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Minister of Mine*. Deputy Minister of Mines,
1877.  40 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 409
FOR THE  YEAR  1876.
lb His Excellency A. TS. Richards,  Lieutenant-Governor of  the Province
of British  Columbia.
May it please Your Excellency:—
I have the honour herewith to present to Your Excellency the Third Report
of the Mining industries of the Province.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
I have the honour to be,
Your Excellency's obedient Servant,
Provincial Secretary £ Minister of Mines.
9th January, 1877.
A mere glance at the tabulated statements of Mining statistics for the Province
for the years 1875 and 1876, by way of comparison, is sufficient to establish the fact
that the Returns of Gold are almost in every direction less in 1876 than they were
in 1875. J
The estimated total yield for 1876 is $   980,671 00
As against (in 1875)    1,728,588 00
In Cariboo, Kootenay, and Cassiar the yield has been manifestly less, nor is it
possible with any degree of accuracy to lay down the exact causes of the decrease.
The amounts actually exported by the Banks in 1876 are as follows:	
Bank of British Columbia $  464 814 90
Bank of British North America      527^470 35
Wells Fargo & Co     347J01 13
$1,339,986 38
Add one-third for Gold exported in private hands      446,662 12
Total $1,786,648 50 410 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1876
In Cassiar, in 1876, the number oi Miners employed was certainly one-fourth
more than in 1875, and the results have been, to judge from general report and
from the reports of the Gold Commissioner herewith published, very satisfactory,
and the prospect for the future season excellent.
In Cariboo the rich claims on Lightning Creek have not nearly equalled in
yield that of last year.    In other claims there appears not to be much difference.
Omineca is almost deserted, and Kootenay would appear to have declined considerably, the yield of Gold being $16,000 under last year.
A new Gold field has been discovered on Cherry Creek, and Mr. C. A. Vernon,
the neighbouring Commissioner, is impressed with the idea that favourable results
will ensue.
Actual Yield.
The amount actually exported by the Banks in 1876 is over $500,000 less than
in 1875, and the total estimated yield of Gold for the whole Province is
$1,786,648 50, as against $2,474,904 in 1875, or $688,255 50 less.
This falling oft", as before mentioned, is chiefly owing to the impossibility of
working the rich claims on Lightning Creek, the fact that the hydraulic claims
were not washed up, and a decrease at Cassiar. However the yield is still in excess
of that for the years 1872, 1873, and 1874.
The yield of Gold in this section is estimated by Mr. Commissioner Vowell at
$556,474 for the year 1876, as against an estimated return of $800,000 for 1875.
1,500 miners and others visited the Cassiar diggings in 1876, while only 1,000
went up in 1875. A larger yield of gold might therefore have been anticipated, but
it is generally believed that 1,500 miners were more than could be profitably
employed; this opinion is forcibly expressed by Mr. Vowell in his letter of the
31st August, annexed.
A favourable indication for the future success of Cassiar is the fact that the
benches of McDame and Thibert Creeks prospect richly, and only require a supply
of water (which is being provided) to produce excellent results.
Mr. Vowell reports that nuggets up to 18 oz. in weight have been found in
what is supposed to be the old channel in Thibert Cieek, and that sanguine expectations have been formed of the workings for 1877.
If Cassiar has not realized the perhaps over sanguine expectations formed of it,
it is at least satisfactory to know that it affords employment for 1,000 men, and has
this year produced as much gold as Cariboo.
The Commissioner's reports annexed contain much valuable and interesting
information, and will repay a careful perusal.
'Laketon, Cassiar,
"29th June, 1876.
" It is satisfactory to bo able to report that some seven discoveries have been already
made in the district this season; they are as follows:—On the upper portion, some 20
miles from mouth of Thibert Creek; and on Berry, French, Bear, California, and Merritt
gulches, paying diggings have been discovered. The four first mentioned gulches are
on Thibert Creek; the latter on the west side of Dease Lake, about half a mile below
Laketon. A valuable discovery has been made at the foot of Snow Creek, a tributary
of McDame Creek, and some eighteen miles from the mouth of latter The discoverers
are Sylvester, Vital, and Fred Black, all well-known prospectors, and deserving of the
claims which they now hold, and which have paid, up to within a short time since, from
$40 to $50 per day to the hand; the last accounts showing a much larger return. 40  Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 411
"According to the most accm-ate information which I can get at present, the number of men already in this district may be safely put down at 1700. In addition to the
above, men are arriving every day; and I learn that about one hundred more are en
route. Of the above, there are some three hundred and fifty on Dease Creek (Chinamen
included), about four hundred on Thibert Creek and its tributaries, between seven and
eight hundred in the vicinity of McDame Creek, and several parties prospecting in other
portions of the district.
"Included in the latter, are some forty men who have gone to Sayyea Creek on the
Deloire, where very encouraging prospects were obtained by some of that party last
fall. Sayyea Creek is some three hundred and fifty miles from Laketon, and generally
takes from twelve to fourteen days to get there. I have empowered one of the party to
issue free miners' certificates, etc., and make mining records, as the creek is not of sufficient importance at present to think of appointing an officer for that locality.
"Owing to the many obstacles which have had to be overcome by the mining community this year, the claims, as a general thing, have not been in working order for any
length of time; and, consequently, no estimate can as yet be arrived at as to the probable
yield of gold for 1876.
"Much damage has been done, and delay caused, by the spring freshets this year to
mining property on the different creeks; in many instances houses, bridges, and wing-
dams innumerable have been completely swept away.
"I find that Laketon, Dease Creek, as the most central situation in the district, is
the best adapted for the residence of the Gold Commissioner, and I shall, in consequence,
make it my head-quarters.
"It is my intention, as soon as I get through all business requiring my immediate
attention here, to visit Thibert and McDame Creeks, and should 1 have time during the
summer I would also wish to visit Sayyea Creek, on the Deloire. I doubt my being able
to do so, however, as I shall be obliged to visit Telegraph Creek, on the Stickeen, as
soon as possible, and business will be very pressing here about the time I get back.
* * * * * * *
"There are about 430 animals engaged in packing between Telegraph Creek and
head of Dease Lake, and some 50 more are expected to arrive from Quesnelle, overland.
"There have been two deaths in this camp this year—Frank Domines and George
Walters, the former died on 8th of April at head of lake, and latter on 24th instant at
Laketon,—both died from natural causes.
" Great dissatisfaction prevails throughout the entire district in consequence of there
being no mail communication established between Victoria and Cassiar; all suffer alike,
as regards irregularity and excessive charges, on what does get here by the Cassiar
" Since my arrival the weather has been very unseasonable, raining nearly every
day, and very cold.
"I am happy in having no criminal cases to report.
"With a view towards the security of Government moneys in this district, I would
suggest that an iron safe be forwarded to this office.
" The Hon. Provincial Secretary,
&c, &c, &c."
"I have, &c,
(Signed) "Arthur W. Voweli.
'Laketon, Cassiar,
" July 23rd, 1876.
" Sir,—I have the honour to report, for the information of His Honour the Lieutenant Governor, that I visited McDame Creek on the 7th instant, and have much pleasure
in being able to state that I found everything on my arrival looking well, the miners in
general looking forward to a tolerably prosperous season.
" There was a great deal of business to be done during my stay there, keeping me
employed from morning till night for thirteen days.
" The claims, as a general thing, have not yet, owing to lateness of season, been
thoroughly opened, and consequently no opinion can be formed as to the probable yield of gold this season. Some few claims were at work and paying from ten to twenty
dollars a day to the hand. On Snow Creek, the Discovery Company was paying a
dividend of $600 per week to the interest. The Dunlop Company, adjoining, was paying
2 oz. a day to the hand, and several others are at work on that creek with very fair
" On Quartz Creek a great deal of prospecting is being done, but as yet no definite
idea can be formed as to its richness or otherwise.
" A discovery has been made in a place called Pleasant Valley, about 2\ miles from
Snow Creek, and very nice gold taken out.    It prospected $22 50 to 140 buckets.
" On McDame Creek very few creek claims have been prospected, owing to the
amount of water constantly in that stream.
" For some distance on that creek, it is considered, should water be available, that
the banks would afford remunerative employment to quite a number of men. •
" There are about seven hundred men on McDame Creek.
" I have, &c,
"The Hon. the Provincial Secretary, (Signed)        "A. W. VoWELL.
"Laketon, Cassiar,
"August 31st, 1876.
"Sir,—I have the honour to report, for the information of His Excellency the
Lieutenant-Governor, the following particulars relative to my district:—■
"The prospects as to the yield of gold in Cassiar for 1876 are, I regret to state, far
from realizing the general anticipations of the spring. Although several discoveries,
already reported on by me, have been made, unfortunately they have not proved extensive; and not being of a class to afford remunerative employment to any great number
of men, as discoveries they are of little importance.
"Many claims on the different creeks, which paid and prospected well last season,
have proved worthless this year, upsetting calculations which, in accordance with what
is generally known to govern such events, were based almost upon a certainty.
"The unexpected and, from the results of the past two seasons, the unjustifiable
rush to Cassiar this spring, in a great measure accounts for the general depression which
affects alike the miner, the merchant, and the packer. Such an influx instead of helping
the district has had the contrary effect, inasmuch as more than half the entire population
here this season had absolutely nothing definite to come to, and in fact were for the
most part strangers to the country, whose advent necessarily kept up the price of provisions and lowered the rate of wages.
"When we contemplate the above facts and, in addition, take into consideration the
backwardness of the season, the unusually high freshets—which in many cases destroyed
nearly a summer's work,—the difficulties in the way of prospecting, the shortness of the
season, the high price of provisions, the limited means of the majority of the men, and
the consequent amount of credit obliged to be given by the merchants in addition to
what was already on their books from the past two seasons, it is not altogether a matter
of surprise that this season should not be a propitious one for those engaged either in
mining or in trade.
"There are, however, many claims on the different creeks paying well; and had the
number of miners been confined to within anything like a reasonable limit, or to what it
was last year, say from six to eight hundred men, the prospects for 1876 would appear
in a much more favourable light.
"1 enclose a list of companies at work on the different creeks as an example. It
must be borne in mind, however, that a great many claims are paying much better than
is generally reported, as, without exception, the miners distinctly refuse to inform anyone as to the amount their respective claims yield.
"I have been most assiduous in my efforts, have, in fact, left no means untried to
obtain something like an approximate return of the gold coming out this year, but without any satisfactory results. Such enquiries seem to be looked upon with suspicion, and
the actual returns from the various claims are kept with a jealous care from the knowledge of all and everyone save the immediate owners. "Sayyea Creek has turned out a complete failure, notwithstanding the excellent
prospects obtained last autumn. Mr. Levi Hams, one of the discoverers and one who
is well-known as a good practical miner, has returned, and reported that the rich prospects of last fall have dwindled down to not more than from $2 50 to $4 a day to the hand.
"Accounts from McDame Creek are not flattering,—mining there being of a most
uncertain character, and full of disappointments. Getting good prospects on that creek
amounts to nothing, as the gold is only found in spots, and consequently such a thing as
getting on the lead and being able advantageously to follow it is as yet unknown.
"Such being the case the present depression seems most natural, as the prosperity,
of any large body of men is proved by the success of the majority; unfortunately the
majority are here unsuccessful; but why? Simply because a burden was placed upon the
district that it could not bear, and that there was nothing on record to justify. The
most striking inference to be drawn from such an unsatisfactory state of things being
that, it is owing more to the recklessness of the numbers who have flocked here this
season than to any material falling off as to the comparative richness of the district of
"Prospecting is now being carried on in the deep ground on Thibert Creek, and on
the upper portion of Dease Creek, with every hope of success. Should pay be there
found, diggings will be opened up which will afford for years employment to many men.
"Excellent prospects have been obtained in the hills from eight to twelve miles up
Dease Creek, but owing to the ground being frozen quite solid much difficulty and
expense is experienced in working. One set of claims, which are a sample of many,
have succeeded in running a tunnel, for a distance of 150 feet, by heating stones, piling
them against the face of the tunnel, and then covering the stones with earth; when it
is considered that the heated stones have had the desired effect, they are removed, and
so much of the pay dirt which has been thawed taken carefully out and washed; notwithstanding such a slow and expensive process, the ground, after they had got in some
distance, payed from $10 to $15 a day to the hand. The ground has been found to be
frozen for a distance of over 40 feet from the surface level, and for more than a 150 feet
from the slope of the hill or entrance of the tunnel. Should they succeed in getting
through the frost and keep on the present lead, that ground would prove as rich as any
yet discovered in British Columbia.
"I have no hesitation in stating that next year promises to be as successful as any
that Cassiar has yet known, for the simple reason that it stands a chance of not being
overdone. The lesson learned by a great many this season is not likely to be soon forgotten, and is certain to act as a deterrent against all future ill-advised rushes to a
country unknown as to the rigors of its climate, and the many difficulties which beset
the inexperienced miner and new-comer generally.
"I have visited the different creeks and inspected them for a distance, in some
instances, of twenty miles and upwards. I have found them to have all the appearance
of such creeks as, from experience, have been found to contain rich auriferous deposits;
and the country generally gives evidence, according to the most approved theories
established by practical miners, of being one rich in minerals and of great extent; but
owing to the convulsions of a volcanic nature, which have agitated and entirely changed
the original formation of the country, these valuable deposits are only found in spots; the
lead, as it is generally understood in other mining districts and countries, being, with few
exceptions, disconnected by these subterraneous disturbances and impossible to follow;
thus rendering most of the rich discoveries already made in the district but the precursors of disappointment to the many, proving only a source of wealth to the few.
"Silver has been found in all its native purity; and but a short time since a piece
of pure copper, weighing some fifteen pounds, was picked up in a claim on Boulder
Gulch, a tributary of Thibert Creek.
" However, the country notwithstanding its drawbacks has, amongst other precious
metals, so much gold scattered through it that it affords profitable employment to a
greater number of miners than any gold fields existing at the present day, at least that
come immediately under our notice, and are of comparatively easy access to the miner.
* * * * * * *
"I am happy in being able to report that this camp has been very free from crime
this season, which considering the population'—at one time in the neighbourhood of 414
Report of the Minister of Mines.
two thousand, exclusive of Indians—is a matter of congratulation.    There are only two
cases on record, neither being of a very serious character.
" Owing- to the severity of the winter, very few miners will remain either on Dease,
Thibert, or McDame Creeks after about the middle of October; some hundreds it is
thought will winter at Glenora: should such be the case, as my presence is most required
at the centre of population, I will have to make arrangements to winter there also,
returning to Laketon early in the spring.
" The Hon. the Provincial Secretary,
" Victoria."
"1 have, &c,
(Signed) "A. W. Vowell.
'List op Claims Working on McDame Creek, 1st September, 1876.
Name of Claim.
No. of men.
Not given
! J
Making about 60 oz. per week.
Paying $14 per day to hand.
Paying well.
550 to the pan last week.
" On Snow Creek there is a long flat which prospects well, and if water were introduced would probably supply 200 men with wages from $10 to $20 per day for a season.
" On Quartz Creek some discoveries of good hydraulic diggings have been found.
" On Rosetta Creek two companies are doing fairly.
"List op Mining Claims being Worked on Thibert Creek, 10th Aug. 1876.
Name of Claim.
No. of men.
Prospecting for back pay.
Six dollars per day per hand.
Good wages.
Paying well.
Not paying.
Paying wages.
Paying good wages.
Do.         do.
Do.         do.
Do.         do.
Do.         do.
Do.          do.
Do.          do.
Paying wages.
Opening with hydraulic.
Do.                   do.
Paying well.
Paying wages.
Paying wages, 40 Vic.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
List op Claims at Thibert Creek.—Continued.
Name of Claim.
No. of men.
Paying wages.
Black Hawk Co.
Nip and Tuck Co
Eureka Co	
Sam Hughes Co.
Perseverance Co.
Ottawa Co	
One claim paying well; otheis prospecting.
Small wages.
Australian Co	
"List op Claims Working on Dease Creek, Cassiar, 1st September, 1876.
Name of Claim.
Walsh Claim	
Victoria Claim	
Sheerer Claim	
Hopkins Claim	
Good prospect.
Wages, (about $1 per day per man.)
Winter Stake Claim 	
Wyoming Claim	
Paving well,
Holroyd Claim	
Three to one Claim	
Fifty dollars per week to hand.
Fourteen to sixteen dollars per day to hand.
Wellington Claim ,	
Caledonia Claim                                 	
Reported $1,000 per week to interest.
Jones Co. Claim                     	
Paying wages.
Paying well.
North Star Claim	
Rath Co. Claim                     	
Lyons Claim                                                	
Good wages and over.
Side Wiper Claim	
Do.         do.
Discovery Claim	
Ground sluicing.
From this point upwards for three miles there are a few Chinese Companies working upon abandoned
Diamond Claim	
Carrigan Claim	
Water Lily Claim	
P. Harris Claim	
Godfrey Claim	
Booth Claim	
Welch Claim	
Humphries' Hill Claims
Thirty ounces per week.
Good wages, (from $10 to $16 per day.)
Paying very well.
Apparent failure.
Not doWn.
Good wages.
Fifty-one dollars to   two   pans ;   tunnel  in   about
100 feet, 50 feet below the surface. 416 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1876
"Laketon, Cassiar,
"October 16th, 1876.
" Good indications have been found in the hills and benches on the different creeks,
and next year is looked forward to by all with every prospect of success.
" It is not expected that there will be as many men in the district, but it is believed
that those coming in next spring will have better prospects and of a more defined nature
than any hitherto known to exist.
"The benches on McDame Creek, for miles, prospect richly; and all that is required to open up diggings for a large number of miners is water. As there have been
applications made and leases granted, subject to the approval of the Government, for
ditches to convey as high as two thousand inches, that difficulty, I am happy to be
able to state, is in a fair way of being overcome. Active operations have been already
commenced, so as to have the water about to be brought in available upon as early a
date as possible next season.
"Although, on the whole, the mining on Thibert Creek has not been remunerative
this year, yet I cannot say it has been unsuccessful, as, in addition to those claims that
have paid fairly, there has been discovered in the benches what is considered to be the
old channel or bed of the creek, and all interested therein are very sanguine as to their
success in 1877. Many good sized nuggets have been taken from there, the highest
weighing something over 18 oz. The gold obtained seems to have been a good deal
washed, which is a very favourable indication.
" Dease Creek has also something to look forward to from its hills, which, as far as
is at present known, promise to be very remunerative.
" This district is a very extensive one, and beyond the creeks already enumerated,
and their tributaries, but very little is known. Sayyea Creek, on the Deloire, there
seems to be a variety of opinions about, and from all I can learn it, or its vicinity, has
not yet been anything like prospected. From the evidence already obtained it is not
unreasonable to expect that upon a more systematic examination it may prove a valuable
addition to the Cassiar district.
" The Takoo country, which lies in a north-westerly direction from Dease Creek
and is about 100 miles distant, also offers inducements to the enterprising miner, very
good prospects having been discovered there. It is at present a country very little
known, but from what I can learn is of comparatively easy access, and not very inhospitable in its character.
" On the head waters of the Stickeen, which are situated about 75 miles from the
head of Dease Lake in a southerly direction, very good prospects have also been found,
and several men intend going there next spring. Thus it will be seen that this country
is comparatively in its infancy, and if only proper facilities can be established for getting
in supplies so that they can be furnished to the miners at a reasonable rate, this mining
district will be a successful one for years to come.
" Laketon, Dease Creek, being the most central situation, and taking in as it does
Thibert Creek, which is only 12 miles distant, will continue to be the principal business
depot in the district. From here all the goods are forwarded to other creeks, via Dease
Lake and Dease Eiver, and as the town consists of many substantial business houses,
there is no likelihood of any change taking place.
" It will be seen by enclosed returns, that as near as it is possible from claims recorded &c, to arrive at the actual yield of gold from the different creeks, the respective
amounts are as follows, viz:—
Dease Creek ,  $160,300 00
Thibert Creek     139,720 00
McDame Creek.     163,700 00
$463,720 00
i: As there has during the past season been a good deal of irregular mining going
oft of which no trace could be kept, I have from the closest enquiries come to the conclusion that 20 per cent, may With safety be added to the amounts already given, which. 40 Vic.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
will, without any material difference either way, give a correct estimate of yield of gold
in the Cassiar district for 1876; the total-amount would then be $556,474.
* * * * * * *
" From latest accounts it is estimated that about 75 men, Chinese included, will
winter on Dease and Thibert Creeks; and from 10 to 20 on McDame Creek, some 30 in
tend wintering at Telegraph Creek, and about 200 at Glenora on the Stickeen.
" There is a large stock of provisions in the district at present, which precludes the
possibility of there being a scarcity of supplies in the coming spring, and consequent
increase of rates demanded.
" I enclose a list of the prices current, &c.
" The Hon. the Provincial Secretary,
" Victoria."
" 1 have &c,
(Signed)       "A. W. Vowell.
"Price List op Provisions por October, 1876.
Dease Creek.
Flour, per lb  $0 20 @ 0 25
green   0 60 @
  0 35 @
  0 35
Aldin dried  0 50
dried  0 45
Fruit, per can    1 25
Beef,        ,,        1 25
Currant, per lb  0 50
Onions ,,        0 35
Potatoes        ,,       0 25
Do. per can  1
0 40 @ 0 45  ....
0 45 @ 0 50  ....
0  24 @ 0 25   ....
0 35 @ 0 45       0 50 @ 0 55
1 00 @ 1 25        1  25
1  00       1  25
McDame Creek.
$0 30
0 50
0 55
0 30
0 65
0 36
Peaches   ,        ,
Do.  per lb. dried
Brandy, per gall.   ...
00 @ 9
50 @ 8
0 40
0 45
0 60
0 50
1 25
1 50
0 10
0 45 @ 0 50
0 33
1 25
1 25
1 50
0 55
10 00
10 00
Boots, perpair     ? 50 @12 00    10 00 @ 12 00
per lb.
9 00
0 40
Shovels, each     3 50
6 00 @, 1 00
11 00
0 40
4 00
9 00
Steel, per lb     0 50
Iron „
Tobacco ,,
Beef ,,
Butter ,,
3 50 @ 4 00       4 00
0 45
2 00
0 25
1 00
1 50
0 60
0 50
2 00
The yield of gold in Cariboo, for the year 1876, is estimated by the Government Agent at $646,000, as against $760,000 for 1875. The falling off is chiefly
in the rich claims on Lightning Creek, which alone produced over $500,000 in 1875.
From the report annexed, it will be seen that the unprecedented high water
was much against the Lightning Creek claims, while hydraulic claims, owing to
the favourable season for that purpose, have continued to work latter than usual, and
have not been " cleaned up," so that the returns from such claims are not included in the detailed statement, 418 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1876
The probable success of the Eleven of England claim is very important, as
being a test of the value of the lower part of Lightning Creek hitherto
Several new Creeks have been opened, among which Canyon Creek attracts
considerable attention.
The working of quartz ledges is also attracting notice, and a company has been
organized to test ledges that have been discovered.
The general tenor of the Agent's report may be considered highly satisfactory.
" Eichpield, 4th October, 1876.
" Sir,—I beg to transmit you my Annual Eeport and Mining Statistics for the nine
months ending September 30,1876. I am gratified to state that Cariboo still retains its
prominence as the chief gold-bearing district of the Province, though the yield of gold
has not been as large as last year, owing to the unprecedented high water, which has
operated against the working of some of the claims on Lightning and other creeks,
whilst many of the hydraulic claims have not yet cleaned up, the favourable season
having enabled them to pipe much longer than usual.
" The greatest care and attention have been paid to make the statements of amounts
procured by the various.mining companies as reliable as possible. But the unwillingness of some to make their business public, and the inability of others, through not
having kept a proper account of the same, leave a great deal to the discrimination of
the enquirer, thereby interfering with that accuracy which would be desirable.
" On Williams Creek but little work has been done this summer in the deep or
drifting claims, caused by the protracted freshet. The hydraulic claims have, however,
reaped the benefit of a good supply of water during the season. Hydraulic mining has
been hitherto confined to the right, or eastern, bank of the creek, but during the summer good prospects were obtained on the west side, above Mink Gulch. Several companies have located claims, one or two of which are paying well. The Forest Pose and
St. George Co. are the second company (the Black Jack being the first) to initiate
hydraulicing in the hill below the canon, having constructed a flume, run a ditch about
a mile long, and made extensive preparations for next year's work.
" On Lightning Creek the high water has prevented the accomplishment of work
to any extent since last spring. The principal companies have started their pumps,
and it is expected that it will take over a month to free the diggings from water. The
Eleven of England Co., about one mile below the town of Stanley, have struck pay,
which has been gradually increasing every week. Should it prove to be remunerative,
it will be a most important discovery, practically testing a large portion of the lower
part of the creek.
"Nelson, Coulter, Burns, and other tributaries, or contiguous creeks to Lightning,
you will observe, have paid about equal to former years. Canyon Creek, about thirty
miles north of Stanley, a tributary of Willow River, is attracting considerable attention,
where two large companies have been located, one of which is prospecting with extensive machinery erected'for that purpose.
" The valuable claims on Jack of Clubs have been lying idle this year, the expense
incurred in finding the deep channel, running through the Discovery Co.'s ground,
having caused them to defer working until next year, when operations will be actively
" The Victoria Co., on Cunningham Creek, have erected costly machinery and employed twenty men, for the exploring of the deep ground, which had been previously
attempted by other companies, but without success. They have pumped the water out
of the old shaft and will proceed to sink without delay.
"I may also remark that the bars of the Fraser Eiver still attract a considerable
number of Chinese, about 100 being engaged in mining between Soda Creek and Fort
George, with an average return of from $2 to $3 per day.
" The estimated product of treasure from all sources, exclusive of that section of
the country embodied in Mr. Oliver Hare's report, which includes Harvey and Keithley
Creeks and the Forks of Quesnelle, is .$646,377, 40 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 419
"Amount exhibited in Mining Statistics $361,377 00
"Estimated amounts unaccounted for  125,000 00
" Probable value of yield for last three months of 1876  160,000 00
" Making the approximate total for 1876 $646,377 00
" The Bank of British Columbia purchased for the nine months ending
September 30, 1876 $225,000 00
"The Bank of British North America bought during the same period... 210,775 00
"Leaving in private hands     50,602 00
"Probable yield during months of October, November and December... 160,000 00
$646,377 00
"Taking into consideration that not only the Province at large shares to a great
extent in the prosperity of this district, but that also a large agricultural population is
entirely dependent on Cariboo for a market for its produce, it is obvious that efforts
should be made to regain, if not all, at least a portion of the prosperity which prevailed
in former years, by the developing of the rich quartz veins which abound throughout
this district.
" The first step in this direction has been recently taken to secure the benefits
arising from this permanent source of wealth. A company has been organized for the
purpose of testing and working the ores taken from various ledges in the vicinity.
" The 4-stamp mill purchased some years since has been erected at Richfield, adjoining the sawmill of Messrs. Meacham & Nason, who have kindly placed the motive
power of their steam engine at the disposal of the company. Rock is being taken from
a ledge which can be traced for a considerable distance on either side of the mountain,
at the summit of the trail leading from Barkerville to Lowhee. The lode averages from
twelve to eighteen feet in width, and exhibits indications of the most favorable character, excellent prospects having been obtained from the croppings by Messrs. W.
Forrest and A. Watson, the latter of whom, I understand, assayed a portion of the ore
with a result of $80 in gold, and the same amount in silver, to the ton.
" Quartz is also being taken from a seam in the canon, which seems to contain a
good proportion of gold, and a quantity of rock is at present being prepared for milling
in order to test its true value.
"Mr, W. Holmes owns a ledge near Six-Mile Creek, a tributary of Swift Eiver,
from which some 50 ft>s. of quartz was sent to San Francisco for assay, and a return
made of $125 in gold and silver to the ton. He is now engaged in running a tunnel to
strike the ledge at a greater depth.
" The mill will shortly be ready for crushing, and, should the results prove successful, measures will be taken to procure more extensive machinery, thus inaugurating
a new era in the mining annals of this Province, the advantages of which cannot be
over estimated.
" Public attention has been of late directed to the feasibility of working Williams
Creek from the surface to the bed-rock, by the construction of a flume about 2J miles
in length, at an estimated cost of $150,000. Starting from the falls of Valley Creek and
striking rock at a depth of 70 feet, would enable the working of the most valuable portion of the creek from the Ballarat claim to the canon, and render productive a lai'ge
area of hill claims, which, under the present expensive system of drifting, does not pay
" The pecuniary advantages offered to a company formed for the above purpose
need no mention. It is impossible to calculate the immense amount of wealth still
lying in the gravel deposit of Williams Creek, which must eventually attract the attention of capitalists to the accomplishment of this valuable undertaking
" I have, etc.,
(Signed) "Jno. Bowron.
" To the Hon. the Minister of Mines."
From the Keithley Creek portion of the Cariboo District the agent, Mr. Hare,
reports a yield of gold for 1876 from the Quesnelle and Forks equal to that of last 420 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1876
year, although there were greater difficulties to contend with. On Keithley and
Harvey Creeks a considerable falling oft has taken place owing to the great freshets.
This section of country seems to be almost exclusively occupied by Chinamen,
who, according to Mr. Hare's report annexed, are not so prone to save their
earnings as is generally supposed, and contribute considerably to the revenue.
"Forks op Quesnelle,
"September 20th, 1876.
"Sir,—I have the honour to forward, herewith, my report of the mining statistics
of the Keithley District, compiled from information gathered on my annual visit to the
claims, and in most cases obtained from the actual owners. I consider it a tolerable fair
estimate of the yield of gold.
• "As I have before pointed out, the white miners are in most cases willing to give
information; but the Chinese (with whom I have most to do) are by nature reticent and
untruthful in their answers, especially when it touches their pockets; this I find to be
the case more among new arrivals from California than those who have resided here
any length of time and who have confidence in me, and have found out they are no
heavier taxed than the white miner; therefore, I think their account is not much wrong,
certainly more likely to be under than over estimated.
"The claims on the Quesnelle and forks have yielded on the average equal to last
year, although there were greater difficulties to contend with in the spring in opening
them out. No wing-damming was attempted, either on the north or south fork, last
" Owing to the severe cold the river fell unusually low in February and March
last, giving the Chinese a good chance for working among reefs and shoals to advantage. They also adopted a new style of mining in the south fork; rafts of logs were
moored in the stream, on which were generally three Celestials, two of whom had
shovels and picks with handles eight to ten feet in length, for scooping up the dirt from
the bottom of the river, which the third person passed through his rocker ; although a
tedious process, they managed to get from three to four dollars per man per diem of
only a few hours. I saw nearly every day's proceeds, therefore feel quite safe in stating
that at least $3,000 can be added to the estimated yield of the claims. There is every
probability that mining to the same extent will be earned on many years in this section
of the country ; nearly all the benches of the river have gold that will pay if water
can be got on them, which will be accomplished some way or other. The Chinese have
it all their own way; the white miner seems to have set his face against this part of the
country, or rather than take the chances of four dollar diggings he will hunt till he
nearly starves searching for better; not so with the Chinaman, if he gets a claim that
will pay fair wages he sticks to it, and if it pays better, so much for luck ; anyway it is
better than running over the country after an uncertainty. Many persons suppose that
a Chinaman can afford to work for less wages because his style of living is so much
cheaper, but let me tell those persons that John is as fond of good living as they are.
When I go to a Chinese cabin 1 can tell nearly at a glance if the claim pays by the
number of oyster, lobster and sardine tins, also China wine and Hennessy brandy bottles lying around their domicile.
" I am sorry to have to report that the outlying creeks have fallen off very much
in their yield of gold, especially Keithley and Harvey ; one reason is many of the old
paying claims have been worked out and abandoned ; only two are working on Harvey
this season, and one of them (the Cummings) is at present only prospecting, but it is
expected to pay well next year, the other (the once famous Minnehaha) is all but abandoned. On Keithley last year, the great drawback to mining operations was the long
drought, but this year the reverse has been more serious, for during the whole season
there have scarcely been two successive weeks of dry weather, so that most of the labour was expended in guarding against freshets, and clearing out flooded diggings. A
great many Chinese miners have left for other districts not being able to get work here,
but most of them will be back again to winter quarters. The town of the Forks is their
general rendezvous ; last winter more than two hundred lived there and upon the whole
kept themselves very peaceable. I had considerable trouble with gamblers at the commencement, but succeeded in preventing them carrying on their games publicly. The
whole of the trading at the Forks is done by Chinese; there are several good stores 40 Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 421
there, also two butchers, a blacksmith and a watchmaker; three of the storekeepers have
liquor licenses, and two of them opium ditto. On Keithley there are six stores, five of
which have liquor licenses. A vast quantity of spirits are consumed among the Chinese, but strange to say one never sees a Chinaman intoxicated or quarrelsome in the
" I have, etc.,
(Signed) " Oliver Hare,
" The Honourable the Minister of Mines." " Government Agent.
Fraser River.
A good deal of desultory mining is carried on along the banks of the Fraser
from Quesnellemouth to Yale, of which it is very difficult to obtain accurate or
detailed information. The agents at Lillooet, Yale, and Lytton, have made returns
showing a yield of gold amounting to some $42,000 which, though not of much
consequence in itself, goes to increase the general yield of gold in the Province.
The reports of these agents are annexed.
Good prospects have been found by Chinamen at the head of the celebrated
"Hills Bar" below Yale, which induced them to construct a costly ditch; the
agent, Mr. Teague, reports a yield of five to seven dollars a day to the hand.
There is no doubt that the deposits of gold below Yale are far from being
Mr. Teague's remarks as to the prospects of Silver in the Hope section are
encouraging and worth perusal.
"Yale, 28th September, 1876.
" Sir,—In pursuance with your request of the 7th July last, I beg to forward herewith my report, with mining tabular form for 1876, showing statistics of mining for the
Yale and Hope division, by which you will perceive that mining in these localities is
not diminishing since my report of last year. I am pleased to inform you that the
company of Chinamen alluded to therein as prospecting immediately at the head of
"Hill's Bar," have found very encouraging prospects, extending into the bank of the
large flat, proving sufficiently rich to induce them, at a considerable expenditure, to
complete a large water ditch of over a mile and a half in length, and where difficulties
had to be overcome in perfecting the grade by fluming, in order that they might have a
full supply of water. They have just fairly started to work the ground, and with the
most satisfactory results. The claim-yield, which I learn from reliable sources, is from
$5 to $7 per diem to the hand. Attention is being drawn to the large flat bearing placer
deposits, which is marked with general characteristic indications, remaining at the head
unexplored, and doubtless where extensive prospecting will shortly follow with equally
as good returns, no doubt adding a new era to mining industries in the valley of the
Fraser. The mineral resources of these localities are very great and no doubt valuable.
Ledges containing silver, copper, hematite and lead are found in abundance throughout
the divisions; and on several occasions specimens of silver-bearing rock of a most satisfactory character have been taken from the croppings of the ledges by parties prospecting, from which tests of silver have been given of a very promising nature. Within the
past few weeks (as usually is the case at this season of the yean, several parties have
been out on a prospecting torn', and several newly discovered lodes are reported, and
some fine samples of rock are exhibited by George Gordon and others, but the whereabouts of Gordon's ledge is kept a secret until the returns of assays are known, when I
hope an enterprising company will be formed and the ledge fully proved. An Indian
gave Mr. Wm. C. Mayes some rock taken from the outcrop of a vein discovered in the
neighbourhood, near the Indian village at Cheam, and curiosity induced him to send it
to California for assay. The returns were received a few days since from the "Nevada
Metallurgical Works," giving silver 5.22, gold .08 oz. per ton of 2000 lbs., in which it
was remarked by the assayer, "Wherever the rock was found it is most likely better
silver ores will be found if the vein were carefully examined." The vein, as I ascertain
from the Indians, is from four to eight feet wide, easy of access, and about half a mile
distant from the Fraser. The same discoveries and tests made in Nevada would un-
30 422 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1876
doubtedly create a furore amongst capitalists; but here it is singularly remarkable that
it creates scarcely a ripple of excitement, and scarcely an effort made to develop a test
100 feet in depth upon any vein from the outcrop. These are certainly remarkable
features, when experience of mining operations in Mexico and Nevada went to show
that the lower the workings were carried the bettor the ores proved to be. Having
regard, therefore, to that fact, 1 feel somewhat confident in the future wealth of mining
in these localities when capitalists are willing to develop the mineral resources in these
divisions. During the year two silver mining licences have been issued, but the ledges
have been but little wrought upon. There are four whites prospecting on Siwash
Creek, but with what success is not yet ascertained. They are under the superintendence of Mr. Henry Masters, of Burrard Inlet, and are prospecting for quartz, as it is
believed by experienced minors that from the appearances of the gold obtained, rich
gold-bearing ledges exist on Siwash Creek.
"I have, etc.,
(Signed) " William Teaqce.
" The Hon. the Minister of Mines,
« Victoria. B. C."
Kamloops, September 26th, 1876.
"Sir,—I have the honour to report, in compliance with request contained in circular of 7th July, 1876, that mining operations in this section of Kamloops Division, 1'is-
trict of Yale, are of a very limited character, being confined wholly to ten or twelve
Chinamen who are working on Tranquille River, a small stream emptying into Kamloops Lake, about ten miles in a westerly direction from the town of Kamloops. This
river, as far back as the years 1861 and 1862, was the scene of considerable mining activity; then a number of miners worked portions of the bed of the stream, making from
five to eight dollars a day to the hand. Up to the year 1871 a few white men were
occasionally at work prospecting, working over old diggings; since then to the present
time, Chinamen have been in undisputed possession, working for the most part on the
bars. Owing to their reticence it is difficult to ascertain the amount of gold dust taken
out by them, but it is fair to presume that their remuneration per day to the hand is
very small, as they are always willing to hire out among the farmers in their vicinity,
during the mining season, for one and a half dollars per day—irrigating or anything
else they have for them to do.
"On a creek emptying into the North Thompson river on West side, about twelve
miles from its confluence with the main river at Kamloops, encouraging prospects have
from time to time been got. Last spring a company of Chinamen endeavoured to open
a claim but were driven out by the unusual high water, and have not since resumed
operations. " I have, etc.,
(Signed)       " John Ussher,
" Charles Good, Esq.,
" Deputy Provincial Secretary, Victoria."
" Lillooet, B. O, 27th September, 1876.
" Sir,—I have the honour to forward to you herewith enclosed Mining Statistics relating to this vicinity.
" The only mining enterprise of any note in this section is that of Ah Sam; he has
commenced the construction of a ditch to take water from the Fountain Creek and convey it to the various bars and flats between the Fountain and Horse Beef Bar on the
East side of Fraser River. The ditch when completed will be ten miles long; about one
third the distance will have to be flumed. The ditch will carry five hundred inches of
water and will cost about 814,000.    The work is already more than half accomplished.
"All the mining in this portion of the district is carried on by Chinese and Indians
and is confined to the banks of Fraser and Bridge Rivers. The Chinese are mostly engaged on the Fraser and use sluices where water can be got; the rocker is also used,
especially early and late in the season, when the water is low, and very rich deposits
are often found. In some localities the gold is coarse while in others it is very fine and
quicksilver has to be used to save it. The mining season is about eight months, from
the middle of March to the middle of November. There are about sixty Chinese engaged in mining, and they average about $2.50 per day. " There are about three hundred Indians who mine more or less during the season;
they prefer Bridge River and the localities on the Fraser, where the gold is coarse, for
their mining operations ; they use Ihe rocker and save the gold by means of a blanket
or gunny sack in the bottom of the rocker ; they often find very rich spots among the
rocks where neither Whites nor Chinese look for gold. Last spring, in March, one family
of Indians, about ten miles below Lillooet on the Fraser River, took $1,500 from the
crevice of a rock.
"I have, etc;,
(Signed) " A. W. Smith.
" The Honourable A. C. Elliott, " Government Agent, Lillooet.
" Minister of Mines."
A new section of country has been developed during 1876, namely the mines
of Cherry Creek and Mission Creek in Okanagan District.
Mr. C. Vernon, who has been appointed to act as Gold Commissioner, reports
that 20 men are employed on the former and 12 on the latter Creek, the yield on
Cherry Creek being $4 to $5 a day, and on Mission Creek $3 a day. He further
reports that some $8,000 have been taken out.
The proximity of these Creeks to farm settlements will render living very
cheap, and if the diggings are as good as is anticipated important results may
follow, particularly the development of Silver known to exist on Cherry Creek.
" Okanagan, B. O, December 18th, 1876.
" Sir,—I beg to inform you that not having been authorized by the Government to
visit the mining camps on Cherry and Mission Creeks (80 miles apart,) I am unable to
make any accurate report with regard to the permanent richness of the diggings. 1
wish, however, to mention that the claims which have been paying on Cherry Creek
are situated on the benches, about 50 or 60 feet above the level of the creek. Furthermore, from the statements of the miners who have been employed there this season, it
appears that a bona fide seam of pay dirt has been discovered, which will yield, on an
average, about $6 per day to the hand. Two men named Pierre Bissett and Geo.
Leblanc, who returned from the creek a few days ago, brought with them $540 in dust,
which they have taken out of their claim since the 14th November (one month), at
which time nearly all hands left for winter quarters.
"There are several companies of Chinamen at work, but it is impossible to find out
their average daily yield. None of these claims have been recorded, nor are the Chinamen, to my knowledge, in possession of the required certificate. This loss to the
Provincial Treasury will, 1 hope, be remedied next year by the influx of miners, which
will necessitate every miner complying with the Government laws by recording his
claim. Two men, named Squires and Thorpe, who had been working all the summer on
the Okanagan Mission waggon road, left for Cherry Creek a short time before the completion of the work, for the purpose of prospecting, and took out $90 for a few days'
labour. They have recorded claims about one mile above the Christian claim, on the
opposite side of the river, and packed up provisions, intending to commence work in
the early spring.
" I beg also to call your attention to the present impassable state of the trail from
swamp and fallen timber, and to request that you will endeavour to have a new trail
opened in the early spring.    This, in my opinion, will cost at least $1,000.
" Considerable mining and prospecting has also been done on Mission Creek this
fall, with a fair average yield of gold.
"John Williams, an old Caribooite, has run a tunnel into the hill from the creek
some 60 feet, and found a good prospect.
" Kopp & Co. have also recorded 300 inches of water, and are now busy sawing
lumber for fluming a portion of the main creek from the canon to their ground. Five
men are interested in this company, who have all recorded their claims and are sanguine
of doing well next season. 424 Report of the Minister of Mines. 1876
" The McDougall Co., of four men, have recorded claims below the Kopp Co., and as
they took out considerable gold last month of a coarse quality, are sure of a good
season's work next year.
" It is sincerely to be hoped that a good mining camp will be formed both on Mission and Cherry Creeks next season, as, being essentially a farming country, produce of
all kinds is both cheap and plenty.
" I have, etc.,
(Signed) " Chas. A. Vernon.
" Charles Good, Esq.,
"Deputy Minister of Mines."
The Returns from Kootenay are not satisfactory.
The estimate of Gold yield for 1876 is only $25,000 as against $41,000 for 1875.
The Gold Commissioner, Mr. Booth, reports that a great deal of labour and
money is being expended in order to bring in water at a sufficient height to mine
the hills and benches of Wild Horse Creek, from which favourable results may be
expected;  his report is annexed.
" Kootenay, B. O, November 1st, 1876.
" Sir,—I have the honour to forward herewith mining statistics for the District of
Kootenay for the year 1876.
" There have not been any new discoveries of gold diggings in this district since my
report of last year, but there has been a very considerable amount of labour and money
expended in constructing ditches and flumes, in order to convey water at a sufficient
height to mine the hills and benches on both sides of Wild Horse Creek to advantage.
" The Hang Co. (Chinese) dug a ditch on the south-east side of Wild Horse Creek
last winter, four miles in length, capable of carrying from three to four hundred inches
of water, at a cost of about $3,000, and with it worked their hydraulic claim through
the season with fair success.
" The new Victoria Ditch Co., on the north-west (or opposite) side of same creek,
commenced last, and will complete this, winter, a ditch four and one half miles long,
with a dam seventeen feet high at ditch head ; will be capable, when completed, of
carrying from 500 to 700 inches of water. Total cost, from $10,000 to $12,0U0. Those
ditches will enable miners to work a large area of ground hitherto unattainable.
" On Perry Creek there have not been any new developments, notwithstanding
Perry is a favorite creek. The rich pay found in shallow diggings below the falls, and
on high points of rock at different places for a distance of eight miles or more up
stream from the same fails, leads every practical miner to believe that there is abundance of rich mining ground on Perry Creek, lacking- nothing to develo2) it but men and
means sufficient to cope with difficulties of a not very formidable nature, when compared with others that have been successfully dealt with in opening up and working
deep gold diggings in other parts of British Columbia.
" On Palmer's Bar Creek shallow diggings were worked through the season.
Scarcity of water there confines operations within narrow bounds.
" It is confidently expected that Quartz Creek will be well tested next season, as
the Government trail will enable miners to get there without risking the dangerous
navigation of the Columbia River.
" I enclose list of prices of sundry articles here.
" I have, etc.,
(Signed) " Cornelius Booth.
" The Honourable the Minister of Mines." 40 Vic.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
The Returns from the Coal Fields for 1876 shew an increase, and, considering
the depressed state of the San Francisco 'market and the fire which during the
summer most unfortunately broke out in the Wellington mine, are most satisfactory.
During the year great quantities of coal were shipped to San Francisco from
England or elsewhere as freight for return cargoes of wheat, and were sold below
market value. This circumstance prevented the sale of JNanaimo coal and, of
course, decreased the export.
Great activity in coal matters has, however, been evinced in 1876. The
Baynes Sound mine has been brought into active operation, and is already bringing
coal to market. The Harewood mine has also this year entered into competition
with the existing mines. The coal is brought down by aerial tramway to the sea,
and the price of coal from this mine being put at a lower figure than has hitherto
ruled, has reduced the price of coal generally throughout the Province to $8 75,'
instead of $10 and $11 as heretofore.
A comparative statement of the yield and sale of coal of the Vancouver,
Harewood and Baynes Sound Cos. is herewith annexed. The return from the
Wellington Colliery has not been received.
Return of Coal Raised and Sold, 1876.
Actual  output
of Goal, 1876
No. of tons sold
for home consumption.
No. of tons sold
for exportation.
No. of tons on
hand, Jan.
1st, 1876.
No. of tons unsold, Jan. 1st
73,798  15 cwt.
16,665  2 cwt.
15,246 15 cwt.
10,509 8 cwt
17,856  2 cwt.
87,250 2 cwt.
140,185 2 cwt.
* No return having been received from the Wellington mine, the
Nanaimo Free Press.
bove figures are taken from the
Comparative Statement showing Amount o£ Coal Raised and Sold
in 1875 and 1876 respectively.
Sold in 1876	
Total Sales.
Total output of Coal, 1876	
139,191 15 cwt.
140,185    2 cwt.
Do             do.        1875        	
Do.   1875	
97,644 10 cwt.
29,046 15 cwt.
42,540 12 cwt. 426
Report of the Minister of Mines.
Vancouver Coal Mine, 1876.
Output  of Coal  for
12 months   ending
31st Dec, 1876.
No. of tons sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons sold for
No. of tons on hand
1st January, 1876.
No. of tons unsold,
including  coal  in
stock 1st Jan. '11.
73,798f tons.
16,665 2cwt.
10,509 8cwt.
No. of hands employed.
Wages per day.
304 men.
18 boys.
Chinese, 72.
ians, 47.
$2 to $4.
$1 to $1  25.
$1 to$l 50.
Total hands employed, 441.
Miners' earnings per day, $2 75 to $5 00.
Note —The number of hands employed does not include Indians or Chinamen working for miners.
Description of seams worked, &c. (1) Douglas Mine, half a mile from Nanaimo Harbour,
is worked by slope 600 yards from the surface, and
in the lowest levels the coal is 5$ to 6 feet thick.
Capacity upwards of 200 tons per day. The product
of this mine is first-class for gas making purposes.
(2) New Douglas Mine is being opened up also by slope,
about If miles from the old Douglas pit. The average
thickness of the seam is fully 7 feet, very clean, and
it is pronounced an excellent steam coal. Length of
slope 300 yards. By a branch railway from the
Douglas pit line the new coal is brought to the main
shipping point in Nanaimo Harbour.
(3) Fitzwilliam Mine, on Newcastle Island, 800 yards by
slope. At date of last report had met with a barrier
in the shape of a " want," i.e., a rock fault which occupied the position of the coal. The "want" is now
passed and we are driving into good coal over 5 feet
thick, with a parting of 2 inches of bituminous shale
in the middle of the seam.
(4) Newcastle Mine, not in operation; 240 yards by
slope; on Newcastle Island.
(5) Chase River Mine, 290 feet deep by shaft; not in
Value of plant  Machinery, Railway, and Polling Stock, $118,000.
Description of Machinery, &c.
on the surface.
1 Horizontal pumping and winding engine, 45 horse
1 Beam winding and pumping engine, 22 horse power.
1 Horizontal engine, 90 horse power, (in reserve.)
2 Horizontal engines, (coupled), each  10 horse power.
2 Locomotives, 10 and 12 horse power.
2 Steam winches, 8 and 10 horse power. 40 Vic.
Report of the Minister of Mines.
in the mines.
1 7-inch double acting steam pump.
1 5-inch do. do.
1 4J-inch do. do.
2 10-inch plunger pumps.
1 8-inch do.
1 7J-inch do.
1 Patent steam pump, 20-inch steam cylinder, and 6J-
inchijwater cylinder.
Description  of Kailway.
The Vancouver Coal Company use on their railway
heavy double-headed steel rails, 521hs to the yard,
laid on iron chairs which are bolted to wood ties.
The entire length of railway, including sidings, is a
little over 2 miles.     The gauge is 4 feet 8} inches.
The Diamond Drill.
Since the date of last Report the Diamond Drill, imported by this Company, has been in successful operation. It has pierced coal in two different localities,
at depths respectively of 496 feet and 412 feet, and
is now being prepared for service at a third bore.
Signed)       M. Bate.
Harewood Coal Mine, 1876.
Actual output of coal
for 1876.
No. of tons sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons sold for
No. of tons on hand
Jan. 1st, 1876.
No. of tons on hand
Dec. 31st, 1876.
11,858 tons.
Number of hands employed.
Wages per day.
Whites, 47.
Chinese, 30.
$2 to $3 50.
$1 to$l 25.
$1 25.
Note.—The actual put out of coal was in eight months. Regular work of mining and shipment only
commenced in May. The numbers given above of Chinese and Indians employed are exclusive of those
employed by miners.
Description of  seams   worked, The seam at present worked is commonly known as
tunnels, &c      the Harewood seam; it averages about 0 feet and
yields a coal excellent for steam, household and gas
purposes; being entirely free from sulphur, it has
been found to make gas of an unusually pure quality. The mine continues to be carried on on the
" level free " plan, the coal being all hauled out by
mules without the aid of engines or pumping
machinery. The main level is in a distance of 600
yards, and according to the present course will give
a large supply of coal for many years to come without going deeper. A bore is being sunk below the
present seam to prospect for the kwer seam.   It is 428
Report of the Minister of Mines.
now down a distance of 280 feet without being
through the shale. From the mine to the shipping
point in IN anaimo Harbour, the coal is carried a distance of three miles by means of an elevated line
tramway at the rate of 10 tons per hour. As business increases this will be replaced by a railway or
tramway of more substantial character and greater
carrying capacity. Regular mining and shipment
was not commenced until the month of May, and
owing to the depressed state of the coal trade, the
mine has only been worked about half time.
(Signed) Thos. A. Bulkley.
Baynes Sound Coal Mine, 1876.
Actual output of coal
for 1876 in 2 mos.
600 tons.
No.  of tons sold for
home consumption.
No. of tons sold for
No. of tons on hand
Jan. 1st, 1876.
No. of tons on hand
Dec. 31st, 1876.
Number of hands employed.
Rates of wages per day.
Whites, 42.
Chinese, 13.
Note.—The tramway, wharf, bunkers, &c, were completed in November, 1876, and coal commenced
to be taken out November 1st. The present output is 50 tons per day, and the first shipment to San
Francisco will be made this month.
Name of seam worked  The only seam being worked is known as the "Gaston
Value of plant  $57,500.
Value of property  $117,500.
Description  of seams, tunnels, The " Gaston seam " is being worked " level free," and
levels, shafts, &c      is 7 feet thick; 3 tunnels have been run into the seam
known as 1, 2, & 3.
Description and length of tramway, plant, &c  The tramway is a narrow gauge or 3 feet tramway,
3£ miles in length from the coal bunkers to the
wharf. The rolling stock consists of 1 8-ton locomotive, " Farleigh pattern," and 21 4-ton cars, with
which 300 tons of coal can be delivered from bunkers
on shipboard per day of 10 hours. The bunkers have
a capacity of 1,200 tons and stand within 100 yards
of the mouth of the main adit or tunnel. The coal is
run out of the mine in half-ton cars and dumped into
the bunkers. Additional bunkers are being constructed which, when completed, will give a total
capacity of 5,000 tons. 40  Vic. Report of the Minister of Mines. 429
A discovery of silver and copper has been made on Salmon Arm, Jarvis Inlet,
which, to judge from the report hereto annexed, promises to be of considerable
value to the Province. Veins of great richness have already been discovered in
this vicinity.
"An important discovery of copper ore was made about two years ago on Salmon
Arm, a branch ot Jarvis Inlet, by Mr. Alexander Donaldson. Competent judges have
declared the lode to be a true fissure vein, for the following reasons :—1st. The vein
stone does not lie parallel to the cleavage of the surrounding rocks. 2nd. The blossom
of quartz on the surface or hat of the lode indicates that the matter has been injected
into the fissure, and not separated from the mass of adjacent formation by chemical
action, as in the case of a segregated vein; also, the smoothness of the walls showing
attrition by injection of quartz.
"The profile of the lode can be examined to the depth of 200 feet from the surface,
as it crops out in the face of a cliff, having doubtless been laid bare by some convulsion
of nature. The lead is thus clearly defined from the base of the precipice to the top,
and may be still further traced along the surface of the ground for at least a mile from
where it first makes its appearance. The vein is wedge-shaped, being thickest at its
base, where the ore is also richest.
" A company has been organized for the purpose of working this extensive deposit,
and a test tunnel has been run into the hill for about 30 feet on the vein. At the end
of the tunnel the seam or vein of mineral is 3 feet 9 inches at the roof and 4 feet 2 inches
at the base. Assays of the ore show that it contains 60 per cent, copper and 91 oz. of
silver to the ton.
" The mine is situated about 2J miles from the shore of the Inlet, and the facilities
for shipping the ore are excellent. The water is deep enough alongside the rocks to
float a vessel of 4,000 tons.
"Experienced quartz miners from California, Nevada and Cornwall have pronounced the mine to be the richest they have ever seen, the ore being so easily got out,
and wood for smelting purposes being plentiful and convenient.
"There is also good water power on the ground, sufficient to run a mill of any
Nothing has at present been done to develop the iron on Texada Island.
A fresh discovery of valuable iron ore has been made on the North end of
Texada by Captain Sturt, who is now in San Francisco endeavoring to promote
its development. The ore is in the vicinity of inexhaustible limestone, and exists
itself in limitless quantity. 


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