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FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES FOR THE YEAR ENDING 31ST DECEMBER, 1878. BEING AN ACCOUNT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1879

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 Fifth  Annual Report
OF THE
MINISTER   OF   MINES
FOR THE
YEAE ENDING 31st DECEMBEE,
1878,
being an account of
MINING OPERATIONS FOR GOLD, COAL, ETC.,
IN  THE PROVINCE OF
BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
VICTORIA: Printed by Rioauts Wolrmsiv, Government Printer,
at tho Government flirting Offioe, J«m«t' Bear.
27  PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
TABLE
Shewing the actually known and estimated yield of Gold; the number of Miners
employed; and their average earnings per man, per year, from 1858 to 1878.
Year.
1858
(6 mouths)
1859
i860
1181
1862
1863
186*
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
IMS
Amount actually
^known to have
been exported
by Banks, 4c.
$   390,265
1,211,304
1,671,410
1,999,588
3,184,700
2,801,888
2,618,404
1,996,580
1,860,651
1,779,729
1,331,234
1,002,717
1,349,580
1,208,229
979,312
1,383,464
1,856,178
1,339,986
1,2116,136
1,062,670
Add one-third more,
estimate of gold
carried aivay in
private hands.
$ 130,088
403,768
657,133
666,629
1,061,566
872,801
665,526
620,217
693,243
443,744
334,239
449,860
402,743
326,437
461,154
618,726
446,662
402,046
(! !-.!.) 212,634
Total.
$   520,353
1,615,072
2,228,543
2,666,118
4,246,266
3,735,850
3,491,205
2,662,106
2,480,868
2,372,972
1,774,978
1,336,956
1,799,440
1,610,972
1,305,749
1,844,618
2,474,904
1,786,648
1,608,182
1,276,204
$12,837,004
Number
of Miners
employed.
3,000
4,000
4,400
4,200
4,100
4,400
4,400
4,294
2,982
3,044
2,390
2,369
2,348
2,450
2,400
2,300
2,868
2,024
2,282
1,960
1,883
64,094
Average
yearly
earnings
per man:
$ 173
403
506
634
517
482
849
813
893
814
992
749
569
734
671
567
643
1,222
783
820
677 PROVINCE   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
MINING  ST.ATISTICS   FOB  1878.
Districts and their Divisions.
No. Of
Claims
worked.
No. employed.
Rate of Wages.
Estimated
yield.
Value per
Ounce.
Whites.
.hineso.
Whites.
Chinese.
Cariboo.
Barkerville Polling Division:
19
2
2
5
8
6
5
Ii
6
3
7
o
1
4
1
10
10
5
6
6
3
1
35
15
4(i
31
27
53
16
4
6
70
5
5
10
18
8
9
20
8
17
49
1
4
11
50
IS
16
$ 5 00
$ 2 50
$ 2 50
$ 3 00
$ 72,790
14,780
3,600
4,100
10,900
5,000
9,000
6,200
3,100
2,000
1,000
63,196
1,300
876
300
19,570
22,630
3,700
39,550
18,300
4,124
600
500
1,000
600
57,000
15,000-f
62,800
65,600
75,000
101,320
20,650
4,750
2,400
14,000
$15 70 to $16 35
17 30
17 60
17 50
16 04
16 00         16 75
16 16
16 00
15 75         16 40
16 00         17 00
16 00         16 50
16 70        17 60
17 75
17 50
17 50
16 00         17 55
16 00        17 55
17 75
17 65
17 75
17 65
17 65
17 45
17 60
16 30         17 40
15 00         17 00
15 30
16 00
16 00
17 00
18 00
18 00
16 00
15 00
>
22
16
16
16
5
35
4
Lightning Creek Polling Division:
$4 to $6
$5 00
4
47
39
10
26
19
12
6
16
5
2
11
4
Keithley Creek Polling Division:
•10
180
120
25S
27
Fraser River, Lower Quesnelle, Canon & llixou eke..
Cassiar.
'JO
ox
84
184
13
$ 6 00
$ 4 00
$ 4 00
60
32
16
S
16
$ 4 00
$ 3 50
Kootenay.
Kamloops.
6
368
798
1,085
$ 727,335
* Prospecting.
f Estimated from best information obtainable, 42 Vic Report of the Minister op Mines. 371
Report
OF  THE
MINISTER   OF   MINES
FOR  THE   YEAR 1878.
To His Honour Albert Norton Eichards, Lieutenant'Governor of the Province of
British  Columbia :
May it please Your Excellency:—
I have the honour herewith to present to Your Honour the Fifth Eeport of the
Mining industries of the Province.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
I have the honour to be,
Your Honour's obedient servant,
T. Basil Humphreys,
Provincial Secretary & Minister of Mines.
ISth March, 1879.
REPORT
GOLD   MINING.
The amounts actually exported by the Banks for 1878 are as follow:—
Bank of British Columbia     $264,710 64
Bank of British North America       417,856 96
Garesche, Green & Co       380,102 58
Total $1,062,670 18
Hitherto one-third has been added to cover the amount of gold exported
in private hands. It seems, however, impossible to believe that private export can
possibly reach that proportion. Allowing a fifth, the total yield for the year 1878
would be about $1,275,000.
The reports from the Gold Commissioners and  Government Agents do not nearly
reach this amount, but—as it was remarked in the Mining Eeport of last year it is
most difficult for these officers to correctly estimate the yield of gold, while, on the
other hand, there can be no possible doubt as to the amount exported by the Banks. 872 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1878
Cariboo.
It would be useless to deny that the great hopes entertained during the earlier part
of the season of the past year that the quartz mining interests of Cariboo were about to be
successfully developed, have not been realized. It would appear that the people of the
Province failed to understand that the development of quartz mines involved the
expenditure of a vast amount of capital. The sums expended have probably not been
altogether thrown away. Great experience has been gained, and it is the opinion of
most practical miners that, in the near future, the quartz ledges of Cariboo will prove
themselves to be profitable investments for capitalists.
The few well-known creeks of Cariboo have now been worked for so many years
that it cannot but be expected that the yield of gold should fall off in the absence of the
discovery of new and important creeks.
To the indefatigable prospectors of Cariboo, the Province must look for such
discoveries, and it would appear from the reports of the Government Agents that on
many outlying creeks such work is being vigorously prosecuted.
On Lightning Creek mining was carried on for about ten years before the richest
ground—so far as yet known—was worked.
On both Antler and Grouse Creeks rich leads of gold were suddenly lost. This was
notably the case on Grouse Creek in the Heron Claim, where it entirely disappeared, and
although prospected for almost continuously ever since 1867, has never yet been found.
That it exists, there can be little doubt. Antler Creek has also puzzled the most
experienced miners. For a short distance rich ground was found—either on the high
rock or in the bed of the stream—but repeated efforts have failed to discover paying
ground either above or below. That gold should have been deposited from one or more
given points on a creek is perfectly comprehensible, but very few experienced miners
will admit that a heavy run of gold suddenly ceases to exist. It is not, therefore, being
unduly sanguine to expect that Antler Creek may yet again be the scene of mining
prosperity.
The recent discoveries made in the Horsefly Country are of importance and most
satisfactory. This section of the Cariboo District is situated on the direct line of the
gold belt—which apparently extends from Kootenay to Cassiar,—and many miners
have long considered that this part of the Province would eventually be proved rich in
gold.
The remark of the Government Agent at Eichfield, referring to quartz, regretting
the absence of " united effort among the owners of adjoining locations," is most sensible.
There can be no doubt that thousands and thousands uf dollars have been needlessly
oxpended for want of "united effort." The Agent is right in describing the "Bonanza"
lode as "an immense body of ore," and the problem to be solved is whether the ore at
lower levels than those yet reached is of a grade high enough to admit of its being
profitably worked. An earnest effort in this direction would be of great advantage to
the Province. Since the Government Agent wrote his report, an application has been
made for a lease of the lower part of William's Creek, known as the Meadows. This is
satisfactory, being good proof that, notwithstanding previous failures, confidence in the
richness of the ground remains unabated.
The reports of the Government Agents at Eichfield and the Forks of Quesnelle are,
to a great extent satisfactory and most certainly interesting. The yield of gold from
the alluvial deposits of this important district has, no doubt, decreased, but probably
only temporarily; and it should be borne in mind that it was, to some extent, caused by
the quartz excitement. A large number of miners were prospecting for quartz and
running tunnels in rock, when, under other circumstances, they would have been
prospecting for, or working in, alluvial diggings.
"Eichfield, October 27th 1878.
" To the Hon. the Minister of Mines.
"Sir,—I have the honour to enclose herewith the mining statistics of Barkerville,
Lightning Creek, and Quesnelle Polling Divisions, for the year, which, although
•exhibiting a total yield of gold somewhat less than that of last year, is, nevertheless, 42 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 87$
a larger yield per man for the actual time of working, as a large number of men enumerated in the tables was employed during a portion of the year in prospecting the quartz
veins; and you will notice tbat in making out the statistics I have not strictly adhered
to the forms as sent me. When miners understand that their claims will not be
separately reported in those statistics, we can more easily obtain correct information as
regards the amount of gold they have taken out, hence the change I have made in the
forms.
"Having obtained the total amount of gold dust purchased by the Banks for the
year, viz., $387,017, and after deducting therefrom the amount brought in from Keithley
Creek and the Forks of Quesnelle, and also making an allowance for the probable
amount taken out of the district in private hands, it would appear that the figures in
the tabular statement may be considered approximately correct, as the following
tabulated statement will show:—
Gold yield of Barkerville Polling Division ,   $132,370
,, Lightning Greek    do.  ,        176,445
,, Quesnellemouth     do.  ,  15,000
Amount received from crushing Quartz   1,000
Estimated amount not reported to Collectors         30,000        ,
$ 354,815
Amount purchased by Banks, less $48,000 which came from Keithley
and Forks of Quesnelle  $339,017
Estimated amount taken out of District in private hands        15,798
$ 354,815
"Considerable prospecting has been going on during the latter portion of the season
on outlying creeks. A large company has been formed for the purpose of prospecting
Deadwood Creek, and it is their intention to carry on operations during the winter.
"On Peter's Creek two companies are now prospecting, and I have learned that
one of them, on reaching bed-rock, obtained a prospect sufficient to pay wages. Should
this prove continuous, a large amount of ground is now open for location, as the creek is
some eight miles in length.
"On Lower Lightning Creek, about four miles above its confluence with Swift or
Cottonwood Eiver, a company (the Big Bonanza) has sunk a shaft some eighty feet,
obtaining at that depth a good prospect, but was, I understand, unable to reach bedrock, in the deepest part of the channel, owing to the quantity of water with which the
company had to contend. They are still persevering, putting on pumps and machinery
of greater capacity than those they have hitherto used.
" Several companies have made locations on the benches of Antler Creek, some ten
miles from its source, from which good prospects have been obtained. As these benches
are extensive, I anticipate tbat quite a number of men will here find remunerative
employment for several years.
"Snowshoe Creek, a tributary of Keithley, has attracted considerable attention
during the past year, and several companies are now prosecuting their researches with
every prospect of success.
"In the southern part of the district, important discoveries have been made by
Chinamen on Horse-fly River. These discoveries immediately attracted the attention
of the farmers and ranchmen of that vicinity. Several locations have been made and
companies formed by white men, some of which it is reported have proved to be rich.
The country is new and extensive, and many believe that this section of the district
will prove to be a most important mining camp.
"Mr. Archer, who collected the statistics for Lightning Creek polling division,
speaks most favourably of Nelson Creek, which, according to his returns, shows a larger
yield of gold per man than any creek or gulch in the district. No white men are
working on this creek, and the collector reports still a large amount of unoccupied
ground favourable for mining purposes.
"In the principal centres of population, the great attraction during the past year
has been the Quartz Ledges.
"These ledges, during the early part of the year, almost entirely monopolized the
attention of the miners; and the flattering reports of which attracted, perhaps, 150 men 374 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1878
from abroad; the latter, however, have nearly all left the district. And notwithstanding
the fact that no quartz claims as yet are actually giving returns to the owner, it would
be difficult, if indeed possible, to find a man in the district who has not the most implicit
confidence in the ultimate success of these mines. But I regret to say that there has
been a complete suspension of work on all claims located on the Bonanza Lode; and I
also deem it most unfortunate that the various companies located thereon do not unite
in sinking a shaft, say 500 feet deep, cross-cutting the vein at different levels, thereby
proving at once the value of this immense body of ore, and setting at rest a much vexed
question among experts.
"Among the companies at present working, the Enterprise is, perhaps, taking the
lead in the development of their mines. Having purchased Mr. Samuel Walker's
location on Island Mountain, near Mosquito Creek, they employed some six or seven
men during the last three months in taking out ore, and at present they have three or
four hundred tons on their dump ready for hauling to the mill. They-- have also procured
the use of ten stamps, with their appliances, from the British Columbia Milling and
Mining Company, and have placed them in the old Lane and Kurtz shaft house on
Williams Creek Meadows, where they have ample facilities for working the mill either
by steam or water power. The mill is now ready for crushing ore, and will commence
working as soon as there is sufficient snow for hauling the rock on sleighs.
"Mr. J. C. Beedy, of Lightning Creek, is also erecting a small quartz mill, having a
capacity equal to five ordinary stamps, which will be ready for operation next month.
The flattering result obtained from 1J tons of ore brought from his location on Burns'
Mountain, and crushed at Eichfield, has induced Mr. Beedy to erect this mill. At
present, there are over 200 tons of rock ready for hauling to the mill, and some twelve
men are employed in connection with this enterprise.
" The Forest Company, whose mine is situated on the mountain about one mile east
of Eichfield, have been working until quite recently.     They have now suspended all
operations, pending the result of negotiations with Mr. Edwin Eussell, of San Francisco, |
(who recently visited this district) with a view of placing a mill, of the capacity of ten
stamps, on the mine.
"The Proserpine Company are sinking on their claim, which is situated near the
Forest Mine. This location is most favourably situated, being, it is supposed, where the
Wilkinson and Montgomery Lodes join.
" The Quesnelle Quartz Mining Company, whose location is situated on Hixon
Creek, about fifty miles from Quesnellemouth, in a north-east direction, have had six
men employed during the greater portion of the summer. The quality of the ore taken
from this mine is of a higher grade than any yet found in the district. There is now a
quantity of the rock on its way to the mill at Eichfield, from the crushing of which a
favourable result is anticipated.
"The British Columbia Milling and Mining Company, after expending nearly
$100,000 in the purchasing and importation of a twenty-stamp mill, the grading and
tunnelling of their mine, suddenly suspended all operations. This was, I understand,
occasioned by the want of funds, and 1 trust is only temporary.
"In the development of our Quartz interests, it is to be regretted that there is not
more united effort among the owners of adjoining locations in sinking a shaft to a depth
that would thoroughly test the value of the lode, rather than expending their limited
means, it may be said uselessly, on their various claims. In my next annual report I
trust I shall be able to note an improvement in this j^articular.
"I have, etc.,
(Signed) "Jno. Bowron.
" Government Agent."
"Forks of Quesnelle,
" October 22nd, 1878.
"Sir,—I have the honour herewith to forward my report and mining statistics for
Keithley Division, Cariboo District; and although this year's report is no improvement
on my last, yet the prospects are much better for the coming season, owing to the fact
of good prospects being obtained on both Little and French Snowshoe Creeks (which
are tributaries of Keithley Creek), and the outlook is good for extensive paying diggings
on these heretofore neglected creeks. 42 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 875
"My report of the yield of gold is, in most cases, taken when on my annual rounds,
from the owners of the claims. The white men, who I am sorry to say are the fewest
in number, give all the required information most cheerfully, but the Chinese do not
give me much information; a few of them understand what is wanted, and are apparently
willing to tell the truth, but I believe the estimate is tolerably correct so far as it is
possible to be obtained.
" I have also visited the Horse-fly country, and found about forty men there, one-
half the number being white men. Nearly all of the Chinamen are in one claim, which
is paying well. One company of white men are washing, and they also have good pay.
There are two other companies of white men who are not washing yet, Dut have
bottomed their shaft and found good prospects. I have, etc.,
(Signed) "W. Stephenson,
"To the Hon. the Minister of Mines." " Government Agent.
Cassiar.
The hopes entertained in the Mining Eeport of last year, with regard to the discovery by Mr. Walker of a new creek, have, unfortunately, not been realized.
It is, however, most satisfactory to be able to report the rich " strike" on Defot
Creek. It is a small and short stream, but it yielded during the latter part of last
summer gold to the value of about $65,000. The greatest interest attaching to the
discovery, however, is the probability of its being the cause of opening up what may
prove to be the richest section of the most northern gold-field in the Province.
All mining work in this district is carried on under great and exceptionable difficulties; so much so, in fact, that the wonder is that the percentage of miners coming
down "broke" is not greater than has hitherto been the case.
The second report of the Gold Commissioner, dated the 18th December, is decidedly
encouraging, and will be read with interest. The importance of Mr. White's tunnel, on
Thibert Creek, is very great; affording as it does employment to men at a season of the
year when open mining is altogether out of the question.
The estimate made by the Gold Commissioner of the yield of gold is about $120,000
higher for last year than for 1877. Judging by the Bank returns, it is probable that his
estimate for 1877 was far too low, and that he is more approximately correct this year.
"Laketon, Cassiar,
" 18th October, 1878.
"Sir,—I have the honour herewith to forward, for the information of the Government, the Mining Statistics for 1878, and also to report upon this district as follows:—
" Owing in a great measure to the failure of Walker's Creek, and to the scarcity of
water in the different streams and gulches, etc., the season now at its close has not
proved a prosperous one for miners or others at Cassiar.
"A great many, from reports circulated last autumn, were induced to visit Walker's
Creek and that section of this district, and in almost every instance disappointment was
the only result of their enterprise.
"The untoward circumstances alluded to having deprived some hundreds of miners
of expected employment, several prospecting parties were organized, etc., with no
results, however, save to find out to some extent where the gold was not.
" Many went down the Deloire and Liard Eivers, penetrating through that country
for some hundreds of miles, and their reports, I regret, are not of a nature to induce
others to visit the localities where they have been.
" The country towards the head waters of the Stickeen has also been more or less
prospected, with a like unfavourable result.
" McDames Creek has but too truly verified my previous reports as to the spotted
nature of its auriferous deposits, and has during the past season been chiefly sustained
by yields from its First North Fork and some smaller creeks and gulches in that neighbourhood.
"Prospecting on the First North Fork, towards the summit, has been vigorously
carried on for the last eighteen months, but with no definite result as yet, the ground
proving difficult to work and the bed-rock to strike. The 'Empire' and 'White Grouse'
companies' tunnels have been run in for a distance of 1,300 feet and 900 feet respectively. 876 Report of the Minister of Mtnes. 1878
"About the middle of last August an excitement was created in regard to bar
diggings on the Upper Stickeen, distant about seventy miles from Telegraph Creek,
and close to where the confluence of the Clap-an and the Stickeen takes place. The
prospects obtained at first, however, did not last, and the transport, etc., of provisions
to that locality being attended with great expense that discoveiy has ceased to be of
interest to the mining community.
"Dease Creek being principally in the hands of the Chinese, it is very hard to
estimate the returns from it this year. A few claims, worked by white men, have done
well, and fair prospects are found in its hills, which are yet unworked for want of
dumpage.
" Thibert Creek promised well in commencement of season, but later on the majority
of the companies seemed to get off the lead. The great scarcity of water experienced
this year also caused much loss upon that creek.
"The excitement caused by the discovery of Defot Creek still prevails; being a
small creek, however, the majority of those visiting it after the first 'rush' had to content themselves with a look at what has proved to be, for its size, the richest creek yet
found in the district. I have seen many nuggets that have been taken from it weighing
about 10 ounces each, and one over 22 ounces; have heard that one, nine pounds in
weight, has been there unearthed, but not having seen it I am unable to vouch for the
correctness of that report. Some $65,000 has been the total output from that creek
since its discovery.
"Upon the divide from which Defot Creek heads, I have seen a great abundance of
quartz, and the gold taken from Defot Creek, as yoti approach the summit, has an
unwashed appearance, and in many instances seems to have been but recently delivered
from the matrix, etc.
"Hopes are entertained of finding other paying creeks in that direction next summer,
but it would be well if those thinking of visiting Cassiar in 1879 would bear in mind that
there is anything but a certainty awaiting them; and also that McDames Creek, which
has hitherto supported several hundred miners, is now almost 'worked out,' and that
in consequence a large number of the 'old hands' will have to depend entirely upon the
new section for employment in the coming spring.
"A brief sketch, shewing the distances which intervene between the relative centres,
etc., of population in this extensive district, may not be out of place, and is given as
follows:—Glenora, or Steamboat Landing, is the first arrived at after leaving Wrangel;
then comes Telegraph Creek, 11 miles higher up on the Stickeen; both are forwarding
depots for all the merchandize shipped into Cassiar. From Telegraph Creek to head of
Dease Lake, 70 odd miles, chained distance; thence to Laketon, 17 miles. Thiberts
Creek from Laketon is 9 miles. From Laketon to Defot Creek, over 30 miles. From
Laketon to Walker's Creek, over 120 miles; and from Laketon to McDames Creek town
(Centreville), over 90 miles. In addition to the above are numerous smaller creeks and
gulches, from 8 to 30 miles distant from McDames Creek; also are to be taken into
consideration the bar diggings on the Stickeen, Deloire, and Liard Eivers.
" The population this year has been estimated at about 1,500, exclusive of Indians.
Of that number, about one-half were scattered throughout the district in unsettled
localities, prospecting, etc., many of them having left early this season.
" Very few of all who visited these mines this year have been successful, and I
regret to add that the great majority, when leaving this fall, had to trust rather to
Providence than their own resources to enable them to reach Victoria or the Sound,
where they expected to obtain employment sufficient to supply them with the means of
support during the winter.
"This season has been remarkable for the few cases of sickness that have occurred.
There have been five deaths, of which two were accidental.
"Only one case of lunacy has come under my notice during the last three years at
Cassiar, and that within the past week. The name of the party afflicted is T. O'Brien,
a native, I understand, of New York, and a man who is well known throughout the
mines in this country. The sympathizing inhabitants of Laketon got up a subscription
towards having him taken to Wrangel, en route to Victoria or Portland, where proper
medical attendance can be had, etc., and the circumstances .being brought to myr notice,
as also the fact of his being entirely destitute, I advanced ?50, getting, a voucher of
receipt for same, on behalf of the Government. 42 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 377
"Criminal cases, for this year, as follows, viz.: Thos. Anderson, Indian, committed
last March for the wilful murder of his klootchman, at Glenora; Ah Sue, Chinaman,
committed in August last for the unlawful putting off, etc., of bogus or base gold dust.
The former has since been in jail, the latter has been let out on bail, and both are
awaiting trial.
"Owing to the general depression that prevailed in earlier part of season, packers
have not done well, there being but little freight shipped during that time.
"The mines are not over well stocked with provisions, and the same rates are
demanded as have been current during last two or three years.
"About 100 minors, it is supposed, will pass the winter upon the different mining
creeks, and some 200 are expected to remain at Glenora.
"The steamer 'Lady of the Lake' is still plying between head of Dease Lake and
Thiberts Creek. Weather continues moderate, and some mining (open) is still being
carried on.
"Having made every effort towards procuring correct statements, I submit the
following, viz.:—
■'&>
Dease Creek ,  $ 62,800
Thiberts Creek  65,600
McDames, and outlying gulches and creeks  101,320
Walkers Creek  35,000
Defot Creek ,  65,000
From localities not particularized  46,000
Allowance for inaccuracy of individual returns,, as given by claim
owners, who, in that respect, prove more reticent than ever  99,000
Amount likely to be taken out from date to 31st December, 1878  45,000
Total   $519,720
"I consider the total output for 1878, as above, to be under-estimated. The tabulated return for McDames Creek, etc., is far below what has been the yield from that
section, and I feel confident that the given aggregate will be found to be within the
number of thousands actually taken from the mines of Cassiar during the year 1878.
When, however, the difference in population is considered, there will be found, to have
been a falling off from last year in the amount of gold produced, etc.
"I have, etc.,
(Signed) "Arthur W. Vowell,
" To the Hon. "Gold Commissioner.
" The Provincial Secretary."
" Cassiar, 18th December, 1878.
« Sir, *        .      * * * * * *
"Mr. White's tunnel claim, on Thiberts Creek, continues to pay richly, and has
afforded employment up to the pi'esent to some 18 or 20 miners. Many claims have
been taken up in its vicinity, and prospecting is being there actively carried on.
" Reports from the First North Fork, McDames Creek, are, I am happy in being
able to report, encouraging. The Pocahontos company, on that gulch, has again got on
good pay. .
"About fifty-five men are wintering on McDames and outlying creeks; some sixty
and upwards on Dease and Thiberts; and about seventy odd in neighbourhood of the
Stickeen, exclusive of Indians.
"The season, up to the present, has been unusually mild; Dease Lake remained
open and navigable until the 8th instant. We have already had more snow than fell
during the entire winter of 1877-78.
" The health of the camp is good, and considering the season of the year the general
aspect is favourable.
* * * * * * # *
"I have, etc.,
(Signed) "A. W. Vowell,
" Gold Commissioner.
-. 1 he Hon. T. B. Humphreys,
" Provincial Secretary, Victoria." 878 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1878
Kootenay.
The report of the late Gold Commissioner of this district will be found below.
"Kootenay, 24th September, 1878.
" The Hon. the Minister of Mines.
"Sir,—In connection with the tabulated statement herewith forwarded, I have the
honour to report, for the information of the Lieutenant-Governor, that the estimate of
yield of gold in this district, for the season now passing, has been made after the most
careful enquiry, and I think it may be regarded as a very full return.
" A large proportion ol our sparse population, that follow mining, have been prospecting the past summer in different parts of the district, and I regret being obliged to
state that in no case has even partial success rewarded their efforts.
" Tiede and West prospected on Finlay Creek, about forty miles from this place, in
a north-west direction. Booth and Bobier tried Toby and other creeks, at a greater
distance, in the same direction. Powers, Lyons, Eidgway, and Moore worked on Perry
Creek, and got no return. The latter four, with some five or six other men, spent some
time on the Mouille and Weaver Creek, and every one of those prospectors returned
empty handed. Some eight or nine white men have since left the country, and others
are preparing to follow.
"The Chinese population, however, appear determined to take a firmer hold in this
district; they have increased slightly in the last year. They have been making bolder
efforts than heretofore to secure a large portion of the trade, and they promise an
increase of their countrymen in the district of from forty to fifty next spring.
" The known quartz ledges in Kootenay are in perfect quiet. Some assays procured by H. S. Booth, in Montana, showed returns so small that no person here wants
quartz at present.
"All of the above is respectfully submitted by your most obedient servant,
(Signed) "Cornelius Booth,
" Gold Commissioner."
Okanagan.
With respect to the mines in the Okanagan section of the Yale District, no official
report has been received; but the most reliable information obtainable is to the effect,
that though the expectations formed by the miners last year have not been altogether
realized, nor the yield of gold as large as there was every reason to anticipate, still a
number of men found employment, with more or less success, both on Cherry and
Mission Creeks. Some work, under the guidance of Mr. Torrance, was also done on the
quartz ledge on Cherry Creek, referred to in the Mining Eeport of last year as containing
silver.
This gentleman, representing capitalists in Montreal, has formed a favourable
opinion of the silver deposits in this locality, and is most sanguine of success should the
company see fit to continue their operations this summer.
Kamloops.
A few Chinamen are still mining on the bars of the Tranquille Eiver, and the
Government Agent's estimate of the amount of gold obtained does not substantially
vary from that of last year. The 12-mile creek on the North Thompson Eiver is being
prospected by a company of four white men. Should they succeed in finding paying
ground it would add greatly to the importance and prosperity of this section of the Yale
District.
" Kamloops, 30th October, 1878.
"Sir,—Enclosed herewith you will find mining statistics for the year 1878, Kamloops Division of Yale.
" There is very little mining done in this part of the district. A few Chinese are
still working on Tranquille Creek; it is difficult to find out from them what they are
really making, not much I imagine. Most of the old miners are working in the hotels
or cooking for the ranchers; those left, plead poverty, and it is hard work getting from
them the amount of their mining licence.     A few of them tried 12-mile creek, North 42 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 379
Thompson Eiver, last summer, but failed to find satisfactory evidence of the existence
of gold in paying quantities on that stream. Since then, however, a company of white
men have started in, and having found what they considered a favourable location,
commenced sinking a shaft; they have now reached a depth of over fifty feet. I am
informed by the foreman, Mr. Guerin, an old Caribooite, that the indications are favourable, and that he and his partners are very sanguine of striking paying diggings when
they reach bed-rock. If they should be fortunate enough to do so, there will be plenty
of room for others to try their luck, as the creek is large and ^accessible.
" I have, etc.,
(Signed) "John Ussher,
" The Deputy .Provincial Secretary." " Government Agent.
Hope and Yale.
The bars and benches of the Fraser Eiver appear to be almost inexhaustible, and
the Government Agent's report, which will be found below, is important and interesting,
" Yale, llth October, 1878.
"Sir,—In pursuance of your request of the 8th July last, I beg to forward herewith
my report, with mining statistics, for the Hope and Yale Divisions of, the Yale District,
for the year 1878, by which it will be seen that there is a considerable increase over
my last year's returns.
"In my previous annual reports I have alluded to the extensive flats, bearing
characteristic indications, which flank on each side of the Fraser Eiver, and which
undoubtedly contain rich deposits of gold. The Murphy Bros, have, in one instance,
verified this opinion, by striking good paying diggings in the interior of Union Bar flat,
paying to the hand from eight to ten dollars per diem. The Chinese company, at Hill's
Bar flat, are also working with satisfactory results, thereby proving, after the lapse of
twenty years, the existence of valuable placer deposits, which only require a little pluck
and energy to open up. To develop the mineral wealth of these divisions is an object
of the highest importance; and it is trusted that sufficient nerve and energy will be
forthcoming to attain this result.
"It is considered that, although so far little has been done in this direction, the
the time is not far distant when the quartz resources of these divisions will be stimulated
and developed with greater energy.
********
" I have, etc.,
(Signed) " Wiixiam Teague,
■' Government Agent.
" To the Hon. the Minister of Mines."
SILVER.
Mr. Teague's reports, with regard to the Yale Creek Silver Mines, are encouraging.
Amalgam, and rock in a crude state, have been forwarded to Cariboo to be tested and
reported upon by the Government Assayer. Great hopes are entertained that these
mines will be found sufficiently rich to be worked at a profit; it is unnecessary to dilate
on the advantages which would result to the Province should these hopes be realized.
It is regretted that the results obtained by the Government Assayer, from the samples
forwarded, cannot be received in time for publication in this report.
Prospecting on the Hope Silver Mines is not at present being carried on; it is
probable, however, that renewed activity will be shown in this direction should the
return made from the Yale Creek rock be even fairly favourable.
"Yale, llth October, 1878.
"Sir,— *******
" I am informed that, on account of the late good reports and prospects, local
capital is forthcoming for the development of a silver-bearing ledge which was discovered
a short time since, about four miles back of Yale, on Yale Creek, of which tests have 380 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1878
just been made from two locations with most satisfactory results. From the Yale company's claim, half a pound of rock was worked by Mr. Sleight, a gentleman who has
had considerable experience in treating and working the silVer ores of the Ontario
Silver Mine, Utah, and who tested it by the amal: amation process; the result was
indeed surprising, giving a return of about two ounces of pure silver. The second test
of one pound is in course of preparation, but not completed; I have seen the pulp, which
shows rich in amalgam. The lode is apparently well defined, from four to six feet in
width. The ore is chiefly a sulphuret, and embedded in tale formation, with indications
of yielding largely. Wood and water can be easily supplied, and in sufficient quantities
as may be required, at a very trifling cost, for milling and dressing purposes; the ore
can therefore be returned at a very small cost.
"The season has been an exciting one with regard to quartz resources. During the
summer months both white men and Indians have been searching the creeks and
mountains with unabated activity, looking after argentiferous quartz; and in many
instances fine specimens of rock—impregnated with arsenical and copper pyrites, galena,
copper, with portions of silver and gold—of a most promising character have been taken
from the out-croppings of various ledges found in most favourable localities; and in
some instances favourable reports and assays have been received by me of specimens
sent to Cornwall. Eeturns from there show a yield of 10 ozs. of silver to 2,0001bs. from
a piece of rock taken from the out-croppings of a ledge on Thompson Eiver, near the 100
mile post; this is a promising lode, and is to be vigorously wrought upon during the
winter months, and samples obtained at a greater depth will be transmitted for inspection, next spring, to members of the Cornwall and Devon Mining Association.
" Eighteen applications have been received during the season for mineral lands,
which I hope will tend towards the opening up and working the mineral deposits of
the district.
" The Hope silver mines are still in abeyance. "I have, etc.,
(Signed) "William Teaguk,
" To the Hon. the Minister of Mines." " Government Agent.
" Yale, 20th February, 1879.
"Sir,—The Yale Creek Silver Mines are situated in a northerly direction, in a basin
form, on Yale Creek, a distance of about three miles from Yale. They are reached by a
circuitous trail, after an hour's walk over a good grade affording every facility of easily
making a good road for the transit of machinery when necessarily required for the
mines, which can be laid thereat without any obstacles of advance, and at a very trifling
cost. The vein matter is embedded in mica schist, and the overlaying strata is very
segregated, tilted, and twisted in all manner of ways, evidently by the force of some
powerful agencies. The supply of wood and water seems to be unlimited, and the
surrounding hills are clothed with a magnificent forest of pine adapted for every useful
mining purpose, which are important considerations for the concentration of the ores,
as low grade ores could be inexpensively worked, and possibly under skilful management be made remunerative; these are privileges that should not be overlooked, and
are often indicators of success in mining affairs. It may be said that mining enterprises
have reached such a pass that many men are afraid with limited means of taking an
active part in any mining affair after the recent vacillations; but, nevertheless, there
is 'balm in Gilead,' although at present it is up hill Avork to travel to develop the
mineral resources of the Province which are yet in embryo; but the day will come
when the cloud with its silver lining will shine forth with its resplendent lustre. From
time immemorial it has been the essential qualities of the miner to explore or prospect
the surface of a country for minerals; therefore, without spirit, energy, perseverance,
hope, and practical knowledge in mining, mining enterprises would soon be a thing of
the past—retarding the progress of civilization, and sinking the achievements of modern
sciences, without the use of metals and their mode of application, into oblivion.
"The first company to take up the gauntlet is the 'Yale Creek Silver Mining Co.,'
who, with an enterprising spirit, have erected a cabin and a smithery, with a company
of men at work who are making fair progress in driving their tunnel to cross-cut the
lode. The indications being met with in the explorations are of a highly encouraging
and hopeful character; the branches of ore already met with increase in size as distance 42 Vic. Report op the Minister of Mines. 381
is attained, carrying a combination of oxidized or 'Keenly' quartz, antimony, and
sulphurets of iron. The ledges are embedded in a most congenial strata, which is
marked with most favourable characteristics for rich deposits of ore at deeper levels.
"The adjoining location, on the east, is the 'Cambie Silver Mining Company,'
possessing every favourable geological feature to the eye of being a remunerative piece
of property, the company being about to commence their operations by letting a contract
for driving a tunnel, an estimated distance of 60 feet, through a favourable stratum of
talc schist, to cut the lode.
"The 'California Company' adjoins the 'Cambie' and the Yale Creek companies on
the south, and are preparing to follow in similar course to prospect their ground, of
which they are sanguine of good results.
"There are two other locations, but the parties have not yet matured their plans of
working.
"The assays made from the different companies' locations have resulted with most
satisfactory returns, and it is hopeful that we are upon the eve of the turning point of
success, and that the promising indications met with at the Yale Creek Mines will
successfully open out with good results, turning the tide in our mining resources which
have been hitherto so unfortunately mismanaged. "I have, etc.,
(Signed) "William Teague,
"To the Hon. the Minister of Mines." " Government Agent.
"Yale, 15th March, 1879.
"Sir,—Since my report to you referring to the Yale Creek Silver Mines, I have the
honour to forward herewith, for your information and inspection, 9£ ounces of silver
amalgam, the yield of 14£ft>s. of rock taken from the ledge, which was an average
sample for a true working test, made by Mr. John Sleight, by the amalgamation process,
who is an experienced hand in treating ores, and who has taken since his sojourn
among us indefatigable pains in testing and working rock, free of charges, for the benefit
of parties who interest themselves in exploring the country for mineral quartz. The
specimens of rock accompanying are fair average samples of the rock tested. The lode
appears embedded and running parallel and in conjunction with talcose and serpentine
rocks, or stratum, by east-north-east and west-south-west direction. The reason the
bullion appears in so many pieces, is on account of not having a sufficient receptacle for
holding and working the pulp all at one time, therefore Mr. Sleight was obliged to
work it in such quantities as his appliances would permit. Be pleased to send me the
number of ounces after the amalgam is retorted. " I have, etc.,
(Signed) "William TeIgue,
" To tlie Hon. the Minister of Mines." " Government Agent.
COAL.
It is pleasant to read the able and satisfactory report of the Inspector of Mines.
In spite of the disadvantages of cheap coal, and the import duty, at San Francisco,
the output has steadilyr, and to an appreciable extent, increased; so much so in fact that
the production of last year moro than doubled that of 1874..
The following Table shows the total output of each year, from 1874 to 1878
inclusive:—
Year. No. of tons.
1874     81,000
1875  110,000
1876  139,000
1877  154,000
1878  171,000 382 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1878
"Nanaimo, B. C, 13th February, 1879.
"Sir,—I have the honour to enclose my report as Inspector of Mines. Annexed
thereto are returns from the Vancouver Coal Co., and from Messrs. Dunsmuir, Diggle,
& Co. I have not received returns from the other mines, as they have been doing
hardly anything during the past year. " I have, etc.,
(Signed) "Edwd. Gawler Prior,
" The Hon. T. B. Humphreys, " Inspector of Mines.
" Minister of Mines."
" Inspector of Mines' Office,
"Nanaimo, 5th February, 1879.
" Sir,—I have the honour to transmit my annual report, in conformity with Section
43, 'Coal Mines Eegulation Act, 1877.'
"The Coal Mines of Vancouver Island have, during the year 1878, passed through
a period of unprecedented discouragement; the prices at San Francisco, the chief foreign
market for these coals, having reached the lowest rate yet attained; indeed, while
subjected to so much depression, only the most able commercial management, and the
utmost economy in carrying on the works, have saved this important industry from
entire cessation.
" Under the pressure of these circumstances, the Baynes Sound and Harewood
Mines have ceased operations; but as some counterbalance to this falling off, the South
Wellington Co. have been constructing preparatory works upon a considerable scale.
" The coal mines which have been in active operation during the past year, viz.:
the Vancouver Coal Company's Douglas, Chase Kiver, and Fitzwilliam Mines; and the
Wellington Company's Mine, have, however, shown satisfactory progress, having produced upwards of 171,000 tons of coal during the year 1878, against 154,000 tons the
total output of four proprietories carrying on work in 1877, being an increase of 17,000
tons for 1878; and the greater excess of 32,000 tons over tho total output of 1876.
"In view of the extremely low rates obtained for coal in San Francisco throughout
the past year, it is gratifying to find that the shipments of coal to that port have not
diminished, but largely increased, thus manifesting a praiseworthy determination on
the part of the managers of these mines not to be beaten out of their accustomed
channels of trade.
"During the year 1878 over 164,000 tons of coal, the produce of Vancouver Island,
have been shipped to San Francisco and Southern Ports of California; Portland, Oregon;
Seattle, Washington Territory (gas coal); Ounalaska, Alaska; Mexican Ports, Hawaiian
Islands, and Hong-Kong; vessels belonging to various navies; and to the steamships of
the several mail services.
" The foreign shipments of coal for 1878, show the remarkable increase of nearly
50,000 tons over the foreign shipments of 1877.
"Undoubtedly the unfortunate stoppage of work at the Wellington Colliery lessened
the total output and shipments of coal for the year 1877, but, on the other hand, the
idleness of both the Vancouver Coal Company's mines and the Wellington Company's
mine during portions of several months of the dullest times of 1878 equalize the actual
working time of the mines in the years under comparison, and so justify the deduction
that the coal industry of this Province is in a promising state of development and
progress.
" The sales of coal for home consumption are small in proportion to the quantities
exported.   These sales for 1878 were 1,655 tons more than those of 1877.
"I am happy to state that only three fatal accidents have occurred in or about these
coal mines during the past year. No. 1 : On June 28th, a Chinaman, named Ah Shan,
was killed in the Chase Eiver Mine by being crushed between the box and the ' rib.'
From the evidence given at the inquest, it appeared that the deceased was 'hanging on '
at the bottom of a self-acting incline, and instead of fastening the rope to the box by
means of the proper iron hook provided for that purpose, he made a loop of the rope,
and fastened it with a small stick. The rope becoming suddenly slack the stick dropped
out and the box ran back on him and crushed him against the coal. The man was
entirely to blame himself, as he was warned not to fasten the rope in the manner he did. 42 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 383
"No. 2: On September 2nd, a miner, named William Jeffery, was killed in the
Douglas Mine by a large piece of coal falling on him. The unfortunate man was lying
under the coal, having undermined it, and was still engaged in that operation when the
mass suddenly came away, and falling on him, crushed him to death. The deceased was
a very steady, experienced miner, and the evidence given at the inquest went to shew
that the accident occurred simply from the deceased trusting too much to the natural
adhesion of the coal.
" I am sorry to say that a large proportion of both fatal and non-fatal accidents
which occur in these mines arise from the fact of men not setting sufficient "spraggs"
or props. From personal observation, I am able to state that plenty of timber is
supplied to them for that purpose, but very often, if a prop is not close at hand, a man
will run the risk of getting hurt to save himself trouble. Another reason why this
class of accident is more frequent than any other is, that many men engaged in coal
mining in this Province are not experienced miners, but men who have been accustomed
to other branches of labour. To be able to secure some places properly with timber, a
man must be an experienced miner.
"No. 3: On December 6th, a Chinaman, named Kong Sing, was killed on an incline
on the Wellington Colliery tramway. From the evidence taken at the Coroner's inquest
it seems that the deceased was a brakesman in charge of the 'run,' and that at the time
he met his death he was riding on the front waggon going up the incline. When near
the top, the 'run ' was thrown off by an iron rail which was laid across the track. The
Chinaman was pitched off the front waggon, and three or four waggons passing over
him he was so fearfully mangled that he died almost immediately. The verdict returned
by the Coroner's jury was to the effect that the rail was placed there purposely, by
some person or persons unknown. I was present at the inquest, and it was proved
beyond doubt that the rail could not have got there by accident. As yet no clue to the
perpetrator of this dastardly act has been found.
"In regard to this incline I would beg to state that it is my opinion that, sooner or
later, a very serious accident will occur, as many women and children are in the habit
of riding on the waggons running on this incline, although constantly warned by the
colliery officials against doing so. Printed notices are also posted up in conspicuous
places, warning persons against riding on the waggons, but they do not seem to be
needed. This incline is 1,0'0 yards long, and has a rise of about 1 in 18, so that if the
rope was to break when women or children were on the 'run' they would stand but a
slight chance of escaping with their lives.
"There have been seven non-fatal accidents during the past year, causing serious
injury to seven persons. Three of these were caused by falls of coal and rock, one by
being crushed between boxes, one by a blasting shot, and two by explosions of fire-damp.
" One of the two men injured by explosions of gas was a fireman, whose duty it was
to inspect the mine before the miners went into their 'stalls,' etc. On the morning of
the accident, as his safety lamp with which he is provided would not burn well, he proceeded on his round of inspection with a naked light in one hand and his safety lamp in
the other. On going up a heading, a quantity of fire-damp, which had collected during
the night owing to some brattice having been knocked down, ignited at his naked light
and burnt him very severely. Fortunately there was not a sufficient quantity of pure
air mixed with the carburetted hydrogen gas to make it extremely explosive, or the man
could hardly have escaped with his life. As he received a very severe lesson, I did not
deem it advisable to take any proceedings against him.
" The ventilation in the several mines has been much improved during the past year.
"In the Wellington Colliery there was an average of 40,000 cubic feet of air per
minute passing in the main return, and this quantity was well distributed. In this mine
more fire-damp has been met with in the lower workings than was encountered to the
rise, which is quite to be expected; but with ordinary care, combined with the good
ventilation that is there, no danger need be anticipated.
" In the Chase Eiver Mine I found an average of 35,000 cubic feet of air running
per minute, which was well conducted round the faces. The above-mentioned amount
of air, viz., b5,000 cubic feet per minute, can be largely increased, with very little
trouble, if at any time it is needed. In this mine a good deal of annoyance is caused
to the miners by sulphureted hydrogen gas, which is given off in various places.
This gas affects them most when undermining and shearing the coal, at which time it 384
Report of the Minister of Mines.
1878
gets into the eyes and causes great inflammation and temporary blindness. No ordinary
amount of wind passing will keep this gas from the miner, as his work keeps him so
very close to the coal.
"There is not such a marked improvement in the ventilation of the Douglas Mine
as in the others.
"During the past year a great deal of work has been done in connection with the
South Wellington Colliery. A railway over three miles in length has been built, running from the mine, which is situated between Nanaimo and Wellington, through the
Vancouver Coal Company's land, to the sea at Departure Bay, where a large loading-
pier has been erected. A. pair of horizontal engines and two large boilers have been
placed in position at the pit, which is sunk to the coal, and another shaft has been sunk
down to a depth of 150 feet, which will be used as an upcast. Very little work has been
done in the coal as yet, owing to some unfortunate trouble connected with the ownership, but active operations in this branch may soon be expected.
"The Harewood Colliery and the Baynes Sound Colliery have not been putting out
any coal, having, as before stated, suspended operations for some time at least.
" All work at the Fitzwilliam Mine has now been stopped with the exception of
pumping.
"The Union Coal Company did some prospecting on their estate at Comox during
the summer, but no coal was taken out.
" Several bore-holes have been put down by the various Coal Companies; notably,
one by the Vancouver Coal Company to a depth of 746 feet by means of their diamond
drill; one by Messrs. Dunsmuir, Diggle & Co., to a depth of 500 feet; one by the Baynes
Sound Coal Co., to a depth of 375 feet; and one on the Westwood Estate, to a depth of
290 feet.
"I have the honour to give a list of those persons to whom ' Certificates of Service'
have been issued in accordance with section 26, 'Coal Mines' Eegulation Act, 1877':
T. A. Bulkley, John Bryden, James Dunsmuir, Thomas Cairns, John Dick, Archibald
Dick, James Gillespie, E. G. Prior.
" The following is a statement showing the amount of coal raised and the number
of fatal and non-fatal accidents that have occurred during the last three years:—
Year.
Tons raised.
Fatal accidents.
Non-fatal accidents.
Tons raised per life lost.
1876
139,191
4
9
34,797
1877
154,052
5
14
30,810
1878
170,496
3
7
56,832
"From the above figures you will perceive that in the past year there has been
about eighty-four per cent, more coal brought to the surface for each life lost than there
was during the preceding year.
"This, I think you must consider, is a very satisfactory result for the year 1878.
"Annexed are the usual colliery returns from those mines that have been working.
"I have, etc.,
Hon, T. B. Humphreys,
Minister of Mines, &c, &c, &c.
(Signed) " Edward Gawler Prior.
" Government Inspector of Mines " 42 Vic.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
385
Nanaimo Collieries.
Output of Coal  for
12 months, ending
31st Dec., 1878.
No. of tons sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons sold for
exportation.
No. of tons on hand,
January 1st, 1878.
No. of tons unsold,
including coal  in
stock, Jan.l, 1879.
82,135 tons.
Dullness  of trade
was the cause of the
Company's mines not
working     part     of
several    months    in
the year,—hence the
falling off in output.
14,729 tons.
81,699 tons.
19,670 tons, 3 cwt.
5,377 tons.
Number of hands employed.
Wages per day.
Whites—
Men, 237
Boys, 20
Chinese, 91
Indians, 25
Whites,
$1 75 to $3 75
Chinese,
$1 to $1 25
Indians,
$1 to $1 50
Total hands employed, 373.
Miners' earnings per day, $2 50 to $5 00.
Note—The number of hands employed does not include Indians or Chinamen working for miners, and paid by them.
Names of seams or pits  Douglas, Chase Eiver, and Fitzwilliam.
Value of plant  $120,000.
Description of seams, tunnels, Douglas Mine, Nanaimo, worked by slope; there are six
levels, shafts, etc., and number levels, three of which are in operation. The coal
of same. produced is of excellent quality, and in the lowest
level is about 5} to 6 feet thick. The Douglas coal
is first-class for steaming and gas making. The old
Douglas Pit is now used as an up-east shaft.
New Douglas Mine is situated near Chase Eiver, about
If miles from the Douglas Pit. The mine is being
opened up by slope with three north and three south
levels. The seam extends from 4J to 9 feet in thickness of clean coal of first-class quality for steam and
household purposes. The New Douglas coal is also
known as "Chase Eiver coal," and is held in the
highest estimation in the domestic and foreign
markets.
Extension of Works—For some time past the section oi
the Company's land to the south of Chase Eiver has
been under exploration, and by means of the Company's diamond boring machine, etc., the seam of
coal has been proved to extend under a large area of
the Company's property. Works preliminary to
opening up the seam are in progress.
Fitzwilliam Mine, on Newcastle Island, has been worked
by slope of 800 yards. Fitzwilliam coal is a superior
article for household use. This mine was idle nine
months of last yenr owing to slackness of trade. 386
Report of the Minister of Mines.
1878
Description and length of tramway, plant, etc.
Newcastle Mine ; not in operation; 240 yards by slope,
on Newcastle Island.
Chase Eiver Mine; 290 feet deep by shaft; not in
operation.
The Company's Eailway is a little more than two miles
in length, constructed of double-headed steel rails,
52 lbs. t(' the yard, laid on chairs, bolted to wooden
ties. The railway exteuds from the New Douglas
Mine to the Company's loading pier, with sidings for
shunting, and branches to the Douglas Pit, etc.
The Company have powerful winding engines, steam
pumps, etc., fifty 5J ton coal cars, fifty 3J-ton cars,
and three locomotives. There are facilities at the
Company's wharves for delivering one thousand five
hundred (1,500) tons of coal per day. The Company
have accommodation at their wharves for vessels of
the capacity of the "Baring Brothers," carrying 3,300
tons of coal, and drawing 27 feet of water.
(Signed) M. Bate.
Wellington Colliery.
Output  of  Coal  for
12  months ending
31st Dec., 1878.
No  of tons sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons sold for
exportation.
No. of tons on hand
1st January, lb78.
No.   of tons unsold,
including  Coal  in
stock, Jan.1st,1879
88,361 tons 11 cwt.
11,237 tons 10 cwt.
82,983 tons.
6,794 tons 13 cwt.
935 tons 14 cwt.
No. of hands employed.
Wages per day.
Whites—
Men, 165
Boys, none.
Chinese, 129
Indians, none.
Whites,
$2 to $2  50
Chinese,
$1 to $1 25
Indians,
Total hands employed, 294.
Miners' earnings per day, from $3 50 to $5.
Name of seams or pits  Wellington Seam.
Value of plant	
Description of seams, tunnels,
levels, shafts, etc , and number
of same  Slope.
Description and length of tramway, plant, etc  3i miles railway. 42 Vic.
Eeport of the Minister of Mines.
387
*South Wellington Colliery.
Output  of Coal  for
12 months ending
31st Dec, 1878.
No. of tons sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons sold for
exportation.
No. of tons on hand,
1st January, 1878.
No.  of tons unsold,
including   coal  in
stock, Jan.l, 1*79.
350 tons.
200 tons.
None.
None.
150 tons.
No. of hands employed.
Wages per day.
Whites, 20 :—
Men, 17
Boys, 3
(
.hinese, 10
Indians, none.
Whites,
—.
Chinese, —,
Indians, —.
Total hands employed, 30.
Miners wages per day,
Name of seams or pits  Wellington seam at South Wellington Pit.
Value of plant  $60,000.
Description of seams, tunnels,
levels, shafts, etc., and number
of same.
Description and length of tramway, plant, etc.
Wellington seam is all that is worked in this property
at present. Shaft is 162 feet deep, vertical, to coal,
which is 11 feet thick. There is only one level driven,
nearly due south, a distance of 300 feet from near end
of this level. Shaft, which was intended for air-
shaft, is sunk about 150 feet deep; exact course and
distance from end of said level to where air-shaft
would come through is S., 2° W., magnetic; distance,
162 feet. From above description it will be seen
there are two shafts, one of which cuts the vein, the
other supposed to be near vein.
Tramway and  plant  in   unfinished  state.     Value
same I have included in value of plant above.
(Signed) E. Wingate.
Agent.
of
*This Eeturn was received too late to be included in the Report of the Inspector of Mines.

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