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Mining Operations for Gold, Coal, &c,
fjrirtmtce of §xiti8k (lobxmbm,
VICTORIA: Printed by Richard Wolfenden, Government Printer,
at the Government Printing Office, James' Bay.
27  47 Vic.
Eeport of the Minister of Mines.
YEAR   1883.
To His Honour Clement Francis Cornwall, Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British
May it Please Your Honour :
I have the honour herewith to respectfully submit the Tenth Annual Report of the
Mining Industries of the Province.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
Provincial Secretary and Minister of Mines.
Provincial Secretary's Office,
23rd February, 188J+.  47 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 401
The value of the gold exported by the Banks, during the year 1883, is as
follows :—
Bank of British Columbia   $226,935
Bank of British North America     124,797
Garesche, Green, & Co     310,145
The Table shows an increase in the number of miners employed.   This increase
is entirely composed of Chinese; and to this fact may be attributed the decrease in
the average yearly earnings per man.
Mr. Bowron's Report.
" Richfield, 30th November, 1883.
" To the Honourable the Minister of Mines,
" Victoria.
" Sir,—I have the honour to submit, for your information, my annual report on the gold
mines of this district for 1883, accompanied by statistics in tabular forms, from which it will
be seen that there has been a small decrease in the gold product of the district from that of
1882, which may be accounted for by an unusually dry season, many companies being obliged
to suspend work in July, from a lack of water. Had it not been for this, there would undoubtedly have been a larger yield than that of the previous year.
" Quite a number, attracted by the rare opportunities presented for investments, or the
making of permanent homes along the line of railway, now in course of construction in the
Province, continue to leave the mines; consequently, our present white population is less than
at any time since the first gold discoveries in the district.
" On Williams and Lightning Creeks, where the water supply in the most favourable
seasons is limited, and where the larger portion of the claims are now worked by hydraulics,
the drought has greatly retarded operations. Indeed, it is doubtful whether any of the claims
on these creeks have yielded more than a fair return for the labour expended upon them, if I
except the old Barker Co., on Williams Creek, which produced some $12,000 for a little over
two mouths' work. This company will continue work during the winter, and I am told promises well for its owners.
The Chinese companies working the bars and benches of lower Antler Creek have done
exceedingly well the present year. They have, I understand, in some instances, constructed
wing-dams, by which means the bed of the creek is worked and found to pay. This is a new
feature here, which will add much to the prestige of this creek. The bed-rock has not as yet,
however, been reached in any instance—an undertaking regarded by many with favour. 462 Beport of the Minister of Mines. 1884
"On the upper part of Antler Creek, the Nason Co. hold a 'real estate' claim, which has
not been worked for some years, but upon which active operations have again commenced.
The company, having purchased the saw-mill, iron pumps, and machinery of the Victoria Co.,
Cunningham Creek, would appear to have a proper appreciation of the difficulties to be encountered in testing their deep ground. Much interest is manifested in the success of this
" The Mary Ann Co., a hill claim adjoining the Nason, are reported to have found a
channel and obtained most encouraging prospects, but up to the present time it is not sufficiently developed to prove the value of the" discovery. The Yellow Lion Co., adjoining the
Mary Ann, which was taking out good pay in the early part of the season, were completely
burned out in July, from the woods taking fire. Cabins, shaft-houses, and even the timbers in
the shafts, were completely consumed, entailing a heavy loss on the company, who have since
been engaged in replacing losses.
" On Grouse Creek, little has been done in the bed of the creek. Several companies have
been engaged opening up the side hills preparatory to working the same by hydraulics. Their
prospects are very encouraging. Cunningham Creek, worked principally by Chinese, has. turned
out fairly.
" It is generally regretted that the Government found it impossible to accede to the wishes
of the applicants for a lease of mining ground on Slough Creek, as the names of the parties
interested in the undertaking were considered a guarantee that the deep ground on this creek
would have been thoroughly proven. It is, however, anticipated that, upon the meeting of the
Legislature, the present Act relating to mining leases will be amended, by conferring greater
powers in such matters upon the Executive.
" The benches along Slough Creek have paid well to the Chinese who work them.
" The companies prospecting on Dragon and New Creeks for the past three years have not
as yet succeeded in getting on pay.
" The report from Quesnellemouth Polling Division shows that about the same -amount of
gold was produced from the bars and benches of Fraser, Quesnelle, and Cottonwood Rivers as
in 1882.
" The Horsefly River section promises to again claim attention. Chinamen working here,
in bottoming a new shaft recently, are reported to have struck gravel which will pay from three
to four ounces to the set of timbers.
" The parties fitted out last fall by the farmers, merchants, and others in the district (referred to in my last report), to follow up discoveries supposed to have been made during the
summer, to the northward of Cottonwood Bridge, and on Porter's Creek, some forty miles to
the southward of Barkerville, were not in either case successful in developing anything worthy
of mention.
"There has been gold dust to the amount of $213,420.50 melted at the Assay Office,
Barkerville, for the eleven months of the present year, showing an increase of $19,278 . 25 over
that melted for the same period of 1882.	
"The gold product of the mines in this district for the year, exclusive of Omineca, as
nearly as can be ascertained, is as follows:—
Barkerville Polling Division, 1.1 months  '. . .   $177,177 00
Lightning Creek     „ „        71,200 00
Quesnelle „ „         70,160 00    ■ "
Keithley; „ ...„'       99,250 00
Estimated amount of which no account was obtainable. .       20,000 00
Estimated vield from date to 31st December, 1883        20,000 00 •
$457,787 00
: Explorations.
" The sum placed at my disposal to assist prospectors in their outfits to explore and prospect for new mines, has been expended, I believe, as judiciously as circumstances would permit,
but, apparently, so far as the discovery of placer mines is concerned, without important results.
"I am, however, much impressed with the value and importance of the discoveries made
by some of the parties, of quartz veins.
" Nine different parties, of from two to five men each, have been assisted in their outfits
by the Government exploration fund, six of whom, up to the present time, have sent in reports,
copies of which I herewith enclose. 47 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 403
" Mr. McKinnon and party, who explored in the Nation River and Omineca part of the
district, found nothing worthy of enlisting attention.
" Mr. Declare, who prospected in the neighbourhood of South Fork Lake, has sent in a
map or sketch of the country traversed by him, but, up to the present time, has failed to send
in his report.
" Messrs. Stewart & Wilson, as also Messrs. McGuire & Ross, prospecting in the country
to the north-east of Bear Lake, and down Bear River, report the finding of creeks which will
pay three dollars per day, but, owing to the difficulty and expense of taking in supplies, these
discoveries are not of moment at the present time.
" Messrs. Synon & Fleming report finding extensive bench diggings on Cottonwood River,
some ten miles below the bridge, on a higher level than any ground hitherto worked on that
stream. Since this discovery, two companies have located claims, and will bring in ditches
during the winter.
. " Messrs. Pearce, Schuyler, & Shepherd, going some sixty miles down Willow River, found
nothing worthy of note in placer mining, but are much impressed with the value of the quartz
ledge discovered by Messrs. Foster & Paris, about a year ago (referred to in my report for
" Messrs. Porter, Johns, Wilson, Swan, & Tillie, prospecting and exploring to the south
of Barkerville, were equally unsuccessful as regards the finding of gravel mines, but their
discovery of gold in the Mammoth Quartz Ledge, reported last year by Petrie, Porter, & Co ,
I regard as of paramount importance. Upon the return of this party, a company was organized,
and three men sent out with blasting powder, tools, &c., to make a more thorough examination
of the ledge, but, from the inclemency of the weather, were able to do but little work. Mr.
Schuyler's report to the company, kindly furnished me by the secretary of the company (a copy
of which I enclose), will be read with interest. This company purpose starting work as soon
as a crust is formed on the snow sufficiently strong to admit of hauling light hand-sleighs with
loads over it—probably in March. Four locations have been made on the lode, of 1,500 feet
"The Burns' Mountain Quartz Mining Co. are prosecuting work on their tunnel with
vigour. The tunnel, when completed, will be some 600 or 700 feet in length, the work being
under contract, with three shifts working. The rock through which the tunnel is being run is
found, so far, exceedingly hard to blast. Contractor is making from 10 to 15 feet a week, and
the tunnel is now in about 250 feet.    I have, &c,
(Signed)        "Jno. Bowron,
"Gold Comm
Report op Messrs. Stewart & Wilson.
"To John Boivron, Esq., Gold Commissioner.
" Sir,—In accordance with your request, we hereby report as follows :—■
" We left Bear Lake August 10th, going by boat down Bear River, about 25 or 30 miles.
The river being very low, we made slow progress. It was after sunset when we camped for
the night.     Rain fell in the afternoon and all night.
"On the 11th we cached surplus provisions at the mouth of a creek, on which we found
a little gold.    We resolved to prospect it more thoroughly on our return trip.
"The next day (12th) we left the river, travelling west about four "miles, in a valley which
varies from a half to about one mile wide. It then runs west north-west. Travelled six miles
in that direction, and found a creek flowing into the valley from N to S.
" 13th—Went up this creek and prospected. Found a little gold about one and a half
miles from its mouth; gold light and scaly. We then determined to go farther into the mountains.-
" 14th—Travelled north-west, over a high mountain. A severe thunder storm prevailing,
we were forced to camp on the summit that night.
" 15th—Rain, accompanied by a dense fog, so thick that it was difficult to travel. Only
made about four miles, in a westerly direction, and camped.
" 16th—The fog and rain continued so thick that it was very difficult to keep our course;
travelled about eight miles, gaining the north-west end of the mountain. Here we found a
creek flowing from the south-west, which we followed down a distance of about four miles,
when we camped for the night. 404 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1884
" 17 th—Sunk two holes on the creek, finding a little flour gold; bed-rock a blue whinstone.
This creek falls into another stream which heads in the same mountain, and runs from south
to north. We followed the latter stream on the 18th, about one mile down. Another stream
comes into it from south-east, the united waters making a very large creek. Sunk one hole
below the junction of the two streams; found no gold. Went on down, prospecting on all the
shallow rock we saw for a distance of about three miles, where we put down another hole,
without finding gold. Followed the stream down about two miles, prospecting as we went.
Here we camped for the night.
" 19th—Sunk another hole, finding the same barren sort of rock. We concluded it was
not a paying stream that we were on. We then proceeded on to the mouth. The creek is about
twelve miles long; it empties into a large valley which stretches E. and W., the water flowing
into Willow River.
" 20th—Travelled east about five miles, where a creek flows into the valley from the north,
and empties to Bear River. The valley here is so flat that we could not tell when we crossed
the divide.    Went up the creek some distance and prospected, finding no gold, and camped.
" 21st—Followed the valley, east, four miles, to another stream coming in from the northeast. Sunk some holes, and panned where we could find bed-rock. Spent all the 22nd prospecting, without success.
" 23rd—Going east two miles, found another creek running north, which we went up,
prospecting on the way. Found a little flour gold in a call on, about three miles from its mouth,
but, meeting with the same barren rock, we spent very little time on it. We returned to its
mouth and camped.
" 24th—Followed the valley, east, seven miles, trying the north side as we went, but
without success. We spent two days here (24th and 25th), when we arrived at Bear River,
where the water of the valley goes over falls of about sixty feet into the river, and flows over
shallow rock. Here we could get small prospects which would pay two to three dollars a day.
Our provisions being nearly exhausted, we were compelled to turn our steps toward the cache,
which we did on the 27th. Following up the left bank of the river, after travelling about
twelve miles, we reached a small stream or creek, where we found gold, but not in paying
" 28th—Continuing up the stream, keeping about five miles back from the river, found a
creek on which we got a little fine gold. This creek is about seven miles distant from the last
mentioned creek, or about nineteen miles from where we struck Bear River, and six from the
" On the 29th, arrived at the cache, up river about twenty-five miles. On the 30th and
two following days, we sunk and ground-sluiced on a creek which empties into Bear River, near
the cache. The bed-rock is about eight feet deep. On it we got a little coarser gold, one piece
weighing six cents. Where we ground-sluiced there was three to four feet of gravel, containing fine gold that would pay from three to four dollars per day.
" September 2nd, went up the river and arrived at Bear Lake on the evening of the 3rd
of that month.    This closed the trip.
" Respectfully yours,
(Signed)        "William Stewart,
"N. Wilson."
Report op Messes, McGuire & Ross.
" To John Bowron, Esq., Gold Commissioner.
" We have the honour of submitting to you the following account of our prospecting expedition :—
"We left Barkerville on the 5th day of September, with two horses packed, and arrived
at Bear Lake the same day—distance 22 miles.
" We sent the Indian back from there with the horses, and made that point our base for
supplies. We met Mr. Wm. Stewart at Bear Lake, and, joining company with him, wo three
started on the 7th, with 60 or 70 pounds each, in an easterly direction. In about eight miles,
we came to a lake, known as Indian Point Lake; camped and built a small raft, one navigating
it, with the supplies on board, to head of lake, the other two following Mahood's survey trail
on foot. From head of Indian Point Lake, crossed a low tract of land covered with small
timber, for a distance of about two miles, to lake known as Big Lake.    Constructed a raft 47 Vic Report of the Minister of Mines. 405
large enough to carry us all, and on the 9th passed up the lake ten miles, to what is called the
Big Bend, and landed at mouth of a stream flowing south-westerly. It is a large stream,
probably 3,000 miner's inches. The lake itself follows around more to the south, heading close
to Swamp River. On the 10th, we started up the creek, through a pass 500 or 600 feet wide,
in places; in others narrowing to 100 feet, and made about eight miles that day. Mahood's
trail follows the pass for three miles, thence takes the mountain, bearing northerly. We left
the trail at that point and took the bush, keeping in pass and bearing more to the eastward.
In the morning, we found that we were in a slate range, and prospected as we went along, but
found no gold. On second night from Bear Lake, we camped at the mouth of a creek coming
more from the south than the one we were following, but could find nothing favourable. On
13th, after travelling about four miles, the pass opened out into an extensive meadow, one
mile in width and three miles in length, with fine, tall grass and pea-vine, interspersed here
and there with small patches of timber, and containing innumerable trails made by bear and
cariboo. We passed over a low, scarcely perceptible divide, and, about two miles "from summit,
came to a large stream flowing north-easterly. Followed down two or three miles and camped.
Continued down stream next day, about 10 miles, travelling being very bad; bed-rock of slate
cropping out every two or three hundred yards. Prospected at various points, but found no
indication of gold. Next day, about 8 or 10 miles further down, came to another large stream
coming from the south-west. Made a camp at the creek, leaving one there, the other two
taking three days' provisions, following the tributary up, prospecting the small streams coming
into it, but finding nothing. One tributary, on north-east side, comes in about three miles
above the mouth. We followed it up four miles. It contains about 200 inches of water. We
found bed-rock in one or two places. The gravel looked well, but we could get no gold.
Another stream, coming from the west and flowing nearly due north, we followed up about
three miles to glaciers. It contains about 150 inches of water. The hills, or mountains, on
either side are very steep, cut up every three or four hundred yards by heavy slides, leaving
the sides stripped of timber from summit to base, many of them two or three hundred feet in
width. We found a light blue slum, or wet clay, on this creek, but found bed-rock only in one
place, namely, about one mile above the mouth, on east side. If there is any gold the channel
is on the east side and covered deep by slides.
" We returned to camp on the third day, and made preparations to return to Bear Lake
for supplies. We made the return trip in a little over three days, from which I estimate the
distance travelled from Bear Lake to confluence of streams, at which we left one of the party,
to be about 60 miles.
" We have been told by Wilson, the trapper, that, had we continued down the stream
following north-easterly, we would have reached Fraser River in 15 miles, and would have
struck a section of country much more favourable looking for gold. The country through
which we travelled does not look look like gold-bearing, being composed of high bald mountain
peaks and low marshy valleys.
" On the 22nd September John Ross and Alex. McGuire started down Bear Riveri
following down on the east side. Camped the first day about 8 miles below Bear Lake; next
morning forded the river to west side; water being knee deep; half a mile below crossing came
to a creek emptying into Bear River, on west side; creek flows nearly due north; for half or
three-quarters of a mile the stream flows through a wide flat, with benches eight or ten feet
high on east side. The benches extend back from one to three hundred feet, and are composed
of fine looking gravel. Found fine gold in every pan we tried, but could not get bed-rock.
Less than a mile from the mouth, the creek becomes more confined, the hills rising to a height
of 200 feet; the creek having low bars of fifty or sixty feet in width. Here we camped and
sunk a hole 6 feet deep, with gold in every strata from top to bottom; gold fine, with an
average of li| cents to the pan. There are a great many rocks, seemingly iron and quartz.
The water drove us out, but the prospect improved as we went down. About 300 yards above
are falls 60 feet high, and 200 yards above that another fall of 50 feet. From there the creek
flows through a fine rolling country, lightly timbered. We followed the creek up about six
miles and found fine gold everywhere we tried, but could not get bed-rock. The stream has a
good grade, and I do not think it is more than twelve or fifteen feet deep, and I believe it
would pay wages. There is one drawback, there is no timber nearer than five miles large
enough for sluices, but one could raft timber down Bear Paver to the mouth of the creek and
pack the lumber up. After spending four days on the creek we returned to Bear Lake, and
thence, after resting two days, our provisions being exhausted, we returned to Barkerville, 406 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1884
" Accompanying the above we give you a rough sketch of the country travelled over.
" Wishing the report was more favourable,
" Yours respectfully,
(Signed)        " Alex. McGuire,
'John Ross.':
Report of Messrs. Fleming & Synon.
"Cariboo, B. C, October, 1883.
" To Mr. John Bowron, Government Agent,
" Richfield, Cariboo, B. C.
" Dear Sir,—When on our prospecting tour between Cottonwood House and the Fraser
River, we discovered three benches about a mile in length and half a mile in breadth on the
north bank of the Cottonwood River, and about ten miles from Cottonwood House, that we
think will pay to work if a good supply of water can be got.
" And on the south side, and opposite, and for some distance below the benches referred
to above, there are benches and flats that we think would pay wages if plenty of water can be
got on to them.
" We are of the opinion that a sufficient amount of water can be taken from lakes on the
south side of Cottonwood River, and be conveyed in ditch and flume to the lower end
of ten mile caiion, thence across the river in a flume and on to the benches. We have applied
for 500 inches of water from two lakes on south side of river, and about two or three miles
from the ground we have located.
" We spent some time in searching for the lost Wallace quartz lead, but did not succeed in finding it, or anything that we could suppose to be traces of it.
"There is some quartz crossing the lower end of ten-mile caiion, but we did not consider
it worth having assayed. There is some soft granite cropping out on the south bank of the
caiion, a few yards below where the quartz crosses the caiion.
" Herewith find map of country herein referred to.
(Signed)        " John T. Fleming,
" for Fleming <fe Synon."
Report op Messrs. Schuyler, Pearce, and Shepherd.
" Barkerville, B. C, 25th October, 1883.
" To the Gold Commissioner, Richfield,
" Sir,—In accordance with instructions received from you at the time we obtained a
portion of the Government grant in aid of explorations, we herewith present you a report of
our explorations.
" We left Barkerville on the 4th September. On account of the difficulty experienced in
getting pack animals, we had to hire Messrs. Fletcher & McNaughten's conveyance to haul our
outfit to Beaver Pass; there we hired a horse from Brunskill, and, with one we took with us
from Barkerville, started for Willow River, via Rushon Creek and Caiion Creek. We reached
a point on Willow River, as far as we could get with horses, on the 7th, and sent the animals
back with Naysmith, who had gone with us from Rushon Creek for that purpose.
" On the 8th, after caching a portion of our outfit, we crossed over Willow River to the
east side of it, a short distance above the junction of Valley Creek with Willow River, and
continuing down stream we camped at night on a small stream, which we subsequently named
Beaver Creek. The following day we prospected this stream as far as its head, but could not
raise any colour. The next day we found a large quartz ledge, supposed to be the one discovered by Foster and Paris last season.
" We spent several days prospecting this ledge, made a location, and took away with us
samples to have assayed at Barkerville. The ledge is over five feet thick, crops out along the
surface for about 600 feet, and dips at an angle of 45°, or thereabouts. Its direction, without
making allowance for variation of compass, is 65° east of north, and 65° west of south. The
country rock is of slate and the ledge cuts through it at nearly right angles. About one-fourth
of the vein is largely impregnated with argentiferous galena ore, assays from which gave $19.98
silver, and traces of gold, and the quartz rock a small amount of gold per ton. The vein crops
out on the side of the mountain in such a way that it will be very easy to prospect, and a small 47 Vio. Report of the Minister of Mines. 407
amount of capital judiciously expended would soon determine its value. We expect to have
capital at command by early spring to test its merits, and feel sanguine of its justifying our
"On the 12th, we continued down stream, 7 or 8 miles, as far as Canoe Creek. Could
not get any prospects as far as we went in this direction, and on the 13th returned to our
cache on Willow River, for supplies.
" On the 14th, we started down the west side of Willow River, and camped at night on a
large creek, which we call Pick and Shovel Creek.
" The following day, prospected a tributary of this creek, but, under the most favourable
circumstances, could only raise a few fine colours. On this tributary, we found an old prospect
camp, containing the tools of some early pioneer. They consisted of an axe, shovel, fry-pan,
gold-pan, small billy, cup, and spoon, and remains of a blanket. The axe had been stuck in a
tree, and was so firmly grown around by the growth of the tree, during the 18 or 20 years that
it had been there, that we could scarcely pull it out. These things had been left so securely
sheltered as to have remained in a good state of preservation.
" The following and two subsequent days we spent prospecting the main stream, but with
the same result as on the tributary. Here, also, we found an old camp, containing a shovel and
two picks. Up this creek are a succession of small canons, where the bed-rock is either exposed
or so nearly so that six feet square could be stripped in an hour; yet, notwithstanding that the
conditions were all of the most favourable kind, we could only raise a few fine colours, and
that not continuously. Had another clay and night of heavy rain while here, which raised the
creek to such dimensions as to make it dangerous to ford.
" From 18th to 23rd, went down as far as opening which drains Hyde's Lake and that
section of country prospected by Hilton and party, last winter. Failing to find anything like
a prospect on any stream that would justify our exertions, we concluded, as we were about
out of provisions, to return to the cache, which we reached the following day.
"25th—^We returned to Caiion Creek. This is a large creek, running nearly due east, and
upon which, a number of years ago, there was a good deal of money spent. We spent a portion of two days here, and came to the conclusion that the creek was entirely too heavy for us;
that the''work done upon this creek failed to test the deep ground which certainly lies upon the
opposite side from where the work was done; and that, if a company was organized to test the
deep ground, they would strike paying diggings, if not immensely rich ones. The following
day, we reached Barry Creek, now in the possession of a few Chinese, and the next day Rushon
Creek.    Reached Barkerville, on the return, on the 29th.
" Unless the quartz ledge turns out something, our trip has been fruitless of any good
results, except to determine that any prospecting clone in the direction taken by us must be made
on a larger scale, say composed of 6 or 8 men, with supplies and tools to test the deep ground.
The travelling on either side of Willow is just about as execrable as it can be imagined, and,
unless one is prepared to undergo a large amount of hardship, had better not undertake the
" With many thanks for the Government aid given to us,
" We remain, &c,
(Signed)        "W. B. Schuyler,
,, "Samuel Pearce,
" G. L. Shepherd."
Report of Messrs. Porter, Johns, Wilson, Tillie, and Swan.
Barkerville, B. C, 17th October, 1883.
" To the Gold Commissioner, Richfield, B. C.
" Sir,—Having received a portion of the Government grant in aid of explorations, we
herewith present a statement of our prospecting from the time of leaving until our return.
" Left Stanley on the 6th day of September with four animals packed with supplies, and
proceeded up Van Winkle Creek and down Fountaine Creek, and camped for the night on the
7th. We reached Little Swift River, and next clay Porter Creek. On the 9th we commenced
prospecting on Main Porter Creek and its tributaries, for a distance of five miles up and down
stream. We found gold in small quantities on nearly all the streams; in one place a piece
weighing 75 cents, but in no place could we find sufficient to pay wages.    The country is flat 408 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1884
and swampy, and the clay on the main stream and tributaries is, without any exception, near
the surface, say from one to four feet.    The bed-rock, wherever seen, is of slate of good character.
" On the 21st we left camp and moved to the Forks of Porter Creek, some 6 or 7 miles
distant, and prospected on the tributaries and forks of Porter Creek. On the south branch
of Porter Creek we discovered a quartz ledge—samples of which only assayed $2 per ton.
Did not prospect it at all, except to collect a few samples to have assayed at Barkerville. On
the E. N. E. branch of Porter Creek we sank a shaft 15 feet deep, but found no gold, and the
bed-rock pitching toward the hill, and withouta colouron it. We also prospected two small gulches
emptying into the south branch of Porter Creek, but without finding gold in paying quantities.
In the meantime three of the party had to cut out a trail to the summit of Cariboo Mountain,
say 8 or 10 miles, and on the 28th we moved to the summit of Cariboo Mountain. Here we
prospected two creeks on a fork of the north-east branch of Porter Creek, and the other a
tributary of Swift River, rising in Cariboo Mountain and flowing in a south-easterly direction.
We sank two holes on each, but could not get a prospect on either creek. In this place where
we camped is the big quartz ledge of which mention was made last year in the report. We
prospected on the ledge for about two days and found gold (free gold), quite visible to the eye,
in three different places, but a sample assayed only $2.50 to the ton. We were careful to
choose the poorest piece for assay.
" On the 1st clay of October we left camp and moved over towards Snow Shoe Creek, and
camped on the divide where the water flows both into Swift River and Keithley Creek. We
prospected on the Swift River tributary, but owing to stormy weather, and our provisions
becoming about exhausted, we were obliged to leave off before thoroughly testing the creek.
" We reached Barkerville on the 15th October. Throughout the whole of our trip the
utmost good feeling existed among the whole party, and all seemed animated with a desire to
strike something for the good of the district.
" The placer ground thought to exist in the locality traversed by us, is not there in paying
quantities. The quartz must be our main dependence. It shall be our endeavour to enlist
capital, between now and spring, to take hold and develop what, to us, seems the richest,
largest, and best quartz vein in Cariboo District, if not in B. C.
" We have, &c,
(Signed)        "Alex. Porter,
" Alexander Swan,
"Arnold Wilson,
" William H. Tillie,
" Sila Johns."
Report of the Secretary op the Dominion Quartz Mining Company.
"Barkerville, 14th November, 1883.
" To the Members of the Dominion Quartz Mining Company.
"Gentlemen,—I herewith beg to present a report of our trip to the Company's quartz
ledge situated on Cariboo Mountain, and distance from Barkerville, via Snow Shoe, about 50
miles. The time occupied in reaching the ledge was four clays, although in reality we were
five, having to return on the fifth clay for a part of our supplies left behind the day previous.
" The weather was most unpropitious, both for sight seeing as well as for working. A
terrific storm of wind and rain set in on the night of our arrival, and continued uninterruptedly
for four days and nights, and it was only by the greatest amount of labour and perseverance
that we succeeded in accomplishing the object of our journey at all.
" I found the ledge fully up to the description given of it by the discoverers. It is
situated on the northern slope of Cariboo Mountain; runs about 65° east of north, and 65°
west of south, and cuts the mountain at its very apex. As near as I could judge, the ledge is
exposed lengthwise for at least 4,000 feet; 1,500 feet of which crops out not less than 10 or
12 feet above the surface of the mountain.
" The condition of the weather, the position occupied by the ledge, situated as it is on the
face of the mountain, where it slopes off at an angle of about 45°, and the nature of the snow,
prevented us from venturing along that side of the mountain through which the ledge cuts.
But I could easily see that on that side the ledge could be cross-cut by tunnels at any desirable
depth, from 100 to 1,000 feet, at distances varying accordingly.    The summit of the mountain, 47 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 409
traversing a distance of 2,500 or 3,000 feet, is capped with a species of bastard granite, underneath which lies slate. The ledge cuts the whole country formation at right angles, and stands
nearly perpendicular with it. As near as I could judge it has not more than 2° or 2J° clip to
the eastward. Hundreds and thousands of years have possibly elapsed since this mammoth ledge
was formed, during which time all the natural agencies of nature have been directed against it,
either for good or ill. The ledge being harder than the surrounding rock has resisted al 1 the
force of the elements, and now stands a monument of its own greatness, while the ele ments
have oxidized and volatilized all the minerals near the surface subject to their influence.
" The ledge on the surface will fully average 10 feet wide; contains nothing base or impure
so far as I could see, and literally in size and length dwarfs everything heretofore found in the
Cariboo District. And, speaking from an experience of about 13 years in the mines of Idaho,
Montana, Nevada, and Utah, I feel confident of its ultimate richness, and of its being a true
fissure vein, and that when properly developed will produce more gold annually than was ever
before produced in Cariboo's palmiest clays.
' " We had exceptionally rough weather all the time we were out. The snow-shoeing was
execrable, and our loads exceedingly heavy; as a consequence of all this our stay had to be
correspondingly brief on the mountain.
" We succeeded in getting off a couple of shots, and brought back with us about 25 or
30 lbs. of rock; a sort of general average. Hoping it, and the very crude description of the trip
and results, will be satisfactory,
" I beg to remain, &c.,
(Signed)        " W. B. Schuyler."
Mr, Stephenson's Report.
To the Honourable the
" Provincial Secretary and Minister of Mines.
"Forks op Quesnelle, B. G,
"13th November,  1883,
" Sir,—I have the honour to forward herewith the mining statistics of Keithley Division
of Cariboo District for 1883. The sum total of the yield of gold is about the same as last year,
the difference, such as it is, shows in favour of the present year.
"Although the season has been a very dry one, it does not seem to have been much
against the mining in this section, as it has given miners an opportunity of working the beds of
some of the creeks which they could not have done had the water been as high as it has been
for several years past.
" There has not been anything new found in this section for the past year, except on the
Horsefly River. About the latter part of August, the Chinese who were working there found,
at a lower level than that which they had been working, much better pay than they have had
for the last three years; it caused some little excitement in this section, and I think will be
the means of drawing quite a number of men to Horsefly the coming season, and I hope the
cause of having that much-neglected section of this district more thoroughly prospected than
it has been heretofore,
" I have, &c,
(Signed)        " W. Stephenson,
" Government Agent,"
Mr. Vowell's Report.
"Laketon, Cassiar, B.C.,
"To the Hon. the Minister of Mines, "3rd October, 1883.
" Victoria.
"Sir,—I have the honour herewith to forward the 'Mining Statistics' for 1883, as well
as my annual report upon this district.
"Owing to the loss of the steamer 'Grappler' and to other untoward occurrences during
the commencement of the mining season, the population has considerably decreased. 410 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1884
"Dease, Thibert, and McDame Creeks, as also their tributaries, are to all intents and
purposes 'worked out' as regards surface claims, and the prospects on either for the successful
working of 'deep diggings' are not very encouraging.
"Nothing new has been discovered, nor is there any promise of such a resuscitating event
taking place this year.
"Several miners have been down the Liard River, but their efforts having been directed
towards following up the prospects obtained in Sayyea Creek some years since, which proved
unsuccessful,   nothing of any moment has resulted from their enterprise.
"The Chinese, owing to the accident that befel their party in 1882, when they lost four
of their comrades with boat and load of supplies, See., were deterred from again venturing in
that direction.
"A prospecting party, consisting of four men, provided with one year's provisions, left
Dease Lake on the 27th ultimo, bound for Highland River and its immediate vicinity. That
river is in a north-westerly course some 220 miles from Dease Lake, and empties into the
Liarcl River about 20 miles from the confluence of Dease and Liard Rivers. The country to
be prospected is supposed to be within the North-West Territory, and to be close upon the
boundary of Alaska.    The outfit for the above expedition cost something over $1,200.
" The following figures will give as close an approximate as can with any certainty be
arrived at, touching the amount of gold taken out this year in Cassiar, viz.:—
Dease and Thibert Creeks, etc    $ 43,000 00
McDame Creek section        65,000 00
Localities not particularized .■        11,000 00
Shewing an aggregate of    $119,000 00
" On Dease Creek the summer freshets having been of long continuance, delayed the
opening of the few claims still worked by the Chinese, and the fall freshet having carried
away several wing-dams just as they were completed, utterly destroyed their season's work.
" The tunnel claims on that creek have so far proved unprofitable, several having been
temporarily abandoned, with the intention, however, of again trying them during the winter
" On Thibert Creek very few claims have paid over wages, but from prospects obtained
in the deep ground several men are still engaged in mining there, and will be for many years.
"It is still believed by experienced miners that the hills and benches of McDame Creek
are tolerably rich in gold, and would pay fairly if they could be worked to advantage. Owing
however to the high rates demanded for all mining supplies, and to the poverty of the miners,
such a prospective source of profitable employment is of little actual value at present. A few
claims on that creek have paid during the past season, and one or two companies intend
prospecting on the second and first North Forks during the close season.
" In consequence of early frosts, and a protracted drought at the time when irrigation
was most needed, the crops upon the different ranches on the Stickeen have proved a comparative failure.
" The sum of $500, authorized by the Government to be disbursed in this district for
'prospecting' purposes, has not yet been utilized, next spring being considered the best time
to have that money expended, etc.
* * * * * * *
" Three deaths have taken place in this district during the present year, viz., Perrin Kent,
packer, at Glenora; M. Bradley, miner, at Thibert Creek: and Jno. A. Fraser, miner, at Say-
yea Creek. These deaths have been duly registered. A clergyman of the Church of England
has come to reside in the district permanently. He has been well received by the people
generally, and the fact of his being skilled in medicine and surgery has made his advent
particularly agreeable to all. Jos. Clearihue and Robert Wilson, Esquires, have been sworn
as J.P.'s for Cassiar, during the present year; the former resides at Laketon, and the latter in
McDame Creek section. The number of men employed as miners and otherwise in the district
during the past season, exclusive of Indians, has been about 225; of these, some 115 souls will
pass the winter in the district.
" The weather has lately been remarkably fine, and a late or protracted 'fall' is anticipated.
"Enclosed will be found a list of prices, giving the rates demanded and obtained for all
such articles as are therein enumerated, 47 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 411
" During the last twelve months, crime has been unknown at Cassiar, and litigation of
any kind has been of rare occurrence.
"I have, etc.,
(Signed)        "A. W. Vowell,
"G.C., S.M., &c, Cassiar."
Mr, Soues' Report.
"Clinton, B.C.,
"The Hon. John Robson, "November 27th, 1883.
"Minister of Mines, Victoria.
" Sir,—I have the honour to enclose herewith the Mining Statistics, and submit the following general report of gold mining in Lillooet District, for 1883.
"The total yield, which I have ascertained from reliable sources, is $68,342—a considerable increase on that of last year. This sum is the amount acknowledged to have been bought
by white and Chinese traders, resident in Lillooet, Dog Creek, and Clinton; but I am quite
sure that it falls very far short of the actual yield. One merchant here, informs me that he
weighed last week over $1,900 (not included in the above amount) in dust, in the hands of one
private individual leaving the district for the winter.
" The whole of the gold mining in the district may be said to be in the hands of the
Chinese, and from them it is utterly impossible to get at anything near the truth.
" In my report of last year I gave the leakage by this class at one-third of the ascertained
figures, but I believe one-half would be a great deal nearer the mark.
" The South Fork of Bridge River, referred to in Mr. Phair's report of last year, has had
a good deal of prospecting done on it this season, by a party of 8 whites and several Indians,
with gratifying results. The gold found there is coarse and of superior quality, $16.50 being
paid for it in Lillooet. Five Indians from that locality last month sold $280 worth of coarse
gold to a white trader in Lillooet; amongst the lot was one piece weighing $17. The whites
and Indians are working about five miles apart, which proves that the gold is not confined
to one spot. High water, however, is a drawback to a long season's work. From this locality
good results may be anticipated next year.
"A quartz ledge, on McGillavrey's Creek, Anderson Lake, discovered by a party of white
men a few weeks ago, gives favourable indications, gold being visible to the naked eye in
some of the rock roughly broken up. The party intend driving a prospecting tunnel on the
ledge during the winter months.
" Desultory mining throughout the district, along the line of Fraser River, has largely
increased this year from the influx of Chinese from railway works.
"Registered claims by old companies are about the same in number as last year.
" I have again to report no work done on any of the claims on the Big Slide Lode during
the past year.
"The district allowance of $500, in aid of prospecting parties, has not been drawn on this
year. If available for next year, and suitable men can be found desirous of going out, I would
suggest that two parties be assisted in prospecting in the Chilcotin country. From information received, I have every reason to believe good results might be anticipated.
" I have, &c,
(Signed)        "F. Soues,
"Gold Commissioner,
"Lillooet District."
"Clinton, B.C.,
"The Hon. John Robson, "December 5th, 1883.
"Minister of Mines, Victoria.
" SIE)—By mail to-day I have the following information from Mr. Phair regarding the
Bridge River Mines, which I deem advisable to forward with my report of the 27th ultimo.
28 412 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1884
"Mr. Phair's letter is dated December 1st, in which he says 'two men have arrived here
' to-day bringing with them over $600 in dust, the result of a month's work. They made from
'$8 to $14 a day to the hand, and say they can work most of their claims all the year round,
1 except the cold winter months, they being situated above high water mark. They return in
'the spring.'
" I have, <fec.
(Signed)        " F. Soues,
"Gold Commissioner,
"Lillooet District."
Mr. Dewdney's R.eport.
"Yale, 8th November, 1883.
" To the Hon. the Minister of Mines,
" Victoria.
" Sir,—I have the honour to forward, herewith, mining statistics for the Yale and Hope
" I am sorry to inform you that mining has been very slack this season, on account of the
Hill's Bar Flat, opposite Yale, proving a perfect failure, there being only one or two Chinese
companies working, with poor remuneration for their labour.
" The Queen's Silver Mining Company, about one and a half miles up Yale Creek, commenced running a tunnel early this spring, to test the quartz lode in that vicinty, but, on
account of the company closing down suddenly, about two months ago, I am under the impression that they think it will not pay sufficiently to continue carrying on the work. A few
Chinese are working along the banks of the Fraser River. What amount of gold they are
taking out is impossible to come at, but I should imagine from $1 to $2.50 per day.
" I have, &c,
(Signed)        "W. Dewdney,
" Gold Commissioner."
Mr. Tunstall's Report.
" Kamloops, December 4th, 1883.
" To the Hon-, the Minister of Mines,
" Victoria.
" Sir,—I have the honour to enclose the mining statistics appertaining to the Kamloops
District, for the current year. The yield of gold, last season, was much smaller than usual,
owing to the scarcity of water during the latter portion of the summer.
" The amount granted by the Government to aid in prospecting has been expended', in
purchasing an outfit, and defraying incidental expenses, for Messrs. Ratchford and Myoff, two
experienced miners. They left here last fall, and proceeded, via Seymour, to the Big Bend of
the Columbia, whence they intended to take a boat and go up the river to a certain point,
where they would winter, and be able to make an early start in the spring. The result of their
operations will be.communicated to me by first opportunity, and forwarded to you when received.    I have, &c,
(Signed)       « G. 0. Tunstall,
" Government Agent," 47 Vic.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Me. Kelly's Report.
; To the Hon. the Minister of Mines,
" Victoria.
"Wild Horse Creek,
"December 15th, 1883.
« Sib,—I have the honour to enclose herewith the mining statistics for the District of
Kootenay, for the year 1883.
" From the most reliable sources, I have received information that the yield of gold from
Wild Horse Creek is about $26,000—$1,000 or so more than it was last summer. The increase
would have been much over this sum but that the hydraulic companies could not, for want of
water, work as long as they did last season. These companies lost a month's work this summer
from this cause.
" As evidence of the value of mining property, I may remark that a claim has been sold
here, this summer, for $6,000.
" Perry Creek, I regret to say, has not been worked this season, yet some miners here set
a high estimate on the value of Perry Creek mines.
" There is one claim on Weaver Creek. It has paid fairly for the work done on it.
Water was scarce, or it would have paid much better.
" One claim has been worked on Palmer's Bar, part of this summer; which yielded $700.
" On Bull River, there has been some mining clone for the last three months. Up to this
time it has only been crevice mining, but there must have been, from what I have learned, at
least $800 taken out of this river this year.
" I have the honour, also, to inform you that gold has been discovered on a creek called
'Cannon Creek,' about ten miles above where the Canadian Pacific Railway crosses the Columbia River, via Kicking Horse Pass. This creek was discovered in October last, when I was
settling important mining cases at Kootenay Lake mines, 250 miles from here, but I am informed by miners who were there, that there are both bar and creek diggings on this creek.
The prospects are very encouraging, but it may be said of these mines, that they are only being-
prospected. The gold found is coarse; one piece weighed as much as eight dollars, and it is
supposed $1,000 have been taken out of the mines on this creek since it was discovered. It is
about 160 miles from here.
" Three mineral locations have been worked on Spallumcheen River this summer.
" A mineral claim has been located, this fall, on Ille-cille-wait River, some 20 miles from
Arrow Lakes.
" The mineral locations, or quartz claims, at Kootenay Lakes, have increased in number,
since last year's report, from four to nineteen.
" From the prospects I saw at these mines, when I was there in October last, I am convinced there will be, in two years from hence, an extensive mining camp, where capital will be
expended in labour and otherwise.
" Ledges or lodes of the ore found in this district are numerous. Prospectors on the
mountains about these Kootenay Lakes, have had very little trouble in finding claims.
"Two claims recorded at these mines, this season, were bonded, or sold conditionally, for
$20,000.    I have, &e,
(Signed)        "Edward Kelly." 414 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1884
The following table shows the output of each year from 1874 to 1883, inclusive:—
Year. No. of Tons.
1874  81,000
1875  110,000
1876  139,000
1877  154,000
1878  171,000
1879  241,000
1880  268,000
1881  228,000
1882  282,000
1883  213,000
"Nanaimo, B. C,
" To the Honourable John Robson, .   " 5th February, 1884.
" Minister of Mines.
" Sir,—I have the honour, as Inspector of Mines, to respectfully submit my report for
the year 1883, in pursuance of the  ' Coal Mines Regulation Act, 1877.'
" The collieries which have been in operation during the year are the following, viz.:
" The Nanaimo Colliery, belonging to the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company,
Limited, which consists of Chase River Mine, South Field Mine, and No. 1 shaft on the
Esplanade, Nanaimo.
" The Wellington Colliery, belonging to Messrs. Robert Dunsmuir & Sons, comprising
Wellington Mine, No. 3 shaft, Wellington, Adit, and No. 4 shaft, Wellington.
" The East Wellington Colliery of R. Chandler, Esq.
" The aggregate output of coal in the year 1883 from the above named collieries, amounted
to 213,299 tons, which, with 2,885 tons in stock on the 1st January, 1883, made a total of
216,184 tons of coal for export and local consumption.
" In 1883 the exports of coal from Vancouver Island amounted to 149,567 tons, the
principal part being shipped to San Francisco, and ports in California; other shipments were
made to Seattle, Washington Territory (gas coal), to Alaska, Mexico, Hawaiian Islands, and
to mail steamships and vessels calling.
" The year's sales for local consumption by steam-vessels, manufactories (including gas
works), and for use in households, (fee, amounted to 64,786 tons.
" The stocks on hand at the end of the year 1883, were 1,830 tons.
"A comparison of the output of 1883 (213,299 tons) with the output of 1882 (282,139
tons), shows a decrease amounting to 68,840 tons in the output of 1883; one result of which
has been a considerable falling off in the exports of coal for the year. The sales for local consumption during 1883, have, however, exceeded those of 1882 by 8,625 tons, which is a
gratifying feature in our coal trade.
" The following table of exports and local consumption of coal since the Mining Act of
1877, will exhibit the extent of our trade during the past six years:—
Year. Exports, tons. Local consumption, tons.
1878 164,682 26,166
1879 192,096 40,294
1880 225,849 .' 46,513
1881 189,323 40,191
1882 232,411 56,161
1883 149,567 64,786
"With regard to the decrease of output in 1883, I may say that when I last had the
honour to present my annual report, the outlook and prospects were very promising for a
greatly increased production of coal, but during the past year several of our mines have
experienced some of the vicissitudes to which coal mining is naturally subject, such as heavy
inflow of water, faults, ' pinch-outs' and ' wants' in the seams, which you will find referred to 47 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 415
in my remarks upon the respective mines, and those troubles have hampered mining operations
and occasioned a considerable diminution in the yield of coal. The strike at the Wellington
Colliery was also an unforeseen occurrence, and reduced the usual output of that colliery
during a few months. While the decrease of output for the year 1883 is thus accounted for,
you will be pleased to gather from my report upon the workings of the mines that our present
prospects are most encouraging for the recovery of lost ground, and the attainment of a much
larger aggregate output of coal in the year 1884.
" No relief has been extended to our coal industry from the pressure of the Dominion
tariff, or from the United States impost of 75 cents a ton on our coal entering their ports; but
on the contrary, since my last report, the time for which the drawback of half duty on blasting
powder was allowed has expired—in April last—and, therefore, powder imported (or used) since
that date is subject to the full duty of three cents per pound. I beg leave to refer to former
reports for full particulars of the bearing of the tariff, <fcc, upon the coal trade of this Province.
" Douglas Pit.
" At this mine there has been very little coal taken out, and what was got was from the
pillars (of coal).    Now there is no mining being clone here, but the water is being kept out.
" Chase River Mine.
" As mentioned by me in a previous report, the workings of this mine are from a slope
about 500 yards long, to what is known as No. 4 level. From this level no coal is being mined
at present, but about 400 yards along the level there is a slant which is down about 400 yards.
This place has not been worked by the company during the year which is past, as they were
much troubled with water coming in, so that it got nearly filled, and that has not been got out
yet, but there is a likelihood of its being empty soon, as they have got a large and powerful
steam-pump ready to start as soon as the pipes are connected with it. The slant itself makes
very little water, and if it had not been for the water going in at the top, it would have been
working steadily along. The only mining being clone in this place at present is from the No.
5 level, or the first level down the slant. The coal below this is from four to six feet thick,
very hard, and of good quality. I think I will not be wrong in saying, in about two months,
or less, that there will be quite a large output of coal per day from this place. The mining
here is on the pillar and stall system—taking out the pillars (of coal) after the coal is worked
from the stall to its destination.
" Ventilation is good. The last time I was down—which was in December—the air in
circulation, near to the face of the workings, was 340 cubic feet per minute to each man, being
conducted well into the face by brattice.
" During the past summer the company put a large pump down the slope, which is now
working, and doing its work well, and, so far as the winter has gone, it can keep the water out,
and not work very fast to do that. As the winter season is the time when the water comes in
freely, and the present pumping machinery is master of it, the Manager is now satisfied that
the mine will be kept dry without causing any delay to the working of the mine. This mine
must be very expensive to work. The coal is generally good and of excellent quality, but the
company are very much troubled with faults—a continuation of them, one after the other.
Considering the difficulty they have here, they keep the mine safe for the working man. So
far as personal observation and inspection can find out the dangerous places, they are made
secure as soon as possible. There is always plenty of timber on hand, and any other thing that
may be wanted for the use of the workman.
" South Field Mine.
" This is a new mine started by the Vancouver Coal Company, about four miles to the
south of Nanaimo, and known here as the ' South Field Mine.'
"This mine also is entered by a slope; it has but little pitch to it; from the entrance to
the face it is about 300 yards; at the face the coal is three feet thick, hard, and of good quality;
it has not been all as thick as this, but for quite a distance the coal has been good, and improving in thickness as th°y go in. At 150 yards, or about half-way down the slope, there is
a branch slope going in a northerly direction, and being nearly on the pitch cl the coal; this is
also clown about 150 yards.    The coal here is not quite so thick as in the other slope; it is 416 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1884
about four feet thick, and is good and hard. There are levels being driven from both sides of
those slopes, and stalls from the levels. In most of the places the coal is good, with conglomerate rock for a roof, which is very strong and hard, there not being much danger of any
of it falling, unless one continuous large space is worked out.
" This mine is ventilated by a large furnace at the bottom of the upcast shaft. Ventilation
is good, being conducted on the separate split system. The last time 1 was in the mine there
were 200 cubic feet of air per minute in circulation for each man employed in the mine. There
is little or no gas seen in this place, and very little water to contend with.
" There is the prospect of an extensive and valuable mine here, as away to the clip, and
ahead of this mine, there was a series of bore holes put clown some years ago, which proved
that the coal they went through with those borings varied in thickness from six to twelve feet;
and there was another one put down last summer, about 300 yards distant, at right angles
from the entrance and course of the slope, which proved the coal at this place to be about
seven feet thick.
" A steam-engine is placed about 150 yards from the entrance of the slope, for hauling
the coal out to the surface. The coal is brought out by what is known as the endless rope
system; the main rope goes direct from the engine to the top of the branch slope, here there
is a wheel on which the main rope works; besides the main rope, there are two other ropes
working on this wheel; one of the ropes continues clown the slope, about 150 yards, while the
other goes down the branch slope about the same distance; each rope having a large pulley fixed
at a proper place for the rope to work round; when at work the rope keeps going, having short
coupling chains, with a hook on one end for the car, and a 'grip' on the other end, which they
can take hold of the rope with while in motion; the cars can also be disconnected by sloping
the rope, so that the cars can be taken off the lower ropes when they get to the wheel at the
top of the branch slope, where they are coupled to the main rope, thus forming a steady run of
cars coining out of the mine.
"At present the company are getting about 250 tons per day from this mine, and this
output will be greatly exceeded soon, as they are putting new miners to work daily.
" No. 1 Shaft at Esplanade, Nanaimo.
" This is what is known, about here, as the Company's big shaft on the Esplanade at
Nanaimo. In more respects than one it might be called big; in the first place it may be called
by that name, as it was a great undertaking on the part of the company, knowing the depth they
had to go—viz., 628 feet; but they did not know what water they might have to contend with;
as they progressed towards the coal they were sure to have fresh water, and, owing to this
shaft being so close to the sea, it was possible to have a leakage from that quarter; but the
company had confidence in their property as well as in the gentleman into wdiose hands they
had trusted the carrying on of such works. This man has had great experience in this kind
of work in England, but of such large proportions, that the works here must seem small to him—
Mr. James Beaumont, Mining Engineer, of Oughtibridge, Yorkshire,  England.
"In May, 1881, Mr. Beaumont commenced the sinking of this shaft by bringing in an
open cut from the beach, about 20 feet deep. Not having got the rock, they continued
to sink about 20 feet further, at which place they found the rock hard and solid. All
this time the shaft was being put down 24 feet in diameter. They then started to build from
the bottom towards the surface with segment blocks of timber 30 inches long, with the end of
the timber to the shaft, leaving the space inside 18 feet in diameter, which is the size of the
shaft, filling it solid between the blocks and the wall with clay; this being completed to the
surface, and everything made ready on top, the water was taken out. The shaft was found to
be almost perfectly dry, the surface water being shut out from the shaft. Now the work of
sinking commenced, and they made good progress until they got about half-way down, when, the
water began to flow in freely; but for all that good progress was made, until the water got too
much for the hoisting engines (a pair of 16-inch cylinders), when they had to quit work in the
bottom until they got another and larger engine; so the present engines were erected. These
engines are the largest ones about the collieries of British Columbia, being double engines of
30-inch cjdinders, with 5 feet stroke, and winding drums of 14 feet diameter. Everything
being ready, the water was got out and work resumed in the bottom. Things went all right
for a time, but again they found a gas to be coming out of the rock, and the water being strongly
impregnated with it, became painful to the eyes, so much so, that the greater part of the
sinkers had to leave off work at times. To overcome this they had to put up a small fan, in
addition to the one in use, to dilute this gas so that the men could work,  and then only four 47 Vic Report of the Minister of Mines. 4l7
hours at one time, as it was impossible to stand it longer. Now everything went all right,
with great expectations of reaching the coal soon, and in that they were not disappointed, for
on the 26th October the news was sounded from the bottom that the coal was found. As the
rock was cleaned off the coal, they found it was hard and of good quality, as the Douglas coal
generally is, and 7 feet 4 inches thick. Now there are two drifts run into the coal for a considerable distance. About the bottom everything is made secure, in the most workmanlike
manner, with large timbers, some of them 24 inches square, and lighter ones as they go away
from the shaft. One of the drives above referred to, goes towards the south. In this one the
coal has gradually thickened so that it is now 11 feet thick. The other drive is towards the
north. In this place it keeps about the same as at the shaft, 7 feet 4 inches. Now the
company are putting up the shaft head gear, &c, and are laying sidings from their railway
which is already laid, and the locomotive taking cars over it with the coal which is brought
from the shaft.    As ships are waiting for coal it is not necessary to store it on top.
" As I have said previously that all these works, and the machinery in and about this
shaft, were under the control and supervision of Mr. James Beaumont, the Company's Mining
Engineer, great credit is due to him for his engineering skill and caution; always having an
eye for the care and safety of those employed under him, knowing that there has not been an
accident to anyone at these works, which have extended over a period of 2J years, from the
breaking of the surface to the winning of the coal, 628 feet down.
" The people of Nanaimo are to be congratulated on such a finding, and the Province in
general, but the Vancouver Coal Company in particular, as they have the prospect of a good and
extensive mine, where, it is to be hoped, they will get returns for the great outlay they have made.
" In addition to the above works, you will have observed in the report of 1882, that there
is another shaft belonging to this company, 75 yards north of No. 1 shaft, which is in a fair way
of getting to the ccal soon, being now down 480 feet; and it is expected that the coal will be
got at 600 feet from the surface. This (No. 2) shaft is 16 feet in diameter, inside of blocking,
which is clone similarly to the No. 1 shaft, so that if everything goes as it appears to do at
present, that they will have the coal in less than two months, and by that time the mining
from No. 1 shaft will be near, so that they will soon get a connection there, and that is required
in all extensive mines.
" I here again take the opportunity to mention that as in No. 1 shaft, so in No. 2, there
has not been an accident of the smallest kind to anyone employed about it. I hope, as well
as the Managers, that they may long continue to keep a clean sheet for want of anything of
the kind to enter on it.
" I hope to see those two shafts a success, so that the coal may be got out from them as
such undertakings deserve, so that at the close of another year the output of coal will be greatly
increased, and the company have a good income for the capital invested.
"Wellington Mine. . .'
" This is the slope mentioned in a previous report as being clown about 1,000 yards.
There has not been anything done to the face of the slope during the year which is past, the
face of it being stopped at a down fault. This is the fault which separates the workings here
from the workings of the No. 3 pit. There are three levels working from this slope, two on
the one side, known as 7 and 8 levels west, the one on the other side is known as 10 level east.
The coal is mined on the pillar-and stall system, driving the stalls to their destination, then
commencing at the inside to the pillars, taking out as they come back. This slope is one of
two main entrances to this mine; the other being what was mentioned in a previous report as
the adit level. There are four shafts to this mine, but there is no coal coming out of them;
one is a pumping shaft, and one is the return or furnace shaft, the other two are in a position
sc that in case of ah accident to any of the other places the men could be got out. By those
two places, the slope and adit, all the men go in and come out. At those places the coal is
taken Out. In them everything is made as safe as timber and workman can make it. There
is a travelling way on the greater part of this slope, six feet wide from the rails, besides there
are man-holes, as places of refuge, at short distances from one another, cut into the side; those
holes being washed frequently with lime, so that they may be easily seen in case of clanger.
" The coal in this mine varies in thickness from 6 to 10 feet; as for quality that is well
known, both in this Province and California, as being of good quality both for steam and.
household purposes, 418 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1884
" I have frequently examined this mine during the past year. I always make it my study
to make those inspections when the miners are at work, so that I can see the state of the mine
when they are working, and to hear if there are any complaints about anything which they
think is not in accordance with the Mining Act, and I frequently talk to them about the
clangers of the roof, that they cannot be too careful in attending to the securing of it, as it is
the falling of the roof which is the cause of quite a number of the accidents during the past
year. And I may here say that the miners should be careful in all things (as well as the
Manager), for the smallest neglect which, as he may think, will only be for a few minutes, may
cost him his life.
" Ventilation of this mine has for its motive power a large furnace at the -bottom of the
upcast shaft; the in-takes being the slope, adit level, and three shafts. Ventilation is very
good, being conducted on the separate split system,with the main divisions, or one to each level;
and as I have already said, the workings here are on the pillar and stall system, so that when
a sufficient distance has been cut, there is a connection made with the adjoining stall, so that
very little brattice is required, the mine being almost entirely free from gas, so that the brattice
is not required to be close up to the face, and if it was it would be sure to be broken down
sometimes, as a miner told me it was not unusual to put four pounds of blasting powder in
one blast. It takes about 200 cubic feet of air per minute to each man, and that is little
enough conisdering the powder smoke that has to be cleared away. As I have said, there is
little or no gas met with, yet the manager takes the precaution to have all the old workings
examined frequently, as well as all the working places every clay by the fireman with a safety
lamp, to see that everything is clear and in a fit state for the miners to proceed to work with
safety. The fireman, to show proof that he has been in the stalls, chalks the day of the month
on the face of the coal, so that there can be no mistake as to his having been in. You will
have seen that there are five different ways in and out of this mine. The miners can come out
from three of those at any time; but there are only two where they must go in, and those are
the ones leading past the fireman's station, as they cannot go past without being told to do so
by the fireman. I always find a good stock of timber on hand, and every other thing which
would appear to be necessary for the safety of the workmen and the working of the mine.
"No. 3 Shaft, Wellington Colliery.
" In this mine, as you will see in a previous report, the workings are from a slope, the
top of which is about 75 yards in a southerly direction from the bottom of the shaft. At this
place a steam-engine is fixed to haul out the coal and what water there is; of the latter there
is but little, .as the mine is very dry. This slope is clown abont 750 yards, of a gentle grade,
with good coal all the way, varying in thickness from 8 to 10 feet. Now they have got into
what is known as the basin of the Wellington coal field; in the trough of this basin they are
driving the levels from the bottom of the slope both ways, the coal rising and coining into the
levels from both sides. There are two other levels from this slope, branching off about halfway clown; in one of these places the coal is not so thick as I have mentioned it to be in the
slope. This mine—as are all the other mines belonging to Messrs. Robert Dunsmuir & Sons—is
worked on the pillar and stall system; and as they are now underneath the valley of the Millstone River, they are leaving large pillars of coal, at present, to support the roof with the
surface. At the deepest place, the coal lies about 400 feet from the surface; and as this is a
valuable mine they are using great precaution, so that no accident may happen to it from an
inflow of water from the surface.
" Ventilation here is good, the motive power being a large fan, worked by a jDair of
coupled steam-engines. This fan is 30 feet in diameter and 10 feet wide, exhausting on the
upcast shaft, and not requiring to run above 20 revolutions per minute, giving all the air that
is necessary for all the men employed here. In addition to the fan, the engine at the top
exhausts into the fan shaft. This mine is also aired on the separate split system—viz., four
divisions, one to each level; the air being conducted around, and well into the face by brattice
or otherwise, after going round the workings comes back again on their respective return,
when they again all join into one and go out at the fan shaft. There is not much gas seen in
this mine now, although at one time it gave considerable trouble; but since they got connected
with the fan shaft, the airways being large and having plenty of air, they now see very little
gas. The fireman, when examining the places previous to the miners going to work, sees a little
sometimes, which makes him cautious and puts him on his guard.
" I always find plenty of timber and any other thing that may be necessary for the use of
the miners to protect themselves when at work. 47 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 419
"No. 4 Shaft, Wellington Colliery.
" You will see in a previous report that this is the shaft which was put down on the top
of the bluff overlooking the valley of the Millstone River. There has been much work done
here, both on the surface and in the mine. The coal mined in this pit is what is known as the
Wellington coal; it varies in thickness from 8 to 12 feet, leaving about 2 feet of hard coal for
a roof. This coal is of a first class quality, and looks well for a good and extensive mine.
There have been some small drawbacks to the mining here, as there was a small 'fault' in the
coal close to the shaft; the workings now are all clear of it, and the coal looks well. This is
also worked on the pillar and stall system. They cannot work this very extensively until they
have another outlet from the mine. It was generally thought by the manager at first when
they got the coal here, that there was a large down-throw of the coal going from this place to
the workings of the No. 3 Shaft—that being the only place for a connection without putting
down a second shaft from the surface; but after they had worked in some distance, the
manager began to see that there was a chance to get clown without any serious trouble. They
started a slope for the purpose of making a connection; now they are clown about 200 yards,
without any fault to hinder their progress, the coal being good and hard all the way, but has a
good pitch to it. Now they have got so low that they are satisfied that there is nothing in
the way to hinder them but good coal, so that about the 15th of February they expect to get
through on the workings of No. 3 Shaft, the accomplishment of which will be a great relief to
both shafts; and they will be able to mine more extensively, as they will be at liberty to put
on all the men they can find employment for. At present, the Mining Act limits them to a
certain number until there are two or more outlets.
" Ventilation of this shaft is by a steam-jet. One part of the shaft is partitioned off
exclusively for the upcast. This mine is particularly well ventilated. The air is split at the
shaft to each side, taking the level for the intake, returning by the face of the stalls, and
leaving the stalls by the return airway direct for the upcast shaft. When this shaft was sunk,
it gave off much gas; but ventilation being good, and great care used, there was nothing to
fear, always being well supplied with safety lamps. In the levels or headings gas is sometimes
given off, which comes out of the floor of the coal; and sometimes a streak of it would collect
on the lee side of the timber which the brattice is fixed to, at the same time the air was
blowing past strong. Work has gone on quite satisfactorily during the year that is now past;
and now that they are about to have an opening another way soon, it is to be hoped that we
will be clear from accidents from gas in the year we have entered upon.
" The railway has been completed to this shaft in connection with the North Wellington
railway; this branch is about one mile in length. The conductors have been put in the shaft,
fixed head gear built, and shutes erected, and every other appliance is there for a mine that is
likely to have a large output of coal per day; and the outlook at present is that this shaft will
give a good account of itself to Messrs. Robert Dunsmuir & Sons, its owners, for the current
year, and it is to be hoped for many years to come.
" You will have observed in the Report of 1882 that this Colliery, with its present works,
is situate in the valley of the Millstone River, below the Wellington Colliery. At the time of
the above-mentioned report, they had got their shaft down about 200 feet. Everything looked
favourable for getting the coal good. When they got down 250 feet, or to where the coal
should be, they found it but thin and faulty, being all mixed with rock. They got everything
fixed and put in'order on top, conductors into the shaft, and everything done as if the coal
was good and thick. Then they started two drifts, one on each side of the shaft; they were
run a long distance, the coal not improving much—sometimes none—yet they kept on; when
about 600 feet from the shaft it began to shew signs of getting better and improving in thickness, until it got 8 feet thick; that was good while it lasted. At different times it looked
good, and in a few yards would almost pinch out. It is a little better at present, but not
regular, and far from it. They have, however, been getting out some coal, as you will see by
the returns.
"There is a prospect of this being a good and extensive colliery yet, as the coal has been
found good both up and clown the valley from where the works are, and it is to be hoped the
East Wellington Company will also find it good. There is a large amount of capital invested
here.     Besides the works about the shaft, they have a railway, laid with steel rails, 3| miles 420 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1884
long, with wharf, and two locomotives, 20 4J-ton cars, and every other appliance for taking
away and shipping a large amount of coal per clay; their shipping point being Departure Bay.
In addition to the above, they have a large sawmill (the same as mentioned by me in 1882'
Report as in course of erection). Attached to this mill, there is a planer and every other thing
that is necessary for a mill, with steam-engine for working the same. There is also a branch
line from the railway to the mill, so that if it is found profitable lumber can be shipped, there
being plenty of timber handy to the mill; but it may be reasonably expected that the proprietors of East Wellington Mine will soon be fully employed in carrying coal, so that the timber
can stand till some future day.
"Accidents in and about the Coal Mines of British Columbia for the Year 1883.
" 16th January—Samuel K. Lowe, sinker, was killed by falling down the East Wellington
Colliery sinking shaft.
" 1st February—Thomas Rickard got a blow on the side with a piece of timber when at
work putting in conductors in No. 4 shaft, Wellington Colliery.
" 3rd March—Peter Morrison, miner, was injured about the back by a piece of coal falling
on him from the roof while at work in No. 4 shaft, Wellington Colliery.
" 8th March—Ah Tuck (Chinaman) when travelling up the slope in the Wellington Mine,
not taking the necessary precaution by going into one of the man-holes, was caught by the
empty cars coming clown, whereby he got his leg broken.
"12th March—George Fisher, miner, when taking out pillars (coal) in the Douglas Pit,
got his leg broken by a piece of coal falling on it.
" 17th March—David Hardy, miner, was bruised about the body by coals thrown from a
shot, which blew through from the adjoining stall they were working at to connect, in No. 4
shaft, Wellington Colliery.
" 7th April—Rorry Dunlop, miner in No. 3 Pit, Wellington Colliery, was burned about
the hands and face by an explosion of gas. He was working with a safety lamp. The brattice
man was sent to put in brattice, being also provided with a safety lamp, but came in without
using it, kindled the gas with his naked light, hence the explosion and burning.
" 23rd April—Joseph Randle, while repairing pump-rods in the Douglas Pit, got one of
his ribs broken by a piece of timber he was using to hold, the rods up with, and which slipped.
" 2nd May—Henry Hindle, timber-man, was killed by a cave from the roof while at work
renewing timber in No. 4 Pit, Wellington Colliery,.
"5th May—Samuel Harris, miner, was injured by a fall of rock from the roof while at
work in his stall in No. 3 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
" 5th May—Frank Ghilioni, miner, was injured by the premature explosion of a shot in
No. 3 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
" 1st June—Ah Bone (Chinaman), car runner, got his arm broken by a car going off the
rails in the No. 3 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
" 29th June—Robert Kilpatrick, miner, was slightly burned by the explosion of some
loose powder, kindled by a spark from his lamp, being in the act of getting ready to charge a
shot in the Wellington Mine.
" 18th August-John Johnson, miner in the East Wellington Colliery, was seriously cut
in the face by coals thrown from a shot which was fired in the adjoining stall, which blew
through on him, after being told to get out of the way, but did not do so.
" 25th August—Ah Lum (Chinaman) was slightly injured by a piece Qf rock falling on
him from the roof, in one of the stalls in the East Wellington Colliery.
" 8th September—Yum Lee (Chinaman) had his leg broken by a piece of rock falling on
him from the roof, while at work in one of the working places in the East Wellington Colliery.
" 5th October—Chinaman No. 10, got his arm broken in two places while at work running cars in No. 4 Pit, Wellington Colliery.
" 16th October—John Meakin, miner in Chase River Mine, was slightly burned about the
face and hand by an explosion of gas, when he returned to the face, after he had fired a shot.
" 29th October—Ah Quang (Chinaman), mule-driver, was severely injured by getting
jammed between the cars in the Wellington Mine.    He died on the following day.
" 6th November—Lee Wing (Chinaman) was severely injured about the back by getting
jammed between the cars at the outside of the South Field Mine; at the same time he should
have been at work in the mine. " 10th November—Simon Joy, miner, wrenched one of his legs when coming off the cage
in the No. 3 shaft, Wellington Colliery.
" 15th November—Ah You (Chinaman) was slightly cut about the face and arms by small
pieces of coal thrown from a shot, which blew through from the adjoining stall, in the Wellington Mine.
" 20th November—Henry Bolton, deputy at Chase River Mine, got the small bone of his
arm and one of his legs broken by a roller from the pump-rods getting out of its place and
going down the slope, striking him while on the descent.
" 3rd December—Ah How (Chinaman), when lowering a car down an incline in No. 4
Pit, Wellington Colliery, got foul of the rope, whereby he got one of his legs broken.
" 19th December—David Morris, miner, was slightly singed by an explosion of gas in the
East Wellington Mine. He was told by the fireman all was clear; Morris went in some time
after and kindled some gas which had collected in a hole in the roof.
" 20th December—Sin Kee (Chinaman) was bruised on the back by a piece of rock falling
on him from the roof in one of the working stalls in the East Wellington Mine.
"21st December—Tong Kee (Chinaman) was seriously injured by a piece of rock falling
on him from the roof in a stall of the Wellington Mine.
" 28th December—Ah Yune (Chinaman), miner, was killed by rock falling on him from
the roof in the Adit Level, Wellington Colliery. He had fired a shot, which blew out four
props. By the evidence taken at the Inquest, he was in the act of putting the timber up
again when about one ton of rock came down on him.
" I am sorry to have to make a list of so many accidents—for the year that has closed—
both serious and fatal; although some of them were slight, yet they come up to 23 in all.
"Seven of them were by falls of rock from the roof; two, by falls of coal; four, by coal
thrown from shots; six, by the cars in the mine; three, by explosions of gas; one, by explosion
of loose powder; one, when coming off the cage; two, when fixing pumps; and two, in shafts.
You will perceive that four of these cases were fatal: one, by falling down a shaft; two, by
falls of rock from the roof; and one, by the cars in the mine. You will observe that 17 of
these accidents were at the face of the workings, where the miner can see what is required for
his safety and protection from accident; but casualty happens not to the inexperienced only,
as the most careful and experienced miner will sometimes be caught, and at a time when he
thinks he has used great caution.
" There were six accidents by the cars; the greater part of these were to runners, whose
daily occupation was working with the cars, yet they run chances so that it may be lighter to
them, although they do not always get off, as you have seen by the accidents to this class of
labourers. There were three by explosions of gas; one of them was in a place where they had
not seen any gas before that time; the place had also been examined by the fireman previous
to the men going to work; he found all clear; but when David Morris went in to work, he
kindled a small quantity of gas which had been collected in a hole. There was another of
those accidents by gas, to a man working with a safety lamp, and you will have noticed how
another person came in and kindled it with his naked light. All the other casualties were at
places where it was necessary for repairs to be done, and which .is in very dangerous places
" In looking over the list of accidents, you will have observed that there is quite a number
of them of a preventable character, and that with a little more caution on the workman's part,
there would not have been such a long list; but while there are mines, and miners to work
them, there will always be some one now and again getting disabled, as accidents will happen
even to the most careful and skillful miners. But there is a class of men employed in the
mines about here which I do not expect to know much about mining, although they may learn
something about it, after being in some time, so that they can do light work. This class is the
Chinese. You will have seen in the chapter of accidents that 12 of them are mentioned—two
of them are fatal.
"As I have said in a previous report, it would be unjust to charge upon the proprietors
or managers of mines responsibility for such accidents, when they have provided every appliance necessary for the safety of the workman, and every other thing necessary for the carrying
on of a well-conducted colliery.
"Appended hereto are the Annual Colliery Returns.
"I have, etc.,
(Signed)       "Archibald Dick,
" Government Inspector of Mines, Nanaimo" 422
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Nanaimo Collieries.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31, 1883.
35,665 3-20
No. of tons
sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons sold
for Exportation.
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1883.
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1884.
442 2-20
Number of hands employed.
Wages per day.
$1 to $1.50
11.25 to $2.50
Total hands employed below ground 269
Total hands employed above ground 129
Miners' earnings per day.
.50 to $5
Name of Seams or Pits—Chase River, South Field, and No. 1 Shaft.
Value of Plant—$150,000.
Descriptions of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, (fee, and number of same—Chase River,
worked by slope; average 6 feet thick; South Field, adit 400 yards (about); seam
somewhat unreliable; No, 1 Shaft, 630 feet; seam of coal, 7 to 11 feet thick; No. 2
Shaft, sinking.
Description and length of Tramway, Plant, (fee—Railway, 4 miles; 3 locomotives; powerful winding engines, steam-pumps, coal waggons, and extensive wharf.
M. Bate.
Wellington Collieries.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December, 31st  1883.
171,364 5-20
No.  of tons
sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons sold
for Exportation.
124.74S 15-20
No. of Tons
on hand
1st January,  1884.
1,725 12-20
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
stock, Jan. 1st, 1883.
2,443 2-20
Number of hands employed.
Wages per day.
$2 to $3.75
$1 to $1.25
Total hands employed.
.559       Miners' earnings per day $3 to §4
Name of Seams or Pits—Wellington.
Value of Rant—$250,000, 47 Vic.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Descriptions of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, (fee, and number of same—6 to 10 feet thick;
2 shafts working; 1 not working; 1 slope working; 1 adit level working; 2 air shafts,
one of these large furnace at bottom, the other ventilating fan, 30 feet diameter,
driven by a pair of engines.
Description and length of Tramway, Plaat, &e—10 miles of railway; 6 locomotives; 197
waggons; 7 stationary engines working; 1 engine not working at present; 6 steam-
pumps; 5 wharves for loading vessels, with bunkers, &e
Pro R. Dunsmuir & Sons,
Christopher Loat.
East Wellington Colliery.
Output of coal for 12
months ending
December 31st, 1883.
No.   of tons
sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons sold
for Exportation.
No. of tons
on hand
1st January, 1884.
No. of tons unsold,
including coal in
hand, Jan. 1st,  1S83.
Number of hands employed.
Wages per month.
Name of Seams or Pits—East Wellington.
Value of Plant—$10,000.
Descriptions of seams, tunnels, levels, shafts, &c, and number of same—1   shaft 8 by 18
feet, 240 feet deep; 1 seam; 2 slants, 6 by 12 feet; 2 levels, 6 by 10 feet.
Description and length of Tramway, Plant, <fec.—3|- foot narrow gauge, 3J miles in length;
2 locomotives; 20 coal ears.
George Hawxhurst.
VICTORIA: Printed by Richard Wolfenden, Government Printer,
at the Government Printing Office. James' Bay. PROVINCE  OF  BRITISH
Name of Bar, Gulch, Creek, or River.
w CD
*, fl
(J   <o
«M    ft
Average number
of men employed
during season.
Rate of Wages.
Nature of Claims.
How WTorked.
Description of
Value of
Gold per
value of
yield of
Bar.    1
Barkerville Division:
"12 "
§4 00
$2 50
3 25
7 ■
$16 00
17 25
16 50
15 35
17 00
15 75
16 50
3 00
Antler Creek   { Upper" ' *.!! * " '!!!.'!!!!!:
3 00
2 50
16 00
16 50
16 00
17 00
Steven's, Begg's, and California Creeks	
3 00
16 00
Lightning- Creek Division :
5    *
4 00
3 00
17 00
17 15
17 00
17 25
17 00
Dead wood Creek	
Burn's Mountain	
2 '
Keithley Creek Division:
4 00
2 50
^       1
17 40
17 00
17 40
17 00
16 30
16 30
16 30
16 30
16 00
15 00
17 00
16 50
16 50
16 00
Snowshoe Creek	
Harvey Creek	
Cunningham Creek (lower end)	
North Fork, Quesnelle River	
South Fork,       ,,           ,,         	
. 1
Quesnelle River (upper end)	
Cedar Creek	
1     i
Horsefly River	
Fraser River (6 miles below Quesnelle,  to
Soda Creek) 	
Quesnellemouth Division :
Fraser River (commencing six miles below
Quesnelle, and thirty miles up the River)
Cottonwood River (from the Bridge down) .
Quesnelle River (from mouth 20 miles up)..
Hixon Creek and vicinity	
30   .
3.50 to 4
2 00
Desultory Mining.,	
""!  ./	
Laketon Division:
Thibert Creek	
5 00
3 50
16 00
15 40
Dease Creek	
McDame Creek Division:
McDame   and   adjacent Creeks (including
Liard  River as to number of men and
amount of gold only)	
80 to 6
4 00
Yield from localities not particularized	
1           "    i
!     1
Fraser River (from Foster's Bar to mouth of
Chilcoatin River, including Bridge River and
its tributaries)	
Yale and Hope Division:
Fraser River and tributaries (Hope to 34
mile bar)	
16 00
Kamloops Division:
Tranquille River	
1 50
Okanagan Division:
Cherry Creek	
Wild Horse Creek	
4 00
3 00
18 00
18 00
18 00
18 00
18 00
Weaver Creek	
Palmer's Bar	
Bull River (desultory)	
Cannon Creek (desultorv)	
Spellmucheen River....	
Ille-cille-wait River	
Kootenay Lake	
3 50
6 00
3 00
Vital Creek  	
16 00
16 00
16 00
16 00
16 00
16 00
16 00
7 Indn's
May Creek	
Germansen Creek  	
6 00
3 00
'    1
Slate Creek	
Manson Creek	
3 00
Lost Creek	
Black Jack Gulch	
3 00
Showing the actually known and estimated yield of gold; the number of miners employed;
and their average earnings per man, per year, from 1858 to 1883.
Amount actually known
to have been exported
by Banks, &•:.
Add one-third more,
estimate   of   gold
carried    away   in
private hands.
Number of
: Miners
per man.
(6 months)
1        8    390,265
?   130,088
9   520,353
8   173
I          3,184,700
(      4,100
(      4,400
l-5th   212,534
„       215,009
„      168,971
„      174,456
„      132,375
9 47,935,963


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