospital drain, was duly
received and laid before the Provincial Board of Health at the late meeting thereof.
I have been instructed by the Board to call your attention to sections 53 and 54,
' Health Act, 1893,' and to inform you that in order to proceed in accordance with the said
sections, the proper course for you to adopt would be, first to write to the Local Board of
Health of Victoria City, asking that it abate the nuisance complained of.
I have, etc.,
A. T. Watt,
F. S. Hussey, Esq., Secretary.
Superintendent Provincial Police,
Victoria."
" Provincial Police Department,
" Victoria, B. C, November 30th, 1895.
" Sir,—I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 9th instant,
and in reply I beg to state that I have laid before the Local Board of Health the dangers to
the public health arising from the nuisance referred to in your letter, at the same time directing
their attention to their duties and powers towards abating that nuisance as shown in section
53 of the ' Health Act.'
I have, etc.,
Secretary Provincial Board of Health,
Victoria."
F. S. Hussey,
Superintendent.
"Nelson, B. C, November 19th, 1895.
" Dear Sir,—I desire to lay before your honourable Board a complaint which requires
immediate action. In this town there exists a slaughter house where animals of all kinds are
kept and killed, the result being odors which are most unhealthy and decidedly injurious to
the health of the community, as well as unpleasant to residents in the vicinity, as it is located
within a very short distance from good residences. As far as I can learn the land on which
this nuisance exists is not the property of the parties carrying on the business as above, nor
is it rented nor leased to said persons.
Complaint has been made several times to the Gold Commissioner of this District, and
he has informed me that I should lay the matter before the Grand Jury. This was done, but
the matter has apparently been dropped, as the nuisance still exists.
I also desire to inform you that two other parties, a restaurant keeper and a Chinaman,
are keeping hogs on their premises in a most unclean manner not far from the above-mentioned
slaughter house, and equally close to the residence portion of the town of Nelson.
I am one of the persons whose residence property is nearest to these nuisances, and I
desire to complain on my own behalf of the same. Can you not take some decided action
toward the abatement of the above mentioned nuisances, or their removal to a point outside
the limits of the town proper.
I have, etc.,
Thoburn Allan.
The Chairman of the
Provincial Board of Health." 59 Vict, Provincial Board of Health. 521
"Victoria, B.C. Dec. 4th, 1895.
" Sir,—I have been instructed by the Provincial Board of Health to forward you a
copy copy of a letter received from Mr. Thoburn Allan, of Nelson, B. C, in which, as you
will observe, he complains of certain nuisances.
lam directed to call your attention to Rules 3, 5, 6 and 15, "Sanitary Regulations,
1892," a copy of which I send you herewith under separate cover-, and request that you take
immediate action under these rules to abate the nuisances complained of.
I am, etc.,
N. Fitzstubbs, Esq., A. T. Watt, Secretary.
Government Agent,
Nelson, B.C."
" Victoria, B.C., Dec. 4th 1895.
"Sir,—I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your communication regarding certain
nuisances in the town of Nelson, B.C., to the Chairman of the Provincial Board of Health.
The Government Agent at Nelson, Mr. N. Fitzstubbs, has received instructions to abate the
nuisance you complain of.
I am, etc.,
Thoburn. Allan, Esq., A. T. Watt, Secretary.
Nelson, B.C."
EXTRACTS FROM REPORTS OF LOCAL BOARDS OF HEALTH.
Note.—These reports show that little or no sanitary work has been done in many of the
municipalities.
Municipality of Burnaby.
" New Westminster, January 15th, 1896.
" Sir,—I have the honour of enclosing the report of Dr. R. E. Walker, Medical Health
Officer of this Local Board of Health.
The proprietor- of the only existing slanghter-house in this district has been notified to
comply with certain rules and regulations suggested by Dr. Walker, and informed that if the
requirements are not complied with in thirty days that this Board will have them done at
the owner's expense.
The only case of infectious disease has been diphtheria, which you will notice by the
M. H. O.'s report, was promptly dealt with.
(Signed)        Alfred Smither,
Clerk of L. B. of H."
"New Westminster, B.C., Dec. 17th, 1895.
" To the Local Board of Health, Burnaby Municipality :
" Gentlemen,—I have the honour to present to you my report as Medical Officer of
Health for the past five months.
During that time there have been reported to me two cases of diphtheria in the month
of August. These were a brother and sister living in the same house. I had the house
placarded and quarantined, and the whole premises, which were in a bad sanitary condition,
thoroughly cleaned. The disease was probably contracted at school in New Westminster, in
which city the disease was at that time prevalent. No other cases of infectious disease have
been reported to me. 522 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
Owing to the short time that I have been in office I am unable to give any detailed
report on the general sanitary condition of the Municipality.
A matter that has lately been brought to my notice is slaughter-houses. At present
only one exists in the district, and this one is in a bad sanitary condition. It is now receiving-
attention, and I shall submit a report on it at a future date. I should urge upon the Board
the necessity of using extrenre caution in granting licenses for new slaughter-houses, and
would recommend that if possible that a central abattoir be established, so as to confine the
almost unavoidable nuisance to one locality. As there are at present no general regulations
for the governance of these establishments, I have furnished the Board with a set of rules
which anyone establishing a slaughter house should be obliged to sign before a permit be
issued, and these rules should be rigidly enforced. I would further suggest that all slaughterhouses be subjected to frequent inspection.
I should also like to draw the attention of the Board to the dairies and Chinese vegetable gardens in the Municipality, and to recommend that they also be subject to periodical
inspection.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
(Signed1) R. Eden Walker, M. D.
M. II. 0."
Municipality of Chilliwack.
"Chilliwack, B. C, Dec. 31st, 1895.
"Sir,—Dr. Henderson, as Health Officer, reported only three nuisances in town. First—
At Queen's Hotel. Second—Pig-sties near butcher shop. Third—Pigs kept by Chinaman
in town. The parties were notified to abate the nuisances, and with the exception of the
Queen's Hotel, did so.
This is all that has been done.
(Signed.)        Joseph Scott,
C. M. C"
Municipality op Delta.
"Ladner, December 11th, 1895.
" Sir,—I am instructed to forward you a copy of Dr. Sloggett's report concerning the
health of the Delta Municipality for the year 1895. Dr. Sloggett was appointed Health Officer
for the Municipality at the commencement of the year.
(Signed)        C. F. Green,
C. M. C."
"Ladner, December 5th, 1895.
"Gentlemen,—By section 45 of an Act respecting Public Health, dated April, 1893, it
is the duty of Municipalities or Health Districts to send on to the Secretary of the Provincial
Board of Health an annual report of the Medical Officer of Health. I therefore submit the
following report for transmission :—
During past year of 1895 very little sickness has been prevalent in this Municipality.
Last March two fatal cases of diphtheria occurred at Westham Island. I believe the child first
infected contracted the disease while visiting in New Westminster, The Council, however,
taking prompt measures both to quarantine the premises as well as most thoroughly disinfect
them afterwards, the disease did not spread.
Recently measles have been prevalent, a few cases still existing. No fatal case, however, occurred among the white population. This disease was brought here by Indians during
past canning season, and though the number of cases was quite numerous among them three
children only died, showing the epidemic to have been mild in type, since the Indians grossly
violate every known sanitary rule in their camps. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 523
I would suggest that the copy of the by-law entitled " Sanitary Amendment By-Law "
of the Delta Council, passed on the 16th of October last, be distributed amongst the householders of the Municipality.
The Provincial Health Board recently formed is vigorously enforcing the Public Health
Act of 1893; portions of the by-law passed by your Council meeting of October 16th last
have the same effect as certion sections of that Act as may be seen by reference to  the  same.
(Signed)   "    H. C. Sloggett, M. D.,
M. II. 0."
Municipality op Dewdney.
" Hatzic Prairie, December 12th, 1895.
" Dear Sir,—In reply to your letter dated November 25th, re Provincial Board of Health,
I beg to state there is no Resident Doctor in this Municipality. There has not been, to my
knowledge, any infectious disease in this district for the last five years. I brought your letter
before the Council at the last meeting, and they were obliged for the copy of the Health Act,
which they will carry out.
Any further information you may require I shall be pleased to give.
(Signed) E.  Davies,
C. M. C."
Municipality op Kamloops.
" Kamloops, B. C, November 28th, 1895.
"Dear Sir,—In reply to yours of the 25th instant I beg to. say that this Municipality
has no paid Health Officer, nor any officer who might be expected to prepare a special sanitary
report for your Board. We have, however, a Sanitary Committee, appointed by the Council,
the Chairman of which will hand in his annual report to the Council early in January next.
I shall be pleased to send you a copy of such report as soon afterwards as convenient, should
you desire it.
I beg to acknowledge receipt of a copy of the 'Health Act, 1893,' and note section 45
of same, to which you call attention.
(Signed)        M. J. McIver,
C. M. C"
Municipality of Kent.
"Agassiz, B. C, December 13th, 1895.
" Dear Sir,—I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your communication, re
annual report of Local Board of Health, and in reply beg to say that the sanitary conditions
of Kent Municipality are so good that there has not been a Local Board of Health appointed.
(Signed)        H. Fooks,
C. M. C."
Municipality of Langley.
"Langley, December 14th, 1895.
"Sir,—I have been instructed by the Langley Municipal Health Committee to make the
annual report for the year ending December 15th, 1895.
The Municipality has been in a most satisfactory condition during the past year, no
contagious diseases having appeared with the exception of a slight outbreak of measles, wdiich
did not necessitate the schools being closed except in one instance. The death rate has been
slight, attributable to consumption, dropsy and accidents. The sanitary condition of the
villages at Langley and Murray's Corners is satisfactory.
(Signed)        George Rawlison,
M. H. 0." 524 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
Municipality of Matsqui.
"Aldergrove, B. C, January 14th, 1896.
" Dear Sir,—In reply to your communication I am instructed by Matsqui Council to
inform you that steps are being taken looking to the appointment of a Medical Health Officer.
I may say that the Municipality is considered to be in good sanitary condition, with the people
in a state of very good health.
(Signed)        John Le Feuvre,
C. M. C"
Municipality of Mission.
"Mission City, B. C, December 3rd, 1895.
"Sir,—I am in receipt of yours of 25th ultimo, as also Health Act, 1895 (the latter just
to hand). Referring to the section 45, to which you draw my attention, I may say that the
whole Council was constituted a Board of Health at the beginning of the year. No sanitary
work has as yet been found necessary in the Municipality. Consequently, to the best of my
knowledge, I can only report a clean bill of health. The next Council meeting is on the 21st
instant, when I will bring the matter forward and send you such report as is then advised.
Should this prove satisfactory for the present year, future reports will be forwarded before the
date mentioned in your letter.
(Signed)        A. M. Verchere,
C. M. C."
Municipality of Nanaimo.
"Nanaimo, B. C, 26th December, 1895.
" Sir,—The Local Board of Health for the City of Nanaimo begs to report regarding the
sanitary condition of the City as follows :—
That the ' dry earth ' system of closets has been adopted, and its general use is being
gradually enforced, and in a short time the old system of pits and vaults will be entirely done
away with. Night-soil is transferred to a convenient distance outside the limits of the city,
and is there disposed of in an entirely satisfactory manner. Garbage is removed by a licensed
scavenger, and he performs his work under the supervision of the Sanitary Inspector.
The water supply of the city is under the control of a local company, while the quality
is fair (as has been ascertained by examination), the quantity is not as large as it should be,
but it is expected that it will shortly be improved, so as to afford a plentiful supply.
The Municipal Council has recently passed a by-law to regulate the sale of milk in this
city, which also provides for the inspection of cows, and their food and water supply.
The drainage of the city has occupied the serious attention of the Council during the
past year. In the absence of a regular system of sewerage, they have attended to the cleaning
and flushing of drains in the most needed parts of the city, and with the object of more
thoroughly attending to this matter, they have set apart a portion of the municipal revenue
for this exclusive purpose.
During the year 47 deaths, from all causes, have been reported at the city office.
The Medical Health Officer has made report as follows:—
To the Chairman and Members of the Local Board of Health :
Gentlemen,—I beg to report that the public health during the present year has been
fairly good, although not so good as last year. We have had an extensive epidemic of measles,
which, being mild in type, has not affected the death rate.
In the first half of the year there were quite a number of cases of whooping cough and
chicken-pox, and quite lately there have been some cases of scarlet fever, occurring in four
families. Although quite a large number of children and a few adults were affected by the
above-mentioned diseases, I know of only three deaths due to them, and in each case the cause
of death was secondary to the primary disease. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 525
One case of diphtheria occurred, but was imported from Vancouver ; under strict quarantine, no other case occurred. In this connection, I might mention that time has proved the
value of the new treatment by anti-toxine, as well as proved its value by conferring immunity
for a limited time to those who would otherwise be treated as suspects. By its use a big
saving in time can be effected in quarantine, which directly makes a big saving in the cost of
maintaining quarantine.
In connection with infectious diseases, I would strongly recommend the establishment of
an isolation hospital. At any time we may have to face an epidemic of some virulent form,
and it is impossible to properly isolate patients in small crowded houses, and again, the cost of
maintaining guards at each house might be very great. At present we are utterly unprepared
to meet such an emergency.
Typhoid fever has attacked but a very few people, and in nearly every case was traced to
an outside source.
During the hot weather there was a large number of cases of summer diarrhoea, with a
few cases of true cholera infantum. The proportion of these cases to the population of the
city I consider too high, and attribute them to the open sewers, and would strongly urge that
an attempt be made to introduce a proper sewerage system into this town; in fact, I consider
our lack of a proper sewerage system -the greatest menace to the public health we have. There
are still a number of privy-pits in use, in direct contravention to our civic law. These should
all be closed up and the law rigidly enforced. Wells and privy-pits should not be allowed to
exist in the same town, and for the protection of the former the law should be enforced in
regard to the latter.
The water supply proved inadequate during the summer, as proved by the prohibition of
the water company to the use of water for other than domestic purposes. This scarcity of
water is also a menace to health. An abundant water supply prevents the concentration of
impurities which always exist in natural reservoirs and in water which is gathered by drainage
from a comparatively limited area. So nothing short of an abundant supply of water should
be provided.
The supply of milk as furnished by milk dealers has not in every case been as it should
be, but I trust that next year, under the new milk by-law, this will be remedied. Proper
appliances should be procured for testing the milk, so that the law may be enforced properly.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Robert E. McKechnie, M.D.,
Medical Ilecdth Officer.
Nanaimo, B. C, Sth December, 1895.
(Signed)        S. Gough,
CM. C"
Municipality of North Cowichan.
" Pardshaw,  Quamichan,  December 12th, 1895.
" Sir,—The Board of Health of the Municipality of North Cowichan, in accordance with
section 45 of "Health Act, 1893," reports as follows:—
The health of the Municipality of North Cowichan has, on the whole, proved good. No
epidemics.    Measles prevalent amongst children in October; no fatal results.
No Medical Health Officer was appointed.
A system of sanitary arrangements was initiated for the village of Duncan's, which
include the enforced adoption, under penalties, of earth closets, and the removal of all stable
and other garbage.
The Chairman of the Board has posted a notice calling attention to the fact that he
intends introducing a by-law for providing a pure water supply to the above-mentioned
village.
Our Sanitary Inspector has reported at various times to the Board of Health, and the
Board has taken the necessary steps to remedy any abuse mentioned.
(Signed)        Thos. A. Wood,
Secretary B. of H."
" Herewith please find Sanitary Health Officer's Annual Report."
Note.—[Gives details of inspection ; not of general interest.—A. T. W.] 526 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
Municipality of North Vancouver,
"Vancouver, Dec. 6th, 1895.
" Sir,—With respect to your letter of 25th November, ult., requesting me, under the
provisions of the 45th section of the ' Act respecting Public Health,' to report to you as
Secretary of the Provincial Board of Health concerning the sanitary condition of the Municipality of North Vancouver, and especial sanitary requirements of the Municipality, I beg to
inform you that the said Municipality has no Local Board of Health, or Sanitary or Medical
Health Officer, not having any necessity for such Board or officers.
I also beg to inform you that the sanitary condition is satisfactory, and there is not at
present any special requirement of matters pertaining to health.
(Signed)        F. Schofield,
C. M. C."
Municipality of New Westminster.
"The City Hall, New Westminster, December 3rd, 1895.
" Sir,—Referring to your letter of 25th November, asking for the annual report of the
Board of Health for this city by the 15th inst., I am directed by the Chairman of the Board
of Health to say that it will not be possible to have the report ready by that date, but it will
be sent as soon as possible—early in January.
(Signed)        D. Robson,
City Clerk."
Municipality of Richmond.
"Eburne, B.C., Dec 28th, 1895.
"Dear Sir,—I am directed by the Health Committee of the Richmond Corporation to
enclose you report for 1895, on the sanitary condition of the Municipality, pursuant to your
request in that behalf. (Signed)        R. M. McClinton,
C. M. C"
" Richmond Municipality, B.C., Dec. 26th, 1895.
" Sir,—I beg to report that the sanitary condition of this Municipality has, during
the past year, somewhat improved, owing to increased vigilance on the part of the Police Constable, who, acting under instruction of the Municipal Council as Board of Health, has used
great diligence to enforce the provisions of the Health Regulations in that part of the Municipality requiring the most careful supervision, viz., the canneries in and around Steveston.
There has been only one case of typhoid fever reported as originating in Steveston, and
very little sickness of any other kind.
The Municipality is still under the disadvantage of lack of good fresh water, and I am
sorry to say that an effort of the Corporation to obtain fresh water by boring was not a success, though a depth or more than one thousand feet was reached ; but it is reported sirrce,
that water has been found about a mile further up Lulu Island, at a depth of less than four
hundred feet. It is to be hoped that private enterprise will now undertake the work of
obtaining artesian water, as it would greatly tend to lessen the chances of typhoid and other
fevers of getting a foothold.
Apart from the canneries the sanitary condition of the Municipality is fair, as evidenced
from the fact that no complaint has been lodged by any one to this Board, or to the Council,
of any nuisance requiring abatement.
(Signed)        Thomas Kidd,
Chairman and Secretary." 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 527
South Vancouver Municipality.
"Vancouver, B. C, 7th December, 1895.
" Dear Sir,—I am instructed to acknowledge receipt of your communication of 25th
ulto., relative to the sanitary condition of this Municipal District.
At a meeting of the Board of Health, held on 5th inst., I was directed to report to you
that the sanitary condition of this Municipality is first-rate, that we have no Medical Health
Officer, or Sanitary Inspector, and have had no need of either to the present time.
(Signed)        George Martin,
C. M. C. and Secretary to the Board."
Spallumcheen Municipality.
"Armstrong, B. C, December 6th, 1895.
" Sir,—I beg leave to submit my annual report of the Board of Health.
There has not been any case of contagious disease within the Municipality. There has
been very little sickness of any kind. There has been but one death; that was a case of
suicide. The outbuildings and yards of the six schools are clean, and the schools are very
clean and well ventilated. Some pig-pens were found too close to streams from which water
was taken for household purposes.    Their removal was ordered.
(Signed) D. G. Cummings,
Chairman of Board of Health."
Sumas Municipality.
"Upper Sumas, December 10th, 1895.
" Sir,—This being a sparsely settled district, and no epidemic or contagious diseases
having prevailed within its limits during the present year, no steps have been taken by the
Municipal Council to organize a Local ^Board of Health, and no Health Officer has been
appointed. There are no slaughter-houses or unsanitary manufactories carried on within the
district, and no sanitary work of any kind has been done by the Council. An epidemic of
chicken-pox prevailed amoung the school children during November, but it was of a mild form.
(Signed)        A. C. Bowman,
C. M. C."
Surrey Municipality.
"Cloverdale, December 2nd, 1895.
"Sir,—Your favour of November 25th to hand. Our Municipality has been particularly
favoured during the past year as regards health. Our Local Board of Health has never met
this year, so you see as far as a report I cannot say much.
I note your pointing out of certain sections of the Health Act, and I can assure you I
am much obliged to you as I had not seen this before, and I shall draw the attention of the
new Council to the matter early in the year.
The Local Health Board have not found it necessary to meet within the past year.
In February of this year, aided by the Council of Surrey, we were very fortunate in
securing the services of an able practitioner in the person of A. A. Sutherland, M. D , who is
now settled and living at Cloverdale, a central location, where he can attend to all who need
help anywhere in the Municipality.
Through the recommendation of the Chairman of the Board of Health, the Municipal
Council paid the Coronor's expenses, re inquest on the body of John Roy, who was murdered
at Clover Valley in March last.
One of the best sanitary arrangements that could be suggested for this locality would be
larger drains and more of them, to get rid of the surplus rain water that covers the flats for
nearly six months in the year.
(Signed)        A. A. Richmond,
C. M. C 52,s Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Municipality of Vancouver.
"Vancouver, December 19th, 1895.
" Sir,—I herewith enclose our annual Health Report, which I trust will prove satisfactory
to you.    We were unable to get it prepared in time to forward to you on the 15th.
(Signed)        Thos. F. McGuigan,
City Clerk."
[Enclosure.]
" To the Mayor and City Council :
Your Worship and Gentlemen,—During the year 1895, the cases of infectious disease
notified to me, or otherwise coming to my knowledge, have been as follows :—
Diphtheria   17 cases   2 deaths.
Typhus fever     1      n        1       u
Enteric fever   12     n      5       n
Scarlet fever     9      n
Measles     3     u
The total number of deaths occurring within the city during this period was 161, giving
a death rate of barely 9 per thousand, reckoning the population at 18,000. Of these there
were but 8 deaths due to zymotic or preventible disease, more than half of which were owing
to typhoid fever, and of the latter there is good reason for believing that some were brought
into the city from outside.
These cases were not all notified to me by the attending physicians, as required by section
12 of the Public Health By-Law, and I only learned of some of them by making enquiry at
the City Hospital and in other directions, so that it is possible that other cases of infectious
disease occurring in the city did not come to my knowledge at all, as there is a feeling amongst
the medical profession against notifying without payment therefor.
The Isolation Hospital was occupied twice during the year, viz.: In January by the case
of small-pox reported last year, and in June by the typhus fever case. This latter was of very
severe character, but we were fortunately able, by prompt isolation and other measures, to
prevent its spread.    The origin of the disease could not be traced.
The diphtheria cases were mostly of a mild type. They nearly all occurred in the first
half of the year, and did not recur after the closing of the schools for the summer vacation.
In all cases of infectious disease notified to me, I visited the residence of the sick persons,
and took such steps as I deemed necessary to prevent the spread of the disease.
I have attended such persons as have been reported to me as sick and destitute, and,
besides acting in each case as seemed to me necessary, I have advised the Chairman or some
other member of your Health Committee with regard to such of them as required further
assistance.
In my inspections of Chinatown during the year, I have not observed any improvement
in the cleanliness of the dwellings and their surroundings. The former are becoming increasingly dilapidated and filthy, and the latter, together with the shores of False Creek, are more
and more saturated with manurial refuse and garbage. As I have before mentioned in my
special reports on this subject, I am of opinion that all those cabins that are built over the
foreshore on the south side of Dupont Street should be condemned and destroyed as being
entirely unfit for human habitation. In no other way is it possible to abate the nuisance
arising from the constant deposition of filth and refuse by the occupants of these cabins. At
present they cannot be other than a standing danger to the public health. I have made, from
time to time, inspection of premises reported to be in insanitary state, and have advised the
Health Inspector with regard thereto. Whilst engaged in these inspections, I have frequently
noticed that persons will sometimes deposit their ashes, as well as refuse animal and vegetable
matter, upon neighbouring vacant lots. Such deposits may well become, under some
conditions, a source of injury to health, and I cannot but think that if the scavenging were
undertaken by the city authorities the work would be performed more efficiently, and perhaps,
at the same time, more cheaply than it is now. As an instance of the nuisances referred to, I
may mention a case that came under my notice, in which there was a cow kept in a small shed
at the rear of a cottage, both cottage and cow-shed being on a very small-sized lot; from the
cow-shed liquid manure was running into the alleyway, there being no other way of disposing 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 529
of it, and hence it was obviously impossible to keep the premises free of offence. It would
seem to me very necessary that a rule should be laid down by your Health Committee that no
one be permitted to keep a cow in the vicinity of dwelling-houses unless the shed be connected
with a sewer, or, in the absence of a sewer, with a properly constructed cesspool.
In previous reports, I have taken occasion to point out the desirability of having the milk
supply of the city from time to time analyzed, with the view of preventing the sale of adulterated or unwholesome milk. With this end in view, a special by-law was passed by a former
Council, but, owing to the method in which it has been carried out, the result has been
anything but satisfactory. In order that the public may be efficiently protected against
adulteration, &c, it is absolutely necessary that the analyst should have a competent knowledge of his work, so that there may be no possibility of this being brought into question as
has happened already in the only case in which a prosecution under the By-Law was undertaken ; and I may add, it is equally desirable that when adulteration has been detected the
vendor should be prosecuted, otherwise there is a danger of the By-Law becoming a dead
letter, instead of a protection to the public.
(Signed)        A. Harrison Thomas, M. B., B. Sc.
(Public Health) Edin."
Report op the Health Inspector for 1895.
" To the Chairman of the Board of Health :
"Gentleman,—I beg to report as to the sanitary work done during the year 1895, also
as to the sanitary condition of the City of Vancouver. In the first place there is an abundant
supply of pure water maintained, taken from the mountain elevation of the Coast Range and
distributed by gravity pressure of an average of 70 pounds, supplied by pipe to nearly every
house in the city. The are 22 miles of sewers, having 141 manholes, with 65 automatic flushing tanks, one at the head of each branch line of sewers, thereby giving a frequent flow of
water throughout the entire system, keeping the sewers free from foulness or deposit. There
have been 264 plumbing permits granted and plans deposited during the year, of which 164
have been completed and connected to the sewers, while there are 100 in the various stages of
completion. The two public slaughter-houses have been regularly visited and found invariably
clean and in good order, the refuse from which has been burnt in the public crematory, which,
being constructed to burn its own odors, has proved satisfactory during the year. I would
draw your honourable body's attention to the livery and other stables in the crowded portions
of the city, and would suggest in future that concrete or asphalt floors be laid, with proper
gulley traps connected with the sewers, instead of the wood floors as at present, which allow the
liquids to run through and become foul. I would also advise the use of dust-bins for each
householder, to put the ashes and rubbish in, and when full compelled to have the same
removed instead of the rubbish lying around indiscriminately. There have been an average of
fifty notices served per month to remove rubbish, which have been fairly well attended to.
Trusting this report is satisfactory,
I remain yours obediently,
(Signed)        R. Marrion.
Municipality of Vernon.
"Vernon, B. C, Dec, 18th, 1895.
" Sir,—I have the honour, on behalf of the Local Board of Health, to report that this
Board has no Medical Officer. During the year just closing the health of the city has been
good excepting a few cases of slight typhoid fever, none of which proved fatal.
At the present time we have one case of this description, progressing favourably, and out-
side of this the general health and sanitary condition of the city is good.
(Signed)        R. J, Davies,
C, M. C." 530 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
Municipality of Victoria.
"Victoria, B. C, Dec. 30th, 1895.
" Sir,—I have the honour, pursuant to the provisions of section 45 of the ' Health Act,
1893,' to transmit herewith for the information of the Provincial Board of Health, a report
upon the sanitary work clone in, and upon the sanitary condition of the Municipality of the
City of Victoria, in two parts. Part I., by the undersigned, and Part II., by the Medical
Health Officer of the city, Dr. Geo. A. Duncan.
(Signed)        W. J. Dowler,
Sec'y of the Board of Health
of the City of Victoria."
BOARD OF HEALTH REPORT.
Part I.
Victoria, B. C, December 14th, 1895.
To His Worship the Mayor and Board of Health of the City of Victoria :
Gentlemen,—I have the honour, pursuant to the provisions of section 45 of the " Health
Act, 1893," and to your instructions of the 30th ult., to lay before you for your consideration,
the following report upon the sanitary work clone during the year, and upon the sanitary condition of the Municipality of the City of Victoria.
Prefatory Remarks.
In dealing with the several subjects coming under the general heads, " Sanitary Work,"
and " Sanitary Condition," it has been deemed advisable to recognize a distinction which has
been made in similar cases by officers connected with Boards of Health in the older Provinces
of the Dominion, between the class of work which, while bearing pointedly upon sanitary
matters, partakes in its essential features of the nature of engineering operations, and that
class of work for the carrying out of which by Local Boards of Health it has been considered
necessary to engage the services of some member of the medical profession, and with which his
duties are more immediately and naturally connected.
This distinction was clearly indicated by the President of the Association of the Executive
Health Officers of Ontario in his address at the anrrual meeting of the Association in the city
of Guelph in June, 1893, in which he says : " The designing of hospitals, hospital appliances,
vaccination, disinfection, quarantine, hygiene, etc., are the problems which can be properly
delegated to the medical profession; while the designing and construction of sewerage works,
water-works, garbage crematories and public abbatoirs, the maintenance of such works, the
cleaning of streets, as well as their construction and maintenance, and systematic scavenging
are problems in sanitary engineering."
In endeavouring to fulfil the duties imposed upon the Secretary of the Board with refer-
erence to the preparation of this report, it has been deemed fitting on his part to refer more
particularly to the latter class of subjects mentioned in the above quotation, leaving the former,
and allied subjects, to be dealt with in the report of the Medical Health Officer herein contained. It may not be amiss, however, to premise that while one result of the adoption of this
method should be to prevent repetition, it may not be found practicable in setting out the facts
hereunder mentioned, or in drawing the conclusions deducible therefrom, to avoid it entirely.
So that, if in the course of the report any matter should happen to be touched upon more than
once, it may be regarded as resulting from a desire to afford the fullest information available,
or as an evidence that the necessarily brief period allotted to the preparation of the report has
been unfavourable to a perfect adjustment and balancing of all its parts. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 531
The Board will doubtless notice in the course of the report that it includes a reference to
sanitary work performed by the Corporation prior to the year 1895. It may appear a work
of supererogation to take into consideration any sanitary work other than that executed during
the year 1895, inasmuch as it is not required by the section of the statute which renders the
report necessary. But as the Provincial Board of Health has required that the report be
" extensive and complete," and as this is the first report of the kind made for the information
of the said Board, it will no doubt be admitted that the Board should be made formally
acquainted with the sanitary work clone up to the 31st day of December, 1894, in order to
apprehend intelligently the significance of the work done during the year 1895. For these
reasons the limits of the present report have been extended to include such information as may
appear to have an important bearing upon the subject under consideration.
General Remarks.
The prime essentials to be considered and secured, as postulated by the exponents of
medical science and by the dictates of common sense in regard to the prevention of disease
and the conservation of public health, are :—(1.) Warmth; (2.) Pure air; (3.) Pure water ;
(4.) Pure food.
Under the first is embraced the consideration of the proper construction of buildings, their
heat and ventilation. To secure the second it is necessary to provide for the disposal of
organic wastes by systems of sewerage and scavenging. The third involves the question of
water supply, while to obtain the fourth, adequate inspection and regulation are required.
Apropos of this division of the subject it will be the aim of the first part of this report to
present corelatively a brief summary or resume of the work clone and the provisiorrs made by the
Corporation for the betterment of the sanitary conditions of the city.    And first, in regard to
1.—Buildings.
In 1887 a by-law, known as the "Buildings By-Law," containing a number of salutary
regulations relating to the erection and alteration of buildings, was passed for the purpose of
securing their permanency and safety, and of promoting the health and comfort of their
occupants. It is therein provided that in the area known as the "fire limits" none but a
building of brick or stone may be erected, and no alteration or addition may be made to any
wooden building which would add to the permanency of the building. As a result of this
provision numbers of dilapidated buildings, since the passage of the by-law, have been replaced
by substantial brick structures with modern fittings, and, in a large number of cases, where
this change has not taken place, the old buildings, which had become so unfit for occupancy as
to render them dangerous to health, have been, under the powers given to the City Council by
section 108e of the Municipality Act, condemned and destroyed.
According to reports of the Sanitary Officer within the past two years, no less than fifty
buildings which, from a sanitary point of view, were untenantable, have disappeared. These
buildings stood upon lots situate principally in the central portion erf the city. As for the
residential portions, the class of buildings which have been erected in recent times is such as
to apparently fulfil sanitary requirements in respect to warmth and ventilation. In many
instances, however, the residences constructed are far above the average in this respect, including the most complete appointments which modern architecture and sanitary science have
provided.
In the year 1890, a Building Inspector was appointed and his duties defined as follows:—
(ffl.) To oversee the erection of all buildings to be built, enlarged, altered or re-erected,
and
(b.) To enforce the provisions of the Building By-law.
When to the supervision of the Buildings Inspector is added that of the Inspector of
plumbing work, it will readily be seen that the erection of buildings, whether public or private,
in the city, is attended by such official oversight as to practically ensure their safety and
healthfulness as temporary or permanent places of abode.
One important condition provided by by-law, in relation to buildings, which should not
be overlooked, is that which requires that there shall be at least 384 cubic feet of space for
each occupant of any building used as a dwelling or lodging house. This provision was
designed to prevent what is known as "overcrowding" in lodging houses, and was particularly
applicable to Chinatown,    Three years ago the population there was considerably larger than 532 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
at present. - With the object of securing cheap accommodation numbers were crowded in
small apartments, twenty or thirty persons sleeping in rooms which should be occupied by two
or three.
The disregard of this provision as to cubic space was so great in the Chinese quarter that,
in the latter part of the year 1892 and during the early part of 1893, upwards of one hundred
prosecutions were made in the Police Court, and convictions secured in the majority of
instances. So vigorous was the enforcement of the law at that time and so effective the result,
that not a single case of overcrowding is reported for the present year.
The reference to precautionary measures to prevent the vitiation of the atmosphere in
dwellings naturally introduces the second division of the subject under treatment, viz :—
2.—The disposal of Organic Wastes, or the Systems adopted and carried out by the
City in regard to Sewerage and Plumbing, Surface Drainage,
Street Cleaning and Scavenging.
(a.). Sewerage and Surface Drainage.
Although the question of providing an adequate system of sewerage for the city had been
considered and extensively discussed in the Council, the city newspapers, and by the ratepayers generally, for years before the adoption of the present system, it was not until September,
1890, that definite action was taken whereby a system comprehending the entire city could be
commenced and carried out as funds might Ire available and the exigencies of any particular
portion of the city might require. That action consisted in the assent given by the ratepayers to a by-law authorizing the borrowing of the sum of $300^000 for sewerage purposes,
on the understanding that the system adopted should be what is known as the " Separate
System" of sewerage, and that commissioners should be appointed to superintend the construction of the work under the by-law. Prior to the passage of the by-law, competitive plans had
been invited and a premium of $2,000 awarded for the plan which was adopted by the Council
upon the recommendation of an eminent sewerage engineer, Mr. Rudolph Herring, 0. E., of
New York. Mr. Mohun, C. E., whose plan had been accepted, was appointed engineer of the
proposed works, and the contract let to the lowest tenderer, Mr. Alexander McBean, for the
sum of $239,970.44|. The work done under that contract comprised the laying down of the
larger mains, notably on Wharf, Humboldt, Blanchard, View and Cook streets, including the
main outfall sewer on Moss Street to Clover Point. The work also included a large number
of branch sewers. The total length of the sewer pipe laid under the contract when completed,
represented a distance of 24,313 lineal feet, or, including the outfall sewer, nearly 6J miles.
Eighty-one man holes, 67 ventilators and 1 large flush tank for outfall sewer were also
constructed.    The contract terminated on the 31st day of August, 1892.
The work of rendering the sewers laid down under the McBean contract properly operative was continued in 1893, when 57 flush tanks, 2 man holes and 3 flushing syphons were
put in.
Although this year was not notable for any considerable extension of the sewerage
system by the further construction of sewers, it was marked by a great advancement in the
matter of legislation, and provision for surface drainage.
A Sewer Connection Regulating By-law and a By-law relating to Public Health were
passed, both of which consolidated and amplified previous by-laws and provided in minute
detail a compendium of information and of wholesome  regulations in regard to these matters.
The ratepayers also gave their sanction to a by-law to raise the sum of $125,000 for the
construction of surface drains in the city at the following places, viz.: Work Estate, View
Street, Spring Ridge, Cook Street, Michigan and Superior Streets, Oswego Street, Menzies
Street, North and South Pandora Streets, Victoria West, and in other places of the city not
specified.
These surface drains were constructed from plans prepared in the City Engineer's office
and were not inferior in design or execution to the sewers already laid down. A tabulated
statement of the surface drains laid by the Corporation during that and the following year is
shown in the annual report of the City Engineer for 1895.    (Vide pages 169-173.)
In the summer of 1894, another loan of $100,000 for sewerage purposes was obtained by
the consent of the ratepayers, and the work of further extending this system proceeded with.
The sewers laid during that year are fully enumerated and described in the aforesaid annual
report of the City Engineer.    (Vide pages 159-160.) 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 533
An idea may be formed of what was accomplished in the matter of sewer building in
1895, by referring again to the report of the City Engineer (vide tables pages 161 and 162).
The number of streets that have been sewered make in all a total of 13,060 lineal feet of
sewer laid during the year.
As a summary of the work done up to the present in regard to sewers and surface drains,
a memorandum supplied by the City Engineer is herewith submitted :—
" Total length of sewers laid (including the Johnson Street sewer), 63,366 feet, or about
12 miles.
Total number of buildings connected with the common sewers, 1,045.
Number of water closets connected, 1,315.
Number of baths connected, 325.
Number of sinks connected, 958.
Number of slop-hoppers and urinals connected, 136.
Number of wash basins and wash tubs connected, 369.
Number of swimming baths connected, 1.
Number of houses sewered in accordance with the rules laid down in the by-laws, but
not connected with the common sewers, 26.
Final inspections of sewerage and plumbing, 926.
Plumbing and sewerage of premises in progress, 45.
The total length of surface drains laid down in the years 1893 and 1894 was 36,439 feet.
During the present year 3,386 feet of pipe drains and 12,260 feet of box drains were
laid, making a total for the past three years of 52,085 feet of surface drains."
Reference is made in the above memorandum to the plumbing work of the buildings
connected with the sewers. To recite in detail all the requirements provided in regard to this
important matter would occupy more space than, to do it justice, could be devoted to it in a
report of this kind. They will be found in a copy of the " Sewerage Connection Regulating
By-law, 1893," appended to the-report.
Before passing from this part of the subject, however, a word or two is necessary as to
the general operation and effect to the systems of sewerage and drainage.
It is gratifying to be able to state upon the authority of the City Engineer that the
sewerage system adopted has proved an unqualified success, working smoothly and well in
every part and at every point, not a single stoppage or obstruction having occurred since its
inception, and the indications are that it will be equal to all requirements for many years
to come. Although the system in its relation to the City as a whole is as yet not half completed, there is already an added heal thfulness and comfort realized from its operations which
cannot but beneficially affect, directly or indirectly, the entire population.
The operation of the surface drains has been equally satisfactory and the visible effect
produced by their construction has been to greatly improve the appearance of the low-lying
sections of the City through which they pass. But the effect particularly noticeable in this
connection is that the fetid and unhealthy odors which formerly arose in those quarters from
stagnant water impregnated more or less with sewage, no longer exist.
(b.) Disposal of Garbage.
At present, and for the past three years, the garbage from the City has been disposed of
by scowing it out to sea. As in the initial proceedings to secure a sewerage system adapted
to the City, so in regard to the question of ridding the City of garbage there existed originally
a great diversity of opinion. For a tinre the project of the establishment of a crematory was
in the ascendancy and the sum of $10,000 was voted by the electors in December, 1890,
for that purpose. But so great was the opposition encountered from the residents of each
locality where it was proposed to place the crematory that the project was finally abandoned,
and in November, 1892, the Board of Health contracted with Mr. T. F. Sinclair for the removal
of the City's garbage in the manner above mentioned.
The principal details of the scheme are set out in the sections of the contract quoted
below, viz. :—
" The Contractor shall each day have the said scow at the wharf as aforesaid between the
hours of 12 o'clock midnight and 4 a.m., to receive night soil, swill and filthy and offensive
matter dangerous to health.
The Contractor shall on or about the hour of 4 a.m., cause the said scow to be towed to
sea, and the contents thereof to be deposited in deep water in the Straits of Fuca at a point
not less than two miles from any land." 534 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
The wharf referred to in the contract is located at the end of Telegraph Street on the
harbour front. As the arrangement thus described has proved to be eminently satisfactory
thus far, it may reasonably be inferred that another difficult problem in relation to health
matters in the City has been practically solved.
(c.) Sanitary Inspection in respect to Streets, Premises, etc.
Acting under instructions the Sanitary Inspector, assisted by two police constables, made
a systematic and thorough inspection of all the premises in the City during the year. A
record was kept of the condition of the inspection of all premises visited, with the result, that
no less than 2,500 notices were served to abate nuisances ; 1,000 cesspits were condemned and
ordered to be cleaned out and filled up, and a system of dry-earth closets, under proper regulations, substituted therefor.
A scheduled record was kept of every place visited and of the prevailing sanitary
conditions at the time. In those cases in which notices had been served the premises were
inspected a second time. If the nuisance was not abated within the time specified in the
notice, proceedings were instituted in the Police Court to enforce the abatement. In this way
thirty prosecutions took place and a conviction recorded in every case.
As the summer season approached precautions were taken to prevent the escape of
unpleasant effluvia deleterious to health from certain box and open drains. An inspection of
all such drains was made by the Sanitary Inspector. This was followed up by a -thorough
flushing and cleaning out of every drain. The Superintendent of Streets, who co-operated
with the Sanitary Inspector in this work, has prepared a plan showing the location of all box
and pipe drains in the City, which will be valuable for reference in future work of this kind.
The Street Superintendent has also supervised the work of cleaning the streets by scraping or
sweeping, a number of men with horses and dump-carts having been employed daily for this
purpose, wherever required.
It is also one of the duties of the Sanitary Inspector to inspect the sewers once every
month, and in his last report he says : " I am glad to be able to inform you that the system
is working to perfection, and the more connections made with it the better it works."
A standing and inveterate nuisance, the Johnson Street ravine, has received special
attention this year at the hands of the City Council. This ravine, or gulch, originally a
natural waterway, running as it does through the heart of the City to the Harbour, has been
the cause of constant complaint for many years. Its condition was somewhat improved by
the construction, in 1890, of the Johnson Street sewer, which runs parallel with the ravine,
and by the connection of a number of the lots fronting on the said street with the sewer, the
sewage from which lots formerly found its way into the ravine and made its presence there
both seen and felt. Sewage still runs into the ravine, but the amount has been lessened by
further connection of property along the ravirre with the sewers.
By direction the Sanitary Inspector made a careful inspection this year of the ravine
from end to end and submitted a report of his examination to the City Council. The Council,
after conferring with the owners of property affected, decided that a 20-inch pipe drain should
be laid down as soon as the consent of the said property owners, legally implemented, is
obtained. The matter is now in the hands of the City Solicitor to procure the right of way
required. When this proposed work shall have been accomplished, the Johnson Street ravine
nuisance will no longer remain a menace to public health. .
3.—Water Supply.
By the present system of water supply all that portion of the city lying to the east of the
harbour and the arm is supplied by mains from Elk and Beaver Lakes, which are situate
some six miles from the city, in Lake District, and at an altitude of 190 feet above the level of
the sea, high water mark. The surface formation of the lakes is pear-shaped, the larger lobe,
Elk Lake, lying to the north. The portion of the city known as Victoria West is supplied by
the mains of the Esquimalt Water Works Company.
The present system had its origin in 1873, when, under the powers vested in the city by
the " City of Victoria Water Works Act, 1873," $100,000 were borrowed upon the credit of
the city, and a 12-inch main laid to the city from the south end of Beaver Lake. Temporary
filter beds were put in at that point, with an area of 2,800 square feet, and a filtering capacity
of 8,000 gallons per hour. This area was increased in 1883 to 4,800 square feet, and the
filtering capacity to 14,400 gallons per hour. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 535
In 1886 a controversy arose as to the best method of increasing the supply, and the
services of such experts as Mr. R. Pickering, C.E., Mr. T. C. Keefer, C.E., Mr. H. P. Bell, C.E.,
and the then Water Commissioner, Mr. Peter Summerfield, C.E., were employed, with the view
of determining the question. The first mentioned engineer recommended the construction of a
reservoir at the head of Pandora Avenue, while Mr. Keefer, Mr. Bell, and Mr. Summerfield
held to the opinion that the object would be better attained by laying another and a larger
main between the lake and the city. The concensus of opinion favouring the latter plan, it
was ultimately adopted, and a 16-inch steel main laid to the lake in 1888 at a cost of
$31,849.02. A portion of the old 12-inch main has since been replaced by a 24-inch steel
main. The laying clown of mains throughout the city for distribution purposes, begun in 1874,
has been continued every year since then, as the growing demands of the city have required.
The distances traversed by these mains now aggregate not less than 200,000 feet, and the
quantity of water delivered by them is estimated at 1,500,000 gallons daily. So much in
regard to the amount supplied.    Next in respect to the nature of the supply.
It is not intended here to treat this phase of the subject from a professional or scientific
standpoint, but simply to refer to the successive steps which have been taken by the Council
recently to improve the quality of the supply.
As is well known, the most of the land now covered by the water of Beaver Lake was
originally free from water, comparatively speaking, but was submerged after the construction
of the original dam in 1874. The result was that a number of trees and stumps, and a considerable quantity of vegetable matter generally, has remained since that time in the lake, to
its detriment as a source of water supply. Another source of impurity arose from the
proximity of barnyards and dairy farms. A third and most active cause of pollution was due
to the fact that the filter beds and reservoir constructed in 1883, having been neglected, had
become clogged with matter of various kinds and were a veritable repository of filth, through
which the water supplied to the city had to pass. The impurity of the supply in 1894 was
such as to call forth complaint from every quarter of the city, and to demand a speedy remedy.
Expert analyses of the water were made both in the city and at the lakes, and a by-law was
submitted to the ratepayers and passed for the purpose of improving and extending the supply
by an expenditure of the sum of $150,000.
The first move made was to do away with the old filter beds and reservoirs entirely, by
extending the intake main through a rock cutting on the east side of the beds some 250 feet,
thence 150 feet into the lake, and so placing the main that the water would be drawn from a
point about eight feet below the surface. The next was to come to terms with the owners of
property adjoining the lake for the purchase of a portion of the watershed area, which is estimated by the City Engineer at 1,600 acres. Of this area 236.07 acres were secured to the
corporation, including the portion most liable at the present time to contaminate the supply.
The work of clearing the margin of Beaver Lake and of removing submerged logs and stumps
therefrom was also undertaken, and some fifty acres cleared up in this way. All of the said
work was effectually carried out this year under the Water Commissioner, with the approval
of the Council, and with the results which are clearly manifest in the improved quality of the
water now supplied. In addition to the foregoing, it is proposed to build certain darns on the
west side of the lake, to prevent waste and to further protect the supply.
But the principal work of the year has been the execution of the design for providing a
new and complete system of filter beds and reservoir according to the most approved modern
methods. Competitive plans were invited by the Council, which, when received, were submitted to two Eastern engineers of note for adjudication upon their respective merits. The
engineer reported in favour of the adoption of the plan prepared by Mr. G. E. Jorgensen, C.E.
The award of the premium offered for the plan which would be accepted was accordingly
made to Mr. Jorgensen, who was subsequently appointed engineer in charge of the proposed
works, and the contract let to Messrs. Walkely, King & Casey for the sum of $83,500. The
specification of the work calls for the construction of a cofferdam, 482 feet, across Beaver Lake,
and emptying and excavation of the bottom of the basin between the cofferdam and the old
beaver dam to a certain depth, and the construction of three filter beds composed of layers of
sand and gravel, enclosed by walls of concrete, and resting upon floors of the same material.
The concrete used is composed as follows :— 2 parts broken stone, 1 part gravel, 1 part coarse
sand, 1 part of fine sharp sand, and 1 part of best quality of British Portland cement. This
material also enters largely into the construction of the reservoir. From the comparative
tabulated statement of data contained on plans and in description of the competitive designs 536 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
submitted for the filter beds, which statement was  prepared  by the  engineers to  whom  the
designs were referred for report, the following information is gleaned :—
Method of filtration—Downward through sand, gravel, and stone.
Number of filter beds—Three.
Size of each—80 x 150 feet.
Area of each bed—12,000 square feet.    Total area—36,000 square feet.
Rate of filtration—90 gallons per square foot per day.
Total filtering capacity—1,000,000 gallons for each filter bed, or 3,000,000  in  24   hours.
Depth of filtering material—6 feet.
Depth of water in filter—5 feet.
Level of water in filter—112 to 107 feet.
Level of surface of sand—107 feet.
Class of filtering material—Sand, 3 feet ; gravel, 1 foot 6 inches ; stone, 1 foot 6 inches ;
porous tile, 6 inches.
Supply mains in lake—
Flooding conduits— 1 foot by 1 foot 6 inches.
Main collecting conduit—2 feet by 1 foot 6 inches.
Delivery wells of pure water reservoir—Size, 215x165 feet.
Capacity in gallons—5,500,000.
Top level—105 to 111 feet.
Bottom level -94 feet.
Clear water reservoir formed in hake.
For a fuller understanding of the nature of the work, it will be necessary to refer to the
copy of the specifications herewith appended. The work, although commenced late in the
season, owing co the unusually favourable weather, has progressed more rapidly than was
anticipated, and it is confidently expected that early in 1896, the residents of the City will be
treated to a supply of water equal in purity to that of any city on the  continent  of America.
4.—Food Supply.
Section 38 (with amendments), and sections 39, 40, and 41 of the " Market By-Law "
contain provisions relating to the manufacture and sale of bread and its inspection. Section
78 of the " Health By-Law " requires every butcher, grocer, and milk dealer, or their agent,
to allow the Sanitary Inspector to freely and fully inspect their cattle, meats, fish and
vegetables, held, offered or intended for sale, while section 76 provides that any bread,
milk, or other substance found adulterated with any substance injurious to health shall be
forfeited and destroyed. This law has been in force for over two years. The result of its
application is this year given by the Sanitary Inspector as follows :—
For food destroyed as unfit for consumption :—Pork, 1,500 lbs.; beef, 300 lbs.; eggs, 4
crates; venison, 200 lbs.; chickens, 10; geese, 25; bananas, 25 bunches; grapes, 5 boxes.
The inspection of the Sanitary Inspector during the present year has also been extended
to slaughter-houses and vegetable gardens.
Prominent under the head of " Pure Food " is the question of milk supply.
As this question will be dealt with more fully by the Medical Health Officer, it will not
be enlarged upon here, further than to recognize the well-known principle that in respect to
an article of food so extensively consumed as milk, it is clearly in the interests of public health
that every element of impurity in the supply should be eliminated, and that it should be as
wholesome and nutritious as possible. Acting upon this principle the City Council has under
consideration at present a By-Law to regulate the sale and testing of milk supplied to consumers in the City, in order to secure the supply of an article of high standard quality.
The necessity for such a measure will appear from the following remarks of Prof. J. H.
Reed, of the Agricultural College, Guelph, Ontario :
" Any cow affected with or predisposed to any contagious disease is not fit for dairy
purposes, as not only is there a danger of the disease being communicated to other cows, but
the milk of cows suffering from some contagious disease is liable to produce the same or a
similar disease in persons consuming it, especially in children or grown people of weak constitution."
" The principle diseases in which the milk is injurious are : Cattle plague, pleuro-pneu-
monia, foot-and-mouth disease, anthrax, rabies, tuberculosis, actinomycosis. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health.
"Tuberculosis : I consider this the most dangerous disease of all in regard to the milch
cows, as on account of its insidiousness it may be present in an animal for a long time without showing any well-marked diagnostic symptoms, and at the same time there is little, if any,
doubt that the milk is unfit for food for either the human family or other animals."
If these statements by so high an authority as Prof. Beed, are true, it is clear that the
question of milk supply bears a vital relation to public health and is deserving of more careful
consideration than seems to have been given in the past. In fact, the whole question of food
inspection and of the sources of supply, though difficult to deal with on account of its connection with various lines of business by which many citizens obtain a livelihood, appears to be a
subject of no little importance and in regard to which it is not improbable too much laxity has
hitherto prevailed.
Isolation Hospital and Morgue.
(a.) The   Hospital,
The small-pox epidemic of 1892 was a disaster from which the City as a whole did not
recover for some considerable time. Yet this visitation, distressful as it was, was not without
mitigating features which tend to relieve to some extent at least, its painful effects. It
exposed the defenceless condition of the City when attacked by so destructive an enemy. It
aroused the public mind from indifference as to the provisions necessary for contending successfully against an invasion of this kind, and it paved the way for better  sanitary measures.
In 1893 the ratepayers submitted to a direct tax for the first time, of 6 mills on the
dollar for Board of Health purposes. From the sum thus realized seven and a half acres of
land adjoining the P. R. J. Hospital grounds were purchased, and upon this site the present
Isolation Hospital, with its appurtenances, was erected. The following memorandum furnished by the building inspector briefly describes these buildings.    The buildings consist of—
One large double ward built of brick, with slate roof, heated with hot water, with kitchen,
sink, bath and bedrooms for nurses.
One cottage (brick), roof (slate), with three rooms heated by grate and stove, with patent
water-closets and ventilators.
One wooden building for wash house and drying room, with necessary plumbing, boilers,
wash tubs, etc.
One wooden building with three rooms for disinfection purposes, with baths and other
plumbing work.
All the floors of the above-mentioned buildings are of asphalt.
Also one coach house and stable.
One dwelling of four rooms, comprising the rear part of the administrative building.
One outbuilding used as a waggon house.
One one-and-a-half storey building used as a storehouse.
One wooden building to be occupied by suspects,   16x80 feet.
The whole of the above premises is drained into a cesspool with overflow.
A caretaker was put in charge, and the hospital has since been used by the Medical
Health Officer in dealing with cases affected with any contagious or infectious disease.
The purposes intended to be served by the Hospital are fully set out in the Public Health
By-law which is mainly a transcript of the provisions in this respect in force in more populous
cities. Whether these purposes are subserved as they should be by the present Isolation
Hospital buildings or not, is not within the province of the undersigned to say.
The present equipment may or may not ba as complete as could be provided, but it is
sufficient to impart a sense of security and confidence that the city is in a better condition to
cope with any serious outbreak of infectious disease than it has ever been before. A copy of
the regulations to be observed in the event of any case of infectious or contagious disease
occurring in any part of the city, which were adopted recently by the Board of Health, is
also appended to this report.
(I.) The Morgue.
This building, situate on Fisguard street, was the outcome of an agitation in 1893, partly
caused by the Coroner of the district at that time, and partly by others interested in the
matter of providing a suitable place to which the bodies of persons found dead within the
city limits might be removed,  and where,  under the  Coroner's  instructions,   post-mortem 538 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
examinations could be held. The practice followed previously, of removing such bodies to
undertaker's rooms, adjoining business houses in the city, gave rise to a number of complaints,
as the bodies so removed were not infrequently in an advanced state of decomposition, and, in
a number of instances, the cause of death was unknown. The particulars of the buildings
are as follows :
Size 15x35 feet, built of brick, with a slate roof, and consisting of 2 rooms, a necessary
table for post-mortem examinations, sink, water pipes, ventilators and skylight. The building-
is comparatively private, is easily accessible and is under the care of the Police Department.
A short distance removed from the Morgue, on the same lot, is another building built of brick,
known as the Sanitary Office.    It is occupied by the Sanitary Inspector.
Concluding Remarks.
In dealing with the matters above referred to concerning the sanitary work and the
sanitary condition of the city, many facts connected therewith, though important in themselves have of necessity been omitted, as their relation to the subject in hand was evidently
too remote! to be considered here. And it may be that some matters have been overlooked
which should have received attention. But the omission, if such exists, may perhaps be
remedied in the preparation of the next animal report, when no doubt, all the matters requiring
consideration in a report of this nature will be more definitely known.
Lastly, a word as to the city itself. Barring the liability to which it is more or less
exposed, of the introduction of some infection from the Orient, the city's position appears to
be one of unusual advantage. Its climate is tempered by the warm currents of the Pacific
Ocean. Extremes of heat and cold are almost entirely unknown. Its atmosphere is the fresh,
pure breath of the sea.
There is evidently in its surroundings nothing to detract from its sanitary well-being, but
everything to enhance it. They are already widely known and justly admired. But is its
sanitary condition what it should be ?
This question will no doubt be answered by the Provincial Board of Health, to which
this report, if adopted, is to be transmitted. The average mind, however, will infer from the
facts herein contained that up to the present the city has advanced slowly, perhaps, but surely,
to better sanitary conditions. For tweuty-one years its water supply has been extended and
is about to be greatly improved. Almost the entire business portion of the city has been
successfully sewered. A generally approved plan for the removol of its refuse is in operation.
The number of sanitary regulations in force is greater than ever before, and the indications
are that before long, the public improvements and the internal sanitary condition of the city
will fully harmonize with the beauty arrd healthfulness of its environment.
All of which is respectfully submitted. I have, etc.,
W. J. Dowler,
Sec. of the Board of Health of the City of Victoria.
HEALTH  OFFICER'S REPORT.
Part II.
"Victoria, B. C, December 15th, 1895.
To the Chairman and Members of the Board of Health, Victoria, B. C:
" Gentlemen. —In accordance with the provisions of the Health By-law I beg to present
for your consideration my third annual report upon the sanitary condition of the city.
With the exception of a mild epidemic of scarlet fever and measles that has during the
present year visited a section of the city, the general health of the community has shown a
slight improvement on last year, due in a great part to the extension of the general sewerage
system, house connections made with it, and the better appreciation by the citizens themselves
of hygienic conditions. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 539
The house connections with the sewers having been carried out under the supervision of
the Plumbing Inspector, who also extended his examination into the traps and drains of the
dwellings—his requirements being very strict—will result, when the system is completed, in
shutting off' one of the most serious dangers to public health—the escape of sewer gas into the
houses themselves and the emanations from the box-drains at almost every street corner.
It cannot be denied that the existence of box-drains—many, indeed, old, rotten, and
saturated with foul matter—has been a prolific source of sickness, such as follicular tonsilitis,
predisposing to diphtheria and scarlet fever. The supersession of many of these by extensive
surface drains which have been recently constructed, together with the systematic flushing of
the whole of them, has had a beneficial result. I cannot too strongly urge the absolute necessity of doing away, as early as possible, with these antiquated disease-breeding box-drains, and
in the meantime, as I have said, the systematic flushing of those remaining.
As a result of the house to house inspection by the Sanitary Inspector during the year, a
large number of cess-pits have been done away with, and some wells filled in. I need but
quote from the report of the Provincial Board of Health for Ontario the following pregnant
sentence : " Cess-pits are everywhere and always dangerous." Particularly is this the case
in a city like Victoria, which is built upon the rocks forming hills and valleys constituting
channels by.which noxious matter from cess-pools on a higher level may, through a vein of
water, contaminate the whole valley.
I would urge that so soon as our water system is so far extended, that all wells be closed
except such as have been shown to be incapable of pollution, and that under no conditions
shall the water supply to any house be cut off, pure water being of the highest sanitary importance to every family.
The action of your Council in constructing such an extensive system of filter beds at the
source of our water supply, Beaver Lake, is a subject upon which the citizens may congratulate themselves. A recent visit to the beds has convinced me of the excellence of the suggestions regarding them made by the Resident Engineer, Mr. Jorgenson.    These are :—
(1.) That the bottom of the reservoir be made of cement.
(2.) That the reservoir be covered in.
(3.) That means be taken by which, in the event of contamination of water in the reservoir, the supply can be conducted into the main pipe while the reservoir is being cleaned.
(4.) That the cofferdam be made a permanent structure, thus securing a settling basin
for the water before entering the filter beds.
(5.) That a gravel embankment be extended for half a mile upon each side of the lake to
kill the vegetable matter that is sure to spring- up if left as it is. These gravel walls would
also act as a filter for the water coming from the watershed into the lake. With the aid of
the temporary branch of the railway, this could be accomplished at comparatively little cost.
In my previous reports I have strongly advocated that steps be taken to secure for the
city pure milk. As year by year passes, the necessity for this becomes greater, particularly as
shown by the discovery of tuberculosis in some of the herds from which milk is supplied to the
city. In my opinion the entire question would be covered by carrying out the following
suggestions :—
(1.) That all milk vendors be required to register at the City Hall, giving the name of
their ranch ; the number of cows they keep ; the number of other cattle kept by them ; the
average amount of milk sold per month ; and if required, the names of their customers.
(2.) That at the end of every six months, or whenever deemed necessary, each dairyman
present a certificate from the Provincial Government Inspector of Contagious and Infectious
Diseases among Cattle that his herd is free from disease ; that his cattle are properly housed,
fed and watered ; and that the milk is kept in proper receptacles and in a properly constructed
milk-house.
(3.) That the milk be subject to test at any time or place that the Health Department
may see fit to make such inspection.
This simple system would accomplish the object desired at the smallest expense.
The milk and the flesh of animals afflicted with tuberculosis are, it is well recognized,
capable of transmitting that dreaded disease, consumption, to human beings, and it is necessary, therefore, that both the milk and flesh should be carefully cooked before being consumed.
Iu dealing with the present epidemic of scarlet fever, no small amount of difficulty has
been encountered by the Health Department in the greater number of cases through ignorance of the requirements of the Health Law.    To a large extent  this  has  been  overcome by 540 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
the assistance of the printed rules and regulations issued under the direction of your Board.
In this connection, the following extracts from the Report of the Provincial Board of
Health of Ontario seem to be worthy of reproduction : —
" The fact that a child may have mild scarlet fever in its earlier stages without showing
any signs of illness and may attend public school and Sabbath school and contaminate many
others before it is known to be affected, makes it extremely difficult to control this disease.
The difficulty is increased by neglect of notification and actual concealment in many mild
cases.
While the average citizen regards it as criminal negligence of the health officers if the
children of other people are not rigidly quarantined, he nevertheless resents any restraint of
his own children as unnecessary and arbitrary. In view of the serious danger of a large
amount of scarlet fever and diphtheria this winter, I think a strict enforcement of the Public
Health Act in all its provisions regardirrg contagious diseases is urgently required.
To have any effectual control over epidemics of scarlet fever and diphtheria, it is necessary that there should be some means of isolation. In the private houses of wealthy people,
it may be possible to secure satisfactory isolation, but in cases occurring in small or crowded
tenements, where many of the worst epidemics arise, and in hotels and boarding houses, and
in the case of domestic servants and many others, isolation is not possible.
The most efficient means of preventing the spread of the two diseases—scarlet fever and
diphtheria—is a rigid system of quarantine and isolation. In many cases the occupants of
the dwelling where the infectious disease is, willingly do all they can to carry out these
requirements, but in some cases it is very difficult to enforce a strict quarantine without the
aid of a patrol. Those who show indifference to comply with the directions given by the
medical attendant or Health Officer, are followed up in order to see that the quarantine regulations are carried out as directed. One of the most efficient means of spreading these diseases
is through the public school. A child is taken ill with some slight affection of the throat,
which is not deemed of sufficient severity to require the services of a physician. After being-
kept home for a few days or a week, the child is allowed to return to school, and then spread
the disease. It should be remembered that a mild form of an infectious disease in one child is
capable of producing in another an extremely fatal type.
Whilst among the poor, who are not always prepared to call in a physical! for every
apparently slight ailment, many cases dangerous in nature hut mild in form, are unrecognized,
and spread the disease to others through ignorance; there are others who knowingly are criminally neglectful of such precautions as the nature of such cases demands should be taken to
ensure their fellow-beings that measure of protection they have a right to against such danger.
Notwithstanding the fact that for these isolation is not so strictly enforced, it is nevertheless desirable that physicians, when called upon to attend, and every person in whose
household there occurs a case of typhoid fever, mumps, measles or whooping cough, should not
forget that they are compelled by law to report the same to the Health Officer within twenty-
four hours, as well as diphtheria or scarlet fever."
I am pleased to report that, owing to the intelligent manner in which the majority of the
citizens have received the suggestions of your Board, the epidemic of scarlet fever is about
stamped out. But this is not sufficient. Care has to be taken to provide against its recurrence ; and if the suggestions and regulations already made be acted up to in the future, there
need, I think, be little fear that the authorities will be confronted with any serious outbreak
of any infectious disease.
Prevention is provided in a measure in the improved sanitary condition of the city, and
the people seem to be more than ever alive to their duties—though there are a few who will
always object to restrictions of any kind, however salutary. The good common-sense of the
majority may be expected to more than countervail any opposition on the part of obstructionists, who occasionally bring upon themselves the consequences for which the law provides.
I would suggest that the present is a fitting time to lay before the Provincial Board of
Health the communications which have passed between your Board and the Dominion Government upon the subject of quarantine, and the importation into this country of small-pox and
cholera.    (Vide Appendix.)
During the year there have been reported —
Scarlet fever 122 cases, 1 death.
Typhoid fever      4     n       2       n
Diphtheria      4    n       1       n 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 541
Four cases of small-pox, which on investigation proved to be false. One case, however, a
suspicious one, was at once isolated and removed to the hospital. There were three deaths
from measeles.
I am not in a position to present a complete list of the causes of deaths which have
occurred during the year.
All of which is respectfully submitted by
Your obedient servant,
Geo. H. Duncan, M.D.,
Medical Health Officer.
Memo., Dec. 31st, 1895.—There were 256 deaths in 1895. Estimating the population of
the city at 20,000, the death rate for the year 1895 is 12.8 per 1,000.
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF VICTORIA  LOCAL  BOABD.
Victoria, October 29th, 1894.
To His Worship the Mayor and Board of Aldermen of the City of Victoria:
Mr Mayor and Gentlemen,—On resuming my duties as Medical Health Officer of the
City of Victoria I tender you my sincere thanks for the opportunity afforded me of visiting
Japan and China. I may say I availed myself of the occasion to acquaint myself, as far as
possible, with the health condition erf the people from which at present British Columbia
draws the bulk of her immigration.
On my arrival at Hong Kong I at once placed myself in communication with the Imperial
and Local Health Officials, and by them was afforded exceptional opportunities of acquainting
myself with the sanitary conditions affecting the Oriental passenger traffic. As is well known,
the port of Hong Kong is the one at which the Oriental vessels take on their Chinese steerage
passengers. To Dr. Lowson, Acting Superintendent of the Civil Hospital, I am indebted for
much valuable information and assistance, he having personally accompanied me through the
native quarters arrd supplied me with facts as to their conditions of life and the diseases prevalent among them.
At the time- of my arrival at Hong Kong the Bubonic Plague had been about stamped out,
only fourteen convalescent patients being under treatment. These were, however, sufficient
to enable me to acquaint myself with the character of the malady, which being fostered by
filth had its home among the lowest classes of the Chinese population.
It had been brought into Hong Kong by the Cantonese, who constitute the greater proportion of the Chinese immigration to the Pacific Coast of North America.
It is well to state here that save under the most exceptional conditions the white population of Hong Kong and other Chinese ports are not affected by infectious and contagious
diseases as are the Chinese, since they live in a section of their own and are under European
conditions of life.
My contact with the Chinese in Hong Kong and Shanghai, also, clearly satisfied me that
their sanitary conditions and habits of life were infinitely worse than those of the Chinese in
our city, and hence the greater the necessity for safe-guarding ourselves against the possible
effects of the influx of this class of population.
Although the Bubonic Plague, to which I have referred, had only been a recent and
temporary outbreak, I was informed by Dr. Ayers, H. M. Colonial Surgeon, having charge of
the sanitary condition of Hong Kong, that small-pox is never absent from the Chinese population. He advised me as to the needs of special precautions particularly during the winter
months, when the Chinese are herded together for warmth, and being under unsanitary conditions small-pox becomes epidemic.
Canton and Hong Kong are but a few hours distant from each other and boats ply daily
between them. It will thus be seen that if Canton is, as Dr. Ayers describes it, the "filthiest
city under heaven," and since the greater number of immigrants come from that point, how
great are the risks incurred by our community and how necessary it is to enforce the most
stringent sanitary regulations against people coming from that quarter.    Surely past experi- 542 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
ences have amply demonstrated how true it is that Chinese immigration is, from the point of
view of health, the most dangerous element against which we have to contend.
The Chinese on board ship are kept separate from the white passengers, and besides are
inspected every day by the Surgeon. The excellence of the arrangements and accommodation
for transportation by the C. P. R. steamers, renders it unnecessary to treat the white passengers on landing in the same way as the Orientals.
In the affidavit sworn by me in a recent case, I said "that I believed the baggage of the
said Chinese passengers to be particularly dangerous, coming as it does from quarters which
we know not of among the Chinese, in a similar way as rags coming from ports at which
cholera is prevalent, would be particularly liable to contain cholera germs." I now know from
personal experience that this statement is absolutely true and I can well understand the origin
of many isolated cases of small-pox which were discoved in Chinatown long after the epidemic
of 1892 was "stamped out." I repeat that the baggage of Chinamen is particularly dangerous.
It is exposed to all the conditions of disease before being packed and taken on board, where it
does not meet with a temperature destructive of the germs, and it is only when opened out
those germs of disease, bubonic plague, cholera, typhoid fever, etc., have the opportunity of
being spread and propogated.
Subjected as they are on board ship to daily exposure to the purifying influences of fresh
air, their quarters being daily ventilated, and disinfected several times a week, it may be true,
and likely is so, that the persons and clothing of the Chinese are free from disease, but as Dr.
Lowson counselled me to be absolutely certain that no disease be introduced, the persons,
clothing and baggage must be disinfected prior to landing.
I am happy to be able to remark that as the result of my enquiries and personal observations, I found that the opinions expressed and the suggestions made by the Provincial Medical
Health Officer, Dr. J. C. Davie, in regard to infectious and contagious diseases at the port of
Hong Kong, were absolutely and strictly correct, and that in no way was anything done either
by the Provincial or Municipal authorities which was not necessitated by the facts of the case.
Hong Kong is emphatically an infected port, and as such must be regarded, indeed it would
be a neglect of duty hardly less than criminal, not to fumigate the Chinese baggage by such
persons, while in my opinion to reduce the danger of the introduction of disease to a minimum
we should do as is done in Australian ports, disinfect their persons and clothing.
Having had, during the year 1893, to handle 17 isolated cases of small-pox, I can speak
feelingly on the subject. There were many obstacles against which the Health Department
had to contend. The law, or possibly its interpretation, complicated matters very much, and
local appliances and facilities were deficient.
Experience has shown that the Health By-law requires amendment, and it may be that
the Provincial Health Law is susceptible of improvement. I may say that the. city should
have a well equipped Suspect Station at which goods could be disinfected without injury, and
to this matter I would respectfully call the attention of your honourable body.
I write, and have written, strongly on these points, but as your Medical Health Officer I
do so with the strong conviction of my responsibility in the matter.
We cannot take too many precautions against infectious and contagious diseases, and I
trust that the City Council will not only regard the subject as I do, but will adopt all
measures that experience and common sense have shown to be necessary.
I have, etc.,
(Signed)        Geo. H. Duncan,
Medical Health Officer of Victoria, B, C.
Victoria, B.C., May 14th, 1895.
The Honourable the Minister of Marine and Fisheries, Ottawa, Ontario:
Sir,—I have the honour, by direction, to transmit herewith a copy of a letter read before
the City Council last evening from the Medical Health Officer of Victoria, having reference
to the threatened introduction of a cholera epidemic from Japan, and I am requested to
respectfully urge that the utmost vigilance and precautionary measures may be observed in
the inspection and fumigation of Chinese and Japanese passengers and baggage at Williams'
Head before being allowed to land at any port in this Province.
I have, etc.,
(Signed)        W. J. Dowler, C. M. C. 59 Vict, Provincial Board of Health. 543
[Enclosure.]
[Copy.]
Victoria, B.C., May 13th, 1895.
To His Worship Mayor Teague and Board of Aldermen, Victoria, B. C:
Gentlemen,—I beg respectfully to call your attention to the enclosed copy of a communication received by me from Dr. Eldridge, Yokohama, Japan, Inspector for the Imperial
Board of Health of that country, whose acquaintance I formed in Japan and with whom I
made reciprocal arrangements for the regular interchange of official information regarding sanitary matters in our respective countries.
It will be manifest from the letter that the Japanese authorities anticipate an outbreak
of cholera, but are making every arrangement to safeguard themselves and the outside world.
It therefore becomes the authorities of Victoria, the first port of call of Oriental vessels, to
take precautions to prevent, not only the introduction of the disease, but also to have such
perfect sanitary provisions as shall render it possible to at once stamp it out should it make
its appearance. * * * * * * *
Arrangements have been made, I understand, by which a weekly or ten days' steamship
service will be established with the East in the near future, and although the Chinese immigrants are falling off in numbers, those from Japan are increasing to a corresponding degree.
During the late Eastern war cholera has worked its way from the southern provinces of
China, where it is endemic, to the northern part of that Empire, whence it has been spread
among the Japanese troops, and by them brought to Japan, thus causing uneasiness in that
country.
Under all these circumstances it seems that it would be well for the City Council of
Victoria to make the Dominion Government acquainted with the facts which I have the
honour to lay before you. I remain, etc.,
(Signed)        Geo. H. Duncan,
Medical Health Officer.
[Enclosure.]
[Copy.]
Yokohama, April 18th, 1895.
Walter Wyman, M.D., Supervising Surgeon-General, U. S., M.H.S.
Sir,—My last report was written March 19th, and enclosed copies of telegrams announcing the occurrence of a few, chiefly isolated, cases of cholera at the Japanese ports in direct
communication with the seat of war, viz., Ujina, Moji, etc, all in southern Japan, some 500
miles from Yokohama. Since the date mentioned, importations of cholera to the same region
have been of frequent occurrence, scarcely a transport or man-of-war arriving, either from
Manchuria or the Pescadores, without one or more cases of cholera on board. The very active
measures taken by the authorities have, however, so far proved successful in controlling the
spread of the disease, which has nowhere in Japan assumed epidemic form. There was, last
night, a disquieting report that single cases have .appeared in Matsuyama, on the large island
of Kinshin, at some distance from the naval and military stations, and in the great central
City of Osaka.    The proof of the genuineness of these cases is, however, not yet complete.
The situation is unquestionably a grave one. Peace has been concluded by the plenipotentiaries, and, if ratified, will speedily be followed by the return of the armies and large bodies
of coolies employed in transportation, who, in dispersing to their homes, will almost inevitably
distribute disease widely throughout the country. The Government will bravely grapple with
the danger, but conditions more favourable for the introduction and propagation of epidemic
disease can scarcely be imagined.
Inspection of all vessels coming from suspected localities, domestic and foreign, to be
followed, of course, by the necessary quarantine where required, is already in force throughout
Japan. In this connection I may say that a new quarantine station for Yokohama and Tokio
has just been completed at Nagahama, some ten miles below this port, which in completeness
of equipment, convenience, and in its provision for the comfort and welfare of those detained 544 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
for observation or treatment, is probably unsurpassed in any country. The control of this
station is vested in the hands of my English colleague, Dr. Wheeler, and myself, as Senior
Health Officers for the port of Yokohama, a large and competent staff assisting us.
After consultation with the Consul-General, Mr. J. N. Mclvor, it has been decided to
enfore the most rigid inspection of all ships bound for the United States, the personal examination to include all on board, irrespective of class of passage or of the point at which they
have entered the ship.
Should any emergency occur warranting such action, I shall immediately cable you through
the United States Consul-General. I remain, etc.,
Frank Eldridge, M. D.,
Sanitary Inspector, U. S.
Department of Agriculture,
Ottawa, May 27th, 1895.
Sir,—Your letter of the 14th instant, with enclosure of a copy of a letter from Dr. Duncan,
the Medical Health Officer of Victoria, on the subject of the nreasures necessary to be taken
in view of the possibilities of entry of Asiatic cholera from Japan, has been transferred to this
Department from the Department of Marine and Fisheries.
The Superintendent of Quarantines on the Pacific Coast has been advised to take the
necessary precautions to prevent the disease of cholera or the germs of that disease from passing the Williams' Head Quarantine Station, either by the medium of passengers affected or
their luggage.
The appliances at the Quarantine Station at Williams' Head are such as to afford protection against the introduction of the disease either by passengers or their luggage.
The sanitary precautions recommended by Dr. Duncan within the City of Victoria are,
nevertheless, advisable. I have, etc ,
J. Lowe,
W. J. Dowler, Esq., Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
City Clerk, Victoria, B. C.
Victoria, B. C, July 5th, 1895.
J. Lowe, Esq., Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Ottawa :
Sir,—The undersigned have the honour, by direction, to acknowledge the receipt of your
letter of the 27th of May last past, in respect to quarantine regulations at Williams' Head,
and to thank you for the same.
The City Council, as you are aware, deem this matter to be one of importance, affecting
not only this Province but, almost immediately, the entire Dominion.
We are, therefore, directed to address you again upon this subject, with the object of
ascertaining, if possible, more particularly whether the instructions issued to the Superintendent
of Quarantine on the Pacific Coast are such as will, without doubt, effect the purpose intended
thereby, viz : (to quote the words of your letter) " to prevent the disease or the germs of
cholera from passing Williams' Head Quarantine Station, either by the medium of passengers
affected or by their luggage."
While there is no disposition on the part of the Council to dispute the existence of
adequate appliances at the Quarantine Station here, there is the deepest anxiety and fear lest
they should, for any cause, not be put to the best and most effective use.
The Council's reason for such solicitude will appear from the following, which is respectfully submitted for your consideration :—
Each steamer of every line of Oriental steamships landing passengers in this Province has
at some time brought in small-pox. It has been noted in one case in particular, that soon
after the Chinese passengers were larrded in Vancouver, small-pox broke out there among
those in bond. Immediately following the landing of those passengers, it was reported that
small-pox had broke out at different points along the line of railway traversed by them, viz.,
at Calgary, Kamloops, Winnipeg, Chicago, and Western Ontario. It was further reported in
the papers that excepting at Calgary and Kamloops, where Chinamen alone were affected,
the origin of the cases was unknown to the health officers of these places.    These facts, which 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 545
are well known, at least to the Health Departments-cif the respective cities mentioned, clearly
indicate that every part of the Dominion is exposed to the liability of the introduction of
small-pox frorn the Orient.
The danger to which the country is exposed of an invasion of Asiatic cholera from the
same quarter is no less imminent.
It is well known that the home of cholera is in India, from which it has spread eastward
and westward. Trade with the western countries has naturally carried the disease with
greater rapidity in that direction. In its course it has surmounted no small obstacle to its
progress caused by the extremes of heat and cold through which it passed. On account of the
naturally favourable conditions, the suitable moisture of the climate and the filthy habits of
the people, the spread of the disease has been facilitated, so that it has long been endemic in
the great centres of population in China and adjacent countries.
It has even overcome the adverse climatic conditions of northern China, and attacked
there the invading army of the Japanese. Upon their return home, it has appeared following
in the wake of the disbanding troops, spreading to almost every part of the Empire, exciting
much alarm and requiring strenuous efforts to stamp it out. " In fact," says Dr. Eldridge,
Health Inspector of Japan, referring to the disbanding of the troops, " more favourable conditions for the spread of cholera in Japan can scarcely be conceived."
But if this country is threatened with cholera from Japan, in what position does it stand
in regard to China, where the favourable conditions of the climate, filthy habits of the people,
and the absence of all sanitary regulations render the plague endemic in the major portion of
the country 1
Canton, from which the greater part of Chinese immigration flows to these shores, is
regarded as the most filthy city in the world, and is known to be continually impregnated
with cholera.
The three lines of Oriental steamers connecting our port with Canton, via Hong Kong,
afford us what is virtually a weekly service.
It can be hardly questioned that our danger as a country from the probable importation
of cholera and small-pox is much greater here on the Pacific than on the Atlantic seaboard,
and calls for even more stringent regulations than those which prevail there.
The precautionary measures taken at Grosse Isle and Halifax to prevent the introduction
from Europe, are referred to in Dr. Montizambert's report for 1894, to the Department of
Agriculture. He states in his report (page 4) that "the quarantine regulations in respect to
eastern parts of Canada, were those adopted by the Dresden International Conference. All
vessels on which there had been no death or cholera symptoms were at once given free
pratique, even though coming frorn an infected port, the luggage, however, as above stated,
having been disinfected."
This is precisely the regulation which the Council is desirous should be carried out here
in respect to all vessels coming from the Orient to this Province.
It is, as before stated, with the view of obtaining a definite assurance from your department that the above quoted regulation will be enforced at Williams' Head that we venture to
communicate to you thus fully the views of the Council upon this subject.
It is hardly necessary to point out, in view of the prescription of the aforesaid regulation
in respect to vessels coining to this country from any infected port in Europe, where sanitary-
laws are in operation, the imperative necessity which exists for double vigilance being exercised
and active measures being adopted in regard to vessels arriving from ports where cholera and
small-pox have their home, and where sanitary laws and sanitary science are practically
unknown.
The Council's bitter recollection of the loss of many of its citizens, of the paralysis caused
to business, and the large expenditure of public funds necessitated by the visitation of the
small-pox epidemic in the summer of 1892, is still fresh in mind, and in the hope that the
recurrence of a similar calamity to this or any other portion of the Dominion may be averted
in future, the Council trust that their request in this particular instance, will be acceded to.
Awaiting the favour of your reply, We have, etc.,
(Signed)        W. J. Dowler,
Clerk of Municipal Council.
(Signed)        Geo. H. Duncan, M. D.,
Medical Health Officer. 546 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
Department of Agriculture,
Ottawa, July 23rd, 1895.
Gentlemen,—I have to state to you in reply to your joint letter of the 5th instant on
the subject of the action taken at the Williams' Head Quarantine Station with respect to
vessels entering from the Orient:
The statements in your letter are being made the subject of particular enquiry, of the
results of which you will be informed. It has not been understood, for some months past,
that cholera has been epidemic in the ports from which the steamers sail, in such way as to
come within the definitions in section 17 of the amended Quarantine Regulations. The
Department has had no definite and well-authenticated reports of cases.
The newspaper reports, however, which were received in April, were of a nature to move
the Minister of Agriculture to direct increased vigilance on the part of the Quarantine Officer
at Williams' Head. He was directed (April 22nd) to the effect that while it would not be
considered necessary to detain passengers if no case of cholera had occurred on board the
steamship during the voyage from Yokohama, that he must enquire very strictly, by the
interrogatories on oath to the the ship's masters and surgeons, as to the fact of existence of
cholera at the ports whence the passengers came, and if he found such existed, to disinfect
the luggage of passengers from such infected ports.
You refer to the practice of the St. Lawrence ports of the Dominion, at which effect was
given to the definitions of the Dresden Conference, by direction of the Minister of Agriculture,
on report of the General Superintendent of Canadian Quarantines. On this point I have to
inform you that the information which comes from the ports of Europe is so complete as not
to leave doubts as to the facts. But the Department had not the same precise information as
respects the presence of epidemic cholera in Japan and China; it had been reported in some
localities, but there were no authentic reports of the disease having spread even among the
Chinese.
It was not reported that cholera became epidemic in Japan after the dispersion of the
Japanese army on its return from China; nor was it noticed in the " Abstract of Sanitary
Reports," published weekly at Washington by the Government of the United States, containing reports from the United States Marine Hospital Service (that is the Federal Government
Quarantine System), also from the United States Consular Service, with other correspondence,
that any unusual precautions had been taken at United States ports against vessels from the
Orient.
The disinfection of all passengers' luggage of large steamers at Williams' Head would
imply a serious detention, which might affect the commerce of British Columbia ports, and for
the justification of which the Minister of Agriculture should be furnished with such definite
and special information of facts, as distinct from generalizations, as would come within the
definitions of the Quarantine Regulations. Such information being in possession, there would
be no hesitation to take the logical action the facts called for. I have, etc.,
J. Lowe,
Clerk of the Municipal Council, and Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
Medical Health Officer, Victoria, B.C.
Memorandum re Quarantine Regulations for the interview with Sir Mackenzie Bowell
and Hon. Mr. Daly, August 16th,  1895.
The City Council, through its City Clerk and Medical Health Officer, communicated with
the Department of Agriculture on the 5th of July last, particularly requesting that the
following regulation of the Dresden International Conference, adopted by the Minister of
Agriculture on the recommendation of the Superintendent of Quarantine, Dr. Montizambert,
be carried out at Williams' Head, viz.: The disinfection of all luggage of all immigrants
coming from infected ports..
The request was made from the considerations therein mentioned, viz.:
1. The fact, well known, that Asia is the home of cholera.
2. That Chinese immigrants to this country come principally from Canton (via Hong
Kong), a city filthy in the extreme and continually impregnated with cholera. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 547
3. That cholera is now epidemic in Japan, due to the contraction of the disease by the
Japanese army while in China, and dispersion of the army on its return from China.
4. That every steamer coming to this country from the Orient has at some time brought
in small-pox.
5. That the city has already been compelled to pay some $60,000 in the effort to stamp
out a small-pox epidemic, during which time it was quarantined for months, some 27 of its
citizens (a number of its leading merchants and others) were carried off by the loathsome
disease, and hundreds left the city and have never since returned.
In reply, the Council received a letter, dated July 23rd, from the Department, in which
the following position was taken, viz.:
The Department did not feel justified in disinfecting the luggage of all passengers at
Williams' Head, because—
(1.) It would imply a serious detention, which might affect the commerce of British
Columbia ports.
(2.) The Department was not yet in possession of such definite information as would
warrant them in denominating Chinese and Japanese ports "infected," under section 17 (Dom.
Quar. Reg.).
The deputation desire to lay before the Honourable the Premier, the following :—
1. The position taken in the letter of July 5th, that Canton is a perpetually infected
port, and that, too, within the meaning of section 17 of the Dom. Quar. Reg., cannot be
disputed, and is well known to all medical men having any acquaintanee with this subject,
but the Council of Victoria are placed under this disadvantage, that no reliable official information can be obtained from Canton.
2. That a serious epidemic of cholera is now rampant in Japan, contracted from the
Chinese by the Japanese army, as shown by the latest advices frorn that country (see Colonist
August 15th, also letter from Dr. Eldridge, of Japan, of the U. S. Federal Government quarantine system), which are proof positive that the northern part of China is an infected country,
as well as Formosa, coming within the definition of section 17. But the history of the disease
as delineated by medical authorities shows that it has spread from the centres of population
to those ports.
3. That not only cholera but bubonic plague has never ceased to exist in China (see Dr.
Montizambert's report).
In view of the foregoing and much further matter relative to this subject which might be
presented, the deputation would respectfully submit:—
1. That the time occupied in disinfecting the luggage of steerage passengers from the
Orient, some two hours, is a small consideration compared with the consequence (averted
thereby) of an epidemic of either cholera, or bubonic plague, or small-pox, which may occur at
any moment if this rule is not observed at Williams' Head.
2. That in view of the extreme importance of the case the following is respectfully
suggested, viz.:—That the Dominion Government be moved to appoint a commissioner to visit
China and Japan, inspect quarantine regulations, ascertain the existence and extent of the
aforesaid diseases in those countries, and obtain all such data as will officially demonstrate to
the satisfaction of the Government the danger to which this country is exposed.
Dec. 31st, 1895.—Note.—These recommendations have not as yet been carried out. During the height
of cholera epidemic disinfection was practised, but only for a few weeks. It is important that they should
be, as recent advices received by me from Japan show that cholera is still prevalent irr many places in Japan,
and indications are that it will again assume epidemic proportions next summer.—G. H. D. 548 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
CIRCULAR TO LOCAL BOARDS OF HEALTH.
 :o:	
Provincial Board of Health, British Columbia.
Office of the Secretary,
Victoria, B. C, December 31st, 1895.
Secretary Local Board of Health,	
Dear Sir,—The Provincial Board of Health has prepared the following circular with the
purpose of collecting information upon the work of Local Health organizations, the general
sanitary condition of municipalities and outlying districts, and the particular requirements of
each district. The replies to this circular will, it is hoped, be of great value in advancing the
work of sanitary improvement. You are therefore earnestly requested to fill in the answers in
the blank spaces following each question, with special care as to correctness and completeness,
according to the best knowledge you have been able to obtain, and return the same as soon as
possible in the accompanying stamped envelope.
Please make your answers concise and definite.
If you desire to write anything of a confidential nature please use the enclosed separate
sheet marked " Confidential."
Two forms are sent you, one of which it will be expedient for you to fill in and retain for
future reference. I have, etc.,
A, T. Watt,
By order of the Board. Secretary.
PROVINCIAL BOARD OF HEALTH, BRITISH COLUMBIA.
SANITARY REPORT.
I.—Situation and Topography.
II.—Habitations.
III.—Water and Ice Supply.
IV.—Drainage, Sewers.
V.—Household Refuse, Waste Matters, Garbage, Privy-Pits, Cesspools.
VI.—Markets, Abattoirs and Slaughter Houses.
VII.—Manufactories, Tanneries, Etc.
VIII.—Cemeteries and Burials.
IX.—Public Schools.
X.—Public Health.
XI.—Contagious Diseases.
Sanitary Report
On the Municipality (or District) of	
(Note—These questions were printed in circular form, space being left for answers after
each question.—A. T. W.) 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 549
Art. 1—Situation and Topography.
1. Are there any mountains or hills within or near the limits of your municipality1? If
so, state their estimated height and extent.
2. Are there any forests or large woods within or near the limits of your municipality ?
If so, state their extent and the kind of wood which is most common.
3. Are there any lakes or ponds within or near the limits of your municipality ? If so,
state their depth and relative position to the town or village. Are there any quarries containing water ?    Is the water of these lakes or ponds running or stagnant ?
4. Are there any rivers or important streams within or near the limits of your municipality ? If so, state their direction, their average width and depth. State also if the water is
running or stagnant. If running, is it fit for drinking purposes ? If muddy, say for what
reason.    State if the banks of said rivers or streams are low or high.
5. Do these rivers or streams pass through or near the city or village ? If near the city
or village at what distance ?
6. Does the water of these rivers or streams carry refuse or waste matters 1 If so, state
what kind of refuse or waste matters. Are these waste or refuse matters deposited on the
banks of the rivers or streams in your district ?
7. Is the bed of these rivers or streams laid bare at times, and in what time of the year?
8. In time of high water, do these rivers or streams, when overflowing, cover any considerable extent of ground on either side, and to what extent ?
9. Are there any dams over these rivers and streams, and how many ?
10. Is there any marsh or low land within or near the limits of your municipality? If
so, state the extent and relative position.
11. Is there always stagnant water over these places ?
12. During the dry season are there any low spots which remain constantly moist ? Is
any bad odor emitted therefrom ?
13. What is the ground water level?
14. What is the nature of the soil generally? Is it sandy, loamy, stony or clayey?
When digging the ground, at what depth is the " tuff" or rock found ?
15. What geological formations are found in your municipality ?
16. Is the ground generally flat or level, or is it uneven, hilly, and broken by deep
streams or ravines ?
17. Are there any stone, marble or other kind of quarries in your locality ?
18. How many public bridges are there in your municipality ?
Art. 2—Habitations.
1. How many dwelling houses are there within the municipality, and how many out of
that number form the village.
2. How many houses are not occupied 1
3. How many streets are there ?
4. What is the total length of the streets joined end to end ?
5. What is the average width of the streets ?
6. Are there many trees ?
7. Are dwelling houses spacious enough as a rule?
8. Are there any houses overcrowded with tenants ?    How many ?
9. What is the estimated population of your municipality ?
10. What are the names of the villages and hamlets in your municipality? What is the
population of each ? Give separately the total town or village population, the farming population and the mining population.
11. What is the total White population ? What is the total Indian population, and the
total Chinese population ?
12. What is the number of transient visitors during the year?
13. Are the houses in the town or  village generally detached, or are they built in rows ?
14. Is there a cellar in each house ?
15. What is the average height of these cellars ?
16. Are these cellars damp as a rule ?
17. Are there any cellars in which springs or wells exist ?    How many ?
18. Are there cellars in which privy-pits exist ?    How'many? 550 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
19. Are there cellars in which cesspools exist ?    How many ?
20. Are the houses lighted by gas or coal oil ?
21. What in your opinion are the chief sanitary defects of the houses in your municipality ?
22. What hospitals, homes or asylums are there in your municipality 1 And what
prisons, gaols or lock-ups are there ?
23. Have you any remarks to nrake about the clothing, bathing, food and cleanliness, or
about the medical or other service of these institutions ?    Is there any overcrowding ?
24. What other public buildings are there, and what theatres and halls are there in your
municipality ?
25. What hotels and lodging-houses are there in your municipality ?
26. Are these buildings all provided with proper exits and fire escapes ?
27. Are there any building regulations ?
28. Have you anything to remark about these buildings or premises, or about the water
supply, heating, lighting, ventilation or drainage of any of the above-named public  buildings?
Art. 3—Water and Ice Supply.
1. From what source is the water supply derived ? Is it from a lake, a river or stream
by means of water-works (aqueduct), or is it drawn directly from wells, a river or a smaller
stream ?
2. If from a river or stream, is the water liable to be contaminated by any manufactory,
tannery or other establishment located upon its bank above the place where the water is
taken ?
3. Are there any drains discharging sewage above the inlet of the aqueduct.
4. If there are water-works, at what distance from the town or village is the inlet of such
water-works ?
5. Is the water brought by gravity only, or is it forced through pipes mechanically ?
6. Are there any reservoirs, settling basins or filter beds in use ? If so, give particulars.
How are they constructed ?    How cleaned ?
7. What sort of pipes are used ? Iron or wooden pipes ? If wooden, of what kind of
wood ?
8. Are the joints of such pipes cemented, and how is it done ?
9. Is the water liable to be contaminated along its course through the pipes ? If so,
how?
10. Is the water from the aqueduct as good as it can be ? Does it leave any deposit ?
What is its colour ? Is it sometimes offensive in taste or odor ? If so, can this bad taste or
odor be accounted for ?
11. What proportion of houses are supplied by the aqueduct, and what proportion are
supplied by wells ?    What proportion take their supply directly from the river ?
12. What is the amount supplied per capita ?    Is there ever any scarcity ?
13. Has any analysis been made of the water ?    Send copy.
14. What is the character of the well water generally ?
15. What is the character of the river water ?
16. At what distance from dwellings, privy-pits, stables, are wells usually situated in the
village and on farms ?
17. What is the average depth of the wells?
18. What is the average height of water in wells?
19. Whence is the ice supply taken ? Is it from a place where the water is free from
contamination of any kind ?
20. Have you any special remarks to make as to the quality of the water and ice supply
in your locality ?
Art. 4—Drainage, Sewers.
1. Is the natural drainage good ?
2. Is there any system for the disposal of surface water and sewage ?
3. Is it the combined or separate system ?
4. What is the length, joined end to end, of the sewers 1    And of the drains?
5. Are they open or covered ? 59 Vict, Provincial Board of Health. 551
6. With what materials are they constructed? Are they in brick, tile, or wood, and
what kind of wood ?
7. Give their shape in cross section.     Are they square, circular, or egg-shaped ?
8. What are their inside dimensions ?
9. How are the joints made ?
10. At what depth are they placed?    Are they placed lower than the floors of cellars?
11. What rate of fall have they ?    (How many feet per 100 feet ?)
12. Have they many outlets, and where do they discharge ?
13. Are solid deposits found in them, and do they get blocked so as to necessitate
cleansing ?
14. Are they ventilated, and how ?
15. Are bad odors ever perceptible from these drains or sewers ?
16. Are these drains and sewers constructed after a plan drawn by a reliable engineer
and made under his supervision ?
17. Is there any map of subsurface works ?
18. How many houses are connected with the drains and with the sewers?
19. How is the connection made between the house drain and the street sewer ?
20. Are the water-closets and sink pipes trapped?
21. Are there any privy-pits connected with the public sewers ?    If so, how many ?
22. In streets where public sewers exist, are householders required to connect their houses
with them ?
23. How are slops disposed of in houses situated in the country, or in those which, though
situated in a town or village, are not connected with the public sewer, if any ? State if they
are used for agricultural purposes (fertilizers); if they are thrown carelessly on the ground
around the houses ; if they are drained into a river or stream by means of sewers or open
ditches; if they are carried into cesspools ; if they are allowed to run into the cellar, or if they
are drained in the open street drain in front of the house. In what proportion is each of these
plans followed?
24. Have you ever remarked any special defects about the public or private drainage or
sewerage ?
Art. 5—Household Refuse, Waste Matters, Garbage, Privy-pits, Cesspools.
1. How is the removal of household refuse and waste matters accomplished in your city,
village, or municipality ?    Is it at the public or private expense ?    What is the cost ?
2. Where are they taken to ?
3. Are they frequently removed ?
4. Are they burnt, and how is it done ?
5. Are there in the city or village large heaps of manure around the houses, out-houses,
and yards ?
6. How many houses are there where cesspools are used ?
7. How often a year are these cesspools emptied ?
8. How are these cesspools constructed ?
9. What disposition is made of dead animals 1
10. Where are they taken to ?
11. What proportion of houses have water-closets?
12. What proportion depend on privy-pits (holes in the ground) ?
13. How are the privy-pits made?
14. Are these privy-pits frequently emptied ?
15. To what extent is the dry-earth system used ?
16. Is the number of privy-pits decreasing in your locality, and what system is being used
in their place ?
17. Is the population of your municipality generally aware of the dangers to which they
are exposed by the use of privy-pits ?
18. In your opinion can not the mode now in operation in your locality for the removal
of garbage and waste matters be improved, and if so, what would your experience suggest as a
better one ?
19. Are there any municipal regulations with regard to garbage, privy-pits and cesspools?
Send copy. 552 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
Art. 6—Markets, Abattoirs and Slaughter-Houses.
1. How many public markets are there?
2. How many private markets are there where meat, fish, game or vegetables are sold ?
3. Are they kept clean ?
4. How are they cleaned ?
5. What disposition is made of waste matters and animal refuse ?
6. How many slaughter-houses are there ?
7. Are they kept clean ?
8. How many heads are annually slaughtered in these slaughter-houses ? Where are the
animals obtained from ?
9. What is the mode of slaughtering ?
10. What disposal is made of blood, tallow, entrails and other animal refuse?
11. Are these slaughter-houses situated in the midst of the town or village, or at a distance
from it ? Are they located near the dwellings or near the public road ? At what distance
from them ?
12. Does any bad smell ever arise from them ?
13. Whence is the water obtained which is used for cleansing these establishments ?
14. Where and how are blood, urine and waste from slaughter-houses drained ?
15. Have you any further observations to make about these establishments?
Art. 7—Manufactories, Tanneries, Etc.
1. Are there any manufactories in your locality ?    What kind and how many ?
2. Are these manufactories located near a river or stream, and are they drained into
them ?
3. Do manufactories located at a distance from the river drain into that river ?
4. How many men are employed in each of these factories ?
5. How many women and children under twelve years of age are employed in each ?
6. What are the dimensions of each building ?
7. How many stories in each building ?
8. Are the buildings kept clean ?
9. Are the water-closets or privy-pits kept in good order ?
10. Are there any tanneries, fat rendering or rag-picking establishments ?
11. In what state of cleanliness are the yards and premises of these establishments ?
12. Are these establishments drained by a sewer or by an open ditch which passes through
the town or village or through part of it 1    If so, state the length of such sewer or ditch.
13. Has there been any complaint about the bad smells arising from such establishments?
If so, state from which establishment ?
14. Are remains of animals, residues from fat rendering or accumulations of unclean rags
allowed to lie around such establishments ?
15. Have you anything to remark about these establishments ?
Art. 8.—Cemeteries and Burials.
1. How many cemeteries are there in your municipality ?
2. Is the cemetery (if more than one, give details of each) situated within the town or
village or beyond the limits ?    If beyond the limits, at what distance from the town or village ?
3. Are there any not used or others in which there is any reason why burials should be
discontinued ?
4. How old is the cemetery ?
5. What is the average number of the annual interments ?
6. How are records kept of burials ?    By whom?
7. Is a public receiving vault used in winter ? Is it ventilated ? At what date in the
spring are bodies removed from it ?
8. Are there any private vaults ? How many 1 How are they constructed ? How are
bodies interred in them ?
9. What is the average depth of the graves ? 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 553
10. What is the minimum amount-of earth covering coffin ?
11. Are there any graves in which the coffin is covered by 18 or 24 inches of earth only ?
About how many ?
12. What is the total area of the burial ground ?
13. What is the nature of the soil ?
14. Is it on high ground ?
15. Is it on sloping ground ?
16. Is the soil always dry at the depth of six feet?
17. Where does the cemetery drainage discharge? Is it in the direction of the town or
village ?    Is it in a river or stream 1 -
18. If it drains into a river or stream, is the water of said river or stream used for drinking purposes by people living below the cemetery ?
19. Is it drained by a ditch passiirg through the whole village or part of it?
20. In digging graves, are old ones sometimes disturbed in which bodies are still in an
active state of decomposition ?
21. Are there wells near the burial ground, and at what distance?
22. Are there any dwellings, schools, churches or other buildings near the burial ground,
and at what distance ?
2.3.  Are burials made in the basement of the church ?
24. What is the average depth of the grave in such cases ?
25. Are bodies deposited in vaults ?
26. How many private vaults are there ?
27. How are these private vaults constructed ?
28. Does cany perceptible bad odor arise from the basement of the church or from the
cemetery ? - -
29. Has thelocality of the burial ground ever been changed? If so, is the old place
covered by dwellings, and does the locality appear to be more unsanitary than elsewhere?
Art. 9.—Public Schools.
1. How many colleges, convents, public or private school-houses are there in your municipality ?    State number- of each.
2. What is the average annual number of pupils attending each of these schools ?
3. What are the dimensions of the class-rooms in each of these schools ?
4. With regard to schools where there is more than one class-room, please give the length,
width and height of the class-room containing the greater number of attending pupils in
proportion to its size, and indicate the largest number of pupils occupying it at a given
moment.
5. What kind of privies are used by the pupils ?
. 6.  State their dimensions.
7. Are they kept clean ?
8. If pits are used (holes in the ground), are they frequently emptied ? How many times
a year?
9. How are class-rooms ventilated when occupied by the pupils ?
10. .Have you any remarks to make about the water supply, heating, lighting, or drainage
of any school in your municipality ?
Art. 10:—Public   Health.
1. Is there a Board of Health in your municipality ?
2. If so, how many members are there on the Board ?
3. Has the Board appointed a Chairman, a Health Officer and a Secretary ?    Give names.
4. Are the Health Officer and Secretary members of the Board ?
5. Is the Health Officer a Physician ?
6. State the number of meetings held by your Board during the past year ?
7. What sanitary rules and regulations are in force in your municipality ?    Send copy.
8. Does your Board ascertain that householders report all cases of contagious disease existing in their homes, and that physicians report all cases in their practice ?
9. Is a permanent record kept of all cases reported ? 554 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
10. For what diseases does your Board cause a house infected by contagious disease to be
placarded ?
11. What  means  are  used   for  the  isolation  of   persons  infected  with  or  exposed   to
infectious disease 1
12. For what  diseases  are  such  persons  isolated?    Is there any isolation hospital ?    Is
there a suspect station ?
13. Is this building temporary, or permanently used as such ?
14. When a  house is infected  by a  contagious  disease,  does  your Board prevent the
children of such house from attending schools ?
15. Has your Board  ever been  compelled  to  close  up  schools  or other institutions on
account of contagious diseases existing in the locality ?
16. How many times ?    What the disease was in each case.
17. In such cases of contagious disease, is disinfection always done after the recovery or
death of a patient ?
18. How is this disinfection done ?
19. Who does the disinfecting, as a rule ?
20. In cases  of  contagious  disease,  are  dead bodies  always  buried  immediately after
death ?
21. When a death has been caused  by  a  contagious  disease, is a private funeral given ?
Is the body ever taken into church ?
22. Is there an inspection of milk in your municipality?    What is the number of dairies?
Give details of any examination of herds for tuberculosis.
23. Are any observations made regarding contagious disease in animals ?
24. Is there an inspection of the meat supplied ?
25. What amount  has  been  expended  in your municipality to date on sewerage and on
drainage ?
26. Is your Board having a regular inspection of houses and premises made to ascertain
their sanitary condition ?    How frequently ?
27. When complaints are made to your Board about bad sanitary condition existing in
the locality, what action is taken ?
28. If there is no Board of Health in your locality, state the reason why such Board has
not yet been appointed ?
29. Have you any remarks to make about the working of your Board of Health, or any
suggestions to make as to public sanitation ?
Art. 11.—Contagious Diseases.
1. In what season of the year have contagious diseases been most prevalent in your
locality ?
2. Which of, small-pox, diphtheria, scarlet or typhoid fever has been the most prevalent
disease ?
3. Give the number of cases of and number of deaths from each disease.
4. Is it likely that these contagious diseases have been brought by strangers or visitors ?
5. How often during the last year have these diseases been epidemic, and what diseases
were thus epidemic ?
6. Is tbere in your municipality any place where these diseases seem to be more prevalent?
7. If so, indicate where these places are situated, and  what are the contagious diseases
most prevalent in such places.
8. Please state the probable cause of the existence of contagious diseases in your locality.
9. Please state, if possible, the cause of the propagation of such contagious diseases in your
locality.
10. Have you remarked that these diseases were following a certain direction in your
district ?
11. What has been the duration of each outbreak that occurred during the last year ?
12. Please give the average number of days of sickness for each disease.
13. Is vaccination in force?
14. What proportion of the population has been vaccinated ?
15. Is it your experience that diseases formerly very frequent are  now rarely seen, and
others more frequently met now than formerly ?    What are these diseases ? 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 555
16. To what extent do you think the number of cases  of infectious  disease might have
been reduced by proper systematic precautions ?
17. Please state what you may have remarked about contagious diseases that is not asked
in these questions.
18. Have you any remarks or suggestions  to make in the  interest of  Public Health in
your locality ?
Compiled by	
Residence      -~
Blank for Confidential Remarks.
PAMPHLET ON DISINFECTION.
(Prepared by the Secretary.)
The methods of disinfecting recommended in this circular are, to a considerable extent,
based upon the work of the Committee on Disinfection of the American Public Health Association, and from pamphlets issued by the State Boards of Health of Maine and Ohio.
The two means of preventing or restricting the spread of infectious diseases, and which, if
faithfully carried out, would soon rid the world of these dreaded maladies, are :—
Quarantine, or isolation of the sick and nurses, and Disinfection.
To these means must be added, in the case of small-pox, vaccination, and in some of the
other communicable diseases inoculation and serum-therapy, etc.
As to the first of these means the manner of isolation of persons suffering from, or exposed
to, infectious diseases is provided for by the Regulations of the Provincial Board of Health
regarding these various diseases. In regard to the second means the object of this circular
is to designate the best disinfectants, and their most practicable and successful methods of
application. The Rules, re Disinfection, recommended by the Provincial Board of Health are
appended to this pamphlet, vide Schedules A to L.
The object of disinfection is to prevent the extension of infectious diseases by destroying
the specific infectious material which gives rise to them. This is accomplished by the use of
disinfectants.
There can be no partial disinfection of such material, either its infecting power is
destroyed or it is not. It has been proved for several kinds of infectious material that its
specific infecting power is due to the presence of living micro-organisms, known in a general
way as " disease germs," which find their way into the human system where they rapidly
multiply and in some manner produce the symptoms of disease. Practical sanitation is now
based upon the belief that the infecting agents in all kinds of infectious material are of this
nature. By disinfectants, we kill these germs before they can be taken into the body; by
sanitary cleanliness, we remove from our surroundings the food upon which they live, destroying
the germs by starvation.
It is just as important that disinfection should be properly performed in a mild case as in
the most severe.
A person affected with an infectious disease will, it is supposed, have these germs present
in some of his excretions; for instance, in cholera and typhoid fever they are found chiefly in
the stools of the patient, while in diphtheria they are mostly confined to the excretions from the
throat and nose. Our first object in the prevention of infectious diseases is to destroy these
disease germs as soon after they are cast out of the body as possible. But from their extreme
minuteness—being invisible except with the microscope—we may expect them to be found
clinging to clothes, bedding, furniture, and, in fact, to everything contained in the room
occupied by the patient.     Hence, while great care must be taken to disinfect the excretions of 556 . Provincial Board of Health. 1895
a person sick with an infectious disease, we must also disinfect everything which has been near
such a person, and which may possibly have upon or in it these micro-organisms, which are
the cause of disease.
While it is true that it has not been positively proven that all infectious diseases are due
to germs, experience has demonstrated that those agents which are known to destroy these
micro organisms, where they have been demonstrated to be the cause of disease, are also
destructive of the infectious material by which such diseases are communicated, whatever it
may be.
Much harm has resulted from the careless use of the term disinfectant, and many agents
so-called are incapable of destroying the power of infectious material. Some of these are
merely deodorizers, destroying the bad odor which is usually connected with filth in which
disease germs may be found. Others merely arrest the action of these germs temporarily,
preventing their multiplication, but do not destroy them. These are not true disinfectants.
It is evident that these agents should never be used in the place of the true disinfectants or
germicides, and while bad odors should be corrected, if an infectious disease is to be combatted
germs and not odors are to be destroyed. Deodorants, and the other agents just mentioned
as having an inhibiting action on the growth of these germs or bacteria, can be used to
excellent advantage in preventing putrefactive decomposition in masses of filth which offer
breeding places for disease germs, but the removal of such filth and perfect cleanliness is much
safer and more desirable.
Before considering the practical uses of disinfectants, it should be stated that germ life
presents different degrees of resistance to their action. Some forms are easily destroyed, while
others are killed only by the most powerful agents. This difference in their behaviour is
mainly due to their different manner of propagating. Some forms multiply by simple division ;
these and their progeny are very easily destroyed. Others give rise to spores or seeds, which
irray afterwards develope into germs. These spores offer a much greater resistance to
destructive agents.
A number of disinfectants have been recommended. Some of these are fatal to all known
forms of germ life, including spores; others which destroy germs do not affect their spores.
As the diseases in which spores are always present have not been certainly determined, a safe
rule is to use, where possible, such disinfectants as are known to have the power of destroying
spores.
The same general plan of procedure for the prevention of infectious diseases is, with slight
modifications, applicable to all. It consists essentially in the isolation and destruction of the
poison or germ which produces the disease.
" In the sick room we have these disease germs at an advantage, for we know where to
find them,*as-well as how to kill them."
A sick-room, for a case of infectious disease, should coirtain as few objects as the welfare
of the patient and his attendants will allow, for everything the room contains must subsequently be submitted to a disinfecting proeess. Especially should such articles as upholstered
furniture, heavy curtains and hangings, and, where possible, carpets be removed from the sickroom. Such preparation of a sick-room must always take place before the patient has been
removed to it, or if the patient is to be treated in the room in which he was taken sick, the
unnecessary articles should be at once disinfected and removed. There are no disinfectants
which can be used for disinfecting the air of an occupied sick-room. The practice of hanging
up cloths saturated with carbolic acid, or of placing saucers of chloride of lime in the sick-room,
is not only annoying to the patient, but utterly useless. We may, however, purify and dilute
the infected atmosphere by admitting an abundance oi fresh air. This not only greatly lessens
the danger incurred by attendants, but is an important factor in the recovery of the patient,
as is shewn by the lessened mortality of such cases when treated in tents or in the open air.
In admitting fresh air, the patient should be protected from a direct draught. This is
especially important in scarlet fever cases ; such cases cannot be treated in tents if the weather
is changeable or cold. As much sunlight as possible should be admitted, for direct sunlight
has a powerful inimical influence, both inhibitory and germicidal, on the growth of many
bacteria.
The room in which the patient is isolated should be in the upper story of the house whenever possible, and adjoining halls and rooms should be protected by hanging sheets, kept
constantly saturated with a disinfectant solution, over the doorways opening from the sickroom.    A sheet should be hung on each side of the door. 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 557
Our first care in disinfection must be given to the patient's discharges. While, as has
been pointed out, the poison of cholera and typhoid fever is found chiefly in the excretions
from the bowels, it is a wise precaution to disinfect all discharges from a person sick with an
infectious disease.
No pet animal should be allowed in the sick-room. Toys and books used by the patient
should be destroyed by fire.
The use of disinfectants may be required outside of the sick-room. Infectious material may
carelessly be thrown into privy vaults, cess-pools, etc. This should never be done, as it is almost
impossible to thoroughly disinfect such places, and there is great danger of adjoining wells and
springs becoming infected. When known, however, that infected discharges have been thrown
into a privy vault or cess-pool, corrosive sublimate solution 1:500 should be used in equal
quantity with the estimated amount of faecal matter contained in the vault. All exposed
portions of the vault, and the wood-work above it, should be thoroughly washed down with
the same disinfectant solution.
Copperas, or sulphate of iron, an excellent and cheap agent for arresting putrefaction, may
be used in'privy vaults, cess-pools, drains, sinks, etc., when these become foul, but it should
not be used when these places are known to be infected with the germs of infectious disease.
Copperas was formerly recommended, and is still used by some, for disinfecting (?) the excreta,
etc., in infectious diseases. This should not be done. Copperas, in concentrated solution, does
not destroy the vitality of disease-germs, and has no effect whatever upon their spores.
Carbolic Acid has been quite extensively used as a disinfectant. Its action is very
uncertain and its use is not recommended.
Sulphate of Copper.—This salt, in the proportion of six ounces to the gallon of water, is
an efficient disinfectant, and is also a deodorant of great value.     It does not destroy spores.
Chloride of Zinc, in solution, six ounces to the gallon, is also an efficient disinfectant,
readily destroying all germs, but not affecting their spores.
Lime Water, when freshly prepared and of proper strength, is an excellent disinfectant
for the infectious discharges of typhoid fever.
Take quick-lime in lumps, pour water over it, and cover closely until a fine powder or
creamy liquid is produced. One part of this to three of water will give the solution the
proper strength. This rapidly loses strength, and must be freshly prepared. It may be
kept some time by bottling and pouring a little oil over the surface to exclude air. A quart
of this solution should be used each time for disinfecting the stools of a typhoid fever patient.
While either of these agents, carbolic acid, sulphate of copper, chloride of zinc, lime
water, but not copperas, may safely be used in diseases in which spores are absent, it is preferable, for reasons previously stated, to use the spore-destroying disinfectants.
There are a large number of commercial disinfectants upon the markets. Some few of
these are genuine disinfectants, but most of them are not true germicides ; many are simply
deodorants. Many of these preparations make the most grossly fraudulent claims. Some
of them advertise to kill the germs of infectious diseases within the body, by taking the disinfectant internally, or by its being carried on the person. Others claim to be able to disinfect
an occupied room by certain vapours which destroy germs, but do not affect the human body.
Such claims are calculated to do great mischief, and it is always best to depend upon disinfecting agents whose properties are well known. An understanding of the principles of disinfection, as here laid down, will enable anyone to use disinfectants intelligently.
Disinfection plays an important role in the prophylaxis or prevention of disease. We
know, for some of the infectious diseases at least, the media by which they are usually conveyed.
Cholera and typhoid fever, for instance, are contracted in the majority of instances through
the injection of infected food or drink, especially the latter. Hence, when these diseases are
present, it is a safe plan to boil the water used for drinking purposes. Milk, also, should be
treated in this way, as it is not only frequently diluted with water, which may be infected,
but may itself be the carrier of disease germs. It is well known that scarlet fever, diphtheria,
tuberculosis and typhoid fever have been communicated by infected milk.
It is now known that tubercular disease of the lungs is an infectious disease, and may be
contracted by the inhalation of spores present in the expectoration. For this reason the
matter expectorated by consumptives should always be received in vessels containing a
solution of corrosive sublimate (or chlorinated lime), or in soft paper or in cloths, which must
be burned before the sputum has time to dry.
Filth in itself is considered by some to be a cause of diphtheria. However this may be,
filth  of all kinds offers a favourable place for the preservation of disease germs, while by 558 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
cleanliness and the proper use of the agents that prevent putrefactive changes, we may render
such material incapable of supporting germ life.
While there is much to be learned in regard to the origin of infectious diseases, a thorough application of the measures here given would undoubtedly lessen their prevalence to a
very great extent.
The disinfectants recommended by this Board, to the exclusion of all others for general
use, are six in number, and are all spore-destroying agents with the exception of the last,
sulphurous acid.
There are three physical and three chemical. Three allies of the first order in combatting
disease germs have been already referred to. They are Cleanliness, Ventilation, and Sunlight,
and they are necessary complements to the other measures.
The physical are (1) Fire, (2) Boiling Water, (3) Steam.
These destroy germs by high temperature.
The chemical are (1) Bi-chloride of Mercury, (2) Chlorine, (3) Sulphurous Acid.
The last two of these are powerful oxidizing agents.
The Physical Disinfectants.
Fire.
The complete destruction by burning is a safe and speedy method for disposing of every
infected thing of little value. The expectorations and all excretions may be received upon old
rags or in saw-dust, and should be burned in a hot fire at once. When not too valuable
clothing, bedding, &c, soiled by discharges should be treated in the same way.
Boiling Water.
Boiling in water for an hour is an efficient means of disinfecting, destroying all known
forms of disease germs and their spores. Only the spores of certain harmless organisms will
stand more prolonged boiling. This means can be used for all articles that can be wetted
without injury. Soiled bedding, clothing, towels, handkerchiefs, &c, should be at once
disinfected in this way. Where this is to be done outside the sick room they must be carried
from the room wrapped in a sheet saturated in a disinfectant solution and placed in boiling
water without unwrapping. Other articles which can be boiled, and which have not been in
contact with the patieirt, may be left until the end of the illness, and then treated in this way.
Steam.
As regards the efficiency of disinfecting by steam in a suitable apparatus there is no
question. All forms of disease germs and their spores are quickly destroyed. An half hour's
exposure is the longest required. Every Local Board of Health should, to be efficiently
equipped, possess a modern steam disinfecting apparatus, in which all infected articles which
are too valuable to be destroyed by fire should be disinfected under official surpervision. This
process, while being a most effective one, is for most articles to be disinfected the least
destructive.
N. B.—The Provincial Board of Health is prepared to give information to Local Boards regarding the
best steam disinfecting plants.
Dry heat is not recommended as a means of disinfecting.
The Chemical Disinfectants.
Bi-chloride of Mercury.
This is also known by the name of corrosive sublimate.
This is an universal destroyer of disease germs and germ spores, and is the most efficient!
chemical disinfectant known. The only drawbacks to the general use of corrosive sublimate
are its well known poisonous nature and its cogulating action on albuminous matter. When
added to albuminous masses, as in the case of tuberculous sputum to be disinfected, the outside
cogulated coating sometimes protects the inner portions from the action of the disinfectant.
On account of this cogulating action the disinfectant must be added to considerable excess in
order to make allowance for the waste necessary for the action on the albumin itself, so that
sufficient of the active disinfectant remains to kill the bacteria. Thus, for instance, in the case
of typhoid and cholera stools, <fec., a considerable excess of the disinfectant must be added. In
the case of masses of faeces the disinfectant may not penetrate.    Therefore they should be well 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 559
stirred and broken up in the solution. Owing to its poisonous quality it should only be used
under the supervision of a physician, health officer, or other responsible and intelligent person.
Three standard solutions of this disinfectant may be prepared. As the solution of corrosive
sublimate alone is colourless and without odor and might be mistaken for water, some colouring
agent should be used which will indicate its poisonous properties. The solution should be
kept in a glass vessel labelled POISON ! Solutions must not be kept in metal receptacles ;
and it should be borne in mind that they injurously affect lead pipes when poured through
them in large quantities.
Standard Solution "A" 1:500.
Corrosive sublimate 2 drachms.
Water 1 gallon.
Mix and dissolve and label POISON.
Standard  Solution "B" 1:1000.
Corrosive sublimate 1 drachm.
Water 1 gallon.
Mix and dissolve and label POISON.
Standard Solution "C" 1:2000.
Corrosive sublimate | drachm.
Water 1 gallon.
Mix and dissolve and label POISON.
These solutions may be coloured by adding either permanganate of potassium, 2 ounces to
the gallon (makes a purple solution). Sulphate of copper, J pound to the gallon makes a blue
solution, or some analine dye in sufficient quantity to colour may be added. As these solutions,
when coloured, stain the hands, fabrics, etc., they may be prepared without the colouring
matter when this is objectionable. Corrosive sublime is now made into tablets, which can be
obtained from all chemists, each tablet containing 7.7 grains, i.e., the requisite amount of the
disinfectant to make a 1:1000 solution when added to a pint of water. By increasing or
diminishing the amount of water the strength of the solution may be altered at pleasure. This
is the safest and most convenient means of keeping corrosive sublimate. A fresh solution of
the quantity and strength wanted, can be made when required.
Standard Solution   "A"   1:500.
This solution may be safely recommended for the disinfection of liquid fajcal discharges,
etc., from the infected patient, provided the time of exposure is not less than two hours and
the quantity of material to be disinfected is not in excess of the solution used. If permanganate of potassium is added it increases the deodorizing qualities of this solution. It should
be prepared with soft water. Large quantities of this solution are used when privy-pits are to
be disinfected as already mentioned. Danger of poisoning wells by the corrosive sublimate need
not be feared. The earth fixes or removes all the corrosive sublimate before the solution has
penetrated any distance. A solution of this strength is also used for saturating a sheet in
which is wrapped the body of a person who has died of an infectious disease.
Standard Solution "B" 1:1000.
This solution may be used for disinfecting clothing, bedding, towels, etc., when these
cannot be immediately boiled. Soiled articles should be at once immersed in this solution and
allowed to remain at least one hour before sending to the wash. The solution may also be
freely used for disinfecting glasses, dishes, etc., used by the patient and as a disinfectant wash
for the surfaces of walls, floors, furniture, etc., in the sick room.
Standard Solution "C" 1:2000.
This solution is used for washing hands and head of the nurse and others whose duty
requires their presence in the sick room. It is also used in disinfecting the patient after
recovery and for the disinfection of persons exposed to infection. When used as a bath the
person should not be allowed to stay in it longer than five minutes. Care must be taken that
none of the solution gains access to the eyes. 560 Provincial Board of Health. 1896
Chlorine Gas.
Chlorine gas may be used for fumigating infected rooms after they are vacated. Its -use
is not recommended in this way, however, sulphurous acid gas being more suitable. If used
the room must be arranged in the same way and the same amount of moisture must be present
as when fumigation by sulphur is practiced. Chlorine gas is prepared in the following way :—
For each 1000 cubic feet of air space place a quarter of a pound of the best chlorinated lime
in a dish, stir it up with a quarter of a pint of water and pour into the mixture a pint of
hydrochloric acid. The vapor is rapidly evolved and the person who has to mix the materials
must make a rapid exit. The chlorine will bleach any. coloured stuffs left in the room.
Chlorine probably acts upon the microbes as it does in bleaching, by combining with the
hydrogen of the water and setting free the oxygen which at the moment of liberation acts very
powerfully on oxidizible matter. For general use as disinfectants, compounds of chlorine
from which the gas can be easily evolved are commonly used. The chief of these are the
compounds with lime and with soda.
Chlorinated Lime. .    .
This is popularly known as "bleaching powder" or " chloride of lime." The product is
obtained by exposing slacked lime to the action of chlorine gas as long as the latter is absorbed.
It should contain 25 to 30 per cent, available chlorine which is liberated under proper methods
of use. It is not overrated as a disinfectant if only its quality is known and its mode of use
is judicious. It is moreover very cheap and it is non-poisonous. Germs of all kinds, including
spores, are quickly destroyed by it. But, to be effective, it must be brought into direct-contact
with the substance to be disinfected. Chlorinated lime should be kept in air tight cases and for
most purposes should be used in solution made as it is wanted, as follows :—
Standard Solution "D" (1 per cent. Chlorine).
Chlorinated lime    6 ounces.
Water     ,    1  gallon.
Mix.
Chlorinated lime is an excellent deodorant as well as a disinfectant and is especially
applicable where bad odors are to be counteracted. A quart or more of this solution should
be placed in the vessel used to receive the discharges in cholera, typhoid, etc. Mix the
discharge thoroughly with the disinfectant and allow to remain in the vessel for two hours.
The same directions apply for the disinfection of vomited matter and infected sputum, etc.
This disinfectant penetrates to the interior of masses much more easily than does the solution
of corrosive sublimate. It is valuable in privy pits, water closets and sinks, when used in
large quantities, i. e., in quantities as great as the amount of material to be disinfected. It
does not destroy lead pipes.
Standard Solution "E."
Solution "D"    1 quart.
Water    1 gallon.
This may be used for disinfecting clothing, bedding, dishes, etc. When used for this purpose,
clothing to be disinfected should be immersed in the solution and allowed to remain several
hours. It should then be wrung out and sent to the laundry. As the chlorinated lime weakens
fabrics and its bleaching action prohibits its use on all coloured stuffs except certain mineral
colours, bi-chloride solution 1:1000 is preferable for these materials. The chlorinated lime
of this strength may also be used for washing the hands of the attendant and the body of
the patient. A still weaker solution, one-half this strength, must be used while the skin is
affected, as in small-pox, etc. A bath of bi-chloride solution, 1:2000, should be given as well,
before dismissal from quarantine.
Chlorinated Soda.
The solution of this substance generally employed is known as " Labarraque's Solution."
It should contain 2\ per cent, available chlorine. As the preparations of this solution on the
market do not keep well, their quality should be tested before being used. In solutions of the
same strength, (i. e., containing the same amount of chlorine) as those of chlorinated lime, it is
of equal efficiency as a disinfectant. As a disinfectant and deodorizer it is less disagreeable
than the chlorinated lime solution for various purposes in the sick room, The following
solution may be used for this purpose :— 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 561
Standard Solution "F" (1 per cent. Crlorine).
Labarraque's Solution  2 parts.
Water 3 parts.
As a solution of 2 parts to 15 of water it is specially recommended as a disinfectant wash
for the person.
As a disinfectant for the mouth, nose, and throat, of diphtheria patients, and for
small-pox patients while the skin is affected, solution of 1 part of Labarraque's Solution to
15 of water may be used.
Sulphurous Acid.
This is produced by burning sulphur. The first product of combustion is sulphur
di-oxide. In the presence of moisture it forms sulphurous acid which is the active oxidizing
agent. This disinfectant is capable of destroying all disease germs but does not affect spores.
Owing to the fact of it not killing spores and the careless manner in which it is applied, this
agent has fallen into disfavour. However when properly used, it is a valuable disinfectant in
all those diseases with which Local Boards of Health have to deal, namely, small-pox, scarlet
fever, diphtheria, etc., and cholera. To be efficient it must be used in the manner here prescribed, but dependence must not be placed upon it to the exclusion of the other measures
just described. Accordingly before fumigation the woodwork, furniture, walls, ceilings, etc.,
should be washed with a solution of corrosive sublimate or chlorinated lime. All bedding and
other articles that carr be subjected to liquid disinfection should be immersed in a plentiful
supply of a solution of one of these disinfectants or else boiled. Bedding and all clothing
which can be treated only with gaseous disinfection, must be spread out or hung out so as to
expose all parts as thoroughly as possible, for the sulphurous acid gas has only feeble power of
penetrating masses of fabrics.
While the walls, furniture, etc., are still wet, close every outlet by which the gas might
escape, chimney, cracks around windows and doors, etc., are to be closed with paper or cotton.
Then fumigate the room by burning three pounds of sulphur to every 1,000 cubic feet of air
space. The sulphur, broken in small fragments and placed in a shallow pan set on a couple of
bricks in a tub partly filled with boiling water to furnish moisture and prevent fire, should be
moistened with alcohol and set on fire. A pint of water should be evaporated for every three
pounds of sulphur burned.
After twenty-four hours the room may be opened and aired and should be again thoroughly
cleaned with soap and hot water. Carpets, clothing, etc., should be hung out of doors and
thoroughly aired, beaten and shaken. Most furniture is not permanently injured but needs
dry wiping and then washing off afterwards.    Some coloured stuffs are slightly bleached.
Schedule A.
Precautions to be taken by, and disinfection of, Physicians, Clergymen, Undertakers and others,
whose duties necessitate their occasional, prresence in the sick room.
(a.) They shall wear for outer covering a long mackintosh, linen ulster or sheet, reaching
to the ankles.    Their feet should be encased in rubber overalls or other effective boot-covering.
(b.) Immediately on learing the sick room they shall deposit their outer coat and boot-
covering in a tub containing 1:1000 solution of bi-chloride of mercury (1 drachm to the gallon,
Solution "B ") and shall then wash hands and head in a 1:2000 solution of the same.
(c.) They shall then pass some time in the open air (one or more hours if possible) before
putting themselves in contact with healthy persons.
Schedule B.
Disinfection of Patients.
(ffl.) Before dismissal frorn quarantine wash the entire body thoroughly with soap and hot
water, and also give a final bath in a 1:2000 solution (warm) of bi-chloride of mercury, the
patierrt not being allowed to stay in the bath longer than five minutes.
(b.) The patient must go from the bath room into an uninfected dressing room, and there
clothe himself in fresh uninfected clothing,    He is then dismissed from quarantine, 562 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
Schedule C.
Disinfection of Suspects.
(as.) On admission to station give a bath of soap and water, and afterwards one of
bi-chloride of mercury 1:2000, and then clothe in fresh uninfected clothing.
(b.) Disinfect immediately all clothing and effects as described in Schedule G, before
allowing suspects into their quarters.
(c.) Follow the same course of procedure on dismissal from quarters.
Schedule D.
Disinfection of nurses, drivers of ambulances and other attendants.
(a.) They shall observe the utmost cleanliness, frequently disinfecting their hands and
face, and shall wear only linen or other clothing, which can be readily disinfected by immersing in bi-chloride solution, 1:1000.
(b.) Before dismissal from quarantine they shall go through the same form of disinfection
as that prescribed for suspects.
Schedule E.
Disinfection of the Dead.
(a.) Envelope the body in a sheet thoroughly saturated with a bi-chloride solution 1:500
(Solution "A").
Schedule F.
Procedure in disinfecting sick room, hospital wards and other infected apartments and contents
while the room is occupied.
(a.) Remove at once all unnecessary articles of furniture, such as carpets, curtains,
pictures, etc., for the purpose of having such of them as can be disinfected by that means disinfected in a steam disinfecting apparatus, if such is available. If no such apparatus is available remove the articles to a small unoccupied room ; wash such of them as can be wetted
without injury with a 1:1000 bi-chloride solution, and then fumigate with sulphurous acid gas,
as described in Rule (h), Schedule G.
(b.) Destroy by fire all rags, handkerchiefs, etc., of little value ; also burn the remains of
food left by the patient.
(c.) Boil in water for half an hour the dishes and utensils used by the patient; such of
them as are porcelain may be disinfected by immersion in 1:1000 solution bi-chloride of
mercury (one drachm to the gallon, Solution " B ").
(d.) Place all discharges from the patient in a vessel containing an equal quantity of a
1:500 solution bi-chloride of mercury (two drachms to the gallon, Solution "A").
(e.) Immerse for two hours all soiled clothing, bedding, etc., in a 1:1000 solution
bi-chloride of mercury; afterwards boil in water for an hour, then wash in the usual way
with soap and water. If a steam disinfecting apparatus has been provided, remove at once
such soiled clothing, bedding, etc., in order that they may be disinfected by that means in
preference to any other.
(/.) Remove dust from shelves, window-sills and other surfaces by wiping with a cloth
dampened with a 1:500 solution of bi-chloride; wipe all articles of wood, earthenware, leather,
etc., with a cloth dampened in the same solution; scatter sawdust or tea leaves, dampened in
bi-chloride solution 1:500, over the floor, sweep carefully and burn the sweepings.
Schedule G.
Procedure in disinfecting sick room, hospital wards and other infected apartments and contents
after vacation of the room.
(a..) When a suitable steam disinfecting apparatus has been provided, remove at once
such articles as can be disinfected by such means, for the purpose of so disinfecting them.
(b.) If no such steam disinfecting apparatus has been provided, burn the mattress used
by the patient; also destroy by fire all rags, handkerchiefs, etc., of little vulue, and burn the
remains of food.
(o.) Boil in water for half an hour the dishes and utensils used by the patient. Such of
them as are porcelain may be disinfected by immersion in the 1:1000 solution of bi-chloride
(Solution " B "). 59 Vict. Provincial Board of Health. 563
(d.) Allow all discharges from the patient to remain for two hours in a vessel containing
an equal quantity of the 1:500 solution of bi-chloride (Solution "A").
(e.) Immerse for two hours all soiled clothing, bedding, etc. (where, steam disinfection
cannot be practiced) in the 1:1000 solution of bi-chloride. Afterwards boil in water for an
an hour and then wash with soap and water in the usual way.
(f) Remove dust from shelves, window-sills and other surfaces by wiping with a cloth
dampened with the 1:500 solution of bi-chloride. Wash thoroughly articles of wood, furniture, leather, earthenware, etc., with a 1:1000 solution of bi-chloride. Scatter saw-dust or
tea leaves dampened in 1:500 solution of bi-chloride over the floor; sweep carefully and burn
the sweepings.
(g.) If the ceilings and walls are hard finished (plastered) wash them thoroughly with a
1:1000 solution of bi-chloride. If the walls are papered remove all dust and dirt by carefully
rubbing with thick slices of bread just 24 hours old. In every case scrub all the woodwork of
the room and the floors with soap and hot water (disinfect the water before throwing out);
then wash again thoroughly with the 1:1000 solution of bi-chloride (Solution "B ").
(h.) Before the walls, furniture, etc., are dry, close all outlets and fumigate the room by
sulphurous acid gas for 24 hours by burning three pounds of sulphur to every 1000 cubic feet
of air space.
(i.) F)r at least two days following the fumigation thoroughly ventilate the room by
leaving tt 3 windows open.
Schedule H.
Disinfection of ships and rail-cars.
(a.) When necessary disinfect ships and rail-cars in the same manner as that prescribed for
the sick room after vacation by the patient (Schedule G).
If.) When procedure described in Rules (a)-(g), Schedule G, has been carried out, i. e.,
decks and all accessible surfaces disinfected with bi-chloride solution, in the case of steamships,
instead of sulphur fumigation as prescribed in Rule (li), Schedule G, steam under pressure
from the boiler may be turned into the hold, state-rooms, etc.
(c.) To disinfect the bilge-water of ships, a liberal supply of a concentrated solution (4
ounces of bi-chloride of mercury to the gallon) should be thrown into the bilge. At the end
of 24 hours the bilge should be pumped out, and replaced by fresh sea water.
Note.—The disinfection of merchandise and mails will be required only under exceptioiral
circumstances ; free aeration will usually suffice. If disinfection is necessary, fumigation by
sulphur will be the only practicable method of accomplishing it, or, in the case of mails,
exposure in a suitable apparatus to dry heat for two hours.
Schedule I.
Disinfection of vehicles and boats used for transporting infected patients.
(ffl.) Immerse all moveable articles in solution of bi-chloride 1:1000 for two hours.
If.) Wash thoroughly all surfaces with solution of bi-chloride 1:1000.
(c.) When possible put the vehicle in a closed place and fumigate by burning sulphur, as
described in Schedule G. Where this course is not practicable, fumigate the inside of the
ambulance or boat.
Schedule J.
Disinfection of privy or cess-pool.
(It is almost impossible to do so if full.    Empty it),
(ffl.) Add to the estimated amount of fajcal matter an equal amount of :
(1.) Bi-chloride of mercury solution, 1 drachm to the gallon of water (Sol. " A "); or
(2.)  Chlorinated lime solution, 6 ounces to the gallon of water (Sol. " D ").
(6.) Wash thoroughly all exposed portions of the vault and the woodwork  above it with
one of the above solutions.
Schedule K.
Disinfection of a stable, enclosure, excrements, blood, and other contaminated liquids.
Stable.
(ffl.) Wash the stable walls, ceilings and floors with a solution of bi-chloride of mercury,
two drachms to one gallon of water (Sol. " A ")
(b.) Then close all outlets and fumigate with sulphur, as described in schedule G. 564 Provincial Board of Health. 1895
Enclosure,
(c.) Turn over  the  earth in the yard with a spade, so that the top soil shall be buried at
least   a foot beneath the surface.
(d.) Whitewash with lime the walls of the enclosure.
Litter, excrements, blood, and other liquids from the sick animal, offal, etc.
(e.) Destroy with fire, or
(/.) Bury at least two feet under ground.
Schedule L.
Disinfection of rags.
(ffl.) Rags which have been used for wiping away infectious discharges should be at once
burned.
(b.) Rags collected  for paper-makers  during  the  prevalence of  an epidemic should  be
disinfected before they are compressed into bales by :—
(1.)  Exposure to steam in a suitable apparatus; or
(2.) Immersion in boiling water for an hour,
(c.) Rags, as imported in bales, should be spread out and disinfected as above.
APPENDIX   A.
Extract from Report of Commissioner for the Revision op the Statutes,
" To each of these Acts a comprehensive note is appended, and the changes from existing
law are in all cases indicated by different type, so that where the work of the Commissioner is
adopted by the Legislature there will be no change from the spirit of existing law, except
where the change is prominently indicated by different type.
It will be for the Legislature to consider the advisability of giving some of the Statutes
submitted in this revision the force of law at once, particularly the * * * * " Coroners'
Act," * * * * the " Births, Deaths, and Marriages Registration Act," and the " Health
Act," which last two Statutes have been revised so as to incorporate the recommendations of
the Provincial Board of Health."
Note.—The revised " Births, Deaths, and Marriages Registration Act" will be found on
page App. 13 of the Report of the Commissioner for the Revision of the Statutes.
Since the revised "Births, Deaths, and Marriages Registration Act" went to press, a
further recommendation has been made by the Provincial Board of Health whereby the
Secretary of the Board, in accordance with a suggestion of the Hon. Attorney-General, is to
be appointed Registrar-General of Vital Statistics.
The Committee on Legislation hopes that this Act will be made law as soon as possible.
The revised " Coroners' Act" is to be found on page c243 of the same Report.
The revised " Health Act," to be published separately as an appendix to the Report of
the Commissioner for the Revision of the Statutes, will, the Committee on Legislation hopes,
be introduced by the Hon. Attorney-General, and made law by the Legislative Assembly as
soon as possible, or that at least the more important amendments, as suggested by the Board,
will be so made law.
APPENDIX   B.
Note.—The regulations re Small-pox, re Cholera, and re Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria,
prepared by the Board, as authorized by section 12, "Health Act, 1893," when published in
accordance with section 15, will be laid before the Legislative Assembly, as required by section
17 of the Act. The regulations, not having as yet been approved by the Lieutenant-Governor
in Council, can not be so printed at the present time.
As in these regulations an important portion of the work of the Board is embodied, it is
a matter of regret that they cannot now be presented. The have been carefully prepared with
the assistance of Mr. Smith, Deputy Attorney-General, and it is believed will prove very
efficient regulations.
victoria, b. c :
Printed bv Richard Wolfenden, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty.
1896.

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