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SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT ON THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. 1876-77. BY THE SUPERINTENDENT… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1878

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 Sixth  Annual   Report
ON THE
PUBLIC   SCHOOLS
OF THE PROVINCE OF
British Columbia.
187S-77.
BY THE
SUPERINTENDENT   OP   EDUCATION.
212Sitf) appirtitceg.
VICTORIA : Printed by Richard Wolfenden, Government Printer,
at the Government Printing: Office, James' Bay.
1877.  41 Vic. Public Schools Report.
Education Office,
.    October 1st, 1877.
Sir,—In conformity with the School Act, I have the honour to forward herewith,
for the information of His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, my Report
on the Public Schools of British Columbia, for the year ending 31st July, 1877.
Statistical Tables and Appendices are added to the Report, illustrative of the means
which have been adopted by the Board of Education for the promotion of the educational interests of the Province.
I have the honour to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
John Jessop,
Superintendent of Education.
To the Son. A. C. Elliott,
Provincial Secretary,
&c, &c, &c.  41 Vic. Public Schools Report.
PART I.
General Report.  41 Vic. Public Schools Report.
\
SIXTH   ANNUAL  REPORT
OF THE
Superintendent of Education.
1876-77.
To His Excellency the Honourable Albert Norton Richards, Lieutenant-Governor of the
Province of British Columbia:
May it Please Your Excellency:—
I have the honour to submit the sixth Annual Report on the Public Schools of
British Columbia, as required by the provisions of " Consolidated Public School Act, 1876."
The steady advancement which has been made in educational work from year to
year, as shown by statistical tables, must be a source of gratification to your Excellency
and to the people of this Province.
At no former period has it been more marked than that covered by this present
Report.    The following synopsis of tables fully corroborates this statement:—
Table A.—The number of children in the Province between the ages of five and
sixteen Jas given in this table, is only closely approximate—for reasons set forth on
page 14. That this number, 2,734, is not over estimated is evident from the fact
that the increase is less than that of attendance at the Public Schools as shown by very
accurate and complete returns from all the districts, with one or two exceptions, where
from personal knowledge those statistics could be easily supplied. Eighteen hundred
and eighty-eight of these children are in actual attendance with more or less regularity.
To these may be added 50 reported "of other ages," making 1,938 in all—1,071 boys and
867 girls—an increase of 253 over last year. " One hundred children are reported as
absentees. This does not include the three principal centres of population, namely,
Victoria, Nanaimo, and New Westminster, as that statistic is unobtainable in these cities.
Improvement in this respect is gradually going on in nearly all the country districts. The
most gratifying feature in Table A is the great increase in average attendance, this being
the most reliable basis for estimating school advancement so far as statistics are concerned.
Over 227 or more than 23 per cent, must be considered a good proof of substantial
progress. A summary of this increase for the past five years shows how steadily it has
been going on:—1872-3, 584}; 1873-4, 766}; 1874-5, 862f; 1875-6, 9831; 1876-7, 1,210 4-5.
While average attendance has been advancing from 20 to 30 per cent, annually, increased
expenditure has been less than five per cent, from year to year. The increase in attendance and average is spread over all the subjects of study, with the exception of 1st and
2nd Readers, thus showing that there have been fewer beginners this year than last.
Geography and History have obtained a greater increase than any of the other subjects.
First reader, 661; second, 350; third, 392; fourth, 260; fifth, 249; arithmetic, 1,467; English grammar, 809; geography, 1,037; history, 530; book-keeping, 103; mensuration, 30; Public Schools Report. 1877
algebra, 103; euclid, 16; natural philosophy, 23; vocal music, 613; linear drawing, 149;
physiology, 71; writing, 1,636; dictation, 877; other studies, 215.
Table B.—From this table we find that 71 teachers have been employed during the
year, some of them however only for short periods. First-class A, 11; first-class B, 12;
—an increase of ten during the year ; second-class A, 13; second-class B, 10; increase
two; third-class A, 5; third-class B, 4; increase 4; temporary certificates, 4; not certificated, 9—a decrease of four. The great increase of first-class teachers speaks well, not
only for further efficiency in the schools, but for energy and perseverance among those
who are thus working up in the profession.
Table C.—The new school house erected at Hope has reduced the item of rent to
$10 per month for two buildings. Forty-four are public property; Court houses are used
in two districts, and in one the school house rent is free. Number of visits recorded is
about 700, an increase of 150 since last year. Teachers in may of the districts are not
sufficiently careful either in requesting visitors to put down their names or in recording
them themselves.
As authorized text books are now in general use, this table is omitted. But few
schools are now without maps or blackboards. The large ones, however, are much in
need of school requisites of various descriptions.
Table D.—Salaries .of the seventy-one teachers employed during the year amounted
to $36,314 98. Some of these were pupil teachers at low salaries, and others held
appointments for short periods. The average salary is $702 07 per annum; $57 66
higher than last year. This increase is occasioned by the employment of. a greater
number of certificated teachers, and the salaries of High School masters being brought
in. Highest amount now paid is $125 and the lowest for qualified teachers $50 per
month. For the year under consideration, payments have been—one monthly salary
$125 ; four, $100 ; one, $90; two, $75 ; six, $70 ; thirteen, $60 ; one, $55 ; twenty, $50 ;
two (uncertificated) $40, and one junior teacher in Victoria, $40. The incidental
expenses item amounted to $2,863 60—about $350 less than the year preceding. Rent
item has been reduced from $408 to $129. Building, fitting-up, and furnishing school
houses $2,034 43—$100 90 less than was expended in 1875-6. Total district expenditure
$41,342 01; leaving a balance in the hands of the Secretary-Treasurers, as far as the
returns show, of $1,745 20.
Table E.—A synopsis of this table is given in District School Special Reports.
Table F.—The attendance and average in Table A are exclusive of the High School.
In this table they are brought in. It will be found therefore that the cost of each pupil
attending school for the year was $22 68; for each one of the average $36. Last year
these figures should have been $24 06 and $41 22, as the Education Office expenses
were left out of the calculation. Taking the same basis this year, they would be $20 69
and $32 81 respectively. Per capita cost is therefore $1 38 less on the attendance, and
$5 22 on the average than for the previous year. This is a most satisfactory decrease,
and that too when Education Office expenses have been increased by the appointment
of a Deputy Superintendent of Education. Although this cost of each pupil is large,
yet, all things considered, it will compare not unfavourably with average yearly cost in
other Provinces, and in the neighbouring States. In Massachusetts and Connecticut
it amounted to $30 and $22 50 respectively; in New York and Pennsylvania $20 85 and
$17 ; in California and Arizona $25 82 and $57 66. This statistic for Oregon and
Washington Territory was not obtainable—probably it was about the same as in
California. Twenty-eight States and Territories gave an average annual cost of $17 per
pupil. In Ontario the cost, as per last report was more than $15, and in Quebec something over $12. Some are apt to imagine that because the school grant has to be
increased above $2,000 per annum that the cost of education is increasing, while the
very reverse is the case, in consequence of the advance in the ratio of attendance and
average being greater than that in expenditure.
Irregular attendance detracts very seriously from educational results. This statistic
for the Province is 37} per cent. More than one-third therefore of all the energy put
forth by teachers is wasted, and that proportion of the school grant expended to no
pui'pose.   It is amazing that those parents who are habitually careless and dilatory 41 Vic. Public Schools Report.
cannot be brought to look at this terrible drawback to school prosperity in its proper
light. If they would but give the matter that attention which its importance deserves,
this statistic in future years would be reduced below 10 per cent. The average non-
attendance in country districts, about 10 per cent., cannot be complained of. In a few
of them it is high, but in a majority it amounts to very little.
Table G.—As the book concern forms the subject of a separate article, it is unnecessary to refer to this table in detail.
Table H.—Education Office expenditure has been increased this year by the
appointment of a Deputy Superintendent of Education. Travelling expense item is also
larger, in consequence of more travelling being done than formerly to reach the schools;
these being more in number and very far apart. However desirable it may be to visit
schools more than once annually, in many instances it is impracticable to do so, on account
of their great distance from each other and the enormous cost of transit, especially in
the upper country. The great and constantly increasing amount of office work does not
admit of sufficient time for thorough school inspection, even among the districts within
easy reach of the seat of Government. Means, however, must be devised whereby
schools in the lower portions of the Province, at least, can be oftener visited than
heretofore.
Office expenditure was $4,007 83, which, with $41,342 01 expended in school
districts, make a total of $45,349 84.
During the year, 867 business letters were received and 673 written, not including
the correspondence of the Deputy Superintendent in the interior. The great number of
letters from the Eastern Provinces, which came to hand last winter, from parties
applying for situations as teachers, and asking for information of all descriptions,
necessitated a general reply through some of the leading journals, as it was impossible
to answer all these communications. A letter (Appendix J of this Report) was accordingly addressed to the Toronto Daily Globe, and published in February.
Sixty official school visits were made throughout the Province during the year.
Table K.—By reference to this table it will be seen that the estimated value
of public school property in the Province is $75,000. In 1872 it was less than $12,000.
Special grants cover about one-half of the expenditure for school improvements; the
other half was paid out of the annual educational appropriation. Deducting the value
of school property, therefore, from the total amount expended for all purposes, the cost
of pupils for annual instruction will be something less than that shown by the Reports
from year to year.
Table L.—Examinations for entrance to High School were held in eighteen public
schools during the Spring Term. In eight of these one or more pupils were successful.
New Westminster passed seven as against one the year previous—nearly 39 per cent, of
those competing. The Public School in Victoria passed 73i per cent.— a somewhat
lower average than last year. Nanaimo, with a large attendance, has not yet had the
credit of passing a single pupil, none being sufficiently advanced to take the work
when the last opportunity offered. Two passed at Cedar Hill for the second time, and
one in addition who had not before undergone examination. Three entered from South
Saanich, all of whom failed last year. Lake, Sooke, Maple Ridge, and Hope passed one
each. 55 boys and 46 girls competed, of whom 33 boys and 17 girls were successful—
nearly 50 per cent., as against 42} per cent, last year.
Teachers in old-established schools must now be reminded that failures in the future
to pass pupils in this competitive examination will be attributed, with but few exceptions, to inefficiency in imparting instruction, or want of attention to school duties and
industry in the performance of them. All other things being equal, there can be no
excuse for a teacher not having pupils far enough advanced to make a creditable
shewing at these examinations, when the one in a neighbouring district has his or her
pupils well up to the requisite standard. In future reports neglect in this particular
will receive special comment, and the difference must be noted when the teachers have
been dilligent and painstaking enough to qualify pupils for the High School. Every
succeeding year will make this provincial test of educational acquirements in the Public
Schools more and more searching, while the results, as a matter of course, will tell
strongly in favour of or against each particular teacher,   There should be nothing to 10 Public Schools Report. 1877
prevent a regular annual succession of pupils, in almost every school, from passing this
examination. Attendance at the High School afterwards, from all schools in the outlying districts at least, would depend on the ability or disposition of parents to send
their children to Victoria for that purpose; but the fact of having succeeded would be a
guarantee that a certain standard had been reached by them, and would of itself be of
great value in entering upon the business of life. Parents and teachers should make
strenuous efforts to keep children at school till that examination has been creditably
passed. This can easily be done before reaching the age of 13, if the pupil has had a
fair chance of attending school for four or five years. Failures under such circumstances will argue very strongly against the efficiency and capability of the teacher as
an instructor of youth, and should induce trustees to make searching enquiries into the
method of conducting the school, with a view to making a change in its management.
Teachers' Examination,
The class of applicants for certificates was larger at the examination held in July
last than in any former year. Several of them however were pupils from the High
School, too young to receive appointments as teachers, but nearly all succeeded in
obtaining certificates. At this and all preceding examinations two standards of marks
were used; one consisting of the aggregate number for all the subjects for male candidates, while for females the value placed upon euclid, mensuration, algebra and bookkeeping was dropped, and the total of the remaining subjects used as a divisor in
estimating the percentage of answering. This system has been looked upon as giving the
ladies an undue advantage over the other sex, and from time to time complaints have
been made respecting it. At a recent meeting of the Board of Education the question
was fully discussed and the conclusion arrived at, that in future no difference should be
made; lady applicants must thei-efore govern themselves accordingly. Placing all on an
equality in this respect will of course enhance the value of certificates obtained hereafter
by ladies; as in order to secure a first-class certificate most, if not all, of the mathematical
subjects will have to be taken, and a fair percentage of marks required for them. As
an offset against the increased difficulty of getting first-class certificates, successful
candidates may rest assured that when obtained they will not be revoked- so soon as
those that have been granted under the late arrangement.
The following is the result of the last examination:—First-class A: Geo. V. LeVaux;
first-class B: Thos. Leduc, John Lane Phillips, Orison D. Sweet; second-class A: John
C. Newbury, Archena J. McDougall, Richard H. Holding, Wm. Kermode; second-class
B: J. L. Atkinson, Cecilia McNaughton, Mary Anderson, Archibald Dods, Casper Phair,
Alice Richardson, Joseph Thain; third-class A: Thos. Baker, Eleanor J. J. Wilson Brown,
Emily H. Ward, E. Nelson Brown, Annie Gowen, Jessie Cameron. Alex. Howe; third-
class B: Louisa McCall, Arabella W. H. Holmes, Mary Hollo way, Emily Holloway, Ada
Miller, Francis A. Carmichael, B. A. Wake, Robert J. Plummer, Alfred Flett, Wm. H.
Lomas, H. W. Hughes.
Five candidates failed in the examination, and one withdrew before its completion.
Teachers' Convention.
The Honorary Secretary, James A. Halliday, Esq., has kindly furnished the following
summary of proceedings during the first week in July last:—
The Teachers' Convention held four sittings in the Legislative Assembly Rooms, and
was a marked improvement on former years both in number of teachers in attendance
and the general interest manifested by all in the subjects brought up either for discussion
or by essays read. Forty-seven teachers present, Dr. Tolmie, Mr. Jessop, and both
High School teachers.
Mr. Jessop, the President, took for his opening address, the advancement of our
Public Schools since their inauguration, and at closing his remarks invited full and free
discussion on the School Law, with a view to its amendment at an early date.
The superannuated teachers' fund was approved of as recommended by the Superintendent in his last report, a few dissenting from its being compulsory. A committee
was appointed to prepare a scheme in detail to lay before the Association next year.
An amendment on the mode of granting certificates to teachers occupied greater
part of one evening; it was proposed that all teachers be required to teach two years as
third-class teachers; on showing aptitude to teach they be allowed to undergo examin- 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. ll
ation as second-class teachers, which position they may hold for two years, then he
eligible to pass necessary examination as first-class teachers. Rule to apply to all
teachers except those holding first-class certificates from the older Provinces of the
Dominion or graduated of a British university; that they be eligible for examination as
first-class teachers if they have taught four years. The principal object to be gained is
the aptitude to teach; success as an instructor and experience would then be valued
which at present is not.
It was insisted on by some teachers that when they once obtain a first grade A
certificate, it should be for life, as in other professions.     Matter left over till next year.
The much disputed principle of prize giving had its advocates and opponents; the
majority favoured the principle of giving.
Dr. Tolmie gave a sketch on the relation of teachers, trustees and parents, and
impressed on the teachers the necessity of inculcating the "Golden Rule" as the best
means of securing the highest morality.
Miss Trenaman read an essay on "Indian Children in the Public Schools;" Mrs.
Herring on "Compulsory Education," printed; Capt. Wake on "Colonial Education,"
printed; Miss A. Holmes on "The Teacher's life."
Officers elected for the next year were: Superintendent of Education, President;
Members of Board of Education and High School Teachers, Vice-Presidents; J. A. Halli-
day, Secretary; J. Kaye, Treasurer.
Scholarships.
As misapprehension exists with regard to this subject, a few remarks in explanation seem to be necessary. The " Consolidated Public School Act, 1876," section 9, subsection 12, empowers the Board of Education " to recommend the Lieutenant-Governor
in Council to establish and award allowances of $100 per annum each, as aid for
teachers in training while at the High School; said allowances not to exceed five in
number." This provision was made with a view to encourage promising pupils, having
a natural aptitude for teaching, to enter the profession. Practical experience, which is
an essential element to success, was obtained in each department of the Public School
in Victoria during the year ended June 30th, where those pupil teachers supplied the
place of two additional assistants in the junior^divisions, and thus performed work which
otherwise would have cost the Government $900 or $1000, At the Midsummer examination three of these allowances were awarded to the three pupil teachers, in a class of
about ten, who, according to the reports of the principals, displayed most efficiency in
teaching, who maintained the best order in their division, and. who took the greatest
interest in their duties. A possible prize of $100 was a powerful incentive for these
teachers not only to do their best in imparting instruction, &c., but to remain in the
class till the close of the year, and then to compete for a certificate of qualification, as
several of them did, and were successful at the Teachers' Examination. Without these
scholarships there would not be sufficient inducement for pupils of the High School to
devote one day out of five to work in the Public School. If pupil teachers belonging
to a class of this sort be not employed, two more permanent assistants will probably
have to be appointed before long. With the prospect of obtaining higher certificates at
next examination and promotion in due course, those assistants might probably be
engaged at $20 per month each, but even at that small salary [the cost for the year
would be $480—$180 more than the same service cost during the year ended June 30th.
It therefore becomes a question worthy of careful consideration as to which of these
methods of securing junior help in the Public School here is the better one. In the
former the work is distributed among the members of a class of ten or twelve, with
three or more scholarships of $100 each open to competition, or, as in the latter, the
payment of a stated salary for the entire services of two of them. Should permanent
assistants be thought preferable, then one object for which the High School was established, namely that of a training institution for teachers till the Province could afford a
Normal School, would have to be abandoned. If, on the other hand, the pupil-teacher
class be reconstructed and the scholarships continued, then we may naturally anticipate
that in a very short time a sufficient number of good teachers would be available from
this source, and thus make us independent of uncertain supplies from other countries for
filling vacancies that are constantly occurring. Book Depository.
Since the establishment of a depository, early in 1873, for supplying the Public
Schools in this Province with the authorized text books at something less than Eastern
retail prices, more than $4,000 worth have been distributed. The advantages thus conferred upon parents and pupils have been very great, inasmuch as books were always
obtainable from teachers, even in districts most remote from the ordinary sources of
supply, at reasonable rates. During the past summer the principal booksellers in this
city have advertised school books for sale at the prices charged to teachers by the
Education Office ; hence it becomes a question as to whether or not the Government
book concern should be discontinued. As supplies of school books and stationery can
now be procured through the ordinary trade channels as cheaply as from the Education
depository, its further continuance might be considered as an uncalled for competition
with the Provincial booksellers who have been so enterprising as to make a large
reduction in the price of text books, &c, used in the Public Schools. If little or no inconvenience to the schools should be likely to arise from such a change, it would
certainly be advisable to make the experiment, as it is better to avoid interfering with
legitimate trade and prevent possible discussions similar to those that have been going
on in Ontario for many years past on this question.
School Libraries.
Nearly twenty-five years experience in Ontario has fully proved that school libraries
have exercised, and are still exercising, a most beneficial influence upon the minds of the
young. They have contributed largely to the high standard of intelligence and moral
rectitude for which the present generation in that favoured Province are justly celebrated. This appendage to the admirable school system, upon which ours is founded,
has been keeping pace with the extension and improvement of that system from year to
year, until public school libraries have become almost as numerous as the schools themselves. This has been done at a cost of about $170,000, half of which has been raised by
the people. The establishment of school libraries, especially in our outlying districts
where little or no access can be had to books, would be an inestimable boon to both
young and old. No better investment of a few hundred dollars of the Provincial revenue
could be made than that of supplementing, as in Ontario, to the extent of about fifty j)er
cent., whatever sums might be contributed by school districts for such a purpose.
Settlers in various parts of the Province, whether parents or not, would readily avail
themselves of such an offer of securing standard works on science and art, biography
and travel, poetry and fiction, if fifty per cent, could be added to their contributions and
the books supplied them at Eastern wholesale prices. A few volumes even, in districts
remote from towns and cities, would be a great advantage, as they could be changed
with some other district after going round among the people, and thus new and interesting reading would be procured. Not only would school libraries exert a healthy
influence upon neighbourhoods as a whole, but they could not fail to prove a powerful
auxiliary in the hands of teachers (who should act as librarians) in lessening irregularity
in school attendance and absenteeism, by offering inducements for reading and improving the mind, which would tend to outweigh and counteract temptations to idleness and
its numerous train of vices. The subject is thus presented to the people of British
Columbia, in the hope that something may be done in the direction indicated, and that
ere long we shall be following in the footsteps of the sister Province in what has proved
to be of the greatest possible benefit to thousands of her population.
Cleanliness in School Houses.
Too many of the country school houses throughout the Province are anything but
patterns of neatness and cleanliness. Improvement in this particular is very desirable
and much needed in several districts, and is quite within the reach of every teacher to
whom these remarks are applicable. Although the small sums granted for incidental
expenses will not admit of payment for daily sweeping, &c., yet there are various ways
of getting this done without money compensation, some one of which should suggest
itself to a conscientious teacher. Should every other means fail, the teacher's own
sasthetic taste should prompt him to perform the labour himself rather than endure the 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 13
sight of a slovenly, disorderly school-room. Love of order and neatness ought to impel
him to do this, to say nothing of the fact that in many cases the annual cost of pupils is
so enormously high, in consequence of the small attendance, that a very meagre return is
made to the Province for the monthly salary paid. Sanitary consideration should also
induce teachers and trustees to be scrupulously exacting in these matters. The health
of teachers and pupils must necessarily be impaired by trying to study or teach in a
badly ventilated, unswept, and disorderly apartment. Besides, children with keen perceptions and love of cleanliness and neatness will soon acquire an unconquerable distaste
for the school where such a state of things is allowed to exist, and thus the already
large amount of irregular attendance and absenteeism will be increased. Want of attention to personal tidiness on the part of teachers in some instances is also observable.
This very objectionable fault should never be allowed to exist. It is to be hoped that
these hints, in addition to what has been said privately to individual teachers, will
render further allusion to these ma ters unnecessary.
Evening Schools,
In San Francisco and many other cities, evening schools form an important adjunct
to the various systems of education adopted. There can hardly be two opinions as to
the utility of such institutions, although it may be an open question as to whether the
finances of this Province will admit of their immediate establishment in the three principal centres of population, namely, Victoria, Nanaimo, and New Westminster. The
subject, however, is of sufficient moment to warrant consideration, and, if found practicable, such an extension of our school system would prove a great boon to young
people whose education is deficient and who cannot attend the day schools in consequence of being otherwise engaged during working hours. It is not unlikely that a
school of this description might be made nearly self-sustaining for three or four months
in the winter season, especially in Victoria, where the experiment might be first tried,
by charging a small fee, say a dollar per month per pupil, strictly in advance, of course.
The amount to be supplemented would depend on the numbers attending, the remuneration of the teacher, and other contingencies, and can only be ascertained by actual trial
of the project. One or more of the public school teachers would, no doubt, undertake
the evening duties, and, with as many pupils in attendance as could be taught
efficiently by one teacher, the expense to the Government, lessened by payment
of the above-mentioned fee, need not be considerable. The school would be open to both
sexes, but only to those persons who are unable to attend during the day. Such a school,
should it be established, would benefit the young men of Victoria, not only educationally,
but it would be the means of keeping many of them from frequenting places where
temptations for spending money and acquiring bad habits are almost irresistible.
High School.
This establishment for higher education has just completed its first year of usefulness. Attendance, from the commencement, has been large—sixty pupils enrolled and
forty-nine of an average. These numbers constitute a very gratifying record, showing
that the school was a desideratum and has met with due appreciation.
The management is efficient and the instruction imparted is thorough and practical.
The curriculum is as follows :—English: Geography, ancient and modern, Grammar,
Rhetoric and Composition, Mythology; Scientific: Botany, Physiology, Natural
Philosophy, Astronomy, and Chemistry; Mathematical : Arithmetic, Algebra, Mensuration, Euclid, and Book-keeping ; Classical : Latin and Greek; Modern Languages :
French ; together with Map drawing, vocal music, &c.
A Lyceum Club has been organized among the male pupils, who debate once a week
after school hours. Considerable interest is manifested in these exercises. Another
source of intellectual improvement, common to both sexes, was engaged in during the
greater part of_ the year, namely, the preparation of manuscript newspapers, filled
chiefly with original compositions, interspersed with conundrums, &c, &c. The one
edited by the boys is called the "Leisure Hour," that by the girls the "Hyacinth."
The articles were written as home exercises and read by pupils selected for the purpose
semi-monthly. Many of those pieces have been most creditable productions, and the
conundrums, &c, chiefly of a local character, often witty and amusing. 14 Public Schools Report. 1877
Apparatus and furniture, in keeping with the importance of the choo must be
provided at an early date.
Special Reports on District Schools, &c.
Victoria.—In the absence of census returns and information as to attendance from
the numerous private and denominational schools, the children of school age are put down,
approximately, at 1,100. Six hundred and seventeen of these have attended the Public
School more or less during the year, and 60 (a majority of whom are yet under 16), the
High School, making a total of 667. This leaves over 400 as being distributed among
the other schools, or attending no school at all. Unfortunately the extent of absenteeism
in this city cannot be ascertained in consequence of schools, with the exception of the
public, being under no obligation whatever to furnish either the number of pupils
attending, or the average. At the Public School the yearly average was 374, a gratifying increase of 72 since the date of last report. Percentage of irregular attendance
39.94, a reduction of more than 4} per cent, from preceding year. Expenditure in the
Public School amounted to $6,936. Cost per pupil enrolled, $11 24—a further decrease
of $1. On the average of 374 the cost was $18 54, as against $22 12 last year. Average
attendance at High School was 49. Expenditure, $2,390 25. Cost of each pupil enrolled,
$39 53, and on the average attendance, $48 78. Irregular attendance 18.34 per cent.
It is probable that the minimum annual cost of pupils in this Province, namely—$12 for
those enrolled, and $18 on the average, has now been attained in this city. In but one
district has the cost been less than in Victoria, and that only on the number attending
school.
The only change that occured in the teaching staff during the year under consideration, was the retirement of Miss Baxter, much to the regret of pupils, fellow
teachers, and the educational authorities, in April last. Her subsequent melancholy
death, a few weeks afterwards, was the first that has yet occurred among British
Columbian certificated teachers. The vacancy thus created was filled by the appointment of Mrs. Wilson Brown, At the commencement of the autumn term, John C.
Newbury, silver medalist in the High School, was appointed third assistant in the boys'
department; and shortly afterwards the trustees were authorized to engage a fourth
assistant in the girls' department, thus making a staff of nine teachers in all. Before
these new appointments were made, the daily attendance had reached 432.
Competition for the Dufferin medals and the scholarships at the midsummer examination was very keen. The examinations themselves, both written and oral, were
tolerably searching. More than usual interest was manifested in all the proceedings,
as evinced by the large number of visitors present during the three days that the oral
examinations lasted. As before mentioned, John C. Newbury took the High School
Dufferin silver medal. The successful competitors for the bronze medals in the Public
School were Herbert C. Carey and Helen Andi'ews. Scholarships were awarded to
Joseph Thain, Jessie Cameron, and Mary Anderson. These were presented by the Hon.
W. Smithe, Minister of Finance, Dr. Tolmie, M.P.P., and His Worship Mayor Drake.
His ExcellencyJthe Lieutenant-Governor presented the silver medal; the bronze medals
were presented by Messrs Fell and Wilson, members of the Trustee Board. It may be
here stated that these medals were shortly afterwards forwarded to Ottawa, in accordance with His Excellency the Governor-General's instructions, where the names of the
recipients were engraven on them, and they were finally presented to their owners on
Wednesday, I5th August, each accompanied by a complimentary letter from the Earl of
Dufferin.
The following is a list of pupils who passed the High School entrance examination at
the new year and midsummer:—John R. Michell, Earnest Rogers, Maurice Law, Louisa
Kene, George Cooper, Annie Jackson, Lizzie Mathers, Thomas Wood, J. H. Wark, Eliza
A. Wynne, Helen Andrews, Cecilia McNaughton, Caspar Phair, Herbert C. Carey, John
B. Carmichael, George Gowen, J. M. Bailey, Wm. Phelps, James Kaye, F. Chadwiek,"
W. J. McKeon, J. W. Carey, R. A. Bailey, George Fry, George Martin, Wm. Cox, F. S.
Montaro, C. F. Gardiner, G. Mansell, J. S. Smith, Mary A. Marwick, Amelia Carne.
During the summer vacation all the desks in the large rooms of the Public School
building were taken up, arranged in sections according to size, and put closer together.
A few other improvements were made in them, so that they are now much more comfortable and convenient than formerly.  Green baize curtains have also been suspended, 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 15
dividing each of these rooms, when necessary, into three compartments for teaching
purposes.
Cedar Hill.—The same approximate number of school-going children is put down
for Cedar Hill district this year as last. Fifty-one are reported as having attended
school sometime during the year. As the average was but 27, irregularity is deplorably
large, amounting to nearly one-half. This important district now holds the discreditable
position of being almost at the head of the list for irregularity of attendance. With
excellent roads, a comfortable and well-furnished school house, and a first-class teacher,
Cedar Hill ought to show a better record in this important statistic. Amount expended
for the year was $855; cost of each pupil enrolled, $16 76; taking the average it was
$31 66. When the school was visited on 8th May last, there were thirty pupils present.
Recitations generally satisfactory. It may be doubted, however, as to whether some of
the classes were as well prepared as at former examinations. Two changes in the management during the year had a somewhat injurious effect. But one additional entry to
High School was made, namely Donald Todd—Annie Burns and Isabella Scott having
both passed last year.
Craigflower.—It is gratifying to report from this district a further decrease of
more than 12 per cent, in irregular attendance and an increase of If in the average for
the year. In 1874-75, the percentage of irregularity was 42; 1875-76, 32}; and last
year 20.14. If all the schools in the Province were improving in the same ratio there
would shortly be nothing to complain of in this particular. Expenditure for all purposes, $770. With 36 in attendance, the cost per pupil $21 39. The average of 28| gives
$26 78 as the cost of each. At last official visit the examination was very satisfactory,
with the exception of reading and spelling. The bell-frame has been repaired, and the
school-room, teacher's residence, and all the surroundings are now neat and orderly and
in good repair—a very marked contrast to what they used to be in former years.
More of the school reserve is being brought under cultivation.
A re-adjustment of the boundaries between Craigflower and Lake school districts is
very desirable, so as to bring Messrs. Porter, Ricketts and others into the former. Mr.
Porter has held the office of trustee in Craigflower for some time, under the impression
that the boundaries were altered several years ago. The political boundary being that
of the school, Mr. VanAllman is included in Craigflower, while living within a mile of
the Lake school-house; it being as impracticable for him to send children to Craigflower
as for the other parties to send to Lake, Mr. VanAllman's residence should, therefore,
be incorporated with Lake district, while those families living in the south-western
extremity should be included in Craigflower.
Lake.—Four changes in the teachership of this school during the year have sadly
interfered with educational advancement. This particular drawback to school progress
seems to have become chronic in Lake district, there having been no less than sixteen
different teachers in a little more than five years ! Under such circumstances progress
can hardly be expected. Still some of the pupils have made improvement in spite of all
the impediments thrown in their way by those constant occurring changes in the management of the school. When last visited fourteen pupils were present, one of whom,
Mary Lindsay, passed the examination for High School. The following is an extract
from note of visit:—"Reading, particularly good in all the classes; spelling, satisfactory;
arithmetic and geography, so far as classes had gone, were also fair; register correctly
kept; school room in good order. The teacher seemed to be efficient and painstaking,
possibly rather harsh occasionally. On the whole the school appeared to be doing well."
Expenditure in this district for the year was $600 50. Twenty pupils attending'school,
with an average of 15.33, gives $30 37 and $39 83 as the cost per pupil respectively.
Irregular attendance, 23.35 per cent.
The question of moving school-house from Royal Oak Hotel to the Colquitz stream
was in agitation for the greater part of the year. At a special meeting called on 19th
May last, for the purpose of considering this matter, a majority of voters were in favour
of retaining the present site, while a majority of trustees were for removal. The case
was, therefore, referred to arbitration, under section 32 of " Consolidated Public School
Act, 1876." At the second meeting of the arbitrators it was decided that each iparty
should appoint a person, and that the Superintendent of Education should select some 16 Public Schools Report. 1877
one entirely disinterested, and that these three should poll all the votes for and against,
and that the majority should decide the question. The trustees declined to make the
appointment recommended, in consequence of which the disinterested party chosen by
the Superintendent polled the votes alone, the result being twenty-three against removal
and one in favour. Immediately after this decision had been arrived at, the trustees, in
a letter dated 24th July, were authorized to make the following improvements, for
which a grant of $300 had been previously passed, namely: a new foundation, and steps
to front door, repairs to chimney, whitewashing inside and painting outside, wood shed,
tight board fence round the school lot, with partition fence forming two playgrounds,
&c, &c. A strong recommendation was given "that the work should be done at once,
in order that the school might be re-opened at the proper time." More than two months
have elapsed since this authorization was forwarded, still nothing has been done to the
dilapidated school house.
South Saanich.—Ill-health of the late teacher, a gentleman of superior attainments,
operated very much against the success of this comparatively large and interesting
school during the spring term. With an approximate school population of 60, the
average was only 23 on an enrollment of 42. Irregular attendance, therefore, was 45|
per cent., and absenteeism more than 13. Amount expended, $1360 ($400 of this for
improvements), which makes the cost of pupils extra heavy for the year, it being $32 38
each on those attending, and $59 13 on the average. Two of the pupils, Edward
Simpson and Richard Thompson, passed for the High School. The road spoken of in
last report, from the west road across to the school house, is about to be constructed.
This will bring eight or nine children three miles nearer to the school, and quite within
easy reach. We may fairly expect, therefore, that next year's attendance record will
be much better than this.
North Saanich.—The schools in the two portions of this district have been kept in
operation during the year. The children are all beginners, and in consequence of the
teacher's time being divided progress has not been satisfactory. The report from this
district gives an average of 9, and an attendance of 26. Percentage of irregularity, 62,—■
higher than in any other district in the Province. Next year will surely bring a great
improvement in this respect, Amount expended was $427,—$16 42 for each pupil on
register, and $47 44 for the average.
The amount expended in Victoria District was about $5 more than in the year
preceding. Twenty-nine more children have been under tuition. The average has
improved, and irregular attendance has decreased.
Esquimalt.—The school report from this district shows an increase of six in
attendance, and more than eight of an average, since last year. Children of school-age
are put down at 36,—28 of whom are attending, giving an average of 20. As no report
is made of absentees, it must be presumed that the eight children unaccounted for are
attending school elsewhere. Pour or five of those go to Craigflower. Percentage of
irregular attendance, 28}. Expenditure of $717, makes the cost of each pupil in
attendance $25 60, and each one, on the average, $35 85.
The following note of visit, on 1st March last, expresses the condition of school at
that date:—"Went to Esquimalt at 8 a. m., arrived at 9, and called on the Secretary-
"Treasurer of Trustee Board. In school at 9.30; scripture reading and prayers at
"opening; explained to the teacher that the Board of Education had confined opening
" and closing exercises to the Lord's Prayer and the Ten Commandments, and requested
"her to comply with regulations. Writing lesson first on the programme; objected to
"the senior girls using round hand head lines, and suggested that the last half-hour of
"the forenoon would be a better time for this exercise, giving reasons therefor; did not
" approve of a variety of studies being mixed up in the same class at the same time.
"Monitorial help made use of, but not necessary in so small a school; no recess; pupils
"dismissed very irregularly. Arranged desks according to height during noon inter-
"mission; found them all mixed up and facing in different directions, small children
" seated at high desks, and vice versa; seated the pupils according to their size, and
"commenced the afternoon's work with hearing reading lessons. Reading, only
"middling; tone of voice too low, spirit and animation being entirely wanting. Spelling,
"somewhat better;   but little perceptible improvement in grammar and geography. 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 17
"Arithmetic class sadly deficient; quite ignorant of reasons for the simplest operations;
"unacquainted with the terms made use of in the fundamental rules; unable to answer
" questions, or to give definitions. Dismissed school in proper order. Found attendance
"much improved, twenty-three being present. Had to complain again to Secretary-
" Treasurer about the condition of outhouses."
The rent of school premises having been raised, it becomes a question as to whether
a school site should not be obtained, and a building erected at an early date.
Colwood.—Results of the first year's teaching in Colwood have been eminently
satisfactory. Attendance also has exceeded expectation, although irregularity, in
common with other districts, is large—over 40 per cent. The school-going children are
all enrolled, the 19 in attendance making up an average of 11.37. With better roads
than are to be found in a majority of country districts, irregularity ought to be lessened,
and the average increased. Cost for tuition was $699 68; per pupil, $36 82 on enrollment, and $61 53 on average. As was to be expected, the children were but little
advanced when they commenced school; their progress has been rapid, and the work of
instruction well and thoroughly performed. The teacher, from long experience in
primary departments in one of the Eastern Provinces, is remarkably well adapted for
the position she now occupies.
Metchosin.—With an attendance of 19 in this school, the average reached 16,
leaving but a comparatively small margin for irregularity—less than 16 per cent.
These pupils cost $33 68 and. $40 each respectively; expenditure, $640. At last official
visit, on 10th February, satisfactory proof of fair progress was manifested, although
room was still left for further improvement; answering was not at all prompt, the pupils
showing too much carelessness and inattention; discipline better than formerly. The
late teacher having accepted another situation, the school is now under different
management.
Sooke.—Another year under the same management as formerly has produced like
satisfactory results in this school. Advancement in all the classes was very marked at
last visit, some of them having now attained a fair degree of proficiency. One pupil—
Miss Katie Muir—passed the High School entrance examinations, while another failed
only by a few marks. Much to the regret of trustees and pupils, the teacher, after
three years efficient service, was obliged by ill-health to relinquish her post temporarily
at the beginning of the autumn term. The school statistics are very similar to those of
last year. Thirty-three children between the ages of five and sixteen, 22 attending
school, 13 being the average. Irregular attendance is slightly lessened, but still larger
than it ought to be—nearly 41 per cent.; absenteeism, 33 per cent, of the school population. Fear of having the compulsory clauses of School Act put in force induced
parties in this district to send children to school during the spring term. Amount
expended, $640 ; cost of pupils on enrollment and average, $29 09 and $49 23.
Total expenditure in Esquimalt Electoral District, $2,696 18. Number of school
children, 106; reported as absentees, 11. Eighty-eight names are enrolled on school
register, at a cost of $30 64 each. The average attendance being 60.37, cost for each
$44 66. Percentage of irregularity 31.42, and of absenteeism 10.37. These figures show
an increase of 29 in attendance, and 16 in school population.
South Cowichan.—In this large and scattered district the alternating system of
teaching has still to be kept up at Kokasailla and Shawnigan. The opinion is gaining,
however, that a location can be selected which all the children, or nearly so, could
reach, and thus obtain the benefit of a full-time school. Under the present arrangement
but little improvement is observable from visit to visit. The children are far behind
where they ought to be in educational acquirements, and are not well grounded in what
they profess to have learned. Deficiency in arithmetic and geography was particularly
noticeable in the Kokasailla branch when last examined. Neither was the grammar
recitation satisfactory. According to report, more attention has been paid to regularity
than in former years, irregularity being less, with one exception, than in any other
district—5} per cent. This shows that the children were in their places when opportunity offered. School population, 30; number attending, 23; absenteeism, 25 per cent.;
2 18 Public Schools Report. 1877
average, nearly 20. Amount expended, $640; cost of each pupil attending school,
$30 47; for the average, $32 27. The children belonging to the mill portion of the
district are still without educational advantages. Those on the flats are provided for in
connection with North Cowichan. A readjustment of boundaries and the formation of
another district or two must take place as soon as the population increases sufficiently
to warrant additional expenditure.
North Cowichan.—Attendance during the autumn term of 1876 was so small that
the school had to be closed at the new year. The families on the flats having promised
to send to the old court house, the school was again re-opened on 1st May on half-time
system between the school house and court house. Since then the attendance has been
tolerably good at both places, amounting to 23, with average of 17}. Irregularity, 24 ;
absentees, over 23 per cent. Three hundred and ninety dollars were expended during
the seven months that the school was kept open, being $16 95 on attendance and $22 28
on the average, taking the statistics from 1st May as a basis of calculation. In both
the Cowichan Districts the teachers have been allowed an increase of salary on condition of teaching six days every week—that is, three days in each division. This
arrangement will probably take effect shortly, and will lessen the disadvantages of half-
time instruction. The effort made early in the year to bring instruction within reach
of seven or eight of the Chemainus children proved a failure, in consequence of the
settlers not being able to agree as to where they should be sent. There are a few
families around Oyster "Bay much in need of a school, but they are too much scattered
at present to allow of one being established, even on the itinerating system adopted in
the lower districts.
Burgoyne Bay.—School prospects have improved during the spring and summer.
Although scarcely off the list of schools of doubtful continuance, yet the report just to
hand seems to indicate a change in the right direction. So far as progress is concerned,
the school has been doing remarkably well, method and manner of teaching being
excellent. At last visit the reading was remarkably good ; spelling, arithmetic,
geography and dictation wore very satisfactory, while order and discipline were all
that could be desired. The classes, though not far advanced, are being thoroughly well
grounded in their studies. The amount expended in this district for the year was $540,
pupils costing $28 42 on enrollment and $53 93 on the average. School population 26,
seven of whom are not attending. The 19 at school gave an average of a fraction over
ten, making irregularity nearly 50 per cent. Absenteeism reaches more than 25 per
cent. With a comfortable, well-furnished school house and an excellent teacher, this
district record ought to have been a better one. In spite of all those advantages, the
people with children growing up around them have repeatedly jeopardized the existence
of the school by apathetic carelessness about attendance.
Salt Spring Island.—After an interval of a few months, the two schools here were
again re-opened in May last. The attendance has since been very good, averaging
more than 20 in a register number of 25. Consequently, there is not much to complain
of respecting irregularity. From some cause or other there are still a few absentees.
The eight months, or nearly so, that the school was kept open cost $414 16, being
$16 56 for each pupil attending, and $20 08 on the average. The teacher here will
probably be placed on the same footing as the teachers in Cowichan—getting one-sixth
more salary for teaching three days weekly in each portion of the district. A school
reserve is about being made midway between the school houses, on which the settlers
intend putting up a teacher's residence.
The Cowichan Electoral District has made great educational progress during the
past year. Had all the schools been kept open for the full term, the expenditure would
have been about the same as in 1875 and 1876. Increase in the number of children, 16;
decrease in number not attending school, 6. Twenty-four more pupils are under
instruction, and the average has been increased by nearly 26. Irregularity is less, and
the larger attendance and average have very materially reduced the cost of each pupil.
District statistics are as follows:—Amount expended, $1,984 16; number of children,
112 ; not attending school, 26 ; in attendance, 88 ; average, 67.98 ; percentage of irregularity, 23.58, of non-attendance, 23.21; cost of each pupil enrolled, $22 54; and of
each as per average, $29 18. . 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 19
Nanaimo.—An increase of 37 in attendance and 7} in the average, for the year ending
July 31st, is below what was expected from the returns of this important public school,
especially as the district has been comparatively free from the epidemics that interfered
so much with attendance the previous year. The disproportion between the number of
pupils admitted and the average has of course increased irregularity; hence the percentage is 101 above that of last year, the figures being 28.58 and 38.86 respectively. Increased efficiency in the teaching staff has entailed heavier expenditure for school
purposes, amount for the year being $2,940. The low average, 112}, compared with the
number attending, 184, makes the cost on the former considerably more than last year,
it being $22 60 and $26 13, while that of each pupil enrolled is slightly diminished. No
return was made either of the number of children of school age or of those not attending
any school, hence no approximation can be arrived at respecting absenteeism. The same
number as last year, 275, has been put down in Table A in order to ascertain the approximate school population in the Province, but the more important statistic,- and the one
which compulsion ought to deal with, seems to be entirely unobtainable in Nanaimo as well
as in Victoria. It is gratifying to report great improvement in school organization and
discipline in both departments. Better order and classification have produced corresponding changes for good in all divisions from the primary upwards. This will become
more and more apparent from time to time. A very large proportion of the pupils are
beginners; while those in the senior divisions are not far advanced, as evinced by the
fact that none of them took examination work for entrance to High School. It is a
difficult matter to raise and maintain a high standard of attainments in the senior
division in consequence of pupils being withdrawn from school at a much earlier age
than they ought to be. Parents should not under any consideration send their children
into the mines, or give them employment above ground, till the before-mentioned examination has been creditably passed.
A third assistant has recently been appointed, who will use the class-room in the
principal's department, in charge of the junior division, and so to a certain extent
relieve the overcrowded condition of the rooms occupied by the lady teachers. All
available space in the building will thus be utilized to its fullest extent, and the probabilities are that before long increased accommodation must be provided. In the meantime, it would be well for the Trustee Board and other education authorities to
determine what shape the increased accommodation shall assume.
Wellington.—Family difficulties, arising out of the unfortunate colliery strikes and
disputes, have seriously retarded school progress in this district during the year. The
result has been a very large amount of irregularity, a low average, and little or no
advancement among the pupils. The average only reached 23.78 in an attendance of 53,
during some portion of the year, thus giving 55.14 as the percentage of irregularity.
Expenditure, $700; cost of each pupil enrolled, $13 20, and of each unit of the average,
$29 43. No information could be obtained about absenteeism, on account of so many
families moving away and others coming in during the year. As work has been again
resumed, and business is now going on briskly, next year's school record will be much
more satisfactory.
Cedar District has not been progressing educationally during the year. The
teacher seems to have lost influence over the children, in consequence of which disorder,
inattention to lessons, and want of progress, characterized the school. No apparent
advancement, was observable when last visited. Classes were all very backward in
the subjects they professed to study. Mutual recriminations appeared to have taken
the place of that confidence and respect which ought to exist between parents and
teacher. A change in the management has since been effected, which it is to be hoped
will prove beneficial, and infuse new life and vigour into school exercises.
The school statistics are as follows:—Children in district (which is a very large
one), 34; number attending some time during the year, 22; number not attending any
school, 12; average, 14; percentage of irregularity, 36.37; of non-attendance, 35.3;
amount expended, $640; cost of each pupil attending school, $29 09; of each on the
average, $45 71.
Gabriola Island.—Dissatisfaction with, and opposition to, the teacher in this
district, which have existed for the greater part of the year, appear to be almost laid 20 Public Schools Report. 1877
aside, and in their place it is to be hoped that confidence, good-will, and mutual respect
will spring up. Although his method of imparting instruction is somewhat defective,
from want of professional training, yet painstaking industry and great influence over
the children, which is exercised for their good, should more than counterbalance what
may be considered objectionable in other respects. School population on the island now
reaches 30; of these, 19 are in attendance, giving an average of 12; eleven are reported
absentees; some of those, however, are not living within reach of the school. The
parents of those children have repeatedly had the offer of half-time tuition, if they would
provide a room for that purpose, but so far they have not availed themselves of it.
Percentages of irregularity and non-attendance are 36.85 and 36.6 respectively. Expenditure, $520; cost of pupils, $27 37 and $43 33 on enrollment and average.
Expenditure for school purposes in Nanaimo Electoral District was $4,800 during
the year. Percentage of irregular attendance has increased, but in other respects the
statistics show an improvement. Forty-eight more children are enrolled; the average
is increased by 10; for the whole district it is 162i, the cost being $29 57; whole
attendance 278, at an expense of $17 26 each; percentage of irregular attendance is 41.8.
Comox District has been characterized by a great want of harmony and co-operation in the conduct of school affairs during the latter portion of the year. As no
complaints, nor desire for a change in the teachership, have emanated from the Trustee
Board since last annual school meeting, nothing can be done in that direction by the
education authorities. In the meantime, school is going on more or less satisfactorily
to some of the parents; but this deplorable state of affairs is operating very prejudicially
against educational progress, as is shown by the report recently sent in. The school
population numbers 31. Twenty-five of all ages have been attending during the year;
ten are reported as absentees, making this percentage 32!; average, only 13.7, .which
gives 45.02 as the percentage of irregularity,—nearly one-half of school benefits and
privileges are thus lost. Amount expended, $640, being $35 60 and $46 71 per pupil on
enrollment and average. When visited, on 23rd April, many of the children were
untidy in appearance, and the school room was in a disorderly condition. At examination, next day, some improvement in these respects was visible. The following is an
extract from note of visit:—"Found 13 pupils in attendance, most of them beginners.
"Reading, not as good as it ought to have been; spelling, about equal to reading;
" arithmetic class did tolerably well in definitions and knowledge of terms, but were
"neither accurate nor quick in solving examples; backward in tables; geography reci-
"tations hardly satisfactory; grammar, not above the average; history class did very
"well in knowledge of facts, but not so well in remembrance of dates; some improve-
"ment in writing; recitations were creditable, and so were the calisthenic exercises."
Another school district has recently been formed in the Comox Electoral District,
comprising the whole of Denman Island. A school will probably be commenced there
before the expiration of the year.
New Westminster.—-There are several denominational and private schools in this
city competing for pupils with the public school, notwithstanding which, the latter is
decidedly gaining in attendance and in the confidence of parents. Last report shows
an increase of 20. The improvement in average, however, is disproportionate to that of
enrollment, being only 2J. One hundred and twenty-one pupils have attended school
some time during the year, but that number only gives an average of 671, which makes
irregularity 44} per cent., nearly. No approximation as to absenteeism can be given,
for similar reasons to those existing in Victoria and Nanaimo. Amount expended for
the year covered by the report, $2,130. Cost per pupil in attendance, and average,
$17 60 and $31 82.
The schools were officially visited in December last, and again in May. On both
occasions the improvement was very marked. In boys' department—"Reading and
" spelling were particularly good; senior class well up in arithmetic, mensuration,
" algebra, and mental arithmetic. Junior geography and grammar classes did remark-
"ably well. English history recitations on the Stuart period satisfactory, both in dates
" and events. Afternoon—Junior arithmetic pretty good ; senior grammar well ad-
" vanced, both in analysis and parsing;   senior geography class possessing a good 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. ' 21
" knowledge of that subject, and very expert in mental arithmetic, solving even intricate
" questions. Examination, as a whole, exceedingly good, alike creditable to pupils and
"teacher."
The examination in girls' department was equally satisfactory, progress in physiology and history being particularly noticeable. The junior classes are well grounded
in their several studies, and the senior far advanced.
As the girls' department is more numerously attended than formerly, there is not
such a disproportion in numbers when compared with the boys' department. Still, if a
few of the younger boys were drafted into this department, attendance and school work
would be more equalized, and good results would follow.
An. examination for entrance to High School was held early in January, when five
candidates passed. Another took place on 17th May, when eighteen pupils competed
and seven succeeded. The five above mentioned are, however, included. Although
eight pupils have passed this examination in New Westminster, yet so far none have
entered the High School.
Granville public school fully maintains the reputation which it has acquired under
its present management during the last three years. Attendance and average are
ahead of last year. Irregularity, though still greater than it ought to be, is gradually
decreasing. The attendance during the year was 30; average, 21}; irregularity, 28
per cent. Amount expended, $640; cost of pupils, $21 33 on enrollment, and $29 67 on
the average. The last official examination on 14th May gave most satisfactory evidence
of careful training and painstaking industry on the part of the teacher, progress in
all the studies pursued being very observable.
Burrard Inlet.—The record of school progress here since the date of last report
has not been a satisfactory one, either statistically or otherwise. The number in
attendance, more or less, during the year was 59 ; but those only gave an average of
about 23} ; hence, almost 60 per cent, has to be deducted for irregularity. Six hundred
and fifty dollars were expended. A large number being enrolled, the cost of each pupil
was less than in any other district in the Province, being $11 02. The cost of each one
of the average, however, was $27 47. A change in the management has been effected,
and the trustees have secured the services of a first-class lady teacher of great
experience in tuition, who will no doubt soon place the school on an efficient footing.
Trenant.—Statistics of this school show conclusively that the settlers, as a whole,
do not appreciate educational advantages. Twenty-three names are enrolled, but the
average only reached llf, leaving a margin of 49 per cent, for irregularity. Eight are
reported as absentees. This, in a school population of 31, gives more than 25 per cent,
of non-attendance. Such an amount calls loudly for an aj^plication of the compulsory
clause of the School Act. Stormy weather and very bad roads, or none at all, are valid
excuses for irregular attendance at certain seasons of the year; but if parents were
properly alive to the best interests of their children, this unavoidable drawback would
be much lessened by constant attendance when weather and travelling are favourable-
Sum expended, $700; cost of each pupil attending school, $21 74; and of each one on
the average, $59 62—with one or two exceptions, the highest in the Province. When
the school was examined on 12th June last, 13 pupils were in attendance. The classes
did very well in all the studies except arithmetic. A jiartial failure in this branch was
attributed to want of a blackboard.    This has since been supplied.
Maple Ridge.—Attendance at this school has increased from 29 to 40 and the
average from 121 to over 27. This average secures the teacher an additional $10 salary
and places the school in a higher grade. The efficient management also fully entitles it
to this distinction. There are now 42 children of school age in the district, 40 of whom
are enrolled on the register; four are reported as absentees; percentage of irregularity is
over 32; amount expended $640; cost of each pupil attending $16, and each one of the
average $23 60. In the item of cost, this district makes a most favourable exhibit, being
among the lowest in the Province. When visited, on 18th May, attendance, order, and
recitations were, with one or two exceptions, very satisfactory. Linear drawing class
is.still making good progress; one pupil, Jessie Irvine, passed the High School entrance
examination creditably. The school-room requires new desks to replace the present
temporary ones and accommodate the largely increased attendance. 22 Public Schools Report. 1877
Langley.—Notwithstanding good management and efficiency on the part of the
teacher, school progress has not been satisfactory here during the past year. If industry,
perseverance and good discipline could have made rapid improvement in the not very
promising material that the teacher has chiefly to deal with, more progress would certainly have been manifested at the examination held on 8th June last. Recitations on that
occasion were not generally satisfactory. When results are so very inadequate to the
means used, a teacher's duties,—irksome enough under favourable circumstances, become
so much more so, that few persons possess sufficient enthusiasm to bear up under them.
Unsatisfactory educational results are not the only troubles the Langley teacher has to
encounter. Want of co-operation on the part of trustees and parents tend also, in no
small degree, to increase the difficulties of the position. School matters, unfortunately,
have not been exempt from the general turmoil and excitement of hostile parties with
which this district has been troubled for years past. The statistical report however is a
satisfactory one: Pupils attending, 48; average, 29.27; irregularity, 43.19; absenteeism,
4.16; amount expended, $827 50; cost on enrollment, $17 24, and on the average, $30 24
Prairie.—After three months' discontinuance for want of necessary attendance, this
school was again re-opened at the beginning of April. Since then the average has not
been more than sufficient to keep it going. Anticipated increase by families moving into
the district, has so far prevented action being taken for withdrawing the teacher. The
ten children present at last official visit did very well, considering the drawbacks to
which they have been subjected. Average attendance, 9; register number, 12; irregularity, 25, and non-attendance, 20 per cent.; amount expended for the nine months school
was kept open, $448 32; cost per pupil on attendance, $37 36, and on the average $49 81.
A change occurred in the teachership at the begining of the autumn term.
Matsqui.—School has been closed since the new year, the attendance not being
sufficient to warrant its continuance. Up to that time $250 had been paid for salary of
teacher. As the school did not average more than seven or eight the cost per pupil for
the half year was very high.
York.—The school here was also closed at the new year for the same reason as that
at Matsqui. There are not more than five children of school age in the district at present.
The attendance for the half year was even less, and the cost per pupil, therefore, more
than in the district above mentioned.
Sumass.—Attendance and school progress here have both been much in advance of
last year. The present management is very satisfactory in point of order, efficiency and
thoroughness, leaving nothing to be desired except greater regularity in attendance.
The 28 pupils enrolled gave an average of less than 15}, thus making 45 per cent, for
irregularity, nearly one-half of school advantages being thus lost. The apathy and
carelessness of some parents in this district, and many other districts, seem almost
inexplicable. A little attention and self-denial perhaps, in a few instances, would reduce
this great leakage in our school system more than one-half, and give the Province far
better results for money and teaching power expended from year to year. Amount
expended in this district, $602 50; cost of pupils'on enrollment and average, $21 52 and
$39 10 each.
Chilliwhack.—This school was visited on the 5th June:—" Commenced written
" examination for entrance to High School at 9 a.m.; five pupils took the papers, one of
"whom was from Cheam. Began oral examinations at 10 o'clock; heard all junior
" classes during the forenoon;-reading not good; spelling better; arithmetic very fair,
" as far as multiplication ; geography creditable. Afternoon—Heard senior classes ;
"reading and spelling quite satisfactory ; geography well advanced, answering prompt
" and correct; grammar class well up in definitions and simple parsing, but not under-
" standing analysis ; history class very correct, both in facts and dates to the Common-
" wealth. The elements of music are efficiently taught, the whole school having
" considerable knowledge of the subject as far as transposition. Thirty-one pupils in
"attendance; order and discipline much improved since last year, and now tolerably
" satisfactory." The large attendance here made increased accommodation a matter of
necessity.. A partition has accordingly been taken, down and a porch erected for cap 41YVic. Public Schools Report. 23
and cloak room outside. The enlarged school-room has been furnished with desks after
the pattern of those in Victoria Public School, so that the children in this important
agricultural district will now be much more comfortable than heretofore. Statistics are
as follows:—School population, 51; in attendance, 42; absentees, 9 ; irregular attendance, 39.67, and non-attendance, 17.64; average, 25.34'; amount expended, $960; cost of
pupils, $22 85 and $37 84,
Cheam.—School matters in this district have been progressing satisfactorily;
attendance and average are in advance of last year. The report gives an enrollment
of 28 and an average of 15. Irregularity is therefore nearly one-half, equivalent to less
than three days' teaching weekly with a full attendance. Amount expended, $647 50 ;
cost of each pupil attending, $23 12. and for each one of the average, $43 16. Many of
the children in attendance when visited were only beginners. But few have been at
school with any degree of regularity, so that much progress could hardly be expected.
Some of the classes, however, did tolerably well. A change in the teachership took
place at commencement of this term.
The amount expended in the eleven schools constituting the New Westminster
District was $6,615 82 ; school population, 350—an increase of 36; attendance, 323—■
increase, 45; percentage of irregularity, 42.44—less than last year. Absenteeism is only
about one-half of what it was in 1874-75 ; cost of each pupil enrolled, $20 43—a further
reduction of nearly $4; cost of each pupil on the average, $35 35.
Hope.—A new school-house, pleasantly located and well furnished, was built last
autumn and occupied for teaching purposes in December. Advancement among the
children in their different classes has been all that could bo desired during the year.
Arithmetic, particularly, was quite beyond the average when the school was last examined on Juno 1st; reading and spelling were also good in all the classes ; attendance
is gradually improving, there being now 26 children of school age in the district, 24 of
whom were in school for some part of the year; average, 16}. These figures are far in
advance of last year; irregularity, however, is greater, being 31! per cent. Expenditure
has been heavy, on account of building grant, amounting£o $1,430. This makes the
per capita cost correspondingly large, being $59 54 on enrollment and $86 66 on the
average. Cost for actual teaching purposes has not been higher in this district than in
a majority of other districts.
Yale.—The statistical returns from this school are a great improvement over those
of last year, average attendance being 21.19—an increase of 9; thirty-two children
enrolled gives 33J as the percentage of irregular attendance. Expenditure was $780;
cost of pupils, therefore, $23 75 on the enrollment and $36 81 on the average. At last
official visit, on 31st May, 23 pupils were in attendance; order and discipline were
rather lax ; reading and spelling were both above the average; arithmetic, however,
was much bolow; geography and grammar were not above mediocrity. The school was
in far better condition in every way than last year, although there is still room for much
improvement.
The following are the Deputy Superintendent's reports of schools above Yale,
statistical returns being inserted from Education Office records :—
Lytton.—When this school was visited, at the close of February, there were 14
pupils present. The children were orderly, and attentive to their work; and, in most
of the studies pursued, manifested a fair degree of proficiency. The reading was less
creditable than any of the other exercises, the younger scholars being engaged on more
advanced lessons than their capabilities warranted. Arithmetic in the senior classes, as
far as vulgar fractions, was exceedingly good, the examples being almost invariably
worked out quickly and correctly. The teacher seemed to be attending carefully to
the faithful performance of his duties; and, doubtless, by hearty co-operation on the
part of teacher, parents, and pupils the school will show a very satisfactory record of
progress. The statistics of this school are as follows:—Children of school-age, 17—all
attending more or less; average, 12; percentage of irregularity, 29.4. Expenditure,
oost of each pupil attending, $40 88, and of each on the average, $57 91. Nicola.—The schools in this flourishing settlement were visited in February and
May. The attendance has been regular, and the scholars have made good progress.
The reading and spelling in all classes were especially creditable, the former being
intelligent and distinct. The late teacher and the present incumbent have taken great
pains in grounding their pupils thoroughly in the various branches of study. In grammar and geography nearly every question was answered readily and correctly. The
absence of necessary black-board accommodation has somewhat interfered with the
advancement in arithmetic; but, as steps have already been taken to remedy this
deficiency, satisfactory results may be confidently looked for in the future. The question
of creating another school district in the valley, to extend from Blackbourne's to Scott's,
has been discussed, but no definite arrangement has been arrived at as yet. This district
sends a very satisfactory report of attendance, &c; twenty-two children, 18 enrolled;
average, 17; irregularity lower than in any other district—5.56 per cent. Expenditure,
$770, which gives $42 78 for each pupil in attendance, and $45 29 for each on average.
Okanagan.—The school in this district was visited on the 21st May, when all the
scholars on the register, 21, were in attendance. The results achieved since the opening
of this school have been so remarkably satisfactory, in all respects, that it is difficuft to
speak too highly of the work accomplished. Children who, eighteen months before,
were utterly ignorant of the simplest rudiments, and unable even to speak a word of
English, had advanced so rapidly as to bo able, when the school was visited, to read
fluently and clearly in the fourth reader. The examination in grammar, geography,
and arithmetic was eminently creditable to teacher and pupils, and must have still
further increased the confidence and esteem which the parents entertain for their hardworking and conscientious teacher. The discipline was excellent, and the scholars
evidently took a hearty interest in their work. The settlers in Mission Valley have
every reason to congratulate themselves on their good fortune in securing and retaining
the services of so successful an educator as the gentleman in charge of their school.
Statistical record for this district is fully as satisfactory as that from Nicola. All the
children are attending school—21 in number. These give an average of 18.35, with a
percentage for irregularity of only 12.62. The expenditure was $820; cost of each pupil
on enrollment and average $39.05 and $44 68.
Cache Creek Boarding School.—Tn spite of the difficulties connected with this
establishment, and the trying position it has been placed in, the improvement of the
various classes has been very marked. In several studies the pupils are more advanced
than those attending any of the day schools in the upper country. The continuous
control and superintendence of the teacher, combining steady regard to home work
with the special duties of the school-room, have borne fruit in the rapid progress of
many of the scholars. During the last formal visit to the school, shortly before the
midsummer vacation, the examination of the different classes evinced great diligence
and aptitude for communicating knowledge on the part of the teacher. In the senior
division considerable proficiency was exhibited in analysis and parsing, mathematical
geography, physiology, dictation and history, while in the junior classes the reading,
spelling, grammar and geography were very satisfactory. The deportment of the
pupils in the school-room, and their behaviour while entering and leaving, were admirable, promptness, quietness, and order characterizing all their movements. The cleanly
and healthy appearance of the children was very pleasing, and the genuine interest
with which they went through their recitations augured well for future progress.
More blackboard space is urgently needed to enable the teacher to carry on the work
with still greater success. The total number of pupils on the register for the year was
35, the average attendance 21, and the number on the roll at the last visit 27. It can
hardly be expected that the boarding school statistical exhibit is as favourable as in
former years, or as it will be for the current year. Expenditure for school purposes,
not including advances, was $1,616 60. The cost of each of the 35 pupils attending was
$46 08, and of each one on the average $76 98. Irregular attendance for the year was
high, being 40 per cent.*
Hope, Yale, Lytton, Nicola, Okanagan and Cache Creek schools are in the Yale
Electoral District.    Number of children reported,  155, of whom  147 are attending
*.For further information see Appendix G. 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 25
school. The average was 106.04; consequently, irregularity amounts to 27.87 per cent.
Expenditure, $6,111 60 ; cost per pupil on enrollment, $41 57 ; for the average, $57 63.
Amount expended for all purposes is more on account of the erection of Hope school
house. All the rest of the figures, however, are considerably in advance of the corresponding ones for last year.
Lillooet.—This school was visited in winter, but, through delay in crossing the
Fraser on account of floating ice, the examination was scarcely so thorough as was
desirable. The general results, however, were satisfactory, more particularly in the
higher classes, reading, spelling and grammar being specially commendable. The
pupils, of whom there were fourteen in attendance, seemed to be making fair progress,
and, judging from the tone of the parents, the teacher was giving complete satisfaction.
The removal of the teacher to Cache Creek Boarding School, at the end of April, led to
the closing of the Lillooet school until after the midsummer vacation. School work
has been resumed under the auspices of a gentleman sent up from Victoria to fill the
vacancy, and favourable reports have come to hand respecting the attendance and management. As no report on attendanee, &c, came to hand, the following figures are only
closely approximate :■—Number of children in district and attending school, 27; average,
15; percentage of irregularity, 44.45; expenditure, $650; cost of pupils, $24.07 and
$43 33, respectively, on enrollment and average.
Clinton.—This school continues under the same able management as at date of last
report, and is fully maintaining its character for efficiency. The judicious manner in
which it is conducted, the sympathy existing between pupils and teacher, and the hearty
interest taken by the scholars in their studies have combined in securing rapid and
substantial progress. The school was twice visited officially, and the advancement made
in the interval between the visits was most gratifying. Reading and spelling in all the
classes were very good; arithmetic has been carefully and intelligently taught; in geography, as far as studied, the answering was creditable, and the same may be said of
grammar. The scholars, without an exception, were orderly and attentive, and the
arrangement of school work was excellent. The people of Clinton have reason to be
satisfied with the successful working of their school, but they have also reason to congratulate themselves upon having a teacher who, by example as well as precept, exerts
a salutary, moral influence which cannot fail to produce a strong and lasting
impression upon his pupils. The total number of children enrolled during the
year was 19, and the average attendance 13; amount expended, $780, making the
cost per pupil on total attendance $14 05, and on average $60.
Lake la Hache.—Owing to unavoidable circumstances this school was not visited
until after the close of the school year. In the meantime a change had occurred in the
management, the former efficient and popular teacher having received an appointment
at South Saanich. The result of the examination held on the 25th of September, a few
weeks after the present incumbent took charge, was most satisfactory, the pupils in
nearly all their studies, exhibiting a thorough knowledge of the ground gone over, and
evincing a very considerable degree of quickness and intelligence. Reading, in all the
classes, but more particularly in the more advanced ones, was good. The neatness and
finish of the specimens taken proved that writing had been carefully attended to. In
arithmetic, as far as decimals, nearly every question was solved promptly and correctly
by the senior pupils. History was the only subject in which the scholars did not acquit
themselves satisfactorily. A healthy interest in educational matters* exists among the
settlers of Lake la Hache Valley, no efforts being spared to keep up such an average
attendance as will insure the continuance of the school. A very practical proof of this
interest is exhibited by the parents in supplementing the teacher's salary by providing
him with free board. The following are the statistics of this district: Total number
of pupils enrolled, 14; average attendance, 12; total expenditure, $770, being $55 and
$64 16 per pupil on the total attendance and average, respectively.
Lillooet Electoral District includes the three school districts of Clinton, Lillooet, and Lake la Hache. The number of children attending these schools, according
to the approximate return, is 60, while the average attendance is 40, a slight increase
from last year. The total expenditure has been $2,200 for the year, making the cost of
each pupil on total attendance $36 66, and on the average $55. Percentage of irregularity, 33.4. 26 Public Schools Report. 1877
The Barkerville School was not visited until late in the season, owing to the
same hindering causes that delayed the inspection of the Lake la Hache School. In the
spring a change took place in the teach ership on the departure of Mrs. Thompson, temporary arrangements being made with a resident lady for carrying on the school.
When the school was visited, the pupils, nearly all of whom were beginners, seemed to
be making fair progress; and certainly no fault could b6 found with the energy and
industry displayed by the teacher in her management. A strong feeling exists, however, in favour of obtaining the services of a practical certificated teacher, and, doubtless,
the appointment of a stranger, unaffected by local feelings or prejudices, would have a
tendency to make school matters go on more smoothly and harmoniously. Unfortunately several grave difficulties stand in the way of acceding to the wishes of the
parents in this respect, the principal being the scarcity of eligible teachers; the cost of
reaching this far away district, and the comparatively low salary attached to the
position. An attempt was made to supplement the present salary by the addition of a
fixed sum per month subscribed by the parents, but for some reason or other the scheme
proved a failure. The total number of pupils enrolled for the year was 13, and the
average attendance 10. Expenditure for year was $815; cost per pupil enrolled, $62 69;
cost per pupil on average attendance, $81 50; percentage of irregularity, 23.1.
Since the close of the school year, schools have been set in operation at Stanley and
Stuart Lake. Reports from the former district speak very encouragingly of the work
already accomplished.
Four new school districts were gazetted on 18th August, as follows:—
Denman Island.—Boundaries:—All that tract of land known as Denman Island.
North Arm, Fraser River.—Boundaries:—Commencing at north-west corner of
Lot 314, Group 1; thence due north to southern boundary of Lot 320; thence northwesterly along the northern boundary of Musquiam Indian Reserve to western boundary
of Lot 320, Group 1; thence due north to north-west corner of Lot 320; thence following
southern boundary of the Hastings Saw Mill timber lease to north-west corner of Lot
336, Group 1; thence due west along the northern boundary of Lots 336 and 337 to the
north-east corner of 337; thence due south to northern boundary of Lot 330; thence
due west to north-east corner of Lot 258, Group 1; thence duo south along eastern boundary of Lot 258 to North Arm of Fraser River. Then, commencing at north-east
corner of Section 15. Block 5 north, Range 5 west, due south, to range line between
Blocks 4 and 5 north; thence following the said range line, due west to North Arm,
Fraser River, including Sea Island.
Stanley.—Boundaries :—All that tract of land included in a circle which may be
described with a radius of three miles in length from the Court House, Stanley.
Stuart Lake.—Boundaries:—All that tract of land included in a circle which may
be described with a radius six miles in length from Fort St. James on Stuart Lake.
The review of school work and school progress for the year is as satisfactory and
perhaps more so than for any former period in our educational history. By the establishment of a High School provision has been made for intermediate instruction in
Victoria; but the fact must not be lost sight of that a similar institution must soon be
inaugurated in New Westminster. A Provincial University also will speedily become
a necessity if British Columbian youth are to be fully prepared for the various avocations of life, without going to other provinces and countries for the purpose of graduating in arts, law, arid medicine.
Before closing this report, I beg to state that the Board of Education have manifested the utmost willingness to deliberate on all questions submitted for their consideration. Twenty-one meetings have been held during the year. At a majority of those
meetings, all held in the Law Office of Messrs. Drake & Jackson, there was a full
attendance, often at no little personal inconvenience to individual members. Much
valuable time has been spent by these gentlemen in carrying out the provisions of the
School Act and legislating for the educational interests of the Province at large.
I have the honour to be,
Your Excellency's most obedient humble servant,
JOHN JESSOP.
Education Office, Victoria,
October 1st, 1877. 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 27
PART  II.
Statistical Returns.  41 Vic.
Public Schools Report.
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Public Schools Report.
39
, TABLE G.—Book Account for the year ending 31st July, 1877.
Districts.
Books
supplied.
Books
on hand.
Books
sold.
Supplied
gratis.
Amounts paid
Education
Office.
Prize Books
sold.
Amounts due
Education
Office.
$ 5 55
15 00
50
32  25
20 55
15 71
4 20
19 18
11  95
13 65
40 43
24 83
40 00
16 93
8 85
20 24
4  12
11 50
22 90
10 46
14 55
12 60
9 06
11 80
27 78
14 45
4 78
68 53
1  80
18 25
$ 3 34
14 95
$ 3  26
19 00
50
25  10
23 40
12 15
3  75
11  25
7 55
8 80
27 19
18 28
28 00
14 93
10 00
20 24
3 00
8 90
13 60
8 40
7 50
9 50
$  1 25
50
$ 3 26
19 00
50
25  10
23 40
12 15
3  75
11  25
7 55
8 80
27 19
7 81
28 00
14 93
10 00
20 24
3 00
8 90
13 60
8 40
7 50
9 50
7 40
16 25
7 00
10 35
7 93
3 65
5 35
19 90
5 05
11 00
2  21
1  05
1 30
1 61
2 37
6 00
10 47
6 00
3 00
12  13
5 08
2 00
11 00
9 75.
1  00
13 55
12 70
1  00
3 55
1  06
3 63
11  25
22  78
3  75
22 78
15 00
15  90
89 65
11  65
6 50
3  78
10 85
5 05
80
46 40
49 55
6 85
16 50
3  60
10 00
16 90
6 53
20 41
2  20
15 00
267 61
223  54
15 80
25 48
5 00
46 40
49 55
■6 85
16 50
3  60
29 25
35
12 35
12 90
5 68
6-38
2  20
10 97
277  85
712  86
8 90
10 00
11 30
6 53
5 60
20 41
2 20
15 00
267  61
223 54
15 80
7  90
7 13
21   75
489 32
1  55
87 40
Ditto,      High School...
1  90
Yale  	
16 50
10 45
21 36
1 70
21 36
11 75
1,588 99
859 93
1,029 33
60 08
991  03
155  11
52 20
*No Returns, 40
Public Schools Report.
1877
TABLE H.
Education Branch of Provincial Secretary's Department.
Expenditure for the Year ending 31st July, 1877.
Salary of Superintendent of Education	
Travelling expenses of       do.  ,	
Salary of Deputy Superintendent of Education (9| months)	
Travelling expenses of do. 	
Advertising	
Insurance on books ,
Express waggon and drayage	
Carriage, Board of Education, " Dufferin " visit to Public Schools
Postage, telegrams, money orders, &c	
Stationery, (chiefly refunded by School Districts.)	
Amount expended in Public Schools	
Total Expenditure*.,
2,000 00
289 93
1,450 00
167 75
18 00
12 35
13 25
5 00
30 30
21 25
4,007 83
41,342 01
$45,349 84
''Amount refunded Treasury for school books for the half-year ending December 31st, 1876, $618
Book Concern is now separated from School Grant: 41 Vic.
Public Schools Report.
41
TABLE K.—Description and estimated value of School Property in British Columbia.
Districts.
1                                  Description of Land.
Approximate
value of
Land.
Approximate
value of
Buildings,
;Total value.
Ten acres at the head of Yates Street, grantee
by the Honourable the Hudson Bay Company,
marked on the official map as a  " School Reserve."    High School building erected by the
Hudson Bay Company in 1851 or '52, the cost
afterwards defrayed by the Colonial Govern-
$
7,500
750
$
25,000
1,500
1,000
750
750
600
1,500
1,750
500
250
250
600
300
$
32,500
Pive acres granted by the Puget Sound Company,
marked on the official map as a "School Reserve."    School House and Teacher's residence  built, by  the  Hudson Bay Company in
1854.    Cost afterwards refunded by  Colonial
Government.    The  building was thoroughly
2,250
One acre given for public school purposes by the
late Mr. John Whittey.    School house erected
by Government, aided by the settlers, in 1871.
One  acre  donated by Mr. A. Peatt for public
school purposes.    School  house built by Gov-
1,000
750
Onc acre given for a public school site by Mr. J.
Muir, sen.    School house erected by Govern-
750
One-fourth  acre given by the late Mr. Bailey.
School house built by the Vancouver Island
600
Two acres —one donated by Dr. Tolmie, M.P.P.
and the other purchased by the residents from
the Bishop of Columbia.    School house built
by Government in 1872.    Teacher's residence
erected last year, for which the teacher pays
South Saanich	
1,500
Two acres donated by Mr. J. D. Bryant for public school purposes.    School  house built by
Government in 1873,  and teacher's residence
removed from old school site and rebuilt last
North Saanich ,
1,750
One acre given by Mr. Richard Johns for a public school site.    School house erected by Gov-
South Cowichan
North Cowichan
Salt Spring Island ...
500
Half-sectioa of land was applied for by Trustees,
but not granted on account of Railroad  Belt
Reservation.    School house built by Government in 1873 on the above-mentioned land.
The other school house is built on the Nanaimo road, near the  junction of Kelvin Creek
250
250
One hundred acres of Government land on which
600
300
One hundred acres granted by the Government
of the day for public buildings.    School house
erected on this land by Government, aided by
the settlers, in 1863 or 1864	
$8,250    1 $34,750
$43,000 42
Public Schools Report.
1877
TABLE K.—Description and estimated value of School Property.—Continued.
Districts.
Description of Land.
Approximate
value of
Land.
Aj)proximate
value of
Buildings.
Total value.
$8,250
$34,750
300
500
500
3,750
500
' 750
600
$43,000
Salt Spring Island....
The other school house built in the  same way,
on  an acre of ground given by Mr. G. Baker
300
One acre given by Mr. Sparrow for school purposes.    School  house built  by   Government,
with some aid from settlers, in 1873	
500
Two acres donated by Mr. John Kemp.    School
house and teacher's residence erected by Gov-
500
Two town lots given by Vancouver Coal Company.    School house erected by Government
in  1873	
250
4000
Four acres Government land.    School house and
teacher's residence built by the Government,
500
Two  town  lots   given  by  the   Coal  Company.
School house erected by the  Government in
1874 	
750
One acre given by the Bishop of Columbia for a
school  site.     School   house   erected  by  the
600
School building and site the property of Hastings
Mill Company; used for school purposes free
School house erected by the Government in 1873.
The site belongs to ;the mill  proprietors, and
750
3,500
500
500
600
500
400
400
750
750
Six  acres  of ground—School Reserve.    School
house built  in   1865   by  the   Government  of
2,500
800
6,000
One hundred and sixty acres—School Reserve.
School house built by Government in 1874
One  acre given  by  Mr.   H.  Dawson.     School
1,300
500
Half-acre given by the H. B. Co.    School house
built by the British Columbian Government,
600
Half-acre  given  by  Messrs.   Cudlip  &  Clarke.
School house built bv Government in 1874	
500
School house built by Government, on unsur-
400
York 	
School house built by Government, on unsur-
400
Half-acre donated by Mr. Geo. Chadsey.   School
house built by Government, aided by the set-
750
$11,800
$49,550
$61,350 41 Vic.
Public Schools Report;
43
TABLE K.—Description and estimated value of School Property.— Concluded.
Districts.
Description of Land.
Approximate
value of
Land.
Approximate
value o   ''
Buildings."'
Total value.
$11,800
$49,550
1,000
500
750
750
7,400
800
750
800
400
500
$61,350
Half-acre given by Mr. J. Kipp.    School house
and teacher's residence built by Government,
1,000
One acre given by Mr. J. Nelmes.    School house
500
School house built by Government on part of lot
750
Yale	
Two town lots, school reserve.    House built by
thj£ British Columbia Government,  aided by
750
Twenty acres donated by Messrs. Campbell   &
Parke for boarding school purposes.    School
house built by Government in  1873 and en-
7,400
Two  school houses—one  near the junction of
Coldwater with   the  Nicola,   and the  other
800
One acre donated by Mr. W. Smithson.    School
750
Two town lots—School Reserve.    School house
800
Lake La Hache	
School house built on unsurveyed land by Gov-
400
School house purchased by the people in 1870,
500
School house rented from the Episcopal Church
School house rented from the Episcopal  Church
$11,800
$63,200
$75,000 44
Public Schools Report.
1877
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& .2 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 45
PART  III.
Appendices.  41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 47
APPENDIX A.
Eules and Regulations for the Government op Public Schools in
the Province op British Columbia.
1. The hours of teaching in each School shall be from 9 a.m. to 12 m., and from 1
P.M. to 3.30 p.m., from April to September, inclusive; and from 9.30 a.m. to 12 M., and
from p.m. to 3 p.m.. from October to March, inclusive.
2. Every Saturday, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Queen's Birthday, Dominion
Day, and Prince of Wales' Birthday, shall be a holiday in each school. There shall be
a recess of fifteen minutes in the middle of each morning's work.
3. There shall be two vacations in each year; the first, or Summer vacation, shall
continue for one month from the first Monday in July or August, at the option of the
Trustee Board in each School District; the second for two weeks, at Christmas and
New Year.
4. Young children, not being pupils of the school, shall not be allowed to accompany
teachers or pupils, as such a practice tends to the interruption of the regular business
of the school.
5. No teacher shall be deprived of any part of his or her salary on account of
observing allowed holidays and vacations.
Regulations for Teachers' Salaries.
Whereas it is desirable that salaries should be equalized by placing them on the
basis of average attendance, and that teachers, trustees, and parents should have a
direct interest in securing as large an attendance as possible, therefore be it resolved:—
1. That from and after the 1st August, 1874, the salaries of all duly qualified Public
School Teachers in the employ of the Education Department, when the average attendance of pupils is from 10 to 20 inclusive, shall be §50 per month ; from 20 to 25 inclusive,
$55 per month ; 25 to 30 inclusive, $60 per month ; 30 to 35 inclusive, $65 per month ;
35 to 40 inclusive, $70 per month ; 40 to 45 inclusive. $75 per month; 45 to 50 inclusive,
$80 per month. As soon as the average attendance in any school shall exceed fifty,
such school shall be entitled to an assistant teacher; the average shall be calculated
annually from the attendance for the year jireceding first of August, excluding vacations
and puwlic holidays.
2. The teacher at Yale, and those teachers further inland, shall receive $10 per
month each, in addition to the salaries to which they are entitled by the above scale, as
compensation for the increased cost of living.
3. In districts where the average attendance for the year falls below ten, the
schools may be taught by teachers preparing to qualify, at a lower rate of salary than
$50 per month ; but if considered advisable by the Board such schools may eitheir be
kept open for a portion of the year or be entirely closed.
4. The above mentioned re-adjustment shall not apply to schools when more than
one teacher is employed in the same department.
Public School Teachers and their Duties.
It shall be the duty of every teacher of a Public School—
1. To teach diligently and faithfully all the branches required to be taught in the
school, according to the terms of his engagement with the Trustees, and according to
the rules and regulations adopted by the Board of Education : 48 Public Schools Report. 1877
2. To keep daily, weekly, and monthly registers of the school:
3. To maintain proper order and discipline in his school, according to the authorized
forms and regulations:
4. To keep a visitors' book (which the Trustees shall provide) and enter therein
the visits made to his school, and to present such book to such visitor, and to request
him to make therein any remarks suggested by his visit:
5. At all times when desired by them, to give to Trustees and visitors access to the
registers and visitors' book appertaining to the school, and upon his leaving the school
to deliver up the same to the order of the Trustees :
6. To have at the end of each half-year public examinations of his school, of which
he shall give due notice to the Trustees of the school, and, through his pupils, to their
parents and guardians:
7. To furnish to the Superintendent of Education, when desired, any information
which it may be in his power to give respecting anything connected with the operation
of his school, or in anywise affecting its interests or character:
8. To classify the pupils according to their respective abilities:
9. To observe and impress upon the minds of the pupils, the great rule of regularity
and order,—a time and. place por everything,   and everything in its  proper  time
AND  PLACE E
10. To promote, both by precept and example, cleanliness, neatness, and decency.
To personally inspect the children every morning, to see that they have their hands
and faces washed, their hair combed, and clothes clean. The school apartments, too,
should be swept and dusted every evening :
11. To pay the strictest attention to the morals and general conduct of the pupils ;
to omit no opportunity of inculcating the principles of truth and honesty ; the duties
of respect to superiors, and obedience to all persons placed in authority over them:
12. To evince a regard for the improvement and general welfare of the pupils ; to
treat them with kindness, combined with firmness ; and to aim at governing them by
their affections and reason rather than harshness and severity:
13. To cultivate kindly and affectionate feelings among the pupils; to discountenance
quarrelling, cruelty to animals, and every approach to vice :
14. To practice such discipline in school as would be exercised by a judicious parent
in the family, avoiding corporal punishment, except when it shall appear to him to be
imperatively necessary; and then a record of the offence and the punishment shall be
made in the school register for the inspection of trustees and visitors :
15. No teacher shall compel the services of pupils for his own private benefit or
convenience:
16. For gross misconduct, or a violent or wilful opposition to authority, the teacher
may suspend a pupil from attending school, forthwith informing the parent or guardian
of the fact, and the reason of it; but no pupil shall be expelled without the authority of
the trustees:
17. When the example of any pupil is very hurtful, and reformation appears hopeless, it shall be the duty of the teacher, with the approbation of the trustees, to expel
such pupil from the school; but any pupil under public censure, who shall express to
the teacher his regret for such a course of conduct, as openly and explicitly as the case
may require, shall, with the approbation of the trustees and teacher, be re-admitted to
the school.
Duties of Pupils, Parents, and Guardians.
1. Pupils must come to school clean and neat in their persons and clothes, and be
present at the commencement of each day's work : 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 49
2. No pupil shall, without the teacher's consent depart before the time appointed
for closing the school:
3. A pupil absenting himself or herself from the school, except on account of sickness, or other urgent reasons satisfactory to the teacher, forfeits his or her standing in
the class, and must undergo such other punishment as the teacher may deem necessary :
4. The parents or guardians of all pupils shall furnish their children with the
authorized text books, to.bo obtained from the teachers of the respective schools, who
are to charge therefor the prices agreed upon by the Board of Education : but, in case
of inability to comply with this rule, the teacher may, under special circumstances,
supply the necessary books free of cost; but every such case must be reported to the
Superintendent of Education.
Opening and closing exercises are now limited to the Lord's Prayer and Ten
Commandments, and it is optional with the various Trustee Boards whether the same
shall be used or not.
APPENDIX B.
eules por the examination op public school teachers and the
Issuance op Certipicates op Qualification.
That in order to secure as far as possible uniformity and the utmost fairness to
candidates in their examination, and the issuance of certificates to them according to
their respective degrees of merit, the following Eules shall guide the proceedings of the
Board of Education in those important matters.
1. Due notice of the time and place at which an examination is to be held shall be
given to all applicants for certificates ; and during the examination, the Superintendent,
and, if possible, one or more of the other members of the Board shall be present to
afford the candidates such explanations and proper facilities as may be required. Should
it be desirable at any time to hold an examination of candidates at a distance from
Victoria where a member of the Board cannot bo present, the Board will make such
other suitable arrangements in each case as shall ensure a proper examination.
2. To each branch or subject of examination there shall be attached an invariable
standard or number of marks of value; and the proportionate value of the answers
given by candidates shall be ascertained and determined (as hereinafter mentioned in
Pules 8 and 9) upon that standard exclusively.
3. The subjects or course of examination, and the standard number of marks
attached to them severally, shall be the following, or such selection therefrom as the
Board may from time to time consider sufficient and necessary ; and such selection, if
and when made, shall form the full course of examination on that particular occasion,
and apply equally in every respect to all candidates then to be examined :—1. Spelling,
(200 marks); 2. Beading, (200); 3. Writing, (200); 4. Composition, (200); 5. Grammar,
(200); 6. Arithmetic, (200); 7. Book-keeping, (200); 8. Geography, (200); 9. History,
(200); 10. Mathematics, (100) for each branch; 11. Latin, (100); 12. French, (50); 13.
Drawing, (50); 14. Music, (50). N/B.—These marks are merely arbitrary and only
for the sake of convenience, definiteness, and precision, and Without any reference whatever to the relative importance of the different subjects. The subjects may be increased
or diminished at the pleasure of the Board.
4. Individual candidates shall choose for their examination such and as many of the
above subjects as they may respectively consider themselves qualified to undertake;
bearing in mind that the standing of each as a scholar—and which shall be recorded in
his or her certificate, if such be granted—shall be in just proportion to his or her attainments, as shown by the examination, and that therefore it is desirable for their own
credit to acquit themselves as well as possible on every subject, or a part of a subject,
within their knowledge. Under any circumstances, subjects 1 to must be part of the
examination. E". B.—Candidates should bo advised of the above before entering on
their examination, as an incentive to them to do their best.
4 60 Public Schools Report. 1877
5. The minimum percentage of answers to questions (i. e., marks of value awarded)
that shall entitle a candidate to obtain a certificate of the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd class, graduated as undermentioned, shall be respectively the following percentage of the standard
marks of value attached to the total subjects forming the prescribed curriculum or course
for examination as above set forth in Eule 3, namely-
First  Class  A, 80 per cent;
First   Class  B, 70 per cent;
Second Class A, 60 per cent; .
Second Class B, 50 per cent;
Third Class A, 40 per cent;
Third Class B, 30 per cent,
6. There shall be used at each examination one set of papers, complete in itself (a
paper to a subject), embracing all the subjects that compose the course of examination
as above prescribed, and which as a whole shall be open to all competitors indiscriminately. The standard number of marks of value that shall be attached to papers in the
higher branches or subjects shall be on a diminished scale (as shown in Eule 3, and in
the annexed table), in order that the absence of any one or more of such higher branches
or subjects in the case of any candidate who shall be unfit to compote therein, may
cause as little disturbance as possible in the equilibrium of the average percentage
awarded for the other or more ordinary bi'anches, in which all candidates alike should
be, and are expected to be, proficient.
7. The papers respectively (one paper for each branch or subject—always excepting,
howevei', such branches or subjects as have to be judged of viva voce or otherwise than
by written papers, such as reading and spelling, etc.,) shall be set or furnished by
individual members of the Board, whom the Board shall from time to time select or
appoint for the purpose. Each paper or subject shall consist of such number of questions,
not being less than twelve, as the member furnishing it may think proper; and shall
have attached to it, invariably, the standard number of marks of value fixed in Eule 3,
and in the table annexed hereto ; which total or standard number of marks shall, when
the paper is furnished, or before it is put into the hands of a candidate, be subdivided or
apportioned by the member of the Board who furnished it, according to his judgment,
pro rata among the several questions contained in the paper. He shall, also, then fix a
reasonable time to be allowed for answering the paper in full—that is sufficient time to
admit of the paper being answered correctly by one having suck a knowledge of the
subject as would be necessary for an efficient teacher of it.
8. Each paper answered, or returned as answered, by a candidate, shall, as soon as
convenient thereafter, be scrutinized by the irember of the Board who furnished it, or
in his absence, or at his request, by the Superintendent or any other member or members
of the Board, instead of or in conjunction with him (the member who furnished the
paper); and he or they so acting in his stead, or in conjunction with him, shall, subject
to the inspection or revision of the Board, and before the issuance of a certificate to a
candidate, determine by marking on the candidate's paper the proportion of marks to
be awarded to each answer given, such as it shall be, but of course not exceeding in any
case the number previously apportioned (as in Eule 7) to the particular question to
which it has been given as an answer; and shall, also, subject as aforesaid, ascertain
and determine, and mark on the j^aper, in like manner, the percentage or projiortion per
cent, which the total marks thus awarded to a candidate on each subject shall bear to
the standard maximum number of marks pertaining to that particular subject.
9. The Board, collectively, or by committee, shall finally determine, in manner
aforesaid, the total number of marks awarded, or to be awarded, to the several candidates on each and all the branches or subjects that formed the course of examination;
and also the percentage or proportion per cent, which that total bears to the standard
number of marks pertaining to the whole of these branches or subjects.
10. Certificates shall not be issued for at least one week after the examination of
candidates, during which period it shall be open to the several members of the Board to
satisfy themselves fully as to the merits of all or any of the candidates, by inspection of
their answers to the examination papers, and the marks awarded, or proposed to be
awarded, in respect of such answers. 41 Vic.
Public Schools Report.
51
11. For the satisfaction of candidates as well as of the Board, and for the general
convenience in any future reference that may be necessary or desirable, each certificate
issued shall exhibit in parallel columns (as in the table subjoined)—
(1.) The standard or invariable number of marks pertaining to each branch or
subject, and the total of these :
(2.) The number of marks awarded on each subject to the bearer of the certificate,
and the totals thereof:
(3.) The percentage or proportion per cent, of the marks awarded on  each subject
to the standard number of marks pertaining to that subject:
(4.) The percentage or proportion per cent, which the total marks awarded on the
whole branches or subjects bear to the total standard number of marks pertaining to all the subjects that formed the course of examination:
(5.) A series of numbers in a separate column, indicating the standing or scholarship
of the bearer of the certificate on the several subjects of examination.
The precise scope and signification of these indicative numbers are to be defined as
follows, namely:
From   0 to 20 per cent, inclusive  0
,,     20 per cent, up to 30 per cent. 10
„     30 „ 40        „          9
,,     40 „ 50       „          8
„     50 „ 55        „          7
„     55 „ 60       „  6
„     60 „ 65       „          5
,,     65 „ 70        „  4
„     70 „ 75       „  3
„     75 „ 80        ,,          2
„     80 „    and upwards          1
TABLE exhibiting the particulars referred to in the foregoing Eules 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and
11, respectively, and being an example of the form or order in which the several particulars are to be embodied in the certificate to be granted to successful candidates.
SUBJECTS  OF   EXAMINATION.
Ordinary Subjects more or less essential:
Spelling,.	
Reading	
Writing 	
Composition   	
Grammar  ,	
Arithmetic	
Book-keeping	
Geography..,.,	
History	
Extraordinary Subjects less or more non-essential
Mathematics for each branch 	
Latin.	
French ,	
Drawing ,	
Music	
Total ,..,	
o
Maxk's awarded.
m
Q
:S
Srj
3 $p
S 5
i
»d
No.
o rt
©ra
fcJD-Tj
°.9rt
g
8
o.S
gfti
IBS
Pu
PH
4
1
2
3
200
200
100
200
180
90
200
180
90
200
150
75
200
180
90
200
180
90
200
120
60
200
100
50
200
100
50
100
80
80
100
70
70
50
20
40
50
10
20
50
30
60
74 3-7
2,150
1,600
-=   °r^
| MM
fl.SW
HI 52
Public Schools Report.
1877
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BEITISH COLUMBIA.
This is to Certify, that
having been carefully examined in the several branches
named in the margin is hereby granted a
Certificate of Qualification, as a Public School
Teacher, in virtue of the powers vested in us by subsection 6 of section 9 of the " Consolidated Public
School Act, 1876," which Certificate shall be valid
in any part of the Province of British Columbia,
until revoked by this Department.
r
H
TO   V
a u
H   Q    .
B (S    J
pa
Dated at the Education Office, Victoria, this
day of , One thousand eight hundred
and seventy-
Superintendent of Education for B. C.
Registered in Certificate Register A,
of the Department No.
Standing in the
Difperent Branches:
Subjects
of
Examination.
o
o
u
13
Marks
awarded.
In o
5Ej +»
s d .
o     s
©c'1"'aj
0-
111
III
M (5 H
■"<    r-  H
r2 O ©
-  kD   •
0 a -A
a£ «
_ a  «
2-3 "
No.
o
9
*-, "§
o -S
©  +3
!|
History and English. Litera-
Writing	
Education and Art of Teach-
Natural Philosophy	
Vocal Music	
Animal and Vegetable Phy-
APPENDIX C.
TEACHERS' EXAMINATION PAPERS.
No. 1—English Grammar.    Time, 3 Aowrs.    2ota£ Marks, 200.
1. Name the parts of speech into which words are divided, giving examples and explaining the use of each.
2. Classify the words of the following sentence:—
" I said the Russian war was a measureless calamity, and yet many of your leaders
and friends told you that it was a just war to maintain the integrity of Turkey, some
thousands of miles off."
3. Give examples of collective, abstract, and participial nouns.
4. State the principal classes into which adverbs have been divided.
5. Change the active verbs in the following sentences into passive verbs, preserving
the sense:—
I rang the bell. He takes portraits very correctly. Britannia rules the waves. Let
our voice his praise exalt.    The first fresh dawn awoke us.
6. What is an active intransitive verb?    Give an example. 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 53
7. How do participles differ and how may they be distinguished from adjectives?
8. Correct errors in the following examples:—
These are the men which we select for our companions. Each of them shall be
rewarded in their turn. You need not go so hastily. This one is more preferable than
that. I will not forgive him neither this year nor next. Whom do you think it is. I
have no idea who he means to put in my place. John's and Mary's shares are smaller
than the rest. IMcither' Napoleon nor Wellington were aware of what had occurred the
previous night.
9. In analyzing a sentence which are the principal points to be remembered?
10. Analyze the following single sentence: —
" The sun from the Western horizon, like a magician, extends his golden wand o'er
the landscape."
11. Parse the following sentence syntactically:—
" A young man studious to know his duty, and honestly bent on doing it, will find
himself led away from the sin or folly in which the multitude thoughtlessly indulge
themselves."
12. Analyze the following miscellaneous sentence:—
" If a reflective aged man were to find at the bottom of an old chest—where it had
lain forgotten fifty years—a record which he had written of himself when he was
young, simply and vividly describing his whole heart and pursuits and reciting verbatim
many passages of the language which he sincerely uttered, would he not read it with
more wonder than almost every other writing could at his age inspire?"
No. 2.—Education and Art of leaching:    Time, 2 hours.    Total Marks, 100.
1. Describe a school house suitable for a Public School with an average of 20 pupils,
giving details as to size, ventilation, furniture, and apparatus.
2. What amount of time each week (containing 5 school days of 5 hours each) would
you devote to the subjects of Beading, Writing, Arithmetic, Spelling, Geography,
Grammar, and History, in a school, or division, containing children between 10 and 15
years of age? State at length the principles upon which you would construct your time
table.
3. How would you explain a map of the Hemispheres to children commencing
Geography ?
4. How would you deal with cases of the following discipline respectively :—
Inattention, Rudeness, Deceitfulness, Want of Punctuality, Insubordination.
F).   What is the best method of developing the thinking powers of children?
(!. How does aesthetic education connect itself with the Public School ?
No. 3.—Hisiorii and English Literature:    lime, 3 hours.    Total Marks, 200.
1. Give some account of the principal events of the reign of James I.
2. When was the Long Parliament summoned? Name the principal acts they passed
before the commencement of hostilities, and point out, giving reasons, what you consider
to have been violations of the Constitution.
3. Sketch briefly the history of the reign of William III.
4. Mention some of the principal events in British History during the years 1801,
1802 and 1803.
5. Name some of the Arctic and African discoverers, and the man who planned and
established the Overland Eoute to India. 54 Public Schools Report. 1877
Literature.
1. State what you know about Locke and his writings.
2. Name some of the writings of Alexander Pope, of Oliver Goldsmith, of Robert
Burns, and of Alfred Tennyson.
3. Name some of Sir Walter Scott's novels having an historical groundwork.
4. What English piece of poetry did General Wolfe repeat before some of his officers
on the eve of the taking of Quebec, and what did he say about it ?
No. 4.—Arithmetic,    Time, 3 /tours.    Total Marks, 200.
1. A was owner of A of a vessel and sold g of \ of his share for $1,600, what was the
value of % of -| of the vessel ?
2. The circumference of a circle is to its diameter as 8.1416 : 1, find, in feet and
inches, the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 22J feet ?
3. What must be the breadth of a piece of ground whose length is 40J yards, in
order that it must be twice as great as another piece of ground whoso length is 14f
yards and whose breadth is 13f^ yards.
4. Find the amount of interest on $2833.25 for 4\ years at 6 per cent.
5. Find the difference between simple and compound interest of $416.60 for two
years at 6 per cent.
6. Divide to four places of decimals each of the following, and prove the truth of
the results by fractions: .009384 by .0063 ; 51846.734 by 1.02 ; 7457.1345 by 6535496.2.
7. Eeduce the following to equivalent fractions having the least common denomin-
OTITP  •       — A   16   JL   5   i7
ator .    80- 36 24310-00 6 g0.
8. Add 270| + 650 | -f 5000i + 53t + l|
9. Find the respective values of 2f of a tun of wine, 19| of 5 lbs. 8 oz. 6 dwts., and
9
ili cubic yards -J- 2| cubic feet.
10. Find the square root of .042849, .3486784401, and 28.8369.
11. Find the hypothenuse of a right angled triangle whose other sides are 24 ft. and
27 ft. 6 in.
12. Find the area of a triangle whose base is 45 feet and altitude 17 feet.
13. How many cubes, whose edges are each 2|, can be cut of a cube of which each
edge is 22 inches ?
14. Multiply 45 lbs. 7 oz. 3 drm. 2 sc. by 12 and 68.
15. Eeduce is of Tof^ofirofw of 2 of 27,
16. The price of 2 turkeys and 9 fowls is £2 18s. 6d., and the price of 5 turkeys and
2 fowls is £4 8s. 2d., find the price of a turkey and a fowl.
17. Add .234, 14.3812, .01, 32.47, .00075.
No. 5.—Geography.    Time 3 hours.    Toted Marks, 200.
1. Explain what is meant by the curvature of the earth. At what height must a
person of average stature be placed that he may see the surface of tho earth at a
distance of nine miles ? 41 Vic.
Public Schools Report.
55
2. How would you illustrate to a class the difference between the earth's orbit and
the plane of its orbit ?
3. How would you illustrate the position of the chief lines supposed to bo drawn
upon the globe ?
4. What connection is there between the words "ecliptic" and "eclipse?"
5. Explain the terms "flood tide,"  "high water," and "low water."    What causes
" neaptides," and when do they occur ?
6. What are the respective positions of the earth and the sun during the winter
season ?
7. How do meridians and parallels of latitude differ ?
8. Describe the Sea of Sargasso.
9. In calculating latitude at sea, what do we determine by means of "M. A." and
" S. D." ?   Illustrate your answer by diagram.
10. At wThat height above the surface of the earth, and why, does the atmosphere
cease to reflect the rays of light from the sun ?
11. Why is high water later on the eastern than on the western coast of the British
Isles ?
12. Give the boundaries, political divisions, with capitals, and chief physical features
of Europe.
13. What is meant by the earth's crust ?   What is its computed thickness ?
No. 6.—Spelling.    Time, \ an hour.    Total Marks, 200.
marks to be deducted for each word passed over or returned misspelt.)
Correct where necessary the spelling of the following:—
Appall,
Apparant,
Apperient,
Apearence,
Appartment,
Appostrophy,
Apiarry,
Avalaunch,
. Cannible,
Compair,
Conseated,
Corruskation,
Decaydance,
Deliseious,
Dellicasy,
Discrete,
Disonest,
Disswade,
Enhanso,
Exaustion,
Bxkuse,
Extreemly,
Exturpate,
Feasable,
Frontispeace,
Can green,
Germenate,
Grotesk,
Imbew,
Immencity,
infallable,
Intruesion,
Ipsedixit,
Irrasible,
Judiscious,
Judgement,
Jokoso,
Parralel,
Peacemeal,
Pertinassity,
Purswasive,
Bepell,
Eescepticle,
Eesponcive,
Spontanious,
Susceptable,
Suspision,
Squallid,
Transparansy,
Vellosity.
No. 7.—Book-keeping: Double Entry,
Time, 3J- hours. Total marks, 200.
You began business with a Capital of §15,000, consisting of Cash $5,000, Goods
$10,000.
At the same time yon owed A. B. for part of the goods $1,000, payable in 8 months.
You placed $3,000 Gash to your credit in account opened with the City Bank.
Afterwards you purchased from C. D. the following goods :—
400 bbls. Flour @ $6.
W chests = 1,000 lbs. Tea ...@ 50c. per lb.
150 kegs = 15,000 lbs. Sugar @   8c.   „   ,, 56 Public Schools Report. 1877
paying therefor, Cash $1,200; Draft on City Bank $1,000; your Promissory Note, ")
at 3 months, $1,000; other goods given in exchange, $500; the balance to stand over y
for settlement at your debit in open account with C. D. $ )
You sold for cash sundry goods amounting to $3,700.
You sold on credit to —
E. F., sundry goods amounting to $500
G. H. do. 2,500
I. J. do. 1,000
K. L do. 1,500
You lodged in the City Bank $4,000.
I. J. paid you cash in full $1,000.
K. L. do. 1,500.
G. H. paid you cash in part  $1,500
and gave you his Promissory Note, at 2 months, for the balance      1,000
 $2,500
You gave A. B. an order on E. F. for $300
and a Draft on the City Bank for    700
 $1,000
You paid C. D. in full, Cash $400.
You paid your Promissory Note to him, by a Draft on the City Bank for $1,000.
You lodged in the City Bank $3,000.
You paid all charges on your business by a Draft on the City Bank for $500.
Your goods remaining on hand, per Inventory, are valued at $5,800.
Enter the above in due form, under appropriate heads, in Cash Book, Journal, and
Ledger, so as to show the Profit or Loss on the business, and to produce a Balance Sheet
exhibiting the true state of your affairs.
No. 8.—Music.    Time 1 hour.    Total Marks 50.
1. Is it possible for a teacher who cannot sing to have vocal music in his school ?
If so, explain.    Mention some of the benefits arising from school singing.
2. Write in notation on the stave, in semibreves, the chromatic scale in the treble
or G cleff.
3. How many forms of notes and rests in common use ? Give examples with their
names.
4. Describe the different kinds of time in common use and give examples. In the
above examples what information do we gather from the numerator of the fraction ?
Also from the denominator ?
5. Show how major intervals may be made minor, and minor major, by the use of
flats and sharps.
JS/o. 9.—English Composition.    Time 2 hours,    lotal Marks 100.
Subject—Character of Queen Elizabeth.
No. 10.-—Natural Philosophy.    Time 1|- hours.    Total Marks 100.
1. Explain the formation of dew.    Why is it not deposited on cloudy nights,  or
upon sand or gravel ?
2. Give some illustrations of  the  intimate  relations   existing between heat and
motion. 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 57
3. Describe Burmah's hydrostatic press, and give the principle on which it acts.
4. Describe the principal parts of a steam engine, and explain the difference between
low pressure and high pressure engines.
5. Explain what is meant by a boiler of 5, 10 or 20 horse power, and the considerations which have led to the adoption of this term with reference to boilers.
6. The report of the mail steamer's gun, on entering Esquimalt harbour, is heard
on Beacon Hill 9J seconds after the flash or smoke is seen, and the echo from the
Metchosin Hills in 16} seconds ; required the ship's distance from the observer and
from the hills ?
No. 11.—Physiology.    Time 1J hours.    Total Marks 100.
1. Illustrate the value of physiological knowledge. Why should physiology be
studied in youth ?
2. State about the number of bones in the human skeleton, their divisions and their
uses.
3. Show that walking is a process of falling. Describe the process of running.
What causes the swinging of the hand in walking ? Why does a person when lost
often go in a circle ?
4. What is sighing ? coughing ? sneezing ? hiccough ? and yawning ?
5. Why do we use food ? What three kinds are necessary ? Describe each and
give examples.
No. 12.—Algebra.    Time 2 hours.    Total Marks 100.
1. If a ■= 1, b = I, x = 7, y ='8, find the numerical value of 5 (a—b) z\/ (a+x)y'i 4-
a—bVta+x) y—'Viif—{a~i/^x+2b)y.
2. Find the G. C. M. of 3x4—x2y2~2y*, and lO.ra-f 15xsy—10x2y2—15xyK
•>   c 1      XL    J-  .1       ■ x- r 3(20—1)     _     , 3(x—2) ■     „
3. Solve the following equations :   ox ——■ =2x-\- -~ ;   x—y—Z==6, 3y—x
—2=12, 7z—y—x=2i.
4. A and B can reap a field in 10 hours, A and C in 12 hours, B and C in 15 hours;
in what time can they do it jointly and separately ?
5. The difference between the hypothenuse and two sides of a right-angled triangle
is 3 and 6 respectively ; find the sides.
6. Expand (1-f 3]/x)-e to five terms, and obtain from the result, by evolution, the
series for (l-pi/ic)-3.
7. How many words can be formed of 4 consonants and 2 vowels in a language of
24 letters, of which 5 are vowels ?
No. 13.—Geometry.    Time 2 hours.    Total Marks 100.
1. Define the terms "problem," "postulate," "axiom," "theorem," "radius," "arc "
" chord," and " sector."
2. If in Euclid I., 1, an equilateral triangle be described on the other side of the
given line, what figure will the two triangles form ?
3. Draw the figure for the third case of Euclid I.,  7, and state why it needs no
demonstration. 58 • Public'Schools Report. 1877
4. If a straight line be divided into any two parts, the squares on the whole line
and on one of the parts are equal to twice the rectangle contained by the whole and
that part, together with the square on the other part (Euclid II., 7.)
5. To bisect a given arc (Euclid III., 30.)
6. Inscribe a regular decagon in a given circle.
No. 14.—Mensuration,    lime 1 hour.    Total Marks 50.
1. The span of a roof is 28 feet; each of its slopes measures 17 feet from the ridge
to the eaves ; find the height of the ridge above the eaves.
2. A road runs round a circular shrubbery ; the outer circumference is 600 feet,
and the inner circumference is 480 feet; find the width of the road.
3. A room whose height is 11 feet, and length twice its breadth, takes 165 yards of
paper 2 feet wide for its four walls ; find how much carpet it wTill require.
4. Find the column of a pyramid the height of which is 12 inches, and the base an
equilateral triangle each side of which is 10 inches. ■
HIGH SCHOOL ENTRANCE EXAMINATION, JANUAEY, 1877.
No. 1.—Arithmetic.    Time, 1 hour.
1. Define Arithmetic and Notation.
2. What are the answers to questions in each of the first four simple rules called?
3. Express in Eoman characters 1,999.
4. Write the tahle of Cubic Measure.
5. From the least common multiple of 15, 25, and 40, subtract the greatest common
divisor or measure of same numbers.
6. How many yards of carpet,  li yards wdde,  would bo required to cover a floor
50 feet long, and 30 feet wide?
7. Find (by cancellation) the value of ^X^XSfj;
No 2.—English Grammar.    Time, 1 hour.
1. What is English Grammar?
(a.) Who is the author of your text book on this subject?
2. Name the inflected parts of speech.
(a.) State the properties or inflections of the Arerb.
(b.) Underline those it possesses in common with the Noun.
3. Name the five Moods.
(a.)  Underline those used in asking questions.
(b.) Give the signs of the Tenses of the Indicative.
4. Give some directions for the use of Capital letters?
5. Analyze and parse one or more of the following lines; namely—
"Peace and joy are virtue's crown."
" Every heart knows its own sorrows."
.   " Gratitude is a delightful emotion." 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 59
No. 3.—Geography.    Time, 1 hour.
1. Define an isthmus, peninsula, delta, strait, estuary, and sound.
2. What rivers drain the Northern slopes of each of the Continents, and into what do
they empty?
3. Name the Provinces of the Dominion: also the capital of each, and how situated.
4. Give a list of the Eastern and Middle States of the American "Union with their
capitals.
5. Define the chief imaginary lines on a terrestial globe.
6. What are the producing causes of Day and Night, and the Seasons?
No. 4.—Spelling.    Time, \ hour.
Correct mistakes in spelling, punctuate, and re-write the following:—
The wide-spredding moore on which the gloome and the shaddows of night are fast
sottlleing doun is wonderously produced and verry rearly indeed have we seen a
landskip possesing more fassinnations or so admirably calkilated to arest the proggress
ol the vissitter and to chalange his admireation.
HIGH SCHOOL ENTEANCE EXAMINATION.—JUNE, 1877.
No. 1.—Arithmetic.    Time, 1 hour.
1. Define Minuend Subtrahend, and Dividend.
2. Subtract the greatest common divisor of MDCLXV1. and 440, from their leas*
common multiple.
3. Divide S of | by g|of 1
4. If 9 men in 6 days can mow 18 acres, in how many days can 8 men mow 20
acres ?
5. What is the simple interest on $75 for 3 years, 3 months, 3 days, at 3 per cent.
per annum ?
6. What would 3 oz. 20 dwt. 18 gr. of gold dust cost at $14 75 per oz. ?
No. 2.—English Grammar.    Time, 1J hours.
1. Define the following terms, viz.:—(1) Orthography, (2) Etymology, (3) Syntax,
(4) Prosody.
2. (1) What are inflections ?    (2) Name the inflected parts of speech.
3. Give the plural of the following, viz.:'—{1) Basis, (2) erratum, (3) genius, (4)
memorandum, (5) 'aide-decamp.
4. (1) What are finite verbs ?    (2) Name the signs of the tenses, indicative mood.
ft. (1) What is a sentence ?    (2) Name its principal parts.
6, Write five rules for the use of capital letters, 60
Public Schools Report.
1877
(1) What is spelling ?    (2) What is reading ?
Analyze and parse the following, viz.:—
" Son of Honor, theme of story,
Think on the reward before you !
Danger, darkness, toil despise ;
'Tis Ambition bids thee rise."—Scott.
No. 3.—Geography.    Time, 1 hour.
1. Define the following terms :—Poles, axis, 'parallels of latitude.
2. If one place is situated on the 40th parallel of north latitude, and another place
on the corresponding parallel south, how far apart, in degrees, are the two places ?
3. What continents are washed by the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and on what
side?
4. What Provinces comprise the Dominion of Canada ?    Name the capital of each.
5. How may a cargo of tea be taken from Canton to London, and from London to
Victoria, without breaking bulk ?
6. Give the boundaries of Europe, the principal islands, and the peninsulas which
extend in a southerly direction.
No. 4.—Spelling.    Time, J hour.
Correct mistakes in spelling, punctuate, and re-write the following :—
Saturn as seen through a telliskope is the most remarkible of all theplannots being
surounded by two consentrick rings and attended by seven sattalites to the nakid eye
however it presents such a dull and pail ledden hew that the antien't astrolligers
acounted this plannet as a chearless member of the sellestial bodys and as the sourso of
maline inflewenses upon the inhabbitants of our globe.
APPENDIX D.
List oe Duly Qualified Teachers, and Dates oe Certificates.
First-Class, Grade A.
Valid until revoked by Board of Education.
Colin C. McKenzie, M. A., July, 1873
James A. Halliday, „     1874
Sarah Hay ward, ,,       „
Letitia M. Caldwell, „       „
Frances E. Herring, July, 1876
Samuel D. Pope, B. A., Aug.   „
John D. Clowe, M.A. Dec,    ,,
George V. LeVaux, July, 1877.
First-Class, Grade B.
Valid until revoked by Board of Education
Eobert M. Clemitson, July, 1873
John Pleace, ,,        ,,
James Kaye, „     1874
Joseph T. Jones, „     1875
Joseph P. Planta, ,,       „
John Mundell, „       „
George Pottingcr, July, 1876
Samuel P. Crawford ,,       ,,
Thomas Leduc, ,,     1877
John L. Phillips,       ,,        „
Orison D. Sweet,      „       „ 41 Vic.
Public Schools Report.
61
James W. Thomson,
Donald M. McMillan,
Elizabeth Young,
John F. Smith,
Mary E. Polley,
Adelaide C. Bailey,
Jane E. Trenaman,
Second-Class, Grade A.
July, 1875
"     1876
Valid for 3 years.
Christina Irvine,
Jane Coutts,
John C. Newbury,
Archena J. McDougall,
Eichard H. Holding,
William Kermode,
July, 1876
„     1877
Second-Class, Grade B.
Valid for 3 years.
Thomas H. Mathers, July 1875
Jane Mills,
Catherine Cordiner,
Archibald Irwin,
Abbie J. Polley,
James W. Sinclair,
Caroline Bayley,
A. M. Eobinson,
Emily A. Stark,       July, 1876
John L. Atkinson,        „     1877
Cecilia McNaughton,
Mary Anderson,
Archibald Dods,
Caspar Phair,
Alice Eichardson,
Joseph Thain
Third-Class, Grade A.
Valid for 1 year.
Thomas Baker, July, 1877
E. V. Y Wilson Brown, „        „
Emily H. Ward, „        „
E. Nelson Brown, „       „
Annie, Gowen,
Jessie Cameron,
Agnes Cameron,
Alexander Howe,
July, 1877
Third-Class, Grade B.
Valid for 1 year.
Louisa McColl, July, 1877
Arabella W. H. Holmes,    „
Mary Holloway, ,,
Emily Holloway, „
Ada Miller, „
Francis A. Carmichael,
B. A. Wake, July, 1877
Bobert J. Plummer,     „        ,,
Alfred Flett, „        „
W. H. Lomas, „        „
H. W. Hughes,
Temporary Certificates.
Valid until next Examination.
Andrew W. Struthers,
Angus McKenzie,
Alice M. Sexsmith,
William Abel,
Elizabeth Fisher. 62 Public Schools Report. 1877
APPENDIX E.
List of Authorized Text Books—Public and High Schools.
Fixed Price.
$    cts.
Canadian First Reader,—Part I  05
Canadian First Reader,—Part II  10
Canadian Second Reader   25
Canadian Third Reader  40
Canadian Fourth Reader ,,  50
Canadian Fifth Reader  CO
Canadian Advanced Reader  60
Lennie's Grammar  10
Easy Lessons in Geography (Hodgson)   50
Modern Geography and Atlas (Campbell J  75
Elementary Arithmetic (Smith & Mellurchy)  25
Advanced Arithmetic (Smith & McMurchy)  ,  50
Outlines of General History (Collier)  75
British Empire (Collier)       1 00
British History (Collier)  50
Algebra,—Part I. (Colenso)   50
Euclid,—Book I. (Young)  12$
Euclid,—Book II.  (Young)  12$
Book-keeping (Fulton & Eastman) ,  40
Canadian Spelling Book  25
Morell's Essentials, English Grammar, with exercises    25
Pott's Euclid—six books i  75
Todhunter's Mensuration  60
Tyndall's Natural Philosophy  62$
Bain's English Composition and Rhetoric      1  10
Science Primers -Introductory, Chemistry, Physics, Physical Geography,  Geology, Astronomy,
Physiology and Botany, each  25
Ancient Geography (Pillans)  50
Ancient History (Schmidt)      1  00
White's Grammar School Texts, Latin, each  25
White's Grammar School Texts, Greek  30
Bryce's First Latin Book  75
Bryce's First Greek Book  75
Liddell & Scott's Greek Lexicon      2 00
Riddle's Latin Dictionary  75
Smith's smaller Latin Grammar    87$
Curtius' Greek Grammar ,  87$
Initia Grseca (Smith)  87$
Prineipia Latina,—Part 1. (Smith)  87$
Latin Prose Composition (Arnold)      ,  87$
Greek Prose Composition (Arnold)  87$
APPENDIX F.
Board of Education.
W. F. Tolmie, Esq., A. Munro, Esq.,
M. W. T. Drake, Esq., E. Marvin, Esq.,
A. J. Langley, Esq., A. Eocke Eobertson, Esq.,
Superintendent of Education, Chairman and Secretary. 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 63
APPENDIX G.
Education Office, 8th August, 1877.
Sir,—I have the honour to forward herewith a detailed report of the Deputy
Superintendent of Education on the Cache Creek Boarding School, accompanied by a
financial statement of assets and liabilities up to 30th June last.
A portion of this report, in so far as the continuance of the boarding school is
concerned, has been already acted upon ; it only remains, therefore, to arrange a few
details with reference to management, &c.
1.—For reasons set forth in the Deputy Superintendent's report, it is advisable to
confirm the appointments of the teacher, Thos. Leduc, and the matron, Mrs. Schubert—
the former at $75, and the latter at $50 per month—at the same time fully recognizing
the advisability of these offices being held by a married couple.
2.—That a sliding scale of fees, without extras for washing, be established as
follows :—One pupil from a family, $10 ; two pupils, $18 ; three pupils, $24; four pupils,
§30 ; and if five, $35 per month. Full months to be charged in all cases where pupils
attend for a fraction of a month. It is very desirable, further, that pupils once
entered should not return home during the term, unless in cases of absolute necessity.
Day pupils to be admitted free.
8.—Each pupil on entering shall be supplied with two pair blankets, two pair
sheets, two pillow-slips, and such clothing as tho matron may consider requisite. This
list shall be considered sufficient for two from a family, if of the same sex.
4.—That the Christmas vacation of two weeks be hereafter dispensed with, and the
midsummer one extended to six weeks; and that it be made obligatory on all pupils
returning to their homes at the beginning of the vacation, in order that the teacher and
matron may have a season of rest in common with their co-labourers in the day schools.
5.-—In order to maintain the self-supporting character of the institution, it is recommended that the services of a paid cook be dispensed with, should the attendance remain
below 25, and that the senior girls take kitchen and dining-room work in rotation, under
the instructions of the matron. If more than 25, that a middle-aged woman be engaged
as cook, and that the girls assist as in the former case.
6.—That as soon as practicable a portion of ground shall be put under cultivation
as a kitchen garden ; and that tho labour of the boys be utilized, under the supervision
and instruction of the teacher, in raising such vegetables as may be required for the use
of the school.
Details of minor importance may safely be left in the hands of the Deputy Superintendent, who must necessarily exorcise considerable discretionary power in the management of the school.
I have, etc.,
(Signed) John Jessop.
To the Honourable the Provincial Secretary.
Cache Creek, B. C,
July 24th, 1877.
Dear Sir,—After returning to Cache Creek from my trip to the Mission, I considered it advisable to wait till the beginning of July before forwarding a report on the
boarding school, so as to supply you with a financial statement up to the close of June.
The unfortunate accident with which I met not only prevented me from sending the
report at the time intended, but also interfered with my journey to Cariboo. Under
the circumstances, I have to ask your indulgence on account of the delay.
Owing to the general business depression and the great difficulty of obtaining
money, the amounts due to the school are larger than they would otherwise have been,
but I expect, in a short time, to receive a very considerable percentage of outstanding
accounts, Local peculiarities with respect to monetary matters render any extensive
collection of debts difficult at present.   The hard winter and the late spring have pre- 64 Public Schools Report. 1877
vented some of our debtors from turning their cattle into cash as early in the season as
usual. Some portion of our payments hinges upon the freighting season ; and the small
amount of freight offering, coupled with the low rates, will cause a little delay in the
settlement of certain bills. I feel satisfied, however, that though payments may not be
made as promptly as they would have been under more favourable circumstances, yet
the position of the debtors is sufficient guarantee for the discharge of their obligations.
In fact, there has been only one account contracted since my arrival respecting which I
have any doubt, and, even in this case, the probability is that payment will eventually
be made in full.
The statement furnished in October last was, as I suggested it might be, very
considerably modified afterwards. A number of claims were presented against the
school, the existence of which seemed to have been unknown at the time ; and several
amounts that appeared in the list of liabilities were under-estimated. On the other
hand, the assets of the school were, in a number of cases, over-estimated, so that there
was a striking difference between the actual and the supposed standing of the school.
The account of Mr. J. T. Jones, which, by your orders, was left in abeyance for a
time, has been settled, after a County Court suit, by the payment of $276 65. Freight
from Yictoria on goods supplied by the Government has been paid; various articles of
furniture have been purchased ; and the bills of the workmen engaged in repairing the
damages caused by the late fire have been settled. The latter items, though, strictly
speaking, chargeable to the Government, have all been discharged from school funds.
I append a list of assets and liabilities, and, leaving out the Government account,
which must be settled after consultation, the indebtedness of the school will be seen to
amount to $476 16. Of the accounts due to the school, several, of a standing prior to
my arrival here, have been omitted as being altogether bad. Excluding these, the total
amount due to the school is $949 43$. Tho total cash receipts from October last,
including the Government advance and the sum for fencing the girls' playground,
amount to $3,474 00, and the disbursements to $3,026 89, leaving cash on hand $447 11.
The detailed expenses of the school during the same period'—October, 1876, to the
present time—are given in the following list:—
Beef $ 252 15$
Butter  177 45
Vegetables  54 52
Groceries (including flour)  559 97
Wood  187 00
Furniture and repairs  42 80
Freight, etc  69 10
Labour  434 00
Hay, etc  26 82
Medicines  9 87
Total $1,813 68$
The total value of supplies furnished by parents in payment of school fees has been
$564 60.
The school has been conducted as economically as possible, certain expenses
incurred in former years having been avoided altogether ; and I have no doubt that,
with the attendance at an average of thirty, or oven of twenty-five, the school will
prove self-supporting, for, during tho expensive winter season, with an average attendance falling slightly under twenty-five, we just managed to make ends meet.
For the whole time of my connection with the school, a period of nine months—
from October, 1876, to June, 1877, inclusive—the expenses, as detailed above, have
reached a total of $1,813 68$, with an average attendance of about twenty-two, while
the school fees, together with the sums paid for my own board for the same time, have
amounted to $1,915 75, leaving a balance in favour of the school. Judging from these
figures, I think myself justified in stating that, with an attendance of twenty-five, the
school can be carried on without loss, more especially as a portion of the items embodied
in the list of expenses can scarcely in justice be charged to the school.
With regard to the future of the school, I bog to make the following remarks on
certain points which seem particularly worthy of attention:— 41 Vie. Public Schools Report. 65
In the first place, the question of probable attendance hereafter is one of very great
importance, but one, of course, surrounded by a great degree of uncertainty. The late
trustees, in discussing this matter, estimated the probable average attendance at from
twenty to twenty-five. After the late shock to public feelings through the unfortunate
occurrences of the past winter, we can scarcely expect any marked influx of pupils from
a distance, at any rate, for a considerable time; but, undoubtedly, local interest has
been fully aroused, and I think a full muster of the Cache Creek Valley children may
be relied upon. The construction of the Mission School at Kamloops may, perhaps,
prove to some extent prejudicial to the interests of the Cache Creek School, but I think
can scarcely affect the attendance seriously. My own opinion with regard to the
average attendance is that it will reach twenty-five.
The advisability of conducting the school under the charge of a teacher and
matron, not being man and wife, is another important point. As far as my own opinion
is concerned, I am decidedly in favour of having schools of this description under the
management of a married couple ; but at the same time, it would be unwise to ignore,
in the present instance, the very peculiar position of affairs. Supposing the school to
be under the supervision of a married couple, the strongest possible check to irregularities on the part of the scholars would be an alteration of the position of the rooms of
the teacher and matron. The girls' dormitory would then occupy the northern end of
the building, and the teacher and matron be placed between the dormitories. I assume,
however, that the continuance of the boarding school is conditional, and in that case
the outlay involved in such alterations might scarcely be justifiable. Taking for
granted that any change entailing expenditure would, under present circumstances, be
deemed impolitic by the Government, then I think we have one strong reason for
retaining, in the meantime, the services of the teacher and matron now in charge. Since
Mr. Leduc's arrival the school has certainly been well managed. That gentleman is a
thoroughly capable and painstaking teacher, and the children have advanced rapidly
under his tuition. Out of the school-room his management is excellent; he takes a
hearty interest in the welfare of the scholars, and, while enforcing the regulations of
the school with a firm hand, has secured the affectionate regard of his pupils. With
regard to the matron, I may say that, although not possessing all the qualifications
desirable in a person holding her jiosition, she has exhibited great interest in the proper
performance of her duties, and has been unremitting in her attention to the wants of the
girls. I may refer, also, to her personal popularity in the neighbourhood—a popularity
which will, no doubt, exercise a healthy influence on the attendance.
Not the least difficult and delicate point to be considered is the basis on which the
school should hereafter be conducted with respect to the mixing of the sexes. Under
existing arrangements, the dangers of admitting the larger boys as boarders would
seem to be very much lessened. The fact that the teacher occupies a portion of the
boys', dormitory is a very efficient safeguard against anything improper after retiring
for the night, and the constant intercourse of both teacher and matron with the scholars
at other times reduces the risk to a minimum. To ensure absolute certainty, however,
the best plan would be to make the school essentially a girls' school, but permitting the
attendance of boys as boarders up to a certain fixed age, say nine, or, at the utmost,
ten. The older boys, though debarred from entering the school as boarders, could have
the privilege of attending as day scholars. This plan would no doubt lessen the chance
of a fair average attendance of boarders at first, but might eventually make up for that
by securing the enrollment of more girls from a distance.
I scarcely think it is possible to enlist the sympathy of parents more fully in the
welfare of the school, or to induce them to co-operate more heartily in endeavoring to
manage it successfully, for whatever traces of apathy and indifference may have existed
in the past have, I think, been completely swept away by the possibility of losing the
opportunity of educating their children. A satisfactory effect might be produced,
however, by making the continuance of the boarding school conditional upon the maintenance of a given average attendance. If the larger boys are to be ineligible as
boarders, then the average must be fixed at a lower point than otherwise.
Even should the average fall below the standard determined upon, I am of opinion
that, by introducing some changes with a view to retrenchment, the school can still be
carried on without running into debt. There can be no doubt that the curriculum of a
school of this character should embrace instruction in the practical concerns of every- 66 Public Schools Report. 1877
day life. Hitherto it has been customary to meet this want by giving the girls lessons
in sewing and house-cleaning, but it seems to me that all the girls in the school should
become thoroughly familiar with at least the elementary parts of cookery. Now, by
utilizing the services of the girls alternately, with the aid of the matron, the kitchen
department could be carried on without a paid cook, and the double object be attained
of preparing the girls more fully for domestic usefulness in after life, and of effecting a
very considerable saving in the cost of the school. It is possible that with some of the
parents there might be objections to such a course, but the practical benefits resulting
from it must in time overcome the prejudices of even the most pronounced opponents of
the system.
Should the average attendance reach or exceed thirty, the matron's time would
probably be fully occupied apart from kitchen work, and, in that case, we might be
warranted in incurring the extra expense of engaging a middle-aged woman as cook.
By that means the girls would still have the opportunity of assisting in the kitchen,
while there would be no interference with the proper discharge of the matron's duties.
The great drawback in this case would be the increased cost, for a female could not be
expected to perform the multifarious outdoor duties hitherto attended to by the Chinese
cook; so that, in addition to the cook's wages, there would be a further charge for
occasional assistance. However, the very obvious advantages of a change in this
respect would more than counterbalance the bare question of cost.
With regard to a re-adjustment of school fees, it might be advantageous to parents
sending a number of children to school, to introduce a graduated scale commencing at
$10 a month for one member of a family, such pupil being under a specified age ; a proportionate reduction being made for each additional member of the same family. This,
however, can be provided for in drawing up a code of regulations for the future management of the school.
In justice to the teacher and matron, who, from the peculiar nature of the responsibilities resting upon them, are obliged to remain at their posts constantly, without
opportunity' of change, it would be w^ell to dispense with the usual Christmas vacation,
and lengthen the term at Midsummer, insisting on the return of all pupils to their
homes at that time, so as to enable those in charge to enjoy a season of relief from the
wearing pressure of duty.
To secure the assistance of suitable trustees would be a matter attended with some
difficulty at present, and I think it would be better to let the question rest for a time,
until all excitement has passed away and the school has clearly entered upon a more
fortunate and prosperous career.
The trying position in which the school has been placed has not been altogether
unproductive of good, for I believe that all connected with or interested in the establishment are now fully alive to the necessity of hearty co-operation for the promotion
of its ultimate success; and 1 sincerely trust that, by united and well-directed effort, the
school may yet be raised to fill its true position, and to extend to those availing themselves of it all the benefits which such an institution should be capable of affording.
I have, &c,
(Signed)   E. M. Clemitson.
To John Jessop, Esq., Superintendent of Education.
Statement of Liabilities and Assets.
Liabilities.
James Campbell ,  $ 140 04
Chinese Cook ,  210 00
Education Department:—
Books $  28 75
Medicines ;       9 87 38 62
Bell & Newland „.  6 50
F. W. Foster   16 00
M. Sullivan ,  65 00
$ 476 16 41 Vic. Public Schools Report. 67
Assets.
C. A. Semlin  $  36 87
E. G. Perry  54 30
T. Perrault  22 63
James Orr ,  103 45
W. H. Sanford  ,  34 78}
Frank Gottfriedsen  ,  17 45
Barnes  &  Brink.....  50 60
Thomas Dunne ,  27 05
John Wilson.....  161  19$
B. T. English   40 00
Mrs. Sabiston  2 00
Alex. Coutts  141 50
Mrs. Heffley ,  60 30
S. Robins  14 70
M. Girouard  3 37$
P. Bennett  4 55
J. B. McQueen  ,  31  85
Salter Estate  58 07$
C. Schubert  14 75$
W. Trounce, order from Mrs. Mackenzie  70 00
Cash on hand, (including playground grant)  447 11
$ 1,396 54$
Amounts paid by order of Government from Arrears collected.
Archibald Irwin  $ 125 00
Deputy Superintendent of Education       264 16
$389 16
Amounts paid from school funds, but properly chargeable to Government.
J. T.Jones, salary  '.  $ 133 00
Freight on goods from Victoria  39 38
Repairs after fire.  21 00
Furniture purchased  21 80
Yearxa's bill for repairs  4 50
McOulley's bill for stove pipes   10 50
H*. 	
$ 230 18
APPENDIX H.
The Teaching Profession in British Columbia.
Editor Globe.—The great number of letters which I am constantly receiving from
teachers in all parts of the Dominion, east of the Eocky Mountains, asking for situations
and information respecting British Columbia, obliges me to take this method of informing my numerous correspondents, and others whose inclinations would lead them westward, that it is, and will be, impossible for me to answer their communications.
So far every competent teacher arriving in this Province has been provided with a
situation at from $50 to $125 per month, the schools however, are now all supplied.
Of course changes are constantly occuring here the same as elsewhere; but with only 42
schools and 52 teachers, these changes must necessarily be few, and the supply therefore
will easily be kept up.
It may be stated further, thatthe great difficulty in obtaining Public Schoolteachers
under which we have been labouring almost from the commencement of our present
system of education, obliged us to put forth vigorous efforts to induce young and prom- 68 Public Schools Report. 1877
ising pupils to enter the profession. These efforts are likely to prove successful, so that
hereafter British Columbia, to a great extent at least, will be in a position to supply
her own teachers.
By giving this communication an insertion among your " Notes on Education," or
elsewhere, in your widely-circulated journal, the teaching profession will obtain information which may obviate disappointments and unavailing regrets in the future. It
might be advisable, moreover, for some of your provincial contemporaries, especially in
New Brunswick, to notice these facts, in order that their readers among the teachers
may govern themselves accordingly.
Yours, very respectfully,
JOHN JESSOP,
Superintendent of Education.
Education Office, Victoria,
January 30th, 1877.

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