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irooittce of jkittsh Columbia.
Printed by Richard Wolffindkn, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty.
1896. 59 Vict.
Report: of the Minister of Mines.
To His Honour Edgar Dewdney,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia:
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Mining Industries
of the Province for the year 1895 is
respectfully submitted.    I am happy to state that Mr.
Carlyle, late Lecturer
on Minin
g and Metallurgy at McGill University,
a gentleman
of large experience in
mining, has been appointed a Provincial
and his services will
prove of
great service to the mining industry.
of Mines' Office,
Minister of Mines.
10th March, 1896.
Name of Bar, Gulch, Creek, or River.
1=1 a
- .
oi O
ft be
o o
-, 'on
'a   .
ri be
Average   number
of men employed
during- season.
Rate of Wages.
Nature of Claims.
How Worked.
Description of
Value of
per ounce.
value of
yield for
the year.
of the
or Japanese.
or Japanese.
Barkerville Division :
$3 50
m go
$16 00
16 00
17 00
17 25
17 25
17 25
16 00
15 50 to
16 50
16 50 to
17 50
$ 6,500
Not counting the men employed on the ditch
Cariboo Co.'s work.
Three companies prospecting leased ground.
Yield of silver, $255,200.
sStork Company.   Number of interests not kr
*Ophir Company.         n                  n                ,,
Platinum, approximate, $3,800.
*And Indians.
Hardscrabble, Sugar Creek, and vicinity	
Mosquito Creek, Red Gulch, and Whipsaw Creek....
Shepherd's, Pine and Summit Creeks and yicinity ...
Stevens Creek, Beggs Gulch and vicinity 	
Lightning Creek Division :
Chisholm, Timon, and Poor Man's Creeks   	
3 00
2 00
Slough Creek and Devil's Canyon	
Quesnellemouth Division:
16 00
15 00
16 00
Hixon and Ferry Creeks	
Keithley Creek Division :
16 50
17 40
16 50
17 40
8 00
4 00
2 50
" 4
17 00
16 50
3 00
1 75
Quesnelle River, from Forks to Beaver Lake Creek ...
17 00
15 50
16 00
4 00
5 00
2 50
3 50
Laketon Division:
Liard River Division:
McDame Creek Division:
6 00
4 00
17 50
3 50
2 00
Kootenay, West.
Revelstoke Division:
3 50
1 00
18 60
3 00
3 00
3 50
2 25
2 00
2 10
2 00
1 50
1 60
McCulloch Creek 	
Trout Lake Division :
15 50
15 to 16.50
16 00
13 50
17 00
18 00
15 75
13 50
17 75
17 60
Fraser River, bars and benches of J
Osoyoos Division:
1 25
1 50
Similkameen Division:
Yale Division:
15 to 16
15 to 16
no £
inth en
tic an
d complete returns have been sent in, no statistics for these metals could be given.       No gold returns from Trail Creek. 59 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Showing the actually known and estimated yield of gold and silver; the number of miners
employed; and their average earnings per man, per year, from 1858 to 1895.
(6 months)
Amount of gold
actually known
to have been exported by Banks.
$    390,265
Add one-third more
estimate of gold
carried away in
private hands.
$ 130,088
.th 212,534
(a.)   636,545
yield Silver.
Gold and Silver.
(i>.)    636,545
Number of
per man.
$   173
* This is exclusive of over 650 white men who, during the season of 1887, were working on or prospecting for mineral claims.
t This is exclusive of over 300 whites employed working on or prospecting for mineral claims.
t Value of gold, silver, copper and lead ore shipped from Nelson during year, $784,965, not included.
II (a.) This return of gold, or $636,545, is of the gold derived from the placers except $135,000 from the quartz mines at Fairview
and Camp McKinney.
(b.) Not including the value of gold, silver and lead in the ore from Kootenay, estimated at $2,175,000. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 647
Alberni, V. I., 7th December, 1895.
The Honourable the Minister of Mines,
Sir,—I have the honour to  submit  for your information  the  Mining  Report  for the
Alberni District for the year 1895.
I have, etc.,
Thos. Fletcher,
Gold Commissioner.
McLaughlin Range,  China Creeek and Covnchan-Alberni Road.
One hundred and forty-one mineral claims recorded. Extensive development work is
going on in the Mineral Creek Group, exposing several veins of free gold, the most noted being
the Alberni, Missing Link, Mountain Rose, Champion, Ace of Spades, and Last Dollar;
average assay, about $30 per ton.
Franklin and Granite  Creeks.
Thirty-eight mineral claims recorded. The Star of the West Group of Mines is the most
noted, the work done exposing several veins of blue quartz, averaging $25 per ton, mill test.
Coleman and Chesmicknet Creeks (Alberni Canal).
Twenty-four mineral claims recorded. Work exposes masses of crushed quartz, mixed
with cements ; low grades; average mill test, $8 per ton ;  on deep water.
Copper Island and Sarita River, Barclay Sound.
Fourteen mineral claims recorded. Work done exposes several rich veins with a good
percentage of copper.    Extensive development now going on ; also on deep water.
Sechart Channel, Barclay Sound.
Eleven mineral claims recorded. Large bodies of iron have been discovered ; also quartz
carrying gold in paying quantities; on deep water.
In other parts of the District there are 32 mineral claims recorded, on Sproat Lake and
Cous Creek, on the opposites ide of the Alberni Ga,mA from China Creek, showing that the
gojd range extends in that direction. 648 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Two placer claims recorded on China Creek ; 4 hydraulic leases issued. The rents of 18
leases have been paid at dates when due.     Work has been done on the following leases :—
Lease No.    1, Alberni Syndicate $   100 00
5, Canaract Hydraulic Co    7,000 00
7, Lulu Hydraulic Mining Co       500 00
9, W. B. Ganard       500 00
10, F. T. Child      700 00
11, F. McQuillan    3,250 00
16, Nanaimo-Alberni Gold Mining Co ....    1,500 00
17, „ m     1,500 00
A good waggon road has been built to the China Creek Mines from the Townsite of
Alberni, and a first-class trail has also been made from the Alberni Canal to the Granite
Creek Mines.
Claims recorded 262
Free miners' certificates 107 and 1 substitute.
Transfers    81
Certificates of work    35
Thos. Fletcher,
Gold Commissioner, Alberni, V. I.
Honourable Colonel Baker,
Provincial Secretary and Minister of Mines,
Sib,—In compliance with your letter of instructions dated June 27th, 1895, I have the
honour herewith to submit nry report upon the mining section comprised within the China
and Granite Creek Basins, Alberni District, Vancouver Island.
In taking a general survey of the country under consideration, before entering into
specific details, a glance at the map of Vancouver Island will show the rugged, mountainous
nature of its interior. The mountains of Vancouver Island are comprised within what has
been called the Vancouver Range, it being the most westerly of the four great ranges or
systems of mountains in British Columbia embraced within the Cordillera belt. Commencing
at the most easterly, we have, first, the Rocky Mountains, then the Gold Range, next the
Coast Range, and, finally, the Vancouver Range, running more or less parallel in a northwesterly and south-easterly direction.
The Vancouver and Gold Ranges have many features in common in their auriferous
schists and altered volcanic rocks. The Gold Range being composed of a number of minor
ranges, namely, Cariboo, Selkirk, Purcell, and Columbia Ranges, has thus far produced most
of the mineral wealth of the Province of British Columbia. The Vancouver Range is the
north-western boundary of the Continent of North America, as there is only a narrow submarine plateau extending beyond it, then a quick descent into the azure depths of the great
Comparatively little is yet known regarding the geology of the interior of Vancouver
Island, partly owing to its rugged nature and thick undergrowth, also to the limited amount
of geological work thus far undertaken. The complications of structure presented can only be
satisfactorily worked out by a comprehensive survey of the whole Island, and, therefore,
properly comes under the purview of the Geological Survey of Canada ; and I would respectfully draw your attention to the needs of the Province in that respect. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 649
The Vancouver Range consists for the most part of an enormous series of eruptive rocks,
interbedded with limestone, argillite, quartzite, etc. This great mass .of volcanic material
and interbedded sedimentary rocks has been grouped together and provisionally called the
Vancouver Series by Dr. Selwyn. The series amounts to many thousands of feet in thickness,
and will most likely be found to cover not only triassic and carboniferous rocks, but even
lower in the geological scale. The limestone portion alone attains a thickness of several
thousand feet, and Dr. Dawson has suggested limiting the series to the triassic rocks, when
they shall have been distinctly separated. The whole region has suffered great disturbance,
and it might be termed a region of turmoil and chaos. Volcanic outflows on an enormous
scale have occurred at repeated intervals, long periods intervening, during which the interbedded sedimentary rocks accumulated. The amount of volcanic breccia and tuff is also a
remarkable feature of the period, a large exposure of which may be seen along the Alberni
Road at Cameron Lake. All this great series has undergone extensive metamorphism. The
limestones have become highly crystalline and show few fossils. The argillites have become
semi-crystalline and more or less chloritic schists. The eruptives, although originally basaltic
and trachytic lava flows, have undergone such alterations that we have now diabase, diorite,
felsite, etc. A large proportion might be called greenstone, their greenish appearance being due
to alteration products such as chlorite, viridite, etc. Some of these extremely altered eruptives
might, from a lithological standpoint, be regarded as very low down in the geological scale.
The interior of Vancouver Island lying north of Cowichan Lake and extending through
to Alberni appears to be the remnant of a high, elevated plateau, the mountain peaks now
remaining having an elevation of about 4,000 feet, which is about the average height of most
of the principal mountains of the Island, the highest being Victoria Peak, with an elevation of
7,484 feet.
Lying unconformably on the Vancouver Series is quite a large area of cretaceous rocks,
forming a sort of fringe along the east coast of Vancouver Island, and embracing the coal
areas of Cowichan, Nanaimo, and Comox.
At the head of Alberni Canal there is a basin of sedimentary strata, consisting of sandstones, conglomerates, and shales, which have been referred to as the cretaceous, but from
observed lithological differences I am inclined to question whether they belong to the same
horizon as the gold-bearing area of the East Coast. A shaft was sunk on the shale near the
head of the canal about seventeen years ago, but no distinct coal seam was exposed, although
the shales were highly carbonaceous. 1 came across outliers of these sandstones and shales in
the China Creek Basin, to which I shall have occasion to refer later on. I have also seen
similar sandstone and conglomerate on the border of Cowichan Lake.
It is interesting to note in this connection that almost every creek and river on
Vancouver Island shows at least one or two colours to the pan. Leech River, in particular,
yielded considerable gold to the hardy miners of the early sixties, variously estimated frorn
one to two hundred thousand dollars.
China Creek has been worked for its alluvial gold as far back as 1862, principally by
Chinamen, and has yielded about $40,000 by the most primitive methods, the pan, shovel,
rocker, and sluice-box. Considerable gold has also been taken out of Gold River by the
Chinese, but nothing definite can be obtained regarding its yield. The black sand along the
north shore, especially at Cape Cormorant and Cape Scott, contains considerable fine gold,
similar to that found along the coast of Oregon and California.
All the streams which have their sources in the auriferous belt under consideration show
strong colours to the pan. I may mention the following :—Cameron, Nanaimo, Nitinat,
Cowichan, and Franklin Rivers; China, Shaw, and Granite Creeks. It must not be overlooked
that placer gold has been deposited by a natural process of concentration by an extensive
erosion of the surrounding country, and is not to be entirely depended upon as a finger index
to the extent of the gold yet remaining in the hills.
Starting from the Alberni Settlement, where a number of pioneers are busy clearing land
in that fertile valley, China Creek is reached by a good pack trail, which passes over a comparatively level valley, along which a good waggon road could be easily built. The trail strikes
China Creek about eight miles from the Alberni Settlement, opposite the Cataract Hydraulic
Claim, and then follows the bank of China Creek up to its source, the Golden Eagle Basin.
Along the trail several exposures of syenite can be seen. This syenite extends over a
large area, as shewn on my sketch map herewith, and forms, I think, the palaeozoic floor upon
which the Vancouver series was laid; wherever met with, it was found to underlie all the 650 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
other formations. It is a typical syenite, showing the hornblende in well defined crystals, but
considerably altered ; it contains very little mica and a small proportion of quartz, although
quartz occurs locally in sufficient abundance to make it a hornblendic granite. Syenite occurs
as bedrock along nearly the entire length of Granite Creek, from which it has derived its name
through the miners regarding it as granite.
Small outliers of the sandstone previously mentioned were exposed along the trail, which
no doubt originally covered the whole valley, but has since been denuded. There is a large
body of this sandstone overlaid with shale, commencing at Mineral Mound Number 12, and
extending up to near Mineral Mound Number 15, on China Creek. It is exposed along the
beds of Mosquito and McLaughlin Ceeeks, extending into the foot-hills, and also forms a rim
around Mount Patl Patlicant. There is a fine exposure of these strata at a high falls on
McLaughlin Creek, there being a perpendicular drop of 150 feet. Here they appear to lie horizontally, but in passing around Mount Patl Patlicant to the west, they form a spiral, and crop
out near the top of the mountain on the south side. A good exposure, showing this twist, is
on a bluff at the head of Child's Creek. The most remarkable exposure of this sandstone is at
its contact with the Vancouver eruptives, well exposed in the bed of China Creek above
Mineral Mound Number 15. Here the sandstone dips under eastward at an angle of sixty
degrees, which may be explained as a complete overthrow of the strata, or a reverse fault—
pre-supposing that the eruptives antedate the sandstone. There is about two feet of fluccan,
and the sandstone is very much indurated at the contact, the eruptives also being very much
altered. The deepest section of these sedimentary strata would amount to about 600 feet of
sandstone and 400 feet of shale.    No evidence of coal was anywhere seen.
The sandstone near Mineral Mound Number 12, graduates into coarse conglomerate containing large boulders of syenite near its contact therewith.
Mount Patl Patlicant has a capping of eruptive rock, probably phonolite, which rests
upon the shale above mentioned.
The gold belt on China Creek lies east of this sandstone, the formation being almost a
typical section of the Vancouver series, consisting of diabasic, dioritic, and feldspathic rocks,
more or less schistose, with interbedded limestone, argillite and quartzite. These eruptive
rocks have undergone remarkable alteration, especially in the neighborhood of Mineral Creek,
where they become greenish-grey schists, only showing their eruptive origin under the microscope. A glance at the map will show that a large number of claims have been taken up on
Mineral Creek, but no doubt quite a number of these claims have been recorded on the strength
of juxtaposition to those looking well.
The first four claims recorded on this creek were :—The Alberni, Chicago, Warspite, and
Victoria, the location of which can be best understood by referring to the map. These claims
are now under dispute, and have been staked and re-staked, so that in one spot, the southwest corner of the Alberni claim, there are no less than sixteen stakes, a photograph of which
I herewith enclose.
On the Alberni claim two veins of gold quartz have been exposed. The lower vein has
about two feet of a crystalline quartz containing free gold disseminated through the quartz in
fine particles, and in some places plainly visible to the naked eye. The gold is associated with
small grains of blende (black jack) in a somewhat peculiar manner, so that the presence of
blende is an index to the occurrence of gold. The gold shows signs of crystallization when
highly magnified. The vein dips about sixty-five degrees to the east, with a strike of north
fifteen degrees east, and conformable with the bedding or foliation of the country rock, and
therefore may be classed as a " segregated " vein. The upper exposure of gold-bearing quartz
is a narrow vein about a foot in width, cutting across the formation about north-east. The
gold occurs in the same manner as in the other vein.
The country rock of the Alberni claim, as already mentioned, is a greenish-grey schist,
being an igneous rock highly metamorphosed through hydro-thermal agencies. The same rock
formation occurs on the Chicago, Warspite and Victoria claims ; also on the claims lying north
and south of these claims.
There are two quartz veins exposed on the Chicago claim, one of them lying in a line
with the main Alberni ledge, and appears to be a continuation of it. It is the same width
and has the ^arne dip and strike.
The Missing Link and Champion claims, lying north of the Alberni, show several quartz
outcrops. Two veins, eighteen inches in width, were uncovered, showing free gold plainly
visible,    Very little work has been done, the veins having been only just discovered. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 651
On the Crown Point claim there is a lenticular body of quartz two feet in width, cutting
across the formation, exposed for about forty feet.
On the Mountain Rose there is a quartz vein about two feet in width, also running at
right angles to the formation, and exposed for about fifty feet, when a slip causing a fault was
encountered, beyond which the vein has not been traced. This vein carries considerable
chalcopyrite disseminated through the quartz. The country rock is an argillaceous schist or
slate, with the line of foliation running due north and south. This schist is well exposed on
Brown Creek, running across the Vancouver claim.
Beyond those I have mentioned, very little work has been done on the claims in this
section, so that it would be premature to form any definite conclusions regarding the permanency
of the auriferous deposits. The majority of the veins are. interbedded or " segregated " veins,
and have the appearance of being of a somewhat lenticular character, similar to the quartz
veins in the Alleghany Mountains, and a large proportion of the gold-bearing veins of California.
They are good types of segregated veins, and contain the usual constituents of gold, pyrites,
blende, galena and chalcopyrite.
It has been advocated that veins of this description are less persistent than true fissure
veins ; that they are rich near the surface, and frequently terminate by pinching out in depth
and horizontal extension; but recent mining operations have" demonstrated that segregated
veins may extend to great depths, and be of considerable extent. They often do not differ in
any way from true fissure veins, except that they run parallel instead of across the strata.
The schists in the neighbourhood of Mineral Creek have a strike nearly north and south,
and I would therefore recommend the prospector to examine carefully the country lying due
north and south of this creek. I understand that some good prospects have been discovered
since my return, on a creek called the Yellowstone, lying due north from Mineral Creek.
Mineral Creek follows the line of bedding of an interbedded strata of calcareous material,
or impure limestone, heavily studded with pyrites, the creek being confined to this bed its
entire length, owing to its being softer than the neighbouring rock and therefore more easily
eroded by the water-course.
In a similar way, a number of other creeks in the neighbourhood were observed following
down the interbedded strata of limestone so common to that section.
Golden Eagle.
Considerable work has been done on the Golden Eagle claim at the head of China Creek,
where the trail ends. Two cabins have been built about five chains apart, in what is known
as the Golden Eagle basin, which is about 10 acres in extent and completely surrounded by
high, precipitous mountains 4,000 to 5,000 feet in height. I enclose some photographs showing the extremely rugged nature of this part of the country, which look like scenes in the Alps.
The basin is beautifully situated for a stamp mill or other works which might be needed
in working the mines, and there is a plentiful supply of water and timber. The Golden Eagle
is about half a mile from the cabin, and is reached by a gradual ascent of about 500 feet up
the foot of Mount Saunders, which is covered with heavy debris from the mountain.
The quartz vein upon which the work has been done is exposed along the ridge of a
" hog's back," with snowslides on either side. The ridge is covered with timber, which serves
as a protection from the heavy snowslides that would otherwise be a constant menace.
The vein is crystalline quartz with a large percentage of pyrites. There is also interspersed through the quartz some blende, galena, chalcopyrite, and arsenopyrite, making into to
about 10% of sulphurets. The vein averages about three and a half feet in width—widening
to seven feet and narrowing to a few inches.
The hog's back appears to be an intrusive boss of diorite which has undergone local
metamorphism. At a short distance from the vein, the hornblende, of the diorite has undergone alteration to mica. Immediately adjoining the vein the mica diminishes, so that it
becomes a leached feldspathic rock which might be classed as a felsite. The vein has a banded
structure and has every appearance of being filled by lateral secretion and deposition, and
possibly some replacement of the country rock with vein matter.
Four tunnels have been driven in on the ledge. The lowest tunnel, or Number 1, is in
44 feet, with an exposure of seven feet of solid vein matter at the entrance and three and a
half feet at the breast. The strike of the vein is south 30 degrees west, and dip about 70
degrees to the east. The vein below this tunnel appears to widen very rapidly, but could not
be followed on account of a snowslide,    The next tunnel, or Number 2, is about 100 feet 652 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
perpendicularly above Number 1 tunnel, and is 65 feet in length. The vein in this tunnel
averages nearly three feet, being well mineralized, with well defined walls. The next tunnel,
or Number 3, is about 100 feet above Number 2, and is 46 feet in length. In this tunnel the
vein pinches to a few inches.    Number 4 tunnel is 21 feet in length on a small stringer.
On the upper side of the hog's back there is an exposure of gold-bearing quartz very
similar in character to the main ledge, but whether it has any connection I would not venture
an opinion without further development.
A large number of claims have been recorded around the Golden Eagle, but no development work of any importance has been done upon them.
King Solomon.
A good deal of work has been done on the King Solomon claim, situated on the divide at
the head waters of McQuillan Creek, a branch of China Creek, but I was unable to fully
examine the open cut which had been made on the ledge, on account of its being filled with
snow. The ravine where the claim is located, lies between Mount Saunders and Mount
McQuillan, at an elevation of nearly 4,000 feet above sea level, so that snow remains in the
basin the year round. From what 1 was able to see, I should judge that the vein is a narrow
seam along the side of a dyke.    I was informed that it was widening below.
The country rock consists of schists cut through with numerous felsite dykes, which can
be plainly seen running up the mountain side. Those igneous injections produce conditions
favourable to the concentration of the precious metals; in fact, it has been contended that the
presence of gold in veins is always in conjunction with intrusive rocks, that the gold has been
carried up with the outflow of these eruptive rocks. Without fully accepting this theory, it is
generally believed by mining men that some eruptive action is essential to effect the necessary
conditions for the concentration of metals in veins. The occurrence of auriferous deposits in
conjunction with dykes is particularly exemplified throughout California, and, apart from any
theory in connection therewith, we may naturally expect to find the same conditions here.
It is now well established that the metals occurring in veins in the form of ores, have
been deposited by the chemical solution of their ingredients from the surrounding country
rock. The principal difference of opinion, over which there has lately been a warm controversy,
is with regard to the stress laid upon lateral secretion, or the ascension of the mineral-bearing
solutions from great depths.
A number of claims have also been staked off in juxtaposition to the King Solomon, upon
which very little work has been done. The ridge on the east side of the King Solomon basin,
of which Hanson Heights is the summit, is very much stained with iron oxide, due to the
oxidation of the sulphurets with which the whole region is heavily charged. Hanson Heights
is a highly crystallized diorite, it being the same as the summit of Mount Saunders.
On the trail, below the cabin on McQuillan Creek, is a notable out-crop of jasper, or
jaspilite, a name given the rock by Dr. Wadsworth. Some of this jaspilite is heavily charged
with hematite, and is identical with the jaspilite occurring in the association with the great
iron deposits of Northern Michigan. This is the only place I found it in situ, although I met
with float pieces all over the district. It may only occur as an interbedded layer similar to
the quartzites in that locality. Adjoining it on the one side is a large bed of argillaceous
schist somewhat ferruginous, and on the other side crystalline rocks.
China Creek for a distance of about twelve miles is taken up under hydraulic leases.
Several companies are actively at work prospecting and developing their claims. A dam was
under construction at the Cataract claim at the time of my visit, which I understand has
since been completed.    The company expects to have the water turned on in a few months.
There is a very heavy fall to China Creek, and a number of canons, making it very easy
to dam and secure a head of water for hydraulicing purposes. The creek at its lowest stage
would give about 2,000 inches of water. By careful management, so that the first outlay in
bringing the water upon the ground is not too large, there is every reason to believe that the
creek will yield a good return to the enterprising miners. Some of the benches show many
colours to the pan. Mr. Frank McQuillan, the veteran prospector, deserves especial mention
for his persevering efforts in drawing the attention of capital to the "golden" prospects, and
I noticed his gold pan shone like a mirror from constant use. Messrs. Jones & Garratt,
proprietors of the Constance claim, have dammed China Creek and cut a trench to change the
channel. They have a stretch of about three-quarters of a mile of the creek-bed ready for
sluicing. 59 VicT. Report of the Minister of Mines. 653
Mr. London was ground-sluicing on the Lulu claim, at the mouth of Mineral Creek, with
the view of proving up his claim. He had not made any clean-up, but had considerable of the
yellow metal in sight.
Messrs. Gleason & Young were sinking a shaft on Mineral Creek, a short distance up the
stream. They are in hopes of being able to get down to bedrock and drift in on their placer
claim.    Some very coarse gold was obtained on this claim with surface sluicing.
Judging from the small samples I was able to see, the placer gold of China Creek appears
to consist of two distinct qualities. The paler gold conres from the vicinity of Mineral Creek,
as I did not detect any of it in panning above it. The darker gold is much more worn and
smooth and likely comes from well up the creek. In panning along the creek, I noticed quite
a number of small pieces of gold with quartz adhering to them, which did not have the
appearance of having travelled any distance. There are evidences all along China Creek of the
Chinese having skimmed the rim rock. They do not appear to have done any extensive
Alberni Canal.
In passing down Alberni Canal from the settlement, carbonaceous shale can be seen
exposed along the shore at the old Alberni sawmill site, lying almost horizontally. Following
down the shore of the canal, about a mile south, syenite out-crops for a short distance, and is
then replaced with a blackish, almost aphanitic, diorite, which constitutes the body of Copper
Mountain. This formation extends aloug the shore down to a short distance below where the
Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway boundary line crosses the canal, where syenite reappears and
extends down to Hiwatches or Franklin River.
A good contact of this blackish, fine-grained diorite with the syenite may be seen on
China Creek, about midway between Mineral Mounds, numbers 5 and 6, the syenite dipping
under the diorite westward at an angle of about 55 degrees.
There is an old tunnel half-way up Copper Mountain and facing the canal, which was run
in 1865, following a cropping of chalcopyrite, which suddenly gave out.
I may mention that numerous veins of chalcopyrite have been found in the diorite of
Vancouver Island, but have not proved sufficiently strong to be worked, such as Sansome
Narrows, Cedar Hill, Cowichan Bay, Cowichan Lake, etc.
At Hiwatches River there is a good trail starting from the bay below the mouth of the
river and following along the. foothills, up to the Star of the West claim on Granite Creek,
which is a branch of Hiwatches River.
Some placer mining has been done on Granite Creek by the following miners : H. McCoy,
W. Poole, H. Hanson, Wm. Lindsay, and G. Carman.
Good pay in coarse gold was obtained along some of the crevices, but the creek being very
rapid, and the boulders large, it was found that ground-sluicing would not pay very well.
Some of the benches give colours to the pan and may prove to be sufficiently rich to pay
Some work has been done on the Star of the West claim, located on McCoy Creek, a
small tributary of Granite Creek. The vein is quartz with pyrite, and considerable calcite.
The vein is about 5 feet in width where it has been exposed, and it may be traced a short
distance along the creek, with a strike of N. 50 deg. E. The country rock is syenite on both
sides. A ton of rock from the Star of the West, shipped to the Tacoma smelter, gave a return
of $10 in gold.
The Islander claim, adjoining the Star of the West, shows an exposure of basic ore along
the bed of McCoy Creek, which is composed of the usual combination of sulphurets.
The Nevada claim also adjoins the Star of the West, being one of those in juxtaposition.
Six miles up Granite Creek from these claims, a number of claims were recorded on a
branch called Poole Creek.
The Starlight claim, located on this creek, carries free gold, which can be seen with the
magnifying glass, in very fine grains peppered through the rock, in a similar manner as at
Mineral Creek, but the associations are different. In the Starlight, the gold is intimately
associated with small grains of galena, instead of blende as at Mineral Creek.
The Starlight can hardly be called a vein, but is rather an ore body charged with gold by
percolating waters. An exposure of about 7 feet has been blown out without any well defined
walls. The country rock appears to be a diabase that has undergone extensive alteration by
the leaching process of chemical solution so prevalent in this district. The ore body consists
of quartz, pyrite, galena, calcite, etc.    Calcite is a common  ingredient of nearly  all the veins 654 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
in this locality, showing that the solutions were highly charged with carbonic acid, the calcicum
being derived from the feldspars in the rock.
A remarkable feature of this whole region is the prevalence of feidspathic rocks with no
free silica.
A large sample from the Starlight assayed $40 to the ton in gold.
Adjoining the Starlight are the Texas and Emma claims, upon which a small amount of
work has been done.
Two claims, called the Tangent and Big Galena, have been taken up at the headwaters of
Museum Creek. They show a good exposure of quartz containing chalcopyrite and blende.
A sample from the Tangent gave 13 oz. per ton in silver.
Two miles beyond Sweet Water Meadow, on Granite Creek, near the divide, as shown on
map, five claims have been recorded on a large intrusive boss of granite upwards of 1,000 feet
across. It is a fine-grained granite, with numerous quartz veins, and heavily charged with
sulphurets. Although the assays made have been small, still it is a remarkable mineralized
mass, and will justify a thorough prospecting. In one spot, I came across some chalcopyrite
associated with molybdenite. It is interesting to note the common occurrence of molybdenite
throughout British Columbia in association with copper ores ; it has been found in numerous
places, but only in small quantities.
A good trail could easily be cut from the end of the present trail at the Star of the West
Claim up Granite Creek to this divide, and leading over to the Nitinat River, at a small
expense. It would be a great convenience to the miners and prospectors in getting in their
A most remarkable body of limestone outcrops in what I have called Limestone Mountain, at the head of Hiwatches River. There is an abrupt escarpment, almost perpendicular,
of not less than 1,600 feet of crystalline limestone, showing well the lines of stratification, and
dipping about fifteen degrees to the south. I did not succeed in obtaining any fossils except
a few crinoidal stems. A similar mass of the same kind of limestone occurs on the west side
of Mount Douglas, showing a good exposure on the east side of Hidden Lake, there being a
vertical section of about 500 feet. All these limestones are highly crystalline and more or
less dolomitic. They bear a great resemblance to several other large deposits on the island,
such as at Home Lake, Kennedy Lake, Nootka Sound, and on Texada Island.
In conclusion, I may state that I found it necessary to spend a large portion of my time
in working up the geography and topography of the country examined. In order to do so, I
had to climb many precipitous bluffs of no particular geological interest, but which enabled me
to obtain more accurate information regarding the location of the different claims, etc., which
I have embodied in a carefully prepared map of the mining district.
I have, etc.,
Victoria, B. C, September 12th, 1895. William J. Sutton.
Barkerville, 7th December, 1895.
Sir,—In submitting this, my twenty-first Annual Mining Report, accompanied by the
customary statistics upon that industry, I have the honour to state that it affords me infinite
satisfaction to be in a position to report that the bright anticipations so often indulged in in
previous reports upon the district, appear to be on the eve of a speedy realization.
The season may fairly be said to be one of unwonted prosperity, and although such activity in mining operations must be attributed mainly to the introduction of outside capital, yet
evidences are not wanting to show, that in the near future very many of the enterprises now
opening out must become contributors to the world's gold yield, rather than absorbers of capital. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 65o
That there will be many failures to reap a rich return upon the capital invested, it is
unnecessary to state to those following the mining industry, but on the whole, I am of the
opinion that our district to-day offers probably quite as good, if not the best, opportunities (to
those desiring to invest capital in gcrld mining), as are presented in any part of the world.
At the same time, I would here take the opportunity of cautioning the public against permitting itself to be misled by the many rosy-hued and exaggerated statements appearing in
the public press from time to time regarding the value of certain mining properties in this
district. These articles are generally written by irresponsible parties to boom private properties, and if proper caution is not exercised must eventually result in harm rather than in good
to the district.
Quartz Mining.
Quartz mining in Cariboo District may be said to be in statu quo, notwithstanding that
there are perhaps as many mineral claims held under record at the present time as at any
previous date. But little work, however, has so far been done, except to satisfy representation. These claims are held mostly by persons without capital to develop them, and there
having been during the summer more than ordinary demand for labour on the numerous
placer claims now opening on a large scale, owners of quartz claims have been content to earn
daily wages and await the advent of capital, doing only sufficient work on their locations to
secure their title.
Mr. S. J. Marsh, who has had some experience in the treatment of Cariboo ores, and
whose views thereon may be found in last year's report, secured a bond on the Black Jack
mine, and about the same time obtained a lease of the Government Reduction Works, has, I
understand, made arrangements to erect a cyanide plant at Barkerville, which will be in
operation next spring. Quartz claim-owners are looking forward with expectation to Mr.
Marsh's return, as while here he inspired very general confidence by his push, energy and
apparent ability.
The Cariboo Reefs Development, Limited, of London, England, this season commenced
work on the Princess Maria lode by letting a contract for one hundred feet of tunnel, upon
the completion of which a second contract was let for the extension of the tunnel one hundred
and fifty feet further, which will, it is supposed, tap the ledge about one hundred and twenty-
five feet from the surface.
It is understood that the Island Mountain Company will start work upon their mines in
the spring by taking out ore and putting their 10-stamp mill in operation.
Placer Mines.
A pleasing contrast presents itself upon turning from the apparent apathy in quartz
mining to our far-famed placer mines, the future output of which we feel warranted in saying-
will exceed the millions produced, which rendered the district famous in the past.
While the tabulated statement will show a greater number of men employed in mining
this year as compared to last season, it will not be far from the truth to assume that not more
than one-third of those so engaged were actual gold producers, the majority being employed
upon non-productive works, that is, new mines in the course of development.
Hydraulic Mining.
This process of mining is now assuming vast proportions in the district. Not as carried
on in the early days, with the use of canvas hose with small pipe and monitor, with perhaps a
two-inch nozzle and one hundred feet of pressure, but upon a more extensive scale, similar to
the works elsewhere described as being in operation at the Cariboo and Horsefly mines.
There are now about thirty leases of hydraulic ground held on the Quesnelle River, where
two years ago there were but five. The gravel banks along this stream offer most favourable
conditions for hydraulic mining, and is limited in extent only by the amount of water supply
In the Barkerville Division comparatively few hydraulic claims are operated, the auriferous gravel deposits being more confined to the beds of streams. Where, however, sufficient
dumpage can be obtained, this process has been adopted with success, after the lower and
richer bed-rock strata have been worked out by drifting. Such are the claims on Mosquito
Creek, the Waverly claim on Grouse Creek, the Forest Rose and Black Jack hydraulic claims 656 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
on Williams Creek. The Wintrip claim on Stout's Gulch, although worked for the past
twenty-five years, has, perhaps, for the number of men employed, been the most productive,
the output for the year being about $10,000. On account of the altitude (viz., 4,000 feet),
the seasons in this immediate section are short and the water supply limited, rendering five
or six months an average working year.
The principal hydraulic claims, being in the Keithley Creek Division, will be reported
upon more fully by Mr. Stephenson, the Mining Recorder at Quesnelle Forks; but en passant,
I will briefly state what was brought before my notice upon a recent visit to that section of
the district
I must admit (and we old Cariboo miners are inclined to be conservative) I saw what was
to me a revelation in the manner of working the gravel banks that there abound. Five years
ago I visited the ground now worked by the Cariboo Hydraulic Mining Co. I then saw a
Company of Chinese working with a 5-inch pipe and 1^-inch nozzle, with scarcely sufficient
water to run three hours a day, yet it paid them well. To-day there are eighteen miles of
ditch, capable of carrying 5,000 inches of water, upon which a small steamer might run. The
outer embankment, even on a steep side-hill, is sufficiently wide for two horsemen to ride
abreast. At every curve in the ditch masonry is built. This large stream discharges its
waters into three 32-inch steel pipes, supplying three huge monitors with nozzles ranging
from 6 inches to 9 inches in diameter, through which it is forced by a 300-foot pressure
against a bank of gravel 280 feet high, which carries more or less gold from top to bottom.
Upon my remarking that the monitor did not appear to be farther ahead than was the Chinese small monitor I had seen there five years before, Mr. Hobson informed me that the present
large monitors were in reality farther back than the one referred to. The face of gravel could
not have been washed ahead more than about one hundred feet, and yet I saw the $42,000
slug of gold that had just been washed up after a comparatively short run. This claim is
being worked under great disadvantages, as could easily be seen. Mr. Hobson informs me
that it will take two years yet to get fairly opened out, after which he says he will be disappointed if the output does not amount to one million dollars annually ! A visit to this mine
will well repay anyone interested in hydraulic mining.
The Horsefly mine, under the same management, is in some respects even more interesting to old miners who have not had the advantage of witnessing operations carried on by the
more modern and scientific principles. Here we found 4,000 inches of water conveyed by
ditch and pipe about seven miles, carried across depressions by inverted siphons, and supplying
six No. 1 monitors, using from 6-inch to 8-inch nozzles. The company has been much retarded
in its progress in consequence of the presence of an exceedingly hard cement, which the water,
with the pressure obtainable, is unable to disturb. The Company, therefore, has had recourse
to dynamite, which is used in large quantities, thus rendering the work very expensive. This
cement is also encountered in the Cariboo mine, but not to the same extent as at Horsefly.
In both of these claims at the time of my visit, this cement had very much diminished and
better progress was being made.
I also visited the Horsefly Gold Mining Company's ground, four miles above, which the
company proposes to work by the hydraulic elevator process. The plant is now en route to the
mine. As much of the gravel in this vicinity was formerly worked in the old way, by shaft
and drive, and proved exceedingly rich, this mine, with proper management, under the new
system of working, should prove a lucrative investment.
Creek Diggings.
This class of mines refers to such as are worked by means of shaft and tunnel, and which
may possibly be worked in the future by the hydraulic elevator process. A reference to the
Register of leases applied for, shows that creek claims of this nature have of late been attracting more attention than hydraulic propositions, which last season and during the early part of
the present year, were apparently the only class of mines thought of by investors.
There are undoubted great advantages in working underground mines in this district, as
compared to surface diggings, principally owing to the duration and severity of our cold
weather, during which time work on our surface claims is suspended, while it is the best time
for working underground, as there is usually less water to contend with and foul air is less
troublesome in the diggings.
The introduction of boring appliances to locate the depth of the old channel, is destined
to create a  rrew  era in  this  class of mining, as  shown by  the successful working of these 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 657
machines at Slough Creek and Willow River. The former company has located what is supposed to be the deepest part of the channel at 287 feet below the surface, and 102 feet is
the depth obtained on Willow River. Both these companies have prosecuted work with vigor
during the season, but, unfortunately, in their attempt to sink a working shaft through the
gravel, were drowned out. They are now preparing to sink their shafts in bedrock and drift
out into the channel. Mr. Laird's report upon the Willow River mine will be found appended
New Diggings.
The discovery of gold in paying quantities on Pine and Summit Creeks, situated about
six miles north-east of Barkerville, has lent quite an impetus to prospecting in that direction.
About twenty-five men have been employed here during the greater part of the season, either
in prospecting or opening their claims for future working, and have brought in several
thousand dollars. The ground on these streams is now all located, numbering some twenty
claims in all.
On Shepherd Creek, a tributary of Pine, the Discovery Company has paid its shareholders handsomely, although working under adverse circumstances, owing to the light water
Several prospecting parties went out in the direction of Bear and Goat Rivers, to the
north-east of Barkerville, and confirm previous reports of the great possibilities of that section,
in consequence of which several parties will winter there.
River Dredging.
This branch of mining in this district is now beginning to assume tangible shape. Two
scows are now in course of construction at Quesnelle Mouth, into which dredging plants will
be placed to commence operations on the Fraser and Quesnelle Rivers in the early spring. In
this connection, a thought expressed in the concluding sentences of Mr. T. A. Rickard's article
on river dredging in Otago, New Zealand, which appeared in the last Annual Report, will bear
repetition. He says : " This concludes my notes upon a field but little known this side of the
equator. The chief lesson it conveys is, that we should seek to profit by the experience of
others. Otago has much to learn from California in lode mining and quartz milling, but
California would do well to study the steps of Otago in hydraulic elevating and dredging.
The miner should be the least conservative of men : his motto should be ' pass it on' : the
same difficulties should never require to be overcome twice : and thus should be avoided the
worst of all wastes, the waste of experience." If then New Zealand is so far ahead of other
countries in river dredging, why should those so employed in this country not profit by their
experience, by sending a man to New Zealand to carefully examine and report upon this
branch of mining as pursued there, and thus avoid the numerous mistakes which are certain to
occur in all new undertakings.
Messrs. Underwood & Co., of Quesnelle, have their scow, the dimensions of which are
120x24 feet, nearly ready for the machinery They purpose working the lower ten miles of
the Quesnelle River, of which a lease was obtained by Mr. W. A. Johnston. The Pittsburg
& Cariboo Gold Dredging Company is just starting the construction of a dredge, also at Quesnelle, to work the Fraser River bed, above Cottonwood Canon. Both these dredges are of
the suction type, although differing slightly in construction.
The Hydraulic Elevator.
This process of recovering the gold scattered through gravel so situated that dumpage or
grade for the sluices cannot be obtained, renders it possible to dispose of the debris, by raising
it to a sufficient height to create a grade for the sluices. This system has been in use in New
Zealand, Australia, and California for some years, but is quite new to British Columbia. The
introduction of the plant, and the extensive preparations now being made by Mr. A. D. Whit-
tier for the Cariboo Gold Fields, on Williams Creek, and perhaps on a less extensive scale by
Mr. R. T. Ward, for the Horsefly Gold Mining Company, of Horsefly, is attracting much
attention, and whose success will doubtless have a salutary effect upon the mining industry.
The latter Company had not, at the date of my visit, in October, commenced active operations
on the ground, except on the ditches, and as Mr. Ward had not then arrived, I was unable to
obtain definite information regarding their plant. 658
Report of the Minister of Mines.
The thoroughness with which the preliminary work on the Gold Fields property is being
carried out, reflects great credit upon the management. The magnitude and novelty of this
enterprise, being such as to warrant more than a passing remark, I append the report of the
Agent and Manager, Mr. A. D. Whittier, which includes that of his engineer, Mr. James
In concluding my report upon the mining industry in this district, I am impressed with
its inadequacy to convey to the general reader a proper conception of the operations at present
going on for the development of the mineral resources of Cariboo. There are many large
claims operated by strong companies in various parts of the district, of which, not being able
to make a personal inspection, I am unable to speak.
The increase in the gold product is principally due to the " washups " of the Cariboo and
Horsefly mines. From present indications we judge that another year will add many new
contributors to the general output of the district. Perhaps the most tangible proof of our
coming prosperity will be found in the increase of revenue from mining recipts general,
which is about $10,000 in excess for the eleven months ending 30th November, 1895, over
the corresponding period in 1894, the total revenue from all sources being greater than at any
time during the past twenty-five years.
There have been issued from the Richfield office since 1st January last—58 hydraulic
leases, 42 creek leases, 29 dredging leases.
The following are the records :—166 placer mining claims, 84 mineral locations, 83 water
grants for mining purposes.
Free Miners' Certificates issued in the district, 1,249.
The gold product for the year, closely approximate, is as follows :—
Barkerville Polling Division $ 81,000
Lightning Creek Polling Division      40,700
Quesnelle Polling Division      18,200
Keithley, Quesnelle Forks, and Horsefly    145,000
Estimated product for whole district from date of collecting statistics till 31st December, 1895 say    16,000
Total $300,900
I have, etc.,
John Bowron,
To the Honourable Gold Commissioner.
The Minister of Mines.
Sir,—In submitting to you my annual report on mining in this section of Cariboo District,
it is gratifying to note the improvement from last year in the amount of gold obtained for this
season, with every prospect of the coming season making a yet greater improvement over the
season just closing. And although the development of this section proceeds slowly, yet there
has been sufficient work done to prove the value of this section of the district for hydraulic
mining purposes, as demonstrated by the Cariboo Hydraulic Mining Company on the South
Fork of Quesnelle River, and the Horsefly Hydraulic Mining Company on Horsefly River,
these companies being the only ones yet that have done any washing of gravel on an extensive
scale. Those companies express themselves fully satisfied as to the value of their mines. Both
those mines since their purchase from former owners have been under the management of Mr.
J. B. Hobson, M. E., as Superintendent, with Mr. L. F. Warner, M. E., as assistant, and the
work done shows the thorough knowledge of the business possessed by those gentlemen. A
visit to either or both of these mines, will well repay those about to engage in similar work
or to any one interested in hydraulic mining.
On the Horsefly River, the Horsefly Hydraulic Mining Company have worked steadily
for the season with a good supply of water, and although for a while a body of cement gave
them considerable trouble the result of the season's work has been quite satisfactory. Considerable work has been done this season on the Harper lease, Horsefly, and quite an amount of 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 659
gold obtained. Still a great part of their work has been of a preliminary nature in preparing
for next season's work. Below and joining the Horsefly Hydraulic Mining Company's ground,
Mr. W. H. Thompson and others, owning a claim, have for several years past been driving in
a bedrock tumrel to tap a back channel. I heard lately that they had got through the rock
and into gravel, but with what result I did not learn.
On the South Fork of Quesnelle River, outside of the Cariboo Hydraulic Mining Company,
very little work is being done, only one Chinese company working a very small hydraulic claim
with about the usual number of desultory miners at work.
On the North Fork of Quesnelle River there has been considerable work done during this
season. The Victoria Consolidated Hydraulic Mining Company employed quite a large number of men during the first part of the season repairing their ditch from Spanish Lake; also
a strong gang upon their ground at Keithley Point, but unfortunately, about the time they got
in good working order their head of water got so light that they could not work to advantage,
therefore they shut down for the season, but will resume work in the early spring of next season
under more favourable circumstances. On the opposite side of the river, and above Keithley
Point, Mr. James Mathers has for the last three years been driving a tunnel and working
through the bedrock to get into a back channel, and has succeeded in getting into gravel that
will pay him for drifting. This ground is well situated for hydraulic mining, and as he
(Mathers) has obtained a water right from Seller's Creek this should be a good property. At
Cape Horn, five miles above the Forks, Mr. James Gray has a gang of men at work constructing a dam and digging a canal to turn the river across a point. He expects to have the job
accomplished in a short time. This will give him quite a stretch of river bed to work besides
sluicing off a large area of ground known to contain gold in paying quantities.
On Kangaroo Creek, Mr. Theo. Thormahlen is in about twelve hundred feet with a tunnel
endeavouring to find the bedrock in the bottom of the creek, but has not yet found it. This
creek was very rich in gold near the surface, and was completely worked out by Chinese, but
owing to the great amount of water encountered no shaft was ever put down to the bedrock.
During the summer, E. B. Herman, C.E., of Vancouver, and others, located five mining
leases on the north side of the North Fork of Quesnelle River. About six miles above the
Forks on this ground they did some prospecting by sinking a shaft and making cuts into the
benches ; in all of these they claim to have found fair prospects. They also surveyed a ditch
line from Duck Creek to bring water on the ground. On the Quesnelle River, from the Forks
clown to Beaver Lake Creek, three companies have done considerable amount of work during
the season. On Four-Mile Creek, J. M. Buxton, of Vancouver, has had a gang of from six to
eight men for the season at work on the Maud Company's ground sinking shafts, driving a
tunnel and doing other prospecting work. I have been informed quite satisfactory results
have been obtained. On Twenty-Mile Creek there has also been a gang of men at work for a
great part of the season on leases obtained by Mr. Buxton, while on the opposite side of the
river, a little below Twenty-Mile Creek, the Montreal Company has had quite a large gang of
men employed for the past year prospecting on their leased ground, and have obtained fine
prospects in shafts and tunnel. From what I can learn this company will have very valuable
mining property in the near future.
On Keithley, Snowshoe and Harvey Creeks there has been little or no change since last
year. The number of men employed, and the amount of gold obtained, being about the same
as last season.
Re mineral claims, there is little to report. There were twenty-four mineral claims
recorded in this office during the season. On two of these there was very little prospecting
done; on the others, no work wdiatever. Twenty of these locations were made on Snowshoe
Mountain ; three on Black Bear Creek, and one on the South Fork of Quesnelle River. But
if we are short on quartz mines we expect to be quite up to the front on placers.
Enclosed herewith find estimated amount of gold for 1895.
I have, &c.,
W. Stephenson,
The Honourable Government Agent.
The Minister of Mines, Victoria, B, C. 660 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Willow River, Dec. 2nd, 1895.
Dear Sir,—In response to your request that I supply you with a report of the prospecting
work so far done under what is popularly known as the Willow River lease, I take pleasure
in submitting the following :—Actual work began July 1st of last year, and consisted of boring
a series of holes across the valley to determine the exact distance to bedrock, and to locate
the old channel. Our boring machine has a capacity of 500 feet, but can be pressed to sink
considerably deeper than that. A six inch pipe is used at the start, the size of pipe being
reduced to three inches as the holes get deeper. We bored in all six holes, and figuring all
of them as having started at a fixed level, we found the channel to be 102 feet from the
surface. The machine also showed that, in every hole bored, at a uniform distance of 50 feet
from the rock, an exceedingly hard stratum was encountered. So hard was this, in fact, that
some of the men employed on the work contended that it was bedrock. As a matter of
fact the stratum was harder than bedrock. From every hole bored a prospect was secured,
those out of the 98 and 102-foot holes being especially encouraging. It seemed marvellous
that such heavy pieces of gold could be forced up through one hundred feet of pipe by a jet of
After having satisfied ourselves as to the exact location and depth of the old channel, the
next question was where to sink a shaft. Although aware of the almost universal failure of
gravel shafts in this section of any great depth, we judged that we would be able to reach the
hard stratum and shut off the surface water. Experience, however, proved that the surface
water was altogether too great to be overcome and we were compelled to add our shaft to the
monuments epitaphed " drowned out," with which, unfortunately, the country was already
only too well supplied. Our next move was to adopt the time honoured saying "make haste
slowly." Accordingly we started on a level with the river at high water mark and ran a
drive into the hill a distance of 670 feet, where we found the rim rock. A careful survey has
located the end of our tunnel on the surface of the ground above and our " chore" now consists
in sinking a shaft through the gravel 100 feet to connect with the tunnel, continue the shaft
about 115 feet more through rock, and then drive out through the rock till we strike the
channel at the point where we bored the 102-foot.hole. We have built a shaft house on the
hill where we are sinking, have our steam plant all placed ready for work and everything in
ship-shape for nine months steady work. An Ingersoll Sargeant steam drill and blasting outfit are on the way, so that nothing remains to be done now but to plod  away, day and night,
for the next eight or nine  months till we reach our coveted goal  and find  what ?    It is,
of course, needless to say that we expect to find gold and plenty of it. The work so far has
been very expensive, as all mining operations in this section necessarily are, as it is so far
from rapid aird cheap transportation. I purchased some time ago an 18-inch Cornish pump,
and the freight from Ashcroft here (285 miles) amounted to more than the first cost of the
pump. The last freight I received was thirty-two days coming from Ashcroft here. If
ever a country needed a railroad, in my humble opinion, it is this. I believe there can be no
question about the wealth stored here, and with railroad communication I am convinced that
there would be one thousand men working where there are now ten. The country for 285
miles all around this centre would be prospected and developed as this has been and is, and
who knows but that we here are merely at the gateway of the gold-producing country.
Pardon this digression, but I am sure that a railroad would do more for this country than
the discovery of half a dozen gold-producing mines.
Yours very respectfully,
Fred. C. Laird.
John Bowron, Esq.,
Gold Commissioner. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 661
Barkerville, B. C, 3rd December, 1895.
John Bowron, Esq.,
Gold Commissioner, Richfield, B. C.
Dear Sir,—In answer to your request for a statement of the amount and nature of the
work done during the present mining season on the properties owned by the Cariboo Gold
Fields, Limited, on and about Williams Creek, I do not think I can do better than to submit
for your perusal the report of Mr. J. Champion, M.E., and dated 27th ult. This report will
give the work in detail.
When all the works are completed next spring we will have 14 miles of ditches, and a
grand total of (15,097) fifteen thousand and ninety-seven feet of steel hydraulic pipe lines in
operation. The total weight of this pipe will be in the vicinity of 400 tons. There will also
be 2,600 feet of tunnel, 2,200 feet of flume, and 1,140 feet of trestle for carrying pipe-line over
Williams Creek.
One point of great interest to mining men in connection with this mine is that the main
pipe-line that connects with the hydraulic gravel elevator will be worked under greater
pressure than has ever been attempted in hydraulic mining in any country, and the gravel will
be lifted from the bed-rock of Williams Creek to a height of over one hundred feet and
deposited on the surface. This is the greatest elevation gravel has ever been lifted by
hydraulic pressure. The pipe for this work is nrade of lap-weld steel, and is 12,200 feet in
length. Starting at the elevator the pipe is 18 inches in diameter and -f% of an inch thick.
The different sizes are as follows:—6,850 feet of 18-in., 1,860 feet of 20-in., 990 feet of 22-in.,
2,400 feet of 24-in., with a mouthpiece of 36 inches. This pipe is secured at the joints with
" Kimberley collars," and tamped with 13 tons of lead. This pipe-line is at Ashcroft ready
for shipment.
Outside of hydraulic mining, I shall erect this winter two hoisting engines at the mouth
of Williams Creek to work the bottom gravels that are below the drainage line, and will work
this ground continuously.
I expect to have all the development work completed and the mine in full operation not
later than August 1st, 1896.
Yours faithfully,
A.  D. Whittier,
Cariboo Gold Fields, Limited.
Barkerville, B. C, November 27th, 1895.
To A. D.  Whittier, Esq.,
Manager Cariboo Gold Fields, Limited.
Dear Sir,—I have the honour herewith to submit a statement of work done on the
Cariboo Gold Fields, Limited, during the present mining season.
On April 1st I made surveys for the present drain-tunnel, and found the distance from
Valley Creek, the initial point, to a point where we expect to strike bedrock in Williams
Creek to be 2,600 feet.    Work was commenced on (he tunnel on April 2nd.
The dimensions of the tunnel are:—Height, 6 feet 4 inches; width, 4 feet in the top and
5 feet in the bottom.    The above measurements are within timbers.
Grade of tunnel, \\ inches to 100 feet.
Length of tunnel excavated to date, 1,300 feet.
Four shafts have been sunk on the tunnel for ventilating purposes and for hoisting the dirt.
No. 4 shaft is 34 feet deep to the bottom of the tunnel.
The site for iNo. 5 shaft, 400 feet distant from No. 4 shaft, has been surveyed, plans made
for the shaft-house and machinery, subject to your approval.
In this shaft-house the gravel will be hoisted by a steam engine, and washed as it is taken
from the tunnel.
The buildings will be so constructed that work will be carried on continuously during the
winter months. 662 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
At a distance of 2,000 feet from the assumed end of the drain-tunnel a log dam has been
built across the creek, 343 feet long, 8 feet high, and 6 feet wide.
From the dam a flume, 14 feet wide and 6 feet high, with a grade of 2| inches to 12 feet,
has been constructed down the creek a distance of 2,200 feet. This flume will carry all the
water and tailings of Williams Creek at its highest freshets and deposit it 200 feet below the
proposed elevator shaft.
Surveys and drawings have been made for the elevator sluice, and the lumber sawed for
the same. This flume will be erected next spring, after the completion of the drain-tunnel.
The dimensions of this flume will be 6 feet wide by 6 feet high for 36 feet in length, the
remainder will be 6 feet wide by 4 feet high.
Surveys have been made for ditches from Lightning Creek to the confluence of Jack of
Clubs and Ground-hog Creeks, a distance of 3Jr miles, and from the confluence of the above
streams to the pipe-line, a distance of 3J miles more, making a total distance of 7 miles.
The dimensions of the Lightning Creek ditch are 7 feet wide on the top, 3 feet wide in
the bottom, and 2 feet deep. The dimensions of the Jack of Clubs ditch are 9 feet wide orr
top, 4 feet wide in the bottom, and 2 feet 6 inches deep.     Grade of ditches .03 to a rod.
The ditch from Jack of Clubs Creek to the pipe-line is completed, and the right-of-way is
cleared of all timbers, etc., on the Lightning Creek ditch. This ditch will be completed as
early as possible next spring.
A short ditch (16 rods long) has been completed from the head of Williams Creek to the
"Eye Opener" flume crossing Williams Creek.
The old "Eye Opener " ditch has been resurveyed (a distance of 6 miles), all logs and
stumps cleared out, and 2J miles has been enlarged to date. Men are still working on the
ditch, and I hope to have it completed to Williams Creek (a distance of 1 mile more) before
Two new flumes, 4 feet wide and 2 feet deep, have been constructed on this ditch, the one
crossing Williams Creek is 140 feet long, and the other 136 feet long. Another flume, 62 feet
long, will be completed next week.
Surveys have been made for a new pipe-line for the " Eye Opener " c'aim. The length of
pipe will be about 1,800 feet, which will give a pressure of 450 feet.
Surveys have also been made for the elevator pipe-line, from the end of Jack of Clubs
ditch to the elevator shaft, a distance of 12,097 feet, which will give a perpendicular pressure
of 998 feet to the drain-tunnel level.
Grading has bei-n done on this pipe-line as follows :—Commencing at the end of ditch,
thence down the mountain side 2,972 feet to the waggon road leading to Richfield, the ground
has been graded down to a comparatively even grade. Cuttings have been made from nil to 12
feet deep, and embankments made from nil to 10 feet high.
From the Richfield Road a high trestle, 360 feet long, has been erected to carry the pipe
across Williams Creek at the head of the canyon and into the Black Jack cut. From the end
of this trestle a cut has been made through the Black Jack Mining Claim, 834 feet long, to
Williams Creek, below the canyon ; from thence a trestle has been erected, 780 feet long,
crossing Williams Creek diagonally to the bulkhead.
Length of pipe from ditch to this point, 4,946 feet; length of pipe from this point to
elevator shaft, 7,151 feet; making the total length of pipe, 12,097 feet.
A ditch has been surveyed from a point near Dower's cabin to a point on the western side
of Williams Creek, opposite the site of the proposed elevator shaft. Length of ditch, f of a
mile.    Dimensions of ditch are 7 feet wide on top, 3 feet wide in the bottom, and 2 feet deep.
A 12-in. pipe will be laid from the end of this ditch to the elevator shaft, a distance of
about 1,200 feet. This pipe will be used for piping down the bank of gravel in the creek for
the elevator.
At Ground-hog Lake, at the head of Ground-hog Creek, an open cut has been made from
the creek in towards the lake, a distance of about 200 feet, which, when completed, will tap
the lake 10 feet below the preseut low-water mark. Owing to the cold weather, work has been
discontinued until next spring.
When this cut is completed, a pipe will be laid in said cut, a water-gate fixed in the pipe,
and a dam built 20 feet high above the gate-pipe, which will increase the capacity of the lake
about four-fold. I am, etc.,
James Champion,
Considting Mining Engineer. 59 Vict- Report of the Minister of Mines. 663
The Slough Creek Mining Company, Cariboo.
Development  Work, 1895.
At the beginning of the year a working shaft was being sunk at a point near the centre
of the valley through the alluvial strata, which work was continuously prosecuted until the
month of June, when the attempt to further sink at that point was abandoned, on account
of an excess of surface water. As soon as it had been decided to discontinue sinking at this
point, hydraulic jetting machines were put in operation and a further number of prospect
shafts were drilled frorn the surface to the bed-rock, thus completing a series of prospect shafts
across the valley, and from the results a cross-section of the entire width of the valley has been
prepared. It was found that the extreme depth of the old channel is 287 feet. Previously to
the beginning of this year a drain-tunnel had been constructed for the purpose of shedding the
surface water as far as possible, in length 2,150 feet, which connected with the main working
shaft at about 40 feet from the surface. It was decided to construct a lateral extension of
this drain tunnel to the rim rock, air estimated distance of about 400 feet, for the double
pur-pose of draining the high rock so that it might be worked for gold and permitting a bedrock shaft to be sunk at the point where the tunnel connects with the rim. While the prospect shafts were being sunk this year this tunnel extension was being run, and about one-half,
or 200 feet, has been completed. When it has been completed, it is proposed to sink a bedrock shaft to a sufficient depth, say 325 feet, to permit a drive or tunnel to be run out under
the old channel, reaching a point 300 feet from the surface. This will allow 13 feet to provide
for any possible depression lower than the 287 feet depth as shown by the jetting machine. A
very encouraging fact in connection with the drilling is that gold colours in considerable
quantity were brought up from all the holes drilled at different depths, and particularly from
the bedrock. The best showing was from the deepest hole. It is the purpose of the Company
to prosecute the development work as rapidly as possible until the old channel is reached, and
at the same time to work the high rock. From twenty-five to thirty men have been employed
during the greater part of the year.
Respectfully submitted,
W. H. Fife,
W. F. Sargent,
Secretary. 664 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Laketon, Cassiar, B.C., 9th October, 1895.
Sir,—I have the honour to enclose the mining statistics and my annual report for this
District for the year 1895.
I regret to say that no new discoveries of importance have been recorded during the past
Three men were out prospecting during the summer in the Mud River country, but were
not successful in finding anything of importance, although they report having obtained some
fair prospects on one or two streams that they were not able to thoroughly test this season, on
account of the unusual high water met with and other causes. They intend, however, to
return to these creeks on the snow early in the spring, and so endeavour to thoroughly prospect them before high water occurs. I am inclined to think, judging by what I can learn
from these prospectors, that there are some creeks in that direction that will yet yield a fair
harvest of the precious metal.
Four gentlemen from foreign parts paid us a visit during the summer, their object being
to test some of our quartz. They came quite prepared, for they had with them all the appliances necessary for that kind of prospecting, but so far, I am sorry to say, they have not been
successful enough to find anything that would pay to work in such a remote place as this. I
understand from them that it is their intention to return to the district again next season and
further prosecute their researches in that direction, and if they do it is to be hoped they will
find something that will reward them well for their perseverance and outlay.
The little mining carried on here this summer in the beds of the old streams was greatly
retarded by the unusual high water, that was caused by the heavy rains we had during
July and August, which, on one or two occasions, caused the water in the creeks to rise to
such an extent that it ran over all the wing-dams, and in some instances it completely washed
them out.
I am pleased to report that a gentleman recently from England applied to me to-day for
a lease of a piece of mining ground at the mouth of Dease Creek. It is generally supposed
that this ground is rich, as it has been the natural dump of the creek for ages. During the
early days here the bed of the creek immediately above this point was mined, and it paid rich
down to the very verge of the ground applied for, but as it got too deep to work in the usual
way, it was abandoned, and has remained so ever since, waiting for some one to come along
and take hold of it who could raise the necessary capital and machinery to develop it.
You will observe that the output of gold this season is only a trifle less than that of last
year, which might be claimed as being a very fair result, when the many drawbacks met with
during the season are taken into consideration.
The returns, as closely as can with any accuracy be obtained, are as follows :—
McDame Creek and tributaries $ 9,650
Liard  River Division  475
Thibert Creek and tributaries      4,000
Dease Creek      8,450
Total $22,575
The weather has been remarkably fine since about the 20th of last month, so much so
that it is certainly making amends for the past, for no one has yet been obliged to cease operations in their claims on account of frost, which is a very unusual thing here as late as
this. There is not a speck of snow upon the ground at the present time, and there has not
been sufficient frost so far to even seal up the smallest pond.
I have, <fcc,
James Porter,
To the Honourable Gold Commissioner.
The Minister of Mines. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 665
Sir,—I have the honour to enclose herewith the mining statistics for Lillooet District,
and my annual report for the year 1895 The total yield of gold from the district (ascertained
from reliable sources only) is $40,663, showing a slight increase on the yield of last year, but
still much below the average of past years. Two-thirds of the total amount may safely be
credited to the desultory work of Indians and Chinese, as very few white miners have been
gold producers during the past year in this district. In the early summer the whole of the
mining leases, at and near Lillooet, were bonded by the Lillooet-Fraser River and Gold Fields
Co. They sunk prospecting shafts on the Irving-Jensen, Lillooet-Hydraulic, Vancouver-
Enterprise and Hurley-McDonald leases, also on the Eyre-Martley lease, near Pavilion. I
append a report on the prospecting works carried out by this company during the past year,
courteously furnished me by Mr. D. T. Hughes, the superintendent of the company, a gentleman of many years' experience in the management of placer and quartz mines in California
and other lands. With the exception of the prospecting done orr the above named claims, no
work has been done on any of the other hydraulic mining claims in this district, and the total
production of gold is reduced, by the amount obtained in former years from the Lillooet-
Hydraulic, Vancouver-Enterprise, and the Hurley-McDonald leases. These three concessions
being under bond, were not gold producers this year. The Bridge River Gold Mining Co.
have had several men employed during the past year, and have completed a long line of
ditch to their mining leases, but too late to use it this season. Scotty's Creek, tributary to
the Bonaparte River, has again claimed the attention of the white miner, and six claims have
been located on it near its confluence with the Bonaparte I was shown a very handsome
sample of 2 or 3 ounces, taken from one of the claims in the early part of last month. At
long intervals, extending back to 1867, this creek has been mined with varying success, the
great obstacle in the way being huge boulders. The present locators seem determined to get
rid of them, and work the claims thoroughly next season.
I have no report to make on any really new placer mining discoveries, and summed up
briefly the production ($40,663) for this year has been obtained from the gravels of the Fraser
River, and a few of the tributaries of that river, principally in the immediate neighbourhood of
Lillooet; in fact $27,000 worth was bought there by Mr. A. W. Smith, who has for many
years been the principal buyer.
Twenty-seven mineral claims have been recorded during the year, of which seven are on
the Pemberton Portage, nineteen on Cayoosh Creek, and one on the Bonaparte. Of the claims
recorded on the Pemberton Portage, there are three distinct veins, running parallel. Development work has only been done on one claim, an assay from the croppings of which gave a
return of $10 per ton. The larger number of mineral locations recorded on Cayoosh Creek, is
due to the fact that the Bonanza group of claims were bonded, and active prospecting commenced on them, under the superintendence of Mr. Hughes, who reports fully on the work
done on this group of claims and others.
Of the locations on the North Thompson, I have no information of the work done on them.
Crown grants were issued during the year for two of the claims there, the "Ironclad," and the
" Lone Prospector."
With the exception of an impracticable canyon, the whole of the bed of the Fraser River
in my district is under lease at an annual aggregate rental of $2,880.
Dredging in my district is a weighty and unsolved problem, as that system of mining has
never been tried. I understand there are dredging machines of various kinds, both above and
below me, but in dealing with the question, I must be understood to refer only to that portion
of the river within my district and lying between 50° 20' and 52° north latitude and closely
following the 122nd meridian of west longtitude. 666 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
In other lauds, notably the middle New Zealand Island, river dredging for gold has been
fairly successful. From the Australian Mining Standard of the 2nd ult., I quote a portion of
the report of the Minister of Mines for the Otago gold fields for last year.
" Glut ha Valley.
" There are several large companies carrying on mining operations in this valley, some
by hydraulic sluicing and elevating, and some by dredging. The whole of the drifts in the
Clutha valley, are nothing but a deposit of concentrated material, the light sand and mud
being carried away by the waters of the Clutha River to the ocean, and leaving the denser
materials behind. The river has shifted its channel at different times and gradually cut down
its present bed, where very rich deposits of auriferous wash-drifts are found in many places.
Indeed, there are few of the dredging machines now placed in this river which are not working
the bed with success. Dredges, as applied to mining, have not only been profitably employed
in lifting the auriferous gravel from the beds of the rivers, but they are also used in working
the ground in flats, where the depth does not exceed 35 feet, and where the quantity of water-
to conteird with has hitherto prevented the ground being worked by any other means, and
they are likely to be largely used in this way in the future.
"The bed of every tributary and stream coming into the Clutha Valley, contains more or
less gold, and on the Old Man range, fronting the valley, wherever there is any wash-drift
containing gold, men are to be found working at different places and making a livelihood,
wherever a supply of water can be obtained."
The New Zealander has been a successful miner, as his grand record of over one hundred
million dollars in the past 34 years testifies.
He has been an enterprising miner, and years ago put into practical operation hydraulic
sluicing, hydraulic elevating, and dredging the river beds, and without doubt we have much
to learn from him. But the New Zealander has not had a Fraser River to deal with. That
problem remains to be solved. By way of comparison, the Clutha, one of the principal rivers
of the middle island, enters the South Pacific Ocean in latitude 46° 20' south, practically the
same as Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia River. That part of the Fraser River with
which I am dealing lying between latitude 50° 20' and 52° north, giving the New Zealander a
climatic advantage of from 4° to 6° of latitude, a matter of much importance in length of
season. The Clutha River has possibly a total length of 250 miles. The Fraser River has
run a course of between 400 and 500 miles before crossing the 52nd parallel, and is carrying
the entire drainage of that large area embraced within the meridians of 118° and 127° west
longtitude. From these comparisons I infer that the auriferous gravels and the debris
(boulders) to be encountered, and the volume of water to contend with in the two rivers,
cannot possibly bear any comparison. I am not aware of the extremes between high and low
water in the Clutha. The average rise of the Fraser in my district is from 40 to 50 feet, at
intervals of a few years 10 feet can safely be added. In high water, restless and resistless as
the tides of Fundy, and uncertain at all seasons. In the early part of last month at the St.
Mary's Creek ferry, in my district, the river rose in three or four days 14 feet without the
slightest local climatic cause. I have endeavoured to show the obstacles in the way and the
difficulties to overcome in the dredging operations that may be undertaken on the Fraser
River, but I do not wish it to be understood that they are insurmountable.
The largest sized dredgers could be in perfect safety when the river is at its highest. A
peculiarity is the locally known "eddies," numerous on both sides at short intervals, where
the water at the edge of the river runs up stream for long distances, while the centre is a
raging torrent, hurrying on in the opposite direction, and carrying with it all kinds of debris,
including with it entire trees often a hundred feet long and upwards with roots attached. The
river freezes over, but there are long stretches that do not. In these open stretches dredging
in mild weather could be carried on to advantage, even in midwinter. As a rule the river is
very low then, reaching the lowest mark in February.
From Dr. Dawson's admirable treatise on the " Mineral Wealth of British Columbia," a
work which I cannot too strongly recommend to the careful perusal of every one engaged in,
or intending to engage in, hydraulic mining or dredging in this Province, I quote: "The
Fraser carries to the sea a great part of the entire drainage of the Interior of British Columbia.
* * * Beyond Boston Bar the valley becomes a direct and  deep north
and south furrough, all the way to Fort George, in latitude 54°. * * *
From the point of view of the gold miner, the Fraser may be regarded as a gigantic ground-sluice. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 667
Its valley, originally excavated in Tertiary times, in the rocky sub-stratum of the country, was
subsequently, during the glacial period, largely filled with drift material, through which, at
a still later date, the river has had to re-excavate its bed, leaving great series of terraces, or
' benches,' along its bank in many places, as this was gradually accomplished. A portion of
the gold now found in its bed and banks has without doubt been won out of its rocky matrix
directly by the action of the river and its immediate tributaries, while another portion may
have.been derived from the glacially transported drift materials. The first named moiety
may be supposed to include the ' coarse' gold, the last must be in great part ' fine' gold. A
great proportion of all this gold, from whatever source derived, has been gradually concentrated
in the river bottom by the action of the stream, while in many places paying deposits have
been left upon the surfaces of'benches' at various levels, or buried beneath their material,
each such ' pay-streak' representing some portion of a former bed of the river, which has been
left behind as erosion progressed. *****
" It scarcely, I believe, admits of doubt, that extensive and successful mining enterprises,
based on the application of the hydraulic method of working, will yet be instituted along a
great part of the length of the Fraser valley, while dredging or other methods by which the
materials of the bottom may be obtained and treated, may also be profitably employed. The
great extent of the bench or terrace deposits of the valley, with the excellent opportunity of
disposing of the waste, offer exceptionally favourable conditions for hydraulic work, and tributary streams with a sufficient quantity and head of water for mining purposes are not
" From the point of view of the gold miner, the Fraser may be regarded as a gigantic
ground-sluice." Undoubtedly it is, and it is a ground-sluice that has never been " cleaned
up," and in addition, the forces of erosion and denudation, the latter to an enormous extent in
high water, are ceaselessly adding to the golden deposit. I know personally of bars on the
Fraser that have been worked every winter and early spring, on the same spots, for the past
thirty years, as a rule by the Indians and Chinese, with the primitive rocker and pan. This
in itself I think is conclusive evidence that the supply is renewed annually. The so-called
bars are nothing more than portions of the river bed left bare at low water, and it must be
borne in mind that the season for working these bare spots is a very brief one, much broken
by severe weather, and liable at any moment to the erratic overflow movements of the river.
White miners have in many places, to my knowledge, tried wing-damming in well known rich
places, notably Big Bar; spent much money and time; exposed to the extreme cold; with the
total result of a sudden rise of the river washing everything away in one night.
There is a limit to human perseverance, and the golden treasures of the Fraser and its
larger tributaries will never be obtained by wing-damming—a system of mining of which I
have a thorough practical knowledge, having worked at it for months with success in early
manhood, but dealing with a very different stream to the Fraser. From 1881 to date, the
well ascertained value of the gold obtained in this district, aggregates $1,070,850, wholly
obtained from the auriferous gravels of the Fraser and a few of its tributaries, notably
Cayoosh Creek and Bridge River. This golden prize has fallen into the hands of Chinese and
Indians, as duriirg all these years, I regret to say, the white gold-producing miner has been in
a microscopic minority.
Divided between the two former, the Chinese may safely get credit for nine-tenths of the
whole. From the white miner and the Indian a fairly truthful account of their doings can
always be had, but from the Chinese it is very different, and in addition to the above figures
there is a large amount unaccounted for, especially during the years 1884-7, inclusive, when
the Chinese were the only miners on Cayoosh Creek, and cleaned up the accumulated surface
deposits of ages there, of an amount that will never be known. Hydraulic mining and dredging at present are attracting a very great amount of attention. I have dwelt on the subject
at greater length than I intended, but with the sole aim in view to place the matter before
the public with indisputable facts and figures so far as in my power. The existence of gold in
enormous quantities in the bed of the Fraser River is beyond dispute. The difficulties in the
way, as I have endeavoured to show, of obtaining that submerged gold are also great. The
New Zealand miner has satisfactorily solved the question, so far as his rivers and auriferous
gravels are concerned ; and I know of no reason why it should not be solved in this Province
also in the near future. Of the various forms of dredgers and their equally varied claims to
merit, I cannot speak, but I think it will be admitted that only the most powerfully constructed machines in every way need attempt the task.    Frail and weak machines, of what- 668 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
ever pretensions, are out of the question, and will, if attempted, surely result in loss of time
and money. The individual holder of a dredging lease, unaided by capital, can never place
the required dredger on it. In all likelihood, individual leases will fall into the hands of
incorporated companies by transfer (as some already have done) who will, in that event, be in
a position to commence and carry on work on a large scale and on business principles, and to
effect this will require time and careful examination of the river and its banks. The Company who acquire individual leases by transfer are then subject to the terms, conditions and
penalties of the leases, in like manner to the original licensee. The working condition in such
cases may be impossible to comply with, and I think every reasonable allowance should be
made to any bona fide company prepared to risk capital in an undertaking that I have no
doubt will, sooner or later, add very materially to the mineral wealth of this Province.
Two prospecting licences were issued to parties on the North Thompson during the year.
On the lignite deposit on Hat Creek a small quantity is, I believe, mined annually for local
consumption. Coal was discovered on the west side of the Fraser, below St. Mary's Creek,
and also near Big Bar during the past year. From the former I forwarded a sample to Mr.
Carmichael, Government Assayer, who pronounced it to be lignite. As such it would be of but
little value unless in mass and of easy access, and then only for local use Prospecting to a
limited extent was carried out, showing only thin seams. As this discovery is in the immediate neighbourhood of bars on the Fraser likely to be worked by steam power, further exploration
may bring to light enough of this class of coal that would be of value for steam generating
purposes, wood, other than drift, being a scarce article there.
The following statement shows the number of Free Miners' certificates issued in this
district for the past year, and the number of leases issued and applied for :—
Free Minners' certificates issued 166
Mining 'receipts general $4790.75
Mineral claims recorded 27
Placer claims recorded 13
Placer claims re-recorded    9
Hydraulic mining leases in force 32
Hydraulic mining leases applied for    6
Dredging leases in force 18
I enclose herewith sketch map of the mineral locations, &o., on Cayoosh Creek, the data
for which I am under obligation to Mr. A. W. Smith, M.L. A.
I also enclose sketch map showing the location of mining leases near the town of Lillooet.
I have, &c,
(Signed)        F. Soues,
To the Honourable Gold Commissioner.
The Minister of Mines.
Lillooet, 19th December, 1895.
Dear Sir,—In compliance with your request for a report on the prospecting done under
my superintendence at Lillooet during the past season, I submit the following statement :—
Mining at Lillooet and along the Fraser River, throughout the Lillooet Basin, during the
past year has been limited to a few operations in a small way, but a large amount of prospecting has been done by the Lillooet, Fraser River and Cariboo Gold Fields Mining Company on
the gravel benches around Lillooet, but the hydraulic plant proposed to be erected to wash off
these terraces has been postponed for the present. The same company, however, are still at
work on the Vancouver Enterprise mine which they have bonded, endeavouring to bottom the
ancient bed of Cayoosh Creek below and east of the Falls where at one time the waters of the 9 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 669
original Cayoosh Creek passed around the present Falls, afterwards closed in by a prodigious
land slide from the high mountain above forcing its waters to find another channel over the
present Falls and forming what is now known as the Cayoosh Basin above, taking advantage
of the outward portion of the old Vancouver tunnel, below the Falls, inside of which the
company sank a shaft. In this they found the rim rock dipping into the channel and afterwards sunk another further over the channel where they struck the same rim rock, with much
water, still dipping towards the centre of the channel. This induced the Company to drive a
new tunnel which was driven in 145 feet, and a shaft sunk at the end 46 feet, when the water
became too strong for hand power. Then, after considerable delay, suitable machinery was
obtained and put up, taking advantage of the Falls above to utilize the water of Cayoosh
Creek for power. A very compact plant was erected, consisting of a four-foot Pelton wheel,
with gearing to match, connected by suitable, rods through the tunnel with a 6|-inch plunger
pump in the shaft at the end. Since, the work is progressing favourably, until the cold
weather set in, which forced all operations to be suspended until the weather modifies. The
feasibility of this undertaking is clear enough, and all, of course, depends on the amount of
gold found on the bottom, and whether in paying quantities or not.
Quartz along the mountain slopes, bordering along Cayoosh Creek, has received considerable attention the past season.
The Lillooet, Fraser River and Cariboo Mining Company have undertaken, under a long
bond, to prospect and investigate the Bonanza Quartz mining property, and they have done
much work to date, and still working a number of men in prospecting the two lower claims of
the Bonanza Company. From the Bonanza shaft on the high, rugged and narrow ridge at the
upper boundary line of the above claims to the lower cropping and works of the Bonanza
Company (this point is about 300 feet perpendicular above Cayoosh Creek and the principal
base of operations of the present workings), considerable prospecting has been done on both
sides of the ridge and at different points, and considerable quartz is shown up in several places,
carrying more or less gold, but no extensive openings have been made except at the lower old
workings. This having the most promising outlook and the largest outcrop of auriferous
material in sight at that time. Although aware that many geological complications might
arise, the Company went at this in earnest, and as fast as circumstances permitted increased
the force, excavating and breaking down the face of the bank and which resulted in a short
time in showing up a long face of auriferous paying material spread out like a blanket vein—
5 to 10 feet thick and apparently without any defined walls. This rather peculiar conglomeration of vein matter consists of a mixture of schistose material twisted and contorted in all
ways with stringers and bunches of quartz intermingling all through in every conceivable
form, and below the line of decomposition all this vein matter is well impregnated with iron
and arsenical pyrites, all carrying gold.
Having in view the theory that there must be a connection between this auriferous
material and a better defined vein, sinking was then commenced together with some persistent
prospecting on the outside, finally this work showed up a regular vein connecting with the
surface outcrop. It is well defined, varying from 2J to 4 feet in width with a trend of a little
east of south dipping at an angle of about 35 degrees east. The vein matter is somewhat
similar to that of the outcrop, with the exception that a narrow stratum of a hard and much
altered dyke material follows the foot-wall and forming a part of the veins carrying more or
less iron pyrites and gold. The foot-wall is schist and generally well defined, frequently
passing into a seamy shiney black schistose material resembling plumbago.
The hanging wall is not so well defined, except at intervals, and susceptible to many
changes from hard argillaceous slate to a softer and a more yielding slatey foundation—thus the
wall is sometimes smooth and again not so well defined as these changes occur. On discovering this vein a tunnel was at once commenced and pushed ahead and now in 150 feet in a
similar formation, but expecting to intersect a larger deposit of ore at any time, and by next
spring the showing then made will have much bearing as to the merit of the lower end of this
property. Later in the season further prospecting have been carried on by this company on
the north or opposite side of Cayoosh Creek on what is known as the Marshall locations, but
without attaining any satisfactory results owing to the closing in of the season, the snow and
cold  weather making it impractical to continue work any longer until next spring opens.
Much prospecting for quartz, in a small way, has been done along the mountains bordering
Cayoosh Creek and vicinity for many years past, and generally speaking, with rather poor success, not for the lack of quartz, or of the finding of a little gold, but by not finding uniform and 670 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
well defined veins and gold in paying quantities. From a short distance above the mouth of
this creek up to the granite belt above, some 15 miles or more, the mountains on both sides are
high, precipitous and rugged down to the water's edge, or where the lower slopes are less precipitous it is heavily talus laden from the creek high up on the mountain sides. These great
masses of loose rock and debris are the result of accumulations from the disintegration of the
rocks above and unfortunate for the prospector. It hides from view the general formation that,
with the ruggedness of the mountains, make it a hard country for the miner to operate in.
Besides the geological conditions throughout this region are a marvel of complications and seem
to have been roughly handled by the hand of Nature—a more disturbed locality is seldom met
with anywhere. Along the steep and bare mountain declivities, from the highest pinnacle to
the water's edge, can be seen dykes of intrusive rocks of all widths, cutting the slatey formations in all conceivable forms and angles, from horizontal to perpendicular, and rents and
fis-.ures are not uncommon, causing dislocation of the strata. Often the slates are contorted
and twisted and in such a way that it would seem as if the whole region was at one time the
seat of some great dynamic movement. Nevertheless, these dykes are not conclusive evidence
but that auriferous quartz in paying quantities does not exist along this part of the country
and in veins, such as are shown up in the Bonanza ; but on the contrary, the formation of
these dykes may possibly have been the means of forming fissures favouring the conditions for
vein formations. The numerous quartz bunches or deposits, and clusters of quartz stringers
with stratas of schist intervening, carrying iron or arsenical pyrites with here and there a
little prospect of gold, indicate the strong probability that most of this auriferous material was
formed through the action of such agency. With the exception of this dyke material the
formation in general is argillaceous slates and schists showing considerable metamorphism in
places and passing in belts into micaceous talc and chloritic slates and schists, and through all
these classes of rock the quartz bunches and stringers pass. Sometimes in conformity with
the plane of the stratifications, in other places cutting the formations at all angles, such is the
Cayoosh country, and nothing but time and much capital can show whether this has much
merit as a quartz mining region or not.
Yours very truly,
F. Soues, Esq., D. T. Hughes.
Gold Commissioner, Clinton.
Dear Sir,—I have the honour of submitting to you my report on the mining operations
of this district for the year ending 31st December, 1895.
The number of free miners' certificates issued during the year is 404, and the other mining
receipts amount to $2,203.10,
Placer mining shows a considerable decrease from previous years in the estimated output.
The profits from individual placer mining is now so small that the number of white men thus
employed decreases from year to year, and 80 per cent, of this year's yield was taken out by
Chinamen. The different companies who are interested in hydraulic mining are not yet far
enough advanced in their operations to be able to show any results. Further on I give a statement of the estimated output and a description of the various works now in course of construction.
Mineral claims have this year, for the first time, become productive in reality. A large
quantity of ore is now awaiting the opening of navigation for shipment to smelters. The
demand for means of transportation has resulted in the commencement of the construction of 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 671
two new steamers and the enlargement of a third to ply on the Kootenay River. There has
been a large increase in the number of prospectors in the southern part of the district.
Development work has not kept pace with the prospecting, but it is expected the successful
working of some of our mines will attract capital, and that next year will show an improvement in this branch of mining. Further on I give particulars of the development of the
principal mines in the district.
Coal mining has made no progress during the year. Coal is here in enormous quantities,
but it must remain unused until the coal-fields are reached by railways. The principal beds
are in the Crow's Nest Pass, but a promising seam has lately been discovered on the St.
Mary's River.
The oil fields in the south-eastern corner of the district remain undeveloped. I heard that
oil indications have been found outside of the territory which was previously known to be oil-
Placer Mining.
The yield of gold from the various creeks is estimated at—
Wild Horse Creek $13,000 00
Moyie River      2,000 00
Perry Creek      1,500 00
Bull River         700 00
Findlay Creek         200 00
Lost and Man's Creeks  175  00
Canyon Creek	
Total $17,575 00
No amount is put opposite Canyon Creek, as cold weather came on before, the companies
were ready for the clean-up, and the result of their work will not be known till spring.
I would report as follows on the different creeks, commencing at the north :—
Canyon Creek.
A company under the management of P. Leake, Esq., has been working at a point about
a mile and a half above the mouth of the canyon. The canyon here is about 800 feet deep,
with steep rocky sides. A tunnel through solid rock, 7 feet by 5 feet, and 275 feet in length,
and a dam, 70 feet in length by 16 feet in height, have been constructed, and the whole of the
creek has been diverted, laying bare workable gravel 500 feet in length by an average width of
100 feet. Six hundred feet of sluice-boxes, averaging 17 inches in width, are in use. A bedrock ditch is under way, 500 feet, of an average depth of four feet, having been excavated before
frost.    Work will be resumed at the beginning of April.
One mile lower down the creek a flume, 5 feet by 7 feet and 350 feet long, takes all the
water of the creek until medium high-water mark is reached. A shaft had been sunk 25 feet
when the work stopped on account of cold weather; it will be continued in the spring.
In November and December two leases were granted for grounds below the canyon, and
one for grounds above the described works, and an application is under consideration for
another portion higher up the creek.
Toby  Creek.
A considerable amount of work on wing-dams was done in the spring on the lease of one
and a half miles described inlast year's report. The high water carried away most of the improvements, but the lessee intends to try again. Eight leases, covering four miles of the creek, were
granted in December, and it is expected that this locality will be active next summer.
Findlay Creek.
A little washing has been done, and leases covering a mile and a half have lately been
executed, and it is hoped that this well known creek may again be a producing centre.
Wild Horse Creek.
This, the most ancient of the Kootenay placer grounds, has been worked during the season
by Chinamen, and the output shows a  decrease from former years.    More scientific methods 672 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
are required. The East Kootenay Exploration Syndicate are meditating an enlarged hydraulic
plant. The old Nip and Tuck Claim has passed into strong hands. The International Placer
Company are driving a tunnel to a supposed old channel, and had penetrated over 200 feet at
the end of the year, and will work all winter if necessary. Several applications for leases have
been made, and livelier times are expected next year.
Perry Creek.
No new developments have occurred on this creek during the year.
Moyie River.
Work on the tunnel toward an old channel has been continued whenever the water
permitted, and fair pay has been made.
Bull River.
A company has been tunnelling for a back channel, and are still at work, not having
reached it yet.
Gold Creek, near the Boundary Line.
A little desultory work has been done, but the results are not promising.
Mineral Claims on   Vermont Creek, a tributary of the Spillamacheen.
The development work has been continued and a large increase made in the amount of
ore in sight. An experiment has been made in the way of transportation. It has been found
that the heavy horses needed for economical sleigh hauling are not adapted to the soft roads
which are an accompaniment of a heavy snowfall. It was determined to try toboggans with
the ordinary cayuses. The want of snow during the first part of the winter caused delay, but
I am now informed that the experiment has proved a success, and the ore mined last fall will
soon be on the bank of the Columbia River. Work on this mine is stopped for the
winter, but will be resumed in the spring.
Bobbie Burns Claim, in the Bobbie Burns Basin, Spillamacheen River.
This valuable gold property, on which much money has been expended, has lain idle on
account of litigation. A Crown grant has now issued, and it is expected that work will be
resumed as early next spring as the season will permit.
Internationcd Claim at the head of the Middle Fork, Spillamacheen River.
This is another developed gold property which has lain idle during the year. The owner
died in 1894, and the property is in the hands of his administrator, who was not in a position
to work the mine.
Hidden Treasure Claim on Spillamacheen Mountain.
This copper mine is only seven miles from the Columbia River. A considerable amount
of development work was done some years ago, and the assessment work of this year developed
a valuable copper ore, and work was then continued on a larger scale. Ore has been extracted
for a test shipment.
Giant Claim on Spillamaclieen Mountain.
A tunnel has been driven 42 feet, penetrating the ore body eight feet.    The ore is galena.
North Star Mine on Mark Creek, west of Fort Steele.
This is the first mine in the district to be worked on a large scale. A large body of ore
had been exposed in 1893, and subsequently a shaft had been sunk in it to the depth of 65
feet. At the 20-foot level a tunnel has been driven 30 feet. From the tunnel drifts have been
run 10 feet both ways in solid ore. A force of 25 men has been at work since last spring.
Cars are used in the tunnel and a steam hoist in the shaft. Thirty tons a day are being
hauled to the Kootenay River, over a good waggon roacl with only one up grade.    Sleighs are 59 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
found more economical than waggons, and are used when there is enough snow on the ground.
A shipment of 32 tons was made by the last boats of the season. It is reported to have
produced $68.70 to the ton. Steady systematic work is now being done and a large out-put
is expected next year. Contracts have been entered into with two steam navigation companies for the transportation of 5,000 tons of ore.
Sullivan Group on the North Side of Mark Creek.
This group is about two miles from the North Star, but on the other side of the creek.
The first claims were located in 1892. The discoverers have been working on them steadily
and have exposed a large area of ore and are now sinking a shaft to prove the value of the
St. Euqene, on Moyie Lake.
This mine, situate on a mountain side at a slope of 45 degrees, is being well developed.
A continuous vein of 800 feet has been exposed and one tunnel of over 100 feet has been
driven. The owner claims that one thousand tons of ore have been taken from this tunnel
and that three thousand tons more are in sight. Lower down the mountain side another
tunnel has been driven, and it is reported that at 153 feet from its mouth the vein has been
found 120 feet below the level of the upper tunnel.
Peter, on Moyie Lake.
This claim is being developed with a view to economical working. It is only a quarter of
a mile from the St. Eugene. A waggon road will have to be constructed from the lake to
Cranbrooke, from which point there is a good road to the Kootenay River.
The Dibble Group on Lost Creek, in the Rocky Mountains.
A sample shipment of four tons of ore was sent from these mines to a smelter at Everett,
and gave returns of 132 ounces of silver, $1.75 gold, and 3 per cent, copper to the ton. The
group has beeir bonded to a Mr. Chisholm, of Helena, Montana, who is having a 200-foot
tunnel driven.
Other Mineral Claims.
On the other mines of the district little more than assessment work has been done.
Valuable prospects are numerous, but capital is needed to work them. Large tracts of land
are still unexplored, and with the influx of capital an impetus will be given to further
The followina; is a list of the localities in which there are now mineral claims in force:—
Mining Division,
Prairie Mountain	
Porcupine Creek	
Field Mountain	
Otter Tail Creek	
Cariboo Basin	
Gold quartz.
Gold quartz.
Galena and gold.
Gold quartz.
Gold, galena.
Gold, bismuth, galena.
Carbonate Mountain	
Crystal Creek	
Vermont Creek	
J ubilee Mourr tain	
Spillmacheen Mountain	
Bugaboo Creek	
Driftwood Creek	
Copper, galena.
Copper, galena.
Gold qirartz.
Gold quartz.
Gold quartz.
Gold quartz.
Horse Thief Creek	
Copper. 674
Report of the Minister of Mines.
The following is a list of the localities in which there are now mineral claims in force.-
Mining Division.
Toby Creek	
Thunder Hill	
Sheep Creek 	
Wolf Creek	
Gold quartz and galena.
No report.
No report.
Gold, iron sulphurets.
Port Steele	
Wild Horse Creek	
Bull River	
Grey copper, galena.
Gold, iron pyrites.
Mark Creek	
Copper pyrites.
Steel, galena, iron, etc.
Gold, copper.
Grey copper and gold.
No report.
No report.
St. Mary's River	
Perry Creek 	
Tracey Creek 	
Morris Creek	
White Grouse Mountain	
Moyie Lake and River	
The Honourable
The Minister of Mines.
I have,
J. F.
Gold Commissioner.
Nelson Division.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual mining report and statistics for the southern portion of West Kootenay for the year 1895.
The following is taken from a comprehensive report furnished by Mr. A. Sproat, Mining
Recorder, Slocan Division, West Kootenay.
Slocan Recording Subdivision.
Of the many claims in the above subdivision, the following are chosen for particular
mention :—
Slocan   Star.
This claim has probably been more systematically developed than any other within the
subdivision. No. 4 Tunnel has been driven in 750 feet, and an upraise, which is within 10 feet
of being connected, has been put through from No. 4 to No. 3 Tunnel. The ledge in No. 4
Tunnel was struck at a distance of 575 feet, the ore being of a little higher grade than in No.
3 Tunnel. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 675
No. 3 Tunnel is in 650 feet, and on this level most of the ore shipped has been obtained.
No. 4 Tunnel will be worked for ore, and more men employed as soon as the upraise is
Since July, 1894, 2,000 feet of tunnelling have been run.
400 tons have been shipped from Three Forks, and now that the railroads have reached
Sandon, about one mile from the mine, a carload is being shipped every day. Thirty-one men
are employed.
A concentrator, of 112 feet by 42 feet dimensions, with a capacity of 120 tons per diem,
is now under construction, and some of the machinery has arrived. A large amount of concentrating ore is awaiting the completion of the concentrator, which is about 1,500 feet from
the mine, and is connected by a tramway. The motive power will be water. At present the
mine is shipping to Tacoma, Wash., U.S.A.
Noble Five Group.
The Bonanza King is the claim of this group upon which most work has been done. No.
3 Tunnel has been driven in 400 feet, which gives a depth of 350 feet. 1,000 feet of tunnelling has been done this year. Have 200 tons of ore ready to be rawhided to Cody Creek ; 100
tons have been shipped this summer.    Twenty-four men are at present employed.
On the World's Fair, also in the above group, a tunnel has been driven 150 feet, and this
claim is working in conjunction with the Bonanza King. These claims are being worked by
the original locators, who estimate thousands of tons of ore "in sight."
Recau Group.
Work this year was commenced in August with a force of 40 men; in all, 6 tunnels, each
of which has been extended 150 feet.
All this work has been done on the Recau. There are 100 tons of ore ready to ship,
which it is said will average 400 ozs. of silver per ton. There is a depth of 700 feet on one
lead which at present is strong and continuous.   .
A trail on a fairly good grade has been built to Sandon, on which about $1,200 has been
A tunnel has been driven in about 400 feet. There are about 300 tons of high grade ore
ready for shipment.
A shaft has been sunk 60 feet, and ore is at present being taken out from it. A total
depth of 200 feet has been attained.    Twelve men are at work.
This claim is a fraction, lying near the Recau, and has a small lead of very rich ore; at
present the owners are driving a tunnel, and are in about 200 feet. No. 2 Tunnel is in about
150 feet, and is 65 feet below the surface. 35 tons of ore are ready for shipment. 20 tons of
ore were shipped this summer and realized $6,875.    Ten men are at work.
Last Chance.
Work has been by tunnelling and shafts. Ore is obtained from each opening and 500 tons
have been blocked out, which it is estimated will yield $150 per ton. Two cars of oar shipped
this autumn netted respectively, $210 and $200 per ton.
This claim is regarded as one of the most promising in Slocan.    Twelve men are at work.
Payne Group.
On the Payne mine a tunnel has been driven on the ledge 180 feet, giving a depth of 75
feet; 2 upraises have been made to surface.    Thirty tons of  ore have been shipped this year.
Mountain  Chief.
Tunnels have been driven on the ledge 400 feet, giving a depth of 150 feet; 3 upraises to
surface.     160 tons of ore shipped during the year. 676 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Maid of Erin.
Tunnel on ledge, 60 feet. From this group it is intended by the end of March, 1896, to
ship 500 tons of ore.    Twelve men are steadily employed.
One tunnel has been run for 90 feet, another for 135 feet. One shaft sunk about 40
feet. From these openings 100 tons of ore have been taken out and will be shipped from
Cody Creek as soon as practicable.    Ten men are at work.
This claim, which has remained unworked all summer, has just now started up with 15
men. A tramway from the mine to the concentrator, now under construction, is 1,500 feet in
length. Twenty thousand tons of concentrating ore are now on the dump. A waggon road
has been completed from McGuigan Basin to McGuigan Siding on the Kaslo Railroad.
Fifteen men are working.
Owners are running a crosscut to cut the vein, at present in about 150 feet, and expect
to run 50 feet more.    Ten men are steadily employed.
Ten men are at present engaged in putting up winter quarters and erecting hoist for the
purpose of sinking shaft.    About 40 tons of ore have been shipped.
Ruby Silver.
A tunnel has been run 120 feet, and 12 men are now employed stoping ore and erecting
buildings for the winter.
About 10 men engaged in putting up winter quarters. Probably 35 tons of ore are ready
for shipment.    It is expected 100 tons of ore will be shipped this season.
Five men are at work on a contract to run a tunnel for 300 feet, which will give a depth
of 175 feet. One shaft has been sunk 100 feet. The owners are pursuing development
One tunnel in 75 feet, another 50 feet, another 45 feet. Forty-seven tons of ore have
been shipped.    Six men are at work.
Dardanelles Group.
The claims in this group have been idle all summer, but are now leased to parties who
will at once commence shipping, and it is expected that 100 tons of ore will be shipped by the
end of the year.    Six men are at work.
Slocan Boy.
Owners have let a contract to extend the shaft 100 feet. Two carloads of ore are ready
for shipment.    Five men are employed erecting winter quarters and building several houses.
R. E. Lee.
Thirteen men, working at present, are building a short tramway. Thirty-five tons of ore
have been shipped, and 50 tons are now awaiting transportation.
Mountain Chief No. 2.
This property, which has shipped altogether 700 tons of ore, has been worked very little
lately. Two men have contracts to drive development tunnels. One tunnel is to be driven
500 feet, another 300 feet, which will give a depth of about 600 feet from the surface. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 677
Development work was done on this claim during the past summer. No. 1 Tunnel, 80
feet long, No. 2 Tunnel, 50 feet, and No. 3 Tunnel, 30 feet, giving a depth of 80 feet.
Lucky Jim.
The Company expect to work all winter. This claim is situated alongside the Kaslo &
Slocan Railway.    About 40 tons of ore have been shipped, and a tunnel extended 80 feet.
Owners have let contract to drive a tunnel 400 feet, at a depth of 350 feet below other
tunnels, for the purpose of development. Five hundred feet of tunnelling were done during
last summer, and about 150 tons of ore were shipped. Two hundred tons are expected to be
shipped by the middle of January, 1896.    Eighteen men are at work.
This company have run tunnels about 400 feet, and are now upraising to the surface.
Twelve men have been principally engaged in stoping ore from the level. The carbonates from
this claim run very high in silver. One hundred tons of ore have been shipped this summer,
and 100 tons are now ready for transportation ; they expect to ship 200 tons in addition by
March rrext. The ore is taken to Pilot Bay Smelter. A contract was let for a lower tunnel,
200 feet, which is now completed ; this gives a depth of 400 feet from the surface, and in the
face of this tunnel there is a little galena.
There is a good showing of ore on this claim. The owners have lately started to work,
and will rawhide ore to Sandon. Five men are employed. The ledge has been crosscut 22 feet,
without reaching either of the walls.
Three hundred feet of tunnelling have been run on this claim. Work will soon be commenced.     The ledge is supposed to be the same as the Slocan Star.
The Eureka lies between this claim and the Slocan Star. A tunnel has been run on the
Richmond for 40 feet, and there is now in sight one foot of ore. One carload has been shipped,
and it is expected shipments -will be made through the winter.
This claim contains a very large quantity of concentrating ore.
A shaft has been sunk 50 feet and a drift run for development purposes from the bottom
of the shaft to strike the ledge which at the point of connection contained 7 feet of concentrating ore.
Four men have a contract to drive a development tunnel at a depth of 225 feet from the
surface. This property, which has shipped 1,400 tons of ore, requires development before it
can again be a producer.
Work for development has been done as follows :—1 tunnel, 45 feet; 1 crosscut, 20 feet;
another crosscut, 15 feet.
Two tunnels, 40 feet and 20 feet.
One tunnel, 200 feet, and about 18 inches of ore in sight.
The above three claims have been idle this year. 678 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
One shaft has been sunk 45 feet, and 1 tunnel run for 290 feet. Six hundred feet of
work has been done, principally for development.
This property has been systematically developed since it was taken hold of by the company
at present operating it. 1,400 feet of tunnelling have been run, the lowest tunnel giving a
depth, vertically, of 360 feet; all the openings show ore. The ore from this claim is taken
down on a tramway about 4 miles long to a concentrator built last year. All the ore is concentrated, running 2| to 1 ton, and averaging 153 ounces. Twenty tons of ore are treated every
day.     Forty-six men are employed at the mine.
This company have been doing developing work this year, with 10 men. Lower tunnel is
in about 400 feet; have 250 tons of ore ready for shipment and 600 tons of concentrating ore
to go through the mill.
Owners are running 2 tunnels for development; 1 tunnel is now in 240 feet and the other
285 feet. This lower tunnel is 900 feet below the surface. Some distance must be run before
the ledge can be struck.    Eight men are at work.
This mine is shut clown for the winter. One tunnel has been run 165 feet. The other
development work consists of 2 tunnels, 115 and 125 feet respectively.
Three hundred feet of tunnelling have been run on this claim, and 45 tons of ore shipped.
Operations on the above two claims will commence next spring.
Enterprise & Slocan Queen,
Situated up Ten-Mile Creek, Slocan Lake, are the first to have been worked by any force
of men south of New Denver or directly tributary to Slocan Lake below Four-Mile Creek.
They have been bonded for a year. One tunnel is in 100 feet and another 80 feet, both
on the ledge. The ore body averages about 5 to 8 in width all the way in the tunnels. The
ledge is small and in granite. The ore is a dry one and of a good grade. Twelve men are at
This claim is a dry ore property, being rich in silver. A tunnel has been run 65 feet on
the ledge developing about 8 inches of ore.
This claim has been leased for 12 months to four men. A tunnel has been run for 80
feet and 6 tons of ore shipped. About a carload will be ready by February next. It is a rich
dry ore.
Howard Fraction.
This claim was located last August and has been worked by five men, the original locators.
Seven tons of ore have been shipped to Pilot Bay, realizing, net, $103 per ton. The owners
intend working all winter.    The ore carries gold and silver and is a reddish dry quartz.
Is of the same character and quality as the preceding and is being worked by the locators
who are driving a tunnel on the ledge. Five tons of ore have been shipped, the owners realizing enough to pay for their winter supplies. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. ■      679
Silver   King.
Owners are running a tunnel and are now in 55 feet.
The above three claims are situated on the divide between Springer and Lemon Creeks.
Assessment work has been done on about 25 claims in this vicinity since August. Owing to
this mineral country being mostly discovered in August and September, prior to the completion of the trail, but few prospectors erected winter quarters, the report therefore on the
workings of these claims is limited.
In addition to the claims above mentioned a few small properties have been leased to two
or three men who will work them, and who expect on account of improved transportation
facilities to make more than wages.
Ore can now be taken from Sandon and other points and delivered at Pilot Bay for $4.00
per ton. This rate enables the small producer to get his ore out at a small cost and to receive
quick returns.
The following claims are now under lease, and are worked by the holders of the leases:—
" Soho," " St. Keverne," " Keystone," " Slocan Boy," " Ajax," " Ruby Silver," " Dardanelles,"
" Kalispell," "Lucky Jim," "Chambers," "Red Fox." Probably from each of these and
others small lots of ore will be shipped during the present winter. In many cases the claims
are in the hands of poor men, who proceed to obtain ore and ship it. Frequently claims are
entirely dug out on the surface, necessitating a long interval of development work before they
can be again be made remunerative.
Prospecting during the year has been principally confined to Springer Creek, Lemon
Creek, and their tributaries.
At first locations were made from three to seven miles up Springer Creek, tending up to
the summit of the divide between Springer and Lemon Creeks, and over into the basins of the
latter. A great number of claims were staked in red quartz, lying in the granite. Upon
assays being made this red quartz was found to contain native silver, and in several cases gold.
Prospectors who have been through to Kootenay Inlet, from the foot of Slocan Lake, have
found a comparatively easy route, and estimate the distance across to be twenty-two miles.
Three hundred records have been made from this part of the Slocan Subdivision this
summer, and of this number one man holds interests in sixteen claims, three men hold interests in twenty-one, and six other men hold interests in eighteen, all by location and records of
nominal transfers.
Of other creeks, 10-Mile Creek, Slocan Lake, received the most attention. The ore is
similar to that discovered along Springer, but different from that on the Lemon divide, which
carries gold.    Both Springer and Lemon Creeks have trails along them.
A number of claims have been located round and about Sandon and Cody Creeks, but
most of them are re-locations and fractions. These are regarded as of doubtful value. They
were probably staked for speculative purposes, as two railroads terminating there it is expected
there will probably be a boom.
Three tramways have been built in the Slocan Subdivision, one concentrator completed
and two are under construction.
It is confidently expected that at least 30,000 tons of ore will be shipped from this subdivision during the year 1896.
Number of Records made (claims) 630
Number of Certificates of Work issued 500
Number of Bills of Sale recorded 400
Number of Certificates of Improvements issued    14
Number of Crown Grants issued    15
Number of Bonds and Agreements recorded    27
From the Trout-Cariboo Creeks, section of Slocan Subdivision, the resident Government
Officer, Mr. F. G. Fauquier, reports increased mining activity and augmented numbers
The early locations were made principally on Mineral and Granite Creeks, and Blue
Grouse Canyon, western tributaries of Cariboo Creek, and later, on Canyon and Snow Creeks,
flowing from the east, while some claims were located at its head.
Several branches have been made along the various creeks from the trunk trail cut by the
Government Assessment work has been recorded on 25 claims within the field and work
has been done on others, notice of which is not yet on the books. 680 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Though little comparatively is known of the value and extent of the discoveries in this
section they have been of sufficient importance to attract the attention of practical miners and
investors. In September last mineral was discovered on Van Houten Creek running into
Lower Arrow Lake nearly opposite Fire Valley, in the neighbourhood of which 53 locations
have been recorded.    Ore from one of these assayed 115 ounces in silver and 76 per cent. lead.
The following are the statistics of this portion of the subdivision :—
Number of Records made (claims) 210
Number of Certificates of Work issued    25
Number of Bills of Sale recorded    89
Ainsworth Recording Subdivision.
Of the Ainsworth Recording Subdivision, Mr. John Keen, Recorder, reports as follows :—
The favourite localities this year for development work have been the Whitewater and
Lyle Creeks, commonly called the "dry ore" belt, Jackson Basin and Creek, White Grouse
Mountain and creeks, the north side of Kootenay River, and east side of Kootenay Lake;
also the Duncan River, East River, Howser Lake and creeks tributary thereto. In this
particular locality, several heavy bonds have been entered into for the purchase of the Wagner
group, Gallop group, and other small groups of claims which are being tested this winter.
A much larger proportion of the claims is being worked this year, and a larger number of
men are employed thereon than in any previous winter, owing doubtless to the increased
facilities for the economical transportation of ore, and the delivery of provisions at the camps.
In proof of this statement, I have obtained from the Customs Officer the amount of ore
exported to the United States and Pilot Bay during the year.
To the United States    3,855,511 lbs.
To Pilot Bay       403,000 lbs.
The following are the statistics :—
Number of claims recorded    410
Number of certificates of work issued    363
Number of transfers recorded    384
Of the Ainsworth or Hot Springs camp, in the above subdivision, Mr. T. J. Lendrum, J.
P., residing there, says :—
During the years 1893-4, very little work was done in this camp. However, owing to
the slight i'ise in silver, and more particularly to the fact that the Kootenay Mining and
Smelting Company's smelter at Pilot Bay was completed and successfully run in the early
part of the present year, a stimulus was given to mining generally on Kootenay Lake, and
especially to this camp, situated as it is about 7 miles north-west of the smelter. Since the
early part of the present year several mines have been working, and the ore mined has been
shipped to Pilot Bay, viz.:—
Skyline  1,500 tons.
Number One  1,530 >.
Lady of the Lake  7 n
Dellie    12 „
Mile Point  55 „
Highlander   5 n
Can. Pac. Mg. Co  75 „
To the United States there has been shipped as follows:—
Little Phil    100    >,
Black Diamond    249    n
Total shipments 3,533    n 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 681
This is supposed to be one of the best properties in the camp, and on which the greatest
amount of development work has been done. A main shaft, 200 feet, has been sunk. An
incline shaft, 200 feet deep on the ledge, has also been sunk. From the bottom of the first
shaft at the 200-foot level, a crosscut tunnel has been run to connect with the incline shaft.
All the ore and waste is thrown into the incline and hoisted by a powerful hoist up the perpendicular shaft to the surface.
The character of the ore is what is termed dry ore, and is in great demand at the different
smelters for its fluxing properties.
The ore body has an average of seven feet in width, and an average value of 75 ounces in
silver to the ton. About 15 tons per day have been shipped to Pilot Bay, and since the first
of August 1,500 tons have been shipped. Twelve men have been constantly employed in the
mine since work started. This mine is situated six miles west of Ainsworth, at an altitude
of 5,500 feet.
Number One.
This mine is now being worked under lease. Over three thousand feet of tunnels, upraises, drifts, etc., have been run on the property.
The ore body has been exposed for a distance of 50 feet in the lower drift, and has an
average width of 3 feet. It will average in value 75 ounces in silver per ton. One thousand
five hundred and thirty tons of ore have been shipped to Pilot Bay during the year, which
gave a net return of $38,000. About 1,000 tons erf concentrating ore are now on the dump,
which will be run through the concentrator during the coming spring. This ore is a dry
one and like that of the Skyline is a good flux. A 50-ton concentrator is erected on the
claim, and has worked continuously during the year.    Twenty men are steadily employed.
Little Phil.
A crosscut tunnel has been run between this claim and the Black Diamond, which serves
as a working tunnel for both properties ; distance, 440 feet. The tunnel cuts two ledges or
veins. On the first there is a drift 200 feet long, which shows the vein to be 36 feet wide of
concentrating ore, which produces 10 to 30 ounces in silver, and 15 to 30 per cent, lead per
ton, with occasional bodies of clean ore. One hundred tons of this clean ore have been shipped,
which averaged 30 ozs. in silver, and 65 per cent, lead per ton.
On the second vein a drift, 45 feet, has been run, which shows the ledge to be 16 feet
wide, carrying a concentrating ore body on the hanging wall of 4 feet. From 2 to 4 men have
been constantly employed on this claim during the year.
Black Diamond.
Two hundred and forty-nine tons of clean ore have been shipped from the first vein of
this property, and is of the same character of ore as that shipped from the Little Phil. It is
expected that the owners of these two claims will erect a concentrator in the near future for
the purpose of treating their ores.
Mile Point.
About 380 feet of tunnels and drifts have been run on this property. The ledge is about
6 feet wide, and shows.the ore body to have, an average width of 3 feet, and an average value
of 75 ozs. in silver and 10 per cent, lead per ton. Fifty-five tons of the ore have been shipped
to Pilot Bay smelter. The ore carries considerable iron and manganese, which makes it good
for fluxing.
Pumping machinery will be shortly erected to keep the mine clear of water as depth is
attained, the mine being situated on the lake shore.    Six men are employed.
This is a very promising property, and a great amount of development work has been
done during the year. The main tunnel has been run in 600 feet. From this tunnel an
upraise has been made, connecting with an upper tunnel 75 feet in length. Several crosscuts
have been made on the workings, which show   the vein  to  be about  25  feet in width.    All 682
Report of the Minister of Mines.
tunnels and upraises are in ore, principally concentrating. It will concentrate 4 to 1, and
make a value af 40 ozs. in silver and 70 per cent, lead per ton. It is the intention of the
owners to erect concentrating plant next spring.    Four men are constantly employed.
vein 125 feet from the surface, and a drift,
but owing  to  the great amount of
A crosscut tunnel has been run, cutting the
100 feet, has been run south on the vein.
A shaft, 60 feet  deep, has  been  sunk  in  the  drift,
water encountered work was discontinued.
The vein is about 28 feet wide, showing ore bodies, that on the foot wall being about 1
foot in width of solid ore, which will assay 40 ozs. in silver and 50 per cent, lead per ton.
The ore body on the hanging wall is about 14 inches in width.
A small shipment of this ore was made to Pilot Bay, which gave a return of 150 ozs.
silver and 12 per cent, lead per ton. The ore is of much the same character as that of the
Mile Point claim.
Amazon, Budweiser, and Wakefield.
Considerable work has been done on these claims. Four hundred feet of tunnelling have
been run, which show a vein 6 feet wide, principally concentrating ore. Seventy-five tons
have been shipped to Pilot Bay smelter, which have given good returns An air compressor
is being erected to expedite the work, which will be run by water.
One hundred and forty-eight feet of tunnels and shafts have been run on this property,
which show a vein 6 feet wide, principally concentrating ore. A small shipment has been
brought down to the lake shore, which assays 40 ozs. silver and 65 per cent, lead per ton.
A great many promising properties have
able work has been done in the past 4 years,
be resumed during the coming year.
been lying idle in this camp on which consider-
On some of these it is expected that work will
The subjoined list of claims, with amount of work done on them, may be of interest :-
Name of Claim.
Spokane and Trinket
Krao    ....
Eden and Crescent  .
E. W. R	
Lady of the Lake....
King Solomon	
Early Bird	
New Jerusalem	
Last Chance	
Crow Fledgling	
Noble Three	
Amount and description of work done.
feet of tunnels and shafts.
of shafts and drifts.
ii ii
of shaft,
of shafts and tunnels.
ii     and drifts,
of tunnelling,
of shaft.
of tunnel and shaft,
of shaft.
of tunnel and shaft,
of shaft,
of tunnel and shaft.
of shaft.
and crosscut. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 683
Pilot Bay Smelter
Is in the Ainsworth Recording Subdivision, and for the following notice in respect to it I
am indebted to the courtesy of A. B. Hendryx, Esq., part owner and general manager :—
The first visit to the Kootenay Lake country by those owning and controlling the Company's interests was made eleven yaars ago last October irr a row-boat from Bonner's Ferry,
Idaho, for the purpose of examining and purchasing the Blue Bell properties.
The purchase of the property was made, and a force of men immediately put to work on
it, the stock interests being largely taken by our President, Edwin W. Herrick, of Minneapolis,
Minn., and myself, who are still the principal owners of the Company's stock.
The Kootenay Mining and Smelting Co. at present own, upon a peninsula extending into
the Kootenay Lake, and called the Hendryx Peninsula, ten claims and two water rights,
which include the Blue Bell, Silver King, Golconda, Arcade, Calcium, and Hendryx Nos. 1, 2,
3, 4. The Company also own several claims in the Ainsworth Camp, which is on the opposite
side of the Lake, a little south of the Hendryx Peninsula. The principal ones are the Blue
Bird and Siberia.
The Company's works for sampling, concentrating, roasting or calcining, and smelting are
located upon the east side of the Kootenay Lake, ten miles southerly from the peninsula, and
directly opposite the Kootenay Lake outlet, through which all incoming waters to the
Kootenay Lake discharge. The outlet is the water communication between the works and
Nelson, a distance of about 20 miles.
The works are so located as to command two good harbours, the neck of land between
them being only a few hundred feet wide, being also midway between the north and south ends
of Kootenay Lake.
The machinery in the various departments is of the latest and most improved type, as
shown by the results during the brief period the works have been completed and working, and
consist of an automatic sampling works, capable of sampling 250 to 300 tons of ore per diem ;
a roasting department, consisting of five roasting or calcining furnaces; one 100-ton water-
jacket furnace.
The concentrating works, blower for smelting stack, and electrical plant are each run by
a separate engine. The machine shop is completely equipped with lathe, planers, compound
drilling machine, bolt and pipe-cutting machines, together with blacksmith and carpenter
shops, all supplied with up-to-date machinery.
The works were complete enough to commence the treatment of ores in March last. A
shipment of bullion was commenced March 16th, since which time to December 30th, 1895,
there have been shipped 3,220 tons of silver-lead bullion, and the furnace or smelting stack
has not been in blast half the time. From January 1st to December 31st, 1895, 52,000 tons
of ore were mined from the Blue Bell claims and transported to the works, consisting of first
and second class or concentrating ore, lime rock for fluxing, etc. A considerable percentage
of this ore is yet in the works, and being submitted to the various necessary treatments before
The Company bought of the neighbouring mines located on and near the Kootenay Lake,
during the year 1895, 2,500 tons of ore, which contained a gold, silver, and lead value of
$156,404 ; and although it has been demonstrated the Company can successfully run on the
Blue Bell ores alone, it is and will be the policy of the Company to purchase any and all ores
produced irr the Kootenay country, making the plant a custom smelter, that is desirous of
purchasing ores from neighbouring mine owners.
Although this Company is really but just entering upon the first stages of its possible
developments, a review of some of the expenditures may be interesting.
Since commencing operations to finish the works, July 10th, 1894, to Slst December,
1895, the Kootenay Mining & Smelting Company have expended in cash for purchases
of machinery, labour, ores, etc., a sum exceeding $650,000. During the year 1895, the Company have averaged to employ over 200 men daily, and have paid from their office on labour
account $170,000; for supplies, $85,622; for duties, $70,000; for freights, $92,500; for ores
purchased, over $150,000.
White Grouse Mountain Camp,
Situated about 17 miles east of a point known as Davie, eight miles south of Pilot Bay,
has about 30 locations. Assessment work has been done on 14. The character of the ore is
grey copper. 684 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
The ledges, so far as developed, average 5 feet in width. The claim owners are sanguine
as to the richness of the camp. The assays, up to the present, average 60 ounces in silver,
$10 in gold, and 15 % copper per ton. A good trail has been made, and there is now no difficulty in reaching the camp with horses.
Goat River Recording Subdivision.
Compared with other subdivisions of the Southern Division of West Kootenay, the work
done at Goat River is insignificant.
This is due chiefly to its remoteness from established lines of certain transportation.
The claim owners, however, express themselves as being satisfied with their prospects and
the richness of the section generally, and look hopefully forward to conditions under which
they may soon steadily prosecute their labours.
Official statistics are unobtainable, the Record Office being almost wholly isolated.
The following is taken from a report furnished by Mr. W. J. Goepel, Mining Recorder!
Nelson Recording sub-division.
Nelson Recording Subdivision.
Hall Mines, Limited.
The main group of claims owned by this company is comprised of the Silver King,
Kootenai Bonanza, American Flag, and Koh-i-noor, which are situated on Toad Mountain,
four and one-half miles south of Nelson.
The development work during the year has been confined chiefly to the Silver King-
A winze has been sunk in the main ore body to a depth of 135 feet from the No. 4
tunnel, and is still in ore. In No. 3 tunnel a shaft has been sunk for 65 feet, and is also in
No. 5 tunnel has been driven from a point 210 feet below No 4, on the main vein, which
is exposed on the surface. This tunnel is in 85 feet, and shows more or less ore throughout
its entire distance. Ore of a high grade has been proved beyond this point by a diamond
drill, which gives certain assurance of a continuous ore body.
Boring operations have also been carried on to the south of No. 4 tunnel, and at that
point two separate ore bodies have been proved. The first was struck at a depth of 280 feet
from the surface, and continued to 340 feet. The second was struck at 416 feet from the
surface, and continued to 449 feet. The core shows heavy yellow and grey copper, with traces
of peacock. Another hole was sunk to prove the depth of the vein, and ore was tapped at 820
feet, showing grey copper. On the Kootenai Bonanza, an adjoining claim, boring operations
have been crowned with equal success.
The Company estimate the ore in sight to be upwards of 120,000 tons.
In addition to the above work other improvements have been made.
An aerial ropeway has been erected, extending from the Silver King mine to the Town
of Nelson, a distance of four and a half miles. This line is supplied with 875 buckets, of a
combined delivering capacity of ten tons of ore per hour. The ropeway has so far delivered
2,000 tons.
At the Nelson terminus a one-stack water-jacket smelter is in course of erection, and is
expected to be finished about the 15th January next. This smelter will have a daily capacity
of 100 tons. By this method the ore is concentrated into a "matte," and on a basis of reduction of 7 tons to 1, the matte should have a value of 300 ozs. in silver, 45 per cent, copper,
and t\ oz. gold per ton.
This value refers to the low grade ore at present being transported from the mine  dump. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 685
Two engines, 80 and 50 H.P. respectively, are in position, supplied by a horizontal tubular boiler, 60 inches in diameter, by 16 feet long. The former engine will run the smelter
" blower," and the latter the machinery in the sampling mill. The sampling mill is supplied
with crushers, rollers, and samplers, and has a capacity of 100 tons per diem.
It is the intention of the Company to build a " roaster " in the spring in connection with
their works, and possibly add another stack ; this would more than double the capacity, and
enable the Company to treat outside ores.
The Company have expended during the year about $140,000.
One hundred men are steadily employed.
Other claims owned by the Company on Toad Mountain are the J. M. B., Jessie, Daylight,
and Bid.
On this mine, adjoining the Silver King on the west, little has been done this year in the
shape of development work. Owners anticipate opening up in the spring, and putting the
mine in proper condition for shipping.
Grizzly Bear, Ivanhoe, and Iroquois.
On these claims and many other old locations on Toad Mountain, adjacent to the Silver
King, little or no work has been done, but it is reasonable to suppose that, with the successful
operations of the Hall Mines, a general impetus will be given to mining in this particular-
This claim lies parallel to the Silver King, about half a mile west, in the gold-bearing belt.
A large amount of development work has been done this year ; about 500 feet of tunnels and
drifts have been run on the vein, costing about $7,000. The vein is about 5 feet wide, and
averages $15 in free gold per ton. Fourteen men have been steadily enrployed. Work is now
discontinued, but will be resumed in the spring. On the Golden Star claim, au extension of
the Starlight, a small amount of work has been done, showing the ore to be of similar character.
This claim is situated about three and a half miles south from Nelson, and is now under
bond to Eastern capitalists. The ore is base, gold ; the deposit is very large, and averages
about $30 per ton.
Fern Group.
On the Fern and Eureka, situated at the head of Hall Creek, also gold-bearing properties,
a stamp mill has been erected for the purpose of thoroughly testing the claims. The vein on
the Fern is well defined, about 4 feet wide, and runs about $15 to $25 per ton. These claims
are under bond for sale.
Gold Locations.
Owing to transportation facilities offered by the Nelson & Fort Shephard Railway, a great
deal of attention has been paid by prospectors to the district lying immediately south of
Nelson, and extending for a distance of 35 miles. Over 200 claims have been recorded, which
are tributary to that line. The camp which has come mostly into prominence is that section
between Lost Creek and Sheep Creek, which empty into the Salmon River, and known as Iron
Mountain, being about 10 miles south-east from Salmon Siding. Experts claim that the ore
from this locality is of the same quality as that produced by the War Eagle and Le Roi mines
on Red Mountain. Assays from the surface have shown as high as $70 in gold per ton. Up
to the present, however, little has been done to prove the permanence of any of the veins.
Gold claims have also been located on the West Arm of Kootenay Lake, seven miles east
from Nelson, which assay well on the surface, and, having large ore bodies, warrant further
development.    Notably among these may be mentioned the Ray of Hope.
Claims of similar character have also been located at the head of Yuill Creek, 15 miles
east from Nelson, and through this pass prospectors claim an easy route to the Slocan Lake,
distance 22 miles.
Of the claims situated west of Nelson in the gold belt, excepting on the Poorman Group,
little work has been done.    On that claim a shaft has  been sunk  90  feet in the main drift, 686 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
which has also been extended 40 feet in ore, and an upraise made to the surface 50 feet. One
thousand tons of ore have been stoped, crushed, and put through the 10-stamp mill owned by
the Company, the returns in gold bullion amounting to $20,000.
Royal  Canadian.
On this claim, situated two miles west from the Poorman, about $2,000 have been expended
in development work.
A large number of claims have been located between the above and Rover Creek, covering a distance of seven miles, showing good free milling prospects.
At the headwaters of Rover Creek, on the Whitewater group of claims, only development
work has been done.
Present indications point to a large gold production from the gold belt to the west and
south-west of Nelson.
Number of claims recorded 403
Number of transfers recorded 143
Number of certificates of work issued 110
Placer Mining.
In this connection, brief mention must be made of the operations of the Nelson Hydraulic
Company, who hold a lease of one and one-quarter miles on 49-Creek, about nine miles west
from Nelson.
This Company have been working steadily all summer with one monitor, and their clean
up is estimated at $4,000. A very small proportion of the claim has been worked, and the
Company look forward to good returns during the coming season.
On Hall Creek, south of Nelson, a small amount of placer mining has been carried on,
and the total yield from all sources on this creek is estimated at $1,000.
On the Salmon River little more than sufficient work to hold leases has been done, and
the output of gold is therefore nominal.
On the Pen d'Oreille River a large amount of money has been expended by the Kootenai
Hydraulic Company in erecting pumping machinery for the purpose of supplying water to
work their claims on the north side of the river, and it is expected that the coming year will
show a great revival of placer mining on this river. The Company own leases over seven
claims, and employ about twenty men.
Number of claims recorded    8
Number of transfers recorded    0
Number of leases existing 17
Statement showing Leases existing.
Pen d'Oreille River  7
Salmon River  7
Hall Creek  1
Forty-nine Creek      ,  2
Total 17
Statement showing Gold Production.
Quartz, Poorman mine  $20,000
Placer, Hall Creek  1,000
Placer,  Forty-nine Creek  4,000
Placer, Salmon and Pen d'Oreille Rivers  500
Total   $25,500 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 687
Statement showing Mining Revenue for the year ending Slst   December, 1895, in the
southern portion of West Kootenay.
F.M.C. Mining Receipts.
Nelson    $ 3,042 00 $ 3,154 45
New Denver        3,217 00 4,246 35
Kaslo        3,644 00 3,238 71
Nakusp (North Riding)           791 00 825 00
Goat River           331  00 224 00
Trail (North Riding)        9,026 00 8,782 95
Total   $20,051 00 $20,471 46
Trail Creek Recording Subdivision.
The following is Mr. Kirkup's (Recorder) report :—
Number of claims recorded 1,997
Number of placer claims recorded         4
Number of bills of sale, bonds, etc., recorded 1,155
Number of certificates of work issued          213
Number of certificates of improvements recorded         4
Number of abandonments recorded       12
Number of water grants recorded         1
In addition to the above, Mr. H, C. Jackson kindly sends the following, which, in view
of the frequently recurring published reports of the discoveries, working and progress of mines
in this subdivision, will, I trust, be deemed sufficient.
During the year 1895 the Trail Creek Mining Division has experienced a most wonderful development.    As evidence of this the following facts may be recited :
Two thousand mineral claims were recorded at Rossland, making a total of 2,200 live
mineral claims in the division on the 31st inst.
The customs collections at Rossland for the last five months of the year were $25,000 ;
at Trail, $10,000 ; at Waneta, $8,000, amounting to one-half of the collections of the port of
Nelson, which includes practically the whole of the West Kootenay District, except Revelstoke. The collections for the first seven months undoubtedly equalled, if they did not exceed,
these figures.
The population of Rossland and surroundings a year ago was about 300, now it is estimated at possibly 3,000.
The Town of Trail a year ago had a population of less than 50, to-day it has nearly 800.
The value of the ore produced in the subdivision in 1894 was about $125,000, in 1895 it
exceeded $1,000,000, while in 1896 it is estimated that it will be from $3,000,000 to
The railroads operating in the subdivision in 1894 were the Nelson & Fort Sheppard
Railway, and the Columbia & Kootenay Railway. Now, at Trail, a narrow gauge railroad is
in course of construction, for the purpose of connecting that town with the mines at and near
A smelter, of a daily capacity of 250 tons, is now completed at Trail, and expects to
"blow in" about the 1st February, 1896.
The War Eagle and Centre Star Companies have announced their intentions of erecting
smelters of their own at or near Rossland, which will together have a capacity greatly in
excess of that already built at Trail. It is almost certain that two more railroads will be
built into Rossland during the coming year—the Red Mountain Road, from Northport, Wash,
(a branch of the Spokane Falls & Northern), and a branch of the C.P.R. from Robson.
About 40 miners were employed in the shipping mines of Rossland in the winter of
1894-5.    About 500 men are now at work in the same localities.
During 1894 no properties were being worked except the Le Roi, War Eagle, Josie,
Nickel Plate, and O.K., all situated  within a short distance of the town,  except the last- 688 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
named, which is about one and one-half miles west. Throughout 1895, and at the present
time, dozens of mines are enrploying men, ten or 15 of which can ship ore, if they so desire.
These mines lie in all directions from Rossland, and some of them across the Columbia River.
Properties outside the immediate vicinity of Rossland are probably employing 200 men at the
I am indebted to the courtesy of Mr. E. H. Wedekind, the Superintendent of the Trail
smelter, for the subjoined particulars.
The British Columbia Smelting and Refining Company decided to build its works at Trail
Creek Landing on account of its natural advantages. The works were commenced about
October 10th, and will be completed about March 1st, 1896. The object of the Company's
operations is to treat the ores of Red Mountain Camp and the surrounding country.
The capacity of the works, when completed, will be about 300 tons per diem. The works
consist of a sampling mill, ore bins necessary to contain a daily output and reserve capacity of
about 2,500 tons. The main smelting building is 310 feet long by 60 feet wide, and the cone
of the roof 62 feet above the ground. Under this roof the power plant and driving shaft are
situated, with four large reverberatory furnaces and one blast furnace. Besides this, a building sufficient to contain two "O'Harra" furnaces and dust chambers, with main stack to receive
all fumes and dust discharged by the calcining and blast furnaces. The main scheme is so to
handle the ore that it will, by its gravity, go through the sampling mill through the different
roasting furnaces, and so to the blast and reverberatory furnaces, to be drawn out in the shape
of "matte," without any additional handling. The promoter and main owner of the plant is
Mr. August Heinze, of Butte, Montana.
There is a company formed, namely, "Trail Creek Tramway Company, Limited," which will
build a tramway line from the mines at Red Mountain to the British Columbia Smelting & Refining Co.'s works at Trail, for the purpose of transporting ores and freight to and from the mines
and smelter. The tramway line is so designed that it shall, in its meandering path, be accessable
to the principal mines of the camp. The total length of this line is about 13 miles, while the
direct line from Trail Creek Landing to Rossland is about 4|- miles, in which there is a rise of
about 2,500 feet; hence the necessary length of line. The earth work of the line is now under
construction, but due to some contests in regard to right of way, which appear to be incidental
to all railway construction, the work is delayed. However, the Company expects to have its
line in operation in the near future. The President and Superintendent of this Company is
Mr. F. P. Geutelius.
The following are the Customs returns showing tonnage produced from the various subdivisions during the year 1895:—
Nelson  1871 tons.
Ainsworth  54,327     n
Trail Creek  23,361     „
Slocan  9,264    „
Total     88,823 tons.
In conclusion I have the pleasure in stating that the experience of the past year justifies
the hopes of progress and prosperity for the district that have been entertained.
The mines now being worked look well generally, and prospecting has been actively
The improvement of railway and other means of transport and the wholesome competition
that exists between railway companies have been beneficial, particularly in enabling individual
mine owners to market their ores.
One of the signs of progress has been the construction of tramways, concentrators and
smelters, as adjuncts of the healthy development of the mining industry. The general opinion
is that the district will, in the near future, become a very remarkable producer of both gold
and silver, and one very well worthy of the continued attention of mining investors.
I have, etc.,
N. Fitzstubbs,
To the Honourable Gold Commissioner.
The Minister of Mines. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 689
Revelstoke, B. C, January 20th, 1896.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my annual mining report and statistics for the Revelstoke Division of the West Kootenay District for the year ending 31st December, 1895.
The Trail Creek excitement attracted a good many prospectors from this section, consequently this section has not advanced as much as was expected.
The present year will no doubt be a good one, more especially for the Big Bend country.
Enquiries are being made by capitalists as to the nature of the ground and facilities for working the same. I have, etc.,
J. D. Graham,
The Honourable Gold Commissioner.
The Minister of Mines, Victoria, B. C.
Revelstoke Mining Division.
Mineral claims recorded  44
ii           ii       re-staked  3
Placer claims recorded  3
ii           ii    re-staked  4
ii      leases held  19
Certificates of work recorded  4
Bills of sale recorded  53
Revenue Collected.
Free miners' certificates     , $   841  00
Mining Receipts    1,370 40
Total $2,211 40
Placer Mines.
French Creek Consolation Mine (creek claim).
The owners of this property have done considerable work this year to replace losses caused
by last year's high water. The work done consists of re-building wheel-house, bunk-house and
a wing dam 170 feet long, 12 feet high and 12 feet wide, filled in with large boulders; this
was necessary to protect their shaft-house and prevent a recurrence of last year's disaster.
This year they have taken out very little gold on account of encountering a rock-slide,
whereas last year they extracted in a few months over $6,000.
Little Falls (creek claim).
Considerable work was done on this claim erecting buildings, flumes, putting in pumps
etc., but nothing taken out, as they have not yet reached bed-rock.
Nuggett (bar diggings).
The work done on this claim is similar to the Little Falls, and with like results.
Gold Drop (bench diggings).
Two men were employed on this claim this year, with satisfactory results,    Amount of
;old taken out, $2,000. 690 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Bahamas (bench diggings).
Very little work was done on this claim beyond testing the ground.
True Blue (bench diggings).
Similar to the Bahamas.
Bellingham Bay and Fairhaven (bench diggings).
Quite a large amount of development work was done on these two claims this year. A
wing-dam 700 feet long was constructed, a ditch 254 feet long, and a drift put in to cross-cut
the old channel. The owners are well satisfied with the results of their investigations, and
intend pushing on the work next year for all it is worth.
All the above bench claims, from tests made, averaged between twenty-five and thirty-five
cents per yard.
McCulloch Creek.
Ophir Bedrock Flue Co. (creek diggings.)
No work has been done on this property this year, which is considered by practical miners
to be the best claim in the Big Bend.
McCulloch Creek Tunnel Co. (creek diggings.)
This company intend next year to sink a new shaft on their property. They have built
a new shaft-house 65 feet long by 24 feet wide, with a large pumping wheel.
A large pump was purchased from the Albion Iron Works Co., but did not arrive soon
enough to be sent up to the claim, bad weather having set in making the trail impassable to
animals with heavy loads.
North Star (creek diggings).
A great deal of development work has been done on this claim. A tunnel 1,000 feet
long has been driven beside considerable preparatory work.
Camp  Creek.
Imperial Claim (creek diggings).
Messrs. White and Haley, the owners, have put in a large wheel and 250 feet of flume
preparatory to sinking to bedrock.
Spellumchene (creek diggings).
A lease was issued to Messrs. Caley and Hyatt who put in a flume 400 feet long and a
17-foot wheel.     A shaft was sunk 20 feet deep.
Forest Queen.
Two men are employed on this claim putting in a wing-dam to divert the stream so that
the owners may work the bedrock.
Hidden Treasure.
Six men are employed on this claim putting in wing-dam to allow of working the bedrock
when good returns are expected.
Big Hole.
Four men are employed who have built a flume 400 feet long to carry all the water of
this stream and allow them to work the ground immediately below the first falls. This has
been a very expensive undertaking and it is hoped they may get good returns for their trouble
and energy.
Two other claims are being worked on this stream by what is usually known as sinping, 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 691
Columbia Hydraulic Mining Co.
This company's ground is situated a little above the mouth of Smith Creek on the
Columbia River and is owned by a Chicago Co. Eight men were employed during the greater
portion of the year doing development work and testing the ground.
A shaft was sunk 90 feet deep, 6 feet by 4 feet. A contract has been let to repair the
flume and ditch, and get everything ready for the monitor next season. 4,200 yards of gravel
were moved, which I am given to understand averaged 28 cents to the yard.
Gold extracted, $120.
Smith Creek.
Smith Greek Mining Co. (creek diggings.)
Very little work was done on this ground this year beyond development work.
Park's Claim.
A shaft was sunk on this claim 66 feet deep, but did not strike bedrock when they closed
down for the winter.
Good prospects were obtained from the gravel at the bottom of this shaft.
Carnes Creek.
The Prospect.
This claim was taken up by R. Whitmore who has built a flume for the purpose of carrying the water of this creek a considerable distance so that he may be able to work the bed of
the creek.
Two placer leases have been issued on this creek and eight men will be employed on them
all the winter testing and trying the ground. They are working at present on an old shaft
from which good prospects have been obtained.
Quartz veins have recently been located in which the ore, as assayed, has returned from
$1 to $48 per ton in gold.
Mineral Claims.
Big Bend.
Thirty mineral claims were recorded in the Big Bend this season, most of which are gold
and silver propositions.
The Ole Bull,
Situate on Ground Hog Basin, McCulloch Creek, is the only claim upon that creek that
has had airy practical work done on it. The ledge is a well-defined milling (free) proposition.
The owner, Gus  Lund, had a stamp mill packed up to the claim, but no results can be obtained.
From specimens sent to the Government Assayer, $43 in gold is the average per ton from
the ore.
Carnes Creek.
Assessment work was recorded on four claims on this creek this year, and from reports
received the ore is improving as depth is obtained.    Assays not to hand.
Jordan Pass.
A new camp was struck this year about five miles up Jordan Creek opposite to the Town of
Revelstoke, and seven claims were recorded. These properties from surface indications show
the ore to be concentrating properties and carry about 80 per cent lead, 30 ounces in silver
and a trace of gold.
A new camp was also struck about twenty miles north of Albert Canyon on the head
waters of the Downie Creek. Seven claims were recorded, and from assays made show the
ore to carry both gold and silver in paying quantities. This is considered by competent
judges to be the best camp struck north of the Slocan.
A few claims were located below Revelstoke, a few niiles op Akolex Creek, but no reports
are to hand, 692 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Illecillewaet Mining Division.
Mineral claims recorded            24
Bills of sale, etc.,     n             7
Certificates of work recorded    29
Revenue Collected.
Free Miners' certificates    $170 00
Mining receipts      176  30
Total    $346 30
Only development work has been done in this camp beyond the Lanark, Maple Leaf, and
The Maple Leaf has been plodding on all the year developing the property, and by all
appearance they are in possession of a valuable claim. The assays of this property are about
130 ounces silver, 30 per cent, lead, and $5 in gold.
The Lanark Mining Company started to work two of their claims this fall, the Lanark
and the Isabella. Twelve men are employed on the two claims. The assays on the Lanark
and the Maple Leaf are about the same, and the Isabella runs about $500 in value to the ton
in silver, gold and lead.
It is fully expected that this camp will be in full blast next year on account of its closeness to the C. P. Railway.
New locations have lately been made at the head of North Fork of Illecillewaet and on
Downie Creek, in which fine ore has been discovered that assays from 200 to 400 ounces in
silver and also high in gold.
Lardeau Mining Division.
Mineral claims recorded  33
Certificates of work       14
Permission to restake  2
Records made       4
Revenue Collected.
Free Miners' certificates      $ 45 00
Mining receipts         141  50
Total    $186  50
This office was only re-opened in the month of June, 1895.
Very little work has been done in this division beyond development work, owing to want
of trails and the inaccessability of a large number of the claims.
The Agnes claim, situate on Sable Creek, has been tested by putting in a tunnel 20 feet
long.    One assay shows 15 per cent, of copper, 65 ozs. silver and 1 oz. 149 grs. in gold.
The Livingstone group of claims are showing large bodies of galena.
The Glengarry group are also looking well and prove the ore to be of high grade. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 693
Trout Lake Mining Division.
Mineral claims recorded     75
Bills of sale, etc.,      n        38
Certificates of work n       48
Placer claims              n        5
Placer leases held       2
Revenue Collected.
Free Miners' certificates    $320 00
Mining receipts      792  30
Total $1,112 30
Placer Mines.
On Lardeau Creek last year quite a large number of men were working. This year there
seems to have been a change, as most of the placer miners have found work with the owners
of mineral claims who are working this winter.
Last year there were 22 placer claims recorded and this year only 5.
Two placer leases are held on this creek, but little or no work has been done by the
owners.    There are about twenty men employed placer mining on this creek.
Trout Lake Mining Division—Mineral Claims.
The mineral claims in this division are attracting considerable attention this year, but
lack of cheaper transportation acts against its progress to a great extent. The completion of
the waggon road to Trout Lake and extension of the existing trails have done considerable
assistance towards improving the prospects of the mines.
There is a gratifying increase in the revenue this year from this office, and I have no
doubt each year will see a similar improvement.
The Pool Group
Consists of seven claims, and is situated between the North and South Forks of the
Lardeau Creek. Assays made show that it averages $30 in gold, 40 ounces in silver, and a
small percentage of copper to the ton.
The Seven Mile Creek Group.
There are five claims on this creek, which is a tributary of Lardeau Creek. Assays
average 100 ounces of silver to the ton.
The Silver Cup.
A Crown grant was issued to the owners of this claim this year. Assays made average
150 to 1,500 ounces of silver to the ton.
The lead or vein runs from 18 inches to 24 inches in width.
This claim has been bonded to D. McGillivray and others, who have seven men employed.
It is the intention of the owners to ship ore this winter by rawhiding to Trout Lake, boat it
up to the waggon road, and then team it to Thomson's Landing.
The Gold King Group.
These claims are located on Eight Mile Creek, a tributary of Lardeau Creek. From
assays made they carry $50 in gold and 40 ounces in silver to the ton.
The Wild Swan.
This claim is located on the South Fork of Lardeau Creek. It shows a well defined
lead of asbestos, and from assays received is considered to be of excellent quality. 6*94 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Professor Nason, geologist, stated the asbestos was of very good quality and free from
impurities which are usually found iir that commodity in the eastern provinces, and no doubt
would improve as it was opened up.
Gainer  Creek.
Several locations have been made on this creek, showing good strong ledges, carrying
rich grey copper ore.
The Home Group.
Thirteen locations have been made on this ledge which is situated on the North Fork of
Lardeau Creek.    Assays run 75 ounces silver and 70 % lead to the ton.
The Knowles Group
Consists of five claims, which average $10 in gold and 22 ounces in silver to the ton,
taken from the surface.
The Great Northern Group.
This group consists of eight claims, and is situated about six miles from Trout Lake.
Old Sonoma,
One of the above group, was bonded by a Butte, Montana, company, and considerable
development work was done on this claim to test it. A tunnel sixty feet long was run in,
and the assays show $3-| in gold, 145 ounces in silver, and 7 % copper to the ton.
The Great Aorthern and Hillside.
Two claims in the above group have been bonded to Montana capitalists, who intend
working and testing its merits this winter. Five men will be employed. Assays average $47
in silver and copper to the ton.
True Fissure.
One of the above group is under bond to some Boston capitalists, who have done
considerable development work on the claim this fall. They have stripped the lead, which is
800 feet by 300 feet of ore, which is as far as they have exposed it.
The ore has been quarried for 150 feet by 70 feet by 2§ feet, and some 600 tons lie on
the dump.
The American.
This claim has working this winter five men extracting and sacking ore. They intend
shipping to Thomson's Landing this winter. The average assays are 90 ounces in silver and
75 % lead to the ton.
Lardo  River,
At the head of Trout Lake. Several locations have been made in this locality this year,
the ore carrying about $12 to the ton in free milling gold.
Trout Lake.
Many claims have been located on both sides of the lake, nearly all carrying gold.
The Abbott Group.
Two of the claims in this group, viz., the " Abbott" and " King William," have applied
for Crown grants to their property. The owners have seven men employed developing their
property and getting ready for shipping. Assays average 150 ounces in silver and 60 % lead
to the ton.
The Blackburn Group.
These claims average 70 ounces in silver and $18 in gold to the ton. 59 VicT. Report of the Minister of Mines. 695
The Wagner Group
Arc situated near the headwaters of Haley Creek. Considerable development work has
been done on this group, but lack of easy communication acts against this claim shipping ore
at present, though they have large bodies of ore, assays averaging from 110 ounces to 3,000
ounces in silver to the ton.
The Lime Mountain Group.
These claims are situate near the headwaters of Gainer Creek, and consist of five claims.
Considerable work has been done on the Bad Shot, one of the claims, and a rich body of ore
was exposed, which assays 225 ounces in silver, 80 % lead, and a small percentage of bismuth
to the ton.    About 40 tons of ore are now on the dump.
The Black Prince
has a tunnel 180 feet long. This claim has a lead showing from 9 to 18 inches of high grade
ore, assaying from 200 to 1,200 ounces of silver to the ton. A Crown grant has been applied
for this claim.
Most of the above claims have from one to four years assessment work done on them.
More interest from the outside world is being takerr in this camp, and it is hoped a marked
improvement will result next year.
Kamloops, January 9th, 1896.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual mining report for the Kamloops and Yale
Divisions of Yale District, that for the Similkameen Division having been previously forwarded
you by Mr. Hunter, the Mining Recorder at Granite Creek.
Kamloops Division.—Placer Mines.
The Thompson River Hydraulic Mining Company, Tranquille River, have not encountered the success anticipated. Operations were carried on last summer under the superintendence of Mr. James Cummings, a miner of long experience. But a small amount of work
was accomplished, owing to the tight gravel encumbered with boulders, on which the small
pressure of water available for the purpose had little or no effect.
The Cosmopolitan Claim, situated on the left bank of the river, taken up as a bench
claim, about two and one-half miles from the mouth, has been worked by J. A. Russell, and
averaged $3 per day to the man.
At the junction of the north and south forks, Gilbert Smith obtained a prospect of 25
cents to the pan on a bench about 30 or 40 feet above the level of the river. The gold is
coarse and washed smooth by the action of water. The locality is evidently an old channel at
one time occupied by the stream. It is possible that a considerable extent of this ancient
water-course still exists. The fact that it has so long escaped the attention of miners who have
worked in the vicinity may be ascribed to its distance from the present bed of the creek,
where most of the mining has been effected.
The usual number of Chinese, some eight or ten in number, still engage in mining in the
most favourable localities, and are contented with small returns. About ten white men were
employed, principally working on mining leaseholds. 696 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Scotch Creek, an affluent of Little Shuswap Lake, which in the later sixties yielded considerable gold, attracted but two miners the past summer.
The yield of gold for the past year is $2,000, of which $1,880 was purchased by the Bank
of British Columbia at Kamloops.
Mineral Claims.
Adams Lake Group.
The principal mineral veins in this division are embraced in the Adams Lake Group,
situated in the vicinity of the lake mentioned, comprising ten or twelve locations, which are intersected by two parallel lodes, pursuing a north-easterly course, possessing a width respectively of
12 feet and 3 feet. The first consists of a crystallized lime, containing copper, silver, glance,
and antimony. The second vein is composed of baryta, running from 30 to 200 ounces of
silver to the ton.
The most important locations are owned by Mr. R. M. Marpole and associates, who purchased them from Messrs. Buchanan and Olsen. The Elephant and Mountain Whale exhibit
an immense deposit of mineral matter, on which considerable cross-cutting has been done,
which exposed a vein of copper at a depth of four feet.
The large quantity of low grade ore, which will not bear the expense of transportation,
will require to be treated on the ground. Several processes have been suggested, but the one
best adapted for the purpose has not yet been selected. About 1,800 tons are lying in the
dump, of which about 1,760 tons will average $10.79 in silver and $1.80 in gold. Forty tons
will yield over $100 in silver and gold. Work has been suspended in these mines for some
time past, pending negotiations for their disposal to a New York company. These valuable
properties only await the application of capital to render their wealth available.
On the line between the Homestake and Troublesome, 250 feet of tunnelling and an
upraise of 125 feet have been constructed during the past summer.
Cheap transportation is provided by a waggon road twelve miles long, which connects
with navigation on the Thompson River at the mouth of Louis Creek. The distance from the
latter point to Kamloops is 45 miles.
Cherry Creek Group.—Glen Iron Mines.
The Glen Iron Mines are situated at Cherry Creek, Kamloops Lake. Twelve hundred
tons of ore were exported the past season to the Tacoma Smelter, where it was used as a flux.
This demand has since ceased, and the supply is now provided by the Trail Creek ores.
The bond, mentioned in last year's report, for a sum of $60,000 has lapsed, in consequence
of the arrangements for the erection of extensive iron works at Seattle, which these mines
were intended to supply, ha.ving been abandoned. The ore is a pure and excellent quality of
magnetite, capable of being converted into Bessemer steel without any intermediate treatment.
The lodes are four in number, varying from 10 to 20 feet in width, and possess the great
advantage of being located near the track of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The works are
provided with a chute, 300 feet long, and an aerial tramway, 1,300 feet in length, which can
deliver 100 tons in 10 hours on the cars.
Copper Creek Copper Mines.
On this group of mines only the annual assessment work has been effected. Mr. W. R.
Bellamy, a gentleman of high standing in regard to mining matters, visited them a few weeks
since, and expressed his opinion that development would very probably prove them to be of
great value. They are situated only a couple of miles from the track of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, on the north side of Kamloops Lake, and therefore possess unusual facilities for
cheap transportation. This is an excellent investment for capital, which only demands
publicity to secure.
Cinnabar Mines, Kamloops Lake.
I regret to say I have not been able to ascertain the particulars concerning these mines
from Mr. Leighton, the Superintendent, who subsequently referred me to the Secretary at
Vancouver, from whom I have not yet heard, the snow-slides in the Cascade Mountains having
interfered lately with railway communication. I can therefore only give such limited
information as lies at my disposal. i9 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 697
These mines, comprising the Rosebush, Yellow Jacket, Blue Bird, and Lakeview, were
sold last summer by the original locators to the Cinnabar Mining Co. of British Columbia.
Since the transfer work has been prosecuted with diligent activity, under the superintendence of Mr. H. L Leighton, with a force of over twenty men. A plant has been erected
for the treatment of the ore. The yield of quicksilver has not been ascertained, but I understand it is very satisfactory. A considerable body of rich ore was discovered a few weeks
since in the Yellow Jacket, and development work will be effectively prosecuted without intermission.
These mineral claims enjoy the distinction of being the only quicksilver mines operated
in the Dominion of Canada.
Ilardie Mountain.
Last August a discovery of cinnabar, which may turn out to be of great importance, was
made by Messrs. McCartney and Irving, on Hardie Mountain, about three miles north of the
Cinnabar Mining Co.'s property. The deposit is of a low grade character but of great extent.
Some samples were sent to the Geological Survey Office, Ottawa, for assay, but the results have
not been made public.
Yale Division. -Placer Claims.
The Fraser River, since the first discovery of gold on its bars, has always attracted a considerable mining population, which now consists principally of Indians and Chinese, who pursue
this industry in spring and fall when a favourable stage of water permits them to work to
advantage with sluice or rocker, as the case may be. But few white men participate in mining
along its banks as more remunerative employment is obtained by them elsewhere in the
Similkameen and Cariboo placers, and in some of the hydraulic claims which are being prepared
for work on the benches of the river.
The golden harvest is perennial. The same localities which are favourably situated for
the retention of the float gold deposited by the action of the current is mined every year
with varying results. This is explained by the fact that the high auriferous gravel banks
skirting the upper reaches of the Fraser and its tributaries, are undermined at a high stage of
water by the powerful tide, and the gold contained carried away and lodged on some bar
many miles lower down, eventually reaching the places where it is afterwards reclaimed by
means of a rocker.
About two hundred and fifty Indians and Chinese are engaged in this industry, which is
necessarily of a desultory character, and subject to interruptions by a sudden rise of the river.
The yield averages from 75 cents to $1.50 per day to the hand, and sometimes much larger
returns are obtained.
Of the numerous leaseholds taken up for mining purposes in this division within the last
few years, but few have been developed by the lessees. In the majority of instances they were
merely obtained for speculative purposes, frequently irrespective of their value as mining properties, with the object of disposing of their rights for a considerable amount. When this
expedient failed the rentals simply remained unpaid and the leases were allowed to lapse.
The Fraser River and Siwash Creek offer many examples of this description.
Van Winkle Hydraulic Mining Company.
The Van Winkle Consolidated Hydraulic Mining Company have steadily prosecuted work
in their ground but with smaller returns than anticipated, the main obstacle being an
inadequate supply of water to carry off a large enough body of gravel to prove remunerative.
I am told it is the intention of the Company to remedy this deficiency by constructing a ditch
to utilize the water of Styne Creek.    The yield of gold for the past summer's work is $2,168.
Ottawa Ilgdraulic Mining and Milling Company.
The property held by this Company is situated at Boston Bar and is principally owned by
Captain Gardner who, at a heavy expense, has diligently prosecuted the work to a successful
completion. 698 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
The following is a summary of the work accomplished since last spring:—A flume three
miles in length, 4 feet wide, and from 2 feet 6 inches to 3 feet deep, constructed and laid, in
some places, on a bed excavated in the solid rock.
Owing to the precipitous nature of the bank a bridge 180 feet high had to be constructed to carry the water across Four-Mile Creek. A steel cable, one inch in diameter,
775 feet long, was stretched across the Fraser for the purpose of taking machinery over the
river. A saw-mill, with a capacity of 5,000 feet per day, was erected on the side hill about
2i miles from the creek where good timber could be procured. The lumber cut amounts to
3,000 feet daily, principally used for fluming, etc
Eight hundred feet of pipe, 22 inches, and 1,000 feet, 15 inches in diameter, has been
placed in position in connection with a monitor that will deliver a powerful stream of water
under a pressure of 256 feet.    The diameter of the nozzle to be used I have not yet learned.
These improvements necessitated last year an expenditure of $15,000, which is amply
justified by the large body of gravel available in which the gold is thoroughly disseminated.
The location is considered one of the best on the Fraser River. The water rights acquired
are sufficient for all purposes, and an excellent dump completes the advantages possessed by
this Company.
Columbia Mining Company.
This Company is operating on Hill's Bar Flat, near Yale, and is making active preparations for piping in the spring. A new ditch is being constructed, and laying, fluming and
iron pipes, 18 inches in diameter, is being proceeded with. A prospect clean up was made
about a month ago which the Superintendent considered as being exceedingly satisfactory.
llager and Gardner Company.
Messrs. Hager and Gardner are busily engaged making preparations for mining their
ground at Eight-Mile Hill, including the digging of ditches, laying of flumes and the erection
of dwelling houses.    Very good prospects have been found.
The Wendell Co.
This Company has a leasehold on the left bank of the Fraser River, nearly opposite to
North Bend.
Considerable work has been done this year. The water is brought from Four-Mile Creek,
about three-quarters of a mile. An old ditch was re-opened and flumed where required. All
the necessary lumber was brought from the coast, and taken across the river on the Ottawa
Mining Co.'s cable, whence it was hauled and packed to where it was used. The ditch was
completed in November, and a large quantity of gravel washed.
Present indications prove that the cut is in the vicinity of an old bed of the river.
Owing to unfavourable weather work was closed in December, but will be resumed early in
the spring.
Amount expended last summer in development closely approximates $4,000.
River Dredging.
Three small plants, supplied with pumps for sucking up the auriferous gravel from the
bed of the river, have been operated on the Fraser with the object of obtaining the gold
deposits supposed to exist in its channel. Two of these proved failures ; the third one, under
the management of F. E. Young, has been kept at work in the vicinity of Mormon Bar, above
Lytton. I cannot state whether it paid expenses, but the proprietor seems to be satisfied
with the amount of gold obtained under adverse circumstances, which improved machinery
will remove and render the work effected more remunerative.
The Fraser River Mining and Dredging Co.
The Fraser River Mining and Dredging Co., which has a lease of several miles of the bed
of the river, has expended, it is stated, over $25,000 in constructing a dredger at Lytton,
provided with all the appliances that experience could suggest to overcome the difficulties
produced by a strong current and an accumulation of large boulders at the bottom. The first
test took place a few weeks ago, and after working for- a few hours further operations were
suspended by the breaking  of some  portion of  the  machinery.    The lateness of the season,
- 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 699
when the river was apt to be encumbered with floating ice, precluded further operations until
after the expiration of the winter months, when the problem as to whether this branch of
mining can be profitably prosecuted, in the face of the. obstacles encountered, will, it is hoped,
be successfully solved.
The British, Columbia Gold Dredging Co.,
Under the superintendence of  W.  A.  Shahan, has constructed a steam dredger at Vancouver for working on the  river in  the  vicinity of  Yale.    The  machinery has a capacity of
3,500 cubic yards every 24 hours, and  will require a crew of  12 men.    The estimated cost is
■ $30,000.
The large amount of capital invested by these two companies shows the confidence
displayed by their shareholders in the schemes in which they are interested. The results will
be watched with deep interest. The long river stretches available for mining of this nature
embrace an extent of several hundred miles. Should these undertakings be attended with
favourable results, the development of this wide field will employ a large amount of capital
and labour, and increase to an unlimited degree the prosperity and resources of the Province.
Siwash Creek.
The placer diggings situated on this creek have during the past season experienced
increased activity. The desultory mining done on the surface in former years, which yielded
coarse gold of a different character from what is generally found on the benches and bars of
the Fraser River, associated with a favourable formation belonging to the carbonaceous system,
presented indications of so promising a nature as to induce two companies, named the Tacoma
and New Whatcom, to engage in the sinking of shafts to the bedrock. They obtained leases
of one-half mile each of the creek, and have incurred considerable expense in cutting water-
races, erecting flumes and constructing water-wheels, 15 feet in diameter. A depth of 25
feet has been obtained in the shafts, two in number, securely timbered and safely protected
for an early start in the spring. The results will be observed with deep concern, and if
successful will lead to the prospecting of a considerable tract of country.
The yield of gold in this division is estimated at $48,400. No returns have been obtained
from three Chinese merchants at Hill Bar Flat and Keefers. The following amounts have
been purchased by the traders at the places mentioned, and are therefore reliable :—
Agassiz $     400
Huntersville    500
Hope  258
Yale *  8,050
Prince Albert Flat  700
Spuzzum  2,852
North Bend  3,900
Keefers  1,755
Lytton  18,818
Spence's Bridge  1,175
Ashcroft  5,000
Taken away by private hands and unaccounted for      5,000
Total $48,408
Number of Free Miners' certificates issued 290 = $1,450 00
General mining receipts  4,296 44
Total $5,746 44 700 Report of the Minister of Mines. iS96
Mineral Claims.
Harrison Lake Group.
The Harrison Lake mines are situated about six miles north-east of the Hot Springs and
have attracted much attention since their discovery last October. So far little work has been
accomplished on them in consequence of the fall rains having set in, and the country being
covered with a dense growth of vegetation. On the return of spring mining exploration will
be vigorously pursued to fully determine their value. I beg to quote the following particulars
in a communication received from Mr. W. Teague, of Yale, to whom I am also indebted for
other information of which I have availed myself in connection with that supplied by Mr.
Dodd, the Mining Recorder :—
"The gold prospects found at Harrison Lake seem to have attracted considerable attention to the gold-bearing quartz found in the belt lying between Harrison Lake, on the northeast, and the Fraser River. Certificates of two assays of rock taken from the Discovery
claim, made by Mr. Pellew Harvey, metallurgist and assayer, of Vancouver, are considered of
a highly satisfactory character. The first sample exhibited a yield of 2 ozs. per ton, the second
one, alleged to be an average of the lode across its width, showed $22.64 to the ton of 2,000
pounds.    These are the results of assays made from the out-croppings.
"The favourable reports induced me to visit the locality, but owing to there being a thick
carpet of moss covering the whole surface of the mountains I was unable to discover and trace
the general lithological surface bearings of the indications of mineral veins to my satisfaction.
" Tire Discovery claim seems to be more exposed at the surface by disintegration caused
by the action of water across it from the creek. There is a large body of mineralized rock to
be seen iu a basaltic formation carrying arsenical and iron pyrites with occasional signs of
molybdenum showing in the interstices in the rock, which are sufficient indications to encourage immediate development to prove the character of the ledge, at points where advantages
existed for running a tunnel and cross-cutting to a medium depth below the surface.
" The Discovery claim is, in my opinion, the key to the other locations."
Siwash Creek.
Merely assessment work has been performed on the mineral claims on this creek.
I have, etc.,
G. C. Tunstall,
'The Honourable Gold Commissioner.
The Minister of Mines.
Harrison Hot Springs, January 12th, 1896.
Dear Sir,—In answer to your request for a few notes relative to recent mineral discoveries
near Harrison Lake, permit us to state that it gives us much pleasure to comply, but we are
afraid that you will find the information rather meagre at this early stage of development,
opportunity only occurring to examine the underlying formation at such points as the mountain streams have cut into and through the overlying iron capping and the wash or debris
which has accumulated on the depressed portions of the vein or veins.
Leaving the granite formation, which is very regular and runs in. a north-westerly and
south-easterly direction, which can be followed on this course for some miles and joining with
this formation on its west side is a heavy capping of ironstone, varying in depth from 10 to 20
feet near the granite and extending over mountain and valley for several miles to the westward, often showing a thickness of over 150 feet near the mountain tops. Where the mountain
streams have cut through this iron capping there is exposed a stratified formation, the stratifications running in the same general direction as the granite and of widths  varying from 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 701
three to twenty feet. Apparantly there are five or six different varieties of rock in the formation which extends in this order through the entire extent of country crowned by the iron cap,
judging from the classes of rock brought in from different points on the lake. These stratifications, which are severally silicious slate, metamorphic slate, quartz—a highly silicious,
granular rock very hard and of a pinkish colour—are all highly mineralized on the surface
showing plenty of pyrites of copper and iron, and judging from our recent development on the
Empress claims, where we are now in a distance of about 30 feet, cutting the formation,
becomes very highly mineralized as depth is gained, and assumes the fine solid grain of the
arsenical pyrites of the Trail Creek country. The character of the surface has also changed,
the matrix being now principally quartz, although the pyrites predominate in the rock. So
far, we can recognize no confining walls for any particular portion of the vein-matter in this
great stratified formation beyond the foot wall of granite to the east and the basaltic rock
some miles west of the granite, but as the country has not yet been sufficiently prospected to
state with any conviction that such do not exist, and although while trying to trace supplementary walls by surface indications, and while running our drift we have so far found none.
We find, however, that cross veins or lodes intersect this formation at right angles occasionally,
and we are under the impression that the formation directly underlying the iron capping and
which we have tried to describe, will eventually lead into chutes of ore probably of large size
and which are not in any way governed in their general trend by that of the overlying formations.
This formation of stratifications dips about 30 degrees to the west, and with the hill on
the side next the granite, keeping exactly the same dip and into the hills or mountains, west
of the granite, another proof of being in same vein formation owing the granite foot wall.
Although we have trad some years' experience mining and prospecting, both in the United
States and Canada, we have never before had any experience with a similar formation, or
with one showing better surface indications or greater regularity.
It is yet too early to judge by assays what will be the value or extent of this new discovery.
The work so far done is simply in search of a high grade gold ore body. In driving our tunnel
all the rock from the very start has assayed very well; in fact, we have had no rock assayed
which did not show some returns in gold—the dump average would, we believe, be about $2.50
to $3 per ton. The mineral which now predominates over the quartz is improving in value and
quantity as depth is gained, and we feel very much encouraged to continue development, with
fair prospects of eventually finding the higher grade rock which we are seeking.
So far, owing probably to the lateness of the season when the discovery was first made,
but little development has been made here. On the Empress group, where this data has been
mainly secured, the drift is in now 30 feet and surface indications are of such a character that
40 feet more should show very great improvement, although from the apparant blending of
the character of the different stratas as depth is gained, the surface is considered but an indifferent guide. They are however making steady progress, with every foot showing an improvement.
On the Doctor Claim, lying directly to the east of the Empress group, Mr. Cross, the
owner, is driving a tunnel and is in a few feet. The formation is very similar to that on the
Empresses.    No assays have however been made.
The Black Diamond, the discovery claim, is now preparing to tunnel. We are all anxious
to see work progress here as Nature has done much to facilitate development, a mountain
stream having cut the formation well down, and on this claim the surface assays were exceedingly high, being $42, $22.97, $36 to the ton.
Mr. C. Smith, of Vancouver, and Mr. Wickenden, who are having a cabin built on their
claims, propose to start work about the middle of February. Some Vancouver parties contemplate shortly some development work on their claims which are quite close to Harrison
Lake. We are of the opinion that a very great extent of rich mineral lands surround the
lake and will, in all probability, be well prospected during next summer.
Trusting that you will be able to cull some points of service to you out of our letter.
Believe us, &c,
Wm. Dodd, Esq., Brown Bros,
Mining Recorder, etc., Yale. 702 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Osoyoos, B. O, 6th January, 1896.
Sir,—1 have the honour to submit herewith the annual mining report and statistics for
the Osoyoos Division of Yale District for the year 1895.
Kettle River Division—Quartz Mining.
This district, speaking generally, is covered with scattered timber and grass to the
summits of the highest mountains, and in almost any part the prospector can travel with his
pack-horses, finding abundance of grass, wood, water, and game, and as numerous mineral
locations have been made in the past year extending over its entire length from east to west,
and from the International boundary line on the south to points 20 and 25 miles north of it,
we may reasonably expect that next summer this ground will be well prospected.
Immense bodies of ore, apparently from 3 to 100 feet wide (or even more), carrying
principally copper and gold, have been exposed in the different mining camps.
The veins have long uniform trends, running generally in a northerly and southerly
direction, and have an easterly dip, generally outcropping and easily traced by the gossan
The formation is principally composed of quartzites and schists, apparently of Devonian
age, overflowed frequently by volcanic eruptions of trachyte, and intersected by dykes of
diorite, these dykes being a strong and persistent feature of the geology of the country.
Large areas of later granite also occur, and severe geological convulsions must have taken
place, as the numerous bodies of volcanic and much contorted metamorphic rocks would
indicate. This would also account for the unusually large amount of metalliferous deposits
found in all portions of the different camps. These deposits may be roughly divided into two
classes :—
1st.—Quartz veins, having definite walls not materially different from ordinary types.
2nd.—Deposits of heavy metallic sulphides and oxides, apparently having no true walls,
but skirting erupted dykes of diorite, and probably representing the metalliferous constituents
which have in fusion been separated from these dykes and segregated along their outside
Very few of the claims, however, are sufficiently well developed to define what the true
width of the ore bodies or character of their wall rocks may be.
On the majority of the claims located during the past summer, little development work
has been done, and on some of them it is questionable if more than the required "mineral in
place " has been found, and it is therefore impossible at the present time to give any interesting
description of them.
The Skylark.
As the vein on this claim is one of the smallest in the district, and has proved to go down
as deep as any yet developed, a short history of it may be interesting.
The claim was recorded in July, 1893, by Mr. S. Bloyer, who transferred a half interest
to Mr. Jas. Attwood ; afterwards they bonded to the Spokane and Great Northern Mining-
Co. This Company leased 100 feet to Messrs. Symons & Co., who at once started to work,
and during the fall and winter of 1893 shipped several tons of high grade silver-gold ore to
the Tacoma smelter.
The width of the pay ore was then from 8 to 15 inches, the entire ledge being considerably wider.
The character of the ore is fine-grained, steel galena, with some grey copper, and assaying
from 100 to 300 ozs. in silver and \ to 2 ozs. in gold per ton.
The strike of the vein is north and south, with a dip of about 50° to the east, 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 703
This claim was the first location in what is now known as Skylark Camp, which is
connected by a branch waggon road of about 1J miles with the main road between Grande
Prairie and Boundary Creek.
Messrs. Symons & Co. worked on their leased ground until February, 1894, when the
original bonders took hold, and commenced mining on a larger scale. At a depth of 50 feet,
the vein apparently pinched out, and they continued sinking to a depth of 103 feet, but did
not again- find the vein, so from the bottom of this shaft a 15-foot drift was run in an easterly
direction in the hope of striking the vein, but this failing, further search for it was abandoned.
The Company then began stoping out all the ore in sight above the 50-foot level, and this
being accomplished they abandoned the claim, allowed their bond to lapse, and the claim
reverted to the original owners, the general opinion being that the claim was "dug out." In
the meantime, Mr. Jno. Douglas bought Mr. Bloyer's interest, and Messrs. Wake & Johnson
becoming equally interested with Mr. Attwood, they began a systematic search for the vein
at the 50-foot level where it had faulted. The hanging wall was broken into, and, at a
distance of 6 feet, the vein was found. The shaft was then continued to a depth of 75 feet
on the vein, when it again faulted, and a drift of 25 feet (easterly) again struck the vein.
This, however, was found not to be in place, but at a depth of 42 feet from the 75-foot break
the ledge, apparantly in place, was found. The ledge here is 30 inches between walls, with 6
to 8 inches of ore on the hanging wall, and a narrow seam on the foot wall, as rich as any yet
found in the mine. A total depth of 117 feet shaft and drift, with an actual depth of 87 feet
on the vein has been reached, thus tending to prove, in a large measure, the continuity of the
veins in this district.
Messrs. Farrel and Migeon have done considerable development during the past year on
their several properties.
On the Golden Rod, situate in Central Camp, a shaft of 60 feet has been sunk, and a
second shaft of 85 feet, with a cross-cut on the ledge, at the 55-foot level.
On the Emma, situate in Summit camp, one shaft is down 110 feet in solid mineral and
another 20 feet, exposing a fine body of ore.
On the Enterprise, in Copper camp, the old shaft was continued to the depth of 70 feet.
On the Stemwinder, in Greenwood camp, a new double compartment, vertical shaft, 4x8
feet, has been sunk during the past few months, to a depth of 60 feet, and a 25-foot drift
from the bottom of the shaft, where the vein is found 8 feet wide. A second drift is now
being run from the same level, in a westerly direction, with the expectation of finding a
parallel vein which outcrops on the surface 20 feet wide and 70 from the outcroppings of the
other. About five tons of ore, principally from the 60-foot level, have been shipped as a mill
test; the returns have not yet been learned.
The Winnipeg,
Is situated in Wellington camp and was recorded on the 25th of June last, by D.
Mcintosh, was bonded on the 29th of October last to Mr. John Toole (presumably for Messrs.
Marcus, Daly & Co., of Anaconda, Montana), for the sum of sixty thousand dollars ($1,000
cash). Since then a shaft has been sunk 65 feet, and adrift run therefrom for 15 feet,
showing about six feet of high grade ore. The claim, however, when surveyed was found to
be only seven hundred feet long on the ledge and therefore I understand some difficulty has
arisen between the parties to this bond.
The Texas.
On this claim, in Graham camp, the old tunnel has been continued to a distance of 76
feet, and a new tunnel lately started, is in fifty feet, in which a small vein of very high grade
copper glance was discovered.
The Iron Cap,
Situate in Brown's camp, on which the tunnel is now in about 300 feet, has been leased
by the owners to Messrs. Larsen and Blewitt, together with two other claims, the Volcanic
and Wolverine, both situate in the same camp. Development work on a very extensive scale
is shortly expected, 704 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Osoyoos Mining Division.
Camp Fairview.
There are apparently two strong ledges in this camp, running almost parallel with one
another, in some places not over thirty feet apart, the main average direction of each being
north 70° west, each ledge from the surface dipping slightly to the north-east. The rock
forming the walls of these ledges, is a schistose quartzite, in places containing an appreciable
amount of iron pyrites in small crystals, and where decomposition has taken place the rock is
coloured from the iron. The ledges follow closely the north-easterly edge of a large body of
granite, which forms the greater part of the mountain, on the flanks of which these ledges
occur, traceable for over two miles, and varying in width from 10 to 20 feet in their widest
places, down to 2 feet or less.
As a rule the quartz is low grade, but there are notable exceptions ; for instance, the
Stemwinder, Morning Star, Silver Crown, Victoria, Joe Dandy, and Smuggler claims. During
the past year active development has been going on in the Morning Star, Joe Dandy and
Smuggler claims, and it is pleasing to be able to state that the energetic owners of these
respective claims are being well rewarded for their tenacity of purpose in that the ore has
improved in grade as depth has been attained. But on the majority of the other claims little
more than the necessary work to comply with the Act has been done, owing to the miners'
need of capital, for they hold unshaken faith in the future prosperity of this camp.
Morning Star.
The owners, Messrs. Steve Mangott and Dan McEachern, have been assiduously employed
developing this claim, which has every indication of being a most valuable property.
From January to May, in 1895, Messrs. Mangott and McEachern had a lease erf the
Strathyre Mining Co.'s 10-stamp mill, and during these five months crushed 2,000 tons of ore
which, with 20 tons of concentrates, yielded them a return of $30,000, the concentrates netting
$100 per ton. Since the expiration of the lease they have been steadily sinking and drifting
on the ledges, of which there are two, almost parallel, some 90 feet apart.
The wider ledge, varying from 12 to 20 feet in width, has been stripped 300 feet, 2,000
tons of ore being taken from the surface, while a shaft has been sunk 100 feet to strike the
ledge which dips slightly to the north-east.
On the other ledge, which dips in a similar manner to the north-east, a shaft has been
sunk 100 feet, and at this depth a north-easterly drift of 20 feet caught the ledge, on which a
drift of 100 feet has been run, the ledge here being from 6 to 10 feet wide, and the ore
exceptionally rich.
The Black Diamond
Is an adjacent claim on the south-west, and also owned by Messrs. Mangott and
McEachern.    The ledge is from 4 to 6 feet wide, on which a shaft has been sunk 30 feet.
The Joe Dandy,
Owned by T. Davies and E. Hammond, shows a 3-foot ledge of free-milling ore that can
be traced 1,500 feet on the surface. A 60-foot tunnel has been run on the ledge, tapped by a
55-foot shaft. The ore averages $20 to the ton. Mr. Davies is in hopes of being able to lease
the Strathyre Mining Co.'s quartz mill in the spring.
The Smuggler,
Owned by Thomas Elliot, has this year come into prominence, owing to the rich ore that
has been taken out. The outcropping of the ledge was of smelting character, but as depth was
attained the ore changed to free-milling. Some very fine specimens have lately been taken
out of this claim, in which the free gold is plainly visible to the naked eye.
A shaft has been sunk 100 feet on the ledge, which is, at this level, 5 feet wide. Three
tons of assorted ore out of the shaft, sent to the Tacoma Smelter, gave a return of $143.70 per
ton. Sixteen hundred pounds of unassorted ore gave a return of $39, also at the Tacoma
Smelter.     A Crawford mill is about to be erected on this property.
There have been 34 new locations made in this camp in 1895, but little being done on
them, it is impossible to give any particulars. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 705
There was some little excitement during the summer on what is known as Kruger
Mountain, which rises gradually from the western shore of Osoyoos Lake, and forms the watershed between the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys.
Three years ago several claims were located here, but little attention, more than the
necessary assessment work, was paid to them till this year, when the owners of the Gold Dust,
Messrs. Engle and Keller, shipped some 60 pounds of ore to the Tacoma Smelter, which gave
them a return of $37 per ton, copper and gold.
Many claims were then located, miners from Rossland pronouncing the ore to be similar
to that in the now famous Trail Creek Mines.
Large bodies of ore of the same character have been located on the Rock Creek Mountain,
15 miles east from Osoyoos Lake, and again over on Boundary Mountain, which would lead to
the supposition that this ore runs continuously through the southern portion of the district.
Camp McKinney.
The Cariboo Mining and Milling Company have been running their 10-stamp mill almost
continuously during the past year, realizing the handsome sum of $97,861.50 in free gold, and
$7,000 in concentrates, making a total of $104,861.50 for the year, the ore milled being from
the Cariboo and Amelia Claims. At the 140-foot level, where the work is now being carried
on, a splendid body of ore is in sight, the vein averaging 6 feet in width. A run of 12 days
during the latter part of December on the ore from this level, gave a return of 500 ounces of
free gold, the value of the gold being $13.50 per ounce.
It is estimated that there is now sufficient ore in sight to keep the mill constantly running
for two years.    On an average 25 men are employed in the mine and about the mill.
The  Fontenoy
Is situate about one mile east of the Cariboo, and has an 80-foot shaft down through a
fine body of ore.
To the north of the Cariboo several locations have been made, but the work done has
been confined to prospecting.
The Highland Chief.
On this claim, situate three miles north-east of the camp, a 98-foot tunnel has been run,
12 feet of the work having been done during the past year.
The Old England,
Situate three miles east of the camp, has a 65-foot inclined working shaft, 25 feet of the
work having been done during the past summer. This shaft has been sunk to tap a chute of
telluride ore carrying gold and silver, the ore being in a talco-schist formation.
The Anarchist
Is situate about two miles west of the Cariboo, and has a 35-foot shaft, a 16-foot drift on
the surface of the ledge, and a prospect hole of 10 feet.
The character of the ore is gold, pyrites, and galena, in rose quartz.
There are three veins running parallel for 600 feet and within a width of 30 feet. The
vein sunk on averages 4J feet in width, and assays, gold $9.13, silver $3.79. Picked rock
goes, gold $27, silver $9, total $36 per ton. The concentrates of the whole ledge average,
gold $68.76, silver $22.91, total $91.67 per ton.
The vein is exposed on the surface for 600 feet, the formation of the footwall being granite, and of the hanging wall gneiss.
Upon the remainder of the claims in the camp and vicinity nothing more than the annual
assessment work has been done. 706 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
Vernon Division.
In this Division during the past year there were 126 locations recorded, the localities
ranging from Camp Hewitt, on the west of Okanagan Lake, to points north of Enderby, a
distance of about 80 miles, a large majority of these claims being recorded since the 1st
October, and owing to the lateness of the season very little development work has been done,
though where assayed the rock has shown very encouraging results, assaying from $17 in gold to
the ton at Camp Hewitt, to $236 in gold at the BX camp, situate about five miles from
Placer Mining.
On Rock Creek a number of companies have been engaged during the past summer
endeavouring to bottom the creek, but so far without success, the water proving more than
could be managed with wooden pumps.
The First Chance Placer Mining Co. have expended in money and labour during the
season about $3,700, sinking a shaft 34 feet, erecting 1,100 feet of flume, and putting in a
water wheel with sufficient power to work to 8-inch pumps and do the hoisting.
The old Laura Hydraulic Mining Company's property, at the mouth of the creek, has
been worked by a few Chinamen, who   realized about $700.
A few men have been working further up the creek and made good wages.
Altogether about $8,500 has been taken out of the creek during the year.
Cedar Creek.
Mining here has been confined to a few Chinamen, about $400 being taken out.
Cherry Creek.
On this creek ten Chinese have been working, taking out some $2,500.
Siwash Creek.
This creek, running into Okanagan Lake on the west side, has produced about $1,000
six white men and a few Chinese working on the  creek.
The total yield of gold from placer mining in the district for 1895 is approximately
Owing to the rapid development of the mining interests in the southern portion of the
District, and the large increase of revenue, more particularly in the Kettle River Division, I
would draw the attention of the Government to the urgent necessity for the construction of
roads and trails to the principal mining camps in this Division.
Following is an abstract of all the mining records and free miners' certificates issued in
the different Divisions of the District during the year 1895 :—
Kettle River Division.
Free Miners' Certificates , 451
Claims recorded (Mineral) 771
Certificates of work         n         140
Certificates of improvements       n    11
Permits to re-locate         n  ,      3
Abandonments         n            12
Water grants         u      3
Mill site leases         n              3
Conveyances         i 244
Claims recorded (Placer)      9
Conveyances        n             3
Abandonments        it                  1
Water grants        n             3
Permits       n      ....         2 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 707
Osoyoos Division.
Free Miners' Certificates Ill
Claims recorded (Mineral) - 128
Certificates of work         n            30
Certificates of improvements       it                   2
Permits  to re-locate         n              9
Abandonments         n              2
Conveyances             n            16
Claims recorded  (Placer)    10
Permits         n                 1
Water grants         n              2
Vernon Division.
Free Miners' Certificates     .126
Claims recorded (Mineral) 126
Transfers n    22
Claims recorded (Placer)      5
I have, &c.,
C. A. R. Lambly,
The Honourable Gold Comissioner.
The Minister of Mines, Victoria, B. C.
Granite Creek, B. C, December 7th, 1895.
Sir,—I have the honour to forward the annual mining report for the Similkameen Division of Yale  District, also  mining statistics and  sketch plans of placer claims in operation.
The Anglo-American Gold & Platinum Hydraulic Co.'s Claim,
Situated on the South Fork of the Similkameen River, about nine miles up stream from
Princeton, consists of some 640 acres of bench land. Work on this claim was started early in
March of the present year—putting up buildings and laying out ditch line- under the general
supervision of Capt. S. F. Scott, with Mr. W. Wills as engineer. Actual work on the ditch
was begun June 6th and completed September 14th. The ditch is 8,910 feet in length, 6^
feet wide on top, 3 feet on the bottom, and 3^ feet deep, with a grade of 13-J- feet per mile.
There is also a flume 4,026 feet long, 4 feet wide and 3 feet high, with a grade of 20 feet
per mile.    The capacity of ditch and flume is 2,600 inches, with a pressure of 266 feet.
The main pipe line is 848 feet long, the pipe being 30 inches in diameter, diminishing to
24 inches. The 24-inch pipe is Birmingham wire gauge No. 10. This pipe line connects
with two monitors, with nozzles ranging from 4 to 9 inches.
A bed-rock flume has been constructed 324 feet long, 6 feet wide, and 3 feet deep, paved
with blocks 9 inches square.
Work was entirely suspended the latter part of October on account of severe frost, everything being ready to start piping when next season opens. 708 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
The Gold Point Mining Claim,
Owned and worked by W. J. Waterman, mining engineer, is also situated on the South
Fork of the Similkameen River, some five miles below the Anglo-American Co.'s claim. The
character of the operations has been essentially the same as pursued in other hydraulic gold
mines in British Columbia, with the exception that owing to the inadequate supply of water
at present obtainable, in addition to the ordinary plant, a " bucker " or self-acting reservoir
has been constructed eighty feet above the hydraulic pit, with capacity to discharge two
thousand inches of water, at intervals of thirty minutes, through a six-foot flume into the
diggings. The bed-rock now being worked is twenty feet above the river, and the fall from
the sand-box at the head of the pipe line is one hundred feet. Dump is made directly into
the river. Water is obtained from Bromley Creek, and the total length of ditch at present
completed is four and three-quarter miles and one thousand feet of fluming. A preliminary
run of twelve hours water excavates 800 cubic yards of gravel, producing gold at the rate of
fifty cents per yard and a considerable percentage of platinum.
It is proposed to construct a branch from the main ditch, and to work the claim at three
different points simultaneously. A ditch seven miles in length, with a carrying capacity of
2,000 inches, will be built to bring on the water from the Similkameen River.
Mr. Waterman is also interested in another mining claim about fifteen miles up the river
from Princeton. A hydraulic plant has been put in and is in readiness for an early start next
The Tulameen Hydraulic Co.,
Whose claim is situated on the right bank of the Tulameen River, about four miles below
Granite Creek, have been prospecting their ground this summer. A small plant was used for
this purpose, consisting of a No. 1 monitor, new model, and 420 feet of pipe from eight to
seven inches, with a pressure of 150 feet. As results proved entirely satisfactory the Company
intend putting in a larger plant and bringing water from the Tulameen River.
The Stevenson Gold db Platinum Hydraulic Mining Co.'s Claims
Are situated on Granite Creek. The work on these claims commenced early in April
under the management of Mr. Robert Stevenson.
A saw-mill, with a capacity of twenty-four thousand feet of lumber per day, has been
purchased by the Company and placed in position on their property to cut lumber for fluming,
On account of the ground over which the water has to be carried being for the most
part solid rock, it has to be flumed for the whole distance. A trestle of 7,500 feet has been
completed, which brings the work to the first North Fork of Granite Creek, from which they
intend to get a temporary supply of water, and about 3,000 feet of flume has been laid.
The Company intend to extend their flume next spring, so as to tap the main stream at a
distance altogether of about two and one-half miles from point of commencement.
A first-class hydraulic plant is on the ground, and, should nothing happen to prevent,
Mr. Stevenson expects to start piping early in May.
The Pogue Co.'s Claim
Is situated immediately above and adjoining the Stevenson Gold & Platinum Hydraulic
Co.'s ground on Granite Creek. The ground was located as a hill placer claim, and is operated
by a tunnel some 1,300 feet in length. It has been worked continuously for the past ten
years, the present owners being Messrs. Murphy, Kyle and Newton, who also operate it. The
claim is at present paying from three to five ounces per set of timbers (eight feet caps).
Much difficulty has been experienced heretofore in running the tunnel on account of bad
air, but this difficulty exists no longer, as the tunnel is clear from end to end.
The Granite Creek Gold Mining Co.,
Whose property is situated on the South Fork of Granite Creek, and owned by R. C.
Campbell, Johnston and others, drifted some 650 feet under the bed of the creek to find bedrock, but did not succeed in reaching it. The work was laid over in consequence until next
spring. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 709
A number of  other leases of  mining ground have been granted in this section, on which
little or nothing has been done.
A number of placer claims on the various creeks in the district were recorded, and from
what I could learn the majority paid fairly well, especially those on Granite Creek, which have
yielded a much larger amount of gold than for a number of years past. One claim, situated
above the Pogue Co.'s ground, consisting of about 100 feet, was worked by two men for two
months and yielded $500 in gold and platinum, including a nugget which weighed 10-| ounces.
Twenty-six mineral claims have been located this season, among them one of asbestos, but
nothing has been done except in one or two cases, where the owners have satisfied themselves
with performing their assessment work.
I have, &c.,
Hugh Hunter,
The Honourable Mining Recorder.
The Minister of Mines, Victoria, B. C.
1 have to report a very large increase in the number of assays made during the past year
(ten times more than the year before). There have been more samples of ore coming in for
assay from all parts of the Province, but principally from the District of Alberni. A considerable number of assays for Mr. W. J. Sutton's report on this district were made; taking
the wdrole of the assays, they give the following averages, viz.:—
Gold $12.5 per ton of 2,000 lbs., and
Silver       1.5       n n
The following are the more important of the assays made during the year :—
Frorn Skeena River; examined for Mr. Geo. Robinson.
Quartzose rock-matter and pyrites ;  weight of sample, 6 ozs.
Gold    $6.25
Silver     1J oz.
From Bonanza Claim, Lillooet; examined for Mr. J. McB. Smith.
No. 1 sample, quartz ; weight of sample, 4 oz.
Gold    $15.00
Silver    Trace.
No. 2 sample, semi-decomposed slate; weight of sample, 8 oz.
Gold    $30.97
Silver    Trace.
From Vancouver Island; examined for Mr. Jos. Hunter, M.P.P.
Quartz and pyrites ; weight of sample, 7 oz.
Gold "    $144.55
Silver    Trace.
From Vancouver Island, Alberni District; examined for Hon. C. E. Pooley.
Quartz and pyrites.
Gold   $295.25
Silver    tV oz- 710 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
From Alberni District; examined for Mr. Jas. Dunsmuir.
Mill test quartz and pyrites.
Gold    $13.39
Silver    Trace.
Tailings from above.
Gold    $3.9
Silver    Trace.
From Vancouver Island ; examined for Mr. T. B. Hall.
Mixed rock matter; weight of sample, 5 oz.
Gold '    $12.36
Silver    to oz-
From Alberni District; examined for Mr. Jas. Dunsmuir.
Quartz and pyrites, mill test.
Gold    $72.15
Silver    yq oz.
From Alberni District; examined for Mr. Jos. Hunter, M.P.P.
Quartz and pyrites, with free gold ; weight of sample, 6 oz.
Gold    $4,811.45
Silver    20 oz.
From Lillooet District; examined for Mr. A. W. Smith, M.P.P.
Quartz and pyrites; weight of sample, 3 oz.
Gold    $9.27
Silver    To oz-
From Starlight Claim, Alberni; examined for Hon. D. W. Higgins.
Gray quartz and pyrites; weight of sample, 8 oz.
Gold    $17.00
Silver    To oz-
From Alberni District; examined for Mr. Jas. Dunsmuir.
Quartz, mill test.
Gold    $18.05
Silver .       None.
From Alberni District; examined for Mr. A. J. Galletly.
No. 1 sample, mixed rock-matter and galena; weight of sample, 12 oz.
Gold    $164.80
Silver    4^ oz.
No. 2. sample, quartz, pyrites, and galena;  weight of sample, 10 oz.
Gold    $20.65
Silver    1.35 oz.
No. 4 sample (Missing Link), quartz; weight of sample, 5 oz.
Gold        $30.85
Silver    tV oz-
From Lillooet District; examined for Mr. A. W. Smith, M.P.P.
Arsenical pyrites ; weight of sample, 2J oz.
Gold    $30.85
Silver    To oz-
From Barclay Sound, Alberni; examined for Mr. Wm. Wilson.
No. 1 sample, copper and iron sulphides; weight of sample, 10 oz.
Gold    $6.18
Silver    tu oz-
No. 2 sample, copper and iron sulphides; weight of sample, 11 oz.
Gold    $8.25
Silver    To oz- 59 VicT. Report of the Minister of Mines. 711
From Big Bend, Kootenay District; examined for Mr. J. M. Kellie, M.P.P.
Quartz, pyrites, and free gold ; weight of sample, 25 Ir.
Gold    $43.00
Silver    1 oz.
From Lillooet District; examined for Mr. A. W. Smith, M.P.P.
Quartz; weight of sample, 6 oz.
Gold    $20.00
Silver    \ oz.
From B. C. (exact location unknown); examined for Mr. H. Lea.
Black sand and rock-matter, containing platinum ; weight of sample, 4 oz.
Gold    $144.00
Silver    Trace.
Platinum group of metals       9.6 oz. per ton (2,000).
Several saline springs, coals, and building stones have been analyzed during the year, but
there is nothing of importance in them to report; the usual number of criminal analyses have
been made.
I hope, when in the new laboratory which it is proposed to fit up, to be able to make far
more extended researches than has been possible under the present circumstances.
I have, <fcc,
Herbert Carmichael,
Public Analyst and Assayer for the Province of British Columbia. 712 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
The following table shows the output of each year from 1874 to 1895, inclusive :-
Year. No. of Tons
1874  81,000
1875  110,000
1876  139,000
1877  154,000
1878  171,000
1879  241,000
1880  268,000
1881  228,000
1882  282,000
1883  213,000
1884  239,070
1885  365,000
1886  326,636
1887  413,360
1888.  489,300
1889  579,830
1890  678,140
1891  1,029,097
1892  826,335
1893  978,294
1894  1,012,953
1895  939,654
Nanaimo, B.C., February, 1896.
To the Honourable James Baker,
Minister of Mines,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir, -I have the honour, as Inspector of Mines, to respectfully present my report for the
year ending 31st December, 1895, for your information, in accordance with the requirements
of the " Coal Mines Regulation Act " of British Columbia.
The collieries in operation during the year 1895 were :—
Nanaimo Colliery of the New Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company, Limited.
Wellington Colliery, owned by Messrs. R. Dunsmuir & Sons.
Union Colliery, of the Union Colliery Company. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines 713
The  output of  coal   for  1895 amounted  to  939,654A  tons,  produced  by  the several
collieries, as follows :—
Nanaimo Colliery    338,198 fv tons.
Wellington    ,,           336,906
Union „          264,550
Total output for year 1895    939,654 £- tons.
Add coal on hand  1st January, 1895      38,579 -}-    n
Total coal for disposal in 1895    978,233 -% tons.
The exports of coal by the collieries for 1895 are 756,333 |^ tons, as follows : —
Nanaimo Colliery, export    234,321 M tons.
Wellington   „   ' ,,           394,878 „
Union" ,, „          227,134
Total coal exported in 1895    756,333 f| tons.
Add home consumption in  1895    188,349 n
Coal on hand January  1st, 1896      33,550 ■,-;}   n
Total    978,233 -^ tons.
The returns for the year show a home consumption of coal amounting to 188,349 tons, as
against 165,776 i^- tons last year (1894). It must, however, be noted that the coal used in
the collieries is in most instances included under this heading.
The coal exported was shipped at the Port of Nanaimo, Departure Bay, and Union, near
Comox, on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The exports were principally made to San
Francisco, San Pedro, and San Diego, in California, U. S. Shipments were also made to
Oregon and Washington States, U. S., Alaska, Petropavloski, Hawaiian Islands, and to
Acapulco in Mexico.
In order to show the standing of British Columbia coal in the California market, the
following returns are set forth, for the year ending December 31st, 1895 :—
" British Columbia  651,295 tons.
Australia  268,960 „
English and Welsh  201,180 „
Scotch  4,098 n
Eastern, Cumberland and Anthracite  26,863 n
Seattle, Franklin and Green River  150,888 n
Carbon Hill and South Prairie  256,267 m
Mount Diablo and Coos Bay  84,954 n
Japan, etc  9,015 n
Total for the year 1895 1,653,520    ,i
,.    1894 1,527,754    „
" To insure a correct statement of the entire amount of coal consumed I have included all
the arrivals by water at San Pedro, Port Los Angeles, San Diego and Santa Barbara, aggregating 199,100 tons.
"The quantity consumed this year was greater than any other year since 1891. This is
mainly attributable to the very low prices of fuel which have ruled, being the lowest known
to the trade, and the outlook is that low prices will prevail for several months to come. The
reduced values of all characters, Australian and English coal, are materially interfering with
our northern collieries.
" The total amount of coke imported into California was 28,688 tons, all foreign, mainly
from England and Belgium. The owners of the Union Colliery at Comox, B. C, are putting
up 100 ovens on a large scale, with a view to supplying this (California) market with coke, as
the coal is reputed to be well adapted for coke producing, but it will be several months before
they are equipped."
I am obliged to Mr. Harrison's report for the above. 714 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
The ovens above referred to are under way, but it will be nearly midsummer before they
are filled with coal. In addition to those now in use there will be 100 new ovens, that, when
all in working order, will make about 140 tons of coke per day, for which this coal is well
adapted to make a first-class article. Thus they will be able to supply fuel for the smelters on
the Mainland of this Province. The ovens above referred to are being built near the shipping
wharf, and close to them is a large coal washing machine, known by name as the Luhrig
Washer. This was only started in January last, but it is expected to cleanse 500 tons of coal
in ten hours, with a loss of not more than 3 per cent, of the fine coal (dust). This alone will
assure the Union Colliery Company of having an efficient plant, so that nothing may be lost,
as the finest particles of coal will make the best coke. This Company has also got near their
mine, the Shepherd improved washing machine ; this alone can clean about 350 tons of coal
per day, but there is quite a loss of fine coal, this fine stuff being just what is wanted to make
coke, as they can market the lump coal.
This district never had a better showing of coal than there is now, taking all the working
mines and the new find on the south slope of Mount Benson into consideration. In this latter
I cannot put an estimate upon the coal, but I think that it is quite safe to say that the coal
which will yet be mined from this district by both the Nanaimo Colliery Company and Messrs.
R. Dunsmuir & Sons will be many times greater than all the coal that has yet been shipped
from British Columbia. Now that we have the coal and plenty of it, of a first-class quality,
it is to be hoped that they will have a good market, where they can dispose of it at a fairly
remunerative price, so that it will pay the companies and the miners who dig it.
In connection with our coal we must not lose sight of our valuable beds of fire-clay. The
demand and output of this article for 1895 was three times larger than it was in 1894, and we
will expect to see it much increased during the year that we have now entered on, apart from
the preparation being made for its manufacture in this district near where it is mined.
No.  1  Shaft, in Nanaimo City.
This shaft, as mentioned in a previous report, is within the limits of the City of Nanaimo'
and belongs to the New Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company, Limited. This has
proved to be a valuable property, and, to all appearance, will be for a long time to come.
As I have mentioned in previous reports, this shaft is 650 feet deep, and most of the
mining done here is in a northerly direction from the shaft, the principal openings being what
are known as Nos. 1 and 3 north levels, and a slope driven in a north-easterly direction. All
the working of this extensive mine is under the waters of Nanaimo Harbour, except a small
part, which is under Protection (or Douglas) Island and the Gulf of Georgia. The workings
are generally dry, but not dusty, and are quite safe from any influx of water, as there is a
thickness of from 450 to 1,000 feet of rock and debris between the water and the workings of
the mine. All the workings are on the pillar and stall system, as well as on the panel principle ; the pillars which are left are fully two-thirds of all the coal that was in the mine, this
being left to protect the mine, but still remaining in store for mining some future day.
The workings of No. 1 level are now in, in a northerly direction, 4,900 yards, but they
are not working at the face at present, the coal being thin, all the working being done to the
west side, going towards Newcastle Island, where this Company at one time had an extensive
mine in operation. Coal in these places has been good in general, and has varied from 3 to 10
feet thick, being overlaid by a strong rock roof, yet in some places this is much cut with slips,
which make it dangerous. From the shaft to the face of the inside incline it is over 5,000
yards, and is the longest hauling road in our mine.
No. 3 level.—The workings from this level have been described in a previous report as
working up to the lower side of No. 1 level, leaving about 40 yards between the two levels.
There are now only a few places being worked here, and they will be stopped soon, yet there
is coal in this district that will take years to work out.
Early in the year work was resumed in what is known in this mine as the " slope," wdiich
has been standing for several years, and is now down in a north-easterly direction 1,500 yards, 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 7l!
and 1,050 under tide-water, and I am sorry to say that there is yet very little coal, but it has
now the appearance that there will be a change soon, and any alteration would almost be sure
to be for the better. As this is now the principal exploring place in this mine, it would be a
great relief to see good coal discovered at this point.
Ventilation is good, and by motive power, using a large Guibal fan, as described in a
previous report. When I was down in December there were 103,400 cubic feet of air passing
per minute for 135 men. The above is conducted on the separate split system as follows,
with Protection Island shaft the principal intake :—To the level and inside incline there were
16,800 cubic feet of air passing per minute for 38 men ; to long incline, 28,000 cubic feet per
minute for 64 men ; No. 3 level, 27,000 cubic feet per minute for 13 men (the last-mentioned
quantity having a large area of old workings to keep clear, hence the large volume); to the
slope and men about the shaft there are 31,600 cubic feet of air passing per minute for about 20
men, this coming down No. 1 shaft. In addition to the men above enumerated, there are
about 12 mules.
In the levels above mentioned is where the New Vancouver Coal Company has been, and
is now, hauling the coal out by electricity ; of this there is a full description in the report of
1894.    This system of haulage is quite a success with this Company in long roads.
Protection Island Shaet.
This is also the property of the New Vancouver Coal Company, and is situated on the
south point of Protection Island.
This mine opens out from the shaft to the north and south sides, with two slopes as the
principal opening out and cutting places, together with the north level. The slope on the east
side, mentioned in a previous report as down 800 yards to a fault, has been continued and
pushed with all haste through the fault, and is now down 1,500 yards, and 1,500 feet below
the surface of the water at the entrance of Nanaimo Harbour, and for quite a long distance
they have had good coal, but not quite as thick or hard as might be expected, or as it was on
the upper side of the fault, but it will give it quite a different appearance when they work it
in stalls. On the upper side of the above fault there is a fine face of stall, in both the north
and south sides of the slope the coal is very good and hard, but these places are getting used
up towards the No. 3 level of No. 1 shaft, and here they will have to stop for a time again, as
in the low side of No. 1 level, leaving a large piece of coal, as well as the pillars, for some
future day.    All the mining being done here is under the water of Nanaimo Harbour.
From the north level, and about 100 yards from the shaft, here branches off what is called
the "diagonal slope," that is being driven in a north-easterly direction, and is now down 1,100
yards, and fully 1,000 feet below the tide-water of the Northumberland Channel, which
separates Protection from Gabriola Island. This slope passed through a long stretch of very
fine coal, varying in thickness from 4 to 7 feet, and about 900 yards from the top of this slope
another very large downthrow to the coal was encountered, which was somewhat discouraging;
yet they kept at it, and, after a long rook tunnel, their perseverance was rewarded by again
getting the coal on the low side, 5 feet thick, and of its usual good quality ; and it is to be
hoped that this will continue good until they get to Gabriola Island, where this Company has
large interests. You will have seen that in both the north and south slopes they have recently
passed down over a very large fault (or faults), and it is possible that they may be both one and
the same disturbance, and, if that should prove the case, they have here a very extensive field of
coal awaiting them. There is one level working to the north of this diagonal slope, and on the
east side they have started another side slope, which is down about 400 yards, in good coal all
the distance, this lying to the dip of the diagonal. The prospects at present in this pit look
well for coal, and we may yet hear of the Manager of the New Vancouver Coal Mining and
Land Company, Limited, travelling from Nanaimo to Gabriola Island without the use of a boat.
Ventilation is good and on the separate split system, the intake being this shaft and the
upcast No.. 1 fan shaft. In the Diagonal Slope, and working from it, there were 31,250 cubic
feet of air passing per minute for 19 men, and 24,420 cubic feet of air per minute going down the
slope for 80 men and 3 mules. This was split as follows:—South level, 16,420 cubic feet per
minute for 56 men and 3 mules; to north side, 8,000 cubic feet of air passing per minute for
24 men.    All the works above referred to are on the pillar and stall principle.
There has not been any work done in the lower seam during the past year, except keeping
the water out, but there has been quite a few holes bored from the upper coal to the lower
seam, giving good prospects. 716 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
This Company has large bunkers near the wharf at Protection Island, which can hold
1,200 tons, in addition to the bunkers, at Nanaimo, which can hold 2,000 tons, so that when a
large steamship is expected the bunkers are filled with coal so that they can give it a quick
dispatch, there being no difficulty to load a 4,000-ton ship in 30 hours.
No. 5 Shaft, Southfield.
This mine is also the property of the New Vancouver Coal Company, and is the only
mine they now have in operation in this section of their estate. Here they have been much
troubled with faults of one kind and another, and have not got clear of them yet, although
they are not quite so formidable as they have been, coal being much harder and of very good
quality—in some places 20 feet thick, in other places quite thin.
The leading places in this mine are working to the east. The one known as the east
level goes out from the shaft to the west side, but in its windings gets into the east level; this
is in 1,200 yards from the shaft, and has been considerably " troubled," but in the stalls from
this level there has been got some very fine coal. The other main opening is from the south
side and up the east incline, and then to the south-east side. Here they are getting some very
good coal, although somewhat rolling and hard to get roads in to the place. At present there
is a large output of coal per day when they work.
Ventilation is good, motive power being a fan and on the separate split system, the division
being from the bottom of the shaft. To the west there were 25,400 cubic feet of air passing
per minute for 45 men and 8 mules, and to the south and east side 29,000 cubic feet of air
passing per minute for 44 men and 7 mules. After both currents have passed the working
places they come again into one volume and pass on to the upcast shaft. There is very little
gas seen in this mine, and it is also free from dust, everything being kept in the best of order,
so that it may be safe and free from any accidents to the workmen. The workings of this pit
are connected with the old No. 4 slope, and there is quite a quantity of air going that way not
mentioned in the above quantities.
Northfield Mine.
This mine is also part of the Nanaimo Colliery and belongs to the New Vancouver Coal
Company, being in the northern part of the large estate. There were a few men working here
in the early part of the year prospecting, but, not being successful in finding tire coal as thick
as they thought would justify them in carrying on the work, they thought it was to their best
interests to suspend operations for the present.
The New Vancouver Coal Company has done much exploring and expensive prospecting
in their mines during the past year, among which being the large downthrow of the coal in the
main and diagonal slopes of the Protection Island shaft, in the first place the coal going down
nearly 100 feet, aud in the diagonal about 50 feet; but they have been rewarded by finding
good coal in both places.
In addition to what has been done in the mine, they have done much exploring and
boring with the diamond drill from the surfaces in what is known as the Wake-Siah Park,
about one mile west of Nanaimo. This Company put down two holes here, but the results of
their borings are not yet made public. At present they are busy with another hole in Chase
River Valley, near to the Nanaimo Water Company's dam, and I hope that they will be
successful in finding something good and valuable here. There is much other work that has
been done by this Company in the woods, but it will not be possible for me to describe, in
addition to what has been done in No. 1 shaft, Protection, No. 5, and Northfield mines, some
of it very heavy and expensive work, but I hope that it will yet be the fortune of this New
Vancouver Coal Company to find a good field of coal in hand on this their large estate. If
perseverance and pluck can find it, the present management of the Company will not miss it. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 717
No.   1  Pit.
This Colliery belongs to Messrs. R. Dunsmuir & Sons, and, as I have said iu a previous
report, is near Departure Bay, their shipping point, where they have their extensive wharves for
the shipping of the coal, and near the eastern boundary of the Wellington estate. Work has
been carried on almost steadily during the past year. Most of the time the mining was in rock,
but by perseverance coal was struck, very thin at first, but after a while good coal was
reached, and also a connection was made with No. 5 pit, working where the coal had to be
hauled up hill for about one mile to the shaft bottoms. There is a long face of good coal
opened out here, worked on the long-wall system, all the coal being hauled out by mules, on a
level road to No. 1 shaft.
Ventilation was good (but as there is much powder used here at times there is considerable smoke), and on the separate split system, known as the inside and outside divisions. On
the outside division there were 18,000 cubic feet of air passing per minute, with 47 men at
work, having No. 1 shaft as the return : on the inside split 10,000 cubic feet of air passing
per minute, with 27 men working, the air from this place going out at No. 5 fan shaft, and
this being the long-wall system, the air mostly passes along the face where the men are at work.
Everything about the top and bottom of this shaft is fitted up on good principles, and is
convenient for the handling of a large output.
It is in this mine where they have a strata of fire clay 30 feet thick, and of good quality,
of which they send out enough to supply any order they may get; but in place of sending
away this clay as at present, we yet expect to see it going away in a manufactured state,
which can be done near the pit mouth.
No.  3 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
This mine, mentioned in a previous report, was idle, excepting the pumping of water and
ventilating, but now work has been resumed, taking out some coal and cleaning up and putting-
it in order, both roads and airways. There is yet a large quantity of coal to be worked from
this mine, where there will be employment for quite a number of men for some years to come.
No. 4 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
This is one of Messrs. R. Dunsmuir cfc Son's extensive mines, and is the same that has on
two different occasions been filled with water, owing to fires in the mine, which blocked up
roads, stopped airways, and to all appearances wrecked this valuable property, but, as I have
said in a previous report, everything is again in working order, and this property is now one
of the most productive mines in this colliery. With the exception of part of the south side,
all the mining is at the pillars (coal), which comprise fully two-thirds of the original coal.
There is yet every indication that it will last for quite a number of years to come.
Ventilation is good; motive power, fan, worked by steam engine, and the mine is ventilated on the separate split system as follows : When down in December there were to the
north division 21,000 cubic feet of air passing per minute for 30 men ; south split, 13,000
cubic feet per minute for 38 men; east side, 17,280 cubic feet passing per minute for 60 men.
In addition to the above, there are 12,000 feet passing that escape at different places,
keeping the old works clear. In addition there are yet 10,000 feet of air which goes out at
No. 3 fan shaft. This is for 27 men. Besides all the men above referred to, there are 20
mules scattered throughout the works at different places in the mine.
There is now very little gas found in this mine, yet the greatest care is taken, and as it
is not possible to get into the old works, where the pillars have been taken out, the fireman
gives the face of the old caved roof particular attention, also the shot-examiner, to see if they
can find any gas collecting.
No. 5 Pit, Wellington  Colliery.
This is yet the only mine of Messrs. R. Dunsmuir & Sons where the locomotives of the
Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Company can go under the shute and get coal for their own
use, and here the railway company's cars can also come to the mine and be loaded with coal
for the Victoria Market. 718 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
No. 5 pit of this colliery is yet the greatest producing mine, the coal being brought to the
shaft bottom from the east level, Horn's heading and new diagonal slope by a tail-rope system
of haulage, and from the north by a slope, with a steam engine as a motive power. Much of
the coal is worked here on the pillar and stall system, as well -as on the long-wall principle
and at the pillars (coal).
There is a large amount of coal in sight here, which will last for a long time. This mine,
as you will have seen, is now connected underground with No. 1 shaft, having a good road to
No. 1, as well as a good travelling road to No. 6 pit.
Ventilation is good, although sometimes there is considerable powder smoke directly
after blasting time, but this has been much improved since a connection was made with No. 1,
and in a short time there will be further improvement. In December, near the bottom of the
fan-shaft, there were 110,000 cubic feet of air passing per minute, but at the different splits
there were only 99,150 cubic feet accounted for, for 184 men, thus showing for loss and expansion 10,850 feet.    This mine is also ventilated on the separate split system.
To the west side of the slope there were 27,000 cubic feet of air passing per minute for
33 men and 4 mules ; No. 2 side slope, 3,450 cubic feet of air per minute for 14 men ; Barber's
level, 13,000 cubic feet per minute for 28 men and 2 mules. The mining here is done on the
long-wall principle, and the coal will be worked out in a short time. In the long-wall split
there were 25,700 feet of air passing per minute for 52 men and 4 mules. In the east side
30,000 cubic feet of air per minute, and split as follows : New diagonal slope, 22,500 cubic
feet of air for 52 men; Horn's heading, 7,500 for 5 men. This is all pillar work. This mine
is free from dust.
In addition to the manager there are the overman, fireman and a large staff of shot
examiners, so that the mine is examined several times each day, and the smallest change anyway can soon be detected.
All the pumping from this mine, particularly the slope, is by compressed air and electricity, each of which gives good satisfaction.
No. 6 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
This pit belongs to Messrs. R. Dunmuir & Sons, and is about 900 yards east of No. 4
shaft, but with not any connection under ground, leaving a barrier about 40 yards thick
between the two mines as a safe-guard in case of accident in either place, this strip of coal
having already proved very useful, as No. 4 had on two occasions to be filled with water,
owing to fires in the mine.
This is now an extensive mine, most of the coal taken out during the past year coming
from the north, south, and east levels from the shaft, having been re-mined after a mixed
system, some by pillar and stall, at another place by long-wall, and much of the mining was at
the pillar (coal). The coal is very good, and it will be waste of time for me to say that the
quality is good, as that is well known.
In the report of 1894 mention is made there that they had started in the upper seam,
but as this is thin, and not requiring it, operations were stopped, so that there has been very
little clone here during the past year.
Ventilation was good, motive power being a fan. When I was there, on December 21st,
there were 47,000 cubic feet of air passing per minute on the return, and on the different
splits, as follows : On the east side, 14,500 cubic feet per minute for 53 men; south side,
9,600 cubic feet per minute for 24 men ; east incline, 13,200 feet per minute for 43 men, and
on the north and west sides 9,700 cubic feet of air per minute for 35 men ; and as most of the
mining done here is long-wall and pillar work, the air has got to pass along the gob or old
waste works, and this is where great attention has to be paid to ascertain whether there is
any gas collecting or not.
No.  1 Shaft, East Wellington.
In the report of 1894 mention is made of no work being done here, the mine being full of
water. Since that time this property has changed hands, and is now the property of Messrs.
R. Dunsmuir & Sons, and may be considered part of the Wellington Colliery. Shortly after
getting possession they commenced to make preparations to get the water out of the mine
from No. 2 shaft, and after they commenced to take water out, it only took a few weeks till
they got to the bottom of No. 2 shaft.   Then their attention was turned to No, 1 shaft.    Here 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 719
they also soon reached the bottom. Now there are a few men working in the mine exploring
and prospecting, and sending out a few tons of good coal per day; so that we may yet expect
to see good shipments from here. The railway has been extended up the valley and is now in
connection with the Wellington railway system, the rails being taken out of the old East
Wellington track.
Alexandra Mine.
This is also the property of Messrs. R. Dunsmuir & Sons. Work has been resumed here
during the past year, after standing for some years, with a slope, down 700 yards on an easy grade.
The water was got out, and the slope driven down to the distance of 600 yards. Here
two levels were started, with counter levels as airways, and after a short distance the one to
the south was stopped. The north level is now in 150 yards. Part of this distance they
passed through some very good and hard coal, but I could not say how thick it was, as they
did not get to the top, while at other places there was much dirt mixed with thin coal.
" Ventilation is good, motive power a large furnace in the bottom of the up-cast shaft,
the sides being well protected from fire by bricks and iron sheets. When down I found that
there were 8,250 cubic feet of air passing per minute for six men, this being about the average
at present.
No. 2 Slope, Wellington Colliery.
There is nothing yet being done here.
E. & N. Wellington Extension.
It is with pleasure that I have now to report to you this new work and discovery of
Messrs. R. Dunsmuir & Sons. This coal was first seen about last midsummer, where a large
tree had fallen, tearing up its roots, the same having been standing on a thick bed of coal.
This a Mr. Hodgson discovered when travelling in the woods, and this discovery was reported
to Mr. Dunsmuir, as it was on the property of the E. & N. Railway Lands. Mr. Dunsmuir
lost no time in going to see what was reported to him, and here he saw what appeared might
be so valuable to him that he paid Mr. Hodgson handsomely for the information.
This discovery is about seven miles south-west of Nanaimo in Douglas District, and on
the south slope of Mount Benson, with an altitude of about 900 feet above sea level, this
being the highest point of the cropping out of the coal. At this point they have run down a
slope in a southerly direction about 200 yards with an easy grade, and at the entrance at the
surface the coal was 9 feet thick, but it kept getting thicker as they went down, until at the
above distance it is 11 feet thick. This coal is hard and of good quality, and proves itself to
be the famous Wellington coal. At this slope they have a steam engine for hoisting the cars,
and a steam pump for the water.
In addition to the slope at the above cropping out, they have put a bore-hole down the
slope in a southerly direction, near the Nanaimo River, which, without being measured, I would
say is two and one-half miles distant. Here the coal was also struck, although not quite so
thick, yet it was very hard. From the indications and look of the surface there must be a
great many square miles in this new coal-field not yet broken into, but we will wait for further
developments that are sure to follow soon.
There have been some other exposures out in this district, but those mentioned are the
principle places where coal has actually been seen, and there are big times in store for the
Douglas District.
This mine is west of and adjoining the Wellington Colliery of Messrs. R. Dunsmuir &
Sons, and is owned by Dennis Jordan, Esq., of San Francisco. There was considerable work
done here some years ago by putting a tunnel into the coal, but it was stopped for some reason
best known to the owner.
During the past summer work was resumed here, and this time by opening out the old
tunnel and running a slope down to the coal, which varies in thickness from 4 to 6 feet, and,
being the Wellington seam, it is of the usual good quality of that famous coal. This slope is
not far down yet, but they have started two levels, one to the east and the other to the west 720 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
side, and are in but a short distance, as they had to hold back until they could see a way of
taking the coal to market. A few cars of this coal were sent to Victoria on the Esquimalt &
Nanaimo Railway, but Mr. Jordan's ambition was to have a road of his own to the salt water,
where he could ship his coal. This was soon accomplished by having a tramway five or six
miles in length built to Nanoose Bay, where he has a wharf, and now he is sending away what
coal he gets out, by water ; but as they are only getting the works in order, and winter being on,
he cannot do much outside, still we look to see this mine further developed and become a most
productive work during the year we have entered on, and I hope to see Mr. Jordan one of our
successful mine operators.
This slope is the property of the Union Colliery Company, No. 1 slope being the "first
extensive mine of this Company, and one from which there has been a large quantity of good
coal mined and shipped to the California market. The coal was being taken out of this mine
up to a few months ago, when it was stopped, when they took out the rails, pumps, and everything that was of any value, then built up the entrance so that no person could get into this
once valuable mine, now filled with water, and not likely to be pumped out.
No. 2 Slope, Union Colliery.
This slope is now down about 700 yards from the surface, and quite a long distance of
this is in rock, much disturbed with faults, and thin coal, but there has been quite a change
for the better, as for a considerable distance the coal has been 4 feet 6 inches thick, very hard
and of good quality, overlaid by a strong roof. This being on the south side of the valley and
opposite to all the other mines of this Company, excepting Nos. 1 and 2 tunnels, which are in
an upper seam of coal and above the workings of this No. 2 slope. I think it is almost safe to
say that on this side will yet be seen the great productive mine of the Union Colliery, the
surface showing this to be a fine country.
Ventilation was good, motive power being a fan, on the upcast shaft. When I was down
in December there were 17,000 cubic feet of air passing per minute for 54 men. There are
not any men working to-day, but the above is fully the average of men in the mine when all
at work. When I got to the mine I found gates on the entrance to the slope locked to keep
any persons from entering when there is nothing doing below.
No. 4 Slope, Union Colliery.
As has been mentioned in a previous report, this slope is the most extensive mine in the
Union Colliery, and is the longest hauling slope in the district, being 2,000 yards long from
the entrance to the face, in addition to 700 feet outside. The first 500 yards is almost
flat, this part being worked on the tail-rope system ; after this distance there is an easy grade,
so that the empty cars take the rope down to the lowest landing, which is about one mile down
from the entrance. There is also a diagonal slope, which is known as No. 2 slope, in No. 4 ;
this leaves the main slope near its entrance to the east, at an angle of about 45 degrees ; this
slope being now down 1,000 yards, and having a much greater pitch, so that at the face it is
now almost as low as the main slope.
From the main slope there are six levels working, 11, 12, and 13 to the west side, in all
of which places the coal is good and hard, averaging 6 feet thick ; on the east side there are
also 11, 12, and 13 levels working, the coal in here being good, but not quite so thick as on
the west side of the slope; in some places the coal is somewhat soft, but always of good
quality. As the diagonal slope intersects all the levels from the main slope down to 10 east,
the coal is similar to that mentioned in the levels from the east side of the main slope, and as
the engine on top takes the coal from both slopes, there is much labour saved in running the
cars underground.
Ventilation is good, motive power a large Guibal fan worked by a steam engine. This
fan was built last summer, as the fan mentioned in a previous report was burned down during
the dry weather of last summer. The intake for the air is by the slope and travelling road,
this latter running parallel with the slope, about 12 yards apart to the west side. This mine
is also ventilated on the separate split system, and when I was down, on the  11th December, o9 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 721
there were 54,320 cubic feet of air going down the two ways above referred to. To the west
side there were 11,400 cubic feet of air passing per minute for 37 men and 2 mules; to the
slope and east side 24,200 cubic feet of air per minute for 5_6 men and 3 mules; in the
diagonal slope, 13,530 cubic feet per minute for 65 men and 6 mules; leaving yet 5,190 cubic
feet of air to be accounted for. This is allowed to escape from the main slope, and is caught
in the upper levels of the diagonal slope. I may here mention that when I was down there
was no person at work in the mine, but the above figures indicate fully the average number
employed in the mine when at work. The fan was also running somewhat slower than usual.
All the appliances and arrangements about this mine are on the most improved system at
their disposal for the saving of labour and the handling of coal from this extensive mine.
No. 5 Shaft, Union Colliery.
This is the new shaft mentioned in 1894 report as being put clown by this company,
about one and a half miles to the east of the bottom of No. 4 slope. After everything about
the surface was put in order, work was commenced in the shaft and continued almost without
intermission until it was completed to the depth of 600 feet from the surface, being finished
inside in the following manner :—The first 40 feet being through gravel and cement with
water, this water had to be kept from coming in, and this was clone as follows :—In sinking,
the first timber put in was 12 inches thick, and this size they continued to put in until they
reached hard sandstone rock, into which they went down for 10 feet, to make sure that it was
solid. Then the bottom was levelled off and the first inside timber put in being 12 inches
wide and 6 inches thick, a space 8 inches wide between this and the 12-inch timber was left,
and after putting in some of the inside timber, this space of 8 inches was filled with Portland
cement, letting the water rise in the shaft with them as they went up. Continuing this on
until they got to the top, then they let it stand for a time to harden, and when this was
deemed sufficient they pumped the water out, and on reaching the bottom they found that their
work was a success, as there was now no more water coming in, the shaft being now perfectly
dry. Work was now commenced in the bottom again, and continued, when, at the depth of
275 feet from the surface, the first coal was struck, this 5 feet thick, hard, and of good quality.
This was drifted into a few feet, when work was resumed in the bottom and continued.
When at the depth of 590 feet from the surface the coal that they were after was found, this
being 4 feet 6 inches thick, very hard, and of the usual good quality of Union coal. This
shaft is lined inside from the bottom of the cement to the bottom of the shaft, with plank 6
inches thick, and is sunk through hard rock most of the way
They have now worked into this coal in three different directions from the shaft, i. e.,
to south, east and west, for 200 feet each from the shaft, the coal keeping very good.
The appliances on top are not yet complete, but as far as they have gone everything is
being done with the view of having a very extensive mine at this opening.
There is a double engine, the cylinders being 30x60 inches, winding drum 14 feet in
diameter, with four large boilers. There is also a large Guibal fan, worked by a steam engine,
about 50 feet from the shaft, connection being made by a tunnel to the rise end of the shaft,
this being the upcast in the ventilation of the mine, the shaft having a partition, so that the
air goes down the side where the cages work, coming up the other as return. Now the large
hoisting engine, fan and engine, headgear and railway, together with all other necessaries are
in working order and they are taking out about 100 tons of coal per day. I may here mention
that all the machinery about this shaft came from the Albion Irom Works, Victoria, and any
person seeing this fine machinery and knowing that it had been made in Victoria, would
quickly aver that there was no necessity whatever to send out of the Province for anything
required in the above line.
This mine has the appearance of giving good returns from now on, and I hope that the
company will find a market giving a good remuneration for all the coal they can put out.
At this Union Colliery they have been making some first-class coke from fine coal that
could not otherwise be sold, and now they are erecting ovens by which they will be able to turn
out over 100 tons of coke per day, and this will enable them to work soft coal. 722 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
In and about the Coal Mines of British Columbia for the Year 1895.
January     7th—Sterley Greives, miner, working in No. 1 slope, Union Colliery, had one arm
broken while riding in one of the mine cars.
ii 7th—William Thomas, miner, working in Protection Island shaft, Nanaimo Colliery,
was slightly burned by an explosion of gas.
it        11th—Oscar Rowa, miner, had his hip dislocated by a fall of coal while at   work in
his stall in No. 1 shaft, Nanaimo Colliery.
ti        24th™ B. Belloni and John Ducca, miners, were seriously injured by the premature
explosion of a shot while at work in No. 1 shaft, Nanaimo Colliery.
ii        25th—The above B. Belloni died to-day.
it        25th—Louis  Golasso,   miner,   working  in No. 4 slope, Union Colliery, was bruised
about the leg by a fall of coal while at work,
it        28th—William Wright, labourer, at No. 1 slope, Union Colliery, was hurt about the
back by falling from the trestle,
n        28th—C.  Webster,  miner,   working  in  No. 4 slope,  Union Colliery,   was  slightly
burned about the arms and face by an explosion of gas.
ii        31st—John  Marks, bottomer  in the No. 4 pit, Wellington Colliery,  was seriously
injured by the cage while at work.
February   Sth—Peter Borgland,  miner, in the No. 4  slope,   Union  Colliery,  had one of his
legs broken by a fall of rock while at work.
it 9th—Mat Beyer, miner, in No. 5 pit, Wellington  Colliery, got his leg broken by a
fall of coal while at work.
it        11th—Ching Wing and Ah Wing were killed  while  attempting to  jump  from  the
mine cars in No. 4 slope, Union Colliery.
i.        12th—George Whitehead was burned about the face and  arms by an explosion  of
gas in No. 4 slope, Union Colliery.
it        13th—Mak Gevett had his  arm  broken by a mine car  in  the No.  4 slope, Union
March        2nd—A. Wonger,  pusher  in the No. 6 pit, Wellington Colliery,   was killed by a
blowing-through shot while he was going past.
n       19th—James Read, fireman in No. 2 slope, Union Colliery, was slightly hurt about
the head by a piece of rock falling on him.
ti       23rd—Peter Muller, sinker in the No. 5 sinking shaft, Union, was injured about
the back by a piece of rock falling out of the side.
April 9th—Dan McKeigan, miner, was killed, and Fred Cook had one of his legs injured
by a fall of  rock  while at work in the face of No. 1 slope, No. 1 shaft,
Nanaimo Colliery.
tt 6th—John Jess, sinker in No. 5 sinking shaft,  Union Colliery, was killed  by a
piece of rock falling down the shaft and striking him.
tt        16th—Robert McNeil, mule-driver in No. 1 slope, Union Colliery, was slightly burnt
about the face and hand by an explosion of gas.
it        23rd—David  Campbell, timberman in No. 3 pit, Wellington Colliery, had his arm
broken by a car in the mine. 59 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 723
May 3rd—David Adamson,   miner, in No. 6  pit, Wellington Colliery, was  killed by a
fall of coal while at work,
it        22nd—David Evans, rope-rider in Protection  Island   slope,   Nanaimo  Colliery, had
his leg broken by the cars in the mine.
June 11th—David Paterson, miner, in No. 5 pit, Wellington Colliery, was injured  about
the face and arms by a shot while at work.
ti        15th—Peter Babba, miner, in No. 4 slope, Union Colliery, had his face cut and  jaw
broken by a fall of coal while at work.
ii        24th—W. Stevenson, sinker in No. 5 sinking shaft, Union Colliery, was cut  in the
back by a piece of rock falling down the shaft,
it       24th—John Davis, driver in  No. 4 slope,   Union Colliery,   had  his  leg  broken  by
being caught in a coil of rope while lowering a mine car.
ii        26th—Jacob Lathi was killed, and Jas. Kallie got his arm broken by a fall of rock
from the roof while at work in the No. 5 pit, Wellington Colliery,
it        26th—Alfred Scales, miner, in No. 5 pit, Wellington, Colliery, was seriously injured
by the premature explosion of a shot.
July 11th—John Robertson, pusher in No. 5 pit, Wellington Colliery, got his leg  broken
by being jammed by a car in the mine.
ii        12th — A Chinaman had his arm broken by a fall of rock in the Alexandra Mine,
ti        16th—J. W. Harley, miner, in No. 1 shaft, Nanaimo  Colliery, injured in  the  back
by a fall of rock and coal while at work in his stall.
ii        18th—H. McSwain, pusher, in No. 5 shaft, Nanaimo Colliery, was seriously bruised
about the head by being jammed by cars.
August      3rd—Richard Walters, (boy) pusher, in Protection Island shaft, Nanaimo Colliery,
got his arm broken by being jammed between two mine cars.
ii        10th—J.  Honnok,  J. Talentensi,  A.   Modesta,  and one  Jap  were  burned  by an
explosion of gas in No. 4 slope, Union Colliery.
ii        24th—Ah Lee was slightly burnt by an explosion  of  gas  in  No.   4  slope,   Union
ii        31st—J. Webster, miner, in No. 4 slope, Union Colliery, had his leg broken by a
fall of rock while at work in his stall.
ii        30th—Joseph Piconae, miner, in No. 4 slope, Union Colliery, was injured about the
back by a fall of rock while at work in his stall.
Sept'nrb'r 1 Sth—John Rowe, miner in the No. 4 slope, Union Colliery, was killed by a fall of
rock while at work in his stall.
October      3rd—John Adams, miner iir the No. 4 slope,  Union Colliery,  was hurt about the
head by a fall of rock while at work,
ti Sth—Thomas  Hayworth,  miner working  in No. 5  pit,  Wellington  Colliery,  was
killed by a fall of rock while at work in his place.
November 6th—William Anderson, miner in the No. 6 pit, Wellington Colliery, got his arm
broken by being jammed between a prop and mine car.
it 9th—Mike McFarlan, miner in No. 1 pit, East Wellington, was injured about the
spine by a fall of rock while at work in his place.
ti 9th—Quong (Chinaman), got his collar bone broken  by falling from the pithead of
No. 1 shaft, Wellington Colliery.
ii       14th—M. Prisadel, John Albertina and Chas. Albertina  were slightly burned by an
explosion of gas in No. 4 pit, Wellington Colliery, 724 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1896
ii 25th—Albert Thrall, pusher in the No. 1 shaft, Nanaimo Colliery, had one leg
broken by being struck with a rope on an incline.
December 4th—Daniel Maguire, fireman in Protection Island shaft, Nanaimo Colliery, was
seriously injured by being jammed between a car and a timber on the
main slope,
ii 16th—James Robinson, miner in No. 1 shaft, Wellington Colliery, had some of his
ribs broken and was squeezed about the hips by a fall of rock while at
work in his stall.
It is with sincere regret that I have again, at this the close of another year, to make out
the above long list of accidents, a list that shows quite an increase in the number of both serious and fatal, over those of the previous year.
Some of these just mentioned were quite slight; again, some of them were very serious.
In some cases months elapsed before they could attend to their work.
In the above list you will observe that there is a total of 56 accidents, 46 of them
being reported slight or serious, and ten as fatal, and of the 46 casualties, 4 were with coa^
13 with'rock, 12 by explosion of gas, 3 by shots, 9 by the cars in the mine, 2 by ropes on
incline, 2 by falling off trestle, and 1 by being caught with the cage at the bottom of the
Of the 10 fatal accidents, 1 was caused by a fall of coal, 5 by rock, 2 by shots, and 2 by
cars in the mine.
I have made enquiries into the circumstances and causes of all those accidents, on many
occasions being at the place before receiving the notice from the manager. In looking over
the list you will observe that all those accidents mentioned took place while the men were at
With respect to the fatal accidents, in all cases where an inquest was held all evidence
was taken that was found possible to get, and as the evidence of these inquisitions is filed in
the Attorney-General's Department I beg leave to refer you to the same.
In addition to each workman looking after his own safety, there are the manager, overman, fireman, shot-examiner, and other persons having authority, all of whom are on the
move throughout the mine, not being long in one place, except where their presence is
required at some particular place, so that very little can escape their watchful eyes, and it
seems strange that accidents should take place so frequently.
All the old works that can be got at, as well as the present working places, are
frequently examined for gas, this being the great enemy to guard against in coal mining, and
I am pleased to be able to say that there is now very little to be found in our mines, ventilation being so good that there is very little chance of it accumulating, yet it is occasionally
found in holes in the roof, and at times in the stalls.
I have here again to mention that the miners of the Nanaimo Colliery are as yet the only
workmen who have sent a deputation of the men to examine the mine as to its condition for
safety, the result of their finding being posted up in some conspicuous place as well as being
entered in a book kept for that purpose, thus letting the workmen, and all those in connection
with the mine, know as to its safety.
At neither the Wellington or Union Collieries do the workmen take the benefit of this
privilege granted them by the " Coal Mines Regulation Act," and it seems to me to be an
oversight on their part, as much good would result from such examinations, letting the men
know the general condition of the mine as to its safety. I have no doubt that the managers
of the Collieries above referred to would be pleased to have such a deputation of their workmen 59 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
examine their mine once a month, so that the miners would thus have a better knowledge as
to the condition and safety of the mine, and would do away with much friction and talk that
is at times so pronounced.
Again I say that I am sorry to see that there has been this increase of casualties and
fatal accidents during the past year. Many of them could have been prevented had greater
precautions being used, but we will hope for the better during the year that we have just
entered, so that if greater care, and all means at our disposal are used by all concerned, good
results will be sure to follow.
I append hereto the Annual Colliery Returns for 1895.
I have, &c,
Archibald Dick.
Government Inspector of Mines.
Nanaimo Colliery Returns for 1895.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31st, 1895.
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons
for exportation.
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1895.
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1896.
Tons.        cwt.
338,198         8
Tons.        cwt.
101,149        —
Tons.        cwt.
234,321        16
Tons.        cwt.
3,606           18
Tons.        cwt.
6,334           10
Number of hands employed.
Wages per day.
|2.37 to$3.50
$1 to $2
$1 to $1.25
Total hand
3 emploj
nings, per da;
T ...
|3 to $5.
Name of Seams or Pits—Southfield No. 2, Southfield No. 5, No. 1 Esplanade Shaft, No. 1
Northfield Shaft, Protection Island Shaft.
Value of Plant—1350,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, &c, and number of same—Southfield No. 2,
worked by slope, seam 6 to 10 feet; Southfield No. 5, worked by shaft, seam 5 to 10
feet; No. 1 Northfield Shaft, worked by shaft, seam 2 feet to 3 feet 6 inches; Protection Island Shaft, worked by shaft, lower seam 4 feet, upper seam 6 feet; No. 1
Esplanade Shaft, worked by shaft, seam 5 to 12 feet. 726
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Description and length of tramway, plant, ifcc—Railway to Southfield, 6 miles, with sidings;
railway to No. 1 Shaft, 1 mile, with sidings; railway from Northfield Mine to wharf
at Departure Bay, 4\ miles ; rails are of steel, 56 lbs. per yard, of standard gauge, viz.,
4 feet 8Jr inches; 8 hauling and pumping engines, 15 steam pumps, 5 locomotives, 237
coal cars (6 tons), besides lumber and ballast cars; bunkers with a capacity of 3700
tons; fitting shops for machinery repairs, with turning lathes, boring, drilling, planing,
screw-cutting machines, hydraulic press, steam hammer, &c, &c.; diamond boring
machinery for exploratory work (bores to 4,000 feet); 150 horse-power electric plant
engines, boilers, dynamo; 4 30 horse-power, 8-ton locomotives, and 1 15 horse-power
locomotive; hauling and lighting equipment; wharves, 2,000 feet frontage, at which
ships of the largest tonnage can load at all stages of the tide.
Samuel M. Robins,
Wellington Colliery Returns for 1895.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31st, 1895.
Tons.        cwt.
336,906       —
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
Tons.        cwt.
51,084 —
No. of tons
for exportation.
Tons.        cwt.
294,878        —
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1895.
Tons.        cwt.
22,939 3
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jarr. 1st, 1896.
Tons.        cwt.
13,883 3
Number of hands employed.
Wages per day.
$2.25 to $3.50
$1 to $2
$1 to $1.50
Total hand
Miners' ear
nirrgs, per da;
7    12.5
0 to $3.50.
Name of Seams or Pits—1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 Wellington, and 1 and 2 East Wellington.
Value of Plant—$150,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, &c, and number of same—7 shafts, with slopes,
airways, and levels ; 3 air shafts.
Description and length of tramway, plant, &o—5 miles of railway, with sidings and branches ;
6 locomotives; 250 coal cars; 13 stationary engines; 9 steam pumps; 4 wharves for
loading vessels, and bunkers.
Output of fire-clay—664^- tons.
R. Dunsmuir & Sons. 59 VIct.
Report- of the Minister of Mines.
Union Colliery Returns for 1895.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31st, 1895.
Tons.        cwt.
264,550        —
No. of tons
sold forborne consumption.
No. of tons
for exportation.
Tons.        cwt.
36,116 —
Tons.        cwt.
227,134       —
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1895.
Tons.        cwt.
12,033 —
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1896.
Tons.        cwt.
13,333        —
Number of hands employed.
Whites. Boys. Japanese.        Chinese.
Total hands employed
Wages per day.
$2.50 to $3
Boys. Japanese.
to $1.25
to $1.50
Miners' earnings, per day   $3 to $4.50.
Name of Seams or Pits—Comox.
Value of Plant—$125,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, <fcc., and number of same—No. 2 Slope; No. 4
Slope, with airway and levels; No. 5 Shaft, with airway and levels.
Description and length of tramway, plant, &c—12 miles railroad, 4 feet 8J inches gauge; 4
locomotives; 150 coal cars (25 tons each); 1 passenger car; 1 diamond drill; 4 stationary engines ; 4 steam pumps ; 5 electric pumps ; 1 dynamo ; 1 steam saw-mill; 1 Luhrig
coal washer ; 2 wharves ; 1 pile-driver.
No. of tons of coke sold—45If tons.
James Dunsmuir,
victoria, r. o.
Printed by RrcrrARD^WoLFENDEN, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty.
1896. j
^lberni District
W».'  Wo'V.,
i^sy^ If-adWc
Shewing work   done upon
Osoyoos milling- division of Yale Dis*
Scale Joo/PloJ inch.
(ff)'General/ Office,
~V?A ssciy Office
Mil/  (loSUtm^
Coal    /h     \ttotOh. of runnel
Coat     \/\
fBngincf\y Sa.wJtt-UK.rtl  /Sheifck/3W<afv
llinuC of cuea- coYwecC 6y j?ra*ie£  benches
.OX/erlfjijnq ffferloary (tntoscen-.'l   sfi-z-lcL-.
tfj/te/ JorroutocZtftq  /n&-c^i£zL*t-<    ewe^-
\Cbj'4JStajCCi*tes rock-*.
-n-*-++f TiidiOCafiEis f2)tZi~-~.  Zeroes
E.WATERMAN5 CLAIM ■■ ,.       -        -       ..  OiIWhA.
3Wiavw. -vwve- tJH4/wwe wvvtklA co^mMa^i-vvv
3W? S&^ »S95 


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