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BRITISH COLUMBIA. CROWN LAND SURVEYS FOR THE YEAR ENDING 31ST DECEMBER, 1893. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1894

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 BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
CROWN   LAND  SURVEYS
YEAR ENDING 31ST DECEMBER,
1893.
mm
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Richard Wolfenden, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty. 57 VicT. Crown Land Surveys. 951
CROWN   LAND   SURVEYS,
1893.
To His Honour Edgar Dewdney,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I respectfully beg to submit the following Reports on the Surveys of
Crown Lands during the year 1893.
F. G. VERNON,
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works
Lands and Works Department,
Victoria, B. G, 6th February, 1894. 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 953
SURVEYS.
SURVEYOR-G-ENERAL'S REPORT.
Lands and Works Department,
Victoria, B C, January 25th, 1894.
The Hon. F.' G. Vernon,
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works,
Victoria, B. C
Sir,—In laying before you the individual reports of the different Surveyors who have
been engaged upon the various Crown Land Surveys throughout the Province, I have the
honour to submit the following statement of the business of this branch of your Department
down to the close of the calendar year, and at the same time to direct your attention to a few
remarks which may be of such importance as to justify a fair consideration.
Maps.
Reference was made in last year's Report to the fact that the general information
respecting township surveys on file in this Department was being placed upon maps of a more
convenient size than heretofore; and as this information was of a reliable and useful character,
it was deemed advisable to have the maps lithographed by means of a process which would
represent a fair sample of draughting, and at the same time come within the bounds of a
reasonable price.
The method adopted is the ordinary "transfer process." The most difficult and important
work—the preparation of the plan—is performed by the gentlemen connected with the
draughting room of your Department, and is drawn upon transfer paper with lithographic ink,
thus reducing the work of the lithographer to the simple process of transferring the map to
the stone and printing off the requisite number of copies.
As a result of this departure, there are at present ready to be distributed to the proper
authorities lithographed maps of eighteen townships, situated in the different districts
throughout the Province. These maps are drawn upon a scale of 40 chains to an inch, and
are printed upon excellent paper, in one colour, showing, in a majority of cases, the character
of the soil and timber upon each quarter-section—a class of information which, from its
reliability, is a matter of prime importance to the intending settler.
It will be seen from the following table that the publication of maps for special and
general distribution still continues to form an important branch of this Department, and
although several of the maps contained in the list below were not issued from this office, still,
as the original drawings were prepared in the Lands and Works Department, due credit is
taken for the work performed :—
(a.) Map of the northern portion of British Columbia, including Queen
Charlotte Islands  3,300, 2 colours.
(b.) Map of the subdivision of the Commonage Reserve, near Vernon. 500,  1 h
(c.)  Map of the township subdivisions, north end of Vancouver Island 2,000,  2 n
(d.) Map of the Lower Osoyoos Country  2,000,  2 n
(e.) Map of the eighteen townships in different districts (150 copies of
each)  2,700,  1 n
(/) Map of the Province of British Columbia (Brownlee)   10,000, 4 n
(g.) Map of the Province of British Columbia to accompany the pamphlet ob B, Q,...............,., .,.,,.,,,..., 15,000, 2 n 954 Crown Land Surveys. 1S93
The following maps were made in the Lands and Works Department, to accompany the
Report of the Hon. the Minister of Mines :—
Sketch map of East Kootenay District, shewing principal mineral localities  1,000, 1 colour.
Plan and sections, shewing development work on North Star Mine, East
Kootenay District    1,000, 1      n
Sketch map, S.E. part of Vancouver Island, shewing geological formation  1,000, 1      n
Sketch map, San Juan and Leech River mining districts    1,000, 1      n
Sketch map, shewing auriferous region in Alberni District    1,000, 1     i.
All the above maps, with the exception of (f), were lithographed in a highly creditable
manner by the " Colonist Printing and Publishing Company, Limited," of this city.
The edition of the general map of British Columbia, compiled by direction of the late
Hon. Wm. Smithe in 1884, being exhausted and the map out of print, it became absolutely
necessary to supply at once the demand for such a map; consequently, your Department
authorized the purchase of 10,000 copies of Brownlee's recent map of the Province. Since
their delivery, the High Commissioner for Canada and the Agent-General in London have
been regularly furnished with a supply of the maps, to be placed at points in Great Britain
and the Continent where a demand would be likely to arise. A large number were sent, for
distribution, to the World's Columbian Exposition, recently closed in Chicago, and it is the
intention to similarly place the map, together with others showing portions of the Province in
more detail, at the Midwinter Pair now being-held in San Francisco.
This map was compiled, by your direction, at a time when the volume of business in your
Department was so great that its preparation by our own draughtsmen was out of the question, and as it did not in several features fulfil all necessary requirements, being drawn upon
a rather small scale, it was decided to commence the work of compiling a
New Map op the Province,
WThich would not only show all possible topographical information up to date, but also indicate .
the new Electoral Districts, as laid down in the Redistribution Bill now about to be  considered by the Legislature.
As this is a work of considerable magnitude, differing in system of construction, as well
as in numerous other details, from earlier maps of the Province, I feel justified in dwelling, to
some extent, on the manner in which the work has been carried on.
Earlier maps of the Province have been constructed upon such a small scale, that almost
any of the systems of projection would answer equally well for their construction. This map,
however, was to be drawn on a scale so large that the choice of projection became a factor of
great importance, in order to represent distances and areas with the least possible distortion.
The system of "Polyconic projection" which has given excellent satisfaction in the
construction of the maps of the United States Coast and Goedetic Survey, appears to be less
accurate when applied to such high latitudes as British Columbia. The oblique secant
cylinder projection, introduced by Captain Deville, Surveyor-General of Canada, which so
admirably represents the broad extent of the Dominion of Canada, can hardly be said to
afford such qualities as to render it eminently desirable for the construction of maps of this
Province. A special projection was therefore decided on. It rests on the general principles
of Gauss' conical development and is more particularly known as Lambert's conical ortho-
morphic projection. This is, however, slightly modified so that the true distances between
the parallels and the proper lengths of the degrees of longitude have been maintained
throughout the map. Tables for this construction were consequently calculated, and will
doubtless prove of use in any future work of a similar character to be performed in the
Department.
The sources of information from which this map has been compiled are—
(a.) Admiralty charts and maps of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey :
(b.) Maps and plans of all actual surveys on record in this office :
(c.)  Maps  and   plans of   Dominion  Government surveys  within  the  Canadian  Pacific
Railway Belt:
(d.) Maps and plans of International Boundary Surveys :
(e.) Maps of the Geological and Natural  History Survey of Canada, published by the
Department of the Interior :
(f) Maps of railway exploration surveys : 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 955
((/.) Maps and reports from Provincial exploration parties :
(h.) Maps and reports from Dominion exploration parties :
(*.)  Plans of survey performed by the Indian Department:
(j.) Reports from private explorations :
(k.) Miscellaneous information  as gained  from  Government  Agents,  the officers of the
Hudson's Bay Company, and residents.
The large scale of this map affords an opportunity of showing information which has not
been possible to indicate upon maps of an earlier date. Townships and all other extensive
surveys throughout the Province, cities, towns, settlements, schools, missions, Indian villages,
post and telegraph offices, and, in the northern districts, canneries, mills, well known farmhouses, and camps, are systematically indicated, together with means of communication.
Agricultural and pastoral resources outside of surveyed tracts are shown as far as they are
known to exist.    Mineral locations are indicated by a system of conventional signs.
The mountain ranges will be shown generally, but, as the Department is now carrying on
a photo-topographical survey of the Province whereby that part of the country's topography
will be closely determined, it is not deemed advisable to attempt to show the elevations in
detail until the returns from that survey are at hand, when sectional maps will be issued
following the progress of the survey.
Besides the above-mentioned features, of which several certainly are marked improvements on earlier methods of map producing, it will be found that this map has numerous
additions of a topographical character not shown on previous publications. The now completed
survey of the western limit of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Company's Belt, and recent mineral
discoveries in Alberni District, have furnished new and valuable information concerning the
interior of Vancouver Island, while a network of Townships laid out at its northern extremity
has intimately acquainted us with that valuable portion of the district.
The Topographical Survey Branch of the Department of the Interior has, during late
years, carried on a photo-topographical survey within the limits of the Canadian Pacific
Railway Belt, whereby the physical features of that part of the country have been accurately
determined. The large developments of mineral and agricultural resources in Kootenay and
Yale Districts have necessitated numerous public and private surveys, furnishing much new
and valuable information of those sections of the Province. Certain additional knowledge of
that portion of Lillooet District lying north of the South Thompson River has been acquired,
which will doubtless add value to the work. In publishing this information, together with
the results of the recent explorations and surveys performed under the supervision of Messrs.
Poudrier and Gauvreau, the map will be more complete than any heretofore placed before the
public.
Extensive areas in Cariboo and Cassiar Districts have hitherto been marked on our maps
with apologetic significance as " Unsurveyed Regions." These tracts, it was found, had to a
considerable extent been traversed by Dominion exploratory parties under Wm. Ogilvie,
D.L.S., and others, the results of which were placed at our disposal by the Ottawa authorities
with much generosity, although they had not completed their own publications of those sections
of the country. Thus it has been possible to indicate with accuracy the courses of the Liard,
Nelson, Pine, Halfway, and Findlay Rivers, with their tributaries.
Small reference maps will be placed in the margin of the large map, effectively showing
(1) the position of British Columbia in relation to the other Provinces of the Dominion of
Canada, and (2) its relative position to the other countries of the Northern Hemisphere.
The map covers a sheet nearly seven feet long by five feet six inches in width, and is
being prepared with a view to photo-lithographic reproduction, a process requiring the highest
class of draughtsmanship, while attention need scarcely be drawn to the fact that the
compilation and mapping are matters which demand intellectual judgment and most careful
and skilful execution.
The work has been faithfully carried out, considering the numerous obstacles which have
from time to time presented themselves. The space in the draughting office was so limited
that a room in the Legislative Assembly Building was called into requisition, where light and
general accommodation were detrimental to expeditious work. Voluminous survey reports
had to be carefully perused and considerable correspondence entered into in order to obtain
the necessary information to bring the map up to date.
If no unforeseen delays occur, it is expected that the map will be ready for the press
some time during the approaching spring. 956
Crown Land Surveys.
1893
Work in the Draughting Office.
The careful examination and plotting of the surveyors' field-notes forms only a portion of
the many duties of the draughtsmen. In a great many cases the notes are returned to the
surveyor for additional information, or to be corrected in such a manner as to comply with the
provisions of the " Land Act" or the requirements of this Department, before they can be
finally accepted and published in the British Columbia Gazette. This entails a large amount
of correspondence, which from its nature requires care and intelligence.
The number of field-books received during the year is not so great as that of 1892, as
will be noticed from the following table, owing doubtless to the fact that the only method of
acquiring land, other than by public auction, is by means of pre-emption record, or by complying with the provisions of the "Mineral Act":—
No. of Field
Books.
No. of
Claims.
Area of
Pre-emption
Claims.
Area of
Mining Claims.
Area of
Timber Leases.
Area of
Land Grants.
Area of
Coal Claim
Leases.
192
327
Acres.
84,526
Acres.
1,505.57
Acres.
7,797
Acres.
9,749
Acres.
2,160
Number of Crown grant tracings—786.
Number of tracings for Agents—200.
Plan of Townsite of Quesnelle Forks.
ii ii New Denver.
it ii Hazleton.
Plans of Gaols and School Buildings situated at various points throughout the Province.
It will be noticed from the above that no purchase claims appear in this schedule; but it
is worthy of remark that although the number of field-books is far below that of last year the
number of acres acquired by pre-emption is considerably greater than the combined areas of
pre-emption and purchase claims acquired during the year 1892.
In addition to the long list of maps prepared in this Department for lithographic purposes
and the work contained in the above schedule, it has been deemed expedient to carefully
reproduce certain of the old official maps of the Victoria and adjacent districts. These maps
were made in 1858, and on account of their almost daily use during the past thirty-five years,
have become very much the worse for wear, and in certain places the information written
thereon has become almost obliterated. Victoria and Metchosin Districts are thus completed,
and the District of Sooke is in such a shape that by the addition of a few small connection
surveys, the map will contain all the information of the original, besides showing the result of
recent surveys to date.
A large and very useful map of a portion of Yale and Kootenay Districts, commenced
some years ago, has been brought up to date. This map is for office use only, is drawn upon
a scale of two miles to an inch, and shows all surveyed claims whose position was known or
could be approximately determined. It covers the country extending from North Bend, on
the Fraser River, eastward to Lower Arrow Lake, taking in the large group of claims in
Nicola, Grand Prairie, the "Mission" on Okanagan Lake, and the recent surveys in Fire
Valley. It shows the Canadian Pacific Railway throughout, to a point in the neighborhood
of Griffin Lake, including the North Thompson country as far up that river as Meredian Bend,
and extends westerly to the Chilcotin River, a tributary of the Fraser.
For the purpose of placing our Province before the numerous visitors to the Midwinter
Exposition now being held in San Francisco, a large sheet was prepared, upon which was
mounted the different maps together with Dr. Dawson's map, showing the Cariboo mining-
region. Appended to this sheet are voluminous tables, containing much useful and valuable
information respecting the industries of the Province, and the whole embellished with the
British Columbia Coat of Arms handsomely painted in water colours.
It would not be proper to close this list of work performed during the past year in the
draughting office without directing your attention to something which has proved, and is at the
present time, a very valuable aid in referring, at a moment's notice, to any survey which is on
file in your Department. This work occupied considerable time, but the completeness of the
index is certainly a sufficient excuse for the amount of labour involved in its construction, r
57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 957
Surveys.
The reports of the different surveyors engaged upon the work of laying out the Crosvn
Lands are hereto appended and will doubtless prove interesting and instructive reading to all
those who desire to become thoroughly acquainted with the resources of the Province. These
reports show that extensive tracts of land have been prepared for settlement purposes, besides
adding a large amount of information to that already on file in this Department.
Mr. Peter Leech has been employed in making traverses of the different highways
radiating from the City of Victoria, a very desirable survey containing information especially
requisite at this particular time, as it is the intention of your Department to commence in the
near future the work of compiling a new map of the southern portion of Vancouver Island,
showing all information to date which will, to a certain extent, supply the place of the map of
the south-eastern districts published in 1880, and now out of print.
The large Indian Reserve situated in the District of Quamichan, having been laid out
apparently without any regard to the positions of the posts governing the section and range
lines, and Crown Grants to certain adjacent sections having been issued, rather serious
complications have arisen respecting the title to certain portions of sections bordering on the
outline of the Reserve. In view of this fact, it was considered advisable to instruct Mr.
Henry Fry to perform such surveys as would enable him to prepare a plan upon which would
be indicated all the necessary information to assist the Department and the other parties
interested to arrive at a settlement of the matter. No report of this survey, nor of that of
Mr. Leech, is appended.
Mr. Burwell, of the firm of Garden, Hermon and Burwell, Provincial Land Surveyors of
Vancouver, has been engaged during the season in subdividing into sections certain portions
of the country situated at the northern end of Vancouver Island, where a large amount of
outline work had been previously performed by members of that well-known firm. As this
portion of the island is now mapped, a great deal of reliable information regarding it can be
supplied, and when the results of this season's work are placed upon the Township sheets, the
desirable knowledge respecting this portion of Vancouver Island will be almost complete.
Mr. Palmer's operations were confined to the work of laying out into sections the
available land situated upon the islands lying between Vancouver Island and the Mainland
of the Province. He reports considerable land situated upon Valdes Island as being suitable
for settlement, and has laid it out accordingly. He also made a very careful trigonometrical
survey of the unsurveyed channel running through that island, a work which will doubtless
prove of value, not only to your own Department, but also, on account of its original character,
to the Admirality of Great Britain, where a copy of the survey should be forwarded without
delay. During the summer he also located and made the necessary surveys and soundings for
the purpose of furnishing information for the preparation of two wharves to be constructed
near the scene of his season's work.
The surveys in the valley of the Kle-na-klene River, which empties into salt water at the
head of Knight's Inlet, were carried on by Mr. A. F. Cotton, who was unsuccessful in locating
a trail up the valley of the river of such a character as to warrant the outlay of a reasonable
appropriation. It cannot be denied that very grave, and perhaps insurmountable, obstacles lie
in the way of building a trail which would be available at all times of the year, as a highway
into and out of the great Chilcotin country. The amount of land suitable for settlement
purposes is reported to be of very limited extent, and a great portion of this small area is set
apart for the Indians, who, as the surveyor reports, "do not cultivate any of it." Mr.
Cotton's remarks concerning the useless destruction of timber by the men engaged in securing
logs for the saw mills are well worthy of perusal.
All the available land suitable for settlement, situated in the valley of the Upper
Squamish River, appears from W. S. Jemmett's report to have been laid out into lots.
Evidently there is not a very large extent of land suitable for settlement purposes in the
valley of this river, and what does exist appears to be found in scattered patches lying along
the sides of the stream. Until roads are built into this region, the difficulties met with in
overcoming the many obstacles presented by canoe navigation will doubtless be the means of
retarding settlement, especially as so much good land can so easily be obtained elsewhere.
Mr Coryell was engaged in making surveys of a rather scattered character, but still of
importance, as all the available lands in the following townships situated in the Lower
Osoyoos country have been laid out into sections, viz.:—Townships 88, 53, 89, 50, 54, 65, 66
and 67.    His report will be found to be very complete respecting details of the character of 958 Crown Land Surveys. 1S93
the soil and timber, besides furnishing interesting items regarding roads, mines and minerals.
Township numbers 54, 65 and 66 are mentioned as containing valuable tracts of timber lands,
which should be thoroughly examined with a view of placing a reserve upon them, as they
appear to be the only localities where good merchantable timber is to be found in the
neighbourhood.
The field operations carried on by Mr. Latimer, though in a different portion of the
Osoyoos District, were of a character somewhat similar to those performed by Mr. Coryell,
which consisted of laying out into sections portions of already partially surveyed townships.
The work carried on was located in Harris, Creighton, and Cherry Creek valleys, and along
the Shuswap River, and comprised portions of townships numbers 3, 41, 42, 44, 45 and 47.
The report is worthy of perusal as a quantity of useful and reliable information respecting
lands and methods of communication, especially valuable to the intending settler, will be
therein found in detail.
Messrs. Thomson and Strathern were instructed to work in conjunction with Mr. A. L.
Poudrier, in subdividing into townships, sections, &c., certain portions of the Nechaco country,
where exists a very large tract of land considered to be suitable for settlement purposes. As
this portion of the Province is situated at such a distance from the centres of civilization, a
large portion of the season was occupied in going in and coming out, leaving a comparatively
short period in which to perform survey work, and, as a portion of the surveyor's work in the
field consisted in first giving to the Indians those portions of land which had been set aside,
but not surveyed, for their use by the Indian Reserve Commissioners minutes of decision,
copies of which were forwarded with the surveyor's instructions, the time at the disposal for
the legitimate work of the Department was thereby considerably lessened. Notwithstanding
these facts, upwards of sixty-five thousand acres were laid off into sections, with the addition
of a large amount of outline or framework upon which will rest the future subdivision of the
country. The appended reports of these gentlemen will doubtless prove interesting and
instructive reading to all those who are awaiting the result of these surveys, about which so
many enquiries have lately been made.
In closing these remarks upon the results of the sectional surveys carried on this season,
I wish to direct your attention to the fact that there have been surveyed into sections upwards
of two hundred and forty thousand acres of land. In other words, there have been prepared
for settlement fifteen hundred farms of one hundred and sixty acres each, a result which,
taking into consideration the character of the country surveyed, is a fair indication of the
general faithfulness displayed by the parties detailed for this service.
Your attention is also directed to the fact that surveys of considerable extent have now
been completed in different regions throughout the Province without any system of inspection
having been instituted. This is a matter which should receive consideration, as it is very
important to know whether or not any blunders have been made in laying out the public
domain according to the provisions of the " Land Act."
Photo-topographical Survey.
The inauguration in British Columbia of photo-topographical surveys is a departure
which, if regularly carried on, will doubtless prove of great benefit to the Province, on account
of the vast amount of accurate information respecting the configuration of the country derived
from scientific work of this character. It was considered advisable to commence operations
in West Kootenay District and gradually extend them to other portions of the country until
sufficient data was collected to enable your Department to publish an authentic topographical
map of the Province.
The work, therefore, was commenced last season under the direction of Mr. W. S.
Drewry, P. L. S., a gentleman well qualified to perform this particular class of surveying, on
account of the thorough training he acquired in similar surveys performed in the Canadian
Pacific Railway belt in this Province, for the Topographical Survey Branch of the Department of the Interior.
It was considered advisable for the first year or so to attach a surveyor to Mr. Drewry's
party for the purpose, not only of acquiring a knowledge of this class of work, but also to
assist the general progress of the work in making tie and traverse surveys, and thereby
thoroughly complete in every detail as great a portion of the country as possible. As a result
of this policy some five hundred square miles have been covered, and a sufficient number of
photographs obtained to enable the surveyors to make a complete map of the section of the 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 959
country thus surveyed. In addition to the above there were about seven hundred square
miles partially surveyed, making a total which may be considered a very fair season's work
when the difficulties met with are taken into consideration.
The topographic maps are plotted from bromide prints obtained from the negatives taken
in the field. As the development of these plates is a rather delicate operation, requiring
considerable judgment and experience, it was considered advisable, for the first year at least,
to entrust this work to Mr. H. N. Topley, the photographer to the Department of the Interior,
who has had large experience in handling work of that description. One box of plates has
thus been developed, and the bromide prints taken from them appear to be in a very satisfactory condition. These plates and prints form a portion of the "field notes" taken by the
surveyor during his season's work, and are placed on file in the Lands and Works Department,
similarly to the returns of all other public surveys.
Instruments.
To carry out the scheme of triangulation, as set forth in my report of last year making
all work done part of a general trigonometrical survey, it has been found necessary to purchase
an instrument specially designed for mountain triangulation, the one in use at present not
being adapted to perform work of the requisite precision. It was desirable to have an instrument of sufficient weight and stability, with such adjustments attached as to render it capable
of performing with the requisite precision all necessary triangulation and astronomical work.
But as this instrument has, during the progress of the survey, to be carried to the tops of the
highest mountains, weight becomes a very important factor, and it therefore seemed difficult
to combine in one instrument those qualities which would render it suitable for the performance of all services. However, after carefully considering the matter it was decided to place
an order with Cook & Sons, of York, England, for an instrument to be built according to
a specification furnished which, it is believed, will fulfil all requirements.
Its form, for trigonometrical operations, is that of a re-iteration theodolite, having an
azimuth plate of six inches diameter, divided on silver to fifteen minutes. The standards are
low, not allowing the telescope to transit, but permitting the reading of elevation or
depression angles of 45°. Upon the standards are rigidly fixed two micrometer microscopes,
by means of which the fifteen-minute spaces on the graduated limb are divided into two
hundred and fifty parts, or 0°.001 = 3"-6; but the spaces on the drum or micrometer head
can be easily estimated to nine-tenths of a second.
The telescope has a focal length of about eighteen inches, with an object glass of two
inches clear aperture, and is provided with eye-pieces for terrestrial work of powers of 20 and
30 diameters. A four-inch vertical circle reading, by means of verniers to thirty seconds, is
attached to the axis of the telescope.
The whole is supported on a strongly braced tripod two feet high, upon which the
instrument rests by three collared foot screws, which are held in position by means of a
locking plate. The axis of the telescope is raised by means of extra pieces rigidly clamped
to the low standards, thus permitting the telescope to " transit," and enabling the observer
by means of a diagonal eye-piece, to observe stars in the zenith as efficiently as at other
elevations. The usual hollow axis, reflector and lamp attachments are provided, as well as
extra eye-pieces of powers of 20, 50 and 70 diameters, each fitted to secure a "shaded" dark
glass to permit of sun observations. The chambered striding level, as well as all the other
level tubes, are graduated and the values of one division of each accurately ascertained.
This instrument it is believed will answer all requirements, and will cost from three
hundred to four hundred dollars less than would be required to purchase separate instruments.
The instruments used this season on the photo-topographical survey were similar to those
employed on the Alaskan Boundary Commission; but, as will be seen from Mr. Drewry's report,
very much more satisfactory progress can be made by the use of a camera on the triangulation
party; an additional instrument has consequently been ordered from a London firm. This
camera is slightly different from the ordinary instrument employed in general photographic
work, and may be briefly described as consisting of a light tight box having a fixed focus of
about 5| inches and a No. 1 A Dallmeyer rectilinear lens with a yellow screen at the back,
thus converting blue rays into green and thereby avoiding "fogging" of plates arising from blue
haze so often noticed in mountain scenery. The photographs are taken on English isochromatic
plates and views secured up to thirty degrees of elevation or depression without diminishing
the breadth of the field,    These results are obtained by means of   a special form of sliding 960 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
front in metal designed by Mr. Drewry, which avoids swelling and consequent uncertainty as
to the position of the optical axis of the lens.
As all the available space in the present draughting office is completely occupied, a
suitable room requiring plenty of light in which to plot the photo-topographic maps had to be
provided in the Board of Trade Building. This arrangement is at present rather inconvenient,
as was also the circumstance of being compelled to use one of the Committee Rooms of the
House of Assembly during the time in which the large map of the Province above referred to
was in course of preparation.
Board of Examiners.
Meetings of the Board of Examiners were held, according to the " Provincial Land
Surveyors' Act," in the months of April and October. At the spring examination seven
gentlemen gave notice of intention to present themselves as candidates for the commission of
Provincial Land Surveyor. Of these, two were successful, one was absent, three failed to
attain the required standard, and the remaining gentleman, having become violently ill during
the sitting of the Board, was granted a special examination on the production of a doctor's
certificate and paying the expenses of the Examiners. The three gentlemen who presented
themselves as students passed successful examinations and were granted certificates to that
effect.
The list of candidates at the October meeting consisted of three for commissions and two
for preliminary examination. The preliminary men were successful, and received certificates.
No commissions were granted at this meeting of the Board, as two of the candidates failed to
comply with the provisions of the "Land Surveyors' Act," and the other failed in his
examination.
The following are the names of the gentlemen added to the authorized list of surveyors
for the Province :—
R. S. Sherman, P.L.S. (Ontario)    Vancouver.
A. D. Thursby (Australian Surveyor) Victoria.
W. J. Holmes Victoria.
Preliminary certificates were granted to F. C. Chandler, W. N. Draper, C. Moore, R. H.
Parkinson, and O. B. N. Wilkie.
Two complaints were lodged with the Secretary, accusing two surveyors of gross
negligence in the performance of their duties ; but as the complainants failed to put in an
appearance, the matter has been laid over for future action.
As the meetings of the Board of Examiners are held, according to Statute, at the offices
of the Lands and Works Department, it is desirable that its members should reside in
Victoria, or at points within a reasonable distance of the city. Mr. J. A. Kirk, having
moved his place of residence from New Westminster to Nelson, doubtless found it inconvenient
to attend the meetings of the Board, and in consequence has asked to be relieved of his duties
as an examiner. In accepting his resignation, it is but fair to state that Mr. Kirk always
took a warm interest in the proceedings of the Board, and proved himself to be one of its
most efficient members.
TOM KAINS,
Surveyor-General. 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 961
REPORT   ON   PHOTO-TOPOGRAPHICAL  WORK   IN   WEST
KOOTENAY   DISTRICT.
BY W. S. DREWRY.
T. Kains, Esq., Surveyor-General,
Victoria, B. C.
Sir,—In accordance with your request I have the honour to submit a report on matters
in connection with the photo-topographical survey of Kootenay District, and the triangulation
for the purpose of establishing known points, to which may be tied surveys of mineral claims,
farming lands, timber limits, &c.
To perform this work it is necessary to take account of the geographic economy of this
district, in connection with which a few remarks may be made.
The south-eastern portion of the Province of British Columbia comprises the large
triangular tract of mountains embraced by the great Columbia River, its tributary the
Kootenay, and the forty-ninth parallel of latitude.
The western slope of the Rocky Mountains and the eastern slope of the Gold Range,
together with the area above bounded, form the Kootenay District.
The rivers mentioned have broad valleys, easy of access, and are navigable throughout a
considerable portion of their length.
Upper Columbia Lake is situated in latitude 50° 15' N. at the westerly foot of the
Rocky Mountain Range. From this sheet of water the Columbia River issues, and runs
north-westerly upwards of one hundred and fifty miles, where it turns sharply, forming the
Big Bend of the Columbia. Thence it flows slightly east of south until it passes from Canadian
territory. In the last-mentioned part of its course it expands into the Arrow Lakes, deep,
narrow basins, typical of a mountain region, occupying some eighty miles of its length, and
extending to within twenty-five miles of the International Boundary.
The Kootenay River, rising in the Rocky Mountains within fifteen miles of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, flows parallel to the Columbia until opposite its source, then, turning sharply,
breaking through its western mountain wall, it flows within a short distance of the Columbia
Lake, and then runs southeasterly almost in line with the upper portion of the Columbia
until the boundary is crossed at Tobacco Plains.
After entering United States Territory it sweeps around and returns to the Kootenay
District in about longitude 116° 32' W., flowing north-westerly.
About twenty miles from the Boundary it enters Kootenay Lake, which is some eighty
miles long and from two to three miles wide, lying parallel to the upper portions of the
Columbia and Kootenay Rivers. The waters of this lake discharge at nearly the centre of its
westerly side, through what has been named the West Arm of Kootenay Lake. This would
seem to be rather a misnomer, since a very perceptible flow is found in nearly all parts ; while
in some of its courses, under two hundred yards in width, there is a considerable current, which
at one point, known as "the narrows," is rapid. This " arm," as it is called, extends some
eighteen miles to the Town of Nelson, at the foot of navigation on these waters. Below
Nelson the name Kootenay River is again applied to the stream, as it seems might properly
be done from the lake to its confluence with the Columbia, which occurs at Sproat's Landing
about twenty-two miles north of the boundary.
The great valleys of these rivers and lakes, together with various connecting passes, are
the natural routes of communication within the district. But the Canadian Pacific Railway
traverses the Rocky Mountains and enters the Columbia Valley at Golden, ninety miles from
the Columbia Lake.    After following the valley eighteen miles the railway crosses the river 962 Crown Land Surveys. ..    1893
and a few miles below leaves it by the Beaver Valley, crosses the summit of the Selkirks by
Rogers Pass at an elevation of four thousand five hundred feet above the sea, goes down the
Illecillewaet to Revelstoke, and re-crosses the Columbia; going on westerly into the Gold
Range by Eagle Pass.
A steamboat plys from Golden to the Columbia Lakes, while similar connection exists on
the Columbia River—Arrow Lake route between Revelstoke and the International Boundary.
Steamers also navigate Kootenay Lake and River as far up as Bonner's Ferry, on the
Great Northern Railway.
The last two mentioned routes are joined by the Columbia and Kootenay Railway along
the unnavigable portion of the Lower Kootenay River. The Nelson and Fort Sheppard
Railway extends from the Town of Nelson southerly by way of Cottonwood Creek, Salmon
River, and Beaver Creek Valleys to the Columbia, along whose bank it continues to the
boundary, where connection is made with the Spokane and Northern Railway, tapping the
Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railways at Spokane.
The various routes specified are at present the main lines of communication with the
supply centres and markets of the world.
A branch railway is being constructed from the Canadian Pacific Railway at Revelstoke
to the head of Upper Arrow Lake.
Another railroad is nearly Completed from Nakusp, on the lake, to Slocan Lake, and
thence along its shore to the valley of Carpenter Creek, up which it goes some five miles to
Three Forks, a point fairly in the Slocan mining area at which ores from many of the various
mines can be assembled.
It seems probable that within a short time the construction of a railway through the
Crow's Nest Pass into the Kootenay District will be proceeded with. After leaving the pass
the line will most likely go by way of Cranbrook along the Moyie and Goat River Valleys to
the Lower Kootenay River and, traversing the southerly portion of West Kootenay, continue
westerly. Immense quantities of excellent coal are known to exist in the Crow's Nest Pass,
while supplies of flour and meat can be obtained from the North-West Territories and
Manitoba. This road then, if built, will bring these essentials within easy reach of the
population of that portion of the country.
The prominence of the Kootenay as a mining region may be said to date from the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway; because, although considerable quantities of
placer gold and some argentiferous galena and copper ores had previously been found, it was
only after the time named that the district can be said to have been prospected and mineral
lodes systematically worked. So much has been written about its mineral wealth that little
need be said here regarding it beyond the fact that the value of the ore in sight is well wp in
the millions, while the prospective value seems almost boundless.
For mining purposes the whole district has been divided into East and West Kootenay,
the boundary being an imaginary line passing through the Big Bend of the Columbia and
following the summit of the main range of the Selkirks and that of the Purcell Range.
As the work of the photo-topographic survey during the past year was carried on in
West Kootenay attention will be chiefly confined to it.
The various mining areas, such as Trail Creek, Toad Mountain, Ainsworth, Slocan, Lardo,
Fish Creek, and Illecillewaet have been brought prominently to public notice through the
newspapers, and no doubt the work being performed within them will be reported on by the
officials in charge.
It may, however, be mentioned that the Hall Mine, commonly known as the Silver King,
was sold last year for £300,000 (nearly $1,500,000), and that extensive preparations for
working are being made. At Trail Creek and Ainsworth some work has been done. Very
large bodies of ore are known to exist, but they are mostly of somewhat lower grade than
those of Toad Mountain and Slocan.
In this latter section development is progressing rapidly, from thirty to fifty tons per diem
being shipped to the smelters, while much more is being piled up at the mines awaiting the
advent of cheap transportation.
In some places, such as Toad Mountain, Ainsworth, and Illecillewaet, the ores are close to
the main lines of communication; but others, such as Lardo and Slocan, are quite differently
situated, lying as they do in the heart of a rough, mountainous region.
Taking the Slocan area as an example, it is found to be accessible from Kootenay Lake
only by way of Kaslo Creek Valley, and from Slocan Lake through that of Carpenter Creek. 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 963
It has already been mentioned that a railroad is nearly completed from Nakusp to Three
Forks, in the Slocan mining area. By this means and the use of steamers, an outlet will be
obtained either to the Canadian Pacific Railway at Revelstoke, or, for the greater portion of
the year, to the railway lines to the south.
The building of some twenty-two miles of railroad from Three Forks to Kaslo would give
an alternative route for ore and supplies by way of the Kootenay waters, either to the Great
Northern Railway at Bonner's Ferry, or to the Nelson and Fort Sheppard Railway, at Nelson.
All these routes necessitate transhipment; but, if a railway were built clown Carpenter
Creek Valley to Slocan Lake, thence along its shore and down the Slocan, Kootenay and
Columbia valleys, until connection was made either with a road traversing the southern portion
of British Columbia, or with some of the great transcontinental lines to the south, transhipment would be avoided and a considerable sum of money might be saved to the producers.
After being hauled to Kaslo on sleighs at a cost of from twenty to twenty-five dollars per
ton, ore is now being shipped to smelters in the United States; and events would seem to
indicate that, for at least some years, these points will attract the greater portion of the Slocan
ores. In mining a lode, it is usually the case that much lean or concentrating ore is taken
out in obtaining material rich enough to bear such charges as those stated above. It is
apparent that considerable ore will be mined which would barely pay for handling if shipped
by the present means, but, if cheap transportation were available, would return a handsome
profit to the miner. It is also obvious that low carriage charges would permit the opening up
of mines whose ores would not defray a high rate. In addition, the hauling of heavy concentrating machinery and other appliances, essential to successful mining, by a sleigh or waggon,
is a difficult and costly operation.
It is evident, then, that the securing of cheap transportation is a most important matter.
Where continuous water carriage cannot be had, all the work mentioned can be most cheaply
performed by railroads. The waterways being free to all, competition may be relied upon to
adjust freight rates to a fair figure; but such is not the case with railways. Speaking of
them, a report of the New York Board of Trade and Transportation says :—" Honestly and
equitably managed railroads are the most beneficent discovery of the century, but perverted
by irresponsible and uncontrolled corporate management, in which stock-watering and kindred
swindles are tolerated, they become simply great engines to accomplish unequal taxation and
to arbitrarily redistribute the wealth of the country."
Speaking generally, mountain passes are so narrow and difficult that when a charter is
granted allowing occupation by a railway, practically a monopoly of transportation over that
route is given.
Therefore, even where several passes to an objective point exist, the holding of charters
for purely speculative purposes is to be guarded against, and it would seem advisable to secure
protection against excessive charges arising from monopoly or combination; otherwise the
development of a district may be retarded directly, and indirectly that of the whole Province.
For it is the taxpaying power of private property which is of value to the Province, so that
if such power is exhausted or greatly impaired by uncontrolled corporations brought into
existence by the people, then the value of the property taxed is lowered not only to the owner
but also to the population as a whole.
It is suggested that protection might be obtained by inserting in every charter a clause
reserving to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council the right to fix a maximum charge; thus
reserving to the people, through their Executive, a certain control over organizations which
they have permitted to monopolize their avenues of trade.
Necessity of Survey Work.
In addition to the system of railways which will eventually form the arteries of traffic
in the Kootenay District, there will be constructed connecting therewith a no less important
vein system of tramways, waggon roads and trails, to points which economic considerations
and the physical characteristics of the country place beyond the touch of railroads. The
ultimate cost will necessarily be enormous, and mistakes in location or construction in a
mountainous country correspondingly expensive.
To assist in the proper location and administration of the construction of the whole it is
necessary to have reliable topographical maps and a connected survey of the various important
areas.    To this end, together with other important objects to be attained, the work of the 964 Crown Land Surveys. 1893'
photo-topographical survey was commenced by measuring a base at Nelson and expanding a
net of triangles over the adjacent country.
Operations were much delayed by heavy rains, while the wooded nature of the country
rendered necessary a considerable amount of chopping in order to obtain a view of neighbouring
peaks. A base of 4,212.5 feet was measured, and five expansion signals were placed and
triangulated to. From these the position of a main signal of the triangulation net was
established on the highest point of Toad Mountain. This point was occupied, as also were
three others on spurs of the same mountain, and an iron post properly connected with the
triangulation was planted near the north-east corner of the Silver King mining claim. So
that claims already surveyed, together with those surveyed hereafter, being connected therewith may be shown in their proper positions on maps. The corners of these claims are at
present marked by wooden posts liable to destruction or removal, but should such an event
take place they can now be re-established by reference to the iron post planted, or to the
cairns placed as signals on mountain tops.
The many mineral claims on Toad Mountain lie mostly in the basin of Give-out Creek,
at an average elevation of probably four thousand feet above Kootenay Lake. At present
Nelson and Toad Mountain are connected by a waggon road about eight and one-half miles
long, over which supplies and ore are hauled at considerable expense ; but, no doubt, as
quantities increase they will be carried from and to Nelson, some five miles distant, by
tramways of the character usually employed on steep grades.
The quantity of timber in this vicinity suitable for mining purposes is limited, and
therefore should be carefully guarded from fire or wanton destruction.
After completing work on Toad Mountain a camp was made at Cottonwood Lake, a
small sheet of water little more than a pond in size, about six miles from Nelson and near
the source of Cottonwood Creek. It is through the pass formed by the valley of this lake and
stream that the Nelson and Fort Sheppard Railway reaches the waters of Kootenay Lake.
The descent from the summit to Nelson being thirteen hundred feet in six miles, the railway
follows the easterly mountain side of the pass, and does not come to the level of Kootenay
Lake until Five-Mile Point, beyond Nelson, is reached.
From Cottonwood Lake tents, blankets, provisions, and instruments were packed up the
east fork of Cottonwood Creek, some four miles. Here, at an elevation of four thousand feet
above Kootenay Lake, are about two thousand acres of excellent grass land, apparently part
of an old glacial moraine. It is evident that the snow lies very deep in winter, and does not
melt away until late in the spring; but good pasturage can be had for perhaps four months in
the year. From camp in this grassy basin two peaks were climbed, and the journey continued
over the southerly range of mountains into the valley of Whitewater Creek, a tributary of
Salmon River, and up it nearly to the snow-fields of the source.
Climbing up rather precipitous slopes, Ymir Peak, at the head of the valley and six
thousand two hundred feet above Kootenay Lake, was ascended.
Photographs of the surrounding and the necessary instrumental readings having been
secured, a cairn was built on the peak as a signal of the triangulation and for the future
reference of mineral claims in that vicinity. On the south-west side of Ymir Mountain is a
wide semi-circular basin containing extensive snow-fields from which a large creek flows
easterly into Kootenay Lake some twelve or fourteen miles south of its outlet. The mountain
above mentioned is the highest in that part of the country, and a fine view was therefore
obtained. It was particularly noticeable that the various streams draining this mountain
region penetrate much farther than the published maps show; waters flowing in opposite
directions often being separated by but a narrow ridge of rock forming the divide.
After returning to Co.ttonwood Lake, a short journey was made down Salmon River
Valley, but, owing to smoke from fires on the railway right of way then being cleared, it was
found that photographic work could not be carried on. In the vicinity of Hall Creek a
considerable quantity of pine (pinus ponderosci) and cedar was noticed.
Nelson was then visited, a stock of provisions purchased, and camp moved ten miles down
Kootenay River to the mouth of Rover Creek. This stream was then ascended to its head, a
camp being established at the Whitewater mine, a gold-bearing property not being operated
at that time although a mill had been erected. Four mountains were climbed and photographs
for mapping secured. The head-waters of Rover Creek and the North Fork of Salmon River
are but a short distance apart on a flat summit, over which horses could be taken without
difficulty except from fallen timber in a few places. 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 965
Two miles below the mouth of Rover Creek the Kootenay is joined by Slocan River,
along which appeared to be a considerable amount of good bench land, covered in part with a
heavy growth of fir. Between Rover Creek and the Slocan are the greatest falls of the
Lower Kootenay, which will probably be utilized as water-power at some future date. The
scenery along both Kootenay Lake and River is singularly lovely in its colouring; while the
fishing is becoming famous among travellers and deer are plentiful in the autumn. As the
population of West Kootenay increases this region will almost certainly become a favourite place
of resort. At Ward's Ferry, just below the great falls mentioned above, is probably the best
fly fishing water in the mountains; the fish being rainbow trout, ranging from one-half to
three pounds in weight. In other countries it has been found advantageous to preserve such
places, or even to re-stock them when depleted. It would therefore seem advisable to absolutely prohibit net or other modes of fishing than with rod and line.
Throughout the previous month the weather had been fine and dry; but smoke had been
gradually drifting in from fires at various points, so that during the succeeding two weeks but
little could be done either in photography or triangulation. Returning to Nelson a boat and
supplies were purchased, and a main camp established five miles up the lake. From this point
a camp and supplies were packed over the mountains at an elevation of four thousand feet
above Kootenay Lake to the upper part of Grohman Creek Valley. This stream is about
eight miles long and runs almost due south into the Kootenay two miles below Nelson; but
its head can be much more quickly reached by crossing the mountains from the place mentioned
than by travelling up its valley. A large fork of the creek heads in a deep basin a quarter of
a mile west of the main valley and, sweeping around a high plateau dividing them, joins the
main stream between three and four miles from its mouth. On the day following our advent
the whole valley was filled with dense clouds surcharged with moisture, which at first fell as
rain, but afterwards came down as snow. This continued for six days until the snow lay
upwards of two feet deep. When the weather cleared, two exhausting climbs were made,
completing work in that locality, the main camp being returned to after an absence of ten
days.
Having moved up the lake eight miles, attempts at climbing were made, but, during two
weeks, rain came down almost unceasingly; considerable snow falling on the mountain tops.
Upon the first clear day an ascent of four thousand seven hundred feet above the lake was
made, and photographs necessary for mapping that portion of the country secured. Camp was
then moved to Balfour at the outlet of Kootenay Lake.
At several points between Nelson and Balfour are small flats or benches suitable for
agriculture, most of which can be easily irrigated. Nearly all this arable land has been taken
up by settlers or by the Columbia and Kootenay Railway land grant. No doubt these locations
will be very valuable for market gardens as the population increases; while, if the climate
proves suitable, an additional area, unsuited to gardening, will be available for fruit growing.
Fire has passed over the greater portion of that tract of country, destroying much valuable
timber; in fact comparatively little is left fit for other uses than burning.
At Balfour bad weather was again experienced, and although five climbs were made, but
one was successful, and that only partially. An altitude of six thousand feet above the lake
was reached after passing through two thousand feet of dense clouds; and although the weather
above them was bright and warm with not a single fleck in the sky, contrary to expectation
the cloud banks did not break up that day, but lay on a level, giving an appearance like as if
the surface of Kootenay Lake and River had suddenly been raised two thousand five hundred
feet. The snow on the peak was three feet deep, rendering signal building impossible, and the
proper use of the instruments extremely difficult.
The easterly shore of Kootenay Lake was examined; but the mountains rise from six to
eight thousand feet above the lake and the snow was too deep to permit climbing them. It
was therefore decided to return to the Lower Kootenay River and work on the less lofty
mountains there as long as the gradually deepening snow might permit. This was done and
operations finally stopped on November 26th, the last ascent being attempted through snow
over four feet deep.
In commencing work a little time was expended in acquiring particular information
concerning the geography and nature of the district, so that the difficulties always arising in a
mountainous country might be foreseen aud provided for as much as possible, thereby largely
avoiding delays other than those occasioned by bad weather. Owing to the unusually large
fall of the preceding winter, deep snow  remained on mountains five thousand feet above 966 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
Kootenay Lake until the end of July. Snow came again on September 20th and remained,
while much rain fell in the valleys. In the intervals of fine weather a base was carefully
measured, nineteen mountain stations were occupied with transit and camera, the roads to the
Nelson district traversed, and all surveyed mining claims and pre-emptions connected with the
triangulation, so that a complete map of the district can be made. The survey of the Nelson
and Fort Sheppard Railway was also connected with a monument of the International Boundary for the purpose of determining the approximate longitude of Nelson.
The survey business having been wound up, the party returned to Victoria as instructed.
The route by way of Revelstoke had been closed by ice, so it was necessary to go by way of
Spokane. As the photographic plates could have been opened (and thus ruined) by the
United States customs authorities if carried as baggage, they were placed with the express
company for transportation, with the expectation that no delay would occur. But, unfortunately,
through some lack of arrangements between the express company and United States customs
authorities, a delay did occur which has seriously retarded the plotting of a map of the
country surveyed. However, after some time spent in ascertaining the exact state of affairs,
and the making of proper representations to the customs authorities, they were allowed to
come forward in bond and work is now being proceeded with.
Geology.
The following report on the geology of the country passed over is very largely based on
the private notes of Mr. D. R. Irvine, late of the Geological Survey of Scotland, who has
kindly permitted their use.
The tract of country which has been more particularly examined during the past season,
and the geology observed, stretches east and west some thirty-two miles from Balfour to the
mouth of Slocan River, and north and south some twenty miles from the head-waters of
Salmon River to those of Grohman Creek. This whole area is composed of granite and
metamorphic rocks with some intrusive dykes of porphyry and basalt.
Granite of different varieties, and possibly of various ages, occupies much the larger
portion of this area. A more extended examination over a wider area would no doubt permit
the classification of these granites and metamorphic rocks, and the forming of a correct idea
as to their ages and the different conditions under which they were formed. This year it is
only possible to describe shortly the various rocks and mention the localities where they were
noticed.
The north side of the west arm of Kootenay Lake presents an almost unbroken mass of
coarse grey granite from a few miles west of Balfour to the Slocan River. Opposite Nelson
the granite is particularly coarse, and is often porphyritic, containing large crystals of
orthoclase feldspar two or three inches in length. Nearly opposite Rover Creek, on the north
side of the Kootenay River, a mass of serpentine and gneiss forms a prominent butte very
noticeable from, the railway track which it overhangs.
To the south of arm and river the same grey granite, containing black and white mica
and some hornblende, extends along the  water front from   near   Balfour   to   Rover   Creek.
Proceeding up the East Fork of Cottonwood Creek, south of Nelson, massive grey
granite occurs for two miles from the main creek, then a mass of dark greenish diabase;
further up dark blue and grey highly altered schistose shales crop out for a short distance ;
then grey granite forming a sharp crested ridge on the south side of the creek. From the
edge of this granite to the divide toward Five-Mile Creek there is a succession of blue
ferruginous coated schistose shales, grey micaceous schists, and quartzose and gneiss bands,
all very much baked and altered and considerably contorted. The general strike of the beds
is N. and S. to N.N.W. to S.S.E., and they are vertical or inclined either way at high angles.
Crossing into the valley of Whitewater Creek a series of massive grey gneiss beds are
seen underlying a considerable thickness of micaceous schists and blue argillaceous shales.
These form a cliff at the south-west corner of the basin in which the creek heads. The crest
between this basin and Clearwater Creek is composed of dark grey foliated granite made up
of quartz, hornblende, pale feldspar and mica, passing into dark crystalline gneiss at the
highest peak. A series of grey shales and fine schists with gneiss bands forms the divide
between Whitewater and Five-Mile Creeks, and underlies the blue and grey shales seen at the
head of the East Fork of Cottonwood Creek. To the south and west of the head of Whitewater
Creek grey granite, often foliated, extends as far as could be seen, 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 907
Toad Mountain, lying about five miles south of Nelson, seems to be another area of
metamorphic rocks surrounded by granite; but, owing to the heavy covering of snow when
this mountain was visited, nothing of its structure could be determined. It would, however,
seem to be made up chiefly of various schists, gneissic and diabase rocks cut up by veins of
the surrounding granite. This area, owing to the richness of its ore deposits, well deserves a
thorough examination.
The ridges around the head of Rover Creek, and the high mountains to the south and
west, are all composed of hornblende granite, sometimes passing into syenite, traversed by
dykes of dark purplish porphyrite and basalt and a few veins of dark grey diorite. This
hornblende granite and syenite continues for miles down the west side of the North Fork of
Salmon River, and on both sides of the stream from the first east branch. To the east of
Whitewater mine are some high mountains made up of very much altered fine gneiss and
schists with masses of syenite and some dykes of porphyrite. Along the divide between the
head of the North Fork of Salmon River and the sources of Hall and Forty-nine creeks, a
series of bluish, very much baked shales abut against the granite, running generally east and
west, often vertical, but with a general dip to the south at a high angle. This shaly series is
coated with iron, making a marked reddish feature along the mountain tops. Below these
shales are grey crystalline gneisses with serpentinous coatings and granitic veins. The red
crusted shales seem to be brought up again in a fold to the east, and form Red Mountain and
another of similar appearance on the south side of the North Branch of Hall Creek. This
metamorphic area of stratified rocks on Rover Creek very probably forms part of the Toad
Mountain mass, but the intervening country was not examined.
The only other stratified metamorphic area noticed during last season occurs along the
shore of Kootenay Lake, north and south of Balfour. It consists of a series of gneiss beds
with coarse micaceous schists and beds of crystalline limestones and white marble, traversed
by numerous veins and bosses of very coarse granite. These rocks, however, were not closely
examined and the extent of ground they occupy has yet to be determined.
Toad Mountain is the chief mineral-bearing area in this region, the richest ore being-
copper, carrying a high percentage of silver.
Whitewater mine, a gold-bearing property near the head of Rover Creek, is in syenitic
granite, as are several other undeveloped claims between Rover Creek and Nelson.
Glacial Deposits.
No true boulder clay was noticed anywhere in this section, but several of the minor
valleys are filled to a considerable depth with a loose earthy moraine drift. This is noticeably
the case in the large basin at the head of the East Fork of Cottonwood Creek; while in the
valleys of Whitewater and Grohtnan Creeks some well marked though small moraines are
seen.
Glacial striae were observed on the ridge between Whitewater and Clearwater valleys at
a height of seven thousand feet, running north and south. They were also noticed on a
smooth surface of fine hornblende granite above the head-waters of the North Fork of Salmon
River, having the same direction and at about the same elevation as those first mentioned.
Large travelled boulders of various rocks are of frequent occurrence.
Generally speaking the geology of the whole district is extremely complicated, and a
large amount of detailed examination will be necessary in order to work it out.
Survey   Matters.
In conclusion, a few general remarks based on experience in the country may not be
out of place.
The area of land in West Kootenay suited to agriculture is very limited, and does not
at all compare in value with the lands which have been and may be granted under the
provisions of the Mining Act. As pointed out in your report of last year, it is absolutely
necessary to provide mining monuments of such a character that the surveys of mineral claims
may be readily connected therewith. In mountainous countries this may be most easily accomplished by building cairns on prominent peaks, as has recently been done in Colorado. In
opening up an unsurveyed area, the surveyor making the first surveys might build such a cairn,
or cairns, with which all surveys should be connected. Then when a triangulation was extended
over the country, no delay or difficulty would be experienced in ascertaining the positions of
individual claims,  since by simply taking instrumental readings on the cairns built, they 968 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
would be joined to the triangulation, thus fixing their relative and geographical position,
permitting their accurate plotting on maps for office and general use, and assisting in the
perpetuation of the locus of boundaries. A triangulation is necessary as a base for topographical work and the connection of scattered surveys, and these mining monuments can also
be fixed while carrying on the trigonometrical work, the first steps of which should be
performed with a large instrument of greater accuracy than that available for the operations
of the past year.
The instrument used in triangulating was a three-inch Troughton & Sims transit,
graduated to single minutes. It is a good instrument, but not suited to precise trigonometrical
work. Signals often being a long distance apart, a large telescope is required, but the mass
of metal in other parts of the instrument is not sufficient to prevent considerable vibration
and consequent uncertainty in any but calm weather. Therefore it is thought that a
theodolite with six-inch limb, reading to two seconds by micrometer microscopes, would add
greatly to the exactness and value of the work at but the additional cost of the instrument.
The primary triangulation can be most economically carried out by a small observing
party especially equipped for the purpose, occupying successively points from ten to twenty
miles apart.
From experience gained in that country during the past year, it would appear that the
survey of the Kootenay District can be most economically performed by a party of about ten
men, under a surveyor in charge, and an assistant surveyor. The surveyor in charge should
direct all operations and fill in the large triangulation, obtaining data necessary for the
construction of maps and general information about the country, while the assistant surveyor
carried on the primary triangulation with an observing party. By providing the assistant
surveyor with a camera, the data necessary from any triangulation point for making maps by
photo-topographical methods, could be obtained at trifling cost; and at the same time
occupation of that point by another party doing purely topographic work would be rendered
unnecessary, thereby saving time and consequent expense very largely. Also in travelling up
a pass this observing party might frequently pass near secondary points and occupy them,
thus  saving the  topographic party much time which could be used in other directions.
To carry out the foregoing programme it would be requisite to purchase another camera,
similar to the one now in stock, at a cost of about one hundred dollars. It is probable that
much more than that amount would be saved in a single season's operations by using the extra
camera as set forth above.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
W. S. Drewry.
Victoria, B. G, Feb. 8th, 1894- 57 VicT.
Crown Land Surveys.
969
REPORT OF SURVEYS ON VALDES ISLAND.
BY R. E. PALMER.
Vancouver, B.C., January 1st, 1894.
Tom Kains, Esq.,
Surveyor-General,
Victoria, B. C.
Sir,—According to instructions received from you on the 4th of June last, we made up a
party, and on the 6th proceeded to Cortes Island to make surveys of portions of the various
islands lying between the Mainland and Vancouver Island.
We landed first at Manson's, where we spent a portion of a day taking soundings for a
proposed wharf. From there we proceeded to Whaleton, where we also made a survey for a
proposed wharf, and where we had intended commencing our season's work.
We examined a portion of Cortes Island between Whaleton and Carrington Bay, where
we had been informed some good land lay, but, after having spent a few days examining it,
none was found in sufficient quantity to demand a survey. Good land was reported on the
eastern side of the island, but, being too far from our camp, we decided to postpone the
examination of it until we should be passing through Lewis Channel. Afterwards, however,
our time was so fully taken up that we had no chance of looking over it. From Whaleton
the party was moved across to Valdes Island, where plenty of work was soon found, and this
island furnished occupation for the whole season.
During the first part of the summer, the time was taken up in surveying the vacant lands
in the Cape Mudge Peninsula, connecting the existing surveys, and in establishing a system
of survey which was carried out during the rest of the season. During the latter part of the
summer, our time was occupied on the survey of the unsurveyed channels known as the " Hole
in the Wall," Okisollow Channel, and Surge Narrows.
Valdes Island is situate between the Island of Vancouver and the Mainland of B. O, at
the termination of the Straits of Georgia. It is separated from the former by Discovery
Passage, and from the latter by Calm Channel and numerous small islands. Though shown
on the charts as being one island, it is in reality in three parts, being divided by what are
known as the Unsurveyed Channel and the Hole in the Wall. Its total length is about
twenty-seven miles, while its greatest width is about fourteen miles.
Geology.
Geologically it may be divided into three distinct areas, the first consisting of the Cape
Mudge Peninsula, and extending as far north as Drew Harbour. It is composed of drift
materials, and boulder clay overlaid by stratified silts and sands, and is the most northerly of
a disconnected number of islands of the same formation, the others to the southward being
Mary Island, Hernando Island, Savary Island, and Harwood Island. This formation gives
rise to a more even surface, and, wherever covered by loamy deposits, is a splendid soil for
cereals. The shore all along this portion shoals, and at low tide exposes wide flats covered
with boulders, an indication that boulder clay is part of the formation. It is considered
possible by Dr. Dawson that Cretaceous rocks may underlie this part, but the older volcanic
rocks have been traced so far south that there is little possibility that such might occur.
The second area consists of all the country lying south of a line running about north-west
across the island, beginning at Open Bay, with the exception of the first-mentioned part.
This second area belongs to the Triassic formation, called by Dr.' Dawson the Vancouver
Series, and includes all the rocks of volcanic origin which underlie the Cretaceous formation,
as well as interbedded limestone, flaggy argellites, and quartzites.
The third division includes all the island lying between the above-mentioned line and
Okisollow Channel, and consists almost entirely of granites and granitoid rocks. These latter
two areas gradually merge into each other, and at the junction show much altered volcanic 970 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
material. Just east of Open Bay this is very noticeable where crystalline limestones appear
in conjunction with highly contorted and twisted trapean rocks. The limestone is here inter-
stratified with grey and blackish argillites and quartzites, the beds being cut by dykes of
quartzose and hornblendic granites.
The shores of Hoskyn Inlet and the Hole in the Wall are bordered by rough granitic
rocks of the hornblendic variety, sometimes containing large crystals of black mica and hornblende. This part of the island presents a very rugged and broken surface, quite in contrast
to the long level stretch at Cape Mudge.
Character of Land.
The Cape Mudge Peninsula contains, by long odds, the greatest amount of connected
good land on the island. Along the shore the land rises up to a height of forty or fifty feet
above high water, and then extends almost level over a portion about eight miles long from
north to south, by two to three miles wide. Parts are heavily timbered with fir, hemlock,
spruce, and alder, while dotted here and there are quite a number of open grassy meadows or
prairies, varying from ten to one hundred acres in extent, giving especial advantage to
settlers.
There are at present from thirty to forty residing permanently on this part, and wherever
they have grown any crops have had good returns, potatoes, hay, and oats having yielded
well. There is still room for a large number more, and the locality gives promise of being one
of the most promising settlements on the coast.
During the year 1892 and the beginning of 1893, a steamer from Victoria called bi-weekly
at Quathiaska Cove, but has been taken off. Since then the Union Steamship Co.'s steamer
" Comox " calls once a fortnight, carrying mails, passengers, and produce. Quite a trade has
been worked up, and the settlers are now in a better position, and will make better progress
in the development of their claims. Cattle and hogs are running over the unoccupied portion,
quite a number being shipped to Vancouver during the summer.
From Drew Harbour northward to Village Bay, there are a number of good claims,
which have been laid out, but going north from this nearly all the land good for agriculture
is covered by timber leases. Some of these timber claims are exceptionally good, and will
yield large returns to the acre.
In all of this locality deer are very plentiful, even becoming a nuisance to the settlers by
destroying their crops; bear are unheard of around these settlements. In the waters of the
straits and bays fish are very abundant, particularly two or three varieties of cod.
Roads.
A large part of the southerly section has been logged, and the old log roads are being
used by the settlers to good advantage. Very little labour is required to make them good
and passable, a few of the "skids" requiring to be taken out and some small bridges to be
rebuilt. These roads mean the saving of much money, and very materially assist in the clearing
and development of the claims, and extend from east to west and from north to south of this
portion, forming the trunk roads, to which the settlers themselves have constructed branches.
After having surveyed all the available land up to Village Bay, the shore of Hoskyn Inlet
was traversed, connecting some old surveys and continuing the system of survey up to the
Surge Narrows. The shore of this inlet is very rough, high granite bluffs coming down to the
water along most of the shore.
Methods and System of Survey.
In surveying the upper portion of the island, meander posts were planted at the intersection of all lot lines, with their position marked upon them, and accompanied with the
necessary bearing-trees, so that any surveys to be made there in the future can be connected
a,nd surveyed, in accordance with the system established, without any unnecessary labour.
This we consider a good manner of surveying this country, as the posts can easily be seen
from the water, and any piece of land, be it for timber, homestead, or mine, can be readily
located and, if necessary, surveyed from these posts and in conformity with the established
survey.
In the traverse of the Unsurveyed Channel, several methods suggested themselves. A
simple traverse was useless, as there could be no possible check on measurements, and in such
a long distance the chance of error would necessarily be great, thus destroying utterly its 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 971
reliability. The shore is very rough and broken, rendering chainage next to impossible, while
the error of the micrometer in connection with the azimuth error, unless checked by some
means, would vitiate the whole work. The end sought was to get the quickest method of
survey, conducive with accuracy, but to do this it was found impossible without some kind of
a triangular survey.
It was then decided to make a trigonometric survey with an auxilliary compass, and
stadia-hair survey between main stations. But on account of the great local attraction the
compass had to be abandoned and the transit substituted.
The great difficulty was to get a good base line on account of the rough and broken
character of the country, but one was finally obtained and measured several times with great
care, and observations made to determine its correct azimuth.
A connected system of triangles was then laid down joining the two shores, with sides of
from one-half to one mile long, governed, of course, to a great extent by the conformation of
the shore. All angles were read at least five times by repeating on the plate, and the
arithmetic mean found.
Every triangle was made to close to at least twenty seconds, and then the latitude and
departure of each side found, and no triangle taken that failed to balance by more than one
link.
The base line was connected with the system of survey brought up from the south, and
the latitude and departure of each station found, so that meander posts could be placed on the
shore at the intersection of every lot line. Between the stations of the triangulation the
transit was used for angular measurements, and a stadia-hair instrument for all distances.
This instrument proved itself much more reliable than the results obtained by chaining
on such a rough shore, besides being a great saving of time and labour.
On starting at the first station the position of that point was assumed from the
triangulation and carried on to the next, where it was dropped and the position of the next
taken up. Any error that might occur between was distributed among the back courses so
as to balance. Thus the one system was made to check the other, and the chance of error
reduced. At each of the stations pickets about fifteen feet long were used for sighting on, and
were well mounded up with stone so that they will be permanent for several years, and could be
used for a hydrographic survey of the channel in determining the soundings. Only one side
was traversed for the greater part of the distance, but the opposite shore was triangulated
between the main stations, so that a very accurate plan of that side could be made. Some
difficulty was encountered in working along the channel on account of the great velocity of
the tide, which in some places is as great as nine knots per hour, while dangerous whirlpools
occur at several places.
Along the channel are several fine timber claims, and during the summer a new camp was
opened up at Wi-Yat Bay, where the Vancouver boat called once a week. The channel is
becoming more and more traversed by boats going up and down the coast, and as there are
some bad rocks and shoals, it is important that soundings should be made and recorded for the
guidance of boats or steamers.
Having been notified by your department to close our operations on or about the 1st of
November, we completed the survey to date, arriving in Vancouver on the 10th.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
R. E. Palmer, P. L. S. 972 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
REPORT OP SURVEYS IN RUPERT DISTRICT.
BY H. M. BURWELL.
Vancouver, December 15th, 1893.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on surveys made in Rupert
District, Vancouver Island, B. C, during the season of 1893:—
In accordance with your instructions, dated June 2nd, 1893, I organized a party, and on
June 7th proceeded by the Str. "Coquitlam" to the scene of my operations for the season,
arriving at Shushartie Bay on June 19th.
At this point were stored most of my provisions in the house of Mr. Wm. McGary, a
settler living here, and I employed this man, with his canoes, to carry provisions to us as we
needed them, at different points along the coast where we purposed building caches.
The next day after arriving at Shushartie Bay we left in canoes for Nahwitti River, aud
there built a cache and started the survey of the unfinished part of Township 34.
Township 34.
The surface in the south-east portion of this township is broken and rocky, and timbered
with scrubby cedar, hemlock, cypress and pine. In the northern portion of the township
there are a few open patches of level ground where a scanty growth of grass may be seen, but
the ground in these places appears to be very much in need of drainage to improve the grass.
The soil is a sandy loam mixed with gravel and occasional boulders. At Shingle Point the
soil is very good.
After finishing Township 34 I started the survey of Township 23 and ran about eight
miles of line, leaving the remainder to be finished later in the season.
Township 23.
The surface is more hilly and more heavily timbered in this township than in Township
34, and in places rock bluffs were observed. In the valley of the Shushartie River, near its
mouth, there is some good land. The valley of this river is not extensive, and as you follow
up the stream it narrows up into a deep ravine and greatly cuts up the township. Shushartie
Bay, which is situated in this township, is the only harbour in this vicinity, and will be of
value as a fishing station. Having surveyed Shushartie Bay, I then proceeded to Cache
Creek and built a cache there and then commenced the survey of Township 36.
Township 36.
With the exception of a small portion at the south-east corner of this township, I finished
the whole of the subdivision. The surface of the land, generally, is rolling and timbered with
a scattered growth of cedar, pine, cypress and hemlock, and the soil consists of a sandy loam
with a gravel subsoil. In places a good growth of grass could be seen between the trees.
This township is traversed through by Cache Creek, and a great portion of the land lies in a
valley and is well drained. Along Cache Creek the bottom land, which is from a quarter to
one-half a mile in width, consists of a rich loam soil with a gravelly subsoil, and is heavily
timbered with spruce, hemlock and balsam. The spruce is large and good, and will be of
great value to settlers for lumber.
Cache Creek is a stream of clear water, from one to two chains in width, and shews signs
of containing a great quantity of water during the winter season by its wide channel and
numerous log jams. In the month of August this stream abounds with trout, and while we
were camped on its banks we had amusement as well as a pleasant change in our diet. 57 Vict. •     Crown Land Surveys. 973
Township 42
Only the northern portion of this township was subdivided, as the southern part appeared
to be hilly and broken and not suitable for settlement. The portion surveyed contains a
considerable quantity of open grass land and has a rolling surface. The grass is not of the
best quality and there is a small amount of moss with it, owing to the rather wet state of the
ground which could be easily drained. The timber is scattered and scrubby, and consists of
cedar, cypress, hemlock and pine. Near the sea shore the ground is rocky and broken, and is
covered with a very dense growth of sal-al brush. The soil is a mixture of sandy loam and
gravel with occasional boulders.
Township 43.
This township contains some good grass land. Sections 23, 24, 25, 26, and 35 are
generally open, the timber being very scrubby and growing only in clumps on them. The
grass is good in quality, and the ground does not appear to be so wet as in many other places.
To the south of Deep Bay, which is in section 27, there is a considerable extent of open,
level grass land, which is flooded by the very high tides. This land is flooded from the south,
and extends to within about twenty chains of the north shore, where there is a small neck of
land of a little higher level. This would go to shew that at one time Cape Scott was an
island. The soil of this low land is a rich loam, and the grass was the best that was observed in
this part of the country. By building a short dyke, about six feet in height, probably about
one thousand acres of first-class prairie land could be reclaimed. Deep Bay has a beautiful
white sand beach, about one and a half miles in length, and with a very gentle incline to it.
It is a pity that this beach is not situated in some settled part of the country, as it would
then be of great value as a summer resort for sea bathers.
Fisherman's Bay is a small inlet in section 36, and this season was used as a fishing
station by several white men. This little bay would afford shelter, during the summer
months, for small craft, but not in the very rough weather.
We were unable to complete the survey of all the good land in this township, as it was
not safe to remain there any later, owing to the coast between this point and Shushartie Bay
being a very dangerous one to navigate any later in the season. As it was we had great
difficulty in passing around Cape Commerell. After leaving Township 43, we came back to
Shushartie Bay and completed Township 23, with the exception of a few sections in the east
part of the township.
Township 24.
The subdivision of the northern and western portions of this township was the last work
done this season. The surface of this township is generally rolling where we subdivided; to
the east and south it appears to be broken and hilly and not suitable for settlement. The soil
is poor in quality with a gravelly subsoil. The ground is very wet, and consequently there is
a large amount of moss to be seen. The timber is scrubby, with the exception of a small
quantity along the banks of the Shushartie River, and consists of cedar, hemlock, pine, and
cypress. There is a considerable extent of open country in this township occurring in patches,
which, if drained, would probably make good pasture land.
Fisheries.
While at the mouth of Cache Creek, in the month of July, a party of siwashes were seen
camped here, and were engaged in catching their supply of halibut, which they immediately
cut up into thin layers and dried. They were observed to be fishing in a north-westerly
direction from here, probably about three or four miles off from the shore, and always returned
in the evenings with their canoes laden with splendid halibut.
The salmon run this season was not so large as last. There are no streams in this vicinity
sufficiently large to make salmon fishing a valuable industry, although the siwashes catch a
considerable quantity of this fish in Goletas Channel. Around some of the rocks in this same
channel we succeeded in catching some very fine sea bass which made an excellent food.
Minerals.
Along Cache Creek was observed sandstone and conglomerate in places, and near the
mouth of this creek limestone can be seen. In Township 36 several small seams of lignite
were discovered, but the strata were very much broken. Magnetic iron ore seems to be
distributed more or less over the whole north end of Vancouver Island. 974 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
At Cape Commerell there are four miners at work washing the black sand for what they
call "flour" gold. I have not heard yet if they have succeeded in getting this precious metal
in sufficient quantities to make placer mining here a paying industry. All along the north
shore of Vancouver Island are white sand beaches, here and there in which may be seen
streaks of this black sand, and it was also seen in some of the bars of the Nahwitti River,
which would indicate that at least some of that at Cape Commerell had come from this river.
Harbours.
Shushartie Bay is the only harbour at the north end of Vancouver Island, with the
exception of Hardy Bay, which lies about twenty miles to the south-easterly of Shushartie.
Between Cape Scott and Shushartie Bay the coast is extremely rough and rocky, the jagged
rocks extending out far from the shore, where they are lashed by the angry billows of the
Pacific which becomes churned into a foam for several hundred feet out from the shore. Bull
Harbour, on Hope Island, is not a good harbour as it is almost impossible to make an entrance
in rough weather.
Game.
We did not observe much game this season. Black bears seem to be more common than
any other wild animals. Near Cape Scott more signs of game were seen than at any other
place. Here we saw signs of elk and numerous deer, and the sloughs afforded food for
numerous wild fowl, a few of which reached our camp and gave us a very pleasant occupation
for a few moments.
Settlers.
This season a number of people have been up in this country looking for land with the
intention of settling upon it. Just along the shore there is a belt of land on which there
is a heavy growth of sal-al brush and very numerous windfalls, so that it is probable some of
these people get discouraged before they get back to where travelling is better. This difficulty
could be overcome by cutting out a few trails in places where, afterwards, roads could be built.
The main trail should start from Shushartie and extend as far as Cache Creek, keeping back
from the shore all along at a distance of from two to three miles, where good travelling could
be found. From this main trail branches could be cut out as the settlers needed them. At
Shushartie Bay a settler by the name of McGary has built himself a comfortable house and
has started a store, his chief trade being with the Indians at present. At the mouth of
Cache Creek there are also settlers, and some improvements have been done.
It was suggested that this point would be a suitable one at which to take meteorological
observations. I believe that Mr. Carpmeal, of Toronto, was written to and has sent out the
necessary instruments, but I cannot say if any observations have yet been taken.
Weather.
The weather this season has generally been fair, and there was much less rain fell than
any previous season we have experienced up in this country. We have, consequently, lost very
little time through wet weather this year. On the 25th of November the weather began to
get rough and about two feet of snow fell. Operations were now ceased and we came to
Shushartie Bay and boarded the Str. "Boscowitz," arriving in Vancouver the 3rd of December.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
To the Hon. F. G. Vernon, H. M. Burwell, P.L.S.
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works,
Victoria, Ii. C. 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 9.75
REPORT OF SURVEYS IN LOWER OKANAGAN.
BY JOHN A. CORYELL.
Vernon, B.C., December 15th, 1893.
The Honourable
The Chief Commissioner of Jjands and Works.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on survey work carred on by me
during the season of 1893, in the Lower Okanagan, Osoyoos Division of Yale District. In
accordance with your instructions received on July 26th instant, I organized my party at once
and proceeded to Penticton, via Steamer Penticton, on July 29th. Moving thence to Township 88 (the work nearest at hand), I carried on the field work, as projected, in Townships
88, 53, 89, 50, 54, 65, 66, and 67, until your instructions to discontinue further work for the
season were received on the 13th October. Work was then closed and the party returned to
Vernon on October 20th.
Township 88.
Section 3 adjoins the coal claims surveyed for S. Tingley and F. K. Pugh, and is traversed
by the Government road from Osoyoos to Penticton, in a narrow valley with about 30 acres
of arable land; soil, gravelly clay loam. The section is watered by two small lakes of good
water, and fed by springs. The remaining portion of the land in this section is excellent
bunch grass grazing. Under Pre-emption No. 1564, Messrs. Prather & MacAfee occupy the
E. \ of N. W. \, W. \ of N. E. !-, E. \ of the S. W. \, and W.  § of the S. E. \ of Section 3.
Section 10 is traversed by two narrow valleys, through one of which flows a small creek,
rising on the west boundary and widening into two long, narrow lakes of good water, and
about 10 acres of good meadow land. The other valley includes some 30 acres of arable
land, in patches, and is traversed by the Osoyoos-Penticton Government road. The west
boundary of this section lies on a steep rocky mountain slope, and is inaccessible.
Section 15 is broken by low rolling hills of excellent bunch grass'grazing land, with some
scattered pines (12 to 24 inches diameter), and 40 acres of dry bench land, soil, gravelly loam.
The east half of this section is traversed by Penticton-Osoyoos Government road, and watered
by a small stream and lake in S. W. quarter, and timbered lightly with scattered pines (12 to
18 inches diameter).
Section 14 consists of rolling and broken hills, covered with a good growth of bunch
grass and timber grass, and fairly well timbered with pine (12 to 24 inches diameter). It is
watered by two small lakes, into one of which flows a spring of good water. The N. E.
quarter is traversed by the Government road from Penticton to the Dog Lake settlement, and
includes a narrow bottom of 20 acres, timbered with thick small poplar and brush. Soil, rich
gravelly loam.
Section 13.—The west half of this section is mostly level, dry bench land of sandy soil,
timbered with scattered pines (12 to 24 inches diameter), and is traversed by the Government
waggon road and the old trail from Penticton to Dog Lake. The east half of this section is
broken by a rocky ridge which falls to Dog Lake, in a broken rocky slope, covered with a
growth of bunch grass and scattered pines.
Section 23.—The south half is held under pre-emption record No. 1169, by Robert
Hyncls, and is occupied and cultivated by him. A portion of the north half is included in
Capt. Jemmett's survey of the Penticton Indian Reserve, to which the survey was extended.
The altitude of the arable portion of this Township is about 1600 feet above the sea. The
climate, like that of Osoyoos, Penticton, and Keremeos, is exceptionally favourable to the
growth of all kinds of fruit and cereals. Snow begins to fall in December and generally
disappears about the 1st March, with an average depth of two feet.    Irrigation is required. 976 Crown-Land Surveys. 1893
Township 53.
This Township is traversed by three narrow valleys, which meet in what is known as the
White Lake basin, now almost wholly occupied by the surveyed coal claims of S. Tingley, M.
McMillan and others, and by the pre-emption claims of H. Inglee (lots 282 and 283), and
McCuaig (lot 284). Two of these valleys are traversed by the Keremeos-Penticton and
Osoyoos-Penticton waggon roads, which form a junction in Section 34. The Township is
watered by Park Rill; by a small stream rising in Township 89; and a small creek in Meyers
Flat, as shown in former surveys. Park Rill takes its rise in Section 25, T. 89, flowing southeast and frequently sinking and rising again throughout its course.
In Section 27 is a shallow lake of strong alkali water, which becomes dry in seasons of
excessive drought, and is known as White Lake. This point has always been used by the
Penticton, Keremeos and Osoyoos stockmen as a convenient rendezvous in the general
round-up. The section now forms one of the most important of the group of coal claims
located in this portion of the District. It is covered with a growth of excellent bunch-grass,
and includes some 200 acres of dry arable land, with soil of gravelly clay loam. Sections 31 and
32' extend north from Park Rill on a steep open grassy slope of excellent bunch-grass grazing
land, and, are partly occupied by pre-emptor Inglee, in Lot 282. Along Park Rill there is a
narrow strip of good arable land, and some poplar suitable for rail timber. Soil, rich gravelly
clay loam.
Township 89.
This Township is traversed by a narrow valley, with a continuous strip of arable land
extending from Twin Lakes to the valley through which courses Keremeos Creek, a tributary
of the Similkameen. The survey was commenced at a witness post of former surveys, on the
west boundary of Lot 280, and from thence a portion of the survey had to be carried on by
traverse, owing to the inaccessible rocky slopes enclosing the valley on either side. Section
and quarter-section lines were, however, marked by witness posts, and the section lines
regained as soon as practicable. Indian Francois reserve, surveyed by Captain Jemmett,
was tied with and traversed to the south-west corner. From thence I established the centre
of Section 29, and surveyed Wm. Cohen's pre-emption claim, No. 412; Landler Marsal's preemption, No. 806; and Joe Marsal's pre-emption, No. 827, tieing in with Lot 175. Sections
36, 26, 27, 28, 29, and 19 are traversed by the Government waggon road from White Lake to
Keremeos, and watered by Twin Lakes, a small stream rising in the south-west quarter of
Section 26, which empties into this lake; also by a small stream which rises in the north-west
quarter of 28; and a small stream rising in Long Lake, and which empties into Keremeos
Creek on the Indian Francois reserve. Also by Keremeos Creek and a tributary known as
Cedar Creek, which flows through Section 19. The bottom land along Keremeos Creek
averages 20 chains in width, with soil of rich gravelly loam, and mostly covered with a growth
of cotton and alder brush. Section 35 is well adapted for grazing purposes, and is watered
by several small lakes. The mountain slope on the south and east is timbered with scattered
fir and pine (12 to 24 inches diameter).
Township 50.
Sections 18. 19, W. J Section 7, S. | and N.W. \ of Section 30, were surveyed. Section
7 is mostly open, dry bench land, sandy soil, and is traversed by the Fairview-Vaseaux Lake
waggon road. The balance is somewhat broken and hilly, is good grazing land, and timbered
with scattered fir and pine.
Township 54.
Sections 11, 14, 13, and parts of Sections 12, 24, and 25, were surveyed. This tract joins
the Haynes estate, and is mostly excellent bunch-grass grazing land with small arable patches.
Is traversed by the Government waggon road from Osoyoos to Penticton, and by the Fair-
view-Vaseaux Lake road. Sections 11, 12, 13 and 14 include the principal mineral claims in
Camp Fairview, and the surveyed claims known as the Joe Dandy, Wide West, and Brown
Bear, were intersected and tied with on this survey. Section 11 is watered by Reed Creek,
most of which is controlled by the Stratheyre Mining Company for milling purposes. This company has a 10-stamp mill and mill site in north-east quarter of Section 11. The soil throughout
is rich gravelly loam, with a light growth of fir and pine (12 to 24 inches diameter). 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 977
Township 65.
Sections 1 and 2 were surveyed, and consist of rolling and undulating land with an
excellent growth of grass, and fir, pine and tamarac timber (12 to 36 inches diameter), suitable
for milling purposes. The S.E. | of Section 2, and S.W. \ of Section 1, are occupied by J. H.
Hay ward, under pre-emption No. 1209; and S.E. \ of Section 1 forms part of the surveyed
Lot 383. The W. \ of Section 2 is traversed by 9-Mile Creek, which rises in a meadow about
6 miles north. The Osoyoos-Camp McKinney trail could be easily converted into a waggon
road.
Township 66.
Sections 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 17, and parts of 11, 14, 23, and 13, were surveyed. Sections 5,
6, 7, 8, and 17 are undulating arable land, with soil of rich gravelly clay loam; are covered
with a luxuriant growth of grass, and watered by a fork of 9-Mile Creek. Section 7 and the
N. J of Section 6 are well timbered with fir, pine, and tamarac (12 to 30 inches diameter).
Sections 9, 10, 4, 3, 11, 14, and N. J of 13 are covered with an excellent growth of bunch-
grass, watered by Whipsaw and Baker Creeks, and traversed by the Osoyoos-Rock Creek
Trail. The soil throughout is a rich gravelly loam. Three thousand seven hundred and sixty
acres in this township are occupied and improved pre-emption claims. Settlers' roads at
present connect these claims with each other, and could be extended to the surveyed route of
the Osoyoos-Kettle River Road near the first crossing of Rock Creek, and also by way of Camp
McKinney, and west to Osoyoos Lake, at a moderate cost.
Township 67.
Part of Section 18 was surveyed as part of improved and occupied settlers' claims and
includes some 80 acres of open arable bench land, with soil of rich gravelly loam; balance is
excellent bunch-grass grazing, and is watered by Baker Creek. East \ of Section 36, and part
of N.E. \ of Section 25, are occupied by pre-emptors Baird and Patterson, and were partly
surveyed when instructions to close the work for the season were received. This part of the
township lies in Kettle River Valley, here about 25 chains in width of bench land, with soil
of gravelly loam, and timbered with scattered pine (12 to 24 inches diameter). Kettle River
is here about two chains in width, and for about 70 miles north from this point affords an
excellent outlet for timber along its banks, some good tracts of which are known to exist.
Timber.
In Township 54, at the head of Reed Creek, and on the mountain slope west of Camp
Fairview, there is about one million feet of fir and pine timber suitable for milling purposes.
In Townships 65 and 66, about two million feet of pine, fir, and tamarac timber, averaafna'
from 12 to 30 inches diameter, could be obtained for commercial purposes, situated on Rock
Creek Mountain, and easily accessible by roads. The balance of the timber met with is too
scattering to be of utility, and consists of pine, fir, tamarac, Cottonwood, alder, aspen, balsam
and poplar.
Game.
In the spring and autumn, deer are plentiful throughout the district traversed, retreating
to the more inaccessible parts of the district during the summer months. In Township 89,
mountain and willow grouse are plentiful, and also in Townships 65, 66 and 67. Bear of the
black and grizzly species are often met with on Rock Creek Mountain north of the settlement,
and along the mountain slope on either side of Kettle River.
Geology.
In Townships 88 and 53 the country rock shows croppings of carboniferous sandstone
with some small veins of good bituminous coal exposed. In Township 89 the sandstone
merges into the Tertiary, chiefly volcanic. In Townships 50 and 54 the country rock is
principally granite, broken with a belt of porphyry and quartzite, intersected by many veins
of gold-bearing quartz, as at Camp Fairview. At the mouth of Rock Creek, sandstone
croppings with coal were also noted,
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
John A. Coryell, P.L.S, 978 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
REPORT OF SURVEYS  IN  HARRIS, CREIGHTON,  AND CHERRY
CREEK VALLEYS, AND IN SHUSWAP FLAT.
BY F. H. LATIMER.
Vernon, January 9th, 1894.
The Honourable
The Chief Commissioner of lands and Works.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on survey work carried on by me
during the past season, on Harris, Creighton and Cherry Creek Valleys, and Shuswap River.
The field-work commenced on August 1st, continuing to November 23rd, and comprised
portions of Townships 3, 41, 42, 44, 45, and 57, Osoyoos.
Work was first commenced near the entrance of Creighton Valley, starting from the
north-west corner of lot 304, running to the south ; and then west is a narrow valley opening
into Harris Creek Valley, leaving a hill one thousand feet above valley, taking up sections 18,
Township 41, and 13 and 14, Township 3, the south side being fine open range, mostly
included in pre-emptions. Lines were run where the land was of possible value, closing to
the north on old survey posts. Continuing up Harris Creek considerable good land was found,
and much excellent range on the southern slopes. Numerous mining claims have been taken
up in sections, Townships 41 and southward, with little development, excepting on one in
section 29, Township 42, of little apparent value, and on one in section 3, of the same township,
which is now being worked by T. D. Shorts and others. Much fine bench was met with at
the junction of Bear Creek, and in section 22, Township 42. The bottom land along Harris
Creek varies from five to ten chains of black loam, but generally thickly grown over with
brush or timber—fir, cedar and spruce, 6 in. x 24 in. diameter. On the west side of the valley
the mountain rises rapidly, generally very rough and rocky and thickly timbered with fir and
yellow pine, varying from 6 to 30 inches diameter, though some areas of open grazing were
seen. An old pack trail runs up the valley, leading southward towards Kettle River, used
mainly by trappers and hunters after caribou. Lines were run up the valley as far as was
considered of any agricultural value, the land beyond the last lines (north boundary of section
15) rising rapidly and being quite broken.
Township 41.
Returning to Creighton Valley, all the useful land was sectionized up the valley, starting
from the south-east corner of Lot 304, checking back to the south-west corner of this lot.
There is considerable meadow land along the creek ; the water is of fine quality and contains
many trout. Near the north-east corner of section 9, a narrow gorge opens out, a small creek
coming from the south, with a fall of over one thousand feet in half a mile. The creek rises
in a series of marshy lakes, aggregating about thirty acres, on a high, broken bench, about
fifteen hundred feet above the valley ; and some little work had been done towards draining
the lower one, but not recently. The south side of the Camel's Hump, in sections 22 and 23,
is a bare rocky precipice, cracked and furrowed with deep seams.
Township 45.
In section 8, Creighton Creek comes out of the mountains to the south in a narrow ravine,
and, taking a sharp turn, runs in a nearly due westerly direction about seven miles before
swinging again northward near the mouth of the valley. There is a small valley running
north through section 17; the north-east corner of this section falling in a small lake of about
eighteen acres, 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 979
The height of land in the main valley occurs between sections 8 and 9. Eastward, the
bottom land is narrow, being from fifteen to twenty chains wide, broken by two small lakes
and one large one two miles in length. On the north of the larger lake is a bench of good
sandy loam, nearly burnt free of brush and having a small meadow and creek (dry in the fall)
in section 14. In sections 12 and 1, the valley widens out, having a large meadow and rolling
flat, which is watered by a fine spring creek of 150 inches, that runs from a small valley to
the southward. Near this meadow F. Bonneau raised some onions and good potatoes, though
planted late in June. A little over a mile to the east is found 8-Mile Creek, running in a
narrow bottom of from three to ten chains, mountain slopes rising immediately from this
bottom. The survey was continued northward, touching upon a bench that extends to 8-Mile
Creek, considerable fine land being crossed, and ties were made on Gore's old survey posts of
1886, and Lot 311 on Shuswap River. Working down the river, the bottom land averages
about one mile wide, and is nearly all taken up in this township by old pre-emptions. With
the exception of section 25, the river runs mostly on the north side of the valley, and varies
from two to three chains in width, with two practicable fords in low water. The Cherry
Creek waggon road winds along the south side of the valley, leading from Vernon to Cherry
Creek, and thence by way of Fire Valley to Arrow Lake. The bottom is not heavily
timbered, mostly fir and tamarac up to 24-in., excepting in sections 32 and 33, where the brush
is very dense, with considerable areas of large cedar (6-50 inches), cottonwood (6-42 inches),
and spruce (6-36 inches), much of which has been burned or cut. On this flat some of the
settlers had fine gardens, melons even ripening this year. Some are setting out a number of
fruit trees this fall, which will, no doubt, do well.
Township 44.
Between the south boundary of this township and the east boundary of section 6
traverse was run down the north side of the river, taking advantage of the gravel beach
wherever possible, to tie on to post put in during my season's work in 1892. There is a good
bench between the river and mountain side north of the river, averaging about thirty chains,
but on the south side the mountain rises abruptly, rocky, and often precipitous. Through
section 4, from a narrow gorge in the mountain to the north, there issues a small stream of
excellent water (200 inches) which would serve to irrigate the bench in this section and in
section 33, Township 45.
Township 57.
A considerable extent of good bench is found on the west side of 8-Mile Creek through
sections 7, 18, 19, and 30. A small creek (250 inches) of good water, being a continuation of
that already spoken of in section 1, Township 45, runs on the bench through sections 7 and
18. The main creek runs through a narrow bottom, which is heavily timbered and about 80
feet below the bench, and so not easily available for irrigation purposes. Having received
instructions to close up the survey as soon as the needs of the work would permit, lines were
only run or continued to locate pre-emptions already taken up. On Merritt's Flat, sections 9,
10, 15, and 16 make up a large clay loam bench, nearly level, falling off to the west in very
broken ground to 8-Mile Creek, and to the east to Cherry Creek. Much of the timber has
been burned off on the bench, but small growths of fir and cedar are very dense on slopes
towards 8-Mile Creek. There is a large meadow in lot 236, from which runs a small stream
through section 17 to the west.
Timber.
On Harris Creek and Creighton Creek considerable cedar occurs of good size (6-36 inches),
but too much strung out to be of value, except for rails and shakes or shingles. There are
also some large spruce, and a few clumps of white pine were seen in section 10, Township 41,
and pencil cedar, with different varieties of juniper in Creighton Valley through Township 45.
In section 1, Township 45, some scattering large fir (42 inches diameter) were seen, but most
of the fir and yellow pine did not go over 24-30 inches. On the Shuswap River there is a
large black pine flat, comprising most of sections 28, 29, 19, and east half of 30, Township 57.
Considerable large cedar of good quality is obtained higher up the river towards Sugar Lake,
but on the pre-empted lands in this season's survey most of it has been burned or cut up into
rails and "shakes." In sections 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, Township 57, the timber (cedar, fir, and
yellow pine, 6-24 inches,) is mostly burned off, and that which remains is of little value. 9S0 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
Shuswap River.
The Shuswap River, issuing from Sugar Lake, in Township 56, joins with Cherry Creek
near the north-east corner of section 29, Township 57, flowing thence in a westerly direction
through Township 57 and Township 45, thence turning more to the north in Township 44.
The current is generally rapid (2 to 4 miles per hour), and during low water two to three
chains wide, but in the spring rises from six to nine feet, and as much as five chains between
banks.    The water is of excellent quality, clear and cold, and comparatively soft.
Game.
Deer were very scarce this season, few being seen or heard of before the end of November.
Some black bears are to be found, particularly up Harris Creek, and a few beaver still are
left on Harris and Creighton Creeks.    Grouse of three varieties were fairly plentiful.
Roads.
A waggon road in good order runs along the south side of Shuswap River and Cherry
Creek, the most serious difficulties being some very steep grades in sections 31 and 32, Township 45, rising from the river over the rocky divide to Blue Springs. From this road, near
Lumby, a road turns off to the entrance of Creighton Valley, which was cleared where
necessary and partially graded during the past fall. A waggon trail continues up the valley,
cut out by the settlers, but is very rough travelling, and greatly needs to be straightened and
improved. It ends at Thos. Killeen's ranch in section 8, Township 45, from which F. Bonneau
has opened out a rough pack-trail to his ranch in section 1, Township 45. From here a survey
pack-trail was cut out to the Cherry Creek waggon road at 8-Mile Creek, in order to get in
supplies and get out to the Shuswap. There is a good pack-trail, though uneven in places, up
Harris Creek that connects in Township 6 with the main waggon road to Vernon. A branch
turns off in section 7, Township 41, to Creighton Valley through a narrow valley, already
mentioned, which, with some clearing out, served to move camp on.
Geology.
In Townships 41 and 42 mostly granite and trap was seen, the mineral claims generally
being quartz ledges in trap. Near the head of Creighton Valley, on the south side, in many
places the rock is seen twisted and curved, as if cooled from a partly molten state. Along the
north side of the Shuswap, on the mountain side, red granite mainly is found.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. H. Latimer, P.L.S. & D.L.S. 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 981
REPORT  OF   SURVEY  IN   THE  VALLEY  OF  THE   KLENA-KLENE
RIVER, AND IN THE VICINITY OF PORT NEVILLE.
 o	
BY A. F. COTTON.
New Westminster, B. O, January 4th, 1894.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report of my operations during the
season of 1893 :—
I left Vancouver for Knight's Inlet on 6th June, per steamer " Tepic," and arrived at
the head of the Inlet on the 8th. Here the season was much further advanced than in the
Fraser River Valley.    Oats and potatoes were well up.
The land at the head of the Inlet is a very rich grass flat, cut up with a great many
sloughs running from the river, which empties into the Inlet from the north.
The land is perfectly level, and subject to overflow by the high tides which occur every
month of the year ; also by the spring and fall freshets in the river.
All the open land has been taken up, and when I arrived there I found four settlers
occupying their farms. They cut and shipped a quantity of hay to the logging camps in the
vicinity of Port Neville.
The soil is a very rich alluvial deposit, resembling that of the Delta of the Fraser River.
The starting point of my survey was the north boundary of Lot 45, which is the last lot
taken up; this was about five miles up the river. So, after procuring a canoe, I began to
transport my supplies to the starting point.
The river at that time was pretty high, and running at the rate of ten miles per hour.
There are a great many channels which were full of jams of driftwood, through which we had
to cut our way.    I was,  therefore, several clays getting everything moved up.
I tried to hire some of the Indians who live there to assist in canoeing, but they refused,
saying, " the water is too high." Fortunately, I had taken two Indians up with me, having
heard that I would be unable to obtain any of them. They are known all along the coast as
being the laziest Indians in the Province. They occupy a reserve of six hundred acres of the
best land in the valley, and do not cultivate any of it. Their supply of vegetables they steal
from the settlers, who told me they had hard work to protect their belongings from these
worthless wretches.
The river runs through a valley from one to three miles wide, but in so many branches
that the land above the reserve is very little use, it being in small patches.
The river is a very rapid stream, with a great many small islands and sand bars. To
the eastward is all high hills, behind which is a narrow valley running parallel to the river for
a distance of about thirteen miles. There are several small lakes in this valley, teeming with
trout. On the west side is a narrow strip of level land, extending five miles north of Lot 45,
the north boundary of which I made the southern boundary of my survey.
The land is of a very poor quality, being mostly gravel and river sand. It was at one
time the bed of the river, and, judging from what I saw of the action of the water, will soon
be so again, several places where we camped in June and July had been completely washed
away in August.
The timber is principally alder, hemlock, spruce, and jack pine, with a fringe of cotton-
wood along the banks of the river ; the islands are covered with willow and black alder.
About six miles up the river the first view of the Glacier is obtained, and it is truly a
grand sight. It is on the west branch, about one mile from its junction with the main stream,
the bed of which at this point is, at low water, about one and a half miles wide, and a barren
gravel bar. The Glacier is half a mile wide, and extends to the water's edge, sloping back
at an angle of 30°. In July we picked up several large pieces of ice floating down the river,
at least five miles from the Glacier.
The east branch, or Klena Klene proper, joins at the same point, which is fourteen miles
from the mouth. It is also a very rapid stream, running through deep canons. From here
on, as far as I went, the country is all very mountainous and rocky. It was up this east
branch that I attempted to locate the pack-trail to the interior, a report of which, with a
description thereof, I have already submitted to you. 982 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
In the  middle of  August, having completed all there was to do here, I started with my
party for Port Neville.
The area surveyed by me is classified as follows :—
2nd class      901 acres.
3rd class 3,288    n
4,189 ,,
The trip up or down Knight's Inlet, in calm weather, is a grand one, the scenery being
very imposing; the mountains towering up on either side, with numerous beautiful waterfalls
flowing down their sides ; one in particular, which is over one hundred feet high, and throws
its water into the Inlet about thirty feet clear of the rock. In stormy weather it becomes
very rough, while there are very few coves into which a boat can run for safety. About half
way up this Inlet the valley of Tom Brown Lake is seen ; it appears to be quite a width
where it enters the Inlet. I should have examined it on my way down had the weather not
been so boisterous. This valley extends south-westerly to Sunderland Channel. About fifty
miles from the head is Protection Point, behind which is a valley extending in a south-easterly
direction to Cutter Creek. There is some very good land in this valley, but to what extent I
cannot with accuracy say, as I only had a few hours in which to examine it.
The distance from the head of Knight's Inlet to Port Neville is about 120 miles.
Port Neville.
This inlet extends inland about nine miles, and varies in width from half to one and a
quarter miles. At the mouth there is 1,000 acres of good clay loam, timbered with hemlock,
spruce, and cedar. Near the head, on the west side, there is some good land, but, as it is all in
timber berths, I did not survey it. Two streams enter the inlet at the head, the one on the
west side is the largest. Here there is an Indian reserve, which encloses a small piece of grass
land. On the east a smaller stream enters, running through a narrow piece of grass land,
which is flooded at high tide ; this extends about one and a quarter miles, when crab-apple and
hemlock is entered. Here the level lands are left and a low ridge is crossed, when the level
is again met. This runs through to Jackson Bay to the south-east, and the valley of Tom
Brown Lake to the north-east. This flat is nearly all taken up by timber leases, on which
there is little or no fir or cedar, the timber being principally alder and hemlock. The soil is
rich clay loam, which would soon be taken up were it open for settlement, especially that
portion lying east of Seabird Lake.
The valley of Tom Brown Lake runs north-easterly from the head of Jackson Bay to
Knight's Inlet, in which there is a quantity of good land, and were it not nearly all timber
berths, could, to advantage, be opened for settlement. Judging from what I saw of the timber
berths there, the object seemed to be to secure as large an area as possible, without regard to
the value of the timber upon them. The largest and best berth in this locality was only
worked two years and then abandoned ; the remainder have never been cut over at all.
In going over any old log works, one fsees the waste and destruction of good timber that
is done in order to get out only first-class clear lumber. Logs are cut and left to rot in the
woods that contain many thousand feet of good sound lumber, for the sake of a little blemish
in one end of the tree, on which no dues are paid. If dues had to be paid on all trees cut,
there would be less destruction and waste, and, in consequence, our timber would last a much
longer time.
Port Neville is the last port called at by the weekly steamers sailing from Vancouver,
and during the summer months a great many excursionists take this trip, which occupies four
days.
Deer are very plentiful, and in the fall of the year geese and ducks abound in numbers on
the mud flats at the head.
I carried my survey easterly from the mouth of Port Neville Inlet across three townships
to Jackson Bay.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
The Honourable • A. F. Cotton, P.L.S,
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works,
Victoria, B. C. 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 983
REPORT OF SURVEY IN THE UPPER SQUAMISH VALLEY.
BY WILLIAM S. JEMMETT.
New Westminster, B. C, February 12th, 1894.
The Honourable
The Chief Commissioner,
Lands and Works Department.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit to you the following report of a survey made by me,
in the Upper Squamish Valley, situated north of Howe Sound, in the New Westminster
District, during the season of 1893:—
In accordance with instructions from you, dated June 7th, 1893, to make a survey of this
valley, commencing at a point where the former survey terminated, and to lay out in lots any
portions adapted to the requirements of settlers, I made up my survey party and proceeded
in the S.S. "Iona" to the mouth of the Squamish, arriving there on the 16th June.
Next day I went up the waggon-road to the Indian Reserve, about five miles, and, after a
good deal of trouble, made arrangements for Indians and canoes, the Indians promising to be
at the landing early on Monday morning, the 19th June. On which day, as no Indians
appeared, I sent up to the reserve, when the Indians refused to go up, as they were afraid of
the rough water, an Indian and canoe having been lost by a previous survey party. One
Indian promised to get some Indians from Vancouver. On the 22nd June, as no Indians
turned up, and hearing of a Mr. Judd, a rancher up the river, who had a canoe and was a
first-class canoeman, I sent up to him and made arrangements for him to take us up, etc.
We started the same day; the canoe taking up a load and the party proceeding on foot, joining
the canoe at a place agreed upon each evening. We sometimes struck some pretty good trails,
but the most part of the way was through fearfully thick devil's clubs, which here grow to
a height of nine to twelve feet or more. On the afternoon of the 25th June we made camp,
about half a mile above our starting point, after a pretty good tramp. The canoe had to be
towed a great part of the way up.
I commenced work on June 26th. As the left bank of the river had been much washed
away since the last survey, I had to start from the south-west corner of Lot 518. On my way
up I found an Indian Reserve post and blazed line running east. On examination I concluded
this was the northern boundary, but I afterwards ascertained it was the southern boundary.
As this post had escaped the notice of the last survey, I had to make an alteration in the
survey. I then surveyed a good piece of land into Lots 1,178 and 1,179; the former of
these lots as a pre-emption for Mr. William R. Harvey, record dated May 21st, 1892. These
lots contain some very good land—light sandy loam. It has some large trees on it, but is not
heavily timbered. It is the same class of land as below, and the devil's clubs are very
thick. We had to bridge a lot of sloughs which were too deep and rapid to wade. On the 5th
July I got my foot badly hurt by one of these bridges of trees breaking in the middle from the
force of the water, but luckily being able to get medical aid, I was able to return to my work
again. During my absence Mr. John Deane, whom I left in charge of the party, cut out some
traverse lines and moved camp further up the river. Whilst absent from camp I succeeded in
getting a couple of Fraser River Indians to go back with me. On my return I commenced
surveying on the right bank of the river, starting at the north-east corner of Lot 1,035, where
I divided a small piece of good land into Lots 1,180 and 1,181.
The trees on both sides of the river are cedar, maple, cottonwood, alder, hemlock, fir,
spruce, a small quantity of dogwood and crab-apple, pine, and maple. The land is a light
sandy loam and alluvial deposit, and pretty well covered with various kinds of berry bushes
and devil's clubs.
I 984 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
About half a mile further up I found some good flat land, islands, extending about two
miles up, which I subdivided into Lots 1,182, 1,183, and 1,184. The soil same as on the
other lots. There are some large trees, but the lots are not heavily timbered. A large fire
must have passed over these islands a great many years ago, as all the very large cedar trees
have been burnt out, large stumps remaining, and the present growth of large trees not showing any signs of fire at all. I then crossed over to the left bank and laid out Lots 1,185 and
1,186, both containing good land. Trees as before. On Lot 1,185, at the south-east corner,
on side of mountain, is a small Indian Reserve (grave-yard). I then ran a traverse up the left
bank for about two miles, passing another small Indian Reserve (grave-yard). This traverse
is along the foot of a very steep rocky mountain. There are various low islands, chiefly
covered with scrub alder and cottonwood, sand bars and sloughs, between the left bank and
the main river. Crossing to the right bank, I found some good flat land, which I divided
into Lots 1,187 and 1,188. Here the bank is high, several large waterfalls on the west side,
some good-sized cedar, maple, hemlock, etc., a few fir. On Lot 1,188, near the bank of the
river, are some white pine about two feet in diameter. One mile further north is a strip of
good land divided into Lots 1,189 to 1,192 inclusive. This brought me to steep rocky bluff's.
In moving camp from Lot 1,187 to Lot 1,189 one of my canoes, in charge of Indians, was
completely smashed up and the entire kitchen outfit and some provisions lost. It took the
two canoes nearly the whole day to get from camp to camp. The canoe was lost nearly
opposite Lot 1,189. I had to send the other canoe to the mouth of the river, and the party
had to pack the balance of the provisions, etc., from Camp 4. On account of this accident
one of my Indians immediately left me. The other agreed to remain, he having worked for
me for some years.
Having completed the survey of the above lots, and not being able to take the canoe any
further up the river on account of the state of the water, the boulders, etc., I crossed to the
left bank, cached my canoe, and packed my provisions along the side of rocky mountains,
having previously blazed out a trail to Camp 6, opposite Lot 1,191. About here the ground
is very broken up and the timber poor. The bed-rock about here is a kind of sandstone, which
I am informed is a quartzose sandstone, nearly all silica with a trace of iron and alumina.
Some of the mountains back from the river, where there have been large land slides, appear to
be of the same kind of stone. The ordinary rock along the river is hard and of a blueish
colour. About a mile north of Lot 1,192 I found some fine cedars for canoes, and my
Indian immediately made a couple of shovelnoses. Here I pitched Camp No. 7, and laid off
three lots, 1,193, 1,194, and 1,195. Here I found a very large washout coming from a
mountain, about two or three miles back, where there had been some large land slides exposing
the sandstone mentioned above. A party of Indians brought a load, about 250 pounds, of
provisions up to this camp from the mouth of the river, but refused to bring up any more on
account of having to tow the canoe in the water. Opposite the north part of Lot 1,194 I
found a timber limit on the right bank, running about a mile up, and also one on the left
bank a little above Lot 1,195. There are some fine fir trees on this limit and also some large
cedars, but not in any great quantity. Along the bank there is a large quantity of yew trees,
some fine old trees, but growing as they do here and on Lot 1,196, on low land, they are not
of any market value; also some white pine at the north-west corner of this last timber limit.
I struck the mountain and crossed to the right bank. Here is the junction of two rivers,
one running from the north and one from the west. At this point of land is a good piece of
land, Lot 1,196. There are some good cedars, fir, hemlock, spruce, and some fine looking yew
trees, also a tree that looks like a spruce, only the foliage is of a brighter green and soft to the
touch, and the bark of a lighter colour. I have only noticed these trees about here. From a
specimen and description sent to Professor Macoun, he is of opinion that this tree is a
"Balsam," and is known as Abies amabilis. The same tree is to be found at an elevation of
3,000 feet, at Nanaimo and Qualicum.
Proceeding up the North Squamish, from the junction, along the right bank for about
three miles, I passed a timber limit with some good trees on it, but rather open. A good
many large cedar trees have been killed by the river breaking over the bank. I also passed
two more timber limits on the left bank. At the end of the three miles I came to a rock;
here is a sudden turn in the river, the water coming through a very narrow canon at right
angles. This rock is sixty feet or more in height, and on the top I found a large space covered
with large slabs of stone at all angles, and a stream running under them, evidently some burst
in the mountains.    On crossing this space, to the north, I found a sudden drop of about one 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 985
hundred feet to where the river enters the narrow cation. From this point I could see a long
way up the river, the mountains sloping on both sides to the edges of the river. The fall in
the North Squamish is very considerable. In the first two miles from the junction there is a
fall of just ninety feet. I was not able to take a canoe higher up than the crossing. On
returning to the junction I found a timber limit on the right bank of the South Squamish,
south of Lot 1,196.
I traversed the right bank of the South Squamish River for about three miles, and finding no signs of any good land, and the timber growing worse, I went ahead for some distance
where I could see up the river, the banks of which seemed to be a continuation of the same
kind of steep, rocky and timbered mountains.
On the 19th of October I started down the river, from the old camp at the junction,
making a couple of small surveys on my way down. On arrival at Shovelnose Creek I cached
my canoes, being unable to take them through the rapids. We then packed everything down
to a point opposite Lot 1,188 where our canoes were. I arrived at the mouth of the river on
the 26th October, having had, in many places, only just water enough to float the canoes. The
steamer not arriving next day, as expected, I, on the following day, got a large canoe and
Indians and arrived at Vancouver the same day.
With regard to game, there were quantities of bear tracks in all directions, but during
the day they kept in the mountains close at hand. Grouse were not plentiful. There were
mountain goats up on the mountains on the right side of the rivers. On our way up we saw
very few tracks of deer. On our way down in October, we found more fresh tracks of deer,
the deer evidently coming down from the mountains on the west side of the river and making
their way at once towards the Pemberton Meadows. I was unable to find anything for them
to feed on in the valley.    Porcupines were pretty numerous.
I laid out nineteen lots, average about 2,900 acres, being all the land I could find fit for
settlement.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
William S. Jemmett, P.L.S. 986 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
REPORT OF SURVEYS IN THE NECHACO VALLEY.
 o	
BY JOHN STRATHERN, P.L.S..
Vancouver, B.C., 1st January, 1894.
The Honourable
The Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works.
Sir,—Having had the honour of being placed in charge of one of the survey parties
operating in conjunction with and under the general direction of Mr. A. L. Poudrier, P.L.S., in
the Nechaco Valley, Cariboo District, B.C., I have the honour to submit the following report
of the work done by me:—
Under instructions received from Mr. A. L. Poudrier, P.L.S., dated the 15th day of May,
1893, I at once proceeded to Ashcroft to make arrangements for the transportation of the
supplies and of the party, and, also, either to hire or purchase a pack-train of animals. After
making careful enquiries I concluded that it would be more economical to purchase a number
of pack ponies than to hire, which I did; and having been joined by Mr. D. T. Thompson, P.
L.S., with the party, on May 29th, we proceeded the next day on our way to the scene of
operations. On arriving at Quesnelle we were joined by Mr. A. L. Poudrier, P.L.S., and at
once crossed the Fraser River and proceeded on our journey, by way of the old telegraph trail,
to the crossing of the Nechaco River.    On arriving there, we at once commenced the work.
By direction of Mr. Poudrier, in conjunction with Mr. D. T. Thompson, we established
the meridian, which we have designated the Stony Creek meridian, and then ran back south,
and established the 54th parallel of latitude. This having been clone, the actual survey at
once commenced.
By direction of Mr. Poudrier, in order to save time and expediate the work, I commenced
my survey at the intersection of the Stony Creek meridian with the 54th parallel of north
latitude, making this point the south-west corner of Township one east, Range one north, and
then ran all that portion of the Township south of the Nechaco River, from west to east.
In describing the land, I shall do so by grouping several sections together, being careful
to note any prominent features in any particular section.
Township One East, Range One North.
Sections 1, 2, and 3.—The southern portion of these sections is covered with pine, spruce,
and poplar, averaging from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter, and suitable for saw-milling
purposes. The land has a gradual slope to the north until it reaches the crest of the ridge,
which is the southern limit of the river valley. All along the slope of this ridge, across the
township, is generally good pine and spruce. The northern portions of these sections are cut
into by the Nechaco River, along which there are some good hay-meadows of small extent.
Sections 4, 5, and 6.—The southern portions of these sections are timbered principally by
poplar, ranging from three to ten inches in diameter. They have a gradual slope to the north,
as far as the top of the ridge. Stony Creek flows through the northern part of sections 5 and
6, along which there is a considerable amount of good hay land.
Sections 7 to 12, inclusive.—The Nechaco River flows through this tier of sections, from
west to east of the township, and is a river of first importance in that country, of which I
shall speak further on. All that portion of sections 7, 8, and 9, south of the river, is covered
with hay-meadows and light scrub, with occasional clumps of poplar. That portion north of
the river is principally scrub and small willow.
Section 10.—This section is altogether hay-meadow and scrub. There are about 200
acres of hay land, with bunches of small willow intermixed on this section.
Sections 11 and 12.—All that portion of these sections close to the river is generally
scrub and small willow.    The northern portion is timbered with spruce poplar and scrub.
Sections 13 to 18, inclusive.—This tier of sections is timbered principally with poplar
and scrub, and scattering bunches of spruce through the sections,  with a great many small L
57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 987
patches of open prairie intermixed. On section 16 there is a small, shallow lake, of about
twenty acres in extent, surrounded by hay-meadows and willow. Through sections 16, 17,
and 18, a large creek flows from the north-west, all along in the valley of which is good hay
land, and on the banks are some fine stretches of open prairie.
Sections 19 to 24, inclusive.—On section 19 there is a large amount of open prairie
throughout, with good hay along the creek bottom. The north halves of sections 20, 21, 22,
and 23, have a large proportion of burned land and scrub, the southern portions are timbered
with light poplar and scrub, with scattering spruce, and patches of prairie intermixed.
Section 24 has about 200 acres of open prairie in it, the balance being burned land and scrub,
with bunches of poplar and spruce.
Sections 25 to 30, inclusive.—25, 26, and 27 are principally burned land with jiatches of
hay-meadow and scrub. Section 28 is also partly burned land and scrub. Sections 29 and
30 are timbered principally with poplar, with a large amount of prairie in patches, and one
piece of prairie on section 30 contains about 300 acres.
Section 31 consists of spruce and poplar and burned land. The base of the ridge forming
the water-shed between the Nechaco and Stuart Rivers, crosses through the north-east
quarter of this section. On the south half of section 32 there is a large beaver meadow,
partly open and partly intermixed with clumps of willow. The north half is principally on the
divide, and is light gravelly soil. The northerly portions of sections 33, 34, and 35 and most
of section 36, are on the divide, and are timbered generally with pine and spruce, the soil being
light and gravelly. The balance of these sections is on the flat, and is good land, mostly
burned, with clumps of spruce, poplar and scrub.
Township Two East, Range One North.
There is only a small part of the southern portion of this township surveyed.
Sections 1, 2, and 3.—Sections one and two are timbered with light poplar and scrub,
with occassional patches of spruce, burned land, and prairie intermixed. Section 3 is broken
by the ridge, which follows the edge of the river bottom, and a large creek coming from the
north-west. The river also cuts the south-west corner off this section. All that portion
between the foot of the ridge and the river, is timbered with light scrub and willow. That
portion above the ridge, with poplar, scrub, and spruce.
Sections 4, 5, and 6.—The Nechaco River flows through these sections, all the valley of
which is covered with light scrub, willow, and scattering poplar. The portions on the ridge
south of the river, are timbered principally with good pine and spruce; the portion north of
the river, with spruce, poplar and scrub.
Section 12.—On this section there is a large amount of dead timber, partly fallen, with
clumps of pine, spruce, and poplar intermixed.
Section 11.—This section is timbered with poplar, pine, and spruce, principally poplar.
There are several small hay-meadows through this section.
This completes all that was surveyed in this township this year. All the land surveyed
in this township is of good quality, and that portion yet to be surveyed is a vast level plain,
with a great many large tracts of prairie scattered through it.
Before closing this report I might say that all the land surveyed by me this season is of
a superior quality, composed, as it is, of clay loam and white silts, and there is not a half
section in the entire season's work which would not make a good farm, with the exception of
section 36 and the north halves of sections 32, 33, 34, and 35, which are on the divide
between the waters flowing into the Nechaco and Stuart Rivers. The land is entirely free
from rolling stone or rock, and is lightly timbered and easily cleared. In fact, the ease with
which it is cleared is going to be the greatest danger, as grass grows everywhere through the
timber, when it is pine, or spruce, or scattered poplar. It is going to be a difficult matter to
control fires during the process of clearing, and, I observe, it takes only two fires to do the
work of clearing, one to kill the standing timber, and the other leaves it clear burned land.
The whole country is one vast undulating plain, with a gentle inclination towards the east.
From the top of a bare hill, about three hundred feet above the surrounding plateau, and
about half a mile north of the north boundary of section 34, I had a complete view of the
entire country, as far west as the eye could carry, looking up the Nechaco River, and southward I could see all the country east of the Telegraph range of mountains, and could
discern the valley where the Chillaco River cuts through the Telegraph range, and thence on
south to the high bluffs south of the Blackwater River, which is about seventy miles from 988 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
where I stood; and, in a south-easterly direction the view was only limited by distance; and
in all that vast plateau, there was only one small mountain that was as high as the point of
view where I stood. The day being perfectly clear I had a good opportunity of observing
this vast plain, and after careful computation I concluded that about one-third was timbered
with spruce, and two thirds with poplar or cottonwood, and from a close inspection of the land
along the Telegraph trail, on the way going in, I am satisfied that there is from 60 to 70 per
cent, of good farming land, and that which would not rank as farming land could be made
first-class grazing land at a small outlay.    Fire will do it alone.
I consider there have been but two men, Mr. A L. Poudrier (sent by your Department),
and Mr. Stanley Smith (who went in his own private capacity), who have visited that portion
of the country, and, in speaking of it, have done it justice, and to my knowledge the reports
of Messrs. Poudrier and Smith give a very conservative idea of what the country really is.
Amongst some who have crossed that country, going to and corning from the mines in
the north, there appears to be a prevailing idea that it is too cold in summer for the successful
cultivation of wheat. I do not share in this belief. That there are summer frosts, it is true,
but I am thoroughly satisfied that, if the country was once settled, and the red soil turned up
to the sun, that frost would disappear, as it has done in other parts (witness all that country
around Seaforth, Ontario). Where the Indians can raise all kinds of garden vegetables and
potatoes, under their rude state of agriculture, I believe a white man, with judgment, can
grow anything he wants to.
But with all its natural advantages, this part of the country cannot settle speedily
without a waggon road, and this can be made at a very small outlay. I would advise the
cutting and clearing of a road 66 feet wide, from Quesnelle to the Nechaco River. I would
clear it off clean and seed it down with timothy to prevent the young poplar and brush
growing up. I would then grub all the larger stumps along the centre for a width of eight or
ten feet, do no ditching or grading, except where it was absolutely necessary, getting around
the face of an incline, and build the bridges across the rivers and streams, and I estimate that
a road of this kind could be built for $200 per mile, and it would be sufficient to let settlers
into the country in the meantime. I am satisfied that this country would then settle, as no
other part of the Province has ever settled in point of rapidity. And with a good healthy
settlement there a railroad would soon follow.
The Fraser and Nechaco Rivers could also be utilized as a highway into that country.
In coming home I brought my party, in canoes, down the Nechaco, to Fort George, on the
Fraser, and thence down the Fraser to Quesnelle.
There are two places on the Nechaco River that would require to be improved for the
successful navigation of that river at all stages of water in summer, but they are not of any
great moment. I consider that the judicious expenditure of $5,000 at the proper season of
the year, would be amply sufficient to render the river navigable for flat-bottomed, stern-
wheel steamers.
On the Fraser there are two canons between Quesnelle and Fort George, on which, in the
early days, there was a large amount of money spent, or rather mis-spent. With the judicious
expenditure of $10,000 at the proper season of the year, continuous steamboat navigation
could be had from Soda Creek to the Upper Nechaco. This matter could not be too strongly
impressed upon the proper authorities at Ottawa.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your Obedient Servant,
Jno. Strathern, P.L.S. 57 VicT. Crown Land Surveys. 989
REPORT OF SURVEYS IN THE NECHACO RIVER VALLEY.
 o	
BY D. T. THOMSON, P.L.S.
Quesnelle, B.C., January 1st, 1894.
Sir,—I have the honour, in compliance with your instructions dated 19th May, 1893, to
submit to you a report of the proceedings and survey work performed by me during the
summer and fall of this year in the Nechaco River Valley.
According to your instructions, I reported to Mr. A. L. Poudrier, P.L.S., who instructed
me to leave Victoria on the 28th May by the steamer Islander, and proceed to Ashcroft in
charge of thirteen men, picking up another man at Vancouver. On my arrival at Ashcroft, I
met Mr. Strathern, P.L.S., who had been sent on previously by Mr. Poudrier to make
arrangements for the transportation of the men and provisions, and whom I found had
procured two teams to transport the provisions, camp outfit, etc., to Quesnelle, and twenty
pack-horses to be used in forwarding supplies from the latter place to the different survey
parties during the summer months. As these horses would not be used for packing purposes
until after our arrival at Quesnelle, it was deemed advisable to mount the men on them, and
thus expedite matters a good deal. Considerable delay was occasioned by the bad state of
the roads, the waggons not averaging more than twelve miles a day. The parties arrived at
Quesnelle on the 14th of June, and went into camp near the "crossing" of the river, some
little distance above the town.
On the 15th June, we procured the use of Mr. Reid's scow to transport the provisions
across the Fraser River. This scow was the only available means of crossing the river, and as
it had broken loose during the high water and drifted down stream some distance, a day was
occupied in towing it up to the proper place for crossing. On the 17th June, the work of
crossing the camp outfit and supplies was commenced, and continued until everything was
across, including the horses, and the men safely camped on the opposite side of the river.
It was then found that the twenty pack-horses would be inadequate to carry the camp
equipage and sufficient supplies to last the parties until such time as another trip could be
made, so it was decided to hire a pack-train of about thirty animals, belonging to one Jean
Caux, to assist in taking in the supplies. This was accordingly done, and the animals all
taken across the river, where, on the 20th of June, everything was got in readiness for a start.
Mr. Poudrier, having arrived by stage on the 21st, immediately crossed the river and gave
orders to make a start without loss of time. It was the 23rd of June when the parties moved
out, with all their camp equipage and as great a quantity of supplies as the animals could
stand, and after a good deal of trouble in crossing several gulches where the footing was bad,
causing the animals to become frequently mired, we arrived at the twelve-mile prairie and
camped. On Saturday 24th we made Goose Lake, and camped over Sunday. On Monday
26th the mule train was sent back to Quesnelle to bring up the remainder of the supplies.
We proceeded with our own animals and camped at a large swamp midway between Goose
Lake and Blackwater River. On Tuesday 27th, after some delay, caused by the high water
in Cedar Creek, which necessitated the unpacking of the horses, and packs transported across
on a temporary bridge made by logs thrown over the creek, Blackwater River was reached,
and a camp made to await the arrival of the mule-train from Quesnelle. On Wednesday,
Thursday, and Friday, the men were engaged in building a bridge across Cedar Creek, under
the supervision of Mr. Strathern, in order to do away, in the future, with the necessity of
unpacking and carrying the supplies across. On Saturday, 1st July, the pack-train of mules
arrived with the balance of the supplies, and laid over during Sunday. On Monday, 3rd July,
a fresh start was made, and that night we camped at the Mud River. Here, again, a new
difficulty presented itself. We found the water so high that we had to swim the animals and
build a raft on which to cross the supplies. This occupied the whole of the 4th of July. On
the 5th, we travelled as far as a creek running out of Nettlesby Lake.    Next day we camped 990 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
at a small creek running into the lake, and on the night of the 7th we camped at Bobtail
Lake. The night of the 8th was spent at Tsinkut Lake, where a rest was given the horses
during the Sunday. On Monday, 10th July, we arrived at Stony Creek, where we were well
received by the Indians, and went into camp in the vicinity of the Hudson's Bay post (now
abandoned). Having paid off the mule-train at this point, and sent Caux and his animals
back to Quesnelle, we remained here in camp making the many necessary preparations for
active work, such as grinding axes, sorting supplies, adjusting instruments, etc.
On Friday, Mr. Strathern with his party and I with mine left for the Nechaco River at
Noonlah, the crossing of the Stony Creek and Stewart Lake trails, where we camped and
awaited an opportunity of taking an astronomical observation for the purpose of determining
the true meridian. We succeeded in obtaining a good observation on Sunday night, and found
the variation to be 28° 30' East. On Monday I ran the meridian south to the 54th degree of
north latitude, which forms the base of our surveys.
The following is a description of the different lands surveyed by me, to which is added a
few general remarks, which perhaps may be of use to the Department:—
Township 1 West, Range 1 North.
Section 1.
Flat along south boundary; descend a steep bank to Stony Creek, which creek is fringed
on both sides with swamp lands, containing some good hay meadows, though interspersed with
numerous clumps of willow. A small part of the north portion of this section is good open
land, with scattering poplar and a few pine of small size; soil silts and, in places, black loam
is found.
Section 2.
The south half of the section is principally along the ridge. The north-west part of the
south half takes in the creek and some prairie land to a small extent. The timber is chiefly
poplar, quite thick on the top of the ridge, but of small growth, with some few spruce and
pine. In the creek bottom there are some good hay meadows, and the soil is very rich in
these bottoms, though at present a little wet; however, drainage could, with little outlay, be
procured. The north half takes in a considerable portion of the creek bottom and a large
portion of the prairie, and is a very good section for a pre-emption, as there is lots of wood,
hay, and water on it. This portion of the section is at present held by one of the survey men,
Robert Brittle.
Section 3.
Partly on side-hill, not steep ; north half is the best, the poplar not being so thick, and
the ground generally more level than on the south half, and taking in a small portion of the
prairie; soil, loam, with subsoil of silts.
Section 4-
North half the best, lightly timbered; soil, chiefly loam; subsoil, silts. South half,
rolling; soil light.
Section 5.
South half, rolling, partly on side-hill, and thickly timbered with poplar; north half not
so thickly timbered.    A hay meadow runs through north half, with spring creek; soil, loam.
Section 6.
North half, thickly timbered ; some very fine spruce, 3 to 4 feetin diameter. South half,
rolling, with thick growth of poplar.    Soil, loam; subsoil, siltz.
Section 7.
Rolling land, heavily timbered with small poplar.
Section 8.
Composed of rolling land more or less covered with thick growth of poplar. 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 991
Section 9.
This section is not thickly timbered, and has a creek running through it; the soil is
chiefly loam ; subsoil, silts.
Section 10.
South half, good agricultural land; no thick timber; has a stream running through it;
has been partially burned. North half, good land, but on rising ground. Soil, loam ; subsoil,
silts.
Section 11.
South half contains a considerable portion of prairie land, with rising ground to the north,
thickly timbered with poplar of light growth. The north half is slightly broken by ravines,
and is thickly timbered with poplar and a few pine.
Section 12.
A large portion of this section is taken up by the Indian Reserve ; the portion not so
taken up is partly swamp and partly high sandy land, covered with pine of poor quality.
Section 13.
This section is situated on the north side of the Nechaco River, and is generally fitted for
cultivation, the north half being covered with poplar interspersed with patches of prairie.
The south half carries heavier timber with a few spruce of good size.
Section 14-
This section is intersected by the Nechaco River. The south half is thickly timbered
with poplar and has a good deal of rolling land in the vicinity of the river. The north half
is more uniform and the poplar is small and not so dense.
Section 15.
The north-east quarter of this section is intersected by the Nechaco River. The whole
section is thickly timbered with poplar and small growth of spruce. This section is very rou»h
being partially covered by a large quantity of fallen timber. The soil is, generally speaking
silts.
Sections 16, 17, and 18.
These sections are all thickly covered with a small growth of poplar, with occasional
spruce of small dimensions, and a few pine.    The soil is loam with subsoil of silts.
Sections 19 and 20.
These sections are also like the last mentioned, covered with a growth of poplar and small
spruce. Both sections are intersected by a creek running through them. The soil is more
inclined to be of a sandy nature, though in the southern portions the soil is chiefly loam.
Section 21.
The north half of this section is intersected by the Nechaco River running throuo-h it
and by a creek coming in from the north. The part of the section to the south of the Nechaco
is densely wooded and has a good deal of rolling land. The part to the north of the river is
more open, though inclined to be rolling, and along the creek bottom there is a thick growth
of willow.
Section 22.
This section is also intersected by the Nechaco River. The north half is lightly timbered
with small poplar interspersed with patches of prairie, and is suitable for agriculture or stock,
raising. The south half is more thickly timbered, though with a little labour it could easily
be cleared.    Soil silts.
Sections 23, 24, 25, 26, and 27.
_ These sections are all good, being lightly timbered with poplar interspersed with patches of
prairie, and suitable either for stock-raising or for agricultural purposes. In Sections 24 and
25 there is a good creek running with a lasting supply of water. The soil is a rich black loam
with a subsoil of silts. 992 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
Section 28.
This section is more or less broken by a stream that runs through it, the bottoms along
the stream being thickly covered with willow. The remaining portion of the section is thickly
timbered with small poplar and occasional spruce and pine.
Sections 29, 30, 81, 32 and 33.
These sections are all more or less thickly covered with a growth of pine and spruce. They
are useless for agricultural purposes, as the soil is chiefly sandy. The Nechaco River intersects Sections 29 and 31, with high bank on the south side. There is a large ravine with a
creek running through Sections 31 and 32. These sections might be made use of for stock
purposes during the summer months, as there is a plentiful supply of grass on them.
Section 34-
This section is intersected by the same creek as Section 28, and the northern portion of it
is taken up by a large beaver meadow which, with a little expenditure, might be made into a
good piece of agricultural land as there is good drainage by means of the creek that runs
through it.    The soil is a black loam.    Timber, where found, poplar and spruce.
Sections 85 and 36.
These sections are more or less timbered with a growth of poplar. They are very rough,
as they have been burnt over and are covered with windfalls. The eastern boundary of
Section 36 runs through a swamp for some distance, with some fair sized spruce in it. The
Stuart Lake trail runs through Sections 24, 25, and 35.
Township 1 West, Range 1 South.
The northern part of this Township being composed of Sections 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, and 30,
is all that has been surveyed, the remaining portion of the Township being taken up by the Stony
Creek Indian Reserve, and Tachic and Noolki Lakes. The part that has been|surveyed is
good land, thickly timbered with small growth of poplar. Stony Creek runs through this
portion of the Township on its way to the Nechaco, and offers a good opportunity for a mill
site, as there is a fall on the creek of nearly thirty feet. The"pakes in this Township abound
in fish, which is the staple diet of the Indians in the neighborhood.
Fish and Game.
During the latter part of August and the month of September, the Nechaco abounds with
salmon which make their way from the sea to their spawning grounds, and are at this time
taken in thousands by the Indians, who dry them for their winter supply of food.™ Trout and
sturgeon are also numerous, and a small fish that the, Indians call white fish, though it has no
resemblance to the white fish of the North-West Territories. Deer are not numerous in the
summer season, although numbers of tracks were seen. Bear are very plentiful, and are
caught by the Indians with snares set in the same manner as a rabbit snare. Coyotes are
plentiful, and as a rule make the night hideous by their howlings until one gets used to them.
Rabbits are there in abundance, and, with fish, make up the chief article of food the Indian
has to depend upon.
The fur-bearing animals, though not so plentiful now as in the past, are still numerous,
and are composed of beaver, otter, fisher, lynx, marten, wolverine, fox, and muskrat. During
the fall and until late in the season, the lakes and river teem with ducks and geese of all
kinds, and are easily got at, as one finds plenty of cover all along the shore line.
Roots and Cereals.
The Indians in the Nechaco District raise potatoes of a very good quality, turnips, cabbage, and onions; whilst at Fort Fraser the Hudson Bay Company raise very fine samples of
each of the above mentioned. When on a visit to Fort Fraser, I saw a stack of oats, all of
which were in splendid condition and had not the least appearance of having been touched by
frost. 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 993
Climate.
The climate is all that could be wished for, no extremes, the days during the summer
months though hot, are never uncomfortably so, whilst the nights are generally so cool that a
blanket is acceptable. During the winter, I ascertained from the Indians, the snow fall is
light, and although sometimes the glass drops very low, as a rule the weather is not very severe.
They informed me that they never thought of feeding their cattle until about Christmas, and
that in March they could be, as a general rule, turned out again.
Now and then during the season light summer frosts occur, but, owing to the warm
nature of the soil, they seem to do little damage; and I have no doubt that as the country
becomes opened up and the soil turned over, that these frosts will entirely disappear.
The same fault was found in the Carrot River section of the North-West Territories when
settlers first went into that country, which in many respects much resembles the Nechaco
Valley, but time proved that cultivation overcame these frosts, and to-day there is hardly
a vacant section to be found in that locality.
Roads.
The great drawback to the settlement of the country is the want of roads to get into it.
At present the only way of approaching this vast fertile belt is by means of the pack trail,
which is far too expensive a method for the settler to adopt. What is most wanted now to
develop the country is a ferry across the Fraser at Quesnelle, and a road from that point to
the Valley of the Nechaco, with bridges across the Blackwater and Mud Rivers. This done
and the country will soon settle up. As in numbers of cases that I have met with of men who
have been up there examining the land, not only from our own country but from Washington
and Oregon, and who remarked that numbers from these two states would emigrate to the
Nechaco Valley were there means of reaching there by road, instead of being compelled to
adopt the more expensive mode of engaging pack animals.
I cannot close this report without speaking in the highest terms of the men who composed
my party. They were willing to put up with all kinds of hardships and endure the various
rough experiences incidental to a surveyor's life, without grumbling or disobedience.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
To the Surveyor-General, D. T. Thomson, P.L.S.
Victoria, B. C. 994 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
REPORT ON THE SURVEY OF THE NECHACO VALLEY.
BY A. L. POUDRIER.
Victoria, B. O, January 25th, 1894.
Sir,—I have the honour to report on the survey operations in the Nechaco Valley
prosecuted last summer under your instructions. The expedition was composed of three
different parties, one under Mr. John Strathern, one under Mr. D. T. Thomson, and the last
under my own direction. The general charge of the expedition was entrusted to me by your
instructions. I proceeded first by sending Mr. Strathern to Ashcroft with instructions to buy
or hire a pack train and see to the transportation of the parties. He left Victoria on the 15th
May, 1893.
Mr. Thomson left here on the 28th May, 1893, with the men who were to form the
three parties. They started from Ashcroft at once, with a small horse pack-train bought by
Mr. Strathern, and travelled along the Cariboo Road, generally walking and riding.
A large amount of provisions had previously been bought in Victoria and sent to
Ashcroft. Mr. Strathern hired a team, which followed the train carrying a portion of these
supplies. The men camped and cooked their own meals, except on a few occasions where it
was not practicable to do so.
Having other work on hand for your department, I could not leave Victoria before the
15th June. I travelled by the stage, reaching Quesnelle two days after Messrs. Strathern
and Thomson. This interval was employed by the parties in ferrying horses and material
across the Fraser River. As we had to take the baggage of the parties in order to get as
much supplies ahead as possible, Mr. Strathern engaged the services of a small mule train. A
start along the Telegraph Trail was at once made, and great difficulties were encountered owing
to the bad state of the trail after the long and abundant rains ; several streams had to be
bridged, and one, the Chillacco, or Mud River, detained the expedition over a day, everything
having to be rafted over. Stony Creek, a small stream falling into the Nechaco, was
reached after a trip of ten days.
The survey operations were commenced at once. The 54th parallel of north latitude was
carefully established by astronomical observations and cords of arcs, the length of the side of
a township, were at once surveyed.
The 54th degree of north latitude was taken as a main base for the survey of the valley,
and the ranges were numbered from it, going north and south.
At Noon-la, the point where the Telegraph Trail crosses the Nechaco, a main meridian was
established and run north and south of the 54th degree of north latitude. This is known as
the Stony Creek meridian, and the townships are numbered east and west from this line.
Mr. Strathern and Mr. Thomson began immediately to survey and subdivide the two townships north of the 54th degree and on each side of the Stony Creek meridian, and with my
own party I began outlining the townships south of the parallel.
Before leaving Victoria I had been furnished by your department with copies of the
descriptions of the Indian reserves ; these had to be all surveyed carefully in order to establish
the acreage of the adjoining sections, only the lines were not blazed. This work caused a
great loss of time. Township 1 West, Range 1 North, was completely subdivided by Mr.
Thomson, and he also cut up into sections a large portion of Township 1 West, Range 1 South.
The full description of that territory will be included in his report. Mr. Strathern subdivided
Township 1 East, Range 1 North, and also a portion of the adjoining township to the east.
His report will also give an account of this area.
Township 1 East, Range 1 South, and Townships 1 and 2 West, Range 1 South, were all
outlined by my party, and the three townships adjoining to the south were also outlined as far
as the good land extended, that is, close to the south boundary.    A good deal of work was. L
57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 995
also done in Township 2 West, Range 1 North, Township 3 West, Range 1 South, and
Township 3 West, Range 2 South, the outlines north and west being carried to the Nechaco
River.
Before giving a detailed description of the ground surveyed, it may be better to give a
general account of the whole valley. The Nechaco River takes its source near the foot-hills of
the Coast Range, south of the 53rd degree of north latitude, and near the head of the Salmon
River, which falls into Dean's Channel; it runs north-easterly for a long distance, receiving many
large feeders, until it falls into a large trough or depression, near Fraser Lake. This depression
follows the 54th degree of latitude in its general direction, and it has an average width of
from ten to forty miles. At the point where the Nechaco reaches this wide valley its volume
is largely increased by the Nantley River, which drains Fraser Lake, Lac des Francais, and
the valley of the Endako, and it takes its course, winding through the valley, but keeping a
general course, parallel to the 54th parallel of north latitude, until it reaches the Fraser River.
This large extent of land is drained by the Lower Nechaco from Fraser Lake to the Fraser River,
and has a length of about 75 miles in a direct distance, and a width of from ten to forty miles.
During the exploration of 1889, in that portion of the country, the amount of land fit for
cultivation in the whole valley of the Nechaco and its tributaries was estimated at 1,000
square miles. A closer examination, made under better circumstances, proves that more than
that amount of good land is to be found on the Lower Nechaco alone.
The upper part of the trough, occupied by Fraser Lake, Lac des Francais, and the Nadina
River, extends as far as the foot-hills of the Coast Range, a distance in a direct line of about
85 miles, also parallel to the 54th degree of latitude. That portion of the valley is not so level
as the part along the Nechaco, several small groups of low mountains occuring on both shores
of the lakes, but, nevertheless, a very extensive tract of land will yet prove of great value for
farming and grazing purposes.
Near the upper end of Fraser Lake a stream of some importance comes into the Stillako,
which is the name of the stream draining Lac des Francais into Fraser Lake. This stream,
known as the Endako, comes from a north-westerly direction through the valley of the same
name. The Lower Nechaco Valley and the Endako form part of that truly wonderful
structural valley which commences at the Fraser River and is continued by the Bulkley, the
Kispyox, and by branches of the Naas and Stickeen Rivers, until it opens into the headwaters
of the Yukon River, after crossing all the northern portion of the Province, following always
the same direction.
This, the only road to reach Alaska from the interior, was found and utilized by the
constructors of the old telegraph line, and will no doubt some day be the route followed when
the time comes for the building of a railroad to Alaska. The immense advantages offered by
this valley are many, hills are unknown, the soil is rich and in a great part open. The general
altitude is much lower than all the surrounding country, the climate is milder, and the
principal crops can be grown without trouble. Wheat, barley, oats, and all kinds of vegetables
are known to give good returns as far north as Telegraph Creek, which is in the same valley,
but stock-raising will in the near future prove to be the most paying industry. Apart from
its agricultural value, it must be remembered that this route passes close to the Omineca and
Cassiar mines, and traverses the country between the Stickeen and Naas Rivers, where silver
ores of all kinds are found.
Although it may appear at first that the description of this northern region has nothing
to do with a report of the Nechaco Valley survey, it must be remembered that the lower
Nechaco is the first link in that chain of rivers and lakes which forms this surprising route
unequalled in northern Canada.
The land in the region surveyed is not generally open. It is covered with a light growth
of small balsam poplars (P. Balsamifera), aspen poplars (P. Tremuloides), small birch (Betula
papyrifera—Michx, B. Glandulusa—Michx), and Canadian balsam (Abies balsamifera—
Michx). On the low hills the soil is generally much lighter, and jack pines (P. Murrayana)
predominate. Near the streams some very large Canadian poplars (P. Canadensis—Michx)
are found ; they are utilized by the Indians to make canoes. In some low places small black
spruce (A. Nigra) are found, but never in large quantities. A few very low hills occur at
different places, where spruce (P. Alba Link) of a size fit to be used for economic purposes
are found. Alders and willows of different species are common. The service-berry bush
(Amelanchier Canadensis—Torr) is also abundant, and its fruit is preserved and dried in large
quantities by the natives. 996 Crown Land Surveys. 1893
Although the ground is generally covered with thickets of small trees, patches of prairie of
large extent often occur. These are always level and covered with the greatest varieties of
nutritious grasses. These prairies appear to be nearlyall caused by fires. They are more abundant
near the trails and rivers, where no doubt tires were started by Indians or white men camping.
On the north of the Nechaco very large tracts of land have been burned, and are now fast
becoming rich meadows, only a few stumps and the remains of burned logs can be found. The
whole country could be cleared most effectually and cheaply by that means. The soil almost
everywhere is of the richest quality. It is composed of fine white silt with clay subsoil; in
some parts the silt attains a thickness of over forty feet. Not only is the grass very
luxuriant on the prairies, but even in the wooded portion pea-vines and vetches of different
species grow to such a height that it renders travelling very difficult.
It has long been the opinion of miners who have seen that country that summer frosts
would prove to be too severe for the cultivation of the soil. A very careful examination of
the flora, and additional information received from the Hudson Bay Company employees and
others, enable me to form a different opinion. Barley, oats, and all kinds of common vegetables
have been grown successfully at Fort Fraser, and further north and in a higher altitude. At
Fort St. James cultivation is also very successfully carried on. The Indians grow potatoes,
turnips, and cabbages, and although their mode of culture is most primitive, they always have
a good yield. A great portion of the Provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick were so
subject to summer frosts when they were first settled, so much so that no crops could be raised
for many years until the clearing had reached a very large area. Should some parts of the
Nechaco Valley be so exposed, no doubt the clearing or burning would have the same beneficial
effect.
I have seen in many places heads of wheat, probably brought amongst other grain by
pack trains, thoroughly ripe; and timothy and clover are also found in many places along the
trails. I have no doubt that an early wheat, like Ladoga, or Red Fife, could be successfully
grown, at least over the largest part of the valley.
According to Professor Macoun, the flora resembles very much that of Belleville, Ont.
I would compare the climate to that in the vicinity of Quebec, without the heavy snowfall.
According to all information and signs, the snow does not appear to attain a greater depth
than fifteen inches in the lower part of the valley ; it may be somewhat more near Lac des
Francais.
The rain is not abundant in summer, but quite sufficient to enable farming to be done
without irrigation. The cold is said to be very severe in winter, but the atmosphere is always
clear and calm. The summer is very hot, and with the long days in that latitude there is
all the chance possible for the vegetation. In certain portions of the surveyed ground the
timber is too small for construction, but a good supply of fair timber can always be had
cheaply from along the river or from the shores of the lakes. Three lakes of some importance
are found in the surveyed parts, Noolkie, Tachic, and Tsinkut. Stony Creek, a fine stream,
falling into the Nechaco, drains the two first. Many smaller lakes and ponds occur, and they
are generally surrounded by rich, wet meadows ; it is near these that the horses and cattle
belonging to the Indians pass their winter ; they are left to themselves, and are generally in
first-class condition in the spring. The streams and lakes are well stocked with fish. The
salmon ascends the Nechaco, and is the principal food of the Indians ; sturgeon is often seen ;
trout and two or three varieties of white fish are very plentiful and of first-class quality. Big
game is scarce ; deer are seldom seen ; the caribou do not come down the valley ; bears are
also scarce. Of small game there is any quantity—rabbits, grouse, ducks and geese can be
had without any trouble. The fur-bearing animals are nearly destroyed, and the Indians have
now to go very long distances to trap ; the difficulties in getting furs induced some of them to
turn their attention to farming and cattle-raising. The Indian population is not very numerous,
they are called " Carriers," a branch of the Tuenic nations; they are a very peaceful and law-
abiding people, who have all become Christians. They can all speak Chinook, a little English,
and some French, and they can read and write. Now that their reserves have been selected,
they will not oppose settlement in any way; in fact, they are anxious to see the white men
come, as they expect to receive employment, and also give them the opportunity to learn
farming.
The different Townships surveyed are so much of the same character that it is useless to
take them one by one. The same growth of small trees prevail everywhere, with newly-
burned spaces becoming prairies and rich spots of   luxurious grass,    Several small streams 57 Vict. Crown Land Surveys. 997
cross the townships surveyed, all falling into the different lakes. There is a fall on Stony
Creek which offers one of the finest water powers ; two or three smaller streams south of
Noolki Lake, and the creek draining Tsinkut Lake, also have the same advantages. The
country between Quesnelle and the Nechaco, though offering many spots of rich land as fit for
culture, is far from being so advantageous as the great valley ; not only is the soil not
so good, but the climate is much more severe, owing no doubt to the difference in altitude
from the level of Lac des Francais.
Fraser Lake is not much below 2,300 feet above the sea, and the valley itself may be
counted at that altitude.
Another reason which renders the climate of this valley milder than elsewhere in the
northern part of the Province, is that the great low trough which runs with the 54th degree
of north latitude begins near the coast range where this chain is narrowest, and the nearness
of the sea between the northern part of Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Group
permits the winds of the Pacific to sweep over the valley with comparatively little obstacle.
The settlement of this region will depend greatly upon the building of ways of communication.
A waggon road from Quesnelle to Nechaco could be built without very much cost; although
streams are numerous the bridging could be done very cheaply. The old Telegraph Trail
follows the best location which could be made, and as that trail was formerly cut for a waggon
road all the old stumps have now disappeared and nothing but a light growth remains to be
taken off. In the course of time, no doubt, this trail would be prolonged to join the trail
begun on the Bulkley, and in time a chain of settlements might be established from the Fraser
to the Skeena, and beyond. For stock-raising, the valleys of the Endako and the Bulkley
Rivers offer more advantages than the Nechaco Valley proper ; but this last, with its level
plains, rich white silts, where a stone cannot be found, offers certainly the greatest advantage
to farmers, and it is now well known that the largest extent of farming land in British
Columbia is to be found there. A great number of farmers have visited the valley last
summer, and though, as a rule, they have not gone further than Stony Creek, and not therefore seen the best of the land, they all appeared to be delighted. A great many will, no doubt,
settle there next spring; but the greater number will wait until a road is constructed permitting them to take farming implements, and thus reduce the cost of travelling.
Several good locations could also be had along the Telegraph Trail, especially for cattle-
raising, without counting what could be had in the Valley of the Blackwater.
I have the honour to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
A. L. Poudrier, P. L. S.
Tom Kains, Esq.,
Surveyor-General.
VICTORIA, B. C:
Printed by Richard Wolfknden, Printer to the Queen s Most Excellent Majesty.

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