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FIRST REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1891. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1892

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 FIEST    EEEOET
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
OF   THE   PROVINCE   OF
BRITISH   COLUMBIA,
1891.
VICTORIA, B, C. :
Printed by Richabd Wolfknben, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 727
CONTENTS.
1.—Letter of Transmittal.
2.—Introductory Remarks.
3.—Reports.
4.—Diseases and Pests.
5.—Imports and Exports.
6.—Hard Woods, Culture and Value.
7.—Sugar Beet.
8.—Fruit Trees and Fruit.
9.—Meteorological Statistics. 55 Vict.
Report on Agriculture.
729
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., 12th March, 1892
Sir:
I  have the honour to transmit  herewith for your approval  the First  Report  of  the
Department of Agriculture of British Columbia.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your most obedient servant,
James R. Anderson,
Statistician
The Honourable
J.  II.  Turner,
Minister of Agriculture,
Victoria. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 731
FIRST   REPORT
-of the	
DEPARTMENT   OF   AGRICULTURE,
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
1891.
The absence of any material from which to form comparisons; the difficulty of procuring
reliable data upon which to work ; the great distances, together with the indifferent means of
locomotion, rendering some parts of the Province very difficult of access; all combined, make
the task of collecting information and becoming conversant with the various subjects so
necessary in connection with an interesting and intelligent report on the agricultural and
other industries relating thereto a matter of much difficulty. I trust that the shortness of
time I had at my disposal will be sufficient excuse for any shortcomings and inaccuracies that
may appear in the following papers.
In accordance with instructions, I proceeded in June last about the business of procuring
the necessary data and information for making a report. Following the example of some of
the other Provinces in some particulars, I had to adopt other means which the exigencies of
our peculiar position seemed to demand.
There are about 5,000 people in the Province engaged in agriculture, stock raising, &c.
To all these, circulars were sent, asking for information as to land owned, area under crop,
description of crop, number of fruit trees, live stock, value of implements, machinery, and
improvements, rates of wages, produce, and other particulars. Where a personal canvass was
possible, the returns were freely made, but otherwise, indifference, and suspicion of the
object of the enquiries, deterred many; so that I regret to say the returns necessary for
statistical information were not sufficiently large to make them of any practical use, and that
part is therefore omitted from this report. Many improvements in the nature of the questions
asked have naturally suggested themselves to me, and several suggestions as to the modus
operandi have been offered, some of which will no doubt be found to be effective. It is hoped
that with the experience now gained, with more time and with a convincing proof of the (I
hope) useful nature of these reports before them, the farmers will in future be more alive to
the importance of furnishing the needed data. Nevertheless, much valuable information has
been gleaned from reports of correspondents and farmers, and from personal observations
during a trip on the mainland last Autumn. The result of these lead me to the following
conclusions :—There is too great a disposition on the part of farmers and others to acquire
large tracts of land, and keep them locked up. This policy works very detrimentally to the
best interests of the Province, inasmuch as many seeking homesteads are compelled either to 732 Report on Agriculture. 1891
take up the poor or worthless parts of the country, or go elsewhere. By returns received, I
find that not ten per cent, of the land reported as owned is cultivated. It is true that a great
portion of the land owned is pastoral land, rock, &c.; still enough remains to show that but a
tithe of the land fit for cultivation is actually cultivated, and there can be no doubt that it
would result very favourably to the country if people would dispose of such lands as they
cannot or will not utilize. It is a well recognized fact that a small quantity of land well
cultivated will yield more profit than a large quantity badly cultivated. This conclusion was
forced upon me in every part of the country I visited. I commend the remarks on this head
of Mr. Pelly, of Otter Lake, Spallumcheen, to the consideration of everyone. (See Spallumcheen Reports.)
Importers of pure bred stock do not seem to have that protection that their enterprise
demands. Numerous complaints reached me that stallions of no breeding were allowed in
every part of the country, whose owners so cut down prices that owners of valuable stock
could not afford to let their horses out. Mr. J. W. Tolmie, correspondent for Victoria, says :
"The taste for improved breeds is gradually increasing, but breeders do not receive much
encouragement." It has been suggested that a license might meet the case. Wild stallions
in the upper country are also a great and growing evil.
The general consensus of opinion seems to be in favour of Durham and graded Durham
cattle for beef purposes in every part of the country. In the valley of the Lower Fraser,
Holsteins and Jerseys are much in favour for dairying; and in the more settled parts of the
Islands, Jerseys are much esteemed. Of late, many people have placed Polled Angus cattle
on their ranges in the upper country, but it seems to be pretty generally conceded that they
have not as yet proved themselves superior or equal to Durhams. In the lower country,
Clydesdale and Percheron horses are the favourites, but in many parts of the upper country a
lighter horse seems to be preferred ; nevertheless, many even there are in favour of Clydesdales
and crosses of Clydesdales.
In pigs, the Berkshire is considered to be most remunerative, and therefore most commonly bred.
Cotswold and Southdown sheep are most generally bred, both for the mutton and wool.
Breeders complain that the price obtainable for the latter is so low that it does not pay
them.
Poultry raising is almost altogether neglected, a fact much to be deplored, considering
the enormous quantities of eggs and poultry imported.    (See Imports and Exports.)
The production of honey has, until lately, received little attention, having been attempted
only in a desultory sort of way, generally resulting in disappointment. It is now being successfully produced, and found to be a profitable industry.
There is a great tendency to economise land by planting fruit trees too near each other,
and to raise other crops off the same land. I saw some orchards where the trees were so close
to one another that the branches were interwoven overhead. There is also a great neglect of
pruning, fertilizing, and mulching. Under the head of "Fruit Trees," further on in this
report, I make some remarks on this subject, and give some extracts from good authorities,
which I trust will be of service.
The influence that diseases and pests have on agriculture does not seem to be properly
appreciated by our farmers, very little attempt being made in most cases to combat them by
applying those remedies which are known to be best. Under "Diseases and Pests" I quote
largely from eminent authorities, showing the great loss entailed through these agencies, and
the remedies best known to be efficacious Amongst the worst diseases to plant life reported
is blight amongst apples and pears. No complaints of this disease come fronr the upper
country. A large proportion of the fruits mentioned were rendered unsaleable in all the lower
country through this disease. No other diseases of any consequence are reported; some smut
in grain, and some cases of potato rot (the latter not believed to be the genuine disease, but
thought to be the result of excessive wet). Amongst the worst of insect pests is the Aphis,
which has destroyed large quantities of apples, and on the lower mainland hops were also
seriously affected. The ordinary tent caterpillar was absent from the islands, but occurred
about the Lower Fraser, while the Oaklooper appeared in myriads about Victoria.    I commend 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 733
Mr. Fletcher's letter (see Diseases and Pests) to the attention of the Park Commissioners.
Grasshoppers appeared in some quantity at different points of the mainland, doing considerable
injury to pasture. From the descriptions given, I do not think it was in any case the Rocky
Mountain or Hateful Locust. Numerous other insect pests are reported, but not in alarming
numbers. Amongst the diseases of animals, pigs seem to have suffered most. Cholera has
been very prevalent, and a disease (not identified) has carried off large numbers of pigs about
Chilliwhack and Sumas. Red Water amongst cattle is reported from several places as fatal,
and distemper in rather a mild form amongst horses. Nothing in the shape of an epidemic is
reported, unless I except hog diseases. Amongst animal pests, coyotes take the lead, and
some scheme should be adopted for their extermination. They destroy large numbers of sheep
and young stock every year. The other animal pests reported, although numerous and bad
enough, do not here call for special comment, except wild horses, which are increasing in
numbers, and are a nuisance to the up-country farmers Weeds not indigenous to the country
are reported as alarmingly on the increase, notably the Oxeye Daisy and Canada Thistle.
Legislative measures might, I think, be enacted for the extermination of bad weeds. (See my
remarks under " Diseases and Pests.)
A great portion of the Province has no meteorological stations, and it is desirable that
encouragement should be given to private observers. Instruments will be furnished by the
Dominion Government. (See copy of Mr. Carponeal's letter under head of " Meteorological
Statistics.")
The weather in all parts has been exceptional. In the lower country, a late cold and wet
spring was followed by a short hot and dry summer, succeeded by early and continuous fall
rains, with scarcely any frost or snow to the end of the year. In the upper country, the small
snowfall of the preceding winter caused a scarcity of water in many places for irrigating
purposes. The spring was as a rule late and cold, and the summer dry and hot. In Okanagan
and Spallumcheen, however, some early summer rain is reported, and a good deal at Grand
Prairie (near Duck's), doing much good. The harvest weather was good. Early summer
frosts at Okanagan Mission and Similkameen did some damage, but not to grain, except at
high altitudes. Towards the Cariboo country, the summer was the driest experienced in
twenty years.
The grain and fruit crop, taking the country as a whole, was short, and the root and
vegetable crop good. In the lower country, the late spring prevented early seeding in most
places. The succeeding hot and dry weather was unfavourable to the full development of
grain crops, and the early fall rains caught many in the midst of their harvest, occasioning
much loss, most of the grain that was saved being discoloured, and much was lost by sprouting
and lodging before it was cut. In fruit, the apple crop was not up to the average, pears a fair
crop, cherries very short, and plums almost a total failure, the late cold having injured the
blossoms. Small fruits did well, but some loss in strawberries is reported through wet. In
the upper country, the grain crop generally was short, owing to the lack of water for irrigation.
In parts, however, it was good, whilst in others it was a total failure. The harvesting weather
was good. Fruit, where it is cultivated, and root crops generally were good. Some potatoes
were frosted, but that only occurred on the high lands. The hay crop was good throughout
the country, and well saved, the dry weather in the lower country having come on at the
right time.
On reference to the Statistics of Imports it will be seen that most of the agricultural
products consumed in the Province are imported from other countries or other Provinces.
This should not be, as there is ample land to grow nearly everything that is required for
consumption within the Province, and probably a great deal more, and the varied character of
the climate and soil rendering it possible to grow all the half hardy and tender products, as
well as those grown in colder climates.
The establishment of creameries and cheese factories at such centres as Chilliwhack, The
Delta, and Lulu Island would be a great incentive for the improvement of the breed of milch
cows, and would furnish a stop gap to that great leak—the importation of butter and cheese.
I beg to refer to Mr. Webb's remarks on tlris subject See Chilliwhack. (The importations
of preserved milk were inadvertently omitted from the statistics.) 734 Report on Agriculture. 1891
The cultivation of hard woods might, I think, be undertaken with profit in some parts of
the country, especially those parts which are destitute of timber. Valuable information is
furnished under the head of "Hard Woods."
It will be seen by the correspondence on the subject of sugar beet that Mr. Saunders,
Director of Experimental Farms, is of opinion that it is impossible to compete with the
importations of sugar from the tropics, and that, therefore, the growing of sugar beets for that
purpose would be unprofitable.
In view of the imperfect returns received, I addressed a letter to Mr. George Johnson,
Statistician, Ottawa, asking him for certain information from the census returns of this
Province. In reply he stated, under date of 12th December, that the compiling of the work
was not then sufficiently advanced to be of much value, but that as soon as he was in possession of the particulars he would be glad to forward them. These particulars, I regret to say,
have not yet reached me.
Notwithstanding the paucity of returns, enough information has been obtained to prove
that the Province is not the " Sea of Mountains" it has been represented, and although it
cannot be compared in extent as a grain growing country to the Great North West, nor can
it aspire to produce 70,000 or 80,000 tons of turkeys in a season like the County of Lanark,
Ontario (New Brunswick Report on Agriculture, 1886, p. 233), it will, with improved means
of communication and transport, yet show that it is not to be ignored in the matter of
agricultural productions, while its climatic excellence is too well known to need descanting
upon.
In the following pages I beg to submit the result of my labours. 55 Vict.
Report on Agriculture.
735
CORRESPONDENTS.
The following gentlemen were asked and have consented to act as "Correspondents" to
the Department, and my thanks are due to them for the interest they manifested in the work,
and the valuable assistance they have rendered in procuring much valuable information :—
Name.
Alex. Salmond	
Joseph Stewart	
Alex. McMillan	
D. L. Herbert   	
John Saul	
Wm. Abel	
R. Hoey	
H. S. Cleasby	
J. Clapperton	
Alex. Wilson	
R. A. R. Pur-dy	
Theo.  Trage	
G. W. Anderson, M.P.P
W. Fisher	
J. T. Mcllmoyl	
Wm. Thompson	
John Muir	
J. W. Tolmie	
J. McLay, J.P 	
W. H. Lee	
G. R. Porter	
M.  Sullivan	
G. T. Corfleld	
W. H. Lomas	
M. Lumby	
Angus K. Stuart	
Eustace Smith 	
W. McKee	
O. D. Sweet 	
E. T. Wade  	
Geo.  Rawlison	
Horatio Webb	
Lewis A. Agassiz	
John T. Scott	
E. J. Thompson	
W. G. Mitchell	
Hector Ferguson	
Chas. Bayley	
Wm. Pinchbeck	
M. G. Drummond	
J. F. Hawks	
Ernest Spraggett .......
Thomas Daly	
Wm. G. Macmyn	
Wm. Fadden	
W. F. Stewart	
Thomas Kidd	
Dr. G. F. Bodington...
Wm. Knight  	
H. C. Fraser	
Hugh Hunter	
W. H. Jones	
John Murray	
G. A. Smith	
Post Office.
Grantham 	
Oyster Bay 	
Comox	
Comox 	
Clinton	
111-Mile House	
Lillooet	
Coutlie	
Nicola	
Burgoyne Bay	
Vesuvius Bay	
Beaver Point	
Lake	
Metchosin	
North Saanich	
South Saanich	
Sooke 	
Cloverdale	
Gabriola	
French Creek 	
Chemainus	
Shuswap	
Corfleld  	
Duncan's	
Enderby	
Vernon	
Okanagon Mission	
Ladner's	
North Arm	
Surrey Centre    	
Langley	
Chilliwhack	
Agassiz	
Port Moody	
Mt. Lehman	
Squamish, Vancouver P. 0
Port Haney	
Cowichan Lake	
1,50-Mile Post	
Chilcotin	
Soda Creek 	
Kettle River	
Keremeos	
Rock Creek	
Upper Sumas	
North Arm	
Lulu Island	
Mission City   	
Popcum 	
Salmon Arm	
Granite Creek	
Grand Prairie, via Duck's
Spence's Bridge	
Alberni	
District.
Courtenay and vicinity.
Oyster Bay and vicinity.
Denman Island.
Hornby and Lasqueti Islands.
The Mound and vicinity.
Lac La Hache, Dog Creek, Alkali Lake, &c.
Lillooet, Pemberlon Meadows, &c.
Coldwater and vicinity.
Nicola Valley, towards Kamloops.
Burgoyne Bay and vicinity.
Vesuvius Bay and vicinity.
Beaver Point and vicinity.
Lake District.
Metchosin District.
North Saanich.
Soirth Saanich.
Sooke.
Victoria District.
Gabriola, Mudge, and DeCourcey Islands.
French Creek, Nanoose, &c.
Chemainus and Oyster.
Shuswap and vicinity.
Corfleld and vicinity.
Quamichan, Somenos, and Comiaken.
Spallumeheen and vicinity.
Vernon, White Valley, and Okanagan.
Okanagan Mission and vicinity to Woods Lake.
Delta.
North side Lulu Island.
Surrey, Hall's Prairie, Clayton, Clover Valley, &c.
Langley and Aldergrove.
Chilliwhack and Sumas.
Agassiz and Harrison Lake.
Port Moody and vicinity.
Mt. Lehman, Matsqui, and Riverside.
Squamish Valley.
Maple Ridge and vicinity.
Cowichan Lake.
Williams Lake and vicinity.
Chilcotin.
Quesnelle and Soda Creek.
Grand Prairie (Kettle River).
Keremeos and Osoyoos.
Rock Creek and Kettle River.
Upper Sumas.
Sea Island.
South side of Lulu Island.
Mission and Hatzic.
Popcum to Little Mountain, Chilliwhack.
Salmon Arm and Valley.
Granite Creek.
Grand Prairie and Duck's.
Lytton, Ashcroft, Cache Creek, Savona, Spence's
Alberni. [Bridge, 736 Report on Agriculture. 1891
The following questions were asked in an autumn circular to correspondents :—
1. Grain.—Can you state what the estimated yield is per acre of the following; also
the average prices obtained or ruling :—Wheat (Fall), wheat (Spring), barley, oats, rye, peas,
Indian corn, other grain ?
2. Miscellaneous.—Hay, hops?
3. Roots and Vegetables.—Potatoes, mangolds, carrots, turnips, other roots? Can
you state the particular names of any wheat, barley, oats, rye, peas, corn, grass, clover, hop,
potato, mangold, carrot, or turnip which are considered to suit the district best, and give tire
best results ?
4. Fruit.—Can you state the average prices obtained for apples, pears, plums and
prunes, cherries, peaches, quinces, other fruit? Has the crop been good or bad? Was the
fruit of good quality ?
(a.) Any information as to cultivation and the soils best adapted for the different kinds
of fruits will be of service.
(b.) Will you give the names, as nearly as you can ascertain, of apples, pears, plums, and
cherries which are found to give the best results, both as regards production and marketing?
(c.) Have the following fruits been tried, and how do they succeed, viz.: Peaches, apricots, nectarines, grapes, melons, tomatoes ?
6. Dairy.—Is this branch of agricultural industry much followed, and with what results,
satisfactory or otherwise? Is much butter and cheese manufactured, and what are the prices
obtained ?
7. Bees.—Has apiculture been tried, and with what results?
8. Linseed or Flax Seed.—Has any attempt been made to cultivate this for oil and oil
cake?
9. Poultry.—What about this branch ? Is it entered into on any large scale, and with
any system ? It seems, in view of the enormous quantities of eggs and poultry imported from
the United States and the other Provinces, and the high prices obtainable, that it is a much
neglected industry.
10. Wool.—Is the district adapted for sheep-raising? Is it entered into largely, and
how does the wool turn out ?
11. Live Stock.—Do the farmers and stock-raisers generally seem to appreciate the
desirability of going in for improved breeds ? Can you state what breeds are considered most
desirable in your district ? Horses, for draught, carriage, or saddle ? Cattle, for beef and for
milk ?    Sheep, for wool and for mutton ?    Pigs, poultry, &c. ?
12. The Weather.— Has it been favourable for harvesting ? Have you had frosts, early
or late ?    State any facts in this connection, as they are all very useful.
13. Diseases and Pests.—It is of the utmost importance that all information throwing
any light on this subject should be brought before the Department, inasmuch as the loss
entailed by these agencies is incalculable, and it should be everybody's aim to devise means
for the counteraction of the mischief wrought. If you can, therefore, report upon diseases of
plant or animal life, noxious weeds and insects, means employed (if any), and the success
attending them, to get rid of or mitigate the evils, it would be a great help towards the end
in view. What percentage of loss of animals, fruit and other crops do you estimate to have
occurred through the weather, and diseases and pests ?
14. Labour.—Is farm labour abundant? What description—white, Chinese, or Indian?
Average wages paid ?
15. Ensilage.—Has it been tried, and, if so, with what success?
16. Ploughing.—Has any ploughing been done, and to what extent? 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 737
REPORTS.
PENTICTON AND SIMILKAMEEN.
Including Granite Creek, Princeton, Keremeos, Osoyoos, Rock Creek, Kettle River,
Grand Prairie, &c.
Penticton, situated at the southerly end of Okanagan Lake, is destined, I believe, from
its geographical position and fertility of the surrounding country to become one of the
agricultural centres of the interior. Thus far cattle raising is the only industry that has been
followed in this part, owing to its inaccessibility. Cereals and crops of every description
flourish. Some of the fruit from Mr. Ellis' place which I got was of remarkably good quality,
apples and peaches especially. All this country down to the American boundary requires
irrigation, and with irrigation will produce crops of all kinds. In some of the higher altitudes,
however, the larger fruits will not do, owing to summer frosts. Roads are badly needed,
especially to Otter Valley and the Tulameen from Nicola, and until there is railway communication with the Rock Creek and Kettle River country it is not to be expected that agriculture
can be successfully prosecuted. Here, also, at the present time stock raising is the principal
industry. It is also a good sheep raising country, but owing to the number of coyotes it
cannot be successfully prosecuted. From returns received only about two and a half pet cent,
of the land owned is cultivated ; a large proportion is, of course, pasture land, and the want
of a market has kept a quantity of good land lying idle.
There are about one hundred and forty-five settlers in all this district, some of whose
replies and opinions I give below, as well as correspondent's reports.
Wages.—$30 to $40 and board per month; $1.50 per day and board, ordinary farm
labour; $3 per day and board, other.
Mr. Thomas Ellis, Penticton.—Oats, potatoes, red clover, orchard grass, and fruit all
well adapted.    I consider Durham and Hereford best cattle.
Mr. Hiram Inglee, Penticton.—Nearly all kinds of fruit do well in this particular-
locality ; also clover and timothy.
Mr. Walton Hugh Holmes, Princeton.—All kinds of grain, roots, and most fruits do
well. Water and musk melon and tomatoes ripen. Timothy, alfalfa, blue-joint, white and
red clover are all suitable. The land must be irrigated. Have a peculiar bug which eats
everything green, but it has disappeared; next spring will forward a specimen. It is blue
and black, but both the same kind.    Grasshoppers and potato bugs are troublesome.
Mr. John Granville Thynne, Otter Valley.—Timothy grows best, averages four feet
six to five feet. Not tried fruit. Sainfoin has started well. I have a stallion from blood
mare Kentucky by half Arab sire. Bull, three-quarter bred Shorthorn. Pigs, two thoroughbred Berkshire boar and sow. There are about thirty settlers in Otter Valley, and we all
need machinery, but cannot get it on account of having no waggon road.
Mr. F. P. Dougall, Manager Wolf Cheek Ranch, Princeton.—Root crops of all
kinds do well. Small fruits stand the climate and yield abundantly, but apples, pears, plums,
&c, will not do, owing to summer frosts. Timothy and clover of all kinds do splendidly.
Oats, wheat (spring), rye, barley, <fec, all do well. Stock is common grade, which I think
better adapted to this part than pedigree animals would be.
Mr. Sam'l. C. Pearce, Vermillion.—Ranch on a bench of the Tulameen River. Only
located last May ; busy clearing and fencing ; no crop this year. Irrigation necessary in this
valley. Have seen good corn raised in this vicinity. Timber good for building and fencing.
Some spruce, fir, pine, cedar, and cottonwood. If we had better roads, or even good trails, no
doubt we would have more settlers, as there are many flats along the river very suitable for
farming and stockraising on a small scale, Horses run out all the winter for miles around
here and do well. 738 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr John R. Jackson, Kettle River.—Coyotes are very destructive in this section.
It would be advisable to have a bounty on them to encourage hunters to destroy them.
Mr. Wm. Graham Macmyn, Rock Creek.—All the swamp land is good for growing
wild hay. The following are best adapted : —Oats and spring wheat, cabbage, turnips, carrots,
and potatoes. Small fruits. Timothy and red clover. I have a Cleveland bay stallion, 16|
hands, weight, 1,500 pounds. General purpose horses weighing about 1,200 most in demand
here. Coyotes are a great pest, and I think a bounty should be put on them. (See Mr.
Macmyn's letter under head of Diseases and Pests.)
Mr. John A. Coryell, Grand Prairie.—Mr. Covert, on his farm half a mile west,
has been successful in growing all kinds of garden produce and small fruits; also plums,
prunes, cherries, apples, grapes, and strawberries. Timothy, sainfoin, and alfalfa are grown
successfully. A grass suitable to dry bench land, gravelly clay soil, to replace the native
bunch grass, is very desirable in the Grand Prairie settlement.
Mr. R. L. Cawston, Keremeos. —All grains, root crops, and fruits do well here. My
bulls are all Shorthorns, some pedigreed, imported from Ontario. I consider Shorthorns the
cattle for this country.
Mr. R. G. Sidley, Osoyoos.—It was very wet in the early part of the season, dry in the
latter part. The summer frost (which comes regularly on this high mountain from the latter
part of June to the 12th July) hurt the rye in the bloom and made it only a partial crop.
These crops are grown on a high mountain bench without irrigation. I have tried
most all kind of grain and vegetables the last three years. Flax does best of all; next
comes oats. Wheat (spring) and fall rye does splendid if it does not bloom too early.
Hardy vegetables do well if the sod is rotted. Potatoes yield a very well flavoured tuber,
but the yield is small on account of summer frost cutting the vines down. Carrots and
parsnips do best of root crops on account of going deep for moisture. I mention this as I
believe I am the first to try the mountain bench land, which it seems to me are being fraudulently grabbed by stockmen and others as " pasture land."
Mr. Wm. Graham Macmyn, Correspondent, Rock Creek.
1. Wheat (spring).—Thirty bushels, 1|- cents per pound.
Oats.—Fifty bushels, 1J cents per pound.
2. Oat hay.—Two tons @ $20; wheat hay, two tons  @ $20 per ton; timothy  hay, two
and a half tons @ $17 per ton in stack.
3. Potatoes.—Three tons.
Mangolds.—Five tons.
Carrots.—Five tons.
Turnips.—Ten tons.
Other roots, timothy, red clover, early rose, short white ruta baga turnip.
4. Fruit.—None grown in the district.
4c. Half hardy and tender fruits.—Mr. Smith, of Osoyoos Lake, grows all of the above
with success.    Melons and tomatoes ripen some years with us, but are not sure.
6. Dairy.—This branch of industry is not much followed; results unsatisfactory ; not
sufficient butter for local demand.    Price, 50 cents per pound.    No cheese.
7. Bees.—No.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—Yes, growing rapidly.    R. G. Sidley, J. P., raised about 400 chickens last
summer, but hawks, mink, and skunk are destructive amongst them, his house
being situated close to thick timber. Chickens are valued at 50 cents each, and
eggs at 50 cents per dozen.
10. Wool.—Yes, the district is adapted for sheep.    Not entered into largely at present.
Merinoes average five pounds per fleece. 55 Vict. Report On Agriculture. 739
11. Live Stock.—Yes.    (1.)  Englsh Shire, owned by Louis  Eholt.     (2.)  Cleveland  Bay,
owned by W. G. Macmyn. (3.) Polled Angus and Hereford. (4.) The bunch
grass seems too dry for dairying purposes, at least with the present breeds of
cattle. They put on flesh rapidly, but the flow of milk is generally small. (5.)
The merinoes are best for wool, but the price of wool being low in New
Westminster, one pound of mutton being equal to one pound of wool ; weight is
therefore the chief point.    (6.) Plymouth Rock.
12. Weather.    Yes, good harvest weather.    Both early and late frosts.    Last summer
was very exceptional, we had a late cold spring, with frost as late as the beginning
of June (7th I think), and then again early in August.
13. Diseases and Pests.—Probably fifty per cent, loss in potatoe crops through early frost.
14. Labour.— No, not abundant.    White, $30 to  $40  per  month  according  to season of
year.     Chinese or Indian, $15 to $25.
15. Ensilage.—No.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Very little this fall, owing to want of rain.
Mr. Hugh Hunter, Correspondent, Granite Creek.
1. Grain.—None.
2. Hay.—About one and a half tons to the acre.
3. Root Crop.—None.
4. Fruit.—None.
6. Dairy.—It is neglected.
7. Bees.—No.
8. Flax.-—No.
9. Poultry.—Neglected.
10. Wool.—Not adapted.
11. Live Stock.—Yes, animals of improved breeds are  being brought in, Polled  Angus
and Hereford. Cattle for beef, mixed breeds, principally Durham and Herefords.
Saddle horses. No sheep. This is a fine country for pigs and poultry, but very
little attention is paid to that branch of farming as yet.
12. Weather.—All grain crops raised for hay ; stock country ; weather favourable.
13. Diseases and Pests.—Do not know of any.
14. Labour.—Abundant supply of labour on hand,  but not much   work ; $1 to $1.50 per
day.
15. Ensilage.—No.
16. Fall Ploughing.—About twenty acres ploughed.
Mr. Thomas Daly, Correspondent, Keremeos.
1. Wheat (fall).—Three thousand pounds ; $30 per ton.
„      (spring)
Oats.—Four thousand pounds ; ,,
Rye.—Three „ $40 per ton.
Peas.—None.
2. Hay.—Two tons per acre ; $20 per ton.
Hops.—None. 740 Report on Agriculture. 1891
3. Potatoes.—Four thousand pounds per acre; $15 a ton.
4. Fruit.—Apples, five cents per pound ; crops and quality good.
4c.  Fruit, half hardy and tender.—Yes ; all do well.
11. Live Stock.—Polled Angus and Durham.
12. Weather.—Fairly good.
13. Diseases and Pests.—No diseases; five per cent, loss on cattle.
14. Labour.—Chinese, whites, and Indians ; $35 per month.
OKANAGAN MISSION AND TROUT CREEK.
The Mission is about midway between Vernon and Penticton, on the eastern side of the
lake. Here Mr. Lequime has a saw-mill and grist-mill near the lake, and further up tire valley
Mr. Brent has a small grist-mill, so that farmers are not compelled to import flour. Lord
Aberdeen intends erecting at this point, or at Vernon, a fruit preserving factory; this will
form an excellent outlet for such fruits as will not bear transportation to the markets. Everything seems to grow to perfection here, provided water can be had for irrigation, and happily
there is no lack of that important requisite. I may here mention that I was asked by Lord
Aberdeen to look at a dam on Mission Creek which is considered unsafe. It is not properly a
dam but what is technically known, I believe, as a wing-dam, built, I could not ascertain by
whom, to redirect the waters of the stream from a channel—which it had cut during a freshet
and submerging a large tract of country—to its original channel. It will, without doubt, be
carried away by the next freshet, and incalculable mischief wrought to the agricultural lands
which will be overflowed, unless means, which seem patent enough, are adopted before.
In every part of this valley cereals grow to great perfection, and the climate is such that
the difficulties and loss through a wet harvest that the lower country farmers have often to
endure, are here unknown. The immunity enjoyed from insect pests and diseases is also very
much in favour of the fruit grower. I saw some wonderful specimens of apple trees on Mr.
Munson's place, which were laden with fruit, all as perfect as could be wished. I also saw
some fine mulberry trees at Mr. Lequime's, almonds at Mr. Whelan's, and trees of recinus
(castor oil bean), ten to twelve feet high, at Mr. Knox's. Small fruits, half hardy and tender
fruits, all thrive here; but inasmuch as heretofore there has been no outlet for fruits, not a
great deal is as yet planted.
The high bench lands in this pai't of the country are, I believe, conveniently suited to the
rearing of poultry (especially turkeys), which, besides being a source of profit, are most useful
in keeping down such pests as grasshoppers (vide notes under diseases and pests). These
remarks apply equally to all the high bench lands, now mostly laying waste, in the interior.
And I would earnestly commend the attention of farmers to the statistics of importations,
where it will be seen that the Province imported in 1891 the enormous quantity of
106,000 lbs. of poultry and 380,000 dozen of eggs, enough, I should imagine, to convince the
most skeptical that there is a market for all that can be produced at present.
The Russell fence is being adopted very generally, both here and in other parts of the
country where timber is scarce; it effects a great saving in rails, besides being very strong and
occuping much less ground than the ordinary snake fence.
Ploughing was being done in many places where water could be applied to the land, it
being too hard to plough in a dry state.
The Trout Creek settlement lies on the opposite or western side of the lake, and nearer
its southern end. There are a number of settlers at this point, but it is a comparatively new
settlement. I did not have the opportunity of visiting any of the places on that side of the
lake, but the characteristics of the country are the same, and the land equally prolific as the
other side.
There are about 95 settlers irr at these places, who last season produced a very large
quantity of grain, principally wheat, both fall and spring, and oats; some two thousand acres
having been under cereals last season, about two hundred under root crops, yielding a splendid
crop, and some two thousand acres under hay, which propably produced from three to four 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 741
thousand tons of the best of hay. Probably between three and four thousand fruit trees are
now planted, many of them being young, still there was a large quantity of fruit produced,
Mr. Robt. Munson having had about 7,000 lbs., Messrs. Postill Bros. 3,500 lbs., Mr. F.
Conkling 2,000 lbs., Messrs. Lequime Bros. 5,000 lbs., and many others not reported. In the
neighbourhood of 650 horses, 7,000 head of cattle, 1,000 head of sheep, and 1,500 head of
swine, are owned by the white settlers. Little or no butter is made, and poultry raising is
not carried on to any extent. From returns received it appears that sheep have average fleeces
of over 7 lbs. The area of land under cultivation is about 7 per cent, of land owned,
although a large proportion of the remainder is pasture land, still a very large area of good
agricultural land is lying idle.
The following are the results of enquiries and the opinions expressed by different ranchers
and report of correspondent:—
Wages—$30 to $40 per month and board; $1.50 to $2 per day and board for ordinary
farm labour; $50 per month and board for artizans.
Mr. Frank Conkling.—My wheat was blighted, but oats were very good. Very dry the
fore part of the season.    An early sprirrg but a late frost, which killed our vines.
Mr. Eneas McDougall.—I had dry weather for my crop this year, no frosts, early spring.
Postill Bros.—Small fruits of all kinds do well; apples and plums a sure crop; cherries
and pears do well in places not too much affected by irrigation; peaches are not a success,
or have not been up to the present. Any kind of grain or root crops do well if irrigated.
This year our fall and spring wheat are about half a crop, on account of not being watered in
time, being on new ground and having failed to get the ditch completed. We have two Polled
Angus bulls and four cows. These cattle seem well adapted to our climate. We sent our
band of horses to the North West three years ago on account of limited pasturage here; this
country, however, is far ahead of Alberta as a horse raising locality.    Bigjaw affects cattle.
Mr. John H. Morrison.—Any crops will grow if irrigated. Frequent showers during
the months of April and May; very dry after and until the 15th October; since then heavy
rain falls in the valley; snow on the mountains; no summer frosts.
Mr. Frederick Brent.—All kinds of grain, fruit, See., do well in this locality..
Mr. G. W. Simpson.—There is a sort of fly that eats the seeds of turnips when sowed in
May.
Mr. Geo. Whelan.—I have a pedigree Percheron stallion and pedigree Hereford bull.
I consider Clyde and Percheron crossed the best horses, and Durham the best cattle.
Mr. W. Garnett, Trout Creek.—If irrigated all grains, root crops, grasses and clover,
and fruit do well.    The stock I consider best are Norman horses and Hereford cattle.
Mr. James Crozier.—Troubled with smut in grain.
Mr. W. F. Bouvette.—If no water can be had for irrigation fall wheat is the best; if
water can be got, spring wheat is the best.    Red Fife wheat is the best spring wheat we have.
Mr. Joseph F. Ortaland.—Wheat and oats flourish here; potatotes, turnips, and beets
likewise; apples, pears, plums, aird cherries, together with all small fruits, do exceedingly well.
Mr. W. Duncan (Manager for A. B. Knox).—Red clover and timothy for hay. All kinds
of grain do well except where alkali is in the soil, where grain does not yield. Fruits of all
kinds succeed well. I had squashes that weighed 92 and 85 lbs. One bull, Hereford, not
pedigree. Clydesdale and Cleveland crossed I consider is the horse best suited, and Polled
Angus for cattle. I place the cost of irrigation at 50 cents per acre, and irrigation will increase the productiveness of the soil half as much again. We have distemper in horses
occasionally.
Messrs. Duncan & Thompson.—Wheat, oats, and rye do well, but as we cannot get any
water to irrigate, we cannot raise root crops and fruit.
Mr. Louis Brent.—All grain, roots, fruit, grasses and clover do well with irrigation;
water to be had.    I consider Clydesdales for horses and Herefords for cattle the best.
Messrs. C. & A. Gauschetti.—We sowed a kind of pea, the seed of which came from
Italy, and we got 125 lbs. out of 3^ lbs. of seed. These peas will do well in land where it is
too dry for wheat. A sample of above was sent to the Government Agent at Vernon.
Weather very dry in May and June.    Frost in May. 742 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. Joseph Brent.—My crops were partly a failure owing to want of water, but as I
now have nine miles of irrigation ditching about completed, I hope to be able in future to
raise almost any kind of crop.
Mr. Thomas Wood, Wood's Lake.—I have one pedigree Polled Angus bull. I consider this breed best suited to this locality—not Galloways, which are often confounded
with Polled Angus.    The Morgan horse I think best.
Mr. Thomas Jones.—I have a Durham bull and a Polled Angus bull. I consider
Durhams the best.
Mr. Chas. Belango.—I intend trying grape culture, as I believe my place is eminently
suited for the purpose.    Very dry year.
Mr. Robert Munson.—All grain, grass, roots, and vegetables are well adapted to this
section. Fruits (with the exception of peaches, which have never had a fair trial) do well.
In apples my favourites are Northern Spy and Golden Russet. Durham, crossed with
Hereford, is my favourite for hardy stock and good beef. The weather was favourable.
There was a slight frost in May that hurt the cherries and peaches. No frost before the 15th
October.
Mr. Eustace Smith, Correspondent, Okanagan Mission.
1. Wheat (spring). —About 2,000 pounds to the acre; $24 per ton.
Barley, „ „ „      $22      „
Oats,                            „                     „                     „      $30      „
2. Hay.—Two to three tons to acre ; price, about $10 to $12.
Hops.—To be tried on several ranches next season; expected to do well.
3. Potatoes.—Seventy-five bushels per acre ; $20 per ton.
Mangolds.—Five tons per acre ; $9 per ton.
Carrots.—Three tons to acre.
Turnips.—Four tons to acre.
Other Roots.—Onions do well and are a paying crop.    Timothy and red and white
clover do well, red especially.    Alfalfa not well.
4. Apples.—Four to five cents per pound.
Pears, Plums, Prunes, Cherries, Peaches, Quinces, and Other Fruit.—None sold in the
valley as yet.
Has the crop been good or bad ?    Very good.
Was the fruit of good quality ? First-rate.
4a. Soils for Fruit.—We find that after the ground is broken it cannot be cultivated too
much, although soil being wet requires only small quantity of manure. Light
crop of barley; best preparations for fruit crop. Irrigation necessary in all cases.
4b. Names of fruit most suitable.—Apples : Northern Spy the best, but liable to bark blight,
Ribston Pippins, Baldwins, Gravensteins, all the above do well as regards production and marketing. American Golden Russet, Duchess of Olderburg, and Red
Astrachan for summer bear most prolificly, but, of course, are not good for packing.
Pears.—Bartlett and Flemish Beauty, both good for market and otherwise.
Plums.—Ponds Seedling and Imperial Gage, both good for market and otherwise, and
Green Gage for preserves.
Cherries.—Early Richmond and May Duke the best for all purposes.
4c. Half hardy and tender fruits.—Early Crawford Peach and Fortes best for Okanagan
climate. Indifferent results, however, but perhaps not yet had a fair trial.
Apricots to be tried, and expected to do fairly, being a little more hardy.
Nectarines may do, but not yet tried. Grapes, very indifferent, but as far as we
can judge raised on wrong soil. If raised on rocky slopes like Italian vineyards
would, we think, do very fairly. Melons and tomatoes do exceedingly well, the
musk-melon centelope being the most delicious we have tasted anywhere. Should
be irrigated very carefully, and only after sunset. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 743
6. Dairy.—Dairy industry quite neglected in the Mission Valley.    No butter  or  cheese
were attempted to be made. Canned milk in general use. Great openings for
the above when regular boat runs next season. Will be tried next spring by us
on the Coldstream Ranch.    (Earl of Aberdeen's Ranch.—J.R.A.)
7. Bees.—None whatever as yet.    Would certainly do well, so many wild flowers about,
and clover also; especially when the orchards are working.
8. Linseed or Flax.—No attempt has been made so far to cultivate this.
9   Poultry would do well for same reasons as dairy produce; gone into in a small scale by
most of the farmers, but very badly managed and much neglected.
10. Wool.—There are two small flocks in Mission, a few hundred in all, but only for
mutton. Ranges and woods would raise sheep well, but would at present lead to
much difficulty with farmers on account of cattle. If corrals were made for winter
feeding some distance over in the mountains I think it would pay well, but would
have to be herded.   Wool no use at present rates.   Merino sheep kept in parks.
11. Live Stock.—Farmers do not seem to appreciate well bred stock here so much as-the
up-country farmers do, but they are getting more particular. Horses : Light
draught horses, strongly made and not too light, most useful here ; cayuse usually
used for saddle, but some good saddle horses are to be found here. Cattle very
seldom killed by ordinary farmers for- beef, but live mostly on pork, and occasionally
buy from local butchers. Polled Angus and Hereford would do well, but if pure
Polled Angus could be got would pay very well indeed. No cows kept for milking,
only here and there. A few sheep for mutton by the Priest, and another farm
only. Pigs pay excellently, 5 cents the live weight on the ground. Best bred and
always preferred is the Berkshire. Some good Berkshire in the district, but we
fear in most cases not pure.
12. Weather.—Been very favourable for harvesting.    Two bad frosts in June which killed
many melons and tomatoes ; this frost is, however, unusual.
13. Diseases and Pests.—This district on the whole is wonderfully free from diseases and
pests. Wild oats are rather troublesome, and a little smut. Alkali soil is too
common, but we believe this may be dispensed with in a few years by growing
mangold on the alkali ground. Apples are also rather affected with blight,
but this, also, may be much mitigated by the necessary precautions being taken.
In animal line the district is much infested with skunks, which do great damage
amongst poultry.
14. Labour abundant at present (white); Chinese as yet not been used  in  agricultural
work, but probably will be used for fruit picking. It is, however, proposed to
introduce Japanese labour for fruit picking. Indians cannot be relied upon.
Average wages per white man, $30 to $35 and board.
15. Ensilage.—Not been tried in this district, but we propose to start a silo on Coldstream
Ranch.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Up to 16th December the weather has been very favourable on the
whole for ploughing ; a good deal of ploughing has been done on some ranches;
over 300 acres have been ploughed ; a good bit of land has been broken also.
VERNON, OKANAGAN, AND WHITE VALLEY.
There are about 155 settlers in this vicinity, who are mostly engaged in the cultivation
of cereals and cattle and horse raising; a country eminently adapted for both branches. A
large quantity of wheat, which was all well saved, was raised. Oats and hay also, in considerable quantities. Root crops flourish well, and fruit is of a remarkably good quality, but the
latter industry is at present in its infancy, comparatively little being raised. Dairying is but
little practiced, and the quantity of butter produced is inconsiderable. The raising of swine
is engaged in very generally, and an excellent quality of pork is produced in the autumn off 744 Report on Agriculture. 1891
the stubble. But few sheep are kept, probably owing to coyotes, <&c. The fleeces of some are
given in the returns as averaging 10 lbs. The proportion of land under cultivation is probably
greater than at the Mission—possibly ten per cent, of land owned.
I reached Vernon on the 14th of October, on which and the following clay the first agricultural show in that part of the country was held. The grain exhibited was, beyond all
comparison, the finest I have seen. The root crops and vegetables were also very fine, but
not superior to those grown in the lower country. The fruit, likewise, was very good, of fine
quality, and remarkably free of those fungous diseases that fruit in the lower country is so
subject to. This, I think, is to be attributed in a great measure to the dry atmosphere, which
is unfavourable to the development of those diseases. It is to be regretted that the exhibits
were not more numerous; this was attributed to the diffidence which existed amongst many of
the farmers, on account of the novelty of the thing. At the next exhibition at Vernon, however, I think there will be no lack of exhibitors, judging from the interest manifested by all
in this one. The Shuswap and Okanagan Railroad must prove a great factor in the prosperity
of the whole of this part of the country, passing, as it does, through the fertile valley of the
Spallumcheen to the head of Okanagan Lake, a fine sheet of water, affording good navigation
to Penticton at its lower end.
At the head of White or Coldstream Valley, Mr. Peter Bissett has a small lumber mill
driven by water power, which furnishes the neighbouring farmers with what lumber they
need. All this part of the country is well suited for grain, but it mostly requires irrigating,
on account of the small rainfall. Mr. Wood, manager of Mr. Vernon's ranch, showed me
some hay in a stack two years old, which was as green and sweet as on the day it was stacked.
At Mr. Ellison's place I was shown some Indian corn, which was from 14 to 16 feet high. A
good deal of fall ploughing was being done about here. Lord Aberdeen, who recently purchased the Vernon Ranch, is, it is said, going to let it out into small holdings; a very
judicious proceeding, in my opinion, as it will give a large number of farmers a chance to get
good places.    The following is the result of questions asked through circulars :—
Wages—$200 to $500 per annum, $35 to $40 per month, for ordinary farm labour.
$2 per day branding, &c, and board for man and horse.
Mr. Gilbert Couvrett, White Valley.—Suitable crops are : red-top grass and all the
ordinary grains, roots, and vegetables. Horses weighing from 1,000 to 1,300 lbs. are best
adapted for this part of the country.
Mr. Chas. Levasseur, White Valley.—Timothy and clover best for hay.
Mr. Geo. Kieffer, White Valley.—The best wheat is white Fife; oats, white sovereign. Timothy and red clover for hay. My marsh land (180 acres) reclaimable. Shorthorn Durham I consider best.
Messrs. Smyth and Mitchell, White Valley.—Eighty acres marsh, all reclaimable.
Fruit does not seem to be a success in White Valley. Root crops, timothy and clover, and
grain of all kinds, do well. Did not have any frosts this summer. There was fine weather in
April for seeding; very wet May and June, and a good deal of rain all sumnrer, more than we
get as a general thing in this part.
Mr. W. R. McClusky, Vernon.—Frost affected crops in July.
Mr. Luc Girouard, Vernon.—Weather favourable to crops, rather wet, no frosts.
Mr. Chas. McKenzie, Okanagan.—Grasses of all kinds do well here; also red and white
clover. I am a new beginner, but you will find my statement correct. Weather (28th Nov.)
clear and mild. Lowest glass up to date, 12° above zero. Ploughing still going on in full
blast.
Mrs. Elizabeth Greenhow, Okanagan —I think all my marsh land (500 acres) is
reclaimable. All kinds of grain and vegetables, and all kinds of fruit, except tropical, I
think, can be grown in this locality. I have two black Polled Angus bulls and one short-horn
Durham. Short-horn Durham cattle, or Hereford cattle, are the best suited to this locality,
but all breeds can be raised here. Some late frosts. Taking the weather on an average, I
think it was fair; neither very good nor very bad.
Messrs. S. O'Neal & Co., Vernon.—As far as our observation goes, all kinds of grain
and roots and all classes of fruit flourish exceedingly well in this section. No pedigree stock.
Horses best suited for breeding to rrative mares, Clydes and Percherons, and good general
purpose horses.    Best bulls, Durham and Hereford. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 745
Mr. Alex. McDonell White Valley.—Oats, wheat and root crops do well; also
timothy. Horses weighing from 1,100 to 1,200 and 1,300 lbs. are the best for this part of the
country.    I should say that shorthorn Durham cattle are the best.
Mr. Quinn Falkner, White Valley.—Oats, barley, roots of all kinds, timothy, alfalfa
and clover, all good.    My stallion is Clyde, with pedigree.     Bull, Polled Angus ; also pedigree.
SPALLUMCHEEN.
Here the country is more wooded arrd the land nrore moist than in Okanagan, rendering
irrigation unnecessary, and ploughing was being very generally prosecuted. The remarkable
fertility of the soil in this part of the country is truly wonderful, and a curious feature of the
land is that it seenrs as good, only not so deep, on the hills as it is in the valleys. Mr. Lumby
told me that in clay taken from sixty feet down, after exposure and oxidation, he had grown
wheat over five feet high. In fact, the soil is so rich that crops are grown year after year on
the same land without manuring; and to get rid of the straw it is simply burnt, for if it were
put back on the land the crops would grow too rank. On Mr. Steele's place I saw a field of
ripe water melons on which the calves were then feeding, he having been unable to get them
to market. Mr. Steele told me that from 5 lbs. of oats a neighbour of his had got 640 lbs.
The fine flouring mill at Enderby, managed by Mr. G ibbs, is well worthy of a visit, and affords
a local market to tire surrounding country. Up to this time communication with the Canadian Pacific Railway was maintained by the mill-owners by steamer; now, however, people
have the alternative of the S. Sz O. Railroad.
About 140 settlers are in this part, who raised large quantities of the very finest wheat
(principally spring) and other grain, mostly oats. As cattle-raising is not so much carried on
here, there is not such a quantity of hay produced as in Okanagan. Root crops of the very
best description were raised in large quantities. The quantity of fruit produced is at present
limited, but much attention is being paid to this branch. Mr. Paton, whose place is at a
considerable elevation, has a fine young orchard, where he raises the very best of fruit. Some
sheep are raised, the fleeces averaging 5|. lbs. The swine industry is largely prosecuted, and
with railroad communication should be one of the staple industries of that part. Dairying is
not carried on to any extent, and poultry raising is almost neglected. About 25 per cent, of
the land owned is under cultivation, according to returns received. Below I give answers
and opinions of farmers of the district, and report of correspondent:—
Wages—$30 to $40 per month, $1.25 to $1.50 per day, ordinary farm labour. Carpenters, $2.75 per day and board.
Messrs. John A. Cameron, Edwin T. Jones, Wm. S. & Francis Hassard, Enderby.—
Weather good all the season for farming.    No frosts to hurt crops or vegetables.
Mr. Donald Graham, Pleasant Valley.—Wheat, barley and oats do well. Wheat of
all kinds and barley (the two-rowed variety) succeed best. Roots of all kinds. Very wet
part of season. Crops looked first-class. Latter part of July very dry and hot—100° in the
shade. Grain in milk injured a good deal by heat. Returns of grain average, but not up to
promise before hot weather came on. Believe crops in this district lost fully $2.50 per acre
on account of heat.    No frosts.
Mr. Arthur Grant.—Fall and spring wheat, oats, barley, &c, all grasses, clover, and
root crops, apples, plums, cherries, hardy pears and small fruits do well.
Mr. Leonard Norris.—All kinds of cereals, root crops, timothy, clover, and alfalfa do
well.
Mr. A. L. Fortune, Enderby (Alphonse Emond, manager).—Fall wheat is most suitable.
One thoroughbred Berkshire boar.
Mr. Wm. Venables, Enderby.—All kinds of roots, grain and timothy do well. No
frosts; season good.
Mr. M. Lumby, Enderby.—All kinds of grain, fruit and grasses suit. Cotswold sheep
and Berkshire pigs do well.
Mr. C C. Tilton.—I am troubled considerably by gophers. 746 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. G. J. Wallace, Lansdowne.—I have the following pedigree pigs: Seven are Yorkshires, seven Berkshire, four Poland-China.
Mr. R. S. Pelly (P. L. S.), Otter Lake.—All my marsh land (20 acres) is reclaimable.
Lands in these parts should be divided into smaller holdings, say from 80 to 100 acres. Also,
should be given free to actual settlers, and every inducement offered to married men with
families. Artificial irrigation, where lakes are convenient, should be encouraged. German
carp could be introduced with success in some of the mud bottom lakes. This portion of the
valley is well adapted to dairy and mixed farming. Wheat, oats, flax, potatoes, turnips,
mangolds, carrots, beets, onions, &c, apples, alfalfa, timothy, orchard grass and hops do well.
Moles are very destructive on fruit trees, &c. Weather wet in spring, with hot and dry
summer, causing quick growth of stalk and effecting the full development of root crops. No
frost of any consequence.
Mr. Donald Matheson.—My fruit trees are not in bearing yet. Wheat, oats, barley,
peas, rye and corn do remarkably well. Grasses do fairly well. Hops do very well. All
kinds of roots of the best quality. I find graded stock is best adapted to this locality. Shorthorn seems to be the favourite, crossed with native stock.
Mr. William Owen, Enderby.—I think the best grains in this part are oats, peas, and
wheat. Timothy is specially adapted. I do not think there is a better soil or climate anywhere.    Pigs do well.
Mr. Chas. S. Schubert, Round Prairie.—No frost at all; favourable season.
Mr. James Guillette, Mara Lake (near Sicamous).—Fifty acres swamp; could be
reclaimed by dyking. Wheat, barley, oats, all roots, timothy, red-top and clover, apples, pears
and plums, all do well. A mixture of Durham and Galloway are suitable cattle. I think
Jerseys would suit this locality.
Mr. James Crozier.—All grains do well.    Not so good for grasses.
Mr. W. H. Barrett.—Swamp all reclaimable (50 acres). Can grow anything. Rather
late spring; very favourable season ; plenty of rain ; no frost to hurt anything.
Mr. James T. Steele, Grafton (East Valley, Salmon River).—Have done little with
grasses except timothy, which does well. Clover is not a success. Oats better than other
grains. Wheat does fairly well some seasons. Apples and plums do well. Good for general
root crops, especially turnips. I have two bulls, twelve cows, six heifers, and ten calves,
thoroughbred short-horns. Had considerable crop of water melons—about twenty tons. The
fore part of the season was wet and cold and very unfavourable for growth ; then they came
forward with a rush, and although much deficient in yield, on account of backward season,
the quality was excellent. The spring opened fairly well, but backward and cold, and very
long to midsummer, then almost too much steady heat. We had more rain than usual this
season. Up to middle of July the season was very backward; after that, very forcing and
hot. I may mention that the rainfall here often comes in showers that do not extend far on
either side. For instance, it may be raining heavily in one place, while a mile or two distant
there may be none. I think, in a general way, Lansdowne gets more heavy showers than fall
at my place. The most rain comes from south to south-west, but may come from any quarter
except east. At rare intervals we may get heavy snowfalls from east, but rain, hardly ever.
I send statement of rainfall that may be of interest. (See under head of " Meteorological
Statistics."—J. R. A.)
Mr. B. F. Young, Lansdowne.—No frost and just enough rain. Spring ploughing generally commenced on 1st April.
Mr. H. Harding.—The spring was late, the season rather wet, but on the whole favourable.    No frosts.
Messrs. Lambly Bros., Enderby.—More moisture than usual; favourable effect on crops
generally.    No frost until November.    Fairly early spring.
Mr. Samuel Gray, Lansdowne.—Rain enough to make the crops yield good. No frost
to hurt crops from the beginning of April until the end of October, 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 747
Mr. M. Lumby, Correspondent, Spallumcheen.
1. Wheat (Fall).—    2,600 lbs.UOK
Wheat (Spring).-2>00 Ibs.)$25 Per ton-
The millers consider spring wheat of hard varieties better than fall wheat. Red Fife
and Ladoga are the best grown for flour, but they, as do all varieties of hard
wheats, shell out a great deal in harvesting.
2. Hay.—Cultivated from 1-J- tons to 4 tons; meadow, wild, 2 tons.
3. Potatoes and root crops excellent in quality and yield.
4. Fruit-growing in its infancy; orchards only just  commenced  bearing; quality excel
lent. A bird, called by some a blackbird, a species of starling, very destructive to
the apples.
4a. Soils for fruit.—Professor Saunders considers this valley specially adapted to apple
cultivation, especially after the land has been in crop for some years.
4c. Half-hardy and tender fruits.—Melons and tomatoes succeed admirably. A great
many tons of the former have been shipped to Vancouver and places on the
Canadian Pacific Railway.    The quality is excellent.
6. Dairy.—Butter is made only in small quantities, the quality good, and readily com
mands from 40 to 50 cents per pound, local consumption.
7. Bees.—Have not heard of any tried.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—No.    And there is not the least doubt that, entered into as a business, it
would be very profitable.
10. Wool.—Excellent.    Mutton good ; wool of good quality, and no disease known.   Only
a few are kept. The coyotes are a great drawback. (See Diseases and Pests.—
J. R. A.)
11. Live Stock.—Yes; and are breeding up fast.    For draught horses Clydesdale are
preferred, although some like Percheron strains. There is a Shire horse recently
imported. A great many Polled Angus bulls have been imported, but I doubt if
they will be found an improvement on the Durhams, which have, until the last
few years, been improving the stock of the country. There are also a number of
Herefords, and it will take a few years before we see which animal is likely best
to meet the requirements of the grazers for beef purposes.
12. Weather.—The weather has been excellent, neither grains nor hay having suffered in
the least. In the earlier part of the season were heavy rains, which ensured good
crops, which might have been better were there rain later on; but there was no
rain until 28th October, which made it very bad for fall ploughing. No frosts to
interfere with crops.
13. Diseases and Pests.—The greatest pest we have is the wild oat.    (See Diseases and
Pests.—J. R. A.)
14. Labour.—Plenty; white and Indian; $30 and $35 per month, with board.
15. Ensilage.—No.
16.—Fall Ploughing.—On account of the dryness of the fall, not as much ploughing has
been done as usual.    There are probably about 700 acres plowed, 748 Report on Agriculture. 1891
SALMON ARM.
There are about 40 settlers in this vicinity and the Salmon River Valley, the most of
whom have only, comparatively, recently taken up land, and as it is covered with timber,
which has to be cleared, the area under crop is not large at present—about six per cent, of
land owned. It would appear that the rainfall at this part of the country is much greater
than on either side of it; this is due, no doubt, to its being mostly heavily timbered and to
the proximity of the mountains. From what I could learn it is better adapted to the
cultivation of root crops and fruit than cereals. At preserrt there are not many bearing
orchards, but what fruit is raised is of a superior quality. The principal products were root
crops and vegetables, of which a fair quantity was raised. Very little live stock is kept, and
there is no dairying to speak of. Chipmunks are very common in this part of the Province
and do nruch mischief to grain crops.    Opinions and replies of farmers are given below :—
Mr. C. A. McGuire, Salmon Arm.—Two pigs, Chester white. Very wet in the early
part of season ; no frost to affect anything; early spring ; required more rain in July and
August.
Mr. G. T. Aylett.—My land is mostly timbered with fir, and is hard to clear, but the
demand for wood and tie timber for railway purposes will very nearly pay for clearing. Do
not irrigate, as the rainfall is ample. Land, when cleared, is worth $100 per acre. With
present prices could make money on ten acres of cleared land. All root crops do well here ;
near timber, squirrels are bad on grain, otherwise it does first-class. Judging from the wild
varieties all small fruit will do more than well here. Planted out one-tenth of acre of strawberries late last spring (end of May) and a number bore fruit. Have seen the heads on
timothy six inches long, and red clover blossomed late in December. Spring rather late.
Season all through very favourable.
Mr. P. M. Pearson.—No summer frosts.    Not too dry.
Mr. A. J. Palmer.—All spring grain grows to perfection. Average height of two acres
of oats, six feet (special straw, seven feet two). Specially adapted to all kinds of roots and
vegetables, apples, pears, plums, cherries, and all kinds of small fruits, timothy and common
red clover.
Mr. Wm. Miller.—Eighty acres of swanrp, all reclaimable by ditching. I think any
kind of grain will grow on the high lands, but root crops will do better where it is low and
moist Timothy doing well. Potatoes were spoiled by a small hard yellow worm. It bored
holes all through them. I would like to know if there is anything that will kill them.
Half an acre of onions came up well, but were all eaten up by a grub worm. Corn did not
ripen. There was too much heavy rain in the spring, it beat the ground hard, and we had
about a month of no rain at all.    There is lots of frost here very nearly every month.
Mr. C. B. Harris.—All my marsh land (thirty acres) is reclaimable. Wheat and oats
do well; other kinds have not been tried much. This place is only lately settled. Fruit has
only been planted, to any extent, this last year. Timothy and red clover do well. All roots
and vegetables grown in Canada do well here.
Mr. D. M. Blake.—Ten acres marsh reclaimable. About sixty acres of my land is on
the foot-hills and can never be cultivated. Late spring, very wet and cold, frequent frosts,
very heavy in low places.
Mr. Jeremiah Eagles.—All my swamp land (nine and a half acres) reclaimable. All
kinds of grain do well, and the hardier kinds of fruit. Sufficient rain for crops. No frosts
from 15th May to 15th September.
Mr. William Wallace, Salmon River.—June and July very wet. No frost till 8th
September.
Mr. Francis McCalla.—Frost in the month of June.
Mr. Thos. Shaw.—The weather has been all that could be desired ; sufficient rain.
First frost 28th August, very light. Vict. Report on Agriculture. 749
SHUSWAP, NOTCH HILL, AND TAPPAN SIDING.
There are about twenty-five farmers at these places, who are able to raise all the ordinary
grains, root crops, and fruits with the best results. It will be observed that Mr. Sullivan
says the seed received from the Experimental Farm at Ottawa has done very well, especially
Ladoga wheat. A fair qnantity of produce was raised, spring wheat, oats, potatoes, a good
deal of hay, and some fruit. Plums did not suffer from late frost as they did on the coast.
It appears that about twenty per cent, of the land taken up is under cultivation. The
following are opinions and answers, and report of correspondent:—
Wages.—$30 to $40 per month, ordinary farm labour ; $60 to $75 per month, skilled
labour.
Me. John Newson, Notch Hill, Shuswap.—Potatoes, timothy, and clover do well.
Chipmunks destroyed all my wheat, oats, and peas. Cold arrd wet spring. Frost about the
middle of June.    Very dry later on.
Mr. H. W. Brainard, Notch Hill.—Fifty acres swanrp land reclaimable. Clover is
the best for hay.    All crops do well that I have tried.
Mr. Christ. Hewsan, Tappan Siding.—My land can be all cultivated with the exception
of about ten acres.    Vegetables grow best here.
Mr. Thomas Doucette, Tappan Siding.—Hay and clover and oats have done well so
far ; also potatoes.    I have a Polled Angus bull, but I do not not know which breed is best.
Mr. Francis McCalla, Tappan Siding.—About 104 acres can be cultivated. Vegetables
and roots do best.    Timothy and clover for hay.
Mr. W. T. Smith, Tappan Siding.—About 140 acres can be cultivated. (Same remarks
as last regarding crops.)
Mr. James Ross, Shuswap.—Ordinary weather. No frosts until the 10th November;
glass, 22° 7 a.m.
Mr. Whitfield Chase, Shuswap.—All kinds of grain do well. Fruit, apples, and plums
the best. All kinds of small fruits do extremely well, and grapes of the hardier varieties will
succeed. Of grasses, timothy and clover are the best. No diseases amongst stock, and no
insect pests, except grasshoppers.
Mr. Michael Sullivan, Correspondent, Shuswap.
1. Wheat (fall).—None raised.
Wheat (spring).—Yield about 1,800 pounds; price, about $30 per ton.
Barley.—Very little raised; yield, about 2,000 pounds ; price, $25 per ton.
Oats.—Yield, 2,000 pounds; price, $30 per ton.
Rye.—Yield, 2,500 pounds; price, $40 per ton.
Peas.—Yield, 1,500 pounds; price, $50 per ton.
Indian Corn.—None raised for rrrarket.
2. Hay.—Yield, 3,000 pounds; $10 per ton.
Hops.—None sold.
3. Potatoes.—Yield, 10 tons ; price per ton, $20.
Mangolds.—Yield, 20 tons ; price per ton, $10.
Carrots.—Yield, 10 tons; price per ton, $15.
Turnips.—Yield, 20 tons ; price, $15 per ton.
Other Roots.—Price per ton, $15.
I may say that all the crops mentioned above thrive well in this vicinity, the best
results, however, have been obtained from seed grain received from the Experimental Farm at Ottawa, including Ladoga wheat.
4. Apples.—Four cents per pound.
Pears.—Ten cents per pound.
Plums and Prunes.—Six cents per pound.
Cherries.—Ten cents per pound. 750 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Peaches.—None raised.
Quinces.—None raised.
Other Fruit.—Small fruits, five cents per pound.
Has the crop been good or bad ?    Good.
Was the fruit of good quality ?    Yes.
4a. Soils best adapted to fruit—Black loam  with gravel sub-soil.
4b. Names of best varieties of  fruit.—All   the  varities of apples,  pears, plums,  and
cherries kept for sale by nurserymen have been tried, and all do well.
4c.  Half hardy and  tender fruits.—Peaches, apricots,  and nectarines do not do well.
Grapes, fairly well.    Melons and tomatoes, very well.
6. Dairy.—Not much followed ; results satisfactory; price of butter, 37|- cents ;  cheese,
25 cents.
7. Bees.—Have not been tried.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—No.
10. Wool.—This vicinity is not adapted for sheep raising on a large scale.    Small flocks
do very well; results as regards mutton and wool quite satisfactory.
11. LiveStock.—The  stock-raisers are going in for improved breeds, both in horses and
cattle; the demand for horses, as to class, is nearly equal.    Cattle are raised for
their beef-producing quality.
12. Weather.—Favourable weather for harvesting; have had no frosts.
13. Diseases and Pests.—There has been no great damage done here from either of the
above causes, and no means taken to mitigate the evils.
14. Labour.—Very few Chinese employed on farms.    Wages: Whites, $30 per month;
Indians, $25 per month ; Chinese, when employed, $20.
15. Ensilage.—No.
16. Fall Ploughing.—A great deal of ploughing  has  been done,   but  to  what  extent  I
cannot exactly say.
DUCK'S  AND   GRAND   PRAIRIE.
There are some fifty ranches in and about these two places. In the vicinity of Duck's
all crops do well, but irrigation has to be resorted to. On the higher lands, frosts interfere
with the cultivation of wheat, potatoes, &c. At Grand Prairie, the last season was very
favourable. Large quantities of cattle and hogs were raised and sent to the coast markets,
people generally finding it more profitable than the cultivation of crops for the market. The
soil on the hills about Duck's is of a good quality, but the want of water effectually prevents
its cultivation. From returns received, it appears that only about seven per cent, of the land
owned is cultivated. The weight of the fleeces of some sheep are given as averaging seven
pounds.    Replies and opinions of farmers, and report of correspondent, are as follows :—
Wages.—$40 per month, ordinary farm labour, or $1.50 per day; other labour,
Mr. C. W. Null, McBryan Valley (7 miles from Duck's).—Just wet enough to make
good hay.    Frost up to June 4th, and on August 20th.
Mr. J. P. Null, South Thompson.—Very dry.    May 10th, frost.    Late spring.
Mr. A. S. Robbins, Duck's.—All kinds of roots, except potatoes, do extremely well.
Too frosty for wheat, potatoes, and other tender plants to make a sure crop. Timothy, red-
top, and all the clovers do well. We have several kinds of native grasses that prove to be as
good for feeding stock in winter as the cultivated varieties. Light harness and saddle horses
suit best. Late spring; very wet for this climate up to 1st July; rather dry since that date.
Two or three light frosts during May and June.    Altitude, about 1,600 feet. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 751
Mr. W. H. Jones, Grand Prairie.—The past season has been very favourable, both
spring-time and harvest; no frosts, and a bountiful supply of rain just when we needed it.
Mr. R. M. Clemitson, Grand Prairie.—On the whole, the season was favourable.
Unusually heavy rainfall in June—over three inches—helped greatly. Harvest was very dry;
crops saved in splendid shape. Season exceptionally free from frosts. Spring later than
average and somewhat cold, but crops grew rapidly after fairly started.
Mr. Amos Herbert, Duck's. --Dry season and a late spring. There was frost about the
latter part of May.
Messrs. J. Kinnear and D. McTavish, Duck's.—All of our marsh land (20 acres) is
reclaimable. Rye, oats and barley are sure crops, timothy and red-top being the best for hay.
The land is clay bottom. Late spring; season began dry, afterwards plenty of rain. Do not
irrigate at all.    Had no frost to hurt anything.
Mr. Hewitt Bostock, Duck's.—Nearly all of the 150 acres of marsh is reclaimable.
All kinds of grain, roots, apples, pears arret plums do well, and any sort of hay crop that will
stand irrigation. I have ten pedigree bulls, six of which are Polled Arrgus and four Here-
fords. All these, as well as the original stock which were on the place when I bought it and
are principally of the Durham breed, seem to do well here. A good deal of cattle feed has
been destroyed by grasshoppers this summer.
Mr. William Henry Smith, Grand Prairie.—My 50 acres of swamp not reclaimable.
Oats, wheat, peas, potatoes, timothy and red-top do well. I consider Durham cattle best
suited.    It was a wet season ; no frosts ; late spring.
Messrs. Jones Bros., Grand Prairie. —Peas and barley suit the soil best here. Timothy
and clover are the best for hay. Potatoes and mangolds grow here enormously. Pigs are
half Berkshire; boar is a thoroughbred Berkshire from Ontario. We raise pigs very extensively, and ship them down to the coast.
Mr. W. H. Jones, Correspondent, Grand Prairie and Duck's.
1. Wheat (Fall), 2,000 lbs.; price per pound, l1 cents on the farm.
Wheat (Spring), 2,000   „ „ 1^
Barley, 2,500
Oats, 2,000
Rye, 2,200
Peas, 2,500
if
Indian Corn.—Not grown except in small quantities in garden.
2. Hay.—3,000 Brs.; price, from $10 to $15 per ton on the farm.
Hops.—Not grown except in small quantities for home use.
3. Potatoes.—Twelve tons per acre; price on board cars, $15 to $20 per ton.
Mangolds.—About 30 tons per acre ; no sales made; fed on farm.
Carrots, ,,      25 ,, ,, „
Turnips, „      35
Other roots.—Onions, beets, &c, grown for home use.
Any and all kinds of grain and grass seeds do equally well, cultivated under the same
conditions. With regard to roots, Early Rose potatoes seem to do the best; other
roots do equally well, it simply being a matter of opinion as to which kind is most
easily harvested.
4. Fruits.—Not grown for sale.
Has the crop been good or bad ?—Very fair.
Was the fruit of good quality ?—Very good, indeed.
4a. Soils best suited for fruit.—Fruit not cultivated to any extent in this district. A
slight dash of rock in the land seems to be .an advantage in what has been tried
so far.
4b. Names of fruit best adapted.—Cannot give definite information; however, fruit trees
all require to be of a hardy nature. 752 Report on Agriculture. 1891
4c. Half-hardy and tender fruits.—Melons and tomatoes do  very well indeed.    Others
have not been tried to any extent.
6. Dairy.—Almost, or nearly, blank, the majority of  tire  farmers,   even  with  fair-sized
bands of cattle, buying butter for home consumption.
7. Bees.—Never been tried.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry —This is not entered into on any large scale, or with any system.    No local
market to speak of, and freight rates to the coast are too high.
10. Wool.—What sheep  are in the district do very well indeed, but they are  not raised
except for home consumption.
11. LiveStock—Yes; the majority breed to pure bred sires in  all  classes of live  stock.
Most breeders of horses are breeding to draught stallions, and, in my opinion, in
the course of five years, also from then on for some time, the market will Ire
glutted with horses from 1,400 lbs. to 1,700 lbs. in weight, unless the coast markets
can use them up at the rate of 500 head per year. There will be that amount for
sale in Yale District. Durham, Hereford, and Polled Angus Bulls are all in
favour in this neighbourhood. Berkshire seems to be the most serviceable breed
of pigs.    Sheep arrd poultry, every breed, oir a small scale.
12. Weather.-—The weather all through harvest could  not  have been better; no frost of
any kind until second week in October—although, as a rule, we are liable to have
frosts in the latter part of September. The grains all ripen before we get the
frosts, however.
13. Diseases and Pests.—I think it quite safe to say that diseases are unknown amongst
plants and animals up here. Wild oats are the worst things we have in the shape
of weeds. (See under Diseases and Pests.—J. R. A.) With regard to insects, the
grasshopper is about our only trouble, and although not so bad this year as last,
they cause a great deal of annoyance and damage to the crops. The loss of horned
cattle all through this district last winter was about five per cent., due to inattention and scarcity of feed.    Other live stock, no losses to speak of.
14. Labour.—Supply about equals the demand.     White  labour principally,  although  we
use both Indian and Chinese labour in busy seasons.
15. Ensilage.—Never tried.
16. Fall Ploughing.—About 75 per cent, of the land under cultivation in this neighbour
hood has been ploughed this fall.
KAMLOOPS, SAVONA, AND TRANQUILLE
Have about one hundred and twenty-five ranchers. The tr*ansition from the humid
atmosphere of Salmon Arm to the dry air of Kamloops is very marked. Here again the
country becomes very dry and requires constant irrigation, without which no crops can be
raised. I regretted having had to pass Shuswap and so missed seeing Mr. Sullivan (correspondent), as I was particularly anxious to get the benefit of his views on the subject of
irrigation, and of his knowledge of the agricultural capabilities of this part of the country.
By the copy of a letter from Mr. Sullivan on the subject of irrigation, which I append, it
will be seen that, unfortunately, the waters of the North and South Thompson are not
available for the purpose by natural gravitation, and the land is of too porous a nature to
form reservoirs if pumping were resorted to. The scarcity of water is a serious drawback
to this section, as much of the land cannot be utilized without it. The want of water is no
drawback to the rearing of poultry however, and in a country like this, which seems intended
by nature for such pursuits, I wonder that farmers do not direct some of their attention to so
profitable an industry. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 753
I commend my remarks on this subject under the head of " Okanagan Mission " to the
attention of people in this section.
The usual crops of cereals, and roots do very well where water is to be had ; rye is a good
deal cultivated about here and cut green for hay. Large numbers of cattle are raised in this
vicinity for the market. In a dry country like this it is strange alfalfa is not more generally
cultivated ; the character of the soil is eminently suited for it, as it requires a porous, gravelly
soil through which it will send its roots to immense distances in search of moisture, and will
therefore keep greerr in the driest part of summer. Instances are known in California where
alfalfa has penetrated the soil to a depth of thirty feet. Mr. John T. Edwards, I notice, says
he finds it the most profitable for cattle feeding. In spite of the dryness of the season large
quantities of hay, root crops, and vegetables were produced, and in the older orchards fruit
yielded well, those of Mr. J. W. Roper, of Cherry Creek, and C. T. Cooney, of Tranquille,
each producing about twelve tons of the very best of fruit. A good deal of butter is made.
Sheep and swine are raised in nroderate numbers. The average fleeces of a number of sheep
is given at about sixteen pounds, which, I presume, is an error. According to returns about
fifteen per cent, of the land owned is under cultivation. The following are the opinions and
replies of some of the farmers :—
Wages.—$25 to $40 per month and board for ordinary farm labour; $2 to $3 per day
and board other labour ; $20 to $30 for Chinese servants.
Mr. Andrew Noble, Coldstream Farm.—Timothy, rye, barley, oats, potatoes, arrd carrots
do well. My stock is not pedigreed. Polled Angus and Shorthorns are best suited. This
has been a very dry season.
Mr. John T. Edwards, Kamloops.—Grain of all kinds does well. I grow a variety of
grasses, viz.: Timothy, clover, red-top, alfalfa, sainfoirr, and foul meadow. I find alfalfa the
most profitable for cattle feeding; timothy arrd clover for horses. I have seven thoroughbred
Polled Angus bulls. I only bought these bulls this summer, so I am not in a positiorr to state
whether they are best suited for this locality or not. I have two pedigreed stallions—one
Percheron and one Clyde.
Mr. G. W. Jones, Kamloops.—All crops do well and yield very heavily when irrigated.
Nothing can be grown without.
Mr. Andrew Ogg, Kamloops.—Rye makes the best hay on my lot.
Mr. Alex. McGlashan, Kamloops.—Most suitable crops are barley, rye, wheat, oats,
peas, timothy, turnips, potatoes, carrots, beets, onions, apples, and plums. I have a Clydesdale
stallion.    Weather rather dry ; frost early in the fall.
Mr. Joseph Todd, Kamloops.—All kinds of grain and fruits that grow in the Eastern
Provinces do better here.
Mr. Wm. McLeod, Anderson Creek.—Probably twenty acres of my marsh land could
be reclaimed at a heavy expenditure. Oats, barley, and timothy do well. I am situated
about 2,800 feet above sea level, so I am subject to summer frosts sometimes ; also a scarcity
of water. I have a Shorthorn bull and a trotting stallion. A general purpose horse is best
suited to this locality. Very little disease amongst live stock here if they get plenty to eat.
Grasshoppers were the worst pest we have had ; not many this year.
Mr. James Mellors, Kamloops.—I have not experimented with grain and, therefore,
cannot say which is best. Any kind of spring wheat and oats do well. Snowflake and Early
Rose potatoes, Long Red mangolds, Yellow Danver onions, Orange Giant and Perfection
carrots I find best. I consider the Shorthorn cattle the best, but here they are all mixed up.
Polled Angus, Hereford, and Shorthorn bulls are all turned out on the ranges. Owing to very
little snow last winter there was a scarity of water for irrigating, and the season being very
dry the crops were light.    No summer frost.    Spring rather later than usual.
Mr. Donald Walker, Kamloops.—All grain does well where water can be got to
irrigate. Timothy is the best grass, but my opinion is that if red clover were mixed with
it it would be an improvement. The breed of horse best for this part is the general purpose
horse. My horses are descended from the best strain of blood from the east. My last stallion
was a pedigreed horse of the Black Hawk stock, yet I am in total ignorance how to keep a 754 Report on Agriculture. 1891
pedigree myself on my stock. Epizootic is the prevalent disease amongst horses. The spring
this year was very backward, the rest of the season was very dry and hot, so the grain crop
did not weigh as much as in other years. No frost since the 1st May this year until the 27th
October.
Mr. W. J. Roper, Cherry Creek.—Very dry during spring and summer; rains in the
fall; late spring ; season too dry.
Mr. John Lawson, Kamloops.—I sowed wheat, barley, oats, corn, peas, buckwheat, and
millet, but everything was almost a total failure from want of water, which I tried to raise
from the Thompson River, but failed through imperfect machinery.
Mr. Alex. Gordon, North Thompson.—The long spell of dry weather in spring almost
ruined my crops, and I, consequently, had a light harvest. Had a severe frost in May, killing
a lot of vegetables.
Mr. Thos. Loveway, Kamloops.—Dry weather made the crop light on my place, being
in the dry belt and having no means of obtaining water for irrigation. Rains came rather
late.    No snow last wirrter left the ground dry irr spring.
Mr. C T. Cooney, Tranquille.— Very late spring; middling good crop ; dry weather ;
no frosts.
Mr. T. Cooney, Lac du Bois (seven miles from Tranquille on the mountain).—Late
spring; very dry weather ; poor crops ; frosts in May.
Mr. John H. Willis, North Thompson.—The weather during the summer was very hot
and dry, and having no water my crop was a total failure. Had a good crop on the same
ground last season (1890).
In answer to a communication addressed to Mr. Sullivan asking his opinion as to the
best mode of obtaining water, the following reply was received :—
"Shuswap, B. C, Dec. 19th, 1891.
"James R. Anderson, Esq., Victoria, B. C:
"Dear Sir,—Your letter of the 10th instant is to hand asking my opinion as to the best
means of irrigating the lands along the North and South Thompson Rivers.
" In answer I beg to say that in my opinion the only cheap, and I think I may safely
say, practical way, would be to divert some of the waters of large streams which head at or
near the source of streams now in use. In many cases I know that could be done at a slight
cost, thereby increasing the flow in creeks that run dry when water is needed most. That,
however, would only benefit present owners of land.
" As for pumping the waters of either the South or North Thompson into reservoirs on
the hill sides, I am quite sure would prove a failure, for the reason that the nature of the
ground is either gravel or sand subsoil, and would not hold water.
" In regard to utilizing the waters of the North or South Thompson from natural
gravitation, it cannot be done, for the very good reason that the fall of the rivers is very
much less than that required to convey a smaller quantity in ditch.
" Yours, very respectfully,
" M. Sullivan."
NICOLA.
There are some 120 settlers in Lower and Upper Nicola and Douglas Lake. Cereals and
root crops do well in all parts of Nicola, but fruit not everywhere. It seems that the trees
grow for a few years and then die. The reason could not be explained, the temperature of
the country being apparently favourable enough for the successful cultivation of fruit. From
Mr. Armytage's description of the manner apple trees are attacked, it seems to resemble the
disease complained of elsewhere, and which Mr. Fletcher is unable to explain (vide under
Diseases and Pests). It would be interesting to ascertain the true cause, and whether some
kinds of apples might not thrive, as Mr. R. M. Woodward, of Lower Nicola, says the hardier
kinds of apples do well with him.    Here, again, irrigation is necessary, and where water is 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 755
available all grain and root crops do well. In parts there is a good deal of alkali in the soil,
and the water in places is highly impregnated. Stock is fond of this water and thrives well
on it. Crops also do well on alkali land, when it is not too highly impregnated In the
latter case, I was told that mangolds and beets are used to withdraw the alkali; after one
heavy crop of mangolds, the soil is generally fit for other crops. My experience of alkali is
that it makes a most sticky mud, and after some rain which fell the wheels of my buggy grew
to such immense proportions that they looked like the log wheels used in the backwoods.
There is a good flour mill situated at Nicola, which is of great benefit to. the settlers, as otherwise their grain would have to be hauled either to Kamloops or Spence's Bridge—a matter of
some sixty miles, with some terrible gradients on the road. All parts of Nicola are well
adapted for stock raising, and a great deal of the beef consumed on the coast conres from this
section.
The land owned and occupied in Nicola is about 151,286 acres, of which not more than
12,000 to 15,000 acres can probably ever be cultivated. At the present time, barely 1\ per
cent, is under cultivation, large tracts being used altogether for pasturage.
Cattle owned over one year old, about 15,000 head.
Sheep      ,, ,,      1,500    ,,
Horses    „ ,,      1,000    ,,
Value of agricultural machinery, buildings, arid improvements, about $400,000.
The quantity of grain produced was about as follows :—
Spring wheat, 275 tons.
Oats, 252    „
Barley, 80    ,,
Peas, 44    ,,    —651 tons.
Root crops, about 400    ,,
Hay, „ 5,000    „
Some dairying is done, and a considerable quantity of wool produced, the fleeces averaging 6| lbs. The following are the opinions and answers of farmers and reports of
correspondents :—
Wages.—Ordinary farm labour, $30 to $40 per month and board ; $1 to $1.75 per day
and board. House and other servants, $20 to $25 per month and board. Carpenters and
mechanics, $3 to $3.50 per day and board.
Mr. J. D. Lauder, Upper Nicola.—I have two shorthorn bulls with pedigree.
Messrs. Robt. Scott & Sons, Rockford.—I have one Hambletonian stallion. I consider
roadsters best. The weather affected my crops badly this year. Very dry; no frost until
October; late spring.
Mr. Edwin Dalley, Nicola Lake.—All kinds of grain and roots are well adapted, but
only the hardiest of apples, plums, and cherries, and all kinds of small fruits. Pears and
peaches have not been tested. The land in this district wants irrigation. Have no pedigree
stock. In sheep, Southdowns, or crosses between them and Cotswolds, do well. In this
district, crops on the uplands always require irrigation, as the rainfall is not sufficient to
ensure a crop; rainfall during the seven months between March and Septenrber, inclusive,
being only 6.85 inches.
Mr. Chas. M. Newkirk, Coutlie.—Weather very dry, with late frosts.
Messrs. Harmon Bros., Coutlie.—Dry up to June; late spring; early and late frosts.
Mr. Albert Smith, Stump Lake.—We had a hailstorm which hurt my crops, and also a
frost which froze my potatoes, early in the spring.    It was a dry summer.
Mr. Edward O'Rourke, Quilchena.—Spring wheat, oats, peas, timothy, alsike clover,
root crops, small fruits and vegetables, all do well in this locality. The weather has been very
favourable for all kinds of crops; though it was very dry in the early spring, we had some
beautiful rains in June that brought the crops on very fine.    No summer frosts.
Mr. W. E. Woodward, Lower Nicola.—Suitable crops, wheat and peas. The mummy
pea does best with me. I find alsike clover and timothy best for hay. I have 20 head pedigreed Chester white pigs, part imported. Weather this year splendid ; not much irrigation
needed; no frosts to hurt grain. The spring was not very early, but crops grew well when
the warm weather came.    I consider this the best season for grain, of sixteen spent here. 756 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. H. D. Green-Armytage, Coutlie.—The whole of my 80 acres of marsh is reclaim-
able. It is the only land here capable of growing grass, &c, without irrigation. The pasture
land is a strong clay soil, but no water can be brought on it, therefore unfit for anything but
pasture. The following do well, viz.: Grasses—1, timothy; 2, red-top; 3, orchard. Clovers—
1, alsike; 2, red clover; 3, alfalfa. Roots—1, potatoes (early rose); 2, beet roots (long red);
3, parsnips; 4, early white turnip. Fruits—currants of all kinds; raspberries. Apples and
cherries don't flourish; pears and peaches won't grow—too high ; plums and quinces won't
bear fruit; gooseberries no good The apple trees seem invariably to be injured in such a
manner that part of the wood in stem dies, and in time kills the whole tree. Gooseberries
always rrrildew. The greatest pest we have here is the mosquito, and any suggestion will be
thankfully received that will tend to rid the country of this infernal pest.
Mr. R. M. Woodward, Lower Nicola.—The swamp land (40 acresj is mostly willow and
alder bottom; all, or nearly all, reclaimable. The pasture land is neary all fit for grain
growing. All kinds of grain do well, also roots, more particularly potatoes, which are exceptionally fine, both as to size and quality. All kinds of small fruits do well, also the hardier
varieties of apples. Red clover, alsike, sainfoin, timothy, and red-top all do remarkably well.
I have one shorthorn bull, one Berkshire boar and sow, and one Hambletonian stallion.
Late spring, with dry hot weather in beginning of summer, late open fall with plenty of rain.
No damage to crops by wet or frost.    Grain all bright and well filled.
Mr John Clapperton.—Wheat (fall and spring), oats, barley, peas, clover (red and
white), alsike, alfalfa, arrd sainfoin, all do well. The best grasses are cocksfoot (alias orchard
grass), Kentucky blue grass, perennial rye grass and timothy (I saw the mixture with clover).
Planted over 100 apple trees at different times—a failure. Pear, plum, and cherry, no success
so far. I keep of pedigree stock, two Hereford cows and one bull, one Polled Angus cow and
one bull; two Durham cows and one bull; Chester white and Berkshire pigs. Above animals
are from best Canadian herds. So far live stock of all kinds have been remarkably healthy,
no contagious diseases in cattle. Horses annually get epizootic complaints. Pigs and sheep
are exempt from the various diseases so fatal irr other countries. Season very dry; water for
irrigation scarce in some localities—hence light crops. Frost last April. Harvest weather
(hay and grain) excellent. Hard frost set in on 10th November, with about two inches of
snow. Glass registers at this date (16th November) zero, and weather seems fixed; snow
falling lightly.
Messrs. G. B. Armstrong & Co., Lower Nicola.—We have one blood horse, a race
horse, and find that all classes of horses and cattle do exceedingly well, as our lands are rolling
and the air is light and dry ; the altitude is 1,900 feet above sea level.
Mr. Gilbert Blair, Nicola Valley.—Wheat, oats, barley, and all root crops do well,
club wheat, white oats, Chevalier barley, best. Timothy, alsike, red clover, alfalfa, sainfoin,
red-top, orchard, and rye grass best. Shorthorn cattle, half-bred Clydesdale horses, and half-
bred Cotswold sheep preferred.
Messrs. G. and H. Richardson, Lower Nicola.—Spring wheat, oats, barley, small
fruits, carrots, beets, turnips, potatoes, timothy, clover, and alfalfa all do splendid provided
they are well watered.
Mr. John Gilmore, Nicola Valley.—Club wheat, I think, is as good as any. I have
found Banner oats the best. Early Rose potatoes best yet. Swede turnips good. Carrots
fine.
Mr. James Smith, Voght Valley.—Barley, oats, rye, and timothy good crops.
Douglas Lake Cattle Co., J. B. Greaves, Manager.—Three pure bred Durham,
Hereford, and Polled Angus. I prefer for range pur-poses the Durham, Shorthorn, and
Hereford breeds. Fair crop. Season dry. First frost in September. Late spring. Hay
meadows, wild and artificial, were almost as good as last year.
Mr. William Manning, Coultie.—Weather very dry from June until the last of
September.
Mr. Wm. H. Voght, Coultie.—Dry summer with early frosts.
Messrs. Geo. and Wm. McCullough, Coultie.—Weather very dry all summer.
Mr. Joseph Castillon, Coultie.—Weather generally very dry ; irrigation necessary. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 757
Mr. Owen S. Batchelor, Douglas Lake.—The spring was late; the early part of the
summer was exceptionally dry ; the autumn fine. The frosts have been very few, but a severe
frost about the 1st of August killed potatoes and peas, and injured wheat in this valley. A
severe frost occurred about middle of November, thermometer registeriirg four degrees below
zero.    The altitude of this place (Salmon Lake) is supposed to be 2,750 feet above sea level.
Mr. Paul Gillie, Nicola Lake.—A very dry summer, no frosts to injure crops.
Mr. Jesus Garcia, Coutlie.—Good weather for crops; no early frost; suffered a little
from want of water ; average early spring.
Mr. W. Charters, Coutlie.—Very dry weather.
Mr. Thos. Woodward, Lower Nicola.—Crops were good; we irrigate here; weather
good ; season fine.
Mr. John Clapperton, Correspondent, Upper and Central Nicola.
1. Wheat (fall).—30 to 40 bushels per acre.
Wheat (spring).—Same.
Barley.—50 to 60 bushels per acre.
Oats.—Same.
Peas.—4,000 lbs. to 5,000 lbs., according to cultivation.
Indian Corn.—Not grown in quantity.
2. Hay.—Artificial grasses yield from 1 to 3 tons per acre.
Hops.—Not grown in quantity, but do well.
3. Potatoes.—Vary from 6 to 10 tons per acre, according to fertility and culture.
Mangolds, ,,      10 to 30    „        ,, „ ,, ,,
Carrots,                ,,         6 to 10    „         „                  ,,                    ,,                      „
Turnips,                „       25 to 40    „         „                  „
Other roots.—All roots depend on soil and cultivation.
Spring Wheat.—Red Fyfe, White Australian, White Russian.
Barley.—Common, Chevalier, and other varieties all do well.
Little fall wheat grown.
Grasses.—Sainfoin,  clovers, alfalfa, orchard  grass, timothy, blue grass, perrenial rye
grass.
All varieties of early roots succeed; late varieties not grown.
4. Apples.—5 to   8 cents per ffi>. in 100-lb. lots.
Pears,       5 to 10    „ ,,
Plums and Prunes, 5 to 10 cents per lb.
Cherries.—Not offered for sale in quantity.
-L eacnes, ,, ,, ,,
Quinces, ,, „
Other Fruit.—Small fruit grown in abundance ; sells for 5 cents per lb.
Has the crop been good or bad ?    A fair average.
Was the fruit of good quality ?    Good in quality, but not in quantity.    Last spring
(April)  we had a frost that nipped nearly  all the strawberries and destroyed
blossoms and buds on cherries and other early fruits.    The season was very warm
and dry ; no atmospheric moisture.
4a.  Soils  for fruits.—We  find  sandy loams best, but  so far apples, pears, plums, and
cherries have been almost a failure ; will do well for the first two or three years
and then completely run out.
4b. Names of fruit best suited.—All hardy kinds of the above have been repeatedly tried
up and down the valley with the same unfortunate results. There is something
in the soil, altitude, or climate that none of us understand, as the cultivation and
attention has been more than is generally bestowed on fruits in localities where
they flourish.
4c Half hardy and tender fruits.—Grapes, melons, and tomatoes have been tried, and
only under favourable circumstances will they approach a low average of sufficient
maturity before our fall frosts kill them, 758 Report on Agriculture. 1891
6. Dairy.—The dairy industry is not followed  at  Nicola  on  a larger  scale  than  house
wants. Most settlers annually import their winter butter from eastern creameries.
I obtain my butter from Guelph, a first-rate article which costs when laid down at
Nicola 28 cents per lb. I pay at Guelph 23 cents per lb. in 100-lb. lots, fresh
butter selling at Nicola in summer months from 30 to 35 cents per lb.
7. Bees.—Never tried to my knowledge.
8. Flax.—Very little grown ; a few farmers grow a little  for  now  and  then  feeding to
horses.    It appears to do well wherever sown.
9. Poultry.—I consider the industry neglected, but Nicola is an isolated district.    We
are 50 miles from the nearest railway station, and cost of transit on poultry or
dairy products is so great that export is prohibited. We have very little local
demand, as everyone keeps enough poultry to supply home wants.
10. Wool.—The district is adapted to sheep farming, owing to open ranges, but the coyotes
are numerous and make sad raids on sheep. There is only one settler now engaged
in sheep farming. The wool crop averages are good, well-bred sheep about 6 lbs. to
the fleece, and is clean, free from briars, burrs, or other injurious mixtures.
11. Live Stock.—Yes.    Nicola now breeds pure Clydesdale horses, and a class of horse is
now general half Clydes and Percherons, weighing from 1,100 to 1,400 pounds
each—a most useful animal. We have also a few good saddle and light harness
horses, sired by blood and coach horses—breeds improving every day. Cattle
comprise best imported breeds—Shorthorn, Hereford, Polled Angus, and Jerseys.
For beef purposes, there is a difference of opinion between Shorthorn, Hereford,
and Polled Angus—all good. Sheep are Southdown, Leicester, Cotswold, and
now Cheviot and Shrop rams are in the valley. Pigs are excellent, Chester White
and Berkshire predominate. All improved breeds of poultry are in quantity.
The people of Nicola have spared no expense in getting best breeds of horses,
cattle, and sheep, pigs and poultry—in brief the best of everything has ever been
the motto.
12. Weather.—One year with another our weather is much the same..    Now and then we
have severe winters and dry summers. Last summer was very dry, preceded by a
very mild winter. Any year that we have not a good fall of snow is always
followed by a poor season for pasturage and crops. Water is the life of everything
in this section, and the snows of winter alone swell our streams in the following
summer.    Last year the harvest weather was most propitious.
13. Diseases and Pests.—Stock.   Young horses are subject to epizootic diseases.   I estimate
the annual loss at ten per cent. So far I have not seen or heard of " glanders."
Some two years ago "mange" ran through range stock, but we had them all
gathered up and treated successfully. Cattle have so far been exempt from
contagious diseases, but frequent losses occur from " dietitic" complaints, plant
and mineral poisons. Sheep are exempt from foot rot and pulmonary complaints
owing to dry soil and climate. Scab is the result of infection. The greatest pest
we have to deal with is the "gopher." They are most destructive to meadows.
Since the locust plague insect pests not noticeable.
14. Labour.—White labour averages in summer and fall from $30 to $40  per month with
board; Chinese and Indian labour on farms, $1 per day with board. Indian
cowboys get $1.50 per day and board.    They find their own horseflesh.
15. Ensilage.—No silos in district.    The making of ensilage has not been tried at Nicola,
but I think may some day soon. I have a square section cut from a silo in
England five years ago, and on frequent examination I find the grasses still as
sweet and in as good preservation as when I got it. I think, however, that the
climate of mainland interior is so reliable for curing of our succulent plant food
into hay that ensilage will not be looked after until we begin raising corn (maize),
peas, sorghum, or other ligminuous or succulent plants for cattle fodder, all of
which are hard to save when cut green.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Yes.    Nearly all lands intended for cereals next year have been
turned over. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 759
Me. H. S. Cleasby, Correspondent, Lower Nicola.
1. Wheat (Fall).—1,500 pounds, $1.50 per cwt.
Wheat (Spring), 1,500      „          1.50
Barley,                 2,000      „          1.25 „
Oats,                   1,500      „          1.50 „
Rye,                    1,000      „         1.50 „
Peas,                   2,000      „         1.25 „
2. Hay.—3,000 pounds, $15 per ton.
3. Potatoes.—20 tons, at $20 per ton. Red clover grows  luxuriantly in  many  places.
Sainfoin coming into favour for dry land.
4. Fruit.—Very little grown.
4b. -Soils for fruits.—Fruit growing in this district is yet an experiment, no variety
having succeeded so far.
4c.  Half hardy and tender fruit.—Melons and tomatoes have been tried and ripened in
favourable seasons, but are an uncertain crop.
6. Dairy.—A little dairying is clone, but the industry is in its infancy.
7. Bees.—No.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—Poultry raising has not been carried on in my  district as a business by any
one.    Each farmer has a small flock of fowls, usually only sufficient for himself.
10. Wool.—No sheep in my district, although I think it adapted to them.
11. Live Stock.-   The advantage of improved stock is everywhere appreciated, and nearly
every stockman is buying them. Clydesdale horses for draught; Cleveland Bays
for carriage ; usually the native cayuse for saddle. Cattle, chiefly Shorthorn.
Pigs, Berkshire.
12. Weather.—Very  favourable for harvestirrg.     Frosts later than usual.     No frozen
grain.
13. Diseases and Pests.—Last winter favourable; heard of no loss.
14. Labour.—Labour is plentiful, all three kinds.    White  $30  per  month, by year, with
board.    Chinese and Indian, about $1 per day.
15. Ensilage.—No.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Ploughing has been extensively done.
SPENCE'S BRIDGE, ASHCROFT, AND CACHE CREEK.
There are some 65 settlers hereabouts. Irrigation is necessary all through this district,
and as the previous winter (1890-91) was without much snow, water was scarce and the crops
were in consequence short. A good many cattle are reared about here for beef (Durhams
being perferred) and considerable quantities of grain are grown. Several people have large
orchards, rrotably Mr. A. Clemes, Mr. J. Murray, and Mr. R. Curnow, at Spence's Bridge, and
the Messrs. Kirkpatrick at Ashcroft; both Messrs. Murray and Kirkpatrick having nurseries
where acclimatized trees are to be had. Fruit, of exceptionally good quality, is raised at these
places, including early grapes and peaches. Messrs. J. C. Barnes and T. G. Kirkpatrick had
28 tons of beans, the last named also some melons and a small lot of broom corn; the latter,
if successful, would no doubt form a very valuable industry. I beg to call attention to Mr.
Kirkpatrick's letter on the subject, which I append. Sheep, of which there are considerable
number, do well, the weight of the fleeces reported as averaging 10 lbs. About 12 per cent,
of the land owned is under cultivation.    Opinions and replies of people are as follows:—
Wages.—$25 to $40 per month and board for ordinary farm labour; $1.25 per day
Chinese; $1 per day Indian women.
Mr, A. Clemes, Spence's Bridge.—Timothy, hay, clover, and all fruits suit well. 760 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. John Murray, Spence's Bridge.—We have smut on wheat, use blue stone with the
seed.    A bug attacks the potatoes; it is a steel grey beetle and has to be hand-picked.
Messrs. Wood & Campbell, Spatsum.—We consider the following as most suitable
potatoes: Beauty of Hebron, as early; St. Patrick and Empire State, as late. Carrots,
Gueranas, as table, Steele Bros., short white, for stock. Onions, Yellow Dan vers. We have
one bull, a pedigree shorthorn Durham. Diseases, distemper, epizootic, and mange, but not
very troublesome.    Pests, caterpillars and grasshoppers.
Mr. W. V. Kirkpatrick, Ashcroft.—Good weather for crops; some rains; early spring;
a slight frost early part of June; early frost this fall, some time between 20th and 30th Sept.
Mr. T. G. Kirkpatrick, Ashcroft.—Common red clover and timothy is used here more
than anything else; sainfoin does well and is corning into favour. I have no pedigree stock,
some grade shorthorns. Weather was all that coulcl be desired; very little rain, but we have
to irrigate, it being dry it was warm, which is desirable for all crops grown in this valley.
No frost later than 10th April, nor earlier than 15th October.
Cornwall Bros., Ashcroft.—Spring wheat and barley yield heavily and are good in
quality. Swede turnips, potatoes, beet roots, mangold wurtzel, very good. Apples, both early
and late, and plums freely yield fruit of fine quality, and hardy grapes do well, ripening in
September. Currants (red and black) yield enormously. Raspberries good. Clovers (red,
white, and alsike) and alfalfa flourish luxuriantly, and the ordinary grasses, cocksfoot, timothy,
redtop, &c, do well. We have three thoroughbred shorthorn bulls, which breed we consider-
best suited to this locality. Last winter was altogether without rain, and almost without snow,
consequently water supply was short, and as this is a district where crops must be irrigated.,
they suffered much from want of water, more especially as the drought continued throughout
the year. The spring was late and the early summer cold. July and August excessively hot.
An unfruitful year in Thompson River District.
Mr. H. C. Barnes, Ashcroft.—I have three pedigree bulls, one cow and calf, and one
bull—Galloway.    Balance are shorthorns.    The latter I consider best suited.
Mr. Chas. A. Semlin, Cache Creek.—All grain grown in a temperate zone do well here,
unless Indian corn, which is not always sure to mature. The same remarks are good for fruits,
unless we except the peach, which I have not tried. All root crops and grasses do well. All
require irrigation; cannot grow without. I have one thoroughbred Polled Angus cow and
one bull; two Durham bulls, not registered. The Durhams are the most profitable, probably,
as beef cattle.    The Polled Angus the most hardy.
Mr. Philip Parke, Ashcroft.—The weather this summer was very dry, and water for
irrigation scarce,  consequently I had no grain.
Mr. E. Dougherty, Ashcroft.—Late cold spring. Crops raised by irrigation. Weather
very dry.
Mr. John Dowling (per C. F. Cornwall), Spence's Bridge.—Early summer cold, subsequently excessively hot.    No rain whatever, consequently crops suffered.
"Ashcroft, B. C.
" Dear Sir,—The small quantity of broom corn which I grew this year was an entire
success, the straws were abundant and from 16 to 26 inches in length, and ripens before frost.
I planted it for my own use and not as an experiment, because I had seen it grown successfully
where the season is shorter than it is here. As to the manufacturing of it into brooms, I
know nothing of the process nor o"f the capital required. I think, however, that a broom
factory established up here could supply the interior, and defy competition with California;
but to ship the raw material to the seaboard, where it would come in competition with the
California grown, one would have to get quite a reduction in the present prices of railway
freight. That good broom corn can be successfully grown there is no question, but as to the
cost per ton I could not form anything like a correct idea without experimenting in that
direction.
" Yours very truly,
"Jas. R. Anderson, Dept. of Agriculture, " T. G. Kirkpatrick.
" Victoria, B. C." 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 761
LYTTON.
There are about twenty-five ranchers in this place. Lytton is specially adapted to the
cultivation of fruits, including peaches, melons, grapes, and all half-hardy and tender varieties.
Cereals also do well, and large quantities of beans are raised. Mr. T. G. Earl has gone extensively into grape-growing, and I commend his remarks to the attention of all having an interest in this branch. Mr. Thos. Seward is also extensively engaged in fruit-growing. These
gentlemen are both making arrangements for supplying the markets of the Province with
fruits, now almost exclusively imported from California. In 1891 Mr. Seward raised 120
tons of produce, amongst which was 20 tons melons, 1| tons citrons, 2|- tons tomatoes, and
10 tons onions. Mr. Earl raised 84 tons, amongst which was 4 tons beans and 27 tons of
fruit, including some peaches. Another ranch reports 20 tons of beans. The season, however,
in this section is reported as having been unfavourable, and the crops generally short. Altogether, this part of the country seems destined to become the centre for the cultivation of
beans and the less hardy fruits. The replies and opinions of several of the farmers are
appended:—
Mr. Robert Ruddock, Lytton.—Melons, wheat, beans, and alfalfa all suit this place.
Mr. Thos. Seward, Lytton.—Season not favourable for crops; very dry; no frost; late
spring.
Mr. Tiios. G. Earl, Ly'tton.—Late, wet, cold spring, very bad for fruit and all other
crops. No late spring frosts; fall frosts late; the first severe one on the 10th November. I
am quite extensively engaged in horticulture. Owirrg to the unfavourable season, I only had
25 tons, mostly apples. I had a nice lot of strawberries. Plums and pears mostly a failure
this season. 1 have now started a vineyard of 600 grape-vines. What few grapes I have
raised so far have been spoken of very favourably. I think the valley of the Fraser, from
Lytton to Bridge River, and the Thompson to Kamloops, is well adapted to grape-growing,
and most other hardy fruits, especially where water can be obtained for irrigation. I think
the grape-vines should be laid down and covered with earth during winter, to protect them
from frosts and sudden changes; although I have not been able so far to protect mine, as the
leaves were all on and the frost came so hard I could do nothing with them ; but I am in
hopes the weather will soon moderate, and then I will lay down the vines and cover them.
It is my intention to go into grape-raising quite extensively. Any information I can furnish
I will he happy to do so.
YALE, SPUZZUM, NORTH BEND, AND BOSTON BAR.
There is but a small agricultural populatiorr hereabouts, the principal farmers being Mr.
John Lyons, and Mr. J. Webb at the last-named place, who are both engaged principally in
fruit-raising and the culture of roots and vegetables. These gentlemen put about 42 tons of
fruit on the market in 1891.
At Yale and Spuzzum there is but a limited area, but fruit does particularly well wherever it is cultivated.
The replies of some of the farmers are as follows :—
Wages—$28 per month and board ; $40 without board; $1 to $2 per day and board-
ordinary farm labour; $4 per day and board, skilled; $1 to $1.35 per day, Chinamen.
Mr. John Lyons, North Bend.—All root crops produce in abundance. Have to irrigate in North Bend and for twenty miles around, as there is no rain to count. There is an
abundance of good water. The greater portion of the country is composed of barren lands.
This is a new place on the Canadian Pacific Railway, a railroad town and a terminal point,
but we have as yet no school nor graveyard. There are about 90 whites, 200 Indians, and
90 Chinamen here. There is very little agricultural land in this vicinity, being for the most
part nrountains covered with bush. Weather very fine every summer; climate the best in
British Columbia.
Ah Cow, Yale.—All vegetables do well, but melons do not ripen.
Mr. John Alway. —No frost; dry latter part of summer ; late spring. 762 Report on Agriculture. 1891
LILLOOET,
Viz. : Empire Valley, Hat Creek, Bridge Creek, Clinton, Pavilion, Big Bar, Dog
Creek, and Alkali Lake.
There are about 125 ranchers in these places. The reports from this part of the country
all confirm the almost general complaint of the shortness of water, and the consequent part
failure of crops. Cereals do well, but wheat is not so much cultivated, on account of the difficulty and expense of transportation to the markets. The principal products were oats, hay,
potatoes, and turnips. Fruit has not been much tried heretofore, but several intend settirrg
out orchards. Dairying is carried on to some extent, and some butter is made, principally to
supply local demands. A considerable number of cattle are raised for beef, there being good
ranges. Here, again, the general verdict is in favour of Durhams. A few sheep are raised,
the fleeces of which are reported as averaging 10 pounds. A good many swine are raised.
About 13 per cent, of the land owned is under cultivation, according to reports received.
The following are the opinions and replies of some of the farmers :—
Wages—$30 to $40 per month and board, ordinary farm labour; $1 per day, Indians
and Chinese; $30 per month, Chinese cooks; $2.75 per day and board, carpenters.
Mr. J. N. J. Brown, Empire Valley.—Most of my swamp land (20 acres) is reclaim-
able. This portion of the Province is principally prairie, open land, and there are many
places that could be utilized only for the want of water, as irrigation must be resorted to for a
successful growth of crops. Artesian wells would do well to experiment on. All kinds of
grain, potatoes, carrots, turnips, pumpkins, squash and other vegetables do well. Clover I
have not tried. I have two pedigree bulls. Durham seems to do the best I find stock
requires crossing, otherwise stock will breed in. The summer was too dry, and in consequence
the yield of cereals and hay was lighter than usual.
Mr. Hugh Gallagher, Hat Creek.—Twenty acres of swamp, reclaimable.
Mr. Wm. Allan, P. L. S., Bridge Creek.—The swamp (about 600 acres) is all good
meadow land, yielding about 1J tons of hay to the acre.    I have two pedigree Durham bulls.
Mr. John Saul, Clinton.—None of the cultivated grasses have done well yet. I think
alfalfa would do well; mean to try it next season. I have one each, bull, cow and calf, pure
bred Galloway. Durham, with proper care, are the best suited to this neighbourhood, in my
opinion. The horses of this locality have been visited since April last with a very virulent
attack of epizootic or strangles; several have died, and many are permanently injured irr their
wind by it.    The worst pest in this country is wild horses.
Messrs. Marshal & Smith, Clinton.—Very nearly all the swamp land could be
reclaimed by drainage and brushing, at a small outlay. We utilize it for cutting wild hay,
and for fall and winter pasturage. Oats and barley do well. There being no mill, wheat is
not raised. Rye would do well As yet we have only raised small fruits; this year we set
out some apple, plum and cherry trees. Alsike, red and white clover do well; we intend for
the future to seed more ground with them. Timothy, rye and orchard grass yield well.
Alfalfa, or Lucerne, we have tried for the first time this season; it is doing well. We purchased this year from Mr. R. H. Pope, Quebec, a pedigree Polled Angus bull, and have been
breeding a few of our mixed breed cows to him. Heretofore we have been breeding from part
bred Durhams.    Shorthorn Durhams do the best as yet; Polled Angus is on trial.
Mr. James C. S. Cheniiall, Clinton.—Oats and barley, timothy and clover do well.
Too cold for fruit.
Mr. Thos. C. Harris, 17-Mile Post.—Potato bugs eat all the leaves. Will send a
specimen next summer.    Late spring; dry summer.
Mr. Thos. J. Cole, Pavilion —Spring wheat, potatoes, turnips, red clover, alfalfa, all
suit.    Can raise nothing without irrigation.    Late spring; dry season.
Mr. Wm. Lee, Pavilion.—Late spring; dry season. (Mr. Lee's remarks on the weather
will be found under the head of "Meteorological."—J. R. A.)
Mr. Moses Pigeon, Dog Creek.—I think that Shorthorn Durhams are the best for this
locality. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 763
Mr. Wm. Wycott, Dog Creek.—Hundreds of acres swamps and meadows in this
vicinity, reclaimable and unoccupied. Room for many settlers. I feed nothing; cattle
grazing summer and winter. All kinds of grain, roots and grass do well. I raised potatoes
weighing 3J Bis My stock is mostly crossed with Durhanr. No doubt the Polled Angus
will make a very desirable cross. There is a contagious disease amongst cattle in this vicinity;
many horses die of it. I think it would be well on the part of our Government to ascertain
its true nature, in order that some remedy may be suggested. I am treating with sulphur
burnt with old boot leather, and making the cattle and horses inhale the smoke.
Mr. J. S. Place, Dog Creek. —All kinds of grain and vegetables do well.
Mr. Wm. Abel, 111-Mile House.—Oats, barley and rye, turnips, carrots and mangolds
grow well. Potatoes are sometimes touched with frost, but have never missed a crop entirely.
I have not tried many kinds of grain or grasses, as this place is best adapted for stock.
About 150 acres of my swamp land (300 acres) is meadow; 75 acres of the balance could be
reclaimed. The wooded land here affords pasture, as the timber is not of much value except
for fire wood or rails; that is, as compared with lower country timber land.
B. C. Cattle Co., Canoe Creek.—Dry weather in summer.
Mr. C. F. Kostering, Big Bar.—Very dry weather. First frost 10th November. Very
late spring.
Mr. Robert Carson, Pavilion.—Season has been unusually dry. Raise all crops here
by irrigation, bringing water eleven miles. Timothy, clover and grain never affected here by
frost. Height above sea level, 3,500 feet. Wild strawberries, raspberries, and black currants
do well in gulches and low places where moisture is abundant.
CARIBOO,
Viz.: Chilcotin, Lac La Hache, Williams Lake, Soda Creek, and Quesnelle.
There are some one hundred settlers in these places who go in principally for grain, hay,
and root crops, and the rearing of cattle for beef, and horses. Little or no fruit is cultivated
in this section, principally on account of cold nights ; still, as some of the correspondents say,
it has not been well tried yet, and some varieties may prove successful, especially on the lower
lands. A considerable quantity of butter is manufactured to supply the mines. The want
of easy communication with the coast acts very detrimentally to the interests of this part of
the country, the production of which could easily be doubled without much extra expense. It
is a good sheep raising country, but the ubiquitous coyote renders the industry unprofitable.
Many hogs are reared in this district for the market.
Mr. Carson reports favourably on Ladoga wheat, and Messrs. Johnson Bros, on Red
Chaff, Oregon, and Royal Australian. The extremely dry season militated against the crops
very materially in many places. Mr. Hawks says it was the driest summer for twenty years,
and Mr. Dunlevy estimates that crops were reduced seventy-five per cent. Durham cattle
and Percheron horses seem to be preferred. According to returns received it appears that
about 24 per cent, of the land owned is under cultivation. I think that with full returns this
would be found to be above the average. Opinions and replies and reports of correspondents
are as follows :—
Wages.—$35 to $40 per month and board, $1.50 to $2 per day and board, ordinary
farm labour ; $65 per month and board, carpenters and blacksmiths ; $30 to $35, Chinese
cooks.
Messrs. Johnson Bros., Hanceville, Chilcotin.—The swamp or marsh lands in this
portion of the Province are irreclaimable, because they are situated high up in the mountains.
Nothing but swamp hay will grow on account of frosts every month in the year. Yet we
purpose trying to seed some down in timothy, and at some future time we may give you the
results. Wheat, Red Chaff, yields a fair return; also Oregon (a variety imported from
Oregon). Another variety, called the Royal Australian, is a very early sort. Almost any
variety of oats yields a fair crop. Rye will do very well; peas not so well. Timothy yields a
good crop if well irrigated (we are in the dry belt).    We sowed some clover, but it failed to 764 Report on Agriculture. 1891
put in an appearance this spring, we presume on account of irrigating. We sowed some
again this spring, but it is not satisfactory. We have no pedigreed stock of any kind. Our
stallion is part Percheron and, I think, that breed as well adapted for this section as any.
We are remarkably free from all kinds of diseases and pests. None as yet have come under
our notice.
Mr. Dennis Murphy, Lac La Hache.—All our marsh land (two hundred acres) can be
reclaimed. Timothy is the most suitable grass. All small fruits do well; other fruits not
yet fairly tested. Our greatest pest is coyotes ; they destroy many young birds. Small bands
of sheep are unprofitable on their account. A small bounty given to the Indians would soon
rid the country of them.
Mr. William Pinchbeck, Williams Lake.—The bush and swamp land (two hundred
acres) can all be cultivated at a cost of about $25 per acre for clearing and draining. The
forest land is thinly wooded, and could easily be brought under cultivation. The capacity of
this farm could be doubled, as is the case with the other farms here, if we had a railway to
get our produce to market. Small fruits do best. Wheat, barley, and oats do well. All
roots yield well. Timothy, redtop, and swamp grass give large crops. Clover does well in
places. I have pedigreed stock. Shorthorn and mixed breeds do well. Horses, such as
heavy carriage horses, are suitable for farm work. The spring was late ; frosts in May ;
summer very dry and hot; no frost to damage crops until the middle of September, and all
crops were harvested by the first week in September.
Mr. A. Isnardy, Chimney Creek.—White chaff wheat, all kinds of roots, apples, pears,
cherries, plums, and currants do well. I have a half Clyde and half Coach stallion; he seems
to do very well, and his colts also. Two Clydesdale mares that do well here. Late spring,
dry season. This was an exceptionally dry summer, but as I am well supplied with water it
had no effect on me whatever.
St. Joseph's Mission, Williams Lake.—Wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, timothy, currants,
and raspberries are the best adapted to our locality.    Dry spring.
Mr. J. F. Hawks, Soda Creek.—Very dry season, the dryest in twenty years. Very
free from frost, both spring and fall. Cold, backward spring. Not half as much ground in
crop as in 1890.
Messrs. Wm. and John Lyne, Soda Creek.—Oats, barley, potatoes, turnips, carrots,
peas, red clover, and timothy all do well.     No pedigreed stock.     Any breeds of stock do well.
Mr. W. A. Johnstone, Quesnelle.—Weather very dry the whole season, spring fairly
early. No frosts during the growing season. Crops about half on an average, on account of
the dry windy weather.
Mr. Alfred Carson, Quesnellemouth.—Wheat does well, both fall and spring; heretofore spring wheat has been too late. Ladoga does well; Fife too slow. I have imported
an oat called White Bonanza that does better than any other, weighs from 48 to 52 pounds
per bushel; root crops do well, also timothy, clover, and other grasses, hops, and small fruits.
Have found no apples to stand the winter.
Mr. Wm. M. Strouse, Chilcotin.—All kinds of small grain is suitable along the river
bottoms. No pedigreed stock. The best cattle for this country is Shorthorn Durham ; they
carry the most beef. Horses, Percheron for draught, and some lighter breed for the saddle.
The weather has been dry.    I raise no crops outside of hay, which I feed my cattle on.
Messrs. Beecher & Dester, Chilcotin.—All the stockmen in this country put up
large quantities of wild hay on meadows away from their cultivatable land. A great amount
of land here is valueless for anything but pastures. Fall wheat, oats, barley, rye, crab-apples,
small fruits, and timothy do best. Shorthorn Durham cattle. Draft horses, roadsters, and
saddle-horses, cayuses, Berkshire pigs. The summer was dry, no rain for two months in the
early spring ; irrigation necessary. Frost nipped the vegetables on 1st July—nothing to
harm.   First sharp frost was in September—about the middle.    Creeks low, scarcity of water.
Messrs. Eagle & Paxton, Onward Ranch.—" Welcome " oats, barley, " Early Rose "
potatoes, turnips, carrots, onions, timothy, and clover all do well. I have Hereford and
Galloway bulls ; Berkshire pigs. Distemper and mange amongst horses. Grasshoppers and
worms. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 765
Messrs. Morrison & Adams, Alexandria.—We put in our crop in the month of April.
The season was unusually dry and we had to irrigate more than in other seasons. The season
was entirely free from frosts, and all kinds of grain matured well.
Mr. A. S. Ulrich, Lac La Hache.—Weather dry and cold for crops of any kind in the
months of April, May, June, and July. No rain until about the 23rd July ; since then there
has been plenty.    A few light frosts in September, but not to damage.    Very late spring.
Mr. John Boyd, Quesnelle.—The weather in this section being rather dry this summer-
was against the growth of the hay and root crops, which is about all cultivated here. Summer
frosts nearly all the time.
Mr. P. C. Dunlevy, Soda Creek.—Late, cold spring; summer unusually dry. The
drought has reduced the yield throughout the district seventy-five per cent. This season has
been the driest known for twenty years.
Mr. D. A. McLean, Soda Creek.—No crops this year; very dry; no frosts.
Mr. J. F. Hawks, Correspondent, Soda Creek.
1.  Wheat (fall).—     \„ .       ,      , „       , _
„T,     , )      /    N       > Price about 2 cents per EX
Wheat (spring).—J L
O + V Price about 2| cents per lb.
Yield very difficult  to estimate on account of drought; lower than usual, which
in former years I have estimated at 1,200 His. per acre.
3. Potatoes.—Yield moderate ; price about 1 cent per lb.
Mangolds.—1
Carrots.—     VNot many raised ; yield fair.
Turnips.—   J
I have raised white wheats because the red ones are so hard to grind with the old-
fashioned stone mills.    Mr. Adams, at Alexandria, successfully raised red wheat.
4. No fruit raised in the district, except currants and raspberries, which do well.    Several
have put out a few trees—apples, plums, pears, and cherries—this year. The
early cold seems to freeze the sap in the branches.
4c.  Half-hardy and tender fruits.—Only tomatoes.    They do well when protected from
spring and fall frosts.
6. Dairy.—Very little butter and no cheese manufactured in the district; price of butter,
about 30 cents at farm.
7. Bees.—I know of only two swarms, brought into this district by the late Chas. Eagle.
They, I believe, died.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—No.    Only ordinary breeds, and they receive very little attention.
10. Wool.—District  adapted for sheep-raising,  but  not entered into largely.    The great
difficulty would be the expense of herding, on account of wolves and coyotes.
11. Live Stock.—There is a disposition to improve the breed of horses.    Several imported
horses have been brought in the past few years—Clydesdales, Percherons, coach
horses, and others. Adams & Morrison, at Alexandria, have brought several
shorthorn cattle from Canada, and several Galloway cattle in the lower part of the
district—it is hardly time to tell with what results. Not enough attention paid
to the improvement of hogs.
12. Weather.—The season was favourable for harvesting, but crops were light on account
of drought—the driest season for twenty years. The spring was cold and backward, cold drying winds till what moisture there was in the ground was dried out.
Unusually free from frost. 766 Report on Agriculture. 1891
13. Diseases and Pests.—I should say that we are remarkably free from animal diseases.
A few years ago we were troubled with a sort of mange on horses, but it seems to
have died out. Weed pests are increasing. Wild oats, mustard, wild buckwheat,
and even the Canadian thistle are increasing, there being no determined effort to
stop them.
14. Labour.—Farm labour is mostly white and Indian, not so many Chinamen as formerly.
Average wages, would say about $33 per month.
15. Ensilage.—Not tried; think winters too cold to be successful.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Should say about the usual amount of fall ploughing has been done.
It stands drought much better than spring ploughing.
Mr.  Wm. Pinchbeck, Correspondent,  Williams Lake.
1. Wheat (fall).—Average yield, 1,500 lbs. per acre; price 2 cents per Hr.
Wheat (spring), „      ■      1,500 „ „     2
Barley, „ 1,500 „ „    2 „
Oats, „ 1,500 „ „    2
Rye.—But little grown; „    2 ,,
Peas.—Yield from 1,500 to 2,000 lbs. per acre; price, 3 to 4 cents per lb.
Indian Corn.—But little grown, only for table use.    Not much in demand.
2. Hay.—Yield from 1 to 2 tons per acre—timothy.; price, $10 to $20 per ton.
Hops.—Grow good.    No market.
3. Potatoes.—Grow fine; yield from 10 to 15 tons per acre; price, one cent per lb.
Mangolds.—Grow good and large in size.
Carrots, „ „ „
Turnips, „ „
Wheat.—Royal Australian spring,  Oregon red chaff, red Fyfe, all  those varieties do
well and ripen before frost.
Oats.—The welcome and English white oat grow good.
Barley of all kinds does well.
4. Fruit is but little grown in this district, and there is no regular price.    All apples are
imported, and sell for 10 to 20 cents per lb. Fruit trees have been planted, but
have not been a success.
4c.   Half-hardy and tender fruits.—Tomatoes are more or less grown, but do not ripen.
6. Dairy.—Price of butter is 30 cents per pound, and dairying pays the farmer.
7. Bees.—Have been tried in places, but have not amounted to much as yet.
8. Flax.—Has been grown in this district, and appears to do well.    There is no market
for this kind of produce, and if market for the same, flax would be grown. There
is a wild flax that grows well.
9. Poultry.—Has ceased to pay since the mines have been almost deserted, and we have
no railway to take this produce to market, so it is not carried on on any large
scale. If we had a railway, this district could supply millions of eggs, as poultry
does well.
10. Wool.—Parts of this district are well adapted for sheep, and the wool is good.    It is
not largely carried on for want of railway communication.
11. Live Stock.—All farmers go in for improved breeds of all kinds.    Shorthorn cattle do
well, and are the favourite for beef. Horses for draft: farmers prefer the light
horse.
12. Weather.—I have lived at this place 30 years, and I have only seen two summers that
the frost did damage to  grain crops,  and two  summers  that  were  very wet in 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 767
harvest time. This district is generally dry in summer, and irrigation is needed
some years, but good average crops can be grown without irrigation. We generally
have some frost in May, and we look for frosts about the first of September, and
very seldom is there any frost before the 6th or 10th of September, and the spring
is open for seeding about the first of April, and all wheat is sown in April, barley
and roots in May.
13. Diseases and Pests.—I  have never seen diseases with horned cattle.     Distemper
amongst horses (see under " Diseases and Pests," J. R. A). No diseases amongst
sheep. Poultry will keep healthy if well cared for. But little disease amongst
pigs. Grasshoppers do some damage in some years, but they are of a small kind
and do not migrate. We have no noxious weeds where the land is properly
cultivated.
14. Labour.—Labour scarce in summer, and all kinds employed.    Wages, $25 to $40 per
month, according to qualification.
15. Ensilage.—Has not been tried.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Ploughing is done largely in summer and fall of the year.    I have
had land in cultivation 29 years, and still grow good crops without manure by
summer fallowing thoroughly every two years. The soil in this section of country
is dark loam, with light brown clay. Bottom soil is easy to work, and contains
more or less alkali, which proves to be good for crops where it is not too strong.
KOOTENAY
Has about eighty-five settlers. Oats, hay, and potatoes are principally raised, but no
fruit. From the reports received, however, it seems to be a country well adapted for all kinds
of crops and probably fruits. Thus far there have been no inducements for extended farming
operations, but with the influx of population and the consequent demand that will arise, combined with increased facilities for transportation will, I have no doubt, bring Kootenay to the
front as an agricultural district. At the present time only about 3\ per cent, of the land
owned is under cultivation, according to returns received. A good nrany cattle and horses are
being bred. The weather was not so dry in summer as it was in most other parts of the
Province. On the Tobacco Plains irrigation is necessary. The remarks and opinions of
farmers are appended :—
Wages.—$40 per month and board; $60 per month; $2 per day and board, ordinary
farm labour; $60 to $90 per month and board, other.
M. Chalmers C. McKay, Vermillion Creek.—Wheat, oats, barley, peas, and root crops
do well. Fruit has not yet been tried. Rather dry weather for my oats. Frost killed my
potatoes 18th August.    Fairly wet in this vicinity.    Average weather, favourable.
Mr. John McKay, St.Clair, East Kootenay.—Of the 40 acres of swamp, about 25 acres
are reclaimable by considerable cost in drainage. I find timothy and red and white clover
grow well. My cattle are mixed breeds, very fair stock and all thrive well. Have run for
five years without housing or feeding hay, except about two months in all these years, and no
loss worth mentioning. In 1889 a very malignant distemper prevailed in this district, quite a
number of animals died. Made its apppearance first among the Siwash ponies, and from their
habit of roving with large bands, it was impossible for ranchers to keep their more valuable
stock free. At present a slight distemper prevails; cough and some discharge at the nose,
with dullness and weakness, some swell about the throat and head. (Mr. McKay's remarks
on the weather are placed under the head of "Meteorological."—J. R. A.)
Mr. Nils Hanson, East Kootenay.—Carrots, cabbage, onions, peas, barley, white clover,
alfalfa, and sugar beets do well. I have a Galloway bull. Galloways and Shorthorns do the
best. Weather very fine, rather wet than otherwise. No frosts to harm. Spring fairly
early.
Mr. George McMillan, East Kootenay.—Wheat, oats, and barley are the grains best
adapted to this locality, all the ordinary root crops, and timothy and red and white clover. 768 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. H. J. Cannan, Sinclair Creek.—Oats, barley, and wheat grow well, the two
latter not much grown owing to want of grist mill. Any roots grow well on bottom lands.
Timothy and redtop also grow well on bottom lands. Clovers have not been tried much, but
don't seem to thrive as well as grasses. Fruit has not been tried, but all wild fruit grows
well—cherry, raspberry, cranberry, gooseberry, &c. No thoroughbred stock in this country,
except one Percheron stallion.
Mr. Michael Phillips, Tobacco Plains.—Wheat, oats, and barley grow well here and
ripen. In no part of the world are better potatoes grown than in the Kootenay country.
Carrots and turnips do well with irrigation, but not without. Fruit growing has hardly started
here, but I am sure that apples, pears, plums, and cherries will do well. (See under head of
"Diseases and Pests.")
Colonel James Baker, Cranbrook.—Marsh land (500 acres) reclaimable. Wheat,
barley, rye, and oats grow to great perfection. This year's oats gave five tons to the acre, cut
as oat hay. Barley is, perhaps, the best crop, the grain being particularly good, but there is
no market at present. Hops grow remarkably well, but there is no market for want of a railway. Alsike clover does not do well here. Cowgrass clover grows very well. Timothy is
best for hay, mixed with cowgrass. Potatoes, carrots, turnips, and cabbages grow to great
perfection; Indian corn does not.     I believe apples, pears, plums, and cherries would do well.
Horses, three parts thoroughbred. Cattle, good Shorthorns. Shorthorns and Polled
Angus best suited to locality. Hay should be provided for cattle in case of a severe winter;
but horses run all the year round on the natural pastures, and even keep fat during the winter.
Mr. Robert W. Yuill, Nelson.—Nearly the whole of my 75 acres of marsh land is reclaimable. This is a pre-emption claim, situated about twelve miles east of Nelson, on the
west arm of Kootenay Lake, and on its north shore. The claim was recorded in the fall of
1889. All farming so far in this portion of the district has been experimental. Wheat and
oats appear to do well, and ripen early. The climate is well suited for the cultivation of grain.
Potatoes yield a good crop and are of excellent quality.
Mr. James L. McKay, Salmon Beds.—All the marsh land (30 acres) is reclaimable.
Timothy, clover, oats, wheat, barley, peas, potatoes, mangolds, carrots, and turnips, all do well.
One Standard bred filly, blood; one Percheron stallion, thoroughbred, and registered in the
stud book of America. Early spring frosts, 2nd April and 20th September. Blustery but
favourable season.
Mr. Orestes A. Brown.—The season has been a very favourable one for farming. Almost
rain enough to make irrigation unnecessary.    No frosts until the last of September.
DELTA.
There are about 185 farmers here. The land, being alluvial deposit from Fraser River,
is naturally very rich and produces wonderful crops. Large quantities of grain, principally
oats, are raised. Wheat, while producing largely, is not as good for grinding in roller mills
as the harder wheat which is grown in the drier climate of the interior, and this remark
applies equally to all parts of the Lower Fraser. Owing to the wet spring and dry, hot summer, the yield of grain was not up to the average, and the . early fall rains damaged and
destroyed a large quantity. Root crops did well, but some loss to potatoes, attributed to rot
through excessive damp, is reported. Hay gave a good crop and was well saved. The
trouble with grasses is the likelihood of lodging, owing to rank growth. Mr. C. F. Green
mentions having cut three tons to the acre. Fruit does well, but apples were badly affected
with blight and green aphis, and plums and cherries yielded very poorly. Durham cattle for
all purposes, and Berkshire pigs, are most approved of. A considerable quantity of butter
was produced and some honey. There are some extensive farmers at the Delta who raise
large quantities of produce, notably Mr. J. Kirkland, who had about 525 tons ; Mr. D. A.
McKee, about 200 tons; Mr. P. W. Patterson, 260 tons; Mr. H. D. Benson, 200 tons; Mr.
T. Curtis, 175 tons; Mr. J. Gilmore, 200 tons; Mr. Wm. Savage, 230 tons; and others
whose returns I have not got. About 50 per cent, of the land owned is, according to returns,
under cultivation. A considerable number of swine are reared and some sheep, the average
weight of fleece being six pounds. Replies and opinions of some of the farmers are given
below :— -EGISLATIVE ASSEMBL
BRITISH COL
55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 769
Wages.—Ordinary farm labour, $25 to 30 per month and board ; $1.50 per diem and
board.     Skilled, $2.50 per diem and board.    Foremen, $40 per month and board.
Mr. W. J. Gossett.—In irry humble opinion, barley is the safest crop; wheat perhaps
next. Oats are sometimes liable to failure on account of early rains, notably this year. Is
there a fall oat ? All roots, grasses and clovers do well. There are no diseases among my
stock that I am aware of. I have had a few poultry die ; I know not the cause. Caterpillars
have been very bad for three years, and some years green lice, but these are as nothing compared to the fungus pest, which is truly formidable. I have some large apple trees, but the
fruit is invariably and totally destroyed. Potato vines also, most years, but it attacks these
so late as not to affect the tubers so very much.
Mr. W. J. Burgess.—I have five acres naturally adapted to cranberries. Can you
inform me where I can obtain some cultivated sorts to experiment with ?
Mr. Thos. S. Godwin.—The grain best adapted to this locality is wheat, oats and barley.
Root crops of all kinds do well. Timothy, alsike and red clover also do well, but grow too
rank in some parts. Fruit I do not know much about, but apples and plums do remarkably
well.
Mr. John Kirkland.—All the following are suitable: Spring and fall wheat; oats—
Banner, Egyptian, and black Tartarian; barley—two and eight-eared; timothy and alsike
clover; all the ordinary fruits. I think Durham cattle best for all purposes. I have six
Durhams and three Herefords. Pests, common caterpillars. Wheat crop especially below
the average on account of cold rains in the spring, which was unusually backward; no frosts,
but a very wet harvest, which resulted in considerable quantities of grain being more or less
damaged.
Mr. S. L. Smith.—Most suitable grain—wheat, oats, barley, grass, timothy, rye grass,
orchard grass and redtop.    My cattle are cross with Shorthorn Durham.
Messrs. Taylor & Owen.—All cereals do well. Oats seem best adapted, if any choice.
Potatoes and carrots the best root crops. Plums and pears the best fruit. Timothy and red
the best grass and clover. Holstein and Durham cattle best suited. (See under head of
"Diseases and Pests.")
Mr. H. D. Benson.—Crops best suited, wheat, oats, and barley, all root crops and fruit,
timothy and alsike. I have seven head of pedigree Shorthorn Durhams; one pedigree Clydesdale stallion.    Pigs, all pure bred Berkshire pedigree stock.
Mr. Chas. F. Green.—All grains grow well on my land sown in the spring. Timothy
and alsike mixed do well. English mixture grasses give good crops. I have cut over three
tons to the acre from them. I breed from Jersey stock imported by myself, which I find do
well with me.
Mr. John McKee, Jr.—Timothy hay and oats are our staple product. All kinds of root
crops do exceedingly well, also apples, pears, plums, and small fruits.
Mr. David A. McKee.—Mine are all graded stock, half Holstein and half Durham, I
find best suited.
Mr. William Tasker.—Wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, and mangolds, all do well. Had
a wetter harvest than usual this year; grain somewhat discoloured, but dry. No frosts, and
a late spring.
Mr. William B. Skinner.—Barley, oats, and wheat do well, but the latter does not get
sufficiently hard for milling. Plums and pears do well, and apples for a few years, but they
are liable to blight and eventually die, especially if they are not well attended to. Most small
fruits do well, so do clovers and most grasses. Alsike is the best clover. I think the Durham
Shorthorn are the best and most profitable cattle, and Berkshire, I think, the most profitable
sort of pigs. Pests, green aphis on fruit trees. It was very wet in the spring and made it
late before crops could be put in, and then it came on dry and baked the ground where it was
not well drained, consequently the crops were light, and in the fall the rain came early and
damaged a good deal of grain.
Mr. James Gilmore.—Oats and hay and white Dutch clover the best.
Mr. P. W. Paterson.—Very wet in April, dry until September,  causing a slight crop.
A good deal of rain in harvest discolouring and damaging considerable of the late grain. Mr. Peter Matheson.—Spring wet and late; crops light; damaged with rain in
threshing.
Mr. Geo. Lasseter.—Late wet spring threw my work very much behind. Too much
rain all through the season; very uncertain harvest; difficult weather to save the late harvest
at all, and then in a damaged condition.
Mr. H. E. Falconer.—Weather damaged all crops to a great extent, except hay; very
wet, late spring and early fall.
Mr. Thomas Todd.—Spring wet and backward; no material damage by frost; fall wet
and considerable grain damaged.
Mr. J. HoneYxMan.—Weather, spring very wet and late, followed by very dry term, retarding the [growth, followed by late rains, producing a second growth, consequently late
harvest with considerable damaged grain.
Mr. Alex. McBlane.—Pedigree stock, one mare, Clydesdale; one bull, Shorthorn; two
boars, three sows, and seven pigs, Berkshire.
Mr. Edwin Cammidge.—Four Berkshire pigs, eligible for pedigree.
SURREY,   MUD   BAY,   ELGIN,   HALL'S   PRAIRIE,   CLOVER  VALLEY,   AND
CLAYTON.
There are about 305 farmers in these places. Grain gives large returns, as high as 50
and 60 bushels to the acre generally. The wet autumn interfered seriously with the harvest
in this part also. All fruits do well, and as there is a varied character of soils, open meadow
land, alder bottom, and pine ridges, every kind of fruit can be cultivated to advantage. A
good part of this district is newly taken up, and as there is a good deal of timber land it will
be a year or two before much will be done. The hop industry is being pushed, but in
consequence of the ravages of the aphis the returns were poor. There are no large dairies,
but a fair quantity of butter was produced which finds a ready sale at 25 cents to 30 cents.
Durhams are favourites here, some inclining to Jerseys and Holsteins for dairying. Honey
also is being produced in this part. From returns received only about ten per cent, of the
land owned is under cultivation. Following are the opinions and replies of farmers and report
of correspondent:—
Wages.—$25 to $35 per month and board, $1.25 to $1.50 per day and board, for ordinary
farm labour ; $45 to $50 and board for skilled labour.
Mr. Dan. Johnson, Mud Bay.—All my land is reclaimable by draining. Oats and barley
do the best, and with good cultivation never fail. Spring wheat is not so sure, but often does
well, as high as 50 to 60 bushels per acre. All kinds of fruit do well, but apples, pears, and
plums are the surest; peaches do well some years. All kinds of grasses do weh. My cattle
are Durham grades, and I think they are best adapted to the country.
Mr. W. McBride, Elgin.—Oats, barley, and timothy do well. Have planted twenty-two
kinds of roots and vegetables, all of which do exceedingly well. Shorthorn and Jersey cattle
are best suited.    I have two bulls and 1 cow pedigreed.
Mr. Wm. McMenemy, Glenwood, Hall's Prairie.—Of the 18 acres marsh at least 11
are reclaimable.
Mr. J. L. Walworth, Hall's Prairie.—This is a choice locality and, I think, well adapted
to all grain and fruit. There is also some choice hop land. I will try and get twenty acres
ready for hops next season. For want of roads we are unable to get threshing machines, so
have to make hay of all grain.    One Holstein bull.
Mr. R. M. Palmer, Agent for I. W. Powell, Hall's Prairie.—All the swamp land is
reclaimable .Best oats, Egyptian. Potatoes, Beauty of Hebron, Morning Star, and Burbanks
seedling. I consider Jerseys best for butter and grade Durhams for beef. All my cattle are
pure bred Jersey. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 771
Mr. Henry T. Thrift, Hall's Prairie.—My land is of excellent quality; some of it needs
considerable main strength and awkwardness to make it available for the plough ; would like to
subdivide some of it and get some good neighbourly neighbours on some of it. Fall and spring
wheat, oats, peas, and barley all do well here ; also all kinds of roots so far as I have experimented with them. I have raised potatoes weighing 4| pounds, and as sound as a bell.
Cabbage and cauliflower, &c, do well, and I think I have never seen better hops in England
than I have raised here. My fruit trees are just commencing to bear ; of apples for the past
two seasons the Wealthy has given the best results. I have no pedigree stock, the old
fashioned breed that will rustle for themselves have done well until recently, but now that the
lands are being settled, fenced, and improved a better animal will give better returns.
Mr. W. B. Wilder, Hall's Prairie.—All grains and root crops are suitable.
Mr. James Harding, Glenwood.—All my swamp or marsh land is reclaimable (10 acres).
Mr. John Armstrong, Clover Valley.—Swamp lands are reclaimable. x\U kinds of
grain do well if properly cultivated.    I have one pedigree Shorthorn bull, two years old.
Mr. Jas. Pickard, Clover Valley.—I have two Norman mares, and my pigs are Berkshire and Poland China.    I find them best suited.
Mr. J. E. Murphy, Surrey.—From my limited experience I find all roots and fruits do
well.    I could not make use of the few hops I had on account of lice.
Mr. John Ellis, Surrey.—My stock is not pedigreed, but well bred Durham, and I
think them excellent for this part.
Mr. William Preston, Surrey Centre.—None of our stock is pedigreed. The Durhams
and Jerseys are best suited to this locality. It has been a very wet season. There was frost
early in the spring which affected the crops on the low lands.
Mr. James H. Perkins, Surrey.—As this is my first year I can only give my experience
for the past season. The land grows anything : nothing has failed. I had a heavy crop of
tomatoes ; corn seemed late in ripening. I do not think it is adapted for this soil and climate.
Potatoes, " Early Rose," gave a fine crop, not one bad root. Blue jays gave much trouble ;
they are very numerous ; they dig up the potatoes and carry the small ones off, leaving the
larger exposed.
Mr. E. T. Wade, Surrey.—The following do well: Wheat and oats, timothy and medium
red clover. All kinds of fruits, but I find apple trees more liable to disease than any other.
Potatoes and carrots.    My cattle are Durham grades.
Mr. Geo. Wallace, Brownsville.—Oats and barley have done well. All my pigs are
black Berkshire.
Mr. Geo. Henry Cobb, Surrey.—Haven't tried any grain, but oats and peas, which do
well.    Hops from those I see growing wild would do splendid.
Mr. John Wm. Stein, Surrey.—Jerseys and Shorthorns are best suited.
Mr. Geo. Boothroyd, Surrey.—Land all reclaimable. Surrey generally is a very
favourable locality, having a large amount of alder bottom, and a sort of marsh land along the
river bottoms which, with a good amount of high land, make it suitable for all kinds of
grasses, clovers, and grain; roots and vegetables producing well on the low lands ; fruit does
well on the high lands. There is not much rocky nor waste land of any kind. The high
land not under cultivation is mostly timbered, some of it very heavily. My stock is graded
and Durham; they do well both for milk and beef.
Mr. Jas. W. McCallum, Clayton.—Land all reclaimable as soon as the Serpentine
River is cleaned of snags and brush.    Oats and barley, white clover, and redtop grass do well.
Mr. John L. Morton, Clayton.—Land all reclaimable by ditching, but no law at present
to give me an outlet. All the grains, grasses, fruits, and roots that are early enough do well
here, but late grains get caught by the fall rains. Cattle, mostly Durham, but breeds with a
greater predisposition to butter would be better for this part. The borer, tent caterpillar, and
leaf louse are the worst pests, and affect apple trees principally. Blight is bad with pears
and the Russian varieties of apples. Mr. Jas. Punch, Brownsville.—Wet spring; dry summer.
Mr. Alex. Jas. Gordon.—Wet weather on 1st May, 1st June, and on 1st September,
and continued ever since. The wet weather during the first weeks of May and June was
very injurious, and the September rains destroyed much of the crops.
Mr. Geo. W. Cann.—Crops were good. The spring was late and wet. No frost to
affect crops.
Edmund T. Wade, Correspondent, Surrey Centre.
1. Wheat (Spring).—1 ton, about $35 per ton.
Barley, 1        „ 30      „
Oats, | to 1 ton, from $25 to $35 per ton.
Peas, about 2 tons.
2. Hay.—2 tons, $12 per ton.
3. Potatoes.—Poor year; $17 to $20 per ton.
Carrots.—16 tons.
Turnips. —20    „      Grown for feed.
4. Apples.—2 cents per pound ; sometimes \ more.
Pears.—2-t cents to 2J cents per pound.
Cherries.—8 ,, 10    ,, ,,
Red Currants.—5 cents per pound.
Black      ,, 6 to 7 ,,
Raspberries.—9 cents ,,
4a. Soils for fruits.—Low lands seem to suit plums, pears, and black currants best.
Cherries, a decidedly gravelly ridge. Apples, a light loam, inclined to gravel. I
have noticed in orchards well cultivated and growing vegetables the trees are
healthier and the yield better than in orchards seeded to grass.
4b. Names of suitable fruits.—Apples, Northern Spy, Gravenstein, Red Astrachan, and
Baldwin.
Pears.—Bartlett.
4c. Half hardy and tender fruits.—Peaches do well, melons fairly ; tomatoes, if started
early, do well; apricots, nectarines, and grapes are almost unknown in this
district.
6. Dairy.—A good many people are engaged in this branch;  not many large dairies, the
largest not exceeding 15 to 18 cows. A fair amount of butter is made, but with
one or two exceptions only during the summer months. Price averages 25 cents
per pound. No cheese made in the district. The results would be better, I feel
sure, if cattle were better cared for, both as regards stabling and feed.
7. Bees.—Two or three persons have gone into this business with good results.    One
especially, rather extensively, he having about 50 hives with every convenience;
he informs me with very good results, pays him well.
8. Flax.—No.    Only two or three very small patches grown.
9. Poultry.—This branch is carried on in a very desultory fashion, and with very little
system in either feeding or breeding, and, as a rule, the poultry houses are little
better than open sheds seldom cleaned.
10. Wool.—The district is well adapted for sheep raising.    Farmers are only beginning to
take an interest in this branch.    The results so far have been very satisfactory.
11. Live Stock.—The farmers in this district are improving their stock as much as possible.
Draught horses are most in demand. In cattle, a few have gone in for Jerseys, but
the majority seem to incline strongly to the Durham. A few Polled Angus have
been introduced this last year. Berkshire pigs are considered the best in every
respect in this neighbourhood. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 773
12. Weather.—The weather was very unfavourable for harvesting, a very large quantity
of grain being damaged by the continued wet, and in some instances a quantity
left on the land. The weather in the spring was also wet and caused great delay
in seeding.    Three or four late frosts last spring injured the fruit buds.
14. Labour.—White  labour  is somewhat scarce.     Chinese  abundant.     Chinese mostly
employed in ditching and  clearing light  brush   lands—mostly  contract  work.
White labour, $20 to $25 in winter; $30 to $40 in summer per month and board.
15. Ensilage.—Only in one instance, and that a failure.    The fault lay in the construction
of silo and the condition of the fodder when put in.
16. Fall Ploughing.—None at all this fall as far as I know on the low lands.    A little has
been done on the high lands, but very little.    Too much rain and very high tides
have made ploughing impossible.
ALDERGROVE, SHORTREED, LANGLEY, LANGLEY PRAIRIE, AND PORT
KELLS.
There are about five hundred and ten settlers hereabouts. The character of the country
is very similar to that of Surrey, with about the same advantages. The farmers generally go
in more for root crops and fruits than cereals, and also for dairying. Hop growing is also
prosecuted, and the crop injured, as at surrey, by the aphis. The same result was experienced
from the wet as in other adjacent parts, and crops suffered correspondingly. Mr. J. L. Broe
has 4 acres of small fruits, and is manufacturing a good article of wine. A considerable number of pigs are reared. The land under cultivation, by returns received, only amounts to
about 8 per cent, of the total quantity owned. The following are the replies and opinions of
farmers :—
Wages.—Ordinary farm, from $25 to $30 and board; $1.50 per day and board. Other,
$40 per month and board; $2 to $2.50 per diem and board.
Mr. S. V. Hoff, Shortreed.—Clover and other grasses and fruits do splendid.
Mr. James Burnett, Shortreed.—Land all reclaimable by ditching; good outlet for
ditches. Our swamp land is the best for oats, and, I think, for barley, potatoes, and turnips.
Hops are grown on the same kind of land in Washington State. Good for timothy when well
drained.    No good for clovers ; high lands best suited to clover.
Mr. A. G. Broe, Shortreed.—The only pest we have is the hop louse. I am now
spraying in order to keep them in check, and, if desired, I shall send you a specimen of the
louse; also the amount of damage done this year. Spring was very late, wet, and cold, a bad
season for hops.    My small fruit was injured last spring by frost.
Mr. W. S. Hoff and Mr. Wm. H. Vanetta, Aldergrove.—Wheat, oats, peas, and
barley, timothy, red clover, and alsike are all suited to this part.
Mr. Richard Robb, Aldergrove.—Grain of all varieties, except corn, does well. The
settlement is too young to say much about other things.
Mr. J. L. Wilson, Aldergrove.—White Belgian carrots, timothy, and red clover well
suited.
Mr. Cornelius McKay, Langley Prairie.—Timothy and red clover do well in the
upland.    Potatoes, oats, and wheat fair.    Have not worked any of the marsh yet.
Mr. Malcolm McDonald, Langley.—Well suited for oats, peas, wheat, and all kinds
of roots; extra good for potatoes. My stock is not pedigreed; good graded cattle suit this
locality best.
Mr. John L. Broe, Shortreed.—Hop lice have put in their appearance this season,
but they have not damaged my crop as yet. I make wine of my small fruits, and if a good
market could be opened up for it, I think it will be one of the best paying industries. I
should be very thankful if you could help me to get the best market for my wine, as I am
trying hard to introduce the wine industry. I have four acres planted in black currants and
black raspberries, and I am now preparing to plant one acre more of black raspberries.    Both 774 Report on Agriculture. 1891
the black currants and black raspberries make a fine quality of wine. I got first prize for my
wine at the Exposition at Westminster, B.C., in 1890. This last fall I had some black currant
wine there, but was overlooked by the judges, and got no prize on that account. I have taken
much pains in cultivation of small fruits, and find that they are a success. If I can find a
good market for those wines, I intend to increase my small fruit orchard, and several of my
neighbours will do the same. If I succeed, and I think I will in a few years, it will be of
great interest to British Columbia. I hope you can give me the address of some one in that
line of business, either in British Columbia, Canada, or England.
Mr. Geo. Rawlison, Langley.—My eighty-five acres of pasture overflows with summer-
freshet, but can easily be reclaimed. Apples, plums, cherries, and pears do well. One peach
bore very heavily last year; none on it this year. Never experimented much with grain.
Yellow globe mangolds do well with me on high land. I find that the cattle best suited are
half-bred Jersey, Shorthorn, Ayreshire, Holstein, or any with good milking dams. Cows give
from one to two and a quarter gallons at a milking at their best.
Mr. A. H. Byram, Langley.—Best suited to this locality: wheat, oats, and barley, all
kinds of root crops, fruits, and grasses.
Mr. Ernest Graw, Langley.—Oats, barley, peas, turnips, potatoes, mixed grasses, and
clover are all suited to this locality.
Mr. John Jolly, Langley.—The weather was rather dry from the latter part of May
until middle of July. September was too wet for late crops, consequently there was a great
deal injured.
Mr. Alex. Holding, Langley.—Weather always too wet here ; did not do much injury
to crops, except to make ground too wet when sowing turnips, and, as a consequence, they
missed coming largely. Fortunately got in my hay and grain between showers. Frosts during
fruit bloom caused a failure of cherries and plums, and partly of pears.
MOUNT LEHMAN.
There are about one hundred and five farmers hereabouts. The character of the land is
mostly heavily timbered, and as most of the settlers have newly come, there is not a great deal
in the way of production as yet. All the usual crops do well. Hay and root crops are the
principal products, and some butter. The orchards being mostly young, only a limited quantity
of fruit is raised. About eight per cent, of the land owned is cultivated. This is from
returns received. Following are the replies and opinions of farmers, and report of correspondent :—
Wages.—Ordinary farm labour, $1.50 to $2 per day and board.
Mr. Wm. P. McCormick.—Spring wheat, oats, and peas grow well; also red, white, and
alsike clover.
Mr. Moses Graff.—Oats and peas grow best of grain crops, potatoes and carrots of
roots, timothy and red clover of grasses,
Mr. E. W. King.—I find fall wheat and oats to do well in this locality. Potatoes,
carrots, and turnips are a good root crop. Apples do well; so do currants and gooseberries.
The common red clover is the best suited for this land, in my opinion.
Mr. Jas. H. Lee.—All kinds of grain, roots and fruit will do well if properly cultivated.
Mr. J. A. Morrison.—I have one pedigree stallion, a Percheron.
Mr. John Hennah.—Holstein cattle seem to be taking the lead here.
Mr. W. M. Hayden.—As this is my first year, I will be better able to give you information later on. I think this is the best part of B. C, and is the best adapted for grasses and
root crops of all kinds.
Mr. G. A. Sully.—Durham cattle are the best for browsing in the bush, of which there
is most here. No diseases nor blights on beast or plant. When the land is well tilled, there
is no failure of crops.
Mr. H. R. Phillips.—Dry all through haying and harvest; one frost about beginning
of November.
Mr. Robert Coghlan.—Late spring. Had good crops ; weather good for them ; a very
wet fall, and for those with late grain crops it was a wet harvest. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 775
Mr. E. J. Thomson, Correspondent, Mount Lehman.
4c.  Half-hardy and tender fruits.—These fruits have not succeeded very well, as the
nights are too cool.
6. Dairy.—Price of butter, 25 cents per pound.
7. Bees.—No.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—No.
10.  Wool.—It is adapted for sheep raising, but is not entered into.
12. Weather.—Very showery; frosts late.
14. Labour.—Plenty of white labour; $2 per day clearing land.
15. Ensilage.—No.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Very little.
Remarks.—This is a new settlement on timber land, and is rather hard to clear for those
without money. You will see that the produce raised is very small according to the area of
land covered.
RIVERSIDE, MATSQUI, AND UPPER SUMAS.
About one hundred and forty farmers are in these places. The principal products are
hay and root crops, of which a large quantity was raised. Very little grain is cultivated,
except oats and some peas. Late grain was injured here as elsewhere by the early fall rains.
A large number of fruit trees are planted, but many being young, not a large return of fruit
was made. Dairying is entered into quite extensively, and a fair quantity of butter was made.
Holstein cattle are favoured here for dairy purposes. A fair number of sheep are reared, the
fleeces averaging over six pounds. Swine and turkey rearing are also entered into to a considerable extent. According to returns about 14 per cent, of the land owned is under cultivation.    Below are the replies and opinions of some of the farmers:—
Wages.—Ordinary farm labour $25 to $30 per month and board, $1.50 per day and
board; mechanics $60 per month.
Mr. Thos. G. Gregson, Riverside.—Shorthorn cattle most suitable. We have had very
good weather.    We have had no frosts, very good spring.
Mr. C. J. Sim, Riverside.—All my land is reclaimable, drains only wanted. All grains
and maize do well; all the common root crops also. All grasses adapted to a heavy soil do
well. Soil is clay loam, being alluvial deposit from Fraser River. My sheep (half Southdown)
do well. Beef cattle do well. Rather backward spring. Summer, average (90° in the shade,
highest). Autumn fine; good harvest for those who sowed early; afterwards very wet. No
frost to date (2nd December) to damage; three days about middle of the month 3° of frost;
raining now.    Much grain not harvested in time has suffered from wet.
Mr. John Moriarty, Matsqui.—Very suitable for potatoes, mangolds, carrots, turnips,
and all vegetables.    All kinds of grasses and clovers in the upland.
Mr. Hubert F. Page, Matsqui.—All kinds of roots and fruits (except tropical), timothy
and reel clover, latter most profitable. Have fifteen head of pure-bred Holsteins, which I
think best adapted for dairying and mixed farming, for which the valley of the Fraser is only
inteirded. Have also three Percheron mares, imported from France, two Percheron stallions,
one filly, and one colt, which I think the best farm horses.
Mr. Wm. Fadden, Upper Sumas.—Nearly all kinds of grain, roots, and grasses grow well
here, as the climate and soil seem all that is necessary for all the general kinds of crops; all
special kinds that have been tried have done well. I have no pedigree stock. A mixture of
Holstein, Shorthorn, Durham, and long Durham seems the best adapted. 776 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. A. C. Bowman, Upper Sumas.—Only prairie grass can be raised, all my land being
subject to overflow.    Raining the latter part of the haying season.
Mr. John Musslewiiite, Upper Sumas.—Well adapted for barley, oats, and timothy.
I find that Rhode Island Greening and English Russets for apples, and Bartlett pears are
most suitable.
Mr. Eugene Fadden, Upper Sumas.—All this section is fine agricultural land, but subjected to overflow from the backwater of the Fraser in June, it therefore can only be used for
hay and pasture. It will be the garden spot of British Columbia when dyked, aird which I
hope the Government will see fit to take in hand soon, if individuals do not. My cattle are
crossed Durham and Holstein.    This country is, I think, adapted to any fine breeds of stock.
Mr. S. G. Chapman, Upper Sumas.—Suited for all kinds of grain, hops, roots, apples,
pears, plums, peaches, and all small fruits.
Mr. M. G. Fadden.—Wet season; rather early frost but not to do any damage. Late
spring.
Mr. Wm. H. Fadden, Upper Sumas.—Very wet weather. My crops did not suffer, as
being small I got them up in good season. No frosts until 1st November. Late spring, cold
and rain.    August and September very fair weather for harvesting.
CHILLIWHACK, LOWER SUMAS, POPCUM, AND HOPE.
There are about two hundred and ninety-five farmers in these places, principally in
Chilliwhack itself. Chilliwhack is probably one of the most thriving agricultural districts in
the Province, and, although the rain fell in torrents during the most of my short stay, I was
enabled, through the courtesy of Mr. Webb, to see much to confirm this opinion, and some of
the principal places of interest. We visited Mr. Wells, who has a butter and cheese factory,
and where I also saw his silo, the first, I believe, in the Province. Mr. Wells took us up into
the silo, and showed us some of the silage, which was made of green corn, but he expressed
the fear that he had cut it too soon. He promised to write rue a report on ensilage, and also
on dairying, but I am sorry to say that his returns have not reached me. I regret this, as the
experience of practical men is always of value. It will be noted that Mr. Webb, in his Correspondent's Report, says that ensilage was not a success; the corn was not far enough grown.
I also visited Mr. J. S. Smith, who has quite an extensive apiary, and who has been very
successful in his undertaking. He gets a perfectly colourless honey from the white clover, and
a deep yellow honey from the Golden Rod, both of the best quality. I imagine the non-
success of others in different parts of the Province is due to the want of a proper knowledge
of the business. Mr. Smith put up 6,800 pounds of honey from 84 hives. This branch is
being taken up by others, and will probably form one of the principal industries of Chilliwhack
in the near future. This is also the largest butter producing district, and the only one that
produces cheese, Mr. Wells alone turning out a large quantity of both products, and of a very
superior quality. The fruit cannery of "The Fraser Valley Canning Co." is well worthy of a
visit, and is very perfect in its details (see Mr. Melhuish's letter). This will undoubtedly
prove a great boon to this part of the country, as it furnishes an outlet for all the surplus
fruit. Fruit, it is almost needless to say, is largely cultivated, numbers of people having
orchards of from 200 to 600 trees. Messrs. Bent & DeWolf have over 2,000, many of them
young trees, however. As in other parts of the lower country, the yield of plums was very
poor, while many of the apples were blighted. Cereals do well, of which there was a large
acreage, principally oats. Large quantities of hay and root crops, both of very superior
quality, are raised. Opinion is much divided on the relative merits of the Jersey, Holstein,
and Ayrshire breeds of cattle for dairying, Holsteins being, perhaps, the favourites. Not
many sheep are raised, the fleeces averagirrg, according to returns, between 5 and 6 pounds.
The percentage of land under cultivation is, according to returns, a good deal larger than in
the adjoining districts, viz.: 25 per cent., or thereabouts. The replies and opinions of farmers
and report of correspondent are appended :—
Wages.—Ordinary farm labour, $25 to $30 per month and board; $1.50 to $1.75 per
day and board.    Chinese, $20 per month, 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 777
" Chilliwhack, B. C.
"J. R. Anderson, Esq.,
" Victoria.
" Dear Sir,—I would say last year was a very poor one for fruit in this valley, and, as
it was our initial year, the pack was only small, and might be called a sample one. With our
appliances, we could comfortably put up three or four hundred thousand cans in a season.
We did not get anything like the quantity of fruit we could have used. There are too nrany
inferior plums and scrub apples grown in the valley. Farmers should pay more attention to
finer fruits ; peaches would grow well if properly cared for ; soil and climate is well adapted to
raise them. I also think apricots would do well. It could be made a magnificent pear district;
the Bartlett thrives well, but the supply of pears is almost nil. The Greengage and Egg plum
grow to a large size, and have a very choice flavour, but they are limited in supply. Cultivation of small fruit has also been much neglected.
"Yours truly,
"Fraser Valley Fruit Cannery,
"G.  Melhuish."
Messrs. J. H. Bent and W. H. DeWolf, Chilliwhack.—Apples, pears, and plums
in fruit do well; potatoes in root crops. One Durham heifer. Weather too dry ; no frosts ;
rather late spring; fall rains set in earlier than usual. A disease in the branches of apple
trees girdles them and causes them to die.    (See under head of " Diseases and Pests."—J.R.A.)
Mr. W. H. Bayley, Chilliwhack.—All grain and root crops and fruit do well. In
apples, would recommerrd the Gravenstein and Wealthy as summer varieties, the Baldwin,
Rhode Island Greening, and Golden Russet as among the most profitable varieties.
Mr. Thos. E. Kitchen, Chilliwhack.—Peas and wheat, red, white, alsike, and alfalfa
clovers all do well. I have one pedigree Jersey bull. Durham, Jersey, and Holstein cattle
are the most suitable.
Mr. Robert W. Prowse, Chilliwhack.—Timothy and all kinds of roots do well. Land
rather too clamp for grain, but occasionally it does well. We breed our cows to thoroughbred
Holstein, Jersey, and milk-strain Durham.
Mr. Geo. Good, Chilliwhack.—Wheat, oats, and barley; mangolds, beets, and carrots;
timothy ; red and alsike clover all do well. The weather has been very wet this fall; no frost
to hurt; had no trouble to save crops.
Mr. John Gibson, Chilliwhack.—Red clover and alsike do well here.
Mr. Geo. R. Ashwell, Chilliwhack.—In my experience of twenty years, we have been
very free of insect pests; some years wheat and oats are subject to smut. For the past two
years the Canadian thistle has made its appearance, and, in some sections, wild mustard.
Pretty free from diseases amongst cattle. During the last eighteen months, cholera has been
amongst swine.
Mr. Thos. Coulbeck, Chilliwhack —I may state that all ordinary crops do well in
this locality. My cows are all in calf this year by a shorthorn Durham bull with pedigree,
imported from Ontario, the property of W. Cawley, Esq.
Mr. Joseph Peers, Chilliwhack.—Oats and all kinds of roots, timothy, and clover do
well on my place.    Graded stock best adapted.
Mr. A. C. Wells, Chilliwhack.—All grains, timothy and clover, turnips, potatoes,
and mangolds do well. I have a pedigree Holstein-Fresian bull and a Clydesdale stallion. In
cattle, milking breeds are the most profitable,
Mr. Geo. Banford, Chilliwhack.—The following do best: Oats, American Banner;
Turnips, elephant Swede; Carrots, white Belgian; Clover, large red; Grasses, timothy. I
have one Durham bull and one cow; I think they are the hardiest and best all round stock.
Mr. D. J. Gillanders, Chilliwhack.—Scotch Fife is the best spring wheat, and the
American Banner oats take the lead. The large white pea is a general favourite. Timothy
and alsike are the leading grasses.
Mr. Geo. W. Chittenden, CurLLiwHACK.—Oats, peas, and barley do best with me, and
timothy and red clover. 778 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mrs. Jane Evans, Chilliwhack.—My swamp land (50 acres) is reclaimable. All fruit
seems to do well with me, except peaches. I have one pedigree Holstein bull. All breeds of
cattle do well.
Mr. N. R. Hopkins, Chilliwhack.—Peas, oats, and wheat; mangolds, carrots, and
potatoes; apples, peaches, grapes, and small fruits all do well.
Mr. Horatio Webb, Chilliwhack.—All spring grains do well in this locality, yielding
better than fall sown crops. Roots of all kinds do extra well, as do all common grasses. Our
land seems adapted to anything you wish to sow. I have grafts of cherries and apples of this
year's grafting that have matured their fruit, besides making a growth of five feet. Blackberry and raspberry canes are eleven to twelve feet high, and I have one blackberry cane two
and a half to three inches through. It is flat, and quite a curiosity. I am breeding to
Holstein, but am not satisfied. Before I used a Holstein, I bred to Ayrshire bull, and prefer
it to Holstein, as do most of my neighbours.
Mr. Cory S. Ryder, Chilliwhack.—All the ordinary grains do well. I like my Russet
and Baldwin apples out of a number of varieties; those, with the Snow, are the most prolific,
and the trees very hardy. My bull is a full-bred Holstein, by Mr. Page's pedigreed bull
" Riverside." There is a disease amongst our hogs through this part which has taken away
hundreds of pigs. In the first stage, the pig becomes stupid, and shortly begins to reel in his
hind part when walking. Small pigs turn blind, and when they die the eyes rot out. It is
important that we should find some cure for this plague.
Mr. W. A.  Starrett, Hope.—All kinds of roots, and timothy and clover do well.
Mr. Henry Kipp, Chilliwhack.—Very good spring and No. 1 hay harvest weather,
but I believe there has more rain fallen this month than any other November since I came to
the country in 1864.    Notwithstanding all this, stock look well.
Mr. Wm. Chadsey, Sumas.—All my land is easily ditched. Oats do well; I have ten
acres of Banner oats that yielded this year over 90 bushels per acre. Wheat will yield 30
bushels per acre.    Potatoes and all root crops do well; also all fruits.
Mr. Geo. W. Chadsey, Sumas.—All kinds of grain do well, including corn. Timothy
does remarkably well; no trouble to raise four tons of hay per acre. Red and alsike clover
are the best suited for this locality; the small white clover is natural to the soil, and is good
for pasturage. I have a few pedigree Holstein-Fresian cattle, which are the best for profit.
I have one cow imported from North Holland which cost me $375. Splendid weather for hay
harvest and early grain ; the late grain suffered from rain. No frost until November; during
a residence of twenty-five years, I have never seen a frost to do the least harm to any kind of
crops.    Our summers are the farmer's paradise.
Mr. D. McGillivray, Sumas ■—I do not know of any grain, root crop, or fruit but what
will do well under favourable cultivation. I have a young Durham bull, imported from
Ontario this spring, sired from what is claimed to be the best bull on the continent. I have
also a pedigree cow for general purpose cattle. I consider grade Durhams the best suited.
There has been a disease amongst hogs for the last six or eight years, causing many to die ; no
remedy has been discovered as yet as a cure or to prevent its spreadirrg. The rain affected
my late crops. An unusually late spring caused some of the crops to be seeded late, an early
fall  rain  caught them,   and they were almost a total failure.    The harvest for hay and early
crops was very good.
Mr. Horatio Webb, Correspondent, Chilliwhack.
Wheat (fall),      25 bushels; 1-J cents per fir.
Wheat (spring), 30        ,, 1J ,,
Barley, 50        „ 11
Oats, 60        „ l| ,,
Rye, None grown.
Peas, 40 bushels;  \\ „
Indian Corn.—Very little grown; climate too wet to ripen.    Good green corn does
well, and grows very large; last year some corn was grown that measured over 16
feet in height. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 779
2. Hay.—2| to 3 tons; $10 per ton.
Hops.—None grown, but one party has about eight acres planted last year, and intends
to plant as much more this year.    The louse troubled some last year for first time.
3. Potatoes.— 5 tons; $12 per ton in fall; $20 in spring.
Mangolds, 30    „ 7
Carrots,     25    ,, 8       ,,
Turnips,     40    ,, 5       ,,
Other Roots.—No other roots grown in any quantities.
Democrat fall wheat, Red Fife spring wheat, Banner and Egyptian oats, rough barley
yield best; Chevalier barley not much grown. Mummy peas and the common
grey pea; timothy grass, common red clover, alsike, and white Dutch clover;
Early Rose potato, Chili, and Burbank seedling are mostly grown.
4. Apples, 1£ cents per Bb., boxed,
x ears,                         o ,, ,,
Plums and Prunes, 3 to 5    „ ,,
Cherries,                    5 to 7    ,,                 ,,
Peaches,                     5 to 10 ,, ,,
Has the crop been good or bad ?—Plums, a light crop; cherries, very good ; apples, a
fair crop.
Was the fruit of good quality ?—Generally good  where  the  kind  is  good     A great
deal of inferior fruit has been sold by the worthless tree agents in years gone by,
so that makes a lot of very poor fruit, but people are grafting, so, in a few years,
it will be remedied.
4a. Soil, and cultivation of fruits.—A young orchard should be well cultivated for the
first six or eight years after planting ; a root crop is the best. Timothy and grain
are very injurious to young trees.
4b. Names of fruits best adapted.—Apples : early, Astrachan ; fall, Gravenstein ; winter,
Golden Russet, Northern Spy, Baldwin, and King. Pears: Bartlett, Buerre
d'Anjou, Seckel, Winter Nelis, and Kieffer. Plums : Peach, Royal George, Brad-
shaw, Greengage, Coe's Golden Drop, and Egg Plum all do well. Cherries : Royal
Anrr, Windsor, May Duke, and Oxheart.
4c. Half-hardy and tender fruits.—Peaches do well; also grapes, melons, and tomatoes
do well some seasons, but not always. Apricots not much grown, but I think will
do very well.    I do not know of nectarines being tried.
6. Dairy.—Dairying is followed extensively; most of the milk is made into butter; only
one cheese factory. I think a creamery and cheese factory are very much needed,
and would pay well. Butter, average, 25 to 28 cents per pound; cheese, 12A to
15 cents.     The dairy industry is generally satisfactory.
7. Bees.—Are coming in great favour the last year, and I think are very profitable.    I
think, this coming summer, there will be 300 or 400 hives in the district. Three
or four persons are making almost a business of bees now.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—Only one party is engaged on a large scale, but he is now turning his atten
tion to bees. Poultry raising is a very profitable industry, and much neglected.
I think, this coming year, more attention will be paid to it.
10. Wool.—Yes, on a small scale.    At present, farmers keep a few for their own use.
The market is very poor for wool; it scarcely pays for shearing. Wool turns out
well.
11. Live Stock.—Farmers, of late, have appreciated improved breeds of stock.    Percheron,
Clydesdale, and Suffolk Punch are all sought after; also good carriage stallions.
Shorthorn cattle for beef and milk, Ayrshire for butter. Holsteins are not giving
good satisfaction; they may do well for the cheese factory, but they are hard to
keep in good order, and not much cream on their milk. At the Fair in New
Westminster, in a test for butter, the Jersey came out ahead, grade Ayrshire next, 780 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Holstein last, yet the Holstein gave considerably more milk than the Jersey and
Ayrshire combined. Downs are the best sheep, being the best mutton. Berkshire, Poland China, and Chester Whites are the favourites among the pigs.
Brown Leghorn and Plymouth Rock are the best fowls.
12. Weather.—We had fine harvest weather up to middle of September; after that, very
bad. A great deal of late grain was damaged. No frosts. I think the frost in
the spring was the cause of the plum crop being light.
13. Diseases and Pests.—A disease anrong pigs for the last eighteen months has done great
damage to pig raising (see " Diseases and Pests."—J.R.A). Canadian thistles have
got started in our settlement; also burdo'cks and mustard are getting pretty thick
around. Fruits have not suffered from any pests ; the blight on potatoes was not
so bad this year as commonly.    We have had no disease among cattle or horses.
14. Labour.—Farm labour: the supply is equal to the demand; wages, $300 per year—
$30 per month in summer, $20 in winter, including board; $1 to $1.50 per day
and board—all white labour. Indians have quit working on farms ; some of them
are farming quite a bit themselves.
15. Ensilage.—Is tried this year for the first time, I do not think very satisfactorily ; com
not far enough grown. I think it will be some time before ensilage will be a
success here.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Not much ploughing done; season very wet this fall.
AGASSIZ AND HARRISON LAKE.
There are about sixty farmers in this vicinity. The Dominion Experimental Farm is
situated at Agassiz, and is doing good work in the way of experiments. It is well worthy of
a visit, and, young as it is, will furnish useful lessons to the tiller of the soil, Mr. Sharpe, the
superintendent, being always willing to impart information. This also is a good fruit-growing
section, and Mr. Agassiz, who has a fine place, sends large quantities of fruit all along the line
as far as the North-West. Here, again, the plum crop was very poor, and so was the pear
crop; cherries were good and apples fair, but in some cases badly blighted. Hay and root
crops are more generally cultivated than grain ; and herein the wisdom of the farmers is displayed, inasmuch as the lower country is climatically far better adapted for the cultivation of
the former and for fruit and dairying, whilst the upper country is, without fear of contradiction, superior for cereals. Nevertheless large crops of grain are obtained, and last year were
tolerably well saved. The rot, however, got into the potatoes in some cases. Although well
adapted for dairying, it is an industry that is much neglected here. According to returns,
about sixteen per cent, of the land owned is under cultivation. Following are the replies and
opinions of farmers and report of correspondent:—
Wages.—$20 fo $30 and board per month, $1.50 and board per day, or $2 per day
without board, ordinary farm labour; $1.25 to $1.30 per day, Chinese.
Mr. L. A. Agassiz.—All kinds of grain do well; timothy for hay. Dry harvest and
haying; very wet fall; twelve inches of rain this month (November).
Mr. E. E. Greyell.—About 60 acres of marsh is reclaimable, and there is about 50
acres of rock land that is almost useless. All grain does well. Common red clover on the
high land, timothy and alsike on the low.    I prefer Holstein cattle for general purposes.
Mr. W. Walker.—Durhams or any good breed suit well.
Mr. F. Passingham.—I have no swamp or rock; it is all brush and timber, viz., cedar,
alder, birch, maple, vine maple, and hazel, with crab-apple in places and a strong undergrowth
.of salmon and thimble berries. Soil, rich, black, sandy loam, about eighteen inches, with clay
bottom. The best crops are potatoes, Chicago Market and Dakota Red, which are not liable
to rot. Spring wheat, American Banner oats, beans, and all the ordinary vegetables. Late
and wet spring; very dry summer, badly in want of rain in June or July. Frost one morning
early part of June blighted beans. Early potatoes rotted badly, blighted, not half a crop.
Almost continual rain, with the exception of about ten days, since the middle of September. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 781
Mr. John R. Brown, Harrison Lake.—Fruit is well adapted to our locality, plums,
cherries, peaches and pears beirrg, I think, the best.    Strawberries always successful.
Messrs. Armstrong & Brown, Harrison Lake.—Crops not affected by weather. No
frosts; early spring; very rainy fall.
Mr. L. A. Agassiz, Correspondent, Agassiz.
1. Spring Wheat.—20 to 30 bushels, 13,- to 2 cents per lb.
Barley, 40 „ 50      „        1    „  1|
Oats, 31  „ 60      „        lj „  if
Peas, 20 „  35      „ 1^ „   l|
2. Hay.—1 to 3 tons, $10 to $12 per ton.
3. Potatoes.—About 400 bushels per acre; $10 to $12 per ton.
4. Apples.—$1 @ 1.25 per box, 45 lbs
Pears. —Very poor this year; $1.50 @ $2 per box, 50 lbs.
Plums and Prunes.—Very poor this year; 3 and 5 cents per lb.
Cherries.—Good ; 5 cents per lb.
Peaches.—Good, but few planted; 10 cents per ft.
Was the fruit of good quality?—Some varieties of apples were badly blighted.
4b. Names  of  fruits  best   suited.—Apples—Baldwin,   Gravenstein,    Red   Astrachan,
Ribston Pippin.
4c.  Half-hardy  and  tender fruits.—Peaches  on  a  small  scale,   very  well; grapes and
tomatoes on a small scale.
6. Dairy.—Limited by price of labour.
7. Bees.—Not very satisfactory.
8. Flax.—None.
9. Poultry.—They do very well, but no one has tried them extensively.
10. Wool.—There are a few sheep in this neighbourhood and the wool is good, but present
prices will not justify its production.
11. Live  Stock.—Suffolk Punch  horses  are  about the  best for farmers; cross used for
draught. Shorthorns and Holsteins are good all round cattle; I should like to
see the Red Muley introduced. The Down sheep are no doubt the best for this
part of the Province.    In pigs, the Berkshire and Poland China are good.
12. Weather. - Has been the most favourable for harvesting; no frosts yet.
13. Diseases and Pests.—No diseases here, although I hear pigs are dying in Chilliwhack.
The worst pest is the apple blight, which spoils most of the best varieties.
14. Labour.—This is  the great drawback  to  successful farming; very dear and scarce.
White, $2.25 to $2.50 per diem; very little employed.    Chinese, $1.25 to $1.50.
15. Ensilage.—None as yet.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Very little yet.
JOHNSTON'S LANDING, NICOMIN AND HARRISON
Have about 115 farmers, the most of whom go in for fruit culture and root crops. Peaches,
apricots and nectarines are more generally planted here than in other parts. Hay gave a
good yield, and grain gave good returns, but is not very extensively cultivated. Spring Fife
wheat is reported as yielding fully forty bushels per acre. Dairying is only carried on to a
very limited extent. Swine are raised in fair numbers. The percentage of land under cultivation, according to returns, is barely seven per cent, of the land owned. The replies and
opinions of farmers are as follows :—
Wages.—$25  to  $30  per  month and board, $1.25 to $1.50 per day and board, for
ordinary farm labour; $15 to $20 per month for Chinese; $2 to $2.50 per day, other labour. 782 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. Samuel D. Tretheway, Johnston's Landing.—The mummy pea crop is the most
productive. Potatoes, mangolds and turnips are very good. All root crops do well here.
Timothy and alsike are the most profitable. We are pestered with the little fly called the
mosquito ; they are our worst pest. Wild mustard has got a pretty good start in this country.
March and April very wet and cold; May dry and warm; June very wet, pretty good for hay
crops; July and August very dry.    It has been very wet ever since.
Mr. R. C. Garner, Johnston's Landing.—All kinds of hardy fruitsg row well here, when
properly cared for. I find the following apples best: Baldwin, Northern Spy, Spitzenberg,
Gloria Mundi, Red Astrachan, and Red June. Plums—Greengage, Red Egg, Blue Egg,
Golden Drop, Prune, California Grape, early Victor-Lady. I have two graded Percheron
mares, which do well in this country.    Clyde horses do well, and so do Holstein cattle.
Mr. Thos. Gourley, Nicomin.—The summer was an exceptionally dry one, but nothing
suffered from the drought except potatoes.
Mr. Thos. Paton, Dewdney.—Late spring; more rain than usual. No frost to damage
crops.    Poland China pigs do well, full better than any kind I have tried.
Mr. Chas. Gardner, Johnston's Landing.—Any sort of grain and roots do well here.
Grass gives 2| tons of hay to the acre.    Most all sort of stock will do well.
Mr. John Jaggers, Nicomin Island.—All kinds of crops do well, except mangolds.
Mr. Angus McColl, Nicomin Island.—My overflowed land, about 60 acres, is reclaim-
able. I lost 1| acres of potatoes through bad seed ; they all rotted in the ground. Fife
spring wheat yields fully 40 bushels per acre; mummy peas 40 bushels; oats about 45
bushels. Barley seems to do well. Potatoes about 7 tons per acre, and of excellent quality.
All other roots grow better than any place I visited in Manitoba, Ontario, or the United
States.
Mr. R. G. McKamey, Johnston's Landing.—All my marsh land is reclaimable (10 acres).
I find the British Columbia Seedling, Baldwin and Russet apples the most suitable. Grains—
wheat, peas and oats.
Messrs. Clarke Bros., Nicomin Island.—All kinds of grain and roots do remarkably
well; also timothy and clover.    I have two Jersey cattle.
Mr. Christian Anderson, Johnston's Landing.—As far as I can see, all grains, root
crops and fruits do well, especially apples, pears, plums, and small fruit.
Mr. Tom Wilson (Manager Mr. A. W. Ross' farm, Harrison River).—The green aphis
on the apple is the only bad pest here.
MISSION AND HATZIC.
There are about 155 settlers hereabouts, the most of whom are engaged, more or less, in
fruit culture. Mr. J. W. Wells has over 2,600 fruit trees set out, and he says he has tried
melons, which do well, and tomatoes in dry seasons. Hay yields well, and a large quantity
was put up. Root crops, also, are extensively cultivated, but the wet somewhat affected
potatoes. Grain is not much cultivated. Butter is manufactured to some little extent, but not
systematically. Durhams seem to be preferred. Some sheep are raised, the average fleece of
which is reported at about 4^ pounds. The acreage under cultivation is here, according to
reports, 9 per cent, of the land owned. The following are the replies and opinions of different
farmers :—
Wages.—$25 to $35 per month and board, $1.50 to $2 per day and board, for ordinary
farm labour; $2.25 to $2.50 per day and board, skilled labour ; $3.50 per day and board for
carpenters.
Mr. Geo. Munro, Mission.—All grains, alsike, and timothy do well. Shorthorn cattle I
prefer.
Mr. F. W. Hughes, Mission.—The season has been very wet.
Mr. J. W. Wells, Mission.—All roots do well. Beauty of Hebron and Early Rose
potatoes are the most productive. The best apples, in my opinion, are the Baldwin, Duchess
of Oldenburg, and Gravenstein. Plums, large Red Egg Damson, and Greengage (stands the
weather best). All do very well. Durham and Holstein cattle do best. No pests nor
diseases for two years to bother.    Any remedy for ferns ? 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 783
Mr. Geo. Gibbard, Mission.—Oats, peas, potatoes, timothy, clover, and all kinds of roots
do well.     Rather wet season.     Crops good all round, except potatoes—too wet for them.
Dr. G. F. Bodington, Mission.—Carrots, potatoes, mangolds, oats, and clover most
suitable.    One bull calf, is pedigree Shorthorn.
Mr. Edward Parris, Mission.—All of my swamp land (ten acres) is reclaimable.
Apples, plums, oats, turnips (Swede), timothy, red clover, orchard grass, alsike clover, all
suitable. The weather was rather wet in early spring, but good after that; it did not affect
the crops, although they were a little short in the straw ; hay crops splendid in every way,
very heavy.    Very good harvest weather also.
Mr. John Moriarity, Mission.—The weather was good and the crops good.
MAPLE RIDGE,
Including Port Hammond, Port Haney, and Whannock.
There are some 230 settlers about here, the majority of whom go in largely for fruit, as it
is found to be a very favourable locality for its culture. The fruit crop generally was good,
but the quality of the fruit was, as it was elsewhere, rather indifferent Pears and plums
were nearly a total failure. Small fruits do exceedingly well. Mr. G. W. Henry has quite
an extensive nursery here, which I commend to the notice of intending fruit growers.
The principal grain grown is oats, although the others do very well, peas especially on the
high fern land, of which there is a quantity hereabouts. Root crops are cultivated largely,
and gave good returns last year. A good many pigs are raised for the market. A fair
quantity of butter is manufactured, but the cows suffer a good deal from red water. Opinion
is much divided as to the best dairy cattle, some claiming Jerseys, others Ayrshires, and others
Durhams. Sheep, of which a fair number are kept, according to reports, average over five
pounds of wool per fleece. The acreage under cultivation is placed at about sixteen per cent,
of the land owned. The opinions and replies of farmers, and report of correspondent, are as
follows :—
Wages.—$20 per month and board for whole season; $25 to $30 per month and  board,
or $1.50 to $2, per day ordinary farm labour; $2.25 to $2.50 per day for carpenters, cfec.
Mr. L. F. Bonson, Port Hammond.—Swamp land (30 acres) all reclaimable.
Mr. John Laity, Port Hammond.—Best suited—wheat, oats, potatoes, turnips, carrots.
The apples best suited are Red Astrachan, Gravenstein, Wealthy, Baldwin, American Golden
Russet, and Yellow Bellefleur. Pears do exceedingly well, also cherries; but plums I have
not had good success with, nor yet with peaches.    My cattle are Ayrshires.
Mr. W. J. Harris, Port Hammond.—My swamp land (50 acres) reclaimable. All crops
do well. I have one bull, seven cows, and five calves, pedigree Jerseys. I find them suitable
to this locality.    No pests.
Messrs. Cook Bros., Port Hammond.—Two hundred acres marsh ; all reclaimable.
Mr.  James  McAdam,  Port Hammond.—Swamp  and  prairie  land,   about   120  acres,
reclaimable.    High grades of any good dairy cattle suit; Durhams preferred.
Mr. John Trembath.—Grain, oats, and wheat; roots, turnips; fruit, apples, pears,
plums, and cherries do well.
Mr. G. W. Henry, Port Hammond.—All kinds of hardy fruits do well. Raspberries
especially wonderful in growth of cane and yield of fruit. Have not tried grain. All roots
do well, especially carrots.
Mr. John McKenney, Port Hammond.—Suitable for all kinds of grain, roots, fruits,
grasses, and clovers.
Mr. J. J. Hodder, Barnston Island.—Grains of all kinds do well, but oats seem to do
best. Mangolds, beets, turnips, and carrots do as well here as anywhere in the Province.
Jerseys and Durhams mixed are what I keep at present. On the whole Durham cattle are
best suited to this island, as there is plenty of rich feed. 784 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. Hector Ferguson, Port Haney.—On the high burnt fern land peas are decidedly
the best grain crop, and red clover the best hay crop. After the fern is killed out all other
crops natural to our climate do well. On the high level wet land oats is the only suitable
crop until the land is drained, when all other crops do equally well. I have orre bull, pedigree
Shorthorn. I would prefer the Ayrshire for milch cows, as they are more hardy, and the
Shorthorn for oxen and beef. Red water affects cattle, and I have lost fifty per cent, of my
calves from a disease which is prevalent amongst them. (See under head of " Diseases and
Pests ") I have raised considerable flax-seed for calves, and find it grows well on clay soil.
The pears, plums, peach, quince, prunes, cherries, nectarines, and apricots in my orchard were
all irrjured last spring either by frost or the long spell of cold wet weather after the blossom
opened. The spring was very late with a great deal of cold rain. The rain also set in early
this fall, but we have had no frost up to date.
Mr. Thos. Bosworth, Port Haney.—Pears, cherries, and plums do well; apples, extra
good. Clovers, timothy, arrd orchard grass all do well. Spring frost killed the pear blossoms.
I don't know what date it was on.
Mr. J. J. Wilson, Port Haney.—Most all hardy apples and fruits do well. Grapes do
very well.    I find the Worden grape does the best.
Mr. Alex. Ritchie, Warnock.—Peas are the most suitable for our first cropping, and
seed down with red clover, as it is fern land which needs choking out, and clover answers for
that purpose, and after we plough down a crop of it we can grow almost anything. My mares
are common stock, but they throw very good colts from Percherorr Stallions, better tlran from
light carriage or roadster stallions.
Howison Estate, Port Hammond.—Very late and wet spring and dry summer.
Mr. Wm. Nelson, Port Hammond.—Weather was all that could be desired by a farmer.
Messrs. Henry and George Selby-Hele, Stave River.—The spring was late and so
wet after the crops were up as to drown and destroy considerable portions of them.
Mr. Hector Ferguson, Correspondent, Port Haney.
1. Spring Wheat.—25 bushels per acre ; $30 per ton.
Oats, 30      ,, „ 25      ,,
Peas,                      30      ,,             ,,             25      „
2. Hay.—About two tons per acre.
3. Potatoes.—About 6 tons per acre; $18 per ton.
Turnips, „   20    „ „ 6      „
Farming has not advanced sufficiently in this settlement to state definitely.    All kinds
of grain and roots do extra well when farmed with reasonable care.
4. Apples.—90 cents per 50-pound box.
Pears.—$1.25
Plums and Prunes, $2 ,,        „
Cherries.—7 cents per pound.
Other Fruit.—A large quantity of small fruit is grown and sells  about ten  cents  per
quart.
Has the crop been good or bad ?—Extra good.
Was the fruit of good quality ?—Medium.
4a. Soils for fruits.—Apples and cherries do best on rather light soil, but will do well on
heavy if well underdrained. Pears do exceedingly well on heavy clay. Plums
and prunes on heavy loam.
4b. Names of most suitable fruits —In apples the Spy, Baldwin, Greening, Russet, B.
Davis, Gravenstein, King, Wealthy, do exceptionally well, as do all kinds of
pears, plums. Pond's seedling prune grows extra good, and no doubt the German
and other varieties will do well when thoroughly tested. All kinds of cherries do
well. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 785
4c —Half hardy and tender fruits.—Peaches and grapes have been tried and do very
well some seasons, but cannot be depended upon. This year peaches were a
failure, and grapes hardly ripened.
6. Dairy.—Dairying is principally followed here with satisfactory results, butter rangirrg
from 25 to 35 cents per pound.    Very little cheese is made.
7. Bees.—Have been tried, and the results satisfactory.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—Poultry is raised to a  considerable  extent, but with one or two exceptions
not in a systematic manner, and on account of careless management do not pay
very well.
10. Wool.—Not very well adapted for sheep, as the land is too heavily timbered, but in
small flocks pay very well for mutton, but the fleece does not amount to much by
reason of rough pasture.
11. Live Stock.—Farmers appear to some extent to appreciate the advantages of improved
breeds, but as a general rule are not able to invest much in high price stock.
The Clyde is the favourite for draft horses, Shorthorn for beef, and Holstein,
Jersey, and Ayrshire for milk. The Downs are preferred in sheep, as they starrd
the rough treatment in winter best. The Berkshire in hogs, Plymouth Rocks and
Leghorns in hens.
12. Weather.—The past season has been one of the worst for many years, the rains keeping
on late in the spring and starting early in the fall. Haying weather was good
and most of the harvest was saved. Although pears, plums, peaches, &c, were a
failure, it is a disputed point whether it was caused by frost or chilly rains.
13. Diseases and Pests.—There have been two diseases of stock, a  report of whicli I sent
you some time ago. We find the coal oil emulsion a sure cure for nearly all insect
life on fruit trees. We have many kinds of noxious weeds, including two patches
of Canada thistles, which we are trying to kill with salt.
14. Labour.—Farm labour is generally scarce.    The Chinese we find a poor class for farm
help, as they cannot be relied on to do work correctly if there is a not a white
boss with them.    Average wages are $30 per month, or $2 per clay without board.
15. Ensilage.—Not yet tried.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Very little has been done, as  the land is  not  well  enough  under-
drained.
COQUITLAM, JUNCTION, PORT MOODY, AND BURRARD INLET.
There are about 115 farmers hereabouts. Grain does well, but is not extensively cultivated. The crop was injured by rains at harvest. Some hay and root crops were raised; the
latter, on high lands, suffered from the hot, dry summer. Fruit is very generally cultivated.
Apples gave good results last year, but pears, plums, &c, were a failure. Mr. Norval
Butchart, at Port Moody, raises large quantities of fruit of fine quality, but he lost a third of
his strawberry crop through wet. He marketed about 4,500 lbs. Dairying is a good deal
followed, and a good quantity of butter was sent to market. Poultry raising is also carried
on somewhat extensively. Mr. Elson has twenty-five hives of bees, from which he got a large
quantity of pure white honey, the bees extracting it from the white clover, which grows
luxuriantly about here. About twelve per cent, of the land owned is under cultivation, the
majority of the remainder being heavily timbered. The replies and opinions of farmers, and
report of correspondent, are as follows :—
Wages.—$30 to $35 per month and board for ordinary farm labour; $2 to $2.50 per day
clearing land, &c.
Mr. Wm. Elson, Port Moody.—Aphis on apple trees. 786 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. Stanley Smith.—Wheat, oat's, peas, beans, and sweet corn do well; also timothy
and clover.    Have not tried other grains.    Marsh (9 acres) reclaimable.
Mr. E. A. Atkins, Coquitlam.—Fifty acres cranberry swamp reclaimable. Most kinds
of crops grown in northern climate suit well. My bull is three-quarters Holstein and one-
quarter Durham. Mostly all cattle do well here after the first year, when they become
acclimatized.
Mr. John Shennan, Coquitlam.—Root crops are the most profitable. Potatoes do well,
also turnips and cabbage.
Mr. W. R. Austin.—Dry weather very serious to potato crop, where cultivated shallow
and ground dry. Just begun on dry gravel timber land, and first crops on such are generally
light, but appears to respond to manure.    Fruit trees do well.
Mr. A. Klavanes.—Very dry in July and part of August for high land crops. No frost
to any extent.    Late and very wet spring.
Mr. Norval Butchart, Port Moody.—Very wet, and through June one-third of strawberry crop rotted on the ground. Late spring. One frost about May 1st killed bloom on
pears, peaches, cherries, and plums.    Apples not hurt; they are a safer fruit to raise.
Mr. John T. Scott, Correspondent, Port Moody.
1. Wheat (Fall).—None.
Wheat (Spring). — 35 bushels; market value, $2.00 per hundred.
Barley, 40      „ „ 1.50
Oats, 45      „ „ 1.50 „
Rye.—None.
Peas.—Limited quantity; ,, 2.00 ,,
Indian Corn.—None marketable.
2. Hay.—Two tons ; market value,  $12 per ton.
Hops.—Very linrited.
3. Potatoes.— 10 tons per acre; value per ton, $15.
Mangolds, 20 „ „ 6.
Carrots, 12 ,, ,, 13.
Turnips,        20             ,,                          ,, 6.
Other roots. ^Market gardening large and profitable.     Our district is both high land
and low land, and what suits one part does not suit the other.
4. Apples, per box of 50 lbs, $1.25.
Pears, „ „ 2.00.
Plums and Prunes, ,, ,, 3.00.
Cherries, ,,               ,,          5.00.
Other fruit, such as strawberries and raspberries, 10 cents per lb.
Has the crop been good or bad?—Very good.
Was the fruit of good quality ?—Very fine quality.
4a.  Soils for fruits.—The best apple, pear, peach and cherry land in this district is said
to be on the head of the Inlet, on the property of Butcharts & Noon.
4c.  Half-hardy and tender fruits.—Peaches have done very  well up to the last  season,
when we had a late frost that blighted them.    Apricots and nectarines have not
been thoroughly tested.    Grapes, melons and tomatoes all thrive well.
6. Dairy.—There is a good deal of dairying done in this district, with fair results.   There
is a large quantity of butter made that sells at fair prices, ranging from 25 to 40
cents per ft.    Very little cheese has been made, and only for home use.
7. Bees.— Several parties have engaged in apiculture with very good success, notably Mr.
Elson of Port Moody, whose honey is to be found all over the Province.
8. Flax.—Not to my knowledge. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 787
9. Poultry.—Poultry is one of the staples of Port Moody; in fact, there is no district in
the Province that, for the extent of it, surpasses it in its production of fine fowl
and large quantities of eggs in the summer months. The sales have gone as high
as 400 dozen per month.
10. Wool.—Wool is one of the productions that has been much neglected, yet the district
is well adapted for sheep-raising.
11. Live Stock.—Of late years there has been a desire on the part of farmers to improve
their stock, and there are few land-owners in the district who have not taken
advantage of transportation from the east and improved their stock, having seen
the desirability of improved breeds. Draught horses are more in demand, as our
roads are not quite up to carriage drives yet. Cattle for milk are more in demand
at present.    Pigs and poultry for market.
12. Weather.—The weather has been fairly favourable for harvesting.    We had some late
frosts in the spring, which injured our fruit crops a little. Our fall weather has
been more moist than usual, even for British Columbia.
13. Diseases and Pests.—I have much pleasure in reporting,   for your  information,  that
there is not a healthier district in the Province. I have heard no complaints in
my travels over the district of diseases or pests of any kind whatever.
14. Labour.—White labour is plentiful and invariably employed, wages ranging from  $2
per day in harvest to $20 per month in winter.
15. Ensilage.—Have not heard of it being tried with any success.    Hay is too plentiful in
the district.
16. Fall Ploughing.—A very large acreage has been ploughed this fall.
LULU ISLAND, SEA ISLAND, AND NORTH ARM.
This important agricultural district has about one hundred and forty-five farmers. Almost
every description of crop grows to great perfection, and in ordinary seasons gives good returns;
the last season was, unfortunately, an exception, much grain being injured and some loss to
potatoes through rot. Large quantities of vegetables were raised and marketed; numbers of
people having had 18 to 20 tons of cabbage each, 10 to 20 tons of onions, and so on. The hay
crop was good. The same complaints here about the fruit last season, viz.: plum crop a
failure, and apples injured by pests and diseases. Butter making is followed extensively, but
there is no cheese manufactured. Holsteins seem to be decidedly the favourites here. A laro-e
quantity of milk is sold in the neighbouring towns. Pigs are raised in considerable numbers.
About one-third of the land owned is under cultivation according to reports received The
opinions and replies of farmers are:—
Wages.—Ordinary farm labour $25 to $30 per month with board; $32.50 to $35 per
month without board; $3.50 per day carpenters, <fec; $25 per month Chinese, without board.
Mr. Henry B. Warren.—Onions, beets, potatoes, pears, plums, and apples do well. The
spring was late and summer was very dry; wet weather set in early and interfered with the
harvesting to a considerable extent.
Mr. John Featherstone, Lulu.—Oats and hay, in my opinion, are the best crops.
Potatoes are of very little account this year. Pears, plums, and small fruits do well. For hay
I find timothy the best.
Mr. Robt. H. McBride, North Arm.—Oats and all kinds of root crops seem to grow to
perfection in this locality. Timothy is mostly sown here, but any kind of grass adapted to a
rich soil would do as well.
Mr. Manoah Steves, Steveston.—Grain, roots, vegetables, plums, and pears cannot be
beat in any country for yield. Apples trees bear well; the trees don't grow large. Peaches
do fairly well; grapes grow well, but don't quite ripen; very early corn does fine; tomatoes
clont rrpen very well; all of the small fruits do extremely well; squashes do well, cucumbers
middling; melons don't do well.    All the clovers do fine except alfalfa.    All the grasses that 788 Report on Agriculture. 1891
I have any knowledge of do as well as possible. Peas do well on the clay, but not so well on
the black muck; millet only middling; sorghum don't do well. We have seven fine bred
Suffolk Punches; we find them very hardy, remarkably docile and kind, and the finest of team
horses. Nearly all our horned cattle are Holstein-Fresians; they are very kind and easily
handled; the cross are great milkers, very large, and when dry fatten very rapidly; the calves
grow fast and mature early. The last three years the tent caterpillar has been very plentiful;
this year the hops are infested with the green aphis, also the plum and apple trees. The tent
caterpillar mentioned above are on the crab-apples, also on the cultivated and on plum trees;
they don't care for pears much. Two or three years ago the grasshoppers were plentiful. An
occasional year the brown grub is destructive on potatoes and other roots. We had a very
wet, cold spring, crops were put in late, the ground was cold and lumpy, summer rather dry,
fall wet for gathering late crops, very little frost, nothing to do any harm.
Mr. Rice Rees, Lulu.—Oats, roots of all kinds, apples and plums, timothy, all do well.
Mr. H. Harding, Lulu.—The most suitable are wheat and oats for grain, potatoes,
carrots, turnips and mangolds for roots. I have one pedigree Durham bull. My crops this
year are far below the average, the reason is, I think, it was a very wet spring. Last year
our fall wheat averaged two tons to the acre.
Messrs. McMyn Bros., Lulu.—Early rains during harvest injured grain. The spring
was wet and late, and the wet weather this fall is supposed by many to be the cause of the
rot in the potato crop.
Mr. Wm. C. Stanford, Richmond.—Oats do best, and all kinds of grasses do well.
When land is drained all kinds of garden stuff and grain do well. In cattle there is far more
favour shown the Holstein than any other. The only pest we have is a red heifer who is
determined to eat our potatoes.
Mr. Thomas Kidd, Lulu.—Rain during latter part of harvest injured grain crops that
were not housed, and the heavy fall rains is supposed to have been the cause of potatoes
rotting.
Mr. Joseph Quigley, North Arm.—All my marsh land (80 acres) is reclaimable. I
have five head thoroughbred Holstein-Fresians, and my young stock is pretty well graded, as
I have had a change of thoroughbred bulls this last four years.
Mr. Alex. Mitchell.—During seed time we had considerable rain, followed by a dry
summer. The showery weather of this fall has done but little damage to our crops ; no frost
hard enough to do any harm.
Mr. S. T. Calhoun, Sea Island.—Holsteins are the best general purpose cattle. A good
manv horses in this vicinity have taken a disterrrper this summer, but few cases fatal; none
sick at present Caterpillars troublesome on fruit trees. Very late and wet spring up to 1st
of May, then quite fair up to 1st June, then very dry, which affected grain crops, therr a
very wet harvest.
Mr. John C. Vermilyea.—Wheat, barley, oats, timothy, alsike, rye grass; roots and
fruits all do well. I have Durhams and Ayrshires, some full blood Durhams, but none pedigree.    These suit me altogether the best.
Mr. B. W. Garrett, Sea Island.—Same reply as last regarding crops.
Mr. Alfred B. Dixon, Sea Island.—Very wet in the spring. The early rains in the
autumn caused a great deal of damage to grain.
Messrs. London Bros., Lulu.—Oats, wheat, and barley do well. Mangolds, car-rots,
and turnips yield abundantly. Timothy is used for hay principally, and is considered the
best for this locality.
Messrs. Blair Bros., Lulu.—The general character of the spring and fall was wet. The
summer dry and afforded a good hay season.
Mr. W. H. Steves.—Last spring was a late one and much wetter than usual. Crops as
a rule were not as good as usual. I raised a considerable quantity of sweet corn, which
matured well and ripened early; tomatoes also ripened.    All ordinary vegetables do well,
Mr. Sam. Brighouse, Lulu.—Weather wet, colouring the grain. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 789
Mr. Thos. Smith, Steveston.—The crops have been very much hurt with wet ; not hurt
with frost; very late, wet, cold spring.
Messrs. Milligan & Shaw, North Arm.—This last season has been for the farmers a
late wet spring and wet grain harvest.
Mr. David Reed, Lulu.—Spring late and wet. Early rains in mid harvest injured grain
crops.    Some potatoes rotten, which may have been caused by the heavy rains.
Mr. W. H. Rowling, North Arm.—100 acres swamp reclaimable.
Mr. J. W. Rowling, North Arm.—13 acres reclaimable. Egyptian oats, spring wheat,
early and late Rose potatoes, yellow mangolds, Swede turnips all suitable crops, timothy
with white and red clover mixed or by itself make first-class hay. I have had some experience
with Durham cattle crossed with common stock, and was well pleased with them. I think
they would do well for  this locality.    I haven't been here long.
SQUAMISH, HOWE SOUND AND BOWEN ISLAND
Have about thirty-five settlers, who are engaged principally in the culture of roots, vegetables and fruit, little or no grain being raised. This part of the country is mostly
wooded, and as it has not long been taken up the area of land under cultivation is not as yet
very large, returns received showing only about four per cent, of the land owned. A good
return of roots and vegetables was made. Fruit does well, but the orchards are quite young.
Appended are the opinions and replies received :—
Mr. G. W. Gibson, Jr., Howe Sound.—Spring late, frost early this fall and extremely
wet.
Mr. G. W. Gibson, Sr., Howe Sound.—Wheat, oats, and barley do well here. All the
ordinary fruit, large and small, do remarkably well. Peaches are a dead failure so far ;
tomatoes ripen well. Red clover and timothy a good crop. Hops make a wonderful growth
with me. I have nothing but common stock, which thrives well. I beg to state that I had
cherries, plums, pears, and apples, but not sufficient to make return. The season on the
whole has been good ; spring late ; first frost 22nd October, four weeks earlier than usual.
November extremely wet.
Mr. John Hooper, Howe Sound, Keats' Island.—All good land in the centre of the
island. The island is superior to that of the mainland in quality ; mostly clay with a little
sand. Turnips, carrots, mangolds, potatoes, timothy, clover, millet, wheat, and other grain
grow fine on my place. Grade stock does best here; they make the best foragers. No diseases
of any kind.
Mr. Geo. Glassford, Howe Sound.—I find grade stock more profitable and durable for
climate.
Mr. W. S. Manning, Howe Sound.—Tomatoes, parnsips, citron, squash, and cucumbers
do well; also clover and timothy.
Mr. Arthur Hyde, Howe Sound.—The summer was very good for crops around this
part. The first frost was 22nd November (October ?), about three weeks earlier than last
fall; wet all of November. 790 Report on Agriculture. 1891
ALBERNI.
This thriving settlement on the West Coast of Vancouver Island has about seventy-five
farmers. There is a quantity of fine land in the vicinity, most of it timbered, but when it is
cleared yields good crops of roots and fruit. Considerable quantities of the former were
raised and marketed in Victoria ; the yield was, however, not up to the average. The late
wet spring and the excessively wet autumn having acted very detrimentally on the crops.
Although there are a considerable number of fruit trees planted, many of the orchards
are not yet in bearing. The want of regular communication is a great drawback to the
prosperity of Alberni, as it is so completely isolated. The proportion of land under cultivation
is about five per cent, of land owned, according to returns received. Opinions and replies of
farmers are as follows :—
Wages :—$30 to $40 per month, $1.50 to $2.50 per day, for ordinary farm labour ; $1
per day other.
Mr. Thomas Paterson.—All grains, roots, orchard grass, timothy, red top, and white
clover do well.
Mr. Christian Soll.—Same as last, with addition of red clover.
Mr. Chas. Taylor.—All the swamp land (ten acres) is reclaimable. Wheat, oats, barley,
potatoes, turnips, carrots, cabbage, and all common vegetables do well. Apples, pears, plums,
and especially cherries do well. The land is changeable in character, and patches can be
found to suit any kind of grass. Timothy and orchard grass, with red clover, is commonly
used. Fancy stock is not adapted for this place in the meantime, as they have to find their
food in the bush principally. Hardy scrub or common cattle do best, as they are much better
rustlers for their food in the bush.
Mr. Chas. A. Cox.—The land is mostly alder and second growth fir. I have found oats,
barley, peas, potatoes, turnips, and mangolds do well. My stock is not pedigreed. I think
the Shorthorn is the best general purpose cattle.
Mr. Kenneth McKenzie.—Wheat, oats, barley, peas, clover, timothy, turnips, and
mangolds suit well.    Weather did not affect crops.
Mr. John A. Hamilton.—(Remarks on the weather, see under " Meteorological.")
Mr. A. D. Faber.—About 20 acres of my 500 acres swamp or rock is reclaimable.
Grain has scarcely been tried here. Mangolds and turnips do well. Small fruits thrive
excellently.    One cow is first grade Durham, another one half Jersey and one half Shorthorn.
Mr. Robert Debeaux.—Most suitable for small fruits ; not adapted for apples and
pears.    Potatoes are the best, viz.: Burpees Surprise.
Mr. Henry Woodward.—Wheat, barley, oats, red clover, and timothy, and all the
grasses and clovers which thrive in England are suitable for this locality. White clover is
suitable for the high ridges. Apples, pears, plums, cherries, and small fruits grow well.
Mangolds, turnips, potatoes, and vegetables do well. Apple trees are liable to a bad disease
which affects the bark.
Mr. Fred. W. Muller, Sproat's Lake.—Oats and peas seem to do best as grain,
and potatoes as roots ; strawberries and currants as fruits, and orchard grass and red clover
as grasses and clovers.    There is no particular breed of cattle in this section.
Mr. Edmund Gill.—The season was wet and not as early as usual. We had no spring
nor summer frosts. Root crops and vegetables are not up to the average, owing to so much
rain in the earlier part of the season.
Mr. Valentine Ingram.—The season was too wet, my land is low. Very wet especially
in seeding time and at the raising of the potatoes. The spring was very late indeed. No
frost until the second week in November. -EGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 791
SOOKE.
There are about sixty-five farmers in this settlement. It is well adapted for the cultivation of all ordinary crops, but the limited area of open land renders the production of grain
in large quantities out of the question. Considerable quantities of fruit and root crops were
however raised, and all of a really good quality. Dairying is carried on to a limited extent, a
fair quantity of butter being manufactured. Poultry raising is also entered into and found
to be profitable. A considerable number of sheep are in the district, for which there are good
runs on the open hillsides, the fleeces averaging about 4J pounds. Unable to judge of percentage of land cultivated, possibly ten per cent. Following are the opinions and replies of
farmers, and report of correspondent :—
Mr. John S. Van Allen, Renfrew, Otter Point.—This place is only in its infancy,
but a good many have taken places in here this year ; it may soon be a flourishing part of the
island. The weather was moderately wet in the spring, moderately dry in summer, with early
fall rains ; no early, late, nor summer frosts. Any grain, fruit, vegetables, or grasses I have
seen grow here, or near here, I think would be up to the standard.
Mr. Clement O'Brien.—Timothy and clover do well.
Mr. Jonas Throup.—Apples, pears, plums, potatoes, clover, timothy, rye grasses, and
orchard grass are well adapted.
Mr. Frank S. Leather.—About 300 acres out of 1,800 could be brought under cutiva-
tion.    No frost during summer; early part too dry.
Mr. John Muir.—The spring was late. The season was dry. Since the fall commenced
the weather has been wet.    No frost up to date (24th November).
Mr. John Muir, Correspondent, Sooke.
1. Wheat (spring).—Can't state the yield ; price, two cents per pound.
Barley. —Same.
Oats.—Average yield, 36 bushels.
2. Hay.—Average yield, three tons per acre.
3. Potatoes.—Yield, 200 bushels.
Mangolds.—Average.
Carrots.—Yield, 4 tons.
Turnips.—Yield good.
Timothy, rye grass and mixed clover grows well, and any  kind  of  other  grain yields
well.    Have not paid attention to any particular kind.
PP    ■     I Two cents per pound.
Plums and Prunes.—1 m, ,
r..       ■ } lhree cents per pound.
Cherries, J r     r
Has the crop been good or bad ?—Cherries, apples, and pears were good.    Plums  this
year a failure.
Was the fruit of good quality ?—Good.
4a. Soil.—The soil of this district yields well in all kinds of fruits.
4c. Half-hardy and tender fruits.—Peaches and grapes have just been tried ; too early to
give any information.    Tomatoes grow well, and early corn.
6. Dairy.—Not followed up very extensively ; a good deal of butter is made, but no
cheese to my knowledge.
7. Bees.—None have been tried.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—Pretty extensively engaged in, and every year improving.
10. Wool.—Not to any large extent; what few sheep are kept the wool turns out well. 792 Report on Agriculture. 1891
11. Live Stock.—Farmers here not having a large range do not as a rule keep large stocks,
but are steadily improving what stock they have, crossing the cattle with Ayrshire
and Jersey breeds, the horses with Clydesdale and Morgans. Sheep, Southdowns
and Leicester's crossed, stand the winter well and yield good mutton and wool.
Pigs are Black and White Berkshire ; they do well. Poultry, nrixed ; all classes
do well.
12. Weather.—Weather in the spring was wet and backward.    Summer was  dry.    Fair
weather for harvesting.   No frosts yet up to date.   The fall very wet (November).
13. Diseases  and Pests.—Diseases, none.    Pests : Bear,  panther,  and  wolves,  which do
great damage to the sheep and pigs; and coons, which are the terror of the poultry
yard.
14. Labour.—None to be had unless going to Victoria for it, and then have to pay a little
above the Victoria price.
15. Ensilage.—None tried yet.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Very little done before January.
METCHOSIN, ESQUIMALT, AND HIGHLAND.
There are about 110 farmers in these districts, the most of whom go in for mixed farming
for the supply of Victoria City. Grain does well, and in consequence of the small rainfall it
is easily harvested, last season being no exception. A large area in Metchosin is well adapted
for cereals. The fruit crop was short, taking it all round; plums a failure, apples and pears
medium. Root crops were remarkably good; potatoes, especially, gave large returns, and of
good quality. Dairying is not much prosecuted, as the country is somewhat dry for the
purpose. Durham cattle generally preferred. A large number of sheep are reared in this
section, the climate and country being particularly suitable for sheep. The fleeces, however,
are small, the returns showing an average of less than 3J fts. Poultry raising is also entered
into quite extensively. A large portion of these districts is dry, gravelly plateaus, with a thin
soil, admirably adapted, I should imagine, to the culture of alfalfa. It is to be regretted that
it is not more generally cultivated. Probably twenty per cent, of the land is cultivated, but
it cannot be ascertained from returns. Opinions and replies of farmers, and report of correspondent, are as follows :—
Wages.—$25 to $30 per month and board, $1.25 to $1.50 per day and board, ordinary
farm labour.
Mr. E. S. Field, Metchosin.—About 20 acres swamp, which is all reclaimable. Out of
520 acres, I imagine from 125 to 150 acres will do for cultivation when cleared and subdued.
The remainder is river, lake, mountains and rock, the latter covered more or less with trees,
and over which cattle graze. As I have red clay, black soil, peat, &c, and as some overflows
in winter it is necessary to farm accordingly, but wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, turnips,
carrots, timothy, red clover, alsike and orchard grass do well. I have no pedigree stock, only
grades.    I think that grade Shorthorns are the best.
Mr. W. Fisher, Metchosin.—Orchard grass (cocksfoot) and rye grass do best on the
drier lands; clover does not do well. Wet weather did not damage grain to speak of. Fall
rains, being earlier than usual, caused the potato and root crops to be larger than usual, that
of the former being the largest I have ever had, averaging ten tons to the acre. Very late,
wet spring, and early and heavy rains in the fall.
Mr. Ernest Muller, Parsons' Bridge.—First-class for clover, from 3 to 3J tons per
acre ; also for all kinds of roots and potatoes and all kinds of grain. The weather was very
favourable for my crops.
Mr. Peter Walmsley, Goldstream.—Land very light and dry, most suitable for fruit
and poultry. Leghorn and Wyandotte fowls for eggs, Plymouth Rocks for market. Late
spring. Six weeks very hot and dry weather, in latter part of July and August, dried the
ground completely out.    Later rains did much good. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 793
Mr. G. R. W. Stewart, Hatley Park.—All of my marsh land (100 acres) is reclaim-
able.    Strawberries, all fruits, oats, clover and timothy do well.
Mr. Arthur H. Peatt, Colwood.—Cocksfoot, timothy and rye grass, all kinds of clover,
grain, and semi-hardy fruits are well adapted. One Jersey bull. I find Shorthorn cattle
best suited to the requirements of this locality. The apple aphis troubles my trees, and hog
cholera my pigs.
Mr. Joseph M. Didon, Aldermere.—All of swamp land (20 acres) is-reclaimable.
Mr. John  McLennan, Rocky Point.—The spring was late; no frost since seeding;
summer very dry.
Mr. W. Fisher, Correspondent, Metchosin.
1. Wheat (Fall), 24 bushels per acre; about $40 per ton.
Wheat (Spring), 20 „ „        40
Barley, 25                 ,, ,,       35      „
Oats, 30                 „ 30
Peas, 33 „ 35      „
2. Hay.—11 tons per acre ; 18      „
3. Potatoes.—From 5 to 10 tons per acre.
4. Apples.—$2.50 to $3 per 100 lbs.
Plums and Prunes.—$4 to $6 per 100 lbs.
Has the crop been good or bad ?—Apples, short crop ; pears, ditto ; plums, very poor.
Was the fruit of good quality ?—Yes.
4b.  Names of fruit most suitable.—Lemon pippin and King of Tompkins County are the
two most saleable apples grown about here, and are good producers.
4c.  Half-hardy and tender fruits.—Peaches  and  grapes  to  a very  small  extent,   with
doubtful success.    Tomatoes do well most seasons.
6. Dairy.—No.    Very little butter and no cheese.    A very poor district for  dairying,
owing to want of pasture in late summer and early fall.
7. Bees.—No.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—Not on a large scale.
10. Wool.—To a very small extent.
11. Live Stock.—No.
12. Weather.—Yes, on the whole.    No frosts.    This district lies very dry, so that we are
able  to get  our crops in earlier than in many districts.    With the exception of
the summer and early fall, this has been a very wet season.
13. Diseases and Pests.—There are no diseases or pests to speak of, except in the orchard,
where aphis and scale insect are troublesome.    Spraying with tobacco water and
kerosene emulsion has been tried without great success.
14. Labour.—Labour has been easier to obtain this year than usual, both white and
Chinese.    About $25 per month, with board.
15. Ensilage.—No.
16. Fall Ploughing.—The usual amount of fall wheat has been sown. 794 Report on Agriculture. 1891
VICTORIA DISTRICT.
There are-about 145 ranchers here. A good deal of grain of good quality is grown, but
many got caught by the early rain last fall and lost a considerable portion of their crops.
Root crops were good. A very large quantity of fine fruit is annually raised, and is, as a rule,
a sure crop. Last year, however, proved an exception, plums having been ruined by late cold
winds; cherries partially, and apples only a fair crop. Dairying is carried on to a considerable extent, but as most of the milk is sold, only an inconsiderable quantity of butter is
manufactured. A good many sheep are raised, the fleeces averaging 4J lbs. As a natural
consequence of the proximity of a large town, quantities of vegetables are raised by the market
gardeners in the vicinity. There are a number of good nurseries, in which all varieties of
fruit trees are to be had. These, with the other nurseries in different parts of the Province,
are capable of supplying all demands, so that no one need buy unacclimatised trees. The
acreage under cultivation is probably fifty per cent., but returns do not show. Opinions and
replies of farmers and report of correspondent are as follows :—
Wages—$45 per month without board, $25 to $30 per month and board, for ordinary
farm labour ; $20 to $30 for house servants ; $1 per day, Chinese; $2 per day, other labour.
Mr. J. D. Pemberton.—Weather this year remarkably good for hay, but bad for saving
grain.
Mr. B. W. Pearse.—Wet spring and rather late. No frost from February until now
(13th November).
Mr. Wm. Elford.—Apples, three-quarter crop this year; pears, fair crop; plums, a
failure; cherries, early varieties, blighted by cold winds and late spring; short crop. Strawberries, early and mid season varieties short; late ones, good. Raspberries and currants,
owing to late cold spring, short crop. On the whole, not a good year for fruit. All of mine
promised well in the first part of the spring, but the late cold winds blighted most of the
earlier varieties of all the different kinds, both ground and standard.
Mr. J. W. Tolmie.—The wet weather in spring did much damage to grain, followed by a
dry summer; then the wet fall was equally injurious to harvesting grain. A late frost in
June killed much young fruit, and early frosts in September killed tomatoes, pumpkins, and
some corn.
Mr. Henry A. King.—Dry the early part of summer; late spring frost about the 1st of
May. Wet in September before some could get their grain in, and been raining, off and on,
ever since.
Mr. Ira Wilson.—Weather backward in spring, otherwise fair. Fall rains set in very
early this season.    A slight frost last week (19th November).
Mr. Samuel Pollock.—The weather this year has been rather favourable for farming in
this section, but the spring being late and autumn rains somewhat early, the crops have
hardly come up to general expectations.
Mr. James Tod.—It was a very wet and late spring. No frost to damage. Hard job to
save the crops. Thousands of bushels have been lost this year. If it did not spoil in the field
it got heated in the bin.
Messrs. John and W. B. Lamberton.—Rains in the spring delayed early seeding, but
our land being drained, we have had a good yield in all crops. Frost on the 8th of June just
touched a few of our potatoes on the low ground, but did rro appreciable damage.
Mr. J. W. Tolmie, Correspondent, Victoria District.
1. Wheat (Fall).—1,800 to 2,240 lbs.; average price, $40 per ton.
Wheat (Spring),                2,240   „ 40
Barley,                               2,240   „ 35
Oats,                                 2,240   „ 30
Rye, about                        1,800   „ 60
Peas, about                       2,500   „ 30
Indian Corn.—Never knew this crop harvested, as it is always cut green; $35 per ton. $15 to $18.
10 „
18.
10 „
18.
10 „
18.
55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 795
2. Hay.—1 to 2 tons ; $17 per ton.
Hops.—None grown in this district.
3. Potatoes.—3 tons ;
Mangolds.—12 to 14 tons:
Carrots.—12 tons;
Turnips.—10 to 12 tons;
• 4. Apples.—3c. per lb.
Ir ears, ,,
Plums and Prunes.—3c. per lb.
Cherries.—10c. to 15c. per ft.
Has the crop been good or bad ?—For small fruits, very good; apples, pears and plums,
bad.
Was the fruit of good quality ?—About one-fifth first-class, three-fifths passable, one-
fifth very bad.
4a.  Soils for fruits.—It seems that any soil artificially drained does well.
4b. Names of fruits most suitable.—Apples : Baldwin, Gravenstein, Red Astrachan, and
Duchess of Oldenburg generally give good crops, and always are in good demand.
Pears : Bartlett seems to be the favourite. Plums : All the large varieties do well
and command good prices. Cherries do well, but the crop is much damaged by
birds and wet weather.
4c  Half hardy and tender fruits.—Only in a small way.    Hardy varieties do well.
6. Dairy.—There are several milk ranches; most of the milk  is  sold  in  town.    Very
little butter and cheese made except for private consumption.
7. Bees.—Only in a small way.    From my experience it was a failure.
8. Flax.—No.    Years ago it was grown in a small way.    The seed was sold to druggists,
but there was no demand for it.
9. Poultry.—No.    The raising of poultry alone has generally proved a failure.
10. Wool.—In a small way.    No.    Passably; fleeces averaging 7 lbs.
11. Live Stock.--The taste for improved breeds is gradually increasing,  but breeders do
not receive much encouragement. Light draught horses. Cattle, equally for beef
and milk.    Sheep for mutton.    Pigs, Berkshires are the favourites.
12. Weather.—Very bad for harvesting.    A late frost early in June did much harm to
young fruit, while an early one in September injured corn, tomatoes, pumpkins, &c.
13. Diseases and Pests.—To plant life the varieties of aphis are most injurious.    The
thistle and the cammomile are two of the worst weeds in this district to extirpate.
(See under Diseases and Pests. — J. R. A.) Perhaps one-third of the grain crop
has been lost through the wet weather this spring and fall. Colic and zymotic
diseases, I think, prove most fatal to live stock.
14. Labour.—Experienced farm hands are scarce.    White men are paid from $15 to  $40
per month and board; Chinese, $1 per day, or 10 cents per hour, without board.
Natives seldom condescend to work on farms now.
15. Ensilage.—Not to my knowledge.
16. Fall Ploughing.—The season has been so wet that very little has been done.    I do not
think 100 acres have been ploughed in the district this fall. 796 Report on Agriculture. 1891
LAKE
Has about sixty-five farmers. As will be seen by Mr. G. W. Anderson's report, a considerable quantity of grain, hay and root crops were raised, the early wet militating against the
harvest considerably. A large quantity of fruit was produced, which did not seem to be so
seriously affected by the cold winds as in the adjacent Districts of Victoria and Saanich. It
is impossible to judge from returns of the proportion of land under cultivation, but probably
about twenty per cent.    Opinions and replies are as follows :—
Wages.—$45 per month, no board; $23.50 per month and board by the year; $1 per
day and board—ordinary farm labour.
Mr. John Black.—Spring wheat, oats, peas, potatoes, carrots, fruits, blue grass, red and
white clover, all well adapted.
Mr. John Stevens.—There was a good deal of rain during harvest, which spoiled considerable grain, otherwise the yield would have been heavier than usual. There was quite a
sharp frost in June, which did some damage to the potato crop.
Mr. Thos. Luscombe.—Late spring, late frost, dry summer; autumn rain came three
weeks earlier than usual.
Mr. F. G. Heal.—More rain than usual.
Mr. Geo. W. Anderson.—All root crops, temperate climate fruits, early peaches, grapes,
tomatoes and apricots do well. Prunes do well, but more krrowledge of drying is required.
Holstein and Jersey cattle best for dairying. Too many dogs at large for sheep-raising ; most
farmers have gone out of the business. Spring late and wet. Summer dry until harvest,
then it set in wet and did a considerable damage to grain, by discolouring and sprouting.
Lake,  12th January, 1892.
J. R. Anderson, Esq.
My Dear Sir,— * * * From information received from parties running and operating threshing machines, I gather that there was grown in this district about 11,000 bushels
of oats, 1,000 of wheat, 250 tons of hay, and 75 tons of potatoes, and a large amount of mangolds and other cattle food. You will be good enough to remember that farmers of this
district, and some others, had very bad harvest weather, much of their grain being more or
less damaged by rain in the harvest time, and they have been at their wit's end to keep it
from spoiling entirely; as it is, much of it has been disposed of at a loss. And that does not
help them any in making out reports, and possibly may account for the reason of their not
complying with the request; and also, there is more clearing going on than usual, so that, as
a class, they have been kept very busy.
Sincerely yours,
Geo. W. Anderson.
SAANICH—(NORTH AND SOUTH),
Containing about one hundred and thirty-five farmers, may fairly be entitled, I think, to be
called the garden of the Island. The remarkable fertility of the soil and the equable climate
renders the successful cultivation of all grain, root crops, hops, and fruits, both hardy and half
hardy, an easy matter in most seasons. The last was certainly exceptional, as much of the
grain was damaged by wet, and the fruit crop, to a great extent, ruined by late spring frosts.
It is particularly well adapted to the cultivation of hops, which here attain great perfection
and have a reputation in the English as well as the Eastern markets. This industry is being-
prosecuted with vigour, and promises to form one of the leading features of the agricultural
products of Saanich. A fair number of sheep are raised, the fleeces averaging as high as 7 lbs.
A good deal of butter is made, and a large quantity of grain, hay, hops, roots, and fruit was
marketed. It cannot be ascertained from returns as to the proportion of land cultivated,
probably 25 to 35 per cent. The opinions and replies received, and report of correspondent,
are as follows :—
Wages.—$20 to $25 per month and board, $1.25 to $1.50 per day and board for ordinary
farm labour; $2.50 per day and board, other. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. -797
Mr. Xavier Marcotte, South Saanich.—Strawberries are my best crop. Graded stock
is the best in the woods.
Mr. Thomas Graham, South Saanich.—As to pests, the wire worm does great damage
to grain crops and potatoes here. The Blue Jay also is a great pest; I think that something
ought to be done to thin them out, as they carry away unknown dollar's worth of grain every
year. If it could be made compulsory for every farmer to have a certain number killed every
year, it might help to keep them down.
Mr. H. Simpson, South Saanich.—Hog cholera is troublesome.
Mr. J. T. McIlmoyl, North Saanich.—Weather unfavourable and wet in spring, very
dry and warm during summer; wet in harvest, damaging about three-fourths of the grain crop;
late frost in spring damaging fruit crop.
Mr. John J. Downey, North Saanich.—The spring was wet and cold; summer dry and
scorching; harvest wet; no fost; plums a total failure.
Mr. Wm. Thomson, South Saanich.—I have harvested grain in South Saanich since
1856, and this has been the wettest harvest I have experienced.
35 bushels per acre;
price $37.50 per ton.
30
30 to $35  „
35
„       30
40
25 to   30 „
30
„       30
Mr. J. T. McIlmoyl, Correspondent, North Saanich.
1. Wheat (fall),
Wheat (spring)
Barley,
Oats,
Peas,
2. Hay.—1^ tons per acre; $18 per ton.
3. Potatoes.—150 bushels per acre; $20 per ton.
4. Apples.—2 cents per lb.
Pears,      2 „
Has the crop been good or bad?—Fruit crop very poor.
Was the fruit of good quality?—Quality good.
4c. Half-hardy and tender fruits.—Peaches are grown only in sheltered places; tomatoes
grow in gardens and succeed very well; the other fruits named are not generally
grown.
6. Dairy.—The dairy business is not extensively followed, but more or less butter is made
upon every farm, prices range from 30 to 50 cents per ft. Cheese is not manufactured.
7. Bees.—This industry has been tried in one or two instances,  but with  unsatisfactory
results.
8. Flax—No attempt has been made towards its cultivation.
9. Poultry.—This branch is not conducted with much system, although large numbers of
fowls are raised yearly; the number kept over from year to year may be estimated
from one hundred to five hundred per farm. It is a profitable branch of farming
and is deserving of more attention.
10. Wool.—This district is not adapted for sheep-raising on a large scale, the farms  being
too small. Small flocks are kept with profit. Situated so near Victoria lambs
are always in good demand at profitable prices. Wool is scarcely taken into
account, the prices obtained being so low.
11. Live Stock.—Farmers  in  general  do appreciate the desirability of improving their
breeds. In horses, good specimens of Shire and Suffolk Punch have been imported, with satisfactory results. In cattle, the Durhams are preferred for beef,
and Jerseys for milk, while of late some importations of Herefords have been
made, but results unknown. The Hampshire and Oxford downs seem to be preferred in the sheep line, while the Berkshire is the standard pig. 798 Report on Agriculture. 1891
12. Weather.—The weather has been unfavourable throughout the season; the heavy rains
during April prevented seeding until an unusual late period; the summer months
were very dry and warm, the rain again setting in early in September, when not
more than one-fourth the harvest was housed, thereby damaging, to a considerable
extent, the remaining portion. Late frosts in spring did serious damage to the
fruit crop.
14. Labour.—Labour sufficient for the demand, principally white. The average price per
month, with board, $25; by the day, $1.50 and board.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Very little ploughing has been done, owing to the lateness of harvest
and unfavourable weather since.
SHAWNIGAN,
Including Cobble Hill and McPherson's.
There are about seventy-five ranchers hereabouts, but as many are new settlers a comparatively small area only is under cultivation—about seven per cent, according to returns.
Hay and root crops are principally cultivated. Fruit does well, and its culture is being entered
into pretty generally. Some butter is manufactured, and a considerable quantity of poultry is
raised and sent to the Victoria market. The district is rendered easy of access by the E. &,
N. Railroad, which runs through it. Much of the country is wooded and swampy, requiring
clearing and draining before it can be cultivated.     Opinions and replies received are as follows:
Wages.—$35 to $40 and board per month; $1.50 and board per day for ordinary farm
labour; $3.50 and board per day for other.
Messrs. J. E. & A. C. Houghton, Malahat.—About 20 acres marsh, all reclaimable.
Mr. S. A. Olney, Shawnigan.—Fall wheat, red and white clovers, timothy, orchard
grass, mangolds, and turnips do well.
Mr. Wm. Millett, Quamichan.—Best adapted, wheat and oats, all kinds of grasses and
clovers, all kinds of roots, all kinds of fruit.
Mr. E. H. Forrest, McPherson's.—Swamp (60 acres) all reclaimable; high land no good;
swamp I cannot get on to in time to get crops to ripen. I sow oats about the beginning of
July, and have to hurry up to get them in green before it is too late. The swamp consists of
from eight to nine hundred acres. I have lost two acres of oats through rain late in spring
and early in fall; they are in the field rotting, cannot do anything until swamp is drained.
Porter Bros., McPherson's.—The whole of our swamp land (58 acres) is reclaimable.
Potatoes and timothy are well adapted.
Mr. James Freeman, Cobble Hill.—I was too early putting crops in this year; late rains
came and the seed rotted in the ground.    Better luck next time.
Mr. Wm. Hawthornthwaite, McPherson's.—Late spring and wet; dry in summer; unfavourable for crops; no frosts.
COWICHAN,
Including Sahtlam and the Lake.
There are about one hundred and eighty-five settlers hereabouts. This rich and important
district has such a variety of soil and climate that it is possible to raise all the ordinary crops
and fruits. Some grain is grown, principally oats; the yield was good, but the fall rains
destroyed a great deal. A large quantity of hay of the very best quality was grown, and was
well saved. Root crops, although yielding well, were also somewhat affected by the early wet,
causing rot amongst some of the potatoes. Orchards are being set out in all parts, and in a
few years Cowichan will no doubt come to the front as a fruit growing district. The same
trouble, as elsewhere, caused a failure amongst plums and peaches, and a short crop of cherries.
Apples were much troubled with the bark louse, aphis, and borer, damaging a large proportion 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 799
of the crop. Dairying is carried on quite extensively, and a large quantity of butter was
manufactured. A good many sheep are kept, the fleeces averaging about 4 pounds. Poultry
raising, although not carried on with any degree of system, is nevertheless prosecuted to a
considerable extent. From returns received, about 11 per cent, of the land owned is cultivated.
Opinions and replies, and reports of correspondents, are as follows :—
Wages.—Ordinary farm labour, $25 to $30 per month and board; $1.50 per day and
board. Haying, $2 to $3 and board per day. Chinese, $1 to $1| per day; no board. Carpenters, $3 to $3.50 per day.    Other labour, $2.50 to $4 per day.
Mr. G. T. Corfield, Corfield.—Late spring. Wet weather damaged considerable late
grain.    Very wet, then very dry, and very wet again the latter part of harvest.
Mr. Walter Ford, Quamichan.—Oats, peas, and wheat do well; barley I have not
tried. Timothy and clover do remarkably well. The season, on the whole, has been wet. A
good deal of rain in June, rather too much for grain, but made the hay crop very good; then
we had a very wet spell in the middle of September, which injured a good lot of oats.
Mr. Nicholas May, Cowichan.—Eight acres of swamp, all reclaimable. I have only
just begun to plough my land, consequently my knowledge of the virtues of the soil is very
limited, but I am inclined to think that the want of rain during the growing season is our
greatest trouble. My experience with the common red clover this year is very encouraging.
The rain fell early this fall, and has done considerable damage to late oats and potatoes.
Mr. Alex. Shaw Drummond, Comiaken.—Red and white clover do well. I have one
Jersey cow. The peach and plum trees were touched with a strong frost in early spring, and
have not had nearly so much fruit as in former years.
Messrs. Thos. & M. J. Marshall, Corfield.—Wheat and oats grow very well; peas
are about the best yield of any grain. Apples : Canadian Reinette, best of any; Swaar, very
well; Rhode Island Greening, very well. I find the best stock is that that was here when I
came, a mixture of Shorthorn and Hereford; very little Spanish blood in them. I may state
that, with regard to live stock, there is no disease peculiar to the district, but we have had
epizootic amongst horses this summer, but not very bad. We have grasshoppers rather
troublesome sometimes. The frost blight is the worst thing on apple trees; we have also the
little grub in the bark, killing trees sometimes; bark louse as well. The codling moth in the
apples takes, many a time, one-third of them. Black currants have all a little white worm in
them; occasionally they are every one affected with them, and no use on that account. The
weather, on the whole, has been favourable for mostly all crops ; no frosts this summer, and up
to this time (28th October), but rather wet in September, and more so in October. Some
grain has been spoiled (oats), and also oat hay.    Spring was rather late on undrained land.
Mr. Wm. Ci-iisholm, Cowichan.—Swamp, five acres, all reclaimable. I am butter-making
for a living, so I haven't much time to fool with raising grain or other produce; the straw
would be of no use to me. When I came here, it was all heavily timbered, and I had to make
butter on a few cows to make a living, and keep increasing as I could get land cleared to raise
hay to keep them in winter, so I don't raise grain.
Mr. John Mahoney, Cowichan.—Fruits do well. The apple suffers much from the
scale louse; there are also some borers, but not many. I lost a good many apple trees—scale
louse chief cause. Root crops do well. Of grain, wheat and oats do best; not much good for
barley. Grasses, timothy and common red clover are best; orchard grass and perennial rye grass
do well, but ripen too early, and hard to save; all grasses suitable for a northern latitude do well
here. My cattle are common breed. I consider the Ayrshire, or common kind, best for this
locality, because the land is rough, and cattle have to travel a good deal for their pasturage.
I notice that big breeds of cattle have a tendency, in their offspring, to grow smaller and adapt
themselves to their surroundings. Cattle are pretty free from diseases, but the weeds are
something terrible—thistles and trash galore. Weather much as usual; late wet spring,
rather dry summer, and pretty wet fall.    Frost don't harm me; I live near the salt water.
Mr. W. P. Jaynes, Quamichan.—Oats and all kinds of grasses, apples and all kinds of
small fruits, do well. 800 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. Wm. Beaumont, Maple Bay.—Swamp all reclaimable (120 acres). I believe grapes,
peaches, &c, would ripen here; all the ordinary fruits do well. I have no pedigree stock;
my cows are good milkers. As people here mostly make a living by butter-making, with a
few chickens and pigs, they simply pick out the best and breed from them.
Mr. H. O. Wellburn, Comiaken.—Sixty to seventy acres swamp is reclaimable. Root
crops succeed well. Oats (the grain best adapted), wheat, and barley yield largely. Pears,
cherries, and plums give heavy crops, and apples, although requiring greater care in protecting
against disease and insects, do almost equally well. All small fruits yield largely, but gooseberries, except the Houghton and Downing, generally mildew. Timothy, cocksfoot, red clover,
(common and cow grass), alsike, and white clover are generally successful. Redtop and rye
grass are also grown. A rather wetter summer than the average. A good hay year, but late
oats and grain suffered somewhat. A late spring frost killed nearly all peach blossom, and,
in many localities, frosts seriously affected plums, and even apples in some cases.
Mr. Arthur Robinson, Duncan's.—All small grains do well; also roots and vegetables.
The finest of apples, pears, cherries, and plums grow here, and bear every year. Orchard
grass, timothy, and red clover are mostly grown here.
Rev. D. Holmes, Duncan's.—All of swamp land (180 acres) is reclaimable. Wheat,
oats, barley, corn, and all kinds of roots are well adapted. Fall wheat is best, but spring
wheat will do well; must be sown early. The Canadian Banner oats I find, by testing, the
most free from smut, and ripen earliest. Cory corn ripens well. I have had timothy 16 years,
and good yet; does not run out on my land. Clover grows luxuriantly, alsike very heavy, but
timothy runs it out; orchard grass best for pasture and high land. Bees do not thrive—
flowers deficient of honey. Durham cattle for beef; good selected grades for milk. Leicester
sheep best for wool and mutton.
Mr. Alex. Mouat, Sahtlam.—Fifty acres swamp reclaimed; remainder, one hundred
and ten acres, heavily timbered. This land was beaver dam swamp, usually in a flooded condition. Dam was cut and ditches run in, 4 feet deep. Land has settled 2| feet in 7 years;
now fairly solid. Required very little cultivation to get good crops of grass ; simply burned
about 2 inches deep, and seed scratched in on the ashes; without further attention now produces first-class crop of timothy. Meadow was originally sown in timothy and orchard grass ;
the former has entirely supplanted the latter. Some creeping bent grass sown seems to thrive.
Timothy, without doubt, is the most suitable in all respects; wet alone seems to hurt it.
Market being distant (Cowichan Lake), have tried no roots. Similar land produces splendid
crops of potatoes and other roots. Cultivators of this kind of land should avoid draining too
deep; surface water must be kept off, otherwise growth of grass will be stunted. Have tried
no grain of any sort; no doubt it would produce good oats. There are small patches of beaver
swamp, also alder bottom, in my neighbourhood, but nothing worth while cultivating. Good
road runs through this district (Sahtlam). District, generally speaking, rough and heavily
timbered—fir, &c. Pests : some Canada thistles, probably introduced in grass seed. Late
spring; season favourable.
Messrs. Price Bros., Somenos.—Oats are most suitable ; both red and white clovers do
very well.
Mr. H. S. Cargill, Somenos.—Too dry in the spring. A frost early in June cut off a
lot of young fruit.
Mr. John N. Evans, Somenos.—Any kind of grain, except fall wheat, does well; fall
wheat, in some spots, does well also. Timothy, orchard grass, and clovers are best suited. No
pedigree stock; bull: Durham, of good breed; cows : common stock, principally crossed by
Durham.
Mr. Matthew T. Johnston, Somenos.—All kinds of grain, roots, and fruits yield abundant crops with proper cultivation. I have a Shorthorn bull; Shorthorn breed is considered
most suitable for the district.
Mr. Jas. Jones, Seymour.—All grains, root crops, and fruits succeed. As I believe I
am the only one living in this district, or doing any improvements, I will make a few remarks
as to the climate, &c. This district is west of Somenos, and, about where I am living, there
is a slight difference in the soil and climate to what it is at Somenos, two or three miles from 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 801
here. The soil here is more loose after once broken up; it is more of a mineral soil, more
gravelly, and very stony. The water in the creeks is more blue. There is less dew in sunrmer,
less late and early frosts. This fall I had two small patches of raspberry, and two strawberry
plants (a small long kind), which had ripe berries up to about the 9th of November. I do
grow a few vegetables. There is no road into the district, so I have no crops of grain, except
1 have been experimenting a little with some ounce packages. From part of an ounce package
of French hybrid oats, I got thirteen and a half pounds.    My fruit trees are not in bearing.
Mr. John Watson, Somenos.—Timothy, redtop, and red clover do well. Weather
favourable for our crops.
Mr. Angus J. Bell, Somenos.—Oats is the best adapted grain. Plums and pears seem
to yield the best.    Timothy is the best for hay.    My bull is Durham.
Mr. Chas. Bayly, Cowichan Lake.—Potatoes, oats, turnips, carrots, cabbages, and
beets all do right well. In grasses, I have only tried cocksfoot, timothy, and cow grass, which
do excellent.    Spring and summer favourable; late in autumn very wet.
Mr. Wm. DrinKwater, Somenos.—Fall wheat and corn are very uncertain in this
neighbourhood. Spring wheat and peas do fairly well. I am not aware of any pedigree stock
in this part, but there are a few said to be pure, or nearly so, Shorthorns and Jerseys. I
think good grade stock is as good as any. Pests : ox-eye daisies and a very rough thistle are
our worst weeds, both comparatively new.
Mr. Robert Miller Morrison, Comiaken.—The weather has been bad all the year
round—wet when it should have been dry, and vice versa. No spring at all; nothing but
slush and mud. Half of the oat crop rotted in the fields, and now the potato crop is entirely
rotted.
Mr. J. J. Robinson, Sahtlam.—The weather was all that could be desired;" did not
harm the crops in any way. There were frequent showers during the summer months; no
frosts, and a late spring.
Mr. H. T. Castley, Quamichan.—April was a very wet month, seed time was consequently late; flat or bottom land could not be sown with grain before the first or second
week in June. On this land, harvest was late. September was a wet month, and a quantity
of the grain crop suffered damage from rain; some small patches have not been harvested at
all. No frosts occurred to harm crops. Most of the men who hold land around here are of
the labouring class, and are obliged to work for wages during the best part of the year in order
to earn money to support them through the winter months, therefore, agriculture is in a very
backward state. The land is all very heavily timbered, and the best pieces, when clearing has
been accomplished, all require to be drained before they can be profitably farmed. It is four
and a half years since I came into this country, and I am sorry to say that improvements made
in the district around during that time have been very small indeed. Those who have capital
won't expend it in subduing the land, therefore the process, under existing circumstances,
must be very long and tedious. The only places that can be called farms are those-that were
taken up by the first settlers. They had the first chance of the land, and, as a matter of
course, took up the best pieces, and those that were easiest to clear. These advantages, combined with the number of years the occupiers have been employed on them, have resulted in a
few tolerable farms being made.
Mr. James Abernethy, Cowichan Lake.—Favourable spring.    Latter part of fall wet.
Mr.  Geo.  F.   Wake,   Sahtlam. —Wet,  late  spring;  very wet fall;  first  killing frost,
about 1st November; snow, 16th November.
Dr. Lindsay F. Dickson, Quamichan.—Spring late and cold, followed by too much rain
in June. Root and potato crops very poor, but the former much improved by unusually
early and continued rain in September and October.
Mr. G. T. Corfield, Correspondent, Corfield.
1. Wheat (spring).—30 bushels per acre; $40 per ton.
Oats, 50      „ „ 30      „
Peas,                       30      „            „            40      „
2. Hay.—2 tons per acre. 802 Report on Agriculture. 1891
3. Potatoes.— 5 tons per acre; $20 per ton.
Mangolds,  25            ,, No market.
Carrots,      20             ,, „
Turnips,      25             ,,                      ,,
Grasses : timothy, red top, cocksfoot, perennial rye. Clover: red. Mangolds: long
red and yellow globe. Carrots : white Belgian, long red, early horn. Turnips :
Swede.
4. Apples, 2J cents per ft.
Pears, 2 J ,,
Plums and Prunes, 2 ,,
Cherries,                  10             ,,
Peaches.—Not sufficient for sale.
Quinces.—         ,,                    ,,
Other fruit.—Strawberries arrd raspberries, 10 cents per ft.
Has the crop been good or bad ?—Rather poor.
Was the fruit of good quality ?—No.
4b.  Names of most suitable Fruits.—It is not studied here, neither are they grown with
the object of marketing.
4c.   Half-hardy and tender fruits.—Peaches,  grapes  and  melons have been tried  on a
small scale, and would do fairly well.    Tomatoes do very well.
6. Dairy.—Not as much as it should be.    Indifferent.    Not much butter and no cheese.
30 cents per ft.
7. Bees.—No.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—There is more attention paid to this branch than any other, but it is all on
a very small scale and not much system.
10. Wool.—Not particularly.    No.    Fairly well.
11. Live Stock.—Not as a rule, but some do.    Percheron for draught; also crossed with
the native mares make good carriage and general purpose horses. Shorthorn for
beef; Holstein-Fresian for beef and milk ; Jersey for butter. Sheep, Shropshire
Down.    Pigs, Berkshire.    Poultry, Leghorns and Plymouth Rocks.
12. Weather.—The weather was good at the beginning of harvest, but very wet before it
was all finished, and damaged and destroyed considerable grain.
13. Diseases and Pests.—There is  no  disease  of  animals  here.    The apple-borer is very
destructive to fruit trees.    (See Diseases and Pests.—J. R. A.)
14. Labour.—Sufficient, all three, but principally white and Indian.    $30 per month and
board.
15. Ensilage.—No.
16. Fall Ploughing.—There has been some ploughing done; on about  half the farms an
acre or two ; a few, 10 to 30 acres, and one or two 50 or 60.
Mr. Chas. Bayly, Correspondent, Cowichan Lake.
1. Only oat hay grown; produce 3 tons per acre; price, $25 per ton.
2. Hay.—2| tons per acre ; $25 per ton.
3. Potatoes.—7 tons per acre ; $40 per ton.
Turnips.—12 tons per acre; $20 per ton.
Early Rose potatoes, King Swede turnips, timothy and cocksfoot,  are sorts usually
grown.    All do well.    Oats grown last season were much injured by smut.
4. A few small orchards planted here for last year or two, too young to bear; but I
expect most fruits will do first-class. LEGISLATIVE ASSEM I
55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 803
6. Dairy.—Not followed.
7. Bees.—Not tried.
9.  Poultry.—A few settlers keep hens for their own use.    Neither eggs or chickens raised
for market.
10. Wool.—I believe most of the neighbourhood is  well adapted   for sheep-raising,  but
nothing can be done until more land is cleared for winter keep,  and some  of the
panthers got rid of.
11. Live Stock.—There are neither cattle, sheep nor horses in the district, except one pair
of oxen.    One settler had a few cattle; he sold them,  as he found  buying arrd
hauling winter feed too expensive.
12. Weather.—Except that the summer was a little too dry,  and  last month (October)
being very wet, I'd say the weather was very favourable.    No frost up to this
worth noticing.
13. Diseases and Pests.—Crops in this district are very free from  diseases and pests.
There are a few bad weeds, but nothing uncommon.
14. Labour.—Farm labour is fairly abundant.    White only  employed.    Average wages,
$2 per day.
15. Ensilage.—Not been tried.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Very little.
CHEMAINUS, KUPER, AND THETIS ISLANDS
Have about thirty-five settlers. Root crops and fruit are principally cultivated. Some
butter is manufactured, Durham cattle being preferred. On the islands a number of sheep
are reared, there being good runs. A considerable number of pigs are raised in Chemainus.
A large proportion of the land is wooded heavily, hence only a comparatively small proportion
is cultivated—say about seven per cent, according to returns. The opinions and replies of
residents are appended :—
Wages.—Ordinary farm labour, $30 per month and board; $1.50 per day and board.
Skilled, $2 to $3 per day and board.
Mr. Henry W. Sitwell, Thetis Island.—White Russian oats and Red English wheat
are the best grain crops. All kinds of potatoes and fruit do well. Timothy and red clover
appear to be the best grasses, and in the low-lying ground perennial rye grass. One imported
Southdown ram. I find Shorthorn cattle do as well as any on this island. Pests : The thistle
has lately made its appearance, owing chiefly, I think, to the Indians not having cut them on
their reserve.
Capt. Robt. E. Barkley, Chemainus.—Timothy and red clover for hay is best. All
kinds of root crops grow well. Grain, very good indeed. Shorthorns, I think, are best suited
for these parts.
Mr. Geo. R. Porter, Chemainus.—As far as I have seen any grain or fruit will «row
luxuriantly.
Mr. Gaylord Hadwen, Chemainus.—About seventy-five acres of my one hundred and
fourteen acres of swamp could be dyked. Oats, wheat, apples, timothy, red and white clover
all do well.    Shorthorn cattle, Oxford and Shropshire sheep are best suited. 804 Report on Agriculture. 1891
SALT SPRING ISLAND
Has about one hundred and five ranchers. It is an island eminently adapted to fruit
growing, which is carried on extensively, some of the finest fruit offered in the market coming
from there. Here again the plum and cherry crops were destroyed by late spring frosts, and
apples did not yield a full crop. In my opinion it is a district where all the tender fruits
could be grown for the Victoria market with success, a season like the last being of very rare
occurrence. Surrounded as it is by the salt water, the valleys protected alike from the cold
northerly winds of winter and the southerly sea breezes of summer, offer the very best facilities
for peach, apricot, nectarine, and melon growing, while the hot rocky slopes of the hills seem
to be intended by nature for grape culture. Thus far people have been content to grow the
ordinary fruits, but it is hoped attempts will soon be made to grow the other, and probably
more profitable, fruits.
Grain comes to prefection, and can, on account of the small rainfall, be well saved in
ordinary seasons. Last season was an exception, the early fall rains having destroyed the late
grain. Root crops did well and gave excellent returns. A considerable number of cattle are
kept, and a quantity of butter was manufactured and disposed of in the Nanaimo and Victoria
markets. The absence of wild animals, and the excellent runs the hills afford, make sheep
raising more profitable here than in most places, and a large number are reared all over the
island. Complaints are made, however, of the low price obtairrable for wool, and little
attention is in consequence bestowed upon it, the fleeces according to returns only averaging a
little over three and a half pounds. A large portion of the island being hilly and wooded,
devoted to sheep runs, there is comparatively little under cultivation, about six per cent, of
land owned according to returns. Opinions and replies of farmers, and reports of correspondents, are as follows :—
Wages.—Ordinary farm labour, $25 per month and board ; $1.50 per day and board.
Mr. J. J. Walsh, Burgoyne Bay.—I prefer orchard grass and common red clover for
my locality.
Mr. Alex. Wilson, Burgoyne Bay.—Very late spring, and very late in getting spring
work finished. Very early rains in fall, damaging crops to a very large extent, but improving
root crops.
Mr. Henry Ruckle, Beaver Point.—One pedigree Jersey bull.
Mr. Alex. McLennan, Beaver Point.—Oats and wheat do well. Apples, Gravenstein,
Canada Reinette, best. The Winter Nelis pear a complete failure with me, as it was with my
neighbours. Clover and timothy for hay ; all yield abundantly. Good animals of any breed
suit. No diseases in animals. Smut in grain; without it is well bluestoned. A few rats and
blue jays. A grass known as cheat grass takes possession of timothy fields, every farmer
complaining for the past two years.
Mr. William Caldwell, Vesuvius Bay.—I have twenty acres of salt marsh, which is
all reclaimable.
Mr. R. A. R. Purdy, Vesuvius Bay.—Cleared land will grow any of the temperate zone
grains, vegetables, fruits, or grasses. Orchard young and only commencing to bear. Pests :
Green fly and borers retard the growth of apple trees. Spring was late, cold, wet, and frosty.
Many fruit buds were destroyed by frost. Harvest weather very wet, grain ruined with
heavy continuous rain.    Good summer for root crops.
Mr. Joel Broadwell, Vesuvius Bay.— Oats, wheat, potatoes, turnips, and any of the
clovers and grasses do well. Bees not a success. Pests : Something stinging the plum ; also
green fly injuring apple trees.
Mr. Alex. Gwynne, Vesuvius Bay.—Oats, turnips, plums, grasses, and clover all
suitable. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 805
Mr. Theo. Trage, Correspondent, Beaver Point, Salt Spring Island.
1. Wheat (fall).—20 bushels, 2 cents per pound.
Wheat (spring) 16 ,,      2    „ „
Oats,                    60         „      1J „
Peas, 30        ,,      2    „ ,,
2. Hay.—2 tons, $15 per ton.
3. Potatoes.— 3| tons, $18 per ton.
Mangolds, 60    „        6      ,,
Carrots, 60    „       10      „
Turnips, 80    ,,        6      „
4. Apples, 2 cents.
Pears, 2      ,,
Plums and Prunes, 2      „
Cherries, 6       „
Has the crop been good or bad ?—Middling.
Was the fruit of good quality ?—Yes.
4a. Soil for fruits.—Dry sandy loam is the best soil for all kinds of fruit.
4b. Names of most suitable fruits.—Apples : Early Harvest, Gravenstein, Baldwin, Haas,
Canada Reinette, Gloria Mundi, Wealthy. Pears : Bartlett, Duchesse D'Angou-
leme, Keefer's Hybrid, Vicar of Wakefield, Winter Nelis. Plums: Magnum
Bonum, Japanese, Golden Drop, Greengage.    Cherries : Gov. Woods.
4c. Half-hardy and tender fruits.—No.    They have never been tried to any extent.
6. Dairy.—There are only a few settlers who make the manufacture of butter a special
business, prices ranging from 25 cents to 40 cents per pound. Cheese is not made
at all.
9. Poultry.—Nearly everybody has hens, and all agree that they are very profitable.
10. Wool.—Yes.    All the grazing land is utilized for sheep runs.    Wool is very good
quality, but the prices are small.
11. LiveStock.—Yes.    Cattle: Shorthorns for beef ; Jerseys for milk.    Sheep: Cotswold
for wool; Southdown for mutton.   Pigs: Berkshire.    Poultry: Leghorn, Plymouth
Rock.
12. Weather.—No.    Too much rain.    There have been no frosts this season to do any
damage.
14. Labour.—Labour is very scarce; only white men are working here.    Wages, $1  per
day.
15. Ensilage.—No.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Fall ploughing began about two weeks ago.    Much retarded by rain
(20th November, 1891).
Mr. R. A. R. Purdy, Correspondent, Vesuvius, Salt Spring Island.
1. Wheat (spring).—15 bushels, 1| cents per pound.
Oats, 25       „       l|    „
Peas, 20       „       2      „
2. Hay.—1 to 2 tons; $20.
3. Potatoes.—4 to 6 tons ; $20.
Turnips.—5 to 10    „
All cereals do well here, but this locality is more adapted for fruit farming than for
any other. 806 Report on Agriculture. 1891
4. Apples, 2J cents per pound.
Pears, 2A    „
Plums and Prunes,     2 J    ,, ,,
Cherries, 5      „ ,,
Peaches, 5      ,, ,,
Other fruits.—Currant, raspberries, strawberries, 10 cents per pound.
Has the crop been good or bad ?—Cherry and peach destroyed by frost.
Was the fruit of good quality ?—Crop small, but fruit large and of good quality.
4a. Soil for fruits.—A clayey loam seems to produce the best fruit.
4b. Names of most suitable fruits.—Apples : Gravenstein, Bellefleur, Brandy Pippin,
Swaar, Spitzenberg, Twenty Ounce. Pears : Bartlett, Keefer, Pound, Beurre.
Plums : Egg Plum, Blue Purple, Japan, Bradshaw. Cherries : White Heart, May
Duke, Black Eagle.
4c. Half-hardy and tender fruits.—All these have been tried with success. They require
sheltered situations. Tomatoes average from two to twelve ounces, but often decay
before ripe, owing to heavy rain and excessive damp.
6. Dairy.—Butter is made in small quantities by the farmers.    It is of good quality, from
25 cents to 40 cents per pound.    Cheese not made.
7. Bees.—It has ; failure—no pasture for gathering honey.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—Every householder keeps from 50 to  200 fowls; eggs and spring chickens
are sold in considerable quantities.
10. Wool.—It is, on a small scale, but there is not sufficient cleared land to support large
flocks ; wool poor.
11. Live Stock.—They do.    Hereford cattle for beef and work oxen; Jerseys and Holsteins
for butter; Southdown sheep; Berkshire pigs; Aylesbury ducks; Leghorn, Cochin
China, Brahma, etc., etc., mixed.
12. Weather.—Spring late, cold, wet, frosty; summer fair; autumn  very  rainy; harvest
weather very wet; crops spoiled in many places ; crops suffered from drought in
late spring or early summer.
13. Diseases  and  Pests.—No  serious   pests  here.    No  poisonous  snakes.    Minks  and
raccoons destroy fowls, etc.    Apple trees sometimes  inflicted with plant lice, and
sometimes the borer is seen.
14. Labour.—It is not.    Negro and white, $2 per day.
15. Ensilage.—It has not.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Yes, about 300 acres.
THE ISLANDS,
Comprising Galiano, Mayne, Saturna, Pender, and adjacent Islands.
There are about seventy-five ranchers on these Islands, the most of whom go in for sheep
raising, the same conditions existing here as on Salt Spring Island, viz., the absence of wild
beasts and excellent runs. Next to sheep, fruit is the chief product, large quantities of which
were raised and sent to the Victoria and Vancouver markets. Small fruits, especially strawberries, attain great perfection on these Islands, and are largely cultivated. Butter making-
is also entered into quite largely—Jersey cattle being generally preferred. About six per
cent, of the land owned is cultivated, much of it being fit only for sheep runs. The following
are the answers and opinions of farmers:—
Wages.—Ordinary farm labour $2 per day.
Mr. Warburton Pike, Saturna Island.—Four bulls, seven cows, and seven calves, all
Jersey pedigree cattle. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 807
Mr. Ralph G. Gray, Samuel Island.—A small amount of wheat is raised, of good
quality, also good oat and pea crop. Root crops are not extensively grown, though a great
deal of the soil is well adapted for them. Timothy, red clover, and orchard grass seem to form
the staple grasses of the meadows, and flourish vigourously. White clover and alsike make
good pastures. This is a fine fruit growing locality, both on account of favourable site, soil,
&c, and of the climate, which is mild and equable, owing to proximity of salt water and little
injury done by unseasonable frosts. Late apples are in most favour on account of difficulty of
knowing the markets and sending in at right times the kinds of fruit that don't keep. However people are going in more for strawberries and small fruits now than formerly. We have
a local apple known as the "Mayne Island" or "Hope,"—origin unknown—which is a great
favourite. Gravensteins are the best apples I have tasted in the country, and do well here.
Jersey cattle seem to be favoured round Mayne Island, either pure or crossed with the ordinary cattle (breed unknown) for dairying.
Mr. F. Robson, Mayne Island.—All my marsh land is reclaimable. I have a pedigree
Jersey bull.
Mr. Washington Grimmer, Pender Island.—Thirty acres of marsh land is reclaimed.
All kinds of grains, roots, and most kinds of fruits do splendidly, but the deer are such a pest,
and it costs so much to fence them out, that it hardly pays to raise crops, also considering the
high price and uncertainty of labour.
Mr. Rutherford Hope, Pender Island.—Wheat, oats, peas, rye grass, redtop, timothy,
orchard grass, alsike, white and red clover, all well adapted.
Mr. W. H. Mawdsley, Mayne Island.—All my marsh land is reclaimable. All fruits
suitable for this climate do well here. Clover, both red and white, orchard grass, timothy,
Kentucky blue grass, &c, all very well adapted. One bull and two cows, pedigree stock—
high class Jerseys.    Swine, Suffolk, and doing well.
Mr. W. T. Collinson, Plumper's Pass.—July and August very dry, slightly affected
root crops.    September and October wet beyond average.
Messrs. Murcheson & Sons, Plumper's Pass.—May too wet, June wet, July and August
showers; no frost to hurt the tenderest plants; spring medium early; too wet since the 1st
November.
NANAIMO,
Including Nanoose and Gabriola, DeCourcey and Mudge Islands.
There are about 225 settlers hereabouts. Grain, of course, is not raised to any great
extent, still a considerable quantity of oats was produced. Hay of excellent quality also is
raised, and a large quantity was produced. Root crops produced largely, especially along the
valleys of the rivers. Fruit is also very successfully raised if the slightest attention is paid
to its cultivation. A large number of trees are planted, and gave better returns on the
whole than in other parts. A good deal of butter was made. Opinion is much divided as to
the best breed of cattle. Sheep and poultry raising, especially on the Islands, have a good
deal of attention, sheep giving about 4|-pound fleeces. All these products find a ready sale in
the City of Nanaimo. Proportion of land under cultivation, according to returns, is about
seven per cent.    Opinions and replies, and reports of correspondents, are as follows :—
Wages.—Ordinary farm labour, $25 to $35 per month and board; $1.50 per day and
board; $1.25, Chinese.    Skilled, $2 to $2.50 per day and board.    Girls, $15 per month.
Mr. James N. Algas, Cranberry.—Root crops of any variety do well. The Mammoth
Red or the Golden Fleshed Tankard Mangolds best. Timothy and clover for hay. I think
the Ayrshire cattle the most suitable for general use, but sorry to say they are not obtainable
round here.    Spring very wet; fall also very wet; no frost to hurt.
Mr. John Thomas, South Cedar.—Fifty acres of marsh land reclaimable.
Mr. Tom. Bell, Valdes Island.—All root crops do well, especially potatoes. I have
raised some here weighing from one to three pounds each.
Mr. Francis Veale, Cedar.—AU the marsh (25 acres) reclaimable. I have one Clydesdale mare. 808 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. Ezra S. Cook, Nanaimo.—All grains, roots, fruits—including apricots and peaches—
do well.    Timothy and alsike clover also.    Twenty acres swamp reclaimable.
Mr. James Haggart, Wellington.—Turnips, mangolds, carrots, oats, and fruits of all
kinds give, with care, large crops. Red clover does very well; white clover I think better ;
timothy very good. One great mistake I see with farmers and those growing fruits is they
have no knowledge of pruning their trees and bushes. When properly pruned large fruit and
large crops are the result.
Mr. John Cottle, Wellington.—Twenty acres marsh land reclaimable. Red clover
and all kinds of fruit, except tropical.    Wet weather in fall.
Mr. C. N Young, Departure Bay.—Fall wheat, beets, all kinds of apples, pears, stone
fruit, and small fruit, red and white clover, and orchard grass very suitable. One pedigree
Jersey cow. The Jersey is best for butter if kept in cultivated pasture. The ordinary bush
cow is most useful where wild feed only can be obtained.
Mr. W. J. G. Hellier.—All the swamp is reclaimable by ditching (80 acres). The
swamps in this district are dry in summer and the hay from them is readily eaten by cows.
Everything which has been tried seems to do well.
Mr. J. A. McCarter, Nanoose.—Eighty acres swamp reclaimable. Oats, timothy, and
red clover do well.
Mr. Thos. Kinkade, Nanoose.—Twenty acres easily reclaimed by ditching. Oats,
turnips, potatoes, timothy, red clover, all do well. Have had no experience of fruit. No pests
or diseases of any consequence.
Mr. Herman Gaetjen, Nanoose.—Blue Jays are a pest.
Mr. James Young, Nanoose.—Timothy, clover, oats, barley, and potatoes very suitable.
No trial of any kind of fruit as yet.
Mr. Michael Fitzgerald, Nanoose.—Five acres marsh reclaimable. Timothy and red
clover best adapted for hay. The ordinary grains and roots, apples, pears, and tomatoes all
well adapted. My stock is half Holstein. The Holstein are good butter makers. Pest,
Scotch thistle.
Mr. Utrick E. Dickinson, Nanoose.—The whole of my swamp land (300 acres) is
reclaimable. Oats, potatoes, mangolds, turnips, and all kinds of grasses do well. Half bred
Shorthorns are best; if too well bred they are not so hardy and do not stand the winter.
Messrs. H. Lee, W. H. Lee, and H. R. Lee, Nanoose.—"Pasture land," as described
in returns, is at present wild land. With proper drainage, however, and cultivation it forms
the basis of a valuable agricultural tract. The grain we tried here chiefly, and which has
always done remarkably well, is oats. Barley and wheat have also yielded fair crops on land
partially reclaimed and badly drained.
Mr. Thos. Degnen, Gabriola Island.—Spring wheat and Welcome oats are very
suitable.
Mr. James Lewis, Gabriola Island.—Everything grows well. Oats very heavy;
potatoes extra good.
Mr. Henry Peterson, Gabriola Island.—Oats and wheat and all kinds of grasses
grow well.
Mr. John McLay, Gabriola Island.—All ordinary grain, roots, and fruits, including
melons and a host of other fruits and plants, grow exceedingly well. My stock is common
or crossed breed. I believe Shorthorns for all round purposes, that is for beef and milk,
would pay best. The weather has been everything that could be desired, although cooler and
damper than usual.    Spring medium.    No frost up to date (11th November).
Mr. Geo. McGregor, Cedar.—The last spring was very late and wet; it was almost
impossible to get any seeding done, except where thoroughly drained.
Mr. James Gray, Gabriola.—Late spring.    Weather very wet.
Mr. H. D. Calverley, Nanaimo.—Late spring. Light frost in March. Dry season.
Good harvest weather.
Mr. D. A. McMillan, Nanoose.—Very wet in fore part of season, damaged crops. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture.
Mr. James McLay, Correspondent, Gabriola, Mudge, and DeCourcey Islands.
1. Wheat (spring).—35 bushels.
Oats, 48      ,,
2. Hay.—1| tons.
3. Potatoes.— 5 tons.
Turnips,      10    ,,
Early Rose potatoes and Peachblows.    Timothy grass.    Purple Top Swedes.    Red
clover.
4. Apples, 3 cents.
Pears, 5    ,,
Plums and Prunes,      5    ,,
Cherries, 12-| ,,
Peaches, 12| ,,
Has the crop been good or bad ?—Good.
Was the fruit of good quality ?—Good.
4a. Soil for fruits.—For apples a dry soil, well enriched, and well cultivated. Cherries
and apricots same.    Plums and pears seem to do best in a rich black sandy loam.
4b. Names of most suitable fruits.—Gravenstein is our best early apple. Baldwin does
well, but Rhode Island Greening is the most profitable of all our apples. Flemish
Beauty is the best of our pears. Bradshaw, Goliath, and Yellow Egg are our best
paying plums.    Cherries, Bigarrean, Napoleon, and Red Oxheart are our best.
4c. Half-hardy and tender fruits.—The most of the above do well in warm situations,
especially is this the case with melons and tomatoes.
6. Dairy.—None, except for home use.
7. Bees.—No.
8. Flax.—No attempt.
9. Poultry.—This is one of our principal branches ; in fact with many of our farmers it is
a speciality
10. Wool.—Sheep do well.    We are about equally divided, one-half raising sheep, the
other half cattle.
11. Livestock.—Of the above I can say little as yet.    Likely by another season when
this sort of thing (it is to be hoped) may have worked people's minds up to a
higher standard we will be able to be more explicit. There is a considerable
movement as it is in introducing heavy draught horses.
12. Weather.—Generally favourable.    With the exception of one slight snap of frost I
may say there has as yet been none. But since harvest the weather has been
extremely wet and stormy.    There has been no snow as yet to talk of.
13. Diseases and Pests.—The  scale insect  of the apple  bark  does  great  damage.    (See
" Diseases and Pests.") Then with manure and cultivation comes the green insect
(aphis). This is a horrible pest. Then there is another equaly bad that seems to
get hatched and grows in a sort of white fungus all over the limbs. Plums,
cherries, prunes, and apricots seem to be proof against almost all kinds of insects.
14. Labour.—There is scarcely such a thing to be had as skilled farm labour here.    The
mines being so near us seem to crack that in pieces. What we have then is
unskilled white labour at $2.50 per day.
15. Ensilage.—No.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Scarcely any of it is fall ploughing that is meant. 810 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. W. H. Lee, Correspondent, Nanoose.
4. Fruit raising will become a most important industry, but it is in its infancy at present.
6. Dairy.—A good many going into the business; will develop.
7. Bees.—Not been tried.
13.  Diseases and Pests.—Blue-jays.    Panthers: Fifteen have been shot in Nanoose District
this year.
16. Fall Ploughing.—Over 100 acres have been ploughed.
COMOX,
Including Denman, Hornby, Valdes, and Lasqueti Islands.
There are about two hundred and twenty-five settlers hereabouts. Here, as elsewhere
along the east coast, the acreage under grain is not very large, except in the case of oats,
of which a fair quantity was produced. A large quantity of root crops was also produced, as
well as hay, all of which find good markets at the Union Mines, at Nanaimo, and at Victoria.
Some of the grain and potatoes were injured by the early rains. The yield of all root crops is
large, and, in the case of onions, Mr. Alex. Salmond says that of the Yellow Danvers was at
the rate of 900 bushels per acre. Unlike most of the places on the Island, Comox does not
seem adapted for fruit raising, although on the islands adjacent it seems to do well. Mr.
Hellan attributes the failure of fruit to the mild winters and late frosts. It is a good dairying district, and a large quantity of butter is made, probably more than in any other two
districts of the Island. Sheep and swine are produced in fair numbers, but wool is complained
of as being to low in price—7 and 8 cents. The fleeces run between 5 and 6 lbs. The area
of land under cultivation is about 6 to 7 per cent, of the total owned. Opinions and answers
and reports of correspondents are given below :—
Wages.—Ordinary farm labour, $30 to $35 per month and board; $1.50 to $2 per day
and board.    Other, $2.50 to $3 per day and board.
Mr. John Connell, Comox.—I have dyked in 30 acres not very successfully yet.
Mr. Wm. Rennison.—Oats, turnips, potatoes, orchard grass, common red clover, all do
well.    Diseases : Red water amongst cows.
Mr. S. J. Piercy, Comox.—All ordinary grain, roots, red and white clover, orchard grass,
timothy and rye grass, do well.
Mr. Richard Carter, Comox.—Pests: Mink and coons.
Mr. Daniel Stewart, Comox.—Ten acres marsh reclaimable. Grain and roots of all
kinds do well; fruit has been a failure ; timothy, rye grass, alsike, and red clover successful.
It is only of late years that farmers are beginning to improve stock; some favour Jerseys, but
Durhams are the favourites ; both breeds do well.    I have a grade Durham bull.
Mr. A. O. Hellan, Comox.—In the spring there was some frost very late, which spoiled
the blossoms on the early fruit trees. Early fruit will not as a rule do good here, because the
winter is so mild that they begin to blossom too early. It would be safer to raise fall or
winter fruit, which will do very well. The summer has been in my opinion first-rate, not too
dry or too wet.
Mr. Alex. Salmond, Grantham.—Thirty-two acres marsh, all reclaimable. Cannot give
any data, except as to onions (Yellow Danvers), which grown on the edge of a reclaimed marsh
will fully average at the rate of 900 bushels per acre.
Messrs. R. Duncan & Son, Sandwick.—All kinds of grain and root crops do well with
proper attention; also red clover. Not a good section for fruit, owing to frosts and thaws in
constant succession in early spring. The best suited breeds of cattle would seem to be Ayrshire, or a cross between Jersey and ordinary stock. The pure Jerseys are too tender for a
rough country.    In pigs, a cross between Berkshire and old stock. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 811
Mr. Saml. Creech, Comox.—I have one blooded mare, one graded Percheron mare, one
graded Clydesdale mare.
Mr. R. K. Creech, Comox.—Oats, peas, roots of all kinds, timothy and clover do very
well.
Mrs. R. Creech, Comox.—160 acres of reclaimed swamp, well adapted for hay or root
crops.
Mr. Alex. Ledingham, Grantham.—Suitable: Clover, cocksfoot, root crops, corn, pears,
but not apples.
Mr. John Scott, Hornby Island.—Fall wheat, peas, timothy, clover, apples and pears
do well. Fern is the worst weed here; there are Canada thistles on some places on the
island.
Mr. Geo. Ford, Hornby Island.—All my marsh land is reclaimable (80 acres). Sheep
and fruit best adapted to my locality.
Mr. John Fraser, Sandwick.—Grain harvest very wet; a little frost all through
September.
Mr. A. Milligan, Sandwick.—The weather was generally favourable, with sufficient
rains.    No frost to affect crops.    Spring late and cold.
Mr. Matthew Lyttell, South Comox.—We had one big rain which injured crops,
especially potatoes. We had one late hail storm, which injured fruit. No frost to hurt anything.    Ordinary spring.
Messrs. G. and W. Keenan, Denman Island.—Oats a little damaged by wet spring on
low land; further than that weather was favourable, which is common on this island.
Mr. Douglas L. Herbert, Hornby^ Island.—Oats, peas, apples, pears, plums, timothy,
and alsike do well. I think Shorthorn cattle the best for general purposes. The weather
during haying and harvesting was very good indeed.
Mr. A. Salmond, Correspondent, Comox.
1. Wheat (spring).—25 bushels.
Oats.—1,800 pounds.
2. Hay.—2 tons; $16 per ton.
3. Potatoes.— 5 tons.
Turnips.—30    ,,
4. Apples.—3 cents per pound.
Pears,       4    „ ,,
Good crop and good quality.
4b. Names of fruits best adapted.—Apple trees have not been a success so far. Pears
and plums do well; the best sorts are Bartletts, Winter Nelis, and the Egg Plum.
4c. Half-hardy and tender fruits.—Peaches and apricots have been tried and do well, but
slight frosts in May sometimes injure the blossom. Melons and tomatoes do well
when raised in frames and planted out early in May.
6. Dairy.—There is no cheese factory in the district as yet, and very little cheese manu
factured privately.    A good deal of butter is made ; the average price is about 30
cents per pound.
7. Bees.—It has been tried in one or two instances, but without success.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—Considerable attention is being paid to poultry, but not so much  as might
be ; where proper attention has been paid it has proved a success. 812 Report on Agriculture. 1891
10. Wool.—The price of wool has been from seven to nine cents per pound.    The farmers
do not consider this a sufficient price.
11. Livestock.—Farmers are now beginning to improve their breeds.    Jerseys are the
only pure breeds in the district so far.
12. Weather.—The summer was very favourable till September, when the fall rains com
menced.    Except in one or two instances the grain was secured in good order.
Generally there is a slight frost towards the end of September.
13. Diseases and Pests.—Apple trees seem to be liable to borer and green aphis.    Goose
berries are liable to mildew.
Mr. Douglas L. Herbert, Correspondent, Hornby Island.
1. Wheat (fall),        |     ^^
Wheat (spring),   )
Oats.—40 bushels.
Peas.—35 to 40 bushels.
2. Hay.—1 to 2 tons.
3. Potatoes.—300 bushels.
Turnips.— 600
4. Apples, 3 cents per pound.
Pears, 3    ,, ,,
Plums and Prunes,    3    ,,          ,,
Has the crop been good or bad ?—Very poor this year.
Was the fruit of good quality ?—Very fair.
4b. Names of fruits best adapted.—Apples : Blue Pearmain, Yellow Bellefleur, Baldwin,
Red Astrachan, Rhode Island Greening.    Pears : Bartlett.    Plums: Green Gage.
4c.  Half-hardy and tender fruits.—Tomatoes do well when well cultivated.
6. Dairy.—Not much as yet.    There is not land cleared yet to make good pasturage, and
during certain seasons water is very scarce.
7. Bees.—No.
8. Flax.—No.
9. Poultry.—Poultry pays very well, as eggs command a high price, most of the farmers
here keeping from 50 to 100 hens, but don't seem to go in for poultry in a practical
and systematical manner.
10. Wool.—Yes, it is one of the main industries of the island ; wool averages from five to
six pounds per fleece, but the price of wool is very low, only eight cents per
pound ; mutton about five cents per pound on foot.
11. Live Stock.—No.    Shorthorn.    Horses are not much used here, oxen doing the work.
Cattle are raised principally for beef.   Southdown or Shropshire sheep.   Berkshire
pigs.
12. Weather.—Very favourable as a rule.    No frosts.
13. Diseases and Pests.—All live stock are very healthy, and the percentage of loss is very
small.    I have never lost any cattle since I came here, and only a few old ewes at
lambing time.
14. Labour.—Yes.    White, $20 to $30 per month.
15. Ensilage.—No.
16. Fall Ploughing.—No fall ploughing has been done. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 813
Mr. Alex. McMillan, Correspondent, Denman Island.
1. Oats.—1 ton ;  1^ cents per pound.
2. Hay.—2    „     $14 per ton.
3. Potatoes.—5 tons ;  1 cent per pound.
Turnips.—10 tons.
4. Apples and Pears.—3 cents per pound.
Plums.—5 cents per pound.
Bad crop and quality.
6. Dairy.—Butter, 30 cents per pound.
10. Wool.—Wool very poor.
12.  Weather.—Good harvest weather ; no frosts.
14.  Labour.—Labour not abundant; $25 per month for white.
RUPERT,
Including all that part North of Comox.
There are only some fifteen or twenty people who give their time to agricultural pursuits
in all this large extent of country, the rest of the population devoting their time to fishing,
logging, and other industries. It is well known that root crops flourish in this part of the
country and give large returns, some grains and grasses also do well. Very little is known
about the suitability of the larger fruits; small fruits do well. Queen Charlotte Island has
some fine grazing country, and cattle are bred there in some numbers. A great deal of this
northern country will, no doubt, in time prove to be excellent for dairying, but at the present
time, besides being so sparsely settled, the land is mostly so heavily timbered that but small
portions can be utilized.    I give below the opinions and replies of a few of the inhabitants:—
We. W. D. May, Alert Bay.—Barley, turnips, alsike, all kinds of grasses, gooseberries,
and currants grow well.
Mr. Adam Mathers, Nimpkish River.—Orchard grass, Italian rye grass, and timothy
do well.
Mr. John T. Hammond, Alert Bay.—Barley and oats are very well adapted for this
part, and almost any kind of root crop. I have not yet tried grasses or clovers as this is only
my first year here.
.
KAMLOOPS-OKANAGAN INDIAN AGENCY.
Through the courtesy of J. W. McKay, Esq., Agent, I am enabled to give the following:—
Wages.—Ordinary labour, $1 to $1.50 per day and board; herding, $1.50 to $2 per day.
Very little of the swamp land is reclaimable; in fact, swamp and marsh cover a comparatively small area of the reserves in this agency. Rock predominates in this category. As
the plans of some of the Okanagan and Similkameen Reserves have not as yet been approved
of and issued, the above returns are necessarily incomplete. Where water is scarce, rye is the
only grain that will yield a remunerative crop. Foul meadow grass is the best with which to
replace the natural meadow grasses of the country. The graded stallions are principally
crosses from the Percheron.    The graded bulls are of the Durham stock. 814 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Lands.
Under cultivation  1,960 acres.
Woodland or forest  72,000     „
Swamp, marsh, and rock  60,000     ,,
Pasture land  60,000     „
193,960 acres.
Area in Crops.
Spring Wheat  600 acres.
Barley  100 „
Oats  500 „
Peas  50 ,,
Corn  30 „
Potatoes  400 „
Carrots  20 „
Turnips  120 „
Hay  120 „
1,940 acres.
Apple trees    200
Pear        „          20
Plum       „      15
235
Live Stock.
Stallions (graded)  12
Other horses       5,520
5,532
Bulls (graded)  6
Other cattle    1,030
Calves       500
1,536
Sheep  20
Pigs   640
Geese  150
Other poultry  2,920
Agricultural Machinery and Implements.
Waggons,  carts, &c  40
Ploughs  180
Harrows  73
Reapers, binders, and mowers  17
Horse-rakes     10
Other implements, value $1,000.    Total value, $9,220.
Buildings and Improvements.
Dwellings  575
Barns and stables  260
Other buildings    24
Fencing, miles  140
Other improvements, value $10,045.    Total value, $35,595. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 815
WILLIAMS LAKE INDIAN AGENCY.
Through the courtesy of Wm. Laing Meason,  Esq.,  Agent,   I am  enabled  to  give  the
following :—
Lands.
Under cultivation      1,215 acres.
Woodland or forest    10,150     ,,
Swamp, marsh, rock, and pasture land    58,635     „
70,000 acres.
Area in Crops.
Spring wheat  900 acres.
Barley  40 „
Oats  270 ,,
Peas  55 ,,
Corn  3 ,,
Potatoes  63 „
Carrots     5 ,,
Turnips  10 ,,
Hay  660 „
2,006 acres.
Live Stock.
Horses    3,244
Cattle       531
Pigs    1,020
Agricultural Machinery and Implements.
Waggons, carts,  &c  13
Ploughs  51
Harrows  42
Reapers, binders, and mowers  7
Threshers    1
Horse-rakes  6
Other implements, value $300.    Total value, $4,150.
Buildings and Improvements.
Dwellings ,  394
Barns and stables,  50
Other buildings  102
Fencing,  miles  30
Other improvements, value $7,500.    Total value, $29,400.
Wages.
Ordinary labour, $1 to $1.50 per day.
NORTH-WEST COAST INDIAN AGENCY.
Through the courtesy of 0. Todd, Esq., Agent, I am enabled to give the following:—
Lands.
Under cultivation  84 acres.
Woodland, &c, not known.
Pasture    20,000     „
20,084 acres. 816 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Area under Crops.
Potatoes  17    acres.
Carrots      2       ,,
Turnips     6       „
Hay        31     „
Small fruits, &c      7       ,,
35-| acres.
Live Stock.
Geldings    8
Mares     6
Colts    4
18
Bulls  3
Cows  10
Beef and other cattle  90
Calves  17
120
Pigs      40
Poultry 3000
Agricultural Implements.
Value    $360
Buildings and Improvements.
Dwellings •    980
Barns and stables      15
Other buildings      26
Fencing,  miles  .     20
Value $347,450
Hay, Roots and Vegetables.
Hay  7 tons.
Potatoes  108    „
Carrots  6     „
Turnips  21    „
Cabbage .'.".'  3    „
Fruit.
Apples	
Plums	
Cherries ...
Strawberries
Gooseberries
Raspberries .
Currants  . . .
133 tons.
450 lbs.
40
))
110
1,500
))
2,000
1,400
700
5)
6,200 lbs.
Miscellaneous.
Eggs ."    2,000 doz. 55 Vict.                                 Report on Agriculture.
817
COWICHAN INDIAN AGENCY.
Through the courtesy of W. H. Lomas, Esq., Agent, I am enabled to give the following:—
Lands
Under cultivation      2,158 acres.
Swa,rrm. marsh. a,nd rock       4.000
Live Stock.
Horses	
36,931 acres.
    381
    318
    106
   462
Sheep and lambs	
Pigs    	
886
   404
    198
Agricultural Machinery and Implements.
Ploughs	
    109
    102
Harrows         	
     56
Mower       	
       1
Threshers   	
       4
Horse-rakes	
       5
Value	
..   ..$12,385
Buildings and Improvements.
Dwellings    302
Barns and stables    257
Other buildings      248
Fencing,  miles      10
Value $73,150
BABINE INDIAN AGENCY.
Through the courtesy of R. E. Loring, Esq., Agent, I am enabled to give the following
Lands.
Under cultivation    163 acres.
Other, not stated.
Area under Crops.
Potatoes  140 acres.
Carrots        5     „
Turnips  12     ,,
Hay ..,.........,...,.,.        6     „
163 acres. 818 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Live Stock.
Geldings    14
Mares        3
17
Hay, Roots and Vegetables.
Hay        5   tons.
Potatoes  336     ,,
Carrots           5^   ,,
Turnips    48      „
394| tons.
The following is a copy of a letter from Mr. Loring :
"Babine Agency,
"Hazelton, B. C, October 22nd, 1891.
" James R. Anderson, Esq.,
" Victoria, B. C.
" Sir,—In answer to your communication, dated Victoria, B. C, September 16th, I must
reply in regard of the Indians, in an agricultural point of view, that they till but very little
ground. Their modus oj>erandi is of primitive procedure, as yet. The little farming consists
entirely in raising potatoes, and the outcome of seeds furnished them by the Department.
" They are steadily improving their conditions, especially by clearing more ground every
year. They are absent for the most part of the summer. The patches of land are seldom
looked after during that time, and the weeds are making too much headway to allow fair
returns.
" Of what I made mention above is concerning the part of this agency from Kit-selais
Caiion to Kal-doe (Upper Skeena), inhabited by the Kit-khsuns. The part of the district of
this agency from Hazelton to Fort George is inhabited by the Hoquel-gets. They, as a whole,
depend entirely on hunting, fishing, and trapping. So far, I have been successful in starting
garden patches in the direction of Tsitsks and Lach-al-sapwitu, with very satisfactory results.
" I have the honour to be,
" Sir,
" Your obedient servant,
" R. E. Loring,
"Indian Agent." 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 819
DISEASES AND PESTS.
But few people, comparatively, know or have the slighest idea of the fearful losses a
country sustains through these agencies. Insignificant as they often at first appear,—when it
is possible to grapple with the evils—they are allowed to go on until it is too late, and when
only the most drastic measures will suffice to mitigate the evil. All authorities agree upon one
point, and that is, " take them in time and not to let them get a foothold," that is, if it be
within the bounds of possibility; and this by close watching and co-operation can generally be
accomplished whether it be disease of plant or animal life, insect or animal pests, or noxious
weeds. To give an idea of the enormous losses which it is possible for insects to inflict, I
quote from Mr. Jumes Fletcher's (Entomologist, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa) evidence
given before the Select Standing Committee of the House of Corrrmorrs, 4th July, 1891:—
* * * " The department of the Experimental Farm work, of which I  am  in
charge, includes the divisions of Entomology and Botany, and these to my mind are second
to none in importance of any work that has been carried on by the Government on the
Experimental Farm. The interests at stake are so large—reaching to at least one-tenth of all
crops grown—and the measures to be adopted to reduce the injury and loss to the country are
so simple, and yet so important, that the only requisite is a knowledge amongst farmers- of
how and when to apply remedies. Therefore it becomes necessary to make known, as widely
as possible throughout the country, to farmers and others interested, the nature of this important work which is being carried orr for their benefit. * * In regard to the injuries
done by insects, I have already laid before this Committee, Mr. Chairman, a general statement
as to the amount of the injuries, but it may not be amiss to read you a short paragraph frorrr
Insect Life, a magazine issued by the United States Department of Entomology. And by the
way, I may state that that department has now come to be recognized as of such importance
that it is necessary to publish this magazine every month. It is read by thousands of people
all over the world. It is distributed in very large numbers amongst the farmers who apply
for information concerning injurious insects, so that the officers in charge adopt this means of
answering their correspondents and making the results of their experiments known to all
interested. In this issue we find an answer to someone who writes to the United States
Entomologist asking for facts regarding the money value of crops annually destroyed by insects.
"We find that in the year 1854 the wheat midge destroyed in the State of New York no
less than $15,000,000 worth of wheat. In 1867, in the State of Illinois, the chinch bug
destroyed $73,000,000 worth. For hundreds of miles the crops were swept away by this
terrible pest.
" By Mr. Yeou : Q.—Do you mean that the whole crop of Illinois was swept off for
hundreds of nriles ? A.—Yes, sir. Nearly the whole crop of the State was destroyed.
Dreadful havoc was again made of the crops in the United States in 1874, when the
damages from the Rocky Mountain locust were estimated at $100,000,000 in the four States
of Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri.
"Q.—What are you quoting from? A.—Insect Life, the monthly magazine published by
the United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology, at Washington.
These figures have been frequently quoted and challenged, and as frequently confirmed.
"Q.—It includes the corn crop, I suppose? A.—Yes, cereals of all kinds. The estimate
of damage in the United States from the chinch bug, in 1889, was $60,000,000, and it is estimated that the total loss every year is between $200,000,000 and $300,000,000. These figures
have been carefully made up on the lowest possible computation. There is no doubt, as I have
said, that at least one-tenth of the whole of the crops produced is lost every year through the
attacks and injuries of insects, and I have no hesitation in saying that a very large proportion
of this could be saved every year by the adoption of simple remedies, if the farmers would
only take the trouble to find them out.
From the Parmer's Advocate, January, 1892, p. 18, in an article on "Injurious Insects,"
by Mr. Fletcher, he gays :— 820 Report on Agriculture. 1891
* * * ti rpjjQ am0unt of damage done to crops every year is so vast that the figures
excite incredulity from those who do not study crop statistics. The following figures will
illustrate this:—In 1864, the loss from the attacks of the chinch bug on cereals in the one
State of Illinois was $73,000,000. In Missouri, in 1874, it was $19,000,000, and in Iowa
$25,000,000 ; and, lastly, in nine States which were infested by this insect in 1887, no less
than $60,000,000 worth of grain was destroyed. This is only one example of what serious
injury a single kind of insect can do, when it is allowed to increase in undue numbers. It
has been stated that there is probably no crop grown which is not reduced every year one-
tenth by its insect depredators, and that each plant supports an average of four or five different kinds of insects.     Many forests and fruit trees are particularly liable to attack of insects.
" Dr. A. S. Packard says that oak harbours between 500 and 600 species; the hickory,
140; the birch, over 100; the maple, 85 ; the poplar, 72; and the pine, over 100; while the
apple tree affords maintenance to over 200 different kinds.
" Now this loss is going on around us every year, and comparatively little is being done to
prevent it. For most of the troublesome injurious insects remedies have already been discovered, and this loss is, therefore, unnecessary. It is my wish to make known, as soon as
possible, any remedies which may save the farmer loss."
Another thing that every farmer and fruit-grower should know is, which insects are his
friends and which his foes, for without this knowledge it necessarily often happens that one's
best friends get destroyed instead of the real culprits. From a very interesting paper by the
Rev. Thomas W. Fyles, on " The Relation of Insects to Fruit Culture," read at the Convention
of Fruit Growers held at Ottawa on the 19th, 20th and 21st February, 1890, I make the
following extract:—
" IV. Insects indirectly beneficial to Fruit-culture.—Amongst these must be found a
place for such as help to keep clown encroaching and troublesome weeds that would be an eyesore to the fruit-grower, and an injury to the orchard and garden. Pyrameis cardui (Linn.)
feeds upon the thistle, Vanessa milberti (Godt.) on the nettle, Danais archippus (Fabr.) on the
milk-weed. Each of them in its perfect state is " a thing of beauty," and, therefore, as the
poet tells us, " a joy for ever ; " and though the judicious fruit-grower may allow no weeds to
establish themselves in his own grounds, it will not be an unpleasing reflection for him that
these insects, and others of similar habits, are working at the weeds in the grounds of his slack
neighbours.
" But more important in their operations than these are the numerous parasitic and
predaceous insects that keep down the numbers of the injurious kinds. Asilus mstuans (Linn.)
and A. Sericens (Say), together with many kinds of dragon flies, roam the air in summer time
in search of their winged prey. The larvae of the Syrphians feed on the plant-lice, or in the
bodies of living caterpillars, which they ultimately destroy. The Cicindelida?, or Tiger Beetles,
and the Carabidie, or Ground Beetles, devour vast numbers of curculio grubs. Harpalus
calignosus (Say) eats the cut-worms. The larva? of the Fire-fly, Photinus pyralis (Linn.) also
feeds upon underground larva?, and will even bite its way into cocoons. I have found it
in the act of cleaning out a cocoon of Nematus erichsonii. The Lady-birds, Coccinelidoe, in
all their stages, do an immense amount of good in thinning the numbers of the different
species of Aphis. The Solitary Wasps and the Sphex-flies are also among the fruit-growers'
best insect-friends. Eumenes fraternus (Say) stores its mud cells with paralyzed but living
larva?. I once saw Odynerus capra (Sanss.) pounce down upon a colony of full-grown larvse of
the imported currant-worm, Nematus ventricosus (Klug). The larvse dropped instanter to the
ground ; but the wasp selected its victim, and, with its powerful jaws, nipped it at regular-
intervals, probably over the ganglia, throughout its length, taking all the twist out of it. It
then attempted to fly off with its prey, but found it too heavy. Acting in accordance with
the school-boy principle, that " the best pocket for carrying one's lunch is an inside pocket,"
it nipped off the thoracic segements, and proceeded to make a meal, leaving the head, fore-legs
and skin. It then took up the more succulent after-part of the larva? and flew off with it, no
doubt to add it to the provision it was making for its young. Insects belonging to the various
genera of the Ichneumonida? also do yeoman service. Packard tells us that ' In Europe over
2,000 species of this family have been described, and it is probable we have an equal number
of species in America.' Pimpla pedalis (Cresson) is parasitic in the web-worms ; Ichneumon
saturalis (Say) in the Army-worm; Gryptus extrematus (Cresson) lays its eggs in considerable
numbers in the larva? of Platysamia Cecropia (Linn).    The eggs hatch in the living larva?, and 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 821
the grubs locate themselves in suitable quarters within their hosts. Each brings the end of
its body—where the openings of the two principal tracha? are found—into proximity to one
of the stigmata of its hosts, and so is enabled to breathe. It feeds upon the juices and fatty
matter of the unhappy caterpillar ; and all the food it takes must be assimilated, for its
stomach ends in a cul de sac. Think of the condition of the wretched host, with a score or
two of grubs sapping its vitals. Surely the most irate, or desponding, fruit-grower, who has
been ready to wring his hands and exclaim with York, in Shakespeare's 2nd part of King
Henry V.:—
" Thus are my blossoms blasted in the bud,
And caterpillars eat my leaves away."
wrll find an anodyne for his mental sufferings in the thought that at any rate some of his
insect foes have been condemned to the fate of Herod.
***** Under the head of insects indirectly injurious to fruit culture we might
include the foes of the foes of hurtful insects; but I must not try your patience by leading
you further amid the intricacies of the marvellous machinery of nature. No man knows, and
probably no man will ever know, the bearing of its every part. When we come to the subject
of parasites of parasites the recollection of the old rhyme, which we have all heard, speedily
pulls us up :—
" Big fleas have little fleas,
And little, less, to bite 'em,
And these fleas have other fleas
And so ad infinitum."
Some idea of the losses through diseases of plant life may be formed from the following
extract from Professor B. F. Galloway's paper on "Recent progress in the treatment of diseases
of Pomaceous Fruits," in which he says : * * * * " The losses due to apple scab in 1890
are estimated to exceed $16,000,000, and the damage to pears, plums, etc., by the different
diseases at not less than $50,000,000 annually." Speaking of the losses through smut Mr.
Fletcher says in his Bulletin No. 3, 15th March, 1888, quoting from the Report of the United
States Commissioner of Agriculture : " We may safely assume that the value of corn and
wheat annually destroyed in this country by diseases induced by fungi is not less than
$200,000,000. This large sum, of course, also includes the injury caused by rusts and mildews
as well as smuts."
Add to these figures the losses through diseases of animals, animal pests, and weeds, and
the result would be truly appalling, and it behooves every one to be on his guard, and to use
every exertion in his power to protect himself and the country against the evils. The
diseases of plants are in most instances so well understood, and the remedies so easily applied,
that very little excuse exists in allowing crops to be destroyed by those agencies. These remarks
apply equally to insect pests. In both these cases I have given the remedies most highly
recommended, and I trust that they may be of some benefit to our farmers. In California
insect pests are considered of so nruch importance that a special law has been passed relative
to their destruction. I append the following from "American Gardening," November, 1891,
page 690 :—
" California legislates against Insects.—A law passed in the last session of the California
Legislature makes it the duty of the County Board of Horticultural Commissioners to inspect
orchards, nurseries, or other places in their jurisdiction, and to notify the owners if they find
such places infested with the scale insect, the codlin moth, or other pests injurious to plants
or trees, and to request them to eradicate or destroy the pests. Such orchards or nurseries
are adjudged to be public nuisances, and when their owners shall refuse to abate the same
within a specified time, it shall be the duty of the County Board to destroy said insects, and
the expense thereof shall be a county charge, to be recovered by an action against the
property."
Diseases of animals is naturally a wider field, and in many cases the services of experienced
veterinary surgeons are almost an absolute necessity. There are some well known diseases,
however, for which there are well known remedies which can be applied by anyone of ordinary
intelligence. It is to be regretted that many in reporting diseases are not more explicit, so
that the disease can positively be identified. I am indebted to Professor Robertson for the
extract from the " Farmer's Veterinary Adviser " on red water in cattle, which I commend to
careful purusal of farmers where the disease is common.    (See under " Diseases of Animals.") 822 Report on Agriculture. 1892
Animal pests in a sparsely settled country like this are, of course, much more common
than in more settled communities. Coyotes seem to be the most complained of, and complaints
reach the Department from all parts of the Upper Country (there are no coyotes to my knowledge to the westward of the Coast Range), and the general opinion seems to be that a bounty
should be offered for their destruction. They are undoubtedly a great detriment to the sheep-
raising industry, and it is hoped that means may be adopted for the extermination of the
pest. I have made some remarks on the minor pests, which will be seen under their proper
headings.
Weeds, although probably not a pest that costs as much to a country as some of the
others, is nevertheless a subject for deep consideration, and I commend the attention of
agriculturists to the suggestions offered in the extracts from different authorities. Laws
exist in some of the municipalities, I believe, against thistles and other notoriously bad
weeds, but they cannot effect much good, even if rigidly enforced, if all the surrounding
country outside of the municipalities take no action. There should be some general law on
the subject.
For the information of those requiring spraying outfits I give the following whose advertisements I have seen :—
W. H. Vantassel, P. 0. Box 113, Belleville, Ont.
The Harper-Reynolds Co., Los Angelos, Cal.
P. C. Lewis Manufacturing Co., Catskill, N. Y.
Field Force Pump Co., 112 Bristol Avenue, Lockport, N. Y.
William Stahl, Quincey, 111.
INSECT  PESTS.
The Borer.
Borers are reported from Clayton, Cowichan, and Salt Spring Island, by Mr. J. L. Morton,
Mr. John Mahoney, and Mr. R. A. R. Purdy. Mr. T. Marshall, Cowichan, also complains of
" a little grub in the bark, killing trees sometimes " (I take it the "borer" is the grub in
question). Mr. A. Salmond, correspondent at Comox, also reports it. Mr. G. T. Corfield,
correspondent at Corfield, says:—" The apple borer is very destructive to fruit trees. The
trees are washed by some with different washes, such as lye, whitewash, or limewash and
carbolic acid, with some success. The latter, if applied once a month from spring to autumn,
I think is beneficial."
Mr. Fletcher describes the flat-headed apple tree borer (Chrysobothris femoratd) as
follows (Bulletin No. 11, May, 1891, page 20) :—
" During June and July very active bronze beetles about half an inch in length may be
found laying eggs upon the trunks and large limbs of apple, mountain ash, and other trees.
These eggs soon hatch into curious flat-headed, or horseshoe nail, shaped grubs. These after a
time eat into the trunk and bore broad and flat tunnels, which seriously injure the tree.
" Remedy.—Undoubtedly the best remedy for this and all other borers which, as a rule,
confine their depredations to a certain part of a tree, is of a preventive nature, and consists of
applying an alkaline or poisonous wash to the trees just before the time the eggs are usually
laid."
Round-headed Apple Tree Borer (p. 25).
(Saperda Candida.—Fab. J
" This borer nearly always works near the tree it infests. The grub is much thicker than
that of the flat-headed borer, and takes three years, instead of one, to complete its changes.
The beetle is pale brown, with two white stripes down the body about three-quarters of an
inch long.
" Remedies.—During the first year the grub lives just beneath the bark in the sap wood,
hollowing out a chamber about an inch or more in diameter. The bark becomes discoloured in
a characteristic way, which is soon recognized. It is also betrayed to the experienced eye by
the castings which it pushes out of its burrows. By cutting through the bark the grub can
be destroyed. If it has penetrated into the wood it can be killed with a piece of stout wire.
The best remedy is undoubtedly a regular treatment every June with deterrent washes." 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 823
Alkaline Washes (p. 13).—"A wash largely used in Canada is that noted by Prof. Saunders in his ' Insects Injurious to Fruits,' and consists of 'soft soap reduced to the consistence of
thick paint by the addition of a strong solution of washing soda in water. If applied during
the morning of a warm day this will dry in a few hours and form a tenacious coating not
easily dissolved by rain.' Soap suds made from whale oil soap, one pound to eight gallons of
water, is a useful remedy for the destruction of plant lice.
Carbolic Acid (p. 13).—"I have not found this substance so generally useful as I anticipated from its powerful odor. Prof. A. J. Cook, however, has experimented extensively with it
and claims that no fruitgrower or lover of shade trees can afford to be ignorant of the carbolic
acid emulsion. He says : ' I make it just as I do the kerosene emulsion, only stronger, one part
of carbolic acid—I use the crude material—to from five to seven parts of soap solution (one quart
soft soap, or one pound of hard soap, in two gallons of water) is of the proper strength. This
is the best preparation I know of to protect against the apple tree bark lice and apple tree
borers.' It is applied to the trunks and larger limbs by means of a stiff brush or cloth about
twenty days after the trees blossom."
Carbolic Acid Wash.—Prof. Cook also recommends for radish maggots a preparation
made by adding two quarts of soft soap to two gallons of water, to which, when heated to the
boiling point, one pint of crude carbolic acid is turned in. For use, one part of this mixture
is mixed with fifty gallons of water and sprinkled directly on the plants once a week from the
time they appear above the ground.
Carbolized Plaster.—This is simply one pint of crude carbolic acid well mixed with fifty
pounds of land plaster.    It is said to be very efficient as a deterrent remedy for flea beetles.
Proper Tree Wash (From Canadian Horticulturist, December, 1891, page 369).—
Whitewash on trees is unsightly and less effective for expelling borers than common soft
soap. Washed with soap three or four weeks after blossoming they will show the treatment
speedily in greater thrift and vigour. I have often used the following which, I think, even
better for trunks and larger branches of fruit trees than soap: Heat to the boiling point two
gallons water and one gallon soft soap. When the soap is all dissolved add one-half gallon
good strong crude carbolic acid and stir until all is thoroughly and permanently mixed.
This applied with cloth or brush kills bark lice, keeps off borers, and invigorates the trees.—
Colman's Rural World.
Bark Louse.
This pest is reported from Cowichan by Mr. John Mahoney and Mr. Thos. Marshall.
Mr. William Fisher, correspondent at Metchosin.—There are no diseases or pests to
speak of, except in the orchard, where aphis and scale insect are troublesome. Spraying with
tobacco water and kerosene emulsion has been tried without success.
Mr. J. McLay, correspondent, Gabriola Island, says:—The scale insect of the apple bark
does great damage, but it seems that manure and cultivation, with or without root crop, gets
away with it.
Oyster Shell Bark Louse.
(Mytilaspis Pomorum.—Bouche.,)
Mr. Fletcher says:—" Some might not at first recognize as insects the little roughness on
the bark of apple trees ; such, however, they are, and extremely injurious too. Their life
history is peculiar. About the 1st June minute white mite like insects with six legs emerge
from beneath the scales on the bark, and for two or three days run about seeking for a
suitable place to attach themselves. They then pierce the young bark with their beaks and
live on the sap of the tree. They never move from that place again. The waxy scale is
gradually secreted, and by August the insect has transformed itself into a scale covering a
cluster of eggs. These remain unchanged through the winter, and the young do not hatch
again until the next June.
" Remedies.—This insect, like many others, thrives most on unhealthy trees. When
detected, therefore, measures should be adopted for inducing a vigorous growth, as well as for
the removal of the scale insects. Spraying just before the buds open with the keresone
emulsion (as used for aphis) will destroy many of the scales, and again at the time  the  young 824 Report on Agriculture. 1891
lice are active, for at this time they are most susceptible to injury. Scrubbing the trunks and
branches of young trees with alkaline washes (such as are used for borers) during the winter
or early spring will also keep down the numbers of this pernicious insect."—J. Fletcher, Bulletin
No. 11, May, 1891, page 22.
Aphis, Green Fly or Plant Louse,
Is reported as bad on apple trees and hop vines at the Delta, by Mr. W. J. Gossett, and by
Mr. W. B. Skinner; at Surrey, by Mr. J. E. Murphy; at Clayton, by Mr. J. L. Morton; at
Shortreed, by Mr. A. G. Broe (see copy of letter appended) and Mr. J. L. Broe; at Steveston,
by Mr. M. Steves; at Port Moody, by Mr. W. Elson; at Harrison, by Mr. T. Wilson; at
Colwood, by Mr. A. H. Peatt; at Salt Spring Island, by Mr. R. A. R. Purdy and Mr. Joel
Broadwell; at Comox, Mr. A. Salmond, correspondent; at Metchosin, by Mr. Wm. Fisher,
correspondent.
Mr. J. W. Tolmie, correspondent at Victoria, says:—To plant-life the varieties of aphis
are most injurious, some seasons whole crops of turnips and cabbage are lost by its ravages,
and this year I think two-fifths of the apple crop has given way to it. Coal oil has been tried
as a remedy on fruit trees, in some cases with great success, and in others ruining the trees
forever.
Mr. J. McLay, correspondent at Gabriola, says:—Then with manure and cultivation
comes the green insect, aphis.    This is a horrible pest.
" Mr. James R. Anderson.
"Shortreed, Sept. 28th, 1891.
" Dear Sir,—I shall send you specimens of the louse in a small box, but whether they
will reach you alive or not I cannot tell. The damage done by the louse this season, as near
as I can judge, is about one-tenth of the crop.
" My plan of spraying is as follows:—I use a common force-pump in a barrel mounted on a
sled, or a strong boat. I use fish oil, soap, and bearberry bark, prepared thus: take 2 J gallons
of the soap and the same amount of bark, and mix together, put it in 40 gallons of water and
spray the vines until all the leaves are wet. To prepare the bark, take from 2 to 3 lbs. of bark
to every gallon of water and boil for two hours, then let it cool, and it is ready for use.
" I am, &c,
" A. G. Broe."
These pests seem to have been very nunrerous in all parts of the lower country of the
Province, including the Island, and in the adjacent State of Washington. Their ravages were
confined chiefly to apple trees and hop vines. In reply to a communication I sent to Mr,
Fletcher on the subject, I got the following reply:—
" Central Experimental Farm,
"J. R. Anderson, Esq., "Ottawa, November 9th, 1891.
" Victoria, B. C.
" My Dear Sir,—I am in receipt of your favour enclosing a letter from Mr. A. G. Broe
concerning Hop-Aphis. The specimens were dead, but I think there is no doubt that the depredator is the ordinary Hop-Aphis which has this year been so troublesome in Oregon and Washington State. The life-history, which is very renrarkable, I have referred to at p. 65 of nry
1889 Report. * * The best remedy for the Hop-Aphis, according to late experiments, is the
kerosene emulsion mentioned in my Bulletin at p. 12. Other mixtures are used, but this is the
most highly esteemed. I notice what Mr. Broe says about the decoction of bearberry, but I
hardly think this would be a very valuable addition to the fish oil soap, which itself is a
powerful insecticide. I have, however, never tried the remedy, so do not express a positive
opinion on the matter. The quantity of bark of this shrub which would be available in Canada
however, would entirely preclude its use on an extensive scale, however valuable it might be.
However I shall endeavour to get some and give it a trial.
" Believe me, &c,
"J. Fletcher." 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 825
The following is a copy of the life-history alluded to by Mr. Fletcher:—
" The life-history of this insect is not yet completely worked out. The usual cycle of life
in this order is for them to pass the winter as eggs, from which wingless viviparous females
hatch in the spring; these by a process of budding and without the sexes pairing (there are
no males at this season) give birth to fully-formed young, which in a few days mature and
themselves bear young plant lice. There are several successive broods of females, until a
certain time in the year (varying slightly in different species), when perfect females and also
males are produced. This is the only time of the year when males appear. Some species of
plant lice migrate at certain times of their development to some other plant than that upon
which they had passed the summer months. Pairing now takes place, and as a result eggs
are laid, which remain unhatched until the following spring. This is a general statement,
only, of the life-history of plant lice, to which there are exceptions—a notable one of these
being the Hop-Aphis (Phorodon humuli), the remarkable life-history of which has been so
carefully worked out by Prof. Riley, and recorded in his report of 1888, as follows: Of this
species the winter eggs are laid by the perfect female upon plum trees in autumn; from these
hatch the next spring wingless females, which have been called 'stem-mothers;' these produce
young plant lice by a process analagous to budding in plants, and known as parthenogenesis
(from the Greek parthenos a virgin and genesis production), which means the production of
young from imperfect and unimpregnated females, without the intervention of a male. There
are three broods of these parthenogenetic females produced on various kinds of plum trees, the
third becoming winged. This last is'known as a 'migrant,' and it instinctively flies to the
hop plant which has been free from attack up to this time. A number of generations of wingless females are produced upon the hop, until autumn winged females, known as the ' return
migrants,' again appear. These return to the plum and produce some three or more young.
These have no wings, but are true sexual females. Somewhat later upon the hop the true
winged males, the only nrales of the whole series, are developed. These fly to the plum, and
towards the end of the season may be found pairing with the wingless females, which afterwards stock the twigs with winter eggs. The above life-history will show how complex and
difficult to understand are the habits of some of our injurious insects. The importance, however, of this knowledge, cannot be over-estimated. By the treatment of plum trees near hop
gardens, with a kerosene emulsion late in the winter or very early in spring, one of the most
injurious insects which harass the English farmer can now, to a large measure, be kept in
check."
Kerosene Emulsion alluded to.—Next in importance to the arsenites are the emulsions of kerosene. These are particularly valuable against such insects as plant lice, scale
insects, and animal parasites.    The best formula as recommended by Prof. Riley is:—
Kerosene (coal oil), 2 gallons
Rain water, 1 gallon
Soap, |- ft.
Boil the soap in the water till all is dissolved, then, while boiling hot, turn in the kerosene,
and churn it constantly and forcibly with a syringe or force-pump for five minutes, when it
will be of a smooth creamy-nature. If the emulsion be perfect it will adhere to the surface of
glass without oiliness. As it cools, it thickens into a jelly-like mass. This gives the stock
emulsion, which must be diluted with nine times its measure of warm water before using on
vegetation. The above quantity of three gallons of emulsion will make thirty gallons of wash.
Insects breathe through small openings along their sides. The effect of kerosene emulsions is
to suffocate them by stopping up these breathing pores.
Mr. Fletcher, in his Report 1887, p. 28, mentions the following as the natural enemies
of the Aphis:—
" These plant lice are so exceedingly prolific that were there not some natural check imposed upon them, they would soon overrun all vegetation. We find, however, that they provide food for several kinds of predaceous insects and there is seldom a heavy visitation of
Aphis without a corresponding appearance of its enemies, some of the most useful of these are
the following:—
" The larva? of the Syrphidce, a class of beautiful and active flies marked with yellow and
black, which may be seen in the summer around flowers, poised apparently motionless in midair for a few seconds, then, darting a yard or so, stopping again, and dashing off suddenly in
another direction.    The larva? are elongated brownish maggots, with the front segments much 826 Report on Agriculture. 1891
smaller than the rest and capable of being extended some distance to the right or left. These
larvse, which may generally be found crawling upon the stems of plants infested with aphides,
destroy enormous numbers of plant lice.
" Perhaps the most industrious and business-like destroyers of these injurious insects are
the numerous species of the Lady-Bird Beetles (Coccinellidm), also the Sodier Beetle (Tele-
phorid(B). Besides these beetles there is a family (Aphidius) of small parasitic flies belonging
to the Braconidce, which feed entirely upon the green flies. In examining a colony of Aphides
some will generally be fourrd which are much larger, of a different colour, and with the body
swollen and rounded. These after a time fasten themselves to the leaves and die, and a little
later the parasite, a tiny four-winged fly, emerges through a hole in the back."
Caterpillars,
Not described in every instance so that they can be identified, but described in some cases as
" tent caterpillars," and in others as " common caterpillars." Reported from the Delta by
Mr. W. J. Gossett and Mr. John Kirkland ; from Clayton by Mr. J. L. Morton ; from Lulu
Island by Mr. M. Steves; from Sea Island by Mr. S. T. Calhoun; from Spatsum by Messrs.
Wood and Campbell; and from Cariboo District by Messrs. Eagle and Paxton (described in
the last instance as worms). It is a curious fact that not a single instance is reported from
any of the islands, although, as a rule, they are so numerous in the vicinity of Victoria and
elsewhere on Vancouver Island. Frorrr personal observations, also, I may say that I believe
there were absolutely none. The eggs are to be found under the twigs of the trees during the
winter, and can then easily be destroyed. In case that is not done, however, I have found it
a good plan to burn them with a torch made of rags saturated with coal oil and wired to the
end of a stick long enough to reach the highest branches, during the day when they are
feeding, at which time they are generally at the ends of the branches. It is true that part of
the tree is often destroyed, but it does not amount to much.
Mr. Fletcher says :—" The orchards must be closely watched between May and June
and the caterpillars destroyed. This is easiest done by taking advarrtage of their peculiar
habit of feeding at certain times of the day, and then returning to their 'tent' or nests to rest
for several hours."
The Codling Moth (Carpocapsa Pomonella.—L.)
Is reported from Cowichan by Mr. T. Marshall. Mr. Fletcher says: "It is a white or pinkish
caterpillar about three-quarters of an inch long, boring into the centres of apples and injuring
them considerably. These worms spin up and change to chrysalises inside close cocoons in
the crevices of bark, or when barrelled with apples, in any crack or crevice of the barrel.
The moth is a beautiful little insect, easily distinguished by a bronze mark towards the end of
each of its upper wings. I have no hesitation in saying that the most economical and certain
remedy is spraying the trees with Paris green or London purple. As being of a more uniform
strength, the former is preferred. For codling moth, plum curculio, and the young canker
worm, not more than two to four ounces in a barrel of water (40 gallons), or in smaller quantity, one-eighth to one-fourth of an ounce in a pail of water; to be applied as a fine spray by
means of a force pump. The foliage must not be drenched, but the spray should only be
allowed to fall upon the trees until it begins to drip from the leaves. All washes containing
Paris green must be constantly stirred to keep it in suspension, or it will sink to the bottom.
For the codling moth, liquid application should be sprayed upon the trees as soon as all the
petals have fallen from the flowers.
"With the above, as with all attacks by injurious insects, the great secret of success is
prompt action, and when making trial of this remedy let the spraying be done exactly at the
time and in the manner recommended. The spring applications are of the greatest importance. Prof. S. A. Forbes, State Entomologist of Illinois, who was one of the first to systematically investigate these remedies, in comparing his operations for 1885 and 1886, writes to
me : ' Our work of 1886 differed in the time and number of applications from one to three
early in the season. The general result was almost the same as the year before, going to
show that these early applications are the only ones that are effective and necessary.'"—
Extract from J. Fletcher's Report, 1887, p. 24. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 827
Grasshoppers,
Reported from Lulu Island as having been bad two or three years ago by Mr. M. Steves;
from Spatsum by Messrs. Woods <fc Campbell; from Duck's by Mr. Hewitt Bostock; from
Similkameen by Mr. W. H. Holmes; from the Cariboo District by Messrs. Eagle and Paxton;
from Shuswap by Mr. W. Chase; from Grand Prairie (near Duck's) by Mr. W. H. Jones
(correspondent), who says they cause much annoyance and damage to crops. From Williams
Lake Mr. William Pinchbeck (correspondent) writes that they do damage two years in thirty,
but they are a small kind and do not migrate.
From the report of the Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, 1891, p. 37, I quote :—
" Much interest has been occasioned and some alarm felt, during the summer, by widespread reports of unusual abundance of locusts or grasshoppers, particularly in the Western
States. Reports from farmers have come from Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, South
Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Texas, New Mexico, and
California. In all these States, except California, a repetition of the locust scourge of 1874
and 1876 was feared. In this emergency active measures were undertaken to arrive at a
proper understanding of the true state of affairs. Four special agents, qualified for the work,
were sent into the field, and all of the States mentioned were visited. In all, except Minnesota and North Dakota, the insects were found to be local species, which had from various
causes become exceptionally abundant. None of them are greatly to be feared, and all are.
non-migratory, except in small degree. The visit of the agent was sufficient, in most cases, to
allay fear for the future. Considerable damage, however, was done in parts of California by
the devastating locust, and in North Dakota and Minnesota undoubted specimens of the
Rocky Mountain locust (caloptenus spretus) were found, indicating that this notorious insect
had migrated in small swarms from its permanent breeding grounds, justifying some apprehensions as to the prospects for next year.
" Anticipating from the records of 1890 an exceptional demand for information on the
subject, the department published early in the spring, under serial No. 25, Entomological
Division, a bulletin* on destructive locusts, summarizing the habits of the principal destructive
species, and giving at some length an account of the best remedies to be used, particularly
against the Rocky Mountain species. The authorities, ably assisted by the farmers, have
been carrying on a vigorous warfare on the lines suggested by the bulletin, with excellent
results, and their crops will, it is to be hoped, be saved from destruction next year, unless the
insect has been breeding in numbers across the line in Manitoba and British Columbia. We
have the assurance of the Canadian authorities that, so far as they can find, no swarms have
been observed in that part of the Dominion. The outlook for the coming season is, therefore,
on the whole, favourable."
From Mr. Fletcher's Report, 1885, p. 9 :—
" The Rocky Mountain Locust (Melanoplus Spretus—Uhler).—In parts of the North-
West there are rumours of injuries by the Rocky Mountain locust (melanoplus spretus—
Uhler), and, doubtless, considerable injury has been wrought in certain restricted localities,
but none of the specimens which have been submitted to me have been the Rocky Mountain
locust. Nevertheless, of course, part of the North-West lies within the region where that
species breeds, and it is advisable for every farmer to be on his guard, and at once report any
unusual number of 'grasshoppers,' and send specimens for identification. The insect most
often confused with the destructive Rocky Mountain species is M. femur enbeum. The most
apparent difference is that M. spretus, the Rocky Mountain or hateful locust, has much longer
wings, and by this means it is able to fly long distances, while the common red-legged locust
is usually confined to the locality where it is born. For this latter species large broods of
poultry are particularly useful in keeping down the numbers, and should form a part of the
equipment of every prairie farm. In addition to these assistants, all insectivorous birds, such
as blackbirds, meadow-larks, and particularly the different species of grouse, should be
jealously protected by the farnrer. I have dissected prairie-hens, the crops of which were
almost filled with the remains of locusts."
Something stinging the Plum,
Reported by Mr. Joel Broad well, Salt Spring Island. As this is such an indefinite description, it is impossible to form an opinion as to the probable cause.
*I regret that I have not got the bulletins mentioned.—J. R. A. 828
Report on Agriculture.
1891
A White Worm in Black Currants,
Reported by Mr. Thos. Marshall, of Cowichan. This is a pest well known in the Province,
and occasionally destroys all the black currants in a garden. The fruit looks sound, but on
breaking open a berry the worm is discovered in the middle. I do not remember seeing it in
any but black currants. I cannot find an accurate description of it. Mr. Fletcher, in his
Bulletin No. 11, May, 1891, speaks of the "Imported Currant Saw-Fly" (Nematus ribesii),
which may be the identical insect. He says : " Of all the enemies to srrrall fruits, there is not
one, perhaps, which is more persistent than this insect. Soon after the leaves expand, early
in May (probably earlier in this Province—J.R.A.), the perfect insects, which are a little
bigger than a house-fly, may be seen flying about beneath gooseberry and currant bushes.
The eggs are laid in regular rows along the ribs beneath the lower leaves, and soon the well-
known ' currant worms' make their appearance."
Remedies.—There are at least two broods in the season; the caterpillars of the first
appear in May, and, for this first brood only, a weak mixture of Paris green (J oz. to a pailful
of water is sufficient) may be sprayed on the bushes, or a dry mixture of 1 oz. of Paris green
to 6 lbs of flour, well mixed together, may be dusted over the bushes after a shower, or when
damp with clew. For the second brood of caterpillars, which appears just before the fruit
ripens, Paris green must on no account be used, owing to its poisonous nature; but, instead
of it, white hellebore, dusted on dry, or in water, 1 oz. to a pailful of water.
Peculiar Bug at Princeton.
Mr. Walton Hugh Holmes complains of a peculiar bug which eats everything green, but
it has disappeared; next spring, will forward a specimen. It is blue and black, but both the
same kind.
Turnip Fly.
While at Okanagan Mission, Mr. G. W. Simpson complained to me about the ravages of
a "fly" which destroyed the seeds of turnips when they were sowed at one particular tinre. I
asked him if it was not the seed leaves they attacked, thinking it probably was the " Turnip
Flea Beetle," but he said not. I of course could not then get a specimen. In answer to a
question I addressed to Mr. Fletcher, I got a reply, of which the following is an extract:—
"I know nothing of the 'fly' which destroys the seeds of turnips at Okanagan Mission,
but should be very grateful for specimens."
Potato Bug.
Reports come from Mr. John Murray, of Spence's Bridge
and Mr. T. C. Harris, Lillooet, of the ravages of this pest.
Mr. W. H. Holmes, Princeton;
In  answer  to
lowing answers :—
two  communications that I addressed to Mr. Fletcher, I received the fol-
" Central Experimental Farm,
"Ottawa, 11th November, 1891.
"J. R. Anderson, Esq., Victoria.
" Dear Sir,— * * * I have heard of no instance where the true potato bug
has been found in British Columbia. Two or three have sent me specimens of a long slender-
gray beetle, Epicauta maculata, which is gray with tiny black spots all over it. This is
injurious, it appears, to everything which grows in a garden. The remedy for all insects
which eat the foliage of potatoes is Paris green, \ ft. to 50 gallons of water.
"With kind regards, etc.,
"J. Fletcher."
"Central Experimental Farm,
"Ottawa, 28th December, 1891.
"J. R. Anderson, Esq.,
" Victoria, B.C.
" My Dear Sir,—I am in receipt of your favour of the 4th inst. The beetle Mr. John
Murray complains of is, I have no doubt, the Spotted Blister Beetle (Epicauta maculata). I
send  you  enclosed  a few  specimens  which were forwarded to me by Mr. C. F. Cornwall, of 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 829
Ashcroft, which, as you know, is only a few miles above Mr. Murray's garden, and on the
same side of the river. The proper remedy for this beetle is a prompt application of Paris
green, 1 ft. to 100 gallons of water, or 1 ft. to 50 fts. of ashes, flour, or other fine powder.
" I am, etc.,
"J. Fletcher."
This pest is not reported from any. point west of the Coast Range. It seems to exist
only in the dry parts of the country.
Wire Worm.
(Elateridte.)
A hard yellow worm, the larva of the skip jack beetle, is reported by Mr. Wm. Miller,
of Salmon Arm, and Mr. Thos. Graham, of South Saanich, as doing great damage to potatoes.
Mr. Fletcher says (Report, 1885, page 17): " Most of my correspondents agree that the
attacks from wire worms (sometimes called yellow worms) is much less severe upon well
manured, highly cultivated, and well cleaned ground. Mr-. William Miller, of Bridgetown,
N. S., a gentleman of large experience and a successful farmer, tells me he can clear any ground
from wire-worms by high culture and careful cleaning by the third crop. Where potatoes are
grown he says they should be picked up immediately they are dug, and most of the wire-worms
will be taken with them and can be destroyed. He mentioned an instance of a piece of land
he had just cleared which, when he first took it, was so full of wire-worms that he had been
able to gather them up by the handful from the bottom of the cart in which the potatoes were
drawn from the field. In confirmation of this, I give the following quotation from the report
which has just been issued by Mr. C. Whitehead for the Agricultural Department of the
Imperial Privy Council Office in England : ' First and foremost among means of prevention
(of wire-worm attacks on crops) is the abolition of weeds from the land and from the outsides
of fields. This has been recognized and adopted long ago by some agriculturalists, for we find
the following passage in Vol. XV. of the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England,
in an essay upon the farming of light land, which is always more liable to attacks of wire-
worms. ' There is a farm in the neighbourhood of Guildford which presents an instance of
a perfectly clean farm, and kept so by deep ploughing and unsparing use of horse and hand
hoes. It has often been remarked that root crops and corn are unmolested by wire-worms
upon this farm. The owner asserts that he starved them long ago by growing no weeds to
sustain them in the absence of a crop.' "
The following is taken from the "American Garden," December, 1891, page 770, and will
do for horticulturists :—
" Remedy for Wire Worms :—Add three or four pounds of unslacked lime to every
bushel of soil. This will make the wire-worms so sick that they will give the seedling carnations a wide berth in the future ; besides the health and colour of the plants will be so much
improved that we will think they belong to a new race of pinks. The best way to use lime is
to spread the soil in a flat heap ten or twelve inches thick, then place the desired amount of
lime in lumps on the top. When the latter has become slacked and pulverized the soil should
be turned over two or three times and thoroughly mixed. It is then ready for use."—
American Florist.
Cut Worms,
Which I take it is what Mr. Manoah Steves, of Lulu Island, reports as the brown grub, the
cut worm being a very common pest in different parts of the Province.
Mr. Fletcher, in his Bulletin No. 11, May, 1891, page 27, says :—
" Cut Worms (Noctuidw).—These troublesome pests, which are doubtless the cause of
more loss to farmers in the spring months than any other insects, are the caterpillars of a
number of different dull-coloured moths which fly at night. The worms, one kind, are smooth
greasy looking dark caterpillars, ranging from about half an inch to two inches in length at the
time they injure crops. They feed at night and hide in the day time. The eggs of most
species are laid in autumn, and the young caterpillars make about a quarter of their growth
before winter sets in. They pass the winter in a torpid condition, and are ready in spring to
attack the young crops as soon as they come up. The full growth of most species is completed
by the first week in July, when the caterpillar forms a cell in the earth and changes to a
chrysalis, from which the moth appears about a month later on. 830 Report on Agriculture. 1891
"Remedies.—(I.) Clean culture.—As the young caterpillars of many species hatch in
autumn, the removal of all vegetation from the ground as soon as possible in autumn deprives
them of their food supply, and also prevents the late flying moths from laying their eggs in
that locality. Fields or gardens which are allowed to become overgrown with weeds or other-
vegetation late in the autumn are almost sure to be troubled  with cut worms the next spring.
" (2.) Traps.—Large numbers may be destroyed by placing between the rows of an infected
crop, or at short distances apart on infected land, bundles of any succulent weed or other-
vegetation which has been previously poisoned by dipping it, after* tying in bundles, into a
. strong mixture of Paris green. The cut worms eat the poisoned plants and bury themselves
and die. In hot and dry weather these bundles should be placed out after sun-down, and a
shingle may be placed on each to keep it from fading.
"(3.) Banding and Wrapjring.— (a.) It will be found to well repay the trouble and
expense to place a band of tin around each cabbage or other plant at the time of setting out.
These may very easily be made by taking pieces of tin six inches long and two and a half
wide and bending them around a spade or broom handle so as to form short tubes. In placing
them around a plant the two ends can be sprung apart to admit the plant, and then the tube
should be pressed about half an inch into the ground. I have found this a useful means of
disposing of empty tomato and other cans. To prepare these easily they need only be thrown
into a bonfire, when the tops and bottoms fall out, and the sides become unsoldered. The
central piece of tin can then be cut down the centre with a pair of shears, and forms two
tubes.
" (/'.) Wrapping a piece of paper round the stems of plants when setting out will also save
a great many.
" (c.) Hand picking or digging out the cut worms whenever a plant is seen to be cut off
should, of course, always be practised.
"Natural Enemies.—There are two enemies which deserve special notice, and from the
good service they do should be known by sight to every cultivator. They are the fiery ground
bettle, or cut worm lion (Calosoma calidnm—Fab.,), and the black ground wasp (Ammophila
luctuosa). Both of these are desperate enemies of cut worms, the former feeding on them in
all of its stages; the latter digging them out and storing its nest with them as food for its
young grubs."
Grub op Bot Fly.
While at Salmon Arm, Mr. H. C. Fraser of that place gave me the specimen, preserved
in alcohol, of a grub which he had taken out of the leg of a mouse in August, 1890, and which
he thought might be a dangerous enemy to horses and cattle. In reply to a communication
I addressed to Mr. Fletcher on the subject, I received the following answer:—
"Ottawa, 28th December, 1891.    .
" J. R. Anderson, Esq.,
" Victoria, B.C.
" Dear Sir,—The large maggot extracted from the leg of a mouse by Mr. H. C. Fraser,
of Salmon Arm, is the larva of a large fly belonging to the genus Cuterebra. It cannot be
identified from the dead larva. They are of great interest, and have seldom been bred to
maturity, but are by no means of rare occurrence. Cuterebra emasculator attacks squirrels in
the posterior region, frequently destroying the testicles entirely. An account of this insect is
given in 'Insect Life,' Vol. I., p. 214.
" I am, etc.,
"J. Fletcher."
Account op the Emasculating Bot Fly (Cuterebra, emasculator—Fitch), referred to in
Mr. Fletcher's letter.—From "Insect Life."
" Since the publication by Dr. Fitch, in his Fourth New York Report, of his long and
interesting account of this insect, it has received little notice from entomologists. Dr. Fitch's
article attracted great attention, and the fact that a bot-fly existed which, according to his
statements, apparently bred only in the testicles of chipmunks, or gophers, and squirrels was
certainly a remarkable one. Dr. Fitch succeeded in rearing but one adult, which issued about
July 29th, 1857, from earth in a jar in which the larva had been placed September 1st, 1856.
So far as we know, this is the only adult of the species which has ever been reared. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 831
" Dr. Fitch published a painstaking description of the different stages, and gave the
species the name of Cuterebra emasculator, from the larval habit which he supposed characteristic. He mentions the fact that hunters in the vicinity of Lakeville, N.Y., where the first
specimen sent him was found, had long been familiar with the fact that at least one-half of
the male gray squirrels shot in that vicinity were found to be castrated, and that it was the
opinion of hunters that the deformity was caused by the squirrels seizing arrd biting out the
testicles of their comrades. In support of this idea, he gives the testimony of Mr-. Hurst,
taxidermist of the New York State Cabinet of Natural History, who claimed to have seen a
half-dozen red squirrels unite in mastering a gray one and castrating him. Dr. Fitch queries
whether the bot-fly may not be attracted by the wound so made, if this habit prove common,
but concludes that the object of the joint attack of several upon one is rather to kill the grub
which is engaged in emasculating him.
" Unfortunately, there is yet some doubt as to whether- Fitch's species will hold. Brauer,
in his "Monograph of the QCstridoe," page 232, quotes Fitch's description at length, and states
that he cannot separate the species from Cuterebra, scutellaris—Low, a North American
species, the habits of which do not seem to be known.
" If this interesting insect has not attracted much attention of late years from entomologists, it has not failed to be noticed by zoologists and taxidermists, although we are not aware
that observations have been published. The following statement was written at our request
by Dr. Merriam, the Ornithologist of the Department, as we had learned by conversation that
he had rrrade some notes some year ago on the abundance of the insect in New York State :—
"' In reply to your inquiry concerning the occurrence of Cuterebra' in squirrels, I
would state that during many years' collecting in the Adirondack region of northern New
York, particularly along its western border, in the Black River Valley, I frequently found
Cuterebra} in or near the scrotum in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis leucotis), red
squirrel (Sciurus Hudsonius), and chipmunk (Tarnias striatus lysteri). I have observed the
same thing at East Hampton, Mass., and in other localities. The most extraordinary instance
of the prevalence of this disgusting parasite that has fallen under my observation was at the
south end of Lake Champlain, New York, in October, 1885. Orr the 7th and 9th of that
month, I killed more than fifty chipmunks (Tarnias striatus lysteri) within a few miles of old
Fort Ticonderoga, and on the rocky side hill behind the town of Whitehall. Of these, a very
large percentage—I think fully one-half—were infested with " wabbles " (Cuterebra;). More
females than males were thus afflicted. The "wabbles" were usually situated near* the median
line, and anywhere from the umbilical region to the genitals. In a few cases they were in the
axilla, and in one or two instances in the upper part of the fore-leg. In a number of
individuals two Cuterebra; were found, and in a few cases as many as three.
" ' Dr. A. K. Fisher tells me that he collected a number of chipmunks about the south
end of Lake George, Warren County, N.Y., during the latter part of August and first of
September, 1882, a considerable proportion of which were infested with Cuterebrai. As many
as three were found, in different stages of development, in one animal. A gray squirrel killed
at Sing Sing, Westchester County, N.Y., contained a Cuterebra in the left pectoral region.
" ' Respectfully,
" ' C. Hart Merriam,
" ' Ornithologist.'
"It is very possible that the larva? of more than one species of the genus Cuterebra were
concerned in the cases noticed by Drs. Merriam and Fisher, but this point cannot be decided
at the present time.
" The chief object of publishing this note is to introduce careful figures of the full-grown
larva not before published. They are drawn from a specimen received through the kindness
of Mr. George B. Starkweather, of this city. Concerning the capture of the specimen, which
was from a female chipmunk, Mr. Starkweather wrote, October 19th, 1888 :—
"'About noon on the 13th, my children's pet kitten came in from the grove near our
house, in the Rock Creek region, with a "chippy" in its mouth. They rescued it at once, but,
although warm, life was extinct. The strange appendage or abnormal growth which they
noticed on the under side caused them to lay it away carefully, in an empty covered cigar-box,
" to show papa." My attention was called to it twenty-four hours later, when a dark-colourecl
maggot was found in one corner of the box, nearly motionless. They described the "swelling"
as about an inch long and of the shape of a mulberry. There seemed to be a natural opening
at its apex over a sixteenth of an inch in diameter, with a tinge of a dark liquid about it.' 832 Report on Agriculture. 1891
" Subsequent inquiries have revealed the fact that squirrel hunters in the vicinity report
that these grubs are very abundant around Washington in the common gray squirrel, one
gentleman, with that freedom from fact-bias characteristic of the amateur hunter, stating that
he never shot a squirrel which was not infested by grubs. We will doubtless, therefore,
have opportunities for rearing the adult and comparing it with Low's scuttelaris.
"The larva has already been well described by Fitch, and our- figures will illustrate its
appearance. The specimen from which they were drawn was evidently full-grown, and has
entered the earth in a breeding jar."
The Vancouver Island Oak-looper
(Ellop>ia Somniaria—Hulst.)
This pest seems only to attack oak trees, hence they are not found on the Mainland,
where there are no oaks. It occasionally makes terrible inroads oir leaves of the oaks, completely stripping the trees of their foliage and forcing them to put forth a second growth.
This second growth of leaves was green until December in 1891.
Mr. Fletcher, writing under date of 10th August, 1891, says:—
" You speak of there having been lots of these caterpillars on oaks (your letter is dated
8th July). From this—as Mr. Darrby said in my Report last year that they occurred in the
middle of August—I presume this insect has two broods in the year. Do you think this is
the case?"
On 2nd September Mr. Fletcher writes :—
" Many thanks for your letter. I think there is no doubt fr;om what you say that there
are two broods of ellopia somniaria. Did you read my notes in my last Annual Report ? I
sincerely trust that your Park Commissioners did something this year to destroy these pests.
It is a great pity and shame if they did not do so.    Can't you do something to stir them up ?"
Remedies.—The important points in the life-history of this insect, gleaned from the
above, are that it passes the winter in the egg state; that young caterpillars are found on the
leaves in July, and that the chrysalis are usually in crevices of the bark or under leaves on
the ground. As a remedy, if it be found that the eggs are chiefly laid on the trunks of the
trees, spraying these in early spring, before the buds burst, with kerosene emulsion would
destroy large numbers. Pupation takes place from the middle of August until September,
during which time many pupa? are on the ground or on the trunks of the trees. Of the
former, many would doubtless be destroyed by pigs and chickens, if they could be turned in
at that time, and sweeping the trunks would dislodge many more. Probably the most
successful remedy for the Park Commissioners to adopt in future will be a systematic spraying
of the trees with a very weak mixture of one of the arsenical poisons, about the time the
young larva? are appearing. At that time a very weak mixture would suffice (one pound of
Paris green to 300 gallons of water). The difficulty of throwing a spray over high trees has
now been solved by attaching the spray nozzle to a thin tube and then fastening this to a
light pole, by which, and with the help of a ladder, it can be carried to any reasonable height.
The small cost of a suitable force-pump, with the necessary labour, is a small matter, compared
with the pleasure secured for the frequenters of a public park, by the banishment of such a
grievous pest as this. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 83c
PLANT  DISEASES.
Blight.
Mr. John L. Morton, of Clayton, says:—"Blight is bad with pears and the Russian
varieties of apple's."
Mr. W. J. Gossett, of Ladner's Landing, says :—" But they are nothing compared to the
fungus pest, which is truly formidable. I have some large apple trees, but the fruit is invariably totally destroyed. Potato vines also most years, but it attacks these so late as not to
affect the tubers so very much."
Mr. L. A. Agassiz, correspondent at Agassiz, says:—"The worst pest is the apple blight."
This disease, which I take to be apple scab or black spot, is purely a " fungous disease,"
and is very common in all the lower country and on the Island. I did not observe it in the
upper country, nor did I have any complaints of it from any part of the " dry belt," from
which fact I am led to think that moisture is favourable to the development of the disease.
A very large proportion of the apples (I did not see any pears) which were shipped to market
from points along Fraser River I observed were very badly spotted and distorted, detracting
much from their appearance and therefore from their value.
Mr. J. Craig, Horticulturist of the Central Experimental Farm, in his Bulletin No. 10,
April, 1891, on treatment of Apple Scab, &c, says:—
" Cause of Apple Scab.
" The Apple Scab is caused by a minute parasite fungus, a low form of plant life, which,
by living on the leaf and fruit of the apple prevents assinrilation in the former and the development of the latter. It is not so generally known that the same fungus attacks both the leaves
and the fruit."
Prof. Scribner says:—" On the leaves the first manifestations of the presence of the
parasites are the appearance, here and there over the surface, of smoky olive-green spots,
rounded in outline. The older spots range from one-eighth to one-half an inch in diameter, or
they may appear as large irregular blotches, by the running together of the spots first
formed.
They are for the most part confined to the upper side of the leaf, which often beconres much
distorted through the unequal development of the two surfaces. The colour of the older spots
is nearly black, and their surface somewhat velvety. The growth of the young shoots is often
seriously checked through the direct action of the fungus upon them, and when the foliage of
a tree is much affected its nutrition must be seriously injured. The tree is rendered less liable
to withstand the severe cold of the winter season, and is rendered more likely to injury fronr
early and late frosts.
" Cool damp weather is especially favourable to the development of this disease, and it is
during such seasons that it spreads with great rapidity. Last season was a characteristic one
in this respect, so that whether the coming summer be dry or wet it may be expected that,
with the crop of seed (spores) now on hand, we must be prepared to fight the disease, as it
will surely be more or less prevalent. The appearance of the scab on the apple is too well
known to need a minute description. When a thin section of the diseased portion of the fruit
is examined by the aid of a microscope, Prof. Galloway says that 'a cluster of short brownish
threads is seen arising from a darker mass of roundish cells, which are seated directly upon
the healthy tissue of the fruit or the leaf, as the case may be. The free ends of the threads
often bear pear-shaped bodies of nearly the same colour as the supporting threads. The pear-
shaped bodies are the spores of the fungus, and it is through their agency that the parasite is
propagated. The brownish threads serve merely as supports for the spores, while the dark
mass of tissue constitutes the body of the fungus, or, if I may so express it, the root, branches,
and leaves. When full grown, the spores separate easily from their supporting stalks, and
being exceedingly light are easily wafted from place to place by currents of air. In this way
they reach healthy fruit and leaves, and if the proper conditions of moisture and heat are
present they quickly germinate by sending out slender tubes, which bore their way into the
leaves or fruits, and ultimately give rise, just beneath the cuticle or skin, to dark masses of
cells, like those already described.    At first this mass of fungus tissue is entirely beneath the 834 Report on Agriculture. 1891
cuticle, but as the former- continues to grow the latter is ruptured, and it is then that another
crop of stalks and spores are formed. In this way the fungus continues its development
throughout the growing season, the crops of spores formed in the autumn living over winter
on the old leaves, fruit, and younger branches.' And thus we have a stock of seed (spores)
for next year's crop, which germinate as already stated, when favourable conditions are found.
" Just as soon as the leaves begin to form in the spring, they are attacked by the disease,
and what is true of the leaves is also true of the fruit, spots being sometimes noticeable on the
latter when little larger than peas. This emphasizes the statement that early treatment is a
prime essential towards successful results.
" Fungicides Recommended.—The following mixtures are recommended :—
1 ammoniacal copper carbonate.
Carbonate of copper, 8 oz.
Ammonia, 1 gal
Water, 110 gals.
" How to prepare :—In an ordinary vessel, capable of holding a gallon or more, put 2 oz.
of carbonate of copper and 1 quart of ammonia (ask your druggist for strong ammonia); when
the copper is completely dissolved, pour the mixture into a barrel and add 25 gallons of water.
The solution is then ready for use.
" Medium sized trees will take about orre gallon each, and large trees from one to two
gallons. A convenient method, when usirrg this formula, is to prepare the carbonate of copper
by dissolving it in the ammonia at once in the full quantity ordered above, and keeping it
ready for use stored away in ordinary quart glass jars, these to be diluted with water as
needed."
From the Fourth Annual Report of the Vermont State Agricultural Experiment Station,
1890, p. 142, I take the following :—
" Notes upon some other Fungous Diseases which are prevalent.
" Black Scab on Apple.—This is caused by the fungus fusicladium dendriticum. The
spores are produced in olive-green patches upon the fruit and leaves, and even upon the
younger branches of the trees. We found a luxurious growth of the fungus, producing myriads
of spores, upon greenings several weeks after they were stored in our cellar last fall. It is
possible that conditions may be such that these spores may germinate and spread the disease
to the uninfected fruit after storing. If so, this may explain in part the spotting of the
apples after they are barrelled.
"Experiments at Wisconsin and Michigan Stations in 1889 showed that by proper
spraying much of the injury from the scab fungus can be prevented.
" Mr. Goff, of the Wisconsin Station, recommends as the results of his experiments the
following treatment:—' Dissolve one ounce of copper carbonate in one quart of ammonia
(strength 22° Baume). Keep corked tightly until ready for use, then dilute with 25 gallons
of water. Spray once just before the flowers open, a second time just after the petals fall,
and repeat at intervals of two or three weeks until midsummer. Wait a few hours after
spraying with this before spraying with Paris green for the codling moth.'
" Black Scab on Pear.—This is especially troublesome on Flemish Beauty pears. It is
caused by a fungus growth in the same way that apple scab is, and can doubtless be checked
in the same way.
"Pear Blight.—Fire blight occurs everywhere about the State, and needs no description from us. It is caused by the action of bacteria (micrococcus amylovorus). The only
remedy known is to cut off the smaller limbs a foot or so below the lowest manifestation of
the disease, and to shave out the spots where the disease appears on the trunk, cutting deeply
enough to remove all discoloured tissue. A good precaution is to disinfect the knife after
cutting through a diseased sjDot, by dipping in carbolic acid.
" The same blight attacks apple trees, though not so commonly as it does the pear. An
outbreak of what was probably apple blight was reported us from the southern part of the
State.
"The same treatment is recommended as for pear blight." 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 835
From the "American Garden," November, 1891, p. 695 : —
"Fungous Diseases of Pomaceous Fruits.
" Professor B. F. Galloway's paper on the ' Recent Progress in the Treatment of Diseases
of Pomaceous Fruits' gave a review of the results of experiments carried on by the sectiorr of
vegetable pathology during the past year. The losses due to apple scab in 1890 are estimated
to exceed $16,000,000, and the damage to pears, plums, etc., by the different diseases at not
less than $50,000,000 annually. The way to fight these diseases is by protecting the young
and unfolding leaves against the germination of the disease spores. The points to be discovered were: (1.) What kind of application is effective without injuring the foliage? (2.) How
often should the applications be made? (3.) In what way can they be made most economically ? The Bordeaux mixture has been found most effective. On a small scale, the knapsack
pump is all right, but for large scab operation it is not effective enough. The department, so
Professor Galloway informs us, is now at work trying to construct an automatic machine,
holding about 50 gallons, that will spray four rows at a time, and can be made at a cost not
exceeding $25.
" The ammoniacal solution of carbonate of copper has been found best for rrrildcw on
apples, and for many other diseases. Three or four early sprayings seemed to give as good
results as seven or eight at intervals all during the season.
" The cause of peach yellows is yet a mystery. The disease is transmissible. It cannot
be cured; it can only be eradicated by means of the axe and fire.
" Pear Blight.—Professor Galloway, in reply to a question about the nature of pear
blight, says that it is caused by the work of a micro-organism which enters the tree through a
growing tip, or through a flower. These microbes are easily obtained, and can be bred like
insects or plants. What to do for their destruction is another thing. We do not yet know
much about it. The leaf blight can be prevented by spraying with copper mixture, but this
does not affect fire blight."
White Blight on Apple Tree.
Mr. Thos. Marshall, of Cowichan, says :—" The frost blight is the worst thing we have
on apple trees."
Mr. J. McLay, correspondent at Gabriola Island, says :—"Then there is another equally
bad, which seems to get hatched (he is speaking of aphides) and grows in a sort of white fungus
all over the limbs of apples."
Probably this is what Mr. Marshall speaks of as the frost blight. I have witnessed
the same thing on apple trees in my own garden. I cannot find this disease mentioned
anywhere.
Apple Tree Blight.
O. W. Byrne, Fulton Co., 111.—"If the twigs of your apple trees have been killed by
the twig borer you would either find the insects in them or their minute burrows, where the
wood had been eaten away. But from your description of the trees we are inclined to think
they are attacked by a disease known as the apple and pear blight.
"This disease usually appears on the most vigorous and tallest shoots of the top, and from
there it passes downward to the larger branches and main stem, the leaves withering along
its course, and the wood and bark becoming black as though scorched up by fire ; hence one
of its names is fire blight. Sometimes this disease may be checked by cutting away infested
twigs and branches as soon as discovered and immediately coating the wounds with ordinary
white lead paint.
" There is no remedy for this disease, and it usually attacks the most vigorous and rapidly
growing specimens in the orchard.
" On poor soil, or only moderately fertile soils, and on dry soils this disease is almost, if not
entirely, unknown."—American Agriculturist, October, 1891, page 571.
Mildew on Gooseberries,
Reported from Nicola by Mr. H. D. Green-Armytage and Mr. A. Salrrrond, correspondent
at Comox :—This disease, although only reported from two points, is prevalent throughout
the Province. 836 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. John Craig, Horticulturist of the Central Experimental Farm, Bulletin No. 10,
April, 1891, says of this disease :—
" Gooseberry Mildew.—The great drawback to the successful cultivation of the European gooseberry in Canada has been the annual loss occasioned by the prevalence of this
disease (Sphcerotheca mors-uvce—B. & C.)"
The external appearance of the fungus is well known, showing on the young woods, leaves
and fruit as a whitish downy coating, usually appearing soon after the leaves have fully
expanded.
Treatment.—Successful results are reported by Prof. Goff, of the Agricultural Experiment
Station, of Wisconsin, by the use of potassium sulphide (liver of sulphur) at the rate of one
ounce dissolved in four gallons of water. Spraying was commenced when the leaves were
partly expanded, and repeated seven or eight times during the summer.
Without actual experiment it would not be wise to recommend the unrestricted use of
any remedy for this disease, but from our present knowledge of the general efficacy of the
ammonical copper* carbonate it seems safe to advise a trial at any rate of this remedy in the
same proportions as those given for the apple. The effect on the foliage of the first application
should be carefully noted, and if at all injurious the amount of copper carbonate should be
lessoned to one and a half ounces.
Apple Tree Bark Disease.
A peculiar disease, the nature of which, as will be seen from the copy of Mr. Fletcher's
letter below, is not at present understood. Complaints come from Messrs. W. H. DeWolf
and J. Howe Bent, who are planting out a large orchard at Chilliwhack (see copy of their
letter). From Mr. H. D. Green-Armytage, of Nicola, who says :—" The apple trees seem
invariably to be injured in such a manner that part of the wood in the stem dies, and in time
kills the whole tree." From Mr. Henry Woodward, of Alberni, who says :—"Apple trees are
liable to a bad disease which affects the bark." These complaints probably all refer to the
same disease.
"Wolfdale Farm, Chilliwhack,
" 26th December, 1891.
" To the Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C :
" Gentlemen,—We send by to-day's mail a small box containing a few pieces of limbs
cut from our apple trees, showing how some kind of an insect is doing harm to our trees, and
in some instances have killed the branch, or small tree, where they have stopped the circulation of the sap.
" From the appearance of the tree it looks as if an insect of some kind stung the bark
and sucked out the sap.
" You will also find enclosed in the box a small bottle containing a few insects we found
irr the holes, but we cannot say whether these are the insects that do the work, or if they are
some other kind that have crawled into the holes for protection from the weather, but we
presume these are the insects as we found them on several trees.
" They do not attack the old trees, except in the branches, where the bark is smooth ; but
in the young trees they go for the trunk and branches also, and irr some instances have almost
girdled the young trees.
" We would be glad if you will look into the matter and let us know if there is any
remedy to prevent them from destroying the trees.
" Yours respectfully,
"W. H. DeWolf,
" J. Howe Bent."
"Central Experimental Farm,
"Ottawa, 9th January, 1892.
" James R. Anderson, Esq.,
" Victoria, B. C.
" My Dear Sir,—I am in receipt of yours of 26th ult., enclosing letter from Messrs.
W. H. DeWolf and J. Howe Bent, of Wolfdale Farm, Chilliwhack, B. C. The specimens of
injured apple stems are also to hand. This injury has been submitted to me three or four-
times before from different parts of your Province—Harrison Hot Springs, Cowichan, Depar- 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 837
ture Bay, &c. I regret to say that I cannot give you much information about it. I have
submitted specimens to specialists in the United States, but so far they have given me no
light on the subject which is of practical use. Prof. Burrill, of the University of Illinois,
finds an undescribed species of microscopic fungus on the wounds, but it belongs to a family
not previously known to be injurious. One thing, however, is certain, that the caterpillars
enclosed with the specimens are in no way connected with the injury ; these are caterpillars of
tussock moths, which feed on the leaves, and they had only crawled to the holes in the bark
to pass the winter. It is a habit with many insects to pass the winter when half grown in
the larval condition, and several kinds do tlris on the trunks of trees and beneath mosses and
lichens growing thereon. These caterpillars are dead, but I am able to recognize them by the
beautiful barbed hairs and a gland on the back. In sending insects by mail alive it is best to
serrd them in a tin box. Moisture gathers inside a tightly corked glass bottle and drowns the
enclosed insects. If your correspondents would send me a few more of these caterpillars I
should be much obliged for them ; they might be packed in a tin box without any holes, and
a piece of moss put in with them would prevent their being injured in transit. I will endeavour
to find out more about the fungous disease, and will write to you again on the subject.
" I am, &c,
"James Fletcher,
" Dominion Entomologist."
Smut
On grain is reported from Chilliwhack, by Mr. G. R. Ashwell; from Spence's Bridge,  by Mr.
J. Murray; from Okanagan   Mission,  by  Mr.  James Crozier and  Mr.   Eustace Smith  (correspondent); and from Salt Spring Island, by Mr. Alex. McLennan.
This fungous disease is so well known and easily recognized by most farmers that I omit
the descriptiorrs of it as given by Mr. Fletcher in Bulletin No. 3, 15th March, 1888, Central
Experimental Farm. I, however, reproduce some of his remarks illustrative of the enormous
loss arising from it and the remedies recommended for combating the disease:—
" Smuts Affecting Wheat.
" The large amount of loss to the wheat crop every year, from the attacks of the low
forms of vegetable life known as Parasitic Fungi, is now universally acknowledged; but the
enormous extent of this injury is only appreciated by those who specially turn their attention
to the matter. For an evidence of the magnitude of this injury we may consult the Report
of the United States Commissioner of Agriculture for 1886, where we find the following words:
' We may safely assume that the value of the corn and wheat annually destroyed in this
country by diseases induced by fungi is not less than $200,000,000.' This large sum of course
also includes the injury caused by  ' Rusts' and 'Mildews' as well as  'Smuts.'
"Fungi is a Latin word (plural of Fungus) which is applied to a large class of flowerless
plants of which Toadstools, Mushrooms, and the large ear-shaped woody growths, sometimes
found on forest trees, are conspicuous examples. There are, however, also included in this
class many small forms which are not so readily recognized by the ordinary observer as fungi.
Amongst these we find the 'Moulds' which appear upon provisiorrs when left in a warm and
damp atmosphere, and also the 'Smuts,' 'Mildews,' and 'Rusts' which are the chief agents in
inflicting the heavy losses in grain and fruit crops already referred to.
" Fungi differ very much from the ordinary forms of vegetation around us. They have
neither true roots, stems, leaves, flowers, nor seeds. They are, however, unmistakeably plants,
of low organization it is true, but still plants developed from germs call spores, somewhat analogous to, but not the same as, the seeds of the more highly organized flowering plants. A
spore is a reproductive body which answers the same purpose as a seed by providing for the
perpetuity of the species of plant which produces it; but has not, like the true seed, a rudimentary plant already formed within it. The processes of development, fertilization, and reproduction amongst these low forms of vegetable life, are as yet, with few exceptions, little
understood. This is chiefly due to the difficulties attending their investigation, the very minute
size of their parts, and the small number of students who have made a special study of this
branch of science. We know, however, amongst other facts, that in all fungi we may recognize two systems, the first, vegetative, which is popularly called the 'spawn' (mycelium) and
which in those kinds parasitic upon crops, rob the plants cultivated of the nourishment
necessary for them to produce the most satisfactory results; the second, reproductive, by
which the injurious parasite is propagated. 838 Report on Agriculture. 1891
" My object in writing these lines is to remind farmers of the serious loss suffered every
year from the ravages of one class of these parasitic fungi called ' Wheat Smuts,' and at the
same time to draw their attention to some of the remedies which have been found successful
in keeping these parasites within bounds.
" Remedies.—The nature and life-history of these smut fungi being, as above shown,
comparatively well known, some practical remedies have been devised. That sonre of these
remedies have had a decided effect upon the prevalence of the diseases in question is evident.
Many instances have been brought under my notice where fields of wheat grown from treated
seed have produced crops of perfectly clean grain, whilst close alongside of them the crop
reaped from seed not so protected was materially reduced by the ravages of these parasites.
In Cook and Berkeley's 'Fungi, their Nature, Influence, and Uses,' p. 225, we find—'Bunt
' is another pest which occupies the whole farinaceous portion of the grains of wheat. Since
' dressing the seed-wheat has been so widely adopted in this country (England), this pest has
' been of comparatively little trouble.'
" In the Report of the Botanist to the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for
1886, p. 129, in an account of experiments made by Mr. C. S. Plumb, with different remedies
for smut in oats, we find as follows :—' In every one of the ten experiments the testimony is
'positive in demonstrating that good has resulted from the treatment of the seed.'
" All grain for seed should, of course, be procured as free as possible from smut; but when
there is the slightest doubt about its presence, the trouble and expense of treating the seed
are so small that there is no excuse for not doing so.
"The condition in which the smuts pass the winter, is in the shape of the minute black
spores produced in the ears of wheat. These spores either adhere to the ripe grain of adjacent
wheat plants, or falling to the ground remain there, in an undeveloped condition, until the
young wheat plant has attained the proper- growth for them to begin their attack. By a
proper system of rotation of crops, wheat would not be grown again on the same land for about
four or five years, or more, and by this time it is probable that most of the spores from smut
upon the previous wheat crop would have perished.
" The remedies which have been most successful are those in which nrethods have been
adopted, to destroy the spores adhering to the seed-wheat previous to sowing. To accomplish
this it is necessary to wash the grain thoroughly or to steep it in some weak poisonous solution,
so as either to remove or to destroy the fungous germs without injuring the germinating
qualities of the seed, and, moreover, it seems highly probable that a sufficiency of the material
used for this purpose will adhere to the seed and protect it against the attack of any spores
which may be present in the soil at the time the wheat is sown.
" Of a great many remedies which have been tried with more or less success, I select the
three following as being, in my opinion, the best both for efficiency and convenience. The
first and second I have myself frequently tried with manifest success, The third is given on
the authority of Mr. Worthington G. Smith :—
"1, Sulphate of Copper, also called ' Bluestone' or 'Blue Vitriol.'
" This substance can usually be procured in any part of Canada from druggists or general-
store-keepers, at about 10 cents per ft., so that the cost of treating seed with the strongest
solution recommended below, would not exceed 2J cents per bushel. The different methods of
applying this substance to the grain vary slightly; but the differences are merely with regard
to the extent to which it is deemed advisable to wet the seed. Some advise soaking the grain;
but it would appear from the results of many experiments that this is not necessary. Mr.
Worthington G. Smith advises the following:—'1 ft. of bluestone dissolved in five quarts of
' boiling water is sufficient for a sack of four imperial bushels. The wheat is soaked for ten
'minutes, or the ten pints of solution may be poured over till all is absorbed.'
"Mr. S. A. Bedford of Moosomin, N. W. T., who has had considerable experience as a
farmer in Manitoba and the North-West Territories, tells me that the following method has
proved successful in his district:—
" ' One pound of Sulphate of Copper is dissolved in a pailful of hot water, which is then
'sprinkled by one person over 10 bushels of wheat placed in a waggon box, whilst some one
' else keeps the grain well stirred. Should a large amount of smut be detected in grain re-
' quired for seed, the solution is made stronger, double the quantity of bluestone being used.'
" The chief advantage claimed for this method is that in a few hours the grain is sufficiently
dry to sow with the drill. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 839
" Mr. C. S. Plumb, of the New York Experimental Station, used 4 oz. of Sulphate of
Copper in one gallon of water, and reports that ' seeds soaked seventeen and a half hours in
' this solution were found to produce a slight amount of smut. Soaked forty hours all germs
' of the fungus were killed.'
"It is to he noted that Mr. Plumb's experiments were with oats, in which, from the fact
that the seed is contained inside a comparatively loose husk, there is much more difficulty in
removing or destroying all the smut-spores than is the case with the smooth and naked grains
of wheat.
" 2. Brine and Lime.
" A renredy generally available at country farm houses arrd from which good results have
been secured, is to soak the grain for 10 or 15 minutes irr brine of the ordinary strength used
for pickling pork (i. e., in which a fresh egg will float). If well stirred many of the smut-
spores, smutty and imperfect grains, &c, will rise to the surface, and can be skimmed off and
destroyed. After the brine is poured off, the wheat must be dried by dusting lime over it
until all the grains are white.
" It is claimed that sprinkling the brine on the grain instead of soaking it as above,
before dusting it with lime, has been found successful; but I have never tried this method.
" 3.  Alkaline Water.
" It might happen that rrone of the above-mentioned materials were obtainable and in
such case the mere washing of the seed would be beneficial. Mr. Smith says .'as the spores
' are lighter than water steeping in brine or even pure water is often effectual, as the spores
' float, and are easily washed away. Some alkaline ley should be added if water is used, as
' the oil on the surface of the spores combines with the alkali and forms a soapy substance
' which is fatal to effectual spore germination.'
" An alkaline ley suitable for the above purpose may be made by adding to three or four
gallons of boiling water, in any suitable vessel, one gallon of hard-wood ashes and stirring
frequently until the alkaline properties of the ashes are extracted; or an alkaline solution of
sufficient strength may be made by dissolving about 2 fts. of ordinary washing soda in a pailful
of water."
Potato Rot,
Reported by Messrs. McMyn Bros., Mr. T. Kidd and Mr. D. Reid from Lulu Island, and Mr.
F. Passingham from Agassiz. Most of these gentlemen attribute it to the very wet autumn
experienced in the lower country.
I take the following from the Fourth Annual Report of the Vermont State Agricultural
Experiment Station, 1890, p. 131 :—
" Potato Blight and Rot.
" The blight of the tops and the dry rot of the tubers are simply different manifestations
of one and the same disease. This disease is caused by a parasitic plant or fungus, of which
the botanical narrre is phytophthora infestans. We may trace the life-history of the fungus
briefly as follows :—
"Examine a tuber- affected with dry rot carefully under the microscope, and the mycelium
of the fungus may be found running through it. The dry rot is simply death of the tissues of
the tuber from exhaustion, as a result of this mycelium feeding upon them. As soon as the
tuber dies the mycelium of the fungus dies ; but until the tuber is killed the fungus lives and
spreads through it. If the tuber is stored in a cool cellar the fungus may not grow fast
enough to kill the tissues of the tuber; hence, although the mycelium of the fungus is within
the tuber, there may be no indications of its presence. Let the tuber affected with dry rot be
planted, or even such a tuber as just described, which contains the fungus but does not show
any signs of its presence—and many such are planted in Vermont every year—as the potato
sprout grows the mycelium of the fungus grows and penetrates stem, branches and leaves of
the potato plant. When the conditions of the weather are favourably warm and moist, the
mycelium sends fruiting branches out through the breathing pores (stomata) on the underside
of the potato leaves, and upon these branches spores are produced in countless profusion.
These spore-bearing branches and spores form the whitish patches which look like frost on the 840 Report on Agriculture. 1891
underside of the blighting leaves. The mycelium of the fungus makes an especial drain on
the tissues of the plant for food at the time of ripening its spores, and soon kills the leaf at
the spot where the spores are produced.
" These black spots on the leaves in July and August are a familiar sight to every potato
grower in the State. They are an indication that blight is present and ready to spread
rapidly if the weather favours the rapid production and germination of the spores. The
spores from a single affected plant are enough to carry the blight to a whole potato field in a
short time. Striking proof that blight does spread in this way from a single plant, or a few
plants, is often seen in the Experiment Station potato field. In 1889 the blight broke out
first in one corner and spread diagonally across the field, following the direction of the wind.
It is plain now that if any mixture is sprayed upon the potato leaves which will kill the
spores, the spread of the blight will be checked. It has been demonstrated by repeated trials
during the last few years that the mixture of copper sulphate (blue vitriol or blue-stone) and
lime, known as the Bordeaux mixture, is a very effective remedy when used in this way. The
Bordeaux mixture consists of four pounds of copper sulphate (blue vitriol), six pounds of
freshly slacked lime, and twenty-two gallons of water. Full directions for making and applying this mixture have been published in Bulletin No. 24."
Mr. Fletcher, in his examination before the Select Standing Committee of the House
of Commons, 4th July, 1891, says :—
" A serious plant disease, that has now been brought considerably within control through
the studies of scientific men, is the potato rot. The experiments in connection with this
murrain, which has caused more than one famine in Ireland, have been most satisfactory, and
consist of treating the plant with copper mixture. What is known as the Bordeaux mixture
has been used extensively in France, and this year I read that the English Government is
trying it both at home and in Ireland. In the United States it has also been used successfully at some of the experimental stations. I have arranged a series of experiments at the
farm, for treating both the scab and the rot of the potato. The Bordeaux mixture consists of
6 pounds of copper sulphate dissolved in 16 gallons of water, and 4 pounds of fresh lime
dissolved in 6 gallons of water, dissolved separately, but afterwards strained and mixed, and
then sprayed over the foliage. For the treatment of the potato beetle and potato rot at the
same time, the article known as ' London purple' is to be used for* mixing with the Bordeaux
mixture, in preference to Paris green, on account of its chemical nature." 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 841
DISEASES OF ANIMALS.
DISEASES OF HORSES.
Messrs. Taylor & Owen say the most prevalent diseases amongst horses on the Delta are:
Febra pyogenica, commonly called Distemper;
Oza?na, Nasal gleet;
Erythema, Mud fever;
Lymphangitis, Weed;
Pneumonia, Inflammation of lungs ;
Pharyngitis, Sore throat;
Colic—CEstrus equi, Bots.
Distemper is also reported at Sea Island by Mr. S. T. Calhoun; at Spatsum, by Messrs.
Wood & Campbell; at Okanagan Mission, by Mr. W. Duncan; at the Onward Ranch,
Cariboo, by Messrs. Eagle & Paxton; at Kootenay, by Mr. John McKay; at Williams Lake,
by Mr. Wm. Pinchbeck (correspondent), who says:—"Horses are troubled with distemper;
but it could soon be done away with if every person who keeps a horse and has a stable were
compelled to clean their stables with disinfectants every year; we soon would not see or hear
of any distemper. The loss of horses has been considerable through this disease. For
instance, a farmer sends his team to Ashcroft for freight, and the team comes back with
distemper caught in some unclean stable."
Epizootic.—At Spatsum, by Messrs. Wood & Campbell; by Mr. Donald Walker at
Kamloops; at Nicola, by Mr. John Clapperton; from Clinton, by Mr. John Saul; Cowichan,
by Mr. Thomas Marshall.
Mange.—Spatsum, Messrs. Wood & Campbell; the Onward Ranch, Cariboo, by Messrs.
Eagle & Paxton.
Mr. Michael Phillips, of Kootenay, says the mortality amongst colts is very great on the
Tobacco Plains, both on the United States and the Canadian sides, matter forming in the
throat.
DISEASES OF CATTLE.
Red Water.
Mr. Wm. Rennison, of Comox, reports this disease amongst cows there.
Mr. Hector Ferguson, of Port Haney, also complains of it. He says :—" Cattle here
die from red water. It appears to affect cattle that run on low land or wet marshy land. I
believe that the wild parsnip, that grows very common here, is the cause of it. I have never
had a case of it although my cattle pasture considerably on low land, but there is no wild
parsnip in their run, except in places that are dry and hard in summer when feed is scarce,
and of course cannot be pulled up by the root then ; whereas in other runs where the swails
are springy cattle are frequently found dead in spring, and have the red water."
In answer to a communication I addressed to Prof. J. W. Robertson, Dairy Commissioner,
Ottawa, I got the following answer :— 842 Report on Agriculture. 1891
" Central Experimental Farm,
" Ottawa, October 7th, 1891.
" Jas. R. Anderson, Esq.,
" Victoria, B. C.
" Dear Sir,—Repeated and prolonged absences from home since my return from British
Columbia have prevented me fronr giving attention to the letter which you sent regarding the
disease among cattle, commonly known as red water. I have no personal experience with the
treatment of this disease, although I have known a few herds wherein it appeared. I enclose
a description, statement of symptoms, and treatment given by Prof. Jas. Law, of Cornell
University. He is recognized on the continent as an authority on all veterinary subjects. I
hope that the information in the extract may be of service to your correspondent.
" I am, &c,
"Jas. W. Robertson."
Extract from " The Farmer's Veterinary Adviser," by Prof. Jas. Law :—
" Wood Evil—Red Water of Cattle, Sheep, and Pigs.
" Under this name we designate a malady generally described as bloody urine (hematuria),
but as the liquid does not usually contain blood globules or clots, and as the liver is almost
invariably enlarged and softened, and the blood elements are largely destroyed, it must be
conceded that the affection is more intimately associated with disorder of the hepatic functions
than of any other. The cause, which may be stated as feeding on irritant and unwholesome
food, is such as is calculated to disorder the digestive organs and liver. The blood seems to
suffer secondarily, though it is by no means disproved that other blood forming functions
besides those of the liver are involved. The blood itself is usually thin, watery, and comparatively incoagulable, with a deficiency of fibrine, albumen, and red globules—the last-named
elements being smaller than natural, and irregularly notched around their margins. The
urine varies in colour from a simple reddish tinge through the various shades of red and brown
to black. It contains albumen and various albuminoid agents, excess of urea, cholesterine
and phosphates, implying hepatic disturbance and destructive changes taking place in the
blood.
" This is essentially a disease of unimproved localities, and attacks animals fed too
exclusively on products of such land, which are naturally stimulating to the digestive organs
and liver. Turnips and other saccharine roots, though perfectly safe from ordinary soils, are
dangerous from these, and in the natural meadows and woods the young shoots of resinous
trees (coniferae), and the acrid plants of the ranunculus, colchicum, and asclepias families, &c,
are held to produce it. Its prevalence in woods and uncultivated meadows has procured for
it in almost all European countries some name equivalent to wood disease. An important
element in the causation is the existence of soil rich in organic matter and soured by the
stagnation of water, owing to a clay or otherwise impervious subsoil. Cows are very susceptible just after calving and often perish.
" Symptoms.—Dullness, languor, weakness, especially of the hind limbs, trembling, surface
coldness, staring coat, dry muzzle, hot mouth and horns, and diminution of the milk, which is
white and frothy, and may throw down a reddish sediment. Appetite is lost, thirst ardent,
pulse small and weak, beats of the heart tumultuous, amounting to palpitation in the parturient
cases, bowels at first relaxed, afterward costive, abdomen tender, urine passed frequently in
small quantity, and often with suffering. Colicky pains are often a marked symptom when
the irritatiorr of the bowels is extreme. Delirium even will set in in bad cases, and death
usually supervenes on a state of extreme prostration.
" Prevention may be sought in thorough drainage ; in restricting the allowance of objectionable food and supplementing it with sound dry grain and fodder ; in the avoidance of
damp, woody, and natural meadows in spring until there is a good growth of grass, and in
the rejection of hay from faulty pastures containing an excess of acrid plants.
" Treatment.— At the onset of the disease nothing succeeds better than a free evacuation
of the bowels and depletion of the portal vein and liver by an active purgative. When there
is no abdominal pain or other sign of inflammation of the bowels, salts or any other active
purgative will suffice, but with colic and tenderness of the abdomen, we must restrict our
choice to olive oil and other bland materials. In advanced and weak conditions decoctions of
linseed should be resorted to.    The animal is to be supported by diffusible stimulants and iron 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 843
tonics, with chlorate of potassa, and the bowels sheathed and protected by infusions of slippery
elm, or mallow, decoctions of linseed, eggs, milk, or mucilage ; diet should consist of linseed
decoctions, well boiled gruels, bran mashes, arrd other nutritive and easily digested food."
Messrs. Taylor & Owen, of the Delta, say amongst the diseases most prevalent are :—
Mammitis, Gayet,
(Inflammation of the Udder).
Bronchocele, Enlarged Thyroid.
Hoven, Distension of first Stomach.
Hepatitis, Inflammation of Liver.
Enteritis, Inflammation of Bowels.
Constipation.
Messrs. Posthill Bros., of Okanagan Mission, report Big Jaw as prevalent.
Diseases of Calves.
Mr.  Hector Ferguson, of Port Haney, reports as follows :—
" There is a disease prevalent here in calves that we would like to find a remedy for. I
have lost fifty per cent, of my calves during the last ten years with it. The first symptoms
are : when you go to feed, the calf will be found standing with its head down, ears drooping,
eyes dull, froth round the nostrils and mouth. The breathing becomes heavier and harder,
and the slavering and frothing increase until death relieves the animal. The froth at the nose
is generally tinged with blood. They generally refuse to eat, although sometimes they will
look at the milk and go up to it. Sometimes they will die between meals, but mostly they
will live about two days. Several years ago I wrote to the ' Family Herald' for advice. The
answer was that it was a species of grub in the lungs and nostrils, and that it was gathered on
the grasss when eating, and recommended one tablespoonful of turpentine in a cupful of
linseed oil, given one hour before eating. The next year I had ten calves, and three took it
about the same time, and four more in a day or so. I gave them the oil; the first two died,
the third one was so bad that it could not swallow, and I had to pour the milk down its
throat for a week; all the rest got better. Since that I continue to lose some every year
despite the medicine. This year I tried keeping the calves in and cutting green hay for them,
and giving them sweet skimmed milk with scalded oilcake. One died when five months old
and very fat; in fact, the fatter they are the quicker they go. I have noticed that a calf that
runs with the cow never takes it, to my knowledge."
Mr. Michael Phillips says :—
"Tobacco Plains,  1st September, 1891.
"J. R. Anderson, Esq.,
" Victoria, B.C.
" Sir,—I regret that I have had no time this season to pay much attention to diseases
amongst live stock or crops, but will another year give you full particulars. I have lost a
number of calves during the past two years. They simply stagger and fall dead. Whether it
is simply the intense heat, and from their being too fat, or, as they call it here, the ' black
leg,' I cannot at present say. I am told that in the North-West they insert a twist of hair
through the skin in the chest of all calves, and that calves so treated never die in the way
mentioned. I have not as yet tried this. When opened, the animal has black blood round
the heart."
Diseases op Pigs.
Messrs. Taylor & Owen, of the Delta, mention amongst the diseases most prevalent
are partial paralysis, rheumatism, and prolapsus ani.
Mr. D. McGillivray, of Sumas, says :—" There has been a disease amongst hogs for the
last six or eight years, causing many to die. No remedy has been discovered as yet as a cure,
or to prevent its spreading." As Mr. McGillivray gives no description of the disease, it is
impossible to identify it. 844 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Mr. Horatio Webb, correspondent at Chilliwhack, says :—" A disease among the pigs
for the last eighteen months has done great damage to pig-raising, a great many farmers
having lost nearly all. I should say fully one-third of the pigs have died with the disease.
It takes them in different ways; some die very quickly, others linger for a long time. I have
seen some black pigs sick for- a long time, and their hair turned grey. Nothing at present has
been found to check it; just now it is not quite so bad."
Mr. Cory S. Ryder, of Chilliwhack, says:—" There is a disease amongst our hogs through
this part which has taken away hundreds of pigs. In the first stage, the pig becomes stupid,
and shortly begins to reel in his hind parts when walking. Small pigs turn blind, and when
they die their eyes rot out."
From the description, it somewhat resembles murrain, which is described as follows :—
" This resembles leprosy in its symptoms, with the addition of staggering, shortness of breath,
and discharge of viscid matter from the eyes and mouth. The treatment should consist of
cleanliness, coolness, bleeding, purging, and limitation of food. Cloves of garlic are recommended, and, as in all febrile diseases there exists a greater or less disposition to putrefaction,
it is probable that garlic, from its antiseptic properties, may be useful."
Cholera is reported from Chilliwhack by Mr. G. R. Ashwell; from Colwood by Mr. A.
H. Peatt; from Saanich by Mr. H. Simpson.
Treatment.—As a preventive, the following will be found valuable: Flour of sulphur,
six pounds; animal charcoal, one pound; sulphate of iron, six ounces; cinchona, pulverized,
one pound. Mix well together in a large mortar; afterwards give a tablespoonful to each
animal, mixed with a few potato peelings and cornmeal, three times a day. Continue this for
one week, keeping the animal at the same time in a clean dry place, and not allowing too
many together. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 845
ANIMAL   PESTS.
Coyotes.
Mr. John R. Jackson, of Kettle River, complains of the destructiveness of the coyote,
and recommends a bounty beiirg placed on them.
Mr. Dennis Murphy', of Lac La Hache, writes in the same way.
Mr. Wm. Graham Macmyn, of Rock Creek, also writes in the same way (I append a copy
of his letter).
Mr. John Clapperton, of Nicola (correspondent), also complains of them.
Mr. M. Lumby, correspondent at Spallumcheen, says : " The coyotes are a great drawback to sheep raising ; the loss heavy from them. In fact the loss in all kinds of young live
stock is large from coyotes. A bounty of at least $2.50 per head would be an inducement for
extermination."
Mr. J. F. Hawks, correspondent at Soda Creek, says : " The great difficulty of raising
sheep is the expense of herding on account of wolves and coyotes."
"Rock Creek, 30th October, 1891.
" J. R. Anderson, Esq., Victoria :
" Dear Sir,—I wish to state a few facts in regard to coyotes, which I consider a pest in
this section.
"In the fall of 1888 I started with a small band of sheep, viz.: 286 ewes and 4 rams.
In the spring of '89, after lambing time, I had 526. During June and July the flies are bad
in the heat of the day, so that the sheep like to go out to feed early in the morning or late in
the evening. The coyotes then first became acquainted with them, and it was afterwards
impossible to protect them, except by constant herding, which would not pay, owing to the
band being so small, and I had not sufficient winter feed to keep a band of say 1,000 or 1,500.
In the spring of '90 I had only 580. I then decided to sell everything that would make
mutton in the fall, and in the meantime herded them as close as I could possibly spare time to
do, but alas in September I had only 456 ; 50 of the poorest I left here, and the balance I
drove down to Westminster, and had no difficulty in disposing of them at ten cents per pound
dead weight. When I returned home out of the 50 I had only 35 left. This spring I had
again 60, and now only 20. Of course I killed quite a few for my own use and the local
market here, but the coyotes killed at least five to my one.
" The summer months are very warm and fresh meat will only keep a few days, so that
mutton is much preferable here to beef for local use, and if it were not for the coyotes each
settler could keep a small bunch of sheep and raise enough mutton for his own use during the
hot weather. Besides, if the coyotes were killed off we would have far more game in the
district, such as grouse, prairie chickens, deer, &c. I, therefore, beg to ask you to recommend
a small bounty to be put on coyotes which, together with their skins, would pay men to make
a business of killing them during the winter months.
" J. C. Haynes, of Osoyoos Lake, J. J. Ingram, of Kettle River, and Jas. McConnell,
also of Kettle River, all tried raising sheep before me, but, like myself, failed.
" Hoping that you will favourably consider my suggestion,
" I remain, &c,
" Wm. Graham Macmyn."
Gophers.
Mr. C. 0. Tilton, of Spallumcheen, says he is troubled considerably with gophers.    He,
. however, does not say in what manner they give trouble.
Mr. John Clapperton, of Nicola, says the greatest pest we have to deal with is the
gopher.    It is most destructive to meadows. 846 Report on Agriculture. 1891
Moles.
Mr R. S. Pelly, of Otter Lake, Spallumcheen, says : " Moles are very destructive on
fruit trees."
I had other complaints of a similar nature from Spallumcheen and other parts. I was
told that in places where they are bad the roots of fruit trees are completely eaten off.
From the " American Garden," January, 1892, page 45, I take the following :—
" The Ground Mole.—In times past I have been for and against the moles, but just
now would favour the extermination, if possible, of the pest. Let me give a mode of capturing
them : They like a soft place in winter, and, if possible, below frost. When the ground
freezes over a foot deep my impression is that most of them are killed. The mode alluded to
is to put up piles of weeds or grass so as to keep the ground from freezing hard under them.
Then in winter when the ground is frozen hard upset these stacks and dig down where the
moles will be found in winter quarters. This, I have seen stated, is a sure plan to capture
them. Have never tried it myself before, but just now these hills can be seen on my grounds
to be examined in the winter. This last dry fall I have gone along and pressed down their
ridges among my pet strawberry plants more than a score of times.
" S. Miller,
" Montgomery County, Mo."
The following is from the same number, page 38, and I give it, as well as the preceding
one, for- what it is worth :—
" James Rose says he has got rid of moles by boring small holes in peanut kernels with
a small bladed knife, filling them with strychnine, and dropping them into the runs."
Bears, Panthers, and Wolves
Do great damage to sheep and pigs, Mr. John Muir, correspondent at Sooke, says.
Mr. W. H. Lee. correspondent at Nanoose, says panthers are a great pest. " Fifteen
have been killed in Nanoose this year." Mr. Chas. Bayley, correspondent at Cowichan Lake,
complains of panthers.
The Skunk.
Mr. Eustace Smith, correspondent at Okanagan Mission, says the district is much
infested with skunks, which do great damage amongst poultry.
Mr. W. G. Macmyn, correspondent at Rock Creek, also complains of skunks.
Complaints of the depredations on the hen roost by this pestiferous animal were made to
me in all parts of the Upper Country (it is not found on the Island), and I had some
experiences of their certainly most offensive mode of defence. I am told that by keeping
behind a skunk and catching him by the tail, which can easily be done as he runs very slowly,
he is rendered powerless to effect mischief and can be killed while held up away from the
ground. As I have never tried the experiment I do not vouch for the statement. Poisoning
and trapping to my mind are preferable modes of getting rid of them. Skunk proof cellars
and basements I should consider* a sine qua non in every house.
Deer.
Mr. Washington Grimmer, of Pender Island, complains of deer being such a pest, and
I can well believe it, having myself witnessed on many occasions the effects of their depredations on field and garden crops and on young orchards. They are very numerous on Vancouver
and all the other islands. It is a matter of great difficulty to keep them out of the fields, as
they can jump any ordinary fence, and as they always get in at night it is very difficult to
shoot them. A fence erected by Mr. Trage, of Salt Spring Island, is composed of palisades,
about twelve feet long set close to each other in the ground and leaning out is very effective,
but, I should think, very expensive. A high snake or Russell fence with a barbed wire about
a foot above the top rail was also found to be a very effective barrier. 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 847
Chipmunks and Squirrels.
Mr. John Newson, of Notch Hill, says that chipmunks destroyed all his wheat, oats
and peas, and Mr. G. T. Aylett, of Shuswap, says " near timber squirrels are bad on grain "
One would imagine that a plentiful supply of the Cuterebra Emasculator would be an effective
remedy.
Wild Horses.
Mr. John Saul, of Clinton, says " the worst pest in this part of the country is wild
horses." Complaints were also made to me at Okanagan and elsewhere of these wild horses.
They help to eat up the ranges, break into fields, and are as hard to catch as deer. Another
phase of evil wrought by these wild scrub horses is that the stallions are continually running
uff the tame mares, so that often well bred mares produce worthless colts. I believe they are
the descendants of Indian horses, and am told the Indians lay claim to them in an indefinite
sort of way. As the evil is growing to large proportions means should be devised without
delay for its mitigation. In Australia, where the same evil exists, the horses are being shot
off by thousands.
Blue Jays.
Complaints came from Ladners by Mr. J. H. Perkins ; from South Saanich by Mr. Thos.
Graham ; from Salt Spring Island by Mr. Alex. McLennan; from Nanoose by Mr. W. H.
Lee and by Mr. Herman Gaetjen, of the depredations committed by this bird. Mr. Graham
suggests that it be made compulsory for every farmer to kill a certain number every year.
While not doubting that these birds commit great havoc amongst crops, it is a moot question
in my mind whether the good they do in the destruction of such pests as cut-worms, wire-
worms, grasshoppers, and the countless other enemies to the farmer does not more than
counterbalance their sins. The extermination of the blue jays might be a much more serious
thing to the farmer than appears at the first blush.
As an illustration of the evil effects of the slaughter of birds, I take the following from
the Ontario Agricultural Report, 1890, page 89:—
"Bird murder in France and its effects upon some noxious insects.—Any one who takes a
walk abroad in the rural parts of France where farming operations are going on will often see
small children following the plough armed with pitchers into which they put all the white fat
grubs of the cockchaffer which are turned up. In England the rooks do this work without
young children being withdrawn from school or play. But the French sportsman has nearly
extirpated these useful birds. A recent iniquity is the systematic destruction of the swallows
on their return from Africa. Emissaries of Paris modistes fix up on the shore, about the
points where the birds usually land, long wires connected with powerful electric machines.
The weary swallows perch on the wires and are struck dead by scores. Their bodies are then
sent off to Paris to ornament women, who are a disgrace to humanity. The saddest feature
is that our English contingent of martins and swallows arrive by way of France, and will,
doubtless, be cruelly decimated."—J. W. Slater, in Science Gossip.
Mink and Coons (or Raccoon).
Mr. Richard Carter, of Comox, complains of the trouble these vermin give.
Mr. John Muir, correspondent at Sooke, says coons are a pest and the terror- of the
poultry yard.
Mr. R. A. R. Purdy, correspondent at Vesuvius Bay, says minks and raccoons destroy
fowls, &c.
Mr. W. G. Macmyn, of Rock Creek, also complains of mink.
They are both great enemies of the hen roost, and the latter also of fruit, notably plums.
I have known of instances where orchards near thick bush have been completely robbed of
plums by coons. As they are very fond of anything sweet, 1 should think they might easily be
poisoned through its agency. Small dogs, such as fox or bull terriers, are a great protection
and get to be great adepts in attacking and killing coons and minks. 848 Report on Agriculture. 1891
WEEDS.
Thistles.
The Canadian thistle is reported by Mr. G. R. Ashwell and Mr. Horatio Webb (correspondent) as having made its appearance at Chilliwhack; by Mr*. J. Mahoney at Cowichan;
by Mr. Alex. Mouat at Sahtlam; by Mr. John Scott at Hornby Island ; by Mr. H. Ferguson,
Port Haney; a very rough thistle, by Mr. Wm. Drinkwater at Somenos; Scotch thistles, by
Mr. M. Fitzgerald at Nanoose; and thistles by Mr. H. R. Sitwell at Thetis Island. The last
named says he attributes their great increase to the Indians not having cut them on their
reserves; and Canadian thistles also reported by Mr. J. F. Hawks, correspondent at Soda
Creek, and by Mr. J. W. Tolmie, correspondent at Victoria.
Wild Mustard,
Reported from Chilliwhack by Mr. G. R. Ashwell and Mr. H. Webb (correspondent); from
Johnston's Landing by Mr. S. D. Tretheway; and from Soda Creek by Mr. J. F. Hawks
(correspondent).
Cheat Grass,
Reported from Salt Spring Island by Mr. Alex. McLennan, who says it takes possession of
the timothy fields ; every farmer complaining for the past two years.
Oxeye Daisy,
Reported from Somenos by Mr. Wm. Drinkwater. This notorious but pretty pest and interloper is showing itself in every part of the country.
Burdock,
Reported from Chilliwhack by Mr. Horatio Webb (correspondent).
Fern
(Pteris Lanuginosa),
Complained of by Mr. J. W. Wells, of Mission, Fraser River, and Mr. John Scott, of Hornby
Island. While this is a bad enough weed, it is as nothing compared to the imported weeds;
besides, when cut young and cured, it forms excellent winter fodder for sheep, and even
horses and cattle eat it with some relish. It is not to be understood by this that I advocate
its culture, but merely that where it grows in quantities it can be used for such a purpose.
It also makes excellent bedding for horses, and is unexcelled for mulching purposes, containing,
as it does, a large quantity of valuable fertilizing matter. I am told by a correspondent that
a good plan is to go over the fields with a scythe as soon as the fern has attained a sufficient
size, and before the grain is high, and cut the ferns off. This will seriously cripple the fern,
as the grain has a good start before the second growth takes place. Pigs are very fond of the
roots, and will root up a whole field in search of them.
Wild Buckwheat,
Reported at Soda Creek by Mr. J. F. Hawks, correspondent.
Wild Oats,
Reported at Grand Prairie (near Duck's) by Mr. W. H. Jones (correspondent). Some of the
farmers are trying to kill them by sowing rye and cutting early for hay, before the wild oats
have a chance to ripen. At Spallumcheen by Mr. M. Lumby (correspondent). I find the
best way to overcome it is : clean seed, crushed oats for horse feed, fallow ploughing the land
lightly, harrow, and when green move pigs or sheep on it; they will fatten. After any crop
is taken off, if there are any wild oats, go  over  the  ground with a weighted disc harrow, and 55 Vict. Report on Agriculture. 849
then when well up plough under. Mr. Eustace Smith (correspondent), Okanagan Mission,
says they are rather troublesome. Mr. J. F. Hawks, correspondent at Soda Creek, says wild
oats are increasing.
The following suggestions and opinions from good authorities will, I think, be found
useful:—
[From the Farmer's Advocate, January, 1892, p. 17.~\
General Rules for the Destruction of Weeds.
1. Never allow weeds to seed.    This will certainly kill out the annuals.
2