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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA TENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR 1915 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1916

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
TENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF  THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1915
THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE  LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by William H.  Cullin, Printer to the King's  Most Excellent Majesty.
1916.    To His Honour Frank Stillman Barnard,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Report
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1915.
Department- of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., July 1st, 1916.
WM. J. MANSON,
Minister of Agriculture.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Report of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture—Wm. E. Scott—
" Agricultural Act"   6
Agricultural Conditions  1
" Agricultural Instruction Act"  6
Conclusion   14
Conventions  14
Exhibition and Publicity Work   14
Export Trade in Potatoes    11
Farmers' Institutes  13
Fruit Inspection Branch   11
Horticultural Branch   8
Live Stock  3
Live Stock Branch   7
Plant Pathologist's Branch   12
Production and Imports   1
Statistics Branch  12
Women's  Institutes     13
Work of the Department   5
Report of Secretary and Statistician—W. J. Bonavia—
" Agricultural Aid Act"   16
Agricultural Fairs Association   25
" Agricultural Instruction Act"    16
Bee-inspection Work     25
British Columbia Students    22
Bulletins and Circulars     16
Card-index Record   17
Circular Letters     15
Correspondence     15
Farmers' Institutes     17
Financial   16
Horticultural Inspection-work and Licences  22
Orders in Council  17
Pound Districts   22
Publications     16
Staff     15
Vouchers  16
Women's Institutes     23
Report of Statistics Branch—A. B. Tweddle, Assistant Statistician—
Exports  28
Home Production    27
Imports  28
Report of Horticultural Branch—R. M. Winslow, Provincial Horticulturist—
Advertising   35
Blight-control Work  34
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association   37
Calgary Fruit Conference    36
Careful Handling and Cold Storage, Investigations in   35
Chilliwack Demonstration Plot  31
Coast Markets Commissioner's Office   36
Co-operation of Selling Agencies   36
Crop Competitions    33
Crop Estimates and Records   34
Cultural Experiments  32 vi. Contents.
Page.
Report of Horticultural Branch—Concluded.
Demonstration Orchards  29
Experimental Orchards   29
Experimental Plots  31
Institute and other Meetings   33
Judging at Fairs and Flower-shows   34
Office-work     37
Packing-schools     35
Prairie Markets Commissioner's Office   35
Protection for British Columbia Apples    36
Pruning-schools    32
Publications     33
Short Course at Kelowna (Two Weeks)     32
Southern Okanagan Vegetable Experiment Station   29
Summer School for Teachers    33
Variety Yields    34
Victoria Demonstration Garden-plot   31
Visits and Demonstrations, Orchard   36
Report of Assistant Horticulturist, Lower Mainland—W. H. Robertson—
Dehydrating of Raspberries    39
Demonstration  Orchards     38
Demonstration Plot, Chilliwack Small-fruit   38
District Work  39
Experimental Strawberry-plot  39
Lectures   38
Packing-schools     38
Pruning-schools    37
Statistics,  Securing Fruit    39
Report of Assistant Horticulturist, Prince Rupert—A. H. Tomlinson—
Department Exhibits at Fairs    42
Experimental Plots     40
Fairs  41
Markets    41
Office-work  40
Pests and Diseases     42
Prospects for Agriculture in Bella Coola, Kitimat,  Skeena River Valleys, Nass, and
Islands of the Coast, Stikine and Atlin   41
School-work  42
Weather   42
Report of Assistant Horticulturist, Kamloops—H. Thornber—
Cold Storage  43
Demonstrations     43
Demonstration Orchard, Walhachin    43
District Work    42
Experimental Orchard, Nicola    43
Fall Fairs and Shows   43
Lectures    43
Office-work     44
Pests    44
Production, Fruit and Vegetable   44
Pruning-schools    •  43
Vegetable-garden Competitions  44
Vegetable-plot, Oak Bay   44
Report of Assistant Horticulturist, Northern Okanagan, Salmon Arm, Arrow Lakes, Slocan,
and Upper Columbia Valley—P. E. French—
Competitions  :  49 Contents. vii.
Page.
Report of Assistant Horticulturist, Northern Okanagan, Salmon Arm, Arrow Lakes, Slocan,
and Upper Columbia Valley—Concluded.
Demonstration Orchards     45
Exhibition-work   46
Experimental  Orchards     45
Experimental Work  46
Farmers' Institute Work    46
Fire-blight Inspection-work    45
Packing-schools     45
Pruning-schools    45
Report of Assistant Horticulturist, Okanagan Valley—B. Hoy—
Fertilizer Experiments  50
Fire-blight   50
General Work    50
Meetings and Fall Fairs    49
Onion Storage    50
Orchard and Lot Competition   50
Pruning-schools     49
Short Courses     49
Spraying     50
Variety Yields   50
Report of Assistant Horticulturist, Kootenay and Boundary—M. S. Middleton—
Demonstration Orchards  51
Diseases    51
Educational Visits    52
Experimental Orchards   51
Fruit-crop     52
Garden Contests   52
Judging     52
Pests and Diseases   51
Pruning-schools    51
Visits     52
Report of Assistant Horticulturist, Boundary—E." C. Hunt—
Cold-storage Experiment  53
Fairs   53
Inspection-work   53
Orchard Records   53
Pruning-schools    53
Variety Yields    53
Report of Prairie Markets Commissioner—J. F. Smith—
Addresses to Fruit-growers    54
Apricots     56
Calgary Fruit-marketing Conference   56
Cherries   •  55
Publicity Work  56
Raspberries   55
Resignation  57
Strawberries   ■  54
Visits to American Berry Districts   54
Weekly Reports  54
Report of Prairie Markets Commissioner—W. E. McTaggart—
Advertising     *s
Auctions, Fruit    61
Consignments    5s
Co-operation    °°
Market Conditions    60 viii. Contents.
Page.
Report of Prairie Markets Commissioner—Concluded.
Packages     61
Weekly Reports   61
Report of Coast Markets Commissioner—R. C. Abbott—
Advertising  63
British Columbia New Potatoes   72
City Markets    64
Consignment, Shipping on    63
Co-operation and Growers' Marketing Agency  73
Eggs and Poultry   72
Eggs imported   73
Export Trade in Potatoes   71
Hay and Grain    73
Imported New Potatoes    72
Imported Products   62
Packages    64
Patriotism and Economy    63
Shipping Direct to Retailer   63
Vegetables   72
Weekly Reports  63
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist—J. W. Eastham—
Educational Work  76
Fire-blight  74
Fungous Diseases    75
Investigations, 1916   74
Laboratories     74
Report of Fruit Pest Inspection Branch—W. H. Lyne, Assistant Fruit Pest Inspector—
Empty Cars, Inspection of  77
Exported Fruit and Vegetables inspected   77
Field-work   78
Imported Fruit and Vegetables, Inspection of   76
Imported Nursery Stock, Inspection of   77
Infestation of Stanley Park Nurseries ....'  81
Nurseries, Inspection of  80
Quarantine Officers  77
Report of Live Stock Branch—W. T. McDonald, Live Stock Commissioner—
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association  85
Boys' and Girls' Clubs  85
Brands    85
Central British Columbia   S4
Crop and Live-stock Conditions   81
Dairy Division  83
Farmers' Institutes and Fall Fairs   85
Live-stock Conditions     81
Poultry Division  83
Publications     85
Soil and Crop Division  83
Summer School  85
Veterinary Division    82
Report of Dairy Division—H. Rive, Chief Dairy Instructor and Inspector—
Canadian National Record of Performance  "  SS
City Milk  87
Cow-testing Associations    87
Dairy Conditions in British Columbia   86
Dairymen's Association  89
.  Demonstrations    ■ 88 Contents. ix.
Page.
Report of Dairy Division—Concluded.
Fall Fairs   SS
Lectures    88
Official Tests  88
Preservative for British Columbia Butter  87
Report of Dairy Instructor and Inspector—T. A. F. Wiancko—
City Dairies   89
Creameries     89
Fall Fairs   90
Farmers'  Institutes     90
Report of Soil and Crop Division—H. O. English, Soil and Crop Instructor—
Agriculture (Pemberton Meadows)    91
Boys' and Girls' Potato Competitions   91
Cost of Production Survey  93
Educational Excursions  90
Farm Survey  93
Field-crop Competitions  91
General  90
Seed Fairs, Provincial  93
Silo-filling Demonstrations   93
Statistics   93
Sugar-beet Experiment (Pemberton Meadows)     90
Heport of Soil and Crop Division—W. Newton, Soil and Crop Instructor—
Alfalfa Co-operative Tests   100
Alfalfa Demonstration  100
Armstrong Demonstration Station  98
Chilliwack Demonstration Station  97
Circulars and Bulletins  94
Demonstration  Stations     96
Edgewood Demonstration Station   98
Errington Demonstration Station    99
Farm Surveys    101
Farmers' Institute Lectures     94
Grand Forks Demonstration Station    98
Office   93
Rock Creek Demonstration Station  99
Rose Hill Demonstration Station    97
Seed Distribution and Production   100
Seed Production, General   101
Silo Building and Filling Demonstrations    94
Report of Poultry Division—J. R. Terry, Chief Poultry Instructor—
Breeding-station Report    104
Disease   1°4
Egg-laying Contest    103
Fall Fairs  1°2
General Conditions   1°1
•Inspection-work  104
Lectures and Demonstrations   101
Marking of Packages containing Imported Eggs  .• • 102
Office-work  105
Prairie vs. British Columbia Eggs    103
Provincial Poultry Association   102
Publications  i04
Vermin    1°*
Report of Veterinary Division—A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector-
Dairy Inspection   lo5
Deer Disease, Texada Island  ■  1°5 Contents.
Page.
Report of Veterinary Division—Concluded.
Goitre  105
Testing   105
Report of District Agriculturist, Central British Columbia—H. E. Walker—
Crops     107
Fairs   108
Educational Exhibit   108
Institute Meetings     108
Live Stock     106
Markets and Marketing    107
Office-work     108
Season     100
Seed-distribution    107
Tour of the Interior    108
Reports of Foul-brood Inspectors—
Kootenays and Boundary—W. J. Sheppard  110
Lower Mainland—F. D. Todd  109
Okanagan—L. Harris  110
Report of Exhibition-work—W. A. Lang, Exhibition Commissioner   Ill
Appendices.
Secretary's Report.
Appendix No.—
1. Summary of Appointments  114
2. Correspondence    114
3. Circular Letters    115
4. Bulletins and Circulars published  115
5. Bulletins and Circulars sent out    116
6. Summary of Appropriations   118
7. Federal Grant  US
8. Federal Grant, Vouchers issued   119
9. Provincial Votes, Vouchers issued    120
10. Institutes with Largest Number of Members   120
10a. Patriotic and Red Cross Work    121
11. Expenditure in Aid of Farmers' Institutes  121
12. Seed-grain distributed to Settlers   122
13. Return of Animals impounded   • • 122
14. Cost of Fruit Pest Inspection Branch   123
15. Expenditure in Aid of Women's Institutes   123
Provincial Horticulturist.
16. Pruning-schools   124
17. Crop Competitions conducted   125
Markets Commissioners.
18. Fruit-packages preferred by Prairie Trade   126
19. Sizes of certain Boxes and Crates used in marketing Fruits and Vegetables (Coast'
Markets)     127
20.' Imports and Exports, Vancouver   128
21. Imports and Exports, Vancouver  (Summary)     129
Dairy Instructors and Inspectors.
22. City Milk-supply     130
23. Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia and Standing   131
24. List of Creameries in British Columbia   132
25. Summary of Creamery Report    132 Contents. xi.
Page.
Appendix No.— Soil and Crop Instructor.
26. Report of Alfalfa Demonstration Plots  133
Poultry Instructor.
27. Affiliated Poultry Associations     133
28. Government Grant to Poultry-shows   134
29. Fourth International Egg-laying Contest   134
30. Fourth International Egg-laying Contest (Summary)     135
Chief Veterinary Inspector.
31. Cattle tested for First Time, 1915   130
32. Cattle retested during 1915    136
33. Tuberculin Tests made till End of 1915   137
Assistant Statistician.
34. Agricultural Production, Grain, Hay, and Vegetables   138
35. Cars of Fruit produced in British Columbia   139
36. Fruit Production (Tons and Value)     140
37. Net Weights, Fruits and Vegetable Packages   140
38. Numbers of Live Stock in British Columbia   141
39. Report of Honey-crop   141
40. Agricultural Production (All Products)     142
41. Imports from other Provinces in Canada  143
42. Imports from Foreign Points   144
43. Imports from other Provinces in  Canada  to  Chief Distributing Centres,  British
Columbia    145
44. Values, British Columbia Agricultural Production, Years 1913 to 1915  145
45. Diagram showing how British Columbia's Agricultural Requirements for Consump
tion were supplied in 1915   146 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
BRANCHES AND STAFF MEMBERS, YEAR 1915.
Minister of Agriculture:
Hon. Price Ellison. Hon. Wm. J. Bowsek, K.C.
Hon. A. C. Flumeefelt.
Deputy Minister:
Wm. E. Scott.
Secretary:
Wm. J. Bonavia.
Horticultural Branch (Permanent):
W. M. Winslow, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist.
B. Hoy, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist.
H. Thobnbee, B.Sc, Assistant Horticulturist.
W. H. Robebtson, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist.
P. E. Fbench, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist.
A. H. Tomlinson, Assistant Horticulturist.
J. F. Smith, B.A., Prairie Markets Commissioner.
Horticultural Branch (Temporary):
F. L. Goodman, Assistant Horticulturist.
M. H. Howitt, Assistant Horticulturist.
E. C. Hunt, Assistant Horticulturist.
L. F. Bubbows, Assistant Horticulturist.
R. C. Abbott, Coast Markets Commissioner.
W. E. McTaggabt, Prairie Markets Commissioner.
F. S. Neve, Packing-school Instructor.
W. J. Mohb, Packing-school Instructor.
G. A. McLaine, Packing-school Instructor.
F. E. Loveday, Packing-school Instructor.
J. B. Castnee, Packing-school Instructor.
J. Lawlee, Packing-school Instructor.
T. H. Hughes, Caretaker, Demonstration Plot, Terrace.
A. Richabdson, Caretaker, Demonstration Plot, Lawn Hill.
S. LeC. Grant, Caretaker, Demonstration Plot, Bella Coola.
J. L. Hilbobn, in charge, Vegetable Experimental Station, Summerland.
P. Layeitz, Judge, Fall Fairs.
Fruit Inspection Branch (Permanent) :
Thos. Cunningham, Inspector of Fruit Pests.
W. H. Lyne, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
D. Gavet, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
W. J. Geaham, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
M. L. Bibd, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests. Branches and Staff Members.
Fruit Inspection Branch (Temporary) :
H. H. Cheese, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
G. R. Castneb, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
L. R. Habthill, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
L. L. Palmeb, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
G. G. Bbown, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
R. Randall, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
C. E. McCubbing, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
E. W. White, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
E. Hutchinson, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
T. H. Bain, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
E. A. Sinclair, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
J. M. Beydon, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
F. Adie, Quarantine Officer.
C. A. Cock, Quarantine Officer.
R. T. Evans, Quaratine Officer.
W. H. Whimstee, Quarantine Officer.
F. R. S. Baelee, Quarantine Officer.
W. M. Feith, Quarantine Officer.
A. C. Wilson, Quarantine Officer.
G. E. Wilkerson, Quarantine Officer.
T. F. Yoek, Quarantine Officer.
R. D. Keeb, Quarantine Officer.
A. P. Eddy, Quarantine Officer.
A. Cameeon, Quarantine Officer.
Jas. Comb-ton, Quarantine Officer.
A. J. Cheisholm, Quarantine Officer.
J. H. Methol, Quarantine Officer.
J. A. MacDonald, Quarantine Officer.
G. E. McFall, Quarantine Officer.
Plant Pathology and Entomology Branch:
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist (permanent).
M. H. Ruhmann, Assistant Plant Pathologist (temporary).
Live Stock Branch (Permanent):
W. T. McDonald, M.S.A., Live Stock Commissioner.
S. H. Hopkins, B.S.A., Assistant iive Stock Commissioner.
H. Rive, B.S.A., Chief Dairy Instructor and Inspector.
T. A. F. Wiancko, Dairy Instructor and Inspector.
J. R. Teeey, Chief Poultry Instructor.
H. E. Upton, Assistant Poultry Instructor.
J. C. Readey, B.S.A., Soil and Crop Instructor.
H. O. English, B.A., B.S.A., Soil and Crop Instructor.
H. E. Walkeb, B.S.A., Agriculturist.
Dr. A. Knight, V.S., Chief Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. S. A. K. White, VS., Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. W. W. Alton, V.S., Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. B. R. Ilsley, VS., Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Live Stock Branch (Temporary) :
W. Newton, Soil and Crop Instructor.
D. H. MacKay, Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
M. Spaebow, Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
W. T. Brookes, Assistant Veterinary Inspector. XIV.
Branches and Staff Members.
R. L. Ramsay, Assistant Agriculturist.
S. F. Dunlop, Assistant Agriculturist.
D. James, Cow-tester.
E. Rive, Cow-tester.
C. H. Graveley, Cow-tester.
G. H. Thornbeby, Cow-tester.
J. B. Watson, Cow-tester.
J. A. Goldie, Cow-tester.
A. White, Cow-tester.
F. Goldie, Caretaker, Demonstration Plot.
N. C. Joegensen, Caretaker, Demonstration Plot.
W. H. Steoyan, Poultry Caretaker.
R. H. Milleb, Judge, Fall Fairs.
S. Shannon, Judge, Fall Fairs.
C. E. Laweence, Judge, Fall Fairs.
M. W. Higgs, Judge, Fall Fairs.
H. Webb, Judge, Fall Fairs.
J. Tuener, Judge, Fall Fairs.
J. T. Paegeteb, Judge, Fall Fairs.
H. D. Reid, Judge, Fall Fairs.
J. A. Turner, Judge, Fall Fairs.
E. A. Orr, Judge, Fall Fairs.
H. E. Waby, Judge, Fall Fairs.
Beyce Wright, Judge, Fall Fairs.
W. M. Coats, Judge, Fall Fairs.
W. M. Gibson, Judge, Fall Fairs.
W. Stonehouse, Judge, Fall Fairs.
R. J. Febbis, Silo Demonstrator.
Statistics Branch:
A. B. Tweddle, Assistant Statistician (permanent).
Exhibition and Publicity Branch:
W. A. Lang, Exhibition Commissioner (permanent).
G. Perry, iissistant Exhibition Commissioner (temporary).
G. I. Thoenton, Bottled Fruit Expert (temporary).
Foul-hrood Inspectors (Temporary) :
L. Haeris, Vernon. W. J. Sheppabd, Nelson.
F. D. Todd, "Victoria.
Weed Inspectors (Temporary) :
Chas. Hodgkinson, Kamloops.
R. H. Baibd, Nakusp.
Haevey Ween, Mission City.
H. Whiting, Kettle Valley.
John Hope, Armstrong.
W. S. Stanhope, Parksville.
A. B. Shannon, Willow Point.
Women's Institutes:
Mrs. M. S. Davies, Secretary, Advisory Board (permanent).
Miss B. Livingstone, Lecturer (temporary).
Miss A. M. Taylor, Lecturer (temporary).
Miss F. Steed, Lecturer (temporary).
Miss E. H. Jones, Lecturer (temporary).
Miss Mary J. Kennedy, Lecturer (temporary). Clerical (Permanent):
G. B. Martin.
F. N. Payne.
G. L. Foulkes.
Geo. Pilmeb.
R. E. Mitchell.
G. S. Rothwell.
G. H. Stewaet.
J. H. Buckett.
M. Brooking.
F. O'Beien.
E. L. Flett.
E. Williams.
V. F. Babington.
Clerical (Temporary):
D. Johnson.
General:
M. M. Patchett.
A. II. Shotbolt, General Assistant (permanent).
D. E. Mackeeeth, Carpenter (temporary).  a
a J
a
a REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER  OF AGRICULTURE.
Wm. E. Scott. ,
Hon. Wm. Manson,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report of agricultural conditions
in the Province of British Columbia and the work of the Department of Agriculture for the
year 1915.
Home Production and Impoetation.
The year 1915 has witnessed a very satisfactory forward movement in agriculture, the
production in most lines show-ing a satisfactory increase over previous years.
The following comparative statement will clearly show that production has steadily
increased, and importations, on the other hand, have materially decreased during the last
four years:—
Home production .
Imports	
$23,323,269
13,099,8S5
$26,222,033
20,070,757
$30,184,100
25,199,125
$31,127,801
16,434,970
It will thus be seen that there was an increase in production in 1915 over 1914 of $943,701,
and a decrease in importations of $S,764,155. The comparatively small increase in home production, with the corresponding large decrease in importations, is due to the following causes:—
First: The prices of nearly all farm produce in 1915 averaged approximately 10 per cent,
less than in 1914. If the same prices had been given in compiling statistics for 1915 as were
used in 1914, the value of home production would be $34,240,581, or an increase of Sf3,112,7S0.
Second:    Decrease in the population of the Province owing to the war and other conditions.
Third: The lessened purchasing power of the public, which has led to the practice of
economy.
Agbicultural Conditions.
The year 1915 was generally a favourable one for crop production, the yield for most crops
being considerably above normal. On Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland there was
sufficient moisture in the soil to mature all grains and grasses, but drought during vegetable-
growth greatly affected these crops.
In the Interior districts of Southern British Columbia precipitation was abnormal, resulting
in heavy plant-growth, and exceptionally heavy crops of grain and hay were secured.
In Central British Columbia, also, weather conditions were good and crops well above the
average.    The season in all districts of the Province was earlier than usual.
Hay.—Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland had fair crops, not quite as rank in growth
as usual on the Island, but generally of superior quality. The crops were all harvested in
satisfactory condition. In the Southern Interior parts of the Province there were many instances
of exceptionally heavy crops of hay and alfalfa. In some sections considerable damage was done
to the first crops of hay by wet weather conditions. The later crops were harvested in excellent
condition. In Central British Columbia the hay-crop was about normal, the quality good, and
harvested in good condition.
Grain.—On Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland the yields were generally slightly
below the average. Oats in the latter section averaged SO bushels per acre. The quality of all
grain was all that could be desired, and it was harvested in excellent condition. In the Southern
Interior there were very heavy crops considerably above average.    The quality was good and
2 E 2 Department of Agriculture. 1916
satisfactorily harvested. In Central British Columbia there were also good crops. In niany
instances oats threshed out at over 100 bushels to the acre. Wheat also yielded well and gave
good samples.    All crops were harvested in good condition.
Fodder-crops.—There has been a very noticeable development in the growing of soiling and
fodder crops in most districts of the Province, and especially the Lower Mainland section. Stockbreeders and dairymen are beginning to realize that greater profits may be made when the
greater part of the stock-feed consumed is grown on the farm. Oats and peas, or vetches,
thousand-headed kale, corn, etc., are now being largely grown throughout different stock-raising
districts of the Province, and fed to stock with resultant saving and benefit to farmers.
Soiling and fodder crops gave generally a good fair yield, corn averaging nearly 11% tons
per acre.    They were exceptionally heavy in the Interior districts.
Alfalfa.—This excellent forage-crop—the nearest approach to a perfect-balanced ration—is
now extensively grown in all the Interior districts of Southern British Columbia. The Thompson
Valley, Lillooet, Okanagan, Keremeos, Boundary, Kootenay, and Columbia Districts in particular
have been conclusively proved as suitable for the successful growth of this crop. Crops were
particularly heavy, but there was some loss on the first cutting owing to abnormal precipitation.
Some fields in the Thompson River Valley gave four cuttings, with a total yield of 9 tons
per acre. There is no doubt but that the alfalfa demonstration plots conducted by the Department in different districts during the past few years have been the means of encouraging the
growth by farmers of this valuable and lucrative fodder-crop.
Corn.—It is only three years ago that this crop was practically non-existent in the Province.
The Department, wishing to encourage the growth of this important silage-crop, supplied farmers
with seeds of different varieties for experimental purposes, and at the same time undertook an
active campaign in favour of corn and silos. The result of this work has been most gratifying.
Corn is now grown successfully in all parts of the Province, where farmers a few years ago
stated that this was impossible. Suitable varieties have been found for nearly all districts, and
the acreage devoted to this crop is yearly increasing in a most satisfactory manner.
It is interesting to note that ears of corn from Kelowna secured the first award at the
International Dry-farming Congress held at Calgary, November, 1914. This competition was
open to the Continent of America, and it is very satisfactory indeed to realize that corn grown
in this Province was able to beat samples from well-known corn-growing States like Minnesota
and Ohio.
Tree-fruits.—The year 1915 was generally a favourable one for all tree-fruits. The crop
was 33 per cent, in excess of the year 1914. Prices averaged about 16 per cent, better than in
1914, when they were the lowest on record and very disastrous to the grower. The total value
shows a greater corresponding increase over 1914, being nearly 65 per cent.
Apples were a fair crop, the quantity harvested being 35.5 per cent, in excess of 1914.
Prices on the whole were very satisfactory, averaging f.o.'b.: No. 1, $1.20; No. 2, $1; No. 3,
85 cents; or a general average of $1.03 per box, as against 76% cents in 1914. Apple-growers
with the younger bearing orchards did well in the year 1915.
Pears were generally a light crop;  prices good, averaging f.o.b. $1.37 per box.
Cherries were a good average crop, but prices ruled lower, being $1.11 per crate, as against
$1.20 in 1914.
Plums and Prunes.—These yielded slightly above 1914, whilst prices averaged 3% cents
per crate more, being 48% cents.
Peaches.—This crop was a good once, and prices realized showed a decided improvement
over 1914. Good commercial peaches of standard varieties found a ready sale in the Prairie
Provinces at prices averaging 50 cents per crate f.o.b. point of shipping.
Apricots.—The crop was heavy, quality good, and prices satisfactory, averaging about
57 cents per crate f.o.b.
Small Fruits.—The total strawberry-crop on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island was
57.5 per cent, greater than 1914. Owing to the co-operative action of growers through the
medium of the Gordon Head and Keating Fruit-growers' Associations, the crop was marketed
to the very best advantage in our Coast markets and those of the Prairie Provinces. Prices were
good, Gordon Head and Keating strawberry-growers averaging about $1.70 per crate f.o.b.,
while the average for the Province was $1.87.
Shipments to the Prairie Provinces from Vancouver Island arrived in excellent condition,
and were most favourably commented on by dealers. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. R 3
There is room for considerable extension in strawberry-growing on suitable soils adjacent
to the City of Victoria. Vancouver Island berries lead the market in quality, and the North-west
markets can take three times the quantity British Columbia now produces. Berries from the
Lower Mainland points also find a ready sale in the Prairies. The strawberry-weevil is causing
a considerable amount of damage in strawberry-growing districts on the Island, but careful
investigations are now being carried out in order to shown growers how they can best combat
this pest.    A proper rotation of crops seems to be the best method to fight the evil.
Creston District also produces a fine quality of strawberries, and growers find a ready sale
for all they can raise, at Crowsnest Pass points, at prices even higher than Vancouver Island
berries. Ten car-loads of strawberries were shipped from Vancouver Island to Prairie points
in the year 1915, besides keeping the local markets well supplied. Over forty-two car-loads
were produced on this Island.
Raspberries.—Mission, Hammond, Hatzic, and near-by points are the principal raspberry-
growing sections of the Province. The total yield for the Province exceeded 1914 by over
78 per cent.   Prices averaged $1.72 per crate f.o.b. shipping-point.
Loganberries were somewhat affected by the weather conditions. This fruit is not grown
to any large extent, but with the increasing demand for it, it is probable that more attention will
be given to it by small-fruit growers.
Other Small Fruits.—The crop of currants, gooseberries, and other small fruits was good
considering drought conditions.    Prices were fair.
Taken all round, the results of the fruit crop of 1915 were decidedly more encouraging, and,
as figures indicate, the returns received by growers were largely in excess of the previous year.
The satisfactory prices received for strawberries were largely due to the good work done by
the co-operative associations recently formed at Gordon Head and Keating, a striking instance of
the necessity for business organization amongst farmers for the best distribution and marketing
of their produce.
Indications point to a heavy crop throughout the Continent of America during the year 1916,
and the co-operative action of growers and the most efficient and economical working, distribution, and marketing must be carried out in order to prevent a repetition of the disastrous prices
which prevailed in the year 1914.
It is a source of congratulation for fruit-growers that the energetic action of the Executive
of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association has resulted in securing a further measure
of protection by an increase in tariff to 90 cents per barrel on apples, or the equivalent of 30
cents per box. This recognition of the Federal Government will do a great deal for the fruit
industry of this Province. It will provide an adequate protection against the unfair competition
which growers had to meet by the dumping of second-grade American fruit, on consignment, in
the markets of the Prairie Provinces, which had the effect of demoralizing the price of fruit
grown in this Province.
This action of the Federal Government will help towards putting the apple industry of this
Province on a firm basis and enable the progressive and up-to-date fruit-grower to realize
satisfactory returns for the capital and energy which he has devoted to this phase of farming.
Vegetables.—There was an extensive development of market-gardening in districts contiguous to our Coast cities during the past year, largely due to hard times and the propaganda
carried out urging cultivation of vacant lands and acreage. The result was congestion of our
local markets, with consequent low prices. In other words, the markets were oversupplied
and there was no possibility of exporting our surplus of vegetables at prices that would give
any satisfactory return to the producers.
The crop of vegetables was of good quality and the yield fair. Some of the later vegetables
suffered from the drought. The Oriental competition in vegetable-growing also makes it an
extremely difficult matter for the white man to make a living at market-gardening. The
Chinaman can produce more cheaply than the white man, and peddles his produce from house to
house. The question is a difficult one, but unless some restrictions can be put on the peddling
of vegetables by Chinese in our cities, it will be impossible for the white man to hold his own in
competition with them.
Live Stock.
Horses.—Owing to the cessation of civic and municipal activities and the general conditions
engendered by the war, this phase of the live-stock industry has not progressed. There ijs
practically no demand for horses in the Province, other than for certain types suitable for war E 4 Department of Agriculture. 1916
purposes, and of which a considerable number were purchased during the past year, principally
in Southern Interior districts, by the Imperial authorities and Governments of the Allies.
Farmers are to a large extent going out of the horse-breeding business, but it will be well
to remember that at the .conclusion of the present war the demand for horses is likely to be
very active for the work of rehabilitation of war-devastated countries, and to replace the
inevitable enormous wastage in horses which is necessarily involved in war. There will
doubtless be a sudden demand for certain types of horses. It will be well for farmers to bear
this in mind and not be caught unprepared.
Beef Stock.—There has been a very healthy growth in the raising of beef stock in the
Province, as is plainly shown by the satisfactory increase in production during the past years.
Owing to the abnormal rainfall in the range country of the Southern Interior districts,
where practically all the stock of the Province is produced, good pasturage was abundant, and
large quantities of range-fattened beef stock were marketed within the Province, with the result
that there was a very marked decrease in beef importations from the Prairie Provinces and
American States.
The completion of the Grand Trunk Pacific and Canadian Northern Railways and the early
completion of the Pacific Great Eastern will do a great deal to render available and develop our
stock-raising industry, all these railways running through districts most eminently adapted for
stock-raising purposes.
Prices for beef were satisfactory, though slightly lower than the previous year. There is
still, however, too much of a discrepancy between the price received by the stock-raiser and the
price paid by the consumer, and the adoption of some method whereby the producer would have
a better control over the market would result in better prices for the consumer.
Dairying.—The dairying industry is making progress. Four new creameries being started
in well-recognized fruit districts is plain evidence that fruit-growers are recognizing the principle
that the keeping of live stock on'the farm is the basis of all true agriculture, and that it is to
their own interests to supplement their returns from fruit by also engaging, in so far as circumstances will allow them to do so, in dairying and mixed farming.
Actual returns from dairying do not show any material increase, largely accounted for by
the decrease in population and decrease in purchasing power of the general public. Less milk
was sold and more butter manufactured, milk being a higher-priced product than butter. The
milk-flow was good in the earlier part of the year, but showed a marked falling-off during the
summer months in the Coast districts owing to pasturage being dried up.
The rapid increase in silage and forage crops, however, ensured a steady milk yield throughout the year for those progressive farmers who carry on their dairying business with the aid of
these crops.
As a result of the propaganda of the Department in the matter of growing corn "and fodder
crops and the erection of silos, dairying methods show marked improvement. It is estimated
that nearly one hundred silos were erected in the Province during last year in conformity with
plans suggested by the Department. Prices of milk decreased slightly in 1915, whilst butter
prices were well maintained.
The quality of the dairy stock in the Province shows a very marked improvement. Many
of the dairy herds seen in our chief dairying districts would be a credit to any country.
Sheep.—A considerable amount of attention is being paid to sheep at the present time,
though as yet there has been very little increase in the amount of sheep-breeding in the Province.
There are very few parts of this Province where sheep can be ranged in large numbers, except
on the cattle-ranges, where it would naturally be inadvisable to encourage sheep-raising also.
The heavily timbered areas of the Province do not provide the right conditions for successful
sheep-raising.    The Coast Districts are well adapted for raising sheep in small flocks on farms.
The greatest drawback to this industry is undoubtedly the dog nuisance. .Many farmers
have stated that, whilst general conditions for sheep-raising were suitable, they have found it
impossible to raise them economically and profitably owing to constant losses sustained by the
ravages of dogs.    Bears, coyotes, and panthers have also to be reckoned with.
There is a strong feeling amongst many farmers, and one which I share, that a tax should
be placed on all dogs and a proper registration kept of them, at least in districts where sheep-
raising is practised. Till this disadvantage under which sheep-raisers labour is removed, the
sheep industry will not progress in the way it should. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E
A movement is now on foot in the Province, which is being assisted by the Federal Government, to secure the best possible price for wool by co-operative grading and marketing. Prices
for wool are constantly increasing, and mutton and lamb prices are higher than they have ever
been.    The lamb crop was generally good, and prices kept at a very high level.
Hogs.—Owing to the exceptionally high prices which prevailed in the spring for grains and
mill-feeds, many breeders reduced the number of breeding hogs kept by them. Consequently
there was a falling-off in the number raised. Prices, whilst lower at the commencement of the
year, increased in the latter part to slightly in excess of 1914. The quality of hogs kept in the
Province is rapidly improving.
Poultry.—The poultry industry received a serious check in the year 1915. Prices of grains
and poultry-feeds rose to a very high level in the spring of 1915, whilst the prices for poultry
products were low. The result was that the majority of poultry-breeders on small acreage,
with insufficient ground to grow their own grain feeds, sold off the greater part of their laying
stock, which resulted naturally in a large decrease in egg production for the year.
Poultry products show a falling-off for the year 1915 of 40 per cent. With the lower prices
of grains which now prevail, however, it will not be long before production again increases.
Poultry-raisers who, in spite of the adverse conditions in the spring of 1915, retained their laying
stock are now reaping the benefit. Those engaged in the poultry industry should endeavour, in
so far as possible, to grow their .own poultry-feeds.
When prices of feed are as high as those which prevailed in the spring of 1915 there is a
small margin of profit, even for the most successful poultrymen. The average price of eggs for
the year was 30 cents a dozen, and for dressed poultry 14 cents a pound. The quality of birds
kept was a decided improvement.
The splendid successes secured by Provincial poultrymen at the Panama-Pacific Exposition
are a matter for congratulation.
Apiculture.—The past season was a very poor one for bee-keepers. In spite of improved
methods of bee-keepers, due to the good educative work of our Instructors and the increase in
the number of hives kept, the amount of honey secured was only half of that realized in 1914.
Unfavourable climatic conditions and extensive bush fires, resulting in a poor honey-flow,
were mainly responsible for this decrease in yield. Several incipient outbreaks of foul-brood
occurred, but immediate and drastic action was taken towards the eradication of this disease
by the destruction by fire of infected hives by our Inspectors, and it is to be hoped that this
action will have resulted in eradicating the disease before it secures a foothold.
Two Bee-keepers' Associations have been incorporated under the " Agricultural Associations
Act," one in the Kootenays and the other for Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland, the
latter association being the Provincial Association, with which any others which may be incorporated later will be affiliated.
WOEK   OF  DEPAETMENT   OF  AGRIOULTUEE.
Organization.—In the year 1909, when the late Captain Tatlow was Minister of Agriculture,
the reorganization of the Department was undertaken by him. This has resulted undoubtedly
in increasing the efficiency of the Department and bringing about better co-ordination of effort.
The Department is divided into the following branches, each in charge of an official: Live
Stock Branch, Horticultural Branch, Statistical Branch, Plant Pathologist's Branch, Inspection
of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock Branch, and Publications Branch.
In the Live Stock Commissioner's Branch there are the followiug divisions: Soil and Crop,
Poultry, Veterinary, and Dairy, with an official in charge of each division.
The Horticultural Branch has also the following divisions: Markets Commissioner and
Fruit Pest Inspection.
The past year has been a busy one for all officials of the staff, and it gives me pleasure to
report a very satisfactory year of progress. The staff has been considerably depleted owing to
many of the members having joined the Overseas Forces. This has naturally resulted in
materially increasing the duties of those who remain.
The demand for expert advice and departmental literature has increased in a very marked
degree.    The period of real-estate activity and  speculation experienced throughout the West .
during the years 1912 to 1914 had a very demoralizing effect on agriculture.    Farmers, along
with every one else, were imbued with the real-estate mania, and  many of them, instead of E 6 Department of Agriculture. 1916
improving their holdings, were subdividing their farms and selling to speculators. The result
of this is very apparent in the farming lands adjacent to our Cities of Victoria and Vancouver.
Fortunately, this state of affairs has now come to an end, and the turning-point in the tide
has now been reached. Farmers are beginning to realize that the soil is the real foundation of
wealth, and that the future prosperity of this country must rest on the development of its
agricultural resources. Our cities cannot be built up successfully without our first having
effected the settlement of the agricultural districts.
The appeal of " Patriotism and Production," inaugurated by both Federal and Provincial
Governments, has had a very beneficial result, and from the Northern agricultural districts to
those near the International Boundary-line more land is being prepared for crops, better and
heavier crops are being produced, and more and better stock is being kept by farmers. We may
look forward with confidence to a rapid development and exploitation of suitable agricultural
districts in this Province in the immediate future.
" Ageicultural Act, 1915."
The " Agricultural Act, 1915," was declared operative by Order in Council by His Honour
the Lieutenant-Governor on April 26th, 1916. This Act was passed at the 1915 session of the
Provincial Legislature, and under its provisions loans may be made to farmers, on approval of
the Board of Commissioners appointed under the Act, for the legitimate development of their
farms.
Authorization is given under the terms of the Act to the Board of Commissioners to raise
the sum of $15,000,000 for an agricultural credit system. The sum of $1,000,000 has already
been secured, and a Board of Commissioners has been appointed and is now prepared to loan
the money to the farmers.
This legislation of the Provincial Government will do a great deal to encourage and develop
agriculture in the Province of British Columbia. The chief difficulty under which farmers have
laboured in the past has been the impossibility of securing long-term loans at a reasonable rate
of interest for the development and improvement of their holdings and in order to generally
increase the productive capacity of their farms. The operation of this Act will remove this
disability and handicap, and it may confidently be expected that the experience of New Zealand,
Australia, and other countries which have adopted a similar policy will be repeated in this
country, in that agriculture will increase by leaps and bounds.
The experience of the countries mentioned has clearly demonstrated that a system of
Government aid to farmers by way of long-term loans at a reasonable rate of interest, and
managed on strict business principles, will result in largely increasing agricultural production
and in putting the farming industry on a firm and lasting basis of prosperity.
" Agbicultueal Instruction Act."
During the session of the Federal Government in 1912 a Bill was introduced before the
House by the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture. Under the terms of this Act the sum of $10,000,000
was set aside by the Federal Government for the purpose of aiding agriculture in the different
Provinces of the Dominion, the expenditure of this amount to be spread over a period of ten
years from the passing of the Bill. Each Province receives a certain amount of money annually,
to be utilized by the different Departments of Agriculture and Education in certain lines of
educative work agreed upon by the Federal and Provincial Ministers of Agriculture.
The allocation of the yearly grant to the Provinces is based on population, and the amount
which each Province receives increases each year. The money is utilized for strictly educative
purposes.
This progressive policy of the Federal Government has proved of the greatest value and
assistance in encouraging and promoting agriculture in Canada, and farmers universally throughout the Dominion have expressed the highest appreciation of the wisdom and foresight of the
Hon. Martin Burrell, Minister of Agriculture, for the material assistance which has thus been
rendered to the industry of agriculture.
The amounts received by this Province are as follows:—
1912-13  $27,334 76
1913-14    47,334 76
1914-15    52,799 38
1915-16    58,265 94 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 7
By means of this yearly grant our Department of Agriculture has been enabled to materially
extend the scope of its work. Many District Representatives and Instructors have been
appointed in different parts of the Province, and a large amount of demonstration, experimental,
investigational, and research work is now carried on, the expense attached to this work being
paid out of the Federal grant.
The field-crop competitions, both for adults and boys and girls, are carried out by means of
this grant. Demonstration plots have been established and are being operated in all parts of
the Province. Cow-testing Associations have been started. Several horticultural demonstration
stations are operated under the grant, and fertilizing and storage work, co-operative variety
tests, etc., carried out.
Live Stock Branch.
The activities of this Branch of the Department have been largely increased and extended
during the past year, due, no doubt, to the fact that the present tendency amongst farmers is
more towards mixed farming and stock-raising.
The work of the officials of the Live Stock Branch is varied, the greater part of the time
being spent visiting farmers on their places, discussing with them- the problems and difficulties
with which they have to contend, with a view to finding a satisfactory solution of same,
conducting correspondence, allotting and recording brands under the " Brand Act," lecture and
demonstration work in connection with Farmers' Institutes, judging at fall fairs, holding stock-
judging competitions,  etc.
Poultry Division.—The two officials attached to this Division of the Live Stock Branch are
industry in all parts of the Province, to undertake inspection of creameries, supervise the work
of Cow-testing Associations, visit dairymen on their places, undertake Farmers' Institute lecture
aud demonstration work, etc.
Poultry Division.—The two officials attached to this Division of the Live Stock Branch are
actively engaged throughout the year in helping poultrymen to secure the best results. Many
meetings are held by them in poultry districts, and actual demonstrations as well as lectures
given.
The poultry industry is capable of a considerable amount of expansion in this Province, as
is evident by the amount of poultry products imported annually. Poultrymen are advised as to
the proper rations to feed in order to secure the best results, and generally the Instructors' efforts
are directed towards showing poultrymen how, by the adoption of principles of breeding from
selection and carrying on their work along proper lines, they can secure better returns for
themselves.
Soil and Crop Division.—The principal work carried out by the two officials attached to this
Division of the Live Stock Branch is in connection with the field-crop competitions held by our
Farmers' Institutes, boys' and girls' crop and stock competitions, and the operation of farm
demonstration plots.
There were at the end of 1915 twelve demonstration plots in the Province, the extent of each
being approximately 5 acres. These plots are operated under agreement between the owner of
the land and the Department, and are proving very valuable in the districts in which they have
been established, in showing proper methods of soil-culture and crop-rotation, the best varieties
of grains, roots, grasses, etc., to grow in the respective districts.
Naturally, there has been a good deal of experimental work carried out. Valuable information is being secured from these plots.
Seed Selection, and Distribution Work.—In connection with Farmers' Institutes this work
is also carried out by the Soil and Crop Division. During the past year seed to the value of
over $5,€00 was secured by the Department from the best sources and supplied to members of
Farmers' Institutes on their paying the actual price paid by the Department for the seed. The
good effects of this work are very apparent wherever one goes throughout the Province.
The yield of the different crops has been largely increased owing to the encouragement
given by this means to .farmers to sow only the best seeds. The greater part of the seed
distributed is wheat and oats, but large quantities of corn, alfalfa, and mangel seed have also
been distributed to institute members.
Alfalfa Demonstration Plots.—During 1915 the Department was operating nine alfalfa
demonstration plots in the Province, consisting of 1 acre each plot. This work was taken up in
order to demonstrate that this most lucrative crop may be grown to good advantage in many E 8 Department of Agriculture. 1916
parts of the Province hitherto considered unsuitable for it. As a result of the educative work
of the Department in this connection, the acreage devoted to alfalfa has increased many times
over during the past few years, and it is now a staple crop in many districts of the Province,
more especially  those of the  Southern Interior.
Silos.—The Department owns and operates two silo-filling outfits. Several years ago it
was considered advisable to try and get farmers to grow corn and erect silos. After having
proved that corn could be grown successfully a siio campaign was undertaken. The Department
agreed to supervise the erection of a silo in any district where there were none, the plans of
which were supplied by the Department. Later in the year our demonstration outfit, consisting
of a cutter and blower, filled the silo for the owner. The date of filling was advertised amongst
farmers, and there was always a large attendance of interested farmers to see the silo filled.
Six years ago there were probably not ten silos in the Province, while at the end of 1915
there were over 200. During the last year about 100 silos were erected in the dairying districts of
this Province, and credit for this desirable state of affairs must be accorded to the Department
for its educative propaganda.
Officials attached to the 'Soil and Crop Division during the fall and winter months were
busily engaged on Farmers' Institute lecture and demonstration work. The correspondence with
this Division of the Live Stock Branch has also to be attended to, and is very large. With the
change which is plainly evident amongst farmers with regard to the advisability of engaging in
mixed farming and stock-raising, the advice and assistance of this Division is constantly in
demand.
Veterinary Inspection Branch.—During the past year members of the staff of the Veterinary
Division devoted most of their time to testing cattle for bovine tuberculosis. Unfortunately,
owing to the expenditure of the appropriation, it was necessary to stop compulsory testing and
at the same time to dispense with the services of temporary members of the staff.
All dairy herds of the Province should be tested at least once a year, and if this is regularly
done the amount of money needed for compensation will be constantly decreasing, aud in a few
years' time we will be able to say that tuberculosis is to all intents and purposes eradicated
amongst the dairy herds of the Province.
Our Veterinary officials, iu addition to conducting this test, made inspections of all dairj-
premises to see that the provisions of the " Contagious Diseases Act" with regard to cleanliness
were being observed, and in negligent cases the necessary steps were taken by Inspectors to see
that farmers keep their premises in proper condition.
Worlc of District Agriculturists.—Owing to the completion of the line of the Grand Trunk
Pacific and the early completion of the Pacific Great Eastern, there is a great necessity that
District Representatives be appointed in this extensive agricultural country. During 1915 there
were four officials of the Horticultural and Live Stock Branches stationed at the following
places: Prince Rupert, Telkwa, and Prince George. Each of these men had a very large
district to cover. They have done excellent work and covered their districts in an efficient
manner.
We may look forward to a very quick development and rapid settlement of the agricultural
areas in Central British Columbia in the near future.
For more detailed information with regard to the work of the Live Stock Branch I would
refer you to the reports of Live Stock Commissioner W. T. McDonald ; H. Rive and T. A. F.
Wiancko, Dairy Instructors; W. Newton and II. O. English, Soil and Crop Instructors; H. E.
Walker, District Agriculturist, Telkwa; Dr. A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Instructor; J. R. Terry,
Chief Poultry Instructor.
Hobticultubal Branch.
On the death of Mr. Thomas Cunningham, Inspector of Fruit Pests, a reorganization of the
fruit-inspection work was effected, Mr. R. M. Winslow being gazetted in the Provincial Estimates
for 1916-17 as Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, whilst Mr. W. H. Lyne,
who has acted as Mr. Cunningham's Chief Assistant Inspector for the last ten years, was gazetted
as Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, and his duties are the direction and control
of the inspection of our Provincial Fumigation and Inspection Station at Vancouver of all
imported fruit, nursery stock, trees, plants, rice, corn, grain, etc. The quarantine officials at
ports of entry into the Province also are under his direction.  So 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 9
Assistant Horticulturists.—The Assistant Horticulturists act as District Representatives in
the various districts assigned to them, and the greater part of their time is occupied in personal
visits to fruit and vegetable growers, correspondence, and in undertaking demonstration and experimental work in spraying, cultivation, irrigation, thinning, and other cultural orchard practices.
Demonstration Orchards.—Ten demonstration orchards are operated in different fruit
districts. All these orchards have made satisfactory and many of them excellent progress since
they were started, and have proved a very good object-lesson in the various districts as to the
cumulative effect of correct methods of orchard practice from the start.
In the cases of Nanaimo, Shuswap, and Salmon Arm, considerable crops have been produced
iu this, their fifth season. Records of cost have been kept and much valuable data is available
for publication.
Experimental Orchards.—There are also operated six experimental orchards. These were
started in districts which were not considered as suitable tree-fruit districts owing to the low
winter temperatures experienced, with the idea of showing which varieties of fruit were best
adapted to stand severe winter weather.
They have made good progress, though a considerable amount of replanting has been carried
out in the past owing to winter killing. It is now known pretty well which are the varieties
which will stand excesses of temperature, and these varieties are making satisfactory growth.
Southern Okanagan Vegetable Experiment Station.—This station is in charge of Mr. J. L.
Hilborn, of Summerland. Very good work has been accomplished by means of this station. It
has resulted in demonstrating to the people of the Okanagan Valley that the growing of suitable
vegetables along proper commercial lines can be made a sound and remunerative industry.
Financial returns from this station have proved an object-lesson as to what can be accomplished by a man who thoroughly understands his business along this line of work. Tomatoes,
cucumbers, melons, egg-plant, corn, beans, cantaloupes, peppers, and small fruits of various
kinds are grown on the plot as intercrops with the best results.
Demonstration and Experimental Work.—The Department operated various demonstration
and experimental plots throughout the Province, which proved very beneficial in demonstrating
the value of various crops in the different districts and the most advantageous cultural methods.
This work was very encouraging to farmers and much appreciated by them.
The fruit and rhubarb plot at Chilliwack was successful In proving the desirability of
encouraging the commercial small-fruit industry in this district.
The strawberry-plot at Hatzic has been of much value also to growers there.
Much benefit has been derived by growers in the Bella Cools District from the plot there,
which includes fruits, vegetables, and field crops.
The Graham Island plot, started to show the treatment of muskeg soil and the best crops
adapted to such, was much appreciated by the farmers there.
The Terrace demonstration plot is one of the most up-to-date. Valuable experimental work
with all crops except tree-fruit was conducted.    Fertilizer tests were also undertaken.
The Victoria garden-plot, the main object of which is to encourage the city people in the
growing for home consumption of vegetables and small fruits, has attracted much attention and
afforded useful suggestions.
Cultural Experiments.—A considerable amount of experimental, investigational, and research
work was carried on in different parts of the Province, chiefly in spraying practices for tree-fruits
and in fertilizers for small fruits and vegetables.
Pruning-schools.—Our pruning-schools are proving very popular. During the past year
twenty-five schools were held in fruit-growing districts of the Province, the course of tuition
being five days. The demand on the Department for these schools was so great that our
facilities were overtaxed and many applications could not be granted. The result of the
educative work in connection with these pruning-schools carried out during the past few years
is plainly evident in the fruit districts of the Province. Fruit-growers are pruning their trees
along more correct lines and therefore securing better returns.
Institute Meetings.—A large number of institute meetings were held during the year, and it
is pleasing to note that the attendance at them was in a great majority of instances much in
excess of previous years.
Crop Competitions.—These competitions created a great deal of interest, entries were good,
and such competitions must undoubtedly tend to improvement iu cultural methods by fruitgrowers. E 10 Department of Agriculture. 1916
Summer School for Teachers.—In July a summer school in agriculture for public-school
teachers was carried out by the Education Department at Victoria. Practically all of the expert
officials attached to the staff of the Department gave lectures on the different phases of farming.
Judging at Fairs and Flower-shows.—The Horticultural Branch officials were busily engaged
during the fall months judging at our Provincial fairs and at many flower-shows. Departmental
judges were supplied for fifty-three fairs.
Blight-control Work.—The Horticultural Branch continued the administration of blight-
control work in the Boundary, Arrow Lakes, and West Kootenay sections. The work of the
Branch has been very successful in these districts in keeping this serious epidemic under control.
Various other lines of work have been taken up, including variety yields, crop estimates and
records, investigation in careful handling and cold storage, onion storage, etc.
Fruit-packing Schools.—A. very important line of work taken up by the Horticultural Branch
was our fruit-packing school work. A series of eighteen packing-schools was held during the
season, expert Instructors being appointed to all schools. This work is very valuable to the
fruit-grower, resulting in making available a number of fruit-packers for putting up the season's
crop.
Apple-packing contests by pupils of fruit-packing schools were held at various fall fairs
and were keenly contested. The high standard of the British Columbia pack of fruit, which is
universally admitted by Prairie wholesalers and retailers, is undoubtedly due to the work of the
packing-schools which has been carried out by the Horticultural Branch during the last five
years.
Co-operation of Selling Agencies.—Good work has been accomplished during 1915 in bringing
together fruit-growers in different districts along co-operative lines.
Good work has also been accomplished in the Okanagan towards bringing together the
various selling agencies, several meetings being held during the season to arrange matters so
that there might be no unnecessary cutting of prices, one against the other. It is to be hoped
that this co-ordination of effort between different selling agencies may be further advanced. A
sympathetic understanding and co-operation between different selling agencies will undoubtedly
result in great benefit to the individual grower in securing for him a better price for his products.
For more detailed information concerning the work of the Horticultural Branch I would
refer you to report of Provincial Horticulturist R. M. Winslow and the reports of other officials
of this Branch.
Markets Commissioner Division.—Two officials were provided for in this Division in 1915.
J. F. Smith acted as Prairie Markets Commissioner, with office at Calgary, until August, when
he resigned, being succeeded by W. E. McTaggart. R. C. Abbott, as Coast Markets Commissioner,
was stationed at Vancouver.
The Prairie Commissioner accomplished very valuable work in the interests of fruit-growers
in the Prairie Provinces during the past year. Regular reports were sent to all shippers,
informing them as to prices, conditions in which fruit was arriving, and giving advice as to
points to which shipment should be made, and generally regulating the most effective distribution
of fruit.
In addition, an extensive advertising propaganda was undertaken by these officials. The
Dominion Government made a grant of $2,000 to the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association
for advertising purposes. This money was spent to good advantage advertising British Columbia
fruit in the markets of the Middle West and our own Coast market.
Advertising is the key-note of success iu any business, and this applies with equal force to
the fruit industry. British Columbia fruit is now in great favour in the Prairie Provinces, and
by the active campaign carried out by the Markets Commissioner consumers are insisting on
being supplied with fruit grown in British Columbia in preference to imported fruit, thus
encouraging reciprocity in trade and keeping Canadian money within the confines of the
Dominion.
The Coast Markets Commissioner, on the Lower Mainland, has done very effective work in
discouraging the importation into Vancouver of American vegetables and fruits, and the utilization by dealers, instead, of home-grown products. Mr. Abbott has used his best efforts towards
the organization of growers in the Fraser Valley, and with some success. The standardization
of packages has been encouraged by him, and the shipping of fruits and vegetables in better
condition to the market has resulted.    There is room, however, for further improvement in this 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 11
connection, and I have no doubt but that through the energetic work of this official further
progress will be effected during the present year.
Export Trade in Potatoes.
A very large export trade in potatoes took place during the year 1915. The crop in British
Columbia was a large one, and fortunately there was a certain amount of shortage in the States
to the south of us. The embargo imposed some time ago by the United States Government on
potatoes from Canada was removed owing to the good efforts of the Hon. Martin Burrell, Minister
of Agriculture, and potatoes were allowed to be shipped into the United States, provided they
were accompanied hy a certificate of inspection that they were practically free from powdery
scab and other diseases. Several shipments were made to Seattle and Portland, amounting in
all to 24,722 sacks. Export shipments were also made to Suva and a considerable quantity to
Australia. This quantity would have been materially increased had it been possible to obtain
space on the steamers sailing to Australia.
Later in the year a considerable number of shipments were made to Ontario points, and
during the spring of 1916 this business very largely increased. Evaporators established in the
Okanagan Valley and at Grand Forks took several hundred cars. The San Francisco market
also took a large quantity.
In order to build up our export trade it is very important that growers give more attention
to the selection of their seed and to the better grading of the crop. All shipments out of the
Province now undergo careful inspection.
For more detailed information concerning the work of our Markets Commissioners I would
refer you to reports of these officials.
Fruit Inspection'Branch.
The importation of fruit and vegetables into the Province during the year 1915 was very
much lighter than the previous year.    Apples, however, showed 789 boxes in excess of 1914.
The active propaganda carried out by various organizations, having as its object the
consumption of home-grown produce in preference to the imported article, accounts to a large
degree for the very satisfactory showing which is made in the decreased importation of fruits
and vegetables generally into our Coast cities from foreign countries.
The amount of nursery stock, trees, plants, etc., imported into the Province through our
Provincial Fumigation Station at Vancouver also shows a very big decrease over previous years.
This is very largely accounted for by the fact that there has not been much increase during the
past year in the acreage planted to fruit.
Condemnations of infected stock at the Vancouver Inspection Station were heavy, which
plainly shows the necessity for a very rigid system of inspection of all imported stock coming
into this Province. The work has been very capably carried out under the leadership of the
late Thomas Cunningham, Inspector of Fruit Pests, and a great deal of credit is due to him for
the efficient way in which he has safeguarded the Province from infestation of the more serious
pests and diseases which have worked so much havoc in other countries.
Inspection of Potatoes.—The inspection of potatoes for export was undertaken by the Fruit
Inspection Branch of this Department during the fall of 1915, several lots being refused certificates owing to their being infected with Fusarium rot, the disease which was the cause of the
United States Federal Department stopping all further shipments for the time being. The
embargo, however, was removed, and the United States market was open to Canadian shipments,
subject to permits granted to consignees and inspection by our officials.
Quarantine Officers.—The duties of these officials were to inspect all fruit, vegetables, rice,
corn, grain, etc., which came into British Columbia, in conformity with the Horticultural Regulations, and also to see that no nursery stock, trees, plants, etc., passed through their ports of
entry without being forwarded to Vancouver for fumigation or inspection.
Field-work.—Inspection of nurseries and orchards was undertaken throughout the Province.
Nine Government power-sprayers were in operation at different times in different districts,
dealing with various infections, principally codling-moth. During the year there were several
incipient outbreaks of codling-moth infestation at different points in the Okanagan Valley, and
immediate steps were taken to fight this pest before it got too firm a hold, and I am pleased
to report that there have been verj' good results from the work done, and infestation, whilst E 12 Department of Agriculture. 1916
not completely eradicated, has been reduced to a minimum. It will be necessary to carefully
watch the infected areas during 1916, so that this pest may be stamped out once and for all.
This infection undoubtedly has been brought into the Province by means of infected cars.
A system of inspection of foreign cars has been inaugurated, and will be carefully maintained
during the year 1916. It is a vital matter to fruit-growers, and every effort should be made to
try and prevent the codling-moth -becoming established in our Province. Once it becomes widespread its eradication will be impossible, and it will mean an additional cost to growers to cope
with it, thus enhancing the cost of their orchard operations.
There was a slight outbreak of San Jose scale at Spences Bridge, where this insect appeared
several years ago. Immediate action was taken to stamp it out by the destruction of some trees
and the proper spraying of the orchards.
Fire-blight.—Fire-blight again put in an appearance in the Interior districts of Southern
British Columbia, but to a very reduced extent, and the energetic efforts carried out by growers
under the supervision of our Inspectors during the past few years has resulted in this fatal
epidemic being brought under control.
Growers will always have to be on the watch against it, and must realize that it is their
duty to take immediate steps to fight it whenever it puts in an appearance. Our Inspectors are
keeping strict watch on the districts and advising growers how to fight this disease.
The death of Thomas Cunningham, Inspector of Fruit Pests, who has so faithfully and
energetically carried out the duties of his position for the past fifteen years, will be much
regretted by fruit-growers all over the Province and his many friends. Mr. Cunningham did
his duty without fear or favour, and it is largely due to his unceasing vigilance and watchfulness
that the Province is at the present time so comparatively free from the most injurious insects
and diseases.
For further information concerning the work of the Fruit Inspection Branch I would
respectfully refer you to the report of W. H. Lyne, -Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
Plant Pathologist's Branch.
Mr. J. W. Eastham, directs the work of this Branch of the Department. Very valuable
investigation-work has been carried out by Mr. Eastham during the past year, which is of great
benefit to fruit and vegetable growers. Bulletin 6S, entitled " Diseases and Pests of Cultivated
Plants in British Columbia," was prepared by Mr. Eastham during the past year. This is a
very comprehensive bulletin, dealing fully with the different diseases and pests affecting fruits
and vegetables and giving the remedies which should be adopted for their control. Specimens
of different insects and fungi are being mounted in Riker mounts, so that collections may be
exhibited at different centres for the information and guidance of fruit-growers.
Statistical Branch.
Mr. W. J. Bonavia is Statistician of the Department, and is assisted in this work by Mr. A.
B. Tweddle, Assistant Statistician. The very full and comprehensive Annual Statistical Report
published by this Department is compiled by Mr. Tweddle. This official spends the summer and
fall visiting different districts of the Province, and in co-operation with the other officials of this
Department collects figures and data with regard to agricultural production.
Mr. Tweddle also secures from importers in all the cities of the Province full figures covering
importations from other Provinces of the Dominion. I have no hesitation in saying that the
statistical information collected by the Department is as reliable as it is possible to make it, and
possibly collected along better liDes than any other Province of the Dominion.
It is useless to expect to collect statistical information relying on information supplied by
farmers through the mail. The first year statistical information was collected by this Department this method was tried out, and all farmers were supplied with forms asking them to fill
them out and return to the Department.    About 20 per cent, of the farmers responded.
The Live Stock officials during the year collect full figures governing live-stock matters,
and the Assistant Horticulturists do the same regarding horticultural production. Mr. Tweddle
visits leading farmers in all districts of the Province, and by means of these two methods the
Department is put in possession of very complete and full information as to the number of live
stock and the quantity of grain, fruit, and other crops produced in the Province.
The Statistical Bulletin for 1915 is now nearly completed and will be available for distribution before long. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 11
Farmers' Institutes.
Our Farmers' Institutes have again had a very successful year. The movement continues
to grow, and by its means co-operative effort undoubtedly has been very much encouraged in
districts in which institutes are established. The number of institutes incorporated during the
year 1915 has established a record. The total number which received certificates of incorporation under the " Agricultural Associations Act " was twenty-five. Membership also kept up well,
considering the number of institute members who have joined the Overseas Forces for defence
of Empire; the membership for the past year slightly exceeding 1914.
Stumping-powder.—In spite of the rapid increase in the price of stumping-powder, a very
large quantity of institute stumping-powder has been supplied by the Department under the
special arrangement which has now been in force for a considerable number of years. A special
price is quoted by the Canadian Explosives and the Giant Powder Company for institute powder
to be used by members of institutes for purely agricultural purposes. Transportation companies
have also given a special rate, being half the usual rate charged on this commodity.
There were distributed to Farmers' Institutes during the year 1915, 19,054 50-lb. cases of
stumping-powder. This will give an indication as to the amount of land-clearing which is
taking place in the Province.
Pure-bred Sires.—A considerable number of pure-bred sires was supplied to Farmers'
Institutes under the deferred-payment arrangement which we have with institutes.
Seed-oats, etc.—A large quantity of seed-oats, alfalfa, and corn was supplied by the Department to Farmers' Institutes under the special arrangements we have, the Department buying
selected seed in bulk and supplying it in quantities needed by members, who pay in advance the
cost of the seed that they require. This work has undoubtedly resulted in increasing the yield,
and quality of grain grown in institute districts.
Packing-schools and Pruning-schools were again held in connection with each Institute and
have proved very successful and popular.
Lectures and Short Courses.—A very large number of lectures and short courses were held
in connection with our institutes. Departmental officials conducted this educative work, and the
meetings were better attended than any previous year. There was a large demand from
institutes for demonstrations and lectures on mixed farming and stock matters, which shows
that farmers are now realizing that the keeping of stock on the ranch is the basis of all true
agriculture, and that they must develop along mixed-farming lines.
Various other lines of activity were carried out by the Department in connection with our
institutes. For fuller account of institute-work I would refer you to the report of the Secretary
of the Department.
Seed-distribution.—Owing to the scarcity of seed in the spring of 1915, the Provincial
Government, after due consideration of the matter, decided to supply farmers who were unable
to purchase seed for themselves with any quantity needed up to 1,000 lb., the recipients signing
a note for repayment due December 1st, 1915.
Special warrants totalling $22,400 were passed by the Executive Council, and arrangements
made by the Department for the purchase of ten car-loads of seed-grain. It was arranged that
the Government Agents at six points in the Province distribute the seed and arrange for
collections, whilst one car was distributed by District Agriculturist H. E. Walker at Telkwa.
Seed was only supplied to those actually engaged in agriculture and for seed purposes only. A
certain quantity of seed-potatoes wras distributed to ranchers in necessitous circumstances. Report
of W. J. Bonavia will give you detailed information concerning the distribution of this seed.
Pound Districts.—During the past year several new districts were constituted pound
districts. A considerable number of requests come into the Department asking that pound
districts be established, but it is necessary that the greatest discretion be exercised in granting
these requests. In many cases the formation of a pound district seriously interferes with the
ranging of stock on vacant Government lands.
Women's Institutes.
It gives me pleasure to report that our Women's Institute movement is increasing at a very
rapid rate.
Conferences.—Four district conferences of Women's Institutes were held during the past
year.    All Women's Institutes sent delegates to these conferences, the transportation of delegates E 14 Department of Agriculture. 1916
being paid by the Department, but all other expenses being paid by delegates themselves. The
conferences themselves were most successful, and meetings of this nature undoubtedly tend
towards consolidating the Women's Institute movement and encouraging a closer co-operation
and unity of purpose between different institutes.
Short Courses in home-nursing, first aid to the injured, care of children, etc., were held in
connection with all institutes, these courses being of three days' duration at each place. The
greatest appreciation was expressed by all institutes with regard to this work of the Department.
Advisory Board.—This Board acts in an advisory capacity to the Department in connection
with Women's Institute matters. A great deal of credit is due to this Board for their good,
efforts in connection with Women's Institute work. The members from time to time visit
institutes in their respective districts, and by means of these visits encourage a closer co-operation between different institutes and thereby keep up interest in the work.
The report of the Secretary of the Department will give further detailed information
concerning the work of Women's Institutes.
Conventions.
Very successful conventions were held during February, 1916. The Central Convention of
Farmers' Institutes was held during this month, practically all institutes in the Province sending
a delegate. It was a good live meeting and the most successful that has ever been held. This
Convention constitutes, as it were, a Parliament of the farmers of British Columbia, and many
questions- were discussed at the Convention, and resolutions submitted for the attention of the
Provincial Government.
One good feature of the last Convention held was the fact that more careful consideration
was given by those present to resolutions submitted, and none were passed without being well
considered.    The interest taken in the Convention was great, and the debates very keen.
Successful meetings were also held by the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association,
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association, British Columbia Dairymen's Association, British
Columbia Poultry Association, and the British Columbia Entomological Society. The attendance
at all of these meetings were good and the interest well maintained.
Exhibition and Publicity Woek.
It was decided by the Government at the 1915 session of the Provincial Legislature that
owing to present conditions all expenditures in connection with exhibition and publicity work
should be deleted. No exhibits, therefore, were made at the principal fairs in the Prairie
Provinces, Eastern Canada, and the United States, as has heretofore been the custom. The
Department had a large quantity of bottled fruits put up by a new process, and distribution
of part of this fruit has been made to the Canadian Pacific Railway, Canadian Northern Railway, and Grand Trunk Pacific Railway for exhibition at their stations, hotels, and offices, in
the other Provinces of Canada, and in the United States.
The distribution of this fruit by this means undoubtedly will attract attention to the
Province, and is a very effective means of securing publicity at a trifling cost.
" Conclusion.
In conclusion, I would like to express my appreciation of the energetic and capable way in
which the officials attached to the various branches of this Department have carried out the
duties assigned to them.
I would also like to take this occasion of tendering the thanks of the Department of Agriculture to the Canadian Pacific Railway, Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway, Grand Trunk Pacific
Railway, Canadian Northern Railway, Pacific Great Eastern Railway, Kettle Valley Railway,
and the Dominion Express Co. for the many courtesies rendered and the material assistance
accorded to the Department. This sympathetic co-operation in our work by these transportation
companies is much appreciated and has enabled us to further extend our educational activities.
I trust, sir, that under your direction the usefulness of this Department to the farmers of
our Province may still further increase, and that we may witness in the near future a rapid
increase in land settlement and agricultural production, so that our agricultural industry may
become, as it is destined to be, the first industry of this Province.
I have, etc.
Wm. E. Scott, Deputy Minister. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 15
ANNUAL REPORT OF SECRETARY AND STATISTICIAN.
W.   J.   BONAVIA.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sie,—I have the honour to submit my report on the general work of the Department during
the year 1915.
Staff.
The Estimates for the fiscal year ending March 31st provided for forty-eight permanent
officials of all ranks, the total number being the same as for the previous year. The following
appointments, however, were again not filled: One Assistant Horticulturist, one Vegetable
Expert, and one Cold-storage and Precooling Investigator.
No permanent officials were appointed by Order in Council to fill vacancies during the year,
the following gentlemen being still carried temporarily on the estimates:—
Date of Joining.
G. S. Rothwell, Clerk April 14th, 1914.
J. W. Eastham, Plant Pathologist      „     30th,     „
S. IL Hopkins, Assistant Live Stock Commissioner  June     1st,     ,,
Resignations during the year have been as follows:—
J. F. Smith, Prairie Fruit Markets Commissioner.
J. C. Readey, Soil and Crop Instructor.
The total number of permanent and temporary officials of the Department who have left
for active service since the commencement of the war in Europe in 1914 is as follows:—
A. S. Paul, Junior Clerk.
E. Casey, Junior Clerk.
N. S. Payne, Clerk.
M. L. Bird, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
B. Shipton, Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
Temporary Staff.—The total number of appointments of temporary officials during the twelve
months ended Decemher 31st, 1915, reached the very large number of 102, as compared with a
total of sixty-four in 1914.
Quite a number of these appointments were made possible through the operation of the
various sections of the " Agricultural Instruction Act," the appointments covering such as Foul-
brood Inspectors, Cow-testers, Caretakers of Demonstration Plots, Assistant Horticulturists,
Assistant Soil and Crop Instructor, and an Assistant Agriculturist. (For list of appointments
see Appendix No. 1.)
Correspondence.
The total number of letters received during the year 1915 was 24,523, as against a total of
21,242 received in 1914, being an increase of 15.4 per cent. The letters outward totalled 23,412,
as against a total of 21,678 in 1914, being an increase of 8 per cent.
Most of the branches and divisions of the Department show a substantial increase both in
letters received and sent out. The most noticeable increase was that of the correspondence of
the Soil and Crop Division and in the correspondence grouped under " General," being that of the
Deputy Minister's office.     (See Appendix No. 2.)
Cibculab Lettebs.
There has been a very large increase in the number of circular letters sent out from the
Department during the past year, the total number being 92,372, as against 63,090 in the previous
year, an increase of 46.4 per cent. The majority of these circular letters have been issued on
the Roneo duplicating machine, the multigraph machine not having been used much this year
owing to the absence at the front of the operator.
At times the clerical staff has been very hard pressed owing to the necessity of getting
circular letters out promptly.
With reference to the attached table showing the details for the past two years, attention
is drawn to the phenomenal increase in the number of subjects and number of circular letters
sent out to Farmers' Institutes, and also in the Horticultural Branch (general subjects). (See
Appendix No. 3.) E 16 Department of Agriculture. 1916
Publication issued by Department during the Year.
The past year has been one of extraordinary activity in the issue of not only new matter,
but revised editions of standard bulletins of instruction. No less than 197,425 copies of various
bulletins and circulars were published during the twelve months, or an increase of 67.8 per cent,
over 1914.
All sections of departmental work have been well represented, especially in those phases
which deal with live stock and mixed farming.
A departure of unusual interest has been the commencement of a quarterly magazine in the
interests of Women's Institutes, the first number of 3,300 copies being issued in October. The
venture met with marked success and it is hoped that the quarterly has started on a long career
of usefulness.    (See Appendix No. 4.)
Bulletins and Circulars distributed dueing the Year.
The number of bulletins and circulars distributed during the year totalled 98,040, as compared with a total of 122,715 distributed during 1914. The majority of these bulletins and
circulars were despatched by mail, but quite a large number are distributed to callers in the
Department. Owing to the withdrawal of free mailing privileges on the majority of departmental publications by the Ottawa Post Office authorities, it has been found necessary to revise
the system of distribution of literature to Farmers' Institutes, and, with the exception of certain
special circulars, Secretaries of institutes are now furnished with parcels and required to distribute same at meetings or otherwise to their respective members.    (See Appendix No. 5.)
Financial.
Owing to the necessity for economy in Provincial expenditure, the total amount of departmental appropriations for the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1916, was-reduced to $301,428, as
against $388,088 in 1914, the chief differences being in the votes for Agricultural Associations,
exhibition and publicity work, and compensation to owners of cattle slaughtered for tuberculosis.
Appendix No. 6 shows the various votes grouped under certain heads and compared with
similar sections in 1913-14 and 1914-15.
In accordance with instructions the administration of the majority of the votes has beeu
strictly curtailed, there being substantial balances at the close of the calendar year, the one
notable exception being the vote for compensation to owners of cattle slaughtered for tuberculosis, which, in spite of certain credits received, was quite exhausted with a number of
unsatisfied claims for compensation still on hand.
" Agricultural Instruction Act, 1915-16."
The grants received under the Act for 1915-16 were arranged, after consultation with Dr.
C. C. James, Dominion Agricultural Commissioner, under a number of subheads, which gave
rather more latitude to the Department in the expenditure of the various moneys. The details
of the sections are shown in Appendix No. 7.
" Agricultural Aid Act, 1912."
At the close of 1915 a few small balances remained in the various sections of this Act, the
total amounting to $126.90.
" Agricultural Instruction Act, 1913-14."
During the year permission was received from Ottawa to close the various small balances
existing in the different sections and to bring forward as a credit to the 1914-15 Act.
" Agricultural Instruction Act, 1914-15."
The various sections of this Act are now almost exhausted, the credit at the close of the
year being $1,737.06.
Vouchers.
Coupled with the growth of the staff and the activities of the Department, the growth of
the financial work has been continuous, the number of temporary appointments under the various
Agricultural Instruction Acts helping to increase the total materially. .. a
%
S
2
a
s 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 17
The total number of vouchers handled during the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1915 (these
being the last complete figures available), was 4,710, as against 3,671 for the corresponding
period of the previous year, this being an increase of 31.6 per cent. The table included in the
Appendix will show the details.    (See Appendices Nos. 8 and 9.)
Card-index Record.
I have long felt that a record of the individual cost of each officer should be kept in the
Department, details of which should be readily available, not only that a check might be kept
on the net cost of an official, but also as a comparison amongst officials of similar grades.
Accordingly, an individual card-index record has been commenced, which entails a large mass
of detailed work and which goes back as far as the year 1911, and same will shortly be brought
right up to date.
Oeders in Council affecting the Agricultural Department.
In pursuance of the Government scheme to aid settlers hy advancing seed-grain, special
warrants were passed as follows :—
March 29th, 1915     $20,000 00
May 23th, „           2,400 00
Orders were also passed by the Executive relating to variations of the " Animals Act, 1911,"
in the valley of the Pend d'Oreille River and also in the Bear Creek Range, opposite Kelowna,
whilst a loan of $3,200 to the newly organized Salmon Arm Creamery Association was passed on
May 18th. There were also a number of other orders re the constitution of pound districts,
amendment to regulations re quarantine of bees, and also re the issue of new regulations for
the Provincial Board of Horticulture.
Farmers' Institutes.
The number of institutes incorporated at the close of the year was 136, being an increase of
twenty-five over the number organized at the close of 1914.
The number of new incorporations creates a record in the history of institutes. As will be
seen from the attached list, a large number of these new organizations have been established
along the line of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, following increased settlement in central
portions of this Province:—
Lake District  Jan.      7th.
Kispiox        „       20th.
Harrop and District      ,,      29th.
Kitimat        „       29th.
Nass Valley      „      29th.
Eagle Bay    Feb.    16th.
Powell River      „      16th.
Upper  Skeena       „      20th.
McBride  March 17th.
Cariboo        ,.       isth.
Francois Lake      „       23rd.
Fort Fraser   ,       23rd.
Eaglet Lake April    Sth.
Newgate and District   ,      10th.
Fort George     „      17th.
North Bend and Keefer ,      17th.
Jaffray     „      30th.
Denman Island  May   28th.
Wheeler Mountain   June    2nd.
Sunnyside      n        gth.
Dome Creek   18th.
Columbia Valley  July   28th.
Squamish Nov.     4th.
Nechako  '.    n      12th.
Willow Point     n      12th.
3 E 18 . Department of Agriculture. 1916
The membership totalled 8,415, as against S,353 in the previous year. Taking into consideration the large number of men from the agricultural communities who have gone to the
front with various battalions or moved out of the Province to other parts of the Dominion, the
membership is taken as being satisfactory, although it does not show the increase which had
been anticipated early in the year.
Growth of Institutes, 1910-15.
No. formed. Membership.
1910    49 5,226
1911    62 6,070
1912    77 6,895
1913           92 8,144
1914   '.        Ill 8,353
1915         136 8,415
(See also Appendix: No. 10.)
Short Courses and Spring Meetings.—Following the circularizing of institutes re the wishes
of members regarding subjects to be taken up, an itinerary was arranged which included thirty-
nine institutes, meetings being held at forty-six points.
At many of the points a two-day course was held with very satisfactory results, the reports
of attendances showing a higher average than had been noted for some years previous.    No
lecturers outside the Department were engaged, with the exception of Mr. W. Paterson, of the
Cowichan Creamery, who gave a talk on " Co-operative Effort" at Agassiz.
The other lecturers, with the subjects taken, were as follows:—
B. Hoy, Assistant Horticulturist   Horticulture.
M. S. Middleton, Assistant Horticulturist Horticulture.
P. E. French, Assistant Horticulturist  Horticulture.
W. H. Robertson, Assistant Horticulturist   Horticulture.
H. Thornber, Assistant Horticulturist   Gardening.
R. C. Abbott, Markets Commissioner  Marketing.
H. Rive, Dairy Instructor and Inspector Dairying.
T. A. F. Wiancko, Assistant Dairy Instructor and
Inspector    Dairy Demonstrations ; Mixed Farming.
S. H. Hopkins, Asst. Live Stock Commissioner. . Live Stock; Feeds; Judging Live Stock.
J. C. Readey, Soil and Crop Instructor  Seed-growing; Seed-judging; Forage-
crops.
W. Newton, Soil and Crop Instructor Forage-crops; Soils and Crops.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Instructor   Poultry; and Demonstration.
H. E. Upton, Poultry Instructor  Poultry Demonstrations.
Dr. A. Knight, Veterinary Inspector Cow Troubles; Cattle and Sheep.
Itinerary.—The places at which these meetings were held being as follows :—
Armstrong. Grand Forks  (Board of Trade Hall).'
Agassiz  (I.O.G.T. Hall). Ganges.
Aldergrove (Orange Hall). Glenlily (School).
Alberni  (Court-house). Greenwood  (Agricultural Building).
Burton. Grey's Creek.
Central Park  (Agricultural Hall). Haney.
Cloverdale. Heffley Creek.
Columbia Gardens. Hope Bay.
Cranbrook. Kaleden  (Orange Hall).
Crawford Bay (Hall). Ladysmith.
Creston  (Auditorium). Lytton  (Theatre).
East Arrow Park  (Town Hall). Mara.
Edgewood. Marysville  (Central Hall).
Enderby. Nakusp.
Fruitvale. New Denver  (Brown's Hall). 6 Geo, 5 British Columbia. E 19
North Oyster. South Oyster.
Passmore. South Saltspring.
Procter (Gallup's Hall). South Slocan.
Robson. Summerland (Men's Club).
Rosehill  (Beresford School). Tappen.
Rossland  (Old City Hall). Vernon  (Court-house).
Saanich  (Dean Bros.' Farm). Westbank (School).
Salmon Arm  (Exchange). Waneta  (Duncan's Ranch).
Supplementary Itinerary.-^-Qvivag to a number of applications for meetings having come in
from institutes that could not be filled in the first itinerary, a supplementary itinerary was
arranged to be held in May and June, as follows:—
Arrow Park. Mount Olie.
Arrow Lakes. Nanaimo.
Barriere. Nicola.
Burton. Revelstoke.
Eagle River. Silver Creek.
Fire Valley. Shirley District.
Lumby.
The lectures were given by staff officials and included milk-testing, dairy buildings, live-stock
-demonstrations, killing and dressing of poultry, poultry-keeping, fodder-crops,  soil-cultivation,
and land-clearing.    The lectures on land-clearing were given by Mr. F. Mitchell, of Golden, and
were much appreciated in the districts where given.
Field-crop Competitions.—These competitions have now become firmly established as an
annual event in the life of our institutes, and the interest created can be gauged when it is
stated that sixty-three institutes entered for these competitions, with total entries as follows:—
Potatoes      50  entries.
Oats     16
Carrots      8
Mangels        7
Corn        4
Kale        4
Wheat     4
Alfalfa        4
Oat hay      3
Turnips        1
Total      101
The rules and regulations were practically similar to those of previous years, emphasis being
laid on the fact that fields or plots entered for the competitions must toe clearly defined and
marked with stakes, or otherwise, in advance of the visit of the judge.
The prize-money was reduced slightly as follows: A total of $45 in cash for each kind of
crop: First, $20; second, $15; and third, $10; the institute toeing entitled to a grant of $30
when competition was arranged for one kind of crop, or $60 when two crops were entered.
Announcement was also made of Provincial seed fairs to be held at New Westminster and
Armstrong in January, 1916, a generous prize-list being arranged. The total amount paid iu
prize-money to institutes in connection with these competitions was $3,465. (For full report see
Soil and Crop Division Report.)
Boys' and Girls' Potato Competitions.—Arrangements were again made for the holding of
boys' and girls' competitions in potato-growing in connection with Farmers' Institutes. The
rules and regulations were varied slightly, a less elaborate crop and financial statement being
required from competitors.
The final figures were as follows: 138 entries, with cash prizes awarded to the value of $61,
whilst ribbon badges were awarded to all competitors, and about eighty received a copy of the
Dominion publication on " Forage-crops." Two Provincial prizes wrere awarded to the leading
entries in the boys' and girls' competitions, consisting of a calf in each case. E 20
Department of Agriculture.
1916
Fairs held hy Institutes,—During the past year a number of Farmers' Institutes held local
agricultural fairs in districts where there jvere no organized Agricultural Associations, as.
follows:—
Nitinat Farmers' Institute  Aug. 24th.
Seymour Arm Farmers' Institute   Sept.   6th.
Ladysmith Farmers' Institute      „    29th.
Eagle River Farmers' Institute  Oct.    Sth.
Rock Creek Farmers' Institute      „    22nd.
Department judges attended at all these fairs and their reports show that in practically all
cases arrangements were excellent, with good entries of fruit and vegetables. The enterprise
and energy of the Directors of these institutes are to be commended, as no Department grant in
aid of prize-list was awarded in these cases owing to their not being incorporated as Agricultural Associations.
Stumping-powder, Fuse, and Caps supplied to Farmers' Institutes.—The number of institutes
availing themselves of the Department's offer to obtain supplies of stumping-powder, fuse, and.
caps on consignment terms were as follows:—
Alberni. Kitsumgallum.
Arrow and Slocan Lakes. Kootenay River.
Burton City. Lumby.
Barriere. Matsqui.
Bulkley Valley. Mission.
Chilliwack. Mount Olie.
Comox. Nechako.
Crawford Bay. Needles.
Creston. North Okanagan.
Celista. Pender Island.
Evergreen. Revelstoke.
Fire Valley. Salmon Arm.
Glenside. Silver Creek.
Golden. South Kootenay.
Graham Island. Spallumcheen.
Graham Island, East Coast. Surrey.
Islands. Ucluelet.
Kent. Windermere.
The total quantities of powder, fuse, and caps supplied by the Giant Powder Co., Conn., and:
the Canadian Explosives, Ltd., were as follows:—
Canadian Explosives, Ltd.—
To individual members    9,074 cases.
Consignment orders     4,250       „
13,324 cases.
Cases of fuse (all kinds)          52
Cases of detonators (all kinds)           36
Giant Powder Co.—
Consignment and individual members     1,730  cases.
1,730 cases.
Cases of fuse        10
Cases of detonators          12
Total cases of powder     15,054 cases.
The following advances have been noted in the price of the stumping-powder supplied to-
institutes, due to increased demand for raw materials:—
Feb. 17th     $11.20 per 100 lb.
Oct. 1st        12.70    „
Dec.  3rd        13.00     „ 6 Geo. .5 British Columbia. E 21
Pure-bred Sires supplied to Farmers' Institutes.—Although the scheme organized by the
Department in 1913, whereby institutes had the privilege of securing pure-bred stock for the
use of members upon deferred payments, has not been taken up to the fullest extent, yet there
has been quite a number of applications for new animals, whilst payments on stock supplied in
the past years have been regularly made.
The following have been secured during 1915 :—
Chilliwack  1 Jersey bull.
Bulkley Valley    1 Shorthorn bull.
Baynes District    1 Hereford bull.
_, _ , fl Shropshire ram.
Cortes Island  I    ^T
)1 Yorkshire boar.
Kootenay Lake   1 Jersey bull.
Nechako  1 Shorthorn bull.
South Kootenay    1 Ayrshire hull.
Patriotic Fund.—Following the splendid success of the Patriotic Fund raised by Farmers'
and Women's Institutes in 1914, when a total of over $4,000 was remitted to His Majesty's
Government, subscriptions were kept open, the following sums being raised and forwarded:—
The National Committee for Relief in Belgium  £103 9s. 5d.
The National Committee for Relief in Belgium   $597 90
Originally received as Machine-gun Fund, but handed over with consent
of institutes to the Prisoners of War Fund   $433 S7
Considering the large number of wage-earners who have left the Province and the many
demands by Red Cross and Patriotic Societies, the response of farmers to the Department's
appeal has been very satisfactory.    (For further details see Appendix No. 10a.)
Silo-filling Demonstrations.— (See report of Soil and Crop Division.)
Packing-schools aud Pruning-schools.— (See detailed report of Horticultural Branch.)
Supply of Seed-oats, Alfalfa,  Corn,  etc.,  to Farmers' Institutes.—The Department again
undertook the supply to institutes of registered seed for co-operative tests and also for general
seeding.    This work of the Department was highly appreciated, the total quantities sent out
under the above scheme being as follows:    560 parcels of alfalfa-seed; 528 parcels of corn-seed.
Expenditure in Aid of Farmers' Institutes.—Owing to the  diminution  in  all  Provincial
expenditure during the past year, the net cost of each institute has dropped considerably in spite
of the fact that twenty-five new institutes were organized during the year.
For 1915 the net average cost per institute to the Department worked out at $77.31, as
against $145.75 for 1914, the chief difference lying in the fact that there was no annual convention
in the spring, and also that the itineraries of lectures in connection with short courses and spring
meetings were shorter and undertaken by staff officials, practically no outside help being requisitioned. (For statement showing expenditure in aid of Farmers' Institutes see Appendix No. 11.)
Seed Advance to Settlers, 1915.—Following recommendations made to the Government that
there were a number of agriculturists throughout the Province who were unable to purchase seed
owing to bad financial conditions, special warrants for $22,400 were passed by the Executive
Council and arrangements for the purchase of ten car-loads of seed grain were made.
Arrangements were made for Government Agents at six different points in the Province to
handle the seed, whilst a northern car was distributed by Mr. II. E. Walker, District Agriculturist
at Telkwa. Seed was supplied only to those actually engaged in agriculture and for seed
purposes only, settlement by note maturing December 1st, without Interest, being required. The
total amount of seed supplied to any one person did not exceed 1,0C0 lb. The total cost was as
follows:—
Ten car-loads of grain    $18,626 03
Freight     2,386 90
Handling       1,031 65
Sundry expenses  356 76
Total     $22,401 34
During the distribution of grain it was found that a number of settlers were in urgent need
of seed-potatoes, and accordingly a certain amount of this seed was distributed, to the extent of E 22 Department of Agriculture. 1916
S2,3S5 lb., at a total cost, including freight, of $1,212.27.    The attached table shows the details
of the distribution:—
74,3S5 lb. potatoes    $1,006 97
4 tons potatoes         100 74
Freight           104 56
Total      $1,212 27
The total refunds from promissory notes taken up by the close of the year 1915 amounted
to $7,786.15.    (For statement of seed-grain distribution see Appendix No. 12.)
Pound District.
The " Pound District Act" of 1912 was amended at the 1915 session of the Provincial
Legislature, the chief alterations being in the powers given to the pound-keeper with regard to
estrays, the cancellation of the clause which required the reappointment of pound-keepers after
twelve months', service, and certain minor alterations in the scale of fees.
The correspondence entailed in this section is now quite a considerable one, both with regard
to the formation of new pound districts and also with regard to the operation of the Act.
During the year the following new districts were constituted:—
Creston    June   20th.
Newtonia       .,      30th.
Golden   July     3rd.
Burton   Sept.     7th.
The following were under consideration at the close of the year: Squamish, West Fernie,
Willow Point, and K.L.O. Bench.
All pound-keepers of existing, pound districts were supplied with a new pound district
register which had been prepared at the close of the year 1914, and everything is now in good
working-order with regard to the Act. Appendix No. 13 shows certain details made up from
pound-keepers' returns respecting number of animals empounded, fees received, etc., during the
year.
Beitish Columbia Students.
The number of British Columbia students attending Agricultural Colleges in the Dominion,
to whom the Department grant of $50 per term is paid, decreased considerably during the past
year, the total number being twenty-two, as against thirty-two in 1914. The following table
shows the attendances at the various colleges :—
Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph— 1914.        1915.
First-year students     10 3
Second-year     „             7 7
Third-year       „             5 3
Fourth-year     „             4 2
Macdonald Institute     1 3
Manitoba Agricultural College     5 4
Totals   32 22
Horticultural Inspection-woek and Licences.
Provincial appropriations for inspection-work were very materially cut down in the
Estimates for 1915-16, the total for inspection of nursery stock, suppression of diseases, and
demonstration spraying being $30,500, as against $50,000 in the preceding fiscal year.
A total of twelve District Inspectors of Fruit Pests were temporarily appointed during the
season, although not all of these were at work at the same time, the maximum at any one time
being about eight.. Mr. L. L. Palmer, formerly Horticulturist with the Coldstream Estate Co.,
Ltd., was appointed as Special Assistant in the Okanagan Valley with charge over the District
Inspectors in connection with the suppression of fruit-diseases, etc.
Only one meeting of the Board of Horticulture was held during the year, this being on June
29th and 30th at Victoria. A number of interesting matters were discussed and decided upon,
such as the revision and publication of horticultural regulations and the decision not to vary
the requiring of a guarantee company's bond from nurserymen. 6 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
E 23
There has been a further drop in the number of horticultural licences issued to companies
and their agents in the Province, the total number being forty-six, as against a total of sixty-nine
in the previous year. Owing to depressed conditions in the nursery business, five firms failed
to renew their bonds and their licences were accordingly cancelled.
The following details show the steady decline in the issue of licences since 1912:—
Licences.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1915.
Licences issued to British Columbia nurserymen and their agents....
Licences issued to foreign nurserymen and their agents	
70
25
47
17
50
19
34
12
Several cases have been investigated where nurserymen were reported as having nursery
stock for sale without a proper bond. Upon investigation by the Provincial police, in practically
all cases the reports were found to be groundless and no prosecutions were necessary.
Inspectors at Ports of Entry.—During the year Mr. M. L. Bird, staff official stationed at
Prince Rupert, resigned to enlist for active service, his place being temporarily filled by Mr. E.
A. Sinclair; whilst a new inspection-station has been arranged for at Powell River, Mr. G. E.
McFall being appointed. There have been no changes at the other seventeen ports of entry.
(For table of inspection fees, etc., made up to the end of each fiscal year see Appendix No. 14.
For fuller details see Mr. Thomas Cunningham's report.)
Women's Institutes.
At the close of the year 1915 there were fifty-six institutes incorporated, being an increase
of eight during the year, as follows :—
Mount Ida Jan.        7th.
Naramata   Feb.     25th.
West Saanich March 17th.
Kelowna    May     22nd.
Rutland  June     2nd.
Parksville   Aug.     12th.
Haney    Oct.      27th.
Creston    Nov.       4th.
The membership at the end of the year stood at the record figure of 2,994, as against 2,857
in 1914. The increase is satisfactory under the conditions prevailing in the Province during the
year.    There are now six institutes with a membership of over 100, as follows:—
Kelowna      133
Kaslo      US
Cowichan   113
Shawnigan Lake   112
West Summerland   107
Cranbrook      103
Practically every institute has made satisfactory progress during the year, the average
membership of an institute for the whole Province standing at the excellent figure of fifty-three,
the same as in 1913.
Year.
Number of
Institutes.
Number of
Members.
Average
per
Institute
1910   	
17
23
29
35
48
56
545
974
1,336
1,905
2,857
2,994
32.1
1911    	
42.3
1912	
46.1
1913	
1914	
1915  	
54.4
59.5
53.5 E 24 Department of Agriculture. 1916
Financial.—The Estimates for the fiscal year 1916 set aside the sum of $5,000 in aid of
Women's Institutes. Owing to the steady growth of the work, however, this sum was found
entirely inadequate, the vote being exhausted in the fall of the year, expenditures having to be
met from certain sections of the " Agricultural Instruction Act."
The actual total expenditure on Women's Institute work during the calendar year ending
December 31st was $8,217.21, as against a total of $12,152.08 for a similar period in 1914.
Appendix No. 15 will show the broad details of expenditure, the average cost of an institute
to the Department working out at $146.74, as against $253.17 in the previous year; this difference
being chiefly due to the small sum paid to lecturers in connection with fees and expenses in 1915.
and also to the fact that an expensive publication entitled " Women's Institute Hand-book,"
costing in the neighbourhood of $2,000 was charged against the vote in 1914.
Advisory Board.—At the commencement of the year there were two vacancies on the
Advisory Board owing to the death in 1914 of Mrs. J. F. Kilby and the continued absence in
England of Mrs. A. Watt, the first Secretary of the Board. These vacancies were filled by the
appointment of Miss Alice Ravenhill, of Shawnigan Lake, as member for Vancouver Island, and
by Mrs. V. H. Johnstone as member for the Kootenay District. Only one meeting of the Board
was held in Victoria on May 13th, 1915.
Conferences.—In accordance with the arrangements made by the Advisory Board under the
sanction of the Hon. the Minister, four conferences were held during the year at the following
points :—
Lower Mainland, at Chilliwack   Aug. 19th and 20th.
Kootenay and Boundary, at Nelson  Sept.     1st and 2nd.
Okanagan and Similkameen, at Salmon Arm     „        7th and Sth.
Vancouver Island, at Victoria     „        7th and Sth.
Lectures and Demonstrators.—In the early part of 1915 the 1914 itinerary of lectures was
brought to a conclusion, Miss A. M. Taylor having lectured on " Dressmaking" and Miss B.
Livingstone on " Cookery." The itinerary of the latter lady was prolonged in the Upper Country
in order that she might be instrumental in organizing new institutes at Rutland and Kelowna.
In the fall of the year itineraries were arranged for three ladies, who gave practically
identical lectures ou " Nursing," the whole of the institutes being covered. The syllabus
included the following:—
(1.)  Prevention of Sickness. (4.)  First Aid in Small Accidents.
(2.)  The care of the Patient. (5.)   Serious Emergencies.
(3.)  Practical Nursing. (6.)  Maternity.
The lecturers were Miss Fanny Steed, Miss E. H. Jones, and Miss Mary J. Kennedy.
The reports that were received from institutes have been uniform in their praise of the
action of the Department in sending such excellent lecturers and also in the choice of subjects.
At practically all points the attendances were excellent and interest keen.
Competitions.—The Department again organized a series of competitions based upon recommendations of the Advisory Board, as follows:—
. Competition No. 1.—Prizes for institutes having the best average attendance at meetings
during the year, based on membership as returned to the Department on the list dated June 30th,
1915.    Books to form the nucleus of a library to the value of :  First prize, $30; second prize, $15.
Competition No. 2.—Prizes for institutes having the best programme for 1915.    Books to
form the nucleus of a library to the value of:    First prize, $20; second prize, $10.
Competition  No.  8.—Prizes  for  the  best  papers  by  institute  members   of the  following
specified subjects:    First prize, $10; second prize, $5 each.
(a.) How to organize Hot Lunches in the Schools.
(b.) Women's Responsibilities to the Empire,
(c.)  The development of Home Industries in British Columbia.
(d.) The Possible Influence of Women's Institutes on the Life of the Province.
Competition No. J/.—For junior members.    Prizes for the best papers submitted by junior
members on the following specified subjects:    First prize; second prize.    (Nature of award to
be determined later.)
(a.)  Our Share in Institute-work.
(b.) A Daughter's Duty in the Home. «vm
',    :
,«|g'    -->-'- 'r/rr fr:.:;:\. ■...:;■,.■■;-:..■ t^  '.««-./,;::;;■,-;,;  , fi'w
4H
;..   -,-:-..      ;. /.   -;,   ;*  *,
4i&2
-/ ■;
'■'»
'A
'ifllfijui'^i'i «s'"'Y>JpJ
•A
«^%>i ■■& ;f£tfr .if-  6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 25
Conditions.—The length of the essays should not exceed 2,000 words, and an average of
1,500 would be preferable.
The programmes will be judged chiefly with a view to the merit of their arrangement and
subjects of discussion for the year, although due allowance will be given for general get-up and
style.
Institute Badges.—Requests for institute badges have not been equal to that in previous
years owing to the fact that practically every member of an institute is now supplied with one.
The following details show the number supplied:—
Quarter ended March 31st, 1915       45
June 30th, 1915      89
Sept. 30th, 1915     110
Dec. Slst, 1915   79
Total    323
General.—There have been no special bulletins issued in connection with Women's Institute
work during the year beyond the annual report for 1914, of which an edition of 4,000 copies was
issued. A new departure also was the issue of the first number of the Women's Institute
Quarterly in October. This modest journal, it is hoped, will tend towards a more effective
<;o-operation and sympathy between institutes and also prove a means of instruction in matters
relative to women's welfare.
As showing the continued increase in this branch of departmental work, the letters received
totalled 1,130, as against 9S4 in 1914, and the letters dispatched 1,076, as against 784 in 1914;
whilst 29 circular letters on various subjects, with a total issue of 3,355, were sent out, as against
21 letters, with a total of 1,830, in 1914.
In response to a number of queries received from institutes, a circular letter was issued on
June 9th relative to the election of officers at annual meetings and the necessity of keeping
strictly to the instructions laid down in clause 14 of the Rules and Regulations, which requires:
" Directors from among themselves to elect a President, a Secretary and a Treasurer, etc." A
great many institutes have not kept strictly to this ruling, which is one which appears to give
dissatisfaction to many members who prefer to elect their officers in open meeting.
Bee-inspection Work.
Following procedure in the past few years, Messrs. W. J. Sheppard, of Nelson; L. Harris,
of Vernon; and F. D. Todd, of Victoria, were appointed Inspectors under the " Foul-brood Bees
Act." Itineraries were arranged for them with a large number of meetings, at which demonstrations were given on up-to-date methods in apiculture, the period of employment being as
follows: W. J. Sheppard, March 1st to August 31st; L. Harris, April 1st to August Slst; F. D.
Todd, April 1st to August 31st, September 29th to October 9th, and October 24th to 2Sth.
The general report on the honey-crop during the season of 1915 was an unsatisfactory one,
the total estimated quantity being about 100 tons, as against 150 tons for the previous year.
The names of 1,160 bee-keepers are now listed in the Department, these men being supplied with
Department bulletins, circulars, and other matter of interest to their industry. The average
"production per hive on crop reported was 23 lb., which is much below average, but reports in the
bee journals show that unfavourable conditions were prevalent for the whole of the American
Continent.
Owing to the smallness of the crop, local consumption was able to handle same almost
entirely. Fair prices were, however, obtained from wholesalers at Coast cities by the larger
producers.
During the year a very creditable exhibit of British Columbia honey was made at the
Industrial Bureau at Vancouver, thus drawing attention to an industry which is rapidly taking
its place as a profitable side-line.
Agricultural Fairs Association.
The total number of Agricultural Associations incorporated at the close of the year 1915
was sixty-eight, the number of new associations formed being as follows:—
Nanoose Agricultural Association   Incorporated Feb.   20th.
Wasa Stock and Agricultural Association  „ June   23rd.
Fort St. John Agricultural Association   ,, Oct.    22nd. During the year the Department was advised that owing to lack of support the Armstrong
Agricultural and Horticultural Society, which was incorporated in April, 1912, had gone out of
business. A change of name also took place in connection with the Okanagan Mission Agricultural and Trades Association, the title now being Kelowna Agricultural and Horticultural
Association. The incorporation of an association in the Peace River Block is interesting as
showing the development that is taking place in that northern district.
Following the suggestions of the Department, as in 1914, quite a number of associations
decided not to hold their fall fairs, but rather to conserve their energies and husband their
resources for brighter times.
As a matter of fact, dates were arranged for the holding of fall fairs by fifty-five associations
and seven Farmers' Institutes and Fruit-growers' Associations, the number of fairs finally held
being:—
Agricultural Associations     47
Farmers' Institutes        8
Fruit-growers' Associations       1
The judges' reports showed a very uniform excellence of exhibits, with good staging and
excellent general management.
In addition to the members of the Horticultural and Live Stock Branches, a number of
prominent horticulturists and stock-breeders in the Province were again employed by the Department as judges, free of all expense to the various associations, the number being twenty-one
staff officials and fifteen outside judges, a total of thirty-six, as against forty-five in the previous
year.
This year the Dominion Department of Agriculture did not assist this Province by sending
a number of live-stock judges, as has been the case in past years, when their expenses up to
the Provincial boundary were paid. All the expenses in consequence fell upon this Department
this year for the judges that were employed.
The Estimates for the fiscal year ending March Slst, 1916, provided for the sum of $50,000
in aid of Agricultural Associations, but owing to general financial conditions the Department
has administered this vote carefully, and grants in aid of prize-lists were practically all cut
down, whilst grants in aid of buildings had been given only in a very few instances as compared
with previous years.
The attached table will show the total for the past two years, 1914-15:—
1914. 1915.
Grants in aid of prize-lists    $16,125 $18,550
Specific grants for buildings      1S.400 200
Special grants       14,540 100
Totals     $49,005 $18,850
Apple-packing  contests   and  packed-fruit  displays   by   packing-school   pupils   were   again
arranged by the Horticultural Branch of the Department, some excellent scores being made by
former pupils.    (For fuller report see report of Agricultural Fairs Association.)
Respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
Secretary.
ANNUAL REPORT OF STATISTICS BRANCH.
By A. B. Tweddle, Assistant Statistician.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith annual report of the work of the Statistics Branch for the
year 1915.
Efforts were mainly devoted to the collection of data relating to agricultural production
and imports in order to present a true status of this industry. Assistance has been rendered as
far as possible by the Horticultural and Live Stock Branches, the former supplying figures on
fruit and market-vegetable production, and the latter on live stock, poultry, and dairy products. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 27
Home Production.
Whilst it has not been possible since 1913 to conduct a farm-to-farm canvass for crop production, yet a sufficient number of reliable farm occupiers have been personally interviewed to make
the data compiled as reliable as it is possible.
Imports.
Data relating to interprovincial trade were collected by the Statistics Branch from a very
large number of importers throughout the distributing centres of the Province. Foreign imports
were supplied by the Commissioner of Customs, Ottawa.
Production, 1915.
Grains.—The total acreage of grain sown was 117,878, or 36.7 per cent, greater than 1914.
Of this average, 61.8 per cent, was oats, average yield 77.58 bushels. Wheat averaged 31.16, or
4.85 bushels more than 1914. All grains were of excellent quality and weights much above
average. Wheat in many instances weighed 65 to 70 lb. and oats 40 to 45 lb. per bushel. Of
the total area of grain sown, 15 per cent, was cut for dry fodder, which, with the oat-straw from
the threshed crop, had a feeding quality above average.
The total yield of wheat was 615,668 bushels, or 66.4 per cent, greater than 1914. Oats
totalled 5,654,201 bushels, or 4S.2 per cent, over 1914. -Other grains show a corresponding
increase in total yield, whilst the total of all grains increased 49.6 per cent, over 1914. Although
prices ruled 10 to 15 per cent, lower, the total value of the year's threshed crop was $3,626,330,
or 30.9 per cent, greater than 1914.
Fodders.—In sections of the largest areas of cultivated meadow the acreage of hay cut shows
a decrease from 1914, having given way to the increase in grain area, but this was to a great
extent,offset by an increase in sections under more recent development, resulting on the whole
in a decrease of only 3.3 per cent, from 1914. Clover and timothy yields averaged the same as
1914, being 2.3 tons per acre.
Fodder corn is rapidly increasing in area, there being 1,7C0 acres in 1915, as against 200 in
1914. At the end of 1915 over 200 silos had been constructed. The total value of fodders was
$5,791,293, which, owing to prices being nearly 20 per cent, lower, was 11.3 per cent, less than
1914.
Fruits.—This crop doubtless shows the most satisfactory increase of the year from all
standpoints. The total production was 2,360.2 cars, an increase of 33 per cent, over 1914. Owing
to more satisfactory prices for all fruits, except cherries and some small fruits, the total value
was 64.9 per cent, greater than 1914, being $1,642,300. The total production of apples was
L63S.5 cars, as against 1,141.4 in 1914 and 847.1 in 1913. Of the total apples in 1915, the
Okanagan and Boundary District (including Salmon Arm) produced 1,390.1 cars and 1,SS3.0 of
all fruits. The increased production is attributed more to the large area of young orchards now
coming into bearing than to older orchards, which bore only a light crop.
Vegetables.—The total acreage of vegetables in 1915 was 21,253, or 9.6 per cent, greater than
1914.    The largest single increase occurred with field roots, being 52.1 per cent.
In average yields, potatoes and field roots were below 1914. Interior sections proved above
normal, but drought in Coast sections reduced the yield 30 to 35 per cent. Little damage to the
potato-crop from blight was reported. The turnip-crop suffered considerably from drought and
aphis.    The total value of all vegetables was $3,063,092, or 5.3 per cent, less than 1914.
Live Stock.—The total value of live-stock production during 1915 was $S,797,875, or 8.3 per
cent, increase over 1914. Increases occurred in the production of all stock except hogs, which
decreased 3.3 per cent, in value, due to high prices of feedstuffs in the earlier part of the year
forcing large numbers on the market.
War conditions created a market for a considerable number of horses suitable for this
purpose, otherwise there has been little demand for this stock since the cessation of civic and
municipal activities in the Province.
Abundant rainfall over beef-cattle ranges resulted in a very large increase in the quantity
of beef marketed within the Province during the year, whilst the quality was pronounced by
dealers as excellent. The increase in young dairy cattle was most satisfactory, but this was
to a great extent offset by the increased number of old and unprofitable dairy cows disposed of E 28 Department of Agriculture. 1.916
for beef, thus preventing au increase in the total number of dairy cattle being shown at the end
of the year.
Poultry and Eggs.—This industry suffered considerably during 1915. Prices of feed reached
such a high level that breeders not in a position to raise their own feed were obliged to dispose
of the greater part of their poultry at low prices. As a consequence egg production dropped
also. The total value of poultry production during the year was $301,560, or 53.4 per cent,
below 1914.    Egg production was valued at $1,163,160, a decrease of 34 per cent, from 1914.
Dairy Products.—The total value of these products was $3,034,340, or 0.7 per cent, increase
over 1914. Butter increased slightly in quantity and value. Milk prices declined slightly.
Milk production decreased 1 per cent, owing to drought in the Fraser Valley and Island sections
seriously cutting down milk-flow.
Miscellaneous.—Most unfavourable climatic and other conditions reduced the honey-crop in
1915 to 33 per cent, below 1914. The total quantity harvested was 200,000 lb. The value of
nursery stock produced was $58,778, as against $106,000 in 1914 and $318,000 in 1913.
Impoets.
While the total value of home production in 1915 does not show a relative increase to that
of quantity, it is very encouraging to note the effect the latter, to a great extent, had on total
imports, which in 1914 amounted to no less than $25,199,125, this amount in 1915 being reduced
to $16,434,970.    This means a saving of $S,764,155 to the people of British Columbia in one year.
There are, of course, certain products, such as wheat and flour, which will necessarily be
imported for some little time yet. A very large percentage of the wheat so far produced in this
Province is not a milling grade, although some extensive areas, such as that south of Kamloops,
Central British Columbia, and the Peace River District, are now producing a very hard wheat.
In 1914 over $7,500,000 worth of grains and mill-stuff or nearly 30 per cent, of the total
value of imports were obtained outside the Province. In 1915 these amounted to a little over
$5,000,000, a decrease of over 33 per cent., which is 2 per cent, more than the percentage increase
in the value of home production.
In 1915 nearly $6,000,000 went out of the Province for meats; this, however, being a decrease
of 33 per cent, from 1914 and 44 per cent, since 1913. All other products show substantial
decreases.
Expobts.
Accurate data relating to exports and products consigned to other Dominion points are not
available, but a conservative estimate of the value of these in 1915 would be as follows:—
British Columbia land products  (chiefly fruits and vegetables)   $2,761,785
British Columbia live stock (chiefly horses)     28,000
British Columbia by-products  (n.o.p.)           399,202
Total    $3,186,9S7
Of fruit, about 70 per cent, of the 1915 crop was consigned to Dominion Prairie points, 10
per cent, exported, and the balance, 20 per cent., consumed within the Province.
Owing to the Prairie supply of vegetables in 1915 filling the demand there, this Province
was denied a market on which our growers have in the past largely depended. This was,
however, greatly offset by large increased shipments to Ontario points, and exports, the latter
including hundreds of car-loads of evaporated vegetables, for war purposes.
In summing up production and our outside trade, the following results may be noted:—
Production—■
1914   $30,1S4.100
1915      31.127.S01
Increase   $    943,701
Imports—
1914  $25,199,125
1915   16,434,970
Decrease   $ S,764,155 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 29
Exports—
1914   $ 2.000,000
1915        3,186,987
Increase    $ 1,186,987
(For further details relating to production and imports see Appendices Nos. 34 to 44.)
Respectfully submitted.
A. B. Tweddle,
Assistant Statistician.
ANNUAL REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH.
By R. M. Winslow, Peovincial Horticulturist.
Wm. E. Scott. Esq..
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to report as follows on the work of the Horticultural Branch during
the year 1915 :—
Demonsteation Orchards.
. The demonstration orchards at Cowichan and Nanaimo, on Vancouver Island; at Aldergrove
and Hammond, on the Lower Mainland; at Walhachin, Shuswap, and Salmon Arm, iu the
Thompson River-Shuswap Lake section; and at New Denver, Willow Point, and Birchbrook,
in the West Kootenay, have all made satisfactory or excellent progress during the year. In
some cases—particularly Nanaimo, Shuswap, and Salmon Arm—considerable crops of fruit have
been produced in this, their fifth season. Records of costs are being kept carefully of all of
these orchards, and much very valuable data is now almost ready for publication. The Assistant
Horticulturists have worked with enthusiasm to secure the best possible results at the lowest
costs, and in some cases, depending much on soil and other conditions, the orchards are demonstrating the possibilities of low operation costs.
Our five-year contract expires this year in the case of some of these orchards, and I shall
shortly lay before you proposals for extending the period of operation in those cases where the
greatest benefit may be expected.
Experimental Orchards.
The experimental orchards at Nicola, Rossland, Wardner, Baynes Lake, Windermere, and
Golden all came through the previous mild winter in very satisfactory shape and all have made
good progress during the year. In these orchards a considerable study is being given to the value
of the various cover-crops and different methods of protecting trees against winter injury, whilst
the extensive variety tests are providing much that is instructive and valuable with reference to
proper varieties for the various locations. At the same time, we are endeavouring to operate
these orchards with ultimate commercial value in mind, and to that end the less satisfactory
varieties are being steadily replaced with more useful ones.
Southern Okanagan Vegetable Experiment Station.
This station, in charge of Mr. J. L. Hilborn, has completed its second year of highly
satisfactory work. The main object of the station is to develop, to the extent of the market
requirements, a sound and remunerative industry in the vegetable-crops suited to the Southern
Okanagan, and this is being attained.
Mr. Hilborn gave a series of addresses in the early spring at various Okanagan points,
and this was followed by a series of practical articles in the newspapers. Many growers from
the various districts have visited the station for information, and the correspondence is also
considerable.
The principal results of the past year may be briefly summarized as follows:—
The total production of fruits and vegetables on the 9 acres was about 5,300 cases. Sales
amounted to $3,794.80 and all cash expenses were $1,S40, leaving a balance of $1,954.80 for
interest and Mr. Hilborn's time and labour. E 30 Department of Agriculture. 1916
An extensive experiment in the use of protectors for plants, such as tomatoes, cucumbers,
and melons, newly transplanted to the field, showed the most practical plan to be the use of
14-inch boards, set on edge in a continuous row on the north side of each row of plants, the
boards slanting to the south.
Early Potatoes.—Small plots of six varieties were tested. The seed was not sprouted. It
was planted on April 22nd and the crop dug on July loth. The yields varied: Cameronia yielding at the rate of 9% tons per acre; Early St. George and Early Rose, 9% tons; Bovee, 8% tons;
Irish Cobbler, 7% tons; and Extra Early Eureka, 7% tons. The Cameronia was the best, and
Early Rose gave a better commercial size than Early St. George. The experiment indicates good
commercial possibilities for early potatoes in the Southern Okanagan.
Early Sweet Corn, with Butter Beans as Fillers.—An area of y„ acre was planted with
Early Malcolm, the best extra early sweet corn in previous tests, and a small plot of Country
Gentleman, one of the best late sweet corns, in rows 3 feet apart, the hills 3 feet apart in the
rows. On the same day, in the last week of April, hills of beans were planted in the rows
between the corn. Burpee's New Kidney Wax Bean, a golden-pod variety, for shipping, and
Green Pod Stringless, for home use, were used. The plot supplied all the corn and beans for
home use and the balance sold for $14.40. The total cost, all charges included, was $10.25. In
addition, the corn-stalks were cut for green fodder and had a value equal to the labour cost on
both crops. A net profit of about $155 per acre was indicated by the record. The experiment
shows the value of these crops in this combination.
Early Outside Lettuce.—Twelve thousand plants of head lettuce were transplanted to the
field on April 20th. They were set 10 x 10 inches both in beds five rows wide and in solid beds
of greater width. Ordinary furrow irrigation, with beds 5 feet wide, was found superior to
sprinkling on wide beds. Wayahead, Big Boston, and Hanson appeared to be equally early and
good, but May King was later and smaller. A decay of unknown cause developed throughout
the plot just before harvesting, so that only 40 per cent, of the crop was shipped. It, however,
paid all the expenses of the whole crop.
Eight thousand plants of Grand Rapids, a leaf lettuce, were grown in the same way. Cutting
commenced on May 14th and finished oil the 2Sth. The market was fully supplied with hothouse-
grown leaf lettuce, selling at low prices, so that the crop returned only a trifle over cost of
production.
The district is well adapted to produce early head lettuce of good quality, and the Prairies
Import many oar-loads from Washington.    The experiment will toe continued.   ■
Egg-plant.—These have again done well in net returns. The plants were set in the field, as
usual, a week to ten days after the tomatoes, in rows 4 feet apart, the plants 3 feet apart in
the row. Cutting began on August 7th, was heavy by September 1st, and continued to October
Sth. One-tenth of an acre yielded 159 apple-boxes, which sold at $172.60. The costs, including
everything, were $78.50, a net of $94.10.
Early Cucumbers.—This, the third season of trial, again showed the necessity for early
production. The seed was planted on April 20th and the plants were set out the first week of
June, 3 feet apart in rows 5 feet apart. One plant to a hill has again been shown superior to
two or more. The total cost of growing and harvesting % acre of cucumbers was $263.10, and
the 1,144 boxes shipped sold for $604.55, a net of $341.45.
The market is now being well supplied with cucumbers, and it is only by producing early
crops that such returns can be shown.
Cantaloupes.—This season has again demonstrated the value of this crop for the Southern
Okanagan. These are grown in the same general way as cucumbers. The harvesting, as with
cucumbers, is a most critical point. One and one-tenth acres of cantaloupes yielded 737 crates,
at a total cost of $355.25.    The returns were $848.75, showing a net of $493.50 over all expenses.
Cantaloupe production can be considerably extended, and within a year or two the markets
should be receiving 25,000 or 30,000 crates from the Okanagan yearly.
Peppers.—These have again been very satisfactory. The plants were transplanted to the
field in the first week of May, 2 feet apart in rows 3 feet apart. From the plot, l/a acre, 129
peach-boxes and 28 apple-boxes were shipped, selling at $112.50. The total cost, including rent
of land at $15 an acre, was $44.70, a net of $67.S0.
Early Tomatoes.—The excellent results of the two years past were not equalled this year
owing to a most unfavourable season.    The two previous seasons showed that the district could 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 31
produce, in ordinary years, crops unequalled elsewhere in quantity, quality, and profit. Improved
strains of Spark's Earliana, especially that sold by H. P. Langdon & Son, Constable, New York,
are proving the best varieties.
Even this past season the results were fair. One and two-fifths acres produced 709 crates,
and 9,090 lb. were shipped to the cannery. The total receipts were $463.30, and the total cost,
including rent of land, was $486.45, a net loss of $23.15.
Tree-fruits.—It is in order to mention the tree-fruits. Two hundred and forty apple-trees
from four to nine years old produced 925 boxes, nearly all No. l's; 92 apricot-trees, fillers among
the apples, bore 925 crates, which sold at $601.50.
Small Fruits.—The Perfection red currants came into bearing. The currants are very large
and in long clusters, which reduces cost of harvesting to the minimum and ensures highest
selling-prices.
Gooseberries.—A number of varieties are under test. Control of mildew, the great problem,
is also being studied.
Black Currants.—Four varieties are under test, but not yet in bearing.
Raspberries.—These are being tested on a small scale.
Black Raspberries.—A number of varieties are being tested.    The Kansas, so far, is the best.
Strawberries.—Tests with Magoon and Royal Sovereign show that the hill system is the only
practical method of culture. Excellent crops are being grown. A considerable number of
varieties will be in bearing next year.
Grapes.—All the likely kinds of the American types are being tried.
Information on any of the crops grown at the station may be had by those interested by
addressing J. L. Hilborn, West Summerland, B.C.
Chilliwack Demonstration Plot.
The 5-acre small-fruit and rhubarb demonstration plot at Chilliwack has made an excellent
showing in this, its fourth year. Despite the fact that the loganberries are not yet in bearing
and that all of the labour on this plot is paid for at high wages, the crops were sold for
$1,439.41, against which must be put the costs of $747.46, leaving a profit of $691.95. All of
the plants have made excellent growth during the year, and there is every prospect for a crop
in 1916 equal to that of the previous year, which will further demonstrate the desirability of a
commercial small-fruit industry in the Chilliwack Valley.
EXPEBIMENTAL  PLOTS.
Strawberry-plot ai Hatzic.—Half an acre of suitable strawberry land has been set out at
Hatzic with eleven of the best-known and most likely varieties of strawberries for this district.
The steady decline in the strawberry industry of the district is due to several causes, among
which unsuitable varieties has been important. We expect from this plot to determine whether
this difficulty can be overcome.
Bella Coola.—The 5-acre plot operated at Bella Coola under the direction of Mr. Tomlinson
has completed a very successful year's work. Experiments with small fruits, vegetables, field
roots, grains, and fodder crops have been successfully carried on and are proving of great value
to the district.
Graham Island.—The plot at Lawn Hill, on Graham Island, the main purpose of which is
to demonstrate methods of rendering the prevalent muskeg soil productive and of showing the
most useful crops for it, has completed a successful year. Apart from the variety tests with
grasses, clovers, grains, roots, and vegetables, a further series of fertilizer experiments, as
carried out in 1914, has been continued.
Terrace.—The plot at Terrace presented a very businesslike and attractive appearance this
year and has been.very much commented upon. The experiments have been conducted with
various grasses, grains, clovers, cover-crops, roots, vegetables, strawberries, bush-fruits, and a
few seedling trees. Fertilizer tests, following those of 1914, were also carried on. The plot
has been made a great deal of use of in the community and is doing very useful work.
Victoeia Demonsteation Gaeden-plot.
In view of the interest taken in the utilization of garden-plots and with the object of demonstrating the extent to which a continuous and varied supply of vegetables for home use and, to E 32 Department of Agriculture. 1916
a certain extent, for sale could be had from city lots, the Horticultural Branch operated a plot
at a central location in Oak Bay Municipality. The plot was the subject of a great deal of
interest and afforded many useful and suggestive hints to gardeners.
CULTUEAL  EXPEEIMENTS.
Throughout the Province a considerable amount of experimental work was carried on, chiefly
in spraying practices for tree-fruits and in fertilizers for small fruits and vegetables.
Spraying Experiments for Apple-scab.—The past season was exceptionally favourable to
apple-scab, which was very prevalent in most Interior sections. The scab-spraying experiments
were, therefore, of great interest. Mr. P. E. French, in his experiments at Salmon Arm, was
unfortunately unable to be present to apply the third spray, and his instructions were not
followed out.    (For fuller details see Mr. French's report herein.)
At Kelowna and Vernon Mr. Hoy carried on extensive experiments in the use of fertilizers
for onions, and also in methods of irrigation and harvesting onions, with a view to establishing
a long-keeping quality. The results of-these experiments, together with those on onion storage,
will toe reported fully in a separate report.
An experiment in the control of apple-mildew in the Okanagan Valley showed the practical
possibility of controlling this increasingly serious disease.
In the Nelson District Mr. Middleton carried on au important and most suggestive experiment in the control of apple-aphis, which is of particular significance at the present time, because
in the past season apple-aphis was more injurious than ever previously. In the experiment the
following results were recorded :■—
Pendray's summer spray gave only fair results, by no means proving entirely effective;
" V 2 " summer spray was least effective of all sprays used; Black Leaf 40 and whale-oil soap
in the recommended formulae proved very effective; Black Leaf 40 with laundry-soap gave only
very moderate results; whale-oil soap and quassia-chips proved very effective, but was more
expensive than Black Leaf and whale-oil mixture. Black Leaf 40 and lime, at the rate of
% lb. of Black Leaf 40 and 2 lb. of lime to 100 gallons of water, proved very effective, killing
practically every Insect. This formula was used in the State of Washington in 1914 for the
first time, and has given wonderfully good results there. It requires half the Black Leaf recommended by the manufacturers; the cost per 100 gallons was 60 cents, as against $2.05 for whale-
oil soap and quassia-chips. This Black Leaf 40 and lime spray can be recommended for general
trial; it is easily made up, the lime being first slaked into a whitewash, and the Black Leaf and
water added to make up the desired quantity.
Pruning-schools.
Our system of teaching tree and bush-fruit pruning by means of five-day schools, while
originally and to that extent experimental, proved very popular in 1914, some twenty-five schools
being held. In the year just closed, however, the plan was still further endorsed by fruitgrowers generally, so much so that our facilities were overtaxed and a number of applications
made could not be granted. Already tangible results from the 1914 and 1915 schools are visible
in increased production of fruit from many orchards previously not bearing satisfactory crops.
In 1915 a total of forty-seven pruning-schools were held; the total number of pupils was
470, and their average proficiency, as scored- by the Instructors, was 7S per cent.; $468 fees
were received, so that the net expenditure, including the salaries of the permanent staff and
their expenses, totalled only $1,591.19.
Mr. 51. S. Middleton took six of these schools in the West Kootenay; Mr. H. Thornber, two
at Hammond and Royal Oak; Mr. P. E. French, eight in his district; Mr. B. Hoy, six in the
Okanagan; Mr. E. C. Hunt, nine in the Boundary and West Kootenay; and Mr. L. L. Palmer,
employed for the purpose, ten schools in the Okanagan and Arrow Lake Districts. (For table
showing the places at which schools were held, Instructors, dates, number of pupils at each,,
number of lessons, etc., see Appendix No. 16.)
Two Weeks' Short Course at Kelowna.
The Horticultural and Live Stock Branches jointly conducted at the City of Kelowna the first
two weeks' course of instruction in agriculture that we have held in this Province, Mr. B. Hoy,
Assistant  Horticulturist  for  the  Okanagan  District,   making  arrangements.    The  Live   Stock  '•   ..   --■'«::.'
-"•' *!^c■^^•*',   .:
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a 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 33
Branch supplied the Instructors in their subjects, various members of the Horticultural Branch
staff taking the horticultural subjects. Professor L. S. Klinck was especially appreciated in his
lectures on " Field Crops." The short course was well attended throughout, and special meetings
in connection with, addressed toy the Hon. Price Ellison and Dr. F. S. Wesbrook, were very well
received.
Courses of such duration permit of instruction being given on a wider range of subjects and
with more thoroughness than can ever be possible in one- or two-day meetings, and there is every
reason to believe that such courses will become popular throughout the Province.
Institute and otheb Meetings.
The large number of pruning-schools held and the meetings addressed in connection with
them by the Assistant Horticulturists to quite an extent misplaced the regular Farmers' Institute
meetings on horticultural subjects, so that fewer of such meetings were held during 1915 than
usual. The Provincial Horticulturists and the Prairie Markets Commissioner held a series of
meetings both in conjunction with Farmers' Institutes and Fruit-growers' Associations throughout the Province in February and March, the attendance and interest being of very high order.
The Provincial Horticulturist addressed a number of meetings, especially on Vancouver Island,
with reference to the development and operation of co-operative marketing. A number of pruning demonstrations at points where pruning-schools could not be held were conducted by Mr.
Thornber and others. Each of the Assistant Horticulturists has delivered addresses at a number
of Farmers' Institute and other meetings. Altogether, therefore, quite a number of meetings
have been held, with an average attendance exceeding that of any previous year.
Ceop Competitions.
Following the one successful strawberry competition last year, the Horticultural Branch
this season arranged for crop competitions throughout the Province. The general principles and
the plan of operation used in field-crop competitions throughout the Dominion were followed,
with the necessary modifications to suit the peculiarities of horticultural crops and the conditions of the Province. The organization of the field-work of the Horticultural Branch, being
of the " District Representative " type, with Assistant Horticulturists in charge of seven subdivisions of the Province, is peculiarly adapted to making such competitions successful. Seven
of the twenty competitions were in strawberries, two in raspberries, three in farm gardens, one
in bearing orchards, two in young orchards, six in city gardens, and three of a general character,
covering all the features of farms of various sizes, devoted mainly to tree-fruits.
The competitions were taken up more generally than was expected; a high degree of interest
was manifested; and, as a rule, they resulted generally in marked development or improvement.
Undoubtedly such competitions offer a field of profitable activity for the Branch, and, according
to advices received, there will be an increased demand for them next year. (For table showing
the main details of these competitions see Appendix No. 17.)
Summee School fob Teachers.
The summer school in agriculture for public-school teachers, conducted by the Educational
Department at Victoria in July, was still larger than in the previous year. The lectures on
horticultural subjects were covered by the staff of the Horticultural Branch, Mr. Thornber
delivering a series of some thirty lectures.
Publications.
The issues made include the Annual Report of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association, the Third Report of the Markets Commissioner, and the 1915 Spray Calendar.
A large number of articles were written by various members of the staff for publication in
the newspapers and magazines, and contributions were made to the Agricultural Gazette of
Canada.
The notable publication of the year of the Horticultural Branch was the booklet " British
Columbia Fruit," prepared by Mr. J. Forsyth Smith and myself.    This 80-page booklet, printed
on good paper and with attractive illustrations, has been very well received indeed.    The issue
of 30,000 copies has not been nearly equal to the demand, so that the supply is exhausted.
4 E 34 Department of Agriculture. 1916
There are many evidences that the booklet is serving its purpose admirably, this being shown
particularly by a greatly increased appreciation of British Columbia fruit, both in the markets
of this Province and of the Prairies.
A similar booklet of 24 pages, on " British Columbia Potatoes," was issued as Horticultural
Circular No. 30. This booklet is being very largely used in the domestic-science classes of this
Province, and the edition of 10,000 is nearly exhausted.
Mr. L. L. Palmer prepared a circular on " English Cider-making from British Columbia
Apples."
The Spray Calendar for 1915 was prepared by Mr. J. W. Eastham. The Annual Report of
the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association was prepared by myself, as Secretary. The
Third Annual Report of the Prairie Markets Commissioner was published for general distribution. A special publication on " The British Columbia Apple Industry " was prepared by the
Secretary in conjunction with members of the Executive of the British Columbia Fruit-growers'
Association.
The Horticultural circulars are in course of general revision, which, in some eases, will
involve consolidation of those on related subjects into bulletin form. The past year has witnessed a steadilv increasing demand for publications on horticulture.
Judging at Fairs and Flowee-shows.
As in previous years, the Horticultural Branch provided expert judges, usually from our
staff, for the fruits and vegetables, and in some cases other classes, at all fairs of the Province.
In addition, Assistant Horticulturists judged a number of flowrer-shows throughout the Province.
As far as possible, the judges, on the conclusion of their work, gave the reasons for their
awards and practical demonstrations on the practice of judging and the standards of perfection.
Fifty-three fairs were judged and reported on.
The reports required by the Horticultural Branch from judges of horticultural classes are
used to secure recommended improvements, and, in addition, Assistant Horticulturists have
assisted in revision of prize-lists and improvement in the carrying-on of the fairs, calculated to
increase their'usefulness.
At Prince Rupert the Horticultural Branch again conducted an information and demonstration booth at the fair, which was very popular.
Blight-control Work.
The Horticultural Branch has continued the administration of the blight-control work in
the Boundary, Arrow Lakes, and West Kootenay sections. The amount of blight shows a considerable decrease under the previous year and no losses of importance are reported. In the
Harrop District, where an outbreak of some importance occurred in 1914, absolutely none has
been found this year. New infections at various points have been promptly cut out on appearance. We have continued to emphasize the principle of control by the grower, and should there
be, by any combination of circumstances, a severe outbreak of blight in any part of this territory,
growers are now well acquainted with methods of control and confident in their ability to handle
it successfully.
Variety Yields.
In 1914 there was started a system of recording the production of trees of different varieties
at different ages; both one-year and four-year records are being kept, and responsible fruitgrowers are co-operating with the Assistant Horticulturists. In the past season a.great extension
of this system was made and already much valuable information is being derived. These records
will shortly enable conclusions to be drawn from a wide number of observations as to the
behaviour of different varieties in different sections.
Crop Estimates and Records.
The statistics of production have again been an important activity. Advance crop estimates
were issued at four times during the season to all members of the British Columbia Fruitgrowers' Association. Crop records have been compiled, covering the actual production for the
year and its value for each individual section.    Records have also been made of the production 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 35
and value of fruit and vegetable by-products. The crop estimates are important from the standpoint of prospective prices and markets, and the season's records show the progress made and
permit of important deductions as to future development.
Packing-schools.
A series of eighteen packing-schools was held during the season, the principal Instructors
being Mr. J. B. Castner and Mr. F. E. Loveday. The total number of schools shows a considerable decline on the previous year, which was expected, as an ample number of packers has now
been trained to take care of the crop.
Ordinarily, packing-schools might quite well be discontinued, but owing to the fact that
packers have responded in very generous fashion to the call for overseas service, the number of
packing-schools seemed necessary to supply their places.
In connection with packing-school work fourteen diplomas were issued; in addition to this,
two commercial diplomas were issued to pupils who had qualified in the packing-school, in their
exhibit at the fall fair, and in a commercial packing-house.
Apple-packing contests were held this year at the following fairs: Nelson, Trail, New
Denver, Nakusp, Oyama, and Summerland. These contests were more keenly contested than in
any previous year, due to an increasing desire for efficiency in this work.
Investigations in Careful Handling and Cold Storage.
No appointment having been made to replace Mr. Edwin Smith, our expert on these lines,
there was a reduction in the amount of work carried on. The precooling plant at Summerland
was rented to the Summerland Fruit Union and operated by them under arrangements with the
Okanagan United Growers. A series of experiments was conducted by Mr. Robertson, with the
assistance of Mr. F. L. Goodman, on the fanning of Lower Mainland raspberries for Prairie
shipments. I desire to acknowledge the kind co-operation of Mr. M. F. Shook, of Hatzic, in this
work. The season being a particularly trying one and very unfavourable for successful shipping,
the experiments showed no advantages to fanning under those conditions.
Cold storage of Apples.—This experiment is now being carried on for the fifth year under
the direction of Mr. Thornber. The principal varieties of apples from different districts are
under test and special experiments, as outlined in my last report, are being continued. On the
conclusion of the work at present in progress, the results will be prepared for publication, with
a view to guiding the development of cold storage of British Columbia apples, for which the time
is now opportune.
Onion Stoargc.—The experiments started in 1914, under the direction of Mr. Hoy at
Kelowna, to determine the best methods of storing onions for late winter and early spring use
are being continued. These experiments also include a series to indicate the effects of different
methods of cultivation and of harvesting on the keeping qualities.
Advebtising.
The advertising of British Columbia fruits and vegetables was increased to such an extent
this year as to make it one of the principal activities of the Horticultural Branch. The extension
in its scope was made possible by a special grant to the purpose by the Federal Department of
Agriculture, which was used in conjunction with the funds supplied by this Department in the
grant to the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association. That association and the Chief
Dominion Fruit Inspector for the Province, Mr. R. G. L. Clarke, gave supervision to the various
campaigns.
The conduct of the advertising campaigns rested largely with the Coast and Prairie Markets
Commissioners, constituting the principal feature of their activities.
Altogether, the year's work in advertising has been highly successful. There is ample
evidence of an increased appreciation of British Columbia fruit throughout Western Canada,
and much has been done to establish among consumers the habit of demanding British Columbia
fruit.
Peaieie Mabkets Commissionee's Office.
With the development of advertising the activities of this office have been much increased.
In addition, the reorganization of the system of market correspondence has called for a great E 36 Department of Agriculture. 1916
deal more attention and correspondence on the part of the Commissioner. Activities in co-operation with the Board of Trade, the newspapers, and consumers' organizations grow steadily in
importance and volume.
Our service has suffered a loss in the resignation of Mr. J. Forsyth Smith, who, in July,
accepted the position of Canadian Fruit Trade Commissioner to Great Britain under the
Canadian Government. It was necessary for the Provincial Horticulturist to make his headquarters at Calgary for two months to carry on the work and to introduce the new appointee,
Mr. W. E. McTaggart, to the duties of his office. Opportunity was taken to study at first hand
various important developments in the distribution of our product. The reports of Mr. Smith
and Mr. McTaggart are submitted herewith and are recommended for publication.
Coast Maekets Commissionee's Office.
This position has been filled throughout the year by Mr. R. C. Abbott, who issued weekly
reports to producers from June until December. In addition to a heavy volume of advertising-
work, he has been able to give a great deal of personal investigation and supervision to the
conditions in the Vancouver market, which has aided materially in greatly increasing the amount
of British Columbia fruits and vegetables marketed in Vancouver, and in corresponding lessening
importations from foreign countries.    Mr. Abbott's annual report is submitted herein.
Peotection foe Beitish Columbia Apples.
i
It has been one of my personal duties throughout my term of office to keep in touch with the
general conditions affecting the progress of the fruit industry; amongst the most important of
these is the American competition in our markets, and its character. During the past year I
have been especially engaged in the investigation of conditions governing the production, price,
and marketing of imported apples in Western Canada and the effect on the British Columbia
apple industry. The preparation of our case for presentation to the authorities at Ottawa, with
respect to adequate protection against the destructive American competition in the case of apples,
has occupied a large share of my time and energy. In connection with it I made two trips of
investigation on the American side and one trip to Ontario points and to Ottawa. The investigations made are summarized in the pamphlet, " The Apple Industry of British Columbia," issued
by the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association to its members. The results of the efforts of
the association and of this Department with respect to this matter are evidenced in the increased
duty on imported apples from 40 to 90 cents per barrel.
Calgaey Fruit Conference.
This Department, with the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association, co-operated with
the Calgary Board of Trade in holding a general Fruit Conference at Calgary, July 7th and Sth.
Apart from my duties in the organization and conduct of the Conference, I delivered an address
there on the " Marketing of British Columbia Fruit and the Problems of the Fruit-grower."
The Conference was well attended, both from British Columbia and the Prairies, and in my
later visits to the Prairies I found much evidence that valuable work had been done, both in
promoting appreciation of British Columbia fruit and in stimulating a more sympathetic spirit:
towards the industry.
Orchard Visits and Demonstrations.
By far the greatest part of the work carried on through the Assistant Horticulturists is in
the nature of personal advice and instruction to individual growers in the orchard. Most of the
growers in the Province have been visited once or oftener by our assistants, and their work
along these lines is growing constantly in volume and in the appreciation in which it is held.
Co-operation of Selling Agencies.
In an effort to solve the problem of internal competition and to help to bring together the
heads of the various selling agencies, a meeting of Okanagan and other shippers was held at
Sicamous on May 31st and a further meeting at Kelowna on June 19th. At the latter meeting-
the shippers appointed a committee in whose hands the matter was then left. Some progress
has been made in the matter and to that extent the results have been gratifying. Full success
in this direction remains to be achieved, but when secured will be of substantial assistance to
the fruit industry. 6 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
E 37
The British Columbia Fbuit-growers' Association.
The past year has again witnessed a substantial gain in the membership and activities of
this organization, which at the present time has a total membership of 927, with twenty-two
affiliated associations. As Secretary, and a member of all committees, I arranged and participated in one meeting of the Directors, eight Executive meetings, and various meetings of the
Transportation, Legislative, xldvertising, and Booklet Committees, as well as the annual meeting.
With respect to Transportation, the association this year was able to arrange a number of
important concessions for our growers, the principal among them being the very substantial
reduction in freight rates on apples and soft fruits from the Okanagan to the Coast. In this
connection a meeting of Okanagan shippers with Mr. W. B. Lanigan and this Executive was held
at Sicamous on May 30th. The work of the Advertising Committee is already indicated in
that section of my report headed " Advertising " ; the work of the Legislative Committee, too,
is indicated in the above section, " Protection for British Columbia Apples."
The annual report of the association was also prepared for publication and issued. A
wholesale price-list of fruit-growers' supplies was arranged by negotiation with various supply-
houses and was made use of very largely by the members. Besides the various reports on other
subjects, the Horticultural Branch issued to the members of the association all of the weekly
reports of the Prairie and Coast Markets Commissioners, together with four reports on crop
prospects, during the season.   •
Office-work.
The records of the year show an increase in the volume of administration and office-work,
coincident with the increase of outside activities.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
R. M. Winslow.
Provincial Horticulturist.
ANNUAL REPORT OF ASSISTANT HORTICULTURIST, LOWER MAINLAND DISTRICT.
W. H. Robertson.
R. M. Winslow, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith beg to submit my annual report as Assistant Horticulturist for the Lower
Mainland and Islands District for 1915.
Pruning-schools.
During the spring pruning-schools were held at the following points on the Lower Mainland
and the Islands :—
Place.
Bate.
No. of
Pupils.
No. of
Lessons.
Chilliwaek    	
Jan. 11-15
„     18-22
Feb.    1-5
8-12
„     15-19
„    22-26
9
8
8
8
9
11
10
9
North Vancouver    	
9
9
9
10
The   above   schools   were   under   my   personal   supervision,     Mr.   H.   Thornber   acted   as
Instructor at the following schools which were held in this district:—
Royal Oak.
Hammond .
Jan. 11-15
Feb.    1-5
No. of
Pupils.
11
No. of
Lessons.
9
10 E 38
Department of Agriculture.
1916
Packing-schools.
During the month of February five packing-schools were held at the following points on the
Lower Mainland:—
Place.
Date.
No. of Pupils.
' Mission	
Feb.   4-6
8-13
,,    15-17
»    22-24
„    25-27
8
16 (Indians)
6
5
In most of these districts it was found impossible to obtain the number of pupils necessary
to carry on the school for a week. To meet this difficulty, schools were formed requiring an
attendance of six pupils, and to be held for three days instead of a week.
Mr. F. E. Loveday, Dominion Fruit Inspector for Vancouver, acted as Instructor at these
schools and carried on the work in a most efficient manner.
Lectures.
During the past year less time has been devoted to lecture-work than in previous years.
This was due to more time being devoted to the personal instruction of the individual fruitgrower, as well as to pruning-schools and demonstration orchards, than in previous years.
Lectures on fruit and vegetable growing were given in Vancouver, Alberni, Ladysmith, and
Central Park, all of which were well attended.
Demonstration Orchards.
Hammond Orchard.—This orchard is situated on the farm of J. II. Laity, about two miles
from Hammond Station. For the past five years Mr. Laity has been most painstaking in the
care that he has given this orchard, and the excellent appearance of the trees speaks well for
the manner in which he has carried out instructions as to spraying and cultivating.
Up till this year it was found rather difficult to control the Black-spot canker. By keeping
the trunks of the trees well covered with double-strength Bordeaux mixture throughout the
summer of 1914, with a thorough spraying of the same mixture in the fall (which covered the
whole tree), it was found that the canker was practically eliminated. The trees are making
an excellent growth and by next year should be producing a small quantity of fruit.
Aldergrove Orchard.—This orchard in under the supervision of the Fraser Valley Nurseries,
Ltd. The trees have been making an excessive growth. This year the orchard was seeded down.
The result was that the trees made a good normal growTth, with an excellent showing of
fruit-buds.
Cowichan Orchard.—The trees in this orchard made excellent growth and were beginning
to show the result of the careful cultivating and spraying which has been carried on by H. W.
May. In 1912-13 this orchard was severely checked by the new growth being eaten back by
deei". This trouble has, however, been overcome, and the indications are that this orchard
could be made one of the best in the district.
There is practically no black-spot canker in the orchard, a thorough application of double-
strength Bordeaux having been applied in the fall.
Nanaimo Orchard.—The trees in this orchard have made an excellent growth during the
past season and a very good crop of fruit produced; the varieties being crab-apples, King's,
Grimes Golden, Duchess, and pears, with a total of 124 boxes. The trees have been well looked
after and no black-spot canker could be found in the orchard.
Chilliwack Small-fruit Demonstbation Plot.
This is the fourth year that the Department has been in charge of this plot. Up till 1915
the expenses were heavy and more than overbalanced the returus. This year, however, the
fruit-crop was successfully marketed and the net returns have been very gratifying indeed. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 39
The canes, strawberry and rhubarb plants have made an excellent growth, and the prospects
are that the crop in 1916 will be equal to the 1915 crop.
Detailed reports on the cost of the demonstration orchards as well as the small-fruit plot
have already been submitted.
EXPEEIMENTAL   StEAWBEBEY-PLOT.
It was thought advisable to establish an experimental strawberry-plot at Hatzic, the purpose
being to secure information regarding varieties suitable for the district from the standpoint of
growth, yield, and shipping qualities. A certain amount of experimental work will also be
carried on with commercial fertilizers.
The following varieties were used in setting out the % acre of ground used for this work:
Marshall, Paxton, Nick Ohma, Magoon, McKenzie, Brandywine, Jocunda, Senator Dunlop, Wm.
Bett, Glen Mary, and Pocomoki.
Two rows of each variety 100 feet long were set out in one plot to be used for variety test,
with a similar plot alongside to be used for fertilizer-work.
Dehydeating of Raspbebries.
During the past season experimental work was carried on in the dehydrating of raspberries.
A specially constructed cotton frame was made and electric fans used to secure the current of
air.    A detailed report outlining the experiments and results obtained has been submitted.
Securing Fruit Statistics.
This constitutes a considerable portion of the work, both in the spring and fall. During the
spring survey was made of the small-fruit acreage in the Mission, Hatzic, Haney, and Burnaby
Districts. A somewhat similar survey was made of the strawberry acreage at Gordon Head.
In the spring a considerable portion of my time was devoted to estimating the season's fruit-crop,
and iu the fall the fruit and vegetable production for the year.
District Work.
A great deal of time has been devoted to personal visits to growers in every part of the
district. New settlers who are not acquainted with conditions and lack experience in fruitgrowing were given instruction in pruning, spraying, etc. The older settler was also kept in
touch with and advised, and personal assistance given in the different phases of fruit and
vegetable growing. This work is important and demands more and more time as I become better
acquainted with the people in the different sections.
Judging at fall fairs also formed a part of my work, a report of which has been submitted.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
W. H. Robebtson,
Assistant Horticulturist.
ANNUAL REPORT OF ASSISTANT HORTICULTURIST, PRINCE RUPERT DISTRICT.
A.   H.  TOMLINSON.
R. M.   Winslow, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as Assistant Horticulturist for the Prince
Rupert District for the year 1915.
Missionary work has been further carried out. Mr. M. H. Howitt, my assistant, visited
Port Simpson (March), Porcher Island (April), Kitimat (April), the Nass (May), Queen
Charlotte Islands (July), and frequent visits along the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway to Tyee,
Kwinitsa, Terrace, Kitwanga, etc.
Your assistant visited various points in my district from July to September. Various points
adjacent to Prince Rupert have also been visited by both Horticulturists, as well as various
city gardens to deal with local problems. E 40 Department of Agriculture. 1916
In connection with the foregoing visits the following duties were undertaken: Where
Farmers' Institutes have been formed meetings were held and addresses and demonstrations
given under their auspices. Farmers were visited on their places to discuss matters directly
affecting farm-work. Personal attention was given to the experimental plots at Terrace, Lawn
Hill, and Bella Coola. Picnics were held at Bella Coola and Telkwa. At the former place a
general talk and demonstration was given on the plot by your assistant. At Telkwa the same
speaker gave a demonstration in the selection of vegetable products for market and exhibition.
Mr. Howitt acted as judge for garden produce for Prince Rupert and Telkwa fairs, and
assisted in a similar capacity at Prince Rupert. Your assistant acted as judge at Graham Island
fairs (Lawn Hill and Queen Charlotte City) and Prince Rupert.
The Prince Rupert Horticultural Society held a successful annual flower-show on August
18th. The same society held a successful garden competition, the Department of Agriculture
provided the prize-money, which amounted to $105. Final judging was done by August 12th.
Your representatives acted as judges.    A detailed report of these has been submitted to you.
The interest shown in the flower-show and contest encourages this office to continue its
efforts in furthering local utility and ornamental gardening.
Office-work.
There is a steady demand for Department literature and information. Correspondence has
increased. During the past season it has been found necessary to secure office assistance, that
better and more detailed work in connection with the experimental plots might be done. It is
necessary for the Horticulturists to spend more time on the plots with the experimenters, and
it is hoped that during the forthcoming season the junior assistant will be able to do this.
Considerable time is required in connection with local garden-work, articles for newspapers
of the north, and correspondence in connection with the farming problems and questions. Mr.
Howitt during the past year has given increased attention to this branch on account of the
fruit-pest inspection duties of necessity keeping him in town.
Experimental Plots.
The experimental plots situated at Terrace (Kitsumgallum and Lakelse), Lawn Hill (Queen
Charlotte Islands), and Bella Coola were made use of for different phases of demonstration and
experimental work, each having an experimenter in charge under the supervision of the Assistant
Horticulturist. A separate report and plan is being forwarded for each plot. The following is
a summary of the work done at the respective plots:—
Terrace Plot.—Five acres of land are now under cultivation. Experiments have been carried
out with various grasses, grains, clovers, cover-crops, roots, potatoe"s, and vegetables, also strawberries, a few bush-fruits and deciduous-tree seedlings. Fertilizer tests were also conducted,
and the effects of fertilizers of 1914 made note of. On account of the small amount of live stock
in the district barnyard manure is scarce; thus it is necessary to demonstrate to the farmers
the value of cover-crops to plough under. The experimenter, Mr. T. T. Hughes, has done
thorough work, and was well able to give first-hand information concerning experimental work
carried on at the plot During the past season this plot presented a very businesslike, neat, and
attractive appearance.
Lawn Hill Plot.—Two and a half acres have now been brought under cultivation. The
surface formation is mainly muskeg, which is usually moss and a form of peat. Below the
surface semi-decomposition has taken place. The subsoil is clay. During most months of the
year the muskeg is wet on account of the heavy precipitation, with no natural drainage. To
bring such under cultivation draining must be done, together with the application of various
plant-food elements to make the muskeg akin to soil. Demonstrations and experiments have
been carried on with drainage, and such crops as grasses, clovers, grains, roots, and vegetables.
Further fertilizer experiments were carried out as is 1914, and results noted.
The Bella Coola Plot is situated about seven miles from the wharf. The soil formation is
mainly river-bottom, and thus contains rich alluvial soil with outcrops of gravel. The crops
experimented with were grains, grasses, clovers, roots, potatoes, and vegetables. Fertilizer
tests were conducted in 1914, and the effect again noted in 1915. This past season, also, a few
fertilizer experiments were carried out. Adjoining the plot, variety, cover-crop, and cultivation
tests in connection with fruit-trees are being noted. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 41
PsosrECTs foe Ageicultube in the Disteicts of Bella Coola, Kitimat, Skeena Rivee Valleys,
Nass, and Islands of the Coast, Stikine and Atlin.
On the Mainland of the north, or Central British Columbia, from observations made, there
is every chance for agriculture to be prosecuted. Each district has its natural advantages over
others for some special line of farming. On the whole, however, mixed farming must be aimed
at, with a special commercial line to suit the district and community. On account of the Coast
section of the Mainland being more or less heavily timbered, truck-raising, small fruits, etc..
must be gone in for, and the live-stock industry fostered as more land is cleared for the growing
of cattle foodstuffs.
The Bella Coola Valley has reached the stage where mixed farming is being carried out.
At present the market for Bella Coola produce is chiefly Prince Rupert, 250 miles distant. But
transportation facilities are not of the best for the shipping of agricultural produce as raised in
Bella Coola to-day. Therefore, farmers must aim at turning out products that will reach the
market in good condition after delays in transportation, etc.
Dairying should be made a special feature, making Bella Coola a creamery centre. This
mode of farming will no doubt follow in due course in the Kitimat Valley, Kitsumgallum and
Lakelse, Upper Skeena and the Nass.
Heavy clearing exists in parts, but on the whole the main problem is the artificial draining
of the moss and muskeg or such formations where natural drainage does not easily take place.
To bring such under cultivation means that a great deal of work must be done to carry off
surface water by way of cleaning out the natural waterways and with artificial drainage.
However, for the time being, the raising of poultry, truck-crops, etc., is being done. In time,
dairying will be the line to specialize in.
The Stikine District possesses agricultural land of different types. Some of the benches
and slopes will need irrigation. The muskeg sections need drainage. The river-bottom land is
very fertile. Sections of the district are of lava formation. The climate is variable. In low
pocket land summer frosts occur, but in open places, where the air circulates freely and the
water-drainage is good, successful agriculture may be practised.
Hardy grains, grasses, clovers, roots, vegetables, and potatoes are being and may be raised.
Placer-mining is being carried on in different parts of the district. Mule and horse pack-trains
are the only means of transportation from Telegraph Creek (the main point) to various points.
Thus human and animal foodstuffs are needed, much of which may be raised in the district.
The Atlin District is similar to the Stikine from an agricultural point of view. No lava
formation exists. The land surrounding the lakes is well adapted for the raising of agricultural
produce. There is a big demand for such, and large quantities are being shipped in from outside
points. Farming is now being prosecuted in the raising of hay, potatoes, roots, and vegetables.
Atlin possesses a fairly flourishing placer-mining camp.
Mabkets.
The market for agricultural products of the north is and will be mainly Prince Rupert,
although other towns will naturally require such.
Many of the present producers have been handicapped in competing with growers of the
south through lack of experience in the handling of produce, cost of labour, and, until recently,
high freight rates. These conditions are being gradually overcome. From recent conferences
between your representatives and the growers it has been found that the latter now realize that
they have to meet outside competition by using up-to-date market methods. The market situation
is one that will need the more immediate attention of the Assistant Horticulturists. At meetings
of the various Farmers' Institutes and growers generally, marketing problems and co-operative
buying and selling are being discussed. The Assistant Horticulturists are outlining methods
which the growers may make use of.
Prince Rupert has a city market. At present it is a question whether it will be a success
or not.    So far, results have been varied.
Faies.
The fairs in the north have now reached the stage where your representatives have to use
the best judgment in making awards.    Exhibitors are endeavouring to aim at the standards E 42 Department of Agriculture. 1916
laid down by the Department. This has been brought about by means of literature bearing on
the subject, and demonstrations given by the Assistant Horticulturists at the different fairs and
special meetings. The idea is to convey to the grower that the best exhibition produce is also
the best marketable produce.
Depaetment Exhibits at Faies.
At Prince Rupert the Department arranged for a booth, in which was exhibited agricultural
produce raised on the various experimental plots. This exhibit was to show the varieties of
produce which could be raised in the north, or Central British Columbia, and methods of staging
such for exhibition.    A representative was on hand to give information, distribute literature, etc.
School-woek.
Talks and lectures to the different schools have been given by your senior representative at
Bella Coola, Prince Rupert, Terrace, Telegraph Creek, and Masset, Graham Island, the subjects
handled being elementary agriculture and horticulture and also nature-study, as well as outlining
and inspecting the work of school-gardens.
Your junior representative has conducted more detailed and extended school-work, which is
reported separately.
Weather.
During the growing months on the Mainland dry weather prevailed and many crops suffered.
At Terrace the rainfall from April to September was 12.74 inches.
At Prince Rupert and adjacent islands a comparatively dry season was experienced. Prince
Rupert weather records show July to be the driest month. The rainfall was 1.28 inches. July
27th was the hottest day, reaching 79 degrees, the lowest, on December 29th, being 22 degrees.
The average mean temperature was 47.6. Precipitation: Rain, 108.5 inches; snow, 2.11 inches
(reduced to precipitation) ; total 110.61 inches.
From October to December a heavy rainfall occurred ou the northern Coast.
Records for the various agricultural districts may be had by applying to the Meteorological
Office at Victoria.
Pests and Diseases.
These are taken up in detail in connection with the experimental plot reports. The most
serious pest this year was the cruciferoe root-maggot. No serious disease broke out. Potato-scab
(Oospora scabies) was the most prevalent disease.
Farmers are beginning to see the need of giving treatment to various crops in keeping down
various pests and diseases.
Respectfully submitted.
A. H. Tomlinson,
Assistant Horticulturist.
ANNUAL REPORT OF ASSISTANT  HORTICULTURIST,  KAMLOOPS  DISTRICT.
H. Thornber.
R. M. Winslow, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as Assistant Horticulturist for the
Kamloops District for the year 1915.
District Work.
During the year I made eight visits to my district, at which times I inspected orchards,
directed the work of the demonstration and experimental orchards, collected estimates on crop
production, judged competitions, and, in general, aided and encouraged different phases of
agriculture.
As my visits were brief, and not made at regular intervals on account of conflicting dates
with other lines of work, no experiments or tests requiring constant personal attention at any
special time were attempted; hence practically all investigation-work in my district was
suspended. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 43
Lectures given in 1915.
During February and March I gave a series of talks on " Plant Propagation " and " The
Home Vegetable-garden " before the Women's Institutes near Victoria. The districts covered
were as follows: Royal Oak, Metchosin, Langford, Garden City, and Lake Hill. The interest
at these meetings was good.
In July your assistant delivered a series of lectures to the teachers attending the summer
science school held in Victoria. These lectures covered all phases of Horticulture, from the
selection of a location for an orchard or vegetable-garden to the care and management through
the different stages of development.    Thirty-four lectures in all were given during the month.
During the year talks were given before various clubs and associations. The subject-matter
dealt with in most cases was the growing of vegetables on small areas.
Pruning-schools and Demonsteations.
In the spring of 1915 I conducted pruning-schools at Royal Oak and Hammond. At each
school discussions were held on different phases of fruit-growing, as well as on the principals of
pruning. Interest was especially good at Hammond, and in each school several pupils showed
a remarkable degree of efficiency in the work, while the others, with practice, could easily prune
their own orchards.
Fall Fairs and Shows.
During the fall of 1915 your assistant judged at the following fairs: Vancouver Exhibition,
Parksville Fall Fair, Hilliers Fall Fair, Saltspring Island Fall Fair, and Saanichton Fall Fair.
I was assisted in some of these by Messrs. R. C. Abbott and W. H. Robertson.
I also judged flower-shows at Ladysmith, Matsqui, and assisted at Mission City: and strawberry competitions at Keating and Hammond.    Complete reports of these have been submitted.
Cold Storage, 1914-15.
Mention was made of last year's cold-storage work in my last annual report. The last
inspection was completed in May and the reports have been filed for future reference with those
of previous years.
Cold Storage, 1915-16.
During October apples were collected from five sections in the Interior for use iu the regular
storage experiments. In all, about 130 boxes were stored, and these are being used in completing
the tests previously started. A complete report of the performance of these will be submitted
at the close of the experiments.
Walhachin Demonstration Orchard.
This orchard came through the winter of 1914-15 in excellent condition. The cover-crop of
clover was ploughed down in the early spring, and this, followed by the frequent summer
cultivations, kept the orchard in a high state of cultivation. All operations were performed
promptly and the season's growth was satisfactory. During the latter part of the season a few
aphides appeared on some of the trees, but spraying was unnecessary. Upon visiting the orchard
in November the trees appeared to be in good condition and promise well for the future. This
year terminates the five-year contract with this orchard, and complete and satisfactory records
have been secured.
Nicola Experimental Orchard.
The well-ripened condition of the trees in this orchard in the fall of 1914 resulted in a very
small loss of trees through cold. The cover-crop of winter wheat was ploughed under in April,
when it was about 0 inches high. This was followed by frequent disking and surface cultivation
with a Kimball harrow, which kept the orchard in good condition. When I visited this orchard
in November the trees were well ripened and everything appeared satisfactory for the winter.
Complete annual reports have already been submitted for the above demonstration orchards.
This year terminates the contract with the Nicola orchard also, but a large amount of
replanting was necessary in 1912 and 1913.   Much has already been learned from the records on E 44 Department of Agriculture. 1916
this orchard, and it is now in a condition to make a valuable demonstration plot for the district.
Several residents of this valley have already expressed their desire to see supervision continued
by this Department.
The Oak Bay Vegetable-plot.
This plot was started in January, 1915, and was operated for the purpose of showing the
possibilities within the reach of the city man for producing a portion or all of the vegetables
required for the home. An assortment of early and late vegetables was grown during the
summer and last fall a supply of winter vegetables was planted for use the next spring.
Considering the garden was planted on virgin soil, which was not of ideal composition for
vegetables, all crops did remarkably well and the plot proved a valuable object-lesson for the
many amateur gardeners in the district. A complete report of this demonstration plot is being
prepared and will be submitted later.
Vegetable-gaeden Competitions.
One farm-garden competition was arranged for at Kamloops and was conducted under the
auspices of the Kamloops City Council. Seventeen competitors were secured and the gardens
were judged twice during the summer. The competition was in every way a complete success
and applications have already been made for a similar competition in 1916.
Fruit and Vegetable Production, 1915.
The 1915 fruit-crop greatly exceeded that of the previous year, and with so many young
trees coming into bearing the production of the Kamloops District should increase 100 per cent,
in the next year or two.
The vegetable-crop was not as promising as in past years. A shortage of irrigation-water
at several points caused great losses. There is, however, a feeling in the district that vegetable
production will be a paying proposition in the future if a suitable market is secured. In view
of this, preparations are being made to increase the acreage gradually and investigate the
markets.
Pests in District.
I am pleased to state that the district remains exceptionally free from any serious orchard
or garden pests. About the most serious observed last summer were the green apple-aphis and
pear-slug. While the former was widely distributed, no control measures were necessary as it
appeared too late to do much injury. The latter did damage in several isolated cases, but was
easily controlled by spraying.
General Office-woek.
Aside from the above-mentioned activities, your assistant handled various other lines of
work in the office; much of this consisted of revising circulars, compiling and publishing crop
reports, arranging competitions, answering correspondence, and consultation-work.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
H. Thoenbeb,
A ssistant Horticulturist. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 45
ANNUAL REPORT OF ASSISTANT HORTICULTURIST, NORTHERN OKANAGAN, SALMON
ARM, ARROW LAKES, SLOCAN, AND UPPER COLUMBIA VALLEY DISTRICTS.
P. E. French.
R. M. Winslow, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as Assistant Horticulturist for the Northern
Okanagan, Salmon Arm, Arrow Lakes, Slocan District, and Upper Columbia Valley. This report
also includes the activities of Mr. L. F. Burrows, who acted as my assistant throughout the
summer and fall months.
Pruning-schools.
During the pruning season I held nine pruning-schools. These were held as follows: One
at Malakwa, two at Salmon Arm, one at Canoe, one at Gleneden, two at Armstrong, one at
Enderby, and one at Celista. Many letters of appreciation for the instruction obtained were
received from the institutes under which the schools were held and from individual pupils.
Budding and grafting demonstrations have been given some time during the course in pruning.
Many applications for pruning-schools at the close of the year have already been sent in
from various parts of my district.    Separate reports on each school have been submitted.
Packing-schools.
Although not having acted as Instructor at packing-schools, I always spent a certain amount
of time promoting them in the various parts of my district.
Demonstration and Experimental Orchards.
The three demonstration orchards and the two experimental orchards in my district are all
looking well. Annual reports of these orchards, with the monthly report cards, have been
submitted.
The Salmon Arm Demonstration Orchard, which was planted in 1911, made good growth in
1915 and next year should produce a quantity of fruit. From intercrops and fruit on this
orchard a profit this year of $137.55 above all expenses was realized.
The Shuswap Demonstration Orchard, which was also planted in 1911, made very strong
growth indeed the past season and produced twenty boxes of fruit. This orchard was kept
clean-cultivated throughout the growing season, and the cost, after subtracting the amount
received for the fruit, was $35.S0.
In the New Denver Demonstration Orchard not a tree has been lost and all made fine growth
the past season. Part of the orchard was intercropped, and this brought the cost of operations
down to $34.50, even though one-half of the ploughing is done for next year.
The Windermere Experimental Orchard in 1915 was cared for at a cost of $43. Potatoes
were grown in part of it and the crop was good, but the prices received were low, while the
cost of cultivation was high on account of twitch-grass. The trees are looking good, there being
very little winter injury last winter.    They had matured well in the fall.
The Golden Experimental Orchard also made good growth in 1915, and the crop of clover
paid for the season's expenses.
From the above I think it will be seen that the costs of operations in each case have been
kept down to a minimum. The owners of the various orchards have, on the whole, done the
work well and were always willing to co-operate with your assistant for the proper care of the
orchards.
All the pruning in the five orchards was done by your assistant, and who throughout the
growing season made it a point to visit each orchard at least once a month.
Fire-blight Inspection-work in the Arrow Lakes and Slocan Districts.
Most of this work was left in the hands of Mr. Burrows, who spent a large percentage of
his time in the above districts. Several small infections occurred, but in each case they were
quickly cut out. New infections occurred—namely, one at Nakusp, one at Beaton, one at Arrow
Park, one at Fauquier, two at Renata, and one at Syringa Creek. No infections or hold-over
cankers were noticed the latter part of the season. E 46 Department of Agriculture. 1916
Exhibition-work.
During September, October, and November your assistant officiated as judge of fruit and
vegetables at the Nelson, Grand Forks, Greenwood, and Summerland Exhibitions. Mr. Burrows
assisted the judge at the Salmon Arm, Armstrong, and Nakusp Fairs, and acted as judge of
fruit and vegetables at Seymour Arm, Burton, and Needles.
Full reports of all these fairs, with marked prize-lists, have been sent to the Secretary of
the Department of Agriculture.
Farmers' Institute Work.
In February I gave several lectures on fruit and vegetable subjects at the two weeks' short
course which was held at Kelowna; also addresses at the Armstrong Farmers' Institute meeting
and at the inauguration meeting of the Upper Columbia Valley Farmers' Institute.
Mr. Burrows gave a lecture on " Small Fruits " at a Farmers' Institute meeting at Gateway,
and one on " The Home Vegetable-garden " to the Fairview Home Improvement Association at
Nelson.
EXPEBIMENTAL  WOEK.
Your assistant was again during the year able, with the assistance of Mr. Burrows, to
undertake experimental work along the same lines as in 1914. This included experiments with
spray mixtures, chemical fertilizers on different crops and soils, thinning experiments, etc.
These experiments were conducted in co-operation with certain fruit-growers and vegetable-
growers, and at very little expense to the Department.
Lime and sulphur, lime and sulphur and Black Leak 40, Bordeaux mixture, Soluble sulphur,
and soluble sulphur and soap were all again tried out, principally for the control of apple-Scab.
The results obtained this year are not quite as good as last year. This was mainly due to the
extra damp season, which was very favourable for the development of scab, and partly due to
the failure to get on a third spray. I was called away at that time on other work and the man
in charge neglected to carry out instructions. However, even with only two sprays this damp
season, the lime and sulphur gave 59 per cent, free from scab and the Bordeaux 89 per cent, free
from scab, while on the unsprayed plot there was only 2 per cent, free from scab. About 15 per
cent, of the apples sprayed with Bordeaux were russeted on account of burning. Last year the
lime and sulphur gave better results than Bordeaux for the control of scab, and the Bordeaux
burnt the fruit much more.
Where the growers used three sprayings of lime and sulphur in 1915 and applied it
thoroughly and at the right time, they had very clean fruit indeed.
The following is a general outline of the spraying experiment to test different spray mixtures
for general spraying, which was conducted at Salmon Arm, and the results obtained. The
varieties used were Ben Davis and Rome Beauty and the trees were ten years old in 1914.
Ninety trees were used in the experiment, fifteen to each plot.
In 1915 the first application was applied on April 27th, or just as the blossoms were showing
pink, and the second application on May 22nd, or just after the blossoms had fallen. In 1914 the
dates were May 5th and May 29th.
Mixtures used for First Spraying.—Plot 1:    Lime and sulphur, 1 to 25.
Plot 2:    Lime and sulphur, 1 to 25; and Black Leaf 40, 1 to 800.
Plot 3:    Bordeaux mixture, 4-4-40.
Plot 4:    Soluble sulphur, 1% lb. to 40 gallons water.
Plot 5:    Same as Plot 4, plus 5 lb. laundry-soap to 40 gallons water.
Plot 6:    Check plot, not sprayed.
Mixtures used for Second Spraying.—Plot 1: Lime and sulphur, 1 to 30, plus arsenate of
lead, 2 lb. to 40 gallons.
Plot 2:    Same as Plot 1, plus Black Leaf 40, 1 to 800.
Plot 3:    Bordeaux mixture, 4-4-40, plus arsenate of lead, 2 lb. to 40 gallons.
Plot 4:    Soluble sulphur, 1 lb. to 50 gallons water, plus arsenate of lead, 2 lb. to 40 gallons.
Plot 5:    Same as Plot 4, plus 5 lb. laundry-soap to 40 gallons.
Plot 6:    Check plot, not sprayed.
1914 Results.—Plot 1: 97.1 per cent, of fruit was free from scab. No damage due to aphides
or other insects. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 41
Plot 2: 9S.S per cent, of fruit was free from scab. No damage due to aphides or other
insects.
Plot 3: 96 per cent, of fruit was free from scab. About 85 per cent, of the fruit on this
plot was russeted on account of burning, and only about 25 per cent, of the fruit was marketable.
Plot 4: 91 per cent, of the fruit was free from scab. There was a slight burning on tips of
a few branches and leaves, but no real damage.    No damage due to aphides or other insects.
Plot 5 : 87.8 per cent, of fruit free from scab. Slight burning of leaves and tips of branches,
tut no damage.    No damage due to aphides or other insects.
Plot 6: 19.5 per cent, of fruit free from scab. Slight amount of damage due to green fruit-
worm and tussock caterpillars.
1.915 Results.—Plot 1: 58 per cent, of fruit free from scab. No damage due to aphides or
other insects.
Plot 2:    59 per cent, of fruit free from scab.    No damage due to aphides or other insects.
Plot 3: 89 per cent, of fruit free from scab. About 15 per cent, of the fruit on this plot
was russeted on account of turning.
Plot 4: 51 per cent, of fruit free from scab. Slight burning of leaves, but no real damage.
Scab very bad on leaves.
Plot 5: 24 per cent, of fruit free from scab. Some burning of leaves. Scab very bad on
leaves.
Plot 6:    2 per cent, of fruit free from scab.    Trees partly defoliated on account of scab.
Average Scab-control Results for Two Years.—Plot 1:    77.5 per cent, of fruit free from scab.
Plot 2:    78.9 per cent, of fruit free from scab.
Plot 3: 92.5 per cent, of fruit free from scab. About 50 per cent, of fruit russeted on
account of burning.
Plot 4:   '71 per cent, of fruit free from scab.
Plot 5:    58.9 per cent, of fruit free from scab.
Plot 6:    10.7 per cent, of fruit free from scab.
The percentage of fruit free from scab was worked out by actual count of a portion of the
fruit from each plot.
Conclusions arrived at from this Experiment.—That by careful spraying the percentage of
fruit affected with scab should be very small. A third spraying is necessary in a wet season
like the last one.
That, under our climatic conditions, there is too much danger of russeting the fruit by
burning if Bordeaux mixture is used after the blossoms have fallen.
That soluble sulphur is not as effective as lime and sulphur for a summer spray.
That the addition of soap to the soluble sulphur is of no benefit and only a waste of money.
That the addition of Black Leaf 40 to the lime and sulphur is a waste of money unless
aphides, etc., are present at the time of spraying.
From these results I would recommend, as the most economical and best spray for the
control of scab, lime and sulphur 1 to 25 or 1 to 30, or Bordeaux mixture 4-4-40, just as the
blossoms show pink, and lime and sulphur 1 to 30 or 1 to 35 just after the blossoms have fallen.
In a wet season like that in 1915 a third spraying of lime and sulphur 1 to 35 or 1 to 40, about
two weeks later, is necessary.
Black Leaf 40, Black Leaf 40 and soap, Pendray's summer spray, whale-oil soap and quassia-
chips were all tried out for the control of aphides. Black Leaf 40 and soap and whale-oil and
quassia-chips gave much better results than Black Leaf 40 alone or Pendray's summer spray.
The chemical fertilizers, nitrate of soda, muriate of potash, and superphosphate of lime, were
again experimented with on two celery plots and two potato-plots at Armstrong; on celery,
strawberries, raspberries and potatoes at Salmon Arm.
I shall here outline the fertilizer experiment on celery at Armstrong on Mr. Christian's
farm and on Mr. Cuthbert's farm. The other fertilizer experiments w^ere along much the same
lines.
Experiment on Mr. Christian's Farm.—Area % acre; each plot, l/M acre. The plots, fertilizer used, and quantities applied were exactly the same as in 1914, except the check plot.
Instead of the check plot, in 1915 lime was applied on this plot at the rate of 2,000 lb. per acre.
This was done because the check plot gave no growth in 1914.
Plot  (1) :    Lime 200 lb. E 48
Department of Agriculture.
1916
(9 & 9 & 9) ;  muriate of potash,
Plot  (2) :    Complete fertilizer—Nitrate of soda, 27 lb.
27 lb.; superphosphate of lime, 70 lb.
Plot (3) :    Nitrate of soda, 27 lb. (9 & 9 & 9) ; muriate of potash, 27 lb.
Plot (4) :    Nitrate of soda, 27 lb.  (9 & 9 & 9) ; superphosphate of lime, 70 lb.
Plot (5) :    Muriate of potash, 27 lb.; superphosphate of lime, 70 lb.
The soil is a black muck and had never been fertilized before 1914, the first year of this
experiment.    Plots (1) and (3) looked poor throughout the whole season.
Value less  Cost
of   Harvesting.
965 lb. celery    $ 19 30
Results-
Plot
Plot
Plot
Plot
Plot
(1):
(2):
(3):
(4):
(5):
4,865   „        „            97 30
2.650   „        „            53 30
5,380   „        „          107 60
4,425   ,,       „            88 50
Cost of Fertilizer used.—
Sodium nitrate, 27 lb  $1 10
Muriate of potash, 27 lb 1 40
Superphosphate of lime, 70 lb     1 55
Lime, 200 lb     3 00
Table showing Results obtained.
(D
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Value of Product.
t 19.30
97.30
53.00
107.60
88.50
Cost of Fertilizer.
53.00
4.05
2.50
2.65
2.95
Value of Product
less Cost of
Fertilizer.
I 16.30
93.25
50.50
104.95
85.55
As Plot (3), on which no phosphate was applied, did not give nearly as good results as
Plot (2), the complete, it must be concluded that the soil needs phosphate.
As Plot (4), on which no potash was applied, gave just as good results as Plot (2), the
conclusion is that the soil contains plenty of potash.
As Plot (5), on which no nitrogen was applied, gave almost as good results as Plot (2)
(the slight difference might easily be due to other causes), the conclusion is that the addition
of nitrogen is not necessary.
The lime did not give results in 1915, but might be of benefit in 1916.
Experiment on Mr. Cuthbert's Farm.—This was simply a duplicate of the former experiment,
except that Plot (1) was a check plot (non-fertilized).
Results.— vf°? le^ C0St
of   Harvesting.
Plot (1) : 1,366 lb. celery   $54 64
Plot (2) : 1,508   „        „       60 32
Plot (3) : 1,450,,        ,  58 00
Plot (4) : 1,630   „        „       65.20
Plot (5) : 1,540   „        „       61 60
Table showing Results obtained.
(1).
(2)
(3)
(4)
Plot.
Value of Product.
$54.64
60.32
58.00
65.20
61.60
Cost of Fertilizer.
|4.05
2.50
2.65
2 95
Value of Produ ct
less Cost of
Fertilizer.
$54.64
56.27
55.50
62.55
58.65 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 49
The results obtained are practically the same as the former experiment, except that there
is not as much difference in the various plots.
Remarks.—In the experiment on Mr. Christian's farm the celery was weighed without
cleaning, and on Mr. Cuthbert's farm it was cleaned, washed, and packed. This accounts for
the difference in price per pound.
The plots on Mr. Christian's farm were not fertilized before 1914, while those on Mr.
Cuthbert's farm were fertilized heavily several years previously.
Conclusion arrived at from the Two Years' Experiment.—That the bottom land at Armstrong
requires the application of phosphate to get best results.
That the growers could save a large amount of money and probably get as good results by
applying less nitrate and potash than they are now doing.
That the soil which has been fertilized regularly and worked up properly does not require
the large quantities of chemical fertilizer that some growers are using. This is shown by the
smaller difference between the plots in Mr. Cuthbert's case.
On the bench lands at Salmon Arm and Armstrong, where the fertilizers were applied, the
nitrate was the only fertilizer that paid for itself by increased crops.
Thinning experiments on Bartlett pears and Wealthy apples were conducted at Salmon Arm.
Separate detailed reports on each of the various experiments have been submitted.
Competitions.
During July a raspberry competition was held in the Notch Hill District. There were five
entries and your assistant acted as judge of the competition. The competitors seemed to take a
live interest in the competition.
Orchard inspection and personal instruction to orchardists and vegetable-growers on their
own places is especially popular, and this work takes up considerable time. This is particularly
true in the case of outlying districts where there are not sufficient growers to take advantage of
the pruning-schools, packing-schools, etc.
Office-work must of necessity be attended to. It is growing larger each year. There are
also crop estimates, express and freight shipments, weather conditions, etc., to report on throughout the season.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
P. E. Fbench,
Assistant Horticulturist.
ANNUAL REPORT OF ASSISTANT HORTICULTURIST,  OKANAGAN VALLEY.
B. Hoy.
R. M. Winslow, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sie,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as Assistant Horticulturist for the
Okanagan Valley for the year 1915.
Meetings and Fall Faies.
Your assistant attended the annual meeting of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association and addressed meetings at Rutland, Glenmore, Ellison, Penticton, Westbank, and Summer-
land.
The fall fairs at Matsqui, Chilliwack, Mission, Nakusp, Armstrong, and Oyama were attended
in the capacity of judge.
Peuning-schools.
Pruning-schools were organized and held at Summerland (two), Naramata, Penticton,
Oyama, Vernon, and Westbank. All of these were well attended and much appreciated by the
pupils.
Shobt Coueses.
A two-weeks' short course in agriculture was held at Kelowna at the beginning of the year,
and proved to be a successful adventure.   There is an application in from Summerland for a
5 E 50 Department of Agriculture. 1916
similar course in 1916, and efforts are being made in Penticton and Kelowna to get enough
pupils for two other courses. Owing to enlistment it is anticipated that the attendance at
institute meetings and short courses will not be as large as usual.
Onion Stoeage.
In 1914 experiments in storing onions at Kelowna were begun and were continued in 1915.
A report of the results of last winter's work has been submitted. Onions did not appear to be
keeping as well in 1915 as the previous year. A report on this work will be submitted in the
spring at the end of the experiment.
Feetilizee Experiments.
Fertilizer experiments were conducted with onions at Vernon and Kelowna. The results at
both places were good. A report has been submitted on this work. If time permits, these
experiments will be continued and extended in 1916.
Besides experiments with onions, one was begun with Mcintosh apples on Rutland Bench,
Kelowna. There was no crop on the orchard this year, but the same plots will be used and the
test continued in. 1916.
Spraying.
Powdery mildew of the apple was of great economic importance in some Okanagan orchards
this year. On many trees it ruined the crop. In order to combat the disease a small experiment
was made with atomic sulphur. Though it was applied late in the season and did not help the
crop, it had a very beneficial effect on the growth and foliage of the trees to which it was applied.
Experiments are necessary with various sprays to find out the most economic way of combating
this disease, which is increasing each year.
Scab was very bad in many orchards around Vernon and in some parts around Kelowna.
No experiments were conducted with this disease, but it was well demonstrated by those who
carefully followed the instructions that lime and sulphur aided materially in keeping the disease
in check.
Fire-blight.
In 1915 fire-blight was not nearly as prevalent and did not do as much damage as the previous
year. There is still a great deal in and around the district and no effort should be spared in
keeping it down, for with proper conditions in the spring-there is enough to cause much trouble
if not looked after before blossoming-time.
Orchard and Lot Competition.
At Kelowna an orchard competition was held. There were about twenty orchards in this
competition. They were all visited twice and some of them three times during the summer.
The interest in the competition was keen.
A lot and garden competition was held at Summerland. There was good interest taken in
this and noticeable beneficial effect in the district.
Variety Yields.
This work was continued in 1915 and a few interesting figures have been obtained. These
will be submitted as soon as completed.
General Wobk.
These duties were much the same as in previous years, consisting of personal visits to fruitgrowers to help them with various problems, preparing crop estimates, attending to correspondence, revising Spray Circular, and various other lines of work connected with the Horticultural
Branch. Special attention was given this year to keeping down costs, and cover-cropping, much
study being given to the latter.    Many growers were influenced to try out various crops.
The demand for personal advice and instruction was even greater than during the year 1914.
This work takes up considerable time and makes it impossible to personally carry on systematic
experimental work.
Respectfully submitted. B. Hoy,
Assistant Horticulturist. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 51
ANNUAL   REPORT   OF   ASSISTANT   HORTICULTURIST,   KOOTENAY   AND   BOUNDARY
DISTRICT.
M. S. Middleton.
R. M. Winslow, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report on the work of the Horticultural Branch in the Kootenay District for the year 1915.
The work, in a degree, which has been carried on here in 1915 has been very similar to that
of previous years, consisting of field investigations and personal visitation to numerous orchards,
conducting pruning-schools, demonstration and experimental orchard-work, Farmers' Institute
lecturing, and judging at fall fairs.
Pruning-schools.
During the early part of the year fifteen pruning-schools were held by Mr. E. C. Hunt and
myself in the district. Schools were held at the following places: Robson, Grand Forks, Rock
Creek, Queens Bay, Willow Point, Cedar Point, Harrop, Shirley, Slocan Park, Creston, Erickson,
Fruitvale, Boswell, and Syringa Creek. The attendance at all of these schools was above the
average, and a great deal of interest was shown by those taking the school. Three more schools
had to be cancelled owing to your assistant having met with an accident which confined him to
the hospital, until the pressure of other spring work demanded his attention. Reports on
pruning-schools and the scores of the pupils have been submitted.
Demonstration and Experimental Orchards.
The spring work consisted of pruning and generally supervising the work of the demonstration orchards located at Rossland, Birchbank, and Willow Point, and the experimental orchards
at Waldo and Wardner.
On the whole, the demonstration and experimental orchards have done very well during the
year. Some resetting had to be done at Waldo and Wardner in the way of supplementing
hardier shorter-seasoned varieties in place of some of the more tender sorts. A complete report
of the results as to the suitability of the various varieties in these two orchards has been
submitted. I consider that some good work has been done in the way of testing out varieties
of fruits for these districts by the experimental tests carried on in the experimental orchards.
Cover-crops were sown in some of the orchards during the year, but did not make good
growth owing to the lack of sufficient moisture in the soils when they were sown.
Three of the orchards—viz., Rossland, Birchbank, and Willow Point—have completed the
term of five j'ears as per their agreement with the Government.
Pests and Diseases.
In May Mr. L. F. Goodman began his duties as my assistant. He arrived rather too late to
be able to take up scab-spraying work which had been planned, so that his work was principally
orchard inspection and survey work. Some experiments were tried out after his arrival in the
control of scab, but owing to the lateness very poor results were obtained. Some excellent
experiments were carried on during the summer for the control of green aphis. This pest was
very plentiful in the district during the year. The report of these experiments, showing the
different applications, their cost and results, has been submitted.
Fire-blight made its appearance during the year at two new points in the district, Fairview
and Tarry's. A very thorough tree-to-tree inspection was made in these sections during the
summer, and all the affected limbs, and in some cases the whole trees, were removed and burned.
A thorough inspection will be made of these orchards during the winter and following spring.
At Harrop, where the blight was very bad in 1914, none made its apperaance last summer.
This was very encouraging, as a very thorough tree-to-tree inspection was given during the fall
and spring following the outbreak. At Grand Forks, under Mr. Hunt, the blight, although not
eradicated, has been kept under control very successfully.
Fruit pests in the district have been confined to the scab and green aphis. Undoubtedly
apple and pear scab is the worst disease in the West Kootenay District.    During the year some E 52 Department of Agriculture. 1916
of the growers succeeded in keeping it under control to a very large extent, while others were
unsuccessful. Where the spraying was thoroughly done and where lime and sulphur or Bordeaux
mixture was used, excellent results were obtained. Where the Bordeaux mixture was used,
some considerable russeting of the fruit was noticeable. The best results were obtained by
using lime and sulphur (32° Beaume) at the strength of 1 to 25 just as the blossoms were in
the well-advanced pink, and again with a strength of 1 to 40 just after the blossoms fell. Some
better results seemed to be obtained during the year by the practice of a third spray about two
weeks after the second. During such wet and favourable years for the development of scab,
such as the past summer, the third spray is to be recommended. However, during normal
seasons the two sprays mentioned above, if thoroughly applied, should give good commercial
results.
Educational Visits.
During August your assistant had the pleasure of a visit to the Wenatchee and Okanagan
fruit districts in the State of Washington, and had an excellent opportunity to compare notes
with the Horticulturists in those sections, and was in a position to pick up a good deal of very
valuable information and ideas from a horticultural standpoint.
Garden Contests.
A new feature of the year 1915 was the conducting of a number of farm and city garden
and truck-contests, two city garden, three farm garden, four strawberry, one raspberry, one
young orchard, and one bearing orchard competitions. A great deal of local interest and friendly
rivalry resulted from these contests, so that the time and money provided by the Government
were very worthily spent in this way.
Judging.
During September and October I judged at the following fairs: Heffley Creek, Pritchard,
Kamloops, Salmon Arm, Kelowna, and Oyama.
Fruit-crop.
The fruit-crop throughout the district was only fair. Small fruits were very good; some
car-load shipments were made from Wynndel and Creston, with good success in the way of
returns to the growers. In all sections fairly good returns have been received by the growers
for their fruit. These better returns have helped to raise the spirits of the growers. This may
lead to a little more interest being taken in the orchards, but there is very little new planting
being done, with the exception of that by the Doukhobor Society on their Brilliant and various
other holdings in the district. Considerable interest is being shown in small-fruit planting.
New strawberry and raspberry plantations are being set out and old ones extended in every
section. This has been brought about by the ready sale at good prices as fresh fruit on the
market or at the jam-factories in the district. In strawberries a very great variation in the
way of yields was noted in the various contests held in different parts of the district, as shown
by the yield return compiled.
Respectfully submitted.
M. S. Middleton,
Assistant Horticulturist. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 53
ANNUAL REPORT OF ACTING ASSISTANT HORTICULTURIST, BOUNDARY DISTRICT.
E. C. Hunt.
R. M. Winslow, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report on the work accomplished in
the Boundary District during the year 1915.
Pbuning-schools.
During the early part of the year the conducting of pruning-schools in the Boundary and
Kootenay Districts occupied my time. In all, nine pruning-schools were' held in January,
February, and March at the following places: Two at Grand Forks and one each at Harrop,
Fruitvale, Boswell, Erickson, Shirley, Syringa Creek, and Rock Creek. These schools were
conducted along the lines outlined by the Department, the larger part of the work being of a
practical nature; the pupils having the opportunity of doing the greater part of the actual
pruning of the trees themselves, under the supervision of the Instructor. In all, eighty-four
pupils attended the nine schools, an average of over nine per school.
Inspection-work.
After the pruning-school work was completed, the work consisted of inspection of the
different orchards in the Boundary District for fire-blight. A general clean-up of this disease
was made during March, April, and May. I also assisted with the pruning of the demonstration
orchards at Birchbank and Willow Point in April.
Variety Yields.
During the summer the time was taken up with blight-control work, crop reports, and office-
work in general. Assistance was given to the judging of the rose-show held in Nelson on July
1st. During August some variety yield record-work was started. The records are to be carried
on over four consecutive years, while annual records will also be kept. The varieties under
record are as follows: Five-year-old Wealthy, Mcintosh Red, Wagener, and Grimes Golden in
J. T. Lawrence's orchard; six-year-old Jonathan and Wageners in A. D. Morrison's orchard;
ten-year-old Spy, Wagener, Jonathan, and Grimes Golden, and fourteen-year-old Wealthy and
Mcintosh Red in H. W. Collins's orchards. The number of trees recorded of each variety and
age was not less than ten or more than thirty.
Fairs.
During all of September your assistant judged the fruit and vegetables at the following
fairs: Natal, Cranbrook, Wasa, Invermere, Golden, Fruitvale, Trail, and later at Rock Creek.
I also assisted P. E. French at Nelson.
COLD-STOBAGE   EXPEEIMENT.
A cold-storage experiment with apples was conducted. Two boxes each of the following
were collected: Wealthy, Wagener, Mcintosh Red, Jonathan, Gano, Spitzenberg, Yellow Newton,
Winter Banana, Rome Beauty, Grimes Golden, and Northern Spy.
Oechaed Recoeds.
Orchard record-work was taken up iu the fall, but the record for the district is incomplete
as yet. The blight-work and general eradication of this disease has been progressing very
favourably.
Respectfully submitted.
E. C. Hunt,
Acting Assistant Horticulturist. E 54 Department of Agriculture. 1916
ANNUAL  REPORT  OF  PRAIRIE  MARKETS  COMMISSIONER.
J. Forsyth Smith.
R. M. Winslow, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report for the year 1915.
Addresses to Fruit-growees, etc
Some weeks of March and April were spent in a trip through the principal fruit-growing
sections of British Columbia, where meetings were addressed by the Provincial Horticulturist
and myself on market conditions during the past season, interesting developments in the organization of our principal competitors in Washington and Oregon, methods of reducing the cost of
production, and other matters connected principally with the economic or commercial side of
the fruit industry.
Visit to American Beery Disteicts.
In late May, in accordance with the custom of other years, I visited the principal fruitgrowing districts of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho to secure information as to crop and price
probabilities, modifications in marketing organizations, and other information likely to affect
the general competitive situation on the Prairie market. Full reports on these matters were
issued as soon as the data was collected.
Weekly Repoets.
On my return to the Prairie during the week ending June 12th, the work of keeping in touch
with market conditions was begun and continued as usual, until I severed my connection with
the Department about the middle of August. An extended staff of correspondents and, especially,
a system of weekly inquiry by the Markets Commissioner, which definitely directed their
activities, added much to the value of the reports.
Stbawberries.
In accordance with the recommendations made in my last annual report, and as the outcome
of several meetings addressed early in the year by the Provincial Horticulturist and myself, the
fruit-growers of Gordon Head, Vancouver Island, completed arrangements for supplying the
Prairie with car-load lots of strawberries, with a view to testing the possibilities of that market.
The experiment was entirely successful. Some eight cars of berries were distributed between
Edmonton, Calgary, Cainrose, Regina, and Saskatoon, and sold at prices that gave the growers
very satisfactory returns. The berries reached their destination in excellent condition, and
produced such a good impression on the trade that it will be a very easy matter to make future
sales arrangements at satisfactory figures another season. During the time that they could be
supplied there was no question of importing foreign berries to compete with them, and double
the quantity could readily have been sold at good prices if they had been procurable. A point
that was very noticeable in connection with these shipments was the considerable difference in
the net returns to shippers between part and full-loaded cars (800 boxes). It has been clearly
established that full cars will carry as far as Saskatoon in good condition, and shippers will
find it to their advantage not to pay more than is necessary on unearned weight. Another point
that should be borne in mind is the advisability of ascertaining as far ahead as possible just
when car-lots can be shipped, and of sparing no effort to live up to all promises of the kind, as,
in order to keep out the competing berry, sales arrangements on the Prairie must be made some
considerable time before actual shipments are made. Complications resulting in reduced prices
are likely to arise if shipments are made either a day ahead or a day after scheduled time.
The Creston District also experimented successfully with the car-load shipping of strawberries, shipping cars to Edmonton and Moose Jaw. The Edmonton car, unfortunately, was
quite green, and so failed to give satisfaction. At the time that these cars were being offered,
Creston L.C.L. shipments direct to the retailer tended to demoralize the market. The Markets
Commissioner communicated with the shippers, and, as these berries were largely under one
control, he was able to suggest such arrangements as made possible the sale of the cars at 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 55
substantially higher figures than would otherwise have been the case. Frequent telegraphic
reports of the strawberry market were also sent at the request of the shippers and at their
expense.
L.C.L. shipments of strawberries from Lower Mainland and Kootenay points were received
in fair quantities, and, as most of these berries were either handled on commission at the centres,
especially Calgary, or sold direct to retailers, they frequently had an adverse effect on car-lot
price possibilities. Shippers are particularly urged to make sure that their prices are not too
low, when they are shipping direct to retailers at the centres. Prices to country town retailers
do not have such a pronounced effect on car-load prospects.
Many strawberry-crates, especially those from Kootenay points, came in with the hallocks
broken, due to the wrong placing of the side and bottom hallocks. There should be four narrow
or three wide slats on the bottom, and the outer ones should be flush with the edges. The pint
package is decidedly the more popular and the better price-getter proportionately, and it is
believed that its general adoption by British Columbia shippers is desirable.
Raspberries.
L.C.L. shipments of raspberries consigned to wholesalers in Calgary and other centres or
shipped direct to retailers had a much more serious effect upon the situation this year than last.
Express rates and duty from Puyallup, our only American raspberry competitor, to Alberta
points are so high (from 27 to 33 cents a crate more than ours, without counting the varying
7% per cent, war duty) that there was never any possibility of bringing in the foreign berry,
and yet the competition of our own uncontrolled L.C.L. shipments made it impossible for our
car-lots to obtain the excellent prices the Washington figures would have justified. One car for
which Edmonton wholesalers gave the excellent price of $3 delivered (brokerage, 21% per cent.;
express and ice, 59 cents; net to shippers, $2.18) arrived in excellent condition, but had at once
to meet the competition of local express berries selling to the retailer at the same or less than
was being paid to the wholesaler for the car. In one particular instance an order given by a
retailer for berries out of the car at $3.50 was cancelled on receipt of a considerable shipment,
which actually came in at a lower price by the same train from one of the growrers shipping in
the car. The wholesalers were obliged, as a result, to drop prices from $3.50 to $3, and finally
to job as low as $1.50. Similarly, the Calgary jobbers who bought a car at $2.65 lost heavily
(one firm figuring $104 loss) on account of the impossibility of selling at a profit, when local
express shipments were being offered to the retailer at $2.50. This sort of thing is decidedly
bad business; the trade has good reason for serious dissatisfaction, and, if arrangements are
not made to control the present disastrous internal competition, the car-lot raspberry business
must inevitably go out of business. This is particularly regrettable, as, with little organization
and centralized co-operation, the British Columbia raspberry would occupy a position of strength
on the Prairie market superior to that of any other fruit. There is one possible competitor only,
Puyallup, and over that one duty and a favourable express rate give us a decided advantage,
especially in Alberta. It is significant that not a single car of American raspberries has reached
Alberta since our car-lot shipments began in 1914.
The use of the two packages, full pints and % quarts, on the same market had the unfortunate effect of constantly depressing the prices obtainable for the former. It is certainly advisable
to secure uniformity on this point. The full pint is more popular with the trade and the
consumer, who objects to -the unfilled appearance so frequently caused in the % quart package
by a slight jar in transit. Experience has shown, also, that all property handled cardot
shipments of the full pint package, as well as L.C.L. shipments when picked under reasonably
fair-weather conditions, come through in excellent condition. On the other hand, berries, wet
or otherwise, not in the best condition for shipping would undoubtedly travel better by local
express in the % quarts. The full pint is desirable, moreover, to place our car-lots on even terms
with our American competitors. It would appear then that, if the shipping is to be carried on
in a wholesale way toy car-lot shipping, the full pint should be generally adopted. If L.C.L.
shipments are to predominate, the % quart should be retained.
Cherries.
The cherry season was, on the whole, more satisfactory than last year. The early inferior
sour cherries, May Dukes, Governor Woods, and Early Richmonds, as usual, met with a small E 56 Department of Agriculture. 1916
demand, and thus tendered to accumulate at the centres, necessitating low prices to move them.
The demand for the later preserving cherries, the Morellos and Olivets, also, was not satisfactory
owing mainly to economy by the housewives, who were not putting up their usual supplies of
preserves, but partly to a growing tendency to preserve Bings in preference to the sour varieties.
American Bings came in in considerable quantities, especially popular being car-lot shipments
of 25-lb. lug-boxes from Yakima, which moved into consumption very rapidly, the package proving
very popular with trade and consumer alike. These shipments had an unfortunate adverse
effect on the prices of British Columbia Bings, though the demand remained strong throughout
the season. There was very little call for Royal Annes, which at times were actually selling for
half what was brought by the same weight of Bings.
Apricots.
The apricot market was generally quite favourable, demand was strong throughout, and
prices fair. Arrangements were made at an early date for the placing of a number of car-lots
and this resulted in some cases in the trade holding off from their usual early purchases of
American apricots to wait for British Columbia. It is regrettable in this connection that it was
not found possible to determine more accurately the dates at which it would be possible to ship,
as the wholesalers were justifiably dissatisfied at resulting discrepancies between promise and
fulfilment.
An unfortunate situation developed in Calgary from the use of the Public Market by British
Columbia shippers of apricots consigned to the Market Superintendent. The retail stall operated
by this official was established by the Consumers' League with the avowed object of reducing
prices to a minimum in order to force a general reduction in the city for the benefit of the
consumer, and, as a result, his prices had no relation whatever to conditions of supply and
demand. A truly anomalous situation developed. At a time when the trade were clamouring
for supplies, and wholesale prices of $1.25 for 4-box crates and of $1.15 for peach-boxes could
have been maintained with the greatest ease, the market started retailing at 85 cents per peach-
box. Market prices are, of course, fully reported in the papers, and thus, at one stroke, an
insignificant quantity of fruit in the wrong place was responsible for cutting car-lot price
possibilities in Calgary 25 or 35 cents a crate. Direct shipments to retailers on what was
practically a consignment basis also existed to an unfortunate extent.
The Calgaby Fruit-marketing Conference.
The Fruit-marketing Conference arranged under the auspices of the Calgary Board of Trade
and the British Columbia Department of Agriculture took place on July the 7th, Sth, and 9th,
1915, and was attended by a good number of representative British Columbia growers, by D.
Johnson, Dominion Fruit Commissioner, and by representatives of the various sections of the
Prairie trade. The many problems connected with the successful distribution and sale of fruit
on the Prairie market were discussed from many standpoints, and the general result of the
gathering will be a clearer understanding by all concerned of many features of the situation.
Publicity Work.
I spent some time in late April and early May in compiling an attractive British Columbia
Fruit Booklet, containing a large number of fruit recipes for the use of housewives, as well as
much interesting information as to apple varieties and seasons, apple storage, etc. On my return
to the Prairie, an important feature of my work was to arrange for the distribution of these
booklets to the secretaries of Grain-growers' Associations, the members of Women's Institutes,
wholesalers, retailers, etc. The booklet secured immediate popularity, and distribution in
response to personal applications were large and continuous.
Advertising space was taken on the " Woman's Page " of some fourteen pages in Calgary,
Edmonton, Regina, Moose Jaw, Medicine Hat, etc., and the plan was adopted of running a
weekly bulletin of fruit information for housewives, always, if possible, in the same column, and
always prominently indicated by the use of the same crossed-fiag cuts with the patriotic slogan:
" Canada First! " Buy " Home-grown Fruits! " To give additional value to these spaces a
series of competitions for housewives was planned, with boxes of British Columbia fruits as
prizes.    An appeal was made to British Columbia shippers to donate the fruit required for prizes,   6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 57
and up to the time of my leaving Calgary a very generous response had been received. Only
one competition had taken place, when my work was interrupted by my resignation, but that
proved a most gratifying success. Prizes were offered for the best jars of fruit preserved without
sugar, and a large number of Calgary ladies entered the competition. The fruit, when received,
was displayed in the window and the rest-room of a prominent Eighth Avenue retailer, who
states that hundreds of interested housewives called to inspect the exhibits and to secure booklets
that would enable them to put up equally good fruit in a similar inexpensive manner. It is
significant that 90 per cent, of the applications for fruit booklets received at this time asked
specially for the instructions for putting up fruit without sugar. Further advertising possibilities
were drawn out of the competition by the writing-up and subsequent publishing of interviews
with ladies who had previous successful experience in preserving fruits without sugar.
I believe that competition features to attract the special attention of housewives, combined
with window displays wherever possible, offer an advertising device capable of indefinite extension and well worthy of serious consideration in any future publicity plans that may be arranged.
Other valuable features are the circulars to wholesalers and retailers and secretaries of
grain-growers' organizations, several of which were issued giving information as to crop probabilities, and suggesting, when thought desirable, special activity in pushing sales of a particular
fruit at a particular time. After a circular of this kind pointing out the shortness of the apricot
season and urging general co-operation among the trade in making the most of it, several
wholesalers wrote expressing their appreciation of this policy, and stating that it aided their
sales.
Resignation.
About the middle of August I resigned the position of Prairie Markets Commissioner to
accept from the Federal Government an appointment as Fruit Trade Commissioner to the British
market.
I may say that it is with special regret that I severed my connection with the many
interesting British Columbia marketing problems which I have been engaged in studying,
especially with those connected with car-lot berry-shipping and publicity work.
In my new position I hope to have opportunities of serving British Columbia's apple industry,
and, perhaps, need scarcely to express my readiness to do so in any way that seems possible.
Up to the present time British Columbia apple shipments to Great Britain have been so sporadic
and insignificant in quantity that, in spite of their victories at apple-shows, they have produced
comparatively little impression on the trade. Washington and Oregon apples are looked after
by a sales representative residing in London, and have been offered so steadily and continuously
that they have already succeeded in building up a good demand for their packs. British
Columbia should not delay too long in adopting an aggressive policy designed to prepare these
markets to receive the larger quantities that must needs be sent here when its orchard output
approaches  its  maximum.
Respectfully submitted. J. Forsyth Smith,
Prairie Markets  Commissioner.
ANNUAL   REPORT   OF   THE   PRAIRIE   MARKETS   COMMISSIONER    (AUGUST   TO
DECEMBER).
W. E. McTaggart.
R. M. Winsloio, Esq., •
Provincial Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my annual report on the work of the Prairie Markets
Commissioner's Division for 1915.
Upon assuming these duties in August, I spent some time in familiarizing myself with the
work of the office and acquainting myself with Prairie fruit-trade conditions, being assisted by
Mr. R. M. Winslow, Provincial Horticulturist, who spent some time in Calgary.
The advertising of the soft fruits and the issuing of the weekly reports engaged my attention,
as well as keeping in touch with the markets generally. The advertising and general publicity
work will demand more and more attention from this office, because the selling agencies of the E 58 Department of Agriculture. 1916
Provincial fruit-growers are becoming so well represented on the Prairies that, beyond general
surveys of conditions, individual investigation-work, other than some particular cases, will toe
unnecessary.
The Prairie jobbers have shown a marked spirit of co-operation, and they at all times have
assisted in the work which is appreciated beyond measure. They are all advocates of the
consumption of Canadian fruit in general and British Columbia fruit in particular, but when
prices of outside fruit are lower than ours, naturally they will buy at the prices from which
they expect to make the greatest profit.
Co-operation.
I wish to point out the necessity of growers' organizations uniting their sales efforts, so that
by co-operation and having a larger quantity to sell they will receive the best returns. Every
effort should be made to attain this end, so that the marketing problems of growers may be
reduced to a minimum.
Consignments.
The consigning of fruit to grocers should be discouraged. This has been demonstrated on
numerous occasions during the year. Prices were being maintained at high levels, only to be
shattered by a small shipper consigning, perhaps, but a few boxes of fruit to a grocer, who would
then be able to offer his customers some good fruit at lower prices than his competitor and yet
be making a greater profit than if he had purchased the fruit at market prices.
Advertising.
The advertising of British Columbia's fruits on the Prairies this year produced excellent
results, and the many advertisements which appeared in the press of the three Western
Provinces did much to impress upon the minds of the consuming public the advisability of
purchasing none but British Columbia fruits. The superior qualities of the varieties grown in
the most westerly Province were given much space, aud the uses and qualities of the principal
varieties were continually brought to the attention of the reader.
Your Markets Commissioner endeavoured, in so far as it was possible, to emphasize in the
advertisements the value to be gained by buying the varieties of fruits then in season. This so
appealed to the retailers and jobbers that they in their advertising also emphasized this idea.
A large number of the Prairie jobbers have thus learned that it is good business on their
part to push the sale of the different varieties as they come in season. It has been too often
the case in the past that a retailer would receive his supply of winter apples, composed in some
cases of Jonathans, Wageners, Spitzenbergs, and Spys, and would at once sell the Wagoners and
other late winter varieties. He would store the Jonathans and then wonder in a few weeks'
time why they were not good keepers.
The advertising was confined to newspapers and farm journals, with the exception of some
window hangers, which, owing to the delay of the printers, were not ready for distribution until
late in November. These cards, however, were used most effectively by hundreds of retailers
in Western Canada, who were repeatedly asking for advertising literature of some sort, so that
they could link up their stores with our advertising. This shows a co-operative spirit among the
Prairie retailers, who are ever ready to co-operate with the Department in furthering the sale
of fruit, which should be utilized at every opportunity.
The apple-advertising campaign has been commented upon by some of the most widely
known Canadian advertisers in a most gratifying manner.
Soft Fruits.—My predecessor, Mr. J. Forsyth Smith, made arrangements for the insertion of
advertisements in the Alberta dailies, in which he emphasized the advisability of buying " now."
This copy was used chiefly for strawberries, raspberries, and cherries with excellent results.
For apricots, plums, peaches, aud tomatoes Mr. Smith used 12-inch single-column space in
all the Alberta and Saskatchewan dailies, as well as nine weeklies in these two Provinces. This
copy was changed weekly and featured different fruits as they came to the market.
Besides the use of newspapers and competitions, your Markets Commissioner made arrangements with Dr. Scott and T. B. Kidner, of the Calgary putolic schools, for the supplying to each
domestic-science class   a case of Italian prunes, which the soon-to-be culinary experts used to excellent advantage in preserves, jam, and pies. Every girl was also given a British Columbia
Fruit Booklet, and in this way the mothers of the girls were brought in direct touch with our
fruit. This doubtless was good advertising, because the school-girls of to-day are the housewives
of to-morrow, and if they can be educated to demand British Columbia fruits now they will
continue to do so in the future.
To increase the interest in this event, your Commissioner addressed the Calgary domestic-
science teachers and acquainted them with the growth and marketing of Italian prunes. This
information the teachers gave to the girls when the fruit was being prepared in so many
appetizing ways in the class-room.
The soft-fruit advertising brought hundreds of inquiries for booklets, as well as many letters
seeking information regarding the sale, distribution, and prices of fruit.
Apples.—In every piece of advertising copy sent out from the office to the thirty or more
mediums, the phrase " Buy British Columbia Apples " was featured, as well as the catchy rhyme,
" Every apple has its season; Eat it, then you'll taste the reason." This was done so that
British Columbia apples would shortly become as well known in the newspapers and farm
journals as are Campbell's Soups, the Gold Dust Twins, and such other products that are known
from coast to coast.
Small space was ordered for the week beginning October 11th, and this was gradually
increased until the first week of November. Twenty-three daily and weekly newspapers were
used in this campaign. Besides the above, the Nor-West Farmer, Farmer's Advocate, Grain
Growers' Guide, Saturday Press, and Farm and Ranch Review were used in bringing to the
attention of the prosperous Prairie farmers the surpassing qualities of our apples.
In this way every section of the three Western Provinces was covered by our advertising,
and the people of the Prairies now know British Columbia fruit better than ever.
The newspapers co-operated in every way and their generous and liberal supplying of space
is appreciated beyond measure. They ran hundreds of recipes of fruits when the season was
at its height and made mention in many ways of the work that the Department was doing in
furthering the sale of British Columbia fruit.
The advertising in the farm papers was particularly valuable, for by the use of there
mediums the farmer and his wife were appealed to in a most emphatic manner, because these
journals have a strong hold on their readers.
Windows were also used to advantage in creating interest in British Columbia apples; the
T. Eaton Co., Limited, Winnipeg, made an attractive display of British Columbia apples; the
Hudson's Bay Co., of Calgary, had one of the best apple-windows which has ever been shown in
Canada. This window captured first prize in the apple-window competition as conducted by
Messrs. Plunkett & Savage, the well-known jobbers of that city. Besides these, hundreds of
retailers throughout the Prairie Provinces featured British Columbia apples during the week
of November 1st to 6th, when the largest advertising copy was being used in the newspapers.
The many attractive windows supplemented British Columbia newspaper and other advertising and thus made the connecting-link between the grower and the consumer. This, 1 am
sure, should be furthered another season, so that greater co-operation may result to the lasting
benefit of the retailer, the jobber, the broker, the shipper, and the grower.
Lithographed window hangers, 14 x 18 inches, were distributed judiciously to the Prairie
trade, who in turn had their travellers place them in every store where fruit was being sold.
This also had a lasting effect, as coming after the newspaper advertising the readers of the
dailies were again brought face to face with the idea of demanding that they be supplied with
British Columbia fruit.
Mr. W. A. Cooper, superintendent of the dining, sleeping, and parlour car system of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, and his officials in Western Canada co-operated with this office in
advertising British Columbia apples by having special menu-cards printed on which British
Columbia apples were featured. These cards on the Alberta division were in use all November,
and, as travel was fairly heavy during that time, much valuable publicity was thus gained.
In Moose Jaw, Saskatoon, and Edmonton a number of boxes of apples were donated to the
domestic-science classes of the public and high schools, which was excellent advertising and
which did a great deal to acquaint the school-girls with the superior flavour of our apples.
British Columbia Fruit Booklets were also distributed to all the pupils. These donations were
given notice of in the daily papers and thus double value was received. E 60 Department of Agriculture. 1916
One grocer at Munson, Alta., The White Co., held an apple pie-baking competition which
stimulated their sales considerably. This idea and many other sales ideas such as these could
very well be given more attention in the future.
In conjunction with the display-space used in the newspapers and farm journals, arrangements were made with the editors of these different publications to publish recipes and stories
about the price of fruit from time to time, as well as other items regarding the movement of the
British Columbia crop and its condition.
The recipes were at all times timely, being selected with care, and notice was always
attached to them, with the exception of a very few cases, to the effect that they were taken
from the British Columbia Fruit Booklet, a copy of which could be had from the Markets
Commissioner.
The advertising on the Prairie was a success and helped to a wonderful degree to acquaint
the people of Western Canada of the superior quality of British Columbia apples when used in
their proper seasons.
Market Conditions.
Apples.—The shortage of the apple-crop in Nova Scotia and Ontario worked to the material
advantage of the British Columbia growers. The usual heavy shipments which are consigned
to the Prairies were reduced considerably, and hence the jobbers had to look elsewhere for their
supply. Of the earlier varieties there were many shipments of Middle States apples received in
Manitoba and the eastern part of Saskatchewan. This was the first year that any quantity of
the apples from this section of the continent found a market in Canada.
More important was the shortage of apples in the North-western States, which worked to
the advantage of this Province even more. There was, nevertheless, a large quantity of C grade
stock from Washington and Montana received during the season.
The prices generally were satisfactory, with the exception of a few cars, owing to their
condition. In particular, a large Winnipeg department store sold boxed apples at $1 and 95
cents per box.   The quality was inferior and the price paid quite consistent to value received.
The crate proved to be popular, but the standardization of this package must receive
attention without delay. The Prairie retailers, jobbers, and consumers in some cases demand
that this be done. It is too often the case that one grocer will be advertising crated apples at
$1.37, while another storekeeper just a few doors away will be selling crated apples, also, but
at $1.60. The consumer immediately concludes that " somebody must be making a lot of money,"
when in reality the difference in the size of the crates makes the difference in the price, but. a
" crate is a crate " to hundreds of housewives. It would be well when the crate is standardized
to have it specifically stated that it is to contain approximately a certain number of " pounds of
apples of good grade." The crate in some cases was abused by the shippers, and it would be
to the advantage of every one to pack nothing but good stock in this package.
Apples in bulk were brought in by a Northern Alberta jobber who had them crated in his
warehouse, but this method was not a success as far as could be ascertained.
The pack of apples generally gave good satisfaction and there was little complaint in this
respect.
Prunes.—The prune market held fairly steady during the earlier part of the season and
fairly good prices were being received. When it was thought that the entire crop had been
moved, prunes by the car arrived in Calgary on consignment, much to the consternation of the
jobbers and trade generally. One car was sold to one of the largest department stores, who in
turn retailed it at 49 cents per box. This, of course, broke the market, which had dropped
slightly just previously. Prunes were then slaughtered by the retailers and the consumers were
naturally delighted. In the southern part of the Province, at Lethbridge and McLeod, a retailer
brought in a car of American prunes and retailed them at 80 cents, but this price was maintained
fairly well; excepting this, the retail price would have been anywhere from 90 cents to $1.
It would be advisable to confine the packing of prunes to 3%-inch peach-boxes, as this is
the size which is used so extensively by the growers across the line, and British Columbia can
then meet their competition on open ground.
Plums.—The Prairie trade is unanimous in declaring that plums should be packed in no
other package but the four-basket crate, and from personal investigations found this to be the 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 61
best package. The Pond's Seedlings which were shipped to the plains in peach-boxes were not
at all acceptable. Otherwise this variety was in demand at all times, no doubt because of the
improved pack.
Pears.—The movement of pears to Western Canada was successful from a marketing point
of view; many compliments were paid British Columbia growers by the trade on the superior
packing and general excellence of this fruit. There is an increasing demand for pears in the
farming districts about Saskatoon, where the consumption is very large compared with other
sections of the Prairies.    Prices were generally satisfactory.
Grab-apples.—The Transcendents moved slowly, but the Hyslops were in good demand from
all sections of the Prairies. The pear-box pack gave good satisfaction in all sections. This fruit
is increasing in favour and the demand for Hyslops in some cases exceeded the supply. One
Manitoba jobber received crabs packed in 41/2-inch peach-boxes, but this was very unsatisfactory
and should not be continued under any consideration.
Cantaloupes.—The excellent quality of British Columbia cantaloupes attracted much attention on the Prairies during the year. The trade is unanimous, however, in declaring that more
care must be'exercised in grading and packing. It would be advisable for the growers to grade
strictly to size and mark the number contained in the package and the net weight. A small
cantaloupe is much to be preferred and sells well. The cantaloupe-crate of 20 x 12 x 12 inches
is favoured by the majority of the Prairie dealers.    The very large cantaloupes are not wanted.
The Prairie is a good market for cantaloupes, but the growers must eater to the trade's
requirements and demands.
Weekly Reports.
These reports were issued as usual from Calgary every Saturday, and were, I believe, as
accurate as was possible to make them. The typographical appearance of these reports was
again improved and enhanced the attractiveness of this much-looked-for publication.
Packages.
The standardization of packages should at once engage the attention of all growers, shippers,
and marketing agencies of the Province, as well as the jobbers, retailers, and box-manufacturers.
Attention has been repeatedly drawn to this matter during my many visits to the Prairie towns.
Small-fruit packages are more fully dealt with in the report of Mr. J. F. Smith, my
predecessor.
With the assistance of Mr. A. H. Flack, Chief Fruit Inspector for the Prairie Provinces, a
table has been drawn up showing the packages asked for by various jobbers in the different
cities.    (See Appendix No. IS.)
Fruit Auctions.
There was opened in AVinnipeg this year a " fruit auction," where fruit was auctioned to the
trade. This market proved to be popular with the retailers in the Prairie capital, because the
jobbers who had too much fruit in their warehouses feared they would loose money; in an
endeavour to make as much as possible they would allow the fruit to be sold at this auction.
The sales were held in the evening; thus the hundreds of small retailers scattered throughout
the city and suburbs were enabled to participate in the bargains that were to be had at this
market-place. The fruit that was sold was in most cases only sent to the auction when it could
not be disposed of at the regular prices. This soon became known to the retailers, who would
hold off and buy at the auction in many cases. A market such as this can only survive in a
city where there is a large number of small retailers, who are the customers of such a selling-
place.    The sales are made to the trade only.
Respectfully submitted.
W. E. McTaggart,
Prairie Markets Commissioner. E 62 Department of Agriculture. 1916
ANNUAL  REPORT  OF  COAST  MARKETS   COMMISSIONER.
R. C. Abbott.
R. M. Winslow, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as Coast Markets Commissioner for the
year 1915.
During the season of 1915 the time was spent principally looking into the market conditions
in the Coast cities, with the view of ascertaining the real reason why the markets in the past
have made such poor returns to the grower, and if the prices paid by the consumer were in
keeping with the' returns to the grower. Assistance was also rendered whenever and wherever
possible in the quick movement of perishable farm produce sent in on consignment; in using
my efforts where possible to protect the consignor against any advantage that might be taken
of him toy the unnecessary slaughtering of his consignment. Efforts were also devoted toward
urging upon the commission houses the necessity of making " quick returns " to the growers.
Much time has been well spent in encouraging the trade and the public to buy home-grown fruit
and produce in preference to that imported during the season in which British Columbia fruits
and other produce were being marketed.
Imported Peoducts.
In the past years there has been altogether too great a quantity of foreign fruit sold on
British Columbia markets to the detriment of our growrers. A number of reasons have been
put forth as to the cause.
First: The season in the South being earlier than in British Columbia made it possible for
the Southern growers to ship into British Columbia markets and thus fill the demand before
our growers got on the market at all. In soft fruits this is true to a great extent, and every
endeavour possible was made last season by press notices, distribution of " fruit date" cards,
and other means to acquaint the consumers with the fact that the British Columbia crop would
be on the market at a certain date, and to wait for and buy only British Columbia grown
products.
The above had a decided effect on the sale of imported fruits, and also proved beyond doubt
that the consumers themselves prefer to patronize home industry where possible. Investigations
also proved the inability at times of British Columbia shipping organizations to fill this demand
which we had held in waiting for our British Columbia products. This was particularly noticeable in the case of strawberries and apricots.
Second:   The lack of a dependable and sufficient supply at all times.
Third: There was the possibility of commission houses bringing in this early fruit and
filling up the demand at a fair profit to themselves, knowing that when the British Columbia
crop did come on growers would be compelled to ship on consignment, and they would be in a
position to sell such fruit at ridiculously low prices which would move the fruit in spite of the
poor demand, and any commissions made would be considered surplus.
Fourth : A " longer margin " of profit to the wholesaler on imported fruit, being brought
about in different ways, namely: Consignments sent in from the South; job lots picked up in
the American Coast cities; brokers from Vancouver houses buying for cash direct from the
Washington grower and assembling cars at different points; buying on " advance payment" per
toox, which is commonly known as the semi-consignment plan. This last plan of securing fruit,
which is only practised by very few firms, is very demoralizing to any market, as these firms
hold in their hand a weapon with which they can break a market at will by underselling the
legitimate jobber. This plan was very detrimental to our apple market during the fall of 1914
and early spring of 1915. Steps taken during 1915 to discourage this system met with considerable success.
Fifth: The unreliability of British Columbia grades and packs in past years, which matter
must be noted carefully throughout this report in dealing with the different kinds of produce
marketed. There is no doubt but what there will remain suspicion and prejudice against British
Columbia produce until such time as our growers can absolutely guarantee to the dealers by
actual demonstration that any fruit offered by them will be, when shipped, according to the 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 63
standard offered. Knowing the actual existence of the above-mentioned facts, your Commissioner gave a great deal of attention during the season to the study of bringing about that
much-needed " confidence " of the wholesaler and retailer, as well as the consumer, in the ability
of British Columbia growers to market their produce according to the standards required by
the trade.
Shipping on Consignment.
British Columbia fruit and vegetable markets are continually being demoralized and kept
in an unsteady state by growers shipping their fruit and produce on consignment irrespective
of the condition of the market. Not only do they ship without previous notice to the commission
houses, but in many instances continue to ship large quantities of perishable fruit even when
requested by the commission house to stop. The outcome of this is that the commission house
has to get out from under this accumulation, and in order to do so breaks the market, resulting
in loss not only to one shipper, tout to any others who are trying to solve the question of proper
distribution and better markets. While this practice is to be deplored and we have a thorough
knowledge of the disastrous results caused by it, it cannot be said that it will entirely be overcome as long as there are independent shippers who from their end are unable to keep in daily
touch with the market conditions.
Shipping dieect to Retailee.
In a large city like Vancouver, which is the chief marketing-point for local fruits and other
produce, direct shipment to retailers on the consignment plan is detrimental to the best interests
of the producer. Direct shipping to retailers at a set market price should not hurt our markets,
but consigning to " cut-rate " retailers has brought little profit to the shipper and ruinous results
to the markets.
It is impossible for any grower living at a distance to measure the selling capacity of a
retail store, and invariably we find the retailer being overloaded, who in turn either slumps this
perishable produce off at ridiculously low prices, or after holding it in his store until it is badly
decayed sends it to the commission houses to sell.
Pateiotism and Economy.
Many appeals have been made to the consuming, public of late to be more patriotic in their
purchasing, and the response has toeen greater than was at first anticipated. Times have been
strenuous in the cities and many consumers have been forced to the point of placing purchasing
economy ahead of patriotism, and they must not be judged too harshly, for many consuming
purchasers who in good times would give preference to home products irrespective of price
have now to consider price first, and price only.
Weekly Repoets.
Regular weekly market reports were issued from Vancouver from April 10th to December
31st. These reports were issued and mailed each Saturday night so as to be in the hands of
the growers Monday morning if possible. In making up these reports care was taken to give
the true condition of the markets, and also to give the grower an accurate list of market
quotations, which are so essential to profitable farming.
In addition to the regular weekly reports, private and individual reports were given out
whenever required.
Adveetising.
Publicity work along with other duties of this office becomes a necessary feature, and
although not carried on as extensively as desired, the results obtained proved to be of excellent
value to British Columbia producers.
The city press was made use of whenever the opportunity occurred, and good results were
obtained from interviews and news items given out to the public acquainting them with the
crop conditions and the available supply of the various commodities. We find the consuming
public eager for such information, which, I believe, when reliable and given out regularly to
the public along these lines, bring remarkable results. E 64 Department of Agriculture. 1916
The newspapers in the cities have supported this office most admirably and have given much
free advertising, a thing British Columbia growers appreciate very much.
During the strawberry campaign the newspaper boosting was given free, and occasion was
taken to place before the public information whereby some knowledge was gained of the extent
of the British Columbia berry industry.
" Best Time to Buy B.C. Fruit" cards were distributed through the retail stores.
" British Columbia Fruit Booklet."—This booklet, containing some 225 recipes (including
canning fruit without sugar) besides other valuable information, has indeed been one of our
best, if not the best medium for advertising the merits of British Columbia fruits. Five
thousand seven hundred of these were distributed through this office. Of this number over
4,000 were given out individually to consumers.
This little booklet might be termed the growers' " Silent Salesman," and it was no doubt
the means of materially increasing the consumption of our fruits last season.
Those who have put up their fruit without sugar this season have met with good success,
and there is no doubt but what large quantities will be done this way next season.
The consumption of tomatoes just when there was a likelihood of a break in the market
was greatly increased by press notices and the issuing of circulars on the " Home Canning of
Tomatoes."
During the season for soft fruits, " fruit talks " were also given before the different women's
organizations in the city.
Apple-advertising was run in the four dailies and brought direct results which were very
encouraging. The advertising has kept prominently (before the public the great necessity of
keeping their money in circulation within our own Province by purchasing only " British Columbia grown produce."
Packages.
Comments on the package question usually draws severe criticism from the growers who
do not yet realize the great necessity of a " standard " package for the different kinds of fruit,
and the undisputed fact that one of the great features to be considered in working-up and holding
a market is giving to the consumers value for their money.
A great deal of confusion was experienced by the trade and consumers during the past
season on account of the growers using different sizes and different-shaped berry-crates. To
the majority of the trade and consumers alike, " a crate is a crate" irrespective of size, and
the prices obtained for the large crates did not warrant their use. As long as growers continue
to use different sizes of crates for the same kind of berries there will always be confusion and
dissatisfaction in prices. (For packages used in marketing fruits and vegetables see Appendix
No. 19.)
The test given the Climax basket, of which mention is made elsewhere, this season was not
a fair one. Growers used the wrong size of basket for certain heavy fruits, and too large, a size
for certain overripe and soft fruits. Teamsters and expressmen abused the basket in handling,
and wholesalers' salesmen did all they could to discourage its use. It would be advisable for
growers to give more attention as to which fruits they ship in this basket, and I would further
recommend the use of the 6-quart and the 11-quart to some limited extent for high-grade red-
coloured dessert apples. The use of a smaller package than the present -box for this class of
dessert apples would meet with approval of the consuming public, as at present consumers who
cannot use a whole box at a time have to buy by the pound and carry their fruit home in a
paper sack. A retailer who has tried out this basket in this respect claims it is much better
than the half or quarter boxes. The quarter apple-box, 5% x 11 x 9 inches, as used by a fruit-
stand dealer here, did. not find a very ready sale, for two reasons: First, this box had no handles
and was not convenient to carry; and, second, the dealer used it for a low-grade cheap apple,
and consequently the first cost of the package brought the price of the apples up too high in
price.
City Markets.
After a careful investigation into the methods in vogue at the Vancouver City Market
during 1914, it was decided that this market was badly in need of reorganization, and in my
recommendations to the chairman of the City Market Committee urged the necessity of making.  -
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this a farmers' or producers' market, doing away with their existing method of auction which
was being carried on, and allowing farmers or farmers' organizations to operate stalls during
the week if they so desired, making Saturday an open farmers' day.
The City Council carried out these recommendations to some extent, but did not get the
market open until June, which was too late in the season for vegetable-growers. However, the
number of producers which attended this market during the summer months was far in excess
of expectations, but many of these became discouraged on account of competition with peddlers,
who bought consigned produce, storage eggs, cheap butter, etc., on " wholesale row " and sold
from rented stalls on Saturdays. The attendance of consumers at this market was good, and
the experience of the past season proved beyond all doubt that a properly managed, producer
to consumer, sanitary market would be well patronized by tooth producers and the consuming
public A market run on the stall system for selling a poor class of storage produce soon plays
out, as the consuming public must have value for their money. Consumers are very anxious
to buy direct from the farm, and much dissatisfaction was expressed when they had bought
what they thought to be a dozen fresh-gathered eggs direct from a farmer, only to find on using
them that they were stale and often bad eggs. Upon further investigation it was found they
had not been dealing with a farmer at all, but with some peddler who had dropped in for
the day.
In recommending the reorganization of this market it was hoped that an outlet would be
furnished for our lower-grade apples, and also for vegetables and other produce grown on the
small holdings in South Vancouver, Burnaby, Lulu Island, Delta, and other local districts.
Low-grade apples and vegetables grown by white farmers sent in to the wholesalers here did
not find the sale or attention they were entitled to. The trade would not handle the low-grade
produce, and Chinamen were supplying vegetables to both wholesalers and retailers as well
as from house to house. Our low-grade apples and other fruits were " slumped " to the peddler
at ridiculously low prices, who in turn sold to the housewives at a good margin of profit; thus
the grower, after paying transportation and commission charges, received a very low price and
in many instances nothing at all for his produce while the consumer paid a good price; the
profits going to those who had no responsibility and little labour in connection with the transaction. Every year we hear of thousands of dollars' worth of fruit going to waste on account
of the returns received by the grower for what he had marketed not being large enough to
warrant him going to the trouble of shipping more into the city. It was the disposal of this
class of produce direct to the consumer that I had been considering. This medium of disposal
for this class of fruit and other produce proved my contentions very satisfactory, and producers
who did attend this market regularly were well satisfied, and many say that they were able to
sell produce this season that they never did before. A fair estimate for the nine months would
be $15,000 worth of vegetables and low-grade fruit disposed of here in the above way.
The City Market also made several attempts at the brokerage and commission business,
but with little success, as far as returns to the producer were concerned.
Other city markets operating have had a very satisfactory year, yet they are not patronized
by the growers as they should be.
Rhubarb.—Coast cities are supplied almost entirely by rhubarb grown in the Lower Fraser
Valley. During the month of March and early part of April small shipments come in from
California, but this rhubarb is very much inferior to that of home-grown. The bulk of this
crop, grown iu the Mission-IIatzic District this season, was controlled by the Fraser Valley
Fruit Union, Limited, who contracted with the Mutual Brokers of Calgary to supply them
with car-lots.
Unfortunately the average yield was only fair, the growth being very slow during the
regular rhubarb season, and for this reason the Coast cities did not receive a supply sufficient
to satisfy the demand, and it was found necessary to bring in two cars from Washington State.
Prices remained good through the regular season, but for some unknown reason growers
shipped large quantities into these cities very late in the season and after the berry season
was on. The demand then being over, a very large percentage of this shipment had to be
sent to the incinerator or disposed of at very low prices.
Vancouver consumes approximately eighteen cars- each season, and can handle this amount
readily and without loss if British Columbia growers will give more attention to proper distribution. There are individual shippers who will ship in 200 and 250 boxes at one time to one
6 E 66 Department of Agriculture. 1916
commission house and not ship any more for probably three weeks' time. The outcome of this
is that the shipper has to stand a heavy loss, as the commission house in all likelihood would
be receiving a sufficient supply daily from regular shippers, and finds it impossible to dispose
of this extra large shipment thrown on him without notice. Shippers who ship independently
are strongly advised to divide their shipments in small lots among the commission houses and
make these regularly.
Strawberries.—The imported-strawberry season started early in April with berries from
Texas. These were in pint hallocks and sold wholesale at $6 per crate, but soon dropped in
price as the sales were very slow. Following the Texas berries came those from California in
crates holding 15 and 20 pint hallocks which usually sold wholesale for $2 and $2.25 respectively.
The imports from Texas and California were light, and the berries were of poor quality and too
high in price, which lessened the demand.
The Kennewick, Wash., berries were our chief competitors in the first part of the season.
These were of excellent quality and the pack and grading of the best. Each hallock is filled
till the berries are % inch above the top and weigh on an average 10% oz.
During 1914 very large quantities of strawberries were brought in from Washington, and
many of these were on consignment, actually demoralizing the market for our growers. A
repetition of this was feared in 1915, and your Commissioner started work early in the season
to save, if possible, this market for British Columbia growers. Appeals to the public to buy
only British Columbia berries for canning and preserving were made through the press and by
placing 500 display-cards in retail grocery-stores, asking the consumers to keep their money at
home and assist British Columbia growers by buying only British Columbia berries. Personal
appeals were made to the retail grocers to give British Columbia berries the preference and their
promise- secured to do so. A number of them, after having a clear explanation of the situation
placed before them, actually refused to buy or have in their stores any foreign berries.
This campaign was also carried on in conjunction with the wholesale commission merchants,
who eventually not only stopped buying foreign berries, but stopped all consignments from
coming in, and carried canvas banners, 3x5 feet, on their delivery-trucks for two weeks,
bearing the words: " Buy B.C. Grown Strawberries. Preserving Date, June 1st to 14th."
But, unfortunately for the Vancouver market, just when the enthusiasm was at its highest
the Gordon Head Fruit-growers' Association, which was supplying the bulk of the berries to
this market; delivered some six cars of their crop to the Prairie markets, leaving Vancouver
City very short. By this time it was quite plain to the American growers that their supply
was going to be far below expectation, and, as they had already made arrangements for the
balance of their shipments, it was impossible for the jobbers here to buy a supply from across
the line. Consumers, who had held off buying their supply, became alarmed and would have
bought imported berries readily had they been offered.
Taking the season through, there was little or no loss whatever and returns to the growers
' were very gratifying.    It might be stated here that the distribution of the strawberries this
season proved beyond doubt that this can only be properly obtained by co-operation on the
growers' part.    Although the Keating Fruit-growers' Association had no broker in Vancouver,
they maintained throughout the season most efficient distribution.
The total number of crates imported in 1915 was 7,110, of which 1,800 were 20-hallock size.
The total value, based on the wholesale selling-price, was $16,000, showing a decrease from 1914
of approximately $50,000. The British Columbia shipments in 1915 to Vancouver City amounted
to 31,080 crates and sold wholesale for $59,052, or $1.90 per crate (pint).
Raspberries.—The raspberry season came on rather suddenly some twelve days in advance
of former years, which caused an overlapping of the strawberry and raspberry seasons. This
meant a poor demand for raspberries and consequently low prices early in the season.
The amount of raspberries imported this season was only 150 crates, as against 2,695 crates
in 1914, while the total receipts from British Columbia was increased 6,039 crates.
Burnaby District is a heavy contributor to the Cities of Vancouver and New Westminster.
These berries were delivered by auto-truck and wagon early every morning, and a number of
retail stores delivered groceries to the growers in this district and took berries in trade. This,
with the direct shipments to these retailers sent in from distant points, kept the raspberry market
in a bad state during the whole season. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 67
Growers wTho ship on the trains should arrange their shipments so as to arrive here either
early in the morning or late the night before. Shipments arriving here at noon mean a big loss
to the grower, as these either have to be slumped to peddlers or held over until the next morning,
when they invariably show a large percentage of waste.
Gooseberries.—The demand for gooseberries in the Coast cities is not great, but extends
over a long period. The demand has increased wonderfully during the past three years, and
will continue to do so when once the growers realize the great necessity of putting their berries
on the market at the proper stage of maturity. The market will take small shipments regularly
from the time the berries are no larger than peas. These are used in pies, and sell in the retail
stores put up in pint hallocks, but few housewives will can or jam such immature fruit.
Frequently growers ship their whole crop into the city in one single shipment before the
fruit is half matured. The outcome is that the market is overstocked, prices drop, and in many
instances commission houses find it impossible to " clean up " and large quantities spoil. It is
very important that growers make small and regular shipments early in the season and extend
the season as long as possible, being careful to place the bulk of their crop on the market only
when well matured.
Formerly the major portion of this supply came from Kennewick and other districts in
Washington State, but with the steady supply furnished by some of our growers (who followed
the advice sent out in our weekly reports) the imports were cut down from 661 crates in 1914
to 75 in 1915. The steady and small regular supply was the means of holding the price right
through the season.
Loganberries.—Loganberries have in the past found a very poor market in British Columbia
cities; this is no doubt due to the fact that consumers do not yet know the merits of this berry
sufficiently.
This berry has proved to be an excellent one for jelly-making and should commend itself
to every housewife. No doubt the demand for this berry can be materially increased by a little
judicious education among the consumers.
Currants.—Both black and large red currants were in good demand and brought good prices,
while the white and small red varieties found little or no sale.
Black currants are not bought in large quantities by housewives, yet every household should
"buy and really needs a certain quantity. The 6-quart Climax basket is recommended, especially
where the distance for shipment is short. There is no doubt but what this would materially
increase the consumption.
There were no currants imported in 1915, and the total sales of those from British Columbia
show an increase of 115.3 per cent.
Cherries.—There was a good demand throughout the season for.a large sweet cherry of dark
colour, such as the Bing or Lambert, and even the Black Republican received considerable
attention.
Growers who ship in varieties that are small and of light-yellow colour would do better to
keep these at home and save paying the express, as the trade will not handle them.
These large sweet cherries are usually sold by the single pound, and it matters little what
package the grower ships them in, so long as he does not place too great a quantity in one box
and cause heating.
The early shipments from California came in 10-lb. boxes, and later on in " lug" boxes
holding 25 lb. net. Washington cherries came in " lugs," and even peach and apple boxes were
used to some extent.
There were very few Royal Annes that did not show signs of rot. A few Morellos in the
strawberry (pint) crate moved out well at good prices, but it is only waste of time and increased
expense for British Columbia growers to go to the trouble of " facing up " and packing the very
small varieties in 10-lb. boxes. The 4- and 6-quart Climax basket eliminates a great deal of
expense in this connection.
The demand for sour cherries was not very strong, due principally to the high price of
sugar. This demand could no doubt be increased somewhat by the use of a cheaper package,
such as the Climax basket, instead of the expensive strawberry-crate now in use.
During the season there was a decrease in both local and foreign shipments to this market,
the imports showing 43 per cent, decrease, while the British Columbia shipments show a decrease
of only 8.6 per cent. E 68 Department of Agriculture.     » 1916
Apricots.—Car-load shipments of apricots arrived on these markets from Wenatchee fully
twenty days before the first shipment from British Columbia. Certain jobbers endeavoured to
fill up the demand with imported stock before the British Columbia supply reached the market.
This was done by press notices advising housewives to buy apricots as the season was passing,
the prices being only $1.85 per crate; and certain salesmen were also advising stores to buy
imported apricots, as the British Columbia crop had already been marketed in Calgary. These
markets in previous years have been filled almost entirely with imported stock (both apricots
and peaches), the average percentage of home-grown marketed here being: Apricots, 23.3 per
cent.;   peaches, 8 per cent.
While in doubt as to the approximate quantity of our supply that was likely to come this
way, but knowing the crop to be heavy, your Markets Commissioner took occasion to acquaint
the public with the true facts. The outcome of this was so effective that the demand for
imported apricots was almost eliminated, and both retailers and consumers waited for the
British Columbia crop, using only imported stock for immediate use.
The British Columbia supply when it did come was very disappointing in some ways.
The No. 1 stock was without exception the finest ever marketed in the Coast cities, but the
major portion supplied was No. 2 stock and very small in size. Some cars came in under-iced
and had to be sold cheap, as the condition of the fruit was such that the trade could not handle
it. There is no doubt but what these markets could have handled at least 3,000 crates of No. 1
stock.
Statistics show the decrease of imported apricots to be 3,478 crates, or 29.2 per cent., and
the increase in British Columbia 1,768 crates, or 49.2 per cent.
Peaches.—Taking the peach market on the whole, this was carried through at much better
prices than previous years. The greatest difficulty was that too many cars were sent at one
time, more than the demand could handle properly. Notwithstanding this, the price was held
steady throughout the season.
Some trouble was experienced when a private shipper sent in a car of No. 2 peaches
unwrapped to a curbstone broker, who in turn sold the car for 50 cents per box to two cut-rate
grocers, the grocers in turn advertising these as " regular 90-cent values for 10 cents per crate."
There is no doubt but what this car was poor value at 70 cents per crate, yet the market was
fully four days recovering from the effects of this cheap advertising, as the general public appear
to look upon such a thing as an indication that prices are dropping, and they are inclined to
wait, to the detriment of both shippers and themselves.
The varieties which appear to sell best on the Coast markets are the St. John, Fitzgerald,
Crawfords, and Elbertas, while a limited quantity of Triumphs, Hale's Early, Victors, Alexanders,
and Mamie Ross can be disposed of through the fruit-stand trade.
Vancouver City is a very heavy buyer of peaches, and notwithstanding the increase of
British Columbia peaches on this market of 6,263, or 105 per cent., there were still over fifty
cars imported, which, however, shows a decrease in imports from 1914 of 16,116 boxes, or 25.9
per cent.
Plums and Prunes.—The decrease in the imports of plums this season from that of 1914
was over 58.9 per cent. Shipments from British Columbia showed a very great improvement
in the packing and grading, and good varieties brought better prices right through the season
than ever known.
The main and practically only objection to British Columbia plums this season was short:
weight in a few shipments.
Italian prunes from the Lower Mainland were plentiful, but many large shipments sent in
by freight developed " rot" before arriving on the market and became almost a total loss.
After the shipments from the Lower Mainland were over, some 11,000 boxes of prunes and:
plums came in from the Upper Country, and although at times sold at low prices, yet there was.
no waste.
Pears.—The supply of pears was far short of the demand, which held strong throughout
the season. Good pears sold readily at $2 and $2.25 per box wholesale. The supply of the
Keiffer variety, however, was in excess of the demand. This pear is a slow seller and has a
very limited demand in the Coast cities. British Columbia being unable to supply the demand,
large quantities were imported from foreign countries. During 1915 the imports from the
United States amounted to 10,540 boxes and 910 from New Zealand, or a total decrease of"
37.3 per cent., while the British Columbia shipments showed a decrease of 17.4 per cent. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 69
Crab-apples.—Large quantities of Transcendent crabs were shipped to the Coast cities and
found a very poor market. The demand was in favour of the Hyslop variety, of which the
supply this season was very small. A few shipments of Florence and General Grant varieties
also met with a poor market, while the few Siberians offered brought good prices with a fair
demand.
Cantaloupes.—Large quantities of cantaloupes are used each year in these cities and the
demand is rapidly increasing. While the supply at present comes from the Western States,
British Columbia growers have during the past two seasons sent in a few shipments. Those
grown in British Columbia are, when shipped, apparently of good quality, but show signs of
waste very quickly after coming on the market. The objections to the British Columbia product
have been their poor keeping qualities and the fact that British Columbia growers ship them
in ungraded, both as to ripeness and size, a matter which is just as essential as the grading
of apples to size.
The imports for 1915 into Vancouver wTere 5,260 crates, or approximately 250,000 melons.
The supply from British Columbia was not over 3,400 melons, or 1.3 per cent, of the total
supply.
Grapes.—The supply of British Columbia grapes to these markets was much heavier than
ever before, Mission, Hatzic, Salmon Arm, Lillooet, and Keremeos being the largest contributors.
These were mostly of the Niagara variety and did not meet with as ready a sale as they should
have, which was due to a great extent to the knocking of this particular variety by the trade
owing to its colour. A car-load sent in from Keremeos was of excellent quality and was on sale
in some of the fruit-stands here for six weeks, which proves the holding-up qualities. The
Coast cities used over twenty-five cars of grapes in 1915, which were mostly received from
California, Wenatchee, Michigan, New York, and Spain.
Nuts.—Walnuts sent in from the Lower Mainland proved to be of excellent size and quality.
Chestnuts from Ruskin, B.C., were equal in quality to those received from Italy, and as these
do well and produce heavily here, it is well worth the fruit-growers' while to give this industry
some attention, as the price is usually 15 cents per pound and the demand in the three largest
Coast cities is about 15 tons each year.
Apples.—The apple market this year has been in favour of the British Columbia grown
product. British Columbia apples of 1914 were on sale here up to May 1st, 1915, the varieties
consisting of Yellow Newtowns, Spitzenberg, Ben Davis, Hall's Jenettes, Red-cheeked Pippins,
Grimes Golden, Baldwin, and Spy. Most of these varieties were showing waste; the Baldwins
from the Okanagan Valley holding up well.
From the time the early apples first arrived on the market till the end of the year the
British Columbia supply has been equal to the demand as far as quantity is concerned, yet at
times somewhat short on certain grades.
The early-apple market was supplied almost entirely with British Columbia apples, there
having been only a few boxes of inferior (thinnings) quality brought in from Wenatchee.
During the latter part of September and the early part of October the demand favoured
the No. 1 grade, but on account of the high prices it suddenly changed to the No. 3 grade and
crated stock, and held strong to this class of apple right up to the first week in December, when
it suddenly changed again to the better grades.
The pack and grade of British Columbia apples this season was on the whole well up to
standard, which will work to the benefit of British Columbia growers in the future. Notwithstanding this, there are a few facts which must be commented on. Wholesalers complain that
in buying a car of apples they do not know what they are going to get as to sizes, etc. This is
a very important fact, and shipping organizations would do well to furnish their brokers with
a detailed manifest showing the number of boxes of each size contained in the car and any
other information necessary. Large sizes of dessert apples are poor sellers on these markets, yet
jobbers can always handle a certain proportion in each car. Another very important matter is
the establishment of a standard for the No. 3 grade by selling organizations themselves. The
wide scope used in putting up this grade works to the disadvantage of the growers to a certain
extent, and is also confusing to the consumer. For instance, one organization ships in " orchard-
run " stock graded No. 3, and another takes out the No. l's and No. 2's and ships in the balance
as No. 3 grade stock, that which is no better than hog-feed; yet all these to the consumer and
also to the trade are simply " Grade No. 3." E 70 Department of Agriculture. 1916
A noticeable feature of British Columbia apples last season was their poor keeping quality,
caused no doubt by the climatic conditions of the season, which caused nearly all kinds of fruit
to mature at least twelve days sooner than other years.
Viewing the apple situation right through the season, it was no doubt the most satisfactory
year that British Columbia growers have ever experienced on this market, both as to price
and the quantity sold. Further, I believe, had British Columbia growers been able to supply
the grades and varieties requested at times by the commission houses, the imported apples could
have been entirely eliminated.
The demand for British Columbia apples is proved by the fact that a car of fancy apples
from Cashmere, Wash., brought in early in September and distributed along " wholesale row "
was not cleaned up till November. The price of United States apples declining in November, the
Vancouver jobbers, anticipating a rapid raise in price after the first of the year, placed the
greater portion of imported apples brought in during November and December in storage, to be
brought out after the British Columbia stock was cleaned up.
During the apple season some six new commission firms opened up. In all cases these firms
were made up of men who had no previous experience in the fruit and produce business, and
having little or no trade connection in the city found themselves compelled to sell to peddlers
at very low prices. Growers who patronized some of these firms found their returns very
unsatisfactory.
The season of 1913 found more apple-dealers and traders in farm produce than ever before.
Several men having no work and no capital undertook this class of trading, but invariably without
success.
The increase in the consumption of British Columbia apples and the decrease in the imports
during 1915 in Vancouver City is very encouraging.
The heavy months for imports were January, February, March, October, and November.
Two interesting facts in regard to the imports are that, out of the total of 118,240 boxes brought
in, 66,111 boxes were received during the first three months of the year and 18,170 boxes were
on hand at the end of the year. (For increase and decrease in British Columbia apples and
imports see Appendix No. 20.)
Asparagus.—Like lettuce, asparagus is in great demand. This being the first year that
British Columbia growers have supplied these markets with any large amount, some shippers
were quite ignorant of the time this should be cut and in what shape it should be placed on the
market.
The trade states that British Columbia asparagus when cut and marketed at the proper
time excels any other sold on these markets.
British Columbia growers supplied about 7.7 per cent, of the asparagus consumed in the
Province this year. Taking into consideration our excellent markets at home and in the Middle
West Provinces, there is an excellent opportunity for the development of this industry.
Lettuce.—A large quantity of both leaf and head lettuce is consumed in these cities each
year, being approximately eleven cars. The demand is preferably for head lettuce, which is
used practically the year round for making salads, while leaf lettuce is used only for
garnishing.
The greater portion of the supply of head lettuce conies from California, arriving about
November 1st and continuing to the following midsummer.
The supply of leaf lettuce, which is hothouse-grown, comes from local points and first
appears on the market about November 15th, continuing till the following August. The shipments from our growers have been of excellent quality and in most instances clean and neatly
put up, and have been very favourably commented upon by the trade. It would appear, after
following the movements of the leaf-lettuce shipments, that this particular lettuce is being
developed beyond the demand and little or no attention is being given to the growing of head
lettuce.
Artichokes.—The consumption of Globe artichokes here is not large, while the Jerusalem
variety finds a still less demand. The Okanagan Valley contributed some very fine Jerusalem
this season which sold wholesale at 2 cents per pound.
Horse-radish.—The supply of this vegetable is almost entirely from the United States, and
while a few tons is sufficient at present to supply the demand, it is quite evident that the latter
can be somewhat increased.    The average wholesale price for good roots is 15 cents per pound. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 71
Brussels Sprouts.—This trade is considerable and is almost entirely in the hands of
California shippers, British Columbia only contributing some 1,000 lb. in 1915, which were of
good size and excellent quality, proving that this particular vegetable can be grown successfully
for commercial purposes in British Columbia. The price from September to February averaged
around 12 cents per pound wholesale.
Tomatoes.—In 1914 the supply of tomatoes was about 26,203 crates, equally divided between
local and imported, while in 1915 we find the amount imported did not exceed two cars and a
half, as against sixteen cars the previous year.
The British Columbia product is so far superior to that received from Florida, Mexico, and
California that a greater portion of the imported product had to be dumped.
Our supply of hothouse tomatoes during the past season showed an increase of over
50 per cent., and owing to weather conditions the field product was very plentiful. Some greenhouse operators brought on their supply at the same time as the field-grown were being marketed,
and at times the market was on the verge of a bad break. However, press notices advising
consumers to can tomatoes for winter use, and the publication in the newspapers of several
recipes for home canning, along with the distribution of a short circular on this subject,
materially increased the demand, and the season passed over without any disastrous losses as
iii former years. In fact, no actual loss was encountered this season, while some ten cars were
sent to the dump in 1914.
The high prices charged for tomatoes by the retail trade held up consumption to some
extent. This frequently happens in all products. An oversupply of fruit in " wholesale row "
will bring down the price, but retailers invariably hold the prices up, which holds up the
movement. This in many instances accounts for the fact that when a grower receives returns
showing a low price, the same returns also show a quantity dumped, as a low price for one day
on " wholesale row " does not affect the movement by the retail route very much.
During the year our British Columbia sales were increased by 11,053 boxes, while the
imports were cut down 10,SS9 boxes, or 72.9 per cent., from 1914.
Onions.—The onion market in the Coast cities was very unsteady during the whole of 1915.
Low prices in the United States caused the jobbers here to buy only small supplies at a time,
and the shipments from United  States, New Zealand,  and Japan found practically  no  sale.
Some 8,600 crates came in from Australia and New Zealand, and as they were a drug on
the market about 5,900 of these were sent East.
The shipment from Japan of some 700 crates also met a low market and very few found
sale here. One broker shipped his supply to Australia, and not only lost the onions, but was
out the freight.
For a short time after the evaporators had bought up their supply, British Columbia onions
brought fair prices and continued to rise in price till the middle of November, when the markets
in California began to drop.
The low price iu the South and the sudden dropping-off in demand here owing to the rapid
advance in price caused our markets to remain stationary till the end of the year.
During the year the increased sales of British Columbia onions on this market amounted
to 367.8 per cent., while the decrease in imports was 65.8 per cent.
Potatoes.—The potato market has not been in a very healthy state, due principally to the
large supply grown by the Orientals on Lulu and Sea Islands and supplied direct to the consumers by the peddler, and also supplied to wholesale houses and retailers in small quantities
as needed.
Export Trade in Potatoes.
After repeated requests to the Horticultural Board at Washington to raise the embargo on
British Columbia potatoes going into the United States, they finally sent to this Province the
Potato Expert, Mr. O. M. Pratt, who is in charge of the potato-growing experiments in the
Western States. Mr. Pratt, in company with your Commissioner, visited a number of districts
in the Fraser Valley and inspected shipments in Vancouver from every district west of Yale.
The inspection made by Mr. Pratt was for powdery scab, and having found no trace he recommended to his Board that the embargo be raised.
Several shipments were made to Seattle and Portland, amounting in all to some 24,722 sacks.
Unfortunately two of these cars grown by a Chinaman in the Delta District did contain powdery
scab, and these were returned and the embargo once more placed on British Columbia potatoes. Department of Agriculture. 1916
The, usual export shipments to Suva were made each month, and in the month of September
some 1,120 tons were exported to Sydney, Australia. This quantity would have been materially
increased in October had it been possible to obtain space on the steamer sailing. This shipment
was made up of potatoes bought from all over the Lower Fraser Valley, the price paid the
grower being $7 per ton exclusive of sacks or crates.
There have been several shipments made to Ontario points, and it was expected that the
demand would be greatly increased during the following spring. Evaporators have also taken
several hundred cars, and it is also expected that the embargo existing on British Columbia
potatoes going into the United States will be lifted before the end of the year, thus allowing
British Columbia growers to get into the San Francisco market and fill orders which have been
received from there for some 2,000 tons.
From a careful survey of the shipments marketed here, and also those exported, it is quite
apparent that this industry is badly in need of improvement, and growers are strongly urged to
give more attention to the selection of their seed and to the better grading of the stock they
place on the market.
Imported New Potatoes.
New potatoes came on to this market about May 18th from Florida and sold at 8 cents per
pound wholesale. These were shipped in barrels of 175 lb. each and graded to size, the grade-
marks being 1 and 2. This stock was good and the tubers smooth and clean. The quantity
imported was small, as local new potatoes came on the market the following week.
British Columbia New Potatoes.
The new potatoes from British Columbia were in good supply the first week in June and
the price dropped rapidly. The first shipments sold wholesale at 8 and 10 cents per pound, the
price dropping to 4 cents per pound the first week and 2% to 3 cents the second week. The
third w'eek found Chinamen selling direct to retailers at $1.15 per hundredweight, which brought
new potatoes down to 75 cents per sack by July lOtn. This sudden drop in price so early in the
season was never known before, and can be traced to no other cause than the fact that the
Chinaman got on the market this season with his new potatoes as early as the white farmer,
thus flooding the market in the face of an oversupply of old spuds that were offering for as low
as $5 per ton. The early-potato production should be increased to the point whereby the growers
can market their crops out of the Province in car-load lots, as at present it would appear that
the production is too great for local consumption and not great enough to ship car-loads East.
(For tables showing imports and exports see Appendices Nos. 20 and 21.)
Other Vegetables.
The vegetable trade in the Coast cities is controlled by the Chinese, who peddle their produce
from house to house. At the present time and under the existing conditions our farmers stand
very little chance of disposing of their vegetable-crop in these cities.
Eggs and Poultry.
Prices of eggs and poultry during 1915 were not at all in keeping with the high prices of
grain during the spring and summer. This cannot be attributed to an overamount of storage
eggs or heavy importation from foreign countries, but largely to producers shipping their eggs
on consignment to retailers, who in turn were selling to other retailers, wholesalers, and on the
egg hoard. This method means stale eggs by the time they reach the consumers and also an
extra profit or commission.
A survey of the egg market throughout the year will show that British Columbia fresh-
gathered eggs have not brought a price in keeping with that obtained for storage eggs. This
is largely due to the methods of marketing our local eggs, as stated above, aud can only be
remedied by co-operative marketing and the adoption of some definite grades such as those set
down by the Canadian Produce Association.
Poultry was very plentiful during the whole season; that is, old stock, principally laying
hens. This continued oversupply caused by the farmers unloading on account of the high price
of feed, thus meeting the economic buying by all housewives, kept prices low. *•  6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 73
Eggs imported.
Very few eggs were brought in from foreign countries during the year. Records show the
Chinese imports to be cut down from 505,760 dozen to 35,700 dozen. Usually importers bring
in each year very heavy consignments from the States of Kansas and California, but the
additional surtax and the strong markets in the Eastern States during the season worked to
the advantage of our Canadian Middle-West Provinces. During the past two years these
Provinces have toeen improving the quality and grades until they have got them up to an
excellent standard, which has met with much appreciation from our dealers.
A large percentage of British Columbia imports in butter, eggs, and dressed poultry into
Coast cities came from the Middle-West and Eastern Provinces of Canada. During 1915
Alberta and Saskatchewan were very heavy contributors to our egg-supply, while Ontario sup-'
plied eighteen car-loads of dressed turkeys and geese (approximately 90 per cent, turkeys).
In 1914 the Chinese-egg question was one of much concern to British Columbia producers,
-and efforts were made early in 1915 to discourage this business and to get some legislation
governing the marking and sales of these eggs, with the result that brokers hesitated in bringing any in until November. The Order in Council passed at Ottawa and made effective April
27th, 1915, will have little or no effect on the importation of these eggs, as the only requirements
necessary is the marking of the case with the words " Produce of China " when entering the
country, and there is nothing to stop dealers from taking the eggs out of the original container
and placing them in another without the markings. This, in fact, has been done, and it is the
contention of those who are in a position to know, that these eggs are sold under the brand of
" Ranch Eggs," and are also being mixed with other eggs and sold to the unsuspecting public.
Some 6,000 cases of Chinese eggs brought in last March were not put on the market till Novem-
iber, and were then sold toy retailers under many different brands, which did not in any instance
suggest that they were storage eggs.
Hay and Grain.
The market for No. 1 hay during 1915 has toeen somewhat strengthened by the decreased
production in the Lower Mainland districts. Dealers state that the hay grown in these districts
shows a large percentage of poor quality.
The hay receipts for the last two months of the year 1915 show a heavy movement from
the Okanagan, Ashcroft, Lytton, and Lillooet Districts to the Coast cities. This hay in most
instances has been of first-class quality.
While the oat market during the first half of the year showed every indication to remain
strong, unfortunately conditions developed which caused the market to suddenly collapse, and
prices dropped, even below the average. The great increase in production and the decided slack
demand left the greater portion of the crop still in the hands of farmers at the end of the year.
Co-operation and Growers' Marketing Agency.
Much has been written and said in regard to co-operation among producers. In some
instances co-operation is working out to the benefit of the producer, while in others it has
become almost dormant.
Co-operation is necessary if the producers' stuff is to be properly and profitably marketed,
but the fact must not be lost sight of that careful consideration must be given to the form of
co-operation encouraged and instituted which will be suitable and workable for a particular
district. Further, in order to add strength and usefulness to the individual organizations, they
must be associated under one central body.
A careful survey of the conditions existing in the Lower Mainland show that many of the
districts are yet producing too little to be able to operate profitably with the overhead expenses
necessary to operate as a unit. The Coast cities are peculiar markets to handle owing to their
situation, making them the last link West, giving our growers no opportunity to divert their
shipments, but compelling them to sell irrespective of the condition of the markets.
The above facts should be borne in mind and due consideration given to them in arranging
plans for co-operative organizations.
Respectfully submitted. R. C. Abbott,
Coast Markets Commissioner. E 74 Department of Agriculture. 1916
ANNUAL REPORT OF PROVINCIAL PLANT PATHOLOGIST.
J. W. Eastham.
R. M. Winslow, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for 1915.
The work of this office being investigational and not administrative, most of the results
up to date are being published elsewhere, and it is only necessary here to give a brief account
of the work and a statement as to conditions in the Province in relation to certain diseases and
insect pests.
Laboratories.
The temporary quarters of the Laboratory of Plant Pathology and Entomology in the Smith
Block at Vernon were vacated at the New Year and accommodation secured in the new Courthouse. Owing, however, to the special requirements necessary for laboratory and microscopic-
work, the quarters immediately available did not prove suitable, and it was finally decided
to move the headquarters for pathological work to Vancouver. By the courtesy of the late
Mr. Cunningham, a portion of the office of the Fruit Inspection Branch was placed at my
disposal, and the work of fitting this up as a laboratory is now almost completed. Our present
location is a great improvement in several ways. The gas-supply available for the purpose of
heating the ovens, autoclaves, etc., necessary for our work is greatly superior to that generated,
from the gasolene-machine previously used. There is not the constant presence of fine dust in
the atmosphere as in the Dry Belt, and which is both injurious to instruments and inimical to
culture-work. The pathologist has now also an opportunity during the winter months of paying
some attention to the diseases liable to be found on imported nursery stock, with special reference
to new and possibly serious diseases which might thus be introduced into the Province. It is
intended to retain the office at Vernon to serve more immediately the needs of the Okanagan.
Mr. Ruhmann, my assistant, will be in charge and will devote his efforts mainly to entomological
work. Insect pests are numerous and destructive in the Okanagan, and the life-histories of many
of even the commoner ones are not accurately known under local, conditions. There is much to
be done in this field, and it can be carried out without the special equipment requisite for
pathological work.
Investigations, 1916.
The chief investigations to be undertaken in 1916 are the life-histories of the codling-moth
and the peach-twig borer. The former is, fortunately, restricted at present to one or two areas,
but its general distribution in course of time is probably inevitable. It is, therefore, highly
desirable that all details of its life-history be worked out so that measures adopted for its
control may rest on a sound basis. The latter has been very destructive during the past season,
as much as 50 per cent, of the crop being lost in some cases. Much of this might have been,
prevented by the careful employment of measures already known, but there are still gaps in.
our knowledge of the life-history. An effort has been made by addresses to growers at Summer-
land and Penticton to emphasize the necessity of putting into consistent practice the knowledge
already possessed, which, if properly employed, is at any rate sufficient to greatly improve the
situation.
Fire-blight.
On the whole, the past season has been a very satisfactory one in respect to this disease.
While it is not to be expected that the disease will ever be eradicated from any of the larger
areas into which it has been introduced, there is reason to hope that the growers are now
sufficiently alive to the necessity of dealing promptly and thoroughly with the first indications
of infection, and will thus be able, in large measure, to prevent the occurrence of destructive
epidemics of the disease. Fortunately, the climatic and other conditions necessary for such an
epidemic only occur, as a rule, at intervals of several years. On the other hand, there is a
danger of growers becoming careless during the period when blight is not so serious, and thus
preparing the way for a destructive outbreak when the conditions favour it. The increasing
burden  laid  upon  the  Government  Inspectors  in  maintaining  an  efficient  inspection  as  the 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 75
orchards now planted get older also renders it very necessary that an effort be made to throw
more of the responsibility for the handling of community problems arising from insect pests
and diseases upon the growers themselves. To this end steps have been taken to bring about
the organization of the growers into protective associations on the lines of those adopted in the
State of Washington. Since the success of such organizations depends finally upon' the attitude
of the growers themselves towards them, it is too early to predict the result, but there is reason
to hope that with the assistance and co-operation of the Government field officers they will be
successful. It is sometimes stated that there is reason to expect that blight will become less
destructive through the gradual decline in virulence of the causal organism, and it is claimed
in evidence of this that the districts in California where the pear industry was practically
destroyed are being replanted to Bartletts with good results. Personally, I see no chance of
such a change occurring. At the beginning of the year it was my privilege to attend the meeting
of Plant Pathologists of the Pacific Slope at Corvallis, Ore., and I was much interested in the
statement of the State Pathologist for California, that' unless new varieties of pears resistant
to the disease could be produced or discovered the pear industry of California was doomed to
extinction. While in this Province we are chiefly concerned with the apple, in which the disease
as a rule is much easier to control, the question of varieties is none the less important. The
problem of the control of this disease would be much simplified if certain susceptible varieties,
such as Crabs and Spitzenberg, could toe eliminated from the affected areas, at any rate on a
commercial scale. While this would perhaps be an unnecessarily drastic measure to carry out
compulsorily, I certainly think that the planting of these varieties should be discouraged.
Fungous Diseases.
Owing to the unusually wet season a number of fungous diseases were much more serious
than usual; in particular, apple-scab in the Upper and peach-leaf curl in the Lower Okanagan.
Peach-mildew was also very prevalent and caused much loss. The difficulty with regard to
apple-scab at Vernon and Kelowna arises largely from the fact that in a normal season the
disease is not serious and the precaution of spraying as a safeguard not taken. A disease that
only assumes serious proportions once in three or four years is likely to be much more destructive
at such times than if it were a constant factor to be reckoned with. A comprehensive experiment, to be carried out over a period of years, is being planned with a view to ascertaining what
sprays may be profitably given annually as an insurance against the occurrence of the disease
in a destructive degree. In the case of peach-mildew it is also proposed to test out means of
control. These have toeen difficult in the past in consequence of the ease with which peach-foliage
is injured by spray materials. Certain materials recently put on the market, however, give
promise of better success, and in any case the measures so strongly advocated in dealing with the
other troubles of the peach should have some effect in reducing loss from this cause.
Owing to the fact that during the past year there was no laboratory in working-order for
carrying on this branch of investigational work, most of the work was restricted to the collection
of field data and the making of inspections for certain diseases. The embargo put in force by
the United States against potatoes from the entire Dominion on account of powdery scab was
raised temporarily in the spring to allow of the shipment of potatoes from this Province into
the adjacent States of the Union. Unfortunately, the discovery of powdery-scab in a consignment of potatoes from Ladner resulted in a replacement of the embargo, and rendered necessary
as thorough an inspection as possible of potatoes in the Province to determine the extent of the
disease. The season being already advanced, most of this work had to be deferred until digging-
time. In the meantime specially prepared mounts illustrating the characteristics by which this
disease can be distinguished from similar tuber-diseases were got ready and distributed to the
Inspectors. At digging-time a careful inspection was made, in conjunction with the members
of the inspection service, of the Ashcroft and Coast sections, some attention being also paid to
the Okanagan. I am happy to be able to state that there is reason to believe that the Ashcroft
District is free from the disease, and that it is confined to a portion of Sea Island, a small area
near Ladner, with a doubtful case at Haney. The Dominion Botanist also informs me that he
has had a specimen of the disease sent in to him at Ottawa from Nass River near the Alaskan
boundary, but this is not likely to be of any practical significance. While the disease is an
objectionable one, it can hardly be considered so serious as was believed in certain quarters,
and it has not been thought necessary to adopt any more drastic measures against it than those E 76 Department of Agriculture. 1916
outlined in the Potato Regulations of the Dominion " Insect and Pest Act." The disease has
recently been removed from the list of diseases scheduled under this Act, but the measures
instituted will continue to be acted upon in British Columbia. The extensive field inspection
referred to revealed a regrettable lack of care in the selection of seed and the disinfection of
it as a means of safeguarding against the introduction of tuber-diseases. The fact that the
industry is passing more and more into the hands of Chinamen will render it difficult to do much
iu the way of education. A considerable amount of literature was, however, distributed and
much instruction given at first hand.
Educational Work.
I attended the short course at Kelowna and gave a series of addresses on plant-diseases and
their control. During July I had charge of the instruction in botanical subjects for teachers
attending the summer school in rural science at Victoria. During the fall a bulletin was
prepared dealing in a comprehensive way with the diseases and insect pests of the Province.
Mr. Ruhmann prepared the part dealing with insect pests, and a chapter on " Spraying " was
added by Mr. Hoy, of the Horticultural Branch. The educational aspect of the subject has been
kept in view throughout, and it has been our endeavour to show how the practical measures
recommended are based upon certain peculiarities in the life-history of the fungus or insect
pest, and unless carried out at the right time may simply be a waste of energy and material.
It is hoped that the publication of this bulletin will not only help the grower, but also lighten
the office-work in attending to routine inquiries.
A considerable quantity of material illustrative of the work of injurious insects and fungi
has been collected and is now awaiting a supply of mounting-cases, when it will be put up in
a suitable form for distribution to District Horticulturists, Inspectors, and others.
In addition to my regular duties, I also made the bacteriological examination of the samples
of milk submitted in the contest held by the British Columbia Dairymen's Association. The
Laboratory of the Mental Hospital at New Westminster was used for this purpose, and thanks
are due to the Superintendent and Assistant Superintendent for their courtesy and assistance.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
J. W. Eastham,
Provincial Plant Pathologist.
ANNUAL REPORT OF FRUIT PEST INSPECTION BRANCH.
By W. H. Lyne, Assistant Fruit Pest Inspector.
W. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit the following report covering the work of the Quarantine
and Fruit Pest Branch for the year 1915:—
Inspection of Impoeted Fruit and Vegetables.
The importation of fruit and vegetables during the last year was considerably lighter than
the year previous, with the exception of apples, which were 8,323 boxes in excess. This may he
accounted for to a great extent as the result of a good response to the home-consumption policy,
British Columbia products being in greater demand than usual, although probably there was not
quite so much fruit consumed as in former years, when there was less regard for economy.
Codling-moth infection appeared to be more prevalent than usual in the States of Oregon
and Washington, resulting in heavy condemnations of apples and pears at the Port of Vancouver.
San Jose scale was also in evidence on several consignments that were condemned.
The peach-worm (Anarsia lineatella) was responsible for the condemnation of several lots
of peaches, apricots, and plums.
Fruit, vegetables, rice, corn, and beans were inspected, some of the latter being infected
with weevil, meal worm and moth, and fumigated accordingly. 6 Geo. 5 British' Columbia. E 77
Exported Fruit and Vegetables inspected.
About 34,058 boxes of apples, or fifty-seven cars, were inspected and passed for export to
Australia, New Zealand, and Suva; also 7,465 sacks and 14,203 crates of potatoes, or 1,083 tons,
and 625 crates, or 31 tons, of onions. Seventy-two car-loads of potatoes were shipped to the
States of Washington and California.
During the process of inspecting potatoes offered for export many lots were refused
certificates owing to their being infected with Phytophthora and Fusarium rot, and a few
offering on Sea Island and Ladner District could not pass inspection on account of a slight
infection of powdery scab (Spongospora subterranca) the disease which, unfortunately, was
the cause of the United States Federal Department stopping all further shipments for the time
being; but the embargo has been removed, and we again have the United States market open
to us, subject to permits granted to consignees and the merits of the potatoes, which will be
decided by a strict inspection conducted by United States Inspectors upon arrival of the stock
iu the United States. All such consignments will accordingly receive a thorough inspection by
our own Department before leaving the Province, in order to guard against having this market
again closed as the result of careless shippers. Too much cannot be said against the habit of
planting a plot of land to potatoes two or three years in succession, thus propagating in the
soil all the diseases to which potatoes are subject, and the careless selection of seed, without
regard to its being contaminated with diseases referred to.
Inspection- of Empty Cabs.
In order to guard against the possibility of empty cars containing codling-moth cocoons, the
moth of which might be set at liberty in the orchard districts and thus establish infection, the
danger period being from May 1st to November 1st, careful inspection was made.
Empty cars were inspected between Armstrong and Okanagan Landing, August 19th to
November 28th, 1915, by Mr. T. H. Bain. Previous to this the inspection was carried out by
field officers in their respective districts, but this handicapped their work, and better results
were obtained toy Mr. Bain giving it his undivided attention.
The following were inspected : Canadian—889 C.P.R. cars; 5 Grand Trunk; 13 Northern
Pacific. Foreign—1 Chicago North Western; 1 M.D.T.X.; 1 Michigan Central; 2 P.R.R.;
9 Pacific Fruit Express;  1 A.C.Y.; 2 A.C.L.;  1 L.M.C.;  1 Wabash R.R.
Codling-moth cocoons were found in four Pacific Fruit Express cars. One car contained as
many as forty-six larvte. These were all killed by hand and the cars immediately sealed up
and ordered out of the country.
Inspection of Impoeted Nubseby Stock.
A'much smaller amount of nursery stock was imported into the Province as compared to
that of other years. The condemnation of stardard fruit-trees was heavy in comparison to the
amount imported, as the result of one of the large nurseries in the United States unfortunately
having an outbreak of San Jose scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus), necessitating your Inspectors
having to condemn the whole of their standard fruit-trees intended for distribution among
several fruit-growers in British Columbia.
QUAEANTINE   OFFICEBS.
At present there are fifteen quarantine officers stationed at the several points of entry into
the Province. It is the duty of these officers to inspect all fruit, vegetables, rice, corn, grain, etc.,
coming into the Province, as set forth in the Horticultural Regulations, and also see that no
nursery stock, trees, shrubs, or plants pass through their ports of entry without being forwarded
to Vancouver for fumigation or inspection.
As the result of Mr. Bird, who was stationed at Prince Rupert, volunteering for active
overseas service, his place has since been only temporarily filled by Mr. Sinclair, who has now
resigned, and Mr. Howitt, Assistant Horticulturist, is acting for the time being.
Aii officer was appointed for the first time at Powell River on November 22nd—namely,
Mr. G. E. McFall. Prince George and Revelstoke are not at present provided with quarantine
officers, and New Westminster is waited on by whichever of the Vancouver officers it is convenient
to send over when required. E 78 Department of Agriculture. 1916
FlELD-WOEK.
This work, consisting of the inspection of nurseries and orchards, etc., throughout the
Province, was carried out as consistently as provision, in the way of appropriation and number
of field officers, would allow. Nine Government power-sprayers were in operation at intervals,
dealing with specific infection, both by way of demonstration and a means of combating the
infection or disease which happened to prevail in the several districts in which the machines
were stationed.    The field staff consisted of nine District Inspectors or field officers.
Duncan.—Some good spraying demonstrations were carried out at Duncan in some of the
older orchards near the town. Mr. White took up the work with the Government power-sprayer
where Mr. Hartill left off the year before, by making an attack on the oyster-shell scale and
European scale, using the winter formula lime-sulphur with a percentage of concentrated lye,
and lye and whale-oil soap, getting excellent results with both formulas. Some canker and
scab spraying was also carried out with the use of Bordeaux mixture, from which good results
were obtained.
Victoria and Saanich.—Work was continued again last spring in an endeavour to clean up
the few remnant cases of codling-moth by spraying with arsenate of lead, banding and patrolling
the trees, and although this infection has been reduced to such a small percentage that its
presence is not in evidence to the casual observer, it is no easy matter to exterminate it entirely,
on account of so many small places scattered throughout the district, the owners of which make
no effort whatever to co-operate with the Department in its efforts to make a thorough clean-up.
Pear-thrip.—Pear-thrip appeared for the first time last spring in epidemic form, and
demonstrated the possibility of becoming a serious pest in three separate areas, Royal Oak,
Keating, and Gordon Head. Mr. Brydon's orchard at Royal Oak suffered from the worst attack,
Keating and Gordon Head much less in proportion.
Evidently, owing to two mild winters in succession, the nymph succeeded iu maturing an
unusual number of adult insects in the soil. These depositing numerous eggs on the twigs near
and around the blossoms, the young nymph soon hatched out and contributed to the work of
destruction already done by the adult insects, the blossom on scores of trees being entirely
destroyed.
The sudden appearance of the thrip took the orchardists unawares, and their presence was
not realized until most of the damage was done. It is just possible that the severe weather
we have experienced this last winter may result in reducing this pest to a very great extent.
However, the Department is prepared to meet the situation by -having on hand two or three
power-sprayers, with distillate, Black Leaf 40, and whale-oil soap, and in co-operation with
Mr. R. C. Treherne, Dominion Field Entomologist, and a specialist whom Dr. Hewitt, Dominion
Entomologist at Ottawa, has promised, the Inspectors will give the thrip a warm reception if
it puts in an appearance this spring. A special study of the life-history of this thrip as it
applies to this latitude will be made by the two Dominion officials.
Lower Mainland.—Field-work on the Lower Mainland was confined to the inspection of
nurseries, orchards, and town lots, and enforcing the cleaning-up of several properties infected
with woolly aphis, fungous disease, oyster-shell scale, and tent-caterpillar, the latter being very
much in evidence during the spring and early part of summer. A slight infection of codling-
moth was discovered in two small lots between Vancouver and Eburne; only two larvae were
found. The trees were sprayed with arsenate of lead and all apples inspected before leaving
the premises.
Powdery Scab.—A slight evidence of powdery scab (Spongospora subterranea) was found
in a potato-field at Ladner, the owner of which had rented the land to a Chinaman. Unfortunately, in loading the cars with these potatoes, which were consigned to Seattle, Wash., the
Chinaman, either wilfully or unintentionally, included certain sacks which should have been
left out, resulting in the potatoes, which consisted of two cars, being condemned by the officials
at Seattle. The cars were returned to Vancouver and sold for pig-feed on condition that the
purchaser boil them all before feeding, the Government contributing the sum of $141.83 as part
compensation to the owner.
Other slight evidence of powdery scab was found at four separate places on Sea Island,
all rented by Chinamen, consisting of a little over 200 acres. These potatoes were inspected
during digging in the fall, and not more than twenty specimens were found over the whole of
this acreage, barring one small lot in which quite a few infected potatoes were found. *6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 79
These conditions introduce a very interesting problem as to the economic importance of
this particular infection, considering the seed was not new to the district by three or four years
at least.
The remnants and refuse of the potato-pits at Ladner which contained the infection were
all cleaned up and burned, with the exception of a small quantity boiled for pig-feed. All
actual infection found at Sea Island was disposed of as safely as circumstances would permit.
San Jose Scale at Spences Bridge.—A recurrence of this scale appeared during the summer
as a result of some remnant of the previous infection having established itself in some currant-
bushes, and birds or insects had already distributed slight infection to some of the apple-trees.
All the currant-bushes were dug up and burned and a tree-to-tree inspection made. All the
fruit-trees will receive a thorough application of lime-sulphur as soon as weather conditions will
permit. A general clean-up of susceptible brush and worthless seedling trees was also carried
out under the personal supervision of Mr. MeCubbing.
Kamloops.—A final heroic effort was made toy Mr. MeCubbing to stamp out the last remnant
of codling-moth in the infected area confined within the city limits. All large trees were pruned
down and useless ones grubbed out. The trees that remained received a thorough spraying
with arsenate of lead, were banded and patrolled, and not a single specimen of codling-moth larva
was found during the whole season or since. Previous to this operation Mr. MeCubbing had
the power-sprayer at work, cleaning up what European scale there wTas, with lye and whale-oil
soap.
Salmon Arm.—Salmon Arm troubles are confined principally to apple-scab, oyster-shell
scale, tree-hopper, and aphis, which on the whole are pretty well taken care of by the individual
orchardist, who receives advice and assistance occasionally from both the district field officer
and the Assistant Horticulturist. Considerable spraying demonstration has been conducted
there other years.
Armstrong.—At Armstrong there was a little fire-blight, which received the attention of
Mr. Palmer and Mr. Brown. There was also an alarm of codling-moth infection which proved
to be nothing more than lesser apple-worm.
Vernon (Fire-Might).—The A'ernon District evidently came in for a little more than its
share of fire-blight, possibly as the result of some careless cutting on the part of certain individual
growers, up to which time the district had suffered very little in comparison to those farther
south.
Apple-scab was very much in evidence in some of the orchards, demonstrating the fact that
the growers will have to be on the alert to deal with this disease in the future, though as a
rule they have been free from it before. Aphis was also very severe, and the Government
power-sprayer was kept busy by way of assistance wherever practical.
Other sections down the lake, such as Okanagan Centre, Kelowna, Peachland, Summerland,
Naramata, and Penticton, had their fire-blight problems to deal with, but on the whole came
through with very little injury, most of the growers making good effort to protect their trees
as a result of previous experience and the zealous endeavour on the part of the District Inspectors
to assist them. They also had their share of aphis to attend to; no doubt the previous mild
winters were responsible for such an unusual attack.
Codling-moth.—At Kelowna four of the Government power-sprayers were in use spraying
for codling-moth directly the blossoms fell, following up the good work of the year before, dealing
with the infection which was confined to the city limits and vicinity. Three thorough sprayings
with arsenate of lead were administered and the trees banded and patrolled, resulting in only
three larvse being found during the whole season.
Unfortunately another small isolated area near the fair-grounds was found to be infected,
and about fourteen larvae were discovered. The trees were sprayed, banded, and patrolled, and
your Inspectors trust to be able to give a good account of this next season.
During the month of August codling-moth was discovered at Westbank, about twenty-four
orchards being involved, forming an area of about 200 acres. The trees were immediately
sprayed and the fruit ordered to be packed at the packing-house or the wharf. Any showing
the least sign of worm were destroyed by .boiling in a boiler rigged up on the beach. Trees
were banded and patrolled. No apples, pears, or quince were allowed to leave the district
without first being inspected and passed by our field inspectors stationed there. The infection
averaged from 1 to 5 per cent. Three of the Government power-sprayers were immediately
assembled when infection was discovered. E 80 Department of Agriculture. 1916
Later on in September another outbreak of codling-moth was located at the Okanagan
Landing, involving about five properties. All the fruit was picked, inspected, and packed at
an isolated packing-house, and wormy apples, pears, etc., were destroyed by boiling, and the
good fruit shipped out of the country to the North-west Provinces, where there were no fruit-
trees.    On account of being so late in the season when discovered no spraying was done.
With thorough spraying, banding, and patrolling next season, very few, if any, larva? will
survive long enough to complete the life-cycle for another year, and it is hoped when next season
is over there will be so little infection left that another year's thorough treatment will entirely
eradicate this pest from the Okanagan.
Places in British Columbia where codling-moth is liable to still exist are: Victoria District,
Vancouver Island; Eburne, Lower Mainland; Kamloops (very doubtful), Okanagan Landing,
Kelowna, and Westbank.    At any of these places the percentage of infection is extremely small.
Peach-ioorm.—At Peachland, Summerland, Naramata, and Penticton the peach twig and fruit
borer (Anarsia lineatella) did considerable damage; in some places the infection ranged from
25 to 50 per cent., which proves this insect to be just as destructive to the peach, apricot, and
plum as the codling-moth is to the apple and pear.
Last year's experience with the peach-worm should induce the growers at the south end
of the lake to follow the instructions that have been given them during the last three years,
to fight this pest with the proper method of spraying.
Mildew and Curl-leaf.—These particular diseases were very common in the sections just
referred to, the mildew affecting both apples and peaches. A large number of peaches were
rendered unfit for market by the disfiguring blotches on the fruit. Some demonstration spraying
for peach-worm, aphis, mildew, and curl-leaf was carried out at Summerland and Penticton to
good effect.
Keremeos.—Conditions were not nearly so bad as regards both pests and fruit; some of the
growers complained that they were not receiving as much attention from the experts as they
would like.
Grand Forks.—This district was still in charge of the Horticultural Branch.
Creston.—Some demonstration spraying for apple-scab, mildew, and aphis was carried out.
by Mr. Hartill, who has since resigned, and Mr. Johnson from Wenatchee has taken his place.
Inspection of Nurseries.
All the local nurseries were inspected by the field officers in their respective districts, and
any stock found infected with insect pests or diseases of economic importance was consigned to
the brush-pile and burned.
British Columbia nurserymen have been having a rather hard time during the last two
years, owing to their stocking heavily with a view to meeting the demand which prevailed a
few years previous. This resulted in their having a much larger stock on hand than they
could afford to take care of, and naturally a great deal of it was neglected, necessitating the
destruction of thousands of trees.
A great many more trees- had to be destroyed at nurseries on Vancouver Island and the
Lower Mainland as the result of being propagated within the same area used for the propagation
of similar stock several years in succession, woolly aphis, root-gall, and canker being the principal
infection the trees had become heir to.
There was considerable difficulty in selecting 5,000 fruit-trees of mixed varieties from three
local nurseries in order to substitute a like amount of imported stock that was condemned at the.-
Fumigating Station at Vancouver.
Following is a rough estimate of nursery stock on hand in British Columbia nurseries :—
426,876 standard fruit-trees, valued at 5 cents each   $21,343 80
78,900 budded or grafted seedlings, at $6 per M        473 40
285,000 strawberry-plants, at $2.50 per M        712 50
S2,042 small-fruit hushes, canes, and vines, at 2 cents      1,640 84
297,675 ornamental trees and shrubs, at 10 cents each   29,767 50
48,400 rose-bushes at 10 cents each       4,840 00
Total $58,778 04 II       V Slit*
"litr
0
■'■ ^wg**^ 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 81
Infestation of Stanley Park Nurseeies.
Infestation of the Stanley Park nurseries, the ornamental trees of which were badly infested
with scale (Eulecanium nigrofasciatum, Chionaspis furfura, Pulvinaria innumerabilis, and
Lepidosaphes ulmi) also received the attention of your Inspectors.
The nurseries in question were quarantined by this Branch last spring, directly we ascertained that it was the intention of the Park Board to distribute the stock to the boulevards at
different points in the city. The whole of the infected trees were dug up and dipped in a
solution of 8-1 lime-sulphur, and replanted out in such order as to allow of their being sprayed
during the summer, the stock having been too closely planted previously to permit their being
sprayed properly. Several other trees already planted at different points in the park were also
treated. The additional summer spray was applied and the trees watched at intervals during
the summer, and the infestation reduced to the vanishing-point.
Mr. Thomas Wilson, Dominion Inspector of Indian Orchards, states that he is under the
impression that this scale, which is evidently imported, came in on European nursery stock
imported by the Park Board several years ago, before the same provisions for inspection which
we now have existed.
I am sorry to state that the scale had already made some headway into the wild growth
surrounding, which consisted of maple and other deciduous trees and shrubs. We accordingly
ordered the brush to be cleared away for a distance of some 50 feet surrounding the nursery,
but am doubtful if we have succeeded in eradicating the scale altogether from the wild growth.
Unfortunately, a small Indian homestead, containing several fruit-trees and bushes in a
more or less neglected condition and infected with the same scale, is situated close to one of the
nurseries, and in spite of Mr. Wilson's heroic effort to get the Indians to clean up, some infection
still remains. It will therefore be necessary to give some attention to the general situation
during the coming summer.
Conclusion.
It is with sad hearts your Inspectors commence operations for a new season's work without
the guiding hand of our old and respected chief, Mr. Thomas Cunningham, who has just passed
away after a quarter of a century's faithful work in the interests of the fruit-growing industry
of British Columbia.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Lyne,
Assistant Inspector of Fruit Pests.
ANNUAL REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH.
By W. T. McDonald, Live Stock Commissioneb.
W. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report for the year 1915.
During the year 1915 Mr. J. C. Readey, Soil and Crop Instructor, and Mr. R. L. Ramsay,
District Agriculturist stationed at Telkwa, resigned, the former accepting a position with the
Department of Education, and the latter going to the Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz
as Assistant Superintendent. To fill these vacancies, Mr. H. O. English, a graduate of the
Manitoba Agricultural College, was appointed Soil and Crop Instructor, and Mr. S. F. Dunlop,
also a graduate of the Manitoba Agricultural College, was appointed District Agriculturist.
Both of these new men have been doing efficient work. Mr. James Ferris has been employed
as a Silo Demonstrator, and has rendered valuable service in superintending the construction
and filling of silos. He has also assisted in the distribution of seed-grain and other work
connected with the Soil and Crop Division.
Crop and Live-stock Conditions.
From all parts of the Province we are receiving reports of greatly increased activity in the
live-stock industry. During the period of the construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway,
hay was the principal crop produced on the cultivated lands, because of the very high prices
7 E 82 Department of Agriculture. 1916
that could be secured at the construction camps. Since the completion of the road, however, that
market has disappeared, and settlers are turning to diversified farming. As a consequence,
there has been a keen demand for live stock, and particularly for dairy and beef cattle. With
the exception of a limited local demand for grain and hay, the farmers in that district realize
that the product of their farms can best be marketed as live stock or live-stock products.
Owing to the prevailing high prices of wool and mutton, the keen demand for sheep which
became marked in the summer of 1914 still continues. Even at considerable lower prices than
at present prevail, there is good money in sheep-raising where conditions are favourable, and
there is room for many more sheep in British Columbia than are to toe found at the present time.
Unfortunately, in certain districts panthers, coyotes, and dogs do much to discourage the development of this industry.    In those districts the wisest plan to follow is to fold the sheep at night.
An increase in the successful production of corn has done much to stimulate a greater
interest in silos, and it is expected that many new silos will be constructed during the coming
year. Especially during the past two years, the Live Stock Branch has been carrying on a
campaign for the purpose of encouraging the use of silage. Largely as a result, about thirty
silos were built in the Chilliwack District during 1915, while twelve were built in the Kelowna
District. This, we consider, is but a beginning of the extensive use of silage in the dairy districts.
In addition to being a valuable winter feed, it will aid greatly in providing a cheap feed during
the dry summer months when pastures fail.
Many of the Farmers' Institutes have taken advantage of the assistance rendered by both
the Provincial and Dominion Departments of Agriculture in the securing of pure-bred sires.
This, undoubtedly, will have a marked influence in the development of the live-stock industry.
One very marked result has been evident in the purchase of pure-bred females in many districts
were pure-bred sires have thus been introduced. The benefits that will accrue from this work,
it is now apparent, will far exceed our greatest expectations.
Veterinary Division.
During the year 1915 members of the staff of the Veterinary Division devoted most of their
time to testing cattle for tuberculosis. A total of 12,513 cattle were tested, with the result that
905 reacted to the test, while thirty-two were suspects. Unfortunately, owing to the expenditure
of the appropriation, it was necessary to drop the compulsory testing, and at the same time to
dispense with the services of temporary members of the staff. Previous to this time Dr. M.
Sparrow had enlisted for overseas service, and is now serving at the front in France.
I shall take this opportunity to mention the efficient services rendered the Department by
our three temporary Inspectors—namely, Dr. M. Sparrow, Dr. D. H. McKay, and Dr. F. Turley
Brookes
Satisfactory results can be obtained only by testing all cattle in the areas we wish to cover,
at least once a year, and to test cattle in herds where tuberculosis has been found, every three
months, or not less frequently than every six months, until disease has disappeared. Such a
policy would in the end prove much more economical, and to my mind is the only manner in
which this disease can be successfully eradicated.
During the month of June Dr. M. Sparrow was sent to the Pemberton Meadows to make
an investigation relative to the prevalence of goitre in that district, and which is referred to in
Dr. Knight's report. At the present time it is not possible to make any definite statement as
to the cause or the cure of this disease, but investigations which are being made in the State
of Washington, where similar conditions prevail, are being followed closely, and from which
investigations we hope at an early date to secure information that will be of service to affected
districts in British Columbia. In addition to the district above mentioned, the Bella Coola
Valley is affected in the same manner, while a less serious affection of the disease is noticed in
the Lower Fraser Valley and elsewhere.
In conjunction with the testing of cattle for tuberculosis, the members of our Veterinary
staff have been making a general inspection of dairy herds and premises. Suggestions have been
made for the improvement of sanitary conditions, and doubtless much has been accomplished
in the improvement of the British Columbia milk-supply.
The Cities of Victoria and Vancouver have passed by-laws requiring that all milk sold within
their limits must come from cattle tested for tuberculosis. This stand on the part of the cities
is an illustration of the present trend of public opinion.    Not only are the consumers in favour 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 83
of the continuance of the work of the Department, but, as in previous years, the British Columbia
Dairymen's Association, in convention assembled, passed a resolution strongly endorsing the
work of the Department and urging that it be prosecuted vigorously.
Dairy Division.
The dairy industry for the past twelve months has been in quite a healthy condition, although
the prices secured by the producer have been somewhat lower than those prevailing during the
previous year. On account of the dry weather before mentioned, the output during the summer
and fall months was lower than it would have been during a normal year.
We find a noticeable increase in the manufacture of butter. The creameries at Sardis and
Chilliwack have resumed operations along this line, while the homogenizing plant at Clayburn
has been converted into a creamery.
With the aid of our Dairy Instructors, an effort is being made to secure a better quality of
cream. The value and need of such instruction has always been apparent, but now that competition in the butter market is becoming keener, manufacturers are beginning to realize more
and more the necessity of putting a first-class article on the market. During the year Mr. Rive
and Mr. Wiancko have visited the creameries and most of their patrons.
Cow-testing Associations.—One of the most valuable lines of work coming under the supervision of the Dairy Division is the organization of Cow-testing Associations. As a result of
assistance rendered by the man in charge of the testing in each association, many unprofitable
animals are weeded out of the herds. An additional benefit is also apparent; namely, we find
that in many cases the work being conducted stimulates a desire on the part of the producer to
make a closer study of his business.
There is still a keen demand for dairy cows, particularly from the Okanagan District and
Central British Columbia. (For fuller details see report of H. Rive, Chief Dairy Instructor and
Inspector.)
Poultry Division.
A large portion of the time of the Instructors, Messrs. Terry and Upton, has been devoted
to personal visits to poultrymen of the Province, and particularly to poultrymen in those districts
where difficulties were being met with. In this manner much has been done to promote the
Poultry industry, and particularly by giving instruction that enables the poultryman to reduce
the cost of production and to produce a better article for the market.
Owing to the high price of grain, considerably less poultry was raised during 1915 than
during 1914. Eventually, however, the existing state of affairs will prove an advantage to the
industry, in that it has brought about the disposal of inferior and unproductive stock. Our
Poultry Instructors are endeavouring, in so far as possible, to encourage poultrymen to produce
more of the feed used.
Considerable instruction has been given in the marketing of eggs and the preparing of
dressed poultry for market. •
Egg-laying Contests.—The Fourth International Egg-laying Contest terminated on October
9th, 1915. The Fifth Contest in now in progress, and we look for results equally as good as
those of the contest recently concluded.
The net cost of conducting these competitions is small, compared with the benefits derived.
We find that since these competitions were inaugurated in the Province much more attention
is being paid to good laying strains, and doubtless the average egg yield of the Province has
thereby been increased.
Breeding-stations.—As in 1914, eighteen breeding-stations were located in the Province. This
work has undoubtedly done much towards the introduction and distribution of good poultry in
remote districts. (For details of work of Poultry Division see report of Mr. J. R. Terry, Chief
Poultry Instructor.)
Soil and Chop Division.
The work conducted during the year 1914 with farm demonstration plots was continued
during 1915. In Southern British Columbia these plots are located at Chilliwack, Rose Hill,
Edgewood, Armstrong, Grand Forks, Rock Creek, and Errington. Owing to the development of
the work, more definite results were secured this year than during 1914. In some cases, particularly in regard to the Armstrong plot, difficult problems are still to be solved owing to the worn- E 84 Department of Agriculture. 1916
out condition of the soil. This was anticipated, for in the selection of the location of the plots
an effort was made to secure tracts which were representative of the problems concerning the
farmers in their respective districts.
During 1915 Mr. J. Ferris, of the Soil and Crop Division, superintended the construction of
thirteen silos, while eleven silo-filling demonstrations were conducted. A new cutter with lower
attachment was purchased at the beginning of the season, and proved to be much more efficient
and satisfactory in every respect than the cutter used during the previous year. Finding that
one silage-cutter would be inadequate, a second one was purchased. It is purposed to use one
of these for the Lower Mainland, Vancouver Island, and the Gulf Islands, while the other will
be used in the Upper Country. This plan will obviate considerable expense in freight charges
for the shipment of the outfit. One hundred and twenty-one farmers were supplied on request
with prints and specifications of silos.
Alfalfa demonstration plots are being conducted in the following named districts for the
purpose of demonstrating the suitability of this crop for these respective districts: Courtenay,
Saltspring Island, Howe Sound, Rose Hill, Nakusp, Edgewood, Rock Creek, Bridesville, and
Royal Oak. In addition to this work, 560 5-lb. samples of alfalfa-seed were shipped to as many
members of Farmers' Institutes. These men agreed to seed the alfalfa according to instructions
and report on the results. The object of this plan was, in the first place, to provide the Department with information as to the relative suitability of various districts for the growing of this
important crop; and, in the second place, to introduce alfalfa where it had not been grown, but
where it might be found to prove satisfactory.
As in the case of alfalfa, 528 3-lb. samples of seed-corn, consisting of three varieties, were
distributed through the Farmers' Institutes, and up to date the results of this work have been
quite gratifying.
A total of 148,595 lb. of selected grain, mangel, and alfalfa seed was distributed through the
Farmers' Institutes during the spring of 1915.    The mangel-seed was imported from Denmark.
In addition to the above, ten car-loads of seed wheat and oats were distributed throughout
the Province.    A considerable amount of seed-potatoes were also distributed.
Every effort is being made to encourage the production of good seed within the Province,
and in the case of corn we have undertaken co-operative growing in order to ensure the production
of acclimated seed.
The field-crop competitions for the past year have been very satisfactory, and the increased
interest is shown by a substantial growth in the number of competitors. There were 305 competitors in 1913-; 5S7 in 1914; while this year the number has been 812. This work is
undoubtedly stimulating a desire on the part of many competitors to adopt better methods
and use better seed.
In co-operation with the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, sugar-beets were grown experimentally in the Pemberton Meadows. In spite of adverse conditions, fair yields were secured.
Samples of the crop were forwarded to Mr. A. H. Sporry, General Manager of the Pacific Great
Eastern Railway, for analysis. (For full details of Soil and Crop Division work see reports of
Mr. W. Newton and Mr. H. O. English, Soil and Crop Instructors.)
Central British Columbia.
H. E. Walker, District Agriculturist, assisted by S. F. Dunlop, has been doing valuable work
in directing the agricultural development over an extensive area in Central British Columbia.
Messrs. Walker and Dunlop have been able to make personal visits to the pre-emptions of
most of the settlers, and in this way have been able to render personal assistance, which in
the majority of cases is very much appreciated. In this manner a sympathetic bond is being
established between the settlers and the Department, who are more open to suggestions while
still confronted with new problems than they would be in the course of a few years' time.
The range of crops and the yields produced have exceeded our expectations, and with the
opening-up of the country we can anticipate that less trouble will be encountered from summer
frosts. Over large areas the problem of supplying humus to the soil is of paramount importance,
and must eventually be met with by an up-to-date system of mixed farming in which live stock
will play an important part.
Mr. Walker has submitted a very complete and interesting report of the work on the
demonstration plots  supervised  by  him.    During  1915  work  was  carried  on  on  three plots 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 85
located respectively at Fort George, Francois Lake, and Bulkley Valley, while preliminary work
has been undertaken on another plot in the Nechako Valley. Work on plots at Hazelton and
Telkwa was discontinued, although observations are still being made of the growth of permanent
forage-crops on these plots.
The first problem to be solved on these demonstration plots was that of determining the
crops and varieties best suited to the respective districts, and already much valuable information
has been secured.    (For fuller details see H. E. Walker's report.)
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
During the spring of 1914 a plan for conducting boys' and girls' potato-growing competitions
was inaugurated and met with a liberal response. This work was conducted during 1915, but
for some reason there was a decline in the number of entries. During 1916 a special effort will
be put forth to renew interest in these competitions, and we have no doubt but that the effort
will meet with success.
I am convinced that a great deal of good can be accomplished toy these contests among the
boys and girls. The first benefit will be apparent in the development of an interest in agriculture
on the part of the competitors, and this will have a reaction on the parents. The father of the
boy or girl competing will find himself making a study of the methods of seed selection and
culture that will tend towards increased yields.
During 1916 the scope of the boys' and girls' work will be broadened by including competitions, in addition to potato-growing, corn-growing, pig-raising, and poultry-raising.
Brands.
The registration of brands is requiring a large amount of clerical work, and at the present
time Mr. S. H. Llopkins, Assistant Live Stock Commissioner, is preparing for publication a
book of the registered brands of British Columbia. This will include well over 2,000 separate
brands.
Farmers' Institutes and Fall Fairs.
As in previous years, the members of the staff of the Live Stock Branch have assisted in
conducting Farmers' Institute meetings and short courses, and during the fall fairs officiated
as judges in as many cases as possible. As time goes on we find that the Farmers' Institutes
are requesting the assistance of members of the Staff of the Live Stock Branch to a greater
and greater extent.
Summer School.
As in 1914, members of the staff of the Live Stock Branch devoted considerable time to
conducting classes in the summer school for teachers held in Victoria during the month of June
under the auspices of the Department of Education.
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association.
Considerable attention has been given to the affairs of the British Columbia Stock-breeders'
Association, of which your Commissioner is Secretary-Treasurer. During the past year-much
valuable assistance has been rendered by Mr. S. H. Hopkins, who was elected Assistant Secretary-
Treasurer at the annual meeting held in January, 1915. This association has taken a very active
part in promoting the Western Canada Live Stock Union, which is now becoming a very important
factor in live-stock circles of Western Canada. The 1915 Convention of the Union was held in
Victoria in October of last year, and proved the most successful one in the history of the
association.
Publications.
Following is a list of the publications prepared by members of the staff of the Live Stock
Branch during the year 1915:—
Bulletins.
No. 60. Hog-raising in British Columbia.
„ 61. Field-crop Competitions, 1914-15.
,,    62. Boys' and Girls' Field-crop Competitions, 1914-15. E 86 Department of Agriculture. 1916
No. 64. Angora and Milch Goats.
„    26. Practical Poultry-raising.    (4th Edition.)
„    49. Market Poultry.    (3rd Edition.)
„    55. Care and Marketing of Eggs.    (2nd Edition.)
„    63. Poultry-house Construction.
Circulars.
Wild Oats.
Smut in Oats, etc.
Seed-testing.
Circular Bulletins.
No. 12. Management of Geese.
„    13. Root-seed Growing.
„    14. The Use of Agricultural Lime.
Reports.
British Columbia Dairymen's Report.      (Eighth and Ninth Annual.)
Third International Egg-laying Contest at Victoria, B.C.
British Columbia Poultry-breeders'  Directory.
Respectfully submitted.
W. T. McDonald,
Live Slock Commissioner.
ANNUAL REPORT OF DAIRY DIVISION.
By H. Rive, Chief Dairy Instructor and Inspector.
W. T. McDonald. Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as Chief Dairy Instructor -and Inspector
for the year 1915.
Dairy Conditions in British Columbia.
The dairy business on the Lower Mainland has been in much the same condition as in 1914.
Prices for milk have declined somewhat, and the tendency to revert to the manufacture of
butter is steadily growing, though not as yet responsible for any greatly increased creamery
output. Conditions prevailing in Vancouver have caused a considerable diminution in the
supplied milk and cream, yet this has not during the past year offered a surplus of any size
available to the factories owing to the excessive drought in many part of the Fraser Valley,
which seriously cut down the milk-flow. The need for forage supplies other than pasture has
been, to many dairy-farmers on the Lower Mainland, very clearly and severely shown during 1915.
On Vancouver Island, also, a decline in milk prices has been experienced. A slight increase
in butter manufactured will be noticed in year's totals for this district, but the output of dairy
produce has been materially affected by the dry season.
In the Upper Country the dairy industry is developing, where three new creameries have
been established. Inquiries concerning creameries have come to hand from all parts of the
Province, and information as to buildings and equipment has been given.
The point has been reached in the butter affairs of the Province where the home product,
to retain on the home markets the advantage it has hitherto possessed, must make improvement
as to keeping quality and uniformity in order to meet competition now more serious as the
British Columbia make shows the beginning of a regular and annual increase. The situation
is better realized at present than formerly by British Columbia butter-makers, who are developing
interest with the passing of the period of easy sales.
Constant supervision and instruction as to methods of handling milk and cream on the farm,
the grading of cream at the creameries, the use of a moderate quantity of preservative in butter,
and in some cases the practice of pasteurization, together with the more frequent collection of
cream and more adequate cooling equipment, we look to for any beneficial change. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 87
The regular inspection of creameries and patrons has taken place, less time than heretofore
being devoted to the latter, other affairs preventing. (For report of this Division on creamery
conditions see Mr. T. A. F. Wiancko's report.)
Preservative for British Columbia Butter.
In view of the demands of the butter market for improvement in the keeping quality of our
home product, it has become advisable to consider seriously the adoption of some of the methods
of our competitors from Alberta and New Zealand. We are therefore forwarding packages of
butter preservative for trial to all British Columbia creameries, to have them make definite
experiment as to its value in this respect.
The creameries are asked to make use of the sample in the proportions indicated (for
ordinary use % per cent), adding it to the butter with the salt, and when printed to place
in storage a number of prints. As a check, before salting and adding preservative a sufficient
quantity is to be extracted to be salted and worked by itself as usual, then placed in storage
with the other. After being in storage for two weeks at least, then both lots are to be scored
for flavour.    The results are to be made kno-wn to the Dairy Division.
The preservative sent is known as the " Aroma Preserver," put up by the Owen Souud
Creamery Co., Ltd., Owen Sound, Ont., and is offered at 10 cents per pound. Freight amounts
to about 2% cents on small lots. Besides this preservative, Ontario is making use of Preservitas
(Boar's Head) and Preservaline.
Considerable interest is being taken by the butter-makers in this experiment, and as the
cost of a year's supply of preservative to a small creamery will not exceed from $30 to $40, we
consider its use well worth adopting at this time.
City Milk.
Attention has also been given to the city milk-supply. The milk plants and milk-vendors
of the Province have been kept in touch with and many calls have been made on the establishments of the producers.
Municipal milk-inspection work throughout the Province has suffered somewhat as a result
of retrenchment, Inspectors being done away with except in the bigger cities. The supervision
oi" milk-supplies and other matters thus devolves directly on the Medical Health Officers.
The total amount invested in British Columbia in city milk plants and milk-vendors'
equipment is approximately $800,000; in condenseries and plants, $150,000; and in creameries
and plants,' $165,000;   a total of $1,115,000.    (For statement of conditions see Appendix No. 22.)
Cow-testing Associations.
The cow-testing work of the Province has made good progress during 1915. One new
association has been established at Ladner, making, with those in existence at Chilliwack,
Langley-Surrey, and Comox, a total of four in operation.
In the organization and operation of these, with the financial support of the Department,
good success has been attained, and the systems employed for the regulation of allowances and
records may be said to run smoothly.
The greatest difficulty confronting these associations appears to be that of maintaining a
sufficiently large membership to guarantee financial success. This has, of course, been the
experience of associations in other countries, and many have failed owing to the not unnatural
desire of farmers to cease testing for the time, and be relieved of expense when the mature herd
has been tested regularly for two years and a steady supply of younger animals to be tested is
not immediately available.
The results of three years' work in this Province would indicate that one remedy is to be
found toy allotting to each association a district containing sufficient cows for new members
enough to be forthcoming to make good the annual losses as they occur. In this way the
Chilliwack Association will shift gradually back from Chilliwack east towards Sardis, and
thence in any direction as new members may appear on any side. It is therefore not intended
to establish too many associations in close proximity to each other, but to be content with so
many, well endowed with chances of permanent success in the form of numerous herds in the
vicinity.    Accordingly, on the Lower Mainland, with the institution of a new association next E 88 Department of Agriculture. 1916
spring to serve Dewdney and Kent, the work of institution will stop, and attention toe directed
towards the maintenance and increase of efficiency. The same plan on Vancouver Island will
result in one association meeting the requirements of Comox, Nanaimo, and Chemainus.
The work with records of milk, fat, food, and costs is really popular with only a fair
percentage of association members. Too many absolutely disregard the information they are
put in possession of, and, though sensible of poor cows in their herds and of the necessity for
better feeding, make little or no effort to weed out inferior cows or to improve rations fed.
For six months, from April to September, inclusive, the services of Mr. C. H. Gravely as
temporary assistant were secured in connection with these associations. His duties were to
call on every patron of each association at least once during the summer and discuss the
information obtained and its application to the herd concerned; to bring about uniformity in
the work of the testers, with special reference to food values and cost of production; to keep
in touch with Association Secretaries and assist in making collections of overdue accounts if
requested to do so; and finally to visit new districts and pave the way for associations. These
duties Mr. Gravely faithfully carried out, showing at all times a deep interest in the work, and
in his report has offered timely suggestions. His services will not be available to the Department
during 1916 owing to enlistment. The expenses under this head were: Salary, 6 months, $450;
travelling expenses, $367.05;   total, $817.05.
The annual statement of the approximate financial standing of the associations is made out
to March 31st, 1916, being the end of the association year.    (See Appendix No. 23.)
In view of the fact that in the different localities where testing has been carried on many
definite and authentic records have been secured, it seems desirable that these be preserved, and
that the identity of good performing cows, though grades, should not be lost. It also seems
highly probable that any scheme of preservation, through direct registration or otherwise, would
further ensure the permanence of the Cow-testing Associations.
At Cowichan, in the absence of enough cows for the newer system, milk samples have been
tested during the year by Mr. V. Syrup, of the local creamery. About $35 has been expended in
this manner. On the same basis a tester may be employed near Kamloops during the coming
year.
Official Tests.
Testers have, as heretofore, been supplied for the Holstein Advanced Registry to the Colony
Farm, Essondale; J. M. Steves, Steveston; and the Dominion Experimental Farm, Agassiz.
For transportation expenses of testers, and, when supplied to private parties, departmental
allowance of $1 per day, $220 has been paid.
A noteworthy achievement under official test has toeen the establishing of a British Columbia
cow as champion of Canada for butter-fat. " Lady Pietje Canary's Jewel," 17314, a Holstein
senior three-year-old owned by Mr. J. M. Steves, of Steveston, has accomplished this with a yield
of 938.93 lb. of fat. Her milk yield was 24,149.3 lb. Another notable British Columbia cow is
"Madame Posch Pauline," owned by the Colony Farm, whose record (C.N.R.P. semi-official
unrecorded) stands in the neighbourhood of 880 lb. of fat.
Canadian National Record of Performance.
This valuable national record for pure-bred stock, conducted under the Dominion Live Stock
Branch, has received good support from British Columbia dairy-farmers. About thirty-five have
had cows entered during 1915.
Lectures, Demonstrations, etc, on Dairy Subjects during 1915.
During the spring institute meetings there were given on dairy subjects the following talks:
Dairying, by H. Rive and T. A. F. Wiancko, 22; dairy demonstrations, T. A. F. Wiancko, 6.
Summer meetings: Dairying, T. A. F. Wiancko, 5; lectures and demonstrations in connection
with short courses in dairying, by H. Rive and T. A. F. Winacko, 30. Special meetings: Cow-
testing meetings, H. Rive, 5; dairy methods, T. A. F. Wiancko, 3. Total: Lectures, 55;
demonstrations, 16.
Fall Fairs.
A report on this subject to Mr. W. J. Bonavia, Secretary, Fairs Association, has been
submitted, and concerns those fairs attended by some member of this Division.  rpi^ipp::;:::;;-:::;::::.;^ '6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 89
Daieymen's Association.
The membership roll of the association has suffered somewhat in common with those of
kindred institutions during 1915. Competition, however, in contests of the association at fall
fairs and elsewhere has toeen fair, and warrants well for the future. The expenditures of the
Association have been carefully curtailed, a balance of over $1,500 of the grant remaining in
the treasury.
Respectfully submitted.
Henry Rive,
Chief Dairy Instructor and Inspector.
ANNUAL REPORT OF DAIRY INSTRUCTOR AND INSPECTOR.
T. A. F. Wiancko.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit herewith my report as Dairy Instructor and Inspector for the year
1915.
During the year my time has been spent mainly in inspecting creameries, farm and city
dairies, lecturing and demonstrating at Farmers' Institutes, and judging dairy products at
fall fairs.
Ceeameeies.
During the year rather more attention was given to creamery instruction and inspection
than formerly, and this is a branch of the work which will doubtless require still more attention in the future. Altogether forty-four visits were made to the twenty-six creameries now in
operation, giving at least two visits to each on the Island and Lower Mainland.
New creameries have been established during the year at Grand Forks, Kelowna, Salmon
Arm, and Clayburn, and these have already shown decided evidence of becoming important
manufacturing centres. They have been equipped with modern appliances, and should, therefore,
be in a position to turn out a first-class article of butter. In order to encourage the production
of good, clean-flavoured cream for these new plants, personal visits were made to the farms of
the majority of the patrons supplying them, and instructions given in the proper care and
handling of the milk and cream. In a number of other districts the farmers were desirous of"
having a creamery established, but upon a thorough canvass of the possibilities it was found
that at present there were not sufficient cows available within a reasonable distance.
At Lumby and Alberni there was strong desire to have the creameries re-established, but
upon thorough investigation it was deemed advisable to discourage the idea until such time as
enough cows would toe available to ensure lasting success.
The creameries have had a fairly good year, with increased production, and prices about
the same as in 1914. Most of the butter was sold very soon after being made; in consequence
there was but little opportunity of inspecting its keeping quality, but there is little doutot that
a good deal of it would not stand storage for any length of time.
A system of grading cream and payment according to quality should be adopted by
creameries, so that it would toe in the Interest of the farmers to supply a sweeter and better-
flavoured cream. Competition from other Western Provinces and New Zealand is such that
immediate improvement in the quality of British Columbia butter is necessary in order to hold
our own in the Coast markets. (For statements, tabulated from our office records, showing a
summary of creamery conditions as they were at the end of 1915 see Appendices Nos. 24 and 25.)
City' Daisies.
At odd times during the year inspections were made of practically all the milk-vending
establishments in the principal towns and cities in the Island, Lower Mainland, and Upper
Country sections, including producers who are also vendors. Conditions for the most part are
improving, and there is evidence of a desire on the part of the vendors to put out a better,
cleaner,  and safer milk-supply.    Those cities which have passed by-laws in accordance with E 90 Department of Agriculture. 1916
the Provincial " Milk Act" have made marked improvement. Many vendors have adopted the-
system of selling only bottled milk at retail, and many have made substantial improvement in
the way of new equipment, sterilizing apparatus, etc.
Farmers' Institutes.
During February and March, and again in May and June, your representative delivered,
twenty addresses and gave eleven demonstrations before Farmers' Institutes. These meetings
were very well attended, particularly at Upper Country points, where there was a decided
tendency towards general mixed farming. The era of speculation and idleness is apparently
over, and farmers in general are anxious to learn more about their calling. This will materially
increase home production and effect a great saving in the living expenses of the farmer.
Fall Fairs.
During September I judged the dairy products at Parksville,  Hillier,  Agassiz,  Matsqui,
Chilliwack, Langley, and Comox.    While the number of entries was not large at any of these
fairs, the quality, particularly at Chilliwack, was above the average.
Respectfully submitted.
T. A. F. Wiancko,
Dairy Instructor and Inspector.
ANNUAL REPORT OF SOIL AND CROP DIVISION.
By H. O. English, Soil and Crop Instructor.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg herewith to submit the annual report of that branch of the work of the Soil
and Crop Division which came under my personal supervision during 1915. This report is
submitted under the various headings of the work.
Geneeal.
I entered upon the work of the Soil and Crop Division on May 1st, 1915. During the month
of May the time was devoted to making myself familiar with the work of the Division and the
conditions existing in the Province. Considerable time was devoted to the clearing-up of the late
orders for seed and to the general correspondence.
Educational Excuesions.
May 6th, 1915, in the company of Messrs. McDonald and Newton, the Western Washington
Experiment Station at Puyallup was visited with a view to investigating cultural and cropping
methods practised there. This excursion was of inestimable educational value, in that the conditions existing there are very similar to those existing in many parts of British Columbia.
June 22nd and 23rd, 1915, this Division conducted an excursion to the Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz, B.C. The party consisted of W. T. McDonald, Wm. Newton, W. Gibson,
R. Miller, and myself. The otoject of the excursion to and the subsequent convention at Agassiz
was the convening of the judges of the 1915 crop competitions for the purpose of standardization
of the system of scoring field crops. The system adopted was the inspection and scoring of field
plots on the Experimental Farm and discussion of the various scores awarded, as well as cuts
made for faults or weaknesses in the cultural methods or crops themselves. The convention was
quite successful, so much so that this year there was a more uniform grading of field crops and
no irregular scores.
SUGAE-BEET   EXPERIMENT   (PEMBERTON   MEADOWS).
During the spring of 1915 the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, through their general manager,
entered into an agreement with the Department of Agriculture whereby the possibility of sugar-
beet culture in the Pemberton Meadows was to be investigated.    The company agreed to supply 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 91
the seed and to attend to the analysis of the sugar-beet samples grown from same. The Department of Agriculture agreed to attend to the distribution of the seed and the collection of samples,
the beets to be grown under departmental supervision.
Your Instructor investigated prevailing conditions at Pemberton on May 10th and 11th and
distributed the seed in small samples to the farmers of the valley, who agreed to attend to the
culture of the plots and obtain accurate figures as to yields per acre.
The growing season was marked toy.an exceptional light rainfall in this district, which fact,
coupled with the porous nature of the soil, was detrimental to the successful production of
large yields of sugar-beets. However, unsatisfactory as conditions were, the experiment from
a cultural standpoint was quite successful. When I again visited the valley, October 20th fo
23rd, it was found that the sugar-beets were ripening rapidly. Several samples were selected
which were shipped to Mr. A. H. Sporry, general manager of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway,
for analysis.
The results of the experiment are not given since the report of the analyst has not yet
been received. •
Agriculture  (Pemberton Meadows).
The agricultural situation at Pemberton Meadows differs from anything else in this
Province. The valley is noted for the high yields of first-quality roots which it is possible
for them to produce with little exertion, and for the large yields of clover and alfalfa hay
which they can readily obtain. Natural growth is very luxuriant during normal seasons, due
to the richness of the silt soil. The situation Of the valley, the climatic conditions, and the crop
adaptability of the valley stamp it as pre-eminently suited to the live-stock industry. Offsetting
this, however, is the well-known prevalence of that strange infection known as " goitre." If a
remedy for this scourge be found, the Pemberton Meadows will be one of the most prosperous
of the agricultural districts of the Province.
Much good land in this valley is wasted, due to the serpentine Lillooet River, which annually
undermines and washes away many acres of the fertile land of this valley.
Boys' and Gibls' Potato Competitions.
In 1915 there were twenty-one competitions conducted, with a total entry list of 138. This
is a decrease of fifty-four from that of 1914.
Although no cash prizes were awarded on the field score, badges were given. One badge
was given to each competitor, while those obtaining the highest scores for each district had
First, Second, and Third printed on the ribbon part of the badge.
Of the 138 competitors, seventy-six have submitted financial reports on the cost of producing
the crop for the year. To each of those who submitted a satisfactory statement of the cost of
producing we gave a copy of the Dominion publication, " Fodder and Pasture Plants."
In addition to the above, prizes were offered at the Provincial Seed Fairs at Armstrong and
New Westminster for exhibits from the boys' and girls' plots. The total number of entries were:
Armstrong, 25; New Westminster, 10.
The quality of the exhibits of boys' and girls' potatoes was superior to that of the senior
members of the Farmers' Institutes.
Provincial prizes in the form of pure-bred heifer calves of the breed chosen by the winners
was given to the boy and girl who obtained the highest total score when the Field, Financial
Report, and Harvested Exhibit scores were added together. The winners this year were: C. W.
Mizon and Miss Florence Anderson, both at Malakwa, B.C.
Field-crop Competitions.
The Field-crop Competitions Bulletin No. 61 was published January 4th, 1915. This bulletin
announced, among other things, the rules and regulations governing the 1915 field-crop competitions, and gave the awards of the competitions of 1914. The following changes from the rules
and regulations of the previous year are noticeable:—
(a.)  That the Government grant per competition be reduced from $60 to $35 :
(&.) That the basis for competition be broadened to include both large and small farmers:
(c.) That no special prizes be awarded: E 92
Department of Agriculture.
1916
(d.)  That a bonus of $5 be paid to every competitor in a field-crop competition who shall
submit the cost of the production of the crop he grew in connection with the competition.
Upon taking up the wrork of the Soil and Crop Division, this branch of the work came under
my immediate supervision.    The advertising necessary in connection with the field-crop competitions had already been done and the entries were arriving.    The rapid increase in the number
of farmers taking part in these competitions from year to year vouches for their popularity.
The following table shows the growth of this branch of the work of the Soil and Crop Division
during the past few years :—
Field-crop Competitions.
Year.
No. of
Institutes.
No. of
Competitions.
No. of
Competitors.
1912	
14
21
49
59
20
31
80
101
1913	
1914	
1915	
305
587
812
The following is a list of the crops
conducted with each :—
Potatoes  	
Oats   	
Mangels   	
Carrots  	
Wheat 	
Grain hay  	
Kale   	
Corn   	
Alfalfa   	
Swedes  	
;rown in competitions and the number of competitions
50
15
7
7
5
4
4
4
3
2
Total .."   101
The judging of such a large number of plots, scattered as they were over the whole Province,
involved so much travelling that the regular staff of the Division found it impossible to cope
with the situation. Consequently the services of two outsde field-crop experts were secured—
i.e., Messrs. Wm. Gibson and Robt. Miller, of Victoria, B.C.
The following is a statement of the expenditure in connection with the field-crop competition,
which includes the travelling expenses of judges, wages of assistants, and prize-money paid to
the winners of the various competitions:—
Expenses in connection with judging   $1,097 35
Wages of extra judges           352 00
Total      $1,449 35
Average cost of judging per competition          14 35
Prize-money        3,465 00
Total expenditure      $4,914 35
Average cost of competition  ,  48 65
T   , Competitions
Judges. judged.
Wm. Gibson  31
R. Miller   '.  27
Wm. Newton     15
H.  O. English  24
S. II. Hopkins    2
S. F. Dunlop    2 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 93
In connection with the field-crop competitions, I visited and judged one or more competitions
at nineteen different places.
Silo-filling Demonstrations.
In connection with this work personal assistance was given to Mr. Newton in the carrying-
out of the programme, and personally conducted the demonstrations at Thrums and Nanaimo.
Both were quite successful and the results obtained very gratifying.
Agricultural Statistics.
Some time was devoted to the gathering of agricultural statistics in the Pemberton, Cape
Scott, and Bella Coola Districts.
The 1916 seed-distribution was arranged for during the latter part of the year, and in this
connection your representative made a trip to Saskatchewan and Manitoba to secure good seed
of the desired varieties.
Provincial Seed Fairs.
The management of the seed fairs as a new move necessitated considerable preparation.
The report will be submitted later.
Farm Survey.
Several farms were visited during the summer with a view to obtaining and imparting
information on the best cultural methods for the different soils under the varying climatic and
topographical conditions. This branch of the work appeals to this Division very strongly, in
that it offers an opportunity to study the practical problems at first hand and render more
valuable assistance in the solution of the problems than by correspondence.
Cost of Production Survey.
This has been a very important branch of the work during the year. It is new work in this
Province, and in view of this fact some very interesting data have been secured. In all, forty-
two satisfactory reports have been received.    Reports were submitted as follows:—
Potatoes    27
Oats        6
Alfalfa       2
Wheat
2
Mangels        2
Carrots       2
Corn        1
A report of this Cost of Production survey will be submitted when the data thus collected
have been compiled.
Respectfully submitted.
H. O. English,
Soil and Crop Instructor.
ANNUAL REPORT OF SOIL AND CROP DIVISION.
By W. Newton, Soil and Crop Instructor.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir—I i,eg to submit herewith my annual report of the Soil and Crop Division for the
year 1915.
Office.
The correspondence for the year has been large, and chiefly related to inquiries as to soil-
management and crop production. E 94 Department of Agriculture. 1916
Circulars and Bulletins.
Circular Bulletin No. 13, " Root-seed Growing "; Circular No. 14, " The Use of Agricultural
Lime in British Columbia " ; and Bulletin No. 66, " Silos and Ensilage," were prepared and
circulated.
Farmers' Institute Lectures.
From January 20th to February 10th various places were visited to discuss the use and
production of good seed. In some cases special institute meetings were called, but for the most
part a list of parties particularly interested was submitted toy the Institute Secretary and
arrangements made to meet these parties at convenient places.
Under the regular schedule of winter and spring meetings lectures were delivered at various
places. The attendance generally was good. Subjects on corn, alfalfa silos, and ensilage were
of particular interest in most districts, while those on soil-management and seed-improvement
were in many cases requested.
Special addresses were delivered at Haney, Courtenay, and Powell River. The subjects
were " Potato-giwving," " Agricultural Lime," and " Soil Management and Fertilizers."
Silo Building and Filling Demonstbations.
To encourage the more general use of silos, the Department offered to superintend the
construction and to fill the silo of the first applicant from any institute district. The large
number of applications received was in itself sufficient proof that the farmers of the Province
are awake to the advantages of silos. Before an application is accepted permission must be
granted to hold a demonstration. This consists of a general discussion while the silo is being
filled with ensilage. At the same time the reasons why the Department constructed the silo of
a certain type and why it adopted definite methods of filling were pointed out. Silos were built
at Ganges, Armstrong, Burton, Ladysmith, Saanich, Nanaimo, Mount Lehman, Penticton, Nelson,
Kelowna (two), Revelstoke, and Errington, or a total of thirteen.
Demonstrations were held at all points where the Department constructed silos, except
Nelson and Saanich. The average attendance was twenty-six. The interest taken in these
demonstrations is evident from the number of silos erected in the districts after the demonstrations take place. It is estimated that there are forty-six silos in the Chilliwack District,
seventeen in the Comox District, and ten in the Langley Prairie District, the greater number
of which were erected during the past season. Although there are no accurate estimates for all
the districts in the Province, the total number would be very large. The increasing popularity
of the silo for the live-stock sections of the Province is undoubtedly partially due to the silo-
demonstration work inaugurated by the Soil and Crop Division.
To facilitate answering the numerous inquiries referring to silo-erection, the Division issued
a silo white-print (a mechanical drawing) and a sheet of silo specifications. On the sheet of
silo specifications the exact amount of material required in the construction of silos of the
various dimensions is stated. With the assistance of the white-print and sheet of silo specifications, any person wffio has any knowledge of woodwork construction should have little difficulty
in the construction of a stave silo. One hundred and twenty-one ranchers applied and received
these silo white-prints and sheets of specifications.
Notes submitted by parties who have received assistance in construction:—
Nanaimo.—Dimensions of silo, 9 x 20 feet.
Cost of staves, Douglas fir, double-dressed    $21 00
Cost of hardware, rods, staples, etc     25 00
Cost of lumber or roof        2 00
Cost of miscellaneous material        2 00
Cost of labour      20 00
Total cost   $70 00
The silo was filled with corn which yielded approximately 8 tons per acre. Inferior seed
was used. The corn ensilage turned out good. One foot of cut straw was placed on top of the
corn. This was thoroughly soaked with water, and this acted perfectly as a seal. No waste
at all occurred except around the doors, which can be remedied by the use of tar-paper.—
H. Vicaes. •6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 95
Kelowna—Dimensions of silo, 38 x 13 feet (10 feet concrete, 28 feet wood).
Cost of staves, double-dressed, tongued and grooved  $109 00
Cost of lumber for roof  6 30
Cost of hardware, rods, staples, etc  30 18
Cost of cement, stone, etc., on concrete-work   20 00
Cost of labour   124 00
Total cost     $290 00
The lower 10 feet is made of concrete, which is below the ground. I wish to express my
■entire satisfaction with my silo. The silo was filled with corn. The yield was approximately
15 tons per acre.—M. Heeeon.
Thrums.—Dimensions of silo, 10 x 20 feet.
Cost of staves and posts at $18 per M   $25 00
Cost of foundation (plank) at $18 per M       8 15
Cost of hardware, rods, staples, etc     24 75
Cost of lumber for beam to roof at $18 per M       4 00
Cost of shingles for roof at $2 per M       3 00
Cost of labour, 2 men, 3 days at $3 per day     18 00
Total cost    $82 90
I would like to say that the silage (peas and oats) has quite exceeded even our most
sanguine expectations. The following are some of the reasons why I would recommend pea
.and oat silage :—
1st. The cows like it and give a large amount of milk on it.
2nd. We have absolutely no waste in feeding.
3rd. We can grow a very heavy crop to the acre.
4th. Not so dependent on hot weather as corn.
5th. We can seed peas and oats in April or March, and can cut and feed or fill silo at the
■end of June; then plough and reseed, getting two crops, and still have time for planting fall
wheat or rye.
6th. Our land is in better condition after two crops of peas and oats than it was before.
7th. As the crop is not cultivated, I save time for other work.
We have never needed such a small amount of concentrate to get maximum amount of milk.
'The cost of placing the crop in the silo was approximately $1 per ton. This compares favour-
Ably with making the same crop into hay.—R. W. C. Chalmers.
Ganges, Saltspring Island.—Dimensions of stave silo erected, 12 x 30 feet.
Cost of staves, posts, and lumber for roof    $ 47 00
Cost of hardware, rods, staples for roof, etc       43 00
Cost of cement for foundation         11 00
Cost of labour for construction        30 00
Total cost  $131 00
The silo was filled with corn. The yield was approximately 7 tons to the acre. Conditions
were rather unfavourable for corn where it was seeded, which accounts for the low yield.—
Price Beos.
Strawberry Vale, near Victoria.—Dimensions of silo, 16 x 32 feet.
Cost of lumber, staves, scaffolding, etc  $ 52 00
Cost of hardware, rods, staples, etc       49 00
Cost of labour for construction        32 00
Total cost   ■   $133 75
The silo was filled with corn that yielded approximately 15 tons to the acre. The expense
■of filling for the past season was approximately $300 for 160 tons of corn. The horse-labour is
charged at the rate of $3 per day, including man. Man-labour is charged at the rate of $2 per
day. We paid $70 of the above amount for filling-machinery hire. Another year I should be
able to fill for $1.50 per ton, paying the same labour rates. This year we wasted time unnecessarily owing to our lack of experience.—E. Raper. E 96 Department of Agriculture. 1916
Metchosin.—Dimensions of silo, 10 x 30 feet.
Cost of lumber, staves, lumber for roof, etc  $ 48 00
Cost of hardware, rods, staples, etc  23 00
Cost of cement for foundation   ,  3 00
Cost of labour    27 00
Total cost     $101 80;
Two- by six-inch staves, double-dressed, tongued and grooved, were used.—H. R. Hammond.
Mount Lehmanr.—Dimensions of silo, 10 x 30 feet.
Cost, of lumber, staves, lumber for roof, plank foundation, etc $32 25
Cost of hardware, rods, staples, etc     28 63
Total cost    $60 88
G. H. Guy.
Chilliwack.—Dimensions of silo (concrete), 16 x 32% feet. Total cost of material, $190.
Labour, 4 men 9% days and 1 horse for hoisting. The total cost of the silo was $297, plus the
cost of hauling the cement, gravel, and lumber. Five hundred pounds of large wire was used
as reinforcement material. Three strands were used twisted to form a rope laid in the concrete
about 6 inches apart. The metal curbs were used. Scaffolding was erected on the inside only.
Lack of experience in silo-building made the construction unnecessarily expensive.—John
MoIntyre.
Burton.—Dimensions of silo, 10 x 24 feet.
Cost of lumber, staves, roof, etc   $26 00
Cost of hardware, rods, staples, etc     33 70
Cost of labour      27 00
Total cost     $86 70
The silo was filled with corn that yielded approximately 13 tons per acre. The ensilage is-
turning out well, although the silo is not only small, but 2- x 6-inch staves were used in the-
construction.—T. Millae.
Demonsteation Stations.
An important phase of the work of the Soil and Crop Division has been the operation
of seven demonstration stations or plots. These plots are from 4 to 13 acres in size, and are-
located at Chilliwack, Rose Hill, Armstrong, Rock Creek, Grand Forks, Edgewood, and Errington.
Management.—A manager is appointed by the Department for every plot. The Department,
however, has the advice of a committee of three appointed by the local Farmers' Institute. Not
only is this committee consulted in selecting the most desirable location of the plot, but several
times a year the advisory committee, manager, and representative of the Department meet to-
discuss and decide upon changes in management. The value of this system is that the sympathy
and co-operation of the members of the institute is secured; besides, it offers a safeguard against
errors iu detail that might creep in through lack of a thorough knowledge of local conditions..
Objects.—The object of these stations is primarily to demonstrate a system of cropping most
suited to the needs of the district where they are located.
Demonstration Station in Relation to Good Seed.—Every effort is made by the Division to
secure varieties or strains of grain, alfalfa, and clovers most suited to the district for planting
on the demonstration stations. At the same time the plots are used as far as possible as a
source of registered seed according to the rules of the Canadian Seed-growers' Association.
Registered grain is used for seeding and selections are made from year to year. During the-
past season selections were made in wheat, oats, and corn. In all cases sufficient material is
selected to seed the entire plot devoted to that particular crop the following year. A source
of 61ite stock seed will thus be secured from year to year, and it will be placed in the hands
of farmers willing to undertake the production of registered seed. All the selection-work is.
done by a representative of this Division. The Farmers' Institute is instructed to advertise
the date when the selection-work is done, inviting interested parties to attend. The object is
primarily to instruct farmers in doing the selection-work necessary in the production of"
registered grain.  ' #->
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Chilliwack Demonstration Station.
A four-year rotation is followed, containing clover two years, an intertillage and a grain
plot. In this district clover has done remarkably well for two years following the year it is
seeded down. On the corn-plot Minnesota 13 corn was used, being planted 4 feet apart each
way. The distance .apart is rather greater than that recommended by the Division when planting for ensilage purposes. The object of planting at these distances was twofold: First, to
overcome the local tendency to plant too close; second, to ensure perfect maturity where the
corn was used as seed. Results proved definitely that the production of seed-corn was possible
iu the Chilliwack District.
Clover: Plot 1, 1 Acre.—This plot was down to clover. A fair yield was obtained in spite
of small patches of couch-grass that were present.    Two cuttings were harvested.
Oats: Plot 2, 1 Acre.—This plot was fall-ploughed and sown to oats at the rate of 50 lb.
per acre. Clover 12 lb. and alfalfa 3 lb. per acre was seeded with the oats. A head selection
was made from the crop when fully matured.
Com and Mangels: Plot 3, 1 Acre.—Nine loads of manure, 125 lb. sulphate of potash, aud
250 lb. superphosphate were used on this plot. Minnesota 13 corn was planted. A good yield
was secured and a large proportion of the corn matured sufficiently to be saved as seed.
One-quarter of the plot was seeded wTith mangels. The crop was not exceptional, but very fair
considering the dry season.
Oats and Vetches: Plot 1/, 1 Acre.—This plot should have been down to clover during the
past season, but the clover winter-killed so badly that it was ploughed up. Fifty lb. oats and
30 lb. vetches were sown in the spring; 12 lb. of clover and 3 lb. of alfalfa were used to seed
down the plot.    The mixture was cut in July as hay.
Rose Hill Demonstration Station, Kamloops.
The system of cropping on this station is not definitely settled. A three-year rotation
containing a summer fallow, a hoed crop, and a grain-crop has been followed. Three-fifths of
the plot will be down to alfalfa next year. This alfalfa-plot will alternate periodically with
the other plots.
One-half the summer-fallow plot was handled as follows: The plot was fall-ploughed and
in the spring seeded to sweet clover to be used as a green manure crop. This was ploughed
under early in August and for the balance of the season the plot was kept cultivated. On
account of the deficiency of humus in the soil it was thought that better results would be
obtained by following a partial summer fallow than by keeping the plot bare-fallowed for the
full season. However, the balance of summer-fallow plot was kept cultivated as a bare fallow
for the full season, as a check.
Oats and wheat were used on the grain-plot. The binder was followed by the harrow, thus
establishing a mulch.
The alfalfa was sown in rows 14 inches apart. In this semi-dry section better results have
been secured by seeding in this manner. When the alfalfa is established practically, no intertillage Is necessary. A greater number of cuttings are secured when planted in this manner,
and if the harrow or disk is used across the rows after every cutting, additional cultivation is
seldom necessary.
Sweet clover was seeded on all alkali sections of the plot, but with negative results.
Partial Summer Fallow, 1 Acre, 1915; Bare Summer Fallow, 1 Acre, 1915.—This plot was
fall-ploughed. One-half was sown in the spring to sweet clover and the other half Was left
cultivated as a bare fallow throughout the season.
Intertillage: Plot 2, ./% Acres (1 Acre Corn, % Acre Mangels).—This plot was cultivated
until seeded early in May.   Quebec 28 corn was used, but it did not mature.
Grain: Plot 3.—This plot was fall-ploughed and a good seed-bed prepared in the spring.
One-half the plot was seeded to oats and the balance to wheat late in April.
Hay: Plot lh 2 Acres.—This plot was harrowed in May and the hay-crop cut early in July.
The crop was poor, wild grasses having displaced to a large extent the grasses sown. The plot
was ploughed in July and cultivated for the rest of the season.
Alfalfa: Plot 5, 1 Acre.—A good seed-bed was prepared in the spring and the plot sown
to alfalfa in April, in drills 14 inches apart. Part of the plot had to be reseeded, being killed
out by alkali. E 98 Department of Agriculture. 1916
An alkali strip bordering on the lake was sown to sweet clover in April. The sweet clover
killed out completely and was reseeded, with the same results.
Edgewood Demonstration Station.
A three-year rotation is followed, containing clover, an intertillage crop, and grain. The
short rotation suits the needs of the district. A mixture of red clover and alsike seeded with
the oats has given excellent results. The corn, although planted 4 feet apart each way, did
not mature. The lack of maturity was probably due to the unusual wet season. North-western
Dent seed was used.
Corn and Mangels: Plot 1, 1% Acres.—This plot was fall-ploughed and sown in the spring
to 1 acre corn and % acre mangels. North-western Dent seed was used. In spite of the wet
weather a fair crop was secured, but the crop did not mature sufficiently to secure any seed.
Only a small crop of mangels was secured.
Hay: Plot 2, l1/* Acres.—This plot was sown down in the spring of 1914 to clover and
alfalfa. The alfalfa did not do very well, although in 1915 the alfalfa that was present in
the mixture was very vigorous. Wild grasses were present to a considerable extent in the
stand.    The plot will be fall-ploughed.
Oats (seeded down): Plot 3, 1% Acres.—This plot was fall-ploughed and sown in the spring
to oats and clover. The oats were sown at the rate of 50 lb. and clover 12 lb. per acre; 3 lb. of
alfalfa-seed was added to the mixture.    A good " catch " of clover was secured.
Aemsteong Demonstration Station.
The rotation followed was a partial summer fallow, an intertillage crop, and a grain-crop.
Two-thirds of the plot is down to alfalfa in rows 24 inches apart, which will alternate periodically
with the balance of the plot. Sweet clover was used as a green manure crop on the partial
summer fallow. Corn and mangels were used as the intertillage crop. The corn was poor,
consequently no seed was secured.    The grain-crop will be used as a source of registered seed.
Alfalfa: Plot 1, % Acre.—The alfalfa-plot was seeded in May in drills 24 inches apart.
As soon as the alfalfa was visible in the rows cultivation commenced. In August the plot was
clipped. Only 4 lb. of seed was used. Your Instructor is of the opinion that heavier seeding
would be safer.
Alfalfa for Seed: Plot 2, % Acre.—This plot was handled similar to Plot 1, except that
less seed was used. The rate of seeding was as follows : Plot 1, 4 lb.; Plot 2, 2 lb. Plot 2 will
be handled as a seed-plot next year.
Outs: Plot 3, % Acre.—This plot was fall-ploughed and seeded in April to oats at the rate
of 50 lb. per acre.
Corn: Plot 4, % Acre.—This plot was seeded in May with North-western Dent corn.. The
wet season kept it back, with the result that only a small tonnage was secured and none of it
reached maturity.
Partial Summer Fallow: Plot 5, % Acre.—This plot was fall-ploughed, a good seed-bed
prepared in the spring, and sown to sweet clover at the rate of 12 lb. per acre. The growth was
not as abundant as was expected.    The crop was ploughed under in August.
Grand Forks Demonstration Station.
A three-year rotation is followed, containing a partial fallow, an intertillage crop, and a
grain-crop. One-quarter of the plot is down to alfalfa that will alternate periodically with the
balance of the plot. The alfalfa on this plot was sown broadcast. On the partial summer
fallow buckwheat and peas were compared as green manure crops. The partial summer-fallow
plot will be continued in the rotation for at least another year. Corn and mangels were used
as the intertillage crop. The corn matured perfectly and will be used as a source of acclimated
seed.    The grain-crop consisted of oats and will be used as a source of registered seed.
Partial Summer Fallow: Plot 1, 1 Acre.—This plot was ploughed in the fall, a good seed-bed
prepared in the spring, and seeded in April. Green crops were ploughed under in July and
fallowed for the balance of the season.
Oats: Plot 2, 1 Acre.—This plot was fall-ploughed, a good seed-bed prepared in the spring,
and sown in April to oats  (first generation Registered Banner)  at the rate of 100 lb. per acre. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 99
The plot was ploughed early in September, 1915, and a good seed-bed prepared. During the
latter part of the month it was seeded to fall rye and vetch, 75 lb. rye and 25 lb. vetch.
Intertillage: Plot 3.—The plot was fall-ploughed, and in the spring of 1915 manure was
applied at the rate of 8 tons per acre. A good seed-bed was prepared and the plot sown to
% acre corn and % acre mangels.
Alfalfa: Plot .'/.—Two crops of alfalfa were harrowed after each cutting. The first crop
was rather weedy.
Rock Creek Demonstration Station.
The rotation followed is similar to that at the Grand Forks Station. Peas and buckwheat
were compared as green manure crops to fallow. The alfalfa-plot was sown 14 inches apart,
one-half being seeded at the rate of 5 lb. per acre and the balance at 15 lb. The plot sown at
the rate of 5 lb. per acre will be used to test the possibilities of seed production for the district.
Grain:   Plot 1, % Acre.—This plot was fall-ploughed and seeded in the spring to oats.
Partial Summer Fallow: Plot 2, % Acre.—This plot was fall-ploughed and in April sown
to peas at the rate of 135 lb. per acre. This was ploughed under early in September. The crop
in an average season should have been ploughed under earlier. Favourable results should
follow«the later ploughing this year on account of the wet season.
Com and Mangels: Plot 3, % Acre.—A seed-bed was prepared and sown to % acre corn
and %  mangels.
Partial Summer Fallow: Plot Jf.—This plot was handled similar to Plot 2, but sown to
buckwheat instead of peas.
Alfalfa for Seed: Plot 5, % Acre.—This plot was sown in April at the rate of 5 lb. per
acre in drills 14 inches apart. The alfalfa came on remarkably fast. It was thought advisable
to test seed production during the first year but the season proved too wet for the proper
ripening of the seed.
Errington Demonstration Station.
The demonstration station at Errington has been under the supervision of the Department of
Agriculture for the past season. The crops during the past season were not large. The physical
condition of the soil would suggest that prospects for next season's crop will be much better.
The land having been recently cleared, it will take many years of crop production to entirely
" tame" the soil. Soils of this kind not only contain resinous material and organic acids
detrimental to the crop, but the amount" of blasting and burning necessary to clear land of
this description means that the soil for the most part is deficient in humus and is in poor textural
condition. By ploughing and cultivating, the resinous substances and organic acids tend to
disappear through contact with the air. Ploughing under crop residues will gradually supply
the humus that is lacking, and all forms of cultivation, if applied at the right time, will assist
the humus in improving the textural condition of the soil.
A four-year rotation will be followed as closely as possible on the Errington Demonstration
Station, consisting of grain seeded down. Clover alone was used during the past season in
sowing down. The meadow is down for two years and is being followed by an intertillage crop,
corn, mangels, and kale.
Vetches and Oats: Plot 1, 2 Acres.—This plot was ploughed in February, and in the spring
sown with 50 lb. oats and 25 lb. vetch per acre, and seeded down with red clover at the rate of
12 lb. per acre.    The crop was cut late in July and yielded approximately 4% tons.
Mangels: Plot 2, % Acre.—This plot was ploughed in February and sown to mangels in
April. Although the necessary attention was given to the plot, the yield was rather poor, being
at the rate of 13 Vs tons to the acre.
Kale: Plot 3, 14 Acre.—This plot was ploughed in February and planted to kale early in
June. The kale was seeded in rows 3 feet 6 inches apart, and the plants about 2 feet apart in
the row.    The plot yielded approximately at the rate of 16 tons to the acre.
Wheat (seeded down): Plot -j, 1 Acre.—This plot was seeded late in April to wheat at the
rate of 12 lb. to the acre.    A fair crop of wheat was secured and an excellent stand of clover.
Barley (seeded down): Plot 5, iy:i Acres.—This plot was ploughed early in April and seeded
during the latter part of the same month. A fair crop of barley was obtained and an excellent
stand of clover.    The plot yielded at the rate of 20 bushels of barley to the acre. E 100 Department of Agriculture. 1916
Com: Plot 6, 3% Acres.—A light application of commercial fertilizer was given the plot
early in May, followed by shallow ploughing. A good seed-bed was prepared and the corn sown
3 feet apart each way during the latter part of May. The corn-crop was poor and the yield
approximately 4 tons per acre.
Clover Hay: Plot 7, Wn Acres.—This plot was seeded down to clover in the spring of 1914.
In the spring of 1915 the clover appeared as though a certain amount of winter killing had
occurred and the crop was light, being approximately 1 ton to the acre. The plot was ploughed
during the latter part of October and the first part of November.
Alfalfa Demonstration.
Nine alfalfa-plots were conducted by the Soil and Crop Division for the purpose of demonstrating the value of the crop in the various districts of the Province. (For statement of
alfalfa-plots see Appendix No. 26.)
Alfalfa Co-operative Tests.
The adaptability of alfalfa to the different districts is determined to a certain degree by the
co-operative alfalfa tests. The first eight applicants from any institute district receive 5 lb.
samples of alfalfa-seed, together with a bottle of nitro-culture. They received this seed with the
understanding that a report be submitted to the Department on the form sent out by this
Division.    A large number of these reports have not yet been received toy the Division.
Without an exception, the reports received from Enderby and other districts in the northern
part of the Okanagan Valley indicated that the alfalfa tests made were successful.
All the reports from the Nicola A'alley were also favourable.
In approximately 75 per cent, of the reports from Kamloops sections very favourable
prospects were suggested.   The balance of the reports suggested indifferent prospects.
Eighty per cent, of the reports from the Arrow Lake District would indicate that the
prospect of successful alfalfa-culture was very favourable.
-For the most part the reports from the East Kootenay were favourable.
The reports from Vancouver and the Gulf Islands are not very favourable. They would
suggest that alfalfa is still strictly an experimental crop. The same would apply to the reports
received from the Lower Fraser. For the most part it is suggested that for the Lower Fraser
alfalfa is not as valuable a crop as red clover.
All seed was distributed through the Farmers'* Institute organization of the Province.
Circulars announcing the distribution were sent out to all Secretaries and members of the
institutes, and all orders were forwarded through the Secretaries to the Department.
Cash Distribution.—The Secretaries were notified that no order w&uld be considered unless,
accompanied by cash. This made it possible for the Department to handle a large distribution
at a small cost.
Kind and Amount of Seed Distributed.
Oats, registered Banner (third generation)    37,700 lb.
Oats, Gold Rain    81,600 „
Wheat, Marquis    17,000 „
Corn, Minnesota 13  (special strain)        3,075 „
Corn, North-western Dent (special strain)       3,180 „
Quebec 2S (acclimated)       1,000 „
Mangel-seed, Sludgstrop (registered Denmark)        2,240 „
Alfalfa, Northern Crown Variegated      2,500 „
Alfalfa, Grimms         300 „
Total   148,595 lb.
Seed Production as the Result of the Distribution-.—The Department was able to keep in
touch with a large amount of the seed distributed through the medium of the crop competitions
conducted by the Department. In a large number of cases the competitors purchased from the
Department enough seed to sow the area necessary in the crop competition. The extra care given
this plot made it most suitable as the seed-plot for the farm. In many cases the plots are used
as sources of seed for commercial purposes. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 101
General Seed Production.
Apart from seed production stimulated by the distribution of improved seed and the crop
competitions, the Department undertook to conduct special corn-seed plots. These were located
at Nelson, Kelowna, and Burton. They served to demonstrate the importance of the corn-crop
for the different districts, and at the same time suggested the possibilities of seed-corn production.
Farm Surveys.
From time to time the Soil and Crop Division has been called upon to make detailed
examinations of certain farms, so as to be able to outline with some degree of accuracy a
system of soil-management suited to the particular farms in question.
A farm-survey card has been issued to facilitate carrying on this work. The object of the
card is primarily to keep on file the data collected in making a detailed examination of a farm.
The card is outlined so as to contain data of value to any one outlining a system of cropping and
soil-management. As the number of these cards accumulate in the files, a much-needed source
of detailed information concerning particular districts will be always available.
Respectfully submitted.
W. Newton,
Soil and Crop Instructor.
ANNUAL REPORT OF POULTRY DIVISION.
By J. 11. Terry, Chief Poultry Instructor.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith annual report of the work of the Poultry Division for the
year 1915.
General Conditions.
During the year 1915 the poultry industry has had probably the hardest conditions to contend
with for many years. Owing to the greatly enhanced price of feedstuffs during the first three
quarters of the year and the contracted purchasing power of the consumers, the great majority
of the breeders of the Province reduced their stock very considerably. In addition, it is estimated
the number of young stock reared was only 40 per cent, of normal times. With wheat averaging
$55 to $60 per ton and the average price of eggs being 5 cents per dozen lower than usual,
breeders have had little incentive to enlarge their flocks.
Since the 1915 harvest it is gratifying to note that a substantial drop in prices has taken
place, however, and a corresponding note of optimism becomes evident among breeders.
Lectures and Demonstrations.
During the spring and early summer months, both Mr. Upton, Assistant Instructor, and
myself spoke and demonstrated before the members of the Farmers' Institutes during the
itineraries given.
Number of lectures on poultry-raising and demonstrations: By J. R. Terry, 32; by H. E.
Upton, 34.
Teachers' school lectures and demonstrations, Victoria: By J. R. Terry, 12; by H. E.
Upton, 24.
Poultry Association meetings :    By J. R. Terry, 13 ;  by II. E. Upton, 21.
The subjects taken up were " Breeds and Breeding " ; " Feeds and Feeding " ; " Houses and
Housing " ; " Incubation and Brooding " ; " Diseases " ; " Killing " ; " Plucking and Trussing
Fowls " ; " Egg-candling and judging Utility Fowls " ; " Visiting Ranches and Egg-laying Contest."
The first-year class, taken by Mr. Upton, was much larger than in 1914, necessitating a
division into sections for class-room work. E 102 Department of Agriculture. 1916
Fall Fairs.
As in previous years, officials of this Division, assisted by several capable poultrymen,
judged the poultry exhibits at the fall fairs of the Province. Quality of exhibits, whether.live
or dead fowls or eggs, was much above the average at all shows. Accommodation fpr poultry
exhibits at the various fairs showed improvement, although much remains yet to be done in
the matter of buildings, especially at such a large centre as Prince Rupert, for instance. No
permanent building has been provided there, the birds being housed in a tent.
The varieties of fowls most popular at the fairs were almost entirely those distinguished by
good utility qualities, such as the White Wyandottes, Barred Rocks, Rhode Island Reds, Buff
Orpingtons, Leghorns, Minorcas, etc.
The system of classification at a majority of the shows could be improved greatly by
introducing single entry instead of double, as at present. It would tend to encourage exhibitors,
for, at present, oftentimes an excellent female is thrown out of the winnings by a poor male bird
being exhibited with it.
Provincial Poultry" Association.
The year 1915 was one of the most successful ever experienced by the association from the
standpoint of progress and benefit to its members. Owing to the war, the association dispensed
with its August meeting of Directors, the work being carried on by the Executive Committee
instead. Several problems confronting the breeders of the _ Province have been courageously
undertaken and a measure of success secured.
Legislation.—During the early spring a big agitation was started asking for legislation
dealing with the fraudulent sale of foreign (principally Chinese) eggs as local produce by
unscrupulous retailers. Every association in the Province forwarded petitions to Ottawa to
their Provincial and Dominion members concerning this matter. The Provincial House also
unanimously passed a resolution asking the Dominion authorities to. enforce the marking of each
imported egg with the name of country of origin. As a result, the Dominion authorities, by
Order in Council, ordered that each package containing imported eggs should be stamped instead.
The association, not satisfied with this, have again resolved to petition the Dominion
authorities and have sought the aid of all Provincial Boards of Trade, Farmers' Institutes,
Women's Institutes, and every known Poultry Association in the Dominion in an effort to obtain
redress.
A copy of the Order in Council is as follows:—
Marking of Packages containing Imported Eggs.
Regulations for the marking of packages containing eggs imported into Canada or passing in
transit through Canada have been made and established by Order in Council of 27th April, 1915, as
follows, viz:—
1. Every package containing eggs imported into Canada or passing in transit through Canada
shall have marked thereon in plain letters the word " Produce " and the name of the country whence
exported directly to Canada.
2. The brands or stencils for marking shall be supplied by the Department of Customs in the
form approved by the Minister of Customs, and the marking of the packages containing eggs shall be
done at the expense of the importer or shipper under the supervision of a Customs Officer.
3. It shall be the duty of Collectors of Customs, at ports where imported eggs are entered for
consumption or for warehouse or for exportation, to see that all packages of such articles are plainly
marked as prescribed by these Regulations.
4. Packages of imported eggs entered for warehouse, if not properly marked or branded, shall be
marked in such warehouse under supervision of the Customs Lookers in charge, who shall see that all
such packages are marked according to Regulations before they are delivered from warehouse.
5. Customs Officers attending the delivery of imported eggs entered for consumption in Canada,
or in attendance when the same are being laden in transit on board vessels or cars for exportation
from Canada, shall personally supervise and enforce the marking of all packages of such eggs.
(Sgd.)    John McDougald,
' Commissioner of Customs.
At the conclusion of 1915 there were thirty-one local associations affiliated with the Provincial
body. Several associations dropped out and several new ones were formed. The new associations
are Cowichan, Langley Fort, North Vancouver, Ladysmith, and Parksville. The membership
of the Provincial Association numbered over 300. Whilst not as many as recorded in 1914, this
must be considered satisfactory when allowance has been made for the conditions prevailing.
(For list of Poultry Associations see Appendix No. 27.) 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. E 103
Poultry-shows.—It is gratifying to note that the number of poultry-shows in 1915 showed
an increase. In 1914 nineteen shows were held and in 1915 twenty-three. The utility phase
of the industry has been brought out prominently at all the shows. The entries in utility-pen
classes, dressed poultry, and eggs showed healthy increases. At several of the shows, including
the Provincial, classes were provided for separate breeds instead of all competing together.
The Provincial Poultry Show was held at Chilliwack in 1915, as well as the annual
convention. The location of the show building, suitability for -the purpose, and the quality
of products exhibited were all excellent. About 1,100 exhibits competed, awards being made
by three judges. The utility classes, eggs, and dressed poultry were judged by officials of the
Department.
The association sent its Vice-President to the Panama Pacific Exposition at San Francisco
in November to look after its members' exhibits. Over 6,000 birds were shown there, and out
of eighty-two entries from this Province, no less than fifty-four prizes were captured. Over
twenty-five per cent, of these were firsts and seconds. It must be remembered that in some
classes as high as eight prizes were awarded, thus showing the competition faced.
The association has duplicated all cash winnings of its members there. Their success has
already commenced to bear fruit, as several of the members have received orders for stock and
eggs from California breeders.    (For statement of grants to poultry-shows see Appendix No. 28.) .
Breeders' Directory.—The Association Breeders' Directory was published early last spring
as usual. Over 2,000 copies were distributed to all parts of the Province. Particular attention
was paid to the northern sections, as a large number of settlers there are going extensively into
poultry. As a result of the good work accomplished by the Department's representatives in
this district in distributing the directories, a majority of the orders for stock and eggs that
originally went to the Prairie breeders has been captured by Provincial poultrymen.
Conforming to Department regulations, your Instructor was again elected to the office of
Secretary-Treasurer and Mr. Upton as Assistant Secretary of the British Columbia Poultry
Association at the annual meeting held at Chilliwack recently. (For a complete list of affiliated
associations and shows held, together with Department grant to each, see Appendix No. 27.)
Prairie vs. British Columbia Eggs.
An experiment to test the keeping qualities of Prairie-produced eggs and those in this
Province was conducted during the year.
Statements having been made that eggs produced in this Province, particularly in Coast
sections, were inferior to Prairie eggs for cold-storage purposes, your Instructor was authorized
by the Executive of the British Columbia Poultry Association to conduct experiments with both
kinds of eggs this past season to test this. Eggs were secured from a Government farm on the
Prairies and also from the Cowichan District, B.C. Both lots were laid during the same period
and all were infertile. After being placed in cold storage in Vancouver for a period of five and
a half months, they were taken out, carefully examined by means of candling, and some of each
kind were given to various persons, who cooked and tasted both kinds. No information was
given out as to where the eggs were produced. The consensus of opinion was unanimously in
favour of the local eggs as regards flavour, taste, and " set-up." The Eastern eggs were much
stronger in flavour and contained a larger proportion of watery contents when candled. Your
Instructor considers that there is no ground whatever for the assertion that British Columbia
eggs are inferior for cold-storage purposes, and ventures to state that local infertile eggs
produced in the spring can more than hold their own against the best produced outside the
Province.
Egg-laying Contest.
The Fourth Contest ended on October 9th, 1915, after running the full year. There were
the usual number of competitors, nineteen in non-weight and twenty-one in weight classes, forty
in all. This year no entries were received from outside the Province. Excellent yields were
recorded, the average number of eggs laid per bird reaching the high total of 165.6. The winner
of first prize in the general-purpose class, a pen of Barred Rocks, laid more eggs than the winner
in the light-weight or egg class. This is the first time this has happened since the commencement
of the contests.
During the major portion of the time the contest was running a battalion of soldiers were
camped all around the pens, the proximity of which reduced the egg yields somewhat in Class 1. E 104 Department of Agriculture. 1916
Evidence accumulates tending to prove the usefulness of these contests. A few years ago
it was practically impossible to secure more than $2 each for well-matured pullets in the fall.
Now it is not unusual for the majority of contestants to receive as high as $4 and $5 apiece for
pullets of heavy laying strains.
A bulletin dealing with the Third Contest was published during the year and distributed to
all parts of the Dominion. Copies were also forwarded to the United States, Great Britain,
Australia, New Zealand, and British West Indies. (For a complete record of the laying of each
pen during the contest, together with a summary of results, see Appendices Nos. 29 and 30.)
Breeding-station Report.
During 1915 eighteen stations were located in the least accessible parts of the Province.
This number corresponds with the stations placed the previous year. As in former years, the
AVhite Wyandotte breed has been more extensively used than others. Barred Rocks were second,
while Rhode Island Reds, Buff and White Orpingtons have also been sent out.
In 1914 the total number of settings sold was 267, or less than the required number of
settings to be sold by breeders to gain the premium. This year 451 settings were sold, or an
average of over twenty-five settings per station. Owing to some of the stations being placed a
considerable distance from the railroad, especially in the Bulkley Valley, the average cost of
each station was slightly in excess of 1914 figures. The total average cost per setting, including
premiums, was slightly over $3. This must be considered very satisfactory, as it would be
impossible for the settlers served to be able to receive the eggs as cheaply if purchased privately.
I might mention that much help has been given in locating pens in the Northern country by
Messrs. A. H. Tomlinson and H. E. Walker, of the Department.
Publications.
Two bulletins have been published during the year, and a circular entitled " Management
of Geese." The bulletins issued were " Poultry-house Construction" and " Report of Third
International Egg-laying Contest." Several other bulletins have had to be reprinted owing to
exhaustion of editions previously issued. Each month records of the Egg-laying Contest have
been issued and supplied to all Proviucial newspapers, and also to all poultry periodicals on
the American Continent.
Articles and notes have been supplied by members of this Division to agricultural journals,
poultry magazines, and Provincial newspapers at regular intervals throughout the year.
Inspection-wobk.
As in previous years, a considerable amount of available time of the Division has been taken
up in visiting breeders and assisting them by demonstration and advice. This has been of much
benefit, especially where outbreaks of disease have occurred. By the provision of a motor-cycle
Mr. Upton has been able to make a much larger number of calls than formerly.
Disease.
It is gratifying to record that the number of cases of ovian tuberculosis noticed in the
Province is gradually growiug less each year. A vigorous campaign has been waged by this
Division during the past few years, and by efforts in conjunction with local Poultry Associations
and Provincial newspapers it appears that the disease may, in the near future, almost entirely
disappear.    Most of the cases reported can be traced to imported market poultry.
The usual fall inquiries regarding catarrhal colds and roup were received. Owing to the
cold wet weather this trouble appeared much earlier in 1915 than usual.
Quite a few cases of deaths caused by ovarian trouble were reported. In a majority of
such cases it can be safely asserted that most of these were caused by faulty feeding. " Blackhead " and worm troubles were present in one or two districts.
Veemin.
Owing to the exceedingly hot dry summer very few poultry-breeders were free from red
mites in their buildings.    The usual remedies were suggested and followed out.
Many complaints have been received from Northern and Interior points concerning the
alarming depredations by hawks and crows amongst poultry.    In the Bulkley Valley one poultry- man alone shot nearly 200 hawks in less than three months. All of them were trying to attack
his flocks of fowls. As a large number of settlers are arriving in this district, the number of
poultry kept is increasing. Unless something is done to reduce the number of hawks, poultry-
keeping will certainly not prove profitable thereabouts.
Office-woek.
This branch of the work has continued to increase. The number of letters received, replies
:seiit, and bulletins forwarded have never beeu so numerous. The number of visitors during the
year has, however, not been as large as formerly.
Respectfully submitted. J. R. Teehy,
Chief Poultry Instructor.
ANNUAL REPORT OF VETERINARY DIVISION.
By A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector.
W.'T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my animal report for the year ending December 31st, 1915.
Testing.
The work of tuberculin testing in 1914 was continued in 1915. Your Inspectors completed
the Districts of Chilliwack, Dewdney, Agassiz, Deroche, Pitt Meadows, and Mission, doing
considerable retesting-work in the vicinity of Victoria, Ladysmith, Nanaimo, and Chilliwack.
Testing ceased, by order of the Department, owing to the lack of funds available for compensation. Since that time we have been engaged in testing herds on application sent in, with the
understanding that no compensation would be paid for diseased cattle. This work has occupied
the time quite fully, especially since this staff was reduced.
Dairy Inspection.
At the same time, inspection was made of the sanitary condition of the stables and dairies,
reports of which have been submitted to the Department from time to time. It may be said in
this connection that in some districts there is a gradual improvement in sanitary conditions.
Goitre.
During the month of June Dr. Sparrow made a visit to a section of the Pemberton Meadows,
where he found goitre to be very prevalent among certain classes of young stock. In certain
localities this has become so serious that scarcely any young animals can be raised. Little can
be done to remedy this matter until an investigation can toe made as to the cause of the trouble.
Deer Disease, Texada Island.
During the first part of November a visit was made to Texada Island for the purpose of
examining into the reported diseased condition of a number of deer found on the island. This
visit was made in conjunction with Mr. Kermode, Curator of the Provincial Museum. Two
specimens of deer were secured, and portions of the livers were sent to Dr. Hadwen at Agassiz,
who reported that large numbers of liver-fluke were found (known as Fasciola magna). This
fluke was of a variety not supposed to be found on this Coast, but it appears to be quite prevalent
among the deer on Texada Island. As to its prevalence among domesticated animals I am unable
to say, as no complaint or report has been made from any settlers in this district.
(For statements relating to the testing-work as carried on in the various localities of the
Province, and the total number of cattle tested throughout the Province, see Appendices Nos. 31,
32, and 33.) These will give a very close census of the number of dairy cattle in the various
districts covered by the Inspectors throughout the Province.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight,
Chief Veterinary Inspector. E 106 Department of Agriculture. 1916
ANNUAL   REPORT   OF   DISTRICT   AGRICULTURIST,   CENTRAL   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
DISTRICT.
H. E. Walker.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Agriculturist for the year 1915.
The Interior of Central British Columbia, or that section traversed by the Grand Trunk
Pacific Railway, is gradually becoming more valuable as an agricultural asset to the Province.
The transitory period—from railroad-construction days to real agricultural development—is
now over. It is easily to be understood that the sudden drop from the almost fabulous prices
of construction times to those normal, or even below, was not taken to very kindly by the man
on the land, and some considerable time was needed to allow him to become readjusted, but he
has now begun to grasp the fact that he must " get down " to the real business of farming.
This fact, coupled with the gradual arrival of new settlers, is tending to increase the acreage
under the plough aud the productive capacity of the various sections covered by this report.
The 1915 Season.
The past season was characterized by its earliness. The spring opened up about two weeks-
sooner than ordinarily, and seeding commenced by April 1st. Generally throughout the Interior
no damaging summer frosts were noted, though odd " pockets " suffered a little. This proves
the argument that, though the country may have been subjected to these frosts, yet these will
pass away with the settlement and cultivation of the land. Seemingly to balance the early
spring the ground was frozen November 4th, which is earlier than the two previous years.
The length of the growing season (i.e., mean temperature over 40° Fahr.) was 187 days—from
March 31st to October 2nd. The highest temperature of the year occurred July 29th, being 90°
Fahr.; the lowest (—11 degrees) on January 15th. The first killing frost of the season occurred
September 12th. The total rainfall was 13.39 inches and the snowfall 43 inches, making a total
precipitation of between 17.5 and 18 inches for the year. All these readings were taken at
Telkwa.
Live Stock.
During the past season about twenty car-loads of cattle have been brought into the Interior,
principally to the Bulkley Valley, a number of which are being used as breeding animals, others
as feeders. Practically all these cattle a