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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA EIGHTH AND NINTH REPORTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEARS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1915

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EIGHTH AND NINTH REPORTS
OP   THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEARS 1913 AND 1914
THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE  LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by William H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1915.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Report fob 1913.
Page.
Synopsis of Work of the Department of Agriculture, 1S73-1912—
Agricultural Fairs     9
Agricultural Societies and Associations    9
Annual Reports   5
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association   S
Dairymen's Association   8
Exhibition and Publicity Work  6
Experimental Work    G
Farmers'  Institutes     7
Field-crop Competitions     7
Imports     4
Inspection     G
Objects   3
Officials     4
Packing-schools     G
Short Courses     7
• Statistics    3
Stock-breeders' Association    S
Women's Institutes     7
Report of the Department of Agriculture—W. E. Scott, Deputy Minister—
Agricultural Associations    16
Agricultural  Conditions     9
Board of Horticulture   IS
British Columbia Dairymen's Association    17
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association  17
British Columbia Poultry Association   17
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association  17
Conclusion  21
Co-operation  10
Cow-testing Association <  19
Crops  12
Demonstration Alfalfa-plots  IS
Demonstration and Experimental Farm-plots  19
Demonstration Orchards and Experimental Trees  IS
Educative Propaganda of the Department  15
Exhibition and Publicity Work ,  19
Farmers' Institutes  15
Field-crop Competitions  19
Fruit Inspection Branch  15
Fruit-packing Schools  17
Fruit and Vegetable Canneries  13
Home Production and Imports  14
Horticultural Branch  15
Introduction of Grade Holstein Dairy Cattle  18
Live  Stock  11
Live Stock Branch  14
Markets Commissioner     15
Statistics   19
Women's Institutes     16
Report on Noxious Weeds—Win. J. Bonavia, Secretary and Statistician   22 Page.
Report of Secretary and Statistician—Wm. J. Bonavia.—
Agricultural Associations   33
" Agricultural Instruction Act "    32
Bulletins and Circulars   24
Correspondence     24
Demonstration Bee-work     26
Farmers'  Institutes     26
Financial    25
Grants to Students attending Agricultural Colleges   33
Horticultural Licences  20
Loans to Co-operative Associations   34
Staff     23
Statistics Branch     34
Women's Institutes     29
Report of Horticultural Branch—R. M. Winslow, Provincial Horticulturist—
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association   39
Careful Handling, Precooliug, and Cold-storage Investigation    37
Collection of Exhibition Fruit   39
Crop Reports    36
Demonstration and Experimental Orchards    30
Demonstration-work   38
Experimental Trees  30
Experimental Work in Horticulture   36
Fire-blight   37
Institute-work     38
Judging at Fairs and Flower-shows   39
Judging Potato Competitions   39
Pathological and Entomological Work   37
Publications
35
Resume  40
Short Courses    s  3S
Staff  35
Report of Live Stock Branch—W. T. McDonald, Live Stock Commissioner—
Alfalfa Investigation   48
Associations and Institutes   49
Boys' and Girls' Crop Competitions    4S
Canadian Record of Performance    43
Cow-testing   41
Cow-testing Associations     41
Creameries     40
Crop Competitions     4S
Dairying in General   44
Dairy Cattle Census  44
Dairy Inspection   44
Dairymen's Association   41
Distribution of Alfalfa and Corn   47
Educational Exhibits  48
Eradication of Bovine Tuberculosis    44
Four-acre Investigation Tracts  47
Grade Dairy Cattle    44
International Egg-lajang Contest   46
Poultry-breeding Stations   46
Poultry-shows  40
Pure-bred Sires    44
Seed-grain Distribution   47 Contents.
Appendices— Page.
" Agricultural Instruction Act," Grants   53
Cattle-testing  50
Correspondence    '  50
Creameries     55
Egg-laying Contest   50
Institutes, Growth of  50
Loans to Co-operative Associations  53
Provincial Police re Noxious Weeds   54
Short Courses  51
Women's Institutes, Expenditures in Aid of   52
Report for 1914.
Report of the Department of Agriculture—W. E. Scott, Deputy Minister—
Agricultural Associations    03
Agricultural Conditions     59
Board of Horticulture   03
Careful Handling, Precoollng, and Cold-storage Investigations    04
Commercial and Markets Branch of the Department   00
Crops  00
Exhibition and Publicity Work    07
Farm Credit -. ■  59
Farmers' Institutes . ..'  02
Fruit Inspection Branch   04
Horticultural Branch   04
Land-clearing   00
Live Stock Branch   06
Statistics  63
Stock-raising  61
Women's Institutes  63
Work of Officials  08
Report of Secretary and Statistician—W. J. Bonavia—
Agricultural Associations  .... • 70
Agricultural Library    79
Bee-inspection Work  78
British Columbia Students attending Agricultural Colleges  79
Bulletins and Circulars    70
Correspondence     70
Farmers' Institutes     71
Financial    70
Horticultural Inspection-work and Licences   77
Pound Districts   77
Staff    m
Statistics    7S
Women's Institutes     74
Report on Noxious Weeds—W. J. Bonavia, Secretary and Statistician-
Amendments to the Act and Enforcement   80
Conclusion  8-
Financial  °1
Notices, Prosecutions, etc  81
Noxious Weeds on Indian Reserves    82
Report of the Horticultural Branch—R. M. Winslow, Provincial Horticulturist—
Advertising    ou
Apple-packing Contests    83
Blight-control Work   88
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association   87
By-products  Investigations     88 vi. Contents.
Report of Horticultural Branch—Concluded. paoe.
Careful Handling, Precooling, Cold-storage, and Transportation Tnvestigs  84
Crop Estimates and Records   87
Demonstration and Experimental Orchards  ,  S9
Demonstration Plots in Northern British Columbia   90
Demonstration-work   SS
Experimental Trees    90
Experimental Work    89
Farmers' Institute Meetings    80
Judging at Fairs and Flower-shows   84
Marketing and Co-operation    '  89
Markets Commissioners    •.. 88
Office-work     90
Packing-schools     83
Pathological and Entomological Work    80
Pruning-schools     83
Publications     80
Southern Okanagan Vegetable Experimental Station    87
Staff  82
Strawberry-crop  Competition   87
Summer Schools for Teachers    89
Tomato Production Survey    89
Vacant Lot and Garden Competition  S7
Variety Yields    87
Report of Fruit Inspection Branch—W. H. Lyne, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests—
Codling-moth      91
Fire-blight   91
Nurseries    93
Insect Pests and Diseases  (other)     93
Staff     90
Spraying    91
Report of Live Stock Branch—W. T. McDonald, Live Stock Commissioner—
Brands    97
Dairy  Division     05
District  Agriculturist-  97
Farmers' Institutes and Fall Fairs  97
Live Stock    .'  94
Poultry Division    9G
Publications  98
Soil and Crop Division   96
Staff    _  94
Veterinary Division    95
Report of Veterinary Division—A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector   98
Report of Dairy Division—H. Rive, Chief Dairy Instructor and Inspector—
British Columbia Dairymen's Association  101
City milk-supply    100
Creameries     99
Fall Fairs    100
Lectures, Demonstrations, etc  100
Office-work  101
Official Tests    •.  100
Report of Poultry Division—J. R. Terry, Chief Poultry Instructor—
Egg-laying Contest    103
Fall Fairs  102
General Conditions   101
Inspection-work   ■ 102
Lectures and Demonstrations   •.  1.02
Office-work     103 Contents. vii.
Report of Poultry Division—Concluded.
Poultry Associations '.   102
Provincial Poultry Association    103
Report of Soil and Crop Division—J. C. Readey, Soil and Crop Instructor—
Alfalfa-plots     106
Boys' and Girls' Competitions    105
Circulars and Bulletins      104
Clover Pasture for Hogs    108
Correspondence      104
Demonstration-work    100
Field-crop Competitions      104
Lectures to Teachers at Summer Course    104
Seed-grain Distribution   109
Silo Erection and Filling    1.07
Soil Surveys    109
Report of District Agriculturist—H. E. Walker—
Agricultural Fairs   112
Attitude of Settlers     Ill
Climate   110
Co-operative Tests  112
Crops   110
Demonstration-work    112
Institute Meetings      112
Outlook  112
Personal Visits  Ill
Stock   HI
Reports of Foul-brood Inspectors—
Kootenays and Boundary—W. J. Sheppard    113
Okanagan—L. Harris   113
Lower Mainland—F. Duudas Todd    114
Report of Exhibition Work—W. A. Lang, Exhibition Commissioner—
Exhibitions      Ho
Exhibits    115
Appendices—■
Appropriations (Financial)     121
Breeding-stations  130
Bulletins and Circulars issued    H8
Bulletins and Circulars sent out    120
Cattle tested   I26
Character of Appointments, Officials of Department   118
City Milk-supply   I28
Correspondence   H"
Cow-testing Associations   127
Creameries      I2*'
Egg-laying Contest    128
Exhibitions, Attendance. Cost, etc  131
Fruit  (Green)  Displays   132
Home Production     I-"2
Imports and Exports    149
Institutes   122
Letters sent out  I20
Moneys granted for Prize-lists and Buildings     123
Noxious Weeds    12°
Staff   125
Temperatures and Rainfall   I30
Vouchers  122
Weights of Fruit and Vegetable Packages  ,  152  I    I
I <3
Hi     3
-
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.  k. ..<      !
.'•-'••,•  To His Honour Frank Stillman Barnard,
Lieutenant-Governor for the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Report
of the Department of Agriculture for the years 1913 and 1914.
W. J. BOWSER,
Minister of Finance and Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., August 26th, 1915.  IS  REPORTS of the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
EIGHTH REPORT 1913.
SYNOPSIS OF WORK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CO-OPERATIVE
ORGANIZATIONS, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1873 TO 1912.
Victoria, B.C., April 30th, 1914.
While " Agriculture " has been included in the portfolio of the " Minister of Finance and
Agriculture" since the year 1S73, noticeable activities were not shown until 1891, under the
administration of the Honourable J. H. Turner.
Objects.
In brief, the original objects of the Department were as follows:—
(1.)  To ascertain the needs, wishes, and difficulties of the farming population, to serve
as guides in remedial measures:
(2.)  A medium of advice:
(3.)  Consultations:
(4.)  To investigate variations of soils, the quantity of land owned, cultivated, the areas
capable of cultivation, and values:
(5.)  Irrigation and drainage facilities:
(6.)  Crops, fruits, and live stock suitable for various sections:
(7.)  Diseases, pests, and remedies:
(8.)  Climatic conditions :
(9.)  Imports and exports:
(10.)  Production:
(11.) Agricultural progress:
The above information to be supplied to intending settlers.
Statistics.
Mr. J. R. Anderson, Statistician, who was in immediate charge of the work of the Department that year, evidently decided, before adopting a definite policy in furthering agricultural
progress, that the first step necessary was to become acquainted with all conditions throughout
the Province at that time.
To this end, fifty-four correspondents were enrolled, and while the results were not considered
satisfactory by Mr. Anderson, they must have served as a material guide.
This system of collecting statistics was continued at various times, financial provisions
permitting, until 1912.
This work was rendered difficult the first few years, owing to distances, with the indifferent
means of transportation and a prevailing suspicion among occupiers in filling out returns, and
it may be stated that this latter obstacle has never been entirely obviated with this system.
In addition to the above information, Mr. Anderson obtained accurate data regarding
imports. Undoubtedly this gave much cause for reflection, for it was revealed that in 1891
these totalled $1,908,381, being chiefly for pork and pork products, flour, fruit, eggs, and dairy
products.
Not only was it shown by the season's investigations that the Province was importing large
quantities of produce which might well have been produced at home, but that the individual
farmer was trying to hold too much land; also that crops were being raised for which certain
districts were not adapted. E 4
Department op Agriculture.
1915
Imports.
The following statement will serve to show the total imports at various periods:-
Year.
Iaiports,
Value.
Home Production.
Value.
1891   	
$ 1,908,381
2,659,098
2,635,660
7,003,646
11,110,237
15,187,227
14,699,854
15,252,022
1892   	
1894    \	
1§05  	
$ 5,000,000 to
1906-7   	
5,550,000
7,500,000
1909                    ....           	
8,000,000
1910	
14,398,990
iaii                                       	
21,641,928
1912   	
22,269,768
The rapid increase in imports shown in the above statement does not necessarily prove that
agricultural production at home was at a standstill, but, on the contrary, furnishes strong proof
of the rapid progress in all lines of industry, the growth of population, and the establishment
of new enterprises at that time.
It will be observed that in 1911 home production, for the first time, overtook imports,
exceeding them by nearly $7,000,000, whereas in 1905 the account was the reverse by about
$2,000,000. This rapid increase in production was undoubtedly due to enlightened methods,
increased rural population, establishment of creameries, and a better organization of the industry
of which the Farmers' Institutes were most prominent.
Ministebs akd Officials.
Ministers of Finance and Agriculture.
1873 to 1876  Hon.
1876	
1877 	
1878 to 18S3 	
1883 to 1885  '	
1885 to 1887  	
1888 to 1902	
1902 and 1903 	
1903 to 1910 	
1911 to 1915  	
Deputy Ministers of Agriculture.
W. J. Armstrong.
T.  B.. Humphreys.
W.  Smythe.
R.  Beaven.
J. Robson.
S. Duck.
J. H. Turner.
J. D. Prentice.
R. G. Tatlow.
Price Ellison.
1895 to 1909  J. R. Anderson, Esq.
191.0 R. M. Palmer, Esq.
1910 to date   W. E.. Scott, Esq.
Statistician.
1891 to 1894  J. R. Anderson, Esq..
Secretary and Statistician (included in Staff Officials).
1911 to 1912   A. E. Craddock.
1912 to date  Wm. J. Bonavia. 5 Geo. 5
Eighth Report.
R 5
Staff (showing Growth of the Department since 1891).
Year.
Permanent.
Temporary.
Year.
Permanent.
Temporary.
1891 to 1892 	
1*
3
4
3
2
3
2
3
4
4
4
1
1
2
1
3
1
2
3
7
3
1900 	
1907 	
1908 .
5
10
8
8
7
13
18
27
35
45
1
1893 to 1895 	
1896 	
1897	
2
1S98 	
1899 	
1909 	
1910 	
1900 	
1901 	
1911 	
1912 	
9
10
1902 	
1913 	
10
1903 	
1904 	
1914 	
62
* Statistician.
In 1903, under the administration of the Hon. R. G. Tatlow as Minister, with a more
progressive policy, the Department was reorganized.
In 1909 the classification was as follows: Live Stock, Dairying, and Superintendent of
Farmers' Institutes, R. W. Hodson; Fruit, R. M. Winslow; Poultry, M. M. Jull.
The following table shows the rapidly increasing work involved in the office:—
Received.
Sent out.
Letters, 1902	
1912  	
Bulletins, 1900  . . .
Reports, etc., 1908
1909
1910
1912
2.200
14,358
2,500
43.124
20,000
26,000
30.000
57,851
141,760
Annual Reports, Department of Agriculture.
Although the first report issued connected with agriculture was in 1888, by the Rev. G. W.
Taylor, Honorary Entomologist, dealing with noxious insects, the first annual report of the
work of the Department was submitted in 1S92, and during such years thereafter to 1902 as was
possible by financial provision, there being seven reports in all.
These not only show the rapid progress in agricultural operations, but contain instructive
articles of value and practical use to all agriculturists, dealing with the outstanding problems of
the day, of which Mr. Anderson acquainted himself through a system of direct correspondence
with the settlers.
All the reports from the numerous correspondents containing statistics were also included
in these reports. After 1897, in which year the organization of Farmers' Institutes began (for
which see separate heading), the Department engaged a number of prominent local people to
deliver addresses on important subjects in organized districts. The number of these addresses
was increased from time to time as conditions warranted, including those by men from other
Provinces and also from the United States.
The effect of this work was strongly manifested in increased interest, the adoption of more
intelligent methods, and the consequent improvement in the standard of quality throughout all
products.
Co-operation in purchases, production, and marketing was also strongly urged upon the
people by the Department, the results being most gratifying, as proven by the following list
of organizations in 1900: 21 Farmers' Institutes; 19 Agricultural Associations ; 7 Creameries;
7 Dairymen's, Flockmasters', Poultry, and Fruit-growers' Associations; total, 54.
These organizations had a material bearing on legislation, there being, in 1904, 42 Acts
(including amendments) directly and indirectly connected with agriculture. E 6 Department of Agriculture. 191c
Inspection.
The freedom from pests, especially in the fruit industry of our Province, and which is so
widely commented on to-day, is In a large measure due to the early alertness of the Board
of Horticulture, for this subject is dealt with at length in the first report of the Department in
1892, drawing attention to such pests as prevailed at that time, and giving remedies.
This work has been executed throughout with a fearless hand, well supported by necessary
legislation from time to time. Splendid assistance has been given growers by the distribution
of valuable literature on entomology and pathology, thus inducing the co-operation of the growers
with what at times appeared to be drastic measures by official Inspectors.
As a result, in 1900, when fruit first took a prominent place in agricultural production,
growers were not handicapped with an enormous financial outlay for combating pests, or the
loss to their products by inferior grades. Freedom from pests has also been an important
factor in the many successes with exhibitions'.
Inspection-work in connection with contagious diseases of animals has also been carried on
very effectively for many years, efforts centring chiefly on tuberculosis among cattle, while the
importation of diseased stock has been well guarded against.
Exhibition and Publicity Work.
Too much cannot be said regarding the splendid results of this work in the wide and efficient
representation of the vast possibilities in agriculture in our Province.
Fruit exhibits in ever-increasing size and variety have captured many important medals
in the Mother-country, the most noteworthy being the gold medal by the Royal Horticultural
Society.
In 1910 twenty-five exhibits of British Columbia fruit in the Mother-country captured eleven
gold, ten silver, and ten silver gilt medals, making a total of thirty-one.
In 1912 our products were exhibited in England, the Prairie Provinces, Toronto, Ottawa,
London (Out.), and Chicago. In England the gold medal given by the Royal Horticultural
Society was captured for the seventh successive time.
Such exhibits proved doubly beneficial by not only widely advertising our Province, but in
establishing new markets, whilst local exhibitions by both Agricultural Associations and the
Province have done a great deal toward stimulating interest and friendly rivalry among
producers in the Province.
Experimental Work.
Although the Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz was much appreciated as demonstrating what could be done under certain conditions, it was felt by the people that this only
answered for one part of the Province, which, owing to its topography, presents such a variety
of climate and conditions, and they urged that farms should be conducted at other points,
resulting in the Federal Government establishing one on Vancouver Island and in the Columbia
River Valley, East Kootenay.
Experimental farms have also been established in the Nicola Valley and Cariboo District
by the Provincial Lands Department for the purpose of demonstrating the possibilities with
dry-farming methods.
A scheme of demonstration orchards was inaugurated by this Department in 1911, this being
fully dealt with in the following annual reports.
Packing-schools.
Although fruit-packing lessons were given as early as the year 1906, -the first packing-schools
were held in the Province in 1910. These have greatly increased in number, and proved very
popular, and undoubtedly filled a great need, especially in districts where orchards were coming
into bearing, and there was a scarcity of good packers.
In 1912 it is estimated that 80 per cent, of the fruit sold and 90 per cent, of that exhibited
was packed by pupils of departmental packing-schools, and when the average proficiency, as given
by the packing-school instructors, was 83.4 for all schools, as against a maximum attainable of
100 points. 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 7
Short Courses in connection with Farmers' Institutes.
These were first inaugurated by the Department in 1910, conducted by expert officials of
the Department, dealing with all the different phases incidental to orchard-culture, dairying,
stock-breeding, poultry-keeping, etc. This move met with the most hearty support of the
farming community, resulting in considerable expansion in the work.
Field-crop Competitions.
In 1912, by financial aid from the Federal Department of Agriculture at Ottawa, field-crop
competitions were conducted throughout the Province. The original purpose of these was mainly
to encourage the production and use of good seed, eradication of weeds, and application of proper
cultural methods in farming. Later, by permission of the Honourable the Federal Minister of
Agriculture, crops for fodder purposes were included. That results from these competitions have
been most satisfactory is shown in the annual reports later.
Farmers' Institutes.
The first conference re organization was held on Monday, July 19th, 1897, with the following representatives present: J. R. Anderson, Deputy Minister; Geo. Deans, Victoria; W. H.
Hayward, Metchosin; G. H. Hadwen, Duncan; Chas. Munro, Chilliwack; R. McBride, Richmond;
H. T. Thrift, Hazelmere; A. Postlll, Vernon.
The services of T. F. Paterson, student of the Ontario Agricultural College, were procured
to carry on the work of organization.
The first district duly organized was that of Surrey-Langley on August 28th, 1S97, followed
by Richmond, with R. McBride as Secretary-Treasurer. Ten institutes were enrolled within
two months.
Central Farmers' Institute.—The first conferences were held in February, 1899, and again
in January, 1900, with Mr. J. R. Anderson as Superintendent of Institutes. This body served
most effectively as a medium of communication-between farmers, the Legislature, the Government, and various bodies controlling the carrying trade. Many important changes bearing
upon the welfare of the- agriculturists were advised by the central body, which also proved
most effective in remedying the Institute Act and Rules, resulting in greater uniformity among
local institutes.
The growth in the number of institutes was most satisfactory when compared with other
sections of the American Continent, where progress at the outset was invariably found to be
slow owing to the lack of interest, but addresses by eminent speakers from the Eastern Provinces
and the United States materially assisted in the development of this work in our Province.
Literature dealing with the various phases of agriculture has been distributed by the
Department of Agriculture to all members of institutes from the beginning.
Co-operative purchasing among institutes has not been taken advantage of to the extent
anticipated, especially in feed-supplies, but much benefit has been derived from the purchase
of stumping-powder through the system promoted by the Department, which in 1912 amounted
to over 17,000 cases, as against 1,539 in 1905. (For table showing growth of institutes see
Appendix A.)
Women's Institutes.
In 1909 Miss Laura Rose, of Guelph, started the work of organization of Women's Institutes,
the chief object being the study of home economics and the betterment of the conditions for
women in rural communities. The first institute was at Gordon Head, and by the end of the
year there were fifteen organized. In 1912 thirty institutes were organized, with a membership
of 1,336. Great interest has been shown in this work by the ladies, and good work accomplished along educational lines. Some valuable bulletins have been issued under the direction
of an Advisory Board, which was formed later as a medium between the institutes and the
Department.
Fairs, demonstrations, and lectures were given throughout institute districts by the
Department.
Rules and regulations have not only been revised to good advantage, much to the credit of
the Advisory Board, but the scope of usefulness has been extended, covering co-operation between
institutes, school gardens, sanitation, and domestic science in rural schools, club-rooms, medical
emergencies in the home, etc. R 8 Department of Agriculture. 1915
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association.
The first representative meeting was held February 1st, 1889. The objects were to encourage
the cultivation of flowers, fruits, vegetables, and pursuits pertaining to agriculture, the promotion of bee-culture, holding of exhibitions, and collecting information regarding the different
varieties of fruits best adapted for cultivation in this Province.
The quick growth of this association is shown in that the membership the first year was
ninety-three, which was increased the following year to 162. At the end of 1914 there were
S76 members.
Many profitable discussions on the various problems affecting fruit-growers have taken
place, resulting in very important resolutions being passed for consideration in Provincial
and Federal legislation, toward safeguarding and advancing the interests of the fruit-grower.
At the outset the attention of the association centred chiefly on the selection of varieties
and sites, methods of planting, and care of orchards. Much useful information was also made
available to the grower on pests and remedies.
Later, as production increased to the extent when outside markets became necessary,
attention was turned more to packing, marking, transportation, and co-operative marketing, etc.
This association has now developed into one of the most effective and alert organizations
in our Province.
Stock-breeders' Association.
In 1901 the " Dairymen's Association Act" of 1897 was amended to include " live stock."
The Dairymen's and Live - stock Breeders' Association existed until 1906, when, by Act,
separate bodies were organized, called " The Dairymen's Association " and " The Stock-breeders'
Association."
The latter association was established with the object of the introduction, exhibition,
improvement, purchase, and sale of pure-bred live stock. Owing to the activity of this
association, its importance was soon brought before the people, creating an active interest
among our stockmen, which has resulted in a much improved standard in breed, due also in
measure to the importation of pure-bred stock by members.
Good results were accomplished at exhibitions by adopting more uniform prize-lists, arranging exhibition dates, and supplying more competent judges. Stock-judging classes have also
proved most successful as an educational feature.
The high standard of breed in our live stock has been strongly demonstrated at the
Vancouver horse-shows held at various times. Our stock has also figured prominently in
outside competitions, where it has been proven that this Province stands well among the
very best on the American Continent.
Dairvmen's Association.
An Act was provided in the Revised Statutes of 1S97 to encourage dairying, in erecting, or
acquiring and maintaining, managing and operating creameries upon a co-operative system.
Through the efforts of this association dairying began to develop more noticeably in 1902, when
there were some eight creameries in operation in the Province, this number being doubled in
1905, when old methods were fast giving way before co-operative systems.
The production of creamery butter in 1905 was 1,400.000 lb., and the total of creamery and
dairy butter 1,800,000 lb.; yet there was ample scope for further increase, since the current
year's imports reached over 2,000,000 lb.
The association has been effective in not only increasing the home production of dairy
products since its organization, but also in materially raising the standard of quality through
the encouragement of more sanitary methods, and efforts towards educating the people in the
manufacture of such products.
Creamery and dairy inspection has received much attention, which has met with hearty
co-operation by dairymen generally. It was through the efforts of this association that the
test for bovine tuberculosis was introduced in our Province, which has resulted in ridding many
sections of this disease at the present time.
Through the importation of good dairy cattle also by the association a vast improvement
has been effected in the standard of breeds. 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 9
Agricultural Societies and Associations.
One of the oldest associations of this kind, if not the oldest, in the Province was that of
" Cowichan and Saltspring Island," which was organized in 1808, holding small exhibitions for
which the prizes consisted of hand-written diplomas. In 1873 the " Agricultural Societies
Incorporation Act " was passed, and from this time on these bodies increased in number and
usefulness; there being nineteen in 1900.
The primary object of these associations was the protection and advancement of agricultural
interests, and later included the holding of exhibitions of live stock, agricultural and horticultural products, implements and machinery; the awarding of prizes for excellence in agricultural
production or operations; the securing of seeds, plants, or pedigreed animals; co-operation for
carrying on any industry, or for any purpose relating to agriculture.
Certain sums of money were voted annually for many years .by the Provincial Legislature
for division according to membership and amount subscribed amongst the associations. In 1911
and subsequently the appropriation granted was apportioned on a pro rata basis, according to
the amount of prize-money offered for horses, sheep, swine, poultry, and fruit, also membership
fees received.
The importance of agricultural fairs as being of actual value to this industry is shown in
the grants since 1909, when the'amount was some $10,000, this being increased in 1912 to $90,000.
Many associations have been assisted by the Department to erect suitable agricultural halls,
cattle-sheds, etc. In 1912 there were seventy-six associations in existence, when over $200,000
was scheduled for competition.
Agricultural Fairs Association.
The first convention of this association was held January 31st, 1910. Its objects were to
organize fairs into circuits according to districts, compile uniform prize-lists, and to further
the agricultural welfare of the Province under the auspices and through the medium of
exhibitions and fairs.
Splendid results have been obtained in raising the standard of efficiency among affiliated
associations by educating growers in exhibition-work, this efficiency in no small measure being
reflected in the splendid successes obtained by our growers in the face of the keenest competition
the world over.
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
By W. E. Scott, Deputy Minister.
Victoria, March 4th, 1914.
Hon. Price Ellison,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria.
g[E!—i have the honour to submit herewith report on the work of the Department of
Agriculture for the year 1013.
Agricultural Conditions.
I am pleased to report that the past year has been, in the main, a good one for farmers
in all parts of the Province. Crops have been good and prices fairly satisfactory. It is gratifying to realize that the unsatisfactory conditions that have existed for the past few years with
respect to farming lands being held by speculators have, to a large extent, come to an end, and
that we may now look forward to the values of agricultural lands finding their normal level.
This will help forward agriculture in this Province more than anything else, and I think we
may look forward with confidence to a material increase in production in the coming years.
Agricultural labour conditions have also improved materially, and it is now much easier to
secure suitable help for the farm than it was a few years ago. Prices paid for farm labour
have also decreased a little. There has been a large increase in land-settlement in the outlying-
districts of the Province. Owing to the near completion of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway,
a very large number of settlers are turning their attention towards northern British Columbia.
2 R 10 Department op Agriculture. 1915
The Canadian Northern, Pacific Great Eastern, and Canadian Pacific Railway Companies are'
also building into new parts of the Province, and thus rendering available large tracts of
territory which will become producing districts in the near future.
Land-clearing is going on apace, as is shown by the large sales of stumping-powder. One
very helpful sign of the times is the co-operative movement which is now in evidence amongst
farmers throughout the length and breadth of the Province. Those who are making their living
off the land are beginning to realize that they are now getting the prices for their produce which
they should, and are combining along co-operative lines for the protection of their mutual
interests.
The past year has been a record one as to the number of pre-emptions taken up. The
Provincial Government surveyors have been busy during the past few years, and large tracts
have been surveyed by them, which are now being thrown open for settlement. It is a well-
known fact that agricultural settlement cannot satisfactorily precede transportation. The
farmer must have some means of getting access to the markets. The progressive railway policy
inaugurated and being carried out by the Government is rendering available for settlement large
tracts of land.
A progressive move of the Provincial Government was the appointment of the Royal
Commission on Agriculture. This Commission' has made an .exhaustive examination as to
agricultural conditions and the needs of farmers in different parts of the Province. In
addition, the members of the Commission have visited other countries, finding out from them
what methods they are adopting to help forward agriculture, and there is no doubt that the
report of this Commission will be a very complete and valuable one. Altogether, there is a
brighter outlook at the present time for farmers, and we may look forward with confidence to
a larger land-settlement taking place and a renewed interest being taken in the first industry
of any country—that of agriculture.
Co-operation.
Last year witnessed a very important move along co-operative lines. By an amendment
passed to the " Agricultural Associations Act," co-operative associations incorporated under the
Act and complying with its provisions were entitled, on the approval of the Minister, to a loan
from the Provincial Government amounting to SO per cent, of their subscribed capital. This
was taken advantage of in the Okanagan Valley, where co-operative associations were formed
at the following producing centres: Salmon Arm, Armstrong, Vernon, Kelowna, Peachland,
Summerland, and Penticton. A " Central Selling Agency " was formed, consisting of representatives from each of these associations, and the marketing and distribution of fruit, vegetables,
and farm produce was undertaken by this agency. Mr. R. Robertson was appointed sales
manager. It should be noted that it was late in {he season when all this organization-work
was completed, and that, therefore, every allowance must be made for any faults in management. In spite of this fact, however, about 60 per cent, of the total output of the valley was
marketed through this agency. There have been many criticisms as to the results obtained,
some of them just, and others without foundation. I consider that results have, on the Whole,
been fairly satisfactory, considering the difficulties under which it was started. Mistakes
undoubtedly have been made, but it is very satisfactory to note that there is a strong sentiment throughout the valley in support of this movement. Fruit-growers realize that they are
working along right lines, and that in effective co-operation along good economic business lines
lies their salvation. There is a determination to perfect their organization and to profit by the
mistakes made last year, so that they may build up a good effective co-operative organization
that will enable fruit-growers to hold their own against the keen competition they inevitably
will have to face from the competitive American States to the south of us.
Last year was a light crop in the West and generally throughout America, and consequently
prices were good, and it was comparatively easy to sell fruit. All indications point to a record
crop this year, and unless our fruit-growers come together and act in unison they will never
be able to hold their own against the strong co-operative organizations for the marketing and
distribution of fruit across the line. Effective co-operation along well-thought-out business lines
is the key-note of success in agriculture, and no better work can be taken in hand by the Deioart-
ment than that of encouraging and fostering co-operative undertakings amongst the farmers. 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 11
Excellent work has been accomplished by Farmers' Institutes and other associations in the
buying of supplies in wholesale lots for the use of their members, thus effecting a very material
saving.
Live Stock.
It is satisfactory to report that a lively interest has been aroused throughout the
country in this most important phase of fanning. The quality of stock kept on the farm is
steadily improving. Prices of all live stock, with the exception of horses, are increasing rapidly,
and we have not yet seen the end of it. The natural consequence is that farmers are turning
their attention to stock-breeding, and keeping more stock on their farms. The Provincial Stockbreeders' and Dairymen's Associations are accomplishing good work in this connection. Their
membership in the past year has practically doubled, thus emphasizing very strongly the fact
that farmers are realizing the advisability of keeping more stock on their places, and that no
really successful farming can be undertaken without recognizing the principle that the keeping
of live stock on the farm is the basis of all successful agriculture.
Horses.—In no other class of stock is the improvement in quality so noticeable. Many
horse-raisers on the Lower Mainland and elsewhere breed a quality of horses that would bear
favourable comparison with any in the world. Prices, however, have materially declined during
the past year, owing to the present quiet state of affairs in the Province. The demand for
horses from our cities has fallen off very considerably. There is very little civic work being
undertaken in the Cities of Victoria and Vancouver, and consequently there is practically no
demand for heavy horses. The favourite breeds are Clydesdales, Shires, and Percherons, in the
order named.
Dairy Cattle.—The past year has witnessed a good forward movement in dairying.
Improvement in the quality of the stock kept is also very noticeable. Farmers, largely owing
to the educative work of our officials, are now paying far more attention to the necessity for
the proper housing of stock and the adoption of sanitary methods. The Milk-testing Associations inaugurated by this Department are accomplishing good results, and are proving the means
of demonstrating to the dairyman the necessity for keeping a record of the performance of all
cows, so that they may be enabled to breed only from the best and weed out the boarders. The
stock-judging contests held under the auspices of the Department are also doing good work by
teaching the young men on the farms what are the good points of an animal. The work of our
Inspectors testing dairy herds for bovine tuberculosis has been carried on steadily during the
past year, with eminently satisfactory results. Prices for dairy products continue good, and are
likely to do so for some time to come. Our creameries are turning out a good commercial article
which is in good demand. More farmers are now feeding silage to their cows, and growing
fodder and soiling crops, all of which tends towards an increased milk production. They are
realizing the necessity of feeding a balanced ration to stock, and the necessity for eliminating
non-paying animals by the use of the Babcock tester, and keeping records of milk yield from
individual cows. Distribution of pure-bred sires to members of Farmers' Institutes, whilst not
taken up as I should have liked to see it, also helps towards improving the quality of stock
in dairying districts. The well-selected grade Holsteins brought in by the Department and
auctioned off at different centres will also materially help dairying by providing farmers with
good breeding stock at a reasonable price. The dairy breeds in order of quantity are as
follows:    Holsteins, Jerseys, Ayrshires, Guernseys.
Beef Cattle.—Owing to the fact that ranges which used to be devoted to cattle-raising are
now subdivided and used for other farming purposes, the number of range beef cattle in the
Province has declined somewhat. Owing to the high price of beef, however, a considerable
amount of attention is now being paid to stall-feeding, and a number of farmers keep a number
of steers on their place and stall-feed them for the market. With the opening-up of our northern
lands, it is more than probable that in the near future new ranges will be available for stock-
breeding purposes.   The principal breeds are Shorthorns, Herefords, and Polled Angus.
Hog-raising.—This most profitable branch of farming should receive more attention from
farmers than it does, when we consider that this Province is only producing 44 per cent, of the
hogs imported annually. The Department is endeavouring to call the attention of farmers
generally to the large profits which there are,in hogs and alfalfa. Many parts of the Province
grow alfalfa to good advantage, and these districts should raise a very large amount of hogs
annually.    The breeds generally kept are as follows:    Yorkshire, Berkshire, Tamworth. R 12 Department op Agriculture. 1912
Poultry-raising.—It is satisfactory to note a continued increase in this productive line of
farming. The improvement in the quality and strain of birds kept is very noticeable. More
attention is being paid by poultrymen to the necessity for using up-to-date houses and to the
general care of fowls. Our officials are constantly impressing upon farmers the necessity for
feeding a proper balanced ration to their fowls, and breeding from selection, also giving advice
as to the proper treatment of diseases affecting fowls. The egg-laying contest conducted by the
Department during the past year was an unqualified success and a record-breaker. This contest
undoubtedly is doing much good. Its educational value amongst poultry-raisers can hardly be
overestimated, and very keen interest is shown by poultrymen in the results obtained.
The Provincial Poultry Association, a very live and progressive one, is also helping forward
the poultry interests very materially. Prices for eggs and dressed poultry are very high, and
there are good returns to be made by those who conduct their business along up-to-date lines.
Poultry-raisers, especially in the south-eastern part of Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland, are doing very well. Though there has been a large increase in production, there is still
room for a great deal more, as we are still Importing very large quantities of poultry products
into the Province. The favourite breeds are as follows: White Leghorns, Rhode Island Reds,
Plymouth Rocks, Barred Rocks, White Wyandottes.
Sheep-raising.—It is regrettable that so little attention is being paid to the possibilities of
sheep-raising in the Province. There are practically no flocks of sheep kept. Some farmers on
Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland keep small flocks on their places. It is probable
that there are parts in the Northern Interior where sheep-raising may be followed to advantage.
The principal objections, however, are from the stockmen. Sheep and cattle, of course, cannot
range over the same pasture, yet there are sections which, in the intervening period between
the removal of the larger herds of cattle to more extensive ranges and the time when intensive
cultivation would set in, might well be utilized to good advantage and profit for sheep-raising.
It is my opinion, however, that this Provinct, owing to the fact that the greater part of it is
covered with timber, will never become a country in which sheep-breeding is practised extensively. The principal breeds kept at the present time are Shropshires. Oxford Downs, Hampshire
Downs, Cotswolds, and Leicesters.
Crops.
Hay and Grain Crops.—There have been uniformly heavy crops of hay and grain throughout
the Province. The exceptionally humid conditions which prevailed in the Dry Belt of the
Province resulted in very satisfactory crops. On Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland
hay and grain crops were exceptionally heavy, and it is satisfactory to note that in the majority
of cases they were saved in good condition. The quality of the hay in districts like the Lower
Mainland was not as good as usual, the heavy growth making the hay somewhat coarser than
usual. Prices of hay show a very large reduction on previous years. There has been in the
past comparatively little grain grown for sale in the Province, the majority of it being used
by the farmer oh his place in feeding stock.
Root-crops.—Potatoes were not nearly as heavy a crop as last year. There was a considerable amount of damage done to the potato-crop on the Lower Mainland through rot. In the
Interior the crops were not as heavy as usual. They have, however, been harvested in excellent
condition and sold at fairly remunerative prices. It is a matter for regret that farmers did not
bold their potato-crops back in place of throwing them on the market as soon as they were dug.
Prices have rapidly advanced and will go higher yet, and had they had the foresight to store
their potatoes they would have secured very excellent prices.
Other root-crops were good. Mangolds, swedes, carrots, etc., on Vancouver Island and the
Lower Mainland were exceptionally good.
Tree-fruits.—The past year has been, on the whole, a satisfactory one in the Interior fruit
districts of the Province. The crop, however, on Vancouver and the Lower Mainland was very
light. Prices have been considerably in excess of last year, and it is safe to state that the
majority of those who owned orchards in commercial bearing in well-proved fruit districts have
done well this year. Prices averaged about 20 per cent, higher than last year. The average
prices realized f.o.b. for No. 1 grade apples of good varieties I would estimate at $1.30 per box;
No. 2's, $1.10 per box; No. 3's, 75 cents per box; making an average for all grades of about $1.07
per box. Pears were not as heavy a crop as usual, but very good prices have prevailed, ranging
from $1.50 to $3 per box, f.o.b. 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 13
Sweet Cherries.—The crop was fair, but prices realized were not very satisfactory, owing
to the fact that they did not hold up well. This was, no doubt, owing to the extraordinarily
wet weather which prevailed in the Okanagan Valley and elsewhere in the Interior at shipping-
time.
Sour Cherries.—These were a good crop and prices realized satisfactory.
Peaches.—All good commercial varieties which are in demand in the markets brought fair
prices. The poor prices realized on a large quantity of the peaches sold were owing to the fact
that many growers did not thin or prune their trees, and consequently had them breaking down
with small, undersized peaches, which the canneries would not take, and which certainly were
not wanted on the market. Then, again, there are many unsuitable varieties grown in the
Okanagan Valley which do not meet with public favour. Well-grown, good commercial varieties
averaged about 50 cents per box, being a higher price in the markets of the Middle West than
peaches from the competitive American States.
Plums and Prunes.—The prices secured for these fruits were, on the whole, disappointing,
where the conditions militated against the successful shipping of many plums. They did not
hold up well, and reached the market in poor condition, with consequent low prices.
Small Fruits.—Prices for small fruits were, on the whole, good, though weather conditions
in many cases resulted in their arriving on the market in bad condition. All small fruits that
reached the market in good condition brought satisfactory prices. There were considerable
shipments made from Mission, Hatzic, Hammond, and other places on the Lower Mainland, and
from Creston and other Kootenay points, and growers realized fair prices.
The strawberry-crop was heavier than.usual, but the quality not up to the mark. Raspberries and loganberries were a good crop.
Reviewing the past year, I consider that it has been, on the whole, a satisfactory one to
fruit-growers, and that it will tend towards re-establishing confidence in the fruit industry of
this Province.
Vegetables.—The crop has been a satisfactory one in most lines of vegetables. Prices
received for shipment to the Prairie Provinces were, on the whole, satisfactory. Those sold,
however, on the home market did not fetch good prices. This was largely owing to the competition of Orientals. This is a serious matter, and one which, if possible, should be remedied.
Japanese and Chinamen have acquired considerable tracts of land in the Lower Mainland, and
are supplying the Vancouver market to a large extent, and by their competition are largely
driving the white men out of business. In the Armstrong District also a considerable quantity
of the best vegetable land Is leased by Japanese. Orientals can produce much cheaper than
white men, and consequently, when it comes to a point of competition, can put them out of
business. It looks as if the history of the American States, especially California, will be
repeated in our Province, unless immediate effective measures are taken to deal with the
situation. I consider that no legislation that can be effected to prevent Oriental immigration
to this country to engage in farming can be too drastic, and I sincerely hope that some decided
action will be taken in this matter before it is too late.
Apiculture.—Greater interest is now being taken in' this lucrative, if properly conducted,
side-line of farming. Owing to the good educative work carried out during the past few years
by our Foul-brood Inspectors and Apiary Instructors, bee-keepers are' running their business
along more up-to-date lines, and are adopting more correct principles. The past year was a
bad one for honey production owing to wet weather conditions. Our Inspectors report that
a far larger number of hives are being kept in the Province, and that had it been a normal
year the production would have shown a very large increase. It is satisfactory to note that,
owing to the vigilance of our Inspectors, foul-brood has not as yet obtained a foothold in this
Province.
Apiculture should be encouraged. It is important that all orchardists should be encouraged
to keep bees for cross-fertilization and pollenization purposes.
Fruit and Vegetable Canneries.
The output of the different canneries is steadily increasing, and most of them are putting
up a very good article, which meets with the public favour. The Dominion Canners have
bought out cannery plants at Summerland and Vernon, and consequently we may look forward
to extensive operations being undertaken by this strong company in the near future.   With the R 14 Department op Agriculture. 191c
great increase from our orchards which may be confidently looked forward to in the near future,
it is highly important that canneries be available to utilize what would otherwise go to waste.
It is unsatisfactory to note, however, that prices for the products of our canneries were very
disappointing in 1913, and that many canneries have made a loss on their season's operations.
Home Production and Imports.
A study of the figures brings forth some interesting facts. Home production shows a
material increase of $2,581,831 over last year, the total agricultural production of the Province
for the two years being—
1912  $22,269,768 00
1913     24,851,599 00
Increases are shown in—
(1.)  Live stock     $2,230,795 00
(2.)  Meats           677,777 00
(3.)  Fruits and vegetables       1,246,749 00
(4.)  Eggs and honey         549,834 00
whilst decreases are apparent in the following lines :—
(1.)  Dairy products      $  424,596 00
(2.)  Grain, hay, and miscellaneous       1,698,728 00
These large decreases may be explained to a certain extent by the fact that a somewhat
too high valuation was made in 1912. It will be noted that the estimated number of bushels
of grain produced in the Province in 1912 was 2,264,000, which was valued at $1 per bushel.
The production in 1913 was 2,531,508 bushels, which was valued at a little less than 01 cents
per bushel. Whilst prices were considerably higher in 1912 than in 1913, there was not this
difference. It will thus be seen that, though the estimated value of the grain-crop is $419,646
less in 1913 than in 1912, the amount actually produced in 1913 was 7,399 bushels in excess
of 1912. The greatest reduction, however, is in hay, and this is easily explained by the fact
that, owing to the low prices of hay which prevail, a large quantity of land which had in
previous years been cut for hay was devoted to pasture purposes. Also, with the practical
cessation of civic work, hundreds of horses were sent out of our cities into the country districts
to be pastured, and this would materially decrease the acreage to be cut for hay.
The manufacture of butter has been curtailed during the past few years owing to the
increased demand for fresh milk in our cities.
There has been a decrease in dairy products generally during the past year, for at the
end of 1912 a period of good times (so-called) and the feverish activity in real-estate speculation
came to an end, and the year 1913 found us with hundreds of farms which had been supplying
our Coast cities with dairy and other farm products in the hands of speculators, and consequently tied up and non-producing. The increase in outlying districts was not sufficient to
offset this sudden curtailment of supply in the above districts, and undoubtedly this is the
reason for the decrease in dairy products as shown by this year's statistics. I think we may
congratulate ourselves that it is not more than it is. If any one wants this fact to be forcibly
impressed on him, let him go through the country districts adjacent to Victoria and Vancouver,
where he will see many farms that were large producers a few years ago in a state of neglect,
and the only crop a fine one of weeds.
Another fact which has had the effect of materially curtailing the dairy industry is the
great difficulty experienced by farmers during the period of good times through which we have
just passed in securing suitable and skilled help for the farm. Some farms have gone out of
dairying altogether on this account, and many others have reduced the number of cows they
keep to a number that they themselves, with the help of their families, can handle. This is
a state of affairs which, however, will adjust itself, and all appearances now point to a great
revival of this important phase of farming, for which the Province, especially Vancouver Island
and the Lower Mainland, are so well adapted.
Live Stock Branch.
Since the appointment of Mr. W. T. McDonald as Live Stock Commissioner the Live Stock
Branch has largely extended its work and sphere of usefulness. Many additions have been
made to the staff of expert officials, and dairying and poultry-raising are now receiving the 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 15
support and encouragement which their importance merits. Good educational work is being
done by these men among stockmen, and the results of this work are plainly evident in the
improved conditions and renewed interest taken by farmers in stock-raising.
Horticultural Branch.
This Branch, under the capable administration of Mr. R. M. Winslow, Provincial Horticulturist, has also materially increased its sphere of work, and every effort is being made to put
the fruit and vegetable industry of this Province on a successful foundation. Many problems
have to be met and solved. Growers have to be educated along lines of economy in production
and successful marketing. We shall always have keen competition to meet, and these two
points are the main factors in successful fruit-growing in this Province.
Fruit Inspection Branch.
The work of this Branch is being capably administered by Mr. Thos. Cunningham, Inspector
of Fruit Pests. A rigid inspection of nursery stock, trees, plants, fruits, etc., coming into this
Province is conducted by this official, and the condemnations during the past year show how
efficiently the work is being administered. The inspection of orchards, etc., is also being taken
up by this Branch.
A large addition to the temporary staff was made during the past year in order to cope with
the unfortunate epidemic of fire-blight which occurred. (For full report of above Branch see
report of 1914.)
Markets Commissioner.
The work of Mr. J. Forsyth Smith, Markets Commissioner, has also been of value to the
fruit-growers. This official made during the past year several visits to the competitive American
States of Washington, Oregon, Montana, and Idaho, gathering information regarding crop prospects, prices, marketing, organization, etc. This has enabled our fruit-growers to meet American
competition to better advantage than if this information had not been available. During the
shipping season Mr. Smith was stationed in the North-west Provinces, and all members of the
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association and shipping organizations received weekly reports
and lettergrams, when it was found necessary to impart important information without loss of
time, as to market conditions, prices, distribution, state in which fruit arrives, and many other
valuable suggestions were also given as to how shippers might improve the quality and grade
of their pack, and thus secure better prices. It is satisfactory to note that the wholesalers and
retailers in the North-west Provinces state that the pack of British Columbia fruit is equal, if
not superior, to the best American.
Educative Propaganda of Department.
The past year has witnessed a large extension in the educative and demonstration work
carried out by our officials in the interests of fruit-growers and farmers. Many new features
have been introduced, which will be referred to later in this report. The work may, with
advantage, be extended. That it is appreciated and valued is shown by the interest taken by
farmers in our demonstration-work, and they are beginning to realize that farming is a science,
and that in order that they may secure the highest results they must study and apply the
theories of agriculture in their work.
Farmers' Institutes.
The year 1913 has been a record one in Farmers' Institute work, as will be seen by the
Secretary's report.
Not only have many new institutes been incorporated under the provisions of the " Agricultural Associations Act," but there are several applications for new ones under consideration,
thus pointing to the continuous and healthy growth of these organizations.
The institutes have enjoyed much benefit from short courses, packing-schools, and field-crop
competitions, conducted by officials of the Department. Spring meetings, conducted by officials
of the Live Stock Branch, assisted by expert speakers from Washington and Oregon States and
prominent local men, proved most satisfactory also, in both attendance and interest. R 16 Department op Agriculture. 1915
Other advantages to institutes have been the supplying, through the Department, of purebred sires and stumping-powder. Much increased activity has been shown in the latter, the
quantity greatly exceeding the previous year, showing clearly the progress being made in land-
clearing operations.
Women's Institutes.
I have again the satisfaction of reporting that this important movement is spreading very
rapidly, and that the Women's Institutes are becoming an important factor and are accomplishing excellent results. Six new institutes have been incorporated under the " Agricultural
Associations Act " during the past year.    The membership has also materially increased.
The Department has given financial assistance to all Women's Institutes competing for
district exhibits at the Vancouver, New Westminster, and Victoria Fairs. The institutes are
to be congratulated ou the very excellent exhibits which they made, which created a great
deal of interest and admiration. The range, variety, and quality of these exhibits was a
surprise to many, and the directorate of the exhibition found them so worthy of commendation
that additional prizes of $25 each were given to the last three as awards of merit.
Women's Institute Conferences.-—-During the summer a conference of the Lower Mainland
institutes was held at Chilliwack. I had the pleasure of being in attendance at this conference.
It was managed very capably and was very largely attended, and great appreciation was
expressed at the convention of the good work undertaken by the Government through the
Women's Institutes towards the amelioration of conditions as affecting women in our rural
communities.
A successful convention of the Vancouver Island institutes was held in the City of Victoria,
which was also well attended, and at which I was also present.
To summarize, I would say that the movement is spreading very rapidly, and no doubt
is producing excellent results, and I would strongly recommend that every effort be made to
continue this work along well-thought-out lines. Anything which will tend to make the lot
of our women on the ranches an easier one is worthy of the highest commendation and support.
School Gardens.—An effort was made through the medium of Women's Institutes to interest
school-children in agricultural matters, the Department supplying the necessary vegetable and
flower seeds, with the result that many school-grounds have been made beautiful. The degree
of interest shown by the children justifies my recommending a further extension of this work.
Floiver-shoivs among institutes have been very successful and warrant encouragement.
Agricultural Associations.
The fairs held during the past year were, as a rule, good, and a decided improvement on
previous years. This improvement was especially noticeable in exhibits of stock. The fairs
held on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island were particularly good in this respect. I
would call special attention to the excellent shows which were held at Chilliwack, Ladner,
Cowichan, and Saltspring Island. It is a matter of regret, however, that the fruit fairs in
the interior part of the Province were not better patronized. Many of them were very disappointing and showed a decided lack of interest. I am of the opinion, myself, that the money
spent in the Okanagan Valley towards holding local fruit-shows might be used to much better
advantage in advertising their fruits in the markets of the Middle West and elsewhere. These
fairs are held at a time when orchardists are busy with their crops, and they cannot spare the
time to prepare exhibits and send them to their local fairs. They also do not accomplish much
from an advertising point of view, as there are not many people from the outside who attend
them.
A resolution was passed at the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Convention and at that
of the Farmers' Institutes held recently in this city, asking that any appropriation given to
Agricultural Associations holding fruit fairs should, at the discretion of such association, be
allowed to be utilized in making exhibits in the North-west Provinces if considered advisable
to do so, and I consider that this suggestion is worthy of careful consideration.
There is a great improvement noticeable in the management of fairs. This is mainly due
to the efforts of the Department, towards the standardization and classification of prize-lists.
It makes the work of the judges more uniform and simpler, and gives better satisfaction all
round.  o Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 17
One good feature of many of our Agricultural Associations was the featuring of fruit-
packing contests and Women's Institute exhibits, which created great attention and have a
good educative value. Educational poultry and dairy exhibits were also made by the Department at many of the principal fairs. Altogether, it may safely be-said that, taken all round,
a very great improvement was noticeable in the management of the fairs and in the quality
of the exhibits shown.
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association.
This organization has had a most satisfactory growth during the past few years. It is a
good live association, which, through its executive of good business-men of undoubted ability,
is accomplishing excellent results in the interests of fruit-growers, and the association should
be encouraged by ail legitimate means. The work of the Legislative Committee has also been
productive of good results. This committee paid a visit to Ottawa last spring, and conferred
with the Federal authorities as to a more rigid enforcement of the Dominion " Fruit Marks
Act," with the result that an amendment was brought before the Dominion House which
materially assists Provincial fruit-growers, by compelling American shippers to adopt our
fruit-marks on all fruit sent into Canada by them.
British Columbia Poultry Association.
This also Is a good live association, and is accomplishing very valuable work. The membership has very largely Increased. Many local Poultry Associations have been formed throughout
the Province, and all these are affiliated with the Provincial Association.
It is largely owing to the work of this association that such satisfactory progress has been
made in poultry-raising in the Province during the past few years. No branch of farming shows
such a satisfactory state of affairs as the poultry industry. The Provincial Poultry Association
exercises supervision over all local poultry-shows.
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association.
This association has also nearly doubled its membership during the past year, and it is a
hopeful sign of the times to see farmers taking such an interest in the matter of stock-raising.
This association gives a rebate of half the transportation charges on pure-bred stock coming
into the Province. Over $1,000 was paid by the association out of its funds during the past
year in this way. Stock-judging contests are also held at the principal fall fairs, and the
association offers suitable prizes. Prizes for all kinds of stock are also offered by the association at the principal fall fairs. Representatives of the Provincial Association took a prominent
part in the organization of the Western Canada Live Stock Union, which has been recently
formed in the interests of the Western Canadian Provinces. The members of the association
had a most successful year. In nearly all cases it could not begin to supply the demand for
pure-bred stock.
The association publishes a complete directory of breeders of pure-bred stock.
The most successful annual convention ever held by this association was the one which has
recently taken place in this city. Professor Shaw, Agricultural Manager for the Great Northern
Railway, and Mr. Van Norman, Vice-Dean of Agriculture for the University of California, kindly
consented to attend and address this convention, and their papers were very much appreciated
by the delegates. Other prominent speakers took part, and altogether the convention was a most
successful one, both from the point of attendance and also from an educational point of view.
British Columbia Dairymen's Association.
This association has also had a very successful year's work, and it is satisfactory to see
that a renewed interest is now being taken in this most profitable phase of farming. The
membership of the association has very largely increased, which shows conclusively the interest
which is being taken by farmers in dairying.
Fruit-packing Schools.
This important work was carried out very successfully during the past year. There is no
doubt but that this work is resulting in a great improvement in the packing and grading of our R 18 Department op Agriculture. 1915
fruit. We are training up a lot of young men and women in our fruit districts to become expert
packers. They are available wdien the rush of the work is on in harvest-time, and fill a long-felt
want. The packed-box exhibit by students of packing-schools is a great feature at many of our
fruit fairs, and shows very plainly what good work has been accomplished by them.
Demonstration Orchards and Experimental Trees.
This work, which is being conducted by the Horticultural Branch, has been satisfactory, as
shown in the report of the Provincial Horticulturist.
Board of Horticulture.
The personnel of this Advisory Board is as follows: The Hon. the Minister of Agriculture;
W. C. Ricardo, Vernon; C. F. McHardy, Nelson; J. C. Metcalfe, Hammond; R. M. Palmer,
Cowichan; A. J. Woodward, Victoria; K. R. Streatfeild, Saanichton; Thos. Cunningham,
Inspector of Fruit Pests; Wm. E.  Scott, Secretary.
The Board acts in an advisory capacity to the Minister, and deals chiefly with the question
of the inspection of nursery stock, trees, plants, fruit, vegetables, etc., coming into the Province.
The Provincial Fumigation Station is established at Vancouver, and is under the control of Mr.
Thomas Cunningham, Inspector of Fruit Pests, to whose energetic work and vigilance is due
the fact that the Province is nowr free from the many serious pests which have worked such
havoc in other countries. The Board meets several times a year, in order to transact business
and deal with such matters as the licensing of nurserymen, the issuing of bonds, etc., revision
of rules and regulations governing the inspection of nursery stock, trees, plants, fruit, etc. The
Board is composed of good practical fruit-growers, whose recommendations are worthy of the
most serious consideration. The fire-blight control work comes within the scope of the work
of the Board of Horticulture, and the.policy of our work in connection with fighting this serious
epidemic has been outlined by the Board.
Introduction of Grade Holstein Dairy Cattle.
During the past year a very important move was instituted by the Department in the
bringing-in of well-selected grade Holsteins, which were auctioned off to farmers at various
centres throughout the Province. These cows were selected by two competent experts acting
for the Department, Mr. D. C. Flatt, of Hamilton, Ond., and Mr. Jas. Boden, of Danville, Que.
Mr. W. T. McDonald, Live Stock Commissioner, visited districts in the North-west Provinces
and Eastern Canada, finding out where good dairy stock could be secured to the best advantage,
and made his arrangements for buying with the two gentlemen named.
Some of the sales realized satisfactory figures and the Department did not make any loss.
Others, however, sold at considerably below the total cost of landing them in this Province, and
a material loss was effected. I consider, however, that in spite of any loss that may have been
sustained, the work is excellent, and, if possible, should be further carried on. It has met with
the unanimous endorsation of dairymen throughout the Province. After the Wilson Tariff came
into effect, however, American buyers came over in large numbers to the Eastern Provinces of
Canada and bought up everything possible, and it is now extremely difficult to find any suitable
dairy cattle at a reasonable price.
I consider that the Department should not carry out this work unless they can get the very
best animals at a price which the farmer can afford to pay.
Demonstration Alfalfa-plots.
We have now in different parts of the Province eight demonstration alfalfa-plots of about
one acre each. These have been started with the idea of encouraging alfalfa-growing in suitable
districts, and to show the farmer the right way to go about seeding his alfalfa and getting a good
catch. The growing of alfalfa is a phase of farming which should be fostered and encouraged
in every way possible. There is no surer means of making money for the farmer than by the
growing of alfalfa, provided district and soil conditions are suitable for producing the crop to
the best advantage. These demonstration plots will, it is hoped, prove the suitability of many
districts for its successful production. 5 Geo'. 5 Eighth Report. R 19
Demonstration and Experimental Farm-plots.
Arrangements have now been completed for the installation of twelve demonstration and
experimental plots in different parts of the Province. It is anticipated that these demonstration
plots will serve a useful purpose by teaching farmers how to secure the highest production at
the minimum of cost.
Great care has been exercised in the selection of locations which will cover the Province to
the best advantage, and of the best men possible to carry on the work under our direction. The
money necessary for this work will be taken out of the Federal grant given under the Dominion
" Agricultural Instruction Act."
Field-crop Competitions.
This work, which is conducted by the Live Stock Branch under the auspices of the Farmers'
Institutes, has been successful in the past year, and I anticipate material expansion along this
line the coming season.
Cow-testing Association AVork.
This work has been carried on effectively in the past year, and probably will do more to
improve dairying conditions and increase milk production than any work undertaken by the
Department in connection with the dairying industry.
Statistics.
A very complete collection of agricultural statistics has been made during the past year
by a large staff of collectors, and the information obtained should be as reliable as it is possible to get it. House-to-house visits were made by our men, and information gathered as to
amount of production, number of stock kept, quantity of land under cultivation and in pasture,
etc. The Customs returns, of course, furnish exact information as to dutiable imports. The
most difficult information to collect was in regard to importations from other Provinces of the
Dominion. A great deal of pains has been taken to collect this information to the best
advantage. All the large wholesale importers have been interviewed and full information
gathered from them, and generally every effort has been made so that the figures given may
be as nearly correct as possible.
. Exhibition and Publicity Work.
A large amount of valuable exhibition and publicity work has been carried out during the
past year. Exhibits of fruits, vegetables, and general farm products, also of timber, fisheries,
and minerals, were made at the following places in the Middle West and Eastern Canada:
Winnipeg, Brandon, Regina, Saskatoon, Toronto, London (Ont.), Land and Apple Show
(Winnipeg), and Ottawa.
Mr. W. J. Brandrith was again appointed Exhibition Commissioner, with Captain G.
Chalmers Johnston as assistant. Very creditable exhibits were made at all places. Our efforts
were especially concentrated at the Toronto. National Exhibition and the Winnipeg Apple Show,
where magnificent exhibits which compelled the attention and admiration of all were made.
Over 1,000,000 people passed the turnstiles at the great Toronto Fair, and it is safe to state
that practically all saw our exhibit, which was staged in a maimer which reflected great credit
on the Province and those responsible for it.
At the Winnipeg National Apple Show over 500 boxes of fruit were staged, which made a
magnificent blaze of colour, and undoubtedly accomplished a great deal of good by advertising
British Columbia fruits in the Prairies markets. Our timbers were represented by huge blocks
cut from the tree of Douglas fir, spruce, hemlock, and cedar, and large planks of the same
woods. Our fishery exhibit was a most comprehensive one, comprising most of the food-fishes
found in our seas, rivers, and lakes, and attractively mounted in seventeen large cases. The
result of this work in the other Provinces of the Dominion must be valuable, and prove the
means of directing the attention of people to the advantages possessed by this Province for
residence, investment, and settlement.
United States Land Shoto, Chicago.—The largest and most attractive exhibit ever staged
by the British Columbia Government was that undertaken in conjunction with the Canadian
Pacific Railway at Chicago. I would venture the statement that this was probably the most
complete and comprehensive exhibit of natural resources ever staged by any country. R 20 Department of Agriculture. "   1915
In the centre of the space allotted to us was our timber exhibit, composed of gigantic
sections and blocks of the Douglas fir, spruce, hemlock, and cedar, with huge planks of the
same woods, 5 feet wide, 3 inches thick, and 20 feet long, laid across the blocks and built up
in pyramid shape to a height of 30 feet. On the top was a huge cube of cedar, on which was
standing a fine specimen of Kermode's white bear, with two cubs. Beneath, on the ends of the
planks, were two grizzly bear, and lower still, black bear. At the base of the pyramid were
grouped several specimens of cougar, lynx, mink, otter, and other of our wild animals. This
exhibit attracted very great attention at the show.
On one side was an artistic display of bottled fruits, built up in pyramid shape to a height
of 25 feet, the background being of green velvet, which showed up the beautiful colour of the
fruit to the best advantage. On the other side was a pyramid on green velvet of grains and
grasses. Immediately at the back was a very complete and attractive exhibit of minerals,
tastefully and systematically arranged and labelled, in suitable mahogany cases. Around the
timber exhibit there were also many other minor exhibits. In front of the exhibits I have
described was our fruit display of nearly 400 boxes, arranged on a slope covering the back and
part of all sides, with the letters " B.C." picked out of a blaze of deep red, with bright-yellow
Grimes Golden apples. These letters stood out in plain relief and were visible from all parts
of the Coliseum Building. This was where the crowds congregated and were loath to leave,
and our attendants were kept busy answering questions and giving information about the
country which could produce such perfect fruit. On a table 4 feet wide, which extended the
length of the fruit display, specimens of our fruits were displayed to good advantage in fancy
baskets. The background was of green plush, a colour which sets off fruit to the best advantage. On separate tables were suitable exhibits of vegetables, general farm produce, honey,
tobacco, and the products of our canneries. At the back of the fruit display was our fishery
exhibit, consisting of seventeen cases. This was a very fine collection and excited great interest
and favourable comment. Above these cases were large coloured transparencies, depicting fruitgrowing, farming, and timber scenes, lit from behind with powerful lights. Surmounting the
fruit display were magnificent heads of moose, caribou, elk, grizzly bear, black bear, big-born,
mountain-goat, white-tailed deer, mule-deer, black-tailed deer, cougar, etc., with the British
Columbia coat of arms interspersed. A very complete collection in cases of the game birds of
the Province was also shown. The whole exhibit was a wonderful one and the talk of Chicago,
and undoubtedly made our American cousins sit up and take notice. The attendance, whilst
fairly satisfactory, was not as good as that of last year.
I would like to express my appreciation of the very valuable assistance rendered our
Government by the Canadian Pacific Railway in connection with our exhibition and publicity
work. This company very kindly carried our exhibits free of charge and supplied transportation
to all our officials in connection with this work. It was a pleasure to work with them at
Chicago, and it was only by their co-operation that it was possible for such a wonderful exhibit
to be shown. The energetic Publicity Agent of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Mr. Norman S.
Rankin, showed the greatest interest in our combined exhibit, and it is largely owing to his
artistic ability and interest in the work that the exhibit was such a success. Kinematograph
lectures were given three times a day during the progress of the show. It was my pleasure to
superintend the staging of this exhibit, and I was very ably assisted by Mr. W. A. Lang, Captain
G. Chalmers Johnston, and Mr. A. H. Shotbolt.
Exhibition-work in Great Britain.—Exhibition-work was resumed this year in Great Britain.
Two car-loads of fruit were sent over to the Agent-General towards the end of October. This
fruit was largely collected from the Vernon and Summerland Fruit Shows, but all fruit-producing
districts of the Province furnished their quota. The fruit was held in cold storage in Liverpool
till wanted at the various shows. The places at which exhibits were made were as follows:
Bath, Sheffield, Bristol, Hawick, Bolton, Edinburgh, Leeds, Chichester, Smithfleld, Ashford,
Suffolk, and Royal Horticultural Society, Vincent Square, Westminster.
Our successes this year were phenomenal, gold medal awards being made at all places where
we exhibited, except the Fat-stock Shows, at which no awards are made. We again secured
the gold medal of the Royal Horticultural Society at their show held at Vincent Square, Westminster. This makes the eighth time that this coveted honour has been secured by the Province.
The greatest interest was manifested in our Province at all places at which we exhibited, and
much good must accrue to the Province therefrom.   I would emphasize the necessity of only 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 21
detailing men for this work who have an intimate knowledge of the Province and will represent
conditions as they actually are. The truth is quite good enough, and exaggerated statements
are to be deprecated. British Columbia is the best-advertised Province in the Dominion at the
present time, and the one in which the greatest interest is manifested, and plenty of capital will
be forthcoming for all legitimate enterprises and investments in the near future.
Our fruit, on the whole, was in good condition, though that from some shippers was not
what it should have been, both as regards grading and packing, when the high price paid by the
Department for exhibition fruit is taken into consideration.
I would like to express my appreciation of the good work being done by the office of the
Agent-General in connection with exhibition-work in the Old Country. The Canadian Pacific
Railway also helped us out materially in this work, and furnished myself and Mr. Johnston with
a passage to Great Britain and return. At the conclusion of the shows very effective displays
were made in the windows of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Grand Trunk Pacific, and Canadian
Northern Railway, also at the office of Mr. J. Obed Smith, Canadian Government Immigration
Agent.
Kinematograph-ivorlc.—Before I left London I had the opportunity of seeing many of the
kinematograph pictures taken by Mr. Sintzonich, the expert operator supplied by the Kineto
Company to the Provincial Government for taking moving pictures of our different industries.
I am pleased to say that these pictures are a distinct success, being clear, sharp, and splendid
in detail. Experts who saw them at the same time informed me that they were the best they
had ever seen. The ones showing our timber and fisheries are particularly fine, and those of
fruit-growing in the Okanagan Valley were also much admired. The Hon. J. H. Turner, before
I left England, had completed arrangements for these pictures to be shown in conjunction with
the Australian Government all over Great Britain, and these should accomplish excellent results.
Moving pictures are one of the very best forms of advertising, and this work may be extended
to very good advantage.
Conclusion.
In conclusion, I would like to express my appreciation of the good work done by all the
members of the staff of the Department over which I have the honour to preside as executive
head. They have shown a keen interest in their work and performed It to the best of their
abilities, and it is largely owing to their work that the Department is in its present state of
efficiency. I would particularly like to mention the unfailing energy shown and the good work
accomplished by Mr. Bonavia, Secretary and Statistician of the Department. He has indeed
done good work, and I consider that he Is worthy of special mention. I would also like to call
your attention to the excellent work of Mr. W. T. McDonald, Live Stock Commissioner, and
Mr. R. M. Winslow, Provincial Horticulturist. These officials have shown good executive ability,
and are doing excellent work towards improving conditions in their respective lines.
Under your direction, sir, I trust that the Department may go on improving in each succeeding year, and by its efforts accomplish good work towards the development and extension of
agriculture in our Province of British Columbia.
, I have, etc.,
; Wm. E. Scott,
Deputy Minister. R 22 Department op Agriculture. 1915
NOXIOUS WEEDS, YEAR 1913.
By W. J. Bonavia, Secretary* and Statistician.
W. E.  Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith annual report on the work relating to " noxious
weeds" for the year 1913.
Following the procedure of previous years, the appointment of Provincial constables and
fire guards as agents for the Department of Agriculture was again made with the sanction of
the Superintendent of Provincial Police and the Hon. the Minister of Lands respectively.
This year 103 constables and chief constables were appointed agents, their distribution
being from Hazelton to Fernie and from Tete Jaune Cache to Vancouver, thus covering all
the more settled portions of the Province; 176 fire guards were also appointed, but owing to
the conditions of their employment, however, their distribution was not so much in the settled
portions of the Province, but rather amongst the wooded areas, and they were thus not able
to be of such material assistance to the Department as the constables.
The campaign was opened by a circular letter sent to the press of the Province, eighty
editors being addressed by the Deputy Minister. The majority of the newspapers published
these letters, and from the correspondence that ensued it was evident that the question was a
live one and the action of the Department appreciated. In this connection 140 letters were
received and 141 sent out.
On June 27th a circular letter was also addressed to the members of Farmers' Institutes,
7,3S9 being sent out altogether, this being the membership of the various institutes in this
Province up to the end of June.
The districts where noxious weeds were specially reported on by our agents and also by the
public were as follows:—
Vancouver Island.
Canada Thistles.—Sooke District, along the public roads and especially between Milne's
Landing and the north end of the harbour, also along the Canadian Northern Pacific Railway;
Jordan River, the last seven miles; Cowichan District, especially in the neighbourhood of
Duncan; Qualicum Beach (Qualicum Indian Reserve and Esquimau & Nanaimo Railway at
Nanoose) ; the Indian Reserve at Nootka; Hornby Island; render Island.
Burdocks.—Goldstream Flats.
Bull-thistles.—Coombs District, along the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway.
Common Thistle and Various Noxious Weeds.—Westholme District.
Mainland.
Canada Thistles.—Quesnel Townsite and banks of Eraser River; Soda Creek; Bella Coola;
North Thompson (Louis Creek) ; district from Notch Hill to Canoe, including Salmon Arm;
Kamloops to Ducks (Crown lands) (this area has been specially noted as showing an extraordinary increase in thistles); Okanagan Valley; Vernon and Mission Hill; Lumby District
(great increase in thistles noted in last five years by our agents) ; Trout Creek Flat, Summer-
land; Ashcroft District; Columbia Valley from Golden south; Pend d'Oreille Valley; Syringa
Creek (near Shields) ; New Denver District; Jervis Inlet; First Gordon Pasha Lake; Indian
Reserve at Popeuni; Dewdney and Nicomen Island.
Tumbling Mustard and Burdock.—North Bend, Canadian Pacific Railway; Indian Reserve
at Chaumox.
Tumbling Mustard.—Grand Forks District; Kamloops District; Kamloops Indian Reserve
near Louis Creek.
Canada Thistle and Tumbling Mustard.—Erickson, especially bad on the large property
owned by the Alberta and British Columbia Exploration Company, Limited. Bull-thistles have
also increased largely of late years here.
Tumbling Mustard and Dandelions.—Wardner.
Bull-thistles and other Noxious Weeds.—Trail District. 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 23
Russian Thistles.—Keremeos and Similkameen Valley.
Canada Thistles and Dandelions.—North Bonaparte.
The Municipality of Grand Forks, also Coquitlam and Burnaby, asked to have authority
given to the Municipal Chief of Police to act as our agent in accordance with the provisions of
the " Noxious Weeds Act," and this was granted.
In conclusion, I have much pleasure in reporting that the Provincial constables have evinced
considerable activity in co-operating with this Department, specially good work having been done
in the following districts: Bella Coola, Columbia Valley, and Mission. In each district a
special officer was told off to visit the ranches and post notices, and, if necessary, to prosecute
offenders.
The expense of cutting weeds was' borne by the Department in the following cases:
Nicomen Slough, Indian Reserve at Popcum, Indian Reserve at Big Qualicum, Esquimalt &
Nanaimo right-of-way at Nanoose; steps being taken in all cases to recover from the parties
liable, but owing to the ripeness of the weed-seeds it was deemed advisable to cut the weeds
without waiting for formalities.    (For list of Provincial police acting as agents see Appendix G.)
All of which is respectfully submitted.
1 Wm. J. Bonavia,
Secretary.
ANNUAL REPORT OF SECRETARY AND STATISTICIAN.
By W. J. Bonavia, Secretary and Statistician.
Victoria, January 21st, 1914.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report on the general work of the Department during the year 1913.
Staff.
The Estimates provided for thirty-eight officials on the permanent staff of the Agricultural
Department, whilst at the close of the year thirty-five were actually in employment, with ten
on temporary assistance.
The growth of the Department continues, as will be seen from the attached- table:—
Year  1908        8 permanent officials.
„     1911   24
1912      25 „ „     .   ;    6 temporary.
„      1913      35 „ „        ; 10
Permanent Official Staff—
Wm. E. Scott, Deputy Minister.
W. J. Bonavia, Secretary and Statistician.
R. M. Winslow, Horticulturist.
M. S. Middleton, Assistant Horticulturist, Nelson.
B. Hoy, Assistant Horticulturist, Vernon.
H. Thornber, Assistant Horticulturist, Kamloops.
P. E. French, Assistant Horticulturist, Salmon Arm.
W. H. Robertson, Assistant Horticulturist, Victoria.
Edwin Smith, Cold-storage and Precooling Investigator.
W. T. McDonald, Live Stock Commissioner.
J. R. Terry, Chief Poultry Instructor.
H. E. Upton, Assistant Poultry Instructor.
H. Rive, Dairy Instructor.
Dr. A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector, Sardis.
Dr. S. A. K. White, Veterinary Inspector, Nanaimo.
Dr. W. W. Alton, Veterinary Inspector, Eburne.
Dr. B. R. Ilsley, Veterinary Inspector, Vernon. R 24
Department op Agriculture.
1915
A. B. Tweddle, Crop and Labour Commissioner.
J. F. Smith, Markets Commissioner.
Thos. Cunningham, Inspector of Fruit Pests, Vancouver.
W. H. Lyne, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests, Vancouver.
D. Gavet, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests, Vancouver.
W. H. Brittaln, Plant Pathologist, resigned on October 15th.
The following officials were provided for in the Estimates, but have not yet been appointed
by Order in Council:—
J. C. Eeadey, Soil and Crop Instructor.
H. E. Walker, Agriculturist.
A. H. Tomlinson, Assistant Horticulturist.
T. A. F. Wiancko, Assistant Dairy Instructor.
Temporary  Staff,—The  temporary  staff  has  fluctuated  considerably  during  the   year,   a
maximum of sixty-two being reached in the fall.    Of this number, ten were employed from
a few months to a year, the balance for shorter periods.
J. M. Creelman, Assistant tp Cold-storage and Precooling Investigator.
E. W. Calvert, Assistant to Plant Pathologist.
W. H. Cartwright, Agricultural Expert investigating Peace River District.
Dr. Burnet, Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. McKay, Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. Sparrow, Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
R. E. Mitchell, Clerk.
Geo. Pilmer, Clerk.
Miss V. F. Babington, Stenographer.
Jas. H. Buckett, Junior Clerk.
The work of the clerical staff has been satisfactory, although,  owing to  three members
being summoned to militia duty on the occasion of the strike in the  colliery districts,   the
routine was somewhat disorganized during July and August.
Correspondence.
The number of letters received during the year were 16,203, as against 15,623 in 1912; the
chief increase being in those coming under the Live Stock Commissioner.    The number of actual
letters sent out were 19,147, being a decrease on 1912 figures; this is accounted for, however, by
the. number of circular letters which are now separately shown in Appendix B.
Sent out in 1913—
General        circular letters     19.3S6
Horticultural    ,, ,     4,075
Live Stock       „ „            S,687
Total     32,148
(See also Appendix B.)
Bulletins, Circulars, etc.
The past year has been one of considerable activity in the issue of printed -matter, the
following list giving details of same:—
Name.
Quantity
published.
Issued,
1013.
Circulars, Horticultural.
No.    3. Fruit Marketing  	
„    23. Fire-blight (2nd Edition)   	
„    18. Report of Markets Commissioner  	
Circulars, General.
No.    4. Hints on Caring for School Gardens	
„      2. Tuberculosis in Poultry  (2nd Edition)   	
,,      3. Construction of Fresh-air Brooders  (2nd Edition),
„      5. Field-crop Competitions,  1913-14  	
5,000
2,500
10,000
5,000
5,000
5,000
9,000
Feb. 10.
June 30.
Jan.     2.
April 29.
„     29.
July   23.
Dec. 5 Geo. 5
Eighth Report.
R 25
Bulletins, Circulars, etc.—Concluded.
Name.
Quantity
published.
Issued,
1013.
No.
Circular Bulletins.
2. Tuberculosis in Poultry   (2nd Edition)   	
3. Construction of Fresh-air Brooders  (2nd Edition)
4. Management of Turkeys  	
5. Clover and Dodder  	
Reports and Miscellaneous.
Twenty-third Annual Report,  British  Columbia Fruit-growers'  Association. 1913  	
Annual Report, British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association, 1912  	
Fourteenth Annual Report, Farmers' Institutes, 1912	
Fourth Annual Report, Agricultural Fairs Association  	
Report of Meeting, British Columbia Entomological Society  	
British Columbia Dairymen's Report  	
Rules and Regulations, Women's Institutes  	
Instructions to Secretaries, Farmers' Institutes  . . . .,	
Formula? for Preserving Fruit 	
Bulletins.
No. 48. Exhibiting Fruit and Vegetables   	
49. Market Poultry   (1st Edition)   	
49. Market Poultry (2nd Edition)   	
50. The Art of Right Living  	
51. Information for Fruit-growers   	
52. Annual Report, Advisory Board of Women's Institutes   	
55. The Care and Marketing of Eggs 	
56. Field Crops  	
8,000
April 29.
8,000
July   23.
8.000
Oct.    14.
4,000
Dec.   13.
1,200
800
April 22.
9,000
May     9.
800
Sept.    5.
„      22.
500
June.
April   4.
May     6.
July   15.
10.000
Jan.   15.
10.000
March 8.
10,000
Sept.    3.
2,500
March 8.
10,000
8.
3,000
April 15.
Nov.  20.
9,000
Dec.   13.
Financial.
The total amount of the Provincial votes administered by the Department for the fiscal year
ending March 31st, 1914, was.$293,750, as against $284,250 for the corresponding fiscal period in
1913.
Special warrants were required to augment Votes 251 (Inspection of Nursery Stock) and
256 (Compensation to Owners of Cattle slaughtered for Tuberculosis), the amounts being $15,000
in each case.     (The above figures include this.)
Federal Grant.—The grant under the Dominion " Agricultural Instruction Act," for the
fiscal year ended March 31st, 1914, was $47,334.76, half of this grant being received on August
15 th, 1913.
Vouchers.—There has been a great increase in the number of vouchers handled In the
Department,.very largely due to the increased staff and the great activity in all branches of
departmental work. The following figures speak for themselves, and there is no doubt that
at the end of the fiscal year there will be a still greater increase shown:—
Fiscal year ending March 31st, 1913    2,416 vouchers.
Fiscal year ending March 31st, 1912    1,337
Increase over previous year  1,079        „
or 80 per cent.
Since April 1st and the retirement'of Mr. J. McB. Smith, Treasurer of the Board of Horticulture, all inspection fees on fruit received from quarantine officers and from the Inspector of
Fruit Pests are paid direct to the Department, where the accounts are cheeked over and the
amounts refunded to the Treasury.    This system is now working well.
Detailed monthly statements of the stumping-powder, caps, and fuse issued to Farmers'
Institutes by the two powder companies are now regularly received in the Department, and a
thorough check kept on refunds, etc.    It will be seen from above that the financial side of the
departmental work has increased very materially during the past year.
3 R 26
Department op Agriculture.
1915
Horticultural Licences.
During the year sixty-four horticultural licences were issued, as against ninety-five in 1912;
the reduction being entirely due to the strict enforcement of the clauses of the " Agricultural
Associations Act" which require the production of a bond from a recognized guarantee company,
both from British Columbia producers of nursery stock as well as from extra-provincial firms.
The attached ta.ble is interesting:—
Horticultural Licences issued to Principals.
Horticultural Licences issued
to Agents.
Year
1013,
Total.
Year 1013,
other than
B.C.
Year
1012,
Total.
Year 1012,
other than
B.C.
Year
1013,
Total.
Year 1013,
other than
B.C.
Year
1012,
Total.
Year 1012,
other than
B.C.
34
7
59
12
30
10
36
13
Total decrease in number of licences as compared with 1912, 32 per cent. This decrease
has been entirely in licences to the south of the boundary-line, thus pointing to a satisfactory
condition of affairs as regards home-produced nursery stock..
Demonstration Bee-work.
The work of 1911 and 1.912 with regard to the " Foul-brood Bees Act" and the demonstration
of practical bee-keeping was continued in 1913 by the seasonal appointments of F. Dundas Todd
in the Lower Fraser Valley, and Messrs. L. Harris and W. J. Sheppard in the Okanagan, Boundary, and East and West Kootenay Districts.
The early part of the season all over British Columbia proved cold and wet and naturally
retarded the activities of the bees. All bee-keepers were circularized in advance of the
Inspector's presence in their district, and meetings were held where practical instruction and
demonstrations were given.
A considerable advance in methods of bee-keeping and production of honey was observed in
these districts; the crop reported on being 43,287 lb., with a total estimated production for the
Lower Fraser Valley of 72,300 lb.
Mr. L. Harris made special inquiries into winter losses in the Upper Country> the average
for colonies proving to be 38 per cent.' The prospects for the bee-keepers in the Upper Country
were noted as being encouraging and an improvement on 1912.
Mr. W. J. Sheppard covered part of Mr. Harris's territory again in the late fall in the East
and West Kootenays, and gave special assistance to bee-keepers re winter care and feeding of
colonies, etc. Acting on the advice of the Inspectors, the Hon. Price Ellison issued a public
notice on August 13th enforcing the provisions of section 10 of the " Foul-brood Bees Act," as
follows:—
" Notice is hereby given that, in conformity with section 10 of the ' Foul-brood Bees Act,'
any or all bees Imported into the Province of British Columbia shall be quarantined at the point
of entry into this Province, or at such other place as may be hereafter appointed, for a period
of not more than nine months, and if such bees are found to be infected they may be destroyed."
Farmers' Institutes.
Organization, etc.—At the close of the year there were ninety-one Farmers' Institutes
incorporated, being an increase during 1913 of fifteen institutes, as follows :—
Jan.    13th , Ucluelet.
15th Needles.
Feb.      7th Cortes Island.
„       12th Naramata.
13th South Slocan.
»       18th Kootenay River.
March 29th Pend d'Oreille.
April     4th South Saanich. 5 Geo. 5
Eighth Report.
R 27
April  22nd Baynes District.
May    16th Cape Scott.
June    17th Welcome Harbour.
July    25th Nechako.
Sept.    30th Evergreen   (Holberg).
Nov.      7th Shirley District.
Dec.    15th Ladysmith.
Since the close of the year another institute has been incorporated on Texada Island, and
applications for three new ones have been received, thus pointing to the continuous and healthy
growth of these organizations.
The membership during the year has also been satisfactory, as will be seen from the
attached figures:—
Paid-up members, quarter ending March 31st   5,022
June    30th  7,389
Sept.    30th   7,752
Dec.     31st   8,144
The total membership in 1912 was 6,901, thus showing an increase of 1,213 members in one
year. This constitutes an absolute record both for the annual increase in number of institutes
and increases in membership since the first organization in 1897.
Financial.—The legislative vote this year was for $20,000, being a combined vote for
Farmers' and Women's Institutes. The Dominion ■'Agricultural Instruction Act" of 1913-14
also provides considerable funds for work in connection with Farmers' Institutes, in short
courses, demonstration farm-work, stock-judging competitions, etc. The per capita grants to
institutes this year totalled $3,529, as against $2,715.75 in 1912; the average cost also of an
institute to the Department being $165.72 for the year, as against $147.31 in 1912. This increase
is accounted for partly by larger membership and the very large number of places that lectures
were held at.        (See Appendix A.)
Short Courses, etc.
1012.
Places   	
Meetings   	
Lectures,   etc	
Attendance    	
Average attendance,  meetings
66
84
80
151
391
374
6,176
3,932
15.7
26
(For further details see Appendix C.)
The staff lecturers, with some of the subjects dealt with, were as follows:—
Name. Subject.
R. M. Winslow, B.S.A Prospects for Commercial Fruit and Vegetables.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A Pruning; Preparation and Planting of Small Fruit-plots.
B.  Hoy,  B.S.A Spraying; Fertilizers.
P. E. French, B.S.A Potato-growing; Grafting and Budding.
H.  Thornber,  B.S Vegetable Gardening; Soil Cultivating.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A Intercrops; Small-fruit Culture.
W. H. Brittain, B.S.A Orchard Pests and their Control; Fire-blight.
Edwin  Smith,  B.S Careful Handling of Fruit; Cold Storage.
J. F. Smith, B.A Fruit Marketing; Marketing the Okanagan Peach.
Spring Meetings, 1913.—On March 7th the institutes were circularized re above, being given
the option of several of the following lectures:—
(a.) Animal Husbandry.
(6.)  Dairying and Cow-testing.
(c.)  Veterinary  Science.
(<2.) Feed-crops.
(e.)  Poultry-raising and Egg Production.
(/.)   Soil Cultivation. R 28 Department op Agriculture. 1915
Horticultural subjects were not taken up owing to the very thorough treatment earlier in
the year.
Besides the regular staff of" the Live Stock Branch, the following experts were engaged to
assist:—
R. C. Ashby, Professor of Animal Husbandry, Pullman, Wash.
D. Mclnnes, President, Washington Dairymen's Association.
C. C. Thorn, B.S.A., Professor of Soils, Pullman, Wash.
Wm. Schulmerich, Hillsboro, Ont. (Dairying).
Wm. Paterson, Koksilah, V.I. (Crops and Soils).
A. E. Keffer, Arrow Park, B.C. (Soil Cultivation).
H. Reid, Victoria  (Poultry).
C. Dunkley, Cobble Hill  (Poultry).
Wm. Neilson, Fruitvale (Poultry).
Meetings were held at eighty-five places,  comprised in  seventy  institute  districts.    The
attendances were satisfactory.
Packing-schools.—These schools were again held in conjunction with Farmers'  Institutes
during January and February, 1913.    The following table gives a summary of same:—
1012.
1013.
Number of places   .
Number of schools
Number of  pupils   .
Average proficiency
27
35
34
40
425
410
83.4
83.9
Fairs held by Institutes.—Fruit and Vegetable Exhibitions were held by a number of
institutes during the year, as follows:—
Week, September 15th to 20th—Crawford Bay; Graham Island, East Coast; Martin's Prairie.
Week, September 22nd to 27th—Arrow Park.
Week, September 29th to October 4th—Burton.
Week, October 13th to 18th—South Kootenay.
Week, October 20th to 25th—Creston.
These exhibitions were not entitled to departmental grants in aid of their prize-lists, but
judges were supplied by the Department in each case. Several of these districts will very
shortly be able to support an Agricultural Association, and Burton has already Incorporated as
such.
Field-crop Competitions.—Early in the year Secretaries of Farmers' Institutes were circularized as to these competitions, and were urged to give publicity to the same in order that the
regulations and prizes offered by the Department might be more widely known.
The rules governing competitions were very similar to those prevailing in 1912, there being
a few slight alterations made for efficiency.
The total number of Farmers' Institutes competing in 1913 were twenty-one, with thirty-one
competitions in wheat, oats, potatoes, kale, and turnips; ten institutes entering for two competitions and eleven for one competition each. The highest scores gained by competitors were as
follows:—■
Wheat—South Saanich Farmers' Institute, W. D. Michell, Keating, 91% points.
Oats—Rock Creek Farmers' Institute, A. D. McLennan, Rock Creek, 94% points.
Potatoes—Spallumcheen Farmers' Institute, Fred Fowler, Armstrong, 93% points.
Kale—Islands Farmers' Institute, R. Price, Ganges, 93% points; Metchosin Farmers' Institute, H. C. Helgesen, Metchosin, 93% points.
Turnips—Kent Farmers' Institute, W. Morrow, Agassiz, 94 points.
Competition in potatoes was very keen indeed, but less so in oats.
The total amount of prize-money paid by the Department was $1,860, whilst the institutes
furnished $465 as their share. Of the amount paid by the Department, a refund of $1,000 was
obtained from Mr. G. Clark, Seed Commissioner, Ottawa.
The regulations for 1914 competitions have been issued in the form of a Circular No. 5,
which is attached herewith. 5 Geo. 5
Eighth Report.
R 29
Pure-bred Stock for Farmers' Institutes.—On March 13th a circular letter was forwarded
to all Secretaries of institutes, drawing their attention to departmental arrangements regarding
the purchase of pure-bred stock for the use of members, payments being extended over a period
of three years. Bulls were sold on the following terms: One-third of the purchase price when
delivered, one-third at one year from date of delivery, and one-third at two years from the date
of delivery. No interest charged except after payments were overdue, in which case the rate
was 10 per cent. All transportation charges to be borne by the Department. Boars and rams
were sold on the same conditions, except that they were to be paid for in two equal payments.
The selection of breeds was left to the majority vote at a meeting of an institute specially
called for that purpose, but the advantages of a permanent policy were strongly emphasized by
the Department. Requisition forms were prepared and sent out to all institutes, these requiring
to be signed by the President, Secretary, Directors, and six additional members.
The following institutes have made applications so far and have been supplied with
pure-bred stock: Eagle River Valley Farmers' Institute, Valdes Farmers' Institute, Revelstoke
Farmers' Institute, Needles Farmers' Institute, Cortes Island Farmers' Institute, Arrow Park
Farmers' Institute, Alberni Farmers' Institute, and Robson Farmers' Institute.
Importation of Pure-bred Stock under Provisions of "Agricultural Aid Act," 1912-13.—All
proper arrangements having been made, a number of sales were held at the following points in
the Province:—
Sale held at.
Date.
No. of
Head.
Total.
Proceeds.
Average
Price.
Victoria   	
Victoria   	
Vernon    	
New Westminster
Nelson   	
Cranbrook   	
Abbotsford   	
Milner   	
Chilliwack   	
Aug. 12
Oct. 15
Aug. 29
Sept. 18
Nov. 11
Nov. 13
Nov. 18
Nov. 19
Nov. 20
68
106
54
59
40
35
25
26
40
$7,195 00
6,850 50
5,876 50
5,036 50
3,050 00
2,370 00
1.308 00
1,572 50
3,079 00
$105 80
64 00
108 80
83 60
76 20
67 70
52 30
60 50
77 00
Stumping-powder, Fuse, and Caps.—On February 24th the institutes were advised by circular
letter of an arrangement made whereby the Hon. the Minister sanctioned the co-operative ordering of stumping-powder by institutes in not less than 100 cases, supplied prepaid by the Department, on the definite understanding that the institute ordering the same would be responsible
for the repayments to be regularly sent in to the powder companies by the Secretary as sales
were effected to members. Arrangements were also made whereby safety-fuse and blasting-caps
were supplied at $23.50 per case and $5.50 per M. respectively.
These fresh concessions have been taken full advantage of, and the powder companies have
been very active in supplying institute members with the above commodities.
Totals  for   1912 17,016 eases of stumping-powder, value $85,080.
1913 14,837 „ „ 74,185.
Decrease      3,179 „ „ $10,895.
Seed-grain Distribution.—In December the Department made arrangements for the distribution of seed-oats of the American Banner variety in the spring of 1914 to members. The
conditions were:—
(1.) Orders should be sent through Secretaries:
(2.)   Seed to be supplied at actual cost plus transportation charges:
(3.)  Department would pay transportation if order was accompanied by an entry for a
crop competition in oats:
(4.)  Payment for seed to be made by institute within thirty days of shipment.
The Department expects to deliver the oats at about $1 per bushel.
Bonds for Secretaries.—On May 20th a circular respecting the bonding of Secretaries was
issued, it being pointed out that section 22 (1, 2, and 3) of the "Agricultural Associations Act" R 30
Department op Agriculture.
1915
was explicit upon the point of the giving of security by Secretaries. Emphasis was put upon
these requirements, especially for those institutes which were handling stumping-powder, etc., on
consignment.
Rates at 40 cents per $100 were secured from a local guarantee company, but the response
to the Department's suggestion has been very disappointing; so far as can be ascertained, only
some twenty-five Secretaries out of ninety-two being secured in the manner indicated.
Women's Institutes.
The total number of Women's Institutes incorporated at the end of 1913 was thirty-five, of
which six had been organized during the year, whilst two more are in process of organization at
the present date.    The new institutes were as follows:—
April 22nd   Upper Sunias.
June 17th   Similkameen.
June 25th   Harrop and District.
June 25th Robson.
August 19th   Peachland.
December 5th West Summerland.
The membership on which the per capita grant was paid on June 30th was 1,699, whilst the
total for the year is 1,905, although the annual returns have not yet been checked up.
The following table is interesting as showing the steady growth of the institutes :—
1010.
1011.
1012.
1313.
Number of institutes   .
Average membership per
17
545
32
23
974
42
29
1,347
46
35
1,905
54
Vote 254 for $20,000 was the sum set aside for the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1914, for
both Farmers' and Women's Institutes, whilst the " Agricultural Instruction Act" of 1913
provided $2,500 specifically for Women's work, as follows: " Towards the conducting of short
courses in domestic science, hygiene, sanitation, home-nursing, dressmaking, cooking, etc., in
connection! with Women's Institutes."
The per capita grant paid in June was $857.50.
Conventions were held at Victoria on September 9th to 11th for Vancouver Island, and at
Chilliwack on June 12th and 13th for the Lower Mainland and Upper Country.
Bulletins.—The bulletins issued by the Department for this section were:—
No. 47. Food and Diet (Part II.).
„    50. The Art of Right Living.
,,    52. Report of Advisory Board.
Whilst " The Care of Children " is now in the printer's hands and a " Handbook of Women's
Institutes " under revision for the press.
Competitions.—Meetings of the Advisory Board were held on March 10th and September
10th; at the former one the following competitions were arranged for :•—
(1.) Prizes for institute having the best average attendance based on membership during
the year 1913, consisting of books to form the nucleus of a library, to the value of: First prize,
$30; second prize, $15.
(2.)  Prizes for institute having the best programme for 1913, consisting of books to form
the nucleus of a library, to the value of :   First prize, $20; second prize, $10.
The subjects of the papers were:—
(a.)  Co-operation as it could be used beneficially by Institutes; or
(b.)  Best Methods of raising and expending Institute Funds; or
(c.)  Advantage to the Community of having an Institute; or
(d.) Waste and Economy in the Household.
The following assistance was also given:—
(1.) A sum to be decided on by the Department of Agriculture, and not to exceed $50, will
be allowed for expense of collecting and forwarding exhibit to any institute sending an institute 5 Geo. 5
Eighth Report.
R 31
exhibit to the Provincial Fairs of New Westminster and Victoria, providing a statement of such
expenses is forwarded the Department.
(2.) A per capita grant of 25 cents in addition to the grant made under the authority of the
" Agricultural Associations Act, 1911," chapter 6, section 31, will be given to an institute holding
a flower-show or an exhibition of women's work, or a combined flower-show and such exhibition.
(3.) Prizes will be offered for competition at flower-shows for collections of bulbs, or sweet
peas, or roses, or dahlias, or perennials, as may be decided by the institutes, consisting of first,
second, and children's prizes.
Flower-shows.—The following table details the flower-shows and book prizes awarded by the
Department:—■
Date of Show,
1013.
Institute.
Prizes sent.
Adult.
Junior.
13	
28	
July
8	
10	
16	
17	
22	
Aug.
5	
6	
"
6	
13	
14	
15	
Sept.
17-18	
20	
23-24	
Lake Hill,  V.I	
Royal Oak, V.I	
Nelson  (at City Rose Show)   	
Hazelmere    	
Kaslo    	
Chilliwack   	
Colwood,  V.I	
Agassiz   	
Surrey    	
Langley    	
Matsqui    	
Comox, V.I	
Summerland  	
Metchosin, V.I	
Oyster District (Ladysmith, V.I.)   	
Salmon River Valley   (at Salmon Arm Fair)
1st & 2nd.
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Total, 16 shows and 80 prizes.
Exhibits at Coast Fairs.—One of the signs of the times and a feature that is going to figure
prominently in the future was the exhibit of Women's Institute work at Victoria and New
Westminster Fairs. This was made possible by an arrangement of the Department of Agriculture last summer whereby expenses up to $50 were guaranteed to individual institutes for the
expenses of collecting and forwarding exhibits to the Coast.
At New Westminster seven Women's Institutes out of thirty-four were represented in the
following order of merit:—
First, Central Park   $100 00 prize.
Second,  Matsqui        50 00
Third, Chilliwack     25 00      „
Fourth,  Surrey        25 00
Fifth, Mission        25 00     „
Sixth,   Summerland        25 00     „
Seventh, Kaslo   Bottled fruit and jams
" Commended."
Vancouver Exhibition—Central  Park  Women's  Institute,  first prize paid,  although  rules
called for two exhibits.
Victoria Exhibition—Lake Hill Women's Institute, first, $30; Royal Oak Women's Institute,
second, $20.
The following grants were paid towards exhibits to fall fairs, Women's Institutes :—
Chilliwack   $50 00
Matsqui     50 00
Mission  City      50 00
Lake Hill     50 00
Royal  Oak     30 80
Surrey      50 00 R 32 Department op Agriculture. 1915
Spring Meetings.—The following series of lectures and demonstrations were arranged for by
the Department:—
(1.)  Modern Housekeeping.
(2.)  Hygiene in the Home, by Mrs. F. B. Atkinson, Miss V. Stubbins, and Miss C. M.
Moule.
(3.)   School Gardens and Institute Competitions, by Mrs. M. Hutchinson.
(4.)  Extermination of Flies, by Miss E. Cruickshanks.
(5.)  Canning of Meats, Fruits, and Vegetables, by Mrs. E. Norman.
Mrs. M. R. Watt and Mrs. R. L. Lipsett, members of the Advisory Board, also lectured at
these meetings.
The lecturers were received with great enthusiasm at all the institutes visited, and there is
no doubt that valuable instruction was imparted to the members; attendance being very good
at most points.
Winter Courses.—Commencing in October, winter courses for dressmaking and cooking were
arranged, the itineraries running through into 1914. The following lecturers were provided to
give courses of one to two weeks at each institute, as required:—
Mme. M. Grohe—Dressmaking by chart system, Okanagan and Kootenays, Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island Institutes.
Miss A. Taylor—Dressmaking, Vancouver Island Institutes.
Miss  B.  Livingstone—Cooking, theory and practice,  Lower Mainland and Vancouver
Island Institutes.
An analysis of the cost of Women's Institutes during the years 1912 and 1913 is shown in
Appendix D.
Seeds for School Gardens.—In response to a number of requests for assistance in the making
of school gardens, the Department, after consultation with the Advisory Board, agreed to' supply
schools with packets of seeds through the Women's Institutes.
A circular was accordingly sent out in March to institutes, asking those who wished to
undertake the matter to ascertain from the school authorities how many schools would avail
themselves of the offer; the seeds to consist of several varieties of flowers and vegetables.
All school-teachers on Vancouver Island, the Lower Mainland, and the districts south of the
Canadian Pacific Railway main line were also notified of this scheme.
The institutes who finally took up the matter were as follows: Chilliwack Women's Institute, Central Park Women's Institute, Coquitlam Women's Institute, Nakusp Women's Institute,
Salmon Arm Women's Institute, Sooke Women's Institute, Summerland Women's Institute, and
Surrey Women's  Institute.
Twenty-five collections, costing $107.50 and comprising 3,000 packets of flower and vegetable
seeds, were distributed to schools by the above institutes, and a circular entitled " Hints on
Caring for School Gardens " was prepared by the Provincial Horticulturist, giving brief cultural
directions.
The " Agricultural Instruction Act, 1912-13."
An Act for the granting of aid for the advancement of agricultural instruction in the
Province.
(3.) Objects.—To aid and advance the farming industry by instruction in agriculture and
for purposes authorized by this Act.
The following sums to be paid out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund of Canada during each
fiscal year for ten years, beginning with the year ending March 31st, 1914:—
1914      $   700,000
1915           800,000
1916           900,000
1917 ■     1,000,000
1918        1,100,000
For each succeeding fiscal year ending March 31st, to and including
1923, the sum of $1,100,000      5,500,000
Total    $10,000,000 ffl  5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 33
Any portion of any of the above sums remaining unearned or unpaid at the expiration of
any of the above fiscal years previous to the last shall be carried forward and remain available
according to its appointment for the purposes of this Act during any one or more of the
succeeding years.
(4.) The moneys appropriated for each year shall be apportioned and paid as follows, under
conditions specified in the Act:—
Veterinary  Colleges    $20,000
To the Government of each Province   20,000
The remainder of the appropriation for each year shall be allotted and paid to the Governments of the respective Provinces in proportion to the populations of the said Provinces
respectively as determined by the latest decennial census.
(5.) The payments hereinbefore authorized shall, as to each Province, be conditional upon
agreement between the Minister and the Government of the Province as to the terms, conditions,
and purposes, within the meaning of this Act, upon and for which the payments are to be made
and applied, and such agreement shall be subject to the approval of the Governor in Council.
(6.) The Minister may appoint such officers as are required for carrying out the provisions
of this Act, and for such inspection, examination, and report as are necessary to ensure the
expenditure of the moneys paid in accordance with the intention of this Act and the agreements
and regulations made under the authority of this Act; and the salaries and expenses of such
officers shall be paid out of the moneys appropriated by Parliament for the purpose.
(7.) The Governor in Council may make such regulations as are deemed advisable for giving
effect to the objects and purposes of this Act, and, notwithstanding anything in this Act, the
Minister, with the approval of the Governor in Council, and with the consent of the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council of any Province, and upon such terms and conditions as are prescribed by
the Governor in Council, may expend in any such Province in any year the whole or any part
of the grant provided for such Province under this Act for the purposes set forth in the preamble
of this Act.
(8.) The Minister shall annually lay before Parliament, during the first ten days of the
Session, a report of all proceedings under this Act for the last preceding fiscal year, which report
shall contain a full and accurate statement of the moneys expended, the purposes to which they
have been applied, and the work done by the several Provinces In the earning of the subsidies
paid or authorized to be paid.
(9.)  The " Agricultural Aid Act," chapter 3 of the Statutes of 1912, is repealed.
(For details of Federal grant to British Columbia see Appendix E.)
Agricultural Associations.    .
The following brief summary regarding Agricultural Associations is submitted, full details
being shown in my report as Secretary to the Agricultural Fairs Association:—
At the close of 1913 there were fifty-nine associations incorporated for the holding of fall
fairs, fifty-one fairs being actually held. Eight new associations were incorporated during the
year.
Incorporations were also numerous under Part II. of the Act during the year, prominent
among them being the eight Co-operative Fruit-growers' Associations in the Okanagan Valley.
Forty-seven judges were supplied free of all expense to Agricultural Associations, twelve
being staff men and thirty-five outside men. Grants In aid of prize-lists totalled $45,150, whilst
specific grants in aid of buildings amounted to $20,550 for the year.
Grants to Students attending Agricultural Colleges in the Dominion, 1913.
The following British Columbia students were in receipt of a departmental grant of $50 per
term whilst taking an agricultural course of at least one year at a recognized Agricultural
College in the Dominion. As will be seen from the list, a high proportion of students avail
themselves of this opportunity to take second- and third-year courses. There are no fourth-year
men from British Columbia at any of the Agricultural Colleges at present.
Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, 1913-14 Session: First-year men, 48 per cent.; second-
year men, 28 per cent.; third-year men, 24 per cent.; total, 100 per cent.
Number of students, Ontario Agricultural College: First year, 12; second year, 7; third
year, 6; total, 25. R 34 Department op Agriculture. 1915
Number of students, Manitoba Agricultural College:   First year, 4.
Arrears of Grant.—Miss Grace K. Brown, Chilliwack : Fall and Spring Term, 1911-12, $100;
Fall and Spring Term, 1912-13, $100.
Statistics Branch.
An appropriation of $4,000 was voted for the collection of agricultural statistics for the fiscal
year ending March 31st, 1914, being an increase of $1,500 on the previous year. On April 7th I
had the honour of preparing for the Hon. the Minister a scheme whereby five selected men were
to collaborate with Mr. A. B. Tweddle, Crop and Labour Commissioner, in a personal statistical
canvass of the agricultural production of all that section of the Province south of and adjacent
to the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Northern British Columbia, Lillooet, Cariboo,
and the Queen Charlottes were to be reported on by selected enumerators who would be paid a
small fee for district reports.
Mr. Tweddle commenced his field-work on April 1st, reaching headquarters again early in
December, the first month being spent making inquiries of wholesale firms re importation of
agricultural products from Dominion points, the remaining time being spent in a statistical
survey of the Fraser Valley from the Coast to Lillooet, and the Thompson River Valley from
Lytton to Kamloops, including the Nicola Valley. The zeal and untiring energy which Mr.
Tweddle showed in the work are most commendable.
Thirty-seven enumerators accepted appointments for Northern British Columbia, etc., and
a large percentage of these reports have been duly received in a very satisfactory state of
completion.
During November a circular letter was issued to all the wholesale firms dealing In agricultural produce at the Coast cities, and these were followed up by personal visits from Mr. R.
Cullen, who has been able to obtain a mass of reliable information on imports from Dominion
points.
Owing to the appointment of so many men the Provincial vote was soon exhausted, and the
sanction of the Hon. Martin Burrell was therefore obtained to the use of section 13, " Miscellaneous," of the "Agricultural Instruction Act, 1913-14," for the payments made on account of
this statistical work.    The total amount expended on account of this work is $10,954.40.
Loans to Co-operative Associations.
I beg to submit herewith a summary of outstanding loans made to Co-operative Associations
by the Department since 1901.    A full statement regarding same has been submitted to the Hon.
the Minister in accordance with section 51 of the "Agricultural Associations Act."    (For statement of loans see Appendix F.)
Respectfully submitted.
Wm.  J.  Bonavia,
Secretary.
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH.
By R. M. Winslow, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist.
February 5th, 1914.
W. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report as follows on the work of the Horticultural Branch during
the year 1913 :—
The report will show in detail a considerable increase in the number of meetings held; an
increase in packing-schools to forty, as against thirty-three in the previous year; an increase in
the number of fairs judged, from forty-eight to sixty; an increase in the publications issued;
and increases in practically every line in the amount of the work done.
It has been my aim to secure in the work of the Horticultural Branch not only an increased
quantity, but greater efficiency joined with economy. 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 35
Staff.
Mr. A. H. Tomlinson was appointed Assistant Horticulturist for the Northern Coast sections,
with headquarters at Prince Rupert. J. M. Creelman, an undergraduate of Ontario Agricultural
College, was employed as temporary assistant to Mr. Edwin Smith, and E. W. Calvert, similarly
an undergraduate, as assistant to Mr. W. H. Brittain. I am very sorry to report that Mr. Brittain
has left the Department to accept a position in Nova Scotia. This vacancy has not yet been
filled. The Markets Commissioner has been brought into the Horticultural Branch during the
year.
The permanent staff of the Horticultural Branch is now as follows: R. M. Winslow, M. S.
Middleton, B. Hoy, P. E. French, H. Thornber, W. H. Robertson, Edwin Smith, J. Forsyth Smith,
and G. L. Foulkes.
Work of Officials.
The members of our staff have performed a multitude of duties in the encouragement of
agricultural organization, giving instruction and advice to intending settlers and to fruit and
vegetable growers; in promoting the successful operation of fairs, Farmers' Institutes, etc.; in
providing information for the Royal Agricultural Commission; for the other branches of the
Department, etc.
Among my own miscellaneous duties, apart from those indicated above, I gave an address
before the Washington State Horticultural Society, North Yakima, Wash., on " The Progress of
Fruit-growing in British Columbia"; an address before the summer meeting of the British
Columbia Entomological Society on " The Economic Side of Pest-control." I also delivered
addresses before the Central Farmers' Institute and the British Columbia Fairs Association
meeting at Victoria.
As Secretary of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association, I visited Ottawa and other
Eastern points in attendance on the members of the Legislative Committee in February and
March. As a member of the Executive of the National Fruit-growers' Association, I attended
the Executive meeting at Toronto and visited other Eastern points in connection with other
miscellaneous horticultural matters in November. I also attended Mr. J. Kidston, member of
the Royal Agricultural Commission, on a tour of investigation through the States of Oregon,
Washington, and California.
Publications.
A series of horticultural circulars was prepared and used for distribution during short
courses, as follows :—
No.    1. Short Courses in Horticulture.
„     2. Commercial Onion-culture.
3. Selection of Orchard Sites and Soils.
„     4. Insects Injurious to Orchards.
,,      5. Plant-growth.
,,      6. Spray Calendar.
,,     7. Fungous Diseases of Orchard and Garden.
„      S. Packing Orchard Fruits.
„      9. Sprays and Spraying.
„    10. Commercial Potato-culture.
„    11. Progress and Prospects in Fruit and Vegetable Growing.
,,    12. Orchard Intercrops.
„   13. The Home Vegetable Garden for Coast Sections.
,,    14. Practical Irrigation.
„    15. Cabbage, Celery, and Tomato Production.
.,    16. Culture of Small Fruits in the Coast Sections.
„    17. Planting Plans and Distances.
„    IS. Report of the Markets Commissioner.
„    19. Propagation and Selection of Nursery Stock.
,,   20. Orchard Cultivation and Cover Crops.
„   21. Pruning Fruit-trees.
„    22. Thinning Tree-fruits. R 36 Department op Agriculture. 1915
No. 23. Fire-blight  (Bacillus amylovorus—Burrill).
24. Home Vegetable Gardening for Interior Districts.
25. Culture of Small Fruits for the Interior Districts of British Columbia.
26. Top-working of Fruit-trees.
27. Methods of Fruit Picking and Handling.
28. Fertilizers for Fruits and Vegetables.
29. Varieties of Fruit recommended for Commercial Planting.
Copies of these circulars have proven very valuable in dealing with correspondence, and, in
addition, the Secretaries of institutes have been supplied with a number of copies of each of
those of value in their respective sections.
In addition, I prepared for publication Circular Bulletin No. 4, " Hints on Caring for School
Gardens."
I also prepared for publication Bulletin No. 51, " Information for Fruit-growers, with List
of Varieties for Commercial and Home Planting," which was issued in July. The bulletin seems
to be filling a distinct want, judging by the many requests that have been received for it.
The Assistant Horticulturists and myself make very good use of the press to bring the
attention of fruit-growers and others on various matters connected with our work. The
preparation of these articles and of others for publication in horticultural magazines, etc.,
takes a considerable amount of time and proves of considerable value.
Crop Reports.
The Assistant Horticulturists have reported crop conditions in their districts throughout
the year, and their reports have been made the basis for circular letters to members of the
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association and to the press on " Fruit-crop Conditions and
Prospects."    A special report was issued on " Potato-crop Conditions " in September.
Experimental Work in Horticulture.
The Assistant Horticulturists have been kept so busy on short courses, demonstrations,
meetings, orchard inspection, and other lines pressing for immediate attention that little has
been done in experimental work. 'At the same time, our fieldmen all feel the great need for
experimental work, particularly with regard to methods of orchard-culture, pruning, spraying,
irrigation, variety tests of vegetables, fertilizers for both fruits and vegetables, etc. We are
carrying on some experimental work of a scientific character under Mr. Edwin Smith and in
the Pathological Laboratory.
Demonstration and Experimental Orchards.
The demonstration orchards planted during the last three years have, as a rule, made most
satisfactory progress, and are proving of great value not only as demonstrations, but, in addition,
as a source of valuable information on the cost of operating orchards in the various parts of
the Province.
An additional experimental orchard was planted at New Denver. The demonstration
orchard at Kamloops has been dropped because the company failed to take care of it and
because the orchard-site falls within the limits of a new townsite soon to be sold. The orchard
at Nakusp has also been dropped, owing to the unsuitability of the site, without the drainage
agreed upon, and failure of the owners to give the care required. With these two exceptions,
all the orchard-owners have done the work promptly and as required. Many of the orchards
are now the best blocks of young orchard in their respective sections. Experimental orchards
at Windermere, Baynes Lake, Nicola, and Rossland have given much trouble, as was expected.
There has been a tremendous amount of replanting each year, due primarily to the severity of
the climates, but as our tests with ordinary commercial varieties are concluded, we are replacing
these with hardier kinds.
Experimental Trees.
Three years ago the Department commenced the distribution of fruit-trees of the hardier
varieties in many new and untried districts, both on the Coast and in the Interior. Under this
system many settlers in new sections have received trees of suitable varieties delivered safely 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 37
to them, with instructions for their care. Many of the trees have now been reported on for
three years, and in most cases are doing well. Many settlers have failed to report, and in such
cases it is probable that the trees have been less successful.
Last year the Assistant Horticulturists were required to determine the worthiness of the
settler and his ability to take care of such experimental trees, and, further, the Assistants prepared the list of trees most suitable. Under this plan only about 1,000 trees were distributed,
but the percentage of loss from neglect and carelessness should be much reduced. I must
acknowledge the courtesy of the Dominion Horticulturist at Ottawa in supplying us with buds
of twelve extremely hardy varieties of apples, from which we propagated and are distributing
several hundred trees in the more extreme sections. The planting of these very hardy varieties
should be of much value to these districts in the future.
Fire-blight.
The rapid development of fire-blight in the Interior fruit districts having overtaxed the
resources of the Fruit Pest Branch, the Minister himself directed that the Horticultural Branch
should assume control of the Kootenay and Boundary Districts. We found in Grand Forks 2,400
acres of orchard infected. Mr. Brittain and myself gave several lectures and demonstrations
on its control, and Mr. Hoy remained in the district in charge of the work from July to December, with M. H. Ruhmann, Fruit Pests Inspector of the district, as his assistant. Mr. Hoy's
report shows that 1,986 acres of orchard were cleaned up by December 1st, 312 acres partially
cleaned up, and 102 acres yet remain untouched. This has been done with practically no blight-
cutting by the Government, the work being carried on by the growers at their own expense.
We have been exceedingly fortunate in working up a sentiment in favour of blight-control,
backed by practically the entire community. The results next season will indicate the degree
of success attained in the work of control.
Blight has also broken out in a small way at Procter and Slocan Valley and at New Denver.
These infections have been cut out under the direction of Mr. Middleton.
The blight constitutes a serious menace to our apple-growing communities, and every care
should be taken to give the growers the necessary instruction and every encouragement in its
control.
Pathological and Entomological Work.
We completed the equipment of a very satisfactory laboratory at Vernon for this work
during the past year, which was absolutely essential to the Pathologist in following up his
investigations. The resignation of Mr. Brittain, while regrettable, served to emphasize the
breadth and importance of the field of work which, under his direction, was just becoming
defined. The general request made by fruit-growers that the Department replace him with a
good man as soon as possible is sufficient evidence of its usefulness.
Careful Handling, Phecooling, and Cold-storage Investigations.
Our Investigator in this section this year carried on a number of important experiments,
which I might briefly summarize as follows:—
(1.) To determine the cause and remedy for the extensive losses from decay in rhubarb
shipments from the Lower Mainland. Mr. Smith's work showed conclusively that the decay
was caused primarily by a bacterial organism, followed by the attacks of some parasitic fungi.
He determined that certain varieties of rhubarb were much more susceptible than others, and
the susceptible variety should not be planted. He showed that rhubarb from new and rich soil
was most attacked; that from upland old soil much less so. His thermograph records showed
that the refrigerator-cars were too hot, and his cold-storage experiments showed that the decay
was completely arrested at proper temperatures. The work must be continued a year longer to
be conclusive, but I am very gratified to report that a very serious'condition threatening a new
and promising industry can easily be corrected as the result of our work.
(2.) Experiments in shipping strawberries and raspberries from Lower Mainland points..
A small precooling plant, constructed at Mission, has demonstrated the proper temperatures at
which strawberries should be shipped, and a dehydrator plant of original design is proving
effective in increasing the carrying qualities of fruit picked slightly wet, as is so much of it R 38 Department op Agriculture. 1915
in that district. Very good results are obtained both from strawberries, and raspberries. The
various fruit-growers have asked that Mr. Smith's work be conducted another year, so as to be
entirely conclusive.
(3.) A precooling plant was erected and operated at Summerland this year, and demonstrated
beyond all question the increased quality of fruit shipped precooled. In addition to this operation, it was necessary to determine how best the expenditure can be kept within such limits
as are .demanded by commercial conditions.
(4.) Storage experiments with apples are being conducted, the apples being selected by our
own men under strictly scientific conditions in various districts. The information from these
apple-storage experiments will, in another year or so, be standard and authoritative for the
handling of British Columbia apples of all ordinary winter varieties for cold storage. The
profound importance of holding some of our winter apples successfully till early spring makes
this work fundamentally important.
Mr. Smith is, in addition, working at a bulletin on " Farm Storage of Fruits and
Vegetables."
Institute-work.
As in previous years, members of the horticultural staff are available for addressing
meetings to the institutes, Fruit-growers' Associations, Horticultural Societies, and similar
bodies with reference to horticultural matters. The amount of this work in the aggregate is
very great, and this is, I believe, a valuable method of disseminating information.
Packing-schools.
Fruit-packing schools of a series of twelve practical lessons of three hours each, to the
number of forty, were conducted at thirty-five different places.
The Instructors secured gave high satisfaction; most of them have been again secured for
1914 work. The average proficiency of packing-school pupils was 83.9. The total expenditure
on packing-school grant was $3,8S0.48; against this there are receipts of fees and proceeds from
sale of fruit of $1,631.10; making the net cost of the packing-schools $2,249.38, or an. average
per school of $50.20. This speaks well for the economy with which the schools have been
operated.
Packing-school pupils made displays at nineteen fairs, and $560 was paid as prize-money
for these exhibits.    Sixty-two pupils qualified for and received packing-school diplomas.
The Department has again provided money prizes for fruit-packing contests in which
speed is a factor, and contests of this kind were held at the following fall fairs: Armstrong,
Cranbrook, Nakusp, New Denver, Nelson, Salmon Arm, Summerland, Vernon, and Creston.
Prize-money to the extent of $270 was paid on these contests.
Short Courses.
The meetings conducted by the Horticultural Branch, designated " short courses," were held
in 1913, as in the previous three years. Short courses were held at 84 places; the total number
of lectures and demonstrations was 374; and the average attendance at the meetings was 26;
a very favourable figure when it is considered that short courses were held in many small
places and during the most inclement months of the year. The demonstration-work again
proved very popular, but it was unfortunate that the large number of applications compelled
us to limit the number of demonstrations as well as the number of lectures.
The short courses in connection with horticulture fell entirely on the members of this
Branch, other than myself, and I am glad to record the appreciation expressed in many sections
of the character of* the instruction given at the meetings.
Demonstration-work.
We have, as a matter of policy, used demonstration methods rather than lectures for
educational purposes. Many demonstrations have been given, both in connection with the short
courses, institute, and other meetings, and apart from such meetings. The Assistant Horticulturists have given hundreds of demonstrations in pruning, planting, spraying, etc. We propose
to operate pruning-schools much along the lines of the packing-schools, which will be a further
extension in this demonstration-work. 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 39
Collection of Exhibition Fruit.
The exhibitions of Chicago and Great Britain necessitated a large amount of work in
securing worthy exhibits of fruit. This matter was handled by the Horticultural Branch, the
fruit being secured from local fairs. The plan adopted was the best under the circumstances,
but I would recommend that in future years we endeavour to secure the fruit direct from the
orchard, engaging a competent packer, or packers, to purchase the fruit and to do picking and
packing.    Under such circumstances the Department would get uniformly high-grade material.
Juoging at Fairs and Flower-shows.
As in previous years, the Horticultural Branch was called upon to judge fruits and
vegetables at all fall fairs of the Province. This wras done as far as possible from our own
staff, but the coincidence of a number of fairs on the same dates required us to go outside, to
a certain extent, for the judges, and while a total of seventeen fruit and vegetable judges were
employed, the greater part of the work was done by the members of the Branch. Before the
fairs commenced a conference of the Horticulturists was held to further standardize our judging
methods and ideals. The effect of judging through a period of years by the Horticultural Branch
is now strikingly apparent in the tremendous improvement in the class of fruits and vegetables
shown and their close approximation to correct ideals, both for exhibition and for commercial
purposes.
Fruit and vegetables were judged at some sixty fairs, of which fifty-one were held under
regular Agricultural Associations. At the conclusion of the work the judge gave the reasons
for his awards, as far as time permitted. We expect that in 1914 it will be possible for the
judge to give a demonstration on judging, with a talk on the standards of perfection.
The arrangement of the fair circuits has been further adjusted, and during 1914 the work
should be almost entirely covered by the Horticultural Branch.
The judges also reported to the Department on necessary changes in the prize-lists and
rules and regulations of each fair, so as to further increase their educational value. Assistant
Horticulturists are instructed to meet the Prize-list Revision Committees of their various fairs,
and so secure the adoption of their recommendations.
In addition to the fall fairs, the various Assistant Horticulturists judged flower-shows held
under the auspices of Women's Institutes and Horticultural Societies throughout the Province.
This line of work has a definite value and is likely to increase in the future. I am glad to
report that the Assistant Horticulturists are generally capable of judging these fairs, as well
as assisting in their organization.
Judging Potato Competitions.
The Assistant Horticulturists have judged the potato-crop competitions held by Farmers'
Institutes under the auspices of the Department of Agriculture. The judging of these competitions requires several days. In my own opinion, the time is exceedingly well spent; the
competitions are most admirably calculated to encourage the best methods of culture and the
best varieties.
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association.
The Secretaryship of this organization has continued with me, and I am glad to report
that the past year it had a membership of 696, and eighteen fruit-growers' organizations were
affiliated with it. The association has secured legislation from both Provincial and Dominion
Governments, considerable improvements in freight service, reductions in express rates, and
improvements in express service. It has also taken action in other matters, not yet completed,
such as the advertising of British Columbia fruit in the Prairies and other markets; the
question of more direct marketing; the elimination of certain middlemen; the standardization
of box packages, etc. I attended five Executive, three Directors', and a number of Committee
meetings during the year in performance of the Secretarial duties. The Fruit-growers' Association entails an increasing amount of detail work; while this is the case, it will be necessary to
put the burden of some of it on other shoulders, If I am to continue the proper administration
of our continually expanding work. R 40 Department op Agriculture. 1915
RESUMfi.
The work of the Horticultural Branch might be summarized under different headings as
follows:—•
Educational.—First in educational work come the short courses, of which eighty-four were
held; and the packing-schools, forty-one in number. The orchard-to-orchard visits, private
demonstrations, etc., are very efficient for the education of fruit and vegetable growers, but
their exact influence is difficult to estimate. The Assistant Horticulturists visited from thirty
to seventy-five orchards a month, except when short course or other work absorbs their entire
time.
Judging fairs also has a great educational value. The demonstration orchards and orchard
demonstrations, both primarily educational, are very valuable for the purpose. Much of the
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association work is educational; much of the work of the Plant
Pathologist, the Markets Commissioner, and the Cold-storage and Precooling Investigator is
directly instructional. The publications of the Horticultural Branch, such as circulars, bulletins,
press circulars, crop and market reports, published addresses, etc., are all primarily educational.
Experimental.—Our experimental work at present is largely carried on by means of experimental orchards and experimental plots. Spraying and pruning experiments are conducted
by the Assistant Horticulturists' to a certain extent. The Pathologist and Cold-storage and
Precooling Investigator both do much experimental and investigation work relating to their
particular branches; in fact, these two officers are primarily for experimental purposes.
Investigations of a different character were carried on during my visits and those of the
Markets Commissioner to the various Pacific States. The summarizing of weather records and
the deductions made from them must also rank as investigation-work. The records of yields
of varieties of apples and other fruits, now being kept over the entire Province; the crop
reports; the crop-pest survey, carried on by the British Columbia Entomological Society and
the Pathologist, are lines of investigation of considerable immediate importance.
Administrative Work.—The necessary office-work for the successful conduct of the Horticultural Branch is our principal administrative effort. The organization and operation of the
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association, particularly through its Executive and Directors'
meetings, is largely administrative in character. The encouragement of institutes, fairs,
co-operative organization, etc., by the Assistant Horticulturists and myself is an administrative
feature which does not receive official recognition, but still is very valuable.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
R. M. Winslow,
Horticulturist.
ANNUAL REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH.
By W. T. McDonald, B.S.A., M.S.A., Live Stock Commissioner.
W. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my annual report of the work of the Live Stock Branch
for the year 1913.
Creameries.
As in the year preceding, but relatively little time was spent during 1913 amongst the
creameries of the Province owing to stress of other work. Periodic calls were made at the
different institutions and the immediate conditions inspected, but practically no time was
afforded for educational work with their patrons.
The sanitary arrangements at the creameries are reasonably good, though negligence
occurred in a few cases with regard to the proper disposition of buttermilk in the hot weather.
The drainage is generally well looked after. The equipment in several of the country factories
is incomplete, lacking chiefly in suitable cooling devices, without which it is impossible in the
warm months to avoid a mushy butter or to produce one that is firm and of good grain. 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 41
As with former years, the total make of creamery butter throughout the Province shows
a reduction consequent upon the transference of material from this to the milk trade. The
deficiency, however, is not considerable, and is mainly confined to those factories that, for some
years, have been gradually abandoning the manufacture of butter for the other branch of the
industry, at greater profit to themselves and with a considerable increase in business. The
condensing-factories also used much milk, and if the one proposed for the Island is established
the local make of butter may be further affected. A condenser is talked of for South Westminster also, though this, with the Laurentia (Homogenizing) Milk Plant at Clayburn, will,
for its needs, rather divert from Vancouver and New Westminster fresh-milk supplies. The
smaller creameries in the country districts report a good increase over last year's business.
I am pleased to state that in future the creameries, and more particularly the patrons of
creameries, will receive more attention from the Dairy Division than has been possible in the
past two years. Mr. T. A. F. Wiancko, who in October was appointed Dairy Instructor, will
devote hereafter a considerable portion of his time to this work, keeping also in touch with
city milk affairs throughout the Province. Mr. Wiancko comes to the Department from the
position of manager of Edenbank Creamery, and has been in British Columbia for many years,
and, in addition to a good knowledge of local dairy conditions, possesses a long record of dairy
management and of dairy school instruction work.
I desire to express my gratification at this appointment, which will afford the assistance
this Division has long required, and will enable Mr. Rive, Chief Dairy Instructor, to devote
more time to cow-testing and Dairymen's Association matters.
(For list of creameries in British Columbia see Appendix H.)
Dairymen's Association.
The affairs of this association demand, as time goes on, more attention and supervision on
the part of the Secretary.
Besides donating prizes at fall fairs for the encouragement of the various phases of dairying,
several contests have been instituted, designed to show the effect of well-disposed effort at
different stages and in different branches of dairy-work.
The membership shows a steady increase from year to year, and an appreciation of the
aims of the association is in evidence throughout the Province.
The association gives a rebate of half transportation charges on dairy cattle and swine
coming into the Province, and also offers prizes at fall fairs for dairy cows and swine, and for
records of performances in dairy cattle.
The association has recently held at Chilliwack the largest convention it has ever had.
Over 300 dairymen were in attendance. Professor Eckles, head of the Department of Animal
Husbandry, Missouri University, gave splendid addresses, as did also Mr. Donald Mclnnes,
of Dungeness, Wash., and Mr. J. W. Langdon, of Sumner, Wash. These two gentlemen are
practical dairymen, who have made a pronounced success out of dairying.
A milk and cream competition was held in connection with this convention, and was of
much value in demonstrating the need for care and cleanliness at all stages of milk production.
Cow-testing (Advanced Registry).
To carry out seven- and thirty-day tests under the Canadian and the American Holstein-
Friesian Associations, testers have been supplied at times during the year to the following:
Sunnycroft Farm, Port Hammond; Colony Farm, Coquitlam ; Dominion Experimental Farm,
Agassiz; J. M. Steves, Steveston; Braefoot Farm, Victoria; W. S. Dickie, Milner.
For the encouragement of this work, the Department of Agriculture contributes, when the
testing is clone for private parties, the transportation expenses of the tester and $1 per day
towards the salary. In this way, during 1913 $258.05 has been expended. The testers employed
were: J. B. Watson, Sardis; W. E. Wiltshire, New Westminster; E. H. Pearson, Sardis; G.
Egerton, Victoria; C. Gravely, Steveston; A. Alderson, Victoria.
Cow-testing Associations.
On January 1st, 1913, the Federal Department, by mutual agreement, placed the Cow-testing
Association work under the control of the Provincial authorities.   As rapidly as possible, we.
4 R 4S
Department of Agriculture.
1915
are organizing Cow-testing Associations on a new basis, and the wisdom of this plan has been
fully demonstrated by the results secured in the associations formed last year.
As given in the Dairy Instructor's report for 1912, the old associations in British Columbia
from which returns for that year were received at Ottawa are as follows:—
Association,
No. or
Patrons.
Tester and Address.
The Islands	
5
6
28
6
3
5
A.  W. Drake,  Ganges,  S.S.I.
V. Syrup, Duncan.
T. A. Wiancko, Sardis.
W. K. McLeod, Chilliwack.
These constituted the centres at which the testing of milk samples was done. With the
system followed, the weighing and sampling of the milk took place on the farms at definite
intervals each month; for instance, on the 10th, 20th, and 30th. The weights obtained were
then entered on the form provided, and brought, together with the samples, to the tester, who
at the conclusion of his work forwarded these forms, with his findings of fat thereon noted, to
the Agricultural Department at Ottawa, where the necessary calculations occurred, and whence
the results were transmitted to the patrons.
Of the associations conducted on the foregoing basis, there remain at this time the
following three:—
Association.
No. of
Patrons.
Tester and Address.
4
6
24
A. W. Drake,  Ganges,  S.S.I.
V. Syrup, Duncan.
Those at Edenbank and Chilliwack have been superseded by one operating under the new
system; the one at Armstrong is defunct.
In order to do away with the reckoning of fat which naturally fell to this office from the
first of the year, and for which the time could be ill-afforded, other arrangements were made.
The calculations involved being simple and of a type in constant usage in creamery practice,
there exists no reason why any competent tester should not complete the work. An extra
allowance of 3 cents per test is therefore being made, the Department continuing to supply all
necessary forms for the work.
The cost for the past season amounts to approximately $132.50 for thirty-four patrons with
170 cows.
I hope before long to be able to report associations of the new type in operation in place
of at least two of these.
Following is a copy of a circular made use of in this work, which describes briefly the type
of institution we are endeavouring to promote:—
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
(Live  Stock Branch).
Cow-Testing Associations.
In any district offering, within reasonable reaching distance, a minimum of 400 cows, the Live
Stock Branch of the Department of Agriculture will assist in instituting and conducting a Cow-
testing Association, to be organized and incorporated under the " Agricultural Associations Act."
The plan to be followed provides that a competent tester, fully equipped, shall proceed from farm
to farm of the members in turn, and, staying overnight, shall weigh, sample, and test the night and
morning's milk of all the cows, and enter the results obtained, with the value of butter-fat computed 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 43
at current rates, in a book which is left with the farmer.    He will also keep account of the food fed
the cows, valuing the same on a basis set by the Directors of the Association for the current period.
He will call nine times each year at each farm when the weighing and recording of the milk of all the
cows is carried out daily, and twelve times each year at all others.
It shall be the duty of each member of the Association:—
(1.)  To provide board and lodging for the tester while engaged in this work at his farm:
(2.)  To convey the tester to his next destination,  the  route being arranged for the convenience of all parties:
(3.)  To  pay  to the  Secretary  of  the Association a yearly membership fee of to
cover cost of chemicals, breakages, etc., and also at the rate of one dollar   ($1)   per
cow per annum, payable at the end of that quarter in which the testing of each cow
commences.
The Live Stock Branch will provide the complete testing outfit and all books, forms, and sheets
necessary for the carrying-out of the work.    It will also find a  competent tester and undertake  to
advance his salary for six months until such time as the Association is in funds.
Members must engage to submit all their cows to the test and to continue in the Association for
two years unless they sell out or .remove from the district.
The first of these was established in Chilliwack Valley in the month of March. Previous
to the organization meeting, Mr. H. Rive, Chief Dairy Instructor, canvassed the district closely,
and spoke on the subject on several occasions. Operations were commenced in May, and, from
all accounts to date, the method is proving itself of value.
Two routes are in operation—viz., the Rosedale and the Sardis-Sumas, recording the
performance and the food cost of some 900 cows. As the work progresses more cows will be
handled, and, though the territory is large enough and the total of cows therein sufficient, no
further routes will be permitted the association till each of the two now in existence have
increased their capacity.
Officers of the Chilliwack Cow-testing Association for 1913: Chas. Hawthorn, President,
Alex. Mercer, G. Hornby, G. H. Raine, A. E. Chadsey, G. Watson, and E. Hawthorne, Secretary-
Treasurer.
The testers secured by the Dairy Division for this work, Messrs. J. B. Watson and W. E.
Wiltshire, are men with good training in official test-work, and possessing also dairy-farm
experience.    So far their work has been decidedly satisfactory.
Up to this time $261.45 has been expended on equipment and supplies. Four complete
outfits were obtained, two of which are now in use at Chilliwack, with two on hand for use
in the spring. We have also on hand from this expenditure a small tester, a quantity of
preservative, and considerable extra glassware.
The salaries of these testers • (advanced monthly by the Department) amount, at $75, to
$1,095.
The total expenditure for cow-testing work under the various heads may be summarized
as below:—
Allowance for official testing (advanced registry)   $258 05
Association tests at 5 and 8 cents (old system)     132 50
Association outfits and supplies (new system)     261 45
Total   $652 00
It has been very gratifying to find that the members of the two associations formed last
spring in the Chilliwack Valley are very enthusiastic and highly pleased with the benefits they
have derived.
The organization of a Cow-testing Association in  the  Coniox District will  be completed
during the present week, and within two or three weeks an association will probably be in
operation in the Langley District.    Cowichan District and the Delta will probably adopt the
new plan in the very near future.
Canadian Record of Performance.
This record has reached a place of importance amongst our breeders of pure-bred dairy
stock. The work is carried on under the supervision of Mr. V. Bojesen, of the Dominion
Service, and is 'being rapidly extended. The British Columbia Dairymen's Association offers,
in recognition of its value, a cup and a silver medal for. the two cows of greatest merit in
each breed class entered in this in British Columbia, completing their records during 1914. R 44 Department op Agriculture. 1915
Dairy Inspection.
The sanitary conditions of our dairies and stables show a gradual improvement, but this
improvement is not as rapid as one would like to see. The farmers of the older sections are
apparently paying more attention to this phase of the dairy industry, and are showing a greater
desire each year to improve in this respect. In the newer sections of the Province the farmer
is often handicapped by lack of capital to put in modern improvements in the stables or dairy,
and it is very difficult sometimes for the Inspector just to know where to draw the line, but
in all cases the Inspectors have insisted that premises and dairy utensils be at least kept clean,
which entails no outlay of money. There are a number of dairymen supplying our cities with
certified milk. These men are probably more advanced in sanitary appliances than the majority
of our dairymen in British Columbia, and have, no doubt, a good moral influence on the balance
of our dairymen.
Dairy Cattle Census.
The Inspectors also endeavoured to secure a census of the purejbred cattle in the Province.
It was found that during this year twelve premises were graded A, 287 graded B, 1,721 graded
C, and 303 graded D. The herds of grades A and D were tested for tuberculosis. The number
of pure-bred sires in use at this time was: Holstein, 161; Ayrshire, 62; Jersey, 90; Guernsey,
37; and other breeds, such as Shorthorns, Red Polls, Herefords, etc., 17. Of pure-bred females
we found: Holstein, 248; Ayrshire, 116; Jersey, 184; Guernsey, 50; and other breeds, 96.
The number of Holsteins does not include the herd at the Colony Farm. Grade sires in use
numbered : Holstein grade, 98; Ayrshire grade, 15; Jersey grade, 68; Guernsey grade, 16; and
other grades, 30.    The number of cows inspected was 15,161.
During the year 1912 the maximum valuation for grade cattle was $100 and for pure-bred
$150, compensation being allowed, as formerly, at the rate of 50 per cent, of the valuation.
Grade Dairy Cattle.
During the year 1913 the Live Stock Branch supervised the importation and sale of over
450 grade dairy cattle. These importations have done much to relieve the shortage of dairy
cows. On the whole, the cattle were of a high standard, and the farmers appreciated this work.
The work was discontinued for the present owing to the difficulty experienced in securing the
right class of stock.
Dairying in General.
The markets for the dairy-farmer in British Columbia are exceedingly good, though, on the
Lower Mainland especially, the city milk trade is marked by an absence of systematic control
and efficient and economical distribution.
The high cost of good dairy cattle and of feedstuffs necessitates more economical production
by the dairy-farmer, whose profits to-day are often sadly reduced by keeping unprofitable cows
and 'by haphazard systems of feeding.
Pure-bred Sires.
For about a year the Live Stock Branch of the Department has been selling pure-bred
bulls, boars, and rams to Farmers' Institutes on easy terms of payment. A number of outlying
districts have taken advantage of this scheme, and pure-bred sires have been placed in some
sections where, in all probability, it would be a long time before they would have been introduced
otherwise. This work is of value not only because of the obvious benefits accruing from it, but
because of the interest in better live stock which has been aroused.
Stallion Enrolment.- All stallions standing for public service within the Province must be
enrolled by the Live Stock Branch. The present law, however, is somewhat inadequate, as no
provision is made for checking up the registry certificates submitted and the stallions to which
they are supposed to belong.
Eradication of Bovine Tuberculosis.
Prior to the year 1909 very little testing was carried out by the Government, and for any
testing carried on previous to that year a charge was made for each animal tested. At the
annual meetings of the British Columbia Stock-breeders' and Dairymen's Associations of 1909 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 45
resolutions were passed by these bodies asking the Government to do all tuberculin testing
free of charge. During that year 1,814 head of cattle were tested, of which 191 reacted. No
compensation whatever was paid for these animals.
During the year 1910, 1,878 head of cattle were tested, of which 110 were reactors. A small
compensation was allowed during this year.
In the year 1911, 3,321 head of cattle were tested and 487 reactors found on 303 premises
visited. The maximum valuation during this year was $75 for grade animals and $125 for purebred, and compensation at the rate of 50 per cent, of the valuation was allowed to owners of
cattle which were slaughtered. I might add that during this year, 1911, 49 herds were tested
at Ladner, containing 409 cattle, 69 of which reacted, showing a percentage of 14.75 per cent.
On Lulu Island 12 herds were tested, with 193 cattle and 40 reactors, equal to 27y2 per cent.
On Sea Island 3 herds were tested, with 50 cattle and 20 reactors, a percentage of 52 per cent.
At Eburne 5 herds were tested, with 36 head and 18 reactors, showing 50 per cent.
The percentage of reactors in these districts this year has been somewhat reduced, as the
Inspectors found, on going over the Ladner District and testing 237 herds with a total of 2,293
head, only 187 reactors, showing a shade over 8 per cent. Lulu Island practically remains the
same as during the year 1911, as the testing then was not completed. For the year 1912, 2,007
head of cattle were tested, with 123 reactors, being a little over 6 per cent.
In January, 1913, acting under instructions from the Department, Dr. A. Knight, Chief
Veterinary Inspector, visited the State Veterinarian, Dr. Sheldon, of Columbia, Missouri, to
look into, with him, the merits of the intradermal test. After spending some few weeks and
seeing several hundred head of cattle submitted to the test, and noting the results, he was
satisfied that the intradermal test was to be relied on as a means of diagnosing latent cases
of tuberculosis.
On his return to British Columbia, he undertook, with our Provincial Inspectors, to submit
a number of herds that had reacted to the subcutaneous test to the intradermal. At the same
time they tested out several herds of cattle that had been repeatedly tested subcutaneously and
no reactions found. Comparing the cattle of the herds that had reacted to the subcutaneous,
they found the results were identical, and the same results were obtained on the herds that
were pronounced free by the subcutaneous.
About April 1st they commenced the compulsory testing of cattle in the Province. Starting
at Saltspring Island and the adjacent islands, they followed the work on Vancouver Island from
Victoria and Saanich as far as Comox north, including Malcolm Island, and Alberni on the
west. From here they moved over to the Mainland, commencing at Ladner and Lulu Island,
and the smaller adjacent islands at the mouth of the Fraser. They had just completed the
latter when orders were received from the Minister to cease testing for the time being. To date
the Inspectors have visited 2,319 premises, and tested for the first time 14,897 cattle, and found
847 reactors. There are about 400 head of cattle that have been retested the second time that
are not included in these figures. These chiefly apply to those herds from which the certified
milk is supplied to the Cities of Vancouver and New Westminster, as well as a few farmers
that make a practice of having their herds tested every six months. Testing by districts or
municipalities is shown in Appendix I.
There are in quarantine at present fifty-three head of reactors. These are held subject to
a retest, and will be disposed of as early as possible.
In so far as the work has gone, they have found the intradermal test to be perfectly
reliable. In no case have the Inspectors had cause to doubt its efficiency as a diagnostic agent
of tuberculosis. It may be stated in this connection that post niortems have been held on fully
95 per cent, of the reactors, and the Inspectors have been able to easily find lesions of tuberculosis. Dealing with this disease in the manner that they have been following, it has afforded
the Inspectors ample opportunity to verify the test by post-mortem results. This, I think, only
strengthens one's faith in the use of tuberculin as a means of detecting tuberculosis.
During the year's work the Inspectors have found very little active opposition in the
compulsory testing. I think I am justified in stating that by far the greater majority of
farmers are in sympathy with this line of work, and evinced a desire to assist, rather than
obstruct, the Inspectors in their work.
Outside the tuberculosis, the stock in the Province was found to be in comparatively good
health.   Attention has been called in a few instances to reported cases of tuberculosis in hogs, R 46
Department op Agriculture.
1915
but, on inspection, the Inspectors found this to be attributable to verminous bronchitis, which
is not listed under our " Contagious Diseases Act," and is principally of a local character.
International Egg-laying Contest.
The Poultry Division of the Live Stock Branch is now conducting the Third International
Egg-laying Contest on the Victoria Exhibition Grounds. During the contest monthly records
were prepared by Mr. J. R. Terry as director, and published. These reports were forwarded
to all Provincial newspapers, and to all of the leading poultry magazines throughout the American Continent, Great Britain, and the Australasian Continent. The final result of the contest
proved that Provincial-grown birds can more than hold their own with any of the contests
conducted on the North American Continent or Great Britain. The results also compare very
favourably with the renowned Australian contest. Whilst the contest was running several
instructive experiments were conducted, and much valuable data has been obtained. This is
to be published in a bulletin entitled " The First Report of the Second International Egg-laying
Contest."
The value of this contest cannot be overestimated. It has emphasized in a forceful manner
the importance of selection and systematic breeding as a means of securing a more profitable
strain of birds, and has brought to the attention of our local breeders the names of those
breeders who have utility flocks of a high standard. It has also called attention to the natural
advantages possessed by many districts of British Columbia for poultry-breeding. Figures
showing results of contest are shown in Appendix J.
Poultry-breeding Stations.
During the year 1913 the Live Stock Branch established five poultry-breeding stations, and
this number has been added to during the present year. The purpose of these stations is to
'urnish settings of eggs from good birds at a reasonable cost. These stations have been located
in districts where there is little or no good poultry. The Department furnishes, in each case,
a pen of birds to a person selected to carry on the work. The eggs are to be sold at a price
agreed upon, and if the work is carried on in a satisfactory manner the person having the birds
In charge is given a premium of $25 at the end of the year.
Taking into consideration that practically all of the breeding-stations were placed out almost
at the end of the natural breeding season, I consider that the results as tabulated below are very
satisfactory, excepting those of Courtenay.
Stations were located in every case in the least accessible parts of the Province. A total
of five breeding-stations were located.
The following table may be noted:—
Station.
Breeder.
Breed.
Total
Sittings sold.
Average
Rainfall.
Mrs. Kvarno
S. Le C. Grant.
G. F. Stalker
Mrs. W. Hogan
H. Elliott
White Wyandotte
Rhode Is. Reds
31
13
10
15
...
Inches.
120.0
Bella Coola	
Old Masset	
54.34
13.58
Totals	
69
Poultry-shows.
The usual list of fall fairs was assigned Mr. Terry for poultry judging, who found a great
improvement in quantity and quality of exhibits. Especially is this the case with water-fowl
in the Okanagan Valley districts.
The Second Annual Show was held at Victoria this year at the same time and place as
the convention. Mr. Terry judged the utility classes and also the dressed poultry and eggs
at this show.    The placing of classes for utility poultry at our local poultry-shows throughout 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 47
the Province is, to my mind, a very valuable feature. The Provincial Association has been the
pioneer in the Dominion (if not on the ximerican Continent) in instituting these classes. It
has been the means of bringing the commercial poultry-breeder and so-called fancier much
closer together—therefore, of benefit to both. As evidence of the popularity of these classes,
I might mention that at the Chilliwack Poultry Association Show no fewer than twenty-eight
pens of birds were entered, practically all of them by poultry-breeders who have very little
interest in exhibition stock. These classes are judged mainly along utilitarian lines. This
will be easily seen when it is mentioned that, out of 500 points allowed, only five points are
given for exhibition qualities.
The arrangements made for cooping the Provincial Show were elaborate and thorough, the
result being that the show was the best ever staged in the Province. For the first time the birds
were single-cooped and coops placed in single tiers. The exhibits, whilst not as numerous as at
the First Show, at Vancouver, were equally as good in quality.
During July the Provincial Association Executive decided to ship such of the members' live
stock as offered to the Edmonton Fall Fair for exhibition purposes. This entailed a great deal
of Secretarial work.
Mr. Terry attended the Edmonton Fair in charge of the exhibit. Whilst there, a great
many copies of the association and Governmental bulletins dealing with the industry were distributed. A great deal of interest was evinced in the stock grown in British Columbia. Out of
sixty-two exhibits taken, no less than thirty-two prizes were won. Before returning, on behalf
of the members, he sold nearly two^thirds of the exhibit to Prairie farmers for breeding purposes.
It is the aim of the Provincial Poultry Association to endeavour to secure a share of the orders
that are at present sent to the east for breeding-stock. Owing to our mild climate, especially
in the Coast districts, we should be and are able to easily capture this trade.
The Annual Convention and Provincial Poultry Show was held at Grand Forks during the
first week in December. Whilst the exhibits did not number as many as at the Second Show,
yet a very creditable showing was made by the Interior breeders. The convention, held at the
same time and place, was the best ever held by the Provincial Association. The meetings were
better attended than any previously, and the lectures were of a thoroughly practical nature.1
At the annual meeting much valuable work was done to advance the industry's progress.
Four-acre Investigation Tracts.
Another feature of our demonstration farm-work has been undertaken for the present year.
This consists in the operation of a 4-acre tract as a miniature farm, on which tests in crop-
rotation and soil-cultivation will be conducted. Five of these tracts have already been located
' in Southern British Columbia, and the same number in that section of the Province which lies
between Hazelton and Fort George. The work in the northern district must of necessity be
largely experimental, and deal to a considerable extent with tests of varieties of various crops.
Mr. Walker, who is in charge in this district, has outlined some excellent work, which should
furnish us with much valuable information by the close of the present year.
Distribution of Alfalfa and Corn.
For the purpose of arousing interest and securing information regarding the growing of
alfalfa and corn in various parts of the Province, 5 lb. each of three varieties of corn and
5 lb. of one variety of alfalfa are being distributed to many farmers throughout the Province.
These farmers agree to furnish a full report or reports as directed. These reports will furnish
the Department with valuable information as to the adaptability of various sections of the
Province for the growing of these two crops and the comparative value of the three varieties
of corn submitted for test. In my opinion, however, the greater value of this work will result
in the introduction of these crops to farmers who may find them of great importance in their
cropping systems.
Seed-grain Distribution.
Many of our farmers have experienced difficulty in securing good seed-grain, and in order
to render assistance the Department this .year undertook to secure high-grade.seed-oats, which
would be supplied to the farmers at cost. Over 2,000 bushels have been ordered for this purpose,
and this seed should materially increase our yield and raise the standard of our oat-crop. These
oats are being supplied by the Canadian Seed-growers' Association. R 48 Department op Agriculture. 191?
Boys' and Girls' Crop Competitions.
As a starting-point in crop competitions for boys and girls, we have inaugurated a potato-
growing competition for the present year among the boys and girls of the Farmers' Institutes.
Contestants must be between the ages of ten and eighteen years. Suitable prizes are offered
in each district, and grand prizes for the boy and girl standing highest in the Province.
I am confident that this contest will accomplish great good. Having watched with interest
similar contests elsewhere, I had become convinced that much good would result from work of
this kind among our boys and girls. Not only does it stimulate an interest in the boys and
girls themselves, but it reaches the older people more effectually than can be done in possibly
any other way. Each parent, and usually each of the relatives, is interested in the success of
the boy or girl, the progress of the competitions will be watched closely, and many object-lessons
will be learned. The father who may be inclined to scoff at up-to-date methods in so far as his
own farm practices are concerned will be only too glad to learn of any new method that may
assist his boy or girl to produce a crop that will win the prize.
Educational Exhibits.
Model silos, poultry buildings, and poultry appliances have been constructed, and are being
used for illustrative purposes. A number of tubercular specimens have been collected and
preserved for demonstration-work. A large number of lantern-slides of an educational nature
have been prepared for use in Farmers' Institute and short-course lectures.
Crop Competitions.
Twenty-one Farmers' Institutes held thirty-one competitions. There were received at this
office 33 entries in wheat, 91 in oats, 209 in potatoes, 1.7 in kale, and 22 in turnips.
Twenty-seven crops of wheat, 67 of oats, 179 of potatoes, 16 of kale, and 16 of turnips were
finally judged. The work of judging competitions was combined with the work of investigation
for the report on " Demonstration Stations and Elementary Agricultural Education." Officials
of the Provincial Horticultural Branch; Mr. P. Keegan, of the Dominion Experimental Farm,
Agassiz; Mr. A. H. Eastham, of the Dominion Seed Branch, Calgary; and Mr. A. B. McKenzie,
of Chilliwack, assisted in completing the work. The total amount of prize-money paid was
$2,325. Of this amount, $465 was paid by the institutes and $1,240 by the Dominion Seed
Division, Ottawa, leaving a balance of $020 to be paid by this Department. The work of
judging, including wages to temporary assistants, cost $457.60, or an average of $14.70 per
competition, making a net total cost of $1,077.60 to this Department for the crop competitions
for 1913.
Circular No. 5, Department of Agriculture, announcing the rules and' regulations for 1914,
as well as particulars regarding the competition for 1913, has been printed and distributed to
the Secretaries of Farmers' Institutes.
I am pleased to be able to report that a good feeling seems to exist toward the crop
competitions, and there are prospects for a large entry next season. A few new regulations
governing the competitions have been introduced for next year, in the hope that some of the
weaknesses of the past competition may be overcome. A prize of $100 is being offered for the
Institute obtaining the largest number of bona-ft.de competitors (not including competitions in
potatoes). A prize-list with a total of $195 is also being offered for a competition, to be judged
in Victoria, between entries from the harvested crops from the plots entered in the field-crop
competitions. These competitions are a phase of the work that I believe can be used with good
effect, provided we can bring our farmers to appreciate their real object.
The appointment of Mr. J. C. Readey as Soil and Crop Instructor was of material assistance
in this respect, a large proportion of his time being devoted to the organization and judging of
these competitions.
Alfalfa Investigation.
During the late fall of 1912, four plots, located respectively at Ganges Harbour, Duncan,
Nanaimo, and Courtenay, were selected. In the spring of 1913 it was thought inadvisable to
seed the plot at Courtenay, the soil not being in satisfactory condition., while the plot at Nanaimo
had to be abandoned on account of the property on which it was situated having been subdivided   5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 49
during the winter. The plots at Duncan aud at Ganges Harbour were seeded. The former
made fairly good growth during the summer, but does not promise well for the winter. The
plot at Ganges Harbour made very poor growth and was ploughed up this fall. During the
summer, plots of 1 acre each were located at Howe Sound, Rose Hill, Nakusp, Burton City,
Edgewood, Rock Creek, and Bridesville. Arrangements are being made for a plot at Alberni.
A good deal of interest is being taken in these plots in the various districts. It is
undoubtedly good work. Our chief difficulty lies in having the work on the plot done properly.
Most of the men in charge have a farm or a business of their own, and these naturally get first
attention, while the plots do not receive the close attention to details that is so vital to the
success of the work.
Associations and Institutes.
The Secretaries of the Stock-breeders', Dairymen's, and Poultry Associations are each
members of the staff of the Live Stock Branch. The work of these associations is growing
rapidly, and, as it practically all falls on the Secretaries, is encroaching to a considerable
extent on their time.
Farmers' Institutes and Fall Fairs.—The members of the staff of the Live Stock Branch,
especially the Live Stock Commissioner, Dairy, Poultry, and Soil and Crop Instructors, have
devoted considerable attention to the work of the Farmers' Institutes and fall fairs.
Publications.—From time to time members of the staff of the Live Stock Branch have
prepared material for bulletins and circulars.
Respectfully submitted.
W. T. McDonald,
Live Stock Commissioner. R 50
Department op Agriculture.
1915
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX A.
Showing the Growth of Institutes since 1897.
Year.
No. of
Institutes
formed.
No. of
Meetings.
Addresses.
Attendance.
Membership,
Cash Balance
at End of
Year.
1897
1898
1S99
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
12
19
20
20
21
24
25
27
27
28
33
41
49
62
77
111
93
144
183
175
225
230
220
226
284
314
248
375
445
25
163
149
3,527
109
2,369
231
4,372
277
6,043
260
5.673
327
7,171
300
5,892
333
7,431
307
6.861
250
8,661
329
9,105
268
7,451
475
7,024
502
11,577
73
528
765
1,031
1,432
1,591
1,969
2,062
2.183
2,481
2,970
3.372
4.120
5,226
6,070
6,901
$   530 09
680 90
772 62
966 78
1,183 61
1411 64
1,630 00
1,787 21
1.581 58
1.836 48
2,148 36
2,372 05
3,478 98
5,941 63
APPENDIX B.
Total Correspondence received and dispatched by Department of Agriculture for the Year
ending December 31st, 1913.
Received.
■ Increase.
Decrease.
Forwarded.
Increase.
Decrease.
1913.
1912.
1913.
1912.
Farmers' Institutes
Women's Institutes
Agricultural
Associations  . ..
Live Stock, general
Dairy  Department
Poultry Depart-
Horticultural  ....
British Columbia
Fruit-growers'
Association ....
Soils and Crops. .
Inspector of Fruit
5,642
1,553
698
551
1,174
745
1,748
1,499
659
271
1,663
7.607
1,439
479
486
177*
597
1,565
1,149
692
1,432
Per Cent.
*8
45
13
563
25
12
30   .
15
Per Cent.
26
5
5,588
1,493
793
742
1,227
764
1,333
2,250
3,073
334
1,550
7,828
1,953
872
719
305
540
1,266
2,903
3,190
1,191
Per Cent.
3
41
5
30
Per   Cent.
28
23
9
22
4
Totals   . .
16.203
15,623
3.7
19.147
20.767
8
' No Live Stock Commissioner appointed in 1912 ; coi'respondence attended to under " General." 5 Geo. 5
Eighth Report.
R 51
Circular letters forwarded—
General    19,386
Horticultural    4,075
Live Stock    8,687
Total     32,148
APPENDIX C.
Short-course Work, 1913, under the Direction of the Horticultural Branch.
Date.
Place.
No.  of
Meetings.
No. of
Lectures
and Demonstrations.
Attendance.
Jan.
Feb.
13...
13...
14...
14...
15...
17...
17...
18...
20...
20...
21...
21...
22,23
22...
23...
24...
24...
27,28
29...
29...
3...
3...
4...
5...
5...
6...
7...
8...
10...
10,11
11,12
11...
12,13
13,14
14,15
17,18
17,18
17...
19...
19...
19,20
20,21
21...
21,22
24...
24...
25...
24...
24...
Royal Oak	
Metchosin 	
Shawnigan  Lake   .
Ganges Harbour . .
Cobble Hill  	
Duncan   	
Wellington    	
Ladysmith   	
Pitt Meadows  ....
Strawberry Hill  . .
Hammond	
Cloverdale   	
Mission	
Langley	
Mount Lehman . ..
Agassiz  	
Giff ord	
Sardis	
Chilliwack   	
Aldergrove  	
Walhachin   	
Heffley Creek	
Louis Creek	
Martin's Prairie  . .
Chinook Cove  ....
Mount Olie   	
Celista*    	
Blind Bay  	
Tappen  	
Salmon Arm   	
Armstrong   	
Hullcar	
Okanagan Lake . ..
Woods Lake   	
Coldstream	
Benvoulin 	
K.L.O. Bench   	
Okanagan Mission
Ellison   	
Glenmore   	
Rutland   	
Penticton   	
Westbank	
Peachland	
Naramata	
Summerland	
West Summerland
Brouse   . . .	
Nakusp  	
6
3
6
3*
6
6
6
6
5
3
6
5
11
5
5
5
3
12
5
6
5
6
6
5
6
6
25
19
22
16
24
35
64
75
27
30
40
84
66
59
22
34
18
86
57
85
64
51
50
53
37
46
'32
65
67
76
33
77
28
65
40
80
47
60
42
142
80
29
65
50
55
75
24
31
Carried forward
103
2,452
' Circumstances would not allow of a meeting here. R 52
Department op Agriculture.
1915
Short-course Work—Concluded.
Date.
Feb. 26. ..
„ 27...
„' 27...
„ 28...
., 27. ..
„ 28...
„ 28...
March 1. ..
„       3...
3...
4...
3...
4...
5...
5...
6...
6...
5...
7...
7...
7...
7...
„ 10, 11
„ 11...
„ 13...
„     14...
„     26..
„     27..
„     29..
„ 31..
April 30..
May      7..
Place.
Brought  forward
Burton   	
East Arrow Park	
Arrow Park	
New Denver   	
Keremeos  	
Sidley	
Bridesville   	
Grand Forks	
Greenwood	
Robson   	
Rock Creek  	
Crawford Bay	
Procter	
Kaslo   	
Boswell    	
Queen's Bay  	
Nelson	
Columbia Gardens  	
Trail	
Rossland	
Slocan City	
Perry Siding	
Creston	
Cranbrook   	
Edgewood	
Needles	
Additional Short Courses.
South Slocan	
Nelson   	
Columbia Gardens  	
Fruitvale   	
Heriot Bay  	
Courtenay    	
Totals
No.   of
Meetings.
103
2
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
151
No. of
Lectures
and Demonstrations.
374
Attendance.
2.452
109
25
36
36
70
18
18
35
45
30
32
109
67
43
25
20
30
40
30
35
182
17
42
220
63
40
15
50
59
20
4.07E
Average attendance, 27.
APPENDIX D.
Expenditure in Aid of Women's Institutes, Year ending December 31st, 1913.
1913.
Average Cost
per
Institute  (35
Institutes).
1912.
Average Cost
per
Institute   (29
Institutes).
$789 40
857 50
440 75
480 00
611 70
269 30
112 35
245 75
367 95
$22 56
24 50
12 60
13 72
17 48
7 70
3 21
7 02
10 51
$   635 30
496 00
1,876 85
680 00
332 41
240 00
25 20
$21 90
17 10
64 72
Per capita grant for membership  	
Salary of Secretary, Advisory Board	
Expenses of members, Advisory Board ....
Miscellaneous,    Conference,     subscriptions,
23 45
11 46
8 27
87
Totals   	
$4,174 70
$119 27
$4,285 76
$147 78 5 Geo. 5
Eighth Report.
R 53
APPENDIX E.
The " Agricultural Instruction Act."
Grant to Province of British Columbia for Fiscal Year ending March 31st, 191Jt.
(1.)  Towards  the  conducting  of  short  courses  in  domestic  science,  hygiene,
sanitation,  home-nursing,  dressmaking,  cooking,  etc., in  connection  with
Women's Institutes     $ 2,500 00
(2.)  Winter short courses of two weeks' duration in the different phases of
agriculture, to be held in connection with Farmers' Institutes throughout
the Province   ,       5,000 00
(3.)  Demonstration farm-work in the growing of fodder, soiling crops, roots,
grains,  etc       7,500 00
(4.)  Demonstration dairy-farm work         5,000 00
(5.)  Demonstration-work in horticulture          5,000 00
(6.)  Cow-testing Association work         2,500 00
(7.)  Towards appointment of Provincial Instructors or Inspectors along various
lines of agricultural instruction and education         7,500 00
(8.)  School gardens, towards the cost of supplying seeds, giving instruction, etc.      1,000 00
(9.)  Demonstration  field-work          2,500 00
(10.)  Towards holding stock-judging competitions        1,000 00
(11.)  Towards holding fruit-packing competitions         3,000 00
(12.)  Towards   cost   of   prepaying   and   printing   bulletins   and   circulars   or
instruction          2,500 00
(13.)  Miscellaneous, contingencies connected with the successful carrying-on of
any of the above lines of expenditure        4,334 76
Total      $47,334 76
APPENDIX F.
Loans to Co-operative Associations.
Name.
Amount of Loan.
1904
Nov.
22, 1904
1906
1910
Aug.
19,1913
19, 1913
20, 1913
26,1913
26,1913
26,1913
27,1913
Comox Creamery Association  	
Abbotsford Co-operative Creamery Co.,  Ltd.
Okanagan Creamery Association, Ltd	
White Valley Creamery Association	
Cowichan Creamery Association	
Vernon Fruit Union   	
Armstrong Growers' Association	
Salmon Arm Farmers' Exchange	
Summerland Fruit Union  	
Penticton Fruit-growers' Union 	
Kelowna Growers' Exchange	
Peachland Fruit-growers' Union  	
Total   	
$
1.500 00
400 00
1,000 00
2,000 00
2,000 00
40,000 00
28,000 00
20,000 00
8,000 00
6,000 00
50,000 00
3.200 00
$162,100 00 R 54 Department op Agriculture. 1915
APPENDIX G.
List of Provincial Police acting as Agents for Department of Agriculture i.n connection
with " Noxious Weeds Act," Year 1913.
Divisions.
Boundary District—
Chief Constable        1
Constables         8
Cariboo District—
Chief Constable        1
Constable  .'       1
Hazelton District—
Chief Constable        1
Constables        5
Kamloops District—
Chief Constable        1
Constables        5
Nanaimo District—
Chief Constable       1
Constables        3
Skeena-Atlin District—
Chief Constable       1
Constables     10
Tete Jaune Cache District—
Chief Constable        1
Vancouver District—
Chief Constable       1
Constables        9
Vernon District—
Chief Constable        1
Constables        4
Kootenay North-East District—
Chief Constable        1
Constables        5
Kootenay South-East District—
Chief Constable        1
Constables     12
Kootenay West District—
Chief Constable        1
Constables        8
Lillooet District—
Chief Constable        1
Constables        5
'  West Coast District, V.I.—
Chief Constable        1
Constables         3
Yale District—
Chief Constable        1
Constables        7
Victoria District—
Constables         2
Fort St. John District—
Constable        1
Total    103 5 Geo. 5
Eighth Report.
R 55
List of Fire Guards in Employ of Forest Branch who were appointed Agents in connection
with the ',' Noxious Weeds Act," Season 191.3.
Divisions.                                                      Fire Guards.
Cranbrook, including Upper Columbia Valley, Waneta, and Creston   23
Fort George, including Quesnel and Fraser River south to Soda Creek .... 21
Hazelton, including Babine Lake, Kispiox, Kitsumgallum, and Bulkley Valley 15
Vancouver Island    24
Kamloops, including North Thompson   9
Lillooet  7
Nelson, including Arrow, Slocan, and Kootenay Lakes   21
Prince Rupert, including Atlin, Stewart, Bella Coola, and Graham Island 8
Vancouver, including Fraser Valley east to Chilliwack, Howe Sound, Gulf
Islands, and Coast north to Lund   27
Vernon Division,   including  Okanagan  Valley  to  Penticton,  and  east  to
Lumby, also Similkameen and Nicola Valleys   11
Tete Jamie Cache Division    10
Total    176
APPENDIX H.
List of Creameries in British Columbia.
Name.
Secretary or Manager.
P.O. Address.
Abbotsford Creamery Association  	
Chilliwack Creamery Association   	
City Dairy and Produce Co	
Comox Creamery Association	
Cowichan Creamery Association  	
Crystal Dairy  Co	
David Spencer, Ltd	
Edenbank Creamery Association, Ltd.   ..
Nanaimo Creamery Association  	
New Westminster Creamery Association
Northwestern   Creamery   	
Okanagan Valley Creamery  	
P. Burns & Co	
Richmond Dairy Co., Ltd	
Royal Dairy Co	
Royal Dairy Co	
Saltspring Creamery Association   	
Standard Milk Co., Ltd	
Vancouver  Creamery   	
Condensers.
B.C. Condensing Co	
Homogenizing Plant.
Laurentia Milk Co	
S. J. Bates  	
W. K. McLeod  	
H. E. Almond	
R. U. Hurford	
W. Paterson   	
M.  Hanks   	
W. S. Smith  	
J. H. Suart	
Jos. Randle  	
D. E.  Mackenzie   . .
Norton & Snelling. .
A. Slater  	
W. Moore   	
E. Sherwood  	
A. McAllister   	
A. E. Young  	
A. E. Drake  	
P. Clark 	
J. M. Livingstone . .
R. Payne
'£. B. Millar
Abbotsford.
Chilliwack.
Vancouver.
Courtenay.
Duncan.
New Westminster.
Vancouver.
Sardis and Vancouver.
Nanaimo.
New Westminster.
Victoria.
Armstrong.
Vancouver.
Vancouver.
Victoria.
Vancouver.
Ganges, S.S.I.
Vancouver.
Vancouver.
New Westminster and Sardis.
Clayburn. R 56
Department op Agriculture.
1915
APPENDIX I.
Cattle-testing by Districts or Municipalities.
On Saltspring Island   	
On Mayne Island   	
On Pender Island   	
Victoria and Saanich   	
Metchosin 	
Cobble Hill  	
Cowichan  	
Chemainus and Ladysmith
Nanaimo   	
Alberni    	
Comox	
Malcolm   Island   	
Denman  Island   	
Hornby  Island	
Ladner   	
Lulu Island and Sea Island
South Vancouver  	
Premises
tested.
99
12
9
547
128
39
216
153
269
65
173
32
22
12
237
58
103
Total Cattle.
Reactors.
.     455
None.
67
38
.,
2,797
178
510
4
270
2
1.357
49
1,053
20
1,382
83
338
None.
1.535
6
60
None.
125
56
2,293
187
495
111
166
14
The following have been tested in the several districts:—■
New Westminster   .
Cloverdale   	
Port  Hammond   . . .
Matsqui   	
Langley   	
Huntingdon   	
Chilliwack   	
Agassiz  	
Kamloops	
Salmon Arm   	
Rossland  (complete)
Premises
tested.
24
3
4
2
2
2
40
6
1
3
52
Total Cattle.
315
21
88
56
10
77
960
15
2
82
223
Reactors.
19
None.
18
6
None.
5
88
5
None.
5
23
APPENDIX J.
The following tables show results of Egg-laying Contest:
Contest Comparisons.
Number
of Birds.
Total   Eggs
laid.
Value of Eggs
laid.
Duration of
Contest.
Average Cost of
Feed per Pen.
234
240
25,387
34,977
$   869 18
1,020 17
12 months
10 months
$9 79
(12 months.)
$9 42
(10 months.) 5 Geo. 5 Eighth Report. R 57
Summary of Results, 1913.
Duration of contest (months)     10
Number of pens   40
Number of birds     240
Total number of eggs laid    34,977
Total value of eggs laid   $1,020.17
Total cost of feeding    $376.94
Profit over cost of feeding   $643.22
Average market price of eggs per dozen   .35
Average number of eggs laid per pen   874.4
Average number of eggs laid per bird  145.7
Average cost of food per pen (six birds)     $9.42
Average cost of food per bird   $1.57
Profit over cost of food per pen   $16.08
Profit over cost of food per bird   $2.68
Eggs laid by winning pen, Class 1  1,132
Average per bird, winning pen    188.6
Eggs laid by winning pen, Class 2   1,078
Average per bird, winning pen   179.6   i "A     :.mvi* ■•"*Sf« NINTH REPORT, 1914.
ANNUAL REPORT  OF  THE  DEPARTMENT  OF  AGRICULTURE.
By W. E. Scott, Esq., Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
Victoria, B.C., January 23rd, 1915.
Hon. Price Ellison,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report on agricultural conditions and the
work of the Department of Agriculture for the past year.
Agricultural Conditions.
The past year has in the main been a satisfactory one to the farmers as regards crops, but
prices have ruled considerably lower than last year, especially with fruits, vegetables, and
poultry products.
The season was a favourable one for crop-growth, the spring being fine, with a sufficient
amount of rainfall for the growth of crops.    The summer, however, was very dry, resulting
"in a crop, light, but of good quality, of roots and potatoes.
It is satisfactory to note that there is a general increase and renewed interest in agriculture,
as is plainly evidenced by the largely increased demand on the Department for expert advice,
information, bulletins, circulars, etc., on the different phases of farming. This is especially
noticeable in live-stock matters, more especially in poultry and dairying.
In the fruit districts there is a strong tendency at the present time to develop more on
mixed-farming lines than on those of specialized fruit-growing. The cessation of real-estate
activities is having a good effect, and tending towards the settlement and development of our
vacant lands, and towards more genuine farming, and therefore increased production. The large
sales of Government stumping-powder show that steady progress is being made in land-clearing.
The increase in agricultural production is shown by carefully collected statistics, which
show an increase of nearly $5,000,000 for 1914 over 1913, the figures being as follows:—
1913—Agricultural production    $24,851,599
1914—Agricultural production     29,815,274
The present disastrous war, coming on top of the financial stringency caused by the period
of inflated values and real-estate speculation through which we have just passed, has naturally
affected the farmer, as well as every one else. The farmer is, however, in comparison with
other people, in an enviable position. Owing to the war, involving, as it will, the depletion of
the food-supplies of Europe, there will be an increased demand for the products of the farm,
especially so in grains, meats, etc., and those farmers who can grow and supply these commodities
will largely benefit.
Great Britain and the other warring countries of Europe will naturally look to Canada for
a large amount of these necessary foodstuffs, and the Canadian farmer should prepare to take
advantage of this state of affairs, and also to do his share for the Empire.
Agricultural prospects, therefore, for the present year are good, and we may look forward
to an added stimulus being given to agriculture in this Province, and generally throughout
Canada. It appears to me that now is the time for the Provincial Government to adopt a line
of policy which will help and facilitate settlement of our lands, and thereby increase our
agricultural production.
The report of the Royal Commission on Agriculture, which made an exhaustive and
complete investigation of agricultural conditions, contains many valuable recommendations,
which, if acted upon, will give a great impetus to agriculture.
I would briefly refer to three of these recommendations, which appear to me to be the
most important:—
Farm Credit.—There are many good farmers in this Province who would be only too glad
to increase their production could they find the money to do so at a reasonable rate of interest. R 60 Department op Agriculture. 1915
As it is now, it is almost an impossibility for the farmer to get financial assistance in this
direction, except on short-term loans and at a high rate of interest. That a policy of farm
credit on proper business lines is a sound one has been clearly proved by different countries
in the world which have adopted such a policy.
Take New Zealand as an example. It has worked out well there. The Government have
made practically no losses, but, on the other hand, saved out of the 1 per cent, which they
charge for operating expenses. In New Zealand all loans are made through a commission of
expert men who investigate each application, and report to the Government whether loan
should be made or not.
I see no reason why a similar line of policy should not work out well in this country.
We have, it is true, different conditions, but we can frame our Act to suit these conditions.
No Government can be expected to do work which it is the duty of the farmer to do himself,
but it is a legitimate policy to loan money to farmers to do this work, provided this money is
loaned on strictly business lines and with ample security.
It is my opinion that if our Provincial Government bring legislation into effect whereby
the farmer, on good security, can secure long-term loans at a low rate of interest for certain
specific purposes, agriculture in this Province will increase by leaps and bounds.
Land-clearing.—The great difficulty with which the settler who wishes to farm in this
Province has to contend is undoubtedly that of clearing his land. Assistance towards land-
clearing might be undertaken by supplying good effective stumping outfits, of which there are
many in existence at the present time, to groups of farmers, to be paid for in annual instalments,
spread over a number of years. The average farmer cannot afford to buy an expensive outfit
and pay for it at once, but if he had, say, ten years in which he could pay for it, many would
undoubtedly be bought and land-clearing would be very much encouraged.
The cheapest form of land-clearing for the average farmer undoubtedly is by means of a
good hand outfit in conjunction with stumping-powder. Too many of our farmers, however,
waste powder through not knowing how to use it efficiently and economically. Economic land-
clearing would undoubtedly be helped by sending thoroughly trained experts amongst the
farmers to demonstrate how to use powder to the best advantage, and how to use the hand
outfits in conjunction with the powder. Educative work of this nature could not fail to have
good results.
Commercial and Markets Branch of the Department.—The farmer in British Columbia can
produce the goods all right. Where he falls down is in the marketing of them. Economic and
efficient marketing can only be accomplished by proper co-operative effort. The inauguration
of a branch of the Department of Agriculture to be called " Commercial and Markets Branch,"
presided over by a thoroughly competent man, whose duty it would be to work along the lines
of encouraging co-operation in marketing produce, and who would be constantly amongst the
farmers, educating them in this respect, would materially help producers to secure the prices
for their produce to which they are justly entitled, and which they are not at present obtaining
through lack of well-directed co-operative efforts.
I look upon these three recommendations of the Royal Commission as three of the most
important, and ones on which action should be taken by the Provincial Government.
Report on Crops.
Hay.—The hay yield on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland has been excellent and*
of good quality. The entire hay-crop has been harvested in good condition. In the irrigated
districts of the Interior crops have been good, but where irrigation was not practised crops were
light owing to the exceptionally dry summer which we had last year. Taken all round, however,
the hay-crop, both in point of view of yield and quality, has been excellent.
Grains.—On Vancouver Island the grain-crop was an average one; on the Lower Mainland
good. All grain-crops have been harvested in excellent condition. In the Interior parts of the
Province the crop has been a good one where irrigation is available, but lighter where grown
under dry-farming methods. The quality, however, of the grain has been all that could be
desired.
Fodder-crops.—It is very encouraging to note that farmers are turning their attention more
and more to the growing of fodder-crops, such as alfalfa, corn, thousand-headed kale, etc. The
increase in acreage in alfalfa has been very marked, largely owing to the efforts of the Depart- 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 61
ment by supplying samples of seed free of cost to farmers, in order to encourage them to grow
this valuable crop. Through experimental and demonstration work undertaken by the Department, it has now been conclusively proved that the right varieties of fodder-corn can be grown
in most of the settled districts of the Province. Some very fine crops were secured during the
past year from seed sent out by the Department, and, as a consequence, many farmers are
erecting silos to put up this valuable food for feeding to dairy cows.
Root-crops.—Field-roots, owing to the exceptionally dry summer, have been generally light
throughout the Province, but of good quality. The same remarks apply to potatoes. The
acreage in potatoes planted this year was about the same as last year, but the commercial
yield was probably 40 per cent, lower than in 1913. The quality of the tubers on the Lower
Mainland, where a big proportion of the potato-crop of the Province is grown, was excellent
this year, the dry summer suiting their conditions admirably.
Tree-fruits.—The fruit-crop throughout the Province was the heaviest there has been for
a number of years, and the quality was exceptionally good. Trees came through the winter in
excellent condition, there being practically no winter killing. Owing to the financial depression
and war conditions, prices received by growers for their fruit were most unsatisfactory, and
barely sufficient to pay them for the cost of producing. This was to be expected, with the
abnormal conditions which prevail at the present time.
Though the prices received by the fruit-growers for their fruit were low, they were infinitely
better than the prices received by our competitive fruit-growers in the States to the south of us.
The average price for No. 1 apples in this Province was about 80 cents a box, whilst the price
in Oregon and Washington did not average more than 60 cents per box. Whilst, therefore, the
fruit-grower has had a hard year, and one of practically no profit, he can congratulate himself
that he has done far better than the American fruit-grower, who is in competition with him in
our home market and those of the North-west Provinces.
Small Fruits.—The crop of small fruits was uniformly good, the strawberry-crop on Vancouver Island being excellent, though some growers suffered from drought. Prices, whilst not
high, were sufficient to give a fair return on the money invested, and progressive and up-to-date
strawberry-growers made money this year.
The crop of small fruits was also a good one on the Lower Mainland. There is not a great
quantity of small fruit grown in the Interior districts of the Province, with the exception of
Creston. At this point there was a good crop, and prices received by growers were fairly
satisfactory.
Stock-raising.
Horses.—There has been a decided drug in the market for horses, and consequently this
line of stock-raising has not been much exploited by the stockbreeders of the Province. The
present war will undoubtedly tend towards encouraging the breeding of horses. Many are now
being secured by the Imperial Government throughout Canada for war purposes, and it is likely
that before the war is ended there will be a good active demand for most classes of horses.
Cattle-raising.—There is very little stall feeding done in this Province. Small herds of
beef cattle are kept by some of the farmers in the Lower Mainland. The districts in which
cattle-raising is practised extensively are as follows: Chilcotin, Lillooet, Thompson Valley,
Nicola, Boundary, and parts of East Kootenay. While the number of range cattle shows a
slight decrease in districts where subdivision of range lands by pre-emptors and others has
occurred, there has been an increase as a whole. Beef cattle have decreased in price somewhat
during the past few months, but this decrease will be only temporary. With the large demand
for meats of all kinds in Europe, it is certain that the price of cattle will in the near future
materially advance.
Dairying.—It gives me pleasure to have to report that there is a very satisfactory increase
in dairying generally throughout the Province, but more especially on Vancouver Island,
adjacent Gulf Islands, and the Lower Mainland.
In these districts herds of the different breeds of dairy cattle are seen which are a credit
to any country. More particularly on the Lower Mainland has improvement of breed been
noticeable. A prominent judge from Eastern Canada stated at the Vancouver Exhibition that
he had never seen a finer lot of dairy cattle shown at any exhibition in Canada. Coming from
a competent judge, this is very satisfactory. R 62 Department op Agriculture. 1915
It is also pleasing to note that a renewed interest in dairying is being shown in the Interior
districts of the Province. In the Okanagan Valley very many good dairy cattle have been
acquired by settlers, and there is a general tendency amongst the fruit-growers of the Interior
to engage in mixed farming, and to keep enough stock on their places to supply their own
wants.
Poultry-raising.—The satisfactory increase in poultry-raising which I reported in my last
annual report has been well maintained during the past year. The earlier part of the year
was satisfactory for the poultry-raiser, but since the war, resulting in poultry-feeds advancing
nearly 40 per cent, in price, many poultrymen have rushed their stock on the market, with a
consequent lowering of prices, and dressed poultry have been lower in price since the war
commenced than they have been for many 'years. This, however, is only a temporary state
of affairs.
This depletion of poultry stock must necessarily mean higher prices during the present
year. Many poultrymen say that it is impossible, with present prices of grain, to make a living
out of poultry-raising, but those who grow their own feed as much as possible are attaining
good results, even with present prices.
Bee-keeping.—Largely owing to the good educative work carried out by our Bee Instructors
during the past few years, this side-line of farming has progressed in a very satisfactory manner.
The past year was a very good one for honey-flow, and the total honey-crop is estimated at
nearly 600 per cent, greater than the amount produced last year.
Our Foul-brood Inspector, Mr. Todd, reports that the amount of honey produced in the
Province last year is just about sufficient for Provincial consumption, and that he anticipates
that in a few years' time British Columbia will be exporting largely.
I regret to have to state that late in the season an outbreak of foul-brood was discovered
in the Lower Mainland, not far from the City of Vancouver. It will be necessary that a very
close inspection be made in the early spring of the districts in which this outbreak occurred.
We have been congratulating ourselves that so far we have escaped a visitation of foul-brood,
but it has now got into the Province, and the most heroic measures should be taken to stamp
it out before it gets a firm foothold.
Hog-raisvng.—With the increase in dairying, there has been a consequent increase in hog-
raising. A great improvement in the quality of hogs kept at the present time is noticeable.
The old razor-back is giving place to the pure-bred hog, with consequently increased profits to
the farmer.
Farmers' Institutes.
As Superintendent, I am pleased to report that this most important movement has had a
very successful year. There has been exceptional activity in institute-work. The increase in
membership is satisfactory. Farmers generally throughout the Province are realizing the many
benefits which they may gain by becoming members of an institute.
The short-course work taken up In connection with institutes has proved very popular, and
the attendance and interest shown were very good. Field-crop competitions have also proved
very popular, also our boys' and girls' crop competitions inaugurated during the past year.
The securing of stumping-powder at institute prices is one of the principal advantages accruing
to members of an institute. Owing to the general depression throughout the Province during
the past year, land-clearing operations of members of institutes have slackened to a certain
extent, and there has been consequent reduction in the powder supplied through arrangement
with the Department.
The distribution of departmental literature to members of institutes is also very much
appreciated.
Pure-bred Sires supplied to Farmers' Institutes.—The scheme outlined by the Department
in 1913, giving institutes the privilege of securing pure-bred stock selected by the Department
for the use of members, has not been taken advantage of by institutes to the extent that was
at first anticipated. This is probably owing to the fact that the Federal Government are
offering to supply pure-bred stock free of charge to recognized bodies of farmers throughout
the Dominion.
The weak point of the.Dominion regulations in this respect appears to me to be that
there is a limit put on the price that the Federal Government will pay for pure-bred sires; 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 63
consequently   a   number   of   the   institutes   have   preferred   to   get   their   sires   through   this
Department.    (For further details regarding Farmers' Institutes see Secretary's report.)
Women's Institutes.
The record has been broken during the past year in Women's Institute work. Membership
shows a material increase over the preceding year.
The short-course work undertaken during 1913 in cookery and sewing has been very much
appreciated by Women's Institutes, the ladies selected for this work having given the best of
satisfaction. Every institute in the Province by the end of March will have received two short
courses, of a fortnight each, in cookery and sewing.
The growth of this movement is so rapid that I would respectfully submit that the time
has arrived when a Superintendent of Women's Institutes should be appointed. To carry out
women's work to the best advantage it is necessary that a capable woman direct the work.
Such an appointment would do away with the necessity of an Advisory Board.
The Superintendent of Women's Institutes would be able to devote all her time to furthering
the work of Women's Institutes, and it is my opinion that it would result in a general improvement in Women's Institute work.    (For further details see Secretary's report.)
Agricultural Associations.
Owing to disturbed financial conditions, followed by the war, it was decided by many of
the fairs to cancel their dates. The Dominion Exhibition, which was to have been held in
Victoria, was cancelled, and also the New Westminster Exhibition. The Board of Management
of the Vancouver Exhibition, however, decided to hold their fair.
About 50 per cent, of the country fairs decided that it would be advisable not to hold their
fairs. The others who held fairs had as a rule fairly good attendances, and most of them did
not result in a financial loss.
Owing to the cancellation of many of the fairs, a large saving was effected in the appropriation given in aid of Agricultural Associations.    (For details see Secretary's report.)
Board of Horticulture.
Two meetings of the Board of Horticulture were held during the year, both at Victoria,
on January 16th and on July 8th and 9th respectively. The chief business taken up at these
meetings was the control of fire-blight in the Interior districts of the Province, and the outbreak
of codling-moth infestation at Kelowna and Armstrong.
An important subject discussed at these meetings was the inspection of fruit-cars. An
Order in Council in connection with this was passed by the Lieutenant-Governor on August 5th,
and the Inspector of Fruit Pests has since then been arranging to have cars bringing American
fruit into this Province properly disinfected.
It is a difficult matter to carry out this work efficiently and in its entirety, but it is a most
important matter that it should be done. The outbreaks of codling-moth in the different districts
can be directly traced to infected cars.
Statistics.
In the year 1913 the Province was thoroughly covered by enumerators appointed by the
Department, who collected statistics as to agricultural production, acreage in crops, live stock,
etc., in a thorough and comprehensive manner. The. figures thus collected should be as reliable
as it is possible to get them, and. the bulletin recently issued by the Department is a very
valuable one, and can be taken as accurate.
Mr. W. H. Cartwright, who was sent out by the Department nearly two years ago to
make an agricultural report on the Peace River country, returned in November, and has now
completed his report. This report is a very valuable one, and furnishes us with accurate
information concerning the agricultural possibilities of these northern lands. An excellent
series of photographs has been secured by Mr. Cartwright, and with these included in the
report any one will be able to have a very good idea as to the nature of the country and the
prospects for agricultural development in the Peace River country. R 64 Department op Agriculture. 1915
Horticultural Branch.
The work of the Horticultural Branch of the Department has materially grown during the
past year. Mr. R. M. Winslow, Provincial Horticulturist, has developed new lines of work,
all of them of great value to the fruit and vegetable grower. There has been a considerable
increase in practical demonstration-work, especially in pruning-schools. Experimental work
with varieties and on cultural practices in both fruit and vegetables has been largely featured
during the past year. This has been made possible by having the Federal grant, out of which
we can take the necessary money to pay for the work.
Packing-schools have proved valuable to fruit-growers. I was informed by several wholesalers in the Prairie Provinces that the grade and pack of the British Columbia fruit sent in
to their markets was equal, if not superior, to the best American. This state of affairs has
been largely brought about by our fruit-packing schools.
Pruning-schools have proved extremely popular, but, owing to the demand for them this
year, it is doubtful whether the Department, with the present staff, will be able to meet all
requests.
The judging at fairs and flower-shows has brought many letters to me, expressing
appreciation of the work of the officials of the Horticultural Branch as judges.
Careful Handling, Precooling, and Cold-storage Investigations.—The result of our
investigation-work in this connection proves conclusively that thousands of dollars are being
lost every year to the growers in the Okanagan by improper handling of fruit prior to shipment,
and by sending soft fruits to the market not in proper condition. Our precooling experiments
have proved conclusively that it is necessary to precool many of the soft fruits if they are to
arrive at their destination in good condition.
Our precooling plant at Summerland has given excellent satisfaction. Experimental and
investigation work in strawberry and raspberry shipments was also done on the Lower Mainland
and Vancouver Island.
Cold-storage Experiments with Apples.—Extensive experiments in apple cold storage were
again undertaken last year, and very valuable information has been secured as a result of this
work. Whilst it is too early to announce to the public conclusive results as to our experimental
work, we have conclusively proved that the commercial season of our principal varieties can be
very much extended by proper cold storage.
Onion Storage.—Interesting experiments are also being conducted with onion storage in the
Okanagan Valley, with a view to improved market distribution.
Advertising.—The Markets Commissioner did effective advertising-work in the North-west
Provinces, through advertising in leading papers arid conducting " Apple Weeks," urging our
fruit on the public. The result of this work was plainly evidenced in the largely increased
demand for British Columbia fruit in the Prairie Provinces. Very little American fruit was
marketed in Alberta during the past year. The disposition of the public in the Prairie
Provinces is favourable towards British Columbia fruit, and, provided they can secure it at
a favourable price, they will always take It in preference to the American fruit.
Amongst other activities of this Branch of the Department may be mentioned the distribution of experimental trees, demonstration plots in Northern British Columbia, by-products
investigation-work, general demonstration-work in summer and winter pruning, spraying, blight-
control, packing and grading, etc.; experimental work in cultural practices, showing the value of
fertilizers for various vegetables, etc. A series of potato-blight spray experiments were made at
four Lower Mainland points.    Variety tests in celery at Chilliwack have also been carried on.
In concluding my report on the work of the Horticultural Branch, I would like to express
my appreciation of the very efficient work which is being carried on under Mr. Winslow. Mr.
Winslow has shown good executive and organization abilities, and work such as he has successfully carried out during the past year should do a great deal to advance the interests of the
fruit-growers of the Province.    (For further details see Mr. Winslow's report.)
Fruit Inspection Branch.
Owing to the regrettable illness of Mr. Thomas Cunningham, Inspector of Fruit Pests, I
have not had my usual annual report from him, but Mr. W. H. Lyne, Assistant Fruit Inspector,
has furnished me with a resume of the work of this Branch of the Department.  t 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 65
Fire-blight.—It was very apparent in the early spring that we were going to have a
recurrence of fire-blight in the districts of the Province in which it was in evidence the
preceding year.    Immediate steps were taken to efficiently deal with the question.
The fire-blight this year did not affect the fruit-crop to any very great extent. The outbreak
was not as serious as the preceding year, due, no doubt, to the energetic measures taken during
1913 to combat it.
In every instance where there was a serious infestation it was in orchards where the
owners, through carelessness or indifference, had not taken proper effective measures to cut
out the disease when it appeared. The growers, on the whole, worked in hearty co-operation
with the Department towards the suppression of the disease, but there were some instances
where growers would not follow the instructions given by the Department.
The question of fire-blight in the Okanagan Valley is a very serious one, and unless public
sentiment is aroused in the matter, and the careless and indifferent man is not allowed to
become a menace to his more progressive neighbour, we may always expect to have the disease
with us.
By united action amongst growers the disease may be effectively controlled, if not totally
eradicated. A winter campaign of cutting out hold-over cankers has been undertaken, and it
is to be hoped that the present year will show a further mitigation of this serious disease.
Owing to the necessity for economy in the expenditure of Provincial funds, the number of
men employed on blight-control work in the Okanagan was reduced to four. It is my opinion
that during the past few years we have done sufficient educative work amongst the growers to
show them how to handle the fire-blight question.
The control of fire-blight is a question for the fruit-growers themselves to handle, and our
Department should not be called upon to do any other than educative work.
Codling-moth.—It is satisfactory to have to report that the outbreak of codling-moth which
occurred in 1913 has been to all intents and purposes totally suppressed. Careful examination
of the infected area this year shows no infestation. Whilst no new infection could be found
last year, except at Kelowna, but which was promptly dealt with, it is too good to hope that
it has been absolutely exterminated, and year by year it will be necessary to keep a very sharp
look-out on these districts. Once it gets beyond control it will spread rapidly throughout the
Province, and then another burden besides the many others which he has to bear will be added
to the fruit-grower.
Inspection of Nursery Stock.—Returns from our Fumigation Station at Vancouver show a
marked falling-off in the importations of nursery stock into this Province, due largely to the
cessation of orchard-planting. In the year 1.913, 147,330 standard deciduous fruit-trees were
imported; in the year 1914, 58,393, a decrease of nearly 300 per cent.
Inspection of Fruit.—There was also a very marked falling-off in the amount of fruit
imported into the Province, due largely to decreased consumption, and also to the fact that our
Coast cities are now being supplied to a certain extent by the fruit-growing districts of the
Interior portions of the Province.
It is very satisfactory, as the following figures will show, to note that our own fruit is
largely displacing American fruit in the home market. In the year 1913 there were imported
into this Province 546,262 boxes of deciduous fruits. In 1914 this had fallen to 351,600 packages
of deciduous fruits. The chief decrease is noticeable in apples. In 1913, 303,668 boxes of apples
were imported; in 1914, 180,387 boxes.
Condemnations of Fruit.—In 1913, 22,008 packages of deciduous fruit were condemned by
our Inspectors; in 1914, 22,720 packages were condemned. The quarantine and inspection of
imported rice, grain, and corn is carried out by our quarantine officers stationed at different
points of entry into this Province.    Very large quantities of rice and grain were inspected.
Demonstration spraying and inspection of nurseries have also formed a part of the work
of the Inspector of Fruit Pests' Branch, being carried out in that efficient manner which has
characterized Mr. Cunningham's work in the past.
Inspection Fees.—Inspection fees come in regularly from our quarantine officers, and are
turned in to the Consolidated Revenue Fund. I would point out that a considerable sum is
collected by the Fruit Inspection Branch in fees for inspection of fruit, nursery stock, trees,
and plants coming into the Province, and in making provision on the Estimates for funds to R 66 Department op Agriculture. 1915
carry on the work it is necessary to bear this in mind.    (For further details see Assistant Fruit
Pest Inspector's report.)
Live Stock Branch.
The past year has witnessed a very large increase in the activities of the Live Stock Branch
of this Department. It is satisfactory to note that farmers throughout the Province generally
are realizing the necessity of getting into stock and developing their places more on mixed-
farming lines.
The officials of the Live Stock Branch are doing most efficient work, and it is largely
owing to their educational activities throughout the Province that stock-raising has received
such an impetus. This is especially true in the case of the Veterinary, Dairy, and Soil and
Crop Divisions.
District Agriculturists.—The work being conducted by these men is of great importance.
The territory that they cover is a comparatively new country, and it is very essential that
educative work be carried out in order to show farmers how they may most profitably carry out
their work.
Demonstration Plots.—The establishment of these experimental and demonstration plots has
caused satisfaction amongst settlers in this district, and the greatest interest is manifested as
to the working of them. Our object in starting these demonstration stations is to show the
incoming settler, and those already in the country, what are the most suitable crops to grow
and the best varieties to plant.
These demonstration plots are very useful for giving demonstrations at which the settlers
round about collect and get valuable information from our officials, who give demonstrations
and lectures.
Veterinary Work.—This work has received the unqualified approval of the dairymen and
stock-breeders of this Province. It was started four years ago at their request, and has always
received their endorsation.
There have been some criticisms lately as to the work of our officials. I would respectfully
point out to you that it is a very difficult line of work, and that naturally there will be some
complaints. I have the utmost confidence in the efficiency of our Inspectors. They are interested
in their work, and all their energies are directed towards the eradication of bovine tuberculosis
as speedily as possible, and with as little loss as possible to the owners of dairy herds.
In difficult work of this nature it is only to be expected that some little mistakes of judgment may take place, but it is my opinion that the criticisms which have been directed against
this Department by a few are both unfair and unfounded. The general public are giving the
work their hearty support. It is a most important matter that the public should be safeguarded
by having as pure a supply of milk as possible.
I would most strongly urge that this important work be prosecuted most vigorously. The
compensation which will have to be paid by the Provincial Government is decreasing all the
time, and if the work is carried on as fully during the present year as it was last year, I am
confident that by the end of the year bovine tuberculosis will be to all intents and purposes
eradicated in our dairy districts.
Creameries.—The butter-output of our established creameries has materially increased
during the past year. This is largely owing to the fact of the decrease in population of our
urban centres, entailing a consequent decrease in the consumption of milk. Good work has
been accomplished in the way of creamery inspection by officials of the Dairy Division.
Importation of Dairy Cows.—The only dairy stock imported by the Department into the
Province during the past year was two car-loads, which were taken into the Arrow Lakes District
and sold to the settlers there. They were well-selected Ayrshires, a very fine bunch of dairy
stock. There have been numerous requests from other parts of the Province for the Department
to bring in stock and sell them to settlers, but there is unfortunately a very great scarcity of
good grade dairy stock in the Dominion of Canada at the present time. Since the Wilson Tariff
came into effect American buyers have been all over the East, buying up dairy stock.
The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the East also makes it a risky matter to bring in
stock from that part of the Dominion.
Poultry.—The activities of this Division of the Live Stock Branch have been very marked
during the past year in connection with breeding-stations and Poultry Association work. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 67
Soil and Crop Division.—This Division has largely increased its sphere of usefulness, and
the officials deserve every credit for the excellent work they are doing. Field-crop competition
work showed a very marked increase over last year. These competitions are held under the
auspices of each Farmers' Institute.
Very, keen interest was shown by the individual members of the Farmers' Institutes in these
competitions, each striving to grow a better crop than his neighbour. By encouraging this spirit
of friendly competition and rivalry better farming methods are undoubtedly encouraged.
I had the opportunity of seeing many of the plots entered for competition during the past
year, and can testify to the value of this work.
Splendid results have been obtained from boys' and girls' competitions. It is very evident,
from the numerous inquiries which have been made lately, that this line of work will be very
largely extended during the present year. The interest of the boys and girls has been aroused,
and it is my intention that every effort should be used by the Department to encourage these
competitions amongst our boys and girls.
Much good has also resulted from the establishment of demonstration plots in Southern
British Columbia, in demonstrating rotation crops and correct cultural methods.
The encouragement of silos in dairy districts has resulted in marked success.
Other work carried on by the Live Stock Branch is the distribution of seed and recording
of stock brands for the Province.    (For details see Live Stock Commissioner's report.)
In concluding my remarks on the work of the Live Stock Branch, I would like to bear
testimony to the energetic and capable manner in which Mr. W. T. McDonald has directed the
work of this Branch.
Soil-analysis Outfit.
The Department is in receipt of constant requests for samples of soil to be analysed. The
Provincial Analyst has not the time at his disposal to make these tests. If they are sent to
the Federal Government a long time elapses before returns are received. A complete analysis
of soil is very seldom necessary. If an ordinary physical analysis is made, the farmer can be
informed as to what elements are present in his soil in sufficient quantity, and what elements
are lacking.
With your approval, arrangements have been made for the Department to secure the outfit
necessary to make proper physical analysis. This will soon be completed, and the Department
will then be in a position to undertake analysis of soils sent in by farmers.
Exhibition and Publicity Work.
The work of advertising the resources and attractions of this Province in the Middle West
and Eastern Canada was extensively undertaken during the past year through Mr. W. A. Lang,
Exhibition Commissioner. Eleven exhibits in all were made, the display consisting of fresh
and bottled fruits and general agricultural products, timber, fisheries, minerals, transparencies,
and scenic views of the Province.
At principal exhibitions kinematograph and stereopticon lectures were given by our Mr.
Lang, and these lectures were very popular and largely attended at all places where they were
given.
Our exhibit, as usual, attracted universal attention and favourable comment, and must
have accomplished good results in the way of advertising the resources and many attractions
which this Province has to offer for prospective settlers.
The manner in which Mr. Lang has conducted the exhibition work is highly commendable.
For further details regarding the various exhibits, I would refer the reader to his report,
herein contained.
Vancouver Industrial Bureau.—A very effective and comprehensive exhibit has been
furnished by the Department to the Vancouver Industrial Bureau, in the Carter-Cotton
Building, Vancouver. This Bureau is now conducted on better business lines, and, having the
exhibit on the ground floor, the attention of the people is drawn to it, and as a consequence
far better attendance is secured than when they had upstairs space.
As we may confidently look forward to a large tourist traffic through Vancouver during
the time the Panama-Pacific Exposition is open, this exhibit should prove of value, and, provided
the Bureau efficiently advertises, I have no doubt but that it will be well attended during the
summer months by visitors. R 68 Department op Agriculture. 1915
Panama-Pacific. Exposition.—Through the courtesy of the Canadian Pacific Railway the
Provincial Government have been enabled to make a very attractive Provincial display in the
fine building which this company has erected at San Francisco.
Exhibition Commissioner W. A. Lang has been down at 'Frisco for the last three months,
superintending the putting-up of our Provincial display. Whilst I have not had the opportunity
of seeing it, yet I am informed by Mr. Lang that it is a most complete and attractive display,
and one which is attracting a great deal of attention.
We have in cold storage a considerable number of apples, which will enable us to show fresh
fruit till our new crop comes in. Our bottled-fruit display, which was sent to this Exposition,
is probably one of the finest that has ever been put up, and is sure to attract a great deal of
favourable comment.
A very fine collection of heads of game animals owned by this Department is being shown
there, in addition to the complete set owned by the Canadian Pacific Railway. All the game
animals and birds of the Province are attractively displayed.
Our fishery exhibit is admitted by experts to be one of the best that has been put up.
The mineral exhibit is comprehensive, and there is also a very attractive lumber display.
Transparencies showing orchard scenes, general agriculture, and scenic views are also shown.
There is a very suitable lecture-room attached to the Canadian Pacific Railway building,
and the company have made arrangements so that we may share this room equally with them.
A very full and comprehensive series of kinematograph films showing our different industries,
views of our Cities of Vancouver and Victoria, scenic views, etc., taken during the past year by
Kinematograph Operator Dwyer, and during the previous year by Operator Sintzenich, have
been sent down to Mr. Lang, and he has arranged to give lectures at stated intervals every day.
I should like to take this occasion of expressing my appreciation of the many courtesies
which this Department has received from the Canadian Pacific Railway. We have on several
previous occasions exhibited in conjunction with them, and all our joint exhibits have been most
successful. Mr. Rankin, of the Department of Natural Resources, under whose supervision and
direction these exhibits are conducted, has always shown himself willing to work in co-operation
with our Provincial Government, and exhibits where their company and our Government work
in conjunction are practically British Columbia displays.
Many other valuable concessions have been granted by the company, such as free
transportation or reduced rates on exhibits, granting of annual passes to officials of the
Department, etc.
Work of Officials.
In concluding my annual report, I would like to take the occasion of expressing my
appreciation of the painstaking and energetic way in which the officials of this Department
have carried out their work. Mr. Bonavia, Mr. McDonald, and Mr. Winslow, as heads of
different branches of this Department, have shown their efficiency and their organizing abilities,
and, as regards the other officials, I have nothing but approval for the way in which they have
carried out their work.    They are interested, painstaking, and energetic.
I trust that the Department, under your direction and supervision, may continue to extend
its sphere of usefulness, and that by its means the agricultural interests of this Province may
be materially advanced.
I have, etc.,
Wm. E. Scott,
Deputy Minister. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 69
ANNUAL REPORT OF SECRETARY AND STATISTICIAN.
By W. J. Bonavia.
Victoria, B.C., January 14th, 1915.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report on the general work of the
Department during the year 1914.
Staff.
The Estimates provided for forty-eight officials on the permanent staff of the Department,
being an increase of thirteen over the year 1913. At the close of 1914, however, only forty-five
officials were actually borne on the register of the Department. The following appointments
were unfilled: One Vegetable Expert, one Precooling and Cold-storage Investigator, and one
Assistant Fruit Inspector.
Of the new appointments during 1914, the most prominent ones are those of an Assistant
Live Stock Commissioner and an Exhibition Commissioner.
The growth of the Department is continuous, as will be seen from the attached table:—
190S         8 permanent officials. •
1911 "  24
1912 '25
1913   35
1914   45
Orders in Council for the appointments of the following permanent officials were issued
during the year, as follows:—
April 1st, 1914—
H. E. Walker, Agriculturist, Northern British Columbia.
A. H. Tomlinson, Assistant Horticulturist, Northern British Columbia.
J. C. Readey, Soils and Crops Instructor.
T. A. F. Wiancko, Assistant Dairy Instructor and Inspector.
W. T. McDonald, Recorder of Brands.
W. J. Graham, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
M. L. Bird, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
W. A. Lang, Exhibition Commissioner.
Geo. Pilmer, Clerk.
R. E. Mitchell, Clerk.
V. J. F. Babington, Stenographer.
Resignations from the Department during the year were as follows:—
April, 1914—W. H. Brittain, Plant Pathologist.
May, 1914—Edwin Smith, Precooling and Cold-storage Investigator.
The following officials, although provided for in the Estimates, have not yet been appointed
by Order in Council :■—
Date of Joining.
G. S. Rothwell, Clerk  April 14th, 1.914.
J. W. Eastham, Plant Pathologist     „     30th,     „
S. H. Hopkins, Assistant Live Stock Commissioner June 1st,    „
Temporary Staff.—The temporary staff has fluctuated considerably during the year, as in
the past, a maximum of sixty-four being reached at the close of the year, as against sixty-two
employed in the year 1913.
Mr. W. H. Cartwright, who was attached as an Agricultural Expert to a surveying party
in the Peace River country, returned in the latter part of November, after an eighteen months'
trip.
A considerable portion of the expenses in connection with temporary appointments was
borne by the provisions of the Federal grant, including such appointments as Assistant Veterinary Inspectors, Assistant Horticulturists, Assistant Crops and Soils Instructor, Cow-testers,.
Foul4)rood Inspectors, etc. Owing to the outbreak of the war in Europe, two permanent and one temporary member of
the staff have been withdrawn from office duties since the first week in August. (For table
showing character of appointments see Appendix A.)
Bulletins, Circulars, etc.
In 1914 the issue of new literature by the Department maintained the high standard reached
in the year 1913, and the activities in all branches of the Department was marked. The total
of bulletins and circulars issued was 117,650.    (For details see Appendix B.)
Correspondence.
The total number of letters received during the year 1914 was 21,242, as against 16,203 in
1913, being an increase of 31.1 per cent. The chief increase has been in the correspondence
of the Live Stock Commissioner, especially in connection with the Poultry and Soils and Crops
Divisions.
Letters sent out during the year total 21,678, as against 19,147 in 1913, being an increase
of 13.2 per cent.    (For details of correspondence received and dispatched .see Appendix C.)
Early in the year a multigraph machine was installed, with electric drive, and has proved
most valuable in connection with the turning-out of circular letters. No less than 63,090 were
mailed, as against 32,148 in 1913, being an increase of approximately 100 per cent. (For details
see Appendix D.)
Owing to the large number'of bulletins and circulars which are given to callers who take
literature away with them, it is rather difficult to keep a check on the actual total number sent
out during the year, but the grand total of 131,675 may be taken as approximately correct. (See
Appendix E.)
Financial.
The departmental appropriation for the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1.915, was $388,08S,
being an increase of $62,002 on the votes for the previous fiscal year, the difference being chiefly
made up by increased votes in connection with inspection of fruit, fumigation of nursery stock,
etc., and also compensation for slaughtered cattle. (For a brief summary of appropriations
for the fiscal years 1911 to 1915, showing the different votes grouped under general heads, see
Appendix F.)
Federal Grant, 1914-15.—The grant made under the " Agricultural Instruction Act, 1914-15,"
for the Province of British Columbia amounted to $52,799.38, of which, however, $15,000 was
reserved for the Department of Education on account of agricultural instruction in schools.
The second portion of the 1913 grant, amounting to $23,607.38, was received on July 6th,
1914. On the same date a cheque for $26,399.69 was received, being the first part of the 1914-15
grant.
At the close of the year 1914 there was still a credit balance of $9,1S5.10 in the 1912 grant.
This same, however, has been reserved for the importation of live stock.
Federal Grant, 1918-1J/.—At the close of 1914 the 1913 grant had been practically exhausted,
the only section containing a balance worth mentioning being that of No. 11, " Fruit-packing
Competitions," with a credit of $490.
Federal Grant, 191J/-15.—Credit balance at the close of the year, $24,469.36.
Vouchers.—The increased activities in the Department in all its branches has been the
occasion of a very large increase in the total number of vouchers handled.
The following table will show this point very clearly. Detailed statement of the vouchers
issued is included in Appendix B.
Vouchers issued by Department—
Fiscal year ending March 31st, 1911      895
„     1912   1,337
„     1913*   2,410
„     1914*  3,671 (inc. 52.3 per cent.)
* Includes vouchers on account of Federal grants.     (For details see Appendix G.) 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 71
Farmers' Institutes.
The year just come to a close has been one of exceptional activity in institute-work; the
total number of institutes organized was 111, being an increase of nineteen institutes during
the year, which is the largest actual increase in the organization of institutes that has occurred
since the inception of the movement in the year 1897.
The total membership was 8,353, being an increase of 209 members on the previous year.
The increase in membership is satisfactory, although not to the extent it was in 1913, when all
records were broken, both for organization of institutes and increased membership. (For list
of institutes organized during the year 1914 see Appendix H.)
Incorporation of Institutes.—Subsequent to the revision of the " Agricultural Associations
Act" early in the year, the Auditor-General pointed out that he would be unable to sanction the
payment of grants of any description to institutes or associations unless they were incorporated
under Part I. of the Act.
Instructions were accordingly sent out to the older institutes which were incorporated under
a variety of Acts prior to 1911, and forty-six institutes having filled out the necessary papers
were reincorporated under the new Act, thus entitling them to the privileges of those incorporated
subsequent to 1911.
Rules and Regulations.—A revision of the Rules and Regulations of Farmers' Institutes
was also undertaken, and the opinion of institutes with regard to certain changes was obtained.
One of the chief changes made was that the latest date for holding the annual meeting in each
year should be the second Tuesday in January.
The concession also made a few years back, whereby a member who joined any time between
October 1st and December 31st was privileged to carry his subscription forward to the next
year, was withdrawn.
The revised rules were finally issued on September 16th, and appear to have given general
satisfaction to members of institutes, as procedure is not only clearly set forth, but the rules
have been simplified and brought into direct accord with the "Agricultural Associations Act,"
as was necessary.
Institute Competitions.—During the year the usual announcement for institute competitions
was made: (1) Three prizes of $12, $8, and $5, in book value, being offered for the highest
percentage in the increase of members for an institute for the twelve months; (2) three prizes,
book value, $12, $8, and $5, for the best set of annual statements; (3) three prizes in cash, $12,
$8, and $5, for the best address given by a member of a Farmers' Institute during the year.
More essays than usual have been submitted, and final judging in the three sections will
be announced the latter part of this month. *
Noxious Weeds.—Following the very interesting address on noxious weeds given by Professor
Thomas Shaw at the Annual Convention, 19.14, which was listened to with so much interest by
delegates and officials alike, the Department circularized farmers, giving a full description of
noxious weeds as listed in the Act, together with growth, seed-habits, etc., and supplemented
this by brief methods for their eradication.
These circulars have evidently met a popular need and considerable numbers of them have
been restencilled and sent out on application.    (See report on "Noxious Weeds," page 80.)
Financial.—The Provincial vote in aid of Farmers' Institute work for the fiscal year ending
March 31st, 1915, was $20,000, and no special grant was received during the year from the
Dominion authorities on account of short-course work, etc., as was done in 1913.
Per capita grants to the amount of $3,529.50 were paid to institutes, and allowances totalling
$2,572.60 to Secretaries.
Short-course Work.—Early in the year the various institutes were circularized as to
their wishes in connection with the subjects which should be taken up by expert lecturers
and demonstrators at the spring meetings, and a comprehensive programme was arranged, the
itinerary of the lecturers commencing on February 27th and ending on March 25th.
In most cases meetings extending over two days were held, and the attendance, as reported
by Secretaries of institutes and lecturers, was most satisfactory. R 72 Department of Agriculture. 1915
The staff lecturers, together with some of the subjects dealt with, were as follows :—
Lecturer. Subjects.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist.. Fruits; Vegetables; Small Fruits.
H. Thornber, B.Sc, Assistant Horticulturist Fruits; Vegetables; Small Fruits.
P. E. French, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist Vegetable-growing;   Small-fruit  Culture.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist. .Vegetable-growing.
E. Smith, B.Sc, Precooling Investigator Precooling Investigations.
J. F. Smith, Markets Commissioner Fruit Markets.
B. Hoy, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist Control of" Fire-blight. [Plucking.
H. E. Upton, Poultry Instructor Incubation; Demonstration Killing and
J. R. Terry, Chief Poultry Instructor Demonstration Killing and Plucking.
H. Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Instructor Illustrated Dairy Lecture.
T. A. F. Wiancko, Assistant Dairy Instructor Farm Dairy-work.
J. C. Readey, B.S.A., Soils and Crops Instructor.. Fodder-crops and Soils.
Special lecturers were also engaged, as follows:—
Lecturer. Subject.
H. H. Grist   Poultry.
D. Mclnnes    Hogs and Dairy Cattle.
R. C. Treherne  Vegetable Insect Pests.
Wm.   Schulmerich    Hogs and Dairy Cattle.
P.  S. Darlington    Alfalfa in Mature Orchards.
J. L. Hilborn    Growing Early Vegetables.
G. S. Harris    Hogs and Dairy Cattle.
Meetings were held at seventy-one points, comprised within the areas of fifty-seven
institutes.
Owing to the difficulty of meeting the wishes of all institutes, it was found necessary to
hold a series of special meetings after the conclusion of the regular short courses.
The subjects taken up at these meetings were poultry, horticulture, hogs and dairy cattle,
intensive methods, and the speakers were Messrs. J. R. Terry, H. E. Upton, H. Rive, W. H.
Robertson, M. S. Middleton, J. C. Readey, and H. Thornber.
Supply of Seed-oats, Alfalfa, and Corn.—In January all institutes were advised by the
Department that it would be possible to obtain registered seed-oats, by arrangement with the
Department, at a cost of $1 per bushel. The inducement of free freight on the oats was held
out should the institute decide to hold a crop competition in same. A total of 2,067 bushels
was supplied to members.
In February institutes were also offered free seed-corn in three varieties, and 5-lb. lots of
Grimm's Extra No. 1 alfalfa-seed, a charge of 50 cents only being made in the case of the
alfalfa.
Great interest was stimulated in these crops, and the following quantities of seed were
supplied (see J. C. Readey's report for fuller details) :   Corn, 942 lb.; alfalfa, 1,510 lb.
Field-crop Competitions.—Following the success of these competitions in 1913, considerable
extension of work along these lines was anticipated and realized. The general conditions were
as follows :—
(1.) At least five bona-flde entries for each kind of crop:
(2.)  Location of plot to be recorded with Secretary at time of entry:
(3.)  The entry fee to be not less than 50 cents and not more than $1, to be paid by each
competitor for each kind of crop into the funds of the institute, to go towards the
$15 put up by each institute in aid of the prize-money.
The prizes offered again were:   First, $25; second, $20; third, $15.   New prizes listed were
$100 to the institute obtaining the largest number of bona-flde competitors.   Of this amount,
$25 was to be paid to the Secretary.    First and second prizes of $15 and $7.50 in cash were
also offered to winners of prizes in crop competitions who sent in an exhibit from, the harvested
product from the plot judged by the Department. 5 Geo. 5
Nintpi Report.
R 73
The score-card used in the competitions was also modified to a certain extent this year.
The total result of the field-crop competitions is as follows:—
Crop.
No. of
Farmers'
Institutes.
No.  of
Competitors.
42
2
1
19
5
4
3
4
1
314
Wheat	
17
8
Oats   	
126
16
24
Alfalfa   	
15
17
4
Totals	
81
541
The total amounts paid were $4,560 for the ordinary competitions and $205 for the special
Provincial prizes mentioned above.
Boys' and Girls' Competitions.—In conjunction with field-crop competitions, arrangements
were made for holding boys' and girls' competitions in potatoes. Each competitor was required
to operate one-tenth of an acre, and the same variety of potatoes to be grown by all competitors
in the same institute, the age-limit being set from ten to eighteen years.
The number of institutes that organized these competitions was twenty, with a total of
128 competitors, the prize-money being $211.
The crop report describing cultural methods which was required from the youthful competitors appears to have been a stumbling-block in many cases, and a considerable modification
of the details required should be made in subsequent competitions.
Silo-filling Demonstrations.—In the early summer the Hon. the Minister approved of the
purchase of a silo-filling outfit for the purpose of giving demonstrations in co-operation with the
Farmers' Institute.
The first member in each institute to erect a silo was entitled to the use of the Government
silo-filling outfit free of charge. A medium-sized but thoroughly efficient machine was obtained
and the services of an expert operator secured.
A circular bulletin describing the rough-stave silo was also issued by the Department,
together with hints on filling, and the operator of the machine has been occupied to the very
fullest extent during the past season.
An extension of this work in conjunction with the increased growth of corn and other
ensilage crops would be a move in the right direction.
Packing-schools and Pruning-schools.—Arrangements for this branch of horticultural activity
were again made with institutes early in 1914.     (See Mr. R. M. Winslow's detailed report.)
Fairs held by Institutes.—Owing to the Increase in organized Agricultural Associations in
the Province, fewer Farmers' Institutes held agricultural fairs during the year. The only ones
recorded at which departmental judges officiated were those at Ladysmith on September 9th and
Arrow Park on October 3rd. In both cases the judges' reports were commendatory as regards
produce shown and general management, and it is probable that application for the incorporation
of Agricultural Associations in these centres will be received in the Department later in the
year.
Stumping-powder, Fuse, and Caps.—The total quantities of powder, fuse, and caps supplied
by the two companies were as follows:—
Canadian Explosives, Ltd.—
Powder        11,500 cases.
Fuse  64
No. 3 detonators    126,300
No. 6 „      80,000
Giant Powder Co., Con.—
Powder          2,698 cases.
Detonators       25,000
6 R 74 Department op Agriculture. 1915
Recapitulation—Total Sales, Stumping-powder—
1912  .    17,016 cases.
1913       14,837      „
1914       14,198      „
Pure-bred Sires supplied to Farmers' Institutes.—The scheme outlined by the Department
in 1913, whereby institutes had the privilege of securing pure-bred stock for the use of members,
with payments extended over a period of two to three years, is being taken hold of gradually by
the institutes, but not to the extent at first anticipated.
During 1914 the following animals were supplied to institutes:—
Alberni     1 Holstein bull.
Rose Hill    1 Shorthorn bull.
Celista    1 Holstein bull.
Robson  1 Berkshire boar.
Kootenay Lake    1 Jersey bull.
Glenside      1 Yorkshire boar.
Revelstoke      1 Berkshire boar.
Nechako      1 Berkshire boar.
Salmon Valley      1 Oxford ram.
1 Shropshire ram.
Windermere    1 Holstein bull.
Valdes Island     2 Yorkshire boars.
Patriotic Fund.—In August a circular letter was sent out by the Deputy Minister to Farmers'
Institutes regarding the starting of a Patriotic Fund for the relief of want and destitution in
Great Britain and other European countries caused by the war. The funds collected were to
be given to His Majesty's Government as a contribution from institutes (including Women's
Institutes)  of this Province.
A very generous response was received, and at the close of December a grand total of
$4,350.65 had been received and is being remitted to His Majesty's Government by the Lieutenant-
Governor of this Province. Subscriptions are still coming in, however, and a further instalment
will be forwarded later in the year.
Women's Institutes.
The total number of Women's Institutes incorporated at the end of 1914 was forty-eight,
with one in the process of organization. Subsequent to the revision of the " Agricultural
Associations Act" early in the year, the Auditor-General pointed out that it would be necessary
to reincorporate the institutes organized prior to 1911 under the new Act. The necessary documents having been prepared, twenty-one of the older institutes were brought in under Part I.
of the " Agricultural Associations Act," and all institutes are at the present time incorporated
upon the same basis.
The new institutes incorporated during the year were the following:—
Burquitlam   Feb.      9th, 1914.
Willow Point   ,      10th,     „
Crawford Bay       „      10th,     „
South Saanich      ,,      19th,     „
Arrow Park    March 2nd,     „
Kalamalka ,      11th,     „
Strawberry Hill        „      18th,     „
Langford   June     8th,     ,,
Hatzic     „        Sth,     „
Atchelitz    ,        9th,     „
Garden City   Oct.     16th,     „
Barriere Nov.    16th,     „
Shawnigan         „      24th,     ,,
The membership at the end of the year was 2,857; although all the annual reports are not
in so far, these figures can be taken as substantially correct. 5 Geo. 5
Ninth Report.
R 75
The following table will show the continued growth of the institutes, not only with regard
to new organization, but also to steady increase in the average membership per institute:—
Year.
Number of
Institutes.
Number of
Members.
Average per
Institute.
1910   	
17
23
29
35
48
545
974
1,336
1,905
2,857
32.0
1911   	
42.0
1914    	
46.0
53.0
59.5
Financial.—The sum of $5,000 was set aside by the Provincial Government as a grant in
aid of Women's Institutes for expenses of lecturers and general educational work for the fiscal
year ending March 31st, 1915, but owing to the unexpected increase in the membership of
institutes and consequent increase in per capita grant and other expenses, the vote was practically exhausted at the end of the year, the credit balance being $1,290. Section 1 of the
"Agricultural Instruction Act, 1914-15," amounting to $2,500, was also exhausted in the latter
part of the year, and application has had to be made to the Federal authorities to vary section
10 of the 1914-15 Instruction Act to allow the same to cover salaries and expenses of lecturers
to Women's Institutes.
Conferences.—Following a meeting of the Advisory Board in April, 1914, the Department
decided to sanction the holding of four conferences of Women's Institutes  in  the following
sections of the Province:    Vancouver Island, Lower Mainland, Okanagan, and West Kootenay.
Each institute was entitled to send one delegate, who was paid transportation charges and
a per diem allowance of $3.
The conferences were an unqualified success and have done much to bring together the
institutes in the various sections of the Province, and to weld the various institutes into one
harmonious whole.
Lectures.—Dressmaking, by Madame Grohe; Dressmaking, by Miss A. M. Taylor; Cookery,
by Miss B. Livingstone.
Reports of meetings at which departmental lecturers attended have been most enthusiastic
in all cases, and there is no doubt that the three ladies chosen have given the best of satisfaction.
Flower-shoivs.—The flower-shows held by Women's Institutes were again a feature of the
years' work, no less than twenty-one shows being held, of which twenty were entirely organized
by members of institutes. The following table gives the dates and places, and the per capita
grant, at the rate of 25 cents, was paid by the Department in aid of expenses:—
Royal  Oak    June   20th, 1914.
Agassiz     „      10th,
Lake Hill    July     3rd,
Nelson        ,,      13th,
Sooke and Otter     .,      23rd,
Tynehead        „      29th,
Coquitlam     „      29th,
Langley    Aug.      5th.
Hazelmere      „        6th,
Chilliwack     „        6th,
Surrey        „        4th,
Matsqui        „      12th,
Similkameen      „      13th,
Comox        „      14th,
Mission     „      19th,
Summerland      ,,      21st,
Kaslo Rose Show  Sept.     5th,
Kaslo Children's Show   July      9th,
Central Park  Sept.   17th,
Oyster        „        9th,
Arrow Park    Oct.       7th, R 76 Department of Agriculture. 1915
The number of shows held in 1913 was sixteen, and there is no doubt that this is a very
popular feature of institute activity. In all cases the Department supplied five book prizes,
first and second for adults and three for juveniles.
Competitions.—Early in the year the Department issued the conditions of the annual
competitions, which were very similar to those of the previous year:—
(1.)  First and second prizes, books value $30 and $15, for the best average attendance,
based on annual membership :
(2.) First and second prizes, books value $20 and $10, for the best institute programme:
(3.) Five first prizes of $10 and five second prizes of $5 for the best papers submitted
by institute members on specified subjects.
The majority of the institutes have entered for the competitions, and the matter of judging,
owing to the general high standard of the essays, wTill be one of considerable difficulty.
Exhibition-work at Coast Fairs.—The Hon. the Minister again sanctioned assistance to
institutes to the extent of a grant not exceeding $50 in aid of expenses in collecting and
forwarding exhibits to the Provincial Fair at New Westminster and the Dominion Fair at
Victoria, but owing to the cancellation of these fairs this phase of institute activity was
dormant during the year.
Gift of Union Jack.—The Hon. the Minister sanctioned the issuing to each Women's
Institute of a Union Jack in order to encourage patriotic feeling, and the gift was received
with much enthusiasm by the various institutes, and is no doubt being made much use of on
the occasion of the many public functions held by institutes.
Pennants.—Upon the recommendation of the Advisory Board, a supply of pennants was
obtained through a local firm. The pennants consisted of two grades, one supplied at 80 cents
and one at 45 cents, and consisted of the phrase " Women's Institutes of British Columbia " in
white letters on a dark-green cloth ground, whilst' the badge or emblem was reproduced in the
proper colours. Owing to the outbreak of the war and the many claims upon the women of
the Province, the sale of these pennants has been very slow.
Institute Badges.—The request for badges is steady, and the following numbers have been
supplied during the year, at the rate of 20 cents each:—
Quarter ended March 31st   141 badges.
June    30th   104
Sept.    30th     52
Dec.      31st     S6
Total for year   3S3
Agricultural Associations.
At the close of the year 1914 there were sixty-five Agricultural Associations incorporated
in the Province for the holding of fall fairs, incorporations during the year being six. The
following are the new Associations:—
Burton District Agricultural Association   : Jan.      6th, 1914.
Pritchard Agricultural Association     ,,       17th,
Kalamalka Agricultural Association  Feb.    21st,
Creston Valley Agricultural Association   April 22nd,
Cameron, Nanoose, and Newcastle Agricultural Association .. June     9th.
Robson and Lower Arrow Lake Agricultural Association  July      6th,
Twenty-three associations were reincorporated under Part I. of the " Agricultural Associations Act" in accordance with the ruling of the Auditor-General. The older associations had
been incorporated under a variety of Acts, some dating as far back as 1873. All have now
received a certificate of incorporation under the " Agricultural Associations Act."
The year 1914 has been a quiet one for Agricultural Associations owing partly to the
disturbed financial conditions of the Province, and also owing to the outbreak of the European
war in the early fall. Sixty-seven fall fairs were arranged for (the two additional fairs being
held by Farmers' Institutes), but in view of the conditions prevailing and upon the recommendation of the Department, thirty-four associations cancelled their dates.
Departmental judges were supplied free of expense to associations, as in previous years,
the number of staff officials being seventeen and the number of outside men twenty-five. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 77
Apple-packing contests and packed-fruit displays were arranged under the direction of the
Horticultural Branch. (See R. M. Winslow's report.) The general standard of excellence was
well maintained in the various classes of exhibits, live stock being especially strongly represented
at many of the medium-sized fairs.
Financial.—The Provincial appropriation in aid of Agricultural Associations was $70,000
for the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1915. Owing to the general policy of retrenchment of
the Government and to the cancellation of many fairs, there has been a considerable saving
in this vote. (For moneys expended for prize-list grants and building grants respectively to
the end of December see Appendix I.)
In the late fall an annual statement of receipts and expenditure, assets and liabilities was
prepared and supplied to all Agricultural Associations. The form was based on a model recommended by Mr. G. H. Putnam, Superintendent of Fairs and Institutes for the Province of
Ontario, and had been modified to suit local conditions.
The form prepared was approved of by the delegates to the Annual Convention held in
January, and will standardize the auditing methods of the various associations, being especially
useful to the smaller ones, and also considerably facilitating the checking of accounts when
received in the Department.
Pound Districts.
Following the amendment to the " Pound District Act" at the last session of the House,
the administration of the said Act was handed over to this Department.
At the time of transfer eight pound districts had been established in various parts of the
Province, and during the balance of the year three additional pound districts have been constituted, as follows: Perry Siding and Appledale, Rosemont Addition to the City of Nelson,
and Naramata.
Negotiations are also in progress for the organization of pound districts in the following
centres:   Creston, Golden, Newtonia (near Trail), and West Fernie.
To facilitate the work of pound-keepers it was felt advisable to prepare and supply to
pound-keepers a pound district register, as provided for in the Act, which would enable them
to keep full details of all matters pertaining to their work, and also be a source of information
for the Department. These books are now ready for transmissal to the pound-keepers, and it
is hoped that everything will be in good working-order this year.
Horticultural Inspection-work and Licences.
Two meetings of the Provincial Board of Horticulture were held during the year, both at
Victoria, on January 16th and on July 8th and 9th respectively.
The total number of Assistant Fruit Inspectors on temporary service employed during the
year was sixteen, being four less than in the previous year. These men were not, of course,
all working at the same time, probably the largest number at any one time being nine.
At the close of the year the outdoor inspection staff had been cut down to four, in accordance
with the directions of the Hon. the Minister.
The Provincial appropriations for inspection-work totalled $50,000 for the fiscal year ending
March 31st, 1915, divided into $30,000 for the inspection of nursery stock, trees, plants, fruit,
etc.; $5,000 for demonstration spraying; and $15,000 for the suppression of fruit-diseases.
The balances in the respective votes at the end of December were as follows: Vote 244,
$18,143.27; Vote 245, $4,537.26; Vote 246, $2,892.88.
Sixty-nine horticultural licences were issued to nurserymen and their agents during the year
—thirty-one for principals and thirty-eight for agents. One nurseryman's licence was cancelled
in October owing to his failure to renew the premium on his bond at its expiration.
The total number of licences issued during the year shows a slight increase on those in
1913, as follows:—
Licences.
1912.
1913.
1914.
70
25
47
17
50
19 R 78 Department of Agriculture. 1915
Two cases were reported during the year of persons selling nursery stock without the
proper bond or licence, but after pressure from the Department, in both cases satisfactory bonds
and licences were obtained and prosecution avoided.
Inspectors at Ports of Entry.—Early in the year Mr. M. L. Bird, of Mr. Thos. Cunningham's
staff, was gazetted as permanent Inspector at the Port of Prince Rupert.
There have been no changes at other ports of entry, and monthly returns and fees have
been remitted to the Department fairly promptly; the total number of officers remitting being
eighteen, situated at the following ports: Bridesville, Creston, Cranbrook, Cascade, Fernie,
Grand Forks, Huntingdon, Keremeos, Kingsgate, Myncaster, Midway, Newgate, Nanaimo,
Rossland, Victoria, Waneta, and Vancouver.
Bee-inspection Work.
Seasonal appointments were again made by the Department in connection with the
enforcement of the " Foul-brood Bees Act" and of the administration of practical bee-keeping.
The following gentlemen were appointed: L. Harris, Okanagan and Boundary Districts, April
15th to November 9th; W. J. Sheppard, East and West Kootenay, April 15th to October 31st;
F. Dundas Todd, Lower Mainland, April 1st to October 11th.
A card-index of bee-keepers has been prepared by Mr. F. Dundas Todd, and over 900 names
are recorded thereon.
During the year various instructional circulars have been sent out with regard to the
necessary work to be done on the hives, and an excellent calendar, showing the work for each
month of the year in this connection, was prepared for the Kootenay and Lower Mainland
Districts and supplied to bee-keepers there.
Foul-brood.—The nine months' quarantine, under clause 12 of the " Foul-brood Bees Act,"
which was ordered by the Hon. the Minister on August 13th, 1913, is still in force. In spite of
the quarantine regulations, two cases were reported at Savona and Kaslo. where bees had been
imported and delivered direct to the purchaser owing to the carelessness of Customs officers.
Both cases were immediately followed up by our Inspectors.
In the Lower Mainland, however, a number of cases of foul-brood (American) were
discovered by our Inspector, Mr. Todd, and owing to the seriousness of the situation, Mr. Harris,
of Vernon, was summoned to help him. The epidemic was centred in the East Collingwood
District and the source of infection traced. Active measures were taken by our Inspectors, and
fifty-four colonies burnt, being the property of twenty bee-keepers.
No foul-brood was discovered in any other part of the Province during the year.
The total estimated production of honey, from Inspectors' examination and reports sent in,
is estimated at about 150 tons for the year.
Market conditions have not been conducive to rapid sales, but there is no doubt that British
Columbia is going to become a honey-producing country beyond expectation.
Statistics.
The only staff official employed in this work was Mr. A. B. Tweddle. Assistant Statistician,
who visited the various sections of the Province from April to December, chiefly in connection
with the collection of data on the volume of interprovincial trade. He has been very successful
in getting reliable figures on this subject, and has also been able to revise the 1913 figures in
a general way for home production.
In October Bulletin No. 59, dealing with " Agricultural Statistics of the Year 1913," was
published. This bulletin contains a summary of the work done by Mr. Tweddle and the eleven
statistical enumerators employed in 1913, and contains reliable information on the area under
cultivation, crops, yields per acre, live stock, and also gives considerable prominence to the
varieties of fruit-trees planted. A useful feature, also, is the district summary of the six
sections into which the Province was divided. This contains concise information as to climate,
physical features, land-values, cost of clearing land, labour, etc., and the bulletin will, to a
large extent, replace previous bulletins which have been issued by this Government for publicity
work, and which do not contain such up-to-date or specific information. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 79
British Columbia Students attending Agricultural Colleges.
The number of British Columbia students attending Agricultural Colleges in the Dominion,
to whom this Province pays a grant of $50 per term, increased very slightly during the year,
the total number being thirty-two, as against thirty in 1913. The following table shows the
attendance:—
1918.
Ontario Agricultural College   First-year students     12
„                 „                 „  Second-year    ,,            7
„                 „                 „          Third-year      „            6
Macdonald Institute    Students     1
Manitoba Agricultural College First-year students     3
Truro College, Nova Scotia  Students     1
19Vh
Ontario Agricultural College   First-year students     10
„                 „                 ,, Second-year    „            7
„                 „                 „          Third-year      ,,            5
„                 „          Fourth-year    ,,            4
Macdonald Institute    Students     1
Manitoba Agricultural College  Students     5
Truro College, Nova Scotia  Students     0
Agricultural Library.
The recent rapid expansion of the Departmental Library has necessitated a complete
reorganization, under a plan recommended by Miss Jacquetta Gardiner, Librarian, Ontario
Agricultural College, Guelph, and to whom the Department is much indebted for the excellent
plans supplied. The system is based on the " Decimal Classification and Relative Index " by
Melvil Dewey, A.M., Director, New York State Library, but somewhat simplified. The Dewey
Classification is to be found in practically all the leading libraries In the United States and
Europe.
The Departmental Library at present contains over 1,000 books, dealing with all phases of
agriculture, by most eminent authors.
Some 4,000 agricultural reports, bulletins, and circulars, issued by many foreign departments
throughout the world, as well as those of the Dominion, will be found on the Library shelves,
so arranged as to afford the quickest reference. In addition to the above, sixty-nine journals,
magazines, etc., and thirty-nine newspapers are regularly received by the Department, which
will be kept on file in the Library.
As far as possible, any new publications which will add to the immediate agricultural value
of the Library will be added.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
Secretary. R 80 Department of Agriculture. 1915
REPORT ON NOXIOUS WEEDS, YEAR 1914.
By W. J. Bonavia, Secretary and Statistician.
Victoria, B.C., February 17th, 1915.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report in connection with the work done
by this Department during the year 1914 re the enforcement of the " Noxious Weeds Act" :—
Amendments to the Act and Enforcement.
An amendment to the " Noxious Weeds Act" of 1911 was passed on March 4th, 1914, by
the Legislature, the chief alteration being the redrawing of the list of noxious weeds, as follows:
Canada thistle, perennial thistle, sow-thistle, Russian thistle, wild mustard or charlock, tumbling
mustard, ball-mustard, stinkweed, ragweed, blue burr or stickseed, and dodder.
A further amendment was that summary proceedings could be taken before one Justice
instead of two, as formerly, for infractions of the Act.
Following the procedure of former years, all Provincial constables were again appointed
agents of the Department of Agriculture for the enforcement of the provisions of the " Noxious
Weeds Act" ; the co-operation of the Forest Branch of the Lands Department, however, was not
so effective as in previous years, and this year all that the Game Wardens and Fire Guards
were instructed to do was to notify Provincial constables as to the prevalence of certain noxious
weeds in the districts which came under their notice.
By instruction of the Hon. the Minister, eight Inspectors were appointed under the Act,
as follows:—
June 12th, 1914.    H. V. Acland Okanagan District, from Mara to Okanagan Falls.
,,     15th,     „        William  Johns   . .Boundary District, from Princeton to Grand Forks.
„    20th,     ,,        Harvey Wren   ... Lower Fraser Valley, Chilliwack to Coast.
„    20th,     „        C. Hodgkinson ... Kamloops District, Sicamous to Hope, including
Nicola Valley.
.,     29th,     „        Fred Adie Waneta District.
July    3rd,     „        R. H. F. Hickey..Vancouver Island.
7th,     „        Frank Hudson ...Columbia Valley, from Golden to Cranbrook, also
Eagle River Valley.
„     10th,     „        R. H. Baird Upper and Lower Arrow Lakes District.
Arrangements were also made whereby D. R. MacKay, Dominion Fire Ranger, was appointed
special agent for this Department in the St. Elmo District, whilst Provincial Deputy Game
Warden H. E. R. Bedford acted in a similar manner in the Creston District.
There is no doubt that for the first time in the history of the Province the prevalence and
danger of noxious weeds was well brought home to agriculturists in the Province by the action
of our Inspectors.
All the men appointed did good work in their various districts, special commendation being
earned by Messrs. Charles Hodgkinson, of Kamloops, and R. II. F. Hickey, of Parksville. The
reports of these gentlemen are submitted herewith, as they contain a number of suggestions
and recommendations with regard to the carrying-out of this work in 1915 which are worthy
of serious attention by the Department.
In the early summer two multigraph circulars were prepared and issued to individual
members of Farmers' Institutes (8,000), and also to other members of the public. These
circulars gave detailed descriptions of the noxious weeds listed in the Act, and also gave brief
instructions with regard to method of control. From the number of applications that the
Department received for these circulars, there is no doubt that they proved a very useful means
of familiarizing agriculturists with certain weeds and their habits. M
C a 5 Geo. 5
Ninth Report.
R 81
Notices, Prosecutions, etc.
The following table will show the total number of notices served and prosecutions undertaken by Inspectors:—
Inspector.
Notices
served.
Prosecutions.
Wm, Johns ....
Harvey Wren  . .
F. Hudson	
H. V. Acland* .
R. H. F. Hickey
R. H. Baird . ..
C. Hodgkinson .
F. Adie   	
74
146
50
25
223
256
400
21
None.
3  (successful).
None.
None.
1  (successful).
1  (successful).
7  (4 successful).
None.
* Report incomplete  owing to  Inspector joining Militia Forces.
Practically all the Inspectors reported that very little friction was met with from the
ranchers; a very large proportion of the parties visited, on whose properties noxious weeds
were growing, complying with the Inspector's demands within the five days required by the
Act. (For detailed list of the districts in which certain principal varieties of noxious weeds
were found growing by Inspectors see Appendix J.)
Financial.
The following summary of expenditure in connection with the enforcement of the " Noxious
Weeds Act " shows the total cost to the Department to have been $5,808.53. The refunds received
from owners on whose property weeds were cut totalled $30.50, the net cost, therefore, being
$5,778.03.
Salary and expenses of eight Inspectors    $4,263 57
Expenses of Provincial police acting as special agents for the Department, livery charges, etc        558 00
Labour cutting weeds, property of absentee owners, etc        816 53
Miscellaneous expenses, public notices, advertising, etc        170 43
Total      $5,808 53
Paid from Federal grant      4,662 52
Balance, paid from General Department vote    $1,146 01
The individual cost of Inspectors was as follows, the amount being to a great extent a
measure of the activities of the various men:—
C.  Hodgkinson      $1,118 20
R.  H.  Baird           577 07
R. II.  F. Hickey           572 45
H. Wren           513 55
F. Adie   '        427 50
Wm.  Johns    |        425 00
H.  V. Acland    .'        374 75
F. Hudson          254 25
With regard to the item of $816.53, all parties from whom expenses were recoverable were
written to by the Department and have been again reminded, but owing presumably to depressed
financial conditions in the Province, and also partly to the fact that so many non-resident owners
were difficult to trace, the refunds received by the Department have been most unsatisfactory.
Owing to the extremely cumbersome methods of recovering expenses under the present Act,
I have not been able to give time to the getting into shape of the various documents required
for signature by a Judge of the Supreme Court in order that the charges incurred may be
assessed as Provincial taxes. R 82 Department of Agriculture. 1915
Noxious Weeds on Indian Reserves.
One of the chief grievances of the white settler is that he is required to comply with the
provisions of the " Noxious Weeds Act," whilst the Provincial authorities cannot exercise any
control over the Indian occupiers. In many reserves these lands are a perfect seed-bed for
noxious weeds and blow over the adjoining country, this being especially so in.the reserves
along the Fraser and North Thompson Valleys, and also in the neighbourhood of Duncan and
Comox.
The local Inspectors were approached by the Department, and promised to do their best to
instruct Indians to cut noxious weeds on the various reserves. These instructions were very
poorly carried out, some of the reasons being that Indians were away on their annual fishing
expeditions, and in other cases the liability was first put on the Indian chief and then on the
actual occupier, the result being that practically no effective work was done on the reserves
during the year.
It was understood that Mr. W. E. Ditehburn, Inspector for Vancouver Island, would strongly
recommend that the Dominion authorities amend the Indian Act, to give Indian Agents greater
power to compel the Indians to keep their reserves free from noxious weeds.
It should also be made possible in the Act for Inspectors to take action against the chief
of the reserve for noxious weeds growing on range lands and individual Indians in the case of
farm lands.
Conclusion.
With the revision of the " Noxious Weeds Act" for the year 1915 which is being undertaken
at the present time, there is no doubt that the action of Inspectors will be simplified, and the
methods of recovering expenses and assessing as taxes, in the case of expenditure incurred
cutting noxious weeds on non-resident lands, will be made more practicable.
In all the Provinces of the Dominion the weed question is one of the utmost importance,
and the real key-note of the whole matter is " education."
The reason that weeds spread is largely due to the fact that for each man who appreciates
the importance of weed-control there are forty or fifty who do not know or do not care.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
Secretary.
REPORT OF THE HORTICULTURAL BRANCH, 1914.
By R. M. Winslow. B.S.A.. Provincial Horticulturist.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1914.
W. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report on the work of the Horticultural Branch during the
year 1914.
The report shows in some detail the activities both of myself and of the other members
of the staff.
Staff.
Existing financial conditions and prices for fruits and some vegetables, which in some cases
have led to a lessened interest in such products, seem to have had a considerable effect in
increasing the demands on the horticultural staff for information and instruction.
The addition of a number of junior men, usually for the summer months only, has permitted
more individual inspection of orchards and personal instruction to growers, besides a considerable series of records on variety yields and much experimental work. (For list of members of
the staff see Appendix K.) 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 83
Packing-schools.
Thirty-seven packing-schools were held during the period January to April, inclusive. We
were fortunate in securing all of the best of our previous Instructors, four in number, and four
promising new men conducted from one to three schools each.
The total attendance was 455, an average of 12.3 per school; the average proficiency of the
pupils, 83 per cent. The average net cost of operating per school was just $60, which must be
considered very satisfactory.    It is slightly higher than last year, as the fruit cost more.
The schools were conducted much on the same basis as in previous years. A special effort
was made to broaden the scope of the work. Before the series, I conducted a three-day
Instructors' meeting in which were considered the many questions involved in up-to-date fruit
packing and handling methods, as well as methods of instruction and general conduct of the
schools. The conference was of very considerable benefit, particularly in the increased enthusiasm and efficiency of the Instructors. The Instructors have felt this year more than they
previously have the responsibility and importance of their work.
The Instructors were as follows :<—
R. Walthers    9 schools.
J. Gibb    9
J. Castner    7      . „
H. Allberry    4
F. E. Loveday .'   3
H. Buchanan     3       „
II. G. Greenwood    2       „
G. A. McLalne    1 school.
As a basis for awarding diplomas to packing-school pupils, exhibits of five-box lots of apples
were displayed at the fall fairs and judged. Such exhibits were made by the pupils of ten
different schools, and thirty-five diplomas were awarded, as well as $160 prize-money.
The packing-schools have proven this year more than ever that such instruction as is given
is very necessary to keep a continually rising standard of excellence in our commercial pack.
Each year marks some advancement in packing methods, which, in our own interests, we
must make known as rapidly as possible throughout the Province. The packing-schools serve
to do this, as well as to give elementary instruction in packing to a large number of new
pupils, as in past years.
Apple-packing Contests.
The Department awarded prizes of $15, $10, and $5 at each of six fairs at which apple-
packing contests were held during the fair. These contests continue to stimulate interest in
rapid and high-class fruit-packing.
Pruning-schools.
Fruit-growers generally have lately recognized that much of the pruning being done left
much to be desired, improper systems of pruning causing very considerable loss by retarding
bearing and causing light yields of fruit. We felt that the popular demand for departmental
licensing of tree-pruners would not meet the case, and set to solve the problem by educational
methods. Truiiing-schools were devised to give the most expert instruction on proper.pruning
and to hold the pupils long enough to ensure a reasonably thorough grounding in both theory
and practice. A period of ten lessons of two hours and a half each was determined on. Farmers'
Institutes and other such bodies were required to guarantee a minimum attendance of eight,
though not more than twelve pupils, at $2 each.
The total number of pruning-schools dm-ing February, March, and April was twenty-five.
Though additional applications were received, our facilities were not equal to the work involved.
The Assistant Horticulturists conducted most of the schools and for the balance other
competent men were engaged.
The method was usually as follows: The Instructor gave two or three lectures on the
theory of pruning; demonstrations in practical pruning and in budding and in grafting, but
the greater part of the time was occupied in practical pruning by the pupils themselves.
The general commendation of the pruning-schools by the pupils has been very gratifying to
me and an inspiration to the Instructors. R 84 Department of Agriculture. 1915
The total number of pupils was 210; their average proficiency as scored by the Instructors
was 82 per cent.
In the month of December the series for the present winter was commenced. We have
already received applications for thirty-eight schools, and expect a total of probably forty-five.
These December schools will be reported on later.
Judging at Fairs and Flower-shows.
As in previous years, the Horticultural Branch provided expert judges, usually from our
staff, for the fruits and vegetables, and in some cases other classes, at all fairs of the Province.
In addition, Assistant Horticulturists judged a number of flower-shows throughout the Province.
As far as possible, the judges, on the conclusion of their work, gave the reasons for their
awards and practical demonstrations on the practice of judging and the standards of perfection.
The cancellation of many fairs this year cut up the circuits considerably. Thirty-five fairs
were judged and reported on.
The reports required by the Horticultural Branch from judges of horticultural classes are
used to secure recommended improvements, and, in addition, Assistant Horticulturists have
assisted in revision of prize-lists and improvement in the carrying-on of the fairs, calculated to
increase their usefulness.
At Prince Rupert the Horticultural Branch conducted an information and demonstration
booth at the fair, which was very popular and made use of to a gratifying extent. Increase
in the horticultural staff should make it possible for us to undertake such educational booths
as a regular practice. I might go further and recommend that such booths represent the entire
Department, as they would be most valuable in making known to the general public the wide
and useful range of our departmental activities.
Careful Handling, Precooling, Cold-storage, and Transportation Investigations.
Our extensive investigations along these lines wTere checked by the resignation of Mr. Smith,
which took effect on April 30th. Mr. F. L. Goodman carried on the work from the end of April
until September 15th, at which time it was taken over by Mr. Thornber, who is carrying on the
cold storage of apples investigations on a reduced scale during the present winter.
Rhubarb Packing and Cutting.—Our previous experiments having demonstrated the relation
of variety and cultural methods to the decay of rhubarb in shipment, and growers having taken
necessary steps to remedy these conditions, the experimental work this year was devoted to the
relation of methods of packing. Some growers make a practice of washing rhubarb before shipment, and many of them cut off the leaf, so as to leave part of the leaf-surface, thus increasing
the weight and to a certain extent improving the appearance. Our series of experiments show
conclusively that rhubarb should not be washed and should be shipped dry; they also showed
that the leaf should be removed entirely; shipments " short-cut " and packed dry were by far
the best.
Strairberry and Raspberry Shipments.—Our previous experiments demonstrated conclusively
that, for ordinary express shipment, berries should not be precooled much below 60 degrees.
Precooling experiments with salt-and-ice mixture were therefore abandoned, and work continued
with the dehydrator, which consists of a suitable chamber through which air is forced at high
speed by an electric fan. Experiments were also conducted on the behaviour of fruit shipped
wet versus dry.
These shipments were very carefully made and the results recorded in Regina by Mr.
Goodman personally. The experiments show conclusively that proper fanning greatly increases
the shipping quality of both strawberries and raspberries, as against ordinary shipments conducted without fanning. Our experiments also showed the great disadvantage of shipping even
slightly wet. Our work with the fan showed that, where it is necessary to pick fruit slightly
wet, it can be readily dried and its shipping quality made superior to the best ordinary shipments
by fanning about one hour.
A series of experiments were undertaken with what is known as the " Pony Refrigerator "
to determine its usefulness for present conditions. The impossibility of securing proper icing
en route, and also careful handling, resulted in the failure of the experiment, while the
additional cost of shipment is almost prohibitive. Growers who have been inquiring as to
this method have been so informed. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 85
The results of the other experiments are also being communicated to growers, who have
proven themselves very ready to make use of the results of this work.
Precooling Plant.—Previous work had fully demonstrated the improved carrying quality
of precooled fruit and had also demonstrated the efficiency of our precooling plant. Several
changes in the plant were, however, necessary, due to failure of the local electric power, and
to reduce costs. Gasolene distillate engines were installed for the fan and the ice-crusher
in place of the electric motors, which, however, have been retained and can still be used as
auxiliaries. The ice-and-salt chamber in the precooling plant was increased so as to make it
large enough to accommodate 8 tons of mixture, which is sufficient for the precooling of two
car-loads of fruit in twenty-four hours.
A local supply of ice was secured; this necessitated the erection of an ice-house, the only
available location being on an elevation across the road from the plant, requiring an ice-shute
168 feet long. Local ice costs at present about $2.50 a ton, as against $5 a ton for Canadian
Pacific Railway ice.
The changes made are all distinct contributions to the lowering of operating costs and
the increasing of efficiency. The cost records made show that when ice costs $3 per ton, the
cost of precooling peaches or apricots is 1.9 cents a box; if ice costs $2, the cost is reduced
to 1.5 cents; and if ice cost is reduced to $1 per ton, which I think possible, the charge per
box would be 1.1 cents. These charges do not include interest or depreciation, but include all
costs of operation, except trucking of fruit, amounting to about 0.2 cents per box.
The results in precooling apricots and peaches have been excellent. A good deal of benefit
has, however, been lost owing to failure of growers to advertise the fruit as precooled and to
insist on the premium it should bring, and partly from low prices of soft fruits during the past
three years, making the market a consignment one.
The total cost of the plant is about $3,500. This is very low considering its capacity of
two car-loads per twenty-four hours.
Cold-storage Experiments with Apples.—The third year of our extensive experiments in
apple cold storage was concluded in May last under Mr. Goodman's direction.
A series have been carried on to determine:—
The relative storage qualities of our principal varieties :
The relative storage quality of apples from different districts:
The value of immediate storage versus delayed storage:
The advantage of cold storage over common storage:
The influence of the stage of maturity at which fruit is picked:
The keeping qualities of different sizes.
It is yet too early to announce to the public conclusive results from this experiment, but the
work already done points out the following:—
Small and medium-sized apples only should be used for storage:
The proper stage of maturity for storage varies with different varieties:
Delay in getting apples into cold storage is dangerous:
The various districts experimented on showed little difference as to the cold-storage
qualities of their apples :
The commercial  season  of  our principal  varieties,  Jonathan  and  Mcintosh,   can   be
extended to February and even to March by cold storage.
Brine-tank Refrigerators.—The necessary use of a large percentage of brine-tank cars, rather
than the Bohn-system refrigerators, led us to extensive investigation of modifications necessary
to make the brine-tank a good fruit-shipping car.   Mr. Smith worked out these modifications,
and by courtesy of the Canadian Pacific Railway, who made changes in the car for the purpose,
conducted extensive experiments, this car being shipped from Vancouver to Winnipeg with fruit,
and from Winnipeg to Montreal with meat, to note its behaviour.    The changes were pronounced
a success by the Canadian Pacific Railway experts, and brine-tank cars are being adapted as
designed by Mr. Smith.
Mr. Smith addressed a series'of Farmers' Institute meetings on his work during March last,'
and also prepared our bulletin on " Farm Storage of Fruits and Vegetables," issued in August.
Onion Storage.—To increase the market for Okanagan onions we undertook a series of
experiments  In  methods  of  handling  and  storage  at  Kelowna.    Under  Mr.  Hoy's  direction,
different lots of onions were secured:    (a) From bench land and bottom land;   (6)   different R 86 Department op Agriculture. 1915
lots were given the last irrigation at different dates; and (c) another series of tests were
planned, testing different dates of harvesting. In the storage, which we erected in the Exchange
Building, these onions were stored in crates, bins, and sacks.
The experiment is not yet concluded, but at the present time, when practically the entire
Okanagan crop has gone into consumption, nearly all the lots of onions in this storage are in
excellent condition, showing that with proper handling and storage the season for Okanagan
onions can be extended several months, increasing the market perhaps 100 to 150 car-loads.
The results of this experiment will be communicated to growers at an early date.
Advertising.
The advertising-work was much increased this year. The Markets Commissioner carried
display advertising in Alberta papers for several months, urging British Columbia fruits generally. With funds from the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association's grant, the Markets
Commissioner in Calgary, and myself in Vancouver and Victoria, gave time and energy to the
promotion of " British Columbia Apple Weeks." An " Apple AVeek " may be defined as concentrated and intensive publicity to sell British Columbia apples. In each city wTe secured the
hearty co-operation of wholesalers and very generally of retailers, and had, too, the support of
fruit-growers' organizations. In every case the British Columbia Apple Weeks greatly stimulated
the consumption of apples, and to quite an important extent diverted the consuming public from
imported apples to those from our Province. The Apple Week propaganda proved a most
valuable one and gives every encouragement for much extension next year.
The issuance of 100,000 booklets by the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association, advertising British Columbia fruit, took much of my time and that of the Markets Commissioner.
Publications.
The extensive series of publications issued the previous year made less necessary a similar
activity this year, and, on the whole, the inauguration of extensive experimental work made it
seem wise to defer revision or reissue of publications until our experimental work is confirmed
this coming year.
The issues made, however, included the Annual Report of the British Columbia Fruitgrowers' Association; the Second Report of the Markets Commissioner; Bulletin No. 5S, on
"Farm Storages of Fruits and Vegetables"; 1914 Spray Calendar; and Departmental Circular
No. 6, " Gardening on a City Lot."
A large number of articles were written by various members of the staff for publication in
the newspapers and magazines; contributions were made to the Agricultural Gazette of Canada,
and various circulars were revised and reprinted, including:—■
Circular No.   8. Packing Orchard Fruits.
,, „    21. Pruning Fruit-trees (ready for publication as a bulletin) :
,, ,,    23. Fire-blight (to be issued as a bulletin) :
„ ,,    24. The Home Vegetable Garden for Interior Sections:
,, ,,    26. Top-working of Fruit-trees.
Additional circulars are being prepared on " The Home Vegetable Garden for Northern
British Columbia," and on " Cider-making."
Farmers' Institute Meetings.
As in previous years, a large. number of demonstrations and lectures have been given
before Farmers' Institutes on request, and, in addition, sixty-six lectures and demonstrations
on horticultural subjects were delivered at forty-eight points in the Farmers' Institute spring
series of meetings.
Pathological and Entomological Work.
The office of Pathologist and Entomologist, made vacant by Mr. Brittain's resignation, was
vacant up to the end of April, when Mr. J. W. Eastham was appointed. It was then too late
to carry on in full volume the many investigations and experiments developed by Mr. Brittain
the previous year, and Mr. Eastham's efforts were confined very largely to a general survey of
the Province in respect to pests of various kinds, and more especially with regard to the study
of fire-blight.    M. H. Ruhmann, who had been Horticultural Inspector at Grand Forks, under 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 87
Mr. Hoy, in the blight-control work, was moved to Vernon on May 1st to serve as assistant to
Mr. Eastham. He has identified specimens submitted, operated the laboratory, and has made
progress in the collection and indexing of what will prove to be a most useful library, covering
pests and their control.
At the end of November, quarters were completed for a laboratory in the new Court-house
at Vernon, to which our apparatus was moved. The new quarters are much more commodious
and convenient, and should result in greater usefulness for the laboratory.
Southern Okanagan Vegetable Experiment Station.
The Southern Okanagan Valley has not nearly developed its vegetable production compared
with the market opportunities and the capabilities of the district. We therefore took advantage
of the coming into the district of Mr. J. L. Hilborn, a highly successful Ontario expert, and
entered into agreement with him in April last to conduct extensive commercial experiments on
his ranch, and to open the property to the public for purposes of information and demonstration.
The project has been warmly welcomed by the growers generally, who have taken full advantage
of our arrangement and have already begun to develop, following Mr. Hilborn's example. Our
experimental work has provided much definite information on varieties, cultural practices, and
costs, and further experimental work Is being planned for next year.
Crop Estimates and Records.
The statistics of production have again been an important activity. Crop estimates were
issued through the season in advance to all members of the British Columbia Fruit-growers'
Association. Estimates of car requirements were furnished to the railroads. Crop records have
been compiled, covering the actual production for the year and its value for each individual
section. Records have also been made of the production and value of fruit and vegetable
by-products. The crop estimates are important from the standpoint of prospective prices and
markets, and the season's records show the progress made and permit of important deductions
as to future development.
Variety Yields.
Our extensive investigations on the choice of varieties have been further widened this year
by the general distribution of blank cards for recording the production of trees of different
varieties at different ages, both for a one-year and four-year period. These cards are put in
the hands of responsible growers and duplicates kept by Assistant Horticulturists. The variety-
yield records thus obtained will give much needed information on the actual production to be
' expected in each district from each commercial variety.
Strawberry-crop Competition.
In the Saanich District fourteen individual growers entered %-acre strawberry-plots in a
competition, which was judged at two different times and awards made thereon. This competition has greatly stimulated interest in increased production and improved methods to that
end.    The highly satisfactory results suggest the value of more general efforts in this direction.
Vacant-lot and Garden Competitions.
The conditions prevailing in our cities make it desirable that idle men and vacant land be
brought together. Circulars are being issued on gardening methods for the various conditions
of the Province, and we have arranged to organize and give prizes for vacant-lot and home-
garden competitions in various cities and towns. In Victoria a demonstration vacant-lot garden
is being operated by the Department.
The British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association.
My Secretarial duties in this association require an increasing amount of time each year.
The association is being increasingly supported, the total membership for 1914 being 876, while
twenty-six associations are affiliated. I attended two meetings of the Directors, five of the
Executive, five of various committees, and the annual meeting. The Committees on Transportation, Legislation, Advertising, and the Dominion Conference were active, as their reports
to be submitted to the Minister will show.    I appeared before members of the Government at R 88 Department op Agriculture.- 1915
Ottawa on matters affecting our industry, as an officer of this association. The advertising
campaign called very largely on my time. There is a large amount of correspondence, both on
the organization of the association and its activities, which are intimately related to the welfare
of the fruit industry.
Markets Commissioner.
The Prairie Markets Commissioner's work was continued by Mr. J. Forsyth Smith to the
general satisfaction of our growers and of myself. The scope of this work was much widened
and the volume increased. The publication of a series of reports giving the fruit-consumption
of Prairie towns and a list of retailers was new and valuable. A visit was made to Eastern
cities and a report made on development of the trade there in British Columbia fruits. United
States points were covered as usual. The weekly reports were issued in more detail and were
gotten out without delay. Publicity work, including circulars to retailers and to secretaries of
grain-growers' organizations; the Calgary " Apple Week " ; general advertising in Prairie papers,
and the distribution of thousands of the Fruit-growers' Association's booklet made this a very
important activity. Undoubtedly, the value of the Markets Commissioner's reports has greatly
increased the membership of the Fruit-growers' Association, and his activities have greatly helped
the sale and the consumption of British Columbia fruit.
Coast Markets Commissioner.—At the beginning of November the Department agreed to
assist in the financing and direction of the work of the Fraser Valley Markets Commissioner,
Mr. R. C. Abbott, under the Fraser Valley Development League. Mr. Abbott's work will complement Mr. Smith's work on the Prairie, and will also greatly stimulate the sale of British
Columbia products in Coast markets; it will be, in addition, largely directed to foster co-operative
marketing of all agricultural products of the Fraser Valley. The work is just commenced and
gives promise of much usefulness.
Blight-control AVork.
Our active campaign against fire-blight in the Grand Forks District the previous year gave
us more favourable conditions for an energetic campaign this year. We kept Mr. Hunt in
Grand Forks and district on this work. The amount of orchard affected has been reduced
from 2,400 acres to a little over 200 acres, and on the reduced infected area the degree of
infection was very greatly reduced. A good deal of our winter work has already been done
and we may hope for continued reduction next year. Mr. Hunt has also had charge of the
blight outbreak at Midway, where a few orchards are moderately affected.
In the Nelson District a number of outbreaks, none, however, causing serious injury, are
being thoroughly combated by Mr. Middleton. Similarly, light infections in the Lower Arrow
Lakes and Slocan District were in Mr. French's charge, and all visible blight was removed before
the end of August. Mr. Hoy has continued to keep in close touch with the blight situation in
the Okanagan Valley. Mr. Eastham has made a thorough survey of the entire blight situation
and has endorsed fully the methods which we adopted last year and have continued.
By-products Investigations.
The Horticultural Branch is completing a considerable investigation of the whole by-products
situation with a view to definite recommendations for the successful development of profitable
by-products industries. Special difficulties offer, largely of an economic character, but these can
be met with reasonable success if growers are prepared to accept the situation.
Our reports will show excellent prospects for increased production of jams, etc., in the
Kootenay and Coast sections, and the advisability of pulping plants where capital is insufficient
for jam-factories. There are excellent prospects, too, for canning-factories in the Okanagan and,
later, in Thompson River and Similkameen sections, working especially on tomatoes, peaches,
and apricots. In the Okanagan and on the Coast, cider, cider vinegar, and pickle plants,
properly managed, should succeed. Prospects for evaporated or dried fruits seem to be limited
at present to apples, largely in the Okanagan.
Demonstration-work.
The Assistant Horticulturists have again devoted much time to practical demonstration on
the land in all those practical features which lend themselves to demonstration-work.    Aside 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 89
from the pruning and packing schools, much demonstration-work has been done on summer and
winter pruning, spraying, blight-control, fruit handling, packing, and grading, etc.
Closely connected with this demonstration-work is orchard inspection and personal instruction to orchardists and vegetable-growers on their own places. There are many subjects not
capable of demonstration on which such advice can be offered to great advantage. This feature
of our work is especially popular. Requests for personal visits continue to increase in number,
and this work takes the most of the time of my assistants.
Experimental Work in Cultural Practices.
Spraying experiments conducted by Messrs. French and Scott have most convincingly
shown the ease with which apple-scab and other troubles can be controlled at a minimum cost.
Fertilizer experiments on small fruits at Salmon Arm showed excellent results and should lead
to more general experiments by growers. Thinning experiments on fruit have amply confirmed
the recommendation of our circular on this subject.
A large number of experiments on fertilizers for various vegetables have shown widely
varying requirements for various vegetables under different conditions; in almost every
experiment there was a decided improvement in yield from some fertilizer or other, which
shows conclusively that growers should undertake definite experimental work on their own
soils and crops. A series of potato-blight spray experiments at four Lower Mainland points
showed a very satisfactory and remunerative measure of control. Variety tests in celery at
Chilliwack have also been carried on.
The results of this work, when made known to the growers through lectures this winter,
showing the possibilities of increased production by improved methods or the use of fertilizers,
should greatly increase interest in the careful study of methods of production.
Tomato-phoduction Survey.
Mr. Hayes, under Mr. Hoy's direction, made a careful study of the tomato-growing industry
of the Okanagan with respect to varieties, soils, cultural methods, yields, cost of production,
diseases, returns, etc. This survey was undertaken because of the considerable possibilities of
the tomato-growing industry, and more definite experiments will be carried on next year to give
information on many doubtful points in common cultural practices, so as to increase the yield,
reduce the cost, and specially to secure increased earliness.
Marketing and Co-operation.
The various members of the Horticultural Branch have, as opportunity served, endeavoured
to assist the development of successful co-operative marketing organization. The methods now
in use are being carefully studied, so as to reveal defects and make improvements possible. On
Vancouver Island and in the Lower Mainland we have made definite progress in the organization
of berry-shipping and other associations.
The creation of new markets and-the extension of our present ones, two very important
matters, have had considerable attention of various members of our staff, more especially of
the Markets Commissioner and myself, and many recommendations have been made to shippers
as information was secured.
Summer Schools for Teachers.
The Educational Department's summer school in agriculture for rural school-teachers took
up two weeks' time for several members of our staff. A series of lectures was given on all
features of horticulture covered by our Branch, and field demonstrations were held at the
Experimental Farm, Sidney, and at Mr. Thos. Brydon's orchard, Victoria.
Demonstration and Experimental Orchards.
The operation of our ten demonstration orchards of 5 acres each, many of them now four
years old, and our six experimental orchards, which are from one to four years old, has occupied
much of the time of the Assistant Horticulturists.
The demonstration orchards have all made very satisfactory progress during the year, and
costs of operation have been kept down just about to the minimum. There was practically no
winter killing and little replanting was necessary last spring.    The trees made excellent growth R 90 Department of Agriculture. 1915
which has matured well. Some of these orchards are producing appreciable quantities of fruit,
especially where early bearing varieties were used as fillers. A number of meetings and demonstrations have been held in connection with this work.
Our six experimental orchards have done reasonably well. In these orchards we expect a
considerable proportion of winter injury and are gradually limiting our varieties to the very
hardiest kinds, so that the owners may have a fairly good orchard for the district when our
agreement terminates. The tree-growth in experimental orchards is usually much lighter than
in demonstration orchards, due to the shorter season In the experimental districts.
The Chilliwack 5-acre Small-fruit Demonstration Plot has had a year of heavy production.
Failure of the Chilliwack Cannery, which was so very prosperous at the time of starting the
plot, has greatly curtailed the market for the product, and as yet only moderate success has
been reached in other markets. With more progress towards berry-marketing in the Lower
Mainland this problem should be solved.
Experimental Trees.
The number of trees distributed in northern sections for experimental work by settlers was
about 500, the smallest quantity in the four years of this work. We have in course of preparation a full report of the experimental-tree work of the past four years, which I expect will
furnish a basis for fairly definite recommendations for northern districts generally, and also
suggest a basis for small experimental orchards in northern districts.
Demonstration Plots in Northern British Columbia.
Under Mr. Tomlinson's direction, three 5-acre plots, with a paid man in charge of each,
were started last spring at Terrace, in the Kitsumgallum Valley; Lawn Hill, in the Queen
Charlotte Islands; and Bella Coola. These plots cover experimental tests and demonstrations
on small fruits, vegetables, forage-plants, grains, and grasses. On the Queen Charlotte plot
demonstrational tests were made as well in the burning and use of lime on their soils; methods
of drainage and the cost of the same, etc. Mr. Tomlinson's report speaks most confidently of
the great value of these plots under the conditions existing.
Office-work.
Office-work for the successful conducting of the Horticultural Branch is necessarily of
considerable extent. Correspondence in answer to inquiries in regard to investigations and in
the direction of our work shows a constant increase.
I am glad to acknowledge the generally satisfactory manner in which the various members
of the staff have performed their duties.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
R. M. Winslow,
Provincial Horticulturist.
REPORT OF FRUIT INSPECTION BRANCH.
By W. H. Lyne, Assistant Fruit Pest Inspector.
Victoria, B.C., January 14th, 1915.
Hon. Price Ellison,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The following report, covering details of work performed by the Inspector of Fruit
Pests and his staff of assistants during the years 1913 and 1914, is respectfully submitted:—
Staff.
This Branch consists of the Inspector of Fruit Pests, his assistant, two quarantine officers,
and a stenographer, who also acts as clerk.
The quarantine and inspection of imported fruit, vegetables, rice, grain, and corn is carried
out by sixteen assistant quarantine officers stationed at the several points of entry into the
Province. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. . R 91
For the inspection of orchards, nurseries, and so forth, and the suppression of insect pests
and diseases throughout the Province, field officers are appointed to the different districts, the
number of these depending upon emergencies that may arise.
The inspection and fumigation of imported nursery stock, trees, shrubs, and plants, both
for the Dominion of Canada and the Province of British Columbia, is carried out by the Provincial Inspector of Fruit Pests, who received the authority as Dominion Inspector for the Pacific
Coast by special arrangement between the Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture.
During the year 1914 there were fourteen field officers on the staff of the Inspector of Fruit
Pests engaged in the several districts throughout the Province, and twenty-one men employed
with the Government power-sprayers and blight-cutting. In 1913 nineteen Field Inspectors and
ten blight-cutters were at work, four of the Inspectors, however, only for a short period.
Spraying.
The spring of 1913 found us busily engaged with field-work in several parts of the Province.
In the Duncan District demonstration spraying for apple-scab (Fusicladium dendriticum) with
one of the Government gasolene power-sprayers was in operation. Another Government gasolene
power-sprayer was operating in the Victoria and Saanich Districts against apple-scab and
remnants of codling-moth infection that still existed in one or two orchards in the vicinity
of Victoria, having survived a very vigorous campaign of extermination conducted against it
during two previous seasons.
Demonstration spraying with another Government machine was also carried out in the
vicinity of Abbotsford and Mission, in the Fraser Valley District. Salmon Arm also received
similar attention, some very good results being obtained by the use of the machine stationed
there.
Other Government power-sprayers were in operation as follows : Two machines at Armstrong,
as a safeguard against any codling-moth that might still be in existence after dealing with
incipient attack that occurred the year before, but am thankful to say there has been no
further evidence of infection. The same precautions were taken at Rutland, near Kelowna,
where two more machines were at work, following up the good fight of the previous fall, and
with the same results as at Armstrong, not a sign of infection since.
Fire-blight.
By June 1st, 1913, there was plenty of evidence that the orchards in the Okanagan Lake
District were in for a continuation of fire-blight epidemic of the previous summer, and on a
much more extensive scale. Twig-tips began to wilt and droop over in many orchards that
did not show signs of infection the summer before. There is very little doubt that negligence
and careless cutting-back of infected branches and limbs, and failure to remove carrying-over
cankers before new growth started in the spring, resulted in supplying plenty of bacteria for
the numerous sucking and biting insects to distribute.
Nine Field Inspectors, under the direction of the Inspector of Fruit Pests and his assistant,
were busy all summer and into the late fall and winter giving individual instructions to the
orchardists re cutting out and disinfecting. Several demonstration meetings were held in certain
orchards during the day and in one of the public halls at night.
At Summerland, where the fire-blight was most extensive, two gangs of men, each in charge
of a good competent foreman, were employed cutting out the infected twigs, branches, and
limbs, and taking out whole trees where necessary. These men operated in orchards that had
no one in charge, or where those in charge were not capable of dealing with the infection.
Strict record was kept of the time and work performed in each orchard, in order that the cost
of the work could be charged against the property. Spraying against aphis, hoppers, tarnish-
bug, and other sucking and biting insects was insisted upon as much as possible.
Considerable opposition was met with on the part of some of the orchardists, who resented
any interference and did their best to handicap the Government in its attempt to save the only
asset most of them had. In the Summerland District 12,000 trees were marked with red bunting,
as being infected, and of this number 300 had to be dug out and burned.
The fire-blight did very little harm in other infected areas, Vernon, Kelowna, Peachland,
Naramata, and Penticton, with the exception of three or four orchards at the Okanagan Mission
and two or three orchards at Penticton.   Many more orchards in the several districts would R 92 Department of Agriculture. 1915
have suffered severely had not the owners or men in charge faithfully and thoroughly carried
out instructions given them by the Field Inspectors. It was a great temptation for many of
the orchardists to refrain from cutting back far enough below the infected tissue if the branch
happened to contain some nicely developed fruit, or entailed the sacrifice of a large limb. This
false economy and failure to disinfect resulted in the greatest possible harm, and was the
principal cause of much serious loss in many individual cases.
On Saturday, June 2Sth, 1913, the Board of Horticulture met at Kelowna, the discussion
of fire-blight infection being the principal item for consideration. The work of the Inspector
of Fruit Pests and his staff was unanimously endorsed, and the Hon. Price Ellison, Minister of
Finance and Agriculture, on being informed that fire-blight had also broken out at Grand Forks,
and that it would be necessary to increase the staff of Field Inspectors, gave orders to the Provincial Horticulturist to take charge of the blight-infection in the Grand Forks District, using
his own staff of assistants, so as to relieve the Inspector of Fruit Pests of the necessity to
appoint new men.
The campaign against the fire-blight in the Okanagan District, which had been carried on
right into the winter of the previous season, was resumed in March, 1914. The field officers
were instructed to make a tree-to-tree inspection and ascertain if any cankers had been overlooked, and, if found, to make sure they were properly removed before new growth started.
In spite of every effort on the part of the field officers, a few cankers were left over till
the new growing season commenced, and in some cases the bacteria had penetrated to the roots
by way of suckers or bridge-cankers on the body of the tree. The suckers were sometimes so
small as to escape notice, and resulted in the roots becoming hopelessly infected and the tree
having to be dug out, but perhaps not before some of the bacteria reeking in the infected root
had been carried by some insect to a blossom or tender new growth on another tree.
However, the new infections were not nearly so numerous as the year before. Most of the
growers had been taught their lesson and knew what to expect in the event of neglect or carelessness, and so the results ran throughout the whole summer. Those who were always on the
alert to carefully cut out new infection directly it could be detected did not incur any loss worth
mention.
Places where the blight was exceptionally severe this summer were as follows : One orchard
in Long Lake District, Vernon; three orchards at Kelowna, four orchards at Summerland, and
three at Penticton.
Penticton probably suffered the most this summer on account of a great deal of carelessness
on the part of a few growers last fall, who, not having been very badly infected up to that
time, did not treat their cases nearly so thoroughly as they should have done, in spite of the
efforts of the field officer to induce them to do so. The excellent work carried out by the officers
stationed there this last summer and the co-operation of the growers themselves have improved
the situation tremendously.
Taking everything into consideration, the fire-blight infection in the Okanagan was not
nearly so bad, on the whole, in 1914 as in 1913, with the exception of a few individual cases.
One particular development of the blight will necessitate very careful study and attention
in the immediate future, and that is root-infection. On account of the treacherous way in
which this most vital part of the tree becomes infected, it is not detected until too late to check
the disease.
CODLING-MOTH.
On August 19th, 1913, codling-moth infection was discovered within the city limits of
Kelowna. Steps were immediately taken to ascertain the exact area of infection, which proved,
to be about twelve blocks square, consisting of about 5,000 trees. The infected area was at
once quarantined and a tree-to-tree search made for larvae either in the fruit or under the bark..
All trees were banded and no fruit was allowed to be used or removed without special permit
from the Field Inspector. An isolated building within the infected area was rented by the
Government, to which all the quarantined fruit was taken and carefully inspected, and all that
passed inspection was credited to the party to whom it belonged and packed for consignment to
North-west Provinces, after which it was hauled directly to the ear and not allowed to enter
any of the packing-houses before being shipped out of the Province. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 93
All the culls and fruit found to contain larva} of the codling-moth were boiled in a special
boiler near the inspection-shed. After the work of inspection and packing was completed, the
building, with all boxes and utensils, was thoroughly fumigated with carbon bisulphide.
During the winter all trees in the quarantined area were carefully examined for hibernating
larvae, and all rough bark on trunk and larger limbs thoroughly scraped.
This incipient infection of codling-moth in the city limits of Kelowna very probably resulted
from refrigerator-cars containing codling-moth cocoons. The Department, having been aware
of this danger for some time, had ordered all empty refrigerator-cars to be inspected by the
Field Inspectors in their respective districts, which had resulted in codling-moth cocoons being
found on more than one occasion in empty cars that had recently contained apples or pears from
the United States or Ontario.
The campaign against codling-moth infection was continued at Kelowna, Kamloops, and the
Victoria District in 1914. The few small orchards that were still infected in the Victoria District received two sprayings with arsenate of lead, the infected areas at Kelowna and Kamloops
receiving three thorough sprayings on account of the more rapid development and slightly longer
breeding season of the codling-moth in these two districts as compared to the Victoria District.
All the apple, crab, pear, and quince trees were banded with gunny-sack and a careful tree-
to-tree inspection carried out during the whole summer and fall season, and a strict account
kept of all larvoa found in the fruit or under the bands and in the crevices of the trees. Three
Government and one private gasolene power-sprayers were in use at Kelowna, one Government
gasolene outfit at Kamloops, and another at Victoria. The results at Kelowna and Kamloops
were very satisfactory, not more than a dozen codling-moth larvaa having been found during the
whole season at either place. On account of the officer in the Victoria District having to devote
some of his time to work in another part of the Province, the search for larva? was not carried
on throughout the whole season, and the results from spraying were not ascertained as definitely
as in the two last-mentioned places. However, a very close inspection in the fall revealed the
fact that what infection remained was very slight indeed and confined to about a dozen small
orchards, so that, as far as codling-moth is concerned, another season's thorough work should
about rid the Province of this destructive past.
Nurseries.
All local nurseries were carefully inspected previous to the spring and fall sales, and on the
whole the stock was found to be In good condition, only necessitating the condemnation of a
very small quantity, besides what was voluntarily discarded by" the nurserymen.
The total number of one- and two-year-old standard fruit-trees in our local nurseries is
about 850,000, and the number of small-fruit bushes something over 300,000. There is also a
good supply of miscellaneous ornamental shrubs, trees, and rose-bushes.
Other Insect Pests and Diseases.
Insect pests and diseases of economic importance with which we have had to deal in
different parts of the Province have been the tent-caterpillar (Malacosoma erosa), which has
been very plentiful on the Coast and Lower Mainland, oyster-shell scale, green apple-aphis,
mealy and plum aphis, woolly aphis, black cherry-aphis, and sundry other species attacking
vegetables and garden crops.
The European scale (Aspidiotus ostrewformis) and cottony cushion-scale (Pulvinaria
innumerabilis) have become very plentiful in some sections, and 'will require close attention
in the near future. In the Upper Country the peach twig and fruit borer (Anarsia Uneatella)
showed considerable increase this season as a result of lack of spraying on the part of the
peach and apricot growers. The peach-root borer is also in evidence in the same localities.
These two insects we must regard as two of the most serious insects attacking our peach,
apricot, and plum trees. The tarnished plant-bug (Lygus pratensis) was also in evidence in
several sections, and in some cases causing a great deal of harm, particularly to the young
buds and tender new growth of the trees, and reducing the yield of fruit by their attack. It
is also one of the most active agents in the distribution of the blight bacteria from tree to tree
during the middle of the summer. R 94 Department of Agriculture. 1915
The onion-thrip (Thrips tabaci) was very much in evidence in onion plantations around
Kelowna, evidently either as a result of the dry season or from the fact that the crop of tobacco,
on which they habitually feed, was not in existence this summer.
I have, etc.,
W. H. Lyne,
Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
ANNUAL REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
By W. T. McDonald, B.S.A., M.S.A., Live Stock Commissioner.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1914.
W. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report for the year 1914.
Staff.
During the past twelve months the following-named men have been added to the staff of
the Live Stock Branch : S. H. Hopkins, Assistant Live Stock Commissioner; William Newton,
Assistant Soil and Crop Instructor; and R. L. Ramsay, Assistant Agriculturist. These men are
all doing efficient work. Mr. Hopkins has been of great assistance to me personally in relieving
me of much office and field work, but even with the present increased staff the Branch is still
unable to handle all of the important work that lies before it, and it is hoped that additional
men will be added in the near future. This is especially true in the case of the Veterinary,
Dairy, and Soil and Crop Divisions.
Live Stock.
The past year has given evidence of a greatly increased interest in the live-stock industry.
From all parts of the Province we have been receiving requests for information re the purchase
of stock. This has been particularly true of those sections tributary to the Grand Trunk Pacific
Railway and the Okanagan Nalley. The greatest demand has been for dairy cattle, while during
the latter part of the year there have been a great number of inquiries for sheep. It has been
gratifying to note that there is a tendency to utilize farm lands which have been held for
speculation, particularly in the vicinity of the larger centres of our population, for agricultural
purposes. There has also been a greater disposition to clear land since the real-estate boom has
subsided.
Since the outbreak of the war grain prices have become very high, while there has been
a downward tendency in the market for live stock and live-stock products. This has been felt
more particularly in the case of swine and poultry, and has resulted in throwing a great deal
of stock on the market. In the case of other live stock the high price of grain has not been so
serious, as it has been counterbalanced to a certain degree by a low market for hay.
Particularly in the newer agricultural districts there is too much tendency to adjust farm
practices to suit temporary market conditions. One marked instance is that of the recent
disposal of a great deal of the breeding stock of swine, which will result in a shortage of
this class of live stock in 1915. While undoubtedly under present conditions the profits in hog-
raising will be small, unless roughage, such as alfalfa and clover, is used extensively, as soon
as the war is over we may expect a big drop in the price of grain, and those farmers who make
provision to have on hand a reasonable amount of live stock will profit thereby.
In the Northern Interior of British Columbia settlers are finding it necessary to adjust their
farming methods to meet a new set of conditions brought about by the completion of the Grand
Trunk Pacific Railway.    So long as construction-work was in progress almost fabulous prices 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 95
were secured for hay, and farmers were devoting their entire efforts to the production of this
crop. With the completion of the railroad the local market largely disappeared, and there is
now felt a great need for live stock, particularly cattle, to which hay may be fed. A considerable number of dairy cattle have already been taken into the Bulkley and Nechako Valleys, and
in several cases farmers have taken advantage of the assistance offered by the Provincial and
Dominion Departments of Agriculture to secure pure-bred sires.
Veterinary Division.
During the year 1914 the staff of the Veterinary Division has confined its work chiefly to
the testing of cattle for tuberculosis and the inspection of dairy premises on farms visited while
conducting this work. A total of 1S,040 cattle were tested. Among these there was a total of
1,031 reactors, or 5.16 per cent., and fifty-four suspects. I am pleased to report that both the
British Columbia Stock-breeders' and British Columbia Dairymen's Associations at their 1914
conventions strongly endorsed the work of the Department of Agriculture in testing cattle for
tuberculosis.
While the work accomplished has been very satisfactory, I would strongly recommend that
our veterinary staff be increased to ten men in addition to Dr. Knight. The amount required
for additional salaries would be more than compensated for in the reduction in the amount
paid for compensation of condemned animals. In the vicinity of Victoria a retest has shown
a considerable number of reactors in some herds. I am satisfied that had these herds been
retested within at least six months after the first test, only a very small percentage of the
present number of reactors would have been found. In herds where the disease is present
there are likely to be one or more animals which have the disease in the incubative stage and
would not react to a test; if, however, these cattle are retested within from three to six months,
the newly developed cases are likely to be detected before they are far enough advanced to be
a source of danger to healthy cattle in the herd.
The City of Vancouver is now endorsing a by-law which requires that all milk sold in that
city shall come from tuberculin-tested cows. A number of other cities in the Province contemplate an early enforcement of similar by-laws. (For details see Report of Chief Veterinary
Inspector.)
Dairy Division.
Creameries.—In spite of somewhat lower prices for dairy products, we find a desire on the
part of a great many districts to purchase sufficient dairy cows to enable them to supply enough
cream to warrant the building of a co-operative creamery. While in some cases the districts
in question would be justified in taking such a step, in other cases conditions would not warrant
the building of a creamery at the present time.
Cow-testing Associations.—One of the most valuable lines of work coming under the supervision of the Dairy Division is the organization of Cow-testing Associations. The following
associations have already been established: Chilliwack Association, Sardis Association, Comox
Association, and Langley-Surrey Association. It is expected that associations will be organized
within a short time in the Delta and Cowichan Districts. These associations are having, and
will continue to have a marked influence on the economical production of dairy products. The
information afforded by the records of the association gives a very close approximate of the
profit or loss of each Individual cow in each herd.
Dairy Inspection.—Messrs. H. Rive and T. A. F. Wiancko, Dairy Instructors, have spent
considerable time during 1914 in the inspection of dairy premises, and in giving instructions for
the improvement of conditions where such are deemed necessary.
A large number of municipalities within the Province have taken advantage of the power
granted them under the " Milk Act," and have passed by-laws giving them better control of
their respective milk-supplies. In practically all cases where municipalities are making an
effort to improve their milk-supply they have been offered and have accepted the co-operation
of our Dairy Inspectors.
As a result of the work being done by the Dairy and Veterinary Divisions, sanitary conditions of our dairies have greatly improved, and, generally speaking, our dairymen have shown
their willingness to be governed by the suggestions offered by our Inspectors. (For details see
Report of Chief Dairy Instructor.) R 96 Department op Agriculture. 1915
Poultry Division.
Work of Officials.—Messrs. Terry and Upton have personally visited a large number of our
poultrymen one or more times during the year. They have been able to render valuable assistance in giving instructions as to better methods of handling poultry, and in giving advice for
the control of disease where found. In addition to the regular Farmers' Institute work, a large
number of meetings held under the auspices of local Poultry Associations have been addressed.
Twenty-four co-operative breeding-stations have been conducted during the year 1914, and, with
one or two exceptions, results have been very satisfactory. These stations have served as a
supply centre for good poultry in the more or less remote districts. In each case birds were
introduced that were well suited to the conditions in each particular locality.
Egg-laying Contest.—The Third International Egg-laying Contest, conducted under the
auspices of the Department of Agriculture, began on October 28th, 1913, and concluded on
September 27th, 1914. In both the non-weight and weight classes the egg yields surpassed
the records of previous contests held by the Department. Pens were entered from Great
Britain and New Zealand. In Class I. (non-weight varieties; six birds to a pen) the first
prize was won by the Ranguiru Egg Ranch, Otaki, New Zealand, White Leghorns, the total
number of eggs laid being 1,330. The average number of eggs laid per bird in Class I. was
170.4. In Class II. (weight varieties; six birds to a pen) the first prize was won by E. D.
Read, of Duncan, B.C., with White Wyandottes, the total number of eggs laid being 1,258.
The average number of eggs laid per bird in Class II. was 157.9. In all, a total of forty pens
were entered. This contest has been renewed for another year, with more than enough entries
to fill the pens.    (For details see Report of Chief Poultry Instructor.)
Soil and Crop Division.
During the past summer Mr. W. Newton, a graduate of Macdonald College, was appointed
a Soil and Crop Instructor to assist Mr. J. C. Readey.
Field-crop Competitions.—The field-crop competitions were participated in by a larger
number of competitors than during the previous year. In all, a total of eighty competitions
were held, with 683 entries. This work has served to stimulate a keen interest in proper
seed-selection and better methods of cultivation.
Boys' and Girls' Competitions.—A new line of work—namely, a competition in the growing
of potatoes for boys and girls—was inaugurated during the spring of 1914. All competitors who
satisfactorily completed the work of growing and harvesting the potatoes and submitting a
statement of cost of production were given a badge and a copy of a standard book on " The
Potato." The sum of $221 was awarded in cash prizes, and the boy and girl receiving the
highest scores in the Province were given a pure-bred heifer calf and a sewing-machine respectively. We look for great good to result from this work, and in the near future I would like
to see other competitions, aside from the growing of potatoes, for boys and girls arranged.
Demonstration Stations.—The work on the small demonstration stations has in most cases
been more or less of a preliminary nature, but from now on we may expect more definite results.
These plots will be used for the purpose of demonstrating proper systems of rotation and
cultivation, the value of various fertilizers, and the kinds and varieties of crops best suited
to the respective districts. In addition, and without interfering with the general plan of the
work, they may be used for the production of choice seed. Twelve 1-acre plots of alfalfa have
either been seeded or will be seeded during 1915.
Silo Erection and Filling.—Considerable assistance has been given in supplying plans for
the erection of silos, and also in carrying on demonstration in the filling of the same. This
work has aroused considerable interest and will do much to introduce the silo. Particularly
in dairy sections, silage deserves every consideration, and will prove of great value in reducing
the cost of feed. On the farm of Dr. A. Knight, Sardis, two experiments were conducted with
silos; the one in making silage from clover, and the other to determine whether or not silage
might be cured in a silo holding only enough for two or three cows. The work of the past
season has not been entirely satisfactory, but we feel that by following a different method in
filling the silo where clover was used, excellent results might have been obtained. Some work
has been done in seeding certain grass-mixtures for pasture purposes, and one test has been   5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 97
conducted for the purpose of determining the value of clover pasture for hogs. The results of
pasture experiment are not conclusive, but, when supplemented by the work of another year
or two, should prove of value.
In the spring of 1914 three 1-lb. samples of corn and 5 lb. of alfalfa-seed, with culture, were
sent to each of five members of the Farmers' Institutes who made application. The result of
this work has demonstrated that both alfalfa and corn may be grown successfully in many
districts formerly supposed to be unsuited for the growth of these valuable crops.
Over 2,000 bushels of approved Banner oats were distributed to various farmers, through
their institutes, at slightly less than cost price. (For details see Report of Soil and Crop
Instructor.)
District Agriculturists.
During the summer, Mr. R. L. Ramsay, a graduate of the Ontario Agricultural College,
was appointed as Assistant Agriculturist to Mr. H. E. Walker, who previously had been alone
in the Northern Interior.
The work being conducted by our District Agriculturists is of very great importance.
Their territory includes only new agricultural country, and settlers find themselves in need
of assistance, particularly as to the kind and variety of crops to grow, and also methods of
cultivation to follow. Our representatives endeavour, in so far as possible, to make personal
visits to the farms of the respective settlers, and thus have become very closely in touch with
the conditions and problems of the individual.
Demonstration Plots.—Work has been, or is about to be, conducted on six different
demonstration plots, approximating 4 acres in area. The work conducted on these plots will
furnish the Department with valuable information regarding climatic and soil conditions in
that country tributary to the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway from Hazelton eastward to1 the
Rocky Mountains.
A considerable number of dairy and other cattle have been imported into the district in
question during the past year, and only the question of available funds has prevented further
importations.
Northern Interior.—The Northern Interior of British Columbia is pre-eminently a mixed-
farming country, and rapid development may be expected to take place. Summer frosts have
been somewhat annoying in certain districts, but it is confidently believed that this trouble wTill
grow less and less as the country Is opened up and brought under cultivation. Some excellent
crops of the standard grains, roots, vegetables, etc., have been produced, and, with the advantage
of knowledge gained by experience regarding suitable varieties, the agricultural possibilities
appear very bright. Six summer frosts occurred during the past year in the Bulkley Valley,
but only two of these were of any consequence, while favoured localities received no injury.
The climate is much less rigid than that of the Prairie Provinces. (For details see Report of
Mr. H. E. Walker, District Agriculturist.)
Brands.
Under the provisions of legislation enacted during the 1914 session of the Legislative
Assembly, the recording of stock-brands for the Province has been assigned to the office of the
Live Stock Commissioner. Since the work was organized it has been carried on almost entirely
by the Assistant Live Stock Commissioner, Mr. S. H. Hopkins. Under the new " Brand Act,"
all previously registered brands were cancelled, and stock-owners wishing to continue the use
of their brands were obliged to have them rerecorded. One thousand and eighty-five brands
have so far been registered.
I would respectfully suggest that a book of stock-brands for British Columbia be issued.
This would be of great value to brand-owners, Brand Inspectors, and others interested in the
carrying-out of the regulations of the " Brand Act."
Farmers' Institutes and Fall Fairs.
As has been customary, the members of the staff of the Live Stock Branch have assisted at
Farmers' Institute meetings and short courses held under the auspices of the Department, and,
aside from their regular meetings, many special meetings have been addressed by one or more R 98 Department of Agriculture. 1915
of our officials. Owing to the conditions resulting from the outbreak of the present war, many
of the fall fairs were cancelled, so that officials of the Branch were able to do a large part of
the judging at the fairs which were held.
Summer School.
Several members of the staff of the Live Stock Branch gave a considerable amount of their
time to assisting with the instruction given to the summer school for teachers held in Victoria
during the month of June. While this interfered considerably with the regular work of the
Branch, it afforded an excellent opportunity to the teachers in attendance to become familiar
with some of the work of the Department of Agriculture, and was appreciated by both the
teachers and the Department of Education.
Publications.
The following publications have been issued during the year 1914:—
Bulletins.
No. 56. Field-crop Competitions, 1913.
,,    57. Boys' and Girls' Field-crop Competitions.
Circular Bulletins.
No. 5. Clover Dodder.
„ 6. Seed Improvement.
„ 7. Keeping Poultry Free from Lice.
,, 8. Corn.
,, 9. Line Cuts for Poultry-houses.
„ 10. The Care of Milk and Cream.
Reports.
Second Egg-laying Contest.
British Columbia Poultry Association Bulletin.
No. 2. Poultry-keeping on a City Lot.
A bulletin on the raising of hogs and one on poultry-house construction are now ready for
the printers.
Respectfully submitted.
W. T. McDonald,
Live Stock Commissioner.
ANNUAL REPORT OF VETERINARY DIVISION.
By A. Knight, V.S., Chief Veterinary Inspector.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1914.
Professor W. T. McDonald,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report for the year ending December 31st, 1914.
During the year the veterinary staff has confined its work chiefly to the testing of cattle
for tuberculosis. Commencing about March 1st with seven Inspectors, we have tested cattle
during the past year on 1,755 places, and a total number of 18,040 cattle, with 1,031 reactors
and fifty-four suspects. Of the above total, 1,032 have been retested for the second time on
nineteen premises. We have still in quarantine thirty-six head of suspects and eight reactors.
(For cattle tested within the various sections see Appendix L.)
On the completion of the tuberculin testing I hope to be able to detail our Inspectors on
sanitary work. At present we have not the time to devote our attention to this line of work
owing to the time taken for testing. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 99
I expect by the end of February to be able to report, that the cattle in the dairy sections
of the Province of British Columbia have been tuberculin-tested for the first time. In so far as
the Coast work is concerned, there only remains the small districts in the vicinity of Coquitlam,
Port Haney, and Whonnock.
I would very much like to see the tuberculin-testing work continued until we could cover
the same ground the second and third time. I feel satisfied that during the coming year, if the
work is continued, that there will remain very few cases of tuberculosis in British Columbia..
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight,
Chief Veterinary Inspector.
REPORT OF THE DAIRY DIVISION.
By H. Rive, B.S.A., Chief Dairy Instructor and Inspector.
Victoria, January 7th, 1915.
W. T. McDonald, Esq., M.S., B.S.A.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as Chief Dairy Instructor and Inspector
for the year 1914.
The dairy situation in British Columbia has made improvement in that more people are
seriously engaging in this business than in the past. An increased production of butter should
be felt in 1915, and this in view of the by-products should be beneficial for pork and poultry
purposes. The requirements in fresh milk and cream of the larger cities can now be met by
adjacent districts, as is evidenced by the fact that the milk-dealers of the Lower Mainland were
not inconvenienced by the recent Dominion enactment forbidding importations on account of the
outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United States.
The dairy-farmers of the Province are endeavouring to make progress, and in buildings,,
sanitary conditions, fodders, feeding, cows, and milk records this is at once apparent.
Creameries.
Several of the outlying districts contemplate the establishment of creameries, a common
hindrance being, however, the scarcity of dairy cows. Systematic inspection of creameries and
creamery patrons has gone on whenever time permitted, with, we believe, good results.
The report of Mr. Wiancko on creamery conditions is here given:—
" I visited most of the creameries in the Province at least once during the year, and in the
Comox, Nanaimo, Cowichan, and Saltspring Island Districts personal visits were made to the
majority of the patrons.
" The creameries in general are In a prosperous condition, and there has been an increase
of 15 to 20 per cent, in the annual production of butter. The creamery premises are in good
sanitary condition, and the butter-makers are turning out a fairly uniform quality of butter.
" The production and delivery of first-class gathered cream to our creameries is one of the
most difficult problems we have to contend with. In many oases the herds are small and the
equipment very poor, and this, together with long hauling distances to the creamery in sparsely
settled districts, makes delivery of cream to the creamery more frequently than twice a week
very difficult to attain. Thus, in the warm weather, much of the cream reaches the creamery
in an overripe condition, and from which it is almost impossible to produce a butter of good
flavour and texture.
" The majority of our creameries are not provided with cream-coolers, but depend almost
entirely upon vat-cooling, with cold water or with crushed ice put directly into the cream, and
usually results in slow, inefficient cooling. If the cream is left at too high a temperature
during the night (especially if the flavour is not very good), and has not been long enough
at a low temperature at churning-time, the butter, although it may appear good when fresh,,
is frequently of poor keeping quality, as a result of excessive fermentation in the cream and
churning at too high a temperature. R 100 Department of Agriculture. 1915
" Of the twenty creameries in the Province, ten are equipped with refrigerating-machines
and have good cold-storage facilities.
" Two of the creameries are still using the oil test as a basis for paying their patrons
for cream. Seven creameries are using the scales for weighing the samples for testing with
the Babcock test, and two of these are doing daily testing. The remainder are using composite
samples and testing monthly and semi-monthly. The condensories also are using composite
samples, and testing is done semi-monthly.
" The most urgent needs of the creamery patrons at the present time are better handling
and cooling facilities and a proper understanding of the principles underlying the production
and care of cream under sanitary conditions. I have found that most of the dairymen are
willing to learn, and I believe that much good will result from systematic inspection of their
dairies."
(For list of creameries in British Columbia see Appendix M.)
At Nanaimo, Ganges, and Cowichan small associations on the old basis have been running
In 1914, but will soon be discontinued. At 8 cents per test, $90 has been paid to the testers of
these associations: A. Drake, Ganges; H. Hunter and J. S. Dunn, Nanaimo; and V. Syrup,
Duncan.
Official Tests.
For the Holstein Advanced Registry, testers have in former years been supplied to the
Colony Farm, Coquitlam; the Dominion Experimental Farm, Agassiz; and J. M. Steves, Steveston.    Tests are now in progress at the Colony Farm and the farm of J. M. Steves, Steveston.
There has been expended through the departmental allowance of $1 per day for the work
about $270 during 1914.
Associations will probably be established in the spring at Cowichan and at the Delta. A
circular summarizing results of work, with records and feeds, will be prepared as soon as
returns from these associations are available. (For statement of Cow-testing Associations
.see Appendix N.)
City Milk-supply.
Time and attention have been given to the milk and cream supplies of the cities, the
condition of farms producing, city milk plants, and milk-vendors. Calls have been made on all
milk plants, on most milk-vendors, and on many of the more careless and negligent producers,
often at the request of their consignees. The effort is made to work harmoniously and in
■co-operation with local health officers and their Inspectors, and so far very successfully.
In endeavouring to inaugurate the general use of the score-card system, both for dairy-
farm and milk plant, we accompany local officials on a first scoring tour, discuss matters with
them, and keep them supplied with score-cards.
To properly control and assist this work will in future require more time than two men
on this Division can bestow. We are aiming at one call per annum for scoring purposes on all
dairy-farms; two on all patrons of creameries, condensories, and of city milk trade; and two
at least on factories and plants.    (For brief statement of conditions see Appendix O.)
Lectures, Demonstrations, etc, on Dairy Subjects during 1914.
On dairy cattle, feeds, and the keeping of hogs as an adjunct to dairy-farming, fifty-five
lectures were delivered throughout British Columbia by Messrs. Harris, Mclnnes, and Sehul-
merich. On the care of milk and cream, butter-making, etc., five lectures by T. A. F. Wiancko.
On dairy conditions (illustrated), thirteen; Cow-testing Associations, seven; establishment of
creameries, six; dairying in general, five; by H. Rive.
Demonstrations in butter-making by T. A. F. Wiancko, five. Cow demonstrations by Wm.
Schulmerich and W. T. McDonald, seven. On the killing and dressing of hogs, by G. S. Harris,
one.
Fall Fairs.
The following fairs were attended by a member of this Division, and the judging of butter,
milk, and cream performed: Vancouver, Islands, Cowichan, Aldergrove, Mission, Maple Ridge,
Richmond, Abbotsford, Burton, Grand Forks, and Armstrong. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 101
The Fair Associations are poorly equipped with suitable storage arrangements, the products
being almost invariably exposed on open tables. Competition throughout was reasonably good,
but a lack of uniformity was very noticeable, with impairment of quality due to exposure to
room temperatures. The British Columbia Dairymen's Association have on hand a plan to assist
in providing cheap and efficient refrigerators for fall fairs.
British Columbia Dairymen's Association.
The membership of the association for 1914 was 350, representing a substantial increase
over the previous year. The policy of the association has been to utilize its grant from the
Government in the institution of contests, competitions, and classes at exhibitions and elsewhere
that would have educational value and would encourage the practice of good dairying.
Dairy-farms (barns and herds), dairy cattle, milk records, butter, milk, cream, and
herdsmen have in this way received attention.
The annual meeting of the association takes place on Friday, January 22nd, at Pender-
Hall, Vancouver, at the close of the milk and cream competitions.
Office-work.
The inside duties of this Division are growing with the spread of outside work.
Bulletins issued in Past Year.
The Care of Milk and Cream (T. A. F. Wiancko).
In Course of Preparation.
Dairy Barns, Stalls, and Milk-houses.
A System of Account-keeping for Dairy-farmers.
Cow-testing Association Results.
Butter-making on the Farm.
The addition to this Division fifteen months ago of Mr. Wiancko has been of benefit to the
work.    His long experience and wide knowledge of dairy matters have afforded good service to
the Department.
Respectfully submitted.
Ht. Rive,
Chief Dairy Instructor and Inspector.
REPORT OF POULTRY DIVISION FOR 1914.
By J. R. Terry, Chief Poultry Instructor.
Sir,—I beg to submit the annual report of the work of the Poultry Division for the
year 1914.
General Conditions.
Substantial progress has to be recorded in all lines connected with the poultry industry
during the year. In dull times, under peace conditions at least, probably no trade or means
of livelihood is affected less by adverse conditions than the live-stock industry; especially is
this the case when dealing with that branch of it with which we are concerned. During the
past two years of comparative quiet there has been a marked increase in the number of fowls
kept in the Province, not only by commercial poultrymen and by those farmers as a side-line,
but by the city dwellers.
Further evidence of this movement can be given when it is mentioned that this Division
has received more inquiries from beginners since the commencement of the European war than
during the rest of the year. This in spite of the fact that poultry-foods of all kinds have gone
up about 40 per cent, in price during that period. R 102 Department of Agriculture. 1915
During the first half of last year prices received for poultry products were well maintained.
In the latter part of August, however, as soon as the price of grains began to rise, a majority
of the breeders flooded the markets with all kinds of stock—half-grown and mature. This action
immediately reduced the price obtained considerably. In some instances certain classes of stock
were sold at the rate of from 7 to 10 cents per pound, a reduction of 50 per cent, from usual
prices.
The average price received for eggs during the laying year, October to October, was the
same as for the past few years. Much apprehension had been felt by those ranchers who were
concerned mainly in egg production at the invasion of this Province of Chinese egg's. The
average price given above should go far to refute the statement often heard that eggs from
the Orient would ruin local producers.
Despite the fact that the price of eggs in this Province is a little higher than received by
ranchers in the Western States to the south of us, yet the bulk of the eggs from China are still
sent there. This is probably owing to the fact that the population there is much larger than
with us, and due also to the presence of those establishments that are able to use this class of
product in their business, such as biscuit manufacturers, bakers, ice-cream-cone makers, etc.
■ All of the conditions above mentioned should tend to bring about a realization on the part
of our producers that it is imperative that they should economize in every particular, co-operate
as much as possible, and also display a greater degree of efficiency than hitherto shown.
Lectures and Demonstrations.
During the spring months both Mr. Upton and myself, assisted by Mr. H. H. Grist, spoke
and demonstrated before the members of the Farmers' Institutes of the Province. The demonstrations consisted mainly in killing and plucking poultry and preparing same for market.
Lantern-slide lectures were also given during these meetings. Together with the other subjects
dealt with connected with the Live Stock Branch, much greater interest was manifested than
in previous meetings. At all points large attendances were the rule. A total of fifty-six lectures
and demonstrations were given during the Farmers' Institute meetings by this Division.
During the midsummer the first annual summer school for school-teachers was held in
Victoria. " Agriculture " was one of the subjects given, and the representatives of this Division
delivered a course of sixteen addresses, each relating to poultry-keeping, to the teachers. The
subjects taken up were breeds and breeding; feeds and feeding; houses and housing; incubation
and brooding; diseases; judging utility fowls and demonstration on eggs, candling, etc.
Inspection-work.
During the year a considerable portion of the available time of the Division has been
occupied in visiting breeders and assisting same by demonstration and advice. Over 200 visits
have been made. Much good has been accomplished as a result of these visits, especially in
connection with outbreaks of disease. Regarding the latter, I will say that outside several
outbreaks of roup, hepatitis, and ovarian trouble, the majority of cases investigated have proved
to be worm-trouble. Mr. Upton has handled practically all of the cases of this disease, and has
found it very prevalent in many sections of the Province.
Poultry* Associations.
During the year representatives of this Division have visited and spoken at meetings of
members of local Poultry Associations. There are at present over thirty societies existent, being
an increase of four during the year. Differing from the associations of this kind in the Dominion,
those of this Province are composed principally of utility poultry-breeders, and their object in
forming is mainly for co-operative marketing and purchasing purposes. Some of the associations
effect a saving to its members of as high as $2,000 and $3,000 per year. This sum is saved on
the purchasing end alone.
Fall Fairs.
■ Owing to the cancellation of most of the fairs through war conditions, very few shows were
judged by this Division. Continued progress has to be recorded, although the classification for
this branch of live stock is still very poor at some of the fairs. Adequate provision for exhibiting dressed poultry and eggs should be provided, so as to encourage larger exhibits. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 103
Even if cold-storage facilities cannot be provided for dressed poultry, either cases covered
with wire or glass ought to be supplied. It is not much encouragement for breeders to exhibit
dressed poultry for two or three days on an open shelf or tables where any visitor can handle
same. Practically all of the exhibits in this class are unsaleable at conclusion of show unless
they are exhibited as suggested.
Another part of the poultry section which needs improvement is in the matter of accommodation for turkeys, ducks, and geese. Oftentimes geese and turkeys are cooped up in their
shipping-crates throughout the show, and in some instances they are left out in the blazing sun
without proper watering facilities.
Provincial Poultry Association.
The Provincial Association this year had a membership of 566. This must be admitted to
be a good showing, when taking into consideration the comparatively dull times. Thirty-one
local associations are affiliated with the Provincial body, and during the year nineteen of them
held poultry-shows, being an increase of one over the previous year. Since the first Provincial
Show started a classification for utility classes, practically the whole of the local shows have
adopted this classification. In this matter this Province can justly claim to be the first in the
Dominion to encourage the utility or non-fancy breeder to exhibit on a large scale. At some
of the local shows as many as 200 birds have been shown, and these were judged just for their
utility qualities only.
The Association published the yearly breeders' directory as usual. Two thousand five
hundred copies were printed and distributed throughout the Province. Copies were sent to
Secretaries of Farmers' Institutes, and to all Provincial newspapers as well.
The annual show was held at Vernon this year, and over 1,000 birds were exhibited. As
compared with other years, it must be conceded that the quality throughout was much higher
than previously.
During the show the annual convention was held, and was well attended, despite the fact
that the usual Directors' meetings were dispensed with. The next show is to be held at
Chilliwack, January 5th to Sth, 1916.
Much interest was evinced in the World's Poultry Show to be held at San Francisco during
the exhibition this year. Numbers of Provincial breeders have signified their intention of
exhibiting there.
The Executive Committee was re-elected for another year, upon the suggestion of the
Deputy Minister of Agriculture (Mr. W. E. Scott). During the year Mr. Upton and myself
have been present at all meetings of the Executive Committee of the association. At the annual
meeting we were again elected Secretary and Assistant Secretary respectively.
Egg-laying Contest.
The Third Annual International Egg-laying Contest concluded on September 27th, 1914,
and was a pronounced success. The contest was of a more international character than usual.
Pens were entered from New Zealand (1), Great Britain (3), and though these were from
breeders who have world-wide reputations as winners, yet the Provincial breeders managed to
wrest at least one first prize and also defeat one of the entries in the non-weight varieties.
Although the price of grain has Increased greatly during the year, the fowls managed to clear
a profit of nearly $3 per bird. I take pleasure in testifying to the good work of Mr. W. H.
Stroyan, poultryinan at the contest.    (For statement showing total eggs laid see Appendix P.)
Office-work.
The general office-work of the Division has increased very materially during the year.
Inquiries, particularly from new settlers, have been more numerous than ever before. Whenever
possible, personal visits have been made and help given on the ranch.
The following bulletins and circulars have been published during the year: " Second
Egg-laying Contest Report" (bulletin); "Lice and Mites"; "Line Cuts of Poultry-houses";
" Feeding Rations " ; " Duck-rearing."   Other bulletins and circulars are in course of preparation.
With the permission of the Department, newspaper articles dealing with the industry have
been supplied by the members of this Division. R 104 Department of Agriculture. 1915
In conclusion, I would like to testify as to the hearty co-operation of yourself and members
of other divisions of the Branch; also to the valuable assistance rendered by Mr. Upton at all
times.
Respectfully submitted.
J. R. Terry,
Chief Poultry Instructor.
ANNUAL REPORT OF SOIL AND CROP DIVISION.
By J. C. Readey, B.S.A., Soil and Crop Instructor.
To W. T. McDonald,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Soil and Crop Division for the
year 1914.
Owing to the fact that the Division has been organized less than two years, it cannot be
maintained that many definite results have been yet attained, but the developments to date may
be said to be fairly satisfactory. The report is being submitted under the headings of the
different divisions of the work.
Correspondence and Office-work.
The correspondence for the year has been 1,837 outward and 1,668 inward letters. In
addition, there have been circular letters in connection with seed-distribution, boys' and girls'
competitions, and silo-filling demonstrations. A gratifying feature in connection with the
correspondence has been the large number of inquiries for advice in soil-cultivation and adaptability of crops for live-stock farming. As is always the case in a newly organized division,
there has been a large amount of work in the preparing of forms and for the working-out
of a system for the office. These are not yet perfected. With the development of the work,
changes and additions will be necessary.
Circulars and Bulletins.
Circular Bulletin No. 8, " Practical Hints on Corn-growing " ; Circular Bulletin No. 6, " Seed
Improvement" ; and Bulletin No. 57, " Boys' and Girls' Field-crop Competitions," were prepared
by the Division during the year, and circulated.
Farmers' Institute Lecturers.
My Division participated in nineteen meetings held under the auspices of the institutes..
In all, twenty lectures were given.
Lectures to Teachers in Attendance at Summer Course.
This course was held under the Department of Education in the new High School, Victoria,,
from July 6th to August 1st, inclusive. On request by that Department and under your
instructions, I occupied fourteen lecture periods during the course. The lectures included the-
discussion of the principles of cultivation, rotation of crops, seed-selection, and field practice.
About 170 teachers attended the lectures. While the lectures at this course added considerably
to the work of the Division, there is no doubt that it is of great value to us in creating a
stronger sympathy between the school-teachers of the Province and the Department of Agriculture, and in bringing our regular work into more general notice.
Field-crop Competitions.
These competitions have become perhaps the largest branch of our work. Since the first
competitions were held in 1912 the number has grown from twenty-one to eighty, an increase
of almost 400 per cent, in three seasons.   A number of our ranchers have pointed out by letter 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 105
and in personal interview that there has been a marked improvement in the methods of cultivation and in the crop produced where competitions have been held. Much of the success is due
to the enthusiasm and work of the institute Secretaries. Many of these men spend days they
can ill afford to lose in the service of the community and for which they receive no remuneration
and often scant appreciation.
Fifty institutes participated in the competitions during 1914. There were two competitions
in wheat, one in peas, nineteen in oats, five in carrots, five in mangels, three in alfalfa, four in
kale, forty in potatoes, and one in turnips, a total of eighty. There were 633 entries. The total
prize-money paid by the Provincial Department was $3,800; by the Dominion Seed Division,
$1,000; and by the institutes, $316.50; a total of $5,116.50. The sum of $192 was offered in
special prizes for exhibits to be sent to Victoria from the crops entered in the field-crop competition. It was first intended that these exhibits should be shown at the Dominion Exhibition,
Arictoria. When this exhibition was cancelled, notice was given that the exhibits would be
judged later at the Department's headquarters. Thirty-four entries were made and $105 in
prizes awarded. The prize, $100, for the largest number of bona-flde entries in the field-crop
competition was won by the Richmond Farmers' Institute with eighteen entries. The total cost
of judging, including judges' salaries, was $1,586.20. The judging of the boys' and girls' competitions is included in this expense.    The average cost per competition was $15.55.
The regular staff of the Division was assisted in the judging by Mr. Wm. Gibson and Mr.
Robt. H. Miller, of Victoria. The Department is fortunate in securing the services of these men,
whose years and experience fit them pre-eminently not only to do the work of judging, but also
to advise the ranchers whose farm they visit, and who will win appreciation both for themselves
and for the Department.
From correspondence received it is evident that the work of the competitions will increase.
As their popularity increases, so the demand for higher efficiency and better organization
increases. Efforts are being made to reach a stable working basis, and to evolve a system that
will reduce the amount of work necessary in the office and the danger of mistakes.
Next year's announcement embodies some new features. An effort is being made to induce
the competitors to study the cost of producing their crops. A simple, inexpensive method, the
material for which is to be supplied by the Department, has been prepared. It is hoped, too, in
addition to interesting our ranchers in the keeping of statements of the cost production of their
crops, that in time, as their efficiency in the keeping of records increases and our staff is able
to give personal supervision, records of value may be available for the use of the Department.
A readjustment of the prize-list has been made, giving it greater range and more adaptability.
The experience of the past season indicates that in future it will be necessary, in order to
ensure the desired efficiency and uniformity of work in judging, that the judges be brought
together and given some time to become familiar with a common standard.
Seed Fairs.
This new feature of the work has been provided for in the 1915 programme. Provision has
been made for two Provincial seed fairs, one at New Westminster and the other at Armstrong.
Provision has also been made for eight local seed fairs. Prominent features of this work will
be exhibits from the plots entered in the field-crop competitions and the boys' and girls' potato
competitions.
Boys' and Girls' Competitions.
This work was started in the spring of 1914. The announcement was rather late in reaching
the public, resulting in a curtailed entry list, but the results, considering this handicap, have
been very gratifying. Perhaps no other department of the work of this Division has created
such an interest as this work has done. The past season has been very dry in nearly every
district in the Province, but, despite this fact, most of the boys and girls have shown creditable
returns.
The experience of the past year has led to a few changes in the rules and regulations. The
indications are that there will be a very largely increased entry for 1915. The work can scarcely
be allowed to take its normal growth on account of the inability of the present staff to cope
with the increased amount of work Involved. R 106 Department of Agriculture. 1915
During the past year there were twenty-two competitions held, with a total entry list of"
200 names.
It would add to the value of and possibly the interest in these competitions if competitors
were allowed to choose from a variety of crops. The work with the potatoes is a little too
heavy for smaller boys and girls, but this is a feature that might be added as the work develops
and our staff is strengthened.
Demonstration-work.
The demonstration-work for the year has included the operation of six small stations under
the system of rotation; the supervision of twelve plots of alfalfa in all stages of development,
from preparing new land to the seeding of the crop on old land; the erection and filling of silos;
sweet-curing of clover' in a silo; the erection and testing of a very small silo for efficiency;
clover pasturing for hogs; kale-growing; the seeding of approved grass-seed mixtures; and the
use of fertilizers for fodder-crops. The progress so far has been satisfactory, but in some cases
a repetition of the work will be necessary to establish results.
Seven demonstration stations were started during the spring of the past year. These are
located at Chilliwack, Armstrong, Rose Hill, Edgewood, Grand Forks, Rock Creek, and Parks-
ville respectively. The plots were 4 acres each in extent, but the Rose Hill station has been
increased to 8 acres. Land of poor to average quality was chosen in each case, and an endeavour
is being made to restore the land to profitable production by methods within the reach of the
average rancher. At Armstrong, for instance, the land chosen was designated locally as almost
unworkable clay; at Rock Creek nineteen consecutive crops of grain had been grown, and each
plot chosen presents a difficulty common to a large area of the district in which the plots are
located. In each case the Department has the advice of a committee appointed by the Farmers'
Institute in whose district the station is located. This scheme bids fair to secure the sympathy
and co-operation of the members of the institute, and, besides, offers a safeguard against errors
in detail that might creep in through lack of a thorough knowledge of the local conditions on
the part of the representative of the Department. A late start and an abnormally dry season
have operated against our success to some extent this season. But all stations are in good
condition for next year's work. No immediate phenomenal results are to be expected. We
aim, however, to show a gradual yearly improvement in the condition of the soil of the stations
and a steady increase in production. Larger yields could be obtained immediately by the liberal
use of manures and fertilizers than we expect to obtain under the methods followed, but this
would mean heavy expenditures and make the copying of our method by the average rancher
an impossibility. In each case the land was leased for a period of five years, with the option
of renewing for a further three years if it was so desired.
From a practical standpoint the returns this year compared with the expenditure have not
been satisfactory. It might be argued that the average rancher could not afford to expend the
money that we have spent. On the other hand, in every case the land chosen was of average
or lower than average quality. A standard of condition was set for this season's work. In
our case all the land was brought to this condition in the one season, while the rancher would
bring only a part of his land to this standard in one year, the proportion depending on his
finances. We thought that no good purpose could be served by spending more time on the
building-up process. We have also to point out that the cost of working a small piece of land
in this way is comparatively heavy, and there is also considerable additional cost for labour to
keen the stations in condition for the public inspection.
Alfalfa-plots.
Twelve of these plots have been in various stages of development during the past season.
At all Interior points where seeding has been done the alfalfa has done well. Indications are
not so favourable for success in Coast districts, but it is yet too soon to reach final conclusions.
One of the great difficulties with this work has been the weed nuisance. The Courtenay
plot was seeded in the spring of 1914, but had to be ploughed up again and seeded later. A
rather weak growth was made after the second seeding, so that it is doubtful if the stand will
be strong enough to come through the winter properly.
All future seedings are being done in drills wide enough apart to allow of intertillage.
This will enable us to fight the weeds, and in the dry districts will assist in securing a stand. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 107
During the past year, where summer fallowing has been done, green manure crops have
been grown and ploughed in. Much of this new land is light and raw. This is particularly
true of the Edgewood plot, where it is thought necessary to devote another year to preparation.
It is the intention to use sweet clover as a green manure on the Edgewood plot this coming
season. In nearly every case the use of barnyard manure would help greatly, but it is seldom
possible to secure it.    All the plots have had an application of lime.
Silo Erection and Filling.
Early in the season a 6-horse-power gasolene-engine and an ensilage-cutter fitted with
elevator carriers was purchased and the outfit mounted in a complete unit on a set of trucks.
The services of an operator were secured, and a circular letter was sent to the Secretaries of
Farmers' Institutes stating that the Department was prepared to erect and fill, free of charge,
the first silo erected in a Farmers' Institute district. This circular was sent late in the season,
so that only a small number of requisitions were received. In all, five silos were erected, including two for our own use, and filling demonstrations were given at Metchosin, Duncan, Burnside,
Chilliwack, and Grand Forks; in all, seven silos were filled. Very wet weather prevailed at
the time of nearly every demonstration. Despite this fact, a good interest was shown, especially
at Chilliwack, where six to eight silos are likely to be erected in one district alone as a result
of the work. Nothing but favourable comment, either on the type of silo or on the machine or
method of filling, has been received.
The type of silo recommended is that of rough staves. This type is recommended solely on
account of its low cost, and for that reason is most suitable for the rancher just starting business,
or men of limited capital. The life of a well-constructed silo of this type is from ten to twenty
years, and its efficiency is equal to that of any other type. It requires, however, some little
attention during the season when it is empty, and is not so attractive as the patent wood or
cement silos. When recommending the rough-stave silo, we always aim to make it clear that
we do so on the ground of cheapness, believing that many ranchers can afford to build one of
these years before the more expensive ones are within their means, and thus have the advantage
of cheap, succulent fodder in the meantime.
The carrier-elevator cutter was chosen on account of the relatively small amount of power
required to operate them. An attempt was made to assemble a machine that would be efficient
and at the same time be procurable at a price within the reach of the rancher on the larger
farms, or of a number of ranchers each operating smaller areas. The machine has done good
work this past season, but experience has shown the necessity of some improvements in the
carriers and in the other equipment, and these changes are now being made in readiness for next
season's work.
The material for the silos, exclusive of the foundation, costs from about $1 per ton capacity
for the larger sizes to $1.75 for the smaller ones. A filling outfit, similar in efficiency to the one
used by the Department and of sufficient size for silos up to 60-ton capacity, can be procured
for about $375.
The recommendation for the purchase of the silo-filling outfit and the erection of the first
silos in the various institute districts arose out of the revelation of the fact that very few of
our ranchers were familiar with silos or silage. This work may therefore be regarded as the
pioneer work. There is, however, this weakness in the scheme: that the man who introduces
the silo into his district is cared for the first year, but after that there is the chance that he
Is without means to purchase the filling outfit or procurulng the use of one for succeeding years.
In conclusion, I beg to acknowledge the good services rendered by Mr. R. J. Ferris, who has
had charge of the construction and operation work.
Sweet Ensilage from Clover.—The difficulty in curing red clover on account of bad weather
conditions led this Division to inquire into the practicability of storing this crop as .ensilage.
Clover had often been made into ensilage, but the ensilage was very acid in many cases, which
meant that serious deterioration in the feeding value had taken place. The underlying principle
in the making of the sweet ensilage seemed to be that the cut material should be fairly mature
or wilted, that 4 or 5 feet should be put into the silo at one time and left loose for free access
of air to raise the temperature quickly to 120 degrees Fahr., and that when this temperature
was reached further action should be stopped as completely as possible by packing the clover R 108 Department of Agriculture. 1915
down hard. A silo, 10 x 24 feet, was built, and was filled at the rate of about 5 feet per
day. Clover cut and not required for the silo was made into hay. The clover was cut on the
immature side, but was tedded and allowed to wilt before being hauled.
The silo was opened in November. The material in the centre of the silo was in excellent
condition, but there was a large amount of waste at the walls. This would seem to indicate
that the clover had not been tramped sufficiently around the outside as the silo was being filled,
and that this tramping should be done as the material is put in the silo instead of putting in
4 or 5 feet and tramping afterwards. The quality of the material in the centre of the silo
would indicate that successful curing of clover as sweet ensilage is possible, but it will be
necessary to repeat the work in order to determine the right methods, which would make it
possible to cure the clover almost Independent of the nature of the weather, as hay could be
made when conditions were favourable and ensilage at other times.
Very Small Silos.—The need for a silo holding enough for two or three cows is a necessity
in some districts. It was felt that with a silo of this size there was great danger of too great
a percentage of waste. Accordingly, arrangements were made with Dr. Knight, Sardis, for
permission to erect a small silo on his ranch. Seed of the Minn. No. 13 and Northwestern
Dent varieties were supplied to Dr. Knight, and were grown by him without expense to the
Department, except a small amount of assistance In hoeing. The corn was a little late in being
sown, but reached the tough stage of maturity. The filling wras done under the supervision of
Mr. Ferris, the main point observed being the need of putting the corn in very compact, especially
round the edges of the silo. An examination of the ensilage was made on December 30th. A
considerable amount of seed had developed, but otherwise the ensilage was in excellent condition.
The somewhat immature condition of the corn would account for a good deal of the acidity..
Dr. Knight complained that the cattle disliked the ensilage at first, but were beginning to eat
it more readily. The initial aversion on the part of the cattle is probably due to the fact that
they were changed abruptly from the sweet-clover ensilage to the corn ensilage and were at
the same time being well fed on sheaf oats and roots. The ordinary rough-stave silo 8 feet
in diameter and 20 feet high was used, and the result of the past season indicates that good
ensilage can be made in a silo of this size if care is exercised in the building, and the corn is
fairly mature and is well packed as the silo is being filled.
Clover Pasture for Hogs.
During the Farmers' Institute spring itinerary the question as to the pasture value of
clover for hogs was frequently discussed. Out of this grew a co-operative test conducted by
Mr. G. S. Harris, of Moresby Island, whose success with dairying and hogs made him entirely
competent to carry on the work. Mr. Harris's report is given in full, as he points out the
excessively dry season has operated against the success of the test:—
" I submit herewith the results of the pig-feeding experiment carried on this summer on
Moresby Island, together with the cost of same.
" The experiment was to determine the feeding value of 1 acre of clover when pastured
with pigs. The acre of clover was fenced into two parts, so that the pigs could be put on one
side at a time.    They were given the shelter of an open house, into which they could go at will.
" April 20th. Four brood sows were put on the clover. One of the sows had a litter of
seven pigs, three weeks old.    Nothing was fed to supplement the clover.
" May 15th. Removed the sow that had the seven pigs so as to wean the pigs. Began to-
feed the young pigs a small amount of meal in a creep, so that the old sows could not get any.
(Meal consisted of one-half shorts and one-half ground oats and barley.)
"May 20th. A sow farrowed on the pasture (raised eight pigs). This sow was kept on
the pasture till July 11th, at which date both she and her pigs were removed. The pigs were-
well grown, averaging between 25 and 30 lb. each. During the time she was raising th%pigs
she was fed a small amount of the meal and 950 lb. of skim-milk to supplement the pasture..
On this same date another sow was removed, which left one brood sow together with the seven
shoals.
" July 16th. The sow left farrowed and raised ten pigs. She was kept on the clover till
the young pigs were one month old, at which time they were well grown for their age. During
that month she received 1,040 lb. of skim-milk and a small allowance of meal. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 109
" August 25th. Clover ripe and of little feed value, so weighed off the shoats. The seven
shoats weighed 764 lb., live weight. They received besides the clover pasture 2,350 lb. of skim-
milk and 550 lb. of the meal. The brood sows received altogether 450 lb. of the meal, making
a total of 1,000 lb. of meal consumed by all the pigs.
"A check-plot of clover (2 square rods) was cut June 12th and weighed green 375 lb.    The
clover made rapid growth early in the season, and would have given much better results had
more pigs been put on early in the season.    The severe drought made the season short.
" Costs of conducting the experiment—
Fence-wire, staples, etc., and freight     $26 10
House material and construction      10 00
Fence-posts, erecting fence, and making troughs       15 00
Total    $51 10
" Hoping that this data will fill the purpose that it was intended to, I remain,
" Yours truly,
" G. S. Harris."
To Summarize.—The 1 acre of clover yielding 15 tons of green clover per acre, supplemented
by 4,340 lb. of skim-milk and x/2 ton of grain, gave pasturage for one full-grown nursing sow
for 303 days, for eight hogs from birth for fifty-one days, and produced 704 lb. of pork (live
weight). Much better results could have been shown had the number of hogs been increased
or the area of the pasture lessened in the beginning of the season, as there was more green
feed than the hogs could consume. It is likely, too, that had the clover been kept from maturing by closer pasturing it would have made more continuous growth throughout the season.
But it is probable that the clover can be best used in a rotation early in the season, to be
followed by rape or some such crop for later feeding.
Seed-grain Distribution.
Co-operative Tests.—In the winter of 1914 three 14b. samples of corn and 5 lb. of alfalfa
were sent to each of five members of the Farmers' Institutes who made application. The corn
was supplied free, but a charge of 10 cents per pound was made for the alfalfa. There were
sent out 314 3-lb. packages of corn and 302 of alfalfa. There were 131 reports on corn and
120 on alfalfa received. Judging from the reports, there Is room in most cases for better
cultivation. Notwithstanding, the reports for the past year indicate that practically all of
the Interior and parts of the North country, Lower Mainland, and Islands are suited to alfalfa.
Though, of course, definite conclusions cannot be drawn from the first season's work.
In the case of the corn, nothing very definite as regards variety was ascertained further
than the fact that the Minn. No. 13, Northwestern Dent, and Quebec No. 2S reached the highest
maturity, and that corn is likely to succeed in many places where it was thought impossible to
grow it successfully.    Further work is necessary to establish reliable data. '
' Perhaps the greatest value from this work to date is in the fact that public attention has
been drawn to the value and possibilities of these two crops, and that they have been introduced
into districts years before they otherwise would. A total of 2,067 bushels of American Banner
oats of third generation registered seed were brought into the Province last spring. These were
purchased from Dow Brothers, Gilbert Plains, Manitoba, through the Canadian Seed-growers'
Association. The price paid was $1 per bushel. The oats were supplied to our ranchers at this
price, the cost of the freight being borne by the Department, with the understanding that those
receiving them should enter the field-crop competition in oats.
In general, the result of the year's work indicates a good demand for improved seed. It is
regrettable that it is necessary to go outside of the Province to secure it. Already steps are
being taken to correct this state of affairs.
At this point I respectfully beg to again mention the possibilities of clover- and alfalfa-seed
production in this Province.
Soil Surveys.
From time to time in increasing frequency the Division is called upon to report on land as
to its value and adaptability.   On January 8th a survey was made of a block of logged-off land for the Powell River Company, Powell River. On July 7th another survey was made for Messrs.
Schofield, Newman, and Robinson at Fosthall. Besides these, other minor examinations have
been made.
Beginning on October 8th, a survey of the Rutland and Glenmore Valleys near Kelowna
was made for the Water Rights Branch of the Lands Department. The survey was made to
determine the base value of the land and to estimate the duty of water for these districts.
The survey was completed on November 8th. A report, including a map, is being prepared and
will be submitted later when the necessary soil-analysis has been completed.
Respectfully submitted.
J. C. Readey,
Soil and Crop Instructor.
ANNUAL REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST.
By H. E. Walker, B.S.A., Agriculturist, Northern British Columbia.
Telkwa, B.C., December 31st, 1914.
Professor W. T. McDonald,
Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit for your approval my annual report for the year 1914.
Owing to the somewhat unique conditions under which we have been working, it is rather
difficult to draw definite conclusions or to suggest to you very apparent results.
Climate.
In common with most other parts, the season was a most peculiar one. The spring and
early summer were very dry, while the fall was somewhat wet. (For figures showing temperature and rainfall see Appendix R.)
The Growing Season.—If we consider the growing season as that period when the mean
temperature is over 40° Fahr., its length in the interior during 1914 was 180 days—i.e., from
April 2nd to September 28th.
Summer Frosts.—During the summer of 1914 there occurred six frosts as registered at the
Telkwa office, namely: June 20th, 29°; July 5th, 29°; July 26th, 32°; July 27th, 32°; July
29th, 32° ; and August 13th, 32°. It is worthj7 of notice that four of the six frosts just reached
freezing-point, 32° Fahr., and did no damage except on badly pocketed land. This has no doubt
been an exceptional season also as to the frequency of these frosts.
Crops.
In spite of the above-mentioned frosts, all the ordinary crops, with the exception of potatoes,
came through in really good shape. Potatoes, on account of two severe freezings they received,
were held back, and eventually died down with the first, killing frost (on September 3rd) without fully reaching maturity. Many small potatoes and a reduced yield were the result. Oats,
barley, wheat, and garden-truck matured well and gave a fair yield.
Timothy is the principal/ crop in the Bulkley Valley, with oat-hay, and oats and barley for
grain, following respectively.
In the Nechako Valley oats are the main crop and are used both for grain and green feed.
Throughout the Interior—from Hazelton to Fort George—there are approximately 3,400
acres in cultivated grasses, and 1,550 acres in grain and other crops.
Smut of oats and barley has during the past season been very prevalent, and we are making
an especial effort to get the farmers to treat their grain before seeding.
Insect Pests.—These have not been so destructive as during 1913, but the " green looper "
caused considerable trouble at the beginning of the season.
Change in Crops.—This fall was admirably suited to fall ploughing, and this fact, coupled
with the greatly reduced prices for hay as compared with previous years, was the cause of
considerable sod land being broken up, so that in the future we look for a considerable change
from the almost exclusive growing of hay to the more mixed-farming crops. This will be
beneficial to all concerned. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 111
Alfalfa.—Considerable interest, and in many instances keen interest, is taken in the introduction of alfalfa. Some continue to experiment with this valuable fodder; also work is being
done on the demonstratlonal plots. Four plots, two and three years old, of the farmers' own
sowing, exist, and these are doing well. There would appear to be little doubt that this crop
should do well in many places in the Interior.
Clovers.—Little has been done with clovers, and the question of moisture will be a drawback
to their easy success. However, they are found growing strongly by the roadside in moist
gullies.
Stock.
Throughout the Northern Interior there is an increased interest being taken in stock of all
kinds, but more especially in cattle. Quite a number of cattle have been brought in during the
fall.    They are generally of an indifferent beef type.
Many settlers are desirous of obtaining stock, but it is somewhat difficult to deal with them,
as they have not the cash to pay for the same, and it would certainly seem desirable that some
security should be forthcoming before the stock is delivered. Some settlers have difficulty in
getting to this point of view. An effort to get the institute to guarantee the payment of any
such stock shipped in failed in the Bulkley Valley, but is under consideration by the Nechako
Valley Institute.
Testing of Stock.—It would seem desirable that the cattle of the districts covered by this
report should be tested, at as early a date as possible, for tuberculosis. There are evidently
some diseased cattle through this Interior, especially on the Indian reserves. Also attention is
directed to the fact that quite a few car-loads of cattle are being brought in from east of the
Rockies, and evidence of their being tested is not very strong, and a number of these animals
will no doubt eventually be used for human milk-supply.
Hog-cholera.—This disease was found in the Hazelton District during the summer. Its
appearance in this section was due to the importation of a " carrier." Ten hogs in all were
destroyed in the Hazelton-Kispiox District. Dr. Mustard tested the various animals that had
come in contact with the diseased hog. No reappearance of the diseases is known at the time
of writing.
Attitude of the Settler.
The attitude of the settler to the representatives of the Branch on the whole may be classed
as fairly appreciative. We are receiving inquiries in increasing number regarding the care and
handling of stock, treatment of soils, seeds, etc., and gradually many of the settlers are coming
to the point where they realize that the Branch officials are at their service.
Modes of Travel.
The visiting of the various districts and of individuals during the latter part of the year
was very much facilitated by the advent of the first through train on the Grand Trunk Pacific
Railway, and while at the present we have only two trains per week each way, yet travel is
very much easier than previously.
During 1913 it was only possible to reach Fort George from Telkwa by means of saddle-
horse, which called for fairly hard riding to accomplish in seven days (each way). In the early
part of 1914 travel between these two points was one of varied experiences, but It will be
possible to accomplish much more in the future, as it now means just overnight travel to cover
the distance mentioned.
Personal Visits.
While we have charge of the demonstrational plots and also considerable clerical work to
do, and other such- work, yet it would appear that our chief aim ought to' be to reach personally
the individual settler, and special attention is paid to this phase.
The arrival of Mr. R. L. Ramsay, Assistant Agriculturist, in June enabled considerable more
individual work to be done. We were able to visit the Kispiox, McBride, and Quesnel Districts,
which districts were not visited in 1913. In 1.915 it is proposed to make more extended surveys
of the whole Interior. R 112 Department of Agriculture. 1915
Demonstration-work.
As an extended report is submitted re the trial and demonstration plots, it is not proposed
here to deal at any length with this subject. This work is too new in this section to have
yet proved beneficial, but we are confident of good results, and there is no doubt that this
branch of operations should be given the fullest consideration and carried out to the greatest
extent.
Co-operative Tests.
To further test out varieties and emphasize the trial and demonstration work it is recommended that a small number of co-operative tests of grains, fodders, and roots be carried out
by the farmer himself on his own plots. The supplying of good variety seed and supervision
should be all that is necessary, and the experimenter to supply the reports and the results. If
care was taken in the selection of the men and plots, a great deal of interest could be aroused,
and much useful data collected as a result of such tests in the various sections.
Agricultural Fairs.
A separate report has also been forwarded re the fairs of the Northern Interior. Only two
were held in 1914, at Rupert and at Telkwa. The recommendation is made that, if fairs are
held during the coming season, it would be best if the judging was done by officials from headquarters at Victoria rather than by the representative in the district where the fair is held.
There is a possibility of misunderstanding between exhibitor and judge, and an arrangement
as above would leave the representative with a much freer hand to assist the various exhibitors,
both before and on the day of the fair.
Institute Meetings.
An attempt is being made this winter to hold a full series of meetings throughout the
Northern Interior. Up to the time of writing four have been held in the Nechako Valley,
where the average attendance was 23.5, and very keen interest was taken in the lectures and
the discussions.
There is certainly a place for these meetings in this section, and as the farmers are
gradually requesting them the time is evidently ripe to get in touch with them and discuss
collectively the problems of the districts.
From the attendance at the meetings so far held and the real appreciation expressed, and
the requests for further meetings, we have been encouraged to go ahead.
The Outlook.
To deal with the outlook or the future of agriculture in the Northern Interior is almost
impossible in this report. To write what one really thinks would be too much like romancing.
Suffice it to say that the greater part of British Columbia's agricultural land lies tributary to
or north ■ of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. That this section has a great future we are
confident, and time will undoubtedly prove the correctness of this assertion.
There are a number of difficulties to overcome, including the timber and the frosts, and,
by no means least, the disinclination of not a few settlers to work. For the most part the
men who are to develop this country have yet to arrive, and this is not attempting to belittle
the great efforts that have effectively been put forward by a few.
Money is needed to develop the rich mining wealth of the North, as this would cause the
springing-up of many mining centres, and thus a home market would be found for much of
the produce. We are often told that there is no market here. Creamery butter shipped into
Telkwa alone amounts.to approximately 1,000 lb. per month, condensed milk to 35 cases per
month, and about $500 worth of cured bacon and ham per month, and so on. The average
settler has little or nothing to sell by the way, and some that have seem to forget what
"standard" means, thinking, evidently, that just because it is' home product it should go.
Here we ought to have a chance to do some good work.
The tendency, in' thought, in some sections is towards dairying. With such breeds as
Ayrshires and Holsteins success should be possible.   The drawback to stock-raising is the almost   5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 113
utter lack of good sires, and coupled with this fact the average man cannot afford to buy, and
the difficulty is to persuade these men to walk before they run, and that farming is a business
that, like any other, should be made to stand on its own foundation.
With the development of the country, difficulties such as summer frosts and lack of homes
will to a great extent disappear.    Very slowly the women are coming into the Interior,  and
without wives and mothers to build up homes we can never have a permanent agriculture.
Respectfully submitted.
H. E. Walker,
Agriculturist.
REPORT OF W. J. SHEPPARD, FOUL-BROOD INSPECTOR, KOOTENAY AND BOUNDARY
DISTRICTS, YEAR 1914.
Nelson, B.C., October 3rd, 1914.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report on the work conducted in the Kootenay and Boundary
Districts during the season 1914.
Bee-keeping has made considerable progress in the Kootenays during the year 1914, quite
a number of fresh bee-keepers having been added to the list. I am also continually receiving
inquiries from others wishing to make a start.
Owing to the personal instruction given in feeding up colonies, etc., during last fall, I found
on going round this year that very few winter losses had been sustained, proving conclusively
that, contrary to the often expressed opinion, bees winter well in this part of the Province with
proper management.
Colonies have also greatly increased in number this season by natural swarming, and I
am convinced that in the future a very considerable quantity of honey will be produced in
the Kootenays. As far as I am at present able to estimate, the quantity actually produced
this year is 10,000 lb., as against 3,000 lb. in 1913, all being of first-class quality and fit for
competition anywhere.
As the production of honey has increased so much, bee-keepers in this district have come
to the conclusion that, in order to establish a market for the produce in the future, the time
has arrived for co-operation, and at a meeting held in Nelson on September 24th, Fair week,
they decided to form a Bee-keepers' Association for this district.
Samples of honey collected by myself from all over the Kootenays were exhibited at the
fair held in Nelson, September 23rd to 25th, and proved very interesting and instructive.
I am glad to be able to report that I have not found any case of disease in the whole of
the territory under my charge.
Respectfully submitted.
W. J. Sheppard,
Instructor in Apiculture and Foul-brood Inspector.
REPORT OF L. HARRIS, FOUL-BROOD INSPECTOR, QKANAGAN DISTRICT, YEAR 1914.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith submit report of work done in connection with foul-brood inspection in the
Upper Country of British Columbia. I am pleased to report that no cases of foul-brood have
been found.
All the known bee-keepers have been visited, instructions and advice given, according to
the respective requirements. It is gratifying to see that at least some satisfactory progress
is being made in the bee-keeping industry- It is being taken seriously as an avocation by those
wishing to add to their income.    The agriculturist and fruitmen know that the colony bee is R 114 Department of Agriculture. 1915
the most to be depended on of all the insects for pollenization purposes. There are bee-keepers
in the Okanagan District who have studied their bees and have made a magnificent success of
them financially, and it will not be long before bee-keeping will become prominent and permanent.
Unfortunately, the marketing conditions at the present time are not conducive to the rapid
removal of the honey-crop of this season, owing, perhaps, to the money stringency, following
trade inactivity, consequent upon the war conditions. However, when things become normal,
British Columbia is going to become a honey-producing country beyond expectation, and after
supplying her own needs in this commodity will be able to export large quantities to less-favoured
districts.
Unfortunately, there is a very serious side in bee-keeping to be reckoned with, and one
likely to be a menace to the industry in this Province. Foul-brood appears to have got a pretty
good footing in the Coast District.
During my recent visit to assist Mr. Todd in the Lower Mainland District in combating
this disease, my first experience was to find six colonies out of ten inspected that were diseased;
in the next apiary visited there were ten colonies, four of which had foul-brood. Quite a number
of other apiaries were visited having one or two colonies infected. Altogether, between thirty to
forty colonies have been destroyed in and around Vancouver.
I would like to have had the opportunity of getting around my district again this fall, as
I understand some colonies of bees have been shipped from the disease-infected area to the
Upper Country, but as yet I have been unable to locate them.
Respectfully submitted.
L. Harris,
Foul-brood Inspector.
REPORT OF F. DUNDAS TODD, FOUL-BROOD INSPECTOR FOR THE LOWER FRASER
DISTRICT, SEASON 1914.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report on the work conducted by me during the year 1914.
From April 1st to May 21st I conducted a series of demonstration meetings, covering
thoroughly all the district south of the Fraser, excepting Vancouver and Surrey.
Systematic inspection was then begun in the City of New Westminster and surrounding
district. This finished, Surrey Municipality was undertaken. The work here continued until
July 6th. The region impressed me as one with great honey-producing possibilities, but radical
changes will have to be made by the bee-keepers, as I found, only sixty well-housed colonies in
a total of 402, all others being in ordinary boxes. The honey production of the past has been
almost nothing.
Early in the season some of the colonies at the Mental Hospital, Essondale, had aroused
my suspicions, and as the season advanced I found in five of them evidence of the presence of
American foul-brood.    These were destroyed on July 7th.
As their point of origin was Chilliwack, I at once proceeded there and found five cases in
two apiaries. These were burned at once, and all the hives within a radius of a mile and a half
were inspected. .
Such information as I could get indicated that the contagion had been brought from
Vancouver, so I proceeded to that city. Careful inquiry led me to suspect the region around
Kingsway, so I began work in that district, finding the area from Knight's Road to the Burnaby
boundary-line to be decidedly an infected one.
Near the end of August I was joined by Mr. L. Harris, Inspector for the Okanagan District,
who soon found another centre of infection in the north-east part of the city. We continued
to work until October 10th, when the rainy season brought our efforts to a close.
Altogether, we found American foul-brood in twenty apiaries, affecting forty-five colonies,
all of which were destroyed by fire. In addition, we burned eight colonies in ordinary boxes
found in affected apiaries. Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 115
The weather during the honey-flow was very favourable. This condition, combined with the
increased skill of our bee-keepers, resulted in a total crop for the Province of 150 tons of very
excellent honey. As far as can be -estimated, the crop of 1910, the year preceding the one when
the Inspectors began their work, amounted to about 20 tons, so it is evident that our bee-keepers,
as a whole have taken advantage of the instruction given them.
Respectfully submitted.
F. Dundas Todd,
Foul-brood Inspector.
REPORT OF EXHIBITION-WORK.
By W. A. Lang, Exhibition Commissioner.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit for your consideration the following report of the exhibition-work
undertaken by your instructions during the season of 1914:—
Exhibits.
Eleven exhibitions in all were attended, at seven of which the wrhole exhibit was staged.
A display of fruit only was sent to three, and at the apple-show in connection with the International Irrigation Congress at Calgary, we had, in addition to a car-load display of apples, our
bottled-fruit exhibit and a very fine collection of vegetables, our fisheries and lumber exhibits
being staged with the general display of the Natural Resources Department of the Canadian
raeific Railway Company. For our general exhibit we had already on hand a splendid collection
of fish models and a small collection of bottled fruit.
A new exhibit of minerals was furnished by the Department of Mines. Four new mineral
cases were built for this Department, making a very creditable display of the products of the
various working mines of the Province, as well as a small exhibit of lead products, cement, and
marble.
A new exhibit of finished lumber products, including doors, mouldings, interior finish, three-
ply fir veneer panels, and shingles, was assembled at Vancouver and made a very attractive and
valuable addition to our general display.
The fruit exhibit was obtained, as usual, by direct shipments by the growers to the various
exhibitions, and it is a pleasure to testify to the general excellence of the exhibits sent forward
by the various growers, as well as to the splendid condition in which, With very few exceptions,
the fruit arrived.
The Department is indebted to the Dominion Express Company for many courtesies received
throughout the season, and for their careful handling of the exhibits; not a single case of rough
handling or breakage occurred.
Exhibitions.
Winnipeg.—The Winnipeg Industrial Exhibition opened July 11th, being advanced one day
owing to the Manitoba elections being held on the advertised opening day. Our fruit arrived in
excellent condition, and we were able to maintain a good display throughout, small fruits and
cherries being the principal exhibit.
The exhibit of apples from cold storage at Calgary was a new  feature,  and proved an
excellent one.    We had fourteen boxes which made quite a nice display.    Of the varieties which
we had, the Delicious, Baldwin, and Yellow Newtown were probably the best.    The Spy and
Winesap stood up fairly well.    The Gano and Ben Davis were sound and firm at the end of •
the exhibition.
The first apricots reached us here and created very favourable comment, owing to their size
and splendid colour. R 116 Department of Agriculture. 1915
The fish models were a great attraction, and were supplemented by a display of fresh salmon
shown in blocks of ice.
Our lumber exhibit was a continued source of interest to the thousands of people who
visited our building, and from the many inquiries from builders and architects, I feel confident
that much has been done to increase the demand for British Columbia lumber products. The
exhibit comprised a display of British Columbia shingles, finished doors, mouldings, and finishing
lumber, and 25 feet of three-ply fir veneer panels, with base and china-rail, set up.
A lecture hall, 24 x 50 feet, was partitioned off, leaving a main exhibition hall, 50 x 50 feet.
This building will in the future be used exclusively by this Department. Four lectures were
given daily, illustrated by lantern-slides and moving-picture films, of the timber, fisheries, and
fruit industries. These lectures were an unqualified success, great interest being taken by the
visitors, the hall being filled to overflowing at each lecture period.
Brandon.—The Brandon Interprovincial Fair, July 20th to 24th, was an undoubted success.
The weather was excellent, and large numbers of visitors thronged the buildings and grounds
throughout the week. Excursion trains were run daily from different points in Eastern and
Western Manitoba, and the total attendance showed only a small decrease from the record
attendance of last year.
Our exhibit was placed this year in the new Display Building, one of the best on the
grounds, and well located,' and as our exhibit was staged at the main entrance it attracted
great attention.
The Brandon Fair is really and truly a farmers' fair, attended by the farmers of the
whole of Brandon and surrounding districts, just the class from which we may hope to draw
settlement.
Unusual interest was taken here in our lumber exhibit, especially in the veneer-panel work,
the fruit, however, being the centre of attraction.
Here, as at Winnipeg, the lecture feature was much appreciated. We had procured a black
tent for the purpose. The only drawback to the successful use of It was the extreme heat in
the early afternoon, but by putting on a lecture every hour in the evening the crowds were well
taken care of.
Regina.—Good weather and good attendance prevailed for the .Regina Fair, July 27th to
30th. We were placed in the Government Building, along with the Dominion Government and
the Government of Saskatchewan. One-quarter of the building was allotted to us, and, although
we could have used more space our exhibit was well staged and was the centre of attraction in
this building.
As I was unable to secure the services of a competent operator for the moving-picture
machine, I was reluctantly compelled to eliminate the lecture feature here.
Killarney.—At the request of the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture for Manitoba, a fruit
exhibit was sent to Killarney, in Southern Manitoba. As the fair is held on the same
dates as the Regina Exhibition, the display was sent in charge of Mr. Grogan, the Assistant
Commissioner.
This fair runs for three days, and is well attended by the farmers of a very prosperous
district, extending along the southern boundary of the Province.
Mr. Grogan reports considerable interest, and many inquiries from prospective settlers.
This fair was attended at a very small outlay, which I think was fully justified.
Saskatoon.—Bad weather conditions, rain, wind, and dust, not only had its effect on the
attendance, but made it very unpleasant for those who did attend. The war having been
declared, and the consequent interest therein, also tended to lessen interest in the exhibition.
Our space at Saskatoon was the smallest we had at any fair, but our display was attractive,
and was acknowledged to be the best feature of the exhibition. Our lantern feature was also
a great point of interest.
Edmonton.—The Government of British Columbia has not been represented at the Edmonton
Fair for some years.    We were placed in the new Horse-show Building and had ample space.
There, as at the other Prairie fairs, we had on exhibition some of the cold-storage apples,
and as we received the first apples of the new crop, we were able to stage a very attractive
fruit display.
Great interest was taken in our illustrated lectures, five of which were given each day,
and the " standing-room only " sign was out at each period. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 117
Toronto.—The Canadian National Exhibition is the largest fair held on the continent.
This year's attendance, however, did not reach that of last year, owing no doubt to war
conditions;  however,  750,000 people paid admission.
Rain fell on seven days of the thirteen during which the fair was open. We were fortunate
in securing the space which has been used for some years by the Province of Manitoba, larger
than the space which had previously been allotted to us, and a much more desirable location.
We were placed at the first main entrance to the Government Building, which is the first
building after entering the grounds.
Our exhibit was on a somewhat larger and more comprehensive scale than in former years,
including, in addition to the fisheries and mineral exhibits, the largest lumber display yet
undertaken by the Province.
Our fruit display, while not covering as much space as heretofore, was more in the nature
of a commercial display, although a considerable plate and basket display was also staged. We
had, too, a fine display of apples—Wealthy, Gravenstein, and Duchess.
The feature of our lumber exhibit was a small model office, finished inside with beamed
ceiling, panelled walls, and edge-grain floor, all in British Columbia fir, and the exterior in
British Columbia cedar siding and shingles.
London.—Owing to the date of the London and Ottawa Fairs being concurrent, only a
display of fruit was sent to London. This was in charge of Mr. Grogan. Good attendance
is reported.
Ottawa.—One of the best fairs on the circuit. Here we had excellent space in the Art
Building, one section of which, 35 x 100 feet, is offered to us as a permanent space. I would
recommend that a lecture hall be partitioned off one end of this section, which would leave
ample room for a good display.
Our exhibit was admitted to be the best feature of the exhibition, and very great interest
was taken in our fruit and lumber display.
Good work could undoubtedly be done, both here and at Toronto, in the extension of the
lumber market, as great quantities of Georgia pine are coming into these markets, and being
used for interior finish. This should be easily displaced by British Columbia fir, which is
admittedly a vastly better material for interior finish.
Calgary.—At this exhibition, held in connection with the International Irrigation Congress,
our exhibits were staged with those of the Natural Resources Department of the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company, making a joint display, which was the outstanding feature of the exhibition,
and one which, in the opinion of the judges, was entitled to the $500 shield presented for the
best display by a Government or corporation.
In addition to our exhibit of timber, fish, and bottled fruit, we staged a small but very select
collection of vegetables, which easily discounted any vegetable exhibit entered for competition.
Our principal feature, however, was a display of a car-load of apples, gathered from all the
fruit-producing districts of British Columbia.
In the "Soil Products Competition" British Columbia competitors were very successful,
Revelstoke carrying off the first prize for district exhibit; Penticton, first for fruit display;
Kelowna, second in fruit display, third for roots and vegetables, and first, second, and third
for corn; Revelstoke, second for grain in sheaf and second for fodder-crops; and Mr. Duncan
McDonald, of Eburne, first for white oats.
The attendance was 20,000. (For statements showing attendance and cost see Appendices
S and T.    For statement of green-fruit displays see Appendix U.)
In addition to the $500 shield won jointly with the Canadian Pacific Railway Company at
Calgary, our exhibit was awarded gold medals at Toronto, Brandon, and Regina, a silver medal
at Winnipeg, and diplomas at Ottawa, Saskatoon, and Edmonton.
Respectfully submitted.
W. A. Lang,
Exhibition Commissioner. R 118
Department of Agriculture.
1915
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX A.
Showing Character of Appointments, Department of Agriculture.
Fiscal  Year
ending   March
31st, 1913.
Fiscal Year
ending  March
31st, 1914.
Foul-brood Inspectors  	
Statistical Enumerators  	
Markets Commissioner  	
Veterinary Inspectors   	
Carpenters  	
Bottled Fruits	
Poultry Instructor  	
Precooling Investigators  	
Assistant Fruit Exhibition Commissioners
Fruit-packing Instructors	
Assistant Fruit Inspectors 	
Kinematograph Operator	
Dairy Instructor	
Noxious Weeds Inspectors  	
Clerical	
Plant Pathologist 	
Silo-demonstration Operator  	
Assistant Agriculturist  	
Assistant Horticulturist 	
Cow-testers   	
Assistant Crops and Soils Instructor	
Vegetable Expert	
Agricultural Surveyor (Peace River)   ....
Totals 	
3
11
1
3
2
1
1
2
O
5
20
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
8
16
1
64
APPENDIX B.
Bulletins and Circulars issued during 1914, Department of Agriculture.
Women's Institutes.
Published.
Bulletin 53. Care of Young Children        1,800
„       54. British Columbia Women's Handbook          5,000
Farmers' Institutes.
Bulletin 57. Boys' and Girls' Field-crop Competitions       5,000
Poultry.
Bulletin 39. Natural   and   Artificial   Brooding   and   Incubating    (4th
Edition)        10,000
General.
Bulletin 58. Farm Storages for Fruits and Vegetables         5,000
59. Agricultural Statistics for Year 1913     10,000
40. Alfalfa          6,000 ■5 Geo. 5
Ninth Report.
R 119
Bulletins and Circulars issued—Concluded.
Reports.
Second International Egg-laying Contest   10,000
Second Annual Report, British Columbia Markets Commissioner  5,000
Twenty-fourth Annual Report, British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association    1,200
Fourth Annual Report, British Columbia Poultry Association   800
Proceedings of the British Columbia Entomological Society   1,500
British Columbia Dairymen's Report   750
Circulars.
No.    1. Thousand-headed Kale  (2nd Edition)     2,000
„      6. Seed Improvement    9,000
„      7. Keeping Poultry Free from Lice   2,500
8. Corn     5,000
„      9. Line Cuts for Poultry-houses    1,000
„    10. Care of Milk and Cream    10,000
„    16. Horticultural Branch.   Spray Calendar for 1914  5,000
„    26. Horticultural Branch.    Supplement     1,500
Miscellaneous.
Secretary's Report, Agricultural Fairs Association   100
Stock-breeders' Directory   1,500
Gardening on a City Lot   5,000
Poultry-breeders' Leaflet    5,000
Rules and Regulations, Farmers' Institutes  8,000
Total    117,650
APPENDIX C.
Total  Correspondence  received  and  dispatched bt Department of Agriculture for Years
ending December 31st, 1913 and 1914.
Received.
Dispatched.
1914.
1913.
1914.      .
1913.
Agricultural Department—
General	
Farmers' Institutes   	
Women's Institutes   	
Agricultural Associations   	
Live Stock Branch—
Dairy Division	
5,961
1,761
984
812
2,750
977
2,266
1,668
1,749
964
1,350
5,642
1,553
698
551
1,174
745
1,748
271
1,499
659
1,663
6,058
1,371
784
845
3,306
936
1,850
1,837
2,037
1,426
1,228
5,588
1,493
793
742
1,227
764
1,333
334
2,250
3,073
1,550
Soils and Crops Division  	
Horticultural Branch—
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association....
Totals  	
21,242
16,203
21,678
19,147 R 120
Department of Agriculture.
1915
APPENDIX D.
Circular Letters sent out by Department of Agriculture, Year ending December 31st, 1914.
No. of
Circulars.
No. of Copies sent out.
Year 1914.     Year 1913
Agricultural Department, general	
Farmers' Institutes   	
Women's Institutes  	
Agricultural Associations  	
Dairy   	
Poultry	
Horticultural	
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association
Fruit Inspection	
Totals  	
41
42
21
26
17
34
23
23
15,970
4,069
1,830
1.676
5,130
10.675
8.455
14,485
800
63,090
■ 19,386
■ 8,687
■ 4,075
32,148
APPENDIX E.
Bulletins sent out during Year 1914 by the Department of Agriculture.
No.
Bulletin    8. Feeding Farm Animals '
25. Orchard Cleansing	
26. Practical Poultry-raising     1
30. Guide to Bee-keeping	
32. Control of Tuberculosis 	
33. Fruit-growing Possibilities Skeena River 	
35. Place and Purpose of Family Life	
36. Preparation of Food 	
37. The Preservation of Food 	
38. Preparation of  Silos   	
39. Natural and Artificial Brooding and Incubating     1
40. Alfalfa   	
41. Labour-saving Devices in the Household 	
42. Apiculture in British Columbia        1
44. Irrigation in British Columbia	
45. Agricultural Statistics, 1911 	
46. Food and Diet, Part I	
48. Exhibiting Fruit and Vegetables  	
49. Market Poultry        1
50. The Art of Right Living 	
51. Information for Fruit-growers   	
52. Annual Report of Advisory Board, Women's Institutes	
53. The Care of Young Children      1.
54. The British Columbia Women's Handbook       2.
55. Care and Marketing of Eggs       2.
56. Field-crop Competitions      1
58. Farm Storages for Fruit and Vegetables	
59. Agricultural Statistics for Year 1913   ,	
Horticultural Circulars      45
sent.
510
300
,56S
90
284
100
250
295
160
400
,750
390
250
,050
175
100
250
375
775
480
350
250
800
2S5
050
750
450
522
000 5 Geo. 5
Ninth Report.
R 121
Circulars and Reports sent out during Year 1914.
No. sent.
No.    1. Gardening on a City Lot   150
5. Results of Field-crop Competitions, 1913    9,000
,,      1. Thousand-headed Kale  450
,,      2. Tuberculosis in Poultry    1,250
„     3. Construction of Fresh-air Brooders    1,6S0
„      4. Management of Turkeys     1,346
,,      5. Clover Dodder    1,650
6. Seed Improvement  S.250
„      7. Keeping Poultry Free from Lice    1,370
„      8. Com     700
„      9. Line Cuts for Poultry-houses    380
„    10. The Care of Milk and Cream   580
Fifteenth Annual Report, Farmers' Institutes    8,225
Fourth Annual Report, Agricultural Fairs    100
British Columbia Entomological Society     1,130
British Columbia Dairymen's Report    500
Report, Second Egg-laying Contest    9,000
Twenty-fourth Annual Report, British Columbia Fruit-growers  875
Markets Commissioner's Report    3.550
Rules and Regulations, Women's Institutes    500
Rules and Regulations, Farmers' Institutes    4,500
Instructions to Secretaries, Farmers' Institutes  100
Formula? for Preserving Fruit     20
roultry-keeping on a City Lot   1,500
APPENDIX F.
Summary of Appropriations, Department of Agriculture.
1911-12.
1912-13.
1013-14.
1914-15.
General—
$ 30,061 06
30,000 00
81,000 00
14,000 00
18,000 00
24,000 00
i 37,851 78
35,000 00
90,300 00
35,000 00
70,000 00
19,500 00
15.000 00
5,000 00
$ 57,336 00
35,000 00
94,000 00
50,000 00
20,000 00
15,500 00
25,000 00
5,000 00
$ 72,988 00
30,350 00
89,000 00
42,500 00
35,000 00
18,500 00
Administration,   General  Department  vote,
Agricultural Associations—
Agricultural Associations,  including grants
in   aid   of  prize-lists,   specific  grants  for
Exhibition—
Exhibition and publicity work in Dominion
Institutes—
Horticulture—
Board of Horticulture, experimental orchards
demonstration   spraying,   precooling   and
cold storage, and British Columbia Fruit-
Inspection of fruit,  fumigation of nursery
45,000 00
4,000 00
$107,061 06
$307,651 78
$301,836 00
$337,33S 00 R 122
Department of Agriculture.
191;
Summary of Appropriations—Concluded.
1911-12.
1912-13.
1913-14.
1914-15.
Live Stock—
Compensation for slaughtered cattle	
Statistics—■
Collection of agricultural statistics, including  special  survey  of  Northern  British
$197,061 06
5,250 00
3,745 70
$307,651 78
9,250 00
2,500 00
$301,836 00
10,250 00
10,000 00
4,000 00
$337,338 00
10,750 00
40,000 00
Totals	
$206,056 76
$319,401 78
$326,086 00
$388,088 00
APPENDIX G.
Vouchers issued by Department of Agriculture during Fiscal Years ending March 31st.
1911.
1912.
1913
1914.
General	
Agricultural Associations  ....
Institutes   	
Exhibition and publicity work
Horticulture   	
Live stock  	
Statistics   	
Totals	
16
39
212
51
467
110
499
1,020
1,229
61
88
162
330
112
358
81
299
529
234
613
851
132
244
520
40
22
895
1,337
2,416
3,671
APPENDIX H.
Farmers' Institutes organized during the Year 1914.
Vancouver and Gulf Islands.
Institute-. Date.
Coombs    Feb. 10, 1914.
Lasqueti Island April 22, „
Nahwitte, Stranby, and District       ,, 22, „
Nitinat     „ 28, „
Okisollo  Nov. 12, „
Refuge Bay   Aug. 25, „
Spiller River   March 13, „
Skidegate Inlet   Feb. 10, „
Say ward    Aug. 25, „
Texada Island Jan. 1, ,,
Vargas Island  Feb. 10, „
Mainland.
Barriere    July 16, 1914.
Canford  Nov. 24, „
Elk Valley   Feb. 19, ,.
Kaleden     „ 10 „
Lumby   July 6, „
Lytton    Nov. 12, „
Marysville and District   Aug. 21, ,,
Seymour Arm District  April 28,
There has been great activity on Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands in the organization
of new institutes, as will be seen from the above. 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 123
APPENDIX I.
Moneys expended for Prize-list Grants -and Building Grants respectively to the end of
December, 1914.
Prize-list grants   $24,075 00
Specific Grants for Buildings and Aid to Funds.
Agassiz Agricultural and Horticultural Association  $ 1,250 00 buildings.
Arrow Lakes Agricultural and Industrial Association .... 1,000 00         ,,
Cowichan Agricultural Society    5,000 00         „
Cranbrook Agricultural Association     400 00         „
Grand Forks Agricultural Association    2,000 00         ,,
Kalamalka Agricultural Association    1,500 00         „
Maple Ridge Agricultural Association   750 00         „
Mission Agricultural Association   '  1,000 00         ,,
North Thompson Agricultural Association   40 OO         „
Northern  British   Columbia  Agricultural   and  Industrial
Association     2,500 00
Royal Agricultural and Industrial Association    4,500 00 special.
Salmon Arm and Shuswap Agricultural Association    1,500 00 buildings.
Slocan Valley Agricultural and Industrial Association  ... 500 00
Slocan Lake Agricultural Association   1,000 00         „
Vancouver Exhibition Association    4,000 00 special.
Total   $26,940 00
APPENDIX J.
Noxious Weeds in British Columbia.
Principal Varieties in Certain Districts.
(1.)  Northern British Columbia—
Nass Valley   Not very prevalent; a few patches of perennial
sow-thistle and ball-mustard.
<2.)   Sicamous to Yale and North Thompson River Valley—
Kamloops   (City)    Russian thistle and mustard.    Cleaning-up well
done by city.
Kamloops to Sicamous via Chase..Mustard and Canada thistle.
Ducks Mustard and Russian and Canada thistle.
Pritchard and Chase Mustard and Russian and Canada thistle.
Shuswap   Canada thistle.
Notch Hill    Canada and bull thistle.
Tappen    Canada and bull thistle  (very bad).
Salmon Arm   (City)    Thistles bad; poor work done by city.
Glenemma   Bull and Canada thistle  (bad).
Falkland Bull-thistle.
Grande Prairie   Canada thistle (bad).
Kamloops to Tranquille—
B.C. Fruitlands properties   Russian thistle and mustard (bad).
Kamloops to Barriere (west side) —
B.C. Fruitlands properties    Canada thistle and mustard (bad).
Barriere—
Kamloops to Barriere  (east side),
Louis Creek, Back Valley, etc.. Canada   thistle,   Russian   thistle,   and   mustard
(very prevalent). R 124 Department op Agriculture. 1915
Noxious Weeds in British Columbia—Continued.
Principal Varieties—Continued.
(2.)   Sicamous to Yale and North Thompson River Valley—Concluded.
Kamloops to Merritt via Nicola—
Knutsford  Russian and Canada thistle.
Stump Lake   (near)    Some stinkweed.
Nicola  Thistles kept fairly in check.
Merritt   (City)    Canada   and   Russian   thistles.     By-laws   not
properly enforced.
Merritt to Kamloops via Spences Bridge—
Coutlee    Canada thistle bad along road.
Spences Bridge (Townsite)    Russian thistle.
Ashcroft (Townsite)    Russian thistle  (bad).
Clinton  Canada and Russian thistle and stinkweed.
Walhachin    Russian thistle (very bad).
Savona   Russian thistle.
Ducks Range  Canada thistle.
Long Lake   Stinkweed  (bad).
Brigade Lake    Mustard and Canada thistle.
Sullivan Valley  Canada thistle (bad).
(3.)  Okanagan Valley—
Kelowna    Canada thistle.
Coldstream and White Valley. ...Overrun with weeds.
South Vernon    Mustard.
Summerland,    Peachland,    and
Westbank    Noxious weeds prevalent.
(4.)  Boundary District—
Grand  Forks District,  Fourth  of
July Creek, Eholt, and Upper
and Lower Boundary Creeks. .Tumbling mustard and Canada thistle.
(5.)
Eagle River Valley, Malakwa, and
Sicamous to Taft Canada thistle very bad in parts; some mustard.
Columbia  Valley,   Golden  to  Sinclair, Wasa to Fort Steele... Weeds   bad,   principally   Canada   thistle   and
mustard.
(6.)  Arrow Lakes, Slocan Valley, and Kootenay Lake—
Revelstoke  (outside city limits) . .Canada thistle, mustard, blue burr.
Hall's  Landing,   Arrowhead,  Fire
Valley.   East   Robson,   Slocan
Valley, Ainsworth, and Kaslo, Shepherd's-purse, stinkweed, etc.
(7). Lower Mainland—
Harrison River  Canada thistle.
Dewdney   Bull-thistle.
Nicomen  Island     „
Matsqui Prairie     „
Pitt Meadows    „
Abbotsford     „
Bradner    „
Cloverdale  ,,
Clayburn  „
Chilliwack     „
Hatzic Island     „
Ladner   „
Lulu Island    „
Mount Lehman  	 5 Geo. 5 Ninth Report. R 125
Noxious Weeds in British Columbia—Concluded.
Principal Varieties—Concluded.
(7.)  Lower Mainland—Concluded.
Silverdale   Bull-thistle.
South Westminster     „
Sumas Prairie   „
(8.)  Vancouver Island—■
Saanich Peninsula   Canada thistle, mustard, and burdock.
Sooke and Metchosin   Canada thistle and mustard.
Duncan and North Cowichan .... Canada thistle, mustard, and burdock.
Wellington    Canada thistle and burdock.
Alberni  Canada thistle, burdock, and oxeye daisy.
Fanny Bay  Canada and bull thistle.
Comox District  (entire) Canada thistle, mustard, and burdock.
(9.)
Nelson District   Canada thistle  (bad).
Rossland   	
Trail 	
Procter 	
Harrop 	
Meadows and Erie
(bad).
(bad).
APPENDIX K.
Members of the Staff, Horticultural Branch.
The following have served throughout the year:—
R. M. Winslow, Provincial Horticulturist.
M.   S.   Middleton,   Assistant   Horticulturist,   Nelson,   B.C.—Kootenay   and   Boundary
Districts.
B. Hoy, Assistant Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.—Okanagan and Similkameen.
P. E. French, Assistant Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.—Shuswap and Arrow Lakes
Sections.
H. Thornber, Assistant Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.—Thompson River Section.
W. H. Robertson, Assistant Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.—Vancouver Island and Lower
Mainland.
A.   II.   Tomlinson,   Assistant   Horticulturist,   Prince   Rupert,   B.C.—Northern   British
Columbia.
J. Forsyth Smith, Markets Commissioner for the Prairies, Calgary, Alberta.
Edwin Smith, in charge of Precooling, Cold-storage, and Transportation Investigations,
resigned April 30th to take a similar position with the Dominion Government, and
the vacancy created has since remained open.
E. C. Hunt, Assistant to M. S. Middleton, Grand Forks, B.C., was appointed on April 1st.
M. H. Howitt, Assistant to A. H. Tomlinson, was appointed May 1st.
W. II. Hayes was Assistant to B. Hoy from June 8th to October 31st.
H. M. Scott was Assistant to M. S. Middleton, April 20th to September 15th.
F. L.   Goodman  was  Assistant  in  charge  of   Cold-storage,   pre-cooling,   and   Careful
Handling Investigations, April 20th to September 15th.
T. Sanderson, Vegetable Expert, April 20th to October 29th.
L. F. Burrows, Assistant to P. E. French, April 23rd to September 21st.
R. C. Abbott, Fraser Valley Markets Commissioner, appointed November 1st.
J. W. Eastham, Pathologist and Entomologist, appointed April 30th. R 126
Department of Agriculture.
1915
APPENDIX L.
Cattle tested for Tuberculosis.
Kelowna	
Cranbrook   	
Elko.  	
Procter and Nelson  	
Kamloops 	
Malakwa   	
Summerland and Peachland
Cedar Point	
Hosmer	
Fernie    	
Revelstoke   	
Salmon Arm   	
Armstrong   	
Enderby   	
Vernon   	
Tappeii  	
Agassiz  	
Deroche   	
Gibson's Landing	
Baraston Island  	
Lulu Island	
Ladner   	
Westminster   	
Cloverdale   	
Vancouver   	
Abbotsford  	
Dewdney    	
Langley Prairie   	
Matsqui	
Silverdale	
Mount Lehman  	
Huntingdon   	
Glen Valley	
Port Hammond	
Chilliwack   	
Sullivan   	
Sayward  	
Prince Rupert	
Ladysmith   	
Pender Island	
Cobble Hill  	
Duncan     '.
Victoria   	
Nanaimo	
Alberni  	
Herds.
70
39
17
20
8
17
31
1
4
21
15
2
28
O
3
5
91
28
67
11
131
24
94
197
39
7
1
243
94
19
90
56
3
22
182
3
2
2
20
27
6
1
Cattle.
Reactors
252
307
2
58
78
1
125
1
70
79
11
60
1
229
79
168
78
115
8
29
1
28
26
1
1,019
70
432
55
73
2
94
6
1,274
108
248
36
964
46
2,015
84
159
30
34
3
62
8*
1,671
142
1,258
60
165
14
484
1,194
50
58
7
331
29
2,913
112
61
39
44
11
13
1
45
36
4
59
1
513
44
59
14
10
* Thirty-six suspects.
APPENDIX M.
Creameries in British Columbia.
Name.
Secretary or
Manager.
P.O. Address.
W. K. McLeod  	
H. E. Almond       ...
R. U. Hurford	
J. .1. Makepeace . . .
W. S. Smith  	
J. H. Suart	
Chilliwack.
Vancouver.
Crystal Dairy Co	
Courtenay.
Duncan.
New Westminster.
Vancouver.
Edenbank Creamery Association, Ltd.   .. .
Nanaimo Creamery Association	
Sardis.
Nanaimo. 5 Geo. 5
Ninth Report.
R 127
Creameries in British Columbia—Concluded.
Name.
Northwestern Creamery   	
Okanagan Valley Creamery	
P. Burns & Co	
Richmond Dairy Co	
Royal Dairy Co	
Royal Dairy Co	
Saltspring Creamery Association	
Standard Milk Co., Ltd	
Vancouver Creamery	
Turner's Dairy  	
Imperial Creamery	
Condensers.
B.C.. Condensing Co.,  Sardis,  Delta   .
Courtenay Condensing Co	
Homogenizing Plant.
Laurentia Milk Co	
Secretary or
Manager.
Norton & Snelling
A. Slater  	
M. Silver  	
K. Sherwood	
C. W. McAllister .
A. A. Young	
A. W. Drake	
P. Clark 	
J. M. Livingstone
M. W. Urquhart .
J. R. Payne	
Kelly-Douglas Co.
P.O. Address.
Victoria.
Armstrong.
Vancouver.
Vancouver.
Victoria.
Vancouver.
Ganges, S.S.I.
Vancouver.
Vancouver.
Seventeenth   and   Ontario   Streets,
Vancouver.
414 Pender Street East, Vancouver.
New Westminster.
Vancouver.
Clayburn, and 800 Robson Street,
Vancouver.
APPENDIX N.
Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia and Approximate Standing, March 31st, 1915.
Association.
Date
instituted.
Routes.
Secretary.
Tester.
Salary of Tester.
Cows tested.
1913.
1914.
1913.
1914.
Chilliwack. . . .
Sardis	
Rosedale	
June 1, 1913
May 15,1913
April 1, 1914
May 20, 1914
1
1
G. H. Raine,
Chilliwack
G. H. Raine,
Chilliwack
W.   T.   Wain,
Cumberland
T. Shannon,
Cloverdale
W. E. Wiltshire
J.  B. Watson. .
C. H. Gravely. .
D. A. .Tames. . .
$750  00
795 00
$900 00
900 00
515
489
Langley-Surrey
$1,545 00
$1,800 00
900 00
825 00
915
1,004
450
436
Totals
4
$1,545 00
$3,225 00
915
1,890
Association.
Amount due from
Department.
Amount paid by
Department.
Overdraft on
Department.
Approximate  Amounts
due   Association   for
testing and outstanding.
1913.
1914.
1913.
1914.
1913.
1914.
Chilliwack	
$675 00
720 00
$180 00
180 00
Rosedale   	
Langley-Surrey   .. .
$630 00
$796 00
450 00
389 00
$1,395 00
$360 00
570 00
487 91
$640 00
$329 00
120 00
96 91
$183.75  (to date).
60.00 (Mar. 31, 1915).
145.00  (Dec. 1, 1914).
Totals. . .
$630 00
$1,635 00
$1,305 00
$1,417 91
$640 00
$545, 91
$388.75. R 128
Department of Agriculture.
1915
APPENDIX O.
City Milk-supply, British Columbia.
Cities.
Alberni    	
Armstrong   	
Ashcroft    	
Chemainus    	
Comox   	
Courtenay   	
Cumberland  	
Cranbrook   	
Chilliwack  	
Coquitlam   	
Cowichan  Station. .
Duncan   	
Esquimalt   	
Eburne	
Enderby	
Fernie    	
Fort George  	
Ganges  	
Grand Forks	
Greenwood    	
Hazelton   	
Kamloops   	
Kelowna   	
Ladner  	
Ladysmith  	
Mission    	
Nanaimo    	
North Vancouver  . .
New  Westminster..
Nelson   	
Phoenix   	
Penticton   	
Prince Rupert
Revelstoke  	
Rossland   	
Salmon   Arm   	
Summerland   	
Trail    	
Vernon    	
Victoria  	
Vancouver   ]
Vancouver, South j
West Vancouver   . .
825
1.000
600
600
200
650
1,200
2,850
1.800
1.200
200
1,500
4,000
2,000
800
4,000
800
100
2,000
1,200
150
4,000
2,200
1,000
3,000
1.000
8,000
8,000
17.500
7,000
1,500
2,000
4.500
3,500
3,500
750
1.S00
1,800
3,000
50,000
136,000
1,200
5«!
None
Yes
None
Yes
None
Yes
None
Yes
("Yes
1   »
None
None
1
None
1
None
1
1
1
None
1
1
1
None
2
9
3
3
1
2
3
7
2
2
1
5
3
3
3
4
2
2
11
1
1
8
4
1
2
2
17
13
12
9
3
1
2
11
30
3
1
4
8
32
49
None
1
None
1
None
3
1
None
3
H. 14
iFl. 25
None
None
1
None
None
v. a
9
3
3
1
2
3
7
2
3
1
5
3
5
3
5
2
2
11
1
1
10
4
1
2
2
18
19
26
11
3
1
2
14
30
3
1
4
9
218
643
2
«i
£>■-,
g §s 1 § a g
S5« Sago
Gals.
23,725
25.550
16,425
14,600
3,650
22,775
18,250
67.525
27,375
21.900
7,300
34,775
47,450
43,800
16,425
71,275
9,125
3.650
36,500
18.250
2,190
83.950
27,375
2,190
36,500
21,900
146,000
136,875
310,250
136,875
32,950
36,500
16,425
62,050
69,450
14.600
12.775
20.075
45,625
1,095,000
3,301,425
16,425
APPENDIX P.
Third International Egg-laying Contest.
The Third International Egg-laying Contest was held under the supervision of the Provincial
Department of Agriculture at the Exhibition Grounds, Victoria, B.C., from October 28th, 1913,
to September 27th, 1914, a period of eleven months. The total number of eggs laid is as
follows:—■ , i I i   ,:i   1   5 Geo. 5
Ninth Report.
R 129
Class I.—Non-weight Varieties (Six Birds to a Pen).
Pen.
Owner.
Breed.
No. of Eggs.
10
9
20
17
4
6
14
12
16
19
15
7
18
8
5
13
11
3
2
Ranguiru Egg Ranch, Otaki, New Zealand (first prize,
$100   	
A. Baston, Duncan, B.C.   (iseeond prize, $50)    ,..
R. W. Chalmers, Thrums, West Kootenay, B.C. (third
prize, $25)   	
V. T. Price, Cowichan, B.C. (fourth prize, $10)   	
J. J. Dougan, Cobble Hill, B.C. (fifth prize, Canadian
Poultry Revieiv bronze medal)   	
E. Soole, -Cowichan Station, B.C	
Tom Barron, Catforth, near Preston, Lane, Eng	
P. B. Darnell, Royal Oak, Vancouver Island, B.C	
O. P. Stamer, Cowichan, B.C	
A. Unsworth, Sardis, B.C	
J. Amsden, Deerholme P.O., V.I., B.C	
L. F. Solly, Westholme, V.I., B.C	
Seymour Greene, Box 66, Duncan, B.C	
J. McMullen, Box 77, Port Haney, B.C	
T. H. Lambert, Cortes Island, B.C	
Colonel Medley, Duncan, B.C	
G. Bird, R.M.D. No. 1, Royal Oak, V.I., B.C	
L. G. Wilkinson. Chemainus, B.C	
W. J. Gibbons, Penticton, B.C	
A. Price & Son, Cowichan Station, B.C.	
Total	
White Leghorns
Anconas   	
White Leghorns
Silver Campines
White Leghorns
Silver Campines
White Leghorns
1.330
1,232
1.164
1,118
1,096
1,088
1,088
1,065
1.051
1,046
1,045
1,021
1,020
944
924
919
903
860
813
727
20,454
Average number of eggs laid per bird, 170.4.
Class II.—Weight Varieties (Six Birds to a Pen).
Pen.
Owner.
Breed.
No. of Egg
34
32
23
31
35
38
21
40
25
36
27
30
29
37
26
24
22
28
39
33
E. D. Read, Duncan, B.C. (first prize, $100)   	
Tom Barron, Catforth, near Preston, Lane, Eng. (second
prize, $50)  	
Dean Bros., Keating's P.O., V.I., B.C. (third prize, $25)
Hall & Clark, 213 Mills Road, Foul Bay, Victoria, B.C.,
(fourth prize, $10)   	
S. Percival, Port Washington, B.C. (fifth prize, Canadian
Poultry Review bronze medal)	
J. H. Cruttenden, 237 Princess Street, New Westminster
B.C	
H. O. Dales, 2232 Fifth Avenue West, Vancouver, B.C.
D. Gibbard, Mission City, B.C	
Reid & Greenwood, Box 928, Victoria, B.C	
C. W. Robbins, Chilliwack, B.C	
G. Adams, Box 840, Victoria, B.C	
Will Barron, Bartle, near Preston, Lane, England  ....
M. L. Calvert, R.M.D. No. 4, Victoria, B.C	
J. Wood, 1153 Caledonia Avenue, Victoria, B.C	
A. E. Smith, R.R. No. 2, Victoria, B.C	
Mrs. A. Cooper, Treesbank, Manitoba  	
H. E. Waby, Enderby, B.C	
Mrs. E. McC. Mottley, Kamloops, B.C	
R. B. Butler, Box 896, Victoria, B.C	
P. S. Lampman, Law Courts, Victoria, B.C	
Total
White Wyandottes  ....
White Orpingtons .. .
White Wyandottes  ..
Buff Wyandottes
Barred Rocks . . .
S.C. Rhode Island Reds
Buff Orpingtons	
White Wyandottes ....
S.C. Rhode Island Reds
Buff Orpingtons   	
S.C. Rhode Island Reds
Barred Rocks	
Buff Orpingtons   	
S.C. Rhode Island Reds
White Orpingtons	
S.C. Rhode Island Reds
Average number of eggs laid per bird, 157.9.    Grand total eggs laid, 39,412.
W    TT    Stri-ivaN. J.   R.
1,258
1,236
1,188
1,185
1,118
1,062
1,061
1,053
913
893
877
868
863
852
831
804
765
748
711
672
18,958
W. H. Stroyan,
Poultryrnan.
J. R. Terry,
Director. R 130
Department op Agriculture.
1915
APPENDIX Q.
Breeding-stations.
The following shows the results obtained by the breeding-stations located throughout the
Province of British Columbia by the Department:—
Station.
Breeder.
Breed.
Total
Settings
sold.*
Ucluelet    	
Salmon River, Sayward P.O	
Whatshan	
Wilmer   	
Bella Coola	
Waneta	
Sechelt   	
Trout Lake   	
Lazo   (Comox)   	
Lawn Hill (Graham Island)   	
Skidegate P.O., Graham Island ....
Terrace  	
Woden River P.O., Masset Inlet . ..
Nass Harbour, Northern British Columbia    	
Graham Centre, Graham Island  . ..
Sooke Way   	
Lumby P.O., Okanagan Valley
Hilton P.O	
Mrs. Kvarno	
J. E. Armishaw	
F. W. Laing	
J. Hope  	
S. LeC. Grant	
Mrs. C. H. Duncan	
J. A. Fairbanks	
J. A. Sweeney	
C. Wilkinson	
R. Scharffe 	
R. Husband	
D. Munro	
Rev. T. B. Macdonald  ..
White Wyandottes
Buff Orpingtons   . .■
White Wyandottes
Rhode Island Reds
White Wyandottes
Mr. McPhee . .
Felix Graham
Mrs. Higgs' . .
T. A. Norris .
T. Munro	
Buff  Orpingtons
Total
43
20
12
4
19
21
16
9
16
18
9
16
10
15
260
* Fifteen eggs per setting.
APPENDIX R.
Temperatures and Rainfall, Northern British Columbia, 1914.
Month.
Highest
Temperature.
Lowest
Temperature.
Snow.
January .
February .
March . . .
April
May   	
June
July   	
August  .. .
September
October   . .
November
December
Fahr.
32.0
54.6
69.0
85.0
88.0
78.5
82.0
77.0
72.0
50.0
34.0
Fahr.
-18.0
-mo
22.5
24.0
29.0
29.0
32.0
25.0
23.0
-4.0
-11.0
Inches.
0.14
0.38
0.20
1.53
1.45
0.63
1.43
1.43
2.25
Inches.
17
26
10
1
2
11
* These readings wrere taken at the Live Stock Branch's   Office,   Telkwa. 5 Geo. 5
Ninth Report.
R 131
APPENDIX S.
Statement showing Attendance and Cost at Provincial Exhibitions, 1914.
Exhibition.
Days.
Paid
Attendance.
7
5
3
5
5
5
4
13
5
4
5
100,000
58,000
10,000
45,000
37,625
55,000
70,000
750.000
156,000
30,000
20,000
Totals    	
61
1,331,625
Total cost, including preparation of exhibits
Cost per day 	
Cost per visitor	
Average daily attendance  .... ;	
$20,000 00
330 00
0 01 y2
21,800
APPENDIX T.
Cost of Provincial Exhibitions, 1914.
The following is the cost of each exhibition attended, not, however, covering the amount
expended on the preparation of exhibits, but including sundry accounts at each point for labour,
lighting, etc., fruit purchased, and express charges, salaries and expenses of staff, express and
cartage on main exhibit:—
Winnipeg      $ 1,535 41
Brandon       1,310 30
Regina       1,025 06
Killarney  154 49
Saskatoon         1,001 77
Edmonton    984 50
Toronto   1,949 48
London     221 68
Sherbrook   132 9S
Ottawa         1,167 06
Calgary         2,003 04
Total   $11,485 77
An average cost of $1,044.16 each for eleven exhibitions. R. 132
Department of Agriculture.
1915
APPENDIX U.
Statement showing Green-fruit Display at Ten Provincial Exhibitions, 1914.
Exhibition.
Boxes.
Cost.
Express.
Total.
179
145
125
45
130
96
145
68
43
43
$413 75
345 15
270 45
97 65
252 95
191 05
270 25
127 35
108 35
90 60
$ 68 83
46 35
39 71
19 34
41 42
31 25
175 76
76 86
36 33
42 38
$482 58
391 50
310 16
116 99
294 37
222 30
446 01
204 21
144 68
132 98
Totals  	
1,019
$2,16'7 55
$578 23
$2,745 78
Total for fruit and express
Less fruit sold 	
Average price per box .....'
$2,745 78
639 75
2 08
APPENDIX V.—HOME PRODUCTION.
Table No. 1.—Showing Total Fruit-trees, British Columbia, 1913.
Apples.
District.
Total Trees.
Trees Five
Years and
under.
Percentage
Five Years
and under.
158,228
79,882
256,516
1,370,109
426,438
27,399
50,645
228,875
956.339
343,948
17.3
63.4
89.2
69.8
80.7
Totals 	
2,291,173
1,607,206
70.1
Peaks.
District.
Total Trees.
Trees Five
Years and
under.
Percentage
Five  Years
and under.
16,476
20,140
2,498
131,326
17,669
1,"548
16,193
2,168
88,382
12,732
9.4
80.4
86 9
67.3
721
188,108
121,023
64.3
* Includes Salmon Arm. 5 Geo. 5
Ninth Report.
R 133
Table No. 1.—Showing Total Fruit-trees—Concluded.
Prunes.
District.
Total Trees.
Trees Five
Years and
under.
Percentage
Five Years
and under.
7,477
8,107
1.874
40,787
9,627
1.970
2,175
591
29,630
7,605
26.3
26.8
31.5
72.6
78.9
Totals  	
67,872
41,971
61.8
District.
Plums.
Total Trees.
Trees Five
Years and
under:
Percentage
Five Y'ears
and under.
Islands   	
Lower Mainland	
•Thompson Watershed* ..
Okanagan and Boundary
East and West Kootenay
Totals	
8,191
18,070
796
83,223
3,817
114,097
591
7,156
470
41,029
2,450
516,696
7.2
39.6
59.0
49.3
64.2
45.3
District.
Peaches.
Total Trees.
Trees Five
Years and
under.
Percentage
Five Years
and under.
Islands   	
Lower Mainland	
Thompson Watershed* .
Okanagan and Boundary
East and West Kootenay
Totals	
28
435
2,479
293,873
2,641
135,181
2,316
299,456
137,497
46.0
87.7
45.9
Apricots.
District.
Total Trees.
Trees Five
Years and
under.
Percentage
Five Yrears
and under.
" 27
28,370
17
22,708
62.9
80.0
Totals	
28,397
22,725
80.0
* Includes  Salmon Arm. R 134
Department of Agriculture.
1915
-Summary  of  Fruit-trees  and   Small  Fruits   in   Orchards   reported  on  by
Enumerators, 1913.
Table  No.
Description.
Apples .
Pears ..
Prunes   .
Plums    .
Peaches
Apricots
Cherries
Small fruits   (acres
only)    	
158,228
16,476
7,477
8,191
28
10,912
206
79,882
20,140
8,107
18,070
435
21,100
460
a%
256,516
2,49S
1,874
796
2,479
27
1,535
13
1,370,109
131,325
40,787
83,223
293.S73
28,370
91,944
74
426,438
17,669
9,627
3,817
2,641
13,232
218
2,291,173
188,108
67,872
114,097
299.45G
28,397
138,783
85
108
170
140
108
108
108
26,955
1,741
399
815
2,772
263
1,285
34,230
971
Table No. 3.—Showing Percentages of Varieties of Fruit-trees, 1913.
Description.
Apples.
Summer and early fall
Wealthy 	
Miclntosh Red   	
Crab 	
Gravenstein	
King 	
Jonathan    	
Wagener   	
Grimes Golden	
Northern Spy  	
.'Spitzeniburg	
Newtown Pippin  	
Delicious   	
Winesap    	
Ontario   	
Cox's Orange   	
Rome Beauty	
Winter Banana  	
Ben  Davis   	
R.C.  Pippin   	
Baldwin  	
R.I. Greening	
King David   	
Other fall varieties . ..
Other winter varieties
Unknown varieties   . . .
Pears.
Flemish   Beauty   	
Bartlett  	
Clapp's Favourite
Olairgeau    	
Beurre d'Anjou   	
Cornice  	
Other  varieties   	
Islands.
5.4
10.1
0.1
0.1
3.0
19.9
1.8
0.2
0.5
1.8
0.3
1.3
0.1
0.2
0.07
1.7
0.2
2.2
0.4
1.7
1.0
2.1
3.2
43.2
44.2
55.8
Lower
Mainland.
38.1
2.3
1.5
2.9
4.8
13.9
4.7
0.10
9.8
0.1
i.9
1.2
'l.S
0.2
0.3
1.2
2.2
6.5
0.5
0.4
0.1
5.6
30.8
24.2
2.2
L3
35.5
Thompson
Watershed.
0.3
12.7
13.1
1.9
0.1
25.5
19.9
4.8
5.5
1.9
1.6
2.8
4.4
0.1
0.3
1.8
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.6
1.0
1.0
6.4
81.2
12.4
Okanagan
and
Boundary.
1.6
6.2
9.7
4.4
0.3
0.5
20.3
10.3
2.0
2.7
3.6
4.2
2.0
2.6
0.4
l.S
1.7
0.7
0.5
0.4
2.7
12.4
9,0
7.1
9.6
7.3
2.3
73.7
East and
West
Kootenay.
21.9
7.3
5.3
0.S
2.0
0.4
7.0
12.8
0.2
4.4
1.2
1.5
0.6
0.2
0.S
1.4
1.0
0.3
0.1
'6.3
15.5
8.5
6.5
26.9
23.9
1.6
47.6 5 Geo.
Ninth Report.
R 135
Table No. 3.—'Showing Percentages of Varieties of Fruit-trees—Concluded.
Description.
Islands.
Lower
Mainland.
Thompson
Watershed.
Okanagan
and
Boundary.
East and
West
Kootenay.
Plums and Prunes.
Italian Prunes  	
62.6
2.0
0.9
5.4
0.2
22.9
41.3
58.7
70.7
7.1
22.2
91.9
8.1
70.2
2.7
3.0
2.1
22.0
52.4
47.6
27.3
5.5
1.9
65.3
83.6
16.4
10.7
0.8
Grand Duke	
0.8
5.0
Pond's Seedling   	
12.1
70.6
Cherries.
88.6
114
Peaches,  while   not   shown,  are   mostly   in   the   Okanagan   Valley.     The   chief   varieties   are
Alexander,   Triumph,  Yellow   St.   John,   Fitzgerald,   E.   and   L.  Crawford,  and   Elberta.
Table No. 4.—Showing Percentages of Total Yield of Fruit by Districts, of the Total of
the Province, 1913.
Description.
Islands
Lower
Mainland.
Thompson
Watershed.
Okanagan
and
Boundary.
East and
West
Kootenay.
Apples   	
Pears   	
Prunes  	
Plums	
Peaches   	
Apricots 	
Cherries  	
Strawberries   ....
Raspberries  	
Blackberries   ....
Other small fruits
3.9
7.0
1.3
1.5
8.8
37.7
6.2
1.8
52.5
1.9
11.7
15.7
5.5
0.2
17.7
17.7
69.1
98.2
7.7
2.2
1.1
2.5
0.7
1.5
1.3
79.2
68.9
81.4
85.7
98.8
96.5
64.0
7.9
9.2
7.3
10.2
0.5
4.8
1.0
3.5
S.S
35.2
14.2
47.5 R 136
Department of Agriculture.
1915
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a 5 Geo. 5                                            Ninth Report.                                                  R 137
Table No. 6.—Showing Number of Live Stock in British Columbia and "Values, Year 1913.
District.
HORSES.
Brood
Mares.
Value,
each.
Total
Value.
1 and 2
Year old.
Value,
each.
Total
Value.
Islands   	
420
1,570
2,504
1,680
271
$233   92
244  80
157  76
157  76
157  76
$     99,650
384,336
395,031
265,037
42,753
12G
1,868
1,952
014
225
$125   00
136  00
10S 80
108 80
108  SO
$ 15,750
254,048
212,378
66f803
• 24.4S0
Thompson Watershed   	
Okanagan and Boundary   . ..
East and West Kootenay . ..
Totals  	
6,451
$183  97
$1,180,807
4,785
$119  84
$573,459
District.
HOESES.
Dairx Cattle.
Other
Horses.
Value,
each.
Total
Value.
Milch.
Value,
each.
Total
Value.
2,523
5,578
4,778
7,219
7,844
1,581
$217  60
233  00
140   SS
146  88
146  88
146  88
$   549,005
1,299,074
701,793
1,060,327
1,152.127
232,217
7,763
12,267
1,959
894
2,917
1,578
$120  20
132 00
96  15
120  20
96  15
96  15
$   979,690
1,619,244
188,358
107,459
280,470
151,725
Thompson  Watershed   	
Okanagan and Boundary   . ..
East and West Kootenay . ..
Totals  	
29,523
$169  42
$4,995,143
27,378
$121  90
$3,326,946
District.
Dairy Cattle.
Heifer
Calves.
Value,
each.
Total
Value.
Other
Heifers
Value,
each.
Total
Value.
2.19S
4,642
1,691
198
$24  00
24  00
24'00
24  00
$ 52,752
111,408
40,584
4,752
4,055
4,567
2,540
95
$60  00
00   00
60' 00
60  00
$243,300
274,020
152,400
5,700
Okanagan and Boundary  . ..
East and West Kootenay . ..
Totals  	
S.729
$24  00
$209,496
11,257
$60  00
$675,420
District.
Beef Cattle.
Calves.
Value,
each.
Total
Value.
Other
Cattle.
Value,
each.
Total
Value.
Thompson Watershed   	
Okanagan and Boundary  . ..
East and West Kootenay  . ..
Totals  	
8,274
8,682
840
126
$24' 00
24  00
24  00
24  00
$198,576
20S,36S
20,160
3,024
33,753
29,323
21,168
3,326
$78 'l5
78  15
78  15
7S  15
$2,037,797
2,291,592
1,054.279
259,927
17,922
$24  00
$430,128
S7.570
$78  15
$0,843,595
10 R 188
Department op Agriculture.
1915
Table No. 0.—Showing Number of Live Stock in British Columbia, etc.—Concluded.
Sheep.
Swine.
District.
All Kinds
and Ages.
Value,
each.
Total
Value.
Brood
Sows.
Value,
each.
Total
Value.
Islands   	
4,106
10,306
3,242
2,182
4,669
674
$9  30
9  30
7 75
7  75
7  75
7  75
$ 38,186
95,846
25,125
16,911
36,185
5,224
494
1,632
1,047
1,279
386
$28 13
2S 13
28  13
28 13
28  1