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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS FOR THE YEAR ENDING… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1916

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT
OF
THE FOEEST BEANCH
OF   THE
DEPARTMENT OE LANDS
HON. WILLIAM R. ROSS, K.C., Minister
H. R. MACMILLAN, Chief Forester
FOE THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31ST
1915
THEGOVERNMENTOF
THE PROVINCE GFBR1TISHCCUJMBIA.
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by William H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1916.  Victobia,, B.C., March 10th, 1916.
To His Honour Frank Stillman Barnard,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Eeport of the Forest Branch
of my Department for the year 1915.
WILLIAM B. BOSS,
Minister of Lands.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Market Extension    7
Export Markets   7
United Kingdom    7
South Africa  9
Further Market Investigation  9
Co-operation with the Department of Trade and Commerce   9
British Columbia Lumber Commissioner in Europe  9
Lumber Exhibits   10
Domestic Markets  :  10
Prairie Lumber Commissioner    11
Farm Buildings Bulletins     11
British Columbia Commissioner in Eastern Canada  12
How to Finish British Columbia Wood   13
Douglas Fir Dimension   13
Western  Larch     13
Western Soft Pine    13
Leaflets      13
The Lumber Industry    14
Lumber Production, 1914   14
Estimate of Value of Production, 1915   14
Timber scaled, 1915   15
Railway Permits   18
Timber-sales     18
Timber Exports (Logs, Poles, etc.)    20
Pulp and Paper Production   21
Sawmills     21
Logging Inspections    21
Timber Trespass  22
Forest Records     22
Forest Revenue    22
Forest Expenditure     25
Export Lumber Orders   27
Status    27
Timber-marks  27
Forest Atlas  28
Correspondence     2S
Reserved Timber Land    28
Land   Classification     29
Status of Areas examined   29
Classification of Areas examined   30
Forest Reconnaissance    30
Parsnip River and North Fork of Fraser River  30
Peace River District    31
Lower Parsnip and Upper Peace River   31
Lillooet and Cariboo    32
Zymoetz or Copper River Watershed   32
Francois, Ootsa, and Eutsuk Lakes Region   33
Forest Branch Organization   33
Forest Branch Enlistments    34
Distribution of Force    35
Areas of Administrative and Protective Units  36 G C Table of Contents.
Page.
Forest Protection     36
Weather Conditions    36
Temperature and Rainfall Data    37
Co-operation     3S
Education of Public  41
The Fire-protection Force    41
Fire Damage    42
Damage caused by Forest Fires   43
Cost of Fire-fighting    44
Sizes of Fires    45
Causes of Fires     46
Burning Permits    48
Prosecutions for Fire Trespass    50
Slash-disposal    50
Dominion Railways    50
Provincial Railways   51
Permanent  Improvements     52
Summary of New Improvement-work, 1915    52
Maintenance-work done on Permanent Improvements, 1915    52
List of Improvements in each District, 1915    52
Illustrations. '
Weather  Charts,   1915    39,40 REPORT OF THE  FOREST BRANCH,
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
December 3rd, 1915.
Hon. William R. Ross, K.C.,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sie,—In the first three years of its existence the Forest Branch was chiefly occupied in
organizing the staff, developing administrative methods, and investigating the timber resources
of this Province. In 1915 the very necessary duty of conducting a market extension campaign
on behalf of the lumbering industry has made the chief demand upon the headquarters office.
At the present time the urgency of the work yet to be done in this direction leaves little opportunity for the writing of a full report, and many matters of interest are therefore merely
summarized in the following statement of the year's operations.
MARKET EXTENSION.
Expobt Markets.
Some investigation into the reasons for the lack of progress in British Columbia's export
lumber trade for the past fifteen years had been made during 1914. Early in the present year
the need of extending this investigation to the overseas markets was brought to the attention
of the Dominion Department of Trade and Commerce, and, in March, H. R. MacMillan, Chief
Forester of the Province, was appointed by Sir George Foster to visit these markets as Special
Trade Commissioner.
United Kingdom.
Mr. MacMillan reached the United Kingdom at the end of April. The lack of shipping was
then becoming more acute, and the lumber trade between the Pacific Coast and Europe had
suffered seriously. Moreover, American interests were very strongly represented in the British
timber trade, while British Columbia mills were not. Hence the private business which was
still being transacted was almost entirely controlled by American agents, and the new Commissioner found little opportunity of securing immediate business for our mills. So little was
the existence of a lumbering industry in this Province recognized by English buyers that the
Imperial Government itself, through the War Office and other large departments, was, as a
matter of course, purchasing much Pacific Coast timber through American agents. As the
export lumber trade of the Coast was centred in the hands of brokers in San Francisco, Portland, and Seattle, the arrangement was highly unfavourable to the British Columbian industry.
With the assistance of the Hon. Sir Richard McBride, who was then in London, the attention
of the Imperial authorities was drawn to this undesirable situation, and it was pointed out that
the Provincial Government, through the Department of Lands, would willingly undertake the
work of securing any lumber cargoes that the British Government might need. The British
authorities met these representations in the most patriotic spirit, and, with the object of developing trade within the Empire, at once announced that Imperial purchases of Pacific Coast timber
would be restricted to British Columbia mills, and that orders would be placed through the
Provincial Government. Mr. MacMillan was able to secure from the War Office the first order
for a cargo of timbers, merchantable, and railway-ties almost immediately. In addition, he
obtained from the Prize Disposal Committee the charter for lumber-carrying purposes of a prize
vessel taken at the Falkland Isles, the S.S. " Grahamland."
With this beginning a number of further orders were secured through the Special Trade
Commissioner, and during the summer the Forest Branch was very actively engaged in the
handling of the business. The Coast Manufacturers' Association appointed an Export Committee, which devoted a great deal of time and attention to assisting the Branch. Vessels for
lifting the various cargoes were sent here by the British Admiralty. G 8 Department of Lands. 1916
The cargoes handled through the Forest Branch were lifted by the steamers " Llandudno,"
" Orange River," " Llangorse," " Otto Tretchmann." and " Karma " ; a small quantity of ties also
going as a deck-load on the steamer " Harewood." A notable feature of the business was the
proportion of lower grades taken. The following summary of the material supplied may be
of interest:—
Approximate
Value F.A.S.
Vancouver.
S.S.  " Llandudno," 3,000,000 feet,  clears, timbers,  merchantable,  and
ties      S 32,000
S.S. " Orange River," 4,000.000 feet timbers, merchantable,  ties,  and
common      38,000
S.S. " Llangorse," 3,000,000 feet, merchantable, ties, and common .... 27,000
S.S. " Otto Tretchmann," 3,000.000 feet, clears, merchantable, and ties 40,000
S.S. " Karma," 1,250,000 feet, merchantable, and common   12.000
S.S. " Harewood." ties    2,000
Via St. John, 320,000 boxes worth    40,000
In addition, 956.000 feet, worth $15,000, was lifted by the prize vessel " Grahamland," which
was lent to the Provincial Government for this purpose, making a total of $206,000 in addition
to other cargoes placed in the Province as a result of representations made by the Provincial
Government. This promising line of business with the British authorities was nipped in the
bud by the disastrous slide in the Panama Canal. Although an attempt has since been made
■to do business by combined rail-haul and Atlantic shipment via St. John, orders have not yet
been secured, in spite of a considerable reduction in freight rates offered by the railways. The
only exception in this has been the securing of an order for 320,000 boxes which the Forest
Branch is handling for the War Office during the present month.
The most notable feature of this work was the excellent way in which the export mills of
the Province came together to share orders. The need for co-operative action was indeed one
of the matters emphasized in every report received from Mr. MacMillan. His'recent investigation into the South African market, for instance, shows that while co-operation among British
Columbian mills is a first essential for success, a stable market for Douglas fir there can never
be secured until some international agreement is reached that will bring the present suicidal
cutting of Pacific Coast export prices to an end. While an agreement of this nature has been
attempted from time to time in the past without result, the growing strength of community
sentiment in the lumbering business and the liquidation that has taken place during recent
years give promise of stronger efforts in the future. Already, last summer many of our mills
made a beginning in this direction by grouping their export business and appointixig agents
abroad.
Apart from securing orders and shipping from British Government departments, Mr.
MacMillan investigated the general market for Canadian timber in the United Kingdom. His
reports, given in the weekly bulletins of the Department of Trade and Commerce, Nos. 596,
603, 605, 606, 60S, and 609, deal with the markets for box-shooks, pit-wood, poles, railway-ties,
Douglas fir timbers, and wood-block paving respectively.
From England Mr. MacMillan visited Holland. His report (in Weekly Bulletin No. 616)
shows that a restricted amount of Douglas fir has been imported into that country in past years,
and that upon the return of normal shipping conditions this wood should have an excellent
opportunity of competing with southern pine in the Dutch market. As reconstruction-work in
Belgium and neighbouring war zones after hostilities cease will be largely handled through
Holland, the lumber market there has considerable future importance.
In France large quantities of timber will be needed as soon as the war is over, but at
present, owing to lack of tonnage, little immediate business is available. Mr. MacMillan
succeeded in interesting the railways in Douglas fir ties, and as a result managers of four of
the largest railways promised to have strength tests made. In September fifty ties were therefore shipped to each of the railways interested. The result of the tests will be published as
soon as they have been made. 6 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. G 9
South Africa,
In South Africa Mr. MacMillan's investigations showed that a great market for Douglas fir
can be developed after certain obstacles have been removed. In spite of the system of subjecting
imported fir to heavy cost by manufacture in South Africa and heavy distribution and profit
charges, lumber from this Province can be sold far below the price of southern pine, its competitor. But a steamship service with regular deliveries at three-monthly or shorter periods is
a first essential for British trade; and persistent missionary work to educate the buyer and
remove misconceptions regarding the durability and strength of Douglas fir is also necessary.
An instance of the wrong impressions that may be created in a distant market is afforded by
the attempt made by South African importers to resaw clears out of some shipments of dimension timbers of merchantable grade, which, of course, had practically no clear in them. They
did this because they had been accustomed to buy hewn pitch-pine logs and saw clears off the
outside of them, and they seem to have imagined our big merchantable grade timbers were
similar material.
Curiously, in South Africa, Douglas fir appeared to have a reputation of lacking in durability.
Since sixty years of experience with this wood in America has proven it to be one of the most
durable of ximerlcan timbers, the causes of such a reputation are undoubtedly due to the excessively long voyages made by some vessels that have been delayed in the tropics. Improvement
in the methods of shipment would seem to be necessary. Moreover, just as a process has been
developed to prevent sap-stain, so treatment by a sterilizing agent may be found effective in
arresting the growth of the fungus that rots timber during tropical voyages. This matter will
be investigated.
Further Market Investigation.
At the time of writing Mr. MacMillan has reached Bombay. After investigating the Indian
market (in which there is a good opening for creosoted Douglas fir railway-ties) he will proceed
to Australia, New Zealand, China, and Japan. At the last session of the Australian Legislature
it was hoped that a tariff preference would have been given to imported timber grown and
manufactured within the British Empire. The whole question of tariff readjustment, however,
was postponed until 1916.
Co-operation with the Department of Trade and Commerce.
Early in the year Sir George Foster, Minister of Trade aud Commerce, appointed Mr.
MacMillan as a Special Commissioner to investigate the lumber markets of the world. This
was followed by a tour of inspection in the lumbering sections of British Columbia made by
Mr. Grigg. Commissioner of Commerce, a step that gave further evidence of active co-operation
between the Dominion and Provincial Departments. Meetings were held at a number of points
and many questions affecting the lumber industry were brought to Mr. Grigg's attention by the
lumbermen's associations and the Boards of Trade.
A number of valuable lumber market reports have been published during the year by the
Department of Trade and Commerce, and many of the Trade Commissioners in the overseas
markets have given notable assistance to the publicity work of the Forest Branch.
Each Commissioner was supplied by the Forest Branch with exhibits and other matter,
described farther on, advertising British Columbia Forest Products. These have been used to
good advantage, as, for instance, in Australia, where the Canadian Trade Commissioner arranged
displays of British Columbia lumber at important gatherings of architects. In other ways also
the Commissioners were able to give very valuable assistance to the movement for the development of the lumber market in their territories.
British Columbia Lumber Commissioner in Europe.
The heavy order for lumber in the United Kingdom placed through the Provincial Government during the past summer shows what results can be obtained -by Governmental action in
assisting the lumbering industry. In order to follow up the advantage already gained in this
new line, the Provincial Government has dispatched a business representative of the industry
to London. G 10 Department of Lands. 1916
Investigation has already shown that before the European market can be entered, on any
scale, by our manufacturers a great deal of preliminary work must be done in explaining to
buyers the qualities and methods of manufacture of our British Columbia woods. There are
many misconceptions which are very prevalent and which act as a barrier to the introduction
of our products. These can only be overcome by energetic personal work among the buyers by
a representative thoroughly conversant with every phase of the lumbering industry. Again,
there are many trade requirements which are designed to meet the case of Swedish and Russian
lumber, but which are not properly applicable to the very different timber species of the Pacific
Coast. In many cases slight modifications of the customary specifications would not affect the
interests of the Old Country buyer in any way, while they would cheapen production here, and
so enable the sawmills of this Province to quote lower prices and secure a larger share of the
trade. Through general work of this character the Provincial Lumber Commissioner in London
will be of considerable assistance not only in preparing the way for future developments, but
also by co-operating with the various brokers and agents who represent the interests of British
Columbia lumber firms now doing business in the United Kingdom markets. So active has been
the campaign conducted by American shippers, and so largely have they increased their representation in Europe recently, that a strong effort is necessary to counteract this action and
protect British Columbia business.
Lumber Exhibits.
During the year permanent exhibits of British Columbia lumber and other forest products,
were sent to the Canadian Trade Commissioners at the following centres:—
United Kingdom— Australia—
London. Sydney.
Birmingham. Melbourne.
Manchester. Adelaide.
Bristol. South Africa—
Glasgow. Cape Town.
France—Paris. Johannesburg.
China—Shanghai. Durban.
Japan—Yokohama. Argentine—Buenos Ayres.
New Zealand—Auckland.
Others  were  sent  to  the  Department  of  Trade  and  Commerce,   Ottawa;   the  Industrial
Bureau, Winnipeg; and Toronto.   The Sydney exhibit was first placed in the Royal Exchange
Building, then shown at " Ideal Home " (Architects') Exhibition, and at the Trade Fair, Sydney
Town Hall.    The exhibit at Toronto was awarded a gold medal.
Each of these exhibits shows the principal woods of the Province in both natural and
finished states, and gives information concerning their quality and uses. Small samples of
our woods were also furnished for distribution among buyers. A very comprehensive display
of British Columbia forest products was also supplied to the Agent-General and is now installed
in the new British Columbia House in Regent Street. Each exhibit is accompanied by full
information for the guidance of those interested, further inquiries being invited by the Forest
Branch with a view to placing importers and dealers in touch with British Columbia mills.
Domestic Markets.
While British Columbia by reason of location and export facilities must make every effort
to secure its full share of the export lumber trade, the main market for its products are on
this continent. In proportion to population Canada uses more lumber than any other country,
and despite the fact that, with the exception of the Prairie region, the Dominion is essentially
a forest country, the timbered areas of Eastern Canada are already unable to supply the local
demand. Both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces have in the past imported hundreds
of millions of feet of rough lumber from the United States. The forest products of British
Columbia are equal or superior to those imported, and it is felt that a determined effort should
be made to hold this domestic market for home products. Representatives of the Forest Branch
have been stationed at Toronto and Regina to protect the interests of British Columbia in the
lumber markets of Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces. 6 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. G 11
Prairie Lumber Commissioner.
No section of the commercial service which is being established in the markets for British
Columbia is of greater importance than the office recently opened at Regina. The largest market
for British Columbia lumber will always be in the neighbouring Prairie Provinces, which consume at least 60 per cent, of our total production. It was the shrinkage in the Prairie demand,
combined with the heavy fall in lumber prices and the decrease in consumption in British
Columbia itself, which brought about depression in the industry of this Province. With town
and city building operations in the West at a standstill for the time being, and with the existing programme of railroad-construction more or less completed, the difficult problem of how to
increase the consumption of lumber in the Province has been pressing for solution.
The main lines of work undertaken by the Forest Branch consist of:—
(1.) General publicity for British Columbia forest products. This involves placing and
keeping before the public the real merits of lumber for building and other uses. The present
is an age of inventions and experiments, and very often the great virtues of an age-tried material
like wood are neglected in favour of a new but unproved article. In a Province which contains
so great an area of forest the protection of the market of its forest products is of first importance. Consequently, advantage will be taken of every opportunity to place before dealers and
consumers of wood its real merits and high qualities in those uses iu which it has proved its
suitability. Such publicity work will consist both of direct advertising and of articles, both
popular and technical, contributed to special periodicals as well as to the press generally.
(2.) The study of market demand and prices, so that every possible assistance may be given
to our mills in regulating production. The effective work on these lines which has been done
by the southern-pine manufacturers shows what good results may be accomplished through such
efforts.
An important conference was held at Calgary on December 10th and 11th between the
Mountain Lumber Manufacturers' Association and representatives of the Coast Association, the
Forest Branch, manufacturers of northern spruce, and the retail lumbermen of the Prairie
Provinces. The whole question of the marketing of lumber in these Provinces was discussed,
and committees were appointed on behalf of the various interests concerned. These committees
will present their findings at a general meeting at Winnipeg in February.
Farm Buildings Bulletins.
Investigation of the lumber consumption on the Prairies brought out very strongly, among
other things, the fact that on the average farm the buildings have not by any means kept pace
with crop production. There exists a great need for all manner of farm buildings, and particularly for implement-sheds, granaries, and barns for live stock; and this need will continue
and increase for many years. Nearly every farm is without some building essential to really
efficient and profitable farming.
Wood is the best material for farm buildings, and British Columbia has the best building
woods, and plenty of them. It was felt that, with such a plain case of demand and supply, there
should be a splendid opportunity to encourage the use of our woods and at the same time give
real service to the consumer. The question was how to accomplish these objects in the most
effective way. It has been done by linking up the work with the great " better-farming " movement which is being carried on by Government agricultural organizations all over Canada and
the United States.
The better-farming movement is really a campaign to promote mixed farming. Incidentally,
it also promotes the use of building materials, because mixed farming requires more buildings
than the mere growing of grain. For this reason one of the main features of the movement has
been the supplying of information to farmers concerning the proper planning and construction
of farm buildings. Altogether it is difficult to exaggerate the effect of this work in improving
the design of farm buildings, increasing their number, and also very largely in determining the
kind of building material used.
The agricultural authorities of the Canadian Prairie Provinces are actively engaged in this
work. The Forest Branch was particularly fortunate in being able to co-operate with the
University of Saskatchewan during the past summer and autumn in preparing a very complete G 12 Department of Lands. 1.916
aud comprehensive series of ten bulletins covering practically the whole range of farm buildings.
The bulletins are as follows:—
1. Combination or General Purpose Barns.
2. Dairy Barns, Ice aud Milk Houses.
3. Beef Cattle Barns.
4. Horse Barns.
5. Sheep Barns.
6. Piggeries and Smoke Houses.
7. Poultry Houses.
8. Implement Sheds and Granaries.
9. Silos and Root Cellars.
10. Farm Houses.
They are handy in size and attractively gotten up. Each one contains detailed working
plans, descriptions, and bills of material of several representative buildings, as well as valuable
related information on farming. The farmer is thus enabled to select a suitable building, .get
an estimate of cost, and order material from the dealer, and put it up himself. In the buildings
five things are aimed at in particular: (1.) That they should be specially designed to meet
Prairie conditions ; (2) that they should be simple and practical to meet the needs of the average
farmer; (3) that ordinary stock sizes of lumber should be used throughout in order to keep the
cost low; (4) that it should be easy for the farmer to make additions to the buildings whenever
more accommodations should be needed; (5) that the details of the plans should be readily
alterable to suit individual needs. The plans, agricultural information, etc., are authoritative,
practical, and up-to-date, having been prepared under the supervision of W. J. Rutherford, Dean
of the College of Agriculture of the University of Saskatchewan, and personally edited by the
Hon. W. R. Motherwell, Minister of Agriculture, Regina.
In each bulletin an introduction written by the Forest Service explains the objects aimed
at and describes in a general way the lumber industry and forest policy of the Province. A
chapter at the end, also written by the Forest Service, treats of the merits of wood as a building
material, the qualities of the various kinds of British Columbia woods, and the uses for which
they are best adapted. The covers are utilized to describe briefly the timber resources of the
Province.
Twenty-five thousand copies of each bulletin, or altogether a quarter of a million pamphlets,
have been printed in the first edition and are being advertised in the Western farm and lumber
journals and distributed free. Many applications are being received and large numbers have
already been sent out. Every farmer who vises the plans will automatically build with wood—
not with substitutes—because wood is specified in all the bills of material. Incidentally, the fact
that it was possible for the University and the Forest Branch to co-operate in this work is a very
conclusive proof that wood is the most suitable material for farm buildings.
British Columbia Commissioner in Eastern Canada.
In the aggregate the departments of the Dominion and Provincial Governments and the
larger cities are purchasers of lumber on a very lai\ge scale. Railway-construction, harbour
improvements, and other public works consume considerable quantities of heavy timber. Then
there are immense quantities of lumber used in general building-work.
Besides this large market in Eastern Canada for dimension lumber, there is a very extensive
demand for moderate-priced wood for interior finish. From the earliest times the Eastern
lumber market has been supplied by Ontario white or Norway pine, and in recent years to a
large extent by imported southern pine.
British Columbia possesses dimension and rough lumber of a quality equal or superior to
imported stock and wood for inside finish which for beauty of grain is unsurpassed except by
hardwoods. Eastern Canada constitutes a natural field for expansion of British Columbia's
lumber market, particularly since the completion of the Panama Canal has rendered direct water
shipment possible. The Government has appointed a Lumber Commissioner for that section of
the Dominion, whose offices and headquarters are at Toronto, Ontario.
In taking up market extension work it early became very evident that the educational
methods adopted by private organizations to create a market for their product would have to 6 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. G 13
be adopted if effective results were to be obtained quickly. This involved placin.g before dealers,
consumers, and possible purchasers the facts concerning the qualities, merits, and uses of woods
and wooden products. Information covering these subjects was collected and printed in the
form of pamphlets. These were distributed either direct to the classes who would be specially
interested or in response to inquiries received through publicity work. The bulletins so far
issued or in preparation are briefly described below.
Carrying out in the domestic market the same plan of placing lumber exhibits in important
trade centres which has proved so acceptable in the foreign field, the Forest Branch installed a
very comprehensive exhibit at the Toronto Exposition, which was widely visited, and is placing
somewhat smaller ones in Winnipeg, Montreal, Ottawa, and other points for the information of
Prairie and Eastern buyers. These exhibits constitute one of the cheapest yet most effective
forms of publicity, and extensive use will be made of them.
How to Finish British Columbia Wood.
The custom of selling lumber by grades, the price being fixed by quality or the use to which
it will be put, without much reference to the actual cost of manufacture, which has been in
force since the beginning of the lumber industry on this continent, makes the manufacturer
dependent on the sale of high-grade material for his profits. Common or rough lumber, which
constitutes the major portion of his output, is usually sold at an actual loss. It is very important,
as a result of this custom of price-setting, that as much of the mill output as possible be in
articles taking a high rating. The largest market for such high-grade lumber is in interior finish
for homes, stores, etc., the products used being flooring, ceiling, wainscoting, panelling, mouldings, stair-stepping, shelving, and similar products. Many home builders and owners are not
acquainted with the advantages of wood for inside finish, and many more are ignorant of the
high qualities of several of British Columbia's timbers for finish-work. As it is certain that
there would be greater use of wood for interior finish were the public fully acquainted with its
many advantages, a pamphlet on the subject was prepared by the Forest Branch and 25.000
copies distributed. It is entitled " How to Finish British Columbia Wood," and treats in detail
of the best methods of preparing, staining, and painting wood in order to obtain the most
pleasing and lasting effect. The pamphlet was well received by the public. Trade journals
copied the printed matter extensively.
Douglas Fir Dimension.
The southern pine, owing to shorter haulage and lower freight rates, has heretofore retained
a hold on the lumber market of Eastern Canada to the disadvantage of Western Canada woods.
In part this has been due to transportation, in part to lack of systematic work on behalf of
British Columbia lumber. Now that an office has been established for this purpose in Toronto,
pamphlets in the East are very necessary. One of these publications is entitled " Douglas Fir
Dimension."
Western Larch.
A British Columbia wood of very high quality is western larch. This species is found
throughout Southern British Columbia and is one of the important commercial timber trees of
the Interior. It possesses all the qualifications required in wood for general building purposes,
and is especially suited for purposes such as structural work, interior finish, sills, railway-ties,
and for boat-building, grain-elevators, tanks, silos, and wood-block paving. To bring these high
qualities of western larch before the trade and the consumer an illustrated booklet is being
distributed.
Western Soft Pine.
Western soft pine, variously known as western yellow pine, western white pine, and mountain
western pine, is one of the important timber trees of the Southern Interior, and one whose fine
qualities are not widely known. Further, the wood is confused with that of several other species.
To advertise this wood and to remove any confusion which may exist in regard to its identity
the Forest Branch has issued a bulletin describing its qualities and uses. G 11 Department of Lands. 1916
Leaflets.
Designed particularly for handing to visitors at the exhibit of British Columbia at the
Toronto Exposition, a two-page illustrated leaflet inviting attention to the merits of British
Columbia forest products has run through two editions and has had a very wide distribution.
Copies have been furnished to a number of expositions and a small supply sent to every Chamber
of Commerce in the Dominion. The leaflets have at a very slight expense served to advertise
British Columbia timber widely and have resulted in numerous inquiries from dealers and
consumers. Another leaflet has been issued in connection with the farm building bulletins in
order to supply Prairie dealers with a convenient advertisement when circularizing their
customers.
THE LUMBER   INDUSTRY.
Lumber Production, 1914.
The final figures for the cut of the Province for 1914 complied from returns supplied to the
Forest Branch by the industry were as follows:—
Board-feet.
Saw-timber         833,437,000
Shingles, 972,935 M .'        97,293,000
Hewn ties, 2,403,197 ties         75,100,000
Piling, 9,722,171 lineal feet          48,611,000
Poles, 4,339,234 lineal feet          21,696,000
Fence-posts, 38,430 cords         14,215,000
Mining-props, 23,102 cords          11,551,000
Total     1,151,903,000
Comparing this with the returns for the other Provinces as supplied by the Dominion
Forestry Branch, we find that British Columbia led in production, though only to a slight
degree over Quebec.
British  Columbia     1,151,903 '
Quebec     1,118,298
Ontario      1,044,131
New  Brunswick     414,S0S
Nova Scotia    279,044
Estimate of Value of Production, 1915.
The products of the forest are numerous, but they may be rou,ghly divided into classes
indicated below; the value of each product includes any transportation charge in the Province.
Lumber    if 15,500,000
Pulp          3.200,000
Shingles       3,500,000
Boxes           750,000
Piles and poles       1,200,000
Mining-props and posts     400,000
Miscellaneous   (cut by railroads,  mines,  settlers,  hewn ties,  cord-
wood)     900,000
Additional   value  contributed   by   wood-using   industries,   planing-
mills, sash and door factories, cooperage, wood pipes, slab fuel     1,750,000
Product of Dominion lands          1,800,000
Lath  150,000
Total     $29,150,000
This large amount is well distributed, as there are practically no districts or communities
that are not directly influenced by the harvesting of the timber resources of the Province. 6 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. G 15
British Columbia, from its position relative to markets, has no large wood-working industries.
This is shown by the fact that out of all the timber sawn in 1914 only 20,000,000 was used as
a raw material for further manufactured articles. Of this, 18,000,000 was manufactured into
boxes, 1,000,000 in sash and doors and interior fixtures, 200,000 in cooperage, and the balance
in a number of smaller uses, such as caskets, cars, boats, etc. This remanufacture is an important
asset to the Province and should be encouraged in every possible way. The more valuable the
finished product that is sold the more money that is left in the Province in labour, supplies,
equipment, etc.
The wood-using industry of Ontario, for instance, is worth over $19,000,000 a year according
to statistics gathered by the Dominion Forestry Branch. This is made possible by the large
market of Eastern Canada, which uses large quantities of wood in the manufacture of sash and
doors, boxes, furniture, vehicles, implements, slack cooperage, etc.
British Columbia has not got a large market close at hand which demands these products.
Moreover, in any new country the first step is to manufacture lumber which can be sold for a
multitude of uses, instead of specializing on special articles of higher manufacture with a more
uncertain market. It is true, however, that the very fact that British Columbia lumber product
has to stand a relatively high transportation cost makes it all the more imperative that the
products transported should have as high a value at the shipping-point as possible. Why, for
instance, should British Columbia sell lumber to Ontario, there to be manufactured into doors?
Instead of this, British Columbia should sell the doors and save freight on sawdust and shavings.
There are many articles which can be manufactured completely in British Columbia; some,
like doors, in the complete condition ; others, like silos, tanks, and even houses, " knocked down "
for shipping.
Timber scaled, 1915.
The scale returns are a good index of the activity in the lumber industry throughout the
Province. The three subjoined tables show the amount scaled in each district, the legal classification of the land from which the timber was cut, and the proportion of each species.
The salient features of the figures for 1916 are the increased cut of logs and cordwood and
the decreased cut of piling and ties. The lower figures for the latter items is due to the smaller
amount of railway-construction, which consumes immense quantities of these articles.
The increase in cordwood returns is accounted for by the steady market for shingle-bolts.
The increase in the log returns came almost entirely from Vancouver, the cut in the Interior
districts being markedly less than in previous years. In the northern districts operations were
practically at a standstill.
The figures showing the legal classification of the lands furnishing the timber cut are interesting, in that they show the extent to which lands in the Province are covered with commercial
timber. Thus nearly 25 per cent, of the timber comes from the very old Crown grants, over 30
per cent, from timber leases and licences, 30 per cent, from the Dominion Railway Belt, 16 per
cent, from Crown grants issued since 1887, 10 per cent, from timber-sales, and a few million feet
from railway permits.
Of the many species of timber cut, the largest quantity, 22 per cent., was supplied by Douglas
fir, closely followed by western red cedar, with 35 per cent, of the total.
Hemlock and spruce each supplied between 7 and 8 per cent., western larch nearly 4 per
cent., and western soft pine 3 per cent. Jack or lodge-pole pine furnished nearly 7,000,000 feet,
or % of 1 per cent, of the total, while western or Idaho white pine gave 5,000,000 feet out of
1 per cent. Balsam fir and Cottonwood each supplied 1,000,000 feet, and yellow cedar and alder
furnished a few thousand feet. G 16
Department of Lands.
1916
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Department of Lands.
191G
Species cat, 1915.
Forest
District.
Cranbrook	
Fort George	
Hazelton	
Kamloops	
Lillooet	
Nelson	
Tete Jaune Cache
Vernon	
Island	
Prince Rupert...
Vancouver	
Totals	
s
oo
M
£
_a
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c
fi
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00
ai
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P.
CQ
O
00
M.B.M.
s
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M.B.M.
M.B.M.
M.B.M.
M.B.M.
M.B.M.
33,390
8,952
12,819
221
12,978
7,199
1,273
89
213
498
102
4,145
1,462
83
176
2,193
325
25
7,823
11,779
1,338
4,146
4,638
474
1,896
5,931
475
112
6,258
441
184
11,943
107,538
8,742
8,968
2,769
219
13
1,430
1,389
6,586
551
594
18
255,782
319,828
36,671
71,349
426,232
354,702
74,676
79,392
1,260
29,766
M.B.M.     -M.B.M.
200;   28,073
4,452
6
24
M.B.M.
3,453
3,285
6,914
384
31
1
1,045
M.B.M.
100,086
12,230
844
5,867
2,668
37,320
8,921
19,578
128,258
10,583
691,328
Railway I^ebmits.
The cutting of timber for the construction of railways was confined entirely in the year 1915
to the Pacific Great Eastern and Kettle Valley lines. During the year eighty-seven permits,
covering 87,000 acres, were issued to these two roads. The location of the permits and their
areas are given in the attached table, which also gives an estimate of the amount of timber cut
and removed during the year.
Forest District.
Lillooet	
South Fort George.
Vancouver	
Vernon 	
Totals	
Railway.
No. of
Permits.
P.G.E.
P.G.B.
P.G.E.
K.V.
40
41
4
2
87
Area under
Permit.
Acres.
38,457
42,432
1,720
5,120
87,729
Approximate Amount
cut and removed.
Ft. B.M.
418,533
650,000
349,985
330,000
1,748,518
Timber-sales.
During 1915 the demand for small tracts of Crown timber held up surprisingly well. This
demand came both from large operators who desire to log small portions adjoining their limits
and from small operators who supply local demands. Timber tracts applied for are first cruised
-and the sturnpage value appraised. Tenders are then invited by public advertisement. The
tables given herewith show that 94,555,000 feet B.M. of timber on 9S tracts averaging 135 acres
in extent were disposed of in this manner, by far the greater portion being in Vancouver District.
The timber sold was composed chiefly of Douglas fir, western red cedar, and western hemlock.
Slightly lower sturnpage prices were obtained this year than last.
The European demand for spruce caused many inquiries for tracts of this species and a
number of sales resulted in the Prince Rupert District. 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
G 19
All timber-sale contracts require the purchaser to operate, the period of the contract usually
being for only two or three years. This provision accounts for the high proportion to the total
of the cut from timber-sales, the total amount of logs from such sources being 75,000,000 feet in
1915, bringing a total revenue of nearly $100,000.
It was the aim throughout the year to inspect every operation on a timber-sale once every
month. In the Vancouver District, for sixty-five different timber-sales operated during the year
it was only possible to make inspections on an average of once every six weeks. Throughout
the balance of the Province timber-sales were fewer in number and inspections were made once
every month, with the exception of Lillooet, where, the distances being greater and the sales
smaller, they were made once in every two months.
The total area logged on timber-sales was 4,170 acres. Approximately 850 acres of the
slash was disposed of during the year, it being impossible to clean up some areas safely until
logging had been completed. On only two timber-sales were the operations of sufficient size and
importance to necessitate a special Inspector on the ground to see that the provisions of the
timber-sale contract were carried out and to scale the timber as it was removed.
Average Sale Price by Species, 1915.
Saw-timber.
Board-feet.
Price per M.
Fir ...   .          ,                                                                              	
29,417,000
27,074,000
4,284,000
*         23,347,000
8,135,000
155,000
2,013,000
130,000
$0 95
1 05
71
46
48
77
50
50
94,555,000
#0 80
Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1915.
No. of Sales.
Area in Acres.
Estimated Quantity.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.)
Poles
(Lineal Feet).
Cordwood and
Shingle-bolts
(Cords).
Posts
(Cords).
of Revenue.
■Cranbrook	
Hazelton    	
Island	
Kamloops	
Lillooet	
Prince Rupert	
6
7
1
4
i
5
5
65
1
714
132
125
150
450
467
670
10,242
40
2,899,000
243,000
175,000
250,000
720,000
1,585,000
544,000
88,039,000
100,000
12,174
20
655
350
100
11,218
10
0
S3.499 15
699 00
205 89
635 35
1,025 38
1,743 55
1,389 70
'Vernon	
168 12
Totals	
9S
12,990
94,555,000
12,174
12,373
100
8152,598 97 G 20
Department op Lands.
1916
Timber cut from Timber-sales, 1915.
Cranbrook 	
Hazelton	
Kamloops	
Lillooet	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert....
Fort George	
Tete Jaune Cache
Vancouver	
Island 	
Totals ...
Ft. B.M.
Lin. Ft.
2,091,341
3,275
177,500
206,000
297,615
630,000
15,285
600,000
6,000
53,000
29,000
88,435
66,550,839
14,394
376,234
70,982,529
155,389
Cords.
100
15
67
16
279
11,562
Timber Exports.
Export of Logs, 1915.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Total of Logs.
Fir	
Ft. B.M.
8,158,794
1,360,676
664,180
27,031
Ft. B.M.
38,605,056
5,695,688
3,553,758
179,149
Ft. B.M.
25,008,384
1,867,025
2,357,723
51,722
Ft. B.M.
644,822
5,736
2,966,424
900,768
9,809,941
5,118,058
Ft. B.M.
72,417,056
8,929,125
9,442,085
257,902
900,768
9,809,941
5,118,058
10,110,681
48,033,651
29,284,854
19,446,749
106,874,935
Export of Pole's, Piles, Posts, Props, and Ties, 1915.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value F.O.B.
Where marketed.
Forest District.
United States.
Canada. *
Cranbrook—
Cords,      13,662
< 'ords,       4,922
Pieces,   387,143
Lin. ft., 322,802
Lin. ft.,     5,000
Cords,        2,351
Lin. ft., 845,697
Cords,            16
Lin. ft.,     8,990
Lin. ft., 394,226
Lin. ft.,   17,960
$ 79,657 10
30,376 23
144,543 31
26,668 55
350 00
9,404 00
50,800 00
80 00
970 80
143 68
112
' 1,400
13,125
2,081
636,949
394,226
17,960
13,550
4,922
385,743
309,677
Kamloops—
5,000
Nelson—
270
208,748
Tete Jaune Cache—
16
8,090
Vancouver- -
Island—
Total	
$342,993 67
* Chiefly the Prairie Provinces, though poles are also shipped to Ontario. 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
G 21
Records of poles, posts, ties, etc., which are completely manufactured in the woods, are kept
separate from those for products of the mills. Their manufacture in some districts affords an
additional source of income to the settler, and it is very desirable that a larger and steadier
market for these products be obtained.
Pulp and Paper Production.
This industry has increased its shipments over 1914, as the demand has been excellent.
The only handicap has been lack of shipping.    The output for 1915 is as follows:—
Paper manufactured     50,307 tons.
Sulphite  wood-pulp   13,000    „
Sawmills.
While a few mills have made improvements and additions, no new sawmills have been
erected during the year, and the capacity is the same as reported in 1914, or in the neighbourhood of 2,500,000,000 feet.
The table shows the distribution of the saw and shingle mills by forest districts.
Saw and Shingle Mills of Province.
Sawmills.
Shingle-
mills.
Forest District.
Up to 15 M.
Feet Daily
Capacity.
16 M. to 40 M.
Feet Daily
Capacity.
Over  40  M.
Feet Daily
Capacity.
Total.
Cranbrook	
Lillooet	
22
10
6
12
24
12
1
7
14
3
2
3
'io
ii
9
1
'i
9
1
3
i
"9
45
14
9
19
24
40
2
Vernon 	
21
Totals, East of Cascades	
94
43
27
10
174
Island	
Vancouver	
22
20
2
13
27
8
14
33
1
12
68
1
61
148
12
44
138
48
91
48
75
81
91
Totals in Province	
395
Logging Inspections.
The policy of inspecting periodically every logging operation in order to obtain statistics
concerning this part of the lumber industry, to enforce the provisions of the " Forest Act" in
regard to free protection, and to guard against innocent and wilful trespass on Crown lands
inaugurated in recent years, was continued in 1915.
The total number of logging operations in the Province amounted to 937, eleven more than
in 1914. In all districts east of the Cascades logging operations were greatly restricted throughout the year, and the increase is accounted for by the great activity in the Coast districts by
small operators.
This increased activity is almost wholly due to the wider market for logs provided through
the change in export regulations. It is also a reflection of the financial and industrial situation,
logging being one of the few avenues of production open to the man of small means. Certainly
the activity in the logging business proved a great boon to the settlements along the Coast. G 22
Department of Lands.
1916
Logging Inspection.
Forest District.
Logging
Operations.
Hand-
oggers.
Total Area
logged over.
No.
27
27
7
34
36
46
76
13
5
263
135
No.
"i
"85
is2
Acres.
Totals	
669
268
44,337
Timber Trespass.
The extent to which timber trespass occurred throughout the Province is shown on the
attached table. This shows, in comparing with last year's report, that trespass has considerably
lessened all over the Province, with the possible exception of Vancouver District. This may be
partially explained by the fact that a large number of new small operations were commenced
where the operators were not familiar with the lines of their property. While the amount of
timber involved in Vancouver District was large compared with last year, most of it was cut
in innocent trespass.
Trespass.
No. of
Cases.
Area
cut
over.
Quantity cut.
"9 00
_-£
■ to
o a
Forest District.
Feet, B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Amount
realized.
7
3
4
5
7
18
30
Acres.
60
80
74
92
40
335
300
133,212
29,595
150,381
22,038
3,400,000
2,010
10,760
16,000
100,600
15,540
71
'48
3
250
248
700
409
522
342,355
2
k
6
* 317 92
185 22
68 69
338 00
South Fort George	
565 20
1,157 03
74
971
3,735,226
144,910
1,320
343,286
10
?2,632 06
FOREST RECORDS.
Forest Revenue.
Collections for the twelve months to December 1st, 1915, amounted to $1,922,558.40, the net
decrease when compared with the year 1914 being $420,121.55. Owing to the severe depression
experienced by the lumber industry and the financial stringency, the conditions for the collection
of revenue were unfavourable. 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
G 23
Statement of Forest Revenue.
Timber-licence rentals	
Royalty and tax	
Trespass penalties	
Lease rentals	
Scaling fees	
Scaling expenses	
Seizure expenses	
Licence penalties	
Timber sturnpage	
Transfer fees	
Hand-loggers' licence fees .
Interest	
Timber-mark fees   	
Timber-sales rentals 	
n cruising	
ii advertising...
Scalers' examination fees ..
Copies of documents	
Exchange	
General miscellaneous	
Taxation from Crown-grant timber lands..
Total revenue from forest sources .
12 Months to
12 Months to
12 Months to
December, 1915.
December, 1914.
December, 1913.
81,140,656 53
$1,555,980 28
$2,112,876 18
351,310 13
391,118 36
482,707 05
3,520 54
7,170 95
9,016 95
120,132 35
88,792 08
119,291 44
27,893 16
30,472 32
23,978 99
2,564 71
1,805 82
1,759 41
85 71
270 90
16,692 69
25,335 00
24,291 00
67,250 42
36,545 33
18,719 92
4,400 00
7,085 00
10,385 00
5,550 00
5,200 00
5,025 00
1,117 81
116 13
17,208 84
137 00
508 50
924 50
3,830 89
3.477 87
2,597 95
2,183 42
1,550 83
1,140 40
532 71
534 05
691 40
60 00
425 00
585 00
128 00
569 57
17 33
61 96
119 95
1,469 73
$1,748,063 40
$2,157,018 95
$2,832,788 71
$174,495 00
$185,661 00
$166,540 00
41,922,558 40
$2,342,679 95
$2,999,328 71
B.C.FOREST FINANCE
REVENUE
ADMINISTRATIVE
EXPENDITURE
FOREST
PROTECTION
EXPENDITURE
MARKETS
EXPENDITURE
I. HEADQUARTERS
2.CRUISERS.
I.IMPROVEMENTS.
2.FIRES. G 24
Department of Lands.
1916
Revenue from Logging Operations, Year 1915.
District.
Nelson	
Vernon 	
Kamloops ...   	
Prince Rupert	
Hazelton	
Lillooet	
Fort George	
Tete Jaune Cache	
Cranbrook	
Vancouver 	
Island	
Totals	
Totals, 1914 operations
Amount charged.
Royalty
Scaling
Trespass
Seizure
Scaling
Sturnpage.
and Tax.
Fees.
Penalties.
Expenses.
Expenses.
$ 19,190 83
$       27 10
$158 70
$608 80
$19,985 43
8,034 84
8 00
8,042 84
1,919 51
14 SO
$20 00
77 37
2,031 68
6,887 53
432 68
411 94
16 00
379 70
8,127 85
639 22
133 56
772 78
574 95
82 48
5 00
303 08
965 51
8,453 55
159 42
712 90
$12 50
69 28
1,766 41
11,174 06
4,494 90
237 26
63 42
5,281 67
10,077 25
49,433 91
58 78
25 98
96 80
3,281 47
52,896 94
289,917 40
27,424 82
906 35
1,783 73
2,424 52
68,202 24
390,659 06
11,837 20
$401,383 84
2,495 97
515 60
14,848 77
$30,836 03
$30,067 00
$2,313 15
$1,796 23
$3,210 62
$80,042 30
$519,582 17
$427,601 00
$12,891 00
$865 00
$2,272 00
$60,055 00
$533,751 00
Special Licences.
Number, December 1st, 1915.—Number renewable while timber remains, 12,581; number
renewable for fixed period only, 1,166; total, 13,747.
Transfers.—Change of ownership was recorded in 2,035 cases in 1913, 1,417 cases in 1914,
and 812 cases were recorded during the year 1915.
Location of Licences.
No. of .
Forest District. Licences.
Cranbrook     908
Hazelton      560
Kamloops     1,672
Lillooet     53
Nelson  1,306
Prince Rupert  1,248
Fort George   962
Tete Jaune Cache    1,001
Vernon     328
Vancouver     3,352.
Vancouver Island     2,357
Total     13,747
East of Cascades       7,046
West of Cascades        6,701
Crown-grant Timber Lands.
Area of Private
Timber Lands.
1911  824,814
1912  874,715
1913  922,948
1914  960,464
1915  913,245
erage Value
per Acre.
$8
72
8
60
9
02
9
66
9 55 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
G 25
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
District.
Acreage,
1915.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1914.
Average
Value per
Acre.
Change    in
Value  per
Acre  since
1914.
Victoria	
Kettle River    ...  	
17,534
87,573
44,718
78,084
217,339
24,438
5,859
47,302
7,486
170,021
6,422
77,910
48,439
80,120
- 386
-19,688
No change
+     621
+     705
- 4,266
- 182
66
+       58
-11,992
51
64
- 160
-11,748
$13 40
14 74
18 39
10 19
13 89
4 03
3 00
5 28
15 60
3 87
4 99
3 91
11 57
6 51
+0.56
+0.86
-0.20
-2.87
-0.22
-0.23
No change
-0.12
+0.12
+1.10
+0.05
+0.14
+0.08
Totals	
913,245
-47,219
9 55
-0.11
Forest Expenditure.
The sums voted for forest-work for the fiscal year 1915-16 were as follows:—
Vote    10—Salaries        $167,330 00
„    239—Determination of lumber values   5,000 00
„    240—In aid of encouraging water-borne lumber trade         50,000 00
,,    241—Forest products investigations            10,000 00
„    243—Miscellaneous            98,000 00
Total        $330,330 00
In addition to this total, $166,000 was voted as the Government's contribution to the Forest
Protection Fund.
General Administrative Expenditure.*
(Fiscal Year ending March Slst, 1916.)
Headquarters     $62,686
Field  staff     12,541
Launches     .-  9,865
Cranbrook     7,524
Fort   George     9,028
Hazelton    6,347
Island     10,942
Kamloops     9,104
Lillooet     5,210
Nelson     7,183
Prince  Rupert     9,531
Tete Jaune Cache    4,367
Vancouver     47,407
Vernon     5.694
Total      $207,429
* Expenditure for last three months of fiscal year being estimated.
Markets expenditure estimated to end of fiscal year ending March 31st, 1916, $55,000.    A
saving of approximately 20 per cent, will be made on the amount of $330,330 voted. G 26
Department op Lands.
1916
Forest Protection Fund.
Credit balance, April 1st, 1914     $ 15,144 83
Collections, fiscal year 1914-15       122,330 47
Government contribution, 1914-15      166,000 00
Refunds,  1914-15          16,785 89
$320,261 19
Expenditure, fiscal year 1914-15      403,198 13
Deficit, April 1st, 1915    $82,936 94
The amount due by licensees, etc., to the Forest Protection Fund at April 1st, 1915, was
approximately $45,000, and together with refunds owing of $13,000 shows a total of $58,000
outstanding. Had all payments due to the Forest Protection Fund been received, the net deficit
at April 1st, 1915, would have been approximately $24,936.94.
Forest Protection Expenditure.
Fiscal Years.
1913-14.
1914-15.
1915-16.
$217,093
104,000
9,600
$228,352
31,385
143,461
$157,432
5,151
19,449
$330,693
$403,198
$182,032
The figures for the fiscal year 1915-16 are for nine months ending December 31st, 1915, but
as this includes the whole of the field season, practically the whole expenditure is thus shown.
As collections for the fund to the end of the present fiscal year are estimated at $115,566 from
leases, licences, and Grown-grant holdings, thus making, with the Government, contribution, a
total of $223,132, the financial position of the fund is seen to have been very greatly improved
during this year by reason of the lessened expenditure. The previous year was the worst fire
season on record and the expenditure was correspondingly heavy.
Expenditure by Districts for Nine Months
December Slst, 1915.
District.
Headquarters
Cranbrook .......
Fort George	
Hazelton	
Island	
Kamloops	
Lillooet	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert
Tete Jaune Cache
Vancouver 	
Vernon	
Totals .. .
Patrol.
Improvements.
Fires.
Total.
$ 2,680
$ 2,680
14.6S9
$   500
$   133
15,322
24,669
79
1,417
26,165
11,241
461
191
11,893
12,932
200
7,524
20,656
12,348
370
595
13,313
8,063
106
8,169
17,404
1,196
1,043
19,643
7,410
850
8,260
6,018
599
6,617
30,630
2,137
6,669
39,436
9,348
208
322
9,878
$157,432
$ 5,151
$19,449
$182,032 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
G 27
Monthly Patrol Expenditure, 1915.
April.
May.
June.
July.
August.
Sept.-Oct.
Headquarters	
$1,157
549
1,089
565
690
383
478
707
498
18
2,733
343
$   586
2,431
4,860
2,471
2,325
2,585
2,281
3,569
1,201
1,361
4,375
2,063
$30,108
$  677
2,930
5,768
2,179
2,256
2,545
1,594
3,532
1,711
1,421
5,272
1,940
$   112
3,250
4,331
2,415
3,216
2,896
1,574
3,811
1,746
1,160
6,344
1,926
$   106
4.231
4.225
1,937
2,539
2,006
1,257
4,418
1,862
1,094
7,114
2,208
$     42
1,298
4,396
Hazelton	
Island 	
Kamloops	
1,674
2,006
1,933
879
Nelson	
1,367
392
964
4,792
868
Totals 	
$9,110
$31,825
$32,781
$32,997
$20,611
Export Lumber Orders filled by Forest Branch.
In order to facilitate business, all orders received from the British War Office were paid for
by this Department to the millmen direct, and therefore reimbursement is made by the War
Office to us.
It was unfortunate that the value of the pound sterling went steadily and rapidly downwards last summer, until it reached $4.52, the lowest value ever placed upon it. Under normal
conditions the value of the pound sterling is $4.86 to $4.88 for sight bills of exchange, 60-day
bills selling for a little lower figure.
So that the operator would receive the highest value on the pound sterling, special attention
was given to the foreign exchange market, and the exchange rate paid on the pound sterling
was from $4.55 to $4.75%.
Status.
The following is a summary of applications and reports passed for clearance notation on the
Forest Atlas, reference plans, and records of the Lands and Survey Branches during the past
year:—
17 mill-sites.
390 timber-sales.
87 permits, railway.
2 permits, free use.
1 right-of-way.
27 ranger stations.
225 hand-loggers' licences.
937 logging reports.
74 trespass reports.
The coming into force of the " Royalty Act" and the subdivision of the Province into three
classes—A, B, and C—at different rates of royalty entails considerable work in checking scale
and royalty accounts to verify that correct royalty is being charged.
A weekly bulletin giving details of current office routine work is forwarded to all District
Foresters, who need this information to keep their plans and records up to date.
Timber-marks.
The table hereunder shows by comparison that during the past year logging operations have
increased over those of 1914, and a further indication of activity is illustrated by the fact that
205 marks were extended to new operations, as against 143 for 1914, or an increase of 62 for
the year 1915. G 28 Department op Lands. 1916
Table of Marks issued under the Different Classes.
1914. 1915.
On old Crown grants        29 46
On Crown grants, 1887-1906  (exportable)          53 59
On Crown grants, 1906-1914 (non-exportable)          35 43
On timber under the " Royalty Act, 1914 "      107 154
On timber leases          5 8
On sixteen-year timber licences          2
On   timber-sales          50 78
On hand-loggers' licences     128 104
On Dominion lands          20 21
On rights-of-way  1
Totals      429 514
The increase of mark cancellations, changes, and extensions has increased the work of
revising and keeping the Timber-mark Catalogue up to date. There are on this list approximately 1,618 marks. It is now in its twenty-first edition and in general use throughout the
Forest Service.
Forest Atlas.
During the past year the chief work in connection with the atlas has been the transfer from
the system reported in the 1914 Annual Report to a less complicated system of record. Since the
month of March the work of transfer has been rushed as much as possible, and particular attention given to the immediate entry of current work. The new system comprises, to date, a set of
sixty-nine mounted blue-prints on a scale of 80 chains to 1 inch. A ready reference is worked in
connection under the title of " Atlas Index," which is compiled upon the card-index system. This
index is built up from time to time upon the complete transfer to each blue-print, thus avoiding
confusion between the old system and the new. The above sixty-nine blue-prints form a completed atlas over the following Forest Districts : Fort George, Hazelton, Kamloops, Lillooet,
Prince Rupert, Tete Jaune Cache, Vancouver, and Island (North-west Quarter only).
The following districts have still to be transferred to the new atlas: Cranbrook, Nelson,
Vernon, and Island (portion only).
During the year 1915 there were the following entries recorded upon the atlas:—
Land  examinations        557
Timber-sales        215
Hand-loggers' licences       225
Ranger  stations          59
In addition to the above, a considerable number of logging operations and reconnaissance
reports were noted and dealt with.
Correspondence.
The incoming mail for the year 1915 increased 11 per cent, as compared with the previous
year, and an increase of 60 per cent, in the outgoing mail. The total number of letters received
was 29,000, and letters forwarded 69,000.
Reserved Timber Land.
Crown land is reserved when it is found to be absolute forest land that is of value for
timber production, or land bearing the statutory amount of timber (i.e., 5,000 feet B.M. per
acre east of the Cascade Mountains, and 8,000 feet B.M. west). As a result of the examinations
and reports made to date by reconnaissance and land examination parties and District Foresters,
the following areas have been entered on the reference maps and placed in the reserve of timber
land held by the Crown:—*
* The land reserved in 1915] is made tip oJ those portions of areas examined in 1915 (see sections
headed "Forest Reconnaissance" and "Land Classification") and previously, which during 1915 were
finally dealt with and placed under reserve. 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
G 29
Acreage of Crown Timber Land reserved.
Forest District. m4 mg
Cranbrook     2,097 101,823
Fort George     41,250 26,880
Hazelton     251,888 8,180
Island   100 4,509
Kamloops      162,464 472,878
Lillooet   126,290 764
Nelson     22,664
Prince Rupert     21,500
Tete Jaune Cache     141,190 6,200
Vancouver    131,560 14,801
Vernon     53,955 37,548
Totals       954,958 673,583
This makes a total of 1,628,541 acres placed under reserve during the past two years.
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
The land-classification work has been carried on in a much reduced scale during the year
1915. A total of 557 examinations were made, covering 194,000 acres, as against the 492,000
examined and reported on during 1914. Of this total of 194,000, S1,000 acres were found to
be suitable for agricultural development of one kind or another, and 53,000 were recommended
to be placed under reserve for their timber value. These 53,000 acres carried approximately
a total of 878,000,000 feet of timber. The total cost of this field examination and report was
$8,817.24, which is an average of approximately 4% cents per acre, or on a sturnpage basis
approximately 1 cent per 1,000.
All applications to the Lands Department for land in the Vancouver Forest District are
being referred to the Forest Branch for examination and report on timber quantities before
the application for land is dealt with. One month is allowed for the securing of this report,
and every endeavour is made to secure it within this time; but it was found that it was
almost impossible to examine such applications in widely separated parts of the district in
such a period, and therefore during the year large portions of the vacant available Crown
land within five miles of salt water were examined in advance, and the areas bearing no
timber were marked and plotted on the maps of the Forest Branch. All applications on these
areas can now be acted upon as soon as received without further field examination.
The attached table shows the distribution of the area examined. The largest proportion is
within expired timber licences which were examined with the idea of opening any lands suitable
for agriculture. Applications to purchase and pre-emptions, on the other hand, were examined
with the idea of safeguarding timber land.
Status op Areas examined, 1915.
Forest District.
Cranbrook	
Fort George 	
Hazelton	
Island	
Kamloops	
Lillooet   	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert
Tete Jaune Cache .
Vancouver 	
Vernon 	
Totals	
Lots.
Expired Timber
Licences.
Pre-emption
Records.
Application to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
No.
Acres.
No.
Acres.
No.
Acres.
No.
Acres.
No.
Acres.
1
6,896
13
7,952
15
6,324
9
5,406
17
3,046
13
6,914
1
562
2
164
11
5,565
9
1,651
26
13,580
7
132
89
13,278
1
82
4
2,230
1
140
15
9,600
3
413
32
18,584
1
160
5
1,367
1
294
i
160
3
948
"l
1,843
61
33',5ol
84
■ 11,577
108
33,423
3
8,905
4
2,560
6
800
3
1,600
1
5
3,040
35
17,127
151
84,731
119
16,179
247
72,695
12,027 G 30
Department of Lands.
191G
Classification of Areas examined, 1915.
Forest District.
Cranbrook 	
Fort George......
Hazelton	
Island	
Kamloops	
Lillooet	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert	
Tete Jaune Cache..
Vancouver 	
Vernon	
Totals
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Area
recommended
for Reserve. *
14,848
5,841
2,789
21,090
18,942
5,591
6,291
5,314
2S.723
17,021
3,382
11,970
7,286
160
573
395
19,951
5,052
10,418
1,402
1,078
89,311
18,605
30,544
8,000
1,126
202,759
80,660
52,884
Estimate of
Timber.
Ft. B.M.
23,053,000
116,708,000
35,913,000
148,322,000
39,645,000
390,000
26,053,000
2,332,000
80,829,000
5,608,000
878,753,000
* Includes absolute forest land of value for timber production ; also land which is statutory timber land. For the total areas
finally dealt with and placed under reserve during 1915, see the section headed "Reserved Timber Land."
FOREST RECONNAISSANCE.
On account of the war the survey of the forest resources of the Province has only been
carried on in a minor way during the past year. Considerable areas in various localities, however, were reported on by members of the regular force of Forest Rangers and Guards while
engaged on other work in the same districts.
The general tabulation of the forest areas of the Province has already shown that previous
estimates of the quantity of timber in British Columbia have been too low, and that many large
bodies of good timber were until recent years unexplored. It is true that much of it is not
available at present, but the extension of railways, the increase of population in Canada, and
the exhaustion of more accessible timber on land near present centres of population will in time
bring it into the market. The greater part of this timber is the property of the Province, and
will form an extremely valuable asset, provided it be protected from fire.*
The chief areas reported on so far this year are as follows:—
Parsnip River and North Fork of Fraser River.
The area described is bounded on the west by Giscome Portage, Crooked River, McLeod
Lake, and Pack River; on the north by 55° 10' 30" latitude,;  on the east by the Rocky Mountains,
and on the south by 54° latitude and the Fraser River.
The forest cover is classified as follows:—
Acres.
Timber averaging 13,000 feet per acre       74,266
Timber averaging 7,500 feet per acre    729,286
Timber averaging 2,500 feet per acre     786,266
Scrub timber, alpine      322,169
Barrens above timber-line      149,325
Burn, not yet restocking      71,475
Burn, good reproduction     150,976
TJndrainable swamp, muskegs      40,339
Total    2,324,102
The total stand of timber is estimated to be about 8,400,000,000 feet B.M., the species represented being:    Spruce, 75 per cent.; balsam, 20 per cent.;  jack-pine and Douglas fir, 5 per cent.
The agricultural land, including natural meadows, amounts to approximately 12,100 acres,
and is mostly on the North Fork of the Fraser River.
The climate is fairly severe, especially' on the Parsnip River. The underbrush is usually
dense, consisting of dogwood, devil's-club, mountain-alder, and willows.
* For areas of timber land finally dealt with and placed under reserve during 1915, see the section
headed " Reserved Timber Land." -6 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. G 31
The Parsnip and its seven main tributaries are all drivable for logs. During this survey
■each branch was navigated by canoe for a distance of twelve to twenty-four miles.
Peace River District.
The area examined comprises 3,576 square miles (2,288,640 acres) adjoining the Dominion
Peace River Block on the south, and extending to the eastern boundary of British Columbia.
This area lies altogether east of the Rocky Mountains, and is drained by the Pine River, a
tributary of the Peace River. The general elevation is about 3,000 feet and consists of a plateau
intersected by ridges extending eastward from the main range of the Rockies.
In this area of about 2,250,000 acres there are 384,000 acres which bear merchantable
timber, estimated at 4,093,000,000 board-feet; 293,000 acres are burned, and not yet restocking.
This burn is comparatively recent, while 65,840 acres of older burn is covered with a good stand
■of young spruce and jack-pine. There is a very large additional area of burned country in this
block, on which a second crop, probably on account of the severity of the fire, has not been able
as yet to establish itself. This land is reported to be covered with scrub and very poor
reproduction.
The territory has agricultural possibilities, as well as capacity for supporting a considerable
timber industry in the future, when better transportation and increased demand render the
timber available. There is about 120,000 acres of good agricultural land with no large timber
on it, and therefore easy to clear.    About one-fourth of this is open natural hay meadows.
Lower Parsnip and Upper Peace River.
An area comprising 3,000 square miles in the valley of the Parsnip River, extending from
the confluence of the Pack River with the Parsnip, and including the Manson River basin and
the Upper Peace as far as the Clearwater, was roughly examined. The Pack River enters the
Parsnip at a point ninety miles above the junction of the Finlay and the Parsnip Rivers. A great
part of this valley has been burned over, with the exception of 17,000 acres of timber, about
twenty miles below Pack River, which is reported to carry 10,000 feet per acre, a total of
170,000,000 feet.
A strip of agricultural land from one to two miles wide on each side of the river for the
whole distance is reported. The soil is a light loam, very easily cleared, mostly burned over.
Wild grasses and peavine in great abundance were observed, indicating the possibility of this
becoming a valuable cattle country.
On the Lower Manson River, a tributary of the Parsnip, there stand 56,320 acres of spruce,
Cottonwood, and jack-pine, estimated at 563,000,000 feet B.M. of timber. This area is reported
to be fit for agriculture after logging.
The Upper Peace River between Finlay Forks and the Clearwater River has no agricultural
and little timber value, being extremely rough, a narrow valley with steep slopes close to the
river.
The Clearwater River for twelve miles above its junction with the Peace was briefly
examined, and the existence of 13,440 acres of merchantable spruce, balsam, and cottonwood,
was established. After logging this land will be valuable for agriculture, especially cattle-
.raising.
The forest cover is thus summarized:—
Acres.
Timber over 5.000 feet per acre       70.680
Timber under 5,000 feet per acre    148,000
Burns, about       513,000
Swamps and muskegs          9,400
Barren mountain-tops and alpine timber   1,178,920
Total  1,920,000
Total timber— Ft. B.M.
56,320 acres    563,000,000
14,360 acres      86,000,000
649,000,000 G 32 Department of Lands. 1916"-
Lillooet and Cariboo.
The reconnaissance of an area comprising 7,500,000 acres in Lillooet and Cariboo Districts;
was started in 1913 and the field-work completed in 1914, too late, however, for the completion
of the report in time for inclusion in the last Annual Report. A complete report was received
this year.
The forest survey covered the plateau country east of the Fraser River between Pavilion:
and Quesnel, the greater part of the Quesnel Lake and River watershed, the upper part of the^
watershed of Antler Creek and Cottonwood River, and part of the Clearwater Lake and River1
drainage. The country in general is lightly timbered, but possesses, nevertheless, timber resources
of considerable value. In every part of it there exists timber for local use, which is of the'
first importance near agricultural areas. The north-eastern portion of the territory, where the
proximity of the Cariboo Range induces a more humid climate, contains the bulk of the saw
and pulp timber.
A summary classification of the whole area shows:—
Acres.
Area suitable for cultivation        450,000
Area suitable for grazing    2,500.000
Area suitable for timber only     3,000,000
Waste, barrens, water, etc   1,550,000
Total     7,500,000
The stand of timber is as follows: Merchantable (over 5 M. per acre), 670,370 acres, withi
a stand of 5,398,440,000 feet. Timber under 5 M. per acre comprises 1,261,000 acres and.
3,783,000,000 feet B.M. Of the land now bearing timber, only about one-third has a stand heavy
enough to be merchantahle. The total stand of timber of all kinds is 1,931,570 acres and:
9,181,440,000 feet.
Nearly half of the total area covered, or about 3,000,000 acres, has been burned over within:
sixty years; 90 per cent, of this burn is covered thickly with jack-pine, although the original
stand was chiefly Douglas fir. Reckoned at 3,000 feet per acre, a moderate estimate, the timber
loss in these fires amounted to 9,000,000,000 feet, equal to all the timber left in the area.
The climate is continental, with hot summers and cold winters. The driest portion is at
the western edge, the precipitation steadily increasing eastwards until at the foot of the Cariboo
Mountains a fairly humid climate is met with.
There are many old settlements, dating back to the Cariboo gold-rush in the " fifties."
Recently there has been a considerable influx of new settlers,  which will increase with the-
completlon of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.    In suitable localities cattle-raising and mixed
farming have prospered, and by dry-farming methods the arable area may be increased up to a
total estimated cultivable area of 450,000 acres.
In the more heavily timbered portions, about Clearwater Lake, Quesnel Lake, Horsefly
Lake, and Swamp River drainage-basins, there is room for a considerable lumbering activity in
the future. Two or three possible sites for pulp-mills are reported, where water-power and
large areas of spruce and jack-pine are available. In course of time it is possible that development in that direction will take place.
The chief species of timber are mountain western pine in the south, cedar about Quesnel
Lake, and Douglas fir, spruce, and jack-pine on the remainder of the area described.
Zymoetz or Copper River Watershed.
The Zymoetz River enters the Skeena River from the south-east. An exploratory survey
was completed in 1915. The total area of the watershed is about 2,400 square miles, of which
2,300 square miles were examined. No report has yet been made on the upper reaches of the
river, around Coal Creek and McDonell Lake. 6 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. G 33
The area is thus classified :—
Acres.
Timbered      102,400
Burns         47,360
Second growth and alpine timber      224,000
Swamps and meadows           1,280
Mountains, above timber-line   1,077,760
Water         10,200
Total  1,472,000
The agricultural land amounts to 9,600 acres.
The timber on the 102,400 acres carrying sound commercial timber amounts to about
921,600 M. feet, averaging 9,000 feet to the acre. On the lower river much of the best timber
has been destroyed by fire, otherwise the stand would be much higher. On the north side all
the timber has been burned for sixteen miles, the fires occurring several years ago, at least
previous to 1912.    The chief species are, hemlock, balsam, cedar, and spruce, in the order named.
Francois, Ootsa, and Eutsuk L-iKES Region.
A rough preliminary examination of this country was made last spring. The region is
situated south of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway and just east of the Cascade Mountains. It
is a part of the Interior Plateau, and in topography is characterized by parallel ranges of rather
low mountains and hills, having a general east-and-wrest direction with a great many lakes, large
and small, between them, all draining into the Nechako River. The lakes range in altitude
from about 2,400 to about 2,900 feet. The mountains in general rise only from 1,000 to 2,000
feet above the lakes, though some of them are 3,000 to 4,000 feet higher.
Practically the whole of this great area has been burned over one or more times during the
past hundred years, and is now for the most part covered with young growth of spruce, balsam
(alpine fir), lodge-pole pine, and poplar. The stands vary in size and age, but are generally
between fifty and a hundred years old. There is consequently at present only a comparatively
small quantity of saw-timber there, hut an immense amount of pulp-timber. The topography
makes logging easy, and there are a number of splendid water-powers. The timber has therefore
a very great future value, for it is certain to be utilized as soon as adequate transportation
and markets are available.
The great bulk of the land is non-agricultural, but in certain parts there is a considerable
amount of comparatively level or rolling land suitable for agriculture. Most of this occurs in
rather narrow belts along or near the lakes. The north shores of the larger lakes, as a rule,
have been burned more severely than the south shores; probably because, having a southern
aspect, they were dryer. In many places this has resulted in natural meadows or park lands
of considerable extent—notably along the north shores of Francois and Ootsa Lakes and along
a string of small lakes between them—and most of the settlement to date has taken place on
these natural clearings. The region is suitable for mixed farming, and particularly for dairying
and raising beef cattle. Hay and all the hardy grains and vegetables can be and are successfully
grown in spite of summer frosts, and there is a good deal of natural forage in some of the more
open forests adjacent to the agricultural land.
FOREST BRANCH ORGANIZATION.
The total staff, permanent and temporary, including Forest Guards on duty during the
summer, amounted to 378 in 1915, as compared with 558 in the previous year. The decrease
is most apparent in the temporary staff, which was reduced from 391 in 1914 to 218 this year.
While a comparison of the tables of the total force shows a reduction, they do not indicate
fully the situation. By the end of the year Forest Branch employees in Victoria and also in
the district offices had been further reduced, chiefly by enlistment.
The following is a list showing employees of this Branch, amounting to eighty-one,  who
are known to have enlisted since the outbreak of war:—
3 G 34
Department op Lands.
1916
Forest Branch Enlistments.
District.
Name.
Nature of Appointment.
F. MacVickar	
A. McDougall	
J. Eddie	
J.  Stone	
V. K. Wood   	
H. W. Eades	
V. Welde	
H. A. Rees	
L. A. Re-s	
Forest Assistant.
//
Clerk (wounded).
Draughtsman.
Clerk.
n
Librarian.
Compass-man.
a            (killed in action).
n
Draughtsman.
Engineer.
Draughtsman.
Clerk. "
Forest Assistant.
Field Assistant.
Acting Assistant Forester.
Clerk.
Scaler (wounded).
Clerk.
Ranger.
Forest Assistant.
Forest Guard.
//■
a
a
a
n
Ranger.
Forest Guard.
District Forester.
Ranger.
Engineer.
Forest Guard (killedinaction).
Ranger.
//
a
Forest Guard.
Ranger.
Forest Guard.
ir
ll
ll
Engineer.
A. J. Pickup	
D. F. Scott	
G. W. Scott	
S  T. Wheatley  .
F. I. Murray	
S. Hunt	
C. I. McKenzie	
G. R. A. Ball	
C. Ferris   	
H. S. Langhlin	
J. R. Chamberlin	
G. R. Malcolm	
Cranbrook	
Fort George	
H. R. Christie    	
E. C. Foot	
.1. Milroy	
L. R. Condy	
J. S. Steel              	
E. F. W. Heath	
H. C. Kirighorn	
J. J. H. Spink
„
W. N.Campbell	
G. Denoon	
W. G. Bradshaw	
«              	
F. Baldwin  	
R. Jobson	
.1. J. Donelly
N. F.  Murray	
A. Wright	
E. Hyde   	
E. E. Frost	
M. Campbell	
Kamloops	
G. Metzlar	
C. S. Haddon	
	
H. A. Powell  	
C. F. Mandall	
•T. F. Nattrass  .
Lillooet	
R. W. Suthern	
C. E. Keen	
A. Williams	
A. 0. Holmes	
J  P  Nash
Nelson	
Prince Rupert	
R. T. Irvine	
G. W. Waistell	
R. Noble	 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
G 35
Forest BroInch Enlistments—Concluded,
District.
Name.
Prince Rupert	
W. A. Boultbee	
F. B. Edwards	
J. B. Mitchell	
M. M. Gibson	
W. Black	
C. S. Cowan	
A.  Malcolm	
rl
A. H. Black	
W. H. Smith	
M. V. Allen	
M. V. McGuire	
Nature of Appointment.
Forest Guard.
Ranger.
'/
Deputy District Forester.
Forest Assistant.
Ranger.
Engineer.
Clerk.
Cruiser.
Cook.
District Forester.
Rnnger.
Clerk.
Forest Guard.
The market extension work entered upon during the year has placed a rather severe burden
on the reduced staff and caused some neglect of other lines of work. Field inspection, which is
most necessary in a personnel so widely distributed, had to be wholly postponed. Appreciating
the circumstances, however, the field force, though reduced by enlistment, has by extra work
been able to carry on the routine administrative work satisfactorily.
Distribution op Total Force, British Columbia Forest Branch, 1915.
Permaneni
Temporary.
00
£
g
co
T3 4^
r-l
T3     .
oi
"C"
CO
GQ
00
o
G
oo
a
c ^
Forest District.
tH    O
HI Li,
Hi
fcpa>
.5 p
r-
O
'C
p
■—        r-
1—1 .fa)
2 p
ll
cooC
5 S
00  03
CO   >-
CO
oo
<
>H
00
ts B
C a,
rf oo
oo ra
¥ s
'38
1
100
0,
oo
5
or
o
c
CO
HH
■d
3
S       rO
cO S
cog
a. _____■
So
£■§
cO
o
s
«     1
1   i
§    3
• r2        *"
fat
OJ    rl
too 5
CO
■cl
O
H
o
<
a
l
l
fi
o
1
2
HH
i
03
1
o
Hi
3
5
r}
as
23
27
SI
2
2
Ph
5
1    ..
1
O
O
3",
Fort Georg-e	
44
l
i
l
1
1
1
l
2
1
3
3
4
'l
16
17
11
i
2
1
22
26
Kamloops	
21
l
i
1
1
i
i
2
4
8
23
13
Nelson	
30
i
3
4
8
16
l
l
l
'i
e
1
35
l
l
i
5
ia
1
6
2
12
23
12
2
18
i
5
lb
6
4
91
17
Victoria Headquarters	
4
3
51
Totals	
4
3
li
i
50
11
17
10
36
17
177
25
7
1        2
1
5
378 G 3G
Department of Lands.
1916
Areas op Administrative and Protective Units, 1915.
Forest District.
Total
Land Area.
No. of
Ranger
Districts.
Average
Area, Ranger
Districts.
No. o!
Regular
Guard
Districts.
Average
Area, Guard
Districts.
Maximum
No.
Guards
aud
Patrolmen
during
Season.
Average
Minimum
Area, Guard
and
Patrolmen
Districts.
Acres.
7,560,000
36,650,000
23,100,000
6,390,000
6,970,000
12,670,000
7,960,000
21,880,000
5,225,000
16,770,000
5,835,000
3
5
3
3
4
2
4
3
1
6
2
Acres.
2,520,000
7,330,000
7,700,000
2,130,000
1,742,500
6,335,000
1,987,500
7,296,000
5,225,000
2,628,300
2,917,500
23
27
16
17
11
8
23
8
9
23
12
Acres.
328,700
1,367,400
1,443,750
375,880
633,040
1,583,750
345,650
2,735,000
580,550
685,650
486,250
25
29
16
IS
11
8
23
8
11
41
.12
202
302
Acres.
302,400
1,263,800
1,443,750
Island	
Kamloops  	
355,000
633,600
1,583,750
345,650
2,736,000
475,1X10
384,630
486,250
Totals, 1915	
150,000,000
36
4,166,600
177
847,450
789,473
742,550
Totals, 1914	
150,000,000
35
4,285,714
191
499,000
FOREST PROTECTION.
The weather in 1915, while generally not so hazardous as in 1914, was for a long period
intensely hazardous on the Coast, and fairly hazardous during a shorter period in Fort George,
Vernon, and Nelson Districts. 1914 was the worst fire season over the whole Province that
the Department had experienced, and competent authorities state that it was the worst in
history.
Undoubtedly, 1915, on the Lower Coast and Vancouver Island, during August and September,
produced abnormal weather conditions. The greatest hazards from logging operations and the
largest amount of timber of present merchantable value exist in the districts where the weather
this year was the worst, thus greatly accentuating the problem of effective fire-protection.
Valuable assistance was rendered by logging operators in furnishing men to fight fires, thus
supplying mobile and well-equipped forces, with all commissary facilities.
The staff of Rangers and Forest Guards undoubtedly shows a general improvement each
year. Several years of careful supervision, training, and practice have produced definite results,
and this year's record shows that British Columbia possesses the nucleus of a most excellent
fire-fighting force. The size of some patrol districts and their inaccessibility renders their
protection from fire very difficult.
WeoVther Conditions, 1915.
By arrangement with F. Napier Denison, Superintendent of the Meteorological Station on-.
Gonzales Height, Victoria, weather reports for all weather-recording stations in British Columbia
were obtained daily. Special forecasts were furnished during the worst periods, and these
proved of great assistance. A chart was kept up to date by plotting temperatures and precipitation data from the daily weather reports received. There is opportunity to make a great
deal of use of weather-recording stations in forecasting unusual danger periods, and next year
it is planned to utilize such information to the fullest extent.
In 1914 the chief danger area was situated in the Southern Interior. There was also a
fairly dry period on the Lower Coast, but this period was not of sufficient length or intensity
to occasion much damage. This year the danger-point shifted decidedly to the Lower Coast
and Vancouver Island, where a fire season of unprecedented severity was experienced. Only the
absence of one factor, high winds, prevented a disastrous situation from developing.
In the Vancouver District the mean temperature was decidedly higher than normal in every
month of the fire season. The lack of rainfall was even more marked. During the whole five
months, May to September, less than half the normal precipitation occurred. In August and
September, the worst months, only one-fifth of the normal amount of rain fell. During the
same months the temperature averaged 3 degrees higher than normal. Not in a generation has;
such a dry and hot season been experienced. 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
G 37
In the Fort George District there was a brief danger period in April, but little damage
resulted. In August and September, however, a large amount of timber in the Peace River
country burned, and some large areas of second growth, mostly on agricultural land, in the
more accessible parts of the Fort George District were destroyed.
All the other Interior districts, as well as the Prince Rupert District, experienced a very
favourable fire season, fire-fighting expenses and damage being comparatively small.
Summary by Months.
April:    Dry in the Interior;   an early spring throughout the Province.
May:    Temperature and rainfall above the average in all districts.
June: Temperature above the average everywhere except in Okanagan Valley. Rainfall
above the average in the Upper Fraser Valley, but below elsewhere.
July: Temperature above the average on Vancouver Island, Lower Mainland, and Upper
Fraser, and below in the Kootenays. Rainfall was slightly higher than usual on Vancouver
Island and in the Kootenays and Cariboo, and lower on the Lower Mainland and Lower Fraser
River.
August:    Temperature above average at all points.    Rainfall generally lower than normal.
September: Temperature above average everywhere in the Province, except in the Kootenays.    Rainfall below the average at all points.
Temperature and Rainfall Data, 1915.
May, 1915.
Victoria 	
Cowichan	
Nanaimo	
Vancouver 	
Chilliwack	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Revelstoke	
Vernon	
Quesnel	
Stuart Lake	
June, 1915.
Victoria 	
Cowichan	
Nanaimo	
Vancouver	
Chilliwack	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Revelstoke.	
Vernon	
Quesnel	
Stuart Lake	
July, 1915.
Victoria	
Cowichan	
Nanaimo	
Vancouver ,
Chilliwack	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Revelstoke	
Vernon	
Quesnel	
Stuart Lake	
ME
in Temperature.
Rainfall.
Temperature,
Average.
Difference
from
Average.
1915.
Average.
Difference
from
Average.
No. Days
Rain fell.
53.9
53.5
+0.4
1.26
1.04
+0.22
13
55.0
53.3
+1.7
2.44
1.85
+0.59
18
55.3
53.5
+1.8
2.84
2.04
+0.80
19
56.2
54.0
+2.2
3.42
3.35
+0.07
18
66.4
55.3
+1.1
5.27
3.77
+1.50
22
58.5
57.4
+ 1.1
2.28
1.04
+ 1.24
15
53.8
53.8
+0.0
3.72
2.43
+1.29
17
55.2
52.2
+3.0
4.83
2.38
+2.45
17
54.6
54.5
+0.1
2.91
1.39
+1.52
18
54.5
51.6
+2.9
1.38
0.92
+0.46
9
51.8
44.1
+7.7
1.36
1.07
+0.29
14
57.8
57.3
+0.5
0.01
0.93
-0.32
4
60.2
57.7
+2.5
0.40
1.27
-0.86
3
61. 0
57.9
+3.1
0.44
2.31
-1.87
4
60.4
58.6
+1.8
1.07
2.70
-1.63
7
59.5
59.4
+0.1
1.67
3.07
-1.40
12
63.3
62.4
+0.9
2.49
1.39
+1.10
18
63.6
60.7
+2.9
2.09
2.76
-0.67
10
57.9
58.4
-0.5
2.93
3.05
-0.12
13
59.2
60.5
-1.3
1.73
1.75
-0.02
13
59.8
58.2
+1.6
2.08
1.70
+0.38
7
67.7
53.9
+3.8
1.54
1.49
+0.05
9
59.9
60.5
-0.0
0.84
0.41
+0.43
9
64.0
63.3
+0.7
0.50
0.64
-0.14
6
65.1
63.3
+1.8
0.81
0.73
+0.08
0
64.7
63.1
+1.7
0.91
1.31
-0.40
9
64.6
64.1
+0.5
1.10
1.90
-0.80
11
68.6
69.4
-0.8
1.15
1.23
-0.08
13
65.5
66.2
-0.7
3.87
2.00
+1.87
15
63.0
63.1
-0.1
4.91
2.66
+ 2.25
18
65.1
66.3
-1.2
2.18
1.31
+0.87
13
64.5
62.1
+ 2.4
1.82
1.66
+0.16
8
62.0
65.0
+ 7.0
3.54
1.44
+2.10
13 G 38
Department of Lands.
1916
Temperature and RoIinfall Data, 1915—Concluded.
Mean Temperature.
Rainfall.
Station.
Temperature.
Average.
Difference
from
Average.
1915.
Average.
Difference
from
Average.
No. Days
Rain fell.
August, 1915.
Victoria 	
Cowichan	
62.0
66.1
66.3
65.6
65.1
71.7
70.4
66.3
70.5
66.9
62.4
56.5
57.7
58.3
57.9
57.4
66.8
54.2
51.9
54.7
53.4
50.1
60.0
61.6
62.9
61.8
62.7
67.9
64.0
61.7
65.8
60.6
56.7
53.9
56.4
56.3
56.8
56.5
57.7
54.5
52.2
55.0
51.9
45.2
+2.0
+4.5
+3.4
+3.8
+ 2.4
+3 8
+6.4
+4.6
+4.7
+6.3
+5.7
+2.6
+1.3
+2.0
+2.1
+0.9
-0.9
-0.3
-0.3
-0.3
+1.5
+ 4.9
0.04
0.16
0.15
0.36
0.02
1.32
0.60
0.72
0.72
0.79
0.60
0.80
0.76
0.38
0.80
1.22
0.61
1.12
2.51
0.92
1.24
0.89
0.64
1.01
0.76
1.56
2.12
1.03
1.14
2.53
0.99
1.66
1.33
1.66
1.62
2.19
4.24
2.57
0.94
1.85
3.34
1.38
1.72
1.35
-0.60
-0.85
-0.60
-1.20
-2.10
+0.29
-0.54
-1.81
-0.27
-0.87
-0.73
-0.86
-0.86
-1.81
-3.44
-1.35
-0.33
-0.73
-0.83
-0.46
-0.48
-0.46
1
3
3
3
1
3
3
4
4
4
September, 1915.
6
3
4
8
Kamloops	
Revelstoke	
Quesnel	
13
7
6
12
10
9
8
Observations so far seem to show the rains amounting to y10 to % inch are effective only
in temporarily checking the progress of a fire, and that if a dry or windy period follows immediately their beneficial effects are speedily dispersed. Such small rains are of great importance,
however, by allowing the fire to be extinguished by direct attack before hazardous weather
conditions recur.
The amount of rainfall required to extinguish a fire is dependent upon several factors, chief
of which are the kind and density of timber, and debris, temperature, wind, and topography.
Logs, stumps, and deep duff hold fire the longest, and therefore require the greatest rainfall for
the complete extinguishment of fires therein. If, however, the fire in the brush and timber has
been checked by a slight rain, such remaining fire can be completely extinguished by close attack
with earth, etc.
It may safely be assumed that 1 inch of rain will practically extinguish any fire, except in
extremely dense forests of the Coast or the deep duff prevalent in some other sections of the
Province.
It has been noted also that in temperatures under 70 degrees fires are generally not dangerous unless accompanied by high wind. Fires during comparatively cold periods may usually be
closely approached and controlled with little difficulty.
- More weather-recording stations, enabling better weather forecasts to be made, will in time
effect a considerable saving in fire-protection cost. Benefit in this direction has already been
obtained through systematic study in the manner described.
CO-OPEEATION.
The statement given below shows the employment of a considerable number of Fire Wardens
by private timber-owners. In addition, the Forest Branch acknowledges valuable assistance
rendered by logging operators, railway companies, settlers, contractors, and, in fact, almost all
classes of citizens, in reporting and in some cases extinguishing incipient fires. With the small
patrol staff and the extremely large acreage in each patrol district it is impossible for the
Forest Guard or patrolman to be the first to see every fire which starts. If, however, any one
seeing a fire reports it immediately by the best available communication system to the nearest
forest officer or the District Forester, there is a good chance to get the fire extinguished at small
cost and with slight damage. Happily, the public is becoming educated to the value of the
forests to such an extent that such assistance is cordially given. 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
G 39
Vernon Weather Chart, 1915.—Although the temperature in August, the most hazardous month,
was higher than normal, and rainfall in August and September was less than usual, lire damage and
expenses Incurred in fire-fighting were slight, due  probably to the heavy rains in July.
/Vc'ir'
Quesnel (Fort George District) Weather Chart. 1915-—Illustrates abnormally high temperature
all season, and deficient rainfall in the latter half of the season. Numerous fires occurred in late
August, some serious, but the cool nights of September served to check most of them. G 40
Department of Lands.
191G
Acs&£rS/~
Vancouver Weather Chart, 1915.—Shows excessive departure from normality in low rainfall
and high temperature throughout nearly the whole season. Under these conditions numerous fires
were experienced. Absence of high winds allowed the fires to be controlled, and damage was
fortunately  light.
I tscf-
Vancouver   Weather   Chart,   August   and   September.—Sample portion of weather charts plotted
daily  in  Victoria  office.    Shows  temperature  and  rainfall. 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
G 41
Co-operation with the Dominion Meteorological Service was extremely helpful in forecasting
periods of great hazard, and apprising us of approaching relief in the form of cooler weather
and rain.
Agreements were entered into between the forest officers in the southern forest districts and
the supervisors of adjoining United States national forests, so that one organization would report
to the other fires burning in the neighbouring forest. If necessity should arise, one organization,
after warning the other about the fire, is prepared to take charge of the preliminary work of
fire-fighting until the officer responsible arrives. Such co-operation has not yet been necessary,
but might easily in isolated localities be extremely valuable. The same arrangement exists
between Provincial and Dominion authorities along the boundaries of the Dominion Railway
Belt.
Railways under construction and those operating under Provincial charter co-operate by
patrolling at their own expense their right-of-way, and fighting fires caused by their operations,
as well as any fires of unknown origin within 200 feet of their right-of-way. Excellent results
have been obtained, so that along new lines in this Province practically no fire losses have
occurred, and debris resulting from the cutting of timber for construction purposes has been
burned. It is very doubtful if any railway-lines have ever been built elsewhere in Canada with
such slight fire loss or with the rights-of-way so well cleared of dangerous debris.
Very satisfactory co-operation with the Board of Railway Commissioners for fire-protection
along railways operating under Dominion charter was continued as in previous years.
Co-operation, 1915.
Forest District.
Nelson .
Cranhrook .
Island .   .
Name of Firm.
Manson Lumber Co	
A. B. Buekworth, Vancouver	
Traders' National Bank	
Kootenay Cedar Co., Nelson.	
Jas A. Nowell	
Royal Lumber Co    	
Dominion P'orestry Branch	
Arrow Lakes Lumber Co	
Canadian Pacific Railway	
North Kootenay Land and Development Co., Ltd.
Cowichan Lumber Oo	
Victoria Lumber and Manufacturing1 Co	
V. H. May  	
British American Timber Co	
Lacey Bros	
Dominion Bank	
Cudahy & May	
Merrill & Ring	
Boyd's	
North Pacific Lumber Co	
No. of
Patrolmen.
Reg-ion patrolled.
Blueberry Creek.
Erie.
Lardeau.
South Fork of Salmon River.
Haley's Landing".
Arrowhead.
Tie reserves.
Upper Kootenay.
Cowichan Lake.
Campbell Lake.
Quatsam River.
ii       and White Rivers.
Thurlow Island.
Forbes Bay.
Lease 439, Chilliwack.
Campbell River.
Education of Public.
The education of the public in regard to the value of the forest resources of the Province,
so that every citizen may know how much its utilization and protection means to him, has been
continued in every practicable way. New posters are put up each year along roads and trails,
around watering-places and camping-grounds, and in the vicinity of logging operations, logging
and construction camps.
The motion-picture theatres throughout the Province show slides furnished by the Forest
Branch, bearing warnings about carelessness with fire in the woods.
For those whose regular work lies in the forest a handy whetstone is distributed. This
bears on one side a notice enjoining care with fire.
There is need to continue and enlarge the scope of this educational work. If every one in
the Province was reasonably careful, there would be fewer campers' and travellers' fires, which
this year reached 30 per cent, of the total. Every year fires due to this cause are the most
numerous.    It is the least excusable of all causes of fires.
The Fire-protection Force.
This year  a  further  economy without  corresponding  decrease  in  efficiency  was  effected
through the shortening of the permit season to four and a half months instead of five as in G 42 Department of Lands. 1916
previous years. The period of Forest Guards' employment coincides very nearly with the close
season for fires.    The total number of regular Forest Guards was reduced slightly from 190 in
1914 to 177 this year. This reduction was made in patrol districts which several years' experience has shown to. be fairly safe or subject to only a short fire season, so that a short-term
patrolman could effectively patrol it. There are many guard districts where there is no settlement, and where, therefore, no permits are required. If such a guard district is subject to a
short fire season a patrolman is employed for the dangerous period only. This is an economical
method of patrol in such localities, and is a means of testing new men who may later qualify
as regular Forest Guards.
Patrolmen are used also in regular guard districts when a period of special danger arrives,
during which one Forest Guard would be unable to cope with all the fires in his district, and
would be forced to neglect patrol while looking after the fires already burning. This year
twenty-five patrolmen were employed, as compared with 112 last year, eighteen of the patrolmen this year being employed in August and September in the Vancouver District.
The staff is, of course, very small when compared to the area under patrol, and is further
handicapped in many places by lack of trails and means of communication. In these latter
respects, however, facilities are steadily increasing. In general, an excellent record is made by
the patrol force, even although each man on an average had 740,000 acres to cover during the
worst part of the season. In Vancouver and Island districts, where the worst fire season
occurred, each man patrolled an average of about 365,000 acres in August and September.
Last year $228,352 was spent in patrol and $143,461 in fire-fighting. This year patrol
expenditure was kept down to $157,432 and fire-fighting to $19,449, making a total of approximately $176,881, which is less than half the amount spent in 1914. The extreme danger was
confined to districts of more limited extent than in 1914.
In districts of slight fire hazard more work was performed by the patrol force in clearing
out old trails, maintaining telephone-lines, and in construction of new improvements than in
any previous year.    Reference to the tables showing new work and maintenance-work done in
1915 will show that the amount of work done by Forest Guards with an additional allotment
expenditure of only $5,100 is very creditable.
Fire Damage.
While the fire season of 1915 was very dry and hazardous in the Coast districts, the acreage
of merchantable timber destroyed is less than was the case last year. The sturnpage damage is,
however, greater, the increased damage occurring mostly in the Fort George District in the Peace
River. The loss in the Province is extremely small, considering the hazard to which the timber,
by reason of the hot, dry weather, was exposed. Remoteness, difficulty of communication, and
absence of population in the Peace River District rendered it impossible to combat the fires
successfully. Fuller reports of damage were, however, received from that remote district this
season than have ever before been obtained. It was discovered that in past years large fires
which were never reported had devastated considerable areas in that region. Nearly one-third
of the timber killed by fire throughout the Province is contiguous to logging operations and will
be salvaged with slight loss. Omitting the Peace River District, nine-tenths of the fire-killed
timber is expected to be thus utilized.
The destruction of valuable second growth accounts for nearly one-fifth of the damage to
the forest, and constitutes about one-twentieth of the area burned over. The loss of young
growth this year is less than one-fourth the area burned last year, but being chiefly in the Coast
districts is worth more than the young growth destroyed last year, which was mainly in the
Interior districts, and consisted of less valuable species.
Cut-over land, logging-slash, and unmerchantable overmature timber makes up 60 per cent,
of the area burned over this year. This is a smaller acreage than last year. Many of the most
dangerous areas of logging-slash have been burned over in recent years, either accidentally or
by the operators voluntarily, and thus the hazard has been reduced and the acreage burned
accidentally this year accordingly decreased.
Over 20 per cent, of the area burned was grazing range, the damage on which is naturally
small, being only temporary, and affecting the forage only for one season. In some districts,
as the forage was not used by domestic animals, no allowance was made for damage. In
Lillooet and Vernon Districts, where it is most fully utilized, the range has the most value.
About the same acreage of range was burned this year as in 1914. 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
G 43
o
fe 5
P
■4
<     ^
a
6i
fa,-tf        •^NHNO(NTfCo'*IM
f£J   iy        ■ CO O J> © -# © © © 00 O
So
^3
■ T*
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0   •
-Q
■ CO O <N O O O CO     ■
O.                                i-f
0   ■  1    ■   •
0
52
• 00
' 0
49,326
149
5,228
162
287
526
24,346
60
OO
OC    ■
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00
go
rfl
r-     "g
eq»i-HTr*eoi>c(5i>i-H(M'*
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0   -
rH
CO        rH                                    ■*
_>
S
<5
531
84,466
5,080
32,676
869
4,117
849
6,416
194
108,053
938
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8-8 S
- K ^ Ltf ^ .z; fc H i> E> G 44
Department of Lands.
1916
Table B.—Damage to Property other than Forests, 1915.
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
Per Cent.
Cranbrook	
Island	
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert	
$2,185 00
70 00
4,097 00
40 00
49 00
4,090 00
15 00
$1,200 00
1,080 00
1,010 00
5,075 00
100 00
150 00
615 00
400 00
150 00
19,810 00
150 00
$25 00
100 00
12,700 00
$12,825 00
22.2
$ 20 00
145 00
243 00
570 00
350 00
25 00
20 00
150 00
3,140 00
$1,220 00
3,435*00
1,323 00
9,742 00
100 00
540 00
789 00
400 00
170 00
36,750 00
3,305 00
2.1
5.9
2.3
16.9
0.2
0.9
1.4
0.7
0.3
Vancouver 	
Vernon 	
63.6
5.7
Totals	
$10,548 00
18.2
$29,740 00
51.5
$4,663 00
8.1
$57,774 00
100.00
100.00
1914 totals..'	
$201,733 00
65.3
¥137,695 00
37.7
$11,070 00
3.00
$14,077 00
4.00
$364,475 00
100.00
Per cent '.	
The damage to property other than forests was fortunately small, being less than one-sixth
the damage last year. The chief items are buildings in Vancouver and Island Districts, where
many fires occurred close to settlements, and logging equipment in the Vancouver District, where
fires originated in slash close to logging operations.
Table C.—A Comparison of the Damage caused by Forest Fires during the Past Six Years.
Total number of fires	
Total area burned over (acres) 	
Standing timber destroyed or damaged (M. ft. B.M.)
Damage to forest   	
Damage to other forms of property	
Total damage	
1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1,184
331
347
578
1.832
218,388
Not given
160,000
10,270
355,124
130,660
3,570
200,000
3,845
102,804
$193,976
Not given
8200,000
8 4,387
$ 72,057
435,939
47,000
113,273
13,967
364,475
629,915
313,273
18,354
436,532
1,031
244,189
187,250*
$108,873
57,774
166,647
* 43,030 M. salvable.
Cost of Fire-fighting.
There were 317 " cost fires" this year, against 639 last season. This year a larger percentage were left to themselves or controlled by the regular patrol staff.
The average cost of each cost fire was $61, whereas in 1914 it was $219, and in every year
recorded, except 1913, has exceeded $61. 1913 was an extremely favourable year. Fire-fighting
expenses this year were kept to the minimum, but the damage shows, as was to be expected, a
corresponding increase.
This year the normal proportion, about two-thirds, of all fires originated on privately owned
lands not. classed as timber lands. Such fires, however, often endanger adjoining timber land,
and for that reason have to be checked. When the owner of the land is resident on it, he is
usually willing to assist by his own labour or his employees in extinguishing fires on his property. 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
G 45
Fires, 1915, classified by
Place of Origin
and
Cost
of F
're-fighting.
oo
H-
•cS
O
H
G a)
if*
E ci    ■
."            r-            Si
C A fi
.5 to- g
fate 1 q
6
-S 8
a*
2 ^ ^
■^ J-S
= o£
O -p  «
— oj
3 c u
+a  tn  CD
111
-, 00 .00
o
No.
Extinguished
without Cost.
Cost Money to
extinguish.
Total Cost of
Fire-fighting.
Average
Cost per
Cost Fire.
Forest District.
No.
Io
el
o.S
OO hH
-h a
^ g
*c Ph
^ c
C'm
ro "
O fat,
00 "^
No.
_2 .oo
O "h
H -g
c3
Hi   Q
C,r
oo
3a
o'P
oS
fa G
§i
oS
oo >**
CH
0.8
4.8
1.6
7.8
0.4
0.3
2 7
1.7
1.5
7.7
1.4
Dollars.
0-0     ,n
O   rT
hi ,;
=r<  Or  0,
4.; ooo >
Coj P
-^   H Cr
(r &g
Dollars.
No.
No.
38
261
65
IIS
18
32
99
30
73
236
71
6
124
12
5
8
11
24
21
33
73
24
32
137
53
108
5
21
75
9
40
163
47
30
211
48
33
9
29
71
11
58
157
57
78.9
80.8
73.8
29.2
69.2
90.6
71.7
36.7
79.5
66.6
80.3
2.9
20.5
4.7
3.2
0.9
2.8
6.9
1.1
5.6
15.2
5.5
8
50
17
80
4
3
28
19
15
79
14
21.1
19.2
26.2
70.8
30.8
9.4
28.3
63.3
20.5
33.4
19.7
133
1,417
191
7,524
595
106
1,043
850
599
6,669
322
0.7
7.3
1.0
38.7
3.0
0.5
5.4
4.4
3.1
34.3
1.6
17
Fort G eorge	
28
11
94
149
35
37
45
40
84
23
Totals	
1,031
100.0
341
33 1
690
66.9
714
69.3
69.3
317
30.7
30.7
19,449
100.0
61
1914 totals	
1,832
599
32.7
1,233
67.3
1,193
65.1
420
73.0
639
34.0
143,461
224
1913 totals	
578
158
27.0
—-
9,600
61
1912 totals	
347
113
33.0
234
67.0
29,879
128
1911 totals	
331
199
60.0
132
40.0
14,344
109
1910 totals	
1,184
615
52.0
569
48.0
140,000
(approx)
246
* Includes timber licences, timber and pulp leases, and timber sales, Crown-granted land assessed as timber land, and vacan^
Crown land, etc.
t Includes Crown-granted land not assessed as timber land, nre-en:ptions, applications to purchase, coal and glazing leases, and
mineral claims, etc.
Sizes of Fires, 1915.
Fires
191.5
, classified by St
ze.
Total Fires.
Under \ Acre.
J Acre
To 10 Acres.
Over
■.0 Acres in Extent.
Forest District.
No.
jo
el
ol
rH
o| oo
tM
HO
Ifa
o »
^ oo
oo .00
Ph£
No.
°'B
H oo
'35
HH.B
£ »o
o!
Ph
es
°'l
40) "^
C C
o »
No.
o'£
H «
oS
Dfag
Sh
■§|
HO
"il
go...
O w
y. oo
00   .H
Ch-h
^  O
00 oo
5
o
So
QjO
Is
„
00 O
Mg
rf ,-,
St?
No.
Per
Cent.
3.7
25.3
6.3
11.0
1.3
3.1
9.6
2.8
7.1
22.9
6.9
No.
No.
No.
38
261
65
113
13
32
99
30
73
236
71
14
67
15
12
4
IS
46
4
40
1
15
36.8
25.7
23.1
10.6
30.7
40.6
46.5
13.3
54.8
0.4
21.3
6.1
29.0
6.5
5.2
1.8
5.6
19.9
1.7
17.3
0.4
6.5
19
73
34
38
6
13
41
15
28
60
44
371
36.0
50.0
28.0
52.3
33.6
46.2
40.6
41.4
50.0
38.4
25.4
62.0
5.1
19.7
9.2
10.2
1.6
3.6
11.1
4.0
7.5
16.2
11.9
5
121
16
63
3
6
12
11
5
175
12
13.2
46.3
24.6
65.8
23.1
18.8
12.1
36.7
6.8
74.2
16.7
1.2
28.2
3.7
14.7
0.7
1.4
2.8
2.5
1.2
40.8
2.8
4
101
13
37
2
3
11
10
4
92
11
1
12
3
19
1
2
1
1
1
75
1
'8
Hazelton	
'Y
1
8
1,031
1,832
100
100.0
231
22.4
657
86.9
100.0
——
100.0
429
41.6
100.0
288
117
24
1914 totals 	
606
33.1
569
31.0
——
428
75.2
109
19.1
32
5.7
19i3 totals 	
678
100
299
51.7
200
34.6
79
13.7 G 46
Department op Lands.
1916
Owing to various unavoidable circumstances, fires this year were less strenuously combated
than in any other recent fire season. The fires were fought only where timber merchantable at
the present time was threatened, or in cases where a large amount of property, such as cut
timber and buildings, was endangered. Such a policy is reflected in the size of the fires. There
were more large fires this year than is normal. 1914 was an extraordinarily bad fire year, yet
only 31 per cent, of the fires extended over 10 acres, while this year, with a less dangerous
season, the fires over 10 acres, the ones which cause the greatest damage, form nearly 42 per
cent, of the total number.
From this season's statistics it can readily be proven that fire-fighting is efficacious, and does
really reduce the fire-damage. Last year over $140,000 was spent to keep fires down, and this
year less than $20,000 was expended. The result is clearly shown by the size of the average
fire. In 1914 the average fire burned over an area of 193 acres; this year, on the average a
year of less hazard throughout the Province, the average fire burned an area of 236 acres.
Causes of Forest Fikes, 1915.
Table A.—Number and Causes of Fires, 1915.
a.)
(2-)
(3.)
(*■)
(5.)
(6.)
ri
(7.)
(8.)
(9.)
(10.)
fl
Totals.
Forest District.
fi £
fl ^
Oo co
O  oo
.2 >
bj)
'5
c
r?
.2
o
. fi
E?h3
o   .
rf o>
rr   O
rf'-S
'u rf
rf
■5
0 3
No.
Per
Cent.
Is
o
1(3
s
o-  03
o
£1
to
3
? c
rfi o
S o
%£
S
J0D   00
p a
■go
CO
a
Is
Cranbrook .	
6
11
15
4
1
1
38
3.7
129
35
3
S
63
2
9
12
261
25.3
Hazelton	
11
14
7
1
27
3
2
65
6.3
30
25
2
3
30
8
6
9
1
113
11.0
2
3
4
1
3
13
1.3
15
4
1
6
1
3
1
1
32
3.1
Nelson	
8
3
39
30
11
1
1
6
99
9.6
14
13
6
10
4
3
23
7
6
13
"2
'' 2
30
73
2.8
Tete Jaune	
7.1
56
40
1
5
108*
5
19
1
2
236
22.9
22
9
10
19
8
2
1
71
6.9
Totals	
305
160
82
100
267
17
24
28
2.7
28
20
1,031
100.0
Per cent	
29.6
15.5
7.0
9.7
25.9
1.7
2.3
2.7
2.0
100.0
* Sixty-three caused by lnnd-clearing fires in the area exempt from permit regulations in the Fraser Valley.
Notes on Causes.— (2.) Probably caused by campers and travellers, locomotives, lightning, and incendiarism, approximately in
in the order named. (3.) Includes only those railways which are common carriers. (5.) Chiefly for clearing agricultural land.
(6.) Right-of-way clearing, steam-shovels, etc. (8.) Chiefly logging, and including operation of logging-railways, donkey-engines,
etc.
Table B.—Number and Causes of Forest Fires for Last Siso Years.
Campers and travellers (including smokers, Indians, prospectors, hunters,
tramps, etc.)	
Unknown 	
Operation of railways	
Lightning	
Brush-burning to clear farm land, etc	
Railway-construction	
Miscellaneous (known causes)   	
Industrial operations (chiefly logging)	
Incendiary	
Public road-construction	
Totals .
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
305
487
195
51
126
160
367
104
149
126
82
361
110
34
31
100
169
34
23
1
267
164
26
47
14
17
98
62
11
8
24
83
7
6
3
28
50
24
17
14
28
42
7
20
1,031
11
9
9
8
1,832
57S
347
331
188
374
272
103
184
As in every previous year of which we have complete records, the same causes are responsible
for the majority of fires. Campers, brush-burning, unknown, lightning, and railways caused
nearly 90 per cent, of all the fires reported. These five causes have together varied only within
narrow limits, causing from 85 to 94 per cent, of all fires in the last six years. Nearly all are
preventable, except those due to lightning. 6 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. G 47
Campers and Travellers.
This includes hunters, prospectors, fishermen, smokers, and all other persons travelling in
the woods, but not engaged in any specific industrial or land-clearing operations therein. It
includes the logger or railway-builder while travelling from one field of employment to the next.
Fire is necessarily used by persons in the woods, for cooking and warmth, for smudges, smoking,
washing, etc., and it is impossible to do much to control such use of tire with the limited staff
at our disposal. The only course is to seek to educate our citizens to use care. Fires due to
this cause show a decrease in absolute number, but an increase of 4 per cent, in percentage
of total fires, from 1914 to 1915. The Forest Branch is striving in all possible ways to reach
this class of offender by educating him away from carelessness, ignorance, and thoughtlessness,
which are responsible for the fires he causes.
Unknown Causes.
Last year 20 per cent, of all the fires were unknown; this year more careful reports on
the causes of fires has reduced it to 15.5 per cent. There were less than half as many fires of
unknown origin this year as in 1914. They are probably due chiefly to campers and travellers,
possibly a small number are incendiary, and some due to railway operations, lightning, etc.
Operation of Railways.
This cause shows the most gratifying decrease this year. In 1914 there were 367 railway
fires; this year there were only eighty-two. The percentage' of these fires to the total number
has fallen from 19.7 to 7.9 in the same time.
There is no class of fires more carefully reported than these railway fires. Under the
co-operative agreement between the Board of Railway Commissioners, Fire Inspection Department, and the Forest Branch, very complete records of damage along railway-lines are kept.
Such damage this year was very small; many of the fires included under this head covered
little over 100 square feet, being promptly extinguished by railway seetionmen and special fire
patrolmen in the employ of the railways, and full reports made on them for our information.
Lightning.
This year, the same as last, between 9 and 10 per cent, of all fires were caused by lightning,
every district. except Lillooet reporting one or more. Nelson, Tete Jaune, and Vernon, in the
order named, account for 72 per cent, of such fires. These fires are very dangerous, as they
are likely to occur in remote locations where there is no travel, and where the fire may get
several days' start before being discovered. For the same reason they are hard to reach and
expensive to combat.
Brush-burning.
This year fires due to the above cause make up 25.9 per cent, of the total. Last year they
were only 9 per cent. This bad record is due to two causes: In Fort George and Hazelton
Districts, where ninety such fires occurred, there was a very dry period in April before the fire
season started, and such fires persisted into May, when the close season for fires commenced.
Then in the Vancouver District this year a large area, including the more thickly settled municipalities along the Lower Fraser Valley, was exempted from the permit re.gulations. This year
was the driest year in the history in the Vancouver District, and as a result sixty-three fires
used for laud-clearing spread and caused an area of 27,395 acres to burn over. The area was
fortunately nearly all logged-off agricultural land, so that the damage was kept down to $12,480,
chiefly buildings, logging equipment, and cut timber. This constitutes one of the best arguments
in favour of the permit system in vogue in British Columbia, and shows what huge destruction
would result if there was no permit law. In fact, without the permit regulations all attempts
at forest-protection would undoubtedly be unsuccessful.
Railway-construction.
Only a small mileage of hew railway was under construction this year, and only seventeen
unimportant fires are traceable to this cause. G 48 Department of Lands. 1916
Industrial Operations.    ■
These are responsible for the usual number of fires, between 2 and 3 per cent, of the total.
Logging operations (donkey-engines, logging-locomotives, and employees) are chiefly responsible.
The Island and Vancouver Districts, where logging operations were being conducted in an
extremely dry period during August and September, account for twenty-four out of the twenty-
eight fires in this class.
Public Road-construction.
Clearing slash made by the construction of public roads, chiefly in the Fort George District,,
accounts for 2 per cent, of all fires.
BUKNING   PEEMITS.
The period in which a permit was necessary to use fire to clear land was this year reduced
from five to four and a half months, from May 1st to September 15th. This year in some
districts there was a distinct hazard in April, before the fire season, and for the first time
recorded since the permit law was passed in 1910 there was some hazard after the middle of
September. In general, however, the permit law again proved itself to be the chief foundation
of the protection system.
The table on burning permits shows that considerable activity in clearing lands for agriculture prevailed this year, the area burned being over 4,000 acres greater than last year..
Vancouver Island, Hazelton, Vernon, and Fort George Forest Districts show the greatest
acreage cleared.
The area of logging-slash burned under permit shows a marked increase, and large areas
in addition were burned without permit under the direct supervision of the Rangers previous
to the fire-permit season. Undoubtedly when conditions in the lumber business improve further
a large percentage of logging-slash will be burned voluntarily, thus removing one of the greatest
hazards.
A much smaller number of permit fires escaped control this year than was the case in 1914..
This is due to more careful supervision, a permit rarely being granted without a personal
inspection being made by the Forest Guard.
Fires set illegal ly without permit show a slight decrease this year. 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
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Department of Lands.
1916
Pbosecutions for Fiee Teespass, 1915.
a
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Character of Offences.
Results of Cases.
District.
Burning without
Permit.
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6
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5
$250
l
1914 totals	
37
31
5
6            19
81,100
5
7
Slash-disposal.
Notwithstanding adverse financial conditions, considerable areas of logging-slash were disposed of by logging operators on their own initiative. In most cases forest officers rendered
such assistance as was possible, as in all districts it is the settled policy to assist and encourage
slash-burning. Numerous areas of slash were thus burned, of which full records are not available. In no instance did a fire thus set to clean up logging-slash spread and do any damage.
Without exception, all operators who fiave tried slash-burning are so well satisfied with the
results obtained that more will be burned each year. The danger appears to be less than was
generally expected, and the cost is moderate, when reckoned on a per M. basis on the amount
of timber cut from the area. The practice of slash-burning is certain to increase steadily,
depending on financial conditions surrounding the lumber industry.
Dominion Railways.
During the year the Forest Branch supervised the work of fire-protection under the
Dominion Board of Railway Commissioners on 2,354 miles of railways operating under charter
from the Dominion Government. The regulations prescribing the necessary patrol during dry
weather are fixed by joint agreement between the Chief Fire Inspector for the Board of Railway
Commissioners at Ottawa, the railway companies, and the District Foresters and others in the
Provincial Forest Service, who are appointed local inspecting officers, their duties being to see
that the regulations are carried out strictly during dry weather, and during periods of less
danger to release the railway companies temporarily from patrol requirements.
This year an excellent spirit of co-operation was uniformly manifested by the railways
towards Forest Branch officers. In the Southern Interior districts patrols wyere required for
only a few weeks, and in some sections no special patrols were asked for.
There were only 157 fires reported along Dominion railways, of which seventy were charged
to locomotives. Last year there were 432 fires, of which 329 were due to locomotives, showing
a very distinct decrease this year.
The acreage burned over is only about one-fourth the acreage burned last year, while the
damage done, $14,253, compares very favourably with $139,869, damage done in 1914, being only
about one-tenth as great.
The year 1915 marked the inauguration of regular traffic on a considerable mileage of new
railway, notably the Kootenay Central (C.P.R.) and a large section of the Kettle Valley Railway. 6 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
G 51
Fire-protection Statistics of Dominion Railways, 1915.
No. OF Patrolmen
employed by railway
Company.
No.
of Fires starting within 300 t
of Track.
EET
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Name of Railway.
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Acres.
Canadian Pacific (including E. & N.)..
915.0
4
1
22
27
22
15
5
9
6
1
58
6,037
$10,947
Great Northern (including V. & S.)...
399.7
X
9
13
30
33
3
2
3
41
605
859
705.0
296.7
5
3
3
i
8
4
12
5
10
16
4
8
3
2
51
9
1,391
52
2,338
Kettle Valley	
110
Canada Western Power Co	
5.3
l
1
32.3
20
4
9
2
39
2
72
2
74
28
25
17
11
6
161
1
Totals	
2,354.0
8,086
$14,264
Peovincial Railways.
The year 1915 marked the first operation of through trains on the Canadian Northern Pacific,
and an extension in the operation of the Pacific Great Eastern to Lillooet. Altogether 909 miles
of Provincial chartered railways were under the jurisdiction of the Forest Branch as far as
fire-protection was concerned. Only twenty-six fires were reported along Provincial railways,
of which seven were caused by locomotives. The damage caused by fires was negligible, being
estimated at $645. Last year there were 156 fires, six times as many, and the damage done was
$9,787, over fifteen times as much as this year.
Fire-protection Statistics of Provincial Railways, 1915.
T3
O)
O
o>
&
□
be
Number of Patrolmen employed.
Number of Fires starting within
200 Feet of Right-of-way.
a.
O
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Name of Railway.
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Acres.
499
2
2
7
1
2
9
19
13
$ 40
20
1
1
Morrissey, Fernie & Michel	
5
i
1
445
18
18
5
i
i
7
790
605
Totals	
969
3
19
22
7
6
3
10
26
803
$646 G 52
Department of Lands.
1916
PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS.
Summary of New Impeovembnt-woek, 1915.
Kind of Work.
No.
36
3
6
6
6
8
3
Miles.
300.3
11.0
36.2
2^6
Cost.
Cost per
Mile or Unit.
$5,342 00
163 00
954 00
1,327 00
213 00
1,244 00
299 00
$ 18 00
14 00
26 50
221 00
35 50
166 50
115 00
Total	
$8,532 00«
Maintenance-work done on Permanent Improvements, 1915.
Kind of Work.
No.
89
8
9
Miles.
Cost.
81,825 00
183 00
731 00
Cost per
Mile.
765
38.5
254.8
$2 40
4 75
2 85
Total	
$2,739 00*
* Includes Guard and Ranger labour.   Only $5,151 was spent from amounts specially allotted for new work and maintenance.
Only a small amount of money was specially allotted this year for the construction of certain
much-needed improvements, but throughout the Province, and particularly in districts which
experienced a favourable fire season, a large amount of construction was successfully completed
by the work of Forest Guards and Rangers while not engaged on patrol. Three hundred miles
of new trails were built, a larger amount than last year, and thirty-six miles of telephone-line,
compared with ninety-four miles last year. The telephone-lines built were those for which
material was already on hand from the previous year. In the Cranbrook District a telephone-
line fourteen miles in length along the Banff-Windermere Motor-road, and originally built by
the road contractors, was taken over and repaired at small cost by the Forest Branch. It
gives telephone connection between the Upper Kootenay River and the Dominion Government
Telephone-line between Golden and Windermere, and will doubtless be of great assistance in
fire-protection in the well-timbered valley of the Upper Kootenay.
In each district the communication and transportation facilities are being gradually improved,
so that in time a good general system of trails and telephone-lines will be available, affording
greatly increased opportunity of protecting the timber from fire. Many hundreds of miles of
trails and telephones are still necessary and are being constructed as opportunity offers.
List of Improvements in each District, 1915.
Cranbrook Forest District.
New work— Miles.
Marysville-" Oldtown," Perry Creek Horse-trail     5
Lost Dog Creek-Tata Creek Horse-trail      7
Little Moyie River Horse-trail extended      9
Marten Creek Horse-trail   15
Coal Creek-Flathead River Horse-trail    22
White River Horse-trail    12.5
West Side of Upper Kootenay River Horse-trail   37
Upper Elk Valley Telephone-line extended   15
Maintenance-work—
Russell Creek Horse-trail      (i
Phillips Creek Horse-trail   •.. 10
Wild Horse Creek Horse-trail      6 6 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. G 53
Maintenance-work—Concluded. Miles.
Sinclair Creek Telephone-line (along Banff-Windermere Road)      14
Goat Mountain Telephone-line        5
Baker Mountain Telephone-line      6
Elk Valley Telephone-line   '   45
Upper Kootenay Telephone-line     19.75
Fort George Forest District.
New work—
Willow River Horse-trail    2
Government Creek Look-out Horse-trail    3
Giscome Portage Look-out Horse-trail    1
Euchiniko Crossing Look-out Horse-trail   2
Nazko Ranger Station Horse-trail   1
Bobtail Mountain Look-out Horse-trail   3
Fort Fraser Look-out Foot-trail   1.5
Finlay Junction Ranger Cabin, 24 x 16 x 9% feet.
Bowron Lake Boat-house, 16 x 18 feet (incomplete).
Horsefly Lake Boat-house, 14 x 16 feet.
Stuart Lake Boat-house, 18 x 20 feet.
Blackwater Ranger Station Tool-cache, 10 x 10 x 6 feet.
Fencing Blackwater Ranger Station site   0.5
Fencing Nazko Ranger Station site   0.5
Maintenance-work—
Pilot Mountain Look-out Foot-trail   1
Mount Pope Look-out Foot-trail   1
Finlay Forks Look-out Foot-trail    0.5
Tatalkuz Lake Horse-trail    ] 0
Cluskuz Lake Horse-trail   18
Blackwater-Ten-mile Lake Horse-trail    10
Upper Mud River Horse-trail   15
North Shore of Fraser Lake Horse-trail   10
Greer Creek Horse-trail  S
G.T.P. Trail, Chilko to Stuart River Horse-trail    6
Mud River-Blackwater Road Horse-trail     14
Clucolz Lake-Quesnel Road Horse-trail    12
Pete Toy Bar-McElhanney (on Finlay River) Horse-trail   2
Teapot Mountain Look-out Horse-trail    0.5
Murch Lake Horse-trail   6
Nukko Lake Horse-trail    2
Eaglet Lake Look-out Horse-trail    1
Eaglet Lake vicinity, various old trails   12
Willow River vicinity, various old trails    30
Bear River vicinity, various old trails  24
Surets Look-out Horse-trail     1
Little  Salmon Horse-trail     1
Cottonwood-Stony Lake Horse-trail    25
Haeelton Forest District.
New work—•
Burns Lake Ranger Station Stable, 14 x 31 feet.
Burns Lake Ranger Station Pasture fence     0.85
Bear River Ranger Station Pasture fence       0.50
Mud Lake Boat-house, 10 x 12 feet.
Kitwancool Ran,ger Station pasture, cleared and seeded, 1.50 acres.
Babine Ranger Station pasture, cleared and seeded, 1.50 acres.
Copper River Ranger Station pasture, cleared and seeded, 0.25 acre. G 54 Department of Lands. 1916
New work—Concluded. Miles.
Horse-trail, Kitimat Road to Lakelse Ranger Station      1.25
Bear River Telephone-line    16
Telephone-line, Kitimat Road to Lakelse Ranger Station     1.25
Ootsa Lake Boat, equipped with Evinrude motor.
Takla Lake Canoe, equipped with Evinrude motor.
Babine Lake Canoe, equipped with Evinrude motor.
Island Forest District.
New work—
San Juan Horse-trail extended     4
Maintenance-work—■
Horse-trail, Sooke-.Tordan Meadows      IS
Kamloops Forest District.
New work—
Mount Ole Look-out Horse-trail      1.5
Murtle-Clearwater Lakes Cut-off Horse-trail        4
Thompson River-Murtle Lakes Horse-trail      2
Tumtum Horse-trail      8
Clearwater Lake Boat, 22 feet 6 inches x 5 feet.
Tumtum Boat, 24 feet x 4 feet 6 inches.
Momich Punt, 16 feet long.
Two Columbia River Boats, 22 x 4 feet.
Bear Creek Cache, 10 x 12 feet.
Tumtum Cabin, 14 x 16 feet.
Momich Cabin, 12 x 14 feet.
Downie Creek Ranger Headquarters Cabin, 1.6 x 24 feet.
Maintenance-work—
Barrier-Adams Lake Horse-trail   16
Trails in Clearwater District    25
Adams River-North Thompson Horse-trail    14
Adams River Road  35
Momich-Seymour Horse-trail  22
Seymour-Columbia Horse-trail  14
Columbia-Kimbasket Horse-trail     13
Big Bend Telophone-line    92
Lillooet Forest District.
Maintenance-work—
134-mile Post and Springhouse Horse-trail   17
59-mile Creek—Alberta Lakes Horse-trail    10
Fish Lake to North Bonaparte Horse-trail    3
La Joie Falls to Little Gun Lake Horse-trail  3
West Side of Tyaughton Lake Horse-trail   3
Tyaughton Creek to Liza Lake Horse-trail   6
North Fork of Bridge River, Beaver Dam to Grouse Creek Horse-trail .... 2
Nelson Forest District.
New work—
Clarke Ranch-Boswell Horse-trail        0.5
Wilson  Creek Horse-trail        2
Cultus Creek Horse-trail     14
Installation of Duncan River Telephone, 0.5 mile of new line.
Installation of telephone, Forest Guard Stevens's house.
Cable Crossing at North Fork of Duncan River.
Telephone to Gloucester Mine, 3 miles of new line.
Installation of telephone, Kettle River, 0.5 mile of new line.
Two bridges on Cultus Creek Trail, each 60 x 5 feet. 6 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. G 55
Maintenance-work— Miles.
Hall Creek Horse-trail     6
Rest Creek Horse-trail        2
Porcupine Creek Horse-trail       8
Boulder Creek Horse-trail       1
Burnt Creek Horse-trail      2
Wildhorse Creek Horse-trail      6
Slate Creek Horse-trail        0.5
Fish Creek Horse-trail       2
Rosebud Lake Horse-trail  ...     8
Salmon River Horse-trail      7
Lost Creek Horse-trail       5
Nine-mile Creek Horse-trail       2
Fifteen-mile Creek Horse-trail       1
Sixteen-mile Creek Horse-trail       0.5
South Fork of Salmon River Horse-trail       8
Big Sheep Creek Horse-trail      4
Power-line Horse-trail      3
Rossland-Paulson Horse-trail       3
Gorge Creek Horse-trail      2
Anderson Merry Horse-trail       2
Champion-Col Creek Horse-trail     3
Fort Shephard Horse-trail      0
Sullivan Creek Horse-trail        1
Old Blue Horse-trail' ,     2
Dayton Horse-trail      1.5
Ainsworth-Kaslo Horse-trail       3
Ainsworth-Extension Horse-trail       1
Ainsworth-Coffee Creek Horse-trail      2
South Fork of Woodberry Horse-trail      0.5
Crawford Bay-Grey Creek Horse-trail     3
Crawford Bay-Roses' Pass Horse-trail     15.5
Sawyer Pass Horse-trail       4
Blue Bell Mine Horse-trail       7
Hall Creek-Duncan Horse-trail  10
West Fork of Duncan-Spencer Horse-trail      5.5
Argenta Horse-trail         2
Argenta Foot-trail        7
Davis Creek Foot-trail       7
Glacier Creek Horse-trail      3
Cottonwood Creek Horse-trail      6
Anderson Greek Horse-trail  5
Nine-mile Creek Horse-trail     15
Garnet Creek Horse-trail      4
Lemon Creek Horse-trail    20
Evans Creek Horse-trail      3
Little Slocan River Horse-trail       9
Wallace Lake Horse-trail      8
China Creek Horse-trail      3
Beaver Creek Horse-trail   10
Carmi-Penticton Horse-trail     16
Donaldson Mountain Telephone-line       5
Duncan River Telephone    43
East River Cable Crossing.
Baker Creek Bridge repaired.
Cariboo Creek Bridge repaired. G 56 Department of Lands. 1916
Maintenance-work—Concluded. Miles.
Cariboo Cable Crossing repaired.
Kettle River Telephone    25
Porcupine Creek Trail Bridge repaired.
Tete Jaune Cache Forest District.
New work—
Canoe River Horse-trail from Log-jam South   25
Swift Creek Horse-trail      4.5
Headquarters Barn, 26 x 36 feet.
Headquarters Clearing, 2 acres.
Maintenance-work—
Canoe River Horse-trail   27
Cache Creek Horse-trail      4
Goat Creek Horse-trail     16
Vancouver Forest District.
New work—
Theodosia-Olsen Lake Horse-trail       9
Howe Sound-Rainy River Horse-trail      8
Granite Bay-Heriot Bay Foot-trail      5
Port Harvey-Cutter Creek Foot-trail       4.5
Marine Slip, Pender Harbour.
Thurston Bay Ranger Station.
Maintenance-work—
Lund-Myrtle Point Foot-trail    20
Powell Lake-Gordon Pasha Lake Foot-trail       1
Jackson Bay-Glendale Cove Horse-trail      3
Heriot Bay Telephone-line    45
Eighteen 'boats and launches kept in repair.
Vernon Forest District.
New work—
Ray Lake-Glapperton Lake Horse-trail    3
Ellis Creek-Penticton Creek Horse-trail   1
One-mile Creek-Siwash Creek Horse-trail    27
Coldwater Crossing Horse-trail  1
Copper Mountain-Ashnola River Horse-trail     20
Joe Riche Canyon Horse-trail   4
B.X. Mountain-Trinity Valley Horse-trail    10
Granite Creek-Hope Summit Horse-trail   10
Roche River-Three Brothers Mountain Horse-trail    11
Kingsvale-Brookmere  Horse-trail     10
Maintenance-work-
Beaver Lake-Belgo Dam Horse-trail    IS
Respectfully submitted.
M. A. GRAINGER,
Acting Chief Forester.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by William H.  Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1916.

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