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FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT ON THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. 1875-76. BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1877

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 FIFTH   ANNUAL   EEPOBT
ON  THE
PUBLIC    SCHOOLS
OF  THE   PROVINCE  OF
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
1875 - 76.
BY  THE
SUPERINTENDENT   OF  EDUCATION.
WITH  APPENDICES.
VICTORIA:
PRINTED BY RICHARD WOLFENDEN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER,
AT   THE   GOVERNMENT   PRINTING   OtfHOE,   JAMES'   BAT.
1876.  40 Vic. Public Schools Report. 83
Education Office, Victoria,
31st October, 1876.
Sir:
In conformity with the School Act, I have the honour to forward herewith, for
the information of His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, my Report
on the Public Schools of British Columbia, for the year ending 31st July, 1876.
Statistical Tables and Appendices are added to the Report, illustrative of the
means which have been adopted by the Board of Education for the promotion of
the educational interests of the Province.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Four very obedient servant,
JOHN" JESSOP,
Superintendent of Education.
Hon. Andrew Charles Elliott,
Provincial Secretary.  40 Vie. Public Schools Report. 85
PART   I.
GENERAL   REPORT.  40 Vic. Public Schools Report. 87
FIFTH   ANNUAL   REPORT
OF THE
SUPERINTENDENT    OF    EDUCATION.
1875-76.
To His Excellency the Honourable Arthur Norton Richards, Lieutenant-Governor
of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Excellency:—
As the school law directs, I am [again called upon to present the Annual School
Eeport, being the fifth since Confederation and the inauguration of the school system of
this Province.
It is my pleasing duty to inform Tour Excellency that substantial progress has
been made in educational matters during the year which has elapsed since the date of
last Eeport. Attendance in the public schools is rapidly increasing, which, of itself, is
a fair proof that these " Colleges of the People " are appreciated, and that the number
of school-going children is becoming larger from year to year.
The following is a brief summary of the Tables which constitute the second part of
this Eeport:—
Table A.—The facts deduced from this table are of a most satisfactory character.
The increase in attendance in the public schools for the year, as reported, is 282, or
more than 20 per cent.—nearly double that of 1874-75—while 121 have been added to
the average.
Number of children reported, 2,484. Attending public schools for longer or shorter
periods during the year 1875,1685—boys, 907; girls, 778. Not attending school anywhere,
358. Average attendance for the Province, 983f. Number in first reader, or lowest class,
513; second, 344 ; third, 348 ; fourth, 215 ; fifth, 214; arithmetic, 1,309 ; English grammar,
673 ; geography, 785 ; history, 336; book-keeping, 96 ; mensuration, 12 ; algebra, 98;
Euclid, 25; natural philosophy, 75; vocal music, 686 ; linear drawing, 144 ; writing, 1,394;
dictation, 703 ; other studies, 24.
Table B.—The number of certificated teachers employed in the Province, now
reaches 40. Of these there are 14 first class, 21 second, and 5 third. Three others hold
good certificates from the Eastern Provinces, but have not yet had an opportunity of
qualifying in accordance with the school law. During the year thirteen non-certificated
teachers were employed for longer or shorter periods.
Table C.—There has been no increase in the number of school houses since last
year. The occupancy of the new school building in Victoria gives one more as public
property; and the discontinuance of the Broughton Street school house makes one less on the rented list. There are 45 school houses in all, 39 frame or wood ; 5 of squared
logs, and one brick and stone. Forty-one are public property, and four rented or rent
free. The number of recorded school visits is increasing annually. Five hundred and
fifty are reported; one hundred and thirty-two in excess of last report.
Table D shows that all the schools are supplied with maps and terrestrial globes.
With one or two exceptions they are all furnished with blackboards. The authorized
text books are now exclusively used throughout the Province.
Table E.—With a constantly increasing staff of teachers, the salary item must
necessarily be larger from year to year. This item amounts to $32,220 75—$6,929 09
more than last year—average salary per annum $644 41. The amount required for
incidental expenses is also larger by $542 70. The rent item remains the same. As no
new school houses have been erected out of the school grant for 1875-76, the sum expended under this head is small compared with former years. The cost of completing
the Victoria school building, mentioned elsewhere, being a special grant, is here omitted.
Expenditure for improving, repairing, and furnishing school houses, $2,135 33. The
outlay in all the districts for the year ending 31st July, $37,978 71 ; leaving a
balance in the hands of the Secretary-Treasurers, as far as heard from, of $1,689 56.
Table F is referred to in special reports on District Schools.
Table G.—It will be ascertained from this table that the average cost for the year
of each pupil attending the public schools in the Province is $22 38; an increase of about
fifty-two cents since last year. The lowest cost is $12 25, in Victoria, and the highest
$80 65 in Prairie. The pupils in Lake La Hache appear to have cost more than those of
Prairie, on account of $400 having been spent in school house improvements, which has
been deducted from $1,180, the total expenditure. This reduces the cost in Lake La
Hache below that in some other districts. The amount of irregular attendance is
greater, being nearly 41 per cent, as against 38.1. This is owing, in part, to the unusual
prevalence, during the year, especially in Victoria and Nanaimo, of diptheria, scarlatina,
measles, and small-pox, which induced parents to keep their children away from school;
a course not in all cases justifiable. This irregular attendance is a very serious drawback on school progress. It is complained of wherever school systems exist, and can
only be mitigated—not removed—by the efforts of energetic teachers, active, stirring
trustees, and the moral influence of school-loving people. Non-attendance is much
greater than it ought to be, amounting to nearly 14J per cent, of the school population.
If the parents of children not attending any school could only be made to appreciate fully
the irreparable injury they are inflicting upon their offspring by depriving them of
educational advantages, this absenteeism, if not entirely prevented, would soon be
reduced to a minimum.
Table H exhibits an increase in the distribution of school books. Supplied to
districts $805 48. Stock on hand throughout the Province, not including the High School
in Victoria, $444 62. Value of books sold and the proceeds paid to Education Office,
$570 22. Distributed gratis to indigent pupils, $24 28. Amount received for prize
books, $236 78. As a full statement of receipts and expenditure in connection with the
book concern is given in another table, it is unnecessary to go further into details here.
xable iv.—■jauucaTjion viuce expenditure nas not ueen so large as neretoiore.
The item for travelling expenses having been reduced to less than one-half the amount
required in former years. Total expenditure under this head, including salary of
Superintendent, is $2,578 12.
Table L.—It will be seen by this table that during the five years now nearly expired since our present school system was established, the number of public schools has
increased from 14 to 40—nearly 300 per cent. In the same time the number of teachers
has increased from 13 to 50—almost 400 per cent. In !872 the male teachers outnumbered the females, being more than two to one ; in 1873 females were in the majority;
in 1874 the sexes were even ; in 1875 seven additional male teachers were employed and
only one female ; in 1876 the teaching staff was increased by four males and six females.
Were it not much more difficult for females to reach British Columbia than males, a
greater number of the former would be employed here as elsewhere. The amount paid
for teachers' salaries has nearly quadrupled during the five years under consideration, it having increased from $8,375 to $32,220 75. The average annual salary in 1872 was
$523 43. In the following year, after salaries had been regulated by the Board of
Education, the average increased to $713 10. The two following years show a slight
decrease in the average salary, caused by the new schools being all of them small, consequently qualified teachers received only the minimum salary of $600 per annum.
Last year shows an increase in the average salary of $12 12 over preceding year. The
amount expended for teachers' salaries will be found to give an average for thel five
years, of $651 05 per annum.
School accommodation has kept pace with the increase in attendance. Commencing
with twelve school houses in 1872, and most of them very much out of repair, we now
have forty, nearly all in good order and tolerably well furnished. Of the twenty-two
new buildings erected during the past five years, twenty were comparatively inexpensive.
The cost of the new school house in Victoria being much greater than that of all the
others combined, if we except the Cache Creek Boarding School built in 1873 and
enlarged in 1875, at the cost of more than $9,000. Both of those buildings were erected
by special grants.
Table M requires no explanation. The figures speak for themselves. Without
any loss to the general revenue the public schools are supplied with books and stationery
at less than Eastern retail prices. The debit side of this statement shows an expenditure
of $4,804 04 for books, freight, and charges, during the four years. Per contra—receipts,
books distributed gratis, stock on hand, &c, &c, amount to $4,918 12 ; deducting $65 27
supplied to indigent pupils, and a balance of $48 81 is left to the credit of the book
account. It has therefore kept up its self-sustaining character from the commencement
to the present date.
Table N.—Competitive examinations for entrance to High School were held in 21
of the public schools during the spring and early summer. Pupils in all the other
schools visited were not far enough advanced to take the work. Of the 160 applicants,
68, or 42} per cent, passed. This is a low percentage; but future examinations will be certain to make a more favourable exhibit. It will be seen that more than three-fourths of
those who passed are from the Victoria School. Out of the 90 candidates belonging elsewhere, only 14, or 15} per cent., were successful; and nearly half of those were pupils
in one other school. In all the rest of the Province, outside of Victoria, Cedar Hill, and
North Cowichan, only five pupils succeeded in obtaining admission. I hope next report
will furnish more satisfactory results from most of the schools in the outlying districts.
Superannuated Teachers' Fund.
The time has fully arrived for this Province to follow the example of Ontario,
Quebec, some of the Australian Colonies, Great Britain, and many of the German States,
in establishing a Superannuated Teachers' Fund for the benefit of teachers when they
have arrived at a certain age in the service. It would be almost superfluous for me
to enumerate the many advantages that must accrue to the profession from an arrangement of this description. The following are some of them :•—It would form a bond of
union among the members. They would have something to look forward to after a
definite period of service. It would act as a powerful inducement not only in encouraging persons of ability and culture to adopt the profession, but in retaining them in
it for a longer period. Public school teaching would not be regarded as merely a stepping stone to something more remunerative when those engaged in it would be certain
of receiving an annual stipend at a fixed age, when they would have the right to retire,
or of aid should they be obliged through failing health to relinquish the profession
sooner. The details of such a scheme, subject, of course, to modification,.might be somewhat as follow :—The Legislature to appropriate (for the present) say $500 per annum.
It should be obligatory on every duly qualified teacher in the Province to contribute,
say, one per cent, of his or her annual salary to this fund. These contributions, from
the commencement, would bring in over $300 per annum, and there would be a constant
increase. As there would be no drafts on this fund for several years, it would go on
accumulating, so that in 1886, for instance, the amount would be $7,500 or $8,000.
Should there be any pensions by that date they must necessarily be small, as only time
spent in teaching in British Columbia would be taken into consideration.   For instance, should a teacher then be obliged to retire after ten years' service, he would be entitled
to, say, $10 for each year, making $100 per annum during the rest of his life. This may
be taken as an illustration of the pecuniary benefits accruing from such a fund. The
person in question, if teaching a small school, would in ten years have contributed about
$60 to the fund, and would receive nearly twice that sum as pension during the first
year. Supposing the pensioner to have occupied a first-class position, and to have contributed during the same time about $120 to the fund, even then he would get back in
one year almost all he had contributed. Teachers, therefore must see the utility of such
a scheme, and they will cheerfully contribute any reasonable annual sum that may be
fixed upon by the proper authorities. In case of a teacher withdrawing from the profession and from all participation in the benefits of the superannuated fund, he might
have refunded to him one-half of all he had contributed. This is the rule in Ontario.
In that Province where the death of a teacher occurs before his name has been placed
on the superannuated list, his widow or other legal representative obtains all paid to
the fund, with interest at 7 per cent. This provision might be adopted here. Having
thus barely outlined a very necessary adjunct to our school system, I leave the details
to be worked out hereafter.
Teachers' Examination and Convention.
The fourth annual examination of teachers was held in the Legislative Assembly
Hall, during the first week in July. Twenty-three candidates—15 ladies and 8 gentlemen—presented their credentials as to moral character, &c, and took the work, which
occupied five days. Certificates were issued as follows :—First-class A: Frances E.
Herring ; first-class B : George Pottinger, Samuel F. Crawford; second-class A : John
F. Smith, Mary E. Polley, Adelaide C. Bailey, Jane Trenaman, Christina Irvine, Elizabeth Young, Jane Coutts; Second-class B: John Newbury, Alice Eichardson, Abbie J.
Polley, James H. Sinclair, Caroline Bayley, John Britton, A. M. Eobinson, Emily A.
Stark ; third-class A : Thomas McKenna, Jane Ann Scott, Henry W. Hughes, Florence
Coulthard ; third-class B : Josephine McDonald.
1 am indebted to James A. Halliday, Esq., Honorary Secretary of the B. C. Teachers' Association, for the following summary of proceedings at last meeting :—
The Teachers' Association met in the Legislative Assembly Eoom, on 3rd July and
following days, four sessions in all.
It was attended by the Superintendent, Mr. Langley, of the Board of Education,
Mr. Bull, Mr. Nicholson, of the High School, a few teachers who came for the purpose,
and the majority of those undergoing examination.
First session embraced the introductory address of the President, and a paper on
the Public Schools of British Columbia, by Mr. Halliday, showing our school system as
being what the country requires, and its advantages over the private school so popular
amongst a certain class of our community.
Second session. Mr. Crawford gave a reading and an essay on the " Beauties of
Lennie," the faults of that school book being very unsparingly dealt with, while its
excellencies were not overlooked. Mr. Britton and Miss Eobinson, a reading from
Hamlet, and Mr. Hughes a reading.
Third session. Mr. McMillan a paper on "Geography and How to Teach it," excellent in style of composition, original in thought, and system approved. Mr. Thompson,
"How I Teach Grammar." Mrs. A. Herring, an essay on "Beading and Notation," which
elicited some discussion. Miss Stark, a short paper on " Education and the Art of
Teaching."
Fourth Session. Mr. Nicholson read a lecture on the "Origin of the British People,"
which showed great research and ability. Mr. Langley explained a small printing
press which he had with him, and also expressed great pleasure in being present, giving
a sketch of his connection with the Board of Education and its work. Mr. Jessop introduced some Educational Magazines. Officers elected for ensuing year : Superintendent
of Education, President; Vice-Presidents—the Members of the Board of Education;
Honorary Secretary—J. A. Halliday.
Education Office work has been much augmented by the increase in the number of
schools and the large amount of correspondence with parties in the Eastern Provinces and elsewhere, seeking information respecting our schools and the Province generally.
During the year ending July 31st, 74 letters of this description were received, and 67 of
them answered. Total letters received, 725; total written, 968. With a few exceptions
the schools were visited officially but once, 52 visits being all I have to report; Barkerville was not reached at all during the year, pressure of office work, the late session of
the Legislature, and the annual teachers' examination, held the first week in July,
obliged me to limit my tour of inspection above New Westminster to about five weeks
time, so that I was compelled, very reluctantly, to retrace my steps from Lake La
Hache. Although time for school inspection has been so limited—yet 2,223 miles of
travel by steamer and canoe, on foot, and on horse-back, were performed, the cost of
which averaged less than 15 cents per mile. A great deal of extra office work is created
by the constantly increasing demand for text books and stationery by schools at a
distance.
Special Reports on District Schools, $c.
Victoria.—The census taken in this city a few months ago shows a school-going
population of 1043,—516 boys and 527 girls. Assuming this number to be correct it
exceeds the approximation of last year by 234. Five hundred and forty-five pupils, 283
boys and 262 girls, received less or more instruction during the year at a cost of $12 25
each, an increase of 80 over last report, and a decrease of $1 53 in the cost of each pupil.
Epidemic diseases among children reduced the average very materially, making irregular attendance correspondingly high, it being 44} per cent., an increase of three per cent,
over last year.
In order to obtain a close approximation of the number of children not attending
school anywhere, 1 forwarded the following circular to all the principals and teachers
of private and denominational schools in this city:—
" Education Office,
" 14th October, 1876.
" Dear Sir, [or Madam,]
" I shall consider it a special favour if you will, at your earliest convenience, let me
know how many pupils are under your instruction.
"My object in asking for this information is to ascertain as nearly as possible the
number of children of school age in the city of Victoria not attendingjany school. I hope,
therefore, you will aid me in making up this very important statistic.
" I have, &c,
(Signed) " John Jessop."
With three exceptions, namely, St. Ann's Convent, St. Louis' College, and Angela
College, prompt and courteous replies were received, showing that 176 pupils were
under instruction in the establishments heard from ; allowing 150 for the three schools
not making any returns (probably an over-estimate), and taking the census returns as
being correct, there remains the very large number of 172 not attending any school. It
is impossible to say how many of these are entirely illiterate, or unable to read or write;
this can only be ascertained from an accurate and thorough census return. A large
majority may have attended school in former years and many of them, perhaps, have
acquired a fair education. Yet, with 172 boys and girls between the ages of six and
sixteen whose names are not enrolled on school registers, some means or other should
be devised by the local Trustee Board for the application of the compulsory provisions
of the " Consolidated Public School Act, 1876," so as to reduce this alarming amount of
non-attendance.
Both Departments of the Public School are now comfortably settled in the spacious
new building on the School Eeserve. No change occurred during the year under review
in the very efficient teaching staff. Since the re-opening at the beginning of August, the
actual attendance, including the High School, has reached 465—number enrolled, 581.
A large class of boys and girls, 31 of the former and 23 of the latter, out of 70 competing, passed the entrance examination for the High School, held on the 28th and 29th
March, and 14th July last, most of whom are now in attendance there. The average
number of marks obtained out of a possible 400 was 277, or over 72 per cent. Master
John Newbury heads the list among the boys with 92} per cent, of marks, and Miss
Anderson among the girls, with 90 per cent.     The following is the list of those who passed in the order of merit:—John Newbury, Mary Anderson, Joseph H. Thain,
Francis A Carmichael, Annie Gowon, Katie Eussell, Alice Eussell, Mary Holloway, Wm.
Jackson, C. Herbert Kent, George Chadwick, Ellen Gowen, Harry Heywood, Emily E.
Holloway, Charles Miller, Thomas Baker, Nellie Cohen, Harriet Jackson, Jessie Cameron, Eobert J. Piummer, Fred. E. Bull, George Jenkinson, John Dougall, Clara Bichard-
son, Alonzo Hamblet, Agnes Cameron, Isabella Cohen, Charles Hayward, David F. Fee,
Mary Miller, Alexander Semple, Wm. E. Bull, Mary J. Crossen, Sidney Wilson, Charles
Gowen, James E. Phillips, Bedlington John, Ellen Johnston, Emily Gardner, A G.
Sargison, Marcella Story, John J. Fee, Jane Spence, Philip J. Hall, Ellen Eiches,
Adelaide Phelps, Charles E. Coldrey, A. Harrison, Aaron Lewis, Maggie Williams,
Frank Mansell, Harry Ellery, Eobert Law, Georgiana Dougall. Average age of the
above-mentioned pupils is 14. The High School was opened on the 7th August, with a
much larger number of pupils than was anticipated; the average for the past three
months ending 31st October, was 44. This large attendance will necessitate the
appointment of an assistant teacher at an early date.
Total amount expended for school purposes in Victoria City District, without special
grant for building purposes, is $6,680. With an average attendance of 302, the cost per
pupil is $22.12, a decrease of $1.44 since last year. Percentage of non-attendance, taking
the approximation of 172 not attending any school, is 16.49.
On Monday, 18th September the Governor-General and the Conntess of Dufferin
very graciously visited the Public and High Schools. The following is the Daily
Standard report of this interesting event:—
"Visit op Lord and Lady Dufferin to the Public Schools.
" The scholars of the High School and the Boys' and Girls' Public Schools had the
honour yesterday of receiving His Excellency the Governor-General and Lady Dufferin.
At one o'clock His Excellency and the Countess, accompanied by Col. Lyttleton, entered the Girls' school room, in which the scholars were assembled, the visitors present
rising to their feet and the children singing the National Anthem. A large number of
lady and gentlemen visitors were present, including His Honour the Lieut.-Governor,
Senator W. J. Macdonald, Hon. Beaven and Mrs. Beaven, Hon. Dr. Ash, Hon. Mr. Elliott,
Hon. Mr. Vernon, Hon. Mr. Smithe, Mr. Jas. Douglas, M. P. P., Mr. Fisher, M. P. P.,
Mayor Drummond, Councillors Williams, Trounce, Gosnell and Allatt; the Members of
Board of Education, Messrs. Drake, Munro, Langley, Marvin, and Dr. Tolmie ; the
School Trustees, Messrs. Wm. Wilson, Fell and Eobinson; A." E. Eobertson, Capt. Lay-
ton, Eev. Mr. Euss, Mrs. Euss, and Miss Buss, Miss Eichardson, Mrs. Gray, Miss Mabel
Gray, Mrs. Jessop, Mrs. Kent, Mrs. Dr. Jackson, Mrs. Eedfern, Miss Eedfern, Miss Harrison, Mrs. W. J. Jeffree, Mrs. Heywood, Miss Fell, Mrs. Digby Palmer, Mrs. Carey,
Mrs. Yorke, Mrs. S. D. Pope, Mrs. Pleace, Mrs. Clarke, Mrs. Eichardson, Mrs. 'league,
Mrs. Crossen, and a number of other ladies and gentlemen, whose names we did not
learn.
" On the conclusion of the National Anthem, Mr. Jessop, Superintendent of Education, read the following address of welcome to Lord and Lady Dufferin:
" To His Excellency the Right Honourable Sir Frederick Temple, Earl of Dufferin, &c,
&c,  &c, Governor-General of the Dominion of Canada.
" May it please Your Excellency:
" The members of the Board of Education for this Province, the local Board of
Trustees, the teachers, pupils and others here assembled, beg to welcome your Excellency and the Countess of Dufferin to the Public and High Schools, and to convey to
your Excellencies our united thanks for your gracious compliance with the request
that you should visit this institution.
" Although our school system is comparatively in its infancy, yet your Excellency
will observe that British Columbian Governments have not been unmindful of the educational interests of the rising generation.
" This is a day that will long be remembered by all the pupils now present. They
will feel pride in recounting, as one of the most pleasing reminiscences of their school
career, the auspicious event of your Excellencies'visit—a visit that will exercise a more
beneficial influence-on their minds in the promotion of loyal and devoted attachment to 40 Vic. Public Schools Report. 93
Her Most Gracious Majesty^, and to the person and Government of your Excellency than
any lessons, however carefully taught and impressed.
" The earnest wish of all here is that the choicest of Heaven's blessings may rest
upon our beloved Queen and her noble representative, our Governor-General; noble and
eminent, not only on account of his high position, but by being well known to fame as
scholar, author, and patron of every institution, the object of which is to instruct, refine, and elevate the human race.
" We all trust that the tour of your Excellencies through a portion of our Province
has been one of unalloyed pleasure and gratification; that your journey back to the Canadian Capital will be safely and expeditiously accomplished, and that this visit will be
promotive of the best interests, not only of British Columbia, but of the great Dominion
and Empire of which it forms a part.
" Signed on behalf of the Board of Education, &c, &c.
"John Jessop.
"Superintendent of Education.
" To which his Lordship made the following reply:
" Gentlemen and Pupils:
" It affords me very great pleasure to receive under the roof of the Public and High
School your joint address expressive of loyal and devoted attachment to our gracious
Sovereign, and containing so hearty and cordial a welcome to Lady Dufferin and myself.
" Knowing as I do how great an effect a judicious system of education has upon
the mode of life, conduct and morals of all classes, by forming the mind, enlarging the
views and raising the tone of those who come under its influence, it is no less my
pleasure than my duty to encourage by every means in my power, the mental, intellectual and physical training of the younger inhabitants of this great Dominion, whose
success in life must in a great measure depend upon the attention they pay not only to
their books, but also to the teaching of those lessons of moral restraint and self-respect
which are inseparably connected with a sound basis of education.
" In conclusion, I beg to thank you most sincerely on behalf of Lady Dufferin and
myself for the very kind wishes to which you have given expression.
"Lord Dufferin then addressed the pupils, expressing the jjleasure he felt at meeting them, and said he would take the opportunity of presenting to the pupils three
medals—one of silver and two of bronze—to be competed for during the ensuing year.
They were proofs of his sincere and earnest interest in the welfare of the children ; and
he was sure they would do their utmost to profit by the efficient means of instruction
placed at their command. The scholars must remember that the habits of discipline
and self-restraint enforced, by their teachers would be of great assistance to them
through life. He would always look forward with great interest to those pupils who
obtained the prizes which he presented. Their names would be enrolled in a book
which he kept for that purpose, and if he ever had the opportunity of assisting them in
any way he would deem it a pleasure and a duty to do so.
" Mr. Superintendent Jessop thanked His Excellency for the presentation of the
medals, and said they would be a greater incentive to the pupils than any prize which
the citizens could offer.   They would stimulate the scholars to the keenest competition.
"The children, at the request of His Excellency, then sang a song, after which the
teachers of the High and Public Schools were presented to His Excellency and Lady
Dufferin.
"The medals presented by His Excellency are chef d'muvves. On one side the
profiles of Lord and Lady Dufferin are cut with life-like accuracy, with the inscription
'Earl Dufferin, K.C.B. K.M.G., Governor-General of Canada; Countess of Dufferin,
1876.' On the reverse side, the Dufferin coat of arms, and motto, ' Per vias rect-at.
Presented by His Excellency the Governor-General.'
"We must congratulate the principals and teachers of the schools on the good order
and discipline maintained during the very interesting ceremony."
Nanaimo.—The public school in this prosperous and rising city has been trteadily
improving since the commencement of the present term. Attendance and average are
both low for the year ending 31st July, in proportion to the school-going population.
Long continued sickness among the children, however, reduced the average, and prevented several from attending school for many weeks—even months—who otherwise 94 Public Schools Report. 1876
would have done so. No other school in the Province has suffered so much in this
respect as the one under consideration. The new, active, energetic Board of School
Trustees and the present efficient staff of three teachers are making a decided change
for the better in the educational prospects of this the second city in the Province in
population, and the first in commercial productiveness.
As will be seen from Table N, the school was very backward when the entrance
examination for High School was held in February last, the standing being lower than
in any other school in the Province where examination work was taken. Twenty-six
pupils—12 boys and 14 girls—made an attempt at answering the questions found in
Appendix D, but the results were not at all creditable. The competitive examination of
next year will, I have no doubt, show a great improvement in the acquirements of the
pupils.
When the school was visited, the senior classes in .both departments were but little
advanced in their studies. The boys were noisy and disorderly; the girls somewhat
better with respect to discipline, but still much room for improvement. The appointment of a new principal in the beginning of August, and, more recently, that of an
efficient second assistant, and a partial, if not a complete, grading of the school, have
already effected great changes for the better. Increased accommodation will soon have
to be provided. The number of school-going children is put down at 275. Of these
147 have attended the public school some time during the year, the average being 105.
Sixty children are returned as not attending school anywhere, being a percentage of
21.81 of the school population. The trustees at Nanaimo, as well as elsewhere, should
endeavour to reduce these large percentages of non-attendance. A disposition on the part
of many parents to send their children into "the pit" at an early age is exercising a
prejudicial influence on the rising generation by depriving them of the advantages of
free school education, and thus reducing attendance and increasing absenteeism and the
annual average cost per pupil. This last item is $1 36 lower on general attendance
than last year, and $1 30 on the average. The figures for this year being $16 14 and
$22 60. Whole amount expended $2,373 75. Attendance since re-opening at the
beginning of August, 172.
New Westminster.—By some mistake on the part of the school authorities in sending down only a portion of the attendance returns of last year, instead of the whole, the
Report for 1874-75 did not do this school sufficient justice. Table A for this year shows
a school population of 160. Eighty-five pupils between the ages of six and sixteen were
enrolled during the year, which, with sixteen of other ages, make up a total of 101. The
low average of 65 gives the large percentage of 35.65 for irregular attendance. All the
children of school age are reported as going to some school, so that non-attendance is
considered nil. The amount expended in this district during the year ending July 31st,
was $2,465 50, which gives an average cost per pupil of $24 41 on aggregate attendance,
and $37 92 on the average.
An examination for entrance to High School was held on 21st March. Sixteen
pupils—nine boys and ^seven girls—took the work. Only one boy, however, passed.
Most of the candidates, particularly the girls, acquitted themselves but poorly. Here,
as well as at Nanaimo, I anticipate considerable improvement at next examination, as
the pupils competing, in both schools, were much younger than those who passed in
Victoria. A second examination was advertised for May 16th, in order to give pupils
attending other schools an opportunity for gaining admittance to High School, at which
there was no attendance.
Having visited each of the departments in this school three times during the year,
I am in a position to state that the boys' department fully maintains its efficiency in
teaching and progress in studies. Taking seven of the nine boys that were under examination for entrance to High School, the average marks of each one amounts to something over 200, or more than 50 per cent, of the full value of the papers. Although but one
passed, yet four more were only a few marks short of the number required. The girls,
equal to the boys in age, only averaged about 100 marks each, or 25 per cent., showing
that with much less than half the average attendance, they are far from being equal to
the boys in advancement in most of the studies pursued. This fact alone, as manifested
in the competitive examination, proves the desirability of again adopting the graded
system, which was discontinued before it had had a fair trial. The few girls that were
in attendance when the school was visited wore very orderly and attentive to lessons, A class in English History (a subject not among the examination papers) on two occasions did remarkably well, the answering both in events and dates being entirely satisfactory. In arithmetic, English grammar, and geography, the pupils were not nearly so
proficient. This department of the school was more or less under a cloud for the greater
part of the year. A disposition on the part of the Trustee Board to dismiss the female
teacher last winter, without applying for the consent of the Board of Education, met
with a strong opposition from a large majority of the people. This difference of opinion
led to the resignation of the trustees, and their successors in office retained the teacher-
in her position till the close of the school year in July. The small attendance of girls
was mostly caused by these unfortunate differences; and want of progress, no doubt,
was in a great measure attributable to the same cause. It is to be hoped that the appointment of a new teacher at the commencement of the present term will harmonize
these conflicting elements and raise the girls' school to a satisfactory state of usefulness
and efficiency.
In order to equalize the teaching work, tbe trustees have been repeatedly advised
to relieve the overcrowded boys' department of pupils under seven years of age by sending them to the girls' room, where the average attendance was only 18 for the year.
If they could not see their way clearly for re-grading the school, this certainly might
have been done. So far, I am not aware that such a course has been adopted. At the
commencement of the present term there were 63 boys and 21 girls in attendance.
Being the centre of the largest and most thriving and populous agricultural district
in the Province, New Westminster will soon require the means for bestowing a more
advanced education upon senior pupils than can be obtained in the public schools.
Twelve of the forty-one schools in the Province are already located in this electoral
district, and two or three more will soon have to be formed, which will make up the
number to about one-third of the whole. Such being the case, the opening of a High
School cannot long be delayed. With this object in view, I have again to call the attention of the proper authorities, and particularly the member of the House of Commons
for the district and his colleagues, to the great desirability of securing the old Government House at Sapperton, and adjacent grounds, for this purpose. The transfer of that
property for educational uses will be such an advantage to the Province at large, and
to New Westminster district in particular, that I hope every effort will be made for its
acquirement.
Cache Creek.—Next in importance, in many respects, to the schools in Victoria,
Nanaimo, and New Westminster, may be classed that of the Boarding School at Cache
Creek. A number of retarding influences have been operating against the usefulness of
this institution during the year. The following special report to the Honourable the
Provincial Secretary in July last, and that of the recently appointed Deputy Superintendent of Education, will give all the information respecting this school at my disposal up
to the present time:—
"Education Office,
"7th July,jl876.
" Hon. Provincial Secretary.
"Sir,—I have the honour to make the following report on the condition of the
Cache Creek Boarding School, and to offer a few suggestions respecting its future
management:—
" 1. With regard to financial matters I can only give an approximate statement of
assets and liabilities, owing to the fact that the ex-principal of the school, Mr. J. T.
Jones, could not be prevailed upon, either by the Trustee Board or myself, to hand in
his accounts. On my visit, a few weeks ago, instead of obtaining a full and businesslike financial statement, I could only gather, from the neglected and incomplete books,
and from the recollections of the Secretary-Treasurer and Trustees, that the liabilities
of the Board amounted to something over $2,200, while the assets, exclusive of stock in
hand, valued at nearly $400, form a total of about $1,300. A large portion of the latter
may, with proper management, be collected either in cash or marketable produce; but
it is to be feared that those amounts for board will come in slowly, meantime the
creditors are impatiently clamoring for a settlement.
" 2. I regret to report that the building, which was so well provided with every
requisite two years ago, is now almost destitute of kitchen and dining-room furniture, 96 Public Schools Report. 1876
The great amount of breakage of crockery, lamps, lamp chimneys, table forks, &c, &c,
said to have taken place, must have been the result of carelessness on the part of the
authorities in charge. Two first-class cooking stoves, of the largest size, and
some of the box stoves, are much damaged and nearly burnt out. One of the doors
is broken off its hinges, and. the panels of another are split. Since the completion of
the addition to the building, last autumn, several panes of glass have been broken.
The entire edifice has therefore a dilapidated and neglected appearance.
"3. The attendance—which was 44 in June, 1875—had fallen to 15 in May last.
This diminution in numbers took place while energetic efforts were being made, and
heavy additional outlay incurred, for supplying increased accommodation for pupils.
The cause of this falling off in numbers, and in the reputation of the establishment,
must be attributed, in the first place, to the want of interest manifested by the original
Trustee Board, and the neglect of the Secretary-Treasurer, or his inability, to attend
to the school business properly from midsummer of last year. In consequence of this,
the ex-teacher had to act as Secretary-Treasurer and commissary, and was thus obliged
to neglect his school duties in order to look after outside work. In the second place,
it is very evident that Mr. Jones had too much private business on his hands, which
prevented him from doing justice to the school. A great deal of time seems to have
been bestowed upon teaming, trading, &c, &c, that should have been devoted to school
work. It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that the pupils were neglected, and that
complaints loud and long were made by the patrons of the school. Those complaints
were, no doubt, much exaggerated, but that there were some grounds for them I cannot
attempt to deny. The resignation of Mr. Jones, in April last, put it out of the power
of the educational authorities to hold an investigation, so that it cannot now be known
how much foundation there may have been for those complaints and alleged irregularities. The facts are painfully apparent that in nine months the attendance was reduced
two-thirds; and that two years wear and tear have made it absolutely necessary to
almost refurnish the building.
"4. The trustees made a grave mistake in allowing fees for board to accumulate
from month to month, and, in some instances, from year to year. In anticipation of
regular and prompt payments, the price of board was put at the lowest possible figure.
But little effort seems to have been made during the past year to collect the many large
bills that are owing, some of which are of more than twelve months' standing. A few
of these amounts will, I fear, prove uncolleetable; yet, if strenuous efforts are made,
perhaps 75 per cent, might be realized before the close of the year. Another great
mistake was made in allowing, or rather obliging the teacher to take full charge of
financial matters. This gave him a pretext for absenting '.himself from his teaching-
duties for several days at a time, thus bringing the school into disrepute, and destroying the confidence of the public in its management.
"Having thus briefly described the condition of the Cache Creek Boarding School,
and the causes which have produced this unsatisfactory state of things, I beg leave to
offer a few suggestions for your consideration, with a view of extricating it from present
embarrassment and restoring its former position in public estimation:—
".1. That an advance of at least $2,000 should immediately be made, so that law
costs may not be incurred, as creditors have, for some time past, been threatening to
take legal proceedings for the recovery of the amounts due them. The above sum can
be made a charge against the Trustee Board,—a certain portion to be refunded by the
close of the current year, and the balance at some future period.
" 2. That furniture, sufficient for carrying on the school with some degree of comfort, be forwarded as soon as possible, in accordance with a requisition sent down by
the present teacher, Mr. A. Irwin.
" 3. That an acre or acre and a half of land be enclosed by a tight board fence as a
playground for the girls, to which the boys would have no access whatever. This
would enable the teacher and matron to keep the sexes separate at all times, except
during school hours while in class. One great cause for complaint would thus be
removed, and the reputation of the establishment correspondingly increased.
"4. That all payments for board be made strictly in advance in the future, either
in cash or marketable produce. This was strongly recommended from the commencement of the school. The trustees now see the necessity of adopting and adhering to
this method; and I earnestly hope, therefore, that it will be carried out.
" 5. That as soon as practicable an industrious, conscientious, first-class teacher, well acquainted with book-keeping and possessing good business habits, be appointed as
Deputy Superintendent, to take special charge of this institution and reside there till
everything can be put on a proper footing. The duty of this officer should be to act as
Secretary-Treasurer to the Trustee Board, and as such to provide everything necessary
for the use of the Boarding School; to collect all bills, and pay all accounts; to recover,
with as little delay as possible, all outstanding debts, and to see that no more losses
accrue in the future; and to inspect and report upon the following day schools, namely,
Lytton, Lillooet, Nicola, Okanagan, Clinton, Lake La Hache, and Barkerville. His
duties, in connection with the Boarding School, will necessarily take him over a large
portion of the interior, for the purpose of collecting accounts and inducing parents, who
are too far removed from any of the day schools, to avail themselves of the benefits of
the school at Cache Creek. Such being the case, it will entail but little additional time
and expense to inspect the schools above enumerated. This would relieve the Superintendent of Education of at least a month's work next spring, which time could be
profitably employed in making a more thorough inspection of the schools on the Lower
Fraser and East Coast. Next to financial relief, nothing that can be done would contribute so much toward recovering the prestige of the Boarding School as this appointment. Its reputation has been nearly ruined, and its monetary condition has been
brought to the verge of bankruptcy by the inability of the Secretary-Treasurer to
attend properly to the duties of his office. It can scarcely be expected that any individual, no matter how anxious he may be to advance the interests of the school, can or
will perform such an amount of gratuitous, and oftentimes disagreeable work as must
be done in connection with this institution, in order to restore and maintain its efficiency
and usefulness. I therefore strongly, but most respectfully recommend this appointment to your favorable consideration.
"In conclusion, I may express the hope that this report, somewhat hurriedly prepared on account of the heavy pressure of office work, may receive, at the earliest
possible opportunity, that attention which the importance of the subject demands.
"I have, &c,
(Signed)       "John Jessop."
"Education Office,
"30th October, 1876.
"Hon. Minister of Finance.
"Sir,—In the absence of the Honourable the Provincial Secretary, I have the
honour to forward a report, just received, from the Deputy Superintendent of Education, on the condition of the Cache Creek Boarding School.
" With reference to the advance recommended, you will observe that the sum of
$509 63 due the Government is put down among the liabilities. Another item of $308 14
said to be owing to the former teacher, J. T. Jones, cannot be settled for the present.
As these two items may be deducted, the sum absolutely required is $1,750 or $1,800.
" There is a pressing necessity for forwarding the articles of furniture, so much
needed, by Friday's steamer, as every week's delay will increase the price of freight
from Yale, in consequence of the near approach of winter.
" The goods required will cost from $125 to $150. The latter sum will, I think,
include freight to Yale.   I have, &c.,
(Signed)       " John Jessop."
" Cache Creek, B. C,
" October 24th, 1876.
" The Superintendent of Education.
" Sir.—In accordance with instructions received from you on my appointment as
Deputy Superintendent of Education, I have the honour to lay before you the following
Eeport on the present condition of the Cache Creek Boarding School.
"With regard to the financial standing of the school, I find it absolutely impossible,
at present, to furnish such an exact statement as ought to be obtainable from the books
of the institution. One cogent reason for this, you will perceive when I draw your
attention to the fact that several gentlemen have already disputed the accuracy of the
accounts against them, as shown by the ledger.
8 98 Public Schools Report. .   1876
" Mr. George Johnson, on being furnished with his bill, at once stated that it was
incorrect, and asserted that he could produce receipts for an amount considerably larger
than that with which he is credited. Mr. Sanford, too, strongly objected to the amount
of his indebtedness, stating that various items which should have appeard to his credit,
had been omitted.
"These cases, which are probably not the only ones of the kind, clearly prove the
impossibility of forwarding a strictly reliable statement of assets and liabilities, until I
shall have had opportunities of personal communication with all those whose names
appear on the books of the school.
"Again, the account of the late teacher, Mr. J. T. Jones, cannot be accepted as
correct until I shall have ascertained, from examination of all accounts in dispute, that
the various sums acknowledged to have been received by him, are the only amounts that
have been paid to him, on behalf of the school, by parents and guardians.
" Although this difficulty prevents me from supplying an exact statement at present,
yet, in view of the urgent, necessity of taking prompt measures for obtaining requisite
furniture, &c, before the cessation of teaming for the current year; and considering also
the pressing nature of certain claims against the Trustees, who have more than once
been threatened with legal proceedings, I deem it my imperative duty to forward to
you, without delay, such an approximate statement as can be obtained from the imperfect data at my disposal.
"This statement, given in detail below, shows the assets of the school, exclusive of
furniture, &c, on hand, to amount to $1,386 77 ; while the liabilities, allowing Mr. Jones
the full sum claimed by him, which sum may, however, be reduced hereafter, reach a
total of $2,149 79, thus leaving a balance against the school of $763 02.
"Assets.
"By C. A. Semlin $ 45 04}
„ Mr. Perry  124 20
„ James Orr    73 53
„ W. H Sanford (say)     50 00
„ James Black     63 25
„ Pinchbeck and Lyne  128 75
„ J. Wilson     78 17
„ Mr. English      90 00
„ Mrs. Sabiston  108 50
„ Mr. Coutts  157 95
„ Mr. McWha      7 50
„ Mrs. Heffley  277 00
„ Mrs. McKenzie       2 25
„ Mrs. McLean     79 75
„ Mr. Greer     25 50
„ Barnes and Brink     35 00
„ Mr. Girauard     13 37}
„ Mr. McQueen     18 00
„ Estate of late Mr. Salter      9 00
$1,386 77
" Liabilities.
"To J. T. Jones  $308 14
„   Provincial Government  509 63
„   Charles M. Beak  343 13
„   John Craig  58 48
„   James Stewart  113 46
„   James Campbell  412 48
„    Chinese Cook (last Winter)   20 00
„   Mr. Harper  11 00
„   J. Ward   200 00
„   Kimball and Gladwin  33 00
„   Cook (during Summer)  140 50
$2,149 82 40 Vic. Public Schools Report. 99
" Concerning the practical value of the assets and the probable time in which they
will be available, I have depended almost entirely on the information furnished by such
of the Trustees as were able to render assistance in the matter, and guided by their
acquaintance with the circumstances of the different parties indebted to the school, I
have been enabled to draw up the following summary, which may be subject, however,
to very considerable modification:—
"Good debts $844 32 available in (say) 3 months
Doubtful  437 20       do. do.    6     do.
Bad  105 25
"Since the affairs of the school are in such a critical state, that creditors who have
been long and anxiously waiting for a settlement, may, by any further delay, be impelled to institute legal proceedings for the recovery of their claims against the school;
and seeing the improbability of collecting, in any reasonable time, sums sufficient to
satisfy those gentlemen, who have already been brought to the extreme limits of endurance, I respectfully, but urgently, recommend the Provincial Government to make
an immediate advance of $2,500 to relieve the institution.
" Of this sum at least $400 would be required to enclose a playground for the sole
use of the girls. The sexes, as far as the internal arrangements of the establishment
are concerned, are practically separated now by the recent addition to the building,
which has secured distinct entrances to the dormitories ; but in order to guard still more
closely against such charges of immorality as have obtained currency in the past, it is
highly necessary that in their hours of out-door recreation, also, the girls should be kept
apart from the boys.
" Deducting the cost of this much needed improvement, the remainder of the sum
advanced by the Government can be made a special charge against the school, and
reduced from time to time as the arrears of school fees are collected.
" My attention has also been directed to the desirability of having the water laid on
the premises, so that a constant supply may be obtained during the winter months.
This is certainly very necessary, not only for domestic purposes, but as a safeguard
against an outbreak of fire. As I have been unable to obtain any trustworthy estimate
of the probable expense of introducing such a supply, I have thought it better to simply
mention the matter, without recommending any immediate action respecting it.
"Appended to this hurried Eeport, I forward a list of furniture, &c, required for
the comfort of the pupils and inmates ; and I confidently rely upon your kind offices in
securing prompt attention to the forwarding of these articles.
" In conclusion, I may say, in reference to the future welfare of the school, that I
feel sanguine that under careful management, and by strict attention to the collection of
fees, aided by a looked for increase in the attendance of scholars, the establishment can
be made, as far as its own domestic arrangements are concerned, self-supporting.
" To secure this desirable end, I need scarcely say my best efforts shall be directed,
and in spite of the difficulty of restoring the fallen prestige of the institution, I cannot
but think, that by energy and economy on the part of those in charge of the school,
aided by the valuable services of the Trustees, who evidently have the interests of the
establishment at heart, a brighter day will soon dawn upon the Cache Creek Boarding
School.
" I have, &c,
(Signed)       "E. M. Clemitson.
" Deputy Superintendent of Education."
1 have only to state further that an advance of $1,800 was promptly made by the
Government and immediately forwarded to the Deputy Superintendent. Furniture,
amounting to $170, was also sent up at the same time.
Cedar Hill.—The last return from this district gives the school population as 60, approximately. Forty-eight of these were enrolled on the register. The average was 27.66,
which makes the large percentage of 42.21 of irregular attendance, nearly one-half. In
this particular there is much room for improvement. As no absenteeism is reported it
may be presumed that 12 children from this district are attending other schools. The
close proximity of the school house to Victoria City on one side and Lake District on
another, makes it very convenient for several heads of families to send their children to 100 Public Schools Report. 1876
schools out of the district, should the least dissatisfaction arise with the teacher or trustees. At Cedar Hill therefore the teacher is peculiarly situated, and has a difficult task
to perform in order to keep up a fair attendance. Only a first class, efficient teacher, of
a conciliatory disposition, one who will not in any way interfere with whatever local
prejudices or differences may exist, has any chance of success. Up to the close of the
school year no change occurred in the teachership; but since then there have been two
removals. The gentleman who took charge on 1st August was shortly afterwards transferred, very much against the wishes of trustees and j)eople, to the High School. His
place was supplied by the teacher now in charge, who, I have no doubt, will soon secure
for himself a high place in the estimation of all interested in the school, and thus obviate
the necessity for further changes. A very commodious residence has recently been added
to the School premises, which will soon be occupied by the teacher's family. Six pupils
underwent examination for entrance to High School, five of whom, namely, Jane Ann
Scott, James Tod, John Irvine, Isabella Scott, John Tod and Annie Deans passed creditably. Average marks obtained 274}. Average age of pupils, 14£ years. Several of the
classes examined did very well, particularly in arithmetic and English grammar.
Beading and spelling were hardly satisfactory. Expenditure in district, teacher's residence not included, $940 75. Cost of pupils enrolled, for the year, $19.60; taking the
average the cost was $34 01.
Craigflower.—This school district, although partly in Esquimalt Electoral District,
is included in that of Victoria in Table F. The returns give 35 as the number of children of school age. Forty have been in attendance during the year. Some of these are
from Esquimalt district, the two school houses being less than three miles apart. Here,
therefore, as well as at Cedar Hill, it is equally convenient for several children to attend
school in their own or another district. Craigflower returns show an average of 27, an
increase of nearly six since last year. Irregularity has diminished about 10 per cent.
Cost of this school for the year, $797 50 ; of each pupil enrolled, $19 93 ; on average
attendance, $29 53. Two pupils stood the entrance examination for High School, one
of whom, Thomas Pottinger, passed, receiving 244 marks. This school is prospering
very fairly ; nearly all the classes gave satisfactory proof, when examined, of careful,
painstaking exertion on the part of the teacher ; order and quietude scarcely as much
observed as might be desired. The school-room has recently been supplied with desks
from the Broughton street premises, so that it is much more commodious than formerly.
The teacher's residence and surroundings now have an air of neatness and comfort
not attained hitherto. A fine school bell has been useless for years in consequence of
the frame being out of repair. Putting this in order was a part of the contract when
the building was thoroughly repaired in 1872-73 at a cost of more than $1,000; but by
some means or other the trustees allowed the contractor to leave the premises and draw
his money without completing his work. Several times since then the bell was to have
been attended to ; more particularly last summer, when its removal to Victoria was
proposed, which would have saved the Government $125. So far, the echoes of the surrounding hills have not again been awakened by the sound of the Craigflower school
bell.
Lake.—The departure from the Province of the gentleman who had this school in
charge for the greater portion of the year ending JulyT 31st, was a loss not easily supplied. During his incumbency attendance improved rapidly, so that nearly all the children in the district were enrolled. Progress was correspondingly marked. When
visited the pupils were orderly and attentive. The reading was particularly good in
all the classes. Eecitations in arithmetic, geography, and English grammar were also
satisfactory. One pupil—Thomas J. Lindsay—obtained admission to the High School,
with 242 marks. As the trustees sent in no report, I had to gather the following-
statistics from the school register:—About 19 school-going children in the district;
number enrolled, 16; average attendance, 11. This gives 3lj per cent, for irregularity.
Amount expended in district, $580—$36 25 for each pupil enrolled, and $52 75 each on
average attendance. Two changes have occurred in the teachership since commencement of autumn term. The school house is much in need of repair, nothing having been
done to it since its erection ten years ago. The question of its removal to a more central position, where water can be obtained, has been recently mooted. 40 Vic. Public Schools Report. 101
South Saanich.—The vacancy created by the teacher's acceptance of the principal-
ship of the Nanaimo public school was filled by a gentleman of first-class attainments,
and great teaching experience, who arrived lately from Ontario. During the year, the
school kept up its usual attendance, the enrollment being 43 in a school population of
50. Seven are put as not attending any school. There is an average of 27, an increase
of three over last year. Irregular attendance reaches 37.21 per cent., an improvement
of nearly 1.6 per cent, on report for 1874-75. These figures are encouraging, and should
stimulate teacher, trustees, and parents to renewed exertions, in order to secure a still
better record next year. Non-attendance, 14 per cent, of school population. The cost
of the school in this district was $1,034, nearly $200 of which were expended in an unsuccessful effort to obtain a supply of water by digging a well. After reaching a depth
of about 80 feet, and timbering all the way down through sand, the attempt had to be
abandoned, at least for the present. The cost of pupils, whose names are on the register, and average, is $24 04 and $38 29 respectively. The result of competitive examination, held on 7th April last, was not as good as might reasonably have been expected.
Eight pupils,—four boys and four girls,—engaged in it, but not one passed; highest
number of marks obtained, 166. They were all young, however, the average age being
under 12. A much better result than this is anticipated next year. A majority of
those who did not take the written examination were only beginners; those more
advanced were reading in books too difficult for them. At that time there was no third
reading class on the school programme; the senior, or fourth book class, alone studied
geography and grammar. The old school and dwelling-house were removed during the
fall, and the material of both used in the erection of a teacher's residence near the new
school building. This comfortable four-room dwelling cost only about $400. The school
has been recently furnished with desks and blackboards from the Broughton Street
building. . •
Families residing in the south-west portion of the district are labouring under a
serious disadvantage for want of a trail or road, such as was once contemplated, from
the west road, near Stelly's farm, to the east road, near the school house. The children
in this locality are now obliged to travel between four and five miles, round by Henderson's and Simpson's— three sides of a square—in order to reach the school.
North Saanich.—Unfortunate differences between the residents of the northern
and southern portions of this district, resulted in the closing of the school for want of
sufficient attendance, from November of last year to 15th August. At the latter date,
it was re-opened; the teacher, acting under instructions from the Board of Education,
spending one-half of her teaching time in the school house, and the other half, in what
is known as the Mechanics' Institute building, in the northern part of the district. By
this arrangement 24 children,—almost, if not quite, all there are in the district,—are
.broughtUnder instruction. Although this itinerating method is highly objectionable,
yet being better than no teaching at all, it was considered necessary to adopt it for the
present. It is to be hoped that, before long, conflicting opinions on school matters may
become harmonized, and that the people will see that their best interests will be promoted by assembling the children altogether at the school house, and thus securing the
advantages of regular and continuous tuition. Amount expended for the three months
the school was in operation, $175,—$29 16 for each pupil, taking six as the average.
The summary for Victoria Electoral District is as follows:—Amount expended,
$3tvj27 25; number of children going to school, 176; not attending any school, 7; total
enrollment, 171, each pupil costing $20 62; average attendance, 98.16, at a cost of
$26 62 ; percentage of irregular attendance, 42.31; of non-attendance, 3.97 ; irregular
attendance and cost of pupils are less than last year.
Esquimalt.—The school here has made more satisfactory progress this year than
last. No change has occurred in the management. The following is a part of a note
made of a visit on 31st March :—" In school during the clay. Heard all the classes.
"Beading improved since last visit; not yet, however, what it shonld be. Some of the
" pupils in third reader who ought to be in second. Answering in all the classes toler-
"ably correct, but too low to be heard distinctly. Eecitations in arithmetic, geography,
"and grammar fairly satisfactory. Eighteen children present in forenoon and thirteen
" in the afternoon ; all quiet and orderly.    School room neat and clean.   Eegister kept 102 Public Schools Report. 1876
"with tolerable care." The school population, as reported, is 32, with 22 in attendance
during the year. Four are on the absentee list, and the other six are presumably attending school elsewhere, or are under private instruction. Irregular attendance is nearly
one-half, while absenteeism amounts to about one-eighth of the children of school age.
The average attendance is only 11-8. With an expenditure of $698, the cost of each
pupil on this average is $59 15 ; on each one enrolled, $31 72. This still remains an expensive school, not so much from want of children in the district; but on account of the
large percentage of irregular attendance. A considerable addition to the population
was expected during the year in connection with Dry Dock operations. This hope,
however, has not been realized. The school will soon participate in the general benefit
accruing from a vigorous prosecution of this important and costly public work.
Colwood.—The removal of a family or two from the Belmont Factory shortly after
the formation of this district in 1874, prevented the opening of a school till August, last.
Since then there has been an attendance of eleven or twelve. The neat little school
house is well furnished with desks and blackboards from the Broughton street school
room. The trustees have secured the services of an energetic lady teacher, who is doing
good work among the children committed to her charge.
Metchosin.—Attendance in this school remains about the same as that reported last
year. Twelve pupils are under instruction, the average being nine. Irregular attendance is lower than in most of the other districts, being one-fourth. Non-attendance is
nearly the same, three children being reported as not going to school at all. The
school being small, the cost per jDupil must necessarily be high, amounting to $54 06 for
each one attending, and to $72 08 each on the average. Amount expended, $648 75.
Management of the school remains the same as at date of last report. The progress of
the pupils has been satisfactory to all concerned. An official visit was paid to the school
on 4th April, last. The improvement in reading, arithmetic, and English grammar was
very marked. Progress in geography not so satisfactory. Ten pupils were in attendance, some of them not so orderly as they might have been. The few families residing
in this district are making strenuous efforts to keep the school in operation. As the
average from year to year has been so close upon the minimum required, the Board of
Education have not as yet seen fit to order its discontinuance. Another family moved
into the district not long since, which will place the school on a better footing by increasing the attendance, and thus averting the probability of its being closed.
Sooke is foremost among the new districts on Vancouver Island in school progress
and teaching results. The number of children has nearly doubled since the establishment of the school in 1872. Thirty-two are now reported, 25 of whom are in attendance.
Average for the year 13}, which gives a large percentage for irregularity, nearly one-
half. All concerned should make a note of this fact and govern themselves accordingly.
There are seven children in the district reported as absentees. This, also, is not as it
should be. The non-attendance of almost 22 per cent, of the school population is a
serious matter. It is to be hoped that a majority of these children, at least, are under
instruction in some way or other. Amount expended in this school, $661 25. Cost of
pupils on enrollment and average, $26 45 and $48 97, a gratifying decrease since last
year. At the examination, April 5th, the pupils acquitted themselves very creditably,
both orally and in writing. Two of the girls who commenced their education four years
ago answered several questions in each of the High School entrance examination papers.
They will probably pass next year. All the classes evinced careful and painstaking
training on the part of the teacher, who has been in charge for more than two years.
The four last named school districts form the Electoral District of Esquimalt. They
contain 90 children, with an attendance of 59. The average is 34-3, which divided into
$2,015, the amount expended, gives the,average cost of $58 74 each. Cost of every pupil
who attended school some portion of the year is $34 15. Irregular attendance nearly
43 per cent., a little larger than that of Victoria Electoral District. Percentage of non-
attendance, 15J.
South Cowichan.—The school attendance here has increased considerably during
the year. Nine more children are reported as having been added to the school population,
three to the registered list, and four to the average. There are now 35 of school age.
Twenty-five are receiving instruction with more or less regularity. The average reaches 40 Vic.    > PublicfSchools Report. 103
19. Ten children are absentees from the school: some probably on account of the great
distance they would have to travel. Irregular attendance is less than one-fourth, while
non-attendance is somewhat more than that. $607 were expended in the district for
school purposes, each child enrolled costing $19 60, and $34 01 each on the average
attendance. This district, therefore, sends a very creditable record, a great improvement, in every respect on that of last year. The itinerating system of teaching has still
to be maintained between the school house on the "Bench" and the one at Kokasailah.
The results of this method must of necessity be unsatisfactory; but the exigencies of
the case among the scattered population of this extensive district render it impracticable
for the children to assemble at any one point. The creation of a new district, embracing
about equal portions of South and North Cowichan, has been suggested as a partial
solution of the difficulty. The signers of a requisition for the establishment of this new
district assert that from 20 to' 26 children of school age would be within easy access of
a school house erected at or near the junction of Love's road with the trunk-road on the
Flats ; especially as a new bridge is in course of construction over the Kokasailah river.
An arrangement of this description would increase school expenditure, but would give
all those children, and in a short time several others probably (as this portion of the
district is fast settling up), the advantages of "all day" tuition. After the formation of
this central district, South Cowichan proper would have to receive consideration. This
district could then be extended so as to include all the families connected with Sayward's
mill, numbering nine or ten children of school age, who have not yet had educational
facilities placed within their reach. If another school house, which would be an incon-
considerable item of expense, were erected within a short distance of the mill, the school
held in it could be easily taught with the one now in operation near the South Cowichan
wharf. This would be merely changing the present half-time system from Kokasailah
and the "Bench "to the "Bench" and the Mill, until such time as another division
would give each of the sections the full benefit of a teacher's services. On visiting the
Kokasailah school, 11th March last, ten pupils were found in attendance, nearly all
beginners. But little advancement had been made since the previous visit. This want
of progress was attributed to long vacations, bad roads, severe weather, and an unfinished school house. There had been only 74 days' teaching in five months. The teacher
was present 25 days without any attendance. With the commencement of fine weather,
shortly after this visit, an improvement took place, and a good average was maintained
to the 31st July, no vacation having been taken. Attendance at the Shawnigan, or
"Bench," school house had been equally unsatisfactory during the winter months ; the
spring and summer, however, exhibited a much better record. The children present on
11th March were much further advanced than those in the other portion of the district.
The result of the examination in arithmetic, geography, grammar, reading, and spelling
was fairly satisfactory.
North Cowichan.—After being closed for five months, for want of attendance, the
school here was re-opened at the beginning of September, with the expectation that the
families on the "Flats" would avail themselves of the offer made them of part time of
the teacher. As no arrangement of this sort has been entered into, it is very probable
that the small attendance will necessitate the withdrawal of the teacher at the close of
the present term. During the eight months of the year that this school was in operation,
the average only reached five, which gives the enormous cost of $91 40 each. Although
the district had the services of a very competent instructor, and although it possesses
a comfortable and well-furnished school house, yet, for reasons best known to them,
some of the families would not avail themselves of those advantages. With a school
population of only 20, twelve are entered on the absentee list. A very simple calculation shows this to be 60 per cent. The eight reported as attending school did so with
tolerable regularity, which was proved by the great proficiency manifested by four of
the pupils—three of whom gained admission to the High School with much credit to
themselves. These were Alfred Flett, Angus Bell, and John Bell; average number of
marks gained by each being 283.
The proposal to incorporate the south-eastern portion of North Cowichan with the
contemplated new district, will not interfere with attendance at Maple Bay, as the new
boundary line will be fully three miles from the school house. An extension of this
district, so as to include the central portion of Chemainus, may be considered practicable
before long.    When the results of such a step shall be likely to justify the additional 104 Public Schools Report. 1876
expense, a teacher might travel six.or seven miles from one school to the other; and the
Chemainus people would secure the same advantages, as would accrue to those about
Sayward's Mill, by the creation of a new school district.
Burgoyne Bay.—Although the average attendance here has fallen below the requisite number, yet the school is kept in operation in order to ascertain what effect the
appointment of a new and well-qualified male teacher may have in inducing parents to
send children who have, for various reasons, been kept away, to an extent quite sufficient to have justified the education authorities in closing it last summer. With 22
school-going children, the average only reached eight. Sixteen names are all that have
been recorded on the register for the year ending 31st July, leaving six who did not
attend school during the twelve months. Absenteeism, ^therefore, stands high, and
irregular attendance amounts to one-half. Local differences have contributed largely
toward bringing about and continuing this unsatisfactory state of things. Every pupil
that attended school cost $35 01, and each of the eight making the average cost twice
that sum,—the whole amount expended being $560 25. The school was visited on the
9th March; all the classes were examined; improvement not very decided, as might
reasonably have been expected from the irregular attendance, and the bitter feeling
existing among the settlers respecting school matters. It remains to be seen whether
those local differences will be laid aside, so far as the school is concerned, or whether
their continuance will oblige the Board of Education to put the law in force and deprive
the district of educational privileges.
Salt Spring Island.—1 am glad to report a great improvement in school matters
in the middle and northern settlements, which constitute this district. Local animosities have subsided; the teacher has overcome the prejudices that existed against him;
nearly all the children are enrolled; most of them are attending one school or the other,
and some of them are going to both schools. For the first half of the year under review,
the attendance was very small indeed, which accounts for the average being only ten.
School population is put down at 19, of whom 15 were at school. The irregular attendance was one-third, and non-attendance about one-fourth. Amount expended, $498 75,
which gives the cost of every pupil attending $33 25, and of each of ten, making up the
average, $49 87. I fully anticipate a much more satisfactory record from this district
next year. Visited the school on 7th and 8th March, just at the time when attendance
at the middle settlement was almost nil; only three children were present, two of them
just beginning to learn. Since re-opening in August, there have been 13 in attendance.
The nine pupils, at the northern settlement school house, gave full proof of having made
rapid progress during the six months that the school had been in operation, showing-
that the teacher is industrious and painstaking; that he possesses the faculty of communicating instruction, in a pleasing and efficient manner, was evident to all present
on that occasion. A teacher's residence has been proposed, about midway between the
school houses. As there is no likelihood of the district being divided, and two
teachers employed, for some time to come, this would be a great convenience. Next
year's report will, 1 hope, announce that the suggestion has been adopted.
The above-mentioned four schools are in the Electoral District of Cowichan. The
return of children attending school is eleven less than last year; cost of schools is
smaller by $417; amount expended for the year ending July 31st, $2,123 ; number of
children of school age, 96; not going to school, 32; attending, 64; cost of each on the
average, $50 54; irregular attendance, 34.38 per cent.; and non-attendance, 33.33.
North Cowichan school being closed, and so few' attending on Salt Spring Island,
account for the fact that non-attendance is larger than formerly. This extensive and
important agricultural district should make a better exhibit next year.
Gabriola Island.'-—This school is still progressing satisfactorily. The teacher, who
took charge in September of last year, left on 30th April, after doing good work for
eight months. 1 have not yet visited the district since its present incumbent entered
upon his duties; but trustees and others report favourably of its management. Was in
the school on 26th February; sixteen children were present; the classes, in the branches
usually taught, did remarkably well; pupils were well-grounded in their several studies,
showing that instruction had been thorough so far as attempted. A teacher's residence
has been built, and several other school improvements made during the year.     Eeturns 40 Vic. Public Schools Report. 105
from this district give the school population as 17. This does not include the families
on the north-west part of the island, now numbering about ten children of school age.
Five of these are at the lake, not more than four miles from the school house, some of
whom, in good weather at least, ought to be able to attend. Names on school register
number 17; the average was 11.2 ; irregular attendance, more than one-third; cost of
pupils on register, each $32 94; taking average attendance, it was $50 ; whole amount
expended $560.
Cedar.—The following statistics are gathered from the imperfect returns sent in
from this district:—School-going children, 27 ; attending school, 20 ; average, 13. It
may be presumed, therefore, that seven children are not attending school anywhere.
As no returns came to hand in time for last Annual Eeport, I may say that the above
figures are an improvement on those furnished about the close of last year. Irregular
attendance seems to have been more than one-third, and non-attendance about one-fourth.
The sum expended was $718 75, which makes the cost of each pupil in school $35 93,
and on the average attendance $55 28. The school was visited on 23rd February—one
of the worst days in that stormy month. Attendance was, therefore, small, there being
only eight pupils present; four of these were in a primary class. In arithmetic, geography, English grammar, spelling and reading, the other four did tolerably well. No
change has been made in the teachership since the commencement of the school, in
August, 1874.
Wellington public school has had a fair attendance since its establishment in May
of last year. All the children of school age, numbering 46, are enrolled ; the average,
however, is only 23.33, which shows that nearly fifty per cent, must be deducted for
irregularity. When the school was visited, on 24th February, none of the children
living at Departure Bay could attend, on account of bad weather,' consequently only 19
pupils were present. These were orderly and attentive; the more advanced were
evidently much interested in their lessons, and anxious to make progress. Nearly all
the3classes acquitted themselves very creditably—reading and spelling being particularly
good. Some improvements were considered necessary about the school building, which,
1 believe, have since been made. No change occurred in the management during the
school year; since then, however, the lady teacher, after fourteen months' service, accepted a situation as assistant in Nanaimo school; and the one vacated was filled by an
experienced male teacher from Prince Edward's Island. Amount expended in this
school, $976 25, being $21 21 for each pupil enrolled, and $48 88 for each one of the
average attendance.
The four schools in Nanaimo Electoral District, namely, Gabriola, Cedar, Wellington, and Nanaimo (the last one reported on elsewhere) cost $4,628 75,—somewhat more
than last year, on account of a second assistant teacher [being employed in Nanaimo
city. Thirty-four more children are reported, the number now being 365. Attendance
shows a slight increase over last year; number not attending is lower. As might be
expected from the unprecedented amount of sickness in Nanaimo, where a large majority
of the children are located, the average attendance is less than it was for the time covered
by last report, being 152} as against 158f. Cost of pupils is a little less on the enrollment, and rather more on the average; the figures this year are $20 12 and $30 55
respectively.
Comox.—The statistical record from this school, which, as yet, is the only one in
the electoral district, can hardly be considered creditable. Irregular attendance—the
great impediment to school progress—amounts to more than 60 per cent., which means
that each pupil enrolled stayed away from school on the average three days out of every
five throughout the year. The school population is 25, according to the returns ; but this
is much below the actual number. Four are reported as absentees. The registered
number is 29. Some of these being over age are not reckoned with the school population. Average, only \1\. Expenditure $657. Cost of pupils is a slight improvement on
last year, being $22 65 for each on the register, and $57 62 on the average. Visited
the school on 29th February; day very wet and stormyT; the roads almost impassable,
with snow in one portion of the district and mud in another. There were only nine
pupils in attendance. These, however, especially the seniors, did very well in all the
branches studied.    Three pupils took High School examination work, one of whom 106 Public Schools*Report. 1876
gained 190 and another 187 marks—not quite sufficient to secure them admission. With
a school population of 40, and with numerous roads and bridges, the average attendance
here should be nearly 30. The fact that it is not much over one-third of that number
does not indicate much anxiety on the part of parents to avail themselves of the educational privileges placed within their reach. It would certainly require but little self-
denial and exertion to double this average. By so doing they would not only secure
full advantages of instruction for their children, but obtain an increase of salary for their
caj)able and painstaking teacher, who has been labouring faithfully amongst them,
under many discouragements, for more than four years.
Granville.—This school now occupies a high place on the list of those that are
considered efficiently conducted. There has been an improvement in attendance and
average, and consequently a decrease in the cost of tuition for the year. There are now
29 pupils under instruction. The average is only a fraction below 20. A little effort on
the part of parents and teacher will, in reducing irregular attendance, have the effect of
increasing the salary of the latter to $60 per month. Thirty-two per cent, of irregularity,
although iess than in many of the other districts, is still too large, especially when the
pupils are all within easy reach of the school. Amount expended, $650, makes the cost
of each pupil attending school $22 41, and on the average number $33 76. Found 20
children in attendance on ] 8th March, upon which occasion all the classes were examined. Their studies consisted of reading, spelling, arithmetic, geography, English grammar, and history. In all these branches excellent progress had been made. Beading
was above the average. In arithmetic, pupils were well grounded as far as fractions—
quite competent to give the "whys and wherefores" for all they did.
Burrard Inlet.—Twenty-five pupils were in attendance here on 20th March, when
the school was examined. They were very quiet and orderly, but ibackward in their
studies. The influence of the teacher for good among the children was very considerable ; but there was not that thoroughness and efficiency in teaching that are necessary
in order to conduct a school successfully. The thanks of the community are due, however, to the very estimable lady who so kindly stepped in to save the school from being
closed for want of a certificated teacher, and who at once retired as soon as one was
provided. Beport speaks favourably of the present management. The large daily
attendance since August—on one occasion numbering 41—is an indication that the
school is popular, and that there are but few, if any, absentees. There are 49 of a
school-going population, all of whom were in attendance during some part of the year.
Average, however, was very low, only 18, which gives the enormous percentage of 63J
for irregularity—the highest in the Province. Amount expended, $610 50. Cost of
registered pupils, $12 46, and of each one of the average, $33 91. The new school house
has recently been fitted up with proper desks, and is now all that can be desired in
point of comfort and convenience.
Trenant publie'school has vbeen making fair progress during the year. Eainy
weather, muddy roads, and no roads at all, interfere a good deal with the yearly average.
Children of school age are increasing in number; 31 being now reported. Of these, 22
received more or less instruction in the public school during the year. An average of
only 10J shows that more than one-half of the educational advantages provided for the
district were lost through irregular attendance, and that the cost of tuition here, as
well as in other districts, was double what it ought to have been. Absenteeism amounts
to 29 per cent. Perhaps distance, and difficulty in reaching the school house, account
for a portion of this. Amount expended in this district was $757. The items of cost
for registered pupils, ai: d .those making up the average, are $33 04 and $72 09. The
school was visited on 17th March, when roads and weather were probably at their worst.
Only ten young and very timid children were present. , Being the first visit made since
the school was opened, there was no opportunity of judging of the progress made by
the pupils. They appeared, however, to be doing pretty well. A change in the teachership occurred sbce then. From all the information at my disposal, 1 believe the school
has been doing good work through the summer and autumn, and that the present
management is satisfactory to trustees and parents.
Maple Eidge.—The number of children of school age has increased during the year
from 28 to 39, and attendance from 15 to 29.    In these particulars this district stands 40  Vic. Public Schools Report. 107
pre-eminently foremost in progress. The average attendance, however, has not kept
pace with the increase of population, 12J, being scarcely one in advance of last year.
In common with all the districts on the banks of the Fraser, a large percentage of
irregularity is due to the extraordinary high water, and its long duration, at a time
when school attendance is usually at its maximum. Irregularity here reaches 57f per
cent. Non-attendance is also nearly 24 per cent. Some of the children are residing on
the south side of the river, which is difficult to cross at any time, and often impracticable. Through the spring and early summer the teacher made praiseworthy efforts to
secure a good attendance by going over for these children every morning and taking
them back in the evening. The time, probably, is not far distant when a new district
will have to be created so as to obviate the difficulty, and sometimes danger, of crossing
the Fraser. Twenty-two children were present at the examination held on 17th May.
As the school had not been long in operation, most of these had but just commenced
their studies. All the branches introduced, including map and linear drawing, are
thoroughly and efficiently taught. Order and discipline are well maintained. Two
pupils took the written examination, one of whom—Eobert Irving—passed, gaining 224
marks. The other candidate was very near passing also. A few improvements about
the school house were much required, which the trustees promised should be attended
to. Cost of school, $645 25; of each pupil attending, $38 76; and on the average,
$93 13.
Langley.—In no other school throughout the Province have improved attendance
and efficiency been more marked than here. For various reasons, not necessary
to touch upon here, there was scarcely any attendance when the present lady-
teacher took charge on 15th March. When visited, two months afterwards, there were
28 pupils present. These were orderly, very attentive, and much interested in their
lessons. The teacher is thorough and practical in all she undertakes; a good disciplinarian, and has an excellent and pleasing method of imparting instruction. The trustees
were certainly very fortunate in obtaining the services of one of our best teachers, under
whom the school cannot but make rapid progress. The school room and teacher's
residence have been much improved during the year, and they are now very comfortable and in a satisfactory condition. The following is the statistical record:—School
population, 36 ; enrolled, 32; not attending school, 4; average, 20.2; percentage of
irregularity, 37 ; of non-attendance, 11.11; amount expended, $791; cost per pupil on
enrollment, $24 71; on average attendance, $39 15.
Pbairie.—Extreme reluctance on the part of the education authorities to close a
public school when once opened, the hope that other families would settle in this portion of Langley District, and that those already^ located would send their children,—■
have alone prevented such an undesirable consummation. A school population of 13;
an attendance of eight; an average for the year of six, are entirely too few to warrant
an annual expenditure of $645 25. Information received that a decided (improvement
would take place during the fall, has postponed the consideration of closing this school
till the expiration of the present term.
Matsqui.—j'he average attendance here was almost as low, for the year ending
31st July, as at Prairie There is this difference, however, that since that date the daily
attendance Ins reached 15, which indicates a much better prospect for the current year.
When visited on 20th 2\l^y, ten pupils were present. Some of them were tolerably
proficient in reacting, spelling, arithmetic, geography, English grammar and dictation.
Samuel Maclure gained admission to High School. School population in this district
numbers 14. Sixteen names are registered—two of them being over age. Irregular
attendance, cans 3d chiefly by high-water and great difficulty in reaching the school
house, 58.38 per cent. Average for the year, 6.66; expenditure, $620 25; cost of
pupils, $38 76, aid $93 13 on enrollment and average respectively.
York.—The remarks made on Prairie District are equally applicable here. Unless
some unexpected improvement takes place before the expiration ci the year, tb.ei'3 will
be no alternative but to close the school. Misunderstandings among the settlers, which
resulted in more than half of the children being kept at home for the greater part of the
year, have characterized this district from the time the school was opened in August,
1875, to the present time. 108 Public Schools Report. • 1876
Sumass.—The past year has not been a prosperous one in this school. With
changes of teachers ; no school at a time when most of the children could have attended;
and unprecedented floods of long continuance; a satisfactory record could hardly have
been expected. Twenty-six children are reported. Twenty, some of them not of school
age, enrolled, and ten as not going to school anywhere. Average attendance reached
twelve. Irregular attendance, 40, and non-attendance more than 38 per cent. Expenditure, owing to the school being vacant a portion of the year, $357; which makes the cost
of pupils $17 85, and $29 75 on attendance and average respectively.
Chilliwhack.—School progress in this district has also been much interfered with
by high water. The summer examination and distribution of prizes had to be abandoned
on this account. Thirty-three pupils were in attendance on 25th May, when the school
was visited. All the classes underwent a searching examination, most of them with
much credit to themselves and teacher. Geography recitation was particularly good;
a history class, recently formed, answered with much accuracy as far as they had gone.
The teacher is most enthusiastic and painstaking in the work of imparting instruction,
but is deficient as a disciplinarian. His pupils are noisy and disorderly; still they have
made excellent progress which, after all, is the main object to be attained. Advancement in studies is sometimes sacrificed at the shrine of order, quietude and strict discipline: it is the happy combination of the faculty of governing well without seeming-
effort, and an aptitude for imparting instruction, that constitutes the successful teacher.
The school lot has been cleared off, levelled and seeded down, and the whole enclosed
with a good fence. A teacher's residence has been built, and this also fenced in, so that
the grounds, and everything pertaining to them, "now possess an air of respectability
and comfort. The district report gives 43 of a school population, and 41 as attending
school; two are returned as absentees; irregularity is 53.66 per cent.; average attendance, 19; cost of school, $929; and of each pupil on enrollment and average, $22 65 and
$48 90.
Cheam.—The same hindering causes were felt here, that interfered so much with
school progress in all the districts contiguous to the Fraser during early summer. For
some time the school house could not be reached except by canoe,—keeping it open,
therefore, was out of the question. When the water did eventually recede, some of the
new settlers thought far more of trying to get away from the district than of again
sending their children to school. Those discouragements, however, were soon overcome, and during the fall the registered number of pupils reached 28, wdth an attendance of 19. The examination, on 26th May, could hardly be considered satisfactory.
There were but ten pupils present; several who ought to have been there were absent,
on account of trifling difficulties respecting school matters. The fact too, that the
teacher had been very unwell since early spring, contributed toward this result. The
school house is neatly and substantially built, and well furnished. It is surrounded by
industrious, enterprising pre-emptors and their families, who were fast bringing the
fertile soil under cultivation, when the disastrous 'flood of June last destroyed their
hopes and chocked their prosperity to such an extent, that only a prevention of like
catastrophes, by effectual dyking, can restore. This district reports 26 children. 25 of
whom attended school more or less. The average was 11}, which gives 54 per cent, of
irregularity. Expenditure, $764 25; cost of pupils, $30' 58 and $66 45 each, on enrollment and average.
All the schools reported on, from Granville to Cheam inclusive,—eleven in number
—constitute the New Westminster Electoral District.' Three hundred and fourteen of a
school population are reported, as against 280 last year. Attendance, numbers 278—214
last report. The cost of each pupil is $2 79 less, the figures being $26 31 and $29 10..
Non-attendance is also reduced from 66 to 49. Irregular attendance amounts this year
to nearly fifty per cent.—last year it was 44. Whole expenditure, $7,314 75, an increase
of $1,087. Three schools additional, since last year, account for the increase in
expenditure.
Hope.—But few schools in the Province have made more satisfactory progress
during the year than this. Attendance is small, as there are but few children in the
district—16 being ali that are reported. Thirteen of'these are enrolled, while the
average amounts to  12.     This gives the smallest percentage among all the schools for 40  Vie. Public Schools Report. 109
irregular attendance, only about 7}; consequently, the people have derived the fullest
advantages obtainable from the school. This fact, taken in connection with the really
efficient and careful tuition with which the children have been favoured, accounts
for the creditable examination that they passed on 30th May. A new school house, with
teacher's rooms included, is in course of erection, which, when occupied, will be a great
comfort to both pupils and teacher. The former incumbent, after a year's painstaking
service, obtained a better situation at Yale. Her departure was much regretted by all
interested in the school, which here means the entire population. Fortunately, a very
worthy successor took charge so that probably the school will not suffer by the change.
Amount expended in this district, $710; cost of each pupil attending school, $54 61;
and of each one on the average, $59 16.
Yale.—The progress of this school compares most unfavourably with that of the
one just reported on. Attendance was low, and very irregular during the year. The
children, numbering eleven, seem to have retrograded rather than advanced ; and what
is more, they appeared when examined, on 29th May, to have lost all desire for improvement. They were careless and inattentive ; and if they really had been studying the
branches in which they were examined they certainly manifested unpardonable ignorance of them. The teacher, a man of culture and experience, after gradually
growing worse and worse with consumption, was obliged to give up the school in the
middle of June last. Discouraged probably by constantly failing health, he seems to
have neglected the school to an extent not surmised even by the trustees and parents,
who were too much engrossed In business pursuits to give that attention to school
matters which their importance demands. Under the new management there are 31
registered names, with a daily attendance sometimes reaching 28. There is every probability, therefore, that the school will soon recover its lost ground. Thirty children
are reported, 27 being on school list. Average, 12.11. Cost of school, $908 75 ; of pupils
$33 65 and $75 04 on enrollment and average.
Lytton.—Good work was done in this school during the eight months of the year
that it was in operation. It is small at all times, but particularly so in summer when
one family resides up in the mountains. The question has often been discussed as to
whether it should not be closed altogether. This winter's attendance will probably
decide the point. School population, 15; attending school, 14; average, 9; irregular
attendance, 35.72. Amount expended, $510 ; cost of pupils enrolled, $36 42, and of
each on average attendance $56 66.
Nicola.-—Very favourable reports of school progress are to hand from this valley.
The attendance at the two schools during the fall term has been as high as 24. The
removal of the teacher to Cache Creek Boarding School caused a vacancy for two months,
during which time the district was visited. The school houses, about six miles apart,
are substantially built of squared logs, comfortable, and well furnished. There are 22
of a school population in this district, all of whom are attending school with tolerable
regularity. The average for the time the school was open, up to July, was 16J. Amount
expended, $778 ; cost of pupils, $35 36 and $47 87 each on enrollment and average.
Okanagan.—The children in this newly-established school are making remarkable
progress in their studies, especially when the fact is taken into consideration that many
of them when they commenced were almost entirely ignorant of the English language.
Fourteen pupils were present when the school was examined on the 12th of June. They
evidenced much proficiency in the studies pursued, were quiet and orderly and much
attached to the school and their teacher. Some of them had advanced in five months
from the alphabet to third reader, and had acquired during that short time a fair elementary knowledge of geographical definitions, and the simple rules of arithmetic. The
district reports 21 children of school age ; fifteen attending school, with an average of
13|-. Irregularity, therefore, cannot be complained of. Expenditure, $546 63, making
the cost of children $36 44 and $41 24 each on enrollment and average.
Cache Creek Boarding School is noticed elsewhere; but its statistical report, in
connection with Yale Electoral District is here given:—Number entered on school
register, 36. These were all in attendance some portion of the year. Several left during
the winter and early spring ; and the average was thus reduced to 25.    Amount ex- 110 Public Schools Report. 1876
pended, $1,871 33.    The cost, therefore, of pupils was $51 70 for each  enrolled, and
$74 85 for each on average attendance.
The following is a summary for Yale Electoral District:—Expenditure, $5,324 71;
number of children returned in the several school districts, 140 ; number in attendance,
127 ; cost of each pupil on enrollment, $41 92, and on the average attendance $60 77;
percentage of irregular attendance, 31; average attendance, 87.61; percentage of non-
attendance, 9. Some of the above figures are an improvement on those of last year.
On the whole, however, there is much similarity.
Lillooet.—The school here has been maintained, with much success, for ten months
of the year. Twenty-seven pupils were in attendance ; while the average was 14.33.
This leaves a large margin for irregularity; which amounts to nearly 47 per cent. Expenditure was $660 ; cost of pupils, $24 44, and $46 05 each, on general and average
attendance. The examination on 2nd June, gave full proof of carefulness and strict
attention on the part of the teacher, and of much application on that of the pupils.
The school was scarcely as orderly as is desirable.
Clinton school was re-opened in October last, after being closed for two years for
want of sufficient attendance. It is admirably conducted, and fis giving the greatest
possible satisfaction to trustees and parents. In order to retain the efficient services of
the present teacher, they have for several months jDast provided him with board in
addition to the salary allowed by the educational authorities. Found 13 pupils in attendance on 3rd of June, all very quiet and attentive to lessons. Arithmetic, so far as
pupils have gone, is well and thoroughly taught. The same may be said of English
grammar and geography. Twenty children are in attendance, several of these, however,
are from a distance. The average was nearly 14. Amount expended, $682 75; cost of
pupils attending school, $34 13; and on average, $49 47.
Lake la Hache.—The withdrawel of one of the three families which constitute this
school, will, in all probability, result in its being closed. Should such be the case, it
will be a great loss to the other two large families; the heads of which are making
every effort to get pupils from a distance in order to avoid such an undesirable contingency. Never having had educational advantages placed within their reach before,
the pupils now in attendance, all of whom are fast growing up, have improved the time
since the school was opened, more than a year ago, to the utmost. No efforts have
been spared by the teacher, both in school and out of it, to aid them in so doing. The
examination on 5th June, was a convincing proof that both pupils and teacher had been
alike industrious. Amount expended in this district, $1,180. Deducting $400 for school
house improvements, the cost of each pupil attending school for tuition, was $55 71, and
for each one of the average, $82 10. Fourteen children were under instruction for some
portion of the year, the average being 9}.
Lillooet Electoral District now includes three school districts, namely:—Lillooet,
Clinton, and Lake La Hache. Sixty-one children are reported as attending these schools,
the average being 37.63. Their cost for the year was $2,522 75; $41 37 for each pupil
enrolled, and $67 04 for each one on the average. Last year Lillooet was the only
school in the district.
Barkerville.—Not being able to reach this school, the furthest and last to be reported on, I am not in a position to give any information of my own personal knowledge;
but from advices received from time to time, I am fully persuaded that it has been satisfactorily conducted during the year, and that good progress has been made by the
pupils. Twenty names were enrolled; the average attendance being 12}. Seven hundred
and twenty dollars were expended, making the cost of each pupil on the register $36, and
for each one on the average attendance, $57 60 ; irregular attendance, 37} per cent. At
present this is the only school in the Cariboo Electoral District. A requisition, however,
from Stanley has been received asking for one there. As there seems to be a sufficient
number of children of school age, or thereabouts, the requisition will probably receive
favourable consideration at an early date.
I have gone more into detail than formerly in the above special reports, and have
also given the statistics of each school district; being under the impression that perhaps such a course would lead trustees and parents to make an effort to reduce the large
amount of irregular attendance in our schools. Beferring constantly to this great drawback to educational progress may possibly be productive of good results.
Under the "Consolidated Public School Act, 1876," the machinery for compelling
habitual absentees to attend school is so simple, and so easily applied, that non-attendance should be much lower than it is. In no instance, so far, has the law been put in
force, although in several districts its application would be of use; and in some, probably it might prevent a withdrawal of school privileges.
I have the honour to be,
Your Excellency's most obedient servant,
JOHN JESSOP.
Education Office, Victoria,
October, 1876.  40 Vie. Public Schools Report. 113
PART   II.
STATISTICAL   TABLES. 114
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Public Schools Report.
125
TABLE K.
Education Branch of Provincial Secretary's Department.
Expenditure for the Year ending 31st July, 1876.
Salary of Superintendent of Education	
Travelling expenses of       do. 	
Dr. Oarlyle, as Agent in Toronto, for sending Teachers 	
Postage	
Maps, Registers, &c, &c ,	
Telegrams	
Advertising	
Stationery (chiefly refunded by School Districts)	
Freight to Okanagan and Nicola	
Interest on overdrawn account in Bank of British Columbia ,
Drayage of School Books from Education Office to steamers..
Amount expended in Public Schools	
Total Expenditure *.
$ 2,000 00
331 75
50 00
57 80
27 28
11 12
11 00
66 77
13 02
2 88
6 50
2,578 12
37,978 71
3,556 83
* To this may be added $23,134 48, the cost of new School Building in Victoria, which was provided for by special vote of
the Legislature.    The total expenditure, therefore, for all purposes, is $63,691 31. 126
Public Schools Report.
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PAET  III.
APPENDICES.
10  APPENDIX   A.
	
An Act to amend and consolidate the " Public School Acts."
[Assented to 19th May, 1876.]
EB MAJESTY, by and with the advice and consent of the Legisla-
H
tive Assembly, of the Province of British Columbia, enacts as
follows:—
1. The " Public School Act, 1872," the " Public School Amendment Repeals former
Act, 1873," and the " Public Boarding School Act, 1874," are hereby Acts,
repealed.
2. All Public School  Districts, together with  all elections and ap- Existing elections
pointments to office when this Act takes effect, and all rights acquired and appointments
and penalties incurred shall continue subject to the provisions of this to continue.
Act; and each School Trustee who holds office at the time this Act
comes into force shall continue as if such term had commenced by virtue
of an election under this Act; and on the day appointed for the annual
meeting by the Trustees of each School District during the last week in
June of this year, the Trustee or Trustees whose term of office then expires shall retire from office, but may, with his or their consent, be reelected under the provisions of this Act.
3. There shall be set apart by the Officer in Charge of the Treasury Public School fund,
for the time being, out of the General Kevenue of the Province, in each
year such sum as may be voted by the Legislative Assembly for Public
School purposes, and the said sum of money shall be called the "Public
School Fund."
Board of Education.
4. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may, by Letters Patent under Appointment of
the Public Seal of the Province, appoint six fit and proper persons to Board of Education.
be a Board of Education for the Province of British Columbia, and the
persons so appointed shall respectively hold office during the pleasure of
the Lieutenant-Governor; in the event of any one or more of the persons
so appointed resigning, dying, or being removed from office, the vacancy
or vacancies so occasioned may be filled up by new appointments in
manner aforesaid.
Superintendent.
5. It shall be lawful for the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to appoint Appointment of
a Superintendent and Deputy Superintendent of Education for the Superintendent and
Province of British Columbia, and such Superintendent shall be ex officio Deputy Superinten-
Chairman of the Board of Education, and such Superintendent and
Deputy Superintendent shall hold office during the pleasure of the
Lieutenant-Governor, and shall receive such annual salaries as the
Lieutenant-Governor in Council shall deem fit and proper, together with
such additional allowance or remuneration as the Lieutenant-Governor
in Council may grant for travelling expenses. And when and so often
as a vacancy shall occur in either of the said offices the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council may appoint a fit and proper person to the office
so vacated, and such person shall hold office during the pleasure of the
Lieutenant-Governor.
6. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may establish a High School High School,
in any District where it may be expedient so to do, wherein the higher
branches of education shall be taught. 132 Appendix—Public Schools Report. 1876
Existing School Dis-     7. All School Districts existing at the date when this Act shall come
tricts to continue,    into operation shall continue until altered as hereinafter provided.
8. It shall be lawful for the Lieutenant-Governor in Council from
time to time:—
New districts. (1.) To create School Districts, in  addition  to those already exist
ing, and to define the boundaries thereof, and from time to
time to alter the boundaries of existing, or hereafter created,
Districts. Provided that no School District shall be created
wherein there shall not be at least fifteen children of school age,
between six and sixteen years of age:
Waste lands. (2.) To set apart in every School District such a quantity of the
waste lands of the Crown as in his opinion may be necessary for
school purposes in such District:
Money grant. (3.) To grant, on the application of the School Trustees of any such
School Districts, endorsed by the Superintendent of Education,
or, in his absence, by such person as the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council may appoint, such sum or sums of money as may be required by them to pay the salary of the Teacher in such School
District; to defray the cost of erecting a School House, or providing a house or room within which the Public School of such
District may be held; the cost of all furniture and apparatus necessary for the use of any such School, and the current expenses
connected therewith:
Ditto. (4.) To grant such sums as he shall think proper in aid of the es
tablishment of a school in any part of the Province not being a
School District, and not having less than seven, and not more
than fourteen children, between the age of six and sixteen years,
resident therein.
Duties of Board of Education.
Defines duties of 9- It shall be the duty of the Board of Education:—
Board of Education. ^ Tq meet nQt lesg ^an Qnce in eyery three monthS) a^d they shall
have power to determine the times and places of their meetings,
the order of their proceedings, and the manner of recording them:
(2.) To cause to be made and kept a proper record of their proceedings:
(3.) To adopt all such lawful means in their power, as they deem expedient, to advance the interests and usefulness of Public Schools:
(4.) To select, adopt, and prescribe a uniform series of text books to
be used in the Public Schools of the Province, and to authorize
the purchase and distribution thereof by the Superintendent
among the different Public Schools, at such prices as may be
fixed upon from time to time by the board:
(5.) To make and establish rules and regulations for the conduct of
the Public Schools:
(6.) To examine and give certificates of qualification to teachers of
Public Schools. Such certificates shall be of three classes, viz:—
a first class certificate, a second class certificate, a third class
certificate. A first class certificate shall be deemed good_ until
revoked by the Board of Education ; a second class certificate
shall be deemed good for three years, and no longer; and a third
class certificate shall be deemed good for one year, and no longer,
unless renewed by the Board of Education. 40 Vic. Appendix—Public Schools Report. 133
(7.) Every such certificate of qualification shall have the signature of
at least three members of the Board of Education; but no such
certificate shall be given to any Teacher who does not furnish
satisfactory proof of good moral character:
(8.) To fix the salary or salaries of the Teacher or Teachers in any
School District:
(9.) To take charge of and keep safely all apparatus to be purchased
as hereinafter provided for school purposes in this Province, and
to furnish, on the application of the Trustees of any District, endorsed by the Superintendent of Education, such apparatus as
may be required for the School or Schools in such Districts:
(10.) To purchase such apparatus as in their judgment may be necessary for the use of the Public Schools in the Province:
(11.) To establish a separate School for females in any District where
they may deem it expedient so to do; and such School when so
established  may  be  presided  over by  a  female  Teacher  or
• Teachers, but otherwise shall be subject to the same obligations
and regulations as Public Schools generally under this Act:
(12.) To recommend to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to establish and award allowances of .$100 per annum each, as aid
for teachers in training while at a High School; said allowances
not to exceed five in number:
(13.) At a meeting of the Board of Education three shall constitute a
quorum for examining and giving certificates of qualification to
Public School Teachers, and four shall constitute a quorum for
the transaction of any other business:
(14.) To close schools where the average attendance falls below ten,
if in their discretion they shall think fit.
Duties of Superintendents.
10. It shall be the duty of the Superintendents:— Defines duties of
(1.) To visit each Public School within his jurisdiction, once in each   upennten eats-
year at least, unless often er required by the Board of Education,
or for the adjustment of disputes:
(2.) To examine, at each yearly visit, the state and condition of the
school, as respects the progress of the pupils in learning, the order and discipline observed, the system of instruction pursued,
the mode of keeping the school registers, the average attendance
of pupils, the character and condition of the buildings and premises, and to give such advice as he may judge proper:
(3.) To deliver, in each School District, at least once a year, a public
lecture on some subject connected with the objects, principles,
and means of practical education; and to do all in his power to
persuade and animate parents, guardians, trustees, and teachers
to improve the character and efficiency of the Public Schools,
and to secure the sound education of the young generally:
(4.) To see that the schools are managed and conducted according to
law, to prevent the use of unauthorized, and to insist upon the
use of authorized, books in each school:
(5.) To suspend the certificate of qualification of any Teacher
granted by the Board of Education, for any cause which may appear to him to require it, until the next ensuing meeting of the
Board of Education, of which meeting due notice shall be given 134 Appendix—Public Schools Report. 1876
by the said Superintendent to the Teacher suspended; and the
Board of Education shall confirm or disallow the action of the
Superintendent in suspending such Teacher, as a majority of the
members of the Board present at such meeting shall think
proper; and the cancellation or suspension of a Teacher's certificate, when confirmed by the Board of Education, shall release
the School Trustees of the District in which such Teacher may
be employed from any obligation to continue to employ him as
such Teacher:
(6.) To make annually, on or before the 1st day of October, a report
of the actual state of the Public Schools throughout the Province,
showing the number of pupils taught in each School District,
over the age of six years and under the age of sixteen, the
branches taught and average attendance, the amount of moneys
expended in connection with each school, the number of visits
made by him, the salaries of Teachers, the number of qualified
Teachers, their standing and sex, together with any other information that he may possess respecting the educational state and
wants and advantages of each school and district in the Province,
and such statements and suggestions for improving the Public
Schools and school laws, and promoting education generally, as
he may deem useful and expedient:
(7.) To be responsible for all moneys paid through him on behalf of
the Public Schools, and to give such security as the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council may require:
(8.) To prepare suitable forms and to give such instructions as he
may judge necessary and proper for making all reports and conducting all proceedings under this Act, and to cause the same,
with such general regulations as may be approved of by the
Board of Education for the better organization and government
of Public Schools, to be transmitted to the officers required to
execute the provisions of this Act:
(9.) Within twenty days after any complaint shall be made to him
respecting the mode of conducting any election of Trustees (as
hereinafter provided for), to investigate such complaint, and,
according to the best of his judgment, confirm or set aside such
election ; and in the latter case he shall appoint the time and
place for a new election in such district.
School Trustees.
Number of Trustees. 11. For each School District there shall be three Trustees, each of
whom, after the first election of Trustees, shall hold office for three
years and until his successor shall have been elected.
Annual meeting. 12. An annual meeting for the election of School Trustees shall be
held in all School Districts in the Province on any day (Sunday excepted) during the last week in June of this and every succeeding year, as
may be agreed upon by the Trustee Board of the District, commencing
at twelve of the clock, noon.
Substituted Trus-        13. Any Trustee elected to fill an occasional vacancy shall hold office
tees- only for the unexpired term of the person in whose place he has been
elected.
Persons disqualified    14- No Trustee shall hold the office of Teacher within the District of
from holding office, which he is a Trustee: Provided always, that no clergyman of any
denomination  shall  be   eligible  for the  position   of   Superintendent,
Deputy Superintendent, Teacher, or Trustee. 40 Vic. Appendix—Public Schools Report. 135
15. Immediately after the formation of any new School District or New Districts.
Districts, pursuant to the provisions of this Act, the Superintendent of
Education shall prepare notices in writing describing such District or
Districts respectively, and appoint a time and place for the first school
meeting for the election of Trustees, and shall cause copies of such
notices to be posted in at least three public places in each of such
School Districts at least ten days before the time of holding the meeting ; and the Trustees elected at any such meeting shall respectively
hold office until the next annual meeting for the election of Trustees,
and no longer.
16. The proceedings at any school meetings held under the authority School meetings,
of the next preceding section of this Act, shall be conducted in all
respects in the manner hereinafter provided with respect to annual
meetings in School Districts for the election of Trustees.
Annual School Meetings.
17. The voters of a School District, present at any school meeting Annual meeting,
held under the authority of this Act, shall elect one of their own number to preside over the proceedings of such meeting, and shall also
appoint a Secretary, who shall record all proceedings of the meeting.
18. The Chairman of such meeting shall decide all questions of order, Chairman,
subject to an appeal to the meeting, and in case of an equality of votes,
shall give the casting vote, but he shall have no vote except as Chairman.
19. The Chairman shall take the votes by a poll; and the names of Voting,
all voters who may be present themselves shall be recorded by the
Secretary; such poll shall remain open from noon till four o'clock, p.m.,
when the Chairman shall declare the result. At the first school meeting held in any district under this Act, the electors present shall, by a
majority of votes, elect from the voters in such district three Trustees.
20. The Trustees so elected at the first annual school meeting in any Period of holding
district, shall respectively hold office as follows: — office.
(1.) The person receiving the largest number of votes shall continue
in office for two years, to be reckoned from the annual school
meeting next after his election, and from that time onward till
his successor shall have been elected :
(2.) The person receiving the next greatest number of votes shall
continue in office one year, to be reckoned from the same period
and until his successor shall have been elected:
(3.) The person receiving the next greatest number of votes shall
continue in office until the next ensuing annual school meeting
in such District, and until his successor shall have been elected.
21. A correct copy of the proceedings of such first, and of every an-Proceedings at
nual, and of every special, School District meeting in such District, meetings,
signed by the Chairman and Secretary, shall be forthwith transmitted
by the Secretary in such School District to the Superintendent of Education.
22. A Trustee shall be elected to office at each ensuing annual school Election of Trustee
meeting, in place of any Trustee whose term.of office is about to expire; annually.
and the same individual, if willing, may be re-elected; but no School
Trustee shall be re-elected, except by his own consent, during the four
years next after his going out of office. Report of Trustees. 23. At every annual school meeting, the report of the Trustees, as
required by the 31st section of this Act, shall be received and decided
upon.
Voters.
Declaration  of
challenged voter.
False declaration a
misdemeanor.
Designation   of
Trustees.
Annual   meeting
Ditto.
Resignation of
Trustee.
Defines   duties
Trustees.
of
24. Any male householder or freeholder resident in a School District,
shall be entitled to vote at any school meeting held in such School
District.
25. If any person offering to vote at an annual or other school
meeting is challenged as unqualified by any legal voter, the Chairman
presiding at such meeting shall require the person so offering to make
the following declaration:—
" I do declare and affirm that I am a householder [or freeholder, as the
case may be~] in this School District, and that I am legally qualified to vote at this meeting."
And every person making such declaration shall be permitted to vote
on all questions proposed at such meeting; but if any person refuse to
make such declaration his vote shall be rejected.
26. Any person wilfully making a false declaration of his right to
vote, shall be guilty of misdemeanor, and on a summary conviction
thereof, before any Justice of the Peace, shall be sentenced therefor to
imprisonment for any period not exceeding three months, or to a fine
not greater than one hundred dollars.
Trustees, their Powers, Responsibilities, and Duties.
27. The Trustees of any School District duly elected, shall be a Corporation, under the name of  "The Trustees of the School
District."
28. It shall be the duty of the Trustees of each School District to
appoint the place of each annual school meeting of the voters of the
District, or of a special meeting for the filling up of any vacancy in the
Trustee Corporation occasioned by death, removal, or other cause,
and to cause notices of the time and place to be posted in three or
more public places of such District, at least ten days before the holding
of such meeting, and to specify in such notices the object of such meeting; they may also call and give like notices of any special
meeting, for any school purpose which they may think proper; and
each of such meetings shall be organized and its proceedings recorded
in the same manner as in the case of a first school meeting.
29. In case, from the want of proper notices, or from any other
cause, any annual school meeting, required to be held for the election
of Trustees, shall not be held at the proper time, any two voters in
such District may, within twenty days after the time at which such
meeting should have been held, call a meeting by giving ten days'
notice, to be posted in at least three public places in such School
District, and the meeting then called shall possess all the powers, and
perform all the duties of the meeting in the place of which it is called.
30. Any person chosen as Trustee may resign, by giving written
notice of such intention to his colleagues in office.
31. It shall be the duty of the Trustees of each School District to
appoint one of themselves to be Secretary and Treasurer to the Corporation, who shall give such security as may be required by a
majority of the Trustees, for the correct and safe keeping and forthcoming, when called for, of the papers and moneys belonging- to the
Corporation, and for the correct keeping of a record of their proceedings in a book  procured for that purpose, and for the receiving and 40 Vic. Appendix—Public SchoolsitReport. 137
accounting for all school moneys which shall come into his hands, and
for the disbursing of such moneys, in the manner directed by the
majority of the Trustees. The Trustees shall take possession, and
have the custody of and safe keeping of all Public School property,
which has been acquired or given for Public School purposes in such
District, and shall have power to acquire and hold as a Corporation, by any title whatsoever, any land, moveable property, or income
for school purposes, and to apply the same according to the terms on
which the same were acquired or received; to do whatever they shall
judge expedient with regard to the building, repairing, renting, warming, furnishing, and keeping in order the District School House or
Houses, and the furniture and appendages belonging thereto, and the
school lands and enclosures held by them; to visit, from time to time,
each school under their charge, and to see that it is conducted according to the authorised regulations, and that such school is duly
provided with a register; to see that no unauthorised books are used
in the school, and 1 that the pupils are duly supplied with a uniform
series of authorised text books, sanctioned by the Board of Education;
to exercise all the corporate powers vested in them by this Act; to
cause to be prepared and read at the annual meeting of their District
their annual school report for the year then terminating; and such
report shall include amongst other things, a full and detailed account
of the receipt and expenditure of all school money received and
expended in behalf of such district, for any purpose whatever, during
such year; to prepare and transmit annually, on or before the fifteenth
day of July, a report to the Superintendent of Education, signed by a
majority of the Trustees, and shall specify therein, —
(1.) The whole time the School in their District was kept by a
qualified Teacher, during the year ending the 30th day of June:
(2.) The amount of money received for the School District, and the
manner in which such money has been expended:
(3.) The whole number of children residing in the School District over
the age of six years, and under sixteen; the number of children
taught in the school or schools respectively in such District,
distinguishing the sexes, and the average attendance of pupils
during the year:
(4.) The branches of education taught in the school, the number of
pupils in each branch, the text books used, the number of public
school examinations, visits and lectures, and by whom made
or delivered, and such other information as may be required.
32. No steps shall be taken by the Trustees of any School District gite for g^oi
for procuring a site on which to erect a school house, without calling a
special meeting of the voters of their District, to consider the matter;
and in case of a difference of opinion, as to the site of the school house,
between a majority of the Trustees and a majority of the voters in
such District, at such special meeting, each party shall choose an
arbitrator, and the Superintendent of Education, or in case of his
inability to attend, any person appointed by him to act in his behalf,
shall be a third arbitrator, and such three arbitrators, or a majority of
them, shall finally decide the matter.
33. Whenever from the scattered nature of the population in any gch00ineidindiffer-
SchooL District, the Board of Education or Trustees shall think it advi- ent parts of District,
sable to have the School of such District held part of the day, week, or
year in one part of the District, and during the remainder of the day,
week, or year, in another part of such District, they shall have power to
order the same to be done by the Teacher or Teachers in such District. 138
Appendix—Public Schools Report.
1876
Teacher to hold 34. No person shall be appointed as a Teacher in any Public School,
certificate. unless he shall hold a first, second, or third class certificate, or a tempo
rary certificate of qualification from the Board of Education.
Trustees to appoint    35. The Trustees of any School District shall, from time to time,
and dismiss select and appoint, subject to the approval of a majority of the Board of
Teachers. Education, (from amongst those persons properly qualified) the Teacher
or Teachers in the School District of such Trustees, and may, with the
consent of a majority of the Board of Education, remove and dismiss
such Teacher or Teachers.
Public School Teachers and their Duties.
Defines duties of 36. It shall be the duty of every Teacher of a Public School—
Teachers.
(1.) To teach diligently and faithfully all the branches required to be
taught in the School, according to the rules and regulations
adopted by the Board of Education :
(2.) To keep the daily, weekly, and monthly registers of the School:
(3.) To maintain proper order and discipline in his School, according
to the authorized forms and regulations :
(4.) To keep a visitors' book (which the Trustees shall provide) and
enter therein the visits made to his School, and to present such
book to such visitor, and request him to make therein any remarks
suggested by his visit;
(5.) At all times, when desired by them, to give to Trustees and
visitors access to the registers and visitors' book appertaining to
the School, and upon his leaving the School to deliver up the
same to the order of the Trustees :
(6.) To have at the end of each half-year public examinations of his
School, of which he shall give due notice to the Trustees of the
School, and through his pupils to their parents and guardians :
(7.) To furnish to the Superintendent of Education, when desired,
any information which it may be in his power to give respecting
any thing connected with the operation of his School, or in anywise affecting its interests or character.
Salaries to be paid      37. The salaries of all Public and High School Teachers shall be paid
monthly. monthly, direct from the Provincial Treasury.
Compulsory Educa.
tion.
Procedure on noncompliance with
Section 38.
Compulsory  Clauses.
38. Every child, from the age of seven to twelve inclusive, shall attend
some School, or be otherwise educated for six months in every year ;
and any parent or guardian who does not provide that every such child
under his care shall attend some School, or be otherwise educated, shall
be subject to the penalties hereinafter provided by this Act.
39. It shall be the duty of the Trustees of every Public School, or of the
Superintendent of Education, or any person authorized by them or him,
after being notified that the parents or guardians of any such children
continue to neglect or violate the provisions of the thirty-eighth Section
of this Act, to make complaint of such neglect or violation to a Magistrate or Justice of the Peace. And it shall be competent for the Police
Magistrate of any city or town, and for any Magistrate or Justice of the
Peace in any town or School District where there is no Police Magistrate, to investigate and decide in a summary manner upon any such
complaint made by the Trustees, Superintendent of Education, or any
person authorized by them, against any parent or guardian for violation of said thirty-eighth Section of this Act, and to impose a fine not exceeding five dollars for the first wilful offence, and double that penalty
for each subsequent offence ; which fine and penalty shall be enforced
as provided in the forty-fourth Section of this Act.
40. It shall be the duty of the Police Magistrate, or any Magistrate Excuses for not
or Justice of the Peace where there is no Police Magistrate, to ascertain, attending school,
as far as may be, the circumstances of any party complained of for not
sending his child or children to some School, or otherwise educating
him or them ; and he shall accept any of the following as a reasonable
excuse:—
(1.) That the child is under instruction in some other satisfactory
manner:
(2.) That the child has been prevented from attending School by
sickness or any unavoidable cause :
(3.) That there is no Public School open, which the child can attend
within such distance not exceeding three miles, measured according to the nearest passablejjroad from the residence of such child:
(4.) That such child has reached a standard of education of the same
or of a greater degree than that to be attained in such Public
School.
General Provisions.
41. All Public Schools established under the provisions  of this Act, All schools non-
shall be conducted upon strictly secular and non-sectarian principles, sectarian.
The highest morality shall be inculcated, but no religious dogmas or
creed shall be taught. All Judges, Clergymen, Members of the Legislature, and others interested in education, shall be School visitors.
42. School buildings and School lands shall be under the control of Buildings and lands
the Lands and Works Department. UDlier control of
Lands and Works
Penal Clauses. Department.
43. Any person who wilfully disturbs, interrupts, or disquiets the Penaltj on disturb-
proceedings of any school meeting authorized to be held by this Act, or iug school.
any school established and conducted under its authority, or interrupts
or disquiets any Public School by rude or indecent behaviour, or by
making a noise either within the place where such school is kept or
held, or so near thereto as to disturb the order or exercises of such
school, shall for each offence, on conviction thereof before a Justice of
the Peace, on the oath of one credible witness, forfeit and pay, for
Public School purposes, to the School District within which the offence
was committed, such sum not exceeding twenty dollars, together with
the costs of the conviction, as the said Justice may think fit.
44. All fines, penalties, and forfeitures mentioned in this Act, may be Penalties leviable
sued for, recovered, and enforced, with costs, by and before any Police by distress.
Magistrate,  Stipendiary Magistrate,  or Justice of the Peace having
jurisdiction within the School District in which such fine or penalty has
been incurred, and if any such fine or penalty and costs be not forthwith paid, the same shall, by and under the warrant of the convicting
Justice, be enforced, levied, and collected, with costs of distress, and
sale of the goods and chattels of the offender, and shall by such Justice
be paid over to the Treasurer of the School District; and in default
of such distress, such Justice shall by his warrant cause the offender to
be imprisoned for any time not exceeding thirty days, unless the fine
and costs, and the reasonable expenses of endeavoring to collect the
same, be sooner paid. res^
School
140 Appendix—Public Schools Report. 1876
Public Boarding Schools.
Trustees of School 45. The Trustees of any School District created under this Act, shall
District not to exer- not have, exercise, or perform, with respect to any Public Boarding
respePcUorBoardinK School within their District, any of the rights, powers, or duties given,
School. conferred, or imposed by this Act.
Appointment and        46. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council shall, upon the establishment
designation of Trus- 0f any Public Boarding School by the Government within the Province,
SchoolBoardlng      appoint three or more persons to be Trustees of such Boarding School,
and such Trustees shall be a Corporation under the name of "the
Trustees of the (naming the title) Boarding School."
Duties of Deputy 47. It shall be the duty of the Deputy Superintendent to act as Sec-
Superintendent in retary and Treasurer to the Corporation, who shall give such security
"Tool*t0 Boarding as may be required by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, for the
correct and safe-keeping and forthcoming, when called for, of the papers
and moneys belonging to the Corporation, and for the correct keeping
of a record of their proceedings in a book procured for that purpose,
and for the receiving and accounting for all school moneys which shall
come into his hands, and for the disbursing of such moneys in the
Duties of Trustees, manner directed by the majority of the Trustees. It shall be the duty
of the Trustees to take possession and safe custody of the Boarding
School buildings, and of the furniture and grounds belonging thereto,
and keep the same in good order and repair, when deemed by them
requisite; to furnish and warm the buildings when necessary ; to pay
the servants or employes of such School; to visit the School from time
to time, and see that no unauthorized books are used therein, that a
register is duly kept, and that the School is conducted according to the
regulations duly prescribed; to see that the pupils are supplied with a
uniform series of authorized text books, sanctioned by the Board of
Education ; to exercise all the corporate powers vested in them by this
Act; to see that proper and healthful board and lodging are furnished
and supplied for the scholars ; to prepare and transmit annually, on or
before the 15th day of July, a report to the Superintendent of Education,
signed by a majority of the Trustees, and shall specify therein—
(1.) The amount of money received for such School, and the manner
in which such money shall have been expended :
(2.) The whole number of children residing at such School:
(3.) The branches of education taught in the School, the number of
pupils in each branch, the text books used, the number of Public
School examinations, visits, and lectures, and by whom made or
delivered, and such other information as may be required.
Board, &c, of chil-     48. Such Trustees shall make By-laws fixing the fees to be paid for
dren. the board, lodging, and other necessaries (if any) of the children, and
the manner and time of payment of such fees, and shall have power to
sue for, recover, and receive the same.
Trustees to hold 49. Such Trustees shall hold office at the pleasure of the Lieutenant-
office during Governor in Council, and upon a vacancy occurring by death, resignation,
pleasure. removal, or otherwise, the Lieutenant-Governor in Council shall, from
time to time, as occasion shall require, appoint a person or persons to
fill such vacancy or vacancies.
Trustees to appoint     50. Such  Trustees  shall,  subject to the approval of the Board of
Teacher. Education, have the power of appointing (from amongst persons properly
qualified) the Teacher or Teachers in such Boarding School, and also
of dismissing them, and shall also have the power of appointing and
dismissing the servants or employes engaged or employed at such Boarding School, and of fixing the amount of salary or wages to be paid
to such servants or employes.
51. All agreements or contracts made between the Corporation and Contracts of Trui-
any person shall be in writing, and shall be signed by the Secretary tees.
of the Corporation as such, and by the other contracting party. Such
signature of the Secretary shall be sufficient, and shall have the same
legal effect as if the Seal of the Corporation were attached to any document so signed.
52. Save as hereinbefore is provided, the Board of Education and the Board of Education
Superintendent of Education shall have and perform all the powers and aud Superintendent
duties with reference to such Boarding Schools, as are vested in themto have certam
respectively by this Act.
53. This Act may be cited for all purposes as the " Consolidated Short Title.
Public School Act, 1876."
APPENBIX B.
RULES  AND  EEGULATIONS  FOE THE  GOVERNMENT  OF  PUBLIC
SCHOOLS IN THE PEOVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
1. The hours of teaching in each School shall be from 9 A.M. to 12 M., and from 1 p.m. to
3.30 p.m., from April to September, inclusive; and from 9.30 a.m. to 12 M., and from 1 P.M. to
3 P.M., from October to March, inclusive.
2. Every Saturday, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Queen's Birthday, Dominion Day, and
Prince of Wales' Birthday shall be a holiday in each school. There shall be a recess of fifteen
minutes in the middle of each morning's work.
3. There shall be two vacations in each year; the first, or Summer vacation, shall continue
for one month from the first Monday in July or August, at the option of the Trustee Board in
each School District: the second for two weeks, at Christmas and New Year.
4. Young children, not being pupils of the school, shall not be allowed to accompany teachers or pupils, as such a practice tends to the interruption of the regular business of the school.
5. No teacher shall be deprived of any part of his or her salary on account of observing
allowed holidays and vacations.
Regulations for Teachers' Salaries.
Whereas it is desirable that salaries should be equalized by placing them on the basis of
average attendance, and that teachers, trustees, and parents should have a direct interest in securing as large an attendance as possible, therefore be it resolved:—
1. That from and after the 1st August, 1874, the salaries of all duly qualified Public School
Teachers in the employ of the Education Department, when the average attendance of pupils is
from 10 to 20 inclusive, shall be $50 per month; from 20 to 30 inclusive, $60 per month; from
30 to 40 inclusive, $70 per month ; and from 40 to 50 inclusive, $80 per month. As soon as
the average attendance in any school shall exceed fifty, such school shall be entitled to an assistant teacher; the average shall be calculated annually from the attendance for the year preceding
1st August, excluding vacations and public holidays.
2. The teacher at Yale, and those teachers further inland, shall receive $10 per month each
in addition to the salaries to which they are entitled by the above scale, as compensation for the
increased cost of living.
3. In districts where the average attendance for the year falls below ten, the schools maybe
taught by teachers preparing to qualify, at a lower rate of salary than $50 per month; but if 142 Appendix—Public Schools Report. 1876
considered advisable by the Board such schools may either be kept open for a portion of the year
or be entirely closed.
4. The above mentioned re-adjustment shall not apply to schools when more than one teacher
is employed in the same department.
Public School Teachers and their Duties.
It shall be the duty of every Teacher of a Public School—
1. To teach diligently and faithfully all the branches required to be taught in the school,
according to the terms of his engagement with the Trustees, and according to the rules and regulations adopted by the Board of Education :
2. To keep, daily, weekly, and monthly registers of the school:
3. To maintain proper order and discipline in his school, according to the authorized forms
and regulations :
4. To keep a visitors' book (which the Trustees shall provide) and enter therein the visits
made to his school, and to present such book to such visitor, and request him to make therein
any remarks suggested by his visit:
5. At all times when desired by them, to give to Trustees and visitors access to the registers
and "visitors' book appertaining to the school, and upon his leaving the school to deliver up the
same to the order of the Trustees :
6. To have at the end of each half-year, public examinations of his school, of which he shall
give due notice to the Trustees of the school, and, through his pupils, to their parents and
guardians:
7. To furnish to the Superintendent of Education, when desired, any information which it
may be in his power to give respecting anything connected with the operation of his school,
or in anywise affecting its interests or character:
8. To classify the pupils according to their respective abilities :
9. To observe, and impress upon the minds of the pupils, the great rule of regularity and
order,—a time and place for everything, and everything in its proper time and
PLACE :
10. To promote, both by precept and example, cleanliness, neatness, and decency. To
personally inspect the children every morning, to see that they have their hands and faces washed, their hair combed, and clothes clean. The school apartments, too, should be swept and
dusted every evening:
11. To pay the strictest attention to the morals and general conduct of the pupils; to omit
no opportunity of inculcating the principles of truth and honesty; the duties of respect to
superiors, and obedience to all persons placed in authority over them :
12. To evince a regard for the improvement and general welfare of the pupils; to treat
them with kindness, combined with firmness; and to aim at governing them by their affections
and reason rather than harshness and severity :
13. To cultivate kindly and affectionate feelings among the pupils; to discountenance quarrelling, cruelty to animals, and every approach to vice :
14. To practice such discipline in school as would be exercised by a judicious parent in the
family, avoiding corporal punishment, except when it shall appear to him to be imperatively
necessary; and then a record of the offence and the punishment shall be made in the school
register for the inspection of trustees and visitors :
15. No teacher shall compel the services of pupils for his own private benefit or convenience:
16. For gross misconduct, or a violent or wilful opposition to authority, the teacher may
suspend a pupil from attending school, forthwith informing the parent or guardian of the fact, and
the reason of it;   but no pupil shall be expelled without the authority of the trustees:
17. When the example of any pupil is very hurtful, and reformation appears hopeless, it shall
be the duty of the teacher, with the approbation of the trustees, to expel such pupil from the
school; but any pupil under the public censure, who shall express to the teacher his regret for
such a course of conduct, as openly and explicitly as the case may require, shall, with the approbation of the trustees and teacher, be re-admitted to the school. 40 Vic. Appendix—Public Schools Report. 143
Duties op Pupils, Parents, and Guardians.
1. Pupils must come to school clean and neat in their persons and clothes, and be present
at the commencement of each day's work:
2. No pupil shall, without the teacher's consent, depart before the time appointed for closing the school:
3. A pupil absenting himself or herself from the school, except on account of sickness, or
other urgent reasons satisfactory to the teacher, forfeits his or her standingin the class, and must
undergo such other punishment as the teacher may deem necessary :
4. The parents or guardians of all pupils shall furnish their children with the authorised
text books, to be obtained from the teachers of the respective schools, who are to charge therefor
the prices agreed upon by the Board of Education; but, in case of inability to comply with
this rule, the teacher may, under special circumstances, supply the necessary books free of cost;
but every such case must be reported to the Superintendent of Education.
Opening and closing exercises are now limited to the Lord's Prayer and Ten Commandments,
and it is optional with the various Trustee Boards whether the same shall be used or not.
APPENDIX  C.
RULES FOR THE EXAMINATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS AND
THE ISSUANCE OF CERTIFICATES OF QUALIFICATION.
That in order to secure as far as possible uniformity and the utmost fairness to candidates
in their examination and the issuance of certificates to them according to their respective degrees
of merit, the following Rules shall guide the proceedings of the Board of Education in those
important matters.
1. Due notice of the time and place at which an examination is to be held shall be given
to all applicants for certificates; and during the examination, the Superintendent, and, if
possible, one or more of the other members of the Board shall be present to afford the candidates
such explanations and proper facilities as may be required. Should it be desirable at any time
to hold an examination of candidates at a distance from Victoria where a member of the Board
cannot be present, the Board will make such other suitable arrangements in each case as shall
ensure a proper examination.
2. To each branch or subject of examination there shall be attached an invariable standard
or number of marks of value; and the proportionate value of the answers given by candidates
shall be ascertained and determined (as hereinafter mentioned in Rules 8 and 9) upon that
standard exclusively.
3. The subjects or course of examination, and the standard number of marks attached to
them severally, shall be the following, or such selection therefrom as the Board may from time
to time consider sufficient and necessary; and such selection, if and when made, shall form the
full course of examination on that particular occasion, and apply equally in every respect to all
candidates then to be examined:—1. Spelling (200 marks); 2. Reading, (200) ; 3. Writing,
(200); 4, Composition, (200); 5. Grammar, (200); 6. Arithmetic, (200); 7. Book-keeping,
(200); 8. Geography, (200); 9. History, (200); 10. Mathematics, (100) for each branch;
11. Latin, (100); 12. French, (50); 13. Drawing, (50); 14. Music, (50). N. B.—These
marks are merely arbitrary and only for the sake of convenience, definiteness, and precision, and
without any reference whatever to the relative importance of the different subjects. The subjects
may be increased or diminished at the pleasure of the Board.
4. Individual candidates shall choose for their examination such and as many of the above
subjects as they may respectively consider themselves qualified to undertake; bearing in mind
that the standing of each as a scholar—and which shall be recorded in his or her certificate, if
such be granted—shall be in just proportion to his or her attainments, as shown by the examination, and that therefore it is desirable for their own credit to acquit themselves as well as
possible on every subject, or part of a subject, within their knowledge.    Under any circumstances, 144 Appendix—Publie Schools Report. 1876
subjects 1 to       must be part of the examination.    N. B.—Candidates should be advised of the
above before entering on their examination as an incentive to them to do their best.
5. The minimum percentage of answers to questions (i. e. marks of value awarded) that
shall entitle a candidate to obtain a certificate of the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd class, graduated as undermentioned, shall be respectively the following percentage of the standard marks of value attached
to the total subjects forming the prescribed curriculum or course for examination as above set
forth in Rule 3, namely—
First Class A, 80 per cent;
First Class B, 70 per cent;
Second Class A, 60 per cent;
Second Class B, 50 per cent;
Third Class A, 40 per cent;
Third Class B,    30 per cent.
6. There shall be used at each examination one set of papers, complete in itself
(a paper to a subject), embracing all the subjects that compose the course of examination
as above prescribed, and which as a whole shall be open to all competitors indiscriminately. The standard number of marks of value that shall be attached to ^papers in the
higher branches or subjects shall be on a diminished scale (as shown in Rule 3, and in the
annexed table), in order that the absence of any one or more of such higher branches or subjects
in the case of any candidate who shall be unfit to compete therein, may cause as little disturbance
as possible in the equilibrium of the average percentage awarded for the other or more ordinary
branches, in which all candidates alike should be, and are expected to be, proficient.
7. The papers respectively (one paper for each branch or subject—always excepting, however, such branches or subjects as have to be judged of viva voce or otherwise than by written
papers, such as reading and spelling, etc.,) shall be set or furnished by individual members of
the Board, whom the Board shall from time to time select or appoint for the purpose. Each
paper or subject shall consist of such number of questions, not being less than twelve, as the
member furnishing it may think proper; and shall have attached to it, invariably, the standard
number of marks of value fixed in Rule 3, and in the table annexed hereto; which total or
standard number of marks shall, when the paper is furnished, or before it is put into the hands
of a candidate, be subdivided or apportioned by the member of the Board who furnished it,
according to his judgment, pro rata among the several questions contained in the paper. He
shall, also, then fix a reasonable time to be allowed for answering the paper in full—that is
sufficient time to admit of the paper being answered correctly by one having such a knowledge
of the subject as would be necessary for an efficient teacher of it-
8. Each paper answered, or returned as answered, by a candidate, shall, as soon as convenient thereafter, be scrutinized by the member of the Board who furnished it, or in his absence,
or at his request, by the Superintendent or any other member or members of the Board, instead
of or in conjunction with him (the member who furnished the paper); and he or they so acting
in his stead, or in conjunction with him, shall, subject to the inspection or revision of the Board,
and before the issuance of a certificate to a candidate, determine by marking on the candidate's
paper the proportion of marks to be awarded to each answer given, such as it shall be, but of
course not exceeding in any case the number previously apportioned (as in Rule 7) to the particular question to which it has been given as an answer; and shall, also, subject as aforesaid,
ascertain and determine, and mark on the paper, in like manner, the percentage or proportion
per cent, which the total marks thus awarded to a candidate on each subject shall bear to the
standard maximum number of marks pertaining to that particular subject.
9. The Board, collectively, or by committee, shall finally determine, in manner aforesaid,
the total number of marks awarded, or to be awarded, to the several candidates on each and all
the branches or subjects that formed the course of examination; and also the percentage or
proportion per cent, which that total bears to the standard number of marks pertaining to the
whole of those branches or subjects.
10. Certificates shall not be issued for at least one week after the examination of Candidates,
during which period it shall be open to the several members of the Board to satisfy themselves
fully as to the merits of all or any of the candidates, by inspection of their answers to the examination papers, and the marks awarded, or proposed to be awarded, in respect of such answers.
11. For the satisfaction of candidates as well as of the Board, and for the general convenience in any future reference that may be necessary or desirable, each certificate issued shall
•xhibit in parallel columns (as in the table subjoined)— 40 Vic.
Appendix—Public Schools Report.
145
(1.) The standard or invariable number of marks pertaining to each branch or subject, and
the total of these :
(2.) The number of marks awarded on each subject to the bearer of the certificate, and the
totals thereof:
(3 ) The per centage or proportion per cent, of the marks awarded on each subject to the
standard number of marks pertaining to that subject:
(4.) The per centage or proportion per cent, which the total marks awarded on the whole
branches or subjects bear to the total standard number of marks pertaining to all the
subjects that formed the course of examination:
(5.) A series of numbers in a separate column, indicating the standing or scholarship of the
bearer of the certificate on the several subjects of examination.
The precise scope and signification of these indicative numbers are to be defined as follows,
namely:—
From 0 to 20 per cent, inclusive  0
„ 20 per cent, up to 30 per cent 10
„ 30 „ 40       „        9
„ 40 „ 50       „        8
j) 50 „ 55       ,,        7
.„ 55 „ 60       „        6
„ 60 „ 65       „       5
„ 65 „ 70       „       4
„ 70 „ 75       „        3
„ 75 „ 80       „       2
„ 80 „    and upwards           1
TABLE.
Exhibiting the particulars referred to in the foregoing Rules 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11, respectively
and being an example of the form or order in which the several particulars are to be em
bodied in the certificate to be granted to successful candidates.
SUBJECTS OF EXAMINATION:
Ordinary Subjects more or less essential:
Spelling	
Reading	
Writing  ,
Composition 	
Grammar	
Arithmetic	
Book-keeping	
Geography ,	
History	
Extraordinary Subjects less or more non-essential:
Mathematics, for each branch	
Latin	
French	
Drawing-	
Music	
Total	
32
ED
1J-J
o
1
s .
313
gSt3
V
No.
"s|
a
73
o     Q
S-B
■aS
a «
8?
§SS
1
Pj
cu
2
3
4
200
200
100
200
180
90
200
180
90
200
150
75
200
180
90
200
180
90
200
120
60
200
100
50
200
100
50
100
80
80
100
70
70
50
20
40
50
10
20
50
30
60
74 3-1
i
2,150
1,600
11 146
Appendix—Public Schools Report.
1876
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BRITISH COLUMBIA.
 o	
This is to Certify, that
having been carefully examined in the several branches
named in the margin is hereby granted a
Certificate of Qualification, as a Public School
Teacher, in virtue of the powers vested in us by subsection 6 of section 9 of the " Consolidated Public
School Act, 1876," which Certificate shall be valid
in any part of the Province of British Columbia, until
revoked by this Department.
r
« 5
W  P
«pa
Dated, at the Education Office, Victoria, this
day of , One thousand eight hundred
and seventy-
Superintendent of Education for B. 0.
Registered.in Certificate Register A,
ol the Department No.
Standing in the Different Branches,
Subjects
of
Examination.
o
_--a
0
M arks
o.s
a
awarded.
&m
o
V   O
ei**
M
■g.2H
a
9
S  .
•o
33  u
3
T3
No.
°1
a o
P«
£M
Grammar	
Arithmetic	
Geography	
History and English Liter
atnre 	
Book-keeping ,	
Reading	
Spelling	
Writing	
Education     and    art    of
Teaching	
Natural Philosophy	
Composition	
Algebra	
Euclid	
Vocal Music	
Animal    and     Vegetable
Physiology	
Mensuration	
Total	
bo • 6
15 3
.a o o
— c P
APPENDIX D.
TEACHEES' EXAMINATION PAPEES.
iVo. 1.—History and English Literature:  Mr. Tolmie.
Time, 3 hours.    Total Marks, 200.
1. What Pope, in the sixth century, sent missionaries to the British Isles?
2. "What, in the sixth century, was the salve for every wrong?
3. Who, in the reign of Edward II, were called the Ordainers; and what was the
object of their enactments? Did these obtain the royal assent; and did the King adhere
to his written promises?
4. What was one of the early and marked effects of the hundred years' war between
England and France?
5. When did John de Wycliffe live; and what were his followers called?
6. What were the doctrines of the Lollards?
7. Under whose reign did the persecution of the Lollards begin?
8. In what year and in whose reign did the Petition of Eight become law?
9. When did the persecution of the Scottish Covenanters begin; and about what
time did it end? 10. State, in not fewer than ten, and not more than twenty lines of writing, the
events that led, a century ago, to the separation of the thirteen British Colonies in
North America from the Mother country.
English Literature.
1. Give some account of the writings of George Buchanan.
2. Name John Milton's great prose work; and mention the subjects it treats of.
3. Give some account of Thomas Fuller's two chief works.
4. "What do you know of the poets—Crabbe, Coleridge, Southey, Moore, and Tanna-
hill?
5. In what department of Science did Mrs. Somerville shine?
6. What can you tell about Thomas Babington Macaulay?
No. 2.—Education and Art of Teaching: Superintendent of Education.
Time, 2 hours.    Total Marks, 100.
1. Explain clearly what you consider to be embraced in the term School Management
2. What, in your opinion, are the good effects likely to accrue in a school from employing a system of Monthly Reports to parents, of study, attendance, &c., of pupils ?
3. Explain the difference between simultaneous (or class) questioning, and simultaneous (or class) answering ; stating what you consider to be the excellencies and
the defects of each as a means of instruction.
4. Exemplify the manner in which you would endeavour to give your pupils a clear
idea of a fraction, and of the truth that both terms may be multiplied by the same
number, without changing the value of the fraction.
5. What measures would you take to create an interest in the school throughout the
district ?
6. State what mental, moral, and physical qualifications you regard as essential to
the successful teacher.
No. 3.—Arithmetic : Mr. Drake.
Time, 3 hours. Total Marks, 200.
1. Define addition and subtraction. What is meant by a prime number ? When are
numbers said to be prime to each other ?    Give examples.
2. 65358547823 -=- 5578.
3. What number divided by 7634 will give 42 for a quotient and leave 17 as a remainder ?
acres, r.    p.
4. Seduce 27   1   32 to poles.
5. Add 2 lbs. 9 oz. 1 dwt. 23 gr., 8 lbs. 6 oz. 4 dwt. 20 gr., 10 oz. 15 gr., 43 lbs. 1 dwt.
4 gr., 16 lbs. 1 gr., 1 lb. 1 dwt., 16 lbs. 4 oz. 5 gr., 18 oz., 25 dwt. 14 gr. and 12 lbs. 16 oz.
20 gr.
tons. qr.   lb. tons. cwt. qr.   lb.
6. Take 6    2    23 from 19    3    3    18.
7. How many barrels, firkins, gallons, and pints are there in 76458236 half pints ? 148 Appendix—Public Schools Report. 1876
8. A person buys 100 sacks of flour, at $3.75 a sack; 100 sacks of bran, at 3s. 6d. a
sack; 15 horses, at 43 guineas each; his expenses amount to 12-J guineas. How much
money will he require to pay out, the $1 being worth $4.85 to the £ sterling ? Give the
answer in sterling money.
9. 1738 cubic yards and 1236 cubic inches, divide by 798.
10. Find the least common multiple of 7568 and 9504.
11. What is a fraction; what is the upper line called, and what the lower line?
12. Define proper fractions, improper fractions, and compound fractions.
13. Multiply £ by 3;  g by 12.
14. Divide  ~   -|   j|> by 5, 8, and 10 respectively.
15. Find the respective values of y of £2 3s. 9d.;   jjXfj of $21; f- of ■§■ of  10f
hours.
16. Express the following decimals in words: -740, -1000001, -00000001, 43-75,
4-340,   1, -001, 11-111, -15.
17. Multiply 4-5 and 52; -38 and -42; 71956 and -000014; -652 and -421.
18. Divide 53.276 by 43.2; 1564.4 by .451 to three places in decimals.
19. Eeduce to decimals -^;  j -4- j — j
20. After taking a quarter of my money out of the Savings Bank, two-fifths of the
remainder amounted to $750.22, what was the original sum in the bank ?
21. Find the ^289, 4096, 21025. '
22. Find the cube roots of 27054036008-000024389, 3-00415 to three places in decimals.
23. If the diameter of a cylindrical well be 5 ft. 2 in., and its depth 55 ft., how many
cubic yards of earth were removed in order to form it ?
No. 4.—English Grammar:   Mr. A. J. Langley.
Time, 3 hours.    Total Marks, 200.
1. Name the words beginning with the letter " h," in which it is silent.
2. Explain the various uses of the different parts of speech.
3. Classify and name each part of speech in the following sentence:—
" The power of speech is a faculty peculiar to man, a faculty bestowed on
him by his beneficent creator, for the greatest and most excellent uses; but
alas! how often do we pervert it to the worst of purposes!"
4. What is the distinguishing peculiarity between articles and adjectives?
5. Why are personal pronouns the only real pronouns?
6. What are the variations in the termination of an English verb?     Give examples-
7. As words ending in !-ing" are frequently used both as nouns and adjectives;
how do you find to which class they belong?
8. Name one or two prepositional phrases.
9. How are words which are used both as adverbs and adjectives distinguished?
10. Define the participle, and how formed.
11. What is " case " in grammar?    Give examples of the three cases.
12. Name the classes into which verbs are divided,.with respect to their form; and
their distinguishing marks, with respect to their signification. 40 Vie. Appendix—Public Schools Revert. 149
13. Correct errors in the following sentences:—
" Gathering of riches is a pleasant torment."
" A fictitious name made use of in law proceedings."
" I distinguish these two things from one another."
"No man believes but what there is some order in the universe."
"He hath been enabled to correct many mistakes."
" Bid the boys to come in immediately."
" I remember walking once with my young acquaintance."
" Will you let me alone or no ? "
" Children are whip'd to it, and made spend many hours of their precious
time uneasily in Latin."
14. Analyze the following sentences, giving the parts of each proposition and parsing
the words in italics :—
"Let the soldier be abroad if he will, he can do nothing in this age. There is
another personage less imposing, in the eyes of some perhaps insignificant. The
school-master is abroad, and I trust to him, armed with his primer, against the
soldier in full military array."
15. Parse the following quotation :—
"Lives of great men all remind us
We can make our lives sublime
And, departing, leave behind us
Foot prints on the sands ot time."
16. Transpose the above quotation into prose, and the sentiment of the preceding
one into different language.
No. 5.—Geography:  Mr, Edgar Marvin.
Time, 3 hours. Total Marks, 200.
1. What is Geography?
2. From what is the word Geography derived?
3. How is Geography usually divided?    What is Physical Geography?
4. When all the portions of Geography are considered in describing a country, what
is the description called?
5. How is the surface of the Earth divided?
6. What portion of the Earth's surface is covered by water ?
7. Name the grand divisions of the land.
8. What are the principal forms and divisions of the land called?
9. What is a Continent?
10. Name the natural divisions of the land according to their elevation.
11. From what level on the Earth's surface do we compute the height of mountains?
12. What is an Oasis?
13. Name the principal natural divisions of the water.
14. Name the different Oceans.
15. Name the principal Eivers of the World.   What is a Eiver?
16. What is the delta of a Eiver?    Mention some famous deltas.
17. What is the length of the Amazon Eiver?
18. What is the Earth ?
19. How does the Earth appear to us while standing on its surface?
20. How many motions has the Earth ?
21. What is the orbit, and what the axis, of the Earth?
22. What are the poles of the Earth ?
23. What is produced by the motion of the Earth on its axis ?
24. What is the zenith of a place ?
25. What is the Equator? 1-50 Appendix—Public Schools Report. 1876
26. What are the Tropics?
27. What is Latitude ?
28. How is Latitude counted ?
29. What is Longitude ?
30. How is Longitude measured?
31. How many degrees of Longitude are there in the circumference of the Earth?
32. What is the greatest Longitude a place can have, either East or West?
33. When it is noon in London, what time is it in Victoria, Vancouver Island?
34. How many Planets are there?    Name them.
35. How does the Earth compare in size and position with the other principal
Planets?
36. What effect has difference of Longitude upon time ?
37. What are Antipodes?
38. What is meant by Mercator's Projection?
39. Who first sailed around the World. ?
40. What causes the Tides?   Explain.
41. How many Zones are there?
42. How broad is each Temperate Zone?
43. Why is it cold in Frigid Zones?
44. Why is it hot in the Torrid Zone?
45. What is the Mariner's Compass?
46. What is the highest Mountain in North America?   How high is it?
47. Name the largest Island on the Pacific Coast.
48. Between what parallels of Latitude does Europe principally lie?
49. What are the divisions of Europe?    Name their Capitals.
50. Name the principal Islands of Europe.
51. What is the population of the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland ?
Name the Counties in England and Wales.
52. Between what parallels of latitude does Asia principally lie ?
53. What separates Asia from America ?
54. What sea and isthmus between Asia and America ?
55. Through what countries does the tropic of Cancer pass ?
56. Between what parallels of latitude does Africa principally lie ?
57. Through what countries in Africa does the Equator pass ?
58. Between what parallels of latitude doe3 Oceanica principally lie ?
59. Through what three large islands in Malaysia does the Equator pass ?
60. Where is Java ?
No. 6.—Natural Philosophy: Superintendent of Education.
Time, 2 hours.    Total Marks, 100.
1. Define motion and force. Mention the chief forces in nature, and describe their
action.
2. Define clearly what is meant by specific gravity.
3. Explain how drinkable water can be procured from sea water.
4. What is the difference between evaporation and ebullition? and upon what does
the boiling point depend?
5. If an arrow is so shot as just to go over the top of a fir tree, and it is observed
that seven seconds elapse from the time the arrow leaves the bow till it strikes the
ground, what is the height of the tree?
6. A house 25 feet above sea level is supplied with water from Elk Lake, which is
91 feet higher than the house: what will be the pressure ~pev square inch on a tap 15
feet above the ground, supposing a cubic foot of water to weigh 1000 ounces? 40 Vie.
Appendix—Public Schools Report.
151
No. 7.—Elements of Music : Superintendent of Education,
lime,  1 hour.    Jotal Marks, 50.
1. From what portion of Natural Philosophy does music, as a science, derive its
elementary principles ?
2. By what characters are all musical sounds represented ?   Give the four principal,
their shapes, names, and relative values.
3. Describe a Major Diatonic  Scale, its number of sounds and order of tones and
semitones.
4. Explain transposition in music, and state what letters are sharpened in the key
of five sharps, and what letters are flattened in the key of three flats.
No. 8.—Physiology: Superintendent of Education.
Time, 1| hours.    Total Marks, 50.
1. Describe the skin;   tell what its functions are;   and point out what beneficial
effects follow from keeping it clean.
2. Describe the manner in which we taste, smell, and feel.
3. What is the difference between the food of people living in hot countries and
those living in cold climates; and why this difference?
4. Name the organs of circulation;   tell where the blood comes from, and what
becomes of it.
5. Tell how we breathe, and why we breathe, and why we die if we cease to
breathe.
No. 9.—Spelling: Mr. Munro.
Time, J an hour. Total Marks,
(6 marks to be deducted for each word returned misspelt or
Jandice
Jockular
Correct where
necessary the
Accomodate
Efulgent
Accidentle
Entise
Acustom
Exonnerate
Adaucity
Agregate
Ascencion
Explissit
Extorsion
Attroscious
Grandure
Beautyous
Greivious
Cascaid
Creddible
Hinderance
Crittisize
Imbrue
Decripped
Depriceate
Doubtful!
Impaile
Impare
Imperril
Mercyfull
Mounument
Mountainious
Mischevious
Laudible
Plentyous
Prescipiece
Profoundity
200.
passed over.)
Eesussitate
Seperated
Tallented
Timmid
Undenyable
Undoubted
Ungreatful
Varyance
Venjance 152 Appendix—Public Schools Report. 1876
No. 10.—Algebra: Superintendent of Education.
Time, 2 hours.    Total Marks, 100.
1. It' a = 1, b — 2, c = 3, d = 4, show that the numerical values are equal of d2—
(2d—cjc-ff2(d^c)+bjb—{2{d—c+h)—a}a, and of {(d—a)—(c—J)}2.
2. Multiply x2—ax-\-b by x2-\-ax—c.
3. Divide 3x3+4abx2—6a2b2x—4:a3b3 by 2ab-\-x.
4. Find the G. C. M. of 4x2-f 3x—10 and 4a:s+7a;2—3x—15.
5. Simplify |J^ +1
„.' ,„ „     . . 2z-+-3     4x      1       6o!H-2     cc+1
6. Solve the following equations : — 1—^ = 1 —-
7. A servant agreed to live with his master for £8 a year and a livery, but was
turned away at the end of 7 months, and received only £2 13s. 4d. and his livery; what
was it worth ?
8. A person spends 2s. 6d. in apples and pears, buying the apples at four, and the
pears at five a penny ; and afterwards accommodates a neighbour with half his apples
and a third of his pears for 13d.    How many of each did he buy ?
9. Bought two flocks of sheep for £15, in one of which there were 5 more than in
the other ; each sheep in each flock cost as many shillings as there were sheep in the
other flock.    How many were there in each ?
10. How many different arrangements can be made of the letters of the word
" Novogorod," with two o's at the beginning and two at the end of each ?
No. 11.—Mensuration: Superintendent of Education.
Time, 1J hours.    Total Marks, 50.
1. How many gallons of water are required to fill a circular well whose diameter
is 7 feet, and depth 45 feet?
2. A horse is picketed with a line 100 yards long:   how much land can he graze
over?
3. A tree, 120 feet high, breaks so that the top rests on the ground 60 feet from the
root: where did the tree break?
4. At 30 cents for 6 cubic inches:  what would be the value of a pyramid of marble
12 inches in height, the base being a square whose side is 8 inches?
5. How many sheets of gold leaf, each four inches square, are .required to gild a
cylinder 25 feet in length, and 7 inches in diameter?
No. 12.—Geometry: Superintendent of Education,
lime, lj hours,    lotal Marks, 50.
1. Arrange and define triangles, according to their sides and their angles.
2. Define all the quadrilateral figures employed by Euclid.
3. What is the difference between a semi-circle and a segment of a circle ?
4. Enunciate and prove the converse of the 47th, I. Book.
5. To describe a square that shall be equal to a given rectilineal figure.   {Prop. 14,
II. Book.)
6. In equal circles, equal arcs are subtended by equal straight lines.   {Prop. 29,
III. Book.)
7. A watch ribbon is folded up into a flat knot of five edges, show that the sides of
the knot form an equilateral pentagon. No. 13.—Book-keeping: Double Entry: Mr. Munro.
lime, 3J hours,    lotal Marks, 200.
Give the Cash Book, Journal, and Ledger entries arising from the following statement, so as to show the exact state of your affairs on the 30th June, 1876,—the Profit
or Loss on your business, and the amount and particulars of your net capital.
N.B.—All purchases and sales are to be entered under the head of " Goods."
On the 1st day of June, 1876, you owned :—
Cash, $1,000 ; Goods, $10,000 00") ft11 „nft nn
Thomas Smith owed you   300 00 }    $n,csuu uu
You owed John Francis         500 00
During the month of June, you had the following transactions, viz.:—
Lodged in the Bank of Victoria, Cash     650 00
Bought of A. B., Goods detailed in Book  474 50
Paid him Cash, in part    274 50
Sold C. D. sundry Goods detailed in Book    283 50
Eeceived his acceptance of your Draft No. 1, dated 1st June, at 30
days' date  283 50
Paid Carriage of Goods   17 50
Drawn on the Bank, Cash  200 00
Accepted two Bills drawn by A. B., viz. :—
No. 1 payable to John Smith, 1st June, at 1 month $80 00
No. 2       „ Order, „ „        120 00
  200 00
Sold E. F. sundry Goods detailed in Book    3,000 00
Eeceived from him Cash, in part  2,000 00
Lodged in Bank  2,000 00
Eeceived payment of C. D's Bill, No. 1  283 50
Drawn on the Bank  90 00
Sold for Cash, 5 kegs Sugar, 600 lbs. at 6 c  3,600 00
LodgedinBank     3,500 00
Settled with John Francis, in full, as follows :—
Gave him an Order on Thomas Smith for  $300 00
Cash    200 00
  500 00
Paid A. B's Bill No. 1, by Cash....      80 00
No. 2, by Draft on the Bank    120 00
—  200 00
Eeceived from E. F., balance in full  990 00
Allowed him Discount, 1 per cent, on $1,000   10 00
LodgedinBank     990 00
Due G. H. 1 month's Salary as Clerk, to 30th June  150 00
Paid him on account   100 00
Paid House Expenses, this month     60 00
Value of Goods on hand, 30th June, as detailed in Inventory Book     4,500 00
No. 14.—English Composition: Mr. Edgar Marvin.
Time, 2 hours.    Total Marks, 100.
Gentlemen —Politics. Ladies.—Manners. 154 Appendix—Public Schools Report. 1876
HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION PAPEES—No. 1.
No. 1.—Arithmetic,    lime, 2 hours.
1. Divide 3587 yards 9 inches into 27 equal distances.
2. How long would it take to count a million coins, at the rate of 100 a minute?
3. Multiply 5 acres 3 roods 27 poles by 70.
4. Eeduce to their lowest terms — and  —
39(i 529
5. Find the least common multiple of the numbers 8, 12, 18, 24, 27.
6. Add the fractions 3-5-+ 2-|+^+ 3|-
7. If 1 of a ship be worth £3740; what is the value of the whole?
8. Find the value of 35.08 X-009X6000.
No. 2—English Grammar.    Time, 2 hours.
1. Name the parts of speech.
2. Give the Plural of the following Nouns, day, beauty, leaf, fox.
(a.) What is an Abstract Noun?
3. Name the degrees of Comparison; how many are implied in each?
(a.) Compare fair, elegant, noble; explain these different forms of comparison.
4. What is a Eelative Pronoun?
(a.) What is the usage of that as a Eelative Pronoun; what other parts of speech
might it be?
5. Correct where necessary and give rules for—
(1.) Between you and I.
(2.) I know that it is her.
(3.) They thought them to be us.
6. What is the different usage of my and mine, with reference to the nouns they qualify?
(a.) The usage of much and very, as illustrated in  "Much admired,"  "Very illustrious."
7. How many voices are there?
(a.) Define a Transitive and an Intransitive Verb.
8. Parse the italicized words—
(1.) Tell me what you did.
(2.)   The sun having risen, we departed.
9. Give Past Tense and Past Participle of bear, do, fall, fiy, freeze, ride, slay, smite,
swell, swim, write.
No. 3—Spelling.    Time, J hour.
This is a grand and sollem picture, highly sugestif and full of deep feeling and
elloquent expresivness, and most beutifuly ilustritiv of the idea saught to be convayed
by the poit who rote:
Now faids the glimring lanskip on the site
And all the air a sollem stilnes holds. 40  Vic. Appendix—Public Schools Report. 155
No. 4—Geography.    Time, 2 hours.
1. How do we know that the earth is round?
2. Name the motions of the earth, and describe each.
3. What is longitude; and why do the degrees of longitude differ in length?
4. What is an isthmus?    And name four of the most important.
5. Name the principal countries in Europe and the most remarkable rivers flowing
through each.
6. Name the three largest rivers in Africa, there general course, and the waters into
which they empty.
7. What countries and seas would you cross in going in a straight line from Pekin to
Madrid?
8. What countries would be passed in sailing from Montreal, Quebec, to Victoria,
British Columbia?
HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION PAPEES—No. 2.
No 1.—Arithmetic,    lime, 2 hours.    All the work must be given.
1. a. Write down in figures seventy millions seven thousand  and thirty-seven in
one number.
b. Express in words 45,076,305.
c. Change 4978 into Eoman notation.
d. .Change CMXCIX. into Arabic numerals.
2. Perform the operations indicated in + 3987654 — 896745 — 3876 -f 348765 —
478964 — 989 — 88 -f 75 + 86.
3. Write down the table of Lineal Measure.
4. Perform the following operations :—5005 X 808 -4- 404 X 88 -j- 11 X 8.
5. The sum of two numbers is 17423, and the less number is 457, find the quotient.
6. Find the Least Common Multiple of 48, 60, 120, 300, 144, and state how you find
the G. C. M.
5 8
o       4j       6 ii
7. Simplify of ^TT of ip
14        D 6 7
No. 2.—English Grammar,    lime, 2 hours.
1. Explain the terms number, case, gender, taking the word hero to illustrate your
explanation.
2. Explain the terms abstract noun, collective noun, relative pronoun, transitive verb, with
an example of each.
3. Write down the singular or plural, as the case may be, of :—
bureau, chimney, dice, kine, man,
pence, proof, staff, seraph, teeth.
4. Name the number, gender, person, and case, of :—
She, its, ours, them, us, ye, thee.
5. Parse fully the following passage :■—
Dare to be true.    Nothing can need a lie.
A fault which needs it most grows two thereby. 156 Appendix—Public Schools Report. 1876
6. Distinguish between laid and lain, born and borne, straight and strait, taught and
taut, ought and aught, ere and e'er.
7. Correct the following sentences :—
(a.) He didn't ought to have broke the window.
(5.) As neither John or Thomas are going, let you and I go.
(c.) Mind who you are speaking to.
8. Write, in the third person, the following speech of King Eichard, taking care to
make the meaning plain, and commencing with " King Eichard said that :—
I wish I may forget my brother John's injuries as soon as he will forget
my pardon of them.
9. Give the past tense'and past participle of the following verbs :—
bury, seek, - think,
sit, strive, beseech,
see, shake, feed.
No. 3.—Geography.    Time, 1J hours.
1. What is the meaning of each of the following terms :—
Island, Cape, Isthmus, Strait, Bay, Gulf.    Give an example of each from the
map of North America.
2. What imaginary lines are drawn upon a Globe or Map ?    What is the, position
of each of these lines ?
3. Name the most important islands of North America, and state where each is
situated.
4. What continents compose the Old World ?   Give the boundaries of each.
5. Define latitude and longitude.
6. How are night, day, and the seasons produced ?    What names are given to the
peculiar motions of the Earth that produce these changes ?
7. In what direction does the Earth move ?    As the result of this motion, how is
the Sun affected ?
No. 4.—Spelling.    Time, J an hour.
Correct mistakes in spelling, and re-write the following :—
The Flax stood inn ful blome, its flours ware of a delikate blew,, soft as thee
wing off a moth, but far more butifull; the son shone uppon the flax and the sumer reign
decended on it, and this wus good fur the plant, even as it is for a title child too bee
bathed in pure watter and then to recieve its fond mothers' kis.
APPENDIX  E.
LIST OF DULY QUALIFIED TEACHERS, AND DATES OF CEETIFICATES.
First Class, Grade A.
Valid until revoked by Board of Education.
Colin C. McKenzie, M. A., July, 1873.
James A. Halliday, „     1874.
Sarah Hayward, „       „
Letitia M. Caldwell, July, 1874.
Frances E. Herring,    „      1876. 40 Vic.
Appendix—Public Schools Report.
15f
First Class, Grade B.
Valid until revoked by Board of Education
Robert M. Clemitson, July, 1873.
John Pleace, „        „
Margaret J. Baxter,      „        „
James Kaye, ,,     1874.
Joseph T. Jones, „     1875.
Second Class, Grade A,
Valid for 3 years.
Joseph P. Planta, July, 1875.
John Mundell,          „ ,,
George Pottinger,     „ 1876.
Samuel F.Crawford, „ 1876.
Archena J. McDougall,
July, 1874.
Sarah Eedfern,
James Thomson,
„     1875.
Donald McMillan,
John Lane Phillips,
»         ;>
Elizabeth Young,
„    1876.
Thomas H. Mathers, July, 1875.
Jane Mills, „        „
Catherine Cordiner,       „        „
Archibald Irwin,
John Newbury,
John Britton,
1876.
John F. Smith,   July, 1876.
Mary E. Polley,      „ „
AdelaideC.Bailey, „ „
JaneE. Trenaman, „ „
Christina Irvine,     ,, „
Jane Coutts, „        „
Second Class, Grade B.
Valid for 3 years.
Alice Richardson, July, 1876.
Abbie J. Polley, ,
James W. Sinclair, ,
Caroline Bayley, ,
A. M. Robinson, ,
Emily A. Stark, ,
Third Class,  Grade A.
Valid for 1 year.
!!
))
»
n
Thomas McKenna, July, 1876.
Jane Anne Scott,       „        „
Henry W. Hughes, July, 1876.
Florence Coulthard,    „        ,,
Third Class,  Grade B.
Valid for 1 year.
Josephine McDonald, July, 1876.
APPENDIX F.
LIST OF AUTHORIZED TEXT BOOKS.
Fixed Price.
$   cts.
Canadian First Reader,—Part I....  05
Canadian  First Reader,—Part  II ,  10
Canadian Second Reader  25
Canadian Third Reader  40
Canadian Fourth Reader ,  50
Canadian Fifth Reader ,  60
Canadian Advanced Reader  60
Lennie's Grammar ,  10
Easy Lessons in Geography (Hodgson)  50
Modern Geography and Atlas (Campbell)  15
Elementary Arithmetic (Smith and McMurchy)  25
Advanced Arithmetic (Smith & McMurchy)  50
Outlines of General History (Collier)  15
British Empire (Collier)  L     l 00
British History (Collier) , ".," .'  50
Algebra,—Part I. (Colenso)  50
Euclid,—-Book I. (Young)  .],]] .„......'"'" ."!!...""'."'.'....'..'.!.'.'.!.!'.. 12$
Euclid,—Book II. (Young) /......'.'.'.'..'..'..'...'. '.ii'.V.!!'.!!:'".!".!'.".".."!!!!"!!."!"!!" 12$
Book-keeping (Fulton & Eastman)  40
Canadian Spelling Book _ , ,  25 158 Appendix-..Public Schools Report. 1876
APPENDIX G.
BOAED OF EDUCATION.
' Provincial Secretary's Office,
4th May, 1872.
His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor in Council has been pleased to appoint the
following gentlemen to be a Board of Education for the Province of British Columbia,
under the "Public School Act, 1872 :"—
W. F. Tolmie, Esq., A. Munro, Esq.,
M. W. T. Drake, Esq., E. Williams, Esq.,*
A. J. Langley, Esq., E. Marvin, Esq.
By Command.
A. Eocke Eobertson,
Provincial Secretary.
* Resigned.
APPENDIX H.
THE HIGH SCHOOL.
Rev. Mr. Nicholson's Letter of Eesignation.
John Jessop, Esq.,  Secretary Board of Education:
Dear Sir.—I beg to acknowledge your letter of 6th instant, asking for information as to
the religious exercises used in the High School, and directing my attention to the words " strictly
secular " in Clause 41 of " Consolidated Public School Act, 1876."
In answer to the inquiry of the Board, I would state that, acting under the instructions of
the Board as contained in Appendix B., Public Schools Eeport, and considering those regulations
as in force until repealed by a new decree of the Board, I have opened and closed the High
School with the forms recommended to be used by Public School Teachers. Such devotional
exercises I could not regard, nor do I now regard as at all inconsistent with secular education
in its best and truest sense ; though by an interview with a member of the Board I am made
aware that the Board holds a different opinion.
The clause "strictly secular" to which you direct my attention, is not, to my mind,
sufficiently clear to decide the exclusion of any reference whatever to religious ideas in the process
of education. Secularism, it is true, has a specific and well defined usage; but secular education
is employed in two senses. In one sense it excludes, in the other it includes the Bible and
devotional exercises. Many of the foremost advocates of secular education in England have
interpreted it in this latter Jsense. Among others, Professor Huxley says, " I have always been
" strongly in favour of secular education in the sense of education without theology. I am in
" favour of reading the Bible with rigid exclusion of theological teaching, further than is con-
" tained in the Bible itself. Certainly I could with no shadow of consistency oppose what my
" own children are taught to do. And if I were compelled to choose for my children, between
" a school in which real religious instruction is given and one without it, I would prefer the
" former." The greater includes the less. Those advocates of secular education who claim a
place for the Bible could not regard the use of forms of prayer as inconsistent with such a scheme
of education. Without quoting further the opinions of known advocates of secular education,
for in nine cases out of ten they only want to be free of theology, allow me to express the opinion
that flie exclusion of devotional exercises from secular bodies is neither universally,nor even
generally exercised. There is no recognition of God or Christianity or any religious beliefs in
the constitution of the United States, and certainly neither can the House of Congress be regarded
as any other than a secular body, yet each day's session is opened with prayer.    The  same 40 Vic. Appendix—Public Schools Report. 159
practice prevails in almost every State Legislature in the Union, and even in Washington
Territory.
The nearest parallel to the system of education existing in this Province (excepting California) is that which prevails in the adjoining Republic, and in the Provinces of the Dominion.
Therein the terms secular and non-sectarian are convertible with each other. The crusade by
Roman Catholics against the State systems is directed against them as secular in their instruction.
Yet their secularity does not banish all reference whatever to religious notions. In no Province
of the Dominion is the Free School secular in the narrower and illiberal sense of the term. I
have visited schools and seen the workings of the common school system in Pennsylvania, Ohio,
and New Jersey, and taught in the schools of New York, yet in all prayer forms a part of the
order of the day, and in almost all the Bible is read, without note or comment, as the fundamental
basis of all true, civil, and religious liberty. All the glories that cluster round the common
school system, and whatever hold it has upon the sympathies of the people it derives from its
non-sectarian character. The narrow secular spirit with which our Provincial system, as I am
informed, is to be henceforth identified is a dangerous experiment. That educational singularity
it shares with California alone. And as it is there accompanied by persecution of those teachers
who are known to cherish religious convictions, so it is here associated with the disfranchisement
of that class whose education and sympathies fit them especially for the work of instruction.
I think this a retrograde movement, and prompted by a spirit of hostility to Christianity
rather than by a spirit of peace. We abandon a system whose results have proved its excellence,
for a system in which we are almost the pioneers and which in the interest of infidelity declares
war against the highest part of man's nature.
This system is radically wrong in principle. It ignores the constitution of man's being, in
which body, soul, and intellect are combined and mutually retractive upon each other. Man is
not mere intellect. He has a physical and religious nature as well. The best schools make
provision for the physical nature by means of recesses, drill, and gymnastic exercises. And a
recognition, at least, of his spiritual nature might reasonably be demanded. That education
which positively excludes and discredits the higher relations of man to his Creator, is calculated
rather to mutilate than to develop into full-orbed perfection the mental character which it assumes to train. How the highest morality can be inculcated where the religious nature and
sanctions are practically denied seems to me an utter impossibility. " My belief is," says
Huxley, " that no human being, and no society composed of human beings, ever did or ever will
" come to much unless their conduct was governed and guided by the love of an ethical idea,
" viz.:—Religion. Undoubtedly your gutter child may be converted by mere intellectual drill
" into ' the subtlest of all the beasts of the field,' but we know what has become of the original
" of that description, and there is no need to increase the number."
This purely secular system cannot be carried out in its entirety, and were I disposed, as I
am not, to assist in carrying out its aims, the text books of our educational system would indirectly violate the provisions of the law, and give occasion to the fault-finder. The only subjects
in the High School course which touch at all on religious matters are history and literature. In
these subjects the text books are according to our present view of the secular system, decidedly
objectionable as all text books must be unless thoroughly revised under secular ideas. Schuntz's
Ancient History ond Collier's History of Literature both offend in this matter and defeat the
intention of the Act.
Holding the views I do on the subject of education, and unwilling by participation in the
present system to appear to have any sympathy with its spirit, in submitting this expression of
opinion I also hand in my resignation, to take effect from the present date.
Yours respectfully,
(Signed)       Alex. B. Nicholson.
Saturday, September 9th, 1876. 

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