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ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES FOR THE YEAR ENDING 31ST DECEMBER, 1893, BEING AN ACCOUNT OF MINING… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1894

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 ANNUAL   REPORT
OF   THE
MINISTER OF MINES
FOR   THE
YEAR ENDING 31st DECEMBER,
1893,
being an account op
MINING OPERATIONS FOR GOLD, COAL, ETC,,
in the
$rctiince flf ghitish dolumbia.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty. /■'j '
province o:
MINING   i
W   BRITISH
:   COLUMBIA.
)R   1893.
STATISTICS   PC
Name of Bar, Gulch, Creek, or River.
oiS
o i*
6
to
01
q
o
cS
d o
p. bo
S-S
O 3
U o
*. bo
o,5
d3
2;~
= '-S
of
"3 £
a
0
Average  number
of men employed
during season.
Rate of
Wages.
Nature of Claims.
How Worked.
Description of
machinery.
Value of
Gold
per ounce.
Estimated
value of
yield for
the year.
Value of
Silver
per ounce.
Estimated
value of
yield for
the year.
Total Divisions.
Total Districts.
Remarks.
Whites.
29
9
10
3
12
8
1
11
Chinese
or Japanese.
Whites.
Chinese,
or Japanese.
Bar.
Creek.
Bench.
Hill.
Quartz.
Rocker.
Sluioes.
Hydraulic.
10
3
2
2
3
Shaft.
1
1
Tunnel.
Water
wheels.
Steam
engines
Gold.         Silver.
Gold.
Silver.
Cariboo.
Barkerville Division:
21
6
5
8
5
4
4
18
5
4
(j
4
4
2
4
3
1
2
1
1
2
35
S
16
9
16
10
16
16
15
20
15
27
33
9
9
16
10
35
16
12
29
28
10
12
3
3
11
2
8
9
17
10
20
30
18
15
21
9
$3.50 &
$4 00
$2 50
7
3
4
2
2
2
3
4
4
1
14
2
1
3
6
2
2
10
1
1
3
8
4
4
3
3
1
$16 50 to
16 50
17 25
17 00
17 25
15.50 to 16
16 00
1    16 00
17 25
$17,500
14,000
8,500
5,000
7,(100
2,500
6,500
1,500
6,500
4,000
7,000
1,500
8,500
18,000
3,000
4,000
6,000
1,000
6,800
4,000
4,-600
10,150
11,500
1,500
7,000
350
450
4.500
500
1,250
2,500
1,500
7,000
2,000
4,500
2,500
6,000
1,500
5,900
3,809
1,200
8,776
1,100
$73,000
49,000
25,450
54,550
10,909
9,876
1,700
450
$202,000
22,935
35,850
51,376
37,394
-
This includes the Victoria Hydraulic Mining Co.
(lease).
This includes South Fork Hydraulic Co. (lease).
Eleven mineral claims have been located in this
Division during the season, and some prospecting has
been done on them.   Good looking ore to the amount
of several hundred pounds is being shipped out, which
will be sent to various places for assay. .
On Wild Horse Creek Mr. Phillips sunk a shift below
the canyon, but found no defined channel, and consequently no gold.   During the present winter Mr.
Jennings will spend a considerable amount in prospecting Victoria Gulch,  a tributary of Wild Horse.
The present year has been favourable as regards a
plentiful supply of water.
1
1
U:
1
1
2
1
1
2
i
Lightning Creek Division:
Lightning and Cottonwood Creeks	
18
5
7
9
3
4
4
12
3
8
7
3
3
3
1
2
1
2
1
1
15
2
6
2
3
2
3
|f#|'
3
5
3
2
3
1
5
2
2
3
1
6
4
4
6
2
3
4
2
1
2
1
3
]
1
1
16 50 to
17 50
Slough Creek and Devil's Canyon	
1
Anderson, Timon, and Poor Man's Creeks	
Last Chance and Davis Creeks 	
2
1
1
Quesnellemouth Division:
9
3
4
6
28
9
2
4
5
8
1
4
2
3
1
3
3
5
1
4
3
2
3
5
3
2
1
16 00
15 00
17 40
17 00
17 40
16 50
15 to 16.50
15 50
16 00
i
1
1
1
1
4
6
2
Keithley Creek Division:
4 00
2 60
4
1
1
1
4
IS
4
8
2
2
1
2
1
         1
4
1
3
14
9
4
1
2
1
3
3
8
"
"
4
3
1
 |       i
3 50
1
i          i
i     	
North Fork, Quesnelle River	
2 00
1
2
1
2
3
13
3
10
■■
"
1
2
3
Do.                    do.         desultory	
Quesnelle River, from Forks 40 miles down stream,
desultory	
Horsefly River, Horsefly Hydraulic Mining Company.
Fraser River (6 miles below Quesnelle to Riskie Creek
Do.        desultory	
Cassiar.
Laketon Division:
Thibert Creek	
10
30
3 00
1 75
11
7
18
2
2
2
12
10
7
1
4
10
5 00
3 50
6
3
1
5
3
11
7
4
3
McDame Creek Division:
8
8
4
25
6 00
4 00
4
4
8
1
17 50
20
3
11
1,700
350
100
19,000
700
2
2
1
3
4 00
2 50
1
1.,
1
1
	
Kootenay.
Eastern Division:
Wild Horse Creek	
6
2
24
5
5
1
24
3
41
2
3 00
2 50
2
2
4
2
4
1
"2"
1
18 00
16 00
19,700
16,150
51,376
23,054
Western Division:
6,150
4,000
6,000
Trail Creek Mining Subdivision :
Nelson Mining Subdivision :
District has been of desultory ar
Value from buyers ascertained
d various character.
Lillooet.
14
12
2
35
55
3 00
1 50
15 to 16 60
51,376
3,800
4,500
250
300
4,000
400
200
Bars and benches of Fraser River J
Yale.
Yale Division;
10
1
1
1
Osoyoos Division:
11
1
7
2
2
2
11
30
1
40
7
10
4
2
2
1
40
1
28
9
2
14
240
30
170
19
42
9
3
3
2
9
1
.2
2
2
5
6
3
2
2
2
6
14
1
2
3
10
12
12
3
3 50
3 00
1 50
' ;~i^.
9
2
.   00
15 00
16 60
Two hydraulic companies prospecting.
Bullion from ore crushed by Strathyre Mining Company Co.'s Mill.
*Whites were employed prospecting on the Similkameen Gold Gravels Exploration and Hydraulic Co.'s
ground.
Water gave out early in rhe season.
Boundary Creek	
2 00
7
7
2
7
7
2
2
2
1
1
Mission Creek	
Harris Creek       (quartz)	
4
1
1
3
1
11
30
1
38
4
1
1
14
240
30
170
1
2
11
8
1
6
50
6
35
•15
5
5
1
3
20
27
4
2
3 60
3 00
Similkameen Division:
Tulameen	
Granite Creek	
3
1
3 '
1
15 76
17 75
n
13,404
1 50
l
3
6
1
1
2
5
7
1
1
3
3
1
1
4,790
7,500
1,500
250
300
1
2
14,340
Newton Creek	
«
$353,355
435
812
The approximate yield of Platinum for the season is estimated at $1,800. 57 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
1033
PROVINCE   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
TABLE
Showing the actually known and estimated yield of gold and silver; the number of miners
employed; and their average earnings per man, per year, from 1858 to 1893.
Year.
1858
> months)
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1807
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
Amount of gold
actually known
to have been exported by Banks.
8    390,265
1,211,304
1,671,410
1,999,589
3,184,700
2,618,404
1,996,580
1,860,651
1,779,729
1,331,234
1,002,717
1,349,580
1,208,229
979,312
1,383,464
1,856,178
1,339,986
1,206,136
1,062,670
1,075,049
844,856
872,281
795,071
661,877
613,304
594,782
753,043
578,924
513,943
490,769
412,029
358,176
332,938
316,279
Add one-third more
estimate of gold
carried away in
private hands.
S   130,088
403,768
557,137
666,530
1,061,566
933,963
872,801
665,527
620,217
593,243
443,745
334,239
449,860
402,743
326,437
461,155
618,726
446,662
402,045
l-5th 212,534
215,010
168,971
174,456
159,014
132,375
122,661
118,956
150,609
115,785
102,788
98,154
82,406
71,635
66,588
63,256
Gold.
Total.
S 520,353
1,615,072
2,228,547
2,666,119
4,246,266
8,735,851
3,491,205
2,662,107
2,480,868
2,372,972
1,774,979
1,336,956
1,799,440
1,610,972
1,305,749
1,844,619
2,474,904
1,786,648
1,608,181
1,275,204
1,290,059
1,013,827
1,046,737
954,085
794,252
735,965
713,738
903,652
694,709
616,731
588,923
494,435
429,811
399,626
379,535
Estimated
yield Silver,
47,873
73,984
Gold and Silver.
$    520,353
1,615,072
2,228,547
2,666,119
4,246,266
3,735,851
3,491,205
2,662,107
2,480,868
2,372,972
1,774,979
1,336,956
1,799,440
1,610,972
1,305,749
1,844,619
2,474,904
1,786,648
1,608,181
1,275,204
1,290,059
1,013,827
1,046,737
954,085
794,252
735,965
713,738
903,652
694,709
616,731
636,796
568,419
429,811
399,526
379,535
$54,014,854
Number of
Miners
employed.
3,000
4,000
4,400
4,200
( 4,100
I 4,400
4,400
4,294
2,982
3,044
2,390
2,369
2,348
2,450
2,400
2,300
2,868
2,024
2,282
1,960
1,883
2,124
1,955
1,898
1,738
1,965
1,868
2,902
3,147
2,342*
2,007
1,929
1,3421
1,199
1,340
1,247
Average
yearly
earnings
per man.
«   173
403
506
634
517
482
849
813
749
569
734
671
567
643
1,222
783
820
677
607
518
551
548
404
396
246
287
296
307
330
423
358
298
* This is exclusive of over 650
t This is exclusive of over 300
white men who, during the season of 1887, were working on or prospecting for mineral claims,
whites employed working on or prospecting for mineral claims. 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1035
REPORT.
GOLD.
The export of gold dust during the past year, as reported by the Banks in
Victoria, amounts in value to $316,279.
In explanation of the decrease from the export of 1892, it is stated that a large
proportion of the product of the mines in the Yukon District was shipped to San
Francisco direct, and that the majority of the shipments from the Kootenay District
left the Province via Spokane, Washington.
The value of the estimated yield of gold for 1893, is $353,355. While the amount
produced by placer mining is somewhat less than that obtained in 1892, the total
yield is greater, owing to the returns of some of the quartz claims in the Yale and
West Kootenay Districts having been taken into account.
The anticipations formed in 1892, of an increased output from hydraulic workings,
have not been realized, owing to the development work on the majority of the claims
not having reached the stage when results could be expected, whilst in other cases
operations have been hindered by an insufficient supply of water.
This branch of placer mining is yearly attracting greater attention throughout
the Province, and the amount of capital already invested and to be laid out during the
coming season, more particularly in working the bench lands in the vicinity of the
Fraser River and its tributaries, is very considerable.
Interest is also being taken in the beds of the Fraser and Thompson Rivers, with
a view to dredging, and, judging from, the number of applications for leases for this
purpose, a serious attempt will be made to prove the worth of the gold hidden in the
strata of these rivers. As will be noticed further on, special machinery for dredging
is in course of construction at different places on the Fraser.
PLATINUM.
The yield during the past season is estimated at $1,800, the lowest amount reached
since the discovery of this metal, in the streams in the Similkameen division of Yale
District.
IRON.
The exports of iron ore to the United States amounted to 500 tons forwarded to
Tacoma, Washington, by the Glen Iron Mining Company, of Cherry Creek, Yale
District, in the early part of the season, no further shipments being made in
consequence of the dull times occasioned by the financial depression.
A description of the property of this Company is given in the Annual Report for
1891. 1036 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
The mines on Redonda Island also furnished 900 tons of ore, which were shipped
by steamer to Portland, Oregon.
This property, represented by Messrs. De Wolf & Co., of Vancouver, comprises
one hundred acres, situated on the north shore of Redonda Island, which lies 100
miles north of the city of Vancouver. The island is of granite formation. Of the
two veins running north-east and south-west, No. 1 vein has been worked at a point
some six hundred feet above high-water mark, offering facilities for loading the ore
direct into a vessel by a chute. This vein shows a solid face of ore over forty feet
wide, the whole of which is estimated to run sixty per cent. met. iron. No. 2 vein is
undeveloped, and shows thirty-six feet of solid ore.
As will be seen by the following analysis made by Professor Dawson, Dominion
Government Geologist, Ottawa, the ore is of excellent quality.
Met. Iron  65.37
Sulphur        .015
Phosphorus  Nil.
Titanic acid ,  Nil.
Insoluble matter      8.06
CARIBOO.
Mb. Bowron's Report.
Richfield,  27th November, 1893.
Sir,—In submitting my nineteenth annual report upon the mining industry, I have the
honour to say that I note with pleasure a restored confidence regarding the future of
the district quite wanting for some years past. This confidence is inspired not from any
material increase in the gold product, nor solely from the magnificent developments being
made in our placer mines, although such alone are sufficient to warrant the belief that more
prosperous days are about to dawn upon Cariboo ; but the recent unsettled state of the silver
market and the probable construction of a line of railway into Cariboo, in the near future,
have had much to do with attracting the attention of the mining world to the gold fields of
our district.
The explorations and surveys recently made by the Government on the Nechaco River
and elsewhere, show the existence of the most extensive agricultural and grazing lands found
en bloc anywhere in the Province. In these days of quick transportation, which we think
cannot much longer be kept from our district, these lands will prove of great value to the
miner as well as to the farmer, inasmuch as they may be utilized in the production of hay,
oats, barley, and all kinds of vegetables necessary to the sustenance of a largely increased
mining population.
Never, perhaps, has this district received more attention in legitimate mining operations
from outside capital than during the past year. It is true that in our famous quartz bubble
of 1877-8, a large amount of foreign capital was squandered, but this may not be regarded as
legitimate mining. The alluvial mines at present attracting attention are altogether a
different matter, as I believe in each individual case where absentees have invested, experienced
miners were first sent to exploit the ground, make a thorough examination of the facilities for
working, and report, before development works were undertaken.
In referring to some of the principal mines now in course of development, I shall begin
at the southern part of the district. On the Horsefly River, the Horsefly Hydraulic Mining
Co., Limited, of which H. Abbott, Esq., of Vancouver, is President and Mr. J. S. Hobson is
Manager, has acquired, either by location or purchase, a large area of hydraulic mining
ground,   situated  immediately above  the  Falls,  having  admirable dumpage, which is of the 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1037
utmost importance in hydraulic mining. This company, which kept a force of men employed
during last winter in running tunnels, are well pleased with the prospects obtained, and as
soon as the ditches are completed, will bring in an immense quantity of steel piping, preparatory to commencing work on a scale of magnitude hitherto unknown in the district.
This company, under the same management, having obtained by purchase the South Pork
Co.'s concessions, and the well-known Hop E. Tong claim, and intermediate ground near
Quesnelle Forks, are now making necessary arrangements to open up what is generally
believed will prove one of the most productive mines ever worked. Mr. Stephenson, Government Agent for that Division, will probably, in his report, speak more definitely as to the
works in that section.
I have muuh pleasure in reporting the success of Mr. A. D. Whittier in inducing a
London syndicate to furnish the necessary capital to provide plant for working the lower part
of Williams Creek by hydraulic lift. Mr. Whittier, after having spent nearly two years in
London on this mission, returned to Barkerville about the 1st of September, accompanied by
Mr. S. Herbert Cox, of the firm of Bainbridge, Seymour & Co., mining and consulting
engineers, of 13, St. Helen's Place, London, E. C. Mr. Cox was late Inspector of Mines for
the Government of New Zealand, and is thoroughly conversant with the most approved
methods of raising gravel by hydraulic pressure. After spending a month in exploiting the
ground, and making an examination of the facilities offered for its working in the manner
proposed, Mr. Cox returned to London to report. In the meantime the surveys for the ditches
were being made under the direction of Mr. Champion, C. E., and we now learn that Mr. Cox
has reported most favourably upon the scheme, and that the extensive preparations required
for works of this nature will be inaugurated early in the spring. The company represented by
Mr. Whittier is incorporated under the Imperial statutes as the " Whittier Gold Concessions
Syndicate," and is prepared to prospect, develop, and, if considered sufficiently good, purchase
or otherwise acquire and work any mine or mines in British Columbia. The Williams Creek
concession is the first property the syndicate proposes to develop.
Mr. Charles F. Law, late British Columbia Commissioner at the World's Fair, Chicago,
having acquired by purchase the mining lease on Willow River, at Mosquito Creek, has
succeeded in interesting Montreal capital in taking hold of its development. The Government
boring machine, now stored at Kamloops, having been secured for the purpose, will be
forwarded to the ground during the winter, and the boring of holes to locate the deep channel
will be commenced in early spring. This is regarded as a most promising enterprise, especially
by old miners.
Mr. William Adams, M. P. P., and a Mr. McDougall, of Ottawa, have applied for a
lease of the old Kurtz & Lane ground on the Williams Creek meadows, and purpose, I understand, to locate and test the depth of the channel by means of the boring machine, preparatory
to sinking a working shaft.
On the Quesnelle River, twenty miles from its mouth, Messrs. Fry, Cameron & Co., who
have been prospecting all summer, recently applied for and have now the option of a lease of
ground for hydralic mining. It is understood that having thoroughly tested the value of the
gravel hills along the river sides, they will place iron piping and monitor on the ground this
winter, preparatory to an early start in the spring. As this is a new section of country where
comparatively little prospecting has been done, it is impossible to speak with any degree of
certainty as to its future probabilities, except to say that the field is large.
Messrs. Norton & Co., a party of six men from San Juan Island, spent the summer on
Chisholm Creek, a tributary of Cottonwood River, endeavouring to bottom the deep ground,
but as the pumps sent from below were not of sufficient capacity to raise the water encountered
in sinking, they were obliged to suspend operations for the winter without proving the value
of their ground.
A party of three sturdy, enterprising young men, desiring to prospect out on Goat River,
seventy miles to the north-east of Barkerville, applied for assistance to cut out the old trail
made some five years ago. Upon obtaining the assistance required they at once cut out the
trail and commenced prospecting on Goat River, where they intend remaining nine months
before returning.
A party of four men will devote the winter to driving a tunnel to reach the deep ground
on Stewart Creek, which lies about nine miles to the north of Barkerville. Although promising
prospects were obtained on this creek in the early days, the bottom of the deep channel has
never yet been reached. 1038 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
The Slough Creek Co. has been most unfortunate in losing two of its leading men. Mr.
Magee, one of the contractors, and manager for sinking a working shaft, after visiting the
works, had occasion to return to Victoria, where he was stricken down with diphtheria, to
which he succumbed in a few days ; after which Mr. Gans, of Tacoma, was engaged as manager.
While Mr. Gans was at Ashcroft making arrangements for the forwarding of two thirty horsepower engines, boilers and appliances (which had been purchased in the east), he met with an
accident which proved fatal. The machinery, however, is now on its way to the mine, at
which ten men are engaged preparing for winter work, and I am assured by Mr. Fife, of
Tacoma, the president of the company, that notwithstanding these lamentable drawbacks
they will persevere in their endeavours to prove the value of their mine.
Messrs. Rowe and Hoar, two of our old-time miners, obtained a prospect of three ounces
to the set of timbers in a shaft sunk in the side-hill near the reduction works below Barkerville, and are now driving in a tunnel through which to work their claim.
On Shepherd Creek, the Discovery Co. have devoted nearly the whole season to bringing
up a drain, digging ditches, and constructing a dam to store water. This claim promises to
be remunerative in the future. Other companies have located ground on this creek and are
running tunnels or otherwise prospecting the ground, with fair chances of success.
The foregoing represents in brief some of the principal new mining enterprises started
within the last eighteen months, the mention of which will at least serve to show that " Old
Cariboo" is anything but a " played out mining camp." as some may regard it. From
evidences afforded me in my official position, I am led to the conclusion that the district is
entering upon a new and prosperous career, scarcely inferior and certainly more lasting than
the famous golden days of the early sixties.
There is another source of wealth possessed by the district, to which I referred in my
last report, the development of which has not as yet been undertaken. Upon having my
attention drawn to an article in Chambers' Journal for February, 1892, upon "Dredging for
Gold in New Zealand," I was more than ever impressed with the adaptability of our larger
streams for being worked by dredging, but as I hope soon to be in possession of all facts
relating to the nature of the appliances used in the minins; here referred to, I shall for the
present only mention the fact of the presence in large quantities of fine gold in our river beds.
The yellow metal is most abundant on the Upper Fraser and its tributaries, and being in
proximity to the recently explored Nechaco grazing country, should enhance the value of and
promote the settlement of these lands.
To speak of the paying claims, or those contributing to the gold product of the district
for the year, would be but a repetition of my last year's report, with the single exception of
Joseph Shaw & Sons' claim on Hardscrabble Creek, which has paid handsomely this season,
with every indication of continuing to do so for many years to come. The Nason Co., on
Antler Creek, after overcoming one misfortune after another, have at last succeeded in
pumping out their diggings, and are just starting to prospect the mine, which, if perseverance
merits success, should prove a "Bonanza."
The total output of gold for the season is, as near as can be ascertained, somewhat greater
than last season, which must be regarded as highly satisfactory, as so many white miners have
been engaged in opening new mines and other non-productive works, that the Chinese have
been much the larger producers.
Quartz.
Regarding our Quartz mines, there is absolutely nothing to report. Little more than
representative work has been done; and it would seem as if by common consent that this
most important branch of mining has been left in abeyance, awaiting the advent of railways
into the district.
We observe that in California, gold mines of whatever nature, either alluvial or quartz,
are at present attracting unusual attention, in consequence of the depressing effect on silver
mining caused by the depreciation of the value of that metal. Many of the old gold-producing
quartz mines, hitherto abandoned as unprofitable, owing to the low grade of ore they contained,
are at the present time being re-located and worked, and rock yielding a return of three to
four dollars a ton is now regarded as valuable, even if situated under adverse circumstances
for working. If such be the situation in California, it is safe to predict that but a short time
will elapse before our numerous ledges of gold-bearing ore will come prominently to the front, 57 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
1039
The estimated gold product of the district for the year is as follows, viz. :—
Barkerville Polling Division, 1st January to 15th November  $73,000
Lightning Creek     n                           n                           n                    49,000
Quesnelle                  n                         m                         ii                    25,450
Keithley Creek        ,.                         n                         n                   54,550
Estimated product from 15th November to 31st December (say)  8,000
$210,000
I have the honour to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
Jno. Bowron,
Gold Commissioner.
To the Honourable
The Minister of Mines.
Mr. Stephenson's Report.
The Honourable
The Minister of Mines.
Quesnelle Forks, B.C.,
8th November, 189.3.
Sir,—I have the honour to forward herewith the estimated yield of gold for the Keithley
Creek, Alexandria, and Williams Lake Polling Divisions of the Cariboo District for 1893.
The mining season, although late in opening, has upon the whole been favourable for
placer mining all through this section, as the supply of water during the summer was above
the average. The actual number of claims producing gold has been about the same as the
preceding year, while the estimated amount taken out is slightly in excess, which shows that
the regularly organized companies have done quite as well as last year. This always has a
good effect, even on the Chinese, as it proves they can do better by forming into companies
and opening up claims which prove more remunerative than when worked individually in a
desultory manner. On Keithley and Snowshoe Creeks there is very little change to report
from last year ; there have been no new developments that I am aware of, and but very little
prospecting has been done on these creeks during the past season. On Harvey Creek there
are still a few miners working, but nearly all of them are going over the old worked ground,
and any prospects of new finds are very slight. On the North Fork of Quesnelle River and
Spanish Creek operations have been light for the season, the greatest amount of work on the
North Fork being done by the Victoria Hydraulic Mining Company in prospecting some
gravel benches. As far as I could learn, the results so far are not satisfactory, and work was
suspended early in the latter part of the mining season. The company on Spanish Creek still
keeps going ahead with their work during the whole year. They are running a drive into the
hill looking for the old channel, and are taking out some gold, but nothing like pay for their
work. Still they think the prospects are sufficiently good to continue on in hopes of finding
something better.
From Quesnelle Forks down the main Quesnelle, about forty miles, all the work during
the season has been confined to desultory mining. The Chinese working on the small gulches
while the water lasted, and when the water falls in the river they go to places along the river
where they can obtain dirt that will pay for rocking. During the last part of the season there
have been whites down the river looking for hydraulic claims in the vicinity of what is known
as 20-Mile Creek (twenty miles below Quesnelle Forks). The result of their work I see in
notices of application for leases of several locations in that section, and, as I am given to
understand, they really mean business and have the necessary means to carry on the work
required, it is to be hoped they will get the ground applied for. The expenditure must be
considerable to any company that will bring water upon those benches in sufficient quantity to
properly work them, therefore I think that any company with capital that wishes to honestly
prospect and endeavours to develop the mineral resources of the country should be liberally
dealt with. The means of getting down the river to 20-Mile Creek, or, in fact, anywhere
down the river, are very poor, there being no trail, and boating on the Quesnelle River is at 1040 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
times rather dangerous work. On the South Fork of Quesnelle River the small hydraulic
claims operated by Chinese have done about as well as usual, their limited supply of water
necessarily makes their work light for the season. The South Fork Hydraulic Company
worked on an average ten wdiite men in opening up their claim (lease) until August last, when
the property changed hands. The South Fork and the adjoining claim next below (Hop E.
Tong Company), a Chinese company, were both purchased by a company with ample means to
develop these properties, and are under the management of Mr. J. B. Hobson, mining
engineer, who is pushing work ahead as fast as possible, and will continue to do so as long as
the weather permits. A saw-mill, large hydraulic plant, and other material for the working
of the claims will be laid upon the ground during the coming winter, and, as soon as men and
money can accomplish it, it is the intention to have these claims in working order.
On Horsefly, the Horsefly Hydraulic Mining Company, also under the management of
Mr. J. B. Hobson, have been steadily pushing their work ahead during the summer with
an average force for the season of thirty whites and thirty Japanese, doing contract work
on a ditch, and still there remains an immense amount of work yet to be done before the
property is put in shape to give returns. The expenditure of this company on Horsefly, I
think, will amount to about one hundred thousand dollars before their mine is in thorough
working order, while they estimate the purchase and the cost of preparing the South Fork of
Quesnelle property for working at about three hundred thousand dollars. A few such enterprises as these managed by thoroughly competent and practical men will go a long way to
bring Cariboo once more to the front as a mining district.
The Harper lease on Horsefly has not been worked during the season; the unusually high
water in the Horsefly River in the first part of the season did a great deal of damage to their
dam, and as it (the river) kept high until late they did not resume work. A party of
prospectors have been working on the Horsefly some sixty odd miles above the Harper claim.
They opened a trail and took in pack animals. It was late in the season before they did
much prospecting, but one company was getting a little fine gold when I last heard from them.
The sleigh road from the 150-Mile House into Horsefly will now enable the farmers to
furnish that section with any farm produce which may be required, besides permitting of
regular traffic during the winter.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
W. Stephenson,
Government Agent.
CASSIAR.
Mr. Porter's Report.
Laketon, Cassiar, B. C, 7th October, 1893.
Sir,—I have the honour to forward herewith the Mining Statistics for this portion of
Cassiar District for 1893. Although I have been careful in collecting information, I must
acknowledge a serious falling off from last year's yield of gold in some of the former important
sections of the district. The decrease in this case is owing to the fact that the old creeks are
fast becoming less remunerative each year, although McDame's Creek and its tributaries have
produced more gold this season than last.
There have been eleven mineral claims located during the season on the Hyland River
and in its close proximity, and some of the locators are highly elated over their prospects for the
future. Several hundred pounds of apparently rich ore taken from these claims are now in
transit to different points below for assay, and it is to be hoped that it will prove to be rich in
the precious metal.
About ten persons were working during the summer on the bars of the Liard River, but
were not as successful as they were last year, owing in a great measure to the fact that the
water kept at a high stage during the greatest part of the summer.
Dease and Thibert Creeks have produced less this year than any season since they
were discovered. The reason being, as already stated, they are about worked out, except
some of the hill claims, which may continue te pay a fair return for a time longer. 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1041
The Arctic Placer Mining Company, who acquired two leases of mining ground on
Thibert Creek last season, have failed so far to comply with the requirements of the lease
granted that they have forfeited their rights, and the ground has naturally become vacant.
But little prospecting for new placer mines has been undertaken during the year. I have
consequently nothing to say respecting explorations in this line.
The following is an approximate estimate of the gold yield of the district for the year :—
Dease Creek  $6,500
Thibert Creek  4,409
McDame's Creek  9,876
Liard River Division  1,700
Stickine River Division  450
Total $22,935
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
James Porter,
The Honourable the Minister of Mines, Gold Commissioner, Cassiar.
Victoria, B. C.
WEST KOOTENAY.
Mr. Fitzstubbs' Report.
The Honourable
The Minister of Mines, Victoria.
Victoria, B. C, 1st January, 1894.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual mining report and statistics for the West
Kootenay District for the year 1893.
Southern Division.
kelson Mining Subdivision.
There have been 161 mineral claims recorded, 69 transfers, and assessment work has been
done on 117 claims.
There have been 14 placer claims recorded, and 5 transfers of same recorded.
There are within the Southern Division 22 placer leases in existence, 15 of which are on
the Salmon River, 6 on the Pen d'Oreille, and 1 on Forty-Nine Creek.
Foremost amongst the mineral claims in this district is the Silver King group, which has
lately been sold to an English company for, it is said, nearly $1,000,000. The number of men
now employed is 45, and I hear that the owners contemplate erecting extensive works during
the ensuing season.
The survey for a tram-line for the transport of ore from the mine to the point of shipment
has been made, and it is expected that the work in its entirety will be completed by next
autumn.
One hundred tons of ore from this property has already been shipped to Swansea, which,
it is learned, will yield over $100 per ton.
Dandy Mine
Is located on Toad Mountain, and is a westerly extension of the now famous Silver King.
Development work consists of one shaft, 40 feet, three tunnels aggregating 600 feet in length,
one of which is a cross-cut, striking the ledge at about 100 feet in depth and then running on
the ledge about 150 feet, showing it to be from 4 to 6 feet wide, and well mineralized throughout.
The ore runs from 15 ounces to 300 ounces in silver. Picked samples have assayed as high as
1,937 ounces to the ton, and the average yield of gold from the ore is $4 to the ton. The
ledge is alleged to be a line fissure; it is exposed from 10 to 50 feet in four places, and is
traceable up to the workings of the Silver King mine.    Mr. A. H. Kelly, who is owner of 1042 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
13-16ths of this property, proposes in the future to work this mine on a much larger scale than
hitherto.
Owing to depreciation in the value of silver and general financial stringency, many claims
on Toad Mountain and elsewhere within the subdivision showing indications of richness and
quantity of ore have up to the present been allowed to remain unworked.
In the gold belt south-west of Nelson, the Poorman mine yielded $6,000 worth of gold
this year from about 200 tons of quartz. A 10-stamp mill, with a capacity of 20 tons per day,
is on the ground, and the mine, it is reported, will be worked continuously during the present
year.
On the Majestic claim, a few miles west of the Poorman, considerable development work
has been done, and there is a probability that this property will be opened up this season.
On the Whitewater claim, on Rover Creek, no work has been done this year, but I
understand negotiations are now pending for the purchase of this claim at a fair figure.
Several locations, showing ore resembling in character that of Toad Mountain, have been
made on the Salmon River, about twenty miles south of Nelson, which, if as valuable as
anticipated, and being in close proximity to the Nelson and Fort Sheppard Railway, will when
worked add much to the wealth and prosperity of the Nelson subdivision generally.
Placer Diggings.
On Hall Creek but little work was done during the past season, the yield of gold from
this field not exceeding, I think, $750.
There has been activity in placer locations on the Salmon and Pen d'Oreille Rivers.
Twenty-one leases have been granted, and although only dead work was principally done last
year, owners look forward to profitable results during the present one. A rush is expected
next spring to this portion of the subdivision, experts maintaining that the two rivers above
mentioned will be large gold producers.
Trail Subdivision.
In this subdivision there were, last year, thirty-three locations and eleven transfers of
placer properties, and while no unusual activity is reported in connection with the quartz
mines, such work as has been done therein has resulted generally to the satisfaction of the
owners.
During 1893 the company owning the Le Roi mine increased the depth of their shaft by
100 feet, and levels run from bottom of shaft, 70 feet each way, show solid faces of ore of
unknown width, averaging $60.00 of gold per ton. This company shipped 250 tons of their
ore to the Tacoma (Washington) smelter, but the returns have not been made public. That
they were satisfactory, may be inferred from the fact that the company have now shipped to
their mine steam hoisting machinery, and are now working 30 men and 3 teams.
A large sum, possibly $10,000, was, it is said, unprofitably expended on the War Eagle,
a claim adjacent to the Le Roi, in the earlier part of 1893, but a modified system of operations
has revealed a continuous ore body 8 feet wide, of character and value almost identical with
that of the Le Roi.
On the Nickel Plate, on which there is a shaft 50 feet, the ore vein is 18 inches wide,
being pyritic in character and $115 per ton in value. Work on this mine is now being carried
on and will be during the summer.
Four thousand dollars have been spent on the Josie, developing a 7 feet vein of pyritic ore
carrying $30 to the ton. Last December ore from this claim was shipped to the Tacoma
smelter.
The Mountain View shows a vein 30 feet wide and 200 feet in length, the ore of which
averages about $25 in gold.
The Cliff is a location on the same vein as the Mountain View, and the surface work,
much of which has been done, discovers a vein for its whole length of equal value to that of
the Mountain Chief.
During the year the owners of the O. K. mine have extended their tunnel 100 feet and
have made an upraise of 70 feet. The vein has an average width of 4 feet. Its richness may
in some measure be estimated from the circumstance of the three owners having extracted
$4,000 of gold in one week of last September, by the crude means of a hand-mortar only.
The 250 tons of ore now upon the dump will probably, during the present winter, be shipped
to a smelter. 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1043
Other claims show encouraging prospects, but are insufficiently developed to report upon
with accuracy.
Last spring a waggon road, commenced by private parties and taken over and completed
by the Government, has conduced much to the development of the Trail Mines, and 10 tons
of ore from the Le Roi are daily transported over it and dumped upon a wharf, how in course
of construction, which will be available at all stages of the river.
Northern Division.
Lllecillewaet Subdivision.
In this subdivision, during the year ending 31st December, 1893, there were 31 locations
made, 12 of which were new discoveries, the remainder being re-locations of abandoned
ground.    There were 37 certificates of work issued, and 15 bills of sale recorded.
Of actual development work in this district none has been done during the past year,
though the work necessary to obtain certificates therefor has been performed.
Lardeau Subdivision.
In this subdivision the following records were made during the year past, viz.:—Locations, 21 ; certificates of work, 6 ; bills of sale, 4. The certificates of work were issued for
work done on claims recorded previous to 1893, and as in the case of Illecillewaet, the development work for the season being only sufficient to obtain certificates of work.
Trout Lake Subdivision.
In this subdivision there were 31 locations, 42 certificates of work, 40 bills of sale.
Here again, as in the other subdivisions of northern West Kootenay, there has been scarcely
any development work done, with the exception of that required to obtain certificates of work
on the number of claims given above.
In this subdivision 27 miles of new trails have been built, affording claim workers facilities for transportation of supplies to locations now under test, the result of which will determine the question of the necessity for a waggon road from Thompson's Landing to Trout
Lake, which many are now loudly advocating.
Revelstoke Subdivision.
Here 27 locations were made, 26 of which are in the Big Bend country, and the majority
of which are re-locations of abandoned ground. Two certificates of work were issued on
claims recorded in 1892, and two bills of sale recorded.
Some rock obtained from a claim on the north-east side of French Creek is alleged to
have assayed 58 oz. of gold to the ton; but as no work has been done on the claim, it is
possible the owners have little faith in it.
On French Creek, four men have worked during the past season, and are still working,
on the Consolation Placer Claim, and are reported to be taking out good pay, returns of
which are not yet to hand.
Applications for four leases on this creek were made, but not completed, owing to the
lateness of the season.
McCulloeh Creek.
Four applications for leases on this creek were made, but not completed, for the reason
given above, as regards three of them, the fourth being for the ground known as the Ophir
Bed-Rock Flume Company, now in litigation.
Smith Creek and Goldstream.
Two men have been working on these streams during the past season, on a bench above
the mouth of Smith Creek during high water, and on Goldstream during low water. Out of
the latter they obtained about $400, but the cold weather prevented a clean-up on Smith
Creek. 1044 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
Goat River Subdivision.
For the year 1893 there were 52 locations and 28 certificates of work issued.
Development work was done on the Mineral Claims Alice, International, President, Jim
Slick, Tip Top, Columbia, Tonawanda, Bounty, Gladiator, Lizzard, Badger, Montana Wisconsin, Towland, and others at Goat River and Duck Creek proper, and some work of the same
character has beeii done in the Sutter or Priest Lake section, on the west side of Kootenay
River, near the International Boundary Line.
This work, I am informed, proves conclusively the existence of rich and large bodies of
ore, many tons of which have been mined, and now on the dump await the construction of
railway or other road to be carried to market.
Slocan Subdivision,
Since the 1st day of January, 1893, to the present date, 368 mineral claims have been
located in this subdivision and only 6 abandonments have been recorded. Assessment work
has been recorded on 365, showing the confidence and bona fides in these locations, and 12
certificates of improvements have been issued.
Although these figures show a decided decrease in the number of claims dealt with, as
compared with that of last year, yet the decline is compensated for by the large amount of
assessment work done. Four hundred and seventy-three transfers of interests in mineral
claims have been recorded during the same period, and 156 bonds have been placed on record.
In respect of development work, it would appear that more money has been expended on
the Slocan Star than on any other mining property within the subdivision. At present 18
men are employed doing systematic development work. 150 tons of ore from this mine, are
now stored at the Three Forks of Carpenter Creek to be shipped to Nakusp on the completion
of the Nakusp and Slocan Railway, while 300 tons are stored within the ore house at the
mine. There are three long tunnels, one above the other, on this property connected with
one another by upraises.    A snow road was recently built to the mine from the trunk road.
At the Washington mine 35 men, with an assayer, are employed, and 8 tons of ore are
daily shipped therefrom. Considerable sloping has been done, and development work has been
continued since the opening of the mine.
Eighteen men are working on the Bonanza King and World's Fair claims, two of the
Noble Five group, which are unusually favoured by the absence of retarding quantities of
water, and in the richness of their ore (carbonate) now being shipped. The locators are themselves working this group of mines at, it is said, a very handsome profit. A rawhide trail
connects the mine with the sleigh road at the mouth of Sandon Creek, running to Three Forks.
Shipments of ore are daily made.
On the Recall claim 8 men are developing, and 40 tons of ore have, up to the present,
been shipped.
The Mountain Chief gives employment, steadily, to 16 men, and continual shipments of
ore are being made. Four tunnels have been run on the ledge, in all of which ore is being
stoped.    This ore is being classed as the Peacock variety and contains native silver.
In the Four-Mile Creek section the Mountain Boomer has been subjected to the most
development work. A car load shipment from this mine averaged 263 ounces of silver to the
ton of ore.
A contract has just been let to run a tunnel on the Alpha, one of the Grady group, which
stands high in the esteem of mining experts.
Prospectors have given much attention to the Wilson Creek portion of the subdivision,
and many locations have been made.
In the spring of the year there was a rush of prospectors, capitalists, brokers and others
to this part of the district, but the general depression so affected their operations that this
camp has not quite realized the anticipations formed of its activity and prosperity last fall.
Nevertheless, such work as has been done, and there is a great deal of it, has been satisfactory
to those bearing its cost, and gives promise of and encourages increased vigour in mining
operations for the future.
The dry ore belt up the North Fork of Carpenter Creek, which has been somewhat
neglected during the past summer, is regarded as being rich, but the money stringency and
low price of silver combined to deter the employment of capital on it. 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1045
Considering the circumstances of the year past, the mining works of this subdivision have
been crowned with complete success, and it may be confidently predicted that, under improved
financial conditions, more development work will be undertaken, machinery will be introduced,
and the output of ore very largely increased. Forty tons per day are now being shipped,
through Kaslo to the present terminus of the Nelson and Fort Sheppard Railway, near Nelson, and a careful estimate gives 225 as the number of miners now engaged in the various
mines within the area of the Slocan Mining Subdivision.
Ainsworth or Hot Springs Subdivision.
During the summer months of last year the general financial depression affected this camp
acutely, but towards the autumn confidence was revived, and there is fair promise of a busy
and prosperous season in 1894.
Number One Mine.
The lessees of this mine have manifested their faith in the camp by the erection of a
50-ton concentrator, which will be the first one in the district, and they hope to have it in
running order by the 1st of April. They calculate that after 60 days of operation the plant
will have paid for itself. Twenty men are employed on the mine, and although only 85 tons
were shipped, about 4,000 tons of ore are now on the dump awaiting concentration, which will
reduce it to one-fifth its original weight, before shipping. The assays run from 60 ozs. to 275
ozs.    Twelve hundred feet of shaft tunnels, etc., have been completed.
Mile Point Mine.
This mine, one mile south of Ainsworth, and within 300 or 400 yards of the Kootenay
Lake, is regarded as being one of the best, and exceptional in showing high grade ore at a low
level. Two tunnels, of 100 feet each, have been run, though the abundance of water has
somewhat retarded the works, six men are employed, and its assays are said to average from
110 oz. to 3,000 oz. of ruby and wire silver per ton, and 30 per cent. lead.
Skyline.
Much development has been done on this property which is said to be a good one, but
the Salt Lake owners do not care to work it, while the price of silver is so low.
Little Phil.
This claim lies about one and a half miles from Ainsworth, by the side of the Government
waggon road, and adjoins the Little Donald. Last December a fine galena view, 8 feet
wide, was struck by a joint tunnel 75 feet long, running on the line dividing the two claims.
The ore assays 80 oz. in silver and 75 per cent. lead. This mine being so favourably situated
will probably be worked vigorously during the present year.
Budweiser,
Three miles from Ainsworth, on Woodberry Creek, shows a vein 4 feet wide all through it.
Bobtail, Shafer, Jay Gould,
Are owned by the Shafer Gold and Silver Mining Company, of Seattle, and situated lt\
miles south of Ainsworth, on the lake. Extensive works have been erected and 400 feet of
tunnel through hard rock have been run.
Highland.
A bond of $10,000 on this claim was lately taken up, and it will be worked this season.
The ore assays from 50 to 75 oz. silver per ton.
Highlander.
This is considered to be very valuable property assaying as high as 180 oz. silver per ton,
30 per cent. lead.    This, it is said, will be worked during the summer.
Charleston.
The Government waggon road runs through this claim, the ore it produces assays 95 oz.
silver, 30 per cent. lead. 1046 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
Blue Bell.
These properties, owned by the Hendryx Company, on the east side of Kootenay Lake,
being of low grade, have been allowed to lie unworked this summer.
Turn of Luck, Bakers Fifth and Rand,
Are the property of the Kootenay Mining and Development Company, and are situated
in the vicinity of Woodberry Creek. The prospects are encouraging, and development will
be done.
Fry  Creek.
This is a placer claim, located on Fry Creek, but too late in the season to commence
operations.
Gold Bug.
This claim, also on Fry Creek, assays high in gold.
White Grouse and Red Mountain,
Situated on the headwater of one of the branches of St. Mary's River. Here many
locations have been staked, but little or no development work has been done. Some rich ore
(prospects) have been taken from the Copper King group. Further discovery and development may justify the building of a trail from near the mouths of the Kootenay and the Goat
River to the White Grouse Mountain.
La France Creek.
Over one hundred claims have been located on this creek and vicinity, but the ore is
reported to be of low grade.
Lardo antl Duncan.
In the early spring much excitement was caused in the West Kootenay District by the
report of rich strikes in the above sections. At one time it was reported that as many as 300
men were camped in one place on Duncan River awaiting the disappearance of the snow,
before which time, however, many of them had exhausted their supplies, and were compelled
to return. Of those who did prospect the Duncan region, none were able to give encouraging
reports, but the fortunate locators of the Glacier claim, on Glacier Creek, running into
Duncan River, a little below the outlet of the lake of that name. The Lardo, south of the
line dividing north and south-west Kootenay, has also been a source of disappointment to a
large number of prospectors.
Kaslo Section.
Wellington.
This claim, on a stream debouching into Kaslo, shows very high grade galena of which
100 tons have been shipped.
Montezuma and Mexico.
These claims, though showing good prospects, remain unworked, being some distance from
the Kaslo River and rather inaccessible.
Silver Glance.
This claim being 5 miles from any trail or road, remains unworked. Its ore is said to
assay as high as 1,000 oz. per ton.
Beaver, Lone Star, Silver Tip.
These claims are being developed by tunnels, but so far no ore has been shipped.
Eureka, Yosemite.
These claims are 3 miles north from the Kaslo-Slocan waggon road and are being
developed.    The ore is of high grade. 57 Vig!t. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1047
Northern Belle.
Dr. Kilbourne, of Seattle, who paid a large sum for this property, is working it with 14
men, who have driven one tunnel 150 feet and another 200 feet. He has let a contract for
hauling 600 tons of ore, 200 of which are already sacked. This claim is situated in the
Whitewater basin.
Virginia
Is also in the Whitewater basin, and shows high grade ore and is being worked by 10
men.    The owner, Mr. J. A. Finch, who purchased it recently, hopes to ship ore immediately.
Lucky Boy.
Situated in the Jackson basin, a high grade proposition, from which 20 tons have already
been shipped.
Brennan Group
Being remote from any road remains unworked.
Carbonate
Is on Spring Creek and was bonded a few weeks ago to Mr. J. A. Finch for $10,000.
The  following  are  the  mineral claims  being worked  in the  southern portion of West
Kootenay, and the number of men employed :—
Kaslo-Slocan District.
Name of Claim. No. of men emp.'oyed.
Washington   40
Dardanelles 25
Noble Five 12
Reco     6
Mountain Chief 12
Slocan Star , 15
Payne Group    8
Wellington 12
Blue Bird 12
Lucky Jim and Roadley 10
Northern Belle    10
Freddie Lee    8
Yosemite Group    6
Alamo    8
Idaho    6
Vergenia    6
Mammoth    6
Egypt    5
Eureka       6
Surprise 12
Noonday, Boulder, etc 15
Antelope    7
Franklin    5
Cumberland    6
Reid & Robinson ,    5
Chambers    4
Ainsworth District.
No. 1 10
Nelson District.
Silver King Group 48 1048
Report of The Minister of Mines.
1893
Recapitulation.
Records.
Transfers.
Certificates
of Work.
Certificates
of Improvement.
Leases.
Abandonments.
161
33
31
21
31
27
52
368
613
69
11
15
4
40
2
117
90
Trail   	
37
6
42
2
28
365
218
|
473
553
12
17
i
1337
1167
815
12
22
17
The amount received for licenses and records in West Kootenay for the year 1893 is :-
Northern Division—F. M. C, $ 1,236; M. R. G,,
$     947.
Southern         i.                   n             15,464;            n
11,419.
Up to the end of the year, nearly 3,000 tons of ore were shipped to foreign smelters over
the Nelson and Fort Sheppard and Great Northern Railways.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
N. Fitzstubbs,
Gold Commissioner.
Note.—The reported shipments of ore over the Nelson and Fort Sheppard Railway for
the month ending on the 23rd of January last, amount to 1,214 tons, valued at $151,750. 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1049
REPORT FROM MR. KELLIE, M. P. P., FOR WEST KOOTENAY.
The Lardeau
Is a rich mineral region, and a continuation of the great mineral belt that runs through
the western mining States northward from Mexico. It is situated in a northerly direction
and distant about twenty-five miles from (he now famous Kaslo-Slocan camp. About one
hundred and eighty-five mineral claims have been located, and about forty bills of sale recorded.
Many of the claims in this camp are of the most promising character; the ore deposits are
both extremely valuable and extensive, and all that is now required is some better mode of
transportation for ingoing supplies and output of ore than the hurricane deck of a cayuse, the
only present mode of conveyance. However, a waggon road from Arrow Lake to Trout Lake
will be constructed by the Provincial Government early this year right into the heart of the
Lardeau mining region, which will give the mine owners a chance to get in their supplies
cheaply, and afford cheap transportation for their ores at a reasonable cost.
The Great Northern Group,
Situated up the North Fork of the Lardeau River, about five miles distant from Trout
Lake, is an immense deposit of galena ore, running forty ounces of silver and upward to one
hundred ounces, with considerable gold. It has a surface showing of twenty-five feet of
galena, on which a tunnel has been run for some distance. There are five locations in Great
Northern Group.
The Wagner Group),
Near the headwaters of Healy Creek, comprises four locations. The ledge is reported
twenty feet wide, thoroughly mineralized, and carries about one hundred and ten ounces of
silver, several dollars in gold, and about seventy per cent. lead. Some development has been
done, and the claim bonded for a large figure.
The Silver Cup
Is being developed this winter by Holden, Downs, and Walker. It is located about four
miles east of Trout Lake. The ore is of a very high grade, running from six hundred to
thirteen hundred ounces silver per ton. Recent reports state the ore body is rapidly increasing
in width as development proceeds.    The vein on surface was four feet in width.
The Abbott Group,
Situated on a fork of Healy Creek, is a magnificent surface-prospective property. There
are six claims in the group. Considerable work was done late in the fall, which went to show,
that as depth was reached, the value of the ore improves both in quality and quantity. A
bond was given on this property to an English syndicate.
The Riverside Claim,
On Trout Lake, a gold property is being developed this winter. The vein shows up a
three-foot ledge at end of a fifty-foot tunnel, the ore of which assays from $17 to $40 in gold.
The Black Prince,
Situated on headwaters of Lardeau River, is a high grade of ore, assays of which show
200 ozs., 427 ozs., and 405 ozs. silver per ton. One-fifth interest in this claim has changed
hands for $5,000 cash. The owners are going to open up this claim, and expect to make
regular ore shipments so soon as a waggon road reaches Trout Lake.
The Gainor Group,
Situated about twelve miles from Trout Lake, has a four-foot ledge, which assays $45.65
gold and 103 ozs. silver per ton. 1050 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
Abrahamson Group,
Located near the forks of Lardeau, and has three claims in the group. The assays of ore
on the Crystal claim, $19 gold, 100 ozs. silver; North Star, $53 gold, 23 ozs silver; Queen of
the Hills, $16 gold, 153 ozs. silver. Considerable work has been done on these claims, and it
is expected this year that the development of the property will be pushed vigourously.
Other promising groups are the Home, Blackburn Pool, Rainy, Matheson, &c. The ore
of the Lardeau country carries more or less gold in all its ledges, and must be classed as high
grade. Taking everything into consideration (with reasonable cost of getting ores to market),
the Lardeau mining region is amongst the most promising prospective mineral regions on the
American continent, and we are confident its future is beyond question, a future pregnant with
the brightest assurances of a great mineral output of gold, silver, and lead ores in the immediate
future.
Illecillewaet.
Mining operations in this camp during 1893, were not conducted on as large a scale as in
former years. Want of capital to open out some of the best claims and erect a few ariel
tramways and concentrators, has been the chief drawback.
The Lanark Mine
Is a splendid property, and at a depth of two hundred feet the ore body shows up a width
of twenty-seven feet. This ore body continues from the surface. There are hundreds of
thousands of dollars of ore in sight, of a high grade. The mountain slope on which it is
situated is too precipitous for the construction of a waggon road. Forty tons of ore could be
shipped daily, providing an ariel tramway were built from the mine to the Illecillewaet River.
The construction of this tramway would swing the Lanark mine into the front rank of British
Columbia producing mines.
The Maple Leaf,
An extension of the Lanark mine and on the same ledge, considered by many competent
mining experts to be a more valuable property than the Lanark.
The Silver Bow,
A copper property situated on Gold Hill, carrying a heavy percentage of copper and $18
gold per ton.    Considerable work has been done on this property during the last two years.
Jumbo Claim
Is an immense ledge of quartz on North Fork, carrying silver from twenty ounces to
eleven hundred ounces per ton, with considerable gold. $20,000 has been spent on this claim
in running drifts, and a car load of the ore was shipped to Scotland. There are hundreds of tons
of ore on the dumps, and we expect, sooner or later, that the Jumbo mine will make a record
for itself.
There are other claims worthy of notice, that require capital to open them out. Among
others the Blue Bell, Bob O' Link, Whale, Oak Leaf, etc., of which time prevents a fuller
description being given.
Fish Creek.
Considerable development has been done on claims located on the upper tributaries of
Fish Creek during the past few years. Probably $10,000 has been spent in actual development on the Elizabeth, Annie, Agnes and Dunvegan groups of claims. The Dunvegan is
looking better than ever and is bonded to a Chicago mining syndicate. The Elizabeth group
is owned by Walter Scott and S. S. Ryckman, M.P., of Hamilton, Ontario, who have
organized a joint-stock company of $150,000 capital for purchasing and development purposes,
The ore assays from eighty ounces silver to upwards of seven hundred ounces.
The Glengary and Sir John Macdonald claims, located in September, about twenty miles
up Fish Creek, are said to form a strong ledge with an immense surface showing equal to the
great Silver King on Toad Mountain.    The character of the ore is somewhat similar.    Assays 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1051
of the ore give four hundred ounces silver, twenty per cent, copper, it also carries gold in small
quantities. Lower clown the creek on the shoulder of a mountain spur is the Black Bear,
Lexington and Gladstone groups, with magnificent showing in the two former groups of lead
silver ores. First assays did not give as high return as was expected, but after some development was done ore of a higher grade was found in the ledges, and doubtless rich pay streaks
will be found in these immense deposits. The percentage of lead in these claims runs up to
70. The Fish Creek region is an extension northward of the Lardeau mineral belt and looks
quite as promising for the investment of capital as the Lardeau region.
Big Bend.
This vast gold-bearing mineral region is now attracting the attention of mining men, and
that a lively interest will be taken in this section of West Kootenay this year, is unquestioned.
The alluvial and hydraulic diggings on Smith and French Creeks, will be vigorously worked.
New hydraulic leases will be applied for, and Big Bend will again resume her status as a gold-
producing field on a large scale. Want of cheap communication and the enormous expense
entailed in getting in supplies has to all intents and purposes checked mining ventures in the
Big Bend. Twenty-seven cents per pound for packing in hydraulic machinery, and ten cents
per pound for packing in provisions, is too costly for ordinary mining purposes. No prospector
can stand such a heavy drain on his limited finances, and no mining company would invest its
capital under such extremely adverse circumstances. Time, however, works wonders. A
waggon road will be constructed from Revelstoke this year, 1894, to the head of Steamboat
Cation, some seven miles from Revelstoke, where it will connect with a steamer, running from
that point to the mouth of Donnie Creek, some forty odd miles. This will reduce the cost of
transporting supplies to a largely reduced figure, and will enable miners to locate the numerous
gold reefs and get in machinery to reduce the gold ores, which is now and has been heretofore,
from want of reasonable communication, practically impossible. From personal observations
last summer, I am deeply impressed with the thought that the Big Bend country is destined to
become the great gold-producing district of West Kootenay. The formation of the Big Bend
is perfect for gold-producing ores, granite, slate, shists, and porphyry. Many promising
ledges have been discovered, which are being kept dark as the prospectors know, unless a
cheaper mode of communication can be had than heretofore, it would be folly to record them.
However, the question of cheaper transportation has now been definitely, settled, and we may
look forward with deep interest to an era of remarkable and unparalleled progress and
prosperity for the Big Bend country.
James M. Kellie. 1052 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
SLOCAN MINING DISTRICT.
The following comprehensive and accurate description of the Slocan country is mostly
taken from a report written by that well-known and practical miner, Randall H. Kemp, for
the Nelson 'Tribune, and is considered by all who are acquainted with the country, as an
accurate and reliable report of what, in the near future, promises to be the greatest mineral-
producing district in the world: —
The Famed Slocan District.
Lts History; its Location; How it is Reached; its Geology; its Mines; its Prospects—All go to
Show it to be One of the Greatest of the World's Great Mineral Fields.
It appears almost incredible, even to those well informed on the subject, that it is scarcely
two and a half years since the first mineral discoveries were made in that portion of the
Selkirk range lying between Kootenay and Slocan Lakes, now locally known as the Slocan
District. Previous to the summer of 1891, when rich ore was first found, a few prospectors
had pushed their way up Kaslo River as far as Bear and Fish Lakes, and one or two small
parties had reached Slocan Lake by way of Slocan River, but neither were rewarded by finding
mineral.
In August, 1891, Andrew Jardine returned to Ainsworth from the Blue Ridge Mountains,
thirteen miles westerly from the present city of Kaslo, with a quantity of high-grade silver-lead
ore. On the value being ascertained, which was quite flattering, a stampede for the neighbourhood of the new find was a natural result. Prospectors swarmed the hills, and many fairly
good discoveries were made. Early in September, the late John L. Seaton and Eli Carpenter,
having penetrated farther westward than the others, found themselves within sight of Slocan
Lake. Disputing on which course to take to return, they divided their outfit, Seaton starting
to return to Kootenay Lake by way of Kaslo River, and Carpenter via Slocan Lake and River.
In retracing his steps, Seaton discovered the croppings of the Payne mine. While engaged in
staking the claim he was overtaken by Carpenter, who had changed his mind regarding the
route out. The Payne was staked jointly by them on September 9th, and was the first location
made in the justly-famed Slocan District. Returns from the ore they took back to Ainsworth caused the wildest quartz mining excitement ever known in British Columbia. The season
was well advanced, and snow was falling on the higher ranges, yet 140 claims were located
and recorded by January 1st, many of which have since become famous as producing mines.
In October S. S. Bailey, representing capital, visited the district, and purchased the Payne,
Maid of Erin, Mountain Chief, and Two Jacks claims, the transfer being the first made in the
district.
The enterprise of the residents of the towns on Kootenay Lake kept pace with the intrepidity of the prospectors, in that they at once began making trails to the new El Dorado.
The business men of Nelson, within a month after the first discoveries were made, commenced
a trail from the Columbia and Kootenay Railway up Slocan River, and in thirty days had
over twenty-five miles of it completed, to a point on the river where boats could be laden
and rowed to the mouth of Carpenter Creek without difficulty. In the meantime supplies were
boated up Slocan River; but owing to the number of portages and obstructions, trips were
made with great difficulty and not a little danger. A trail had been built that summer up
Kaslo River, for a distance of four or five miles, by the Government, and it was extended late
in the fall to a total distance of twelve miles by the parties who then owned the townsite of
Kaslo. Of those who took through supplies by way of the Slocan route, about thirty wintered
on Slocan Lake, a majority of them erecting cabins at El Dorado, now called New Denver.
Prospectors, miners, and capitalists began heading for the Slocan in February, 1892, and
by the 1st of April fully 500 men were camped in the neighbourhood of El Dorado. The
spring was backward, however, and little prospecting was done before the middle of June.
By that time many had left disgusted, giving the country a bad name on the way out. As
soon as the snow disappeared from the lower levels, work was commenced on trails on three
different routes. The Slocan River trail was completed to the lake; a trail was built from
Nakusp, on Upper Arrow Lake, to the north end of Slocan Lake; and the trail up Kaslo River 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1053
was pushed through to Watson, on Bear Lake. A trail was also built from El Dorado to the
forks of Carpenter Creek. During the summer trails were built to connect the various groups
of claims with the main trails. The hull of a steamboat was built at El Dorado early in the
spring, but owing to the failure of the company with which the order for machinery was
placed, the boat was not launched until late in the fall.
During the summer there was little difficulty in getting supplies to the various claims,
although the cost of packing was high. Development work soon exposed such quantities of
ore that better means of communication than by trails was talked of, the more so as "Jim"
Warclner had commenced shipping ore from the Freddy Lee mine. An effort was made to get
the Government to build a waggon road from Nakusp to the head of Slocan Lake, a distance
of twenty miles; but, for some reason, the Government refused to undertake the work. The
residents of Kaslo saw their opportunity, and by inducing Mr. Wardner to transfer his pack
animals from the Nakusp Trail to the Kaslo Trail, succeeded in getting enough subscriptions
to begin work on a waggon road late in the fall, and by the middle of December had it
passable for waggons for a distance of twenty miles, and later on it was made passable for
sleighs for a farther distance of twelve miles—to the mouth of Cody Creek. Over this
thoroughfare hundreds of tons of high-grade ore were transported during the winter of 1892-93,
which proved conclusively that the reports sent out regarding the Slocan had not been exaggerated. Far-seeing men became aware that waggon roads would be inadequate to handle the
product of the mines, and the Nakusp and Slocan Railway was commenced in July, 1893, and
at this writing is practically graded to the Forks of Carpenter Creek, now known as Three
Forks, and the steel laid ten miles out from Nakusp. By June of the present year, Slocan
District will, practically, have rail connection with the outside world.
Such, in brief, is the history of a mining district that has steadily gone ahead during one
of the most critical and depressing periods in the history of the financial world.
Location of District.
As previously stated, the Slocan District embraces both sides of the dividing ridge of the
Selkirk Mountains, and has its recording office at New Denver. To give a general idea of the
topography of the country, the following elevations above the sea of different points are shown:
Kootenay Lake, 1,760; Bear Lake (on the summit between Kootenay and Slocan Lakes),
3,545; Three Forks, 2,620; Cody Creek (a tributary of the South Fork of Carpenter Creek),
3,945; Slocan Lake, 1,865. The highest peaks in the district are estimated not to be over
8,000 feet.
How to reach the District.
From the United States, Slocan is reached by the Spokane & Northern and Nelson &
Fort Sheppard railways to Nelson. At Nelson the traveller has choice of three routes,
namely : 1. By steamer to Kaslo, thence by stage to Wratson, Three Forks, and New Denver.
2. By rail and steamer to Nakusp, thence by trail to head of Slocan Lake, thence by steamer
to New Denver; it is expected that the Nakusp & Slocan railway will be in operation from
Nakusp to New Denver and Three Forks by June 1st next. 3. By rail to Slocan Crossing,
thence by trail to foot of Slocan Lake, thence by steamer to New Denver. This route is not
now used to any great extent. The district is also reached by way of Bonner's Ferry, Idaho,
thence by steamer to Kaslo, thence by stage to Watson, Three Forks, and New Denver.
From Canada, Slocan District is reached from Revelstoke by rail and steamer to Nakusp,
thence as above described in route 2 from Nelson. From Kaslo a railway has been surveyed
to the mouth of Cody Creek, and part of the right of way cleared. It is stated the road will
be built this year.
Geological Formation.
One of the most difficult features of the country to describe without the aid of a chart is
the geological formation in which the many mineralized veins occur; but it is made up
mainly of argillaceous slates and different forms of lime, cut at various angles by eruptive
dykes. The mineralized portion of the district is about twenty miles in length and twelve
miles in breadth, although isolated claims have been staked outside this area, as will appear
further on. The general trend of the formation is northerly and southerly, dipping to the
south-west at different angles. As a rule, the strongest veins cut the formation obliquely,
cleaving any obtrusive dykes of porphyry, serpentine, or other material, thus demonstrating to all practical minds that they are true fissures beyond doubt, and carry their valuable metalliferous contents to great depths. The formation of the country and the gangue matter or
vein filling is quite soft, all mining being done by the single-hand method. To the south and
west the district is bordered by granite formation, on the east by schistose, and on the north
by trachyte.
The Mines.
Properties from which ore has either been shipped or is ready for shipment.
Within the boundaries of the district as described in the foregoing, at least twenty-five
locations have passed from the prospecting stage so that they can be termed mines. There
are, in addition to this number, many prospects whose value is not yet determined. The
majority of the companies or individuals operating own a group of claims adjoining the
particular one which gives their property its local name. Often a company owns several
locations, which, if 1,500 feet square, covers quite an area, yet their possessions are generally
designated by the name of one claim, although all the others may have pay ore in sight. In
gathering the information contained in this article, the writer has been very careful to glean
all the facts relating to the working mines, giving each separate, thus hoping to make the
entire description the more comprehensive.
The Payne Group.
The Payne was the first location made in Slocan District, and the first to pass into the
hands of monied men. The group is made up of the Payne, Maid of Erin, Mountain Chief,
and Two Jacks, all located on one ledge. The formation is slate shale, the vein trending
about 35 degrees east of north. The width of the vein is from 8 inches to 4 feet, carrying
galena from 6 inches to 2| feet in thickness. One hundred tons are now being shipped, which
samples 225 ounces silver and 70 per cent, lead per ton. On the Maid of Erin there is a
40-foot tunnel. Five openings on the Payne range from 6 to 22 feet in depth, and on the
Mountain Chief a 110-foot tunnel taps the vein 100 feet in depth. Scott McDonald owns
one-half of the Payne claim, and S. S. Bailey the other half and the remainder of the group.
Present working force, eight men.
The Noble Five Group.
Many persons contend that the Noble Five group is equal to the Slocan Star in extent
and value. The discovery was made on September 28th, 1891, by W. M. Hennessy, J. J.
Hcnnessy, Frank Flint, J. L. Seaton, and J. G. McGuigan. The claims staked were named
Noble Five, Knoxville, Bonanza King, World's Fair, and Maud E. The owners claim the
formation is slate and porphyry, the vein having a northerly and southerly direction. Width
of vein varies from 2| to 6 feet, although in one place it is much wider, as in an upraise 9 feet
of solid ore has been encountered. This winter 350 tons of ore have been shipped, which, it is
claimed, yielded 150 ounces silver and 69 per cent, lead per ton. The claims are worked
through adit tunnels, except in one instance where an 80-foot crosscut has been run, so as to
insure safety from snowslides. The three tunnels on the property aggregate 600 feet. The
working force is 20 men.
The   Mountain Chief.
This great little mine is located within a mile and a half of New Denver, and is the
property of George W. Hughes, he having purchased it in 1892 for a consideration of $15,500.
The vein is from 2 to 6 feet wide, with a pay streak of clean galena from 1 to 3 feet. Upwards
of 1,000 tons have been mined, the shipments giving returns of 130 ounces silver and 70 per
cent. lead. The property is worked through tunnels driven on the vein. From 15 to 20 men
are steadily employed.
The Dardanelles Group.
The property of this company consists of seven claims, located in the Dardanelles basin
o n the summit of the divide. The claims are named the Dardanelles, Antelope, Buffalo,
Okanagan, Diamond Cross, Hidden Treasure, and Caribou. The Dardanelles and the Antelope, so far, are the only ore producers. The formation is slate and porphyry, the vein trending
northerly and southerly, ranging from a narrow seam to 5 feet in width.    The Antelope claim 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1055
has been leased to different parties. Fifty tons of ore have been marketed, which yielded 99
ounces of silver and 51 per cent. lead. The most development work has been done on the
Dardanelles. An incline shaft has been sunk 200 feet, as the vein is very flat, the total vertical depth from the surface to the bottom of the shaft is not over 100 feet. Smelter returns
from 150 tons shipped range in value from 248 to 322 ounces silver, and from 26 to 30 per
cent lead per toil. On account of the great flow of water, heavier machinery is required before
further sinking can be done to advantage. In the meantime, the company will run levels on
the vein, exploring for additional ore chutes. There is a steam hoist and pump on the
property, placed there at quite an expense, as the freight over the 4-mile trail was 10 cents a
pound. Although the expenditures, so far, have been in excess of the receipts, yet the company are sanguine of future profits.
The  Washington Mine.
The Washington mine is owned by the Washington Mining Company, in which J. L.
Montgomery, T. E. Jefferson, and Ralph L Clarke are the shareholders. The vein is in slate
formation, and has a north-east and south-west trend. Previous to the time of the company
taking hold, 560 tons of ore were shipped. Since the company took over the property the
shipments have increased, but the exact tonnage and value of the ore is not attainable, as the
officers of the Company refuse to give information. The equipments of the property are the
best of any in the district, and the company evidently feels as though it had a valuable mine,
and the working is being done on a business-like basis.    Thirty-eight men are on the pay-roll.
The Blue Bird.
The Blue Bird belongs to the Washington Mining Company and is not being worked.
It is in black lime formation intersected by porphyry dykes. The shipments of ore have
aggregated 300 tons, averaging 144 ounces silver and 71 per cent. lead. This is one of the
early producers of the district, and is considered by many a valuable property.
The Slocan Star.
This is the bonanza mine of the district, and many are of opinion that it is the "big
mine" of British Columbia. The group consists of the Slocan Star, Slocan King, Jennie and
Silversmith. They were located on the 7th of October, 1891. Formation, slate, which the
vein cuts obliquely on a north-east and south-west trend, dipping with the hill at an angle of
about 45 degrees. On account of the strike of the vein along the mountain on the west side
of Sandon Creek, is tapped by cross-cut tunnels. The present working tunnel is 140 feet in
length, piercing the vein at a depth of over 100 feet. Here the vein is fully 50 feet between
walls, every particle of which—aside from the first-class ore—can be profitably concentrated.
A drift runs to the northeast on the foot-wall, where the ore is mixed. The tunnel, however,
is continued across the vein to the hanging-wall, where a large body of clean galena was
struck. On drifting north-easterly this body widened out to 12 feet, without a particle of
waste, therefore the company was not long in extracting the 500 tons which have been stored
at Three Forks, awaiting completion of the Nakusp and Slocan Railway. An upraise has
been made to the surface through ore continuously. A lower tunnel, to cut the vein at a
depth of 400 feet, has been started and work on it will be pushed. It is likely the company
will stope 1,000 to 1,500 tons before the sleigh road from the mine to Three Forks breaks up.
There is one ton of ore sacked in the ore-house which runs over 1,000 ounces of silver. The
average value of the first-class ore now being shipped is 100 ounces silver, $8 gold, and 70 per
cent, lead per ton. The Byron N. White Company, organized under the laws of Wisconsin,
with a capitalization of $500,000, is the owner.    Fifteen men are employed at present.
The Northern Belle Group.
This group is located on Jackson Creek, four miles from its junction with Kaslo River,
and is twenty-one miles distant from Kaslo. The group comprises the Northern Belle, Dublin
Queen, Kootenay Star, and Ophir claims, each 1,500 feet square. The property has been
worked continuously since the date of location, in June, 1892. The hanging-wall of the vein
is slate shale, on which there is about a foot of porphyry casing, the same as the other
bonanza mines of the argillite belt. The foot-wall is lime and slate, through which the vein
puts.    The lode is from six to twelve feet wide, all the filling beins? concentrating pre,    There 1056 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
are, however, chutes of clean ore from eighteen inches to three and one-half feet in width,
which is simply broken down, sacked and shipped. Developments on the property consist of
two adit tunnels, each 250 feet in length, and another started, which is in a distance of fifteen
feet. Winzes are being sunk and uprises made to connect these tunnels. Six hundred tons
have been marketed or are in transit from the mine to smelters since the company assumed
possession on June 1st, 1893. From 200 to 450 tons per mouth is the proposed output for
the future. This ore has an average value of 100 ounces in silver and runs 80 per cent, lead
per ton. It costs less to transport it to Kaslo than ore from any other mine in Slocan district,
the expense being only $10 per ton. It is claimed there is a profit of $50 for the company on
each ton handled, which appears like huge dividends. The Northern Belle Mining Company,
of Seattle, owns the property. Dr. E. C. Kilbourne, of that cit}r, is president. The capital
stock is $250,000.    The present working force is twenty-four men.
The Surprise.
The Surprise is in slate and porphyry. It recently changed ownership, Chicago parties,
whose names are withheld, being the purchasers. Rumour states the consideration at
$60,000, half cash. Recently a shipment of 100 tons was made, which a vague report values
at 229 ounces silver. Except that eight men are employed, no other information could be
obtained.
The Whitewater Basin Mines.
The Whitewater Creek empties into Kaslo River about seventeen miles from Kaslo.
Along the mountains bordering this stream and in the basin near its source quite a number
of locations have been made, some, it is claimed, carrying a large percentage of gold on the
surface. From the Whitewater claim, J. C. Eaton, in 1892, shipped seven tons of galena ore
which netted him about $900. During the past year the Wellington mine shipped several
carloads, the figures for which are not obtainable, as the manager is absent in Eastern
Canada. A diamond drill was used on the Wellington, but owing to the seamy character of
the formation its use had to be abandoned. The Virginia, bonded by J. A. Finch, is being
worked by a small force.
The Noonday Group.
The Noonday group is made up of the Noonday, Fourth of July, and Grey Eagle claims,
on Cody Creek, and is the property of G. J. Atkins it Co. Formation, slate and porphyry.
Have an eight-foot vein of concentrating ore. Fully 100 tons on the dump of clean ore,
which will run 115 ounces silver and 78 to 80 per cent lead. Total length of tunnelling 300
feet.    Employs twelve men.
The Ldaho and St. John.
This property consists of two parallel locations, about 200 feet distant from each other,
the veins on which are from five to six feet wide. The ore is galena carrying grey copper.
The pay streak is two and a half feet wide and solid in places, often averaging 200 ounces in
silver. One tunnel is in 300 feet, from which three cross-cuts have been run varying from
twenty to forty feet in length. Another tunnel is sixty feet long. Besides the above there
is in addition at least 150 lineal feet of development. Total figures of shipments not
obtainable, but one carload of ore from these claims netted $1,760. H. H. St. John, "Al"
Behne, and E. C. Gove are the owners.    The working force is twenty men.
The Lucky Jim.
The Lucky Jim group, which lies within a few hundred feet of Bear Lake, consists of the
Lucky Jim, St. George, and Roadley claims. It was located in May, 1892, hence the claims
are 1,500 square. James Shields, Charles Druin, and Robert Williams were the locators.
The hanging-wall is dolomite, and the foot-wall slate shale. The trend of the vein is nearly
east and west, clipping at an angle of about 45 degrees into the mountain, or south. On the
surface the ore exposed was fully eight feet wide in places. Tunnels and cross-cuts on the
property aggregate about 500 lineal feet, the deepest workings being about eighty feet from
the surface. Between fifty and sixty tons have been shipped, which, it is said, returned 67
ounces silver and 60 per cent. lead. This is one of the lowest-grade mines in the district, but
being located less than half a mile from the proposed Kaslo and Slocan Railway, the saving 57 Vioi\ Report of the Minister of Mines. 105?
in transportation will be quite an item. Dr. E. C. Kilbourne, of Seattle, owns one-half,
Robert Williams one-third, and Thomas J. Roadley one-sixth. No work of consequence is
now being done, only two men being employed.
The Ruecau Group.
For convenience, the owners of this group call their property the "Reco," their possessions
consisting of the Ruecau, Texas, New Denver, Ephriam, and Clifton. The vein is exposed
and cuts through four of the claims. The formation is slate, intersected by porphery dykes,
through which the vein trends at nearly a right angle. Ten feet is the average width of the
vein, which carries galena and carbonates, the pay streak ranging from 18 inches to 8 feet in
width. Forty tons have been shipped, which ran from 167 to 261 ounces silver and 65 per
cent. lead. John M. Harris, F. T. Kelly and S. M. Wharton are the owners. Their working
force is fifteen men.
The Queen Bess.
Located on south side of the mountain from Idaho basin. Slate and lime formation ;
vein trending north-east and south-west; development, 300-foot tunnel, which cuts the vein at
a depth of 65 feet, and a shaft 40 feet in depth. In places have 8| feet solid galena. On
clump, ready to ship, 50 tons of ore. A parallel vein 14 inches wide carries galena and
carbonates. Owned by Seattle parties and J. H. Moran. A force of men were put to work
the last week in January.
The   Vancouver Group.
Located on south side of Four-mile creek, 1,500 and 2,500 feet above Slocan Lake and
distant four miles from the townsite of Silverton. Formation, slate ; veins, north-east and
south-west trend ; said to be huge fissures which can be traced three miles. The two carloads
of ore shipped last winter averaged 250 ounces silver, one carrying 40 per cent, and the other
55 per cent. lead. Over $4,000 worth of development work has been done. The claims are
named Vancouver and Mountain Boomer.    Mahon Brothers are the owners.
The Grady Group.
But little information can be gleaned concerning this remarkable showing on Four-mile
creek. Five hundred tons of ore, valued at $125 a ton, are on the dump ready to ship. The
property is held under bond to the McNaught Land and Investment Company of Seattle,
N. F. McNaught being in charge. It is claimed the price to be paid is $70,000, of which two
payments of $5,000 each have been made.
The  Cumberland.
The Cumberland is in the same basin as the Idaho, and is south-east of that mine. The
formation is slate and lime ; north-east and south-west trend, and dips at an angle of 80 degrees
from the horizontal ; vein filling, galena and quartz ; average width of vein four feet, and pay
ore 14 inches, although in places it is 20 inches solid. Development consists of a tunnel 132
feet on vein, a cross-cut tunnel 60 feet, one drift from cross-cut tunnel 40 feet, another drift
70 feet, and one shaft 15 feet. Sixty tons of ore are ready to ship. Four men are kept at
work.    The owners are Martin Clair, C. M. Gething, and F. F. Macnaughton.
The Alamo Group.
Situated in Twin Lake basin, and discovered in June and July, 1892. Claims consist of
the Alamo, Twin Lakes, and Ivy Leaf. Is a contact vein, between slate and porphyry. One
tunnel 250 feet in length and another 165 feet. Ore, galena and carbonates, which run very
high. One car-load has been shipped and other shipments are ready. Vein runs from three
to five feet in width.    Four men employed.
The Bon Ton.
It would be impossible under present circumstances to mention and describe all the many
claims in various stages of development in the Jackson basin, or on both sides of the creek.
Outside the Northern Belle, the Bon Ton is the only one which made a shipment. It was but
a few tons, and the returns were between $300 and $400 a ton. The Sunset, Lucky Boy, and
others are said to be healthy prospects. 1058 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
The Big Boulder.
So much has been written of the famous Big Boulder that a few brief notes regarding it
in this article may not be amiss. Development in the upper works of the Slocan Star show
where this great mass of galena rested in the vein before it took its slide down the hill to
where it was found by " Jack " Cockle. Evidently erosion of the country formation below the
ledge matter caused the boulder to drop from its natural place in the vein, and it was carried
down the hill by its own gravity. There has been shipped from the boulder 40 tons, which
yielded 130 ounces silver and 70 per cent. lead. The owners expect when the remainder is
sorted to secure at least 25 tons more of the same grade.
The Read and Robertson.
This group is located in the Four-mile section of Slocan district. The group consists of
the Tenderfoot, Read, Robertson, Cosmopolite, and North Star. The Jenny Lind corners on
the vein, and it is on that claim aud the Read and Robertson where the immense croppings
are which attracted so much attention to the property. The surface showing is 20 feet wide
and can be traced for 1,000 feet. Formation, argillite and black lime ; vein filling, lime spar
and galena. In places, from 2\ to 4 feet of solid galena can be seen, while the entire vein is
a rare concentrating proposition. An average sample of the croppings yielded 142 ounces
silver and 70 per cent. lead. This property was bonded for $14,000 to the London Mercantile
Association, in October, 1892. They paid down ten per cent, of the bond and expended
$4,000 in development. The same cause is given for forfeiting this bond as is given for
forfeiting the bond on the Great Western. Many claim the Read and Robertson group is
the coming great mine of the North American continent. J. A. Finch and associates now
have the property bonded. No work is being done at present, on account of the depth of
snow and lack of accommodation for a working force.
The Chambers Group.
This group consists of the Chambers, Wellington, Eureka, and Jay Gould. It is situate
on the south fork of Carpenter Creek, above the mouth of Cody Creek, and was located
October 26th, 1891. The hanging-wall is shale and the foot-wall quartzite. It is fully 80
feet between walls, the vein carrying stratas of clean galena and concentrating ore. Sample
assays return an average of 120 ounces silver and from 60 to 80 per cent. lead. There has
been 300 feet of development work done. The present owners are the Bank of Montreal, G.
J. Atkins & Co., and " Ed " Becker, " Charlie " Kent, and " Tom " Litster. This is said to
be the finest concentrating proposition in the district.    Not being worked at present.
The Slocan Boy.
This claim lies above the Washington, the vein passing through a portion of the ground.
It is owned by Spokane parties, who on account of private financial embarrassments are not
working the property at present. A quantity of ore is on the dump, but no shipments have
been made.
The Great   Western.
The Great Western was located in October, 1891, by "Tom" McGovern and "Charley"
Franklin, of Ainsworth, and is 600 x 1,500 feet. It is now a Crown grant claim. It is in
the argillite slate belt. The vein is a very strong one, although but 2\ feet in width, dipping
at angle of 60 degrees. From 3 to 14 inches is the width of the pay streak as far as
developed, and there are about 30 tons of ore on the dump, which will average 120 ounces in
silver and 70 per cent. lead. The development is made up of tunnels alongside the vein,
cross-cuts, etc., which aggregate about 450 feet. The property was bonded in 1892 to the
London Mercantile Association, who paid $5,000 on the bond, and expended $10,000 in
development. The instability of the price of silver caused the company to throw up the bond
and forfeit the money paid.    The locators are still the owners.
The Eureka.
The Eureka and Mineral Hill claims lie north-east of the Slocan Star group on the same
vein, and are the property of G. J. Atkins k Co. This ledge is at least 20 feet wide. They
have run two tunnels, aggregating 500 feet, and have struck  ore in the lower one.    Assays 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1059
have yielded 169 ounces silver, and 70, 72, and 74 per cent. lead. Nine men are employed on
this property, and work will also be commenced on the Elgin, on Slocan Star Hill, in the
spring.
The Jjorna Doone.
This claim is an extension of the Vancouver, and carries 18 inches of very rich ore.
Rathbourne & Culver, the owners, have been offered $12,000 for it. Its location is three and
a half miles east of Slocan Lake, near Four-Mile Creek. Several tons are on the dump, but no
shipments have been made.
The Dayton.
This ledge was discovered last year by William Springer. It carries dry ore, and is
located in the granite belt, three miles east of and near the foot of Slocan Lake, 20 miles from
New Denver. The vein is 2| feet wide, carrying 10 inches of pay ore, averaging 215 ounces
silver and $21 gold per ton. The highest assay was 920 ounces silver and $40 gold. Mr.
Springer has sold the claim to Mr. Hanauer, the Salt Lake smelter man.
The  Greenhorn.
The Greenhorn claim is located on Cody Creek, opposite the Freddy Lee, and is in the
same formation. There are three feet of solid galena in sight, which samples 100 ounces silver
and 60 per cent, lead per ton. John McNeill, of Ainsworth, is the owner. The vein has been
traced through the entire length of the location, 1,500 feet.
The Eureka Group.
To the north of Kaslo River, on the divide between Liddle and Bear Creeks, is a group
of claims named the Eureka, Yosemite, Homestake, Scottish Chief, and Parrot. They are in
the trachyte formation, and trend north-east and south-west. The veins are from 5 to 10 feet
wide, carrying chutes of ore from 16 inches to 2^ feet in thickness, all galena, assaying 125
ounces silver and 77 per cent, lead per ton. On the Eureka and Yosemite there is 150 feet of
tunneling and 44 feet of shafts, with open cuts 60 feet in length. On the Echo, another
claim of the group, there is a 25-foot tunnel on a pay streak from 6 inches to a foot wide,
carrying fine-grained galena assaying as high as 327 ounces silver per ton. McDonald
Brothers, McPhee, and Moore are the owners.
The Jardine Camp.
The Jardine camp was discovered in September, 1891. The principal claims are known
as the Trapper, Silver Tip, Beaver, Lone Star, Cornet, Snow-flake, and Mountain Dew. They
are located three miles from McDonald Brothers' Half-way House, and thirteen miles from
Kaslo. The formation is trachyte with serpentine dykes, the veins trending north-east and
south-west. A considerable amount of work has been done by the owners. The Beaver is 12
feet wide, carrying galena and copper. There are between 50 and 60 tons on the dump.
There is four feet of ore in the upper tunnel of the Mountain Dew, which assays from 26 to
204 ounces silver. The Silver Tip carries dry ore, assaying as high as 400 ounces silver.
Andrew Jardine, John (Lardo) McDonald, and " Jack " Allen are the owners.
The Montezuma.
The Montezuma is only eight miles from Kaslo, on a tributary of the South Fork of the
Kaslo River. The formation is slate, granite, and lime, the vein cutting through the same.
There were nine feet of clean galena on the surface, and development work has proved the vein
to be from 3 to 4 feet in width. There is a cross-cut tunnel, 70 feet in length, tapping the
vein 40 feet in depth. From the tunnel a drift has been run 40 feet, showing from 1 to 4
feet of ore. Its value is 80 ounces in silver and 60 per cent lead per ton. " Tom " McLeod,
" Ed." Becker, and others are the owners.
The Fisher Maiden.
The Fisher Maiden, Stand-By, and Sixty-Three are owned by W. A. Crane and "Dan"
McDonald. They are in the granite belt, near Eight-Mile Creek, down the Lake from New
Denver.    The veins are from 6 to 7 feet in width, carrying from 18 to  20 inches of  ore, the 1060 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
lowest assay of which was 220 ounces in silver. Ruby and silver glance predominate. In one
place 6 inches averaged 600 ounces per ton. The Fisher Maiden and Stand-By are held under
bond to Seattle parties for $30,000.    This property is six miles back from Slocan Lake.
The Navigator.
The Navigator adjoins the Alpha claim of the Grady group, and is a parallel vein. It is
a 3-foot ledge, with a pay streak 8 inches wide, carrying 120 ounces silver and 65 per cent,
lead. The formation is slate, the vein trending north-east and south-west. Jasper King and
"Ben" Anderson are the owners, and they propose to do considerable development work the
coining summer.
The Grey  Copper.
This claim lies between the Blue Bird and Reco, aud cuts through slate, porphyry, and
lime formation. The vein is three feet wide, and shows ore for 200 feet, averaging one foot
in thickness. Assays run from 145 to 160 ounces silver and 72 per cent. lead. This claim is
owned by '; Jack" Thompson, "Ed." Becker, and "Charley" Kent.
The Tom Moore and St. Lawrence.
North-east of the Great Western are located the above-named claims. The ledge is about
5 feet wide, composed of iron carbonates, decomposed lime and galena. Some ore has been
extracted, but not enough to ship. These prospects are surrounded by the big mines of the
McGuigan basin.    M. C. Monaghan, G. Hawley, and "Tom" Hennessy are the owners.
The Freddy Lee.
The Freddy Lee was the first mine in Slocan District to ship ore. Six carloads were
shipped via New Denver and the Columbia River before the sleigh road was completed to
Three Forks, in the winter of 1892. For the past few months the mine has been leased to
Messrs. Goldstein, Flaherty, Fitzwilliams, and Crowley. They have shipped 108 tons.
Under former management, when being operated by the Freddy Lee Mining Company, about
450 tons were shipped. The present lessees have over 100 tons ready for shipment. The
vein is in slate formation, and is of irregular width. The ore streak sometimes widens out to
three feet. Value of ore, 120 ounces silver, 70 per cent. lead. About 2,000 lineal feet of
development work has been done.
Free Gold. Ores.
That free gold ore has been found in the granite belt on the east side of Slocan Lake,
from eight to twenty miles south of New Denver, is an open secret. Some of the prospects
discovered there carry both gold and silver, and others appear to carry the yellow metal alone.
One discovery, near Eighty-mile Creek, yielded from one assay $249, and from another $400
gold per ton. Several other locations have been made, but sufficient development work has
not been done to determine their value.
Many other Prospects.
There are many prospects of merit in Slocan District which are not described in the
foregoing, for the reason it was impossible at this time of the year to reach them or communicate
with the owners. The Best, Ruby Silver, R. E. Lee, Young Dominion, and several more are
not mentioned at length for this reason.
The microscope has demonstrated the reason why the ores of the Slocan are richer than
those of any other district. By examination it has been found that in the cleavage of the
galena cubes are minute particles of grey copper and antimonial silver. In some of the ores,
notably that from the Mountain Chief, these forms are visible in great blotches to the naked
eye.
For a plentiful and never-failing water supply for power or other purposes the Slocan
mining district is second to none in the world. There is not a mine in the district at which
electricity generated by water power could not be used.
The depressing financial wave which swept over the world in 1893, leaving ruin in its
track everywhere, had but little effect on the Slocan. Even despite the great drop in silver
and lead more mines are working, and the output is far greater, than before the panic. 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1061
A  dry ore belt runs through the Slocan Country.
Few people realize the advantages that would accrue to the district by the discovery of a
productive field of dry ore. With an abundant supply of dry ore there would be no necessity
of shipping galena ores to distant points for reduction. Heretofore the Pacific North-west,
with all its varied mineral resources, has not been productive of this one indispensable smelting
material. One of the largest owners in the smelting plant partly constructed at Pilot Bay
says the lack of a dry ore supply is the most serious drawback to be contended with. Neither
is it generally known that the West Kootenay producer of dry silver ore saves $10 per ton in
freight and treatment charges on ore shipped to smelters in the United States. Although
dry ores have been found in several localities in the district, the field or belt that is the most
promising is located on the tributaries of the North Fork of Carpenter Creek, to the north of
Bear and Fish Lakes, in the Slocan Mining Division. The belt extends westward to near
the mouth of Wilson Creek, four miles north of New Denver, but nothing more than prospecting has as yet been clone in the vicinity of Wilson Creek.
The formation is white and black lime, shale, granite, and porphyry, in masses. Such it
is from Slocan Lake eastward to the head of the North Fork of Carpenter Creek. The veins
found run with the formation and some are contacts. Their width ranges from 6 inches to 4
feet. Assays have been made running all the way from 91 to 1,250 ounces silver per ton.
What the section will develop once capital is invested, is to be determined. North of Bear
and Fish Lakes are quite a number of locations. The formation is porphyry, slate and lime.
Two and a half miles north-west of Watson, Messrs. Russell and Erickson have two claims,
called the Silver Glance and Summit. They were located on July 19th, 1892, and that fall
bonded to Franklin Farrel for. $45,000. This bond, however, lapsed on account of stringent
times. From these claims 1,500 pounds were shipped, which yielded at the rate of 232 ounces
silver per ton. The veins are filled with quartz, the pay streak being from 10 to 20 inches in
width. In the same neighbourhood is the Miner Boy, owned by Messrs. Cummings, Adams,
and Niven. It is lime and slate shale, cutting the formation. They have a tunnel 175 feet
on the ledge, but have shipped only 2J tons as a test, which yielded 395 ounces silver per ton.
Assays have been had ranging from 640 to 3,834 ounces. The ore consists of native silver,
antimonial silver, grey copper, and black sulphides. Five men are at work on the claim, and
the owners expect to ship quite a quantity of ore in the spring. E. C. Venmoerkerke, better
known as "the major," shipped three tons from one of his claims, which gave returns of 195
ounces silver per ton. In the granite belt south of New Denver considerable quantities of
high-grade ore has also been found. The locally noted Dolly Varden and Archie claims are in
this belt. 1062
Report of the Minister of Mines.
1893
The following table taken from Customs returns will give an idea of present output of
ore, under very unfavourable circumstances as regards freights, but on the completion of
the Nakusp and Slocan Railway a saving of $20.00 or $25.00 per ton will be possible when
the output will largely increase: —
Mine.
Date.
Tonnage.
Total.
Do	
December 22nd
do.         27th
do.        29th
do.        29th
do.       30th
do.        26th
do.        27th
do.        26th
40
82
112
Bo                            	
234
Noble Five	
60
394
52
20
13|
Do	
994
52
20
Mountain Chief	
134
419
January      1st
do.         19th
do.        23rd
do.         26th
do.         27th
do.         25th
do.        21st
do.           4th
do.           5th
do.          7th
do.        30th
do.          9th
do.         14th
do.         26th
do.          18th
do.        21st
do.        2Sth
do.         30th
do.          9th
do.         11th
do.         16th
do.         21st
do.         27th
do.         19th
do.        31st
100
40
60
20
20
Do	
Do	
Do	
Do	
240
744
19
Noble Five	
744
19
40
654
59
40
Do.              	
Do.              	
Do.               	
1544
40
40
40
Do.	
Do.           	
120
60
474
Do	
1074
67
20
Do	
87
244
244
144
58
114
40
60
60
No. 1, Ainsworth	
Kaslo Sampler	
Mile Point Mine	
144
58
114
40
Hall Mines, Nelson .   	
Do.           do	
120
1,071
Do	
February    1st
do.          7th
do.          8th
do.          4th
do.          8th
do.          8th
do.           6th
do.          8th
do.          4th
60
20
20
Do	
100
60
40
40
Do.             	
Do.             	
140
80
60
Do.           	
140
19
19
399
1,899
$130 	
rr^ ~
^—
=]
1
n/mfrajlrel  LaAc       ClcU//cs
A' r y. (sufe-7e,a
12
7%euicier  jfi'l/  Group
•Jllv-er, Gold. Copper. Z eu.d
2
field   Cfai/ns   7/icvtarcA'nu-si.e
do.          do.
IS
Ca-'Cdi    CLcutn.
G upper
/fry. Grey Copper . Gold
3
Oiler    icul     Claims
do .        d> & Copper
14?
/Tocf  Cree/r  C/ct-iuts
±
So66y Bums   V- /rftcrnallonal"   Group
GoU
15
/VorfA Slur ofSutt/uars.        Groupe
do,   Ga/e'r a IcCarloimtes
5
Oariona/e JrioU/l/aiit    Group
SfrQ . &Ctl&Jia. Grey Copper ^ Gofa
1G
Atoy/e   /- a^e      Glar"is
do,    Galen, a.
6
rey/no/tf   Greet         Group
.c/o.     Ga-leiia.
11
W/ld Morse            C6a*"is
Gold,
7
Ccz.ril> oo     & clshx      Gr o up
.ci*.          ■ do.    £ Gold
18
Mouse      Cree/r         . do.
Gold
8
J uif/et £Sp/'//e„itcAeftv Jfyvt/rifer'ti   Group
. do.              . c/c.     of    Capper
19
Aoai     CreeA          ..el*.
Copper , oi lifer & Gold
9
Windermere        Afauiifa',,1                  Cluiii'S
• Con per
20
Bull  River        u..
do-               .do.         .do.
10
Morse T/Uef         Cree/r             Ciaims
nra   Gulerm    Gopper%/ron
21
S-   Marys      Loccclcons
Gcu/e/i-a <f Copper
li
Yoiltf    Creef(                             Glau/ts
do.      .do.       fy Copper
22
Crotrs /res/- Zones' Goal rye Ids "
G occc 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1063
The figures, though satisfactory, cannot be taken into account in computing the probable
output of the Slocan. All the properties are doing development work chiefly. When they
are put in shape for mining on the proper scale the output can be then computed; at present it
can only be surmised.
There are upwards of 400 men in the Slocan and between Kaslo and New Denver, who
are employed, either directly or indirectly, in connection with the mines, and when the dangers
of snow slides are passed there will be hundreds more. Without a single exception of note
every mine in the Slocan has improved as it has been developed, the veins becoming stronger
as they went deeper.
EAST KOOTENAY.
Mr. Cummins' Report.
Victoria, B. C, February 1st, 1894.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit to you the following report on mining operations and
mineral development carried on in the District of East Kootenay, during the year 1893,
together with the usual statement in tabular form, respecting placer mining. I add a sketch
map of the District, showing the principal mineral localities referred to in this and former
reports. The map will give a more correct idea of the creeks tributary to the Columbia River,
than can be obtained from the published maps.
Placer Mining.
The yield of placer gold this season, has been confined to two creeks, both situated in the
Fort Steele Division, and is estimated by Mr. Edwards, the Mining Recorder, as follows:—
Wild Horse Creek $19,000
Moyie River         700
Total $19,700
Mr. Griffith's hydraulic property on Wild Horse Creek, was sold to the East Kootenay
Exploration Syndicate, of London. This company placed a considerable amount of new plant,
supplied by the Albion Iron Works, of Victoria, on the ground this season, and piped for a
time. The results are stated to have been such as to justify working next season on a much
larger scale. The hydraulic ground, worked at a profit for many years by Chinese companies,
has been bought by Mr. Griffith. It is probable that this ground will also become the property
of the Syndicate, in which case hydraulic mining, to an important extent, may be looked
forward to in the near future on Wild Horse Creek. There have been five applications for
leases of ground on this creek during the year, one of which, on Victoria Gulch, a tributary of
the main creek, has been granted, and work on this ground is expected to proceed in the early
spring. An application has been received for a lease on Palmer's Bar Creek, in the more
western portion of Fort Steele Division.
In the Donald Division there have been a number of applications for leases on the Blue
Water Creek, which have been standing over for some time, a question of surface rights to the
ground having been raised. The objections now removed, it is expected that the acquisition
of the leases will be proceeded with. With regard to the placer prospects in the creeks north
of the C. P. R., generally, it may be added that Mr. McConnell, of the Geological Survey of
Canada, states in his report (Summary Report for 1892), that coarse gold has been found in
the beds of several of the streams which flow into the Columbia from the East, and it is highly
probable that paying placer deposits will eventually be discovered in this part of the range. Quartz Mining.
The development of the mines and the energy displayed in prospecting for mineral,
throughout the district as a whole, have not realized expectations. The cause of this must be
mainly looked for in the extreme tightness of the money market and the depression of silver,
together with its uncertain future. The resulting difficulty of selling prospects in silver localities, or of obtaining aid to develop, has been severely felt in this district.
Prospectors have been principally active in the southern portion of the district, in some
instances with very encouraging results. A large number of new discoveries, of both gold and
silver ore, have been made, namely, at the head of St. Mary's River, in the vicinity of the
North Star Mine, on Moyie Lake, on Wild Horse Creek, and Bull River, and other localities.
In the extreme northern division, on Kimbasket Lake, a lead of great size, carrying silver-
bearing galena, was found.
The principal work towards development has been done on the immense silver-lead
deposits of the North Star Mine, at Thunder Hill, and on Vermont Creek in the McMurdo
District.
More particular mention of the above discoveries and the result of the development work,
will be made further on.
McMurdo District.
The Bobby Burns and International group of gold properties, situated on the Middle Fork
of the Spillumchene River, noticed favourably in former reports, has lain almost idle, except for
assessment work. Active work on the Bobby Burns claim, looked forward to as the result of
the sale of the property to Victoria capitalists, has not been yet resumed owing to unfortunate
delays in the transfer of the title. The International claim has been recently sold to a
Toronto Syndicate, after protracted negotiations. It is hoped that these claims may be
exploited successfully next season, and that the various other gold claims of this group will
attract the attention of capital, which they deserve.
No considerable development has been done on the claims on Carbonate Mountain, Cariboo
Basin, and Copper Creek, this season, further than annual assessments.
Vermont Creek.
On the south side of this creek the claims owned by Messrs. Wells and Pollock have been
worked by them. One hundred tons of ore have been taken from tunnels and slopes on the
various veins, described in former reports on these claims, and hauled out over a sleigh road
to the Columbia River. The quality of the ore is about the same as that of the shipment
packed out over the trail last year from this property, viz.: 100 ozs. silver and 50 to 60 per
cent. lead.
On Spillumchene Mountain, Jubilee Mountain, and Horse Thief Creek, but little towards
further development has been done.
At Thunder Hill Mine
Work proceeded rapidly during the early part of the summer and the previous winter.
A force of 45 men were employed. The concentrating works described in last year's report,
were completed and ran for a short time in the beginning of August, the machinery working
very smoothly and well. The works and mine shut down about the middle of August, owing,
it is understood, to a lack of funds. The company has gone into liquidation, it is stated, with
a view to re-construction before resuming operations.
On the Canal claim, on the east side of Columbia Lake, I am informed that a promising
body of copper carbonate ore has been exposed by recent work.
No further developments of importance are reported in the Hughs Range, between the
Columbia Lake and the vicinity of Wild Horse Creek, though some locations were made of
which of which I am without information.
Wild Horse Creek.
I am glad to have favourable reports to give regarding the future prospects of this creek
and vicinity for gold quartz. Though it is estimated to have yielded, up to the present time,
over six millions of dollars in placer gold, but little prospecting of an intelligent kind for
quartz has been done. Several prospectors hare worked in this direction during the past season, and made some important discoveries.    On the south side of the creek, about seven miles f5?s
SEC. MAW SHAFT
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Z> REflDNflUGHT" 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1065
above Fort Steele, three claims were located by Messrs. Banks and Young on a strong lead
stated to be cropping continuously for over 2,000 feet. The following particulars are derived
from a reliable and disinterested person, after the examination of the ground in the end of
October: The width of the ledge varies from 2 feet to 4|- feet. The strike is about east and
west. It runs through about the centre of a belt of porphyritic rock, about 100 feet wide,
the country rock on east side of this belt being quartzite. The ledge cuts the formation very
clearly at about 30° and dips into the hill, or south at about 45°. There is evidence of the lead
becoming more vertical in depth. Picked samples can easily be obtained from the Western or
Dardenelles claim showing quantities of free gold, the richest streak being on the hanging
wall. The lead is described as having all the characteristics of a true fissure. Up to the end
of October, the discoverers had done but little work on the lead, as they had been engaged in
building a trail to the claim and putting up a cabin in order to work all the winter.
About three miles further down the creek, but on the opposite side, about 1,500 feet in
elevation above the hydraulic properties, a ledge, known for some time, has been prospected
by Messrs. Dougherty and Griffith. On the surface the quartz had a very favourable appearance for gold, but nothing could be panned from it, even after sinking a shaft to a depth of 20
feet. From this depth to 30 feet, which had been reached when last heard from, most satisfactory results were obtained by panning. So far, they have sunk two pits, one 30 feet deep
and one 15 feet. No gold has been found yet in the latter. The pits are about 200 feet
apart. The lead appears to strike in a north-westerly and south-easterly direction, but seems
on the surface a good deal mixed with the quartzite formation, making it difficult to judge its
exact width, which appears to be from 2 to 6 feet and possibly more. It is stated that a slate
foot wall has been struck near the bottom of the 30-foot shaft. The owners are sanguine of
having a good free milling gold property.
Another discovery of free gold quartz, near this locality, was made in the latter part of
the season, on the front range facing the Kootenay Valley, between what is known as Horse
Shoe Canon and Mouse Creek. Numerous specimens shewn me from here contained considerable quantities of free gold, plainly visible without a magnifier, in a copper stained quartz,
grey copper being also present. The discoverers stated that the vein could be traced for a
considerable distance and ranged in width from about 8 inches to 2 feet. The samples I saw
seemed to me to come from the narrower portions of the vein.    No work whatever has been done.
North Star Mine.
In last year's report, page 538, a description is given of the discovery of an immense body
of steel galena, near the St. Mary's River, about 20 miles north-west of Fort Steele. It is also
mentioned that this property had been bonded by Mr. D. D. Mann, of Montreal. The
property, consisting of four 1,500 feet square claims, taken up in a square block or nearly so,
was purchased by Mr. D. D. Mann and associates on 1st July last, after having been examined
and reported on by Mr. George Attwood, the well-known mining engineer. A considerable
amount of development work has been done on the property, both during the currency of the
bond and since the purchase was completed. I annex a plan and sections explanatory of this
work, which will set forth the work and its results better than any lengthy verbal description.
The work extends over about 450 feet of the lode, the greatest depth from the surface reached
is 66 feet in the main shaft, sunk at the original discovery cut, where the first body of ore was
bared by the discoverers by removing the overlying wash material. The vast body of mineral
run through at section 4, where the drift shows solid galena and carbonates for the remarkable
width of 65 feet, was not opened out until after the purchase of the mine was made. It seems
fair to conclude that the work has shown the existence of huge mineral deposits. Though
such bodies cannot be looked for in a regular width and richness throughout, there seem very
good indications in this case for their continuance in length and depth.
The only regular sampling, the results of which I am aware, gave: Silver, 47.43 ozs.;
gold, nil; lead, 67.50%; iron, 6.63%; zinc, 1.90%. Assays of over 85 ozs. have been obtained,
whilst the carbonate ore appears generally to run somewhat lower in silver. The ore is
asserted to be of the very finest quality for smelting.
The advantageous position of this mine, and neighbouring properties, as regards water
communication, can be seen by referring to the annexed general sketch map of the District,
(see Group 15). The mine is within sixteen miles of the Kootenay River, on which there are
at present two steamboats running, one in connection with the Great Northern Railroad at
JenningSj the other with the Canadian Pacific at Golden.    The country between the mine and 1066 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
the river is easy for waggon road construction. It will also be seen that the located line of
the C. P. R. Crow's Nest Pass Railroad passes within about an equal distance from these
mines.
One of the important features regarding the smelting ores of this region, is their proximity
on the proposed lines of railroad to the inexhaustible supplies of cokeing coal in the Crow's
Nest Pass.
A number of other locations have been made on the hill on which the North Star is situated, but little or no work has yet been done on these claims so far as I am aware.
Sullivan Group op Prospects.
About 2 to 3 miles to the north of the North Star Mine, on the other side of Mark Creek,
outcrops of galena, apparently of a similar nature and size to the North Star, have been located.
Great masses of steel galena and iron have here been bared in several places, but sufficient
work has not yet been done to enable one to say much about them.
Moyie Lake Claims.
Some important discoveries of silver-bearing galena were made last spring, on the mountains on the east shore of the Upper Moyie Lake. Large outcrops of fine looking galena, 5 to
6 feet in width in some places, occur on the St.. Eugene claim, about 1,400 feet above the lake.
The little work done here has exposed large quantities of mineral, but has not gone sufficiently
deep to show the existence of a lead of a continuous nature. Adjoining the St. Eugene claim,
to the north, is the Queen of the Hills claim. A line of claims extend from here westward
down to the lake. A continuous vein is supposed to run through these claims, but sufficient
work has not yet been done to determine the fact.
Locations at the Head op St. Mary's River.
On the various forks of the St. Mary's River no less than 46 mineral claims were located
in the early part of the summer. There appears to have been a rush into that locality of
prospectors from West Kootenay. Most of these locators returned to the Kootenay Lake
country, forwarding their records to Fort Steele. I regret to say that it has not been possible
for me to obtain information as to the importance of these discoveries. I am, however,
indebted to Mr. Sandilands, of Ainsworth, for some information derived from some of the
prospectors. It is stated that the claims on the West and Middle Forks contain large bodies
of galena assaying from 26 to 66 ozs. in silver, and 65% lead. The leads in some cases carry
copper.
All the discoveries on the South Fork carry copper and silver, assaying 56 ozs. silver and
31% copper, and are described as strong ledges 4 to 6 feet in width.
Lost Creek, Bull River, and Sand Creek.
Nothing beyond assessment work was done on the claim on Lost Creek this season.
Promising prospects are reported from both Bull River and Sand Creek. The average of
5 assays from the galena and grey copper leads, about half a mile above the bridge over Bull
River Canon, gave: Silver, 76 ozs.; gold, $21; copper, 22%.
A large lead containing copper glance and carbonates, was located on Sand Creek. There
appears to be plenty of mineral in the lead, but the grade of the ore at the surface is not high.
A number of claims are stated to have been located near the International Boundary
Line, to the east of the Kootenay River. These claims have been recorded in the State of
Montana. It is, however, considered by some of the residents on Tobacco Plains, that these
claims are really on the British Columbia side of the line.
Kimbasket Lake
Is situated in the Donald Mining Division, to the north of the C. P. R., about 35 miles
down the Columbia from Beaver, the nearest point on the railway. A trail has been cut
northward from Donald by the Government, with a view to giving access to this region, which
now reaches as far as the lower end of Kimbasket Lake. The country affords favourable indications for mineral and placer gold, and has tracts of very fine timber. It is satisfactory to
find that prospectors are giving some attention to this region, 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1067
The important discovery of a lead of great width, carrying silver-bearing galena, has been
made on the west shore of the lake. The lead is described as 80 feet wide, and can be traced
in a north-westerly and south-easterly direction for about a mile.
It is mineralized with galena for about 1,500 feet, the rest being mostly iron copper. The
work done consists of an open cut of 35 feet about 25 feet deep. The ore disclosed is about
one-quarter mineral and would need concentrating, and assays from 19 ozs. to 26 ozs. in silver.
The Columbia River would admit of easy steamboat navigation from the lake to Beaver Station, on C. P. R.; a distance of about thirty-five miles, with the exception of about three miles
at Surprised Rapids.
The banks along the rapids offer a good location for a road or tram.
There were 355 free miners' certificates issued, and 347 mineral claims recorded in the
District during 1893.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
A. P. Cummins,
The Honourable Gold Commissioner, East Kootenay.
The Minister of Mines,
Victoria.
LILLOOET.
Me. Phair's Report.
Government Office, Clinton, B.C.,
January, 3rd, 1894.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual Mining Report for the District
of Lillooet, for the year 1893.
The quantity of gold mined, which has been reported to me from reliable sources, is
valued at $51,376, showing an increase of $11,613 when compared with the previous year's
yield, Mr. A. W. Smith, M.P.P., of Lillooet, having purchased $24,616, and Mr. F. W.
Foster, of Clinton, $11,060 of it. A large number of leases for hydraulic mining, especially
near Lillooet, has been granted during the ^year, and applications for several more have been
received.
The North American hydraulic claim has been bonded for $10,000, a deposit having been
paid, and it is the intention to bring water on to the ground from Cayoosh Creek at a cost of
about $30,000, the route for which has been surveyed.
A company of six men has been engaged during the season opening out a hydraulic claim
on Bridge River. The Vancouver Company, on Cayoosh Creek, have not taken out as much
gold as was expected, owing to the difficulty of meeting with large boulders, which have had
to be blasted, but that claim is now open.
The leases of the Lillooet Hydraulic, North American, and Mina companies have paid
better than during the past years.
Cayoosh Creek, which yielded a rich harvest to many Chinese, is almost abandoned, but
undoubtedly it still contains a great deal of gold which cannot be taken out by unskilled
miners with the pick and shovel, but, if capital were introduced, the creek could be profitably
worked.
There is nothing to report as to mineral claims, none of them having been worked to any
extent during the year.
The silver mining properties on the North Thompson River have given no returns.
Work on the coal prospecting leases on the North Thompson River, has been carried on,
but I am not in a position to say with what results.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
C. Phair,
The Honourable Acting Gold Commissioner.
The Minister of Mines, Victoria, 1068 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
YALE.
Kamloops Division.
Mr. Tunstall's Report,
Kamloops, January 9th, 1894.
Sir,—I have the honour to enclose my annual Mining Report for the Kamloops Division
of Yale District, with a few general comments on the mining interests of the Yale and
Similkameen Divisions, over which I have mining jurisdiction.
The Thompson River Hydraulic Mining Company have obtained a transfer of the bench
lands on the right bank of Tranquille River, formerly leased by Messrs. Bannerman and
Thibaudeau. The pay streak is reported by the superintendent to return at the rate of 50
cents per cubic yard. A ditch 5,000 feet long is at present being constructed, with a carrying-
capacity of 2,000 inches of water, and arrangements have been made for the transportation of
the necessary lumber as soon as the ice on the river will permit the crossing of loaded teams.
The approach of spring will witness the first hydraulic mining in operation on this stream.
About twelve or thirteen Chinese still work in the bed of the Thompson River, which
has been continuously mined for its gold since 1860. They do not make over $1 per day, but
with the assistance derived from gardens and the raising of chickens, they are enabled to
make a comfortable living.
The group of Cinnabar mines at Savona has attracted numerous inquiries from persons
who had seen the samples of ore at the World's Fair, Chicago, and it is probable this property
will be purchased shortly by a company possessed of sufficient capital to work it to advantage.
A tunnel has been run in the Rose Bush, a distance of 98 feet, leaving about ten feet
more to strike the main body of ore, at a depth of about sixty feet from the surface. Work
was discontinued last summer pending negotiations for the bonding of these mines to a
syndicate, which, in consequence of a disagreement among some of the shareholders, prevented
the bond from being effected. Works for the treatment of the ore, once in successful operation,
would employ a large number of men, and shed prosperity on a wide extent of country.
There has been some alluvial prospecting dons on Deadman's Creek, which resulted in
coarse gold being found; also on Chris's Creek, a tributary of the former, but the large
number of immense boulders encountered rendered the work done unprofitable. The formation
in this locality is of volcanic origin and will probably be valuable for its mineral wealth. The
surface is covered with a lava rock which renders it very difficult to trace the ore veins.
The copper claims on the west side of Copper Creek are separated from the Cinnabar
deposits by the intersection of a large volcanic dyke that pursues a northerly course, parallel
to the Copper Creek valley. They exist in a porphyry and sandstone formation. So far only
assessment work has been accomplished on most of them.
An open cut 4 feet deep and 4 feet wide, and a timbered approach to a shaft 12 feet
deep, represent the work done on the Caledonia claim, owned by Messrs. McRae, Bruce and
Squires. This location is reported to show up well in native copper, and assays of vein matter
give a high percentage of the above metal. Lack of means has prevented more work being
prosecuted, but measures will be taken next spring to sink a shaft from 75 to 100 feet deep.
The Last Chance is the property of the parties above mentioned. The work performed has
been of a superficial character and little is known of its value.
The Tenderfoot has a shaft six feet square, 15 feet deep, which shows well in carbonates
and silver glance.    The former assay about $100 to the ton in copper and silver.
The Glen Iron Mining Company, at Cherry Creek, forwarded five hundred tons of ore to
Tacoma, Washington, up to the 1st of last April, after which further export ceased owing to
the prevailing financial depression. The passage of the Wilson Bill, which grants a considerable reduction in the duty imposed on iron ore, will cause a renewed demand for its production
on a larger scale than formerly, and with more profitable returns.
One of the most important mineral discoveries in this division was made last summer
about the middle of June by Mr. J. G. Meyers, a prospector from the State of Washington,
who located the Mountain Chief and several other claims for parties  in  the United States, \-. - 	
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CALEDONIA
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^^^^	 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1069
The mines are situated on Fall Creek, in the vicinity of Adams Lake, one of the largest bodies
of water in the interior. They are reached by following the waggon road up the North
Thompson from Kamloops, a distance of about forty miles, to its intersection with Louis
Creek, and proceeding thence in an easterly direction on the creek trail over the divide to
Adams Lake, fourteen miles more.
The lode, which averages from six to seven feet wide, is composed of a crystallized lime,
containing copper, silver glance, and antimony. The country rock is a lime shale. Assays
from two locations, the Sitting Bull and Homestake, range from 30 to 250 ounces in silver.
Messrs. Buchanan and Flynn intend to work their locations this winter, and seven men with
the necessary supplies started from here about a week since for that purpose.
Transportation can be made with comparatively little expense by means of a waggon road,
for which a very favourable grade exists, starting from the lake and terminating at the mouth
of Louis Creek, on the North Thompson River, whence the ore can be taken by steamer to
railway communication at Kamloops.
On 6-Mile Creek, Grand Prairie, four mineral claims are held, on which assessment work
has been accomplished without determining anything definite in regard to their value. The
gypsum deposits, which are of a very pure character, will prove valuable when cheap transportation is obtained.
Yale Division.
The Van Winkle Bar Hydraulic Mining Company, above Lytton, have made two
satisfactory wash-ups. The cut is now close to the old channel of the river, where they expect
to find the richest pay.
The Prince Albert Flat Mining Company, at Emory, have had a strong force of men at
work the past summer making preparations for piping. A tunnel has been run in the leasehold at Bootanie Creek, and encouraging prospects in coarse gold obtained.
On Siwash Creek the placer mining companies have not met with the success anticipated.
About twenty-four miles of the bed of the Fraser and Thompson Rivers are already under
lease for diving and dredging, and applications for over twenty miles more have been forwarded
to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council.
The principal applicants are Captain Finch and partners, with whom is associated Colonel
Underwood, of Chicago. These gentlemen have formed a strong company for reclaiming the
rich auriferous deposits of the Thompson River by mean's of a powerful centrifugal pump
stationed on a boat, worked in conjunction with several new devices of recent invention and a
portable cofferdam, which is placed in position when needed in a strong current to enable
working in still water, and for the removal of boulders by a diver, who also has entire control
of the apparatus and directs its application with the assistance of submarine electric lights.
The gravel is sucked up and deposited in a string of sluice boxes on the boat, where it is
washed and the tailings run into the river. Should the results justify the expenditure, it is the
intention of the company to build and equip fifteen boats with the requisite machinery for the
active prosecution of this new branch of mining, which will employ a number of men.
Captain Finch is a professional diver and wrecker, whose wide experience in the business
he has followed for many years is an ample guarantee as to the feasibility and success of the
scheme in which he is interested.
SlMILKAMEEN   DIVISION.
In this division the mining outlook has never been so promising since the discovery of
Granite Creek, judging by the number of applications for mining leases. Last fall a strike of
great importance was made in the McDougal leasehold, in the vicinity of Princeton, where a
back channel of the Similkameen River was discovered, which, it is supposed, will be found to
run parallel to the present channel for a long distance. The gravel is reported to be very rich
for hydraulic mining. The extent of the new find has not yet been ascertained, but enough
has been learned to warrant the most sanguine expectations.
In former reports I have called public attention to the benches bordering the Tulameen
and Similkameen Rivers as offering profitable inducements for the investment of capital, and
it is very gratifying to know that my predictions are about to be verified.
The construction of the contemplated waggon road from Nicola to Granite Creek to the
point reached in the South Fork of the Otter Valley has been an inestimable boon to the
settlers, and will greatly stimulate mining activity in that portion of the district it is intended
to benefit, and in consequence lands available for settlement are being pre-empted, 1070 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
It passes through a most attractive country, clotted here and there with lakes and groves
of open timber, which give a park-like aspect to a landscape covered in summer with
luxuriant grass, and beautified with many flowers of different colours. Game is also abundant,
and trout are plentiful in the streams. It is one of those charming sections of the interior
hitherto unknown to tourists because of its remoteness from railway communication, but the
completion of the Spence's Bridge and Nicola Railway, in a couple of years more, will remove
this disadvantage and bring its attractions within convenient reach of those in pursuit of
pleasure and health.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
G. C. Tunstall,
Gold Commissioner.
The Honourable
The Minister of Mines, Victoria.
Yale Division.
Mr. Dodd's Report.
Yale, 24th January, 1894.
Sir,—I have the honour to forward to you herewith my mining report of the Yale
Division of Yale District for the year ending 1893, and beg to remark that the general
depression which has affected trade and commerce during the past year, together with the
depreciation in the value of silver, has had a serious tendency in retarding operations and
preventing outside capital from developing some of the most promising mineral properties in
the district. However, I am pleased to report that considerable attention is being taken in
the extensive auriferous gravel benches which flank the Fraser River for hydraulic mining
operations, and the outlook for the coining summer is decidedly of an encouraging character,
judging from the large number of applications received. In addition, applications have been
made for concessions of the bed of the Fraser River for dredging purposes. About sixty miles
have been granted to four companies, who are about to introduce new machinery for dealing
with auriferous material from the bottom of the river. Four of these gold-dredging machines
are in course of construction for use at different points along the Fraser River, all, I believe,
of different designs and capacity. The one being built at Yale, and near completion, is the
largest.
The dredges to be operated at the Boston Bar section of the Fraser, and at Kanaka Bar,
are being constructed with local capital from Vancouver, while the one at Lytton for dredging
the Thompson River is owned by a New York and Chicago company. All these machines,
with their new appliances, are objects of interest keenly watched by mining men, and the
respective promoters feel confident of the ultimate success of their enterprise.
I have been afforded several opportunities of witnessing the construction of the dredger
in this town, and am therefore in a position to transmit to you the following particulars
relating to it:—
The dredge is from the designs of Mr. Shahan, a practical mechanical engineer, who for
five years had control of the engineering department of the great smelting works at Denver,
Colorado, where he acquired considerable knowledge in working and saving the fine particles
of gold. The dredge is especially designed for use in any part of the river where it is
impossible to do remunerative work with the aid of any other appliance hitherto available,
and the property it possesses of saving the fine gold is claimed as the secret of its success.
The scow is made into eight watertight compartments, is sixty-six feet long by twenty-four
feet wide, strongly and substantially built, and draws only twelve inches of water; everything
is under cover and well protected from the exposure of the elements. It is conveniently
equipped with every necessary and useful appliance for the skilful handling of auriferous 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1071
gravel. The powerful steam winch is worked, by suitable gearing, in connection with the
other powerful hand winches, which can be worked together or independently, so as to allow
of the greatest freedom in moving the dredge to suitable or convenient points of the river.
One duplex steam pump and one centrifugal pump are used for distributing the auriferous
wash-gravel into the rotary amalgamating basin, which is six feet in diameter and ingeniously
arranged for the infusion of gravel from the outlet delivery of the section pipe. Thereby the
promoters claim the secret of the invention, by rapid rotation of centrifugal motion. Every
precaution and advantage evidently is taken for securing, by the matt of quicksilver, which is
deposited into the rotary amalgam basin, the finest particle of fine gold. One horizontal
engine and one vertical engine, with 70-horse power boiler, with a powerful telescope pump
attached to a projecting boom, sixteen by eighteen inches thick, and twenty-five feet in length,
slightly elevated from the main deck of the scow, with a half-circle sweep of twenty-five feet,
are available for raising the auriferous gravel from the bed of the stream.
One thousand cubic yards can easily be excavated within twenty-four hours, and the
section pipe can be freely handled and adjusted to any suitable place for operating the
auriferous gravel by one person. The dredging is partly on the principle adopted for sluicing
claims, with improved appliances for saving fine gold. The electric lights to be used are of
one hundred and twenty (120) candle power, and the intention of the company is to carry on
operations night and day, and ten men can manipulate and carry out the necessary work of
two shifts. By the electric light the owners of the project claim they can see the operations
working at the bed of the river. A trial test of the gold-dredging machinery was made a few
days ago which resulted very satisfactorily. Gravel was pumped from thirteen feet below the
water, and several gold colours were brought up, demonstrating the fact that gold exists in
the river's bed. Since the trial test, the promoters of the scheme are more sanguine than
ever of the future success of the undertaking, and Mr. Shahan has applied to the Dominion
Government for a patent of the new invention for gold dredging for Canada. A new era of
gold mining has been inaugurated in the deep waters of the Fraser River, which for hundreds
of miles in length can be remuneratively worked. From trials made in other parts of the
world, extending over a period of five or six years, it has been found that wash-dirt can be
elevated and the gold extracted from it in paying quantities when not more than one grain—
say four cents' worth—exists per cubic yard, and I need hardly say that many rivers run
through British Columbia which are known to contain very much more valuable pay-dirt.
The Prince Albert Flat Hydraulic Gold Mining Company's claim, held under lease, is
situated on the west bank of the Fraser River, near Emory Bar, about four miles west of the
town of Yale, and consists of about eighty acres. During the latter portion of last year,
extensive preparations were made by the promoters of the company for excavating and cutting
through gravel benches, in places from twenty to thirty feet deep, and equally as wide at the
surface, to secure the sides of the cuttings from caving, and interrupting their course of work
in diverting the water from the natural course of Emory Creek on to the initial point of
operations. The company obtained prospects by panning from several points, which were
sufficiently satisfactory to encourage them. A portion of ground contiguous was worked by
pioneers in 1858, 1859, and 1860, which yielded $15 to the man per diem. About $8,000
have been expended in the completion of the flume, and on the ditch and steel pipes. The
flume is strongly built and well laid, capable of carrying 3,500 inches of water. It is over a
mile long, four feet wide, by three feet deep, and everything is in order awaiting the season to
open and permit the company to commence early mining operations.
Hill's Bar Flat is situated on the east bank of the Fraser River, and stretches away in a
south-westerly direction for a distance fully a mile and a half. Operations are to be resumed
on an extensive scale in the forthcoming spring on the Hill's Bar Flats in a more practical
form than the last working. The close proximity of the celebrated Hill's Bar, which yielded
such an enormous quantity of gold within a small area, has stimulated the confidence of
mining experts, owing to the indications that the continuation of the auriferous channel that
made Hill's Bar so rich has permeated through these grounds.
Yale Creek.
Operations at the Queen Gold and Silver Mine during the past year have almost remained
in statu quo. Owing principally to the financial depression, the promoters, Messrs. Teague
and Douglas, were unable to complete their negotiations with outside capitalists for further
extensive developments.    Nevertheless, every confidence is inspired in the future commercial 1072 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
value of this promising property. Over 2,500 feet of tunnelling have been driven, and five true
fissure lodes have been intersected, varying in width from three feet to six feet wide, and each
of them most promising characteristics. Practical Cornish miners of large experience of
general mining knowledge, gained from the great mining centres of the world, pronounced a
most favourable prediction for the outcome in the deep working from the congenial appearance
of what they know of the mine. The geological indications are almost identical in character
with the Barrier Range, wherein the celebrated Broken Hill Mine is situated in New South
Wales. The World's correspondent, writing from Sydney under date 18th Dec. last, aud the
contents of which appeared in the Weekly World of Vancouver on the 18th inst., are worthy
of quotation: "£10,000,000 sterling this rich silver treasure yielded which was discovered
" in 1863, and has developed into one of the principal mining centres of the world. In this
" range the lodes occur in sillican metamorphic micaceous schists, intruded by granite, por-
" phyry, and diorite, and traversed by numerous quartz reefs, and have a striking resemblance
" to the quartz mines about Yale, British Columbia, especially to that known as the Queen
" Mine, to the north of the town."
Siwasii Creek.
Great energy was displayed in the early part of last year by the Gold Queen Mining
Company, which showed considerable interest in their efforts to develop their numerous claims
situated on Siwash Creek ; firstly, by erecting at their own expense a wire cable 400 feet in
length, stretched across the Fraser River at a favourable point. A trolley basket is attached,
suspended from the wire cable, and passengers and provisions and all necessary mining material
can easily be transferred to either side of the crossing, at a considerable saving to the
prospector of that locality. Judging from the character of the gold taken from the alluvial
claims of Siwasii Creek, together with the fine samples of gold-bearing quartz, showing free
gold, I consider the existing indications of a most promising character. The stratifications,
too, are most encouraging features, being associated with the gold-bearing rocks of the world,
which are as indispensably necessary for the production of metalliferous ores as water is for
the life of man. Lithologically, the general classification belongs to the carboniferous shales,
with occasionally intrusives, bands or dykes of felespar-porphyry (elvan). Two samples of
surface quartz from the Roddick mineral claim, one of a granular texture, while the other
was a more fleecy character, were forwarded by Mr. Win. Teague, of Yale, through the post
to the Royal School of Mines, of Cornwall, England, and were assayed by the principal chemist,
Mr. J. Berrigar, who found that the former contained 10 oz. of gold to the 2,000 Hjs., and the
latter $26 to 2,000 lbs. free gold quartz.
I consider the prospects of the free milling gold quartz from this creek, are indeed
promising. The crushings made during last summer by the little quartz mill erected by the
Whatcom promoters of the Gold Queen Mining Company, were by no means discouraging.
If knowledge of the proper treatment of the process in saving the gold had existed the yield
would have been more satisfactory. As it was, notwithstanding the circumstance of unskilful
treatment, the yield ought not to be considered at all discouraging, the crushing made realizing
$4 per ton of ore taken from the lode almost at the surface.
Lytton.
The property of the Van Winkle Hydraulic Gold Mining Company is situated on the
west bank of the Fraser River, two miles above the village of Lytton. It consists of five
leases, containing some 660 acres.
The benches rise from 110 to 397 feet above high water mark of the river. The gravel
in the prospecting shafts will run on an average of 10 cents to the cubic yard, the gold being
of a coarse nature.
Leases of 1,000 inches of water from Last Chance Creek, were brought on to the works
last summer, and additional leases have been procured for bringing 9,000 (miners) inches of
water from Stryen Creek, a distance of 3^ miles, by flume and ditch, at a cost of $15,000.
Last summer the mine was opened by running a cut 800 feet through the front bench to
tap the old channel, which was accomplished very satisfactorily, and the pit opened out and
everything made ready for a continuous mining run in the spring. There is now a double
pit capacity, 800 feet of main sluice, and 276 feet of broad sluices extending to the dump,
emptying into the Fraser River,    The cut at this point is some 750 feet wide, and has a rise. -L-
SKETCH  of MINERAL CLAIMS
-  On   Siwash  Creek    Near Yale	
— io   accovYjtoOkirj-w   t\ry«/  rCaoYl  o£ W $odA ,—
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Scale   I50Q   Feet =» I   Inch
C,»\5\: AA.
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^Va.:u^vy^;.JV-^::":Ja'y:{4^fKv>^ 57 Vict. Report of The Minister of Mines. 1073
of 48 feet from high water mark. The grade of main sluice is 7 inches to the box of 12 feet.
The company use two No. 6 monitors, with a head of 377 feet. Last summer in opening the
mine the company piped 350,000 cubic yards, and found the duty of the miner's inch, 4 cubic
yards, at a cost of 2.8 cents per cubic yard, they obtained $3,800 worth of gold from the sluices
during the process of opening the mine, which is considered very satisfactory in the preliminary
workings of a cut of 800 feet. Eighteen to twenty hands were employed last summer, and
this year the company expect to employ 13 to 15 hands all told. The prospects for the
coming season are very bright and afford reason to expect good results.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,'
Your obedient servant,
Wm. Dodd,
Mining Recorder.
The Honourable,
The Minister of Mines, Victoria.
Osoyoos Division.
Mr. C. A. R. Lambly's Report.
Osoyoos, B. O, 5th January, 1894.
Sir,—I have the honour to enclose herewith mining statistics, and to submit my annual
report on the mining operations and mineral development of the Osoyoos Division of Yale
District for the year 1893.
Placer Mining.
Rock Creek.
A great deal of prospecting has been done during the season for placer ground, and about
$4,500 have been taken out of the creek.
On the 27th of September a company of seven men secured a lease of one and one-half
miles of ground near the crossing of the Osoyoos trail, and since then they have sunk a shaft
fifty feet in depth and run a tunnel from that depth one hundred and fifty feet in, and have
also run a drain ditch about one hundred and seventy-five feet in length. Another company
has also made application for a lease for the same quantity of ground further up the creek.
Cedar Creek.
This creek (which flows into Kettle River about twenty-five miles above the mouth of
Rock Creek) was discovered last September by a Chinese named Ah She, and since then
about 4,000 feet of ground have been located, principally by his countrymen. Being so late
in the season, however, very little gold (about $300) has been taken out.
On Boundary Greek only one claim has been recorded, which has produced probably $250.
Siwash Creek.
This creek is virtually abandoned, two placer claims only being worked. The same
remark applies to Mission Creek.
Cherry Creek.
During the season there were seven whites and thirteen Chinese working on the creek,
the latter earning about $2 per day. The Cherry Creek Mining Company is running a new
tunnel, and, with the aid of English capital, intend in the spring to develop their property
with vigour. The following statement of the estimated yield of placer gold from the various
creeks during the season, is obtained from the most reliable sources :— 1074 Report of the Minister of Mines. LS93
Rock Creek $4,500 00
Boundary Creek        250 00
Cedar Creek        300 00
Mission Creek        200 00
Cherry Creek     4,000 00
Siwasii Creek          400 00
$9,650 00
Quartz Mining.
Fairview.
Development work has been pushed with vigour in this camp during the past season ;
the satisfactory returns from the ore milled by the Strathyre Mining Company's mill ; from a
number of the principal claims, notably the Wide West, Brown Bear, Morning Star, and
Victoria, being an incentive to the owners of claims adjacent to these properties to prosecute
work on their claims with more than usual ardour ; and I am pleased to be able to state, in
many instances with marked success. A number of locations have been made on the range of
mountains between the camp and Keremeos, on most of which the locators have done the
annual assessment work, showing their confidence in these new discoveries.
The following information concerning the Strathyre Mining Company, Limited, and list
of assays and mill tests of ore from different mines in the camp, was kindly furnished to me
by Mr. George Attwood, F. G. S. :—
The Strathyre Mining Company, Limited, Dominion charter; original capital stock,
$125,000, lately increased by consent of the shareholders to $500,000.
Directors :—Duncan Mclntyre, President; Sir Charles Tupper, Bart. ; T. G. Shaugnessy;
Edmund D. Reynolds, Managing Director. Consulting Engineer, Geo. Attwood, F. G. S.,
Assoc. M. Inst. C. E.
Mining properties acquired by the Company are :—" The Rattler," " The Brown Bear,"
" The Wide West," " The Wynn M.," " The Ontario," and the Rattler Mill Site and Water
Right.
The Rattler.
Work on this claim has been confined to taking out about twenty tons of ore from the
old shaft.
The  Brown Bear.
On this claim work has been pushed with vigour during the summer; a cross-cut tunnel
has been driven some three hundred feet in length, and four veins intersected, the largest
vein being over six feet in width. About one hundred tons of ore have been worked in the
mill from one of the tunnel veins, and the yield in free gold and concentrates was about eight
dollars per ton. Work on the tunnel is still going on, in anticipation of finding the main
vein, which shows on the surface. The tunnel cuts the veins from 80 to 165 feet vertically
below the surface. About ten men have been employed steadily during the summer on
surface explorations and in the tunnel. The tunnel is about seven feet in height by five feet
in width at the base, and it is supplied with a steel boiler-plate car, which runs on steel rails,
connecting the mine with an ore bin of fifty tons capacity.
The Wide West.
The old tunnel on this claim has been extended to a length of 360 feet, and a shaft 4x5
feet clear of timbers sunk to a depth of 100 feet below the tunnel level, and an air-raise has
been made from the tunnel to the surface. From ten to twenty men have been constantly
employed on this mine during the summer, and suitable buildings have been erected for their
accommodation.
The   Wynn M.
Work on this claim has been confined to sinking a new shaft thirty feet in depth ; some
very fine specimens of rock showing free gold were taken out.
The Ontario.
Two trial pits were sunk on this claim during the summer, and a drift run to connect them. 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1075
Strathyre Quartz Mill.
A complete battery of ten rotary gravitation stamps, weighing about 750 lbs. each, has
been put in place. The mortor boxes on which the stamps work, weighing over 6,000 lbs.
each, and the foundations of the same have been made of timbers twenty feet long, squaring
thirty inches, placed on end. Copper plates galvanized with mercury are used to collect the
free gold, and the quantity employed is nearly double that of ordinary gold mills. The stamps
are fed by a self-feeding apparatus called the challenge feeder, and the rock after being broken,
weighed and dumped into the large bins is not again handled, as the system is automatic.
The copper plates save most of the free gold, and the sands after passing over them are treated
in six Frue Vanners, which collect the fine gold and amalgam which has escaped the copper
plates.
Assays and Mill Returns.
3rd June, 1893.—Gold bar from "Wide West" ore.    Ozs. 58^.
Gold 693.5 fine.
Silver 284      „
Total , 977.5   „
Value of gold per oz   $ 14.3359.
,i    in bar   835.72
20th June.—50 tons of "Wide West" ore yielded 32A oz. of gold.
Gold 768    fine.
Silver 209.5    „
Total 977.5    „
Value of gold per oz $ 15.876
n ii    in bar    515.77
One ton of concentrates was obtained from the 50 tons of ore, which assayed:—
Gold per ton, ozs. 3.68=   , . .$76.06
Yield of free gold per ton    10.31
31st July.—100ifg£ tons of "Wide West" ore yielded 60 ozs. gold.
Gold   791 fine.
Silver 188    „
Total 979
Value of gold per oz $ 16.3514
ii ..    in bar 989.25
The above ore yielded 2800 lbs. of concentrates, assaying:—
Gold, per ton, ozs. 3.88 = $80.19.
17th August.—96 tons of "Wide West" ore yielded gold worth $1106.78, at the rate of
$11.52 per ton in free gold, and two tons of concentrates assaying:—
Gold, per ton, ozs. 4.31 =  $89.80.
The present milling process has been found to be satisfactory, as the tailings when carefully saved and evaporated, and then assayed show, from numerous assays, an average loss of
twenty-five cents per ton in gold. The expenditure incurred by the company in the enterprise
thus far is over $112,000, for purchase of property, development of their mines, construction
of the mill and assay office, dwelling and boarding houses, and the construction of branch
roads.
The Morning Star.
The enterprising owners of this property, Messrs. Mangott, McEachern & Lefevre, have
taken out and milled at the Strathyre Mining Co.'s mill during the season, 385 tons of ore,
besides doing a large amount of surface prospecting. 1076 Report of the Minister of Mines. i893
The 385 tons yielded $5,059.29, as follows:—
Bar No. 1, ozs. 92.25.
Gold 728.5   fine.
Silver 252.5
Total 981.10    ,i
Value of gold per oz $     15.059
,,    in bar    1,389.19
Bar No. 2, ozs. 90.20.
Gold    720 fine.
Silver 241     n
Total 961     ii
Value of gold per oz $    14.8837
ii ii    in bar    1,342.17
Bar No. 3, ozs. 154.68.
Gold 728 fine.
Silver 237    .,
Total 965
Value of gold per oz $     15.05
i. „    in bar....    2,327.93
Average, $13.14 per ton in free gold, and nearly two tons of concentrates which assayed:—
Gold per ton, ozs. 8.99 =   $185.82.
The Victoria.
The owners of this claim, Messrs. Geo. Wilkinson and D.   A.  Carmichael,  have,  during
the past season, in addition to other work on their claim taken out and milled 49^^ tons of
ore which yielded $1,445.10 in bullion.
35i|^Tr t°ns yielded 67-| ozs. gold.
Gold " 812 fine.
Silver ....173    n
Total 985    „
Value of gold per oz $     16.785
„    in bar    1,132.98
Above ore yielded 400 lbs. of concentrates, assaying:—
Gold per ton, ozs. 12.15= $251.15.
Return in gold and concentrates, taking the value of the concentrates at 80% of the
assay value = $32.40 per ton. 13f$£§ tons yielded gold, ozs. 30/^ valued at $16.78 per oz.
Value of gold, $512.12 = $37.38 per ton in free gold.
The ore crushed by the company's mill during the season yielded in free gold $13,404.
With one or  two  exceptions,  nothing more than assessment work has been done on the
claims located last summer on the mountain south of Fairview.
Harris Creek.
A considerable amount of prospecting work has been done on the mineral claims
recorded on this creek, but I regret my inability to give the result of the assays.
Camp McKinney.
At this camp about $1,000 have been expended in sinking an air shaft 61 feet deep, to
tap the tunnel on the "Cariboo," by Messrs. Jas. Monaghan & Co., of Spokane, and it is
reported that they intend bringing in a mill to work their property. Little more than
assessment work has been done on the balance of the claims in the camp. 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1077
Boundary Creek Mines.
On the American Boy, situate near the Boundary Creek Falls, a tunnel has been run
in 85 feet, from which 83 sacks of ore were forwarded to the smelter at Tacoma,
Washington, which together weighed 5,400 lbs., and gave a return of 230 ozs. in silver and 1
oz. in gold per ton. On the Providence mine, situate about five miles up the creek from
the American Boy, one shaft is down 70 feet, and a second shaft 15 feet, from which, since
June last, 500 sacks of ore, together weighing 32,500 lbs. have been sent to the Tacoma
smelter, giving an average return of 400 ozs. in silver and one ounce in gold per ton. The
Defiance claim, adjacent to the Providence, which was recorded on the 4th of September
last, has a shaft clown 20 feet, from which 67 sacks of ore, weighing about 4,350 lbs., have, also
been sent to the smelter at Tacoma, and yielded 560 ozs. in silver, and two ozs. in gold per
ton. The Skylark mine, situate about three miles easterly from the Providence camp (or
about half way between the Providence and Greenwood camps), was recorded on the 28th of
July last, since which time two shafts have been sunk on the claim, one 55 feet and the other
15 feet, from which 425 sacks of ore, weighing 27,625 lbs., were sent to the smelter at Tacoma,
and yielded 268 ozs. in silver, and one ounce in gold per ton.
The above properties are controlled by Mr. Howard C. Walters, of Spokane, Washington,
and all the ore sent to the Tacoma smelter, about 34^ tons (which gave a total return of
about 11,500 ozs. in silver, and 37 ozs. in gold), was packed out on horses to Grand Prairie,
Kettle River, thence conveyed by waggon to Marcus, Washington.
In the other camps, viz.:—Wellington, Greenwood, Summit, Volcano Mountain, White's,
and Attwood, little more than the necessary amount of work to comply with the Mineral Act,
has been done by claim-holders.
There is certainly a great necessity for a trunk road between Okanagan and Grand
Prairie, Kettle River, and it would also be of great benefit to the miners if a branch road
were constructed up Boundary Creek for a few miles, to connect the different mining camps
on the mountains adjacent to Boundary Creek.
The following is a statement of the free miners' certificates issued, and records made in
the different mining divisions of the district for the past year:—
Kettle River Division.
Free miners' certificates issued     194
Mineral claims recorded   102
Certificates of work issued    66
Transfers recorded    59
Abandonments recorded      6
Water grants n              1
Osoyoos Division.
Free miners' certificates issued 224
Mineral claims recorded  85
Certificates of work issued  77
Certificates of improvement issued  5
Transfers, etc., recorded  62
Water grants           n           3
Permits  5
Vernon Division.
Free miners' certificates issued    63
Mining receipts, general    75
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
0. A. R. Lambly,
Gold Commissioner.
The Honourable
The Minister of Mines, Victoria. 1078 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
Similkameen Division.
Mr. Hunter's Report.
Granite Creek, November 30th, 1893.
The Honourable
The Minister of Mines,
Victoria, B. C.
Sir,—I have the honour to forward the annual mining statistics for the Similkameen
Division for the year 1893.
The yield of gold and platinum still continues to decrease, in consequence of a number of
paying claims being worked out, and no fresh discoveries having been made.
On Granite Creek the Pogue Co.'s claim is the only one paying at present. Their tunnel
is in over 1,000 feet, and they are still pushing ahead.
Several applications have been made for leases of mining ground for hydraulic purposes
on this creek.
Mining on Newton Creek has been a failure this year, owing to the scarcity of water.
On the Tulameen River, above Granite Creek, two companies of Chinese have made good
wages. On the lower end several companies of Chinese have been mining with most satisfactory results.
Four applications have been made for leases of mining ground for hydraulic purposes on
this river.
The Tulameen Improvement Hydraulic Co., Limited, have been prospecting the lower end
of their ground,—sinking shafts and drifting.
Little or no mining has been done on Slate Creek this season, the remaining ground being
deep and requiring a large outlay of capital to prospect it. Several applications have been
made for leases of mining ground for hydraulic purposes.
Mining on the Similkameen has been brisk, the work being done principally by Chinese,
all of whom obtained small wages.
The Similkameen Gold Gravels Exploration and Hydraulic Co., Limited, whose property
is situated on the above river, opposite Princeton, have been prospecting their claims with a
force of fifteen whites,—sinking shafts and running drifts. From information received the
prospects were most encouraging.    They purpose starting to work early in the spring.
Several more applications have been made for leases of mining ground, for hydraulic
purposes, on this river.
In quartz mining there is nothing new to report, owners of claims merely satisfying
themselves with performing the necessary work to hold their locations.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
Hugh Hunter,
Mining Recorder. .Hot*
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 ■'Sm^M.'^^Si--- /-;'■>   . '     ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1079
REPORT RELATIVE TO THE MINERALS EXISTING IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN
PORTION OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By Mr. Herbert Carmichael, Government Assayer.
Leech River District.
A good deal of prospecting has been done on the different branches of Leech River, and
the best results have been obtained from the West and South Forks, the few samples received
from the North Fork proving of little value. The country rock of the southern portion of the
North Fork is slate, and as the stream is followed up to its source the rock becomes mixed,
and gradually verges into trap. After leaving the slate country on the North Fork there is
hardly any gold found in the creek, and no ledges have been discovered of any value, but
some gold has been found in the West Fork, which drains the Jordan Meadows. Gold is also
got at the headwaters of the Koksilah, Jordon, and San Juan Rivers, all of which rise in the
same range of mountains, and it is not improbable that quartz veins will be met with in this
vicinity. Colours have been found in a bed of red gravel above the meadows on the
Jordan River. A prospect hole was sunk here years ago to bed-rock, 15 feet below the
surface, but after going through the red gravel no more gold was found, the bed-rock proving
quite clean. All the gold in the creeks of this district is of a coarse character, and when the
ledges are discovered the quartz should prove to be free milling.
San Juan District.
Gold has been found in nearly all the streams draining into San Juan Harbour. Slate is
the country rock for a long distance up the main river, but towards the headwaters it changes
to a barren granite. There are some good looking quartz ledges between McDonald and
Flood wood Creeks, which flow into the San Juan River near where the Leech River trail
strikes it. The country rock where the West Fork joins the main river is limestone, and
towards the headwaters it changes into granite. Some quartz veins are said to be at the
headwaters of the Gordon River. A $10 gold nugget was found on a small stream flowing
into Providence Cove. This caused further prospecting, and several veins of white quartz
were found, all carrying small quantities of gold on the surface croppings, which, from the
nature of the rock, I should judge to be free milling. A small map is appended showing the
locations.
Coast District from Beecher Bay to Cape Beale.
I visited the copper deposits in Beecher Bay and between Beecher Bay and Sooke
Harbour. Shafts have been sunk on both these prospects, which are copper pyrites mixed
with rock matter. No work has been done for some time on either of them, so I could not
gain much information on the spot as the shafts were full of water. I also looked at a copper
prospect on Tzaartoos or Copper Island in Barclay Sound, but saw nothing of any value. A
considerable deposit of cement rock exists about a mile and a half north-west of Carina nah
light-house. The deposit is near the water, and is, I am informed, of two qualities, one, when
burned, will make Roman cement, and the other, if burned with limestone, will make ordinary
cement. Gravel which will give a colour to the pan in almost every place tried is said to exist
in large quantities in the neighbourhood of Carmanah.
Cowichan Lake District.
Several of the streams which flow into Cowichan Lake show colours of gold. Galena is
found in small quantities about the lake and on Cowichan River and Nixon Creek, but I have
not seen any samples of galena from the country to the south of this. A bed of magnetic iron
exists about the Forks of Nixon Creek. A variety of marble is to be found at the south end
of the lake. For a long distance up the Cowichan River the country is principally of a coal
formation ; sandstone being found at the falls. 1080 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
Alberni District.
For the last twenty-five or thirty years Chinese have been profitably working on China
Creek, the gold saved being flour gold. Undoubtedly the percentage of loss has been large,
as the ordinary rockers are unsuitable for this class of work. In the fall of 1892 some
prospectors pushed up to the head of the creek in search of quartz veins; they found one, and
located a claim, calling it the Golden Eagle. In the early part of last September I visited
this claim, which is situated some 3,000 feet above the sea level. Two veins were then in
sight, one of these could be traced for some distance up the mountain. A prospecting tunnel
had been run for 18 feet on this vein, which lies nearly perpendicularly. The vein matter is
made up of banded quartz intermixed with pyrites and specks of galena. The walls, which at
this point are well-defined, are composed of feltspathic sandstone, while the country rock is
mostly diabase. The claim was subsequently bonded by an English syndicate, who have done
a considerable amount of work, driving in three tunnels on the lowest vein, the bottom tunnel
being now in over 70 feet. The vein has considerably pinched in the tunnels, but the owners
hope that it will widen out when run further in. A 7-foot vein, situated higher up on the claim,
has as yet not been touched, owing to the quantity of snow now on it. In the neighbourhood
of the Golden Eagle a number of claims have been located, and several of them promise well,
notably the King Solomon, and a 30-foot ledge of a feltspathic silicate lower down the creek.
Most of the quartz in this district has proved to be refractory, as the gold is generally carried
in the pyrites, of which the richest have been arsenical and finely divided. I conclude that
the fine flour gold of China Creek comes from these pyrites, from which it has been liberated
by the process of oxidation. A good deal of work may be expected to be done here during
the coming season in the way of prospecting and developing the claims already found.
Marble.
Some fine samples of white and grey marble came in from Deserted Cove, Nootka Sound.
This deposit is said to be of great extent, and is situated at the water's edge, with every facility
for shipping.
Texada Island.
I have a report from Texada which states that some good copper ore has been uncovered
during the season. Two or three shafts have been sunk, a tunnel run, and several bore-holes
made. Finds of gold-bearing quartz have also been made during the season, and it is
anticipated that prospecting and development work will be done next season.
The following extracts are made from Mr. Ralph's report on the survey line of the
western boundary of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway lands :—
"Geological Formation and Minerals.
" On last year's survey from the mouth of Muir Creek, on the Straits of Fuca, to the 23-
mile post, the bed-rock for the first three miles is sandstone, shale, and conglomerate, indicating
coal; then six miles of trap; then ten miles of auriferous slate, containing quartz veins,
indicating gold ; then four miles of trap.
" After we pass the 25-mile post we get into alternative beds of trap, limestone, and
marble, which continue to the 41st mile post; then it is all trap as far as I have gone, to the
72nd mile post.
" The limestone and marble are found in the valleys and on the mountains. Some of the
mountains that are 4,000 feet high are one-half limestone. I found some large veins of magnetic iron ore at the junction of the limestone and trap-rock, on the mountains.
" The limestone contains numerous caves and craters. The craters are circular in form,
and from 25 to 50 feet in diameter at the top, and funnel-shaped, narrow at the bottom.
They must have been vents for escaping gas or steam in the early ages, when the mountains
were heated by internal volcanic fires.
" The next place that shows indications of mineral is in the trap-rock on Vernon Creek,
between the 46th and 47th mile post. Here the banks are red, like paint, where wide belts of
rock, full of iron pyrites, cross the creek. The iron is partly decomposed on the surface. Mr,
McCulloeh, the Government Assayer, makes this rock assay $13,50 to the ton in silver. SHOVV//YG
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	 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1081
" The next place is near the 57th mile post, in the pass between Mt. Grey and Mt.
Spencer, at the head of Franklin River. There are several quartz veins from six to eight
inches wide, rich in yellow copper ore
" From the 67th to the 68th mile post, near Alberni Canal, are good indications for minerals, such as copper, iron, and perhaps silver.
" By washing the gravel in any of the creeks along the line of survey, I could find colours
of gold, but not in paying quantities. I also found fragments of silver ore when panning at
the Forks of Gordon River, in the limestone country.
" There is a stream which rises in the low pass between Mt. Grey and Mt. Spencer, and
runs south-east about five miles to Nitinat River. The lower part of this creek cuts through
freestone rock, which, I think, would be suitable for whetstones and grindstones.
" Rock, Minerals, &c.
" It is a continuous bed of trap rock along the survey line from Alberni Canal to Crown
Mountain, with only a slight variation in one or two places. There is a ridge of very good
fine-grained granite at the 82-mile post, between Sproat and Central Lakes. A thick bed of
conglomerate overlies the trap-rock on Thunder Mountain, at 89 miles. Viewing the west
end of this mountain from Central Lake, I could see strata of sandstone, about 500 feet thick
at the top, which indicates that there may be coal there.
" In the valley leading from Comox Lake to Alberni, and from five to ten miles east of
this line, are tracts of country showing sandstone rock with some thin seams of coal in the
banks of the creeks.    It looks well for a coal field there.
" At a place about two miles north-east of the 115-mile post, at an elevation of 6,000
feet, on the packers' trail in the mountain pass, at the head of the west branch of Cruikshank
River, are some mineral veins fifteen feet thick, containing iron, copper^ and perhaps silver.
" I could see extensive belts of stratified limestone and marble on the west side of
Buttle's Lake, up the sides and on the tops of the mountains. We observed some pieces of red
marble in the streams, where they had been washed down from the mountains. These beds of
limestone and marble are all west of the boundary line.
" At 129, 130, and 131 miles the rock is conglomerate, composed of angular pieces of trap
cemented together, showing little or no wash. No slate was seen at any time, and only a few
threads and bunches of quartz."
Assay Office,
Victoria, 31st December, 1893.
Sir,—I have the honour to report that during 1893, the number of specimens received
for examination show an increase of 15 per cent,  over the average of the two preceding years.
Among the assays made the following may be mentioned as indicating the richness of the
minerals of the Province.
East Kootenay District.
Specimen from Fort Steele:—
White quartz and copper ore, $2,000 in gold to the ton of 2,000 lbs.
Specimen from the neighbourhood of Cranbrook: —
Quartz and mixed copper ore with free gold, $1,615 in gold to the ton of 2,000 lbs.
West Kootenay District.
Specimens from the Slocan mining district:—
Quartz and galena, 358 ounces of silver to the ton of 2,000 lbs.
Black silver ore, 1,792 ounces of silver to the ton of 2,000 lbs.
Yale District.
Specimen of sulphide of copper, 61.32 per cent, copper.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Specimen of magnetite 62.5 per cent. iron. 1082 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
A sample of clayey gravel, said to have been found in the southern portion of Vancouver
Island, was received for assay. A preliminary examination leads me to think that it contains
an organic body known as cymene, (paramethylpropylbenzine) and its homologues, but further
investigation will enable me to prove its composition. If my conjecture should be correct,
the discovery will be one of interest, inasmuch as I am of opinion that it is the first time that
this body has been met with in British Columbia, if not in Canada.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
Herbert Carmichael,
Provincial Assayer.
The Honourable
The Minister of Mines, Victoria.
Assay Offices and Laboratory,
Golden, B. O, March 10th, 1893.
Dear Sir,—It is with great pleasure that I send the following concerning metallurgical
and other features of interest gathered during my assay of the collection of mineral specimens
sent from the Province to the Columbian Exposition at Chicago, 1892-1893.
Much has been heard of late concerning the vast mineral wealth of the Province, and, as
is usually the case, exaggerated assay values have been circulated. The general production
of precious metal is proved to be excellent, but to quote such figures as 5,000, 6,000, and even
10,000 ounces of silver to the ton, has a strong tendency to disgust any practical mining men,
and materially damages the interests of the community.
I have had the honour of being selected by your Government to assay something like
two hundred samples taken from various localities, and have, after carefully examining each,
given returns according to the contents of the specimen under treatment.
EAST KOOTENAY.
From East Kootenay, not including Fort Steele district, there were thirty-five specimens
received, some carrying argentiferous lead, others argentiferous copper, and some were quartz,
carrying small quantities of silver, with a good sprinkling of gold.
The silver average, taking one with another, was    45.50 oz. per ton,
The gold        ii ,i n ii          4.30 n
Adding these, we have a result which is exceedingly encouraging, particularly when the fact
is kept fully in view that some of the specimens from which the average is obtained should
not really be classified as silver-bearing at all.
The silver-lead ores which came under my notice, having reference to this particular
district, were those from which a smelting company having opportunities of mixing their
purchases would have no necessity for a deduction for zinc or other base metals, which are
detrimental to the working of the product.
With the exception of the Monarch ores at Field, the little zinc contained in nearly every
case is counterbalanced by the proportion of iron. The ores carrying most zinc are those, as
a rule, which could not be concentrated on account of the considerable amount of silver
contained in the zinc.    There is, however, no silver in the zinc of the Monarch mine.
Copper Ore.
It will be noticed, on glancing over the returns sent to the Department by me, that the
signs of the existence of copper in this district are numerous and encouraging. We have
carbonates, sulphides -and oxides of this metal, as well as in combination with antimony, in
which latter case the silver contents invariably run exceedingly high. The Windermere
Mountain deposits, and also those of the Spillimacheen, are very interesting, producing good
smelting ores. The former carry it as red oxide and carbonate, and the latter carbonates.
From Jubilee Mountain we have splendid showings of purple copper ore, the assays in each
case covering a range of from 35 to 59 per cent., and there are instances outside of the
collection sent to Chicago where even higher results than these have been obtained. In a few
cases where the ore carries sulphide and a consequent decrease in the percentage of the metal 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 10S3
contained, a little trouble and expense would be the means of eliminating the excess of sulphur
and placing on the market parcels of such ore as would pay handsomely to ship.
Gold Ore.
The samples I treated were chiefly quartz, and quartz containing as a gangue iron pyrites
and arsenical pyrites. In the majority of the cases the gold was free. This would naturally
be the case for surface indications ; the action of the air having converted the original
sulphides into oxides, leaving the precious metal, at one time probably covered by sulphur and
arsenic, exposed and deposited in the cells vacated by the cubes of sulphurets, now decomposed.
Fort Steele.
I am sorry to say the average contents of the silver and gold in the specimens from this
camp was not so encouraging as from other parts of East Kootenay, but this may be accounted
for by the fact that several samples were sent which should have remained where they were
found. To compensate, however, the "North Star" comes in with a 47 oz. silver and 63.47 %
lead ore. The partial analysis of this ore may be of interest to smelting men, showing as it
does good fluxing properties :
Lead    67.50 per cent.
Iron .         6.63      ii
Zinc      1.90       ,i
Antimony      5.41       n
Silver    47.31 oz. per ton.
The coal specimens from the Crow's Nest Coal Co. were exceptionally good, judging
from appearances ; but not having made any test, am unable to refer to them technically.
WEST KOOTENAY.
Although the number of specimens received from the camps in West Kootenay is greatly
in excess of that from East Kootenay, there remains very little to say. The average in silver
is an excellent one, and also that of lead, throughout.
Thirteen specimens were received from the section which includes the following well-
known mines:—Best, Great Western, Lucky Jim, Washington, Northern Belle, Monte-Christo,
White Water, Wellington, Blue Bird, Reca, Bonanza King, Payne, and Dardanelles.
The silver contained averaged 237 oz. per ton,
The lead n n     58-00 per cent.
with very little detrimental impurities, if any, in a single case.    So no remarks need be made.
There was a little antimony, and in some cases a small percentage of zinc.
Hot Springs.
Eighteen specimens, averaging in silver  58 oz. per ton.
n ii lead 53.00 per cent.
No gold.     A  few  of these were  certainly refractory  ores,   but the majority could easily be
smelted with mixing facilities.    Sulphide of antimony is present.
Slocan.
The seventeen samples from the Slocan were truly excellent specimens of galena; but,
unfortunately, owing to their richness and damage in transit, much of the beauties of the ore
had been rubbed off.    Some fine cubes were badly broken.
The silver average was  178 oz. per ton.
The lead        n n 61.00 per cent.
As in the former case, they carried no gold. The grade is too high here also to desire
comment; any of the ores would be easily reduced. They carried, with lead and silver,
antimony and iron. One glance at the averages shows one what there is in store for the
Slocan. Combining this group with that of the Payne and Dardanelles, etc., I doubt if any
mining section of North America can equal these results. 1084 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
Illecillewaet. . •
The exhibit from this old mining locality, favourably situated on the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railroad, is an exceptionally good one. There is hardly a sample which
could not be classified as high grade. Some of the eight sent, although not quite as rich in
silver as the ore from the Slocan, are quite a match in smelting qualities. Clean ores, running
over seventy per cent, in lead, with the balance sulphur, antimony, and a little silica, are not
to be met with every day. It would be difficult, I think, to make exceptions to the rule,
when I say these specimens are more than creditable to the contributors and the camp. The
Elizabeth, North Star, Red Fox, and Annie, should be particularly mentioned. The
Illecillewaet collection is no doubt equal if not superior to any.
The silver contents averaged 111 oz. per ton.
The lead        n n     64.00 per cent.
There was one sample of copper ore (Peacock) from the Silver Bow which struck me as
being a particularly beautiful specimen, carrying gold, silver and copper in heavy quantities.
Nelson.
I treated three pieces of quartz containing thin gold in the free state. These came from
near Nelson, the exact location I do not know. The gold average was $60.12 per ton, a fact
which should lead to a strict investigation of the reef from which the specimens were obtained.
Toad Mountain.
A few samples only were sent from this part. There was one fine ferruginous quartz
specimen from the Majestic, carrying much free gold. The Silver King, argentiferous copper,
with silver 444 oz., and 23.50 per cent, copper, requires no further mention. The Dandy sent
two specimens, but unfortunately my tests did not come anywhere near the produce generally
credited to this ore.    It is decidedly refractory.
Trail Creek.
Sixteen specimens composed this exhibit. They contained various quantities of gold,
silver, and copper. The ore is a yellow sulphide, and should be treated and converted into
matte on the spot. The extent of the deposits, and the gold contained, should make these
ores valuable apart from copper.     I should expect to find nickel in such ore.
Nakusp.
These ores were certainly exceedingly good and particularly clean. Eight made the
total sent, all of which were good wet ores.
The silver contents averaged    85.00 oz. per ton.
The lead .. n     64.00 per cent.
There is little else to be said of this camp, as the remarks of the Slocan are adapted to it.
Lardeau.
I treated from the Lardeau eleven samples. The specimens were very fine and showed
much metal, but in many cases it was not lead, as the assays will show. The concentrator
will have to be used freely in this camp, if the surface indications are to be the index of the
deposit. With development, however, we may expect more gold. These specimens shewed
remarkable contrast to any other argentiferous lead ores of West Kootenay, in the gold
contained. The Silver Cup was decidedly the leader in value of assay, which ran to 251 oz.
silver and $40 in gold to the short ton.    The future treatment of these ores will require much
consideration and careful analysis.
Yale.
These, which were chiefly gold ores, were slightly disappointing. The average value for
gold is small, but, owing to the extent of the reef, good results may follow. The writer may
add, however, that during a private experience with these ores he has found them of good
average, and in one case platinum was discovered. 57 Vict. Report op the Minister of Mines. 1085
Cariboo.
A few specimens came from the pioneer camp "Cariboo." These were mainly sulphurets
(iron and arsenic), carrying from one to three ounces of the yellow metal to the ton. With
the modern methods of gold extraction, there is every probability that the standard mining
region will more than maintain its proud position.
Kamloops.
But few specimens came from this section ; but these were all good. One sample of
copper from the "Victoria" was first-class and carried sixty per cent, of the metal. The
silver-leads were good as concentrating propositions, and should receive the attention they
deserve. There was one curiosity, viz., "Cinnibar," a fine piece of rock containing this sulphide
of mercury to the extent of about seven per cent, mercury. The Glen Mines iron ore was
good too ; and with the known existence of the North Thompson coal deposits, samples of
which were sent, I should think it is only a question of time before this will be a smelting
centre.
Osoyoos Division.
I was particularly struck with the nature of the exhibits from this district. The ores
seem to contain silver, gold, lead, and copper, in paying quantities. In one case I met with a
heavy specimen of antimony sulphide. The majority of the claims sent gold ore, the best
assay amounting to $360 per ton in gold; this was from the Stemwinder. All the ores are
concentrating, having quartz and arsenical and iron pyrites as their composition, with the
precious metals.    The gold averaged from $30 to $60 per ton.
This concludes my remarks on the ores treated. I may say this, that in individual cases
the assays are below the reputed values, as a general rule. This is sure to happen in a new
country, where the general idea is to boom. I have reported as fairly and conscientiously as
possible ; and rest assured that the collection sent to Chicago will be the means of attracting
much attention. The splendid average—silver, gold, lead, and copper—of the specimens
forwarded will speak for itself.
Trusting these remarks will be of some service to you and the Province,
I am, clear Sir,
The Honourable Yours obediently,
The Minister of Mines, W. Pellew Harvey.
Victoria, B. C. 1086 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
MINERAL WEALTH OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Paper read before the Royal Colonial Institute by George M. Datvson, C.M.G., L.L.D., F.R.S.,
Assistant Director, Geological Survey of Canada.
For fifteen years or more I have been engaged in the exploration and geological examination of British Columbia, in connection with the Geological Survey of Canada, and have thus
enjoyed the opportunity of traversing and inspecting a large part of this province of Canada.
The information gained has been embodied in a series of official reports, published from year
to year, and it is only because it may be assumed that such reports are seldom read, that I can
venture to hope that what I have to say may possess some interest or novelty at the present
time. British Columbia is the western province of the Dominion of Canada, with a coast line
of over 500 miles in length, from south to north, on the Pacific. It is the largest of the
Canadian provinces which has yet been defined, and may be described as possessing truly
imperial dimensions. Its length of coast (without counting its extraordinary sinuosities) is
nearly equal to the combined length of England and Scotland; while its area of 383,300 square
miles, is over three times that of the United Kingdom, and greater than that of any country
in Europe except Russia. It is in the main a land of mountains, including nearly 1,000 miles
in length of that broken western margin of the American continent, which, in lieu of any
better name, is known as the Rocky Mountain region or Cordillerean belt. Although it
possesses valuable fisheries and remarkable resources in its forests, besides important tracts of
arable and pasture land, much of its prosperity must depend on the development of its mineral
wealth, which is the compensation afforded by nature for the generally rugged character of a
large part of its surface.
Less than 100 years ago, the region now named British Columbia was wholly unknown.
At about that time its coast began to be explored in some detail by Cook, Vancouver, and
other navigators, and soon after, this coast became the resort of a certain number of trading
vessels in search of furs; but none of these adventurers acquired any knowledge of the interior
of the country. Almost simultaneously, however, the explorers and traders of the North-West
and Hudson's Bay Companies, pushing on and extending their operations from point to point in
the interior of the North American Continent, began to enter the hitherto mysterious region
of the Rocky Mountains from its inland side. Mackenzie was the first to reach the Pacific,
and following him came Fraser, Thompson, Campbell, and others, all Scotchmen in the service
of these trading companies, till by degrees several trading posts were established, and "New
Caledonia," as the whole region was then named, came to be recognized as an important "fur
country." This era of discovery, with its results, constitutes the first chapter in the known
history of British Columbia. It is replete with the achievements and adventures of these
pioneers of commerce, who, with their limited resources, and without knowing that they had
achieved fame—often without even placing their journeys on record—extended the operations
of their companies across a continent. But this chapter, though full of interest, is not that
with which we are at present concerned. It must suffice to say that what is now British
Columbia remained a "fur country," and that alone, for many years. The existence of coal
upon its coast was recognized by Dr. Tolmie, an officer of the Hudson's Bay Company, as early
as 1835; but though small quantities of coal were actually obtained from natural outcrops
from time to time, for the use of the blacksmiths of the Company's posts, no importance
appears to have been attached to this discovery. The world was at that time very spacious,
and the Pacific Ocean was still regarded rather as a field for the exploration of navigators than
as a highway of commerce between America and Asia.
In 1849 gold was discovered in California, and with the resulting influx of miners, the
seizure of that Mexican province by the United States, justified, if justifiable at all by its
subsequent development, all are familiar. Two years later, a discovery of gold occurred on
the Queen Charlotte Islands, now forming part of British Columbia. This forms an interesting episode by itself, but, though some attention was drawn to it for a time, no substantial
results followed, and no alteration in the condition of the country as a whole was brought
about. The meaning and the worth of this particular discovery yet remain to be determined.
In 1857, however, four or five French Canadians and half-breeds, employes of the ubiquitous 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1087
Hudson's Bay Company, found gold on the banks of the Thompson, a tributary of the Fraser
River, and their discovery becoming known, changed the whole fortunes of the country.
California was at this time filled with gold miners, and it required only the rumour of a new
discovery of gold to create a new "excitement." in the following year, it is estimated that
within three months over 20,000 people arrived at the remote trading port which then stood
upon the present site of the City of Victoria, while many more made their way overland to
the New El Dorado.
The difficulties in the way of these fortune hunters were great. The country was without
roads or other means of communication, save such .rough trails and tracks as had served the
purposes of the natives and those of the fur traders. The Indians, if not openly hostile, were
treacherous, and not a few of the men who actually reached the Fraser Canons, were never
again heard of. The Fraser and Thompson were at this time the objective points, and much
of the lengths of these rivers were impracticable torrents. It is not, therefore, surprising that
by far the larger part of those engaged in this sudden migration returned disappointed, many
without ever reaching their destination. Some, however, persevered, several thousand miners
actually got to work on the auriferous bars of the Fraser, and a new state of affairs was thus
fairly inaugurated. To follow the rapid progress of these miners along the Fraser and Thompson with their tributaries, would be full of interest, though the records of their work now
existing are scanty, but this again would lead us too far afield. The gold found on the lower
reaches of the Fraser was what is known to miners as "fine" gold, or gold in very small scales or
dust, minutely divided. Further up "coarser" gold was obtained, and the miners very naturally jumped to the conclusion that somewhere still further up the great stream the source of all
the gold should be found. Thus, with restless energy, they pushed on until before long the
Cariboo country, some 400 miles from the sea, was reached; and here the richest deposits of
alluvial or "placer" gold were found, and for a number of years continued to be worked,
with results which, considering the comparatively small number of men engaged, were most
remarkable.
Later and more thorough investigations show that the theory so readily adopted by the
miners was incorrect; that there is no regular gradation in amount or "coarseness" of gold
from the lower part of the Fraser to the head-waters in Cariboo, but that the gold found on
the bars of the river is of more local origin. Still the theory referred to, as a matter of fact,
led the miners to Cariboo, which proved not only to be the richest district so far discovered
in British Columbia, but for its area one of the richest placer mining districts ever found. In
this district the valleys of two streams, Lightning and Williams Creeks, have been the most
remunerative, and these and their tributaries have actually yielded the greater part of the
gold obtained. The. work was begun by the washing of the gravels of the streams themselves,
but with the experience already gained in California and Australia, the miners soon began
to search deeper. The valleys through which these streams flowed were found to be filled to
a considerable depth by loose material, gravel and boulder-clay, due to the glacial period or
to inwash from the sides of the bordering mountain ranges; and in sinking beneath all this
material the channels of older streams, the predecessors of the present were found, with their
rocky beds smoothed and worn and filled with rounded boulders and gravel. These contained
vastly richer deposits of gold, because they represented the concentrated accumulations of
great periods of continued work by natural forces of denudation and river action.
This discovery, once made, led to the initiation of more extended mining operations, which
often necessitated large expense in labour and the construction of heavy pumping machinery;
but the results as a rule repaid the enterprising miners. Thus the old deeply buried channel
of Lightning Creek was found to average something like $200 in gold to each running foot of
its length, while considerable lengths of Williams Creek yielded as much as $1,000 to the same
unit of measurement. Williams Creek affords some notable instances of the extraordinary
concentration of "coarse" gold in limited areas:—Thus, from Steele's claim, 80x25 feet, over
$100,000 worth of gold was obtained. From the Diller Company's claim, it is stated that in
one day 200 lbs. weight of gold, valued at $38,400, was raised; and in 1863, 20 claims were
producing from 70 to 400 ounces of gold each per diem. Four hundred miners were at work
on Williams Creek in this year, which is still admirably spoken of as the "golden year."
Though, like Williams Creek, discovered in 1861, the deep channel of Lightning Creek was
not successfully reached until 1870, but great developments followed. The Butcher claim
at one time yielded 350 ounces of gold a day; the Aurora, 300 to 600 ounces; and the
Caledonia, 300 ounces. 1088 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
It must be remembered that the Cariboo mining district is situated in a high and densely
forested mountainous region, which, because of its inaccessible character, had remained almost
unknown even to the wandering native hunters. At the time in which these great discoveries
in it occurred, it was reached only with extreme difficulty by trails or imperfect tracks, over
mountains and across unbridged rivers. Every article required by the miner was obtained at
an excessive cost; but all these drawbacks did not prevent the rapid growth of typical mining
camps in the centre of this remote wilderness, with their accompanying lavish expenditure and
costly if rude pleasures. So long as the golden stream continued to flow in undiminished
volume, everything that gold alone could buy was to be obtained in.Cariboo.
Perhaps more worthy of note, is the fact that the development of these mines was carried
out entirely by the miners themselves. No outside capital or backing was asked for or
obtained. Money made in one venture was freely and at once embarked in another, and the
investors were to be found working with pick and shovel in the shaft or drift. But the
lengths of the rich old channels on both these famous creeks, which could be worked in this
way, proved to be limited to a few miles. Below a certain point in each case, the "bed-rock"
was found to be at so great a depth, that it was not possible to reach it through the loose and
water-saturated materials filling the old valley. Thus the great yield of gold became gradually
reduced to comparatively modest proportions, and at the present time, mining in Cariboo district is mainly confined to hydraulic workings, by which poorer ground is utilised and a much
larger quantity of material requires to be removed to obtain a given amount of gold. But the
old valleys of. Cariboo have never ceased to produce gold, and in 1892 their product still
amounted in value to about $200,000.
It has been impossible to follow the fortunes of the Cariboo mining district in any detail,
and time can only be afforded to name the other placer mining districts of the province. The
Omineca district was discovered soon after Cariboo, but little was clone there till 1867. This
district is situated in latitude 56°, in the drainage basin of the Peace River, and, though so
remote, has produced a considerable quantity of gold. Still further to the north, in latitude
58°, is the Cassiar district, first found to be auriferous in 1872, for some years thereafter
resorted to by many miners, and still a mining centre not without importance. This is the
northernmost mining region of British Columbia proper, but beyond the 60th parallel (forming
the northern boundary of the province) alluvial gold mining has of late years been developed
in the Yukon district, embracing the numerous upper tributaries of that great river, and
extending to the borders of the United States territory of Alaska. Neither must it be
forgotten to note, that the working of alluvial gold deposits of greater or less importance, has
occurred at many places in the southern part of the province, to the east of the Fraser River,
including Big Bend, Similkameen, and Kootenay districts, from all of which some gold still
continues to be produced by the old methods.
The story of the discovery and development, the palmy days and the gradual decline in
importance of any one of these mining regions, rightly told and in sufficient detail, would constitute in itself a subject of interest. But without attempting to do more than name the
districts here, it is of importance to note how general, throughout the whole extent of the great
area of British Columbia, the occurrence of deposits of alluvial gold has been proved to be.
The gold thus found in the gravels and river beds is merely that collected in those places by
natural processes of waste, acting on the rocks, and the concentration of their heavy materials
during the long course of time. The gold has been collected in these places by the untiring
action of the streams and rivers, and it must in all cases be accepted as an indication of the
gold-bearing veins which traverse the rocky substructure of the country, and which await
merely the necessary skill and capital to yield to the miner still more abundantly.
Nevertheless, the results of alluvial or placer gold mining alone in British Columbia have
not been insignificant, for, since the early years of the discovery, the province has contributed
gold to the value of some $50,000,000 to the world. One feature in particular requires
special mention, and this is a deduction which depends not alone on experience in British
Columbia, but which is based as well on that resulting from the study and examination of
other regions. The "heavy" or "coarse" gold, meaning by these miners' terms the gold which
occurs in pellets or nuggets of some size, never travels far from its place of origin. It is from
this point of view that it becomes important to note and record the localities in which rich
alluvial deposits have been found, even when the working of these has been abandoned by the
placer miner. Their existence points to that of neighbouring deposits in the rock itself, which
may be confidently looked for, and wdiich are likely to constitute a greater and more permanent source of wealth than that afforded by their derived gold. 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1089
Reverting for a moment to the Cariboo district, where such notably rich deposits of alluvial
gold have been found within a limited area, and where, very often, the gold obtained has been
actually mingled with the quartz of the parent veins, it cannot be doubted that these veins
will before long be drawn upon to produce a second golden harvest. This district has suffered
and still suffers from its great distance from efficient means of communication; but, notwithstanding this, praiseworthy efforts have already been made towards the development of "quartz
mining," while much also remains to be done in utilizing by operations on a larger scale and
with better appliances, the less accessible placer deposits which have so far baffled the efforts
of the local miner. It is necessary to bear in mind that alluvial gold mining or placer mining
requires but a minimum amount of knowledge on the part of the miner, though it may call for
much individual enterprise and effort when a new and difficult region is to be entered. Any
man of ordinary intelligence may soon become an expert placer miner. It is, after all, in the
main, a poor man's method of mining; and, as a rule, the placer miner lacks the knowledge as
well as the capital necessary to enable him to undertake regular mining operations on veins
and lodes. However promising the indications may be for such mining, he either does not
appreciate them, or passes them over as being beyond his experience or means. He would
rather travel hundreds of miles to test a new reported discovery, than spend a summer in
endeavouring to trace out a quartz reef, with the uncertain prospect of being able to dispose
of it at some later period.
Thus, though the development of placer mining in British Columbia began a new history
for that great region, raising it from the status of a "fur country" to that of an independent
colony, and subsequently to that of a province of Canada, there remained a gap to be bridged
in order that the province should begin to realize its proper place among the mining regions of
the world. It was necessary that railways should be constructed to convey machinery and
carry ores, as well as to bring to the metalliferous districts men who would not face the hardships of pioneer travel in the mountains, but who are in a position to embark the necessary
capital in promising enterprises. For a portion of the province, the construction of the
Canadian Pacific Railway has afforded these facilities, but by far the larger part still awaits railway communication. Had the C. P. R., in accordance with some of the surveys made for it,
traversed for instance the Cariboo district, there can be no doubt that we should have already
been able to note great developments there. This railway has, however, been constructed
across the southern portion of the province, and in its vicinity, and concurrently with its progress, new mining interests have begun to grow up, of which something must now be said.
Before returning to these, however, I must ask to be allowed to say a few words respecting
the development of the coal mines of British Columbia, which was meanwhile in progress.
The discovery of coal upon the coast, at an early date in the brief history of British Columbia,
has already been alluded to. Following this discovery, the Hudson's Bay Company brought
out a few coal miners from Scotland, and proceeded to test and open out some of the deposits.
Thus, as early as 1853, about 2,000 tons of coal were actually raised at Nanaimo. San Francisco already began to afford a market for this coal, and the amount produced increased from
year to year. The principal coal mining district remained and still remains at Nanaimo, on
Vancouver Island. At the close of the year 1888, about four and a half million tons in all
had been produced, and the output has grown annually, till in 1891 over a million tons were
raised in one year. California is still the principal place of sale for the coal, which, by reason
of its superior quality, practically controls the market, and is held in greater estimation than
any other fuel produced on the Pacific slope of North America. The local consumption in the
province itself grows annually, and smaller quantities are also exported to the Hawaiian
Islands, and to China, Japan, and other places. In the various ports of the Pacific Ocean, the
coal from British Columbia comes into competition with coal from Puget Sound in the State
of Washington, which, because of the high protective duty established by the United States,
is enabled to achieve a large sale in California, notwithstanding its inferior quality. It has
also to compete with shipments from Great Britain, brought out practically as ballast, with the
coals of Newcastle in New South Wales, with coal from Japan, and in regard to the Pacific
ports of the Russian Empire, with coal raised by convict labour at Duai, on Saghalien Island,
in the Okotsk Sea. It is sufficient guarantee for the quality of the coal of British Columbia
that it is able to hold its own against all these competitors.
Though Nanaimo has been from the first the chief point of production of coal, work has
been extended within the last few years to the Comox district, also situated on Vancouver
Island; while other promising coal-bearing tracts have been in part explored and examined on. 1090 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
this island, and on the Queen Charlotte Islands. These particular coal regions, bordering
upon the Pacific Ocean, have naturally been the first to be employed, but they by no means
exhaust the resources of the province in respect to coal. Deposits of good bituminous coal are
known also in the inland region, and some of these in the vicinity of the line of railway are
now being opened up, while others, still far from any practicable means of transport or convenient market, have been discovered, and lie in reserve. One of the most remarkable of these
undeveloped fields is that of the Crow's Nest Pass, in the Rocky Mountains, where a large
number of superposed beds of exceptional thickness and quality have been defined.
Besides the bituminous coals, there are also in the interior of the province widely extended
deposits of lignite coals, of later geological age, which, though inferior as fuels, possess considerable value for local use. In the Queen Charlotte Islands anthracite coal is found, but
has not yet been successfully worked; and in the Rocky Mountains, on the line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, coal of the same kind again occurs, near Banff and Canmore
stations. The places last named lie just beyond the eastern border of British Columbia in the
adjacent district of Alberta, but require mention in connection with the mineral resources of
the province. The coals of British Columbia may, in fact, be said to represent in regard to
quality and composition, every stage from hard and smokeless fuels, such as anthracite, to
lignites, and brown coals like those of Saxony and Bohemia. Many features of interest to the
geologist might be mentioned in relation to these coal deposits, did time permit, but it must
not be forgotten to note one principal fact of this kind—the very recent geological age to
which all the coals belong. None of the coals of British Columbia are so old as those worked
in Great Britain; they are in fact all contained in the cretaceous and tertiary rocks.
The very general distribution of coals of various kinds in different parts of the province
is of peculiar importance wdien considered in connection with the building of railways and the
mining and smelting of metalliferous ores. It insures the most favourable conditions for the
development of these ores, to some further examination of which we must now return. It is
especially worthy of note, that wherever in the United States the Rocky Mountain or Cordil-
leran region has been traversed by railways, mining, and particularly that of the precious
metals, has immediately followed. It appears to require only facilities of transport and travel
to initiate important mining enterprises in any part of this region. The building of the Canadian Pacific Railway across the southern part of British Columbia, with the construction of
other railway lines in the neighbouring States, near the frontier of the province, have already
begun to bring about the same result in this new region, which, till these railways were completed, had remained almost inaccessible. It had long before been resorted to by a few placer
miners in search of alluvial gold, and their efforts were attended with some success. Silver-
bearing lead ores were also found to occur there, but under the circumstances existing at the
time these actually possessed no economic value.     It was impossible to utilise them.
In 1886, some prospectors, still in search of placer gold only, happened to camp in a high
mountainous region which has since become familiarly known as Toad Mountain, and one of
them, in seeking for lost horses, stumbled on an outcrop of ore, of which he brought back a
specimen. This specimen was afterwards submitted to assay, and the results were such that
the prospectors returned and staked out claims on their discovery. The ore, in fact, proved to
contain something like $300 to the ton in silver, with a large percentage of copper and a little
gold. In this manner what is now known as the "Silver King" mine was discovered, and, as
consequence of its discovery, the entire Kootenay district, in which it is situated, began to be
overrun with prospectors. Hundreds of these men, with experience gained in the neighbouring states of Montana and Idaho, as well as others from different parts of the world, turned
their attention to Kootenay. The result has been that within about five years a very great
number of metalliferous deposits, chiefly silver ores, have been discovered, and claims taken
out upon them. Several growing mining centres and little towns have been established; roads,
trails, and bridges have been made, steamers have been placed on the Kootenay Lake and on
the Upper Columbia River, and a short line of railway has been built between the lake and
the river to connect their navigable waters. The immediate centre of interest in regard to
mining development in British Columbia has, in fact, for the time being, been almost entirely
changed from the principal old placer mining districts to the new discoveries of silver-bearing
veins. So far as they have yet been examined or opened up, the metalliferous deposits of the
Kootenay district give every evidence of exceptional value. They consist chiefly of argentiferous galena, holding silver to the value of from $40 or $50 to several hundred dollars to the
ton,    Nelson, Hot Springs, Kaslo,  Illecillewaet,  and Golden are at present the principal 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1091
recognised centres in the new district, but it would be rash as yet to attempt to indicate its
ultimate limits.
Though much has already been done in this Kootenay district, two principal causes have
tended to prevent the more rapid growth of substantial mining up to the present time. The
first of these is the difficulty still existing in respect to the local transport of large quantities of
ores; the second, the exaggerated values placed by discoverers upon their claims. While it is
evidently just that the prospector should receive an ample remuneration for his find, it is to be
noted that the laws of British Columbia are so liberal that he (whatever his nationality) may,
at a cost scarcely more than nominal, hold and establish his claim, even though he may be
practically without means of developing it. Such development in all cases requires the
expenditure of considerable sums, and this must always be of a more or less speculative
character, while, even if thus fully proved, it becomes further necessary to incur an additional
large expenditure in plant and machinery before any property reaches the status of a going
concern. Scarcely an instance can be quoted of a mine which has paid its own way from the
"grass" down, but almost every prospector is fully convinced that his claim is precisely of this
kind.
Such circumstances, which have, unfortunately, for the last few years retarded the
development of the Kootenay country, are now happily passing away; and there can be no
reasonable doubt that in the next year or two this country will establish its place as one of the
most important, not only in British Columbia, but in North America as a whole. So far as
England is concerned, the actual investment of capital in this district has been small. The
English investor would rather pay half a million for some property which, as demonstrated in
a prospectus, will produce a good annual rate of interest, than embark a comparatively small
sum in a promising venture. But to a man with some knowledge of mines and mining and
the command of even a limited amount of capital, who will visit and live in the district himself
for a time, the opportunities for profitable investment are, I believe to-day, excellent.
I have been unable to say anything in detail in regard to the actual modes of occurrence
of the ores now being brought to light in the Kootenay District and their geological relations.
Neither is it practicable, on the present occasion, to pursue in further detail the history or
description of other districts of the Province in which more or less good work of a preliminary
kind has been done in the development of metalliferous deposits of various kinds. Okanagan,
Rock Creek, Nicola, Similkameen, the North Thompson, and Cayoosh Creek can only be
named. It has been possible merely to endeavour to indicate in broad lines what has already
been done and what must soon follow. Within a few years this Province of Canada will
undoubtedly hold an important place in the list of quotations of mining stocks in London and
elsewhere, and then the further development of its mines will become a subject of common
interest from day to day.
In conclusion, I wish to draw attention to one or two ruling features of the actual
situation which are too important to be left without mention :—The Cordilleran Belt, or
Rocky Mountain region of North America, forming the wide western rim of the continent, has,
whenever it has been adequately examined, proved to be rich in the precious metals, as well
as in other ores. This has been the case in Mexico, and in the Western States of the American
Union. Though some parts of this ore-bearing region are undoubtedly richer than others,
generally speaking it is throughout a metalliferous country. The mining of placer or alluvial
gold deposits has in most cases occurred in advance of railway construction; but this industry
has always proved to be more or less transitory in its character, and has almost invariably
been an indication of future and more permanent developments of a different kind. Placer
gold mining has, in fact, often been continued for years and then abandoned, long before the
gold and silver-bearing veins in the same tract of country have been discovered and opened
up. This latter and more permanent phase of mining has followed the construction of railways
and roads, and the series of conditions thus outlined are repeating themselves in British
Columbia to-day.
There is no reason whatever to believe that the particular portions of British Columbia
now for the first time opened to mining by means of the Canadian Pacific Railway, are richer
in ores than other parts of the Province. On the contrary, what has already been said of the
Cariboo District affords prima facie evidence of an opposite character. The Province of
British Columbia alone, from south-east to north-west, includes a length of over 800 miles of
the Cordilleran region ; and, adding to this the further extension of the same region comprised
within the boundaries of the Dominion of Canada as a whole, its  entire length in Canada is 1092 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
between 1,200 and 1,300 miles. This is almost identical with the whole length of the same
region contained within the United States, from the southern boundary with Mexico to the
northern with Canada.
Circumstances have favoured the development of the mines of the Western States of the
Union, but it is, as nearly as may be, certain, that the northern half of the similar region will
eventually prove equal in richness to the southern, and that when the mines of these Western
States may have passed their zenith of productiveness, those of the north will be still increasing
in this respect. The explorations of the Geological Survey of Canada have already resulted in
placing on record the occurrence of rich ores of gold and silver in various places scattered
along the entire length of the Cordilleran region in Canada, and though so far as we have to
chronicle only an awakening of interest in the southern part of British Columbia, these
discoveries stand as indications and incentives to further enterprise to the north. While the
remote and impracticable character of much of this northern country places certain obstacles
in the way of its development, on the other hand the local abundance of timber and water-
power in it afford facilities unknown in the south, which will be of importance whenever
mining operations have actually been set on foot.
No attempt has been made, in this brief sketch of the mineral wealth of British Columbia,
to enumerate the various ores and minerals which have so far been found within the limits of
the Province in any systematic manner. Nothing has been said of the large deposits of iron,
from some of which a certain amount of ore has already been produced, and which wait to
realize their true importance, merely the circumstances which would render their working on
a large scale remunerative. Copper ores have also been discovered in many places. Mercury,
in the form of cinnabar, promises to be of value in the near future, and iron pyrites, plumbago,
mica, asbestos, and other useful minerals are also known to occur. In late years platinum
has been obtained in alluvial mines in British Columbia in such considerable quantity as to
exceed the product of this metal from any other part of North America. While, therefore,
the more important products of this western mountain region of Canada are, and seem likely
to be, gold, silver, and coal, its known minerals are already so varied that, as it becomes
more fully explored, it seems probable that few minerals or ores of value will be found to be
altogether wanting.
Respecting the immediate future of mining, which is the point to which attention is
particularly called at the present time, it may be stated that coal mining rests already on a
substantial basis of continued and increasing prosperity; while the work now actually in
progress, particularly in the southern part of the Province, appears to indicate that, following
the large output of placer gold, and exceeding this in amount and in permanence, will be the
development of silver mines, with lead and copper as accessory products. The development of
these mining industries will undoubtedly be followed by that of auriferous quartz reefs in
various parts of the Province, while all these mining enterprises must react upon and stimulate
agriculture and trade in their various branches. Because a mountainous country, and till of
late a very remote one, the development of the resources of British Columbia has heretofore
been slow, but the preliminary difficulties having been overcome it is now, there is every
reason to believe, on the verge of an era of prosperity and expansion of which it is yet difficult
to foresee the amount or the end.—Extract from Western World. 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1093
COAL.
The following table shows the output of each year from 1874 to 1893, inclusive:
Year. No. of Tons.
1874-  81,000
1875  110,000
1876  139,000
1877  154,000
1878  171,000
1879  241,000
1880 ,  268,000
1881  228,000
1882  282,000
1883  213,000
1884  394,070
1885  365,000
1886  326,636
1887 ,  413,360
1888 ,  489,300
1889  579,830
1890  678,140
1891  1,029,097
1892  826,335
1893  978,294
REPORT OF THE INSPECTOR OF MINES.
Nanaimo, B. C, 9th February, 1894.
To the Honourable
The Minister of Mines,
Victoria, B. C.
Sir,—I have the honour, as Inspector of Mines, to respectfully present my report for the
year ending 31st December, 1893, for your information, in accordance with the requirements
of the "Coal Mines Regulation Act" of British Columbia.
The collieries in operation during the year 1893, were:—
Nanaimo Colliery, of the New Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company, Limited.
Wellington Colliery, owned by Messrs. Dunsmuir & Sons.
East Wellington Colliery, belonging to the East Wellington Coal Company.
Union Colliery, of the Union Colliery Company.
North Thompson Colliery, of the Kamloops Coal Company, Limited.
The output of coal during the year 1893, amounted to 978,294 tons, produced by the
several collieries, as follows:—
Nanaimo Colliery,           output   469,311 tons, 15 cwt.
Wellington Colliery,             „         337,334    „      3    „
East Wellington Colliery,   i,         27,472    „
Union Colliery,                     „         143,927    ,.
North Thompson Colliery,  n         250    n
Total output in the year 1893      978,294    ..    18    m
Add coal on hand 1st January, 1893        22,775    ..    15    n
Total coal for disposal in 1893    1,001,070    „    13    „ 1094 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
The exports of coal by the collieries in 1893, are 768,917 tons, as follows: —
Nanaimo Colliery, export  339,076 tons, 14 cwt.
Wellington Colliery, „       205,212    „     14   „
East Wellington Colliery      „       20,272    „
Union Colliery, n       114,356    n
Total coal exported in 1893      768,917    „      8
Add home consumption in 1893      207,851     n    10
Add on hand 1st January, 1894        24,301    „    15
1,001,070    .,    13
The coal is shipped at the port of Nanaimo, Departure Bay, and Union, near Comox,
on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the exports were principally made to San Francisco, San Pedro, and San Diego, in California, U. S. Shipments were also sent to Alaska,
and Petropavloski, and to the Hawaiian Islands.
In order to show the standing of British Columbia in the California market, the following
returns are set forth:—
The receipts of coal at San Francisco by sea for the year 1893 :—
British Columbia  490,679 tons
England  110,363 „
Scotland  17,762 ,,
Wales  36,685 „
Australia  155,415 n
Puget Sound  444,493 „
Oregon  31,550 „
Eastern States  16,667 „
Alaska  200 n
Japan  7,727 n
Total coal entered in San Francisco in 1893.... 1,311,466    „
1892.... 1,310,460   „
Of the British Columbia coal exported, it may be estimated that about 200,000 tons
were shipped to lower ports in California, in addition to the coal entered in San Francisco.
From the figures thus presented the importance of the United States as customers for our
great staple product is at once appreciated.
A large quantity of fire-clay, of most superior quality, is put out and forwarded to
Victoria by the Nanaimo and Wellington collieries, for manufacture at the potteries there.
Nor should the rising manufacture of the very superior and well-tested coke, now going
on at the Union Colliery, be under estimated. The demand for the article produced is quite
satisfactory to the manufacturers, and cannot fail to prove a source of profit and economy to
them, as well as to those needing a good article of coke.
The collieries of the New Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company, Limited, and of
Messrs. Dunsmuir & Sons, and of the Union Colliery Company, are uniformly equipped and
provided with machinery and appliances, both of steam and electric motive power, that will
rank favourably with the collieries in any part of the world; and the freedom of the mines
from serious casualties from explosions of gas, indeed from gas itself in hurtful quantity, of
late years, coupled with the excellent relations that, as a rule, prevail between the employers
and employed, make the mines and mining communities of our fair Province a most desirable
haven and place of settlement for the worthy workman.
I believe that the turning point towards prosperity of both coal proprietors and the
miners and workmen engaged in our coal industry will shortly be made, and that a prosperous
year will be realized by all concerned. The capacity and power of the collieries was never
greater and more equal to any demand that may arise, and a better nor more deserving array
of miners and workmen, more than equal to the demand, ever waited upon the opportunity to
do the work which may be demanded. So that all is ready. We have the coal, and all the
men and means necessary for its production. The improvement in the market is what is
looked for, and I believe the well informed on that subject give good encouragement that the 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1095
expected and needed improvement is within a short time of realization.    That it may be so is
the earnest desire of myself and the many other well-wishers of our mining community.
I now proceed to remark upon the several collieries, as usual, first, however, drawing
your attention to the near approach of the total output for 1893, to that of what was regarded
as a phenomenally productive year, viz., 1891, which attained to upwards of a million tons;
and also have to point to the total of the exports for 1893, amounting to very little short of
those of the same extraordinary year of trade, and trust that the volumes of output and
export now attained may become normal, with a tendency to increase.
THE NANAIMO COLLIERY.
No. 1 Shaft, Esplanade, in Nanaimo.
The No. 1 pit, situated on the Esplanade in the City of Nanaimo, is the most extensive
coal mine in this district (if not in the Dominion of Canada), and belongs to the New Vancouver Coal Mining & Land Company, Limited. This mine has now been proved to be a
most valuable mining property, and at present no limited estimate can be formed of the
extent of the coal that may be yet won from this shaft.
As I have mentioned in previous reports, this shaft is 650 feet deep, with a level driven
to the north, known as No. 1 north level; and about 50 yards in this level there is a slope
driven in an easterly direction for about 1,000 yards. At about 600 yards down the slope,
the No. 3 north level branches off. All the workings of these two levels are under the water
of Nanaimo Harbour, except the workings at the back end of No. 1 level, which is now
working under Protection (or Douglas) Island. The workings of this mine are dry, but not
dusty. They are quite safe from any influx of water as there is a thickness of from 500 to
700 feet of debris and hard rock between the bottom of the harbour and the workings of the
mine.    All the workings are on the pillar and stall system, leaving large pillars of coal.
The workings of No. 1 north level extend (as mentioned above) under Nanaimo Harbour
and Protection Island, and the level is, with its windings, 4,000 yards to the face from the shaft
bottom, being the longest underground hauling road in this district. For the long stretch of
about two miles, the coal has been very good, varying in thickness from 5 to 10 feet, except
in some small spots. At the face the roof is generally good. All the mining from the level
is to the west side other than a slope (referred to in a previous report) to connect with the
Protection Island shaft, which was done on January 22nd, 1893, the coal on the east side being
to the dip, and this coal is left to be worked from No. 3 north level and Protection Island shaft,
where they are now working.
No. 3 north level, branching from the main slope, is now in one and a half (1J) miles
from the slope, where it connects with Protection Island shaft workings in a slope from about
100 yards south of the shaft going east. There are 22 stalls working from this No. 3 level
going towards No. 1. The coal is very excellent in quality and varies from 6 to 10 feet in
thickness without any plies of rock. All this working will terminate at No. 1 level. Here,
in No. 3, the same as at No. 1 level, it is all solid to the east side, but at present they are putting
two slopes into the solid coal, one of them about half way in No. 3 level, where the coal is 6
feet thick. The other slope is at the place where they connected with Protection Island shaft
works. At this place the coal is also 6 feet thick, so that there are splendid prospects for
coal to the east side, and quality and appearance keep good. Ventilation is amply sufficient.
The mine is now ventilated from Protection Island shaft, on the separate split system, there
being three main divisions, near to the bottom of the shaft. One goes to the face and inside
panel of No. 1 level. There were 19,500 cubic feet of air passing in for the use of 20 men.
To the outer panel there were 24,000 cubic feet of air travelling along for 34 men. Then
there were 56,000 cubic feet going to No. 3 level. This was split, part going to 20 men and
part going to stalls already mentioned, where there are 60 men at work. The total of 99,500
cubic feet of air passing per minute for the use of 134 men, not however including the men
employed about the shaft, as they get their ventilation from No. 1 shaft. Neither are the
mules counted; but you will see that there is sufficient air passing through the workings for
all purposes.
The motive power to keep this large volume of air constantly in motion, is a large Guibal
fan, erected on the surface near the No. 2 shaft, being the up-cast shaft near the No. 1 shaft.
The fan is 36 feet in diameter, by 12 feet wide,  and gives the above result from Protection 1096 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
Island shaft, not including what goes down No. 1 shaft, which latter I never found less than
32,000 feet per minute. All this air is kept in motion with 40 revolutions per minute, water
gauge 1^ inches. And if required this fan can be worked with safety up to nearly double
what it is now working at.
In the levels mentioned, the New Vancouver Coal Company has been hauling the coal
out by electricity, which has been found to be a success. The Edison General Electric
Company supplied and fitted up the whole of the plant. The dynamos are fixed on the
surface and driven by a steam engine built for that special purpose, about 100 feet from No.
1 shaft, occupying a tine building or power-house. From the dynamos the electric current
passes to and through all the different instruments to protect the plant against accident, and
everything that it is possible to work insulated is covered to protect against accident to any
person that may be passing the wires, which are strung up in No. 1 level for two miles, this
being the distance that the electric locomotive goes. In No. 3 level the locomotive goes fully
one mile from the slope, or about one and one-half miles from the shaft. The usual rate is
about 6 to 8 miles an hour, taking along, generally, about 40 tons at a time. There are four
electric locomotives, three of them are eight tons each and of 30-horse power, these three are
at work, one in No. 1 and two of them working in No. 3 level, the smallest one, of 15-horse
power, is on top. All the locomotives work very well, and so far as the New Vancouver Coal
Company are concerned they are now a success. In addition to the hauling of the coal by
electricity, the bottom of the shaft and the siding is all lighted by the electric spark.
I have not said anything about the machinery used here, as I have described it in former
reports; but I may mention that the company's large coal washing machinery, both at this
mine and at Northfield Wharf, which can wash some hundreds of tons of dross (slack or small
coal) per day, if kept at work. The company are making preparation for the construction of
capacious bunkers at the wharves for holding coal. The bunkers will be built so that the coal
will run from them into the vessel's hold.
No. 1 and No. 2, Southfield Mines, Nanaimo Colliery.
Those once great producing mines of the New Vancouver Coal Company are now of the
past, as they were stopped early in the spring, machinery, pumps, cars and rails, all being
taken out and away, as they had got all the coal out that was convenient for mining.
No. 3 Pit (Chase River) Nanaimo Colliery.
This mine has been a most valuable property for the New Vancouver Coal Company, and
also for the men about Nanaimo, producing some of the best coal that has been taken away
from Nanaimo. They have been working part of the past year knowing that they had only a
limited quantity of coal in sight, and that comprised in the pillars (coal). This mine (I am
sorry to say) is also stopped, without any hope of ever starting again.
No. 5 Shaft, Southfield.
This mine also belongs to the New Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company, Limited.
The shaft is to the dip of No. 2 and No. 4 (Southfield) mines, and is connected with the latter.
In this mine they have been much troubled with faults of one kind and another, of which
they do not seem to have got clear of yet, although it is much improved of late. In some
places they will have the coal about 24 feet thick, and in other places quite thin, and not so
hard and solid as the coal generally is. There is plenty of coal to make a good average
thickness of seam, but in places it has got badly mixed with dirt, which makes it difficult to
keep the coal clean. As I have said, it is much improved, and as soon as they get clear of
this disturbance I expect that there will be a good seam of coal, which their perseverance
deserves.
Ventilation : I found when there, on the 11th December, that there was passing into the
west side and east level 21,175 cubic feet of air per minute for the use of 52 men and 3 mules ;
and to the east drift 19,110 cubic feet of air passing per minute for the use of 32 men and 4
mules, being a total of 40,285 feet of air travelling per minute for 84 men and 7 mules.
Here the motive power for ventilating is a fan, worked by a steam engine, the shaft being
partitioned off so that one side is the intake and the other the up-cast, at the same time they
have an out-let by No. 4 slope. Everything about the shaft, such as machinery and headgear, is got up in a workmanlike manner. I hope that there will be something good to be
said about the coal from this mine soon. 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1097
Protection Island Shaft,  Nanaimo Colliery.
This is also the property of the New Vancouver Coal Company, and the shaft is situated
at the south point of Protection Island. This shaft is the deepest in the district; to the
lower, or what is called the Newcastle seam, it is 740 feet, with sump 750 feet.
The upper coal is a continuation of the Douglas seam from No. 1 Shaft, and is now
connected botli with No. 1 and No. 3 levels.
In No. 1 level they went through on a slope that had been put down 300 yards in good
coal; and to get communication with No. 3 level they had to put down a slope from this
shaft 200 yards, this being all good coal for the above distance. This slope is now down from
the shaft to the east 500 yards in good coal for that distance, most of it being 6 feet thick.
This slope branches off the south, about 100 yards from the shaft. There is another slope
from the level on the north side, going north-east, which is now down 250 yards. This is
also in good coal, but only 3|- feet thick, good and hard. This is going to be the great
highway to the coal underlying the north-east side of Protection Island, Northumberland
Channel, and the Gulf of Georgia, and may yet have a connection with Gabriola Island.
This may seem a long way off, but a few years ago the same might have been said about
Protection Island, from No. 1 Shaft. Now, however, we can walk to Douglas (or Protection)
Island, and before long we may be able to walk from Nanaimo to Gabriola Island, as there is
no reason to doubt that the coal extends to the latter island, which is only two miles away.
The area of coal opened out here is very large. There are places enough to put on over
100 miners to work. All these places have been at a stand since the 1st September; but I
hope to see this extensive mine in operation again soon.
Protection Island Lower (Newcastle) seam of coal is 62 feet below the Douglas seam.
They have done a considerable amount of mining, principally in the way of exploring to find
out as to its regularity. The chief opening is by a slope to the east. This is down 350 yards
in good coal for all that distance, and from 3|- to 4 feet thick, of a good quality and is very
hard. There were two levels started, but only got in a short distance when they suspended
work for a time. The seam kept getting easier to work as they went down, having a strong
rock roof. Everything about the top is fitted up in first-class style. Large double hoisting-
engine ; pit head gear ; bunkers ; in fact, all appliances that are necessary for the handling of
a large output of coal; and to complete the whole, the Company has built a large wharf,
about 400 feet from the shaft, where they can load the largest ships that come to the harbour.
On February 28 th the steamboat " Monserrat" took on 300 tons of coal here ; and on March
9th the ship " General Fairchild " tied up to the wharf for the first full cargo of coal from this
mine ; and the outlook is, that for many years to come ships will be supplied with cargoes
from the Protection Mine and wharf.
Northfield Mine.
This mine, belonging to the New Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company, Limited,
is entered by a shaft, as are now all the mines of this Colliery. The workings are from the
north and south sides, by a level on south, and by a slope on north side. In this mine the
coal is worked on the long-wall system ; the coal averaging not more than 2 feet 4 inches in
thickness, but of very good quality and very hard, so that it stands handling well, and
commands the highest price both in Victoria and the California market, and any other place
where it has been introduced as a household coal ; but owing to the thinness of the seam and
the loose nature of the roof, it makes it very expensive coal for the Company to produce.
Ventilation is good, and on the separate split system. The first or main division being
at the bottom of the shaft to the north and south side. On the north side the air goes down
the slope, where it is again split, this time to the north and south sides of the slope; and as all
the workings are on the longwall system, the air going down the slope returns by way of the
coal face when the mine is at work, and what air escapes at the different levels on the slope is
caught up at the face. When I was at the mine on December 19th, I found that there was a
volume of 36,720 cubic feet of air passing per minute in the north side for the use of 60 men,
and on the south side there was 19,900 feet per minute going in the south level ; this was for
the use of 30 men—making a total of 56,620 cubic feet for 90 men. At times there is a great
deal of blasting, which makes it quite thick with powder smoke, but this is soon carried away.
There is very little gas found now in any of the mines of the Nanaimo Colliery, and they
are also free from coal dust. 1098 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
Harewood Estate.
There has been quite an extensive work of prospecting done in this estate, by boring and
tunnelling, but so far the Company has not been very successful in developing a merchantable
coal seam.
Northfield Estate:
Diamond Drilling.
The New Vancouver Coal Company has put down two bore holes to the coal in the
Northfield Estate, to the north of the shaft, and the coal proved to be of its usual hardness,
but not quite so thick as they would like it to have been.
WELLINGTON COLLIERY.
No.  1. Pit.
This is the shaft mentioned in a previons report as near to Departure Bay. In this shaft
the owners (Messrs. Dunsmuir ife Sons) were having work done at one of the upper seams of
coal, in connection with two thick beds of fire clay. They have only worked a short time here
during the past year. At present there is nothing being done ; the shaft is nearly filled with
water, so that this place is in reserve for some future operations.
No. 3 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
There has not been any mining done here in the past year, pumping having been done all
the time in connection with No. 4 Pit. There is yet a large quantity of coal to be got from
this mine.
No. 4 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
This is the pit of Messrs. Dunsmuir & Sons reported by me as having to be filled with
water owing to a fire in the old work, and at the time the report (for 1892) was got out it was
filled with water for 107 feet up the shaft. After standing for some months, the Fan, or
up-cast shaft, was opened, and a party went down to explore, of which I was one. Mr.
Bryden, manager, wanted to see where the water had got up to before he would commence to
get it out. When the manager had ascertained the distance reached by the water he was
satisfied that all the workings in the mine, except the small space at the Fan shaft, were filled
with water. Now having all things in order, they started the pumps, both No. 3 and No. 4,
to work, about April 20th, and by the beginning of September they were able to get to the
bottom of No. 4, but there was yet much water to be got out of the lower workings, and this
is yet being pumped out by the No. 3 Pit. When everything was got dry about the shaft
they started to clean up and put things in order, there being a large settlement of mud in all
parts of the mine, together with caves from the roof caused by the giving way of timbers. At
the end of the past year they had got quite a number of men at work sending out coal; it
will, however, be some time yet before the mine will be in the same condition as it was before
they turned the water from the Millstone River into No. 3 Pit. I may say here that they
had much to contend with, for in most instances the airway was blocked, so that the greatest
care and caution had to be used clearing up as they went along, making it secure against falls
of rock and against gas. Now that it is opened and giving work to a great many men, who
were idle, waiting on work that they have now got. This was and is now a valuable coal
mine.
No. 5 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
This still continues to be the only mine of Messrs. Dunsmuir & Sons that has connection
by railway with the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway, and thus directly in communication with
Victoria. Here the cars of the railway company are run under the shutes at the mine, get
filled with coal, which is carried to Victoria without once being handled, saving all the
breakage that takes place every time that coal has to be lifted. At this mine the railway
company's locomotives get their fuel. The railway system of Messrs. Dunsmuir & Sons is also
connected from this mine to their shipping wharves at Departure Bay. 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1099
No. 5 Pit is the greatest producing mine in the Wellington Colliery. The coal is brought
to the bottom of the shaft from the west side by a self-acting incline; from the east level and
east slant, on the tail-rope system of haulage. This is 1,100 yards long, and is near the
boundary of Northfield (Nanaimo Colliery). This coal is very good and hard, from 3 to 10
feet thick. All down this section is worked by way of pillar and stall, leaving about two-
thirds of the coal in the pillars, which are taken out after the stalls are finished. Close to the
bottom of the shaft there is the slope, the general bearing of the workings of this is to the
east, towards the No. 1 Shaft, near Departure Bay. The coal this way is very good and hard,
for which a ready sale is found even in these dull times for all that can be got out. The coal
is hauled from the lower works here to the bottom of the slope by compressed air, on the tail-
rope system of haulage, which —that on the east level and on this—works well. All the
mining down here is now done on the pillar and stall system. All the mining in the south
side, or west incline, is at the pillars (of coal).
Ventilation is good ; motive power, a Guibal fan, worked by steam engine. There are
109,000 cubic feet of air per minute for the use of 200 men and 20 mules, distributed on the
separate split system as follows : In No. 1 and No. 2 side-slopes there were 33,000 feet of air
passing per minute for 57 men and 3 mules, and it is in this division where the haulage is
done by tail-rope and compressed air. There is also working here a triple electric pump. In
what is known as the longwall split, 8,000 feet are passing per minute for 12 men and a mule.
In the new diagonal slope division 32,000 feet pass per minute for 58 men and 8 mules.
In No. 2 slant, 21,000 feet of air passed per minute for 38 men and 4 mules, and in the
west incline 15,000 feet of air was passing per minute for 22 men and 4 mules, the other 13
men being engaged about the shaft bottom, engine, and slope in the general airway. There
is now very little gas found in this mine. Occasionally gas is found in caves from the roof,
and sometimes in a stall.    This mine is free from dust.
In addition to the manager, there are the overman, fireman, and a staff of shot-lighters to
each district in the mine, moving round from one place to another, so that the smallest change
in any part of their particular district, or anything going wrong in the airway, is sure to be
found out soon by someone, when it would be reported to the proper authority.
This Pit is also connected by a travelling road with No. 6 Pit, with hand boards showing
the way.
Here, as in No. 1 Shaft of Nanaimo Colliery, the bottom of the pit and round about it is
lighted by electricity. This mode of lighting, and the use of electric power for coal cutting,
pumping, and for locomotives in hauling coal underground, is now becoming quite an important
factor in the use of machinery in our mines.
No. 6 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
This pit, owned by Messrs. Dunsmuir <fe Sons, is mentioned in a previous report as being
900 yards from No. 4 Pit, but the workings are only separated by a narrow strip of solid coal
of about 40 yards thick, which is known as the barrier between the two mines. It was put
to a severe test by the filling of the workings of No. 4 Pit with water to about 107 feet up
the pit, yet with all that pressure it did not show any appearance of leakage, after standing
that way for months. This mine (No. 6) is connected with No. 5 Pit, but only in one place,
and this place is fixed so that it could be blocked a.s to be able to stand a great pressure.
This is done in order, in case of accident to either of the two mines, that it may serve the
same purpose as the barrier served between Nos. 4 and 5 and Nos. 4 and 6 Pits.
This No. 6 Pit is quite an extensive mine. Most of the mining being done is to the east,
and in a northerly direction towards the workings of No. 5 Pit. In this mine, as in all the
mines of the Wellington Colliery, the coal is hard, of good quality, and greatly in demand in
the California market. There has been much of the coal worked here on the longwall system
during the past year, but now it is all worked on the pillar and stall system, and at the
pillars (of coal). The roof is much stronger than in most of the mines of this colliery, and
therefore the pillars of coal can be taken out to better advantage.
Ventilation is good; the motive power is a fan on the Murphy principle, worked by a steam
engine. When I was down, on the 21st December, there was a volume of 46,000 cubic feet
of air passing per minute for the use of 145 men and 17 mules. The mine is ventilated on
the separate split system, as follows :—
To east level there is 23,000 cubic feet of air passing per minute; this is for 70 men, but
it is again split, part of it going to what is known as the swamp, where there are 15 of the 1100 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
above-mentioned men employed. In east incline, 15,000 feet of air pass per minute for 60
men and 10 mules, and on the west side 8,000 feet of air pass per minute for 15 men. The
air is well conducted into the face by brattice or otherwise. Although this pit is connected
with No. 5 Pit, it is independent of it so far as ventilation is concerned, there being a close
partition in this shaft, one side being the intake and the other the upcast for ventilation
purposes.    This pit is also free from dust.
No. 2 Slope, and Alexandra Mine.
There has not been any work done at the No. 2' Slope, nor yet at the Alexandra Mine,
during the past year.    Both these mines belong to Messrs. Dunsmuir & Sons.
Prospecting.
Messrs. Dunsmuir & Sons have been successful with two bore holes between No. 1 Pit
and the workings of No. 5 Pit, which prove that the coal extends between the two mines.
EAST WELLINGTON COLLIERY.
This mine is owned by a company in San Francisco, and gave employment to quite a
number of men, while at work, having worked most of the time from January to October, and
put out about 28,000 tons of coal. In all likelihood they might have worked away for years
to come; but the coal being thin, there was considerable expense incurred in getting it out,
and the company had to compete with all the coal producers that sent their coal to San Francisco market, where low prices prevailed. The company, seeing that they were losing money
with no prospect of the mine ever paying it back, in order to make both ends meet, suggested
a reduction to the miners, so that coal could be produced cheaper, but this the workmen would
not entertain. The company then gave orders to the manager to have the mine cars, rails, pumps
and everything that could be taken away, brought to the surface, and, this being done, the
machinery was stopped and the mine allowed to fill with water, with no prospects of the same
pits ever being opened again.
UNION COLLIERY, COMOX.
This colliery is the property of the Union Colliery Company. The coal mined here is a
first-class article, makes a good coke, which gives satisfaction and is also highly spoken of by those
who have and are now using the coke in San Francisco. The coal from the Union Colliery is
used by Her Majesty's war ships. The naval officers and engineers report the coal as being
equal to any that comes to Esquimalt from Cardiff, in Wales. It is also much used by the
U. S. gunboats, which says a great deal for it. There has been some idle time about this colliery during the past year, several of the mines not having been opened for the twelve months,
but the company are now getting them in order to resume work at all the mines.
No. 1 Shaft, Union Colliery.
In this mine there has not been any work, but they are now getting it clear of water to
continue operations in mining the coal.
No. 1 Slope, Union Colliery.
This is now the most extensive mine of this colliery. As in the other mines, there has
been idle time here; but they kept driving the slope ahead so that its length from the
entrance, under cover, is now 4,300 feet (with 700 feet further to where the engine stands),
making it the longest slope in the district, with good hard workable coal the entire distance
that the slope is down, and at the bottom there is no falling off, as the coal looks as well, and
if anything, is better as it goes down. In the first 400 yards of the slope it is so flat that they
have to haul out the coal by the tail rope system, but after that distance there is a nice easy
grade enabling the empty cars to take the rope down, and of course the engine can haul it up,
and when it gets the cars to the flat it is again hooked on. 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1101
From this slope, nine levels have been started to the east side, and as many to the west
side. At present, owing to the slackness in the coal trade, they are only working Nos. 6, 7,
8, and 9 levels, on the east side, employing about 60 men on one shift, with coal averaging
about five feet thick, although in most of the places it is much thicker and very hard. On
the west side of this slope they are at present doing all their mining from Nos. 7, 8, and 9
levels. Here, as in the east side, the coal is very good but much thicker, employing 40 men
on one shift; but if the coal trade demand it, they could almost find places for double that
number on both sides of the slope. At present they are getting out about 800 tons of
screened coal from this mine alone ; and if trade should justify it they could, with No. 1 Shaft,
No. 1 Slope, and this No. 4 Slope, under the present condition, almost put out 2,000 tons of
marketable coal per day.
Ventilation is good. Motive power is a Guibal Fan, which running slow passes 50,000
cubic feet of air per minute. On the east side there was 10,000 feet going down to the end
of the brattice on the slope ; this was increased as it went up at No. 9, 8, and 7 levels, where
it had got to be 28,000 feet, and by the time it got to the upper level it was 32,000 feet.
This was for 60 men and 9 mules. On the west side of slope, where they are working from
Nos. 7, 8, and 9 levels, this No. 9 level has only got in a short distance; the air is increased
9,000 feet at No. 8 level, and at No. 7, until the whole volume this side is 18,000 feet per
minute for 40 men and 7 mules. This seemsja large quantity of air for 100 men and 16 mules,
and it would be if there were no powder used, but the quantity of powder used here is very
great, being nearly a pound to every ton of coal delivered on the top. It should not be so,
but when they blast the coal without the shot being properly prepared they have to powder it
accordingly. The manager has now working some cure to this extravagance in using powder,
by instructing the shot-lighter not to let a shot be fired without he thinks that the coal is
reasonably prepared. This is quite a relief to those who mine their coal properly, as there is
much less smoke coming past them.
All things about this mine are got up on the best plan for labour saving and putting
coal in the market in good condition, clear of rock, and well screened. In addition to their
large hoisting engine and machinery, there is a coal washing machine of great capacity, from
Shepherd, of Cardiff, in operation. This is of the most recent improvement for cleaning and
saving fine coal. This fine coal is what they have been making the coke, which is so celebrated
that they can sell all that they can produce.
Nos.  1 and 2 Tunnels, Union Colliery.
These tunnels, or adit levels, described by me in previous reports, have been at a stand
still the most of the year ; and some months ago the Company had all the rails taken out of
them, and they are now stopped, although there is plenty of coal, but the other mines can
supply the present demand. As the roof is very strong, and the water can run out, the mine
will not go much wrong by standing until they want to resume work here.
TUMBO ISLAND COAL MINING COMPANY
This company has been doing considerable work during the past year at the island,
principally in sinking the shaft, which was down at this time last year to the depth of 114
feet, but since that time there have been delays that are not counted upon by those inexperienced iii mining. Here they have had stoppages in many ways, the greatest drawback has
been that they had too much water for the machinery in use. They worked up to 28th
August, when the depth of 245 feet was reached. At this point the water exceeded the power
of the appliances for taking it out, and since then there has not been any work done in the
bottom, and they are yet fully 100 feet from the coal. At the bottom where they left off
they were in dark shale, and the rock will be soft until the coal is reached, but before they
can resume operations in the shaft new appliances for raising the water must be placed in
position, powerful enough to keep the shaft clear of water so that the miners may be able to
work. If they had the proper machinery it would take only a comparatively short time to win
the coal.
The company have on the ground at the shaft, one stationary engine, four steam pumps,
also an air compressor, and when working there were 21 white men employed. 1102 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
It is desirable that operations may be started again at this promising coal-field. There is
a fine prospect here for any company having a colliery here, getting out good coal, the location
being right on the water-way between Victoria and Vancouver, as well as on the way of the
C.P.R. ships to and from China and Australia. The ships could go up alongside and take on
their fuel.
THE NICOLA VALLEY RAILWAY COMPANY.
It has been a known fact for a long time that there was coal underlying the Nicola
Valley. It could be seen cropping out on the bank of the Coldwater River, pitching into the
valley, but to what extent no one cared to find out as it was too far to take it to market.
Now that the Canadian Pacific Railway is built, and going past about 40 miles from the crop-
out of coal, the market is brought thus nearer. And the construction of this 40 miles of
railway would provide a market for the coal; but only a wealthy company could undertake
the venture of building such railway, and carry on the needful work of proving the extent and
value of the coal-field, and open and develop the coal mine during the construction of the
railway.
The Nicola Valley Railway Company having secured from the settlers of the valley all
their coal rights, with the addition of legislative right of way, attention was turned to the
exploration of the coal. A diamond drilling machine was employed in boring at a spot, about
half a mile to the dip of the crop-out, and here the coal was struck at the depth of 190 feet,
and proved to be 5 feet 7 inches thick. The hole was continued to the depth of 600 feet.
Several other smaller seams were gone through before gaining that distance, and when the
hole was stopped they were still in the productive coal measures. All the coal gone through,
as well as what is seen at the crop-out, is very hard, and those who have tested it report it to
be of a superior quality.
The drilling machine was then removed and another hole was put down two miles further
up the valley than the previous bore. At the depth of 137 feet from the surface coal was
struck, 5 feet 6 inches thick. The hole was continued to the depth of 562 feet, having gone
through some smaller seams of coal, thus proving that the valley has underlying it a large
deposit of superior coal. This mining property seems to have fallen into the light hands for
its development and use. The company has called for tenders for the construction of the
railway, connecting with the C.P.R. at Spence's Bridge. In Nicola Valley it may be safely
predicted that a large colliery may be established in the near future, the prospects for being
so good.
THE KAMLOOPS COAL COMPANY,  LIMITED.
This enterprising coal company did considerable work in and about their mine on the
North Thompson River, during last winter and spring. A quantity of coal was taken out for
consumption in Kamloops, in order to thoroughly test the quality of it. About 250 tons were
taken into Kamloops, and it is used there exclusively for domestic purposes, except where hard
coal is required.    The mine is not now in operation.
ACCIDENTS
In and about the Coal Mines, for the year ending 31st December,  1893.
January      9—Thomas Patterson, miner, was slightly burnt about the head and face by gas,
while at work in No. 5 Pit, Nanaimo Colliery.
ii 13—John McMillan, shotlighter in No. 5 Pit, Wellington Colliery, was killed by a
fall of rock while at work.
ii 16—John  McLeod,  miner,  in No. 5 Pit, was slightly burnt about the hands by
gas while at work in his stall.
ii 28—John Inglis, pusher, in No. 5 Wellington Colliery, got his arm broken by a
timber while pushing a mine car.
ii 19—Morrison and Harris were killed by a boiler explosion at Tumbo Island, while
at work for Tumbo Island Coal Company. 57 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
1103
February   11-
22-
March
April
May
—A Chinaman, No. 4 Pit, banksman, was killed by the cage at Protection Island
Shaft.
—Samuel Sutton, bellman, on No.  4 Slope,  Union Colliery,  got his shoulder
broken and otherwise bruised by cars on the slope.
-Michael Bradley, miner, working in No. 6 Pit, Wellington Colliery,  was killed
by a fall of rock while at work.
-William Bowater, fireman, in No. 2 Pit, East Wellington Colliery, was injured
by a fall of rock.
—George E. Bell, miner, in No. 6 Pit, Wellington Colliery, was killed by a fall
of coal while at work in his stall.
—Charles Anderson, runner, in No. 5 Shaft, Nanaimo Colliery,  was hurt about
the hips by coal falling on him while waiting on a car.
—Dong, mule driver, was burnt about the face and hands by gas, in No. 4 Slope,
Union Colliery.
-Neil MeCuish, miner, was hurt about the head by a fall of coal while at work
in his stall, in No. 5 Pit, Nanaimo Colliery.
—William Gleason, miner,  was slightly injured by a fall of rock, while at work
in No. 4 Slope, Union Colliery.
—Ah Coon,  labourer,  in No. 4 Slope,  Union Colliery, was killed by mine cars,
on the slope.
—Albert Reigley,   runner, in No.  6  Pit, Wellington, got one of his legs broken
by a mine car, while at work.
—Frank Machin, mule driver, in No. 5 Pit, Nanaimo Colliery, was hurt about the
back by a fall of coal.
—D. T. Richards, runner, in No. 3 Pit, Nanaimo Colliery,  had one of his legs
broken by a fall of coal in a stall.
—Thomas L. Williams, track-layer, in No. 5 Pit,  Wellington Colliery,  had his
arm and shoulder bruised by a mine car.
-John Sop, miner, working in No. 5 Pit, Wellington Colliery, got slightly burnt
about the face by powder.
—Samuel Woodburn, miner, in No. 3 Pit, Nanaimo Colliery, was killed by a fall
of coal while at work in his stall.
—John B. L. Jones, overman, in No. 5 Pit, Wellington Colliery, was killed by a
shot, blowing through to another stall.
—B. Gerard, miner, in Northfield mine, Nanaimo Colliery, had one of his legs
broken by a fall of rock while at work in his stall.
-G.  T.  Pierce,  miner,  working in Protection Island Shaft, Nanaimo Colliery,
was hurt about the back by a fall of rock, while at work in his stall.
—Thomas John Thomas, trapper, in No. 5 Pit, Wellington Colliery, was injured
on the face by a kick from a mule.
—Ah Hinn, labourer, while cleaning the boiler tubes at No. 1 Shaft, Nanaimo
Colliery, got burnt about the arms and body by hot dust.
—Henry Mohalage, pusher, in No. 5 Pit, Wellington Colliery, was squeezed by
a mine car when riding on the same.
—John Haigh, miner, in No. 6 Pit, Wellington Colliery, got two of his ribs
broken by a fall of rock.
-John Teague, timber-man, in No. 1 Shaft, Nanaimo Colliery, got his leg broken
by some loose rock that he was taking down.
—Samuel Sutton, runner in No. 5 Shaft, had his collar broken by being crushed
against the coal by a mine car, while at work.
—Robert Johnson, miner, in No. 6 Pit, Wellington Colliery, had his leg broken
by a piece of rock falling on him while at work in his stall.
—J. V. Nicholls, miner, in No. 4 slope, Union Colliery, was slightly burnt about
the neck by gas, while at work in his stall.
—Yee Can, brattice-man, in No. 4 Slope, Union Colliery, was slightly burnt
about the face, hands, and neck by gas while putting up brattice.
—Henry Kaslin,  miner, working in No.   6 Pit,  Wellington Colliery, got one
finger and thumb injured by a roburite cap.
June
July
August
1-
11-
18-
31
13-
20
22-
28
29
29
1-
1
8-
18-
21-
10
20
21-
22-
27-
10
14
15-
18
28-
29-
2- 1104 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1893
August      10—J. Peredon, and Ah Kee, working in No. 4 Slope, Union Colliery, were slightly
burnt about the face and hands.    They had fired a shot and went back to
the face with the above result.
ii 15—James Snowden, miner, in No. 5 Shaft, Nanaimo Colliery,  had one of his legs
broken by a fall of rock while at work in his stall.
ii 18—The above James Snowden died this day.
ii 18—John Gray, road-man, in No. 1 Shaft, Nanaimo Colliery, had his ankle broken
by getting jammed by a mine car.
September  1—Domenic Penilla, miner, in No. 4 Slope, Union Colliery, was slightly injured
by a fall of coal while at work in his stall.
ii 16—Robert Smith, miner, in No. 5 Pit,  Wellington Colliery, was slightly burnt
about the hands and face by powder, while charging a shot
ii 29—George Brower, miner, working in No. 6 Pit, Wellington Colliery, was killed
by a fall of rock while at work in his stall.
October        3—Mike Le Fevre, miner, was slightly hurt by a fall of coal while at work in his
stall, in No. 2 Shaft, East Wellington Colliery.
ii 4—David  R.  Davis,  mule-driver,  in No.     Pit,  East Wellington Colliery, was
killed by a fall of rock while at work.
ii 6—David Thomas, miner, working in No. 4 Slope, Union Colliery, was killed by a
fall of rock while at work in his stall.
ii 13—J. Thew, miner, working in No. 4 Slope, Union Colliery, was killed by a fall
of coal, while at work in his stall.
ii 25—Peter Bermadello, miner, working at No. 6 Pit, Wellington Colliery, got one
of his legs broken by a fall of coal, while at work in his stall.
n 31—Robert Gibson, miner, in No. 4 Slope, Union Colliery, was killed by a fall of
coal, while at work in his stall.
November   1—John Adams, mule-driver, in No. 6 Pit, Wellington Colliery, got his leg badly
bruised by a run-away car in the mine.
ii 18—Ben Lombart, miner,  in  No. 5 Pit, Wellington Colliery, was killed by a fall
of coal, while at work in his stall.
ii 22—John Davie, miner, working in No.  1 Shaft, Nanaimo Colliery, had both his
legs broken by a fall of coal, while at work in his stall.
December    4—Alexander  Dunsmore, mule-driver, Northfield,  had  one ankle dislocated by
getting jammed by cars in the mine.
,i 5—F. Pirattzi, miner, working in No. 3 Shaft, Nanaimo Colliery, was hurt about
the body by a fall of coal, while at work in his stall.
ii 15—Fred Alphonse, miner, in Northfield, Nanaimo Colliery, had one of his legs
broken by a fall of rock.
It is with sincere regret that I have again at the close of another year to make out the
above long list of accidents, both serious and fatal. The number, as a whole, is about the
same as in the previous year. Many of those reported as serious, turned out to be very slight,
while some of them were very severely injured.
In the above list you will observe that there have been 53 accidents reported, of those
37 were of a serious nature, and 16 were fatal accidents. Of the 37 accidents, eight occurred
by falls of coal, seven by rock, ten by mine cars, seven by gas, two by powder, one by a kick
from a mule, one by flue dust, and one by a roburite cap.
The fatal accidents, 16 in number, were in five instances caused by falls of coal, six by
falls of rock, one by mine cars, one by a shot, one by the cage in a shaft, and two by an
explosion from the bursting of a boiler.
I have enquired into the circumstances and cause of all the accidents, in many instances
getting to the scene of the accident before I got written notice, which generally is sent by
mail. When any person gets hurt in the mines the news starts at once, but the mail abides
its regular time.
These remarks do not apply to cases of fatal accident, as in such cases a messenger is
dispatched at once, so that I may be at the mine as soon as possible, and before anything is
disturbed except what may be necessary for the relief of the injured.
With respect to the fatal accidents, in those cases where there was a public enquiry held
and evidence taken at inquests, I have always been present, with the exception of one occasion, 57 Vict. Report of the Minister of Mines. 1105
where the inquest was held at Victoria on the bodies of those killed on 29th January, on
Tumbo Island.
As all the evidence taken at the inquisitions is filed in the Attorney-General's Department, I beg leave to refer to the same for full details.
On examining the list of accidents you will perceive that nearly all the casualties
happened when the men were at work. You will also see that with the exception of the
accident at Tumbo Island and another where two were slightly burnt, the persons injured
were single in their misfortune.
Considering the large extent of the mines in this district and the numerous employes, the
fact that only seven persons, some of them very slightly, were burnt by gas, speaks volumes
for the excellency of the ventilation of the mines, and is at the same time evidence of the
carefulness of the miners in this respect. The accidents from the falling of rock and coal,
and those caused by cars in the mine, ought to be greatly diminished. More care should be
taken in spragging of the coal, and more promptness in the propping of the roof. I know the
risks that are sometimes taken, just to do something, at times when the workman so doing is
well aware that his action is unsafe. This is too often a sad mistake, and is the cause of too
many accidents that might be avoided, by the workman himself. It is to be hoped that far
more caution will be used, so that the casualties may be confined to those which are regrettably unavoidable, owing to the hazardous nature of the miner's avocation.
In addition to the miners and other workmen looking after their safety, there are the
manager, overman, fireman, shot-lighter, and other persons having authority, on the move
from one part of the mine to another, never being long in one place, excepting something
wrong has required their presence to superintend, so that with due care exercised there should
be fewer accidents.    This I am constantly urging, and doing all in my power to bring about.
All the old waste places and works that can be got at are examined frequently, to search
for any accumulations of gas.
There is one class of accidents, viz., those caused by the mine cars, which runs up the list
of the past year. As in the mining by the miner, the pusher (or runner), in order to get
ahead with his work, sometimes omits to sprag a car when it ought to have been done, and so
incurs great risk of injury ; this is a matter that I have often pointed out for attention, and
is one for the runner's own personal benefit and safety, as the slightest mishap to the cars is
liable to lead to serious accident.
In the Nanaimo Colliery a deputation from the men, in each of the mines, is appointed
to examine the works periodically, and the result of such examination is posted up in a conspicuous place, so that all the workmen may know the condition of the mine. There is also a
record book of the reports of the examiners kept by the Company. The examination is
generally made once a month. The miners in the other Collieries do not avail themselves of
the privilege of examination of the mines, which it would be so useful for them to do.
If all precaution within our command is exercised, by both officials and workmen,
particularly where accidents are likely to happen, we shall experience the best result, by
having fewer casualties and less suffering.
My remarks apply alike to all, from the Manager that conducts the mine to the boy that
opens and shuts the door that keeps the air travelling in its proper course.
As Inspector, I am always ready to attend to anything or any matter that may be
brought to my notice by any person who may think that there is a cause for complaint.
I append the annual Colliery Returns.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
Archibald Dick,
Lnspector of Mines for British Columbia. 1106
Report of the Minister of Mines.
1893
COLLIERY RETURNS.
Nanaimo Colliery Returns for 1893.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31st, 1893.
Tons.
469,311
cwt.
15
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
Tons.        cwt.
129,502        1
No. of tons
sold for
exportation.
Tons.
339,076
cwt.
14
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1893.
Tons.
4,617
ewt.
15
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1894.
Tons.
6,501
cwt.
15
Number of hands employed.
Wages per day.
Whites.
Boys.
Indians.
Chinese.
Whites.
Boys.
Indians.
Chinese.
1,064
58
157
$2.37 to 13.50
$1 to $2
$1 to $1.25
* Total ha
ids employed
....  1,279
Miners' ear
$3 to |5.
* This is the number actually employed on Dec. 31st, 1893.
1,800 at one time.—S.M.R.
We employed during the year as many as
Name of Seams or Pits—Southfield No. 2, Southfield No. 3, Southfield No. 5, No. 1 Esplanade
Shaft, No. 1 Northfield Shaft, Protection Island Shaft.
Value of Plant—$350,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, &c, and number of same—Southfield No. 2,
worked by slope, seam 6 to 10 feet; Southfield No. 3, worked by shaft, seam 5 to 10
feet; Southfield No. 5, worked by shaft, seam 5 to 10 feet; No. 1 Northfield Shaft,
worked by shaft, seam 2 feet to 3 feet 6 inches; Protection Island Shaft, worked by
shaft, lower seam 4 feet, upper seam 6 feet; No. 1 Esplanade Shaft, worked by shaft,
seam 5 to 12 feet.
Description and length of tramway, plant, <fec.—Railway to Southfield, 6 miles, with sidings;
railway to No. 1 Shaft, 1 mile, with sidings; railway from Northfield Mine to wharf
at Departure Bay, 4-|- miles; rails are of steel, 56 pounds per yard of standard gauge,
viz., 4 feet 8| inches; 8 hauling and pumping engines, 15 steam pumps, 5 locomotives,
232 coal cars (6 tons), besides lumber and ballast cars; fitting shops for machinery
repairs, with turning lathes, boring, drilling, planing, screw-cutting machines, hydraulic
press, steam hammer, etc., etc.; diamond boring machinery for exploratory work (bores
to 4,000 feet); 150 horse-power electric plant engines, plant, dynamo; 2 30 horse-power
8-ton locomotives; hauling and lighting equipment; wharves, 2,000 feet frontage, at
which ships of the largest tonnage can load at all stages of the tide.
Samuel M. Robins,
Superintendent. 57 Vict.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
1107
Wellington Colliery Returns for 1893.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31st, 1893.
Tons.
337,334
cwt.
3
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
Tons.        cwt.
41,121 9
No. of tons
sold for
exportation.
Tons.        cwt.
295,212       14
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1893.
Tons.        cwt.
6,408 —
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1894.
Tons.
1,000
cwt.
Number of hands employed.
Whites.
830
Boys
66
Indians.
Chinese.
87
Total hands employed   983
Wages per day.
Whites.
; to $3.50
Boys.
Indians.
$1 to $1.50
Chinese.
$1 to $1.25
Miners' earnings, per day   $2.75 to $4.50.
Name of Seams or Pits—Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Pits.
Value of Plant—$150,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, &c, and number of same—5 shafts, with slopes,
airways and levels; 3 air shafts.
Description and length of tramway, plant, &c.—5 miles of railway, with sidings and branches;
6 locomotives; 250 coal cars; 13 stationary engines; 9 steam pumps; 4 wharves for
loading vessels and bunkers.
Output of fire-clay, 642ig- tons.
R. Dunsmuir & Sons.
East Wellington Colliery Returns for 1893.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31st, 1893.
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
Tons. cwt. Tons. cwt.
27,472        — 7,500
No. of tons
sold for
exportation.
Tons.
20,272
cwt.
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1893.
Tons.
300
cwt.
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1894.
cwt.
Number of hands employed.
Wages per day.
Whites.
Boys.
Indians.
Chinese.
Whites.
Boys.
Indians.
Chinese.
100
20
20
$2.25 to $3
$1 to $2
§1 to $1.37J
Total haix
s employed
140
Miners' ear
nings, per da
y	
  $3.
Name of Seams or Pits—East Wellington, Nos. 1 and 2 Shafts.
Value of Plant—$80,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, &c, and number of same—2 seams; lower or
main seam 2J to 7 feet thick, upper or small seam 2 feet thick; 2 shafts.
Description and length of tramway, plant, &c.—4|- miles standard narrow gauge; 2 locomotives,
31 (4J ton) coal cars; 2 hoisting engines; 2 donkey engines; 1 fan engine; 9 steam
pumps; 1 steam saw-mill, capacity 12,000 feet per day.
W. S. Chandler, Superintendent. 1108
Report of the Minister of Mines.
1893
Union Colliery Returns for 1893.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31st, 1893.
Tons.
143,927
cwt.
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
Tons.
29,478
cwt.
No. of tons
sold for
exportation.
Tons.
114,356
cwt.
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1893.
Tons.
11,450
cwt.
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1894.
Tons.
11,543
cwt.
Number of hands employed.
Wages per day.
Whites.
Boys.
Japanese.
Chinese.
Whites.
Boys.
Japanese.
Chinese.
288
4
12
138
$2.30 to $3
$1
$1 to $1.25
$1 to $1.50
   442
Miners' earnings, per da
V	
$3 to $4.50.
Name of Seams or Pits—Comox.
Value of Plant—$115,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, &c, and number of same—No. 1 Slope, with
airway and levels; No. 2 Slope; No. 4 Slope, with airway and levels.
Description and length of tramway, plant, &c.—12 miles of railway, 4 feet 8^ inches gauge;
4 locomotives; 150 coal cars (25 tons each); 1 diamond drill; 3 stationary engines; 3
steam pumps; 3 electric pumps; 1 dynamo; 1 steam saw-mill; 2 wharves; 1 piledriver.
Made 262 tons of coke; sold 250 tons.
James Dunsmuir,
President, Union Colliery Company.
Kamloops, B.C., February 2nd, 1894.
Archibald Dick, Esq.,
Government Inspector of Mines, Nanaimo, B. C,
Dear Sir,—I am in receipt of your favour of recent date, enclosing form of colliery
returns, but have very little information to give in addition to last year. During last winter
and spring there was considerable work done in and about the mine, and a quantity of coal
taken out for consumption in Kamloops in order to thoroughly test the quality of it. The
quantity brought to Kamloops was about 250 tons, and is used exclusively for domestic
purposes here, except where hard coal is required. The mine is not now in operation. I
enclose herewith the form received.
Respectfully yours,
M. J. McIver,
Secretary.
North Thompson Colliery Returns.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31st, 1893.
Tons.
250
cwt.
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
Tons.        cwt.
250
No. of tons
sold for
exportation,
Tons.
cwt.
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1893.
Tons.
cwt.
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1894.
Tons.
cwt.
VICTORIA, B. C.:
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty.

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