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Printed by William H. Ctjllin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
Letter of Transmittal   1
Commission   3
Note    ;  4
Members of the Commission    5
Sessions held     5
Procedure      6
Response of Public   7
Personal Observation  s   7
Investigations in Other Countries by the Commissioners     7
Chairman Hayward's Visit to Europe   7
Commissioner Lucas's Visit to Australia and New Zealand   7
Commissioner Campbell's Visit to the Prairie Provinces   7
Commissioner Duncan's Visit to  the United  States,  Washington  and
Oregon      7
Commissioner Kidston's Visit to California and Washington   7
Commissioner Shannon's Visit to Ontario and Wisconsin 8
Appreciation of Assistance  8
Reassembling in Victoria    8
Basis of Recommendations   8
Relation between Agriculture and other Industries   8
Agricultural Conditions    8
General Conditions summarized    8
Suitability for Various Branches  8
Possibilities for Agricultural Development   9
Conditions affecting Agriculture   9
Rapid Growth of Cities  9
Diversion of Capital and Energy from Agriculture   9
Setting of New Land deterred  9
Cessation of Laud-clearing in the Province   9
Need of Capital for Land-clearing  10
Need of Drainage and other Improvements  10
Small Returns due to Lack of Co-operation  10
Need of Educational Work  10
Effect of Misrepresentation  10
Conditions necessary for growing Fruit commercially .' 10
Discontent caused by Erroneous Estimates  10
Lack of Co-operation  11
Transportation Facilities comparatively good  11
High Cost of Living 11
Inflation not due to Farmers' Profits  11
Means of Reduction  11
Lands, Public and Private—
Public Lands   11
Colonization Companies generally  11
Colonization-work of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company 11
Present Land Policy   12
Concessions to Companies not needed 12
Inactivity due to Lack of Capital 12
Effect of Wild-land Tax  12
Provisions for Closer Settlement 12
Free Pre-emptions 12
Settlement Conditions  12 Page.
Lands, Public and Private—Concluded.
Public Lands—Concluded.
Present Land Policy—Concluded.
Living Area provided 13
Dry-farming Experiments  13
Pre-emption Policy  13
Free Selection disadvantageous   13
Closer Settlements Increasing 13
Recommendations   13
Selection of Areas for Closer Settlement 13
Creation of Classification Branch of Land Department 13
Provisions for Closer Settlements  13
Recommendations    14
Selected Areas to be opened for Pre-emption and Purchase 14
Improvement Conditions similar for Purchaser and Pre-emptor 14
Purchaser Exempt frnm Residency   14
Improvement Conditions stringent   14
No Person to acquire more than One Living Area 14
Exemption from Survey Fees   14
Purchase of Large Tracts  14
Provisoes  14
Prevention of Purchase by Proxy  14
Purchase of Land for Specific Purposes   14
Conservation of Deposits of Fertilizers  14
Reserves recommended   14
Bonus for Discoveries  14
Kelp Groves should be examined   14
Source of Potash-supply  14
Indian Reserves   14
Complaints of Nuisances   14
Noxious Weeds   14
Dogs killing Sheep  14
Live-stock running at Large 14
Recommendation   14
Federal Action 14
Oriental Land Tenure   14
Detrimental to Vegetable Farmers   14
Hindu Competition in Dairying  14
Real Estate misrepresented   15
Recommendations    15
Registration of Persons and Companies doing Real-estate Business 15
Licence and Bonds    n 15
Land Improvement—
Land-clearing   15
Prevailing Conditions    15
Cost of Clearing  15
Methods of Clearing 15
Clearing with Heavy Machinery  15
Co-operation in Land Clearing  15
Lack of Experience among Settlers 15
Methods Compared 15
Recommendations   16
Instructors and Demonstrators  ig
Permits to burn slashings  ig
Repeal of Stumpage Royalty 16
Further Investigation  16 Contents. v.
Land Improvement—Concluded.
Ditches and Watercourses Act  16
Applicability in Unorganized Districts   16
Recommendation   16
Co-operation between Organized and Unorganized Districts 16
Irrigation   16
Water Rights 16
Disputes pending 16
Reserve of Watersheds 16
Municipal Ownership of Water Rights 16
Formation of Water Districts   16
Proposed Water Act approved 16
Sundry Remedial Legislation—■
Artesian-well Boring  , 16
Experiments by Government  16
Noxious Weeds 17
Condition Serious  17
Lack of Systematic Cultivation  17
Preventive Measures  17
Recommendations   17
Educational Campaigns 17
Weed Destruction  17
List of Weeds simplified 17
Enforcement of Act simplified  17
Weed Inspector  17
District Instructor as Weed Inspector  17
Infected Areas  17
Fruit Pests  17
Recommendation   17
Districts may be declared infected  17
Bovine Tuberculosis  18
Approval of Government's Policy   18
Bulls and Stallions running at Large 18
Enforcement of Act  18
Cattle-marking    18
Recommendations   : 18
Provincial Registry Office   18
Duplication of Brands prevented   IS
Vent Brands  18
Protection of Sheep   18
Injury to Flocks caused by Dogs 18
Recommendations   18.
Game Laws and Gun Licences  19
Recommendation   19
Free Gun Licences for Farmers  19
Free Transferable Licences for Employees  19
Inspection of Imported Poultry  19
Recommendation for Federal Action  19
Prison Labour  19
Prohibitive Cost of Drain-tile and Lime  19
Recommendations   19
Prisoners to be employed 19
Wages to be paid Prisoners 19
Public Improvements—
Rural Telephone System   19
Telephone a Factor in Agricultural Development  19 vi. Contents.
Public Improvements—Concluded.
Rural Telephone System—Concluded.
Co-operative Telephone Associations 20
Modification of Saskatchewan  System advised    20
Recommendations   20
Extension beyond three-mile line 20
Government Aid   20
Company to furnish Instruments   20
Cost of Extension  20
Recommendations   20
Incorporation of Associations  20
Future Extension 21
Public Roads   21
General Condition of Roads is good  21
Many Demands unjustified  21
Day Wage System justified in Past 21
Cost of Road Comparatively Great  21
Road Work Deters Farm Development  21
Effect of Agricultural Credit  21
Effect of Closer Settlement  21
Recommendations   22
Road-building commercialized  22
Roads in Subdivisions    22
Grading of Roads  22
Recommendation—Proviso respecting Roads   22
Width of Roads 22
66 Feet in most Cases excessive 22
General Remarks   22
Low Freight Rate on Road Material  22
Real-property Tax   22
Exemption of Farm Improvements  22
Basis of Assessment 22
School Tax  23
Manner of raising Funds  23
Debts unpaid  '. 23
Municipal School Taxation  23
Farms included in Municipal School Area 23
Recommendations    23
Exemption of Improvements    23
Basis of Valuation  23
School Tax disbursed quarterly 23
Amendment to School Act 23
Scarcity of Agricultural Labour 23
Comparative Cost of Labour 23
Causes of Scarcity  23
Immigration Labour necessary  23
Effect of Head-tax  23
Effect of Master and Servant Act 24
Recommendations     24
Board of Immigration to be appointed  24
Financial Aid to Immigrants   24
Master and Servant Act to be amended  24
Immigration,  Child    24
Recommendations       24 Contents. vii.
Immigration, Child—Concluded.
Training Schools established  24
Children placed in Homes  24
Inspection as to Treatment  24
Provision for Expense  24
Agricultural Credit—
Urgent Need of Capital   25
Agricultural Credit in other Countries  25
Security available 25
Increased Assets to Province  25
Increased Production 25
Increased Traffic .25
An Interview with Sir George Paish 26
Necessity for increasing Agricultural Production  26
Intermediate Loaning Agency not advisable 26
Non-political Commission  26
Need of Capital for Increased Production  26
No Capital available for Agricultural Industry 26
General Effect of Agricultural Credit 26
Various Countries providing Agricultural Credit  27
Characteristics of European System 27
Credit System in New Zealand  27
Board of Directors 27
Security and Terms  27
Safeguards provided 27
Effects of New Zealand System 28
Beneficial Effect on Rural Life 28
Statistics concerning Advances to Settlers 2S
Characteristics of Australian System 29
Capital supplied by Savings-banks 29
Beneficial Results of System 29
Recommendations 29
Agricultural Credit should be provided 29
Board of Agricultural Credit Commissioners 29
Appointment of Members 29
Term of Service 29
Ex-officio Members 29
Loans to be authorized by Legislative Assembly 29
Funds raised by Minister of Finance 29
Minister acting for Commission 29
Mortgages form Collateral Security for Debentures 29
Proceeds of Land-sales to be loaned 29
Rate of Interest   29
Period of Amortization 29
Charges paid semi-annually 30
Applications for Loans 30
Basis of Valuation—Actual Production 30
Basis of Maximum Loans—60 per cent, of Valuation  30
Discretionary Power of Commissioners  30
Qualification for Loans  30
Character of Applicant  30
Security offered  30
Prospects of Success  30
Loans available as work proceeds  30 viii. Contents.
Agricultural Credit—Concluded.
Safeguards    30
Minimum and Maximum Loans  30
Loans to Agricultural Associations  30.
Marketing and Co-operation—
Outside Markets  30
Home Markets and Consignments  30
Cause of Unsatisfactory Condition    31
Co-operative Selling Agencies and City Markets  31
Special Marketing Conditions  31
Blended New Zealand Butter  31
Contents of Water  31
Food Value  31
Recommendation—Blended Butter should be marked 31
Marketing of Eggs and Butter  31
Cold-storage Eggs  31
Immediate Legislation recommended   31
Recommendation—Labelling of Eggs 31
Competition for North-west Markets  32
Findings summarized 32
Present Protection needed  32
Co-operation  32
General Condition in Province  32
Co-operative Movement generally   32
Immature Attempts  33
Lack of Capital  33
Loans under Agricultural Associations Act 33
Efficient Management needed 33
Creation of Commercial Branch of Department of Agriculture 33
Recommendations   33
Creation of Commercial Branch of Agricultural Department 33
Agricultural Associations Act  34
Recommendations   84
Duties of Organizer  34
Principle—One Man, One Vote 34
Public Markets   34
City Markets   34
Effect in lessening Prices  34
Recommendation   34
Provision for Loans    34
Transportation 35
Transportation Facilities   35
Cases of Special Complaint  35
Interviews with Railway Officials 35
Special Freight Rate on Agricultural Supplies  35
Cattle-guards    35
Expedited Freight Service  35
Agricultural Education—■
State of Agricultural Education  35
Educational Work of Department of Agriculture  36
Agricultural Education in Public Schools  3G
Educational Literature  36
Monthly Journal  36
Agricultural Education in Ontario  37
District Representative  37 Contents. ix.
Agricultural Education—Concluded.
Recommendations   37
District Instructors to be appointed  37
Inspection and Registration of Orchards 37
Systematic Visits to Orchards and Farms   37
Experimental and Demonstrative Orchard  37
Experimental Dry Farm   37
Soil Analysis   37
Agricultural Charts to be published  37
Provision for Accurate Information  37
Experimental Farms   37
Experimental Work on Farm at Agassiz  37
Recommendation in Favour of Effective Support  37
Governmental Farm Training School  37
Aim of Training School  38
Minister of Agriculture and Advisory Board—
Separate Portfolio of Agriculture  38
Importance of Agricultural Department  38
Consultative Board    38
Duties of Advisory Board  3S
Usefulness of Advisory Board   38
Recommendation    39
Separate Portfolio of Agriculture  39
Advisory Board  39
Conclusion  39
Index    41  4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 1
To His Honour Thomas Wilson Paterson,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The Royal Commission on Agriculture, appointed by Order in Council dated the
4th day of December, 1912, for the purpose of inquiring into the conditions affecting
the various branches of agriculture in the Province, have the honour to submit the
following Report.
Chairman.  4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 3
GEORGE THE FIFTH, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith,
Emperor of India.
In the Matter of the " Public Inquiries Act."
To W. H. Hayward, of the City of Duncan; Alexander Lucas, of the City of Vancouver;
S. Shannon, of Cloverdale; Wm. Duncan, of Comox; J. J. Campbell, of the City of Nelson;
Thomas Kidd, of Steveston; and J. Kidston, of the City of Vernon; and to all whom the same
may in anywise concern,.—Greeting.
W. J. Bowser, C 'TITHEREAS it is deemed expedient to cause inquiry to be made into
Attorney-General. 1 »" and concerning the conditions affecting agriculture in all its
branches throughout the Province; and whereas by an Order of the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council dated the 4th day of December, 1912, it is directed that a Commission under the
provisions of the " Public Inquiries Act" be issued to you, W. H. Hayward, Alexander Lucas,
S. Shannon, Wm. Duncan, J. J. Campbell, Thomas Kidd, and J. Kidston, jointly, appointing you
to be Commissioners to inquire generally into the matter aforesaid:
NOW KNOW YE that, under and by virtue of the powers contained in and conferred by
the said recited Act, aud of all and every powers and power vested in Us in that behalf, and
by and with the advice of Our Executive Council, We, reposing trust and confidence in your
loyalty, integrity, and ability, do hereby confer upon you, the said Commissioners, the power of
making inquiry into all and every the matter aforesaid.
And We direct you, the said Commissioners, to report in writing the facts found by you to
Our Lieutenant-Governor of Our said Province immediately, or as soon as conveniently may be
after you shall have concluded such inquiry, together with such recommendations as you may see
fit to make.
In Testimony Whereof We have caused these Our Letters to be made Patent, and the Great ,
Seal of the Province to be hereunto affixed.
Witness, His Honour Thomas Wilson Paterson, Lieutenant-Governor of Our said Province
of British Columbia, in Our City of Victoria, in Our said Province, this 4th day of
December, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and twelve, and in the
third year of Our Reign.
By Command.
Provincial Secretary. L 4 British Columbia. 1914
In preparing this report, we have thought it advisable to divide it iu two parts in order to
ensure that one part dealing briefly with our findings and recommendations may be ready for
presentation during this session of your Legislature, and permission then asked for the printing
of the second part. In the latter will be supplied more details of the information obtained which
has influenced our findings and recommendations, and other particulars bearing on the subject of
our inquiry. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 5
By Order, in Council dated December 4th, 1912, the undernoted were appointed a Royal
Commission under the " Public Inquiries Act" to inquire into the conditions affecting the various
branches of agriculture in this Province:—
W. H. Hayward, M.L.A., of the City of Duncan.
Alexander Lucas, M.L.A., of the City of Vancouver.
S. Shannon, of Cloverdale.
Wm. Duncan, of Comox.
J. J. Campbell, of the City of Nelson.
Thomas Kidd, of Steveston.
J. Kidston, of the City of Vernon.
Unfortunately, however, due to ill-health, Mr. Thomas Kidd was unable to join the Commission and subsequently resigned.
C. B. Christensen was appointed Secretary to the Commission.
Your Commissioners met for the purpose of organizing on December 17th in the Executive
Chamber of the Government Buildings at Victoria. It was decided to hold public sessions at the
following places and times :—
Vancouver  January 9th, 10th, 1913.
New Westminster  January 13th, 1913.
Victoria   January 17th to 28th, 1913.
Saanich ton    April 7th, 1913.
Metchosin    April 8th, 1913.
Ganges Harbour   April 9th, 10th, 1913.
Nanaimo    April 11th, 1913.
Parksville    April 12th, 1913.
Alberni   April 15th, 1913.
Courtenay   April 17th, 18th, 1913.
Duncan    April 21st, 22nd, 1913.
Steveston    April 25th, 1913.
Ladner  April 26th, 1913.
Cloverdale   April 28th, 29th, 1913.
Mimer    April 30th, 1913.
Huntingdon    April 30th, 1913.
Aldergrove    May 1st, 1913.
Abbotsford May 2nd, 3rd, 1913.
Chilliwack   May 5th, 6th, 1913.
Port Haney   May 7th, 1913.
Hammond   May 7th, 1913.
Mission May Sth, 1913.
Agassiz  May 9th, 1913.
Walhaehin  May 12th, 1913.
Merritt  May 13th, 1913.
Nicola  May 14th, 1913.
Kamloops    May 15th, 1913.
Salmon Arm May 27th, 1913.
Enderby   May 28th, 1913. L 6 British Columbia. 1914
Armstrong  May 29th, 1913.
Vernon  May 30th, 31st, 1913.
Kelowna  June 2nd, 3rd, 1913.
Summerland  June 4th, 1913.
Penticton   June 5th, 1913.
Keremeos  s June 6th, 1913.
Rock Creek June 7th, 1913.
Midway    June 7th, 1913.
Greenwood    June 7th, 1913.
Grand Forks    JuMe 9th, 1913.
Rossland    June 12th, 1913.
Trail   June 12th, 1913.
Columbia Gardens June 13th, 1913.
Castlegar   June 14th, 1913.
Burton City   June 16th, 1913.
Edgewood    June 16th, 1913.
Nakusp  June 17th, 1913.
New Denver  June 18th, 1913.
Nelson June 21st to 24th, 1913.
South Slocan   June 25th, 1913.
Kaslo    June 26th, 1913.
Balfour    June 27th, 1913.
Creston    June 28th, 1913.
Cranbrook  June 30th, 1913.
Baynes' Lake  June SOth, 1913.
Wasa    July 1st, 1913.
Windermere    July 2nd, 1913.
Wilmer    July 3rd, 1913.
Golden    July 5th, 1913.
Revelstoke    July 7th, 1913.
Ashcroft July 8th, 1913.
Lillooet July 9th, 1913.
Lytton    July 10th, 1913.
Clinton    July 10th, 1913.
Chilcotin    July 11th, 13th, 1913.
Quesnel July 15th, 1913.
Terrace August 9th, 1913.
Prince Rupert   August 11th, 12th, 1913.-
Hazelton    August 13th, 1913.
Telkwa   August 15th, 1913.
Every opportunity was given all persons desiring to be heard to lay such matters before the
Commission as in their judgment might have a bearing upon the subject-matter of the inquiry.
Notices stating the times and places of hearing and the scope and purport of the inquiry, and
also inviting all parties interested to be present at the sessions to give evidence, were published
in the British Columbia Gazette and in local newspapers. Similar notices were posted in conspicuous places throughout the Province.
There were also sent special notices to the secretaries of many public bodies, such as
Farmers' Institutes, Agricultural Societies, Fruit-growers' Associations, Poultry Associations,.
Boards of Trade, Progress Clubs, as well as to City Mayors, Government Agents, and Postmasters, where the sessions were to be held.
Arrangements were made through the Governmental Departments to notify officials, whose
duties gave opportunities for close observation or special knowledge of conditions affecting the
subjects of inquiry, to appear before the Commissiouers whenever a session should occur in the-
vicinity of the place where they were stationed. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 7
The response of the public was general and cordial, and the investigation was rendered easier
and more effective by. the readiness and frankness with which information was furnished, the
preparation by previous discussion at meetings for the purpose, at which dele-
Public gates to present resolutions were appointed, and by the courtesy of public-
Response, spirited residents of the districts In driving or motoring us to see the farms,
orchards, and land available for cultivation in the districts visited.
At the sixty-nine sessions, over six hundred witnesses gave sworn or solemnly affirmed
evidence, and of those many represented Farmers' Institutes, Agricultural Associations, Boards
of Trade, etc.
While most of the evidence was from men engaged directly in agriculture, much was also
supplied by men in trades or business affecting or affected by that industry; so that it embraces
facts and opinions gathered from representatives of all branches of agriculture and horticulture,
of banks, loan companies, commission merchants, wholesale dealers, retailers, railroad and
other transportation companies; aud from a large number of departmental officials especially
qualified to furnish valuable information.
In every locality the information secured was supplemented by personal visits to farms and
orchards and by inspection of undeveloped land. By personal observation we thus gained
additional knowledge of the methods pursued, the farm development, the soil, and other local
conditions. We therefore feel that we are well informed as to the opinions of the people of
the Province on the subjects of our investigation, and are in a position to form conclusions as
to their value.
The plan which we laid out for the conduct of our inquiries was to make ourselves thoroughly
acquainted with the development of agriculture in the Province, and of auy conditions which
militate against it, and thereafter to visit countries where siinilai problems
Investigations had been studied aud attempts at solution made, in order that we might judge
by the Commis- for ourselves as to the success of such solutions and their suitability to our
sioners in other conditions. In pursuance of this policy, the Chairman visited England, where
Countries. among other subjects special attention was given  to the question  of farm-
labour supply and child immigration; Ireland, where the development n.
co-operation following loans by the Government has so marvellously increased the prosperity of
the farmers; Denmark, which probably leads the world in thorough and effective rural co-operation; Germany, France, and Holland, in which countries rural co-operation and agricultural
credit systems have revolutionized the conditions of the rural population; and on his return
journey conferred at New York and Washington, D.C, with members and officials of the
Permanent American Commission on Co-operation and Agricultural Credit.
Commissioner Lucas visited New Zealand and the six States of the Commonwealth of
Australia, to familiarize himself with their legislation affecting agriculture, particularly their
agricultural credit systems, and to study the comparative effect on agricultural development and
general prosperity of the various systems in force.
Commissioner Campbell visited a number of points in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba;
and there gathered information bearing on the problem of how best to develop the export business
of fruit and vegetables from British Columbia to those Provinces, the different systems of agricultural education, the assistance given to co-operative creameries, the rural telephone systems,
the land-settlement work of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, and its policy of assistance
to settlers by ready-made farms, by demonstration farms, by loans, and by furnishing live-stock
on easy terms of payment. He also availed himself of the opportunity of conferring with
Professor Oliver, of the Royal Commission ou Agricultural Credit for the Province of Saskatchewan, which had just completed its report, and of gaining information from managers of
loan companies regarding their farm-loan business.
A tour through Washington and Oregon was undertaken by Commissioner Duncan, with the
especial object of making a comparative inquiry into various methods of land-clearing and for
the purpose of investigating the systems of agricultural educatioii in those States. Other matters
such as draining and irrigation also occupied his attention.
Commissioner Kidston visited a number of the principal fruit producing and marketing
centres in California, Oregon, and Washington, where methods of co-operative fruit-marketing
have been developed to such a marked degree, in order to get a closer insight into the various. L 8 British Columbia. 1914
methods followed and their respective success, and to study the methods of production and
packing which make the producers of deciduous fruits in Oregon and Washington such formidable competitors of the British Columbian orchardists.
Commissioner Shannon visited Ontario, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Minnesota, and made particular investigation into the methods employed in land-clearing and in carrying on agricultural
education, noted the latest improvements in dairying, and inquired into the working of the
co-operative systems as adapted to the requirements of those countries.
We take this opportunity to express our sincere appreciation of the great assistance given
us by the many gentlemen in the countries visited, who with such sympathetic readiness cheerfully took so much trouble to further our aims by giving us, or helping us
Appreciation   of   to obtain, desired information and advice.
Assistance. On December 2nd we reassembled at Victoria, and have since been engaged
in obtaining evidence upon special subjects, in framing our recommendations
to be embodied in this part of our report for legislation, and in compiling the second part of
our report, which will deal at greater length with many subjects and furnish much particular
information for reference.
In arriving at the conclusions and deciding upon the recommendations that will be set forth
in the report, we have been influenced by the conviction that there is nothing within the power
of the people of British Columbia to do that will so much conduce to their
Basis of Recom-   present and future prosperity and their national strength and well-being, and
mendations.       so raise the credit of the Province in the money markets of the world, as to
take measures to place the business of agriculture on a sound basis and make
it  attractive  and  profitable  as   an   occupation  for  a   large   and   growing   proportion   of   its
At the same time, in recommending such measures as we believe will tend to that end, we
have felt the necessity of great caution and the wisdom of following lines approved by experience
and in accord with sound business principles, even though that policy may cause delay in the
introduction of desirable forward movements.
It is recognized to-day by students of political economy that modern economic development
has followed lines favourable to manufacturing and commerce rather than to agriculture, which
consequently has failed to keep pace with other industries, with bad effects on
Relation the welfare of the people in many countries.   This has led to the establishment,
between Agncul-   in some cases, of systems of co-operation and of state-aided credit.    Now that
ture and other    the time has come when it seems plain that we should adopt a similar policy,
I ndustries.        we have the advantage of being able to profit by approved experience In framing
a system applicable to conditions in British Columbia.    While we think that
we have given full consideration to opinions and suggestions received in evidence, we have felt
that.upon us lay the responsibility of forming our own conclusions.    Our recommendations for
the betterment of agricultural industry are intended to supplement the thrift and application
of the individual.
The natural advantages of British Columbia for the highest development of animal life,
combined with its large home market, make it peculiarly suited for dairying, horse-breeding,
:. and the production of beef, mutton, pork, eggs, and dressed poultry.    Some
General districts are pre-eminently suited to some branches, other districts to others.
Conditions In some parts alfalfa, in other parts vetch and oat hay, corn and roots, will
summarized. be the leading fodder-crops; but there are no farming districts where crops
; of valuable stock - food could not be raised with great regularity.     It is
instructive to note in this connection that what seem to be the most prosperous districts in
the Prairie Provinces are those where live-stock raising is the principal industry rather than the
growing of grain for sale. Districts where climatic conditions made wheat an uncertain venture,
and which accordingly devoted themselves to mixed farming, seem most uniformly thriving.
We know of no other country which seems to be so much the natural home of the clover-
plant as this Province. Alfalfa yields three good crops a year over large areas of the warmer
sections of the Interior, and is being proven to be adapted in varying degrees to other parts. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture.
In most of the developed districts small fruits have been proven to be very successful.
Besides the local market, we have special advantages for these in the rapidly growing markets
of the North-west. We have a few jam-factories, but most of the jams consumed in British
Columbia and the Prairie towns come from Eastern Canada or Great Britain. Tasmania ships
large quantities of fruit-pulp to Great Britain, some of which doubtless is eaten in jam in
The increase in the production of tree-fruit has been striking in the past few years, the total
value being as follows :—
1911      $448,248
1912     646,852
1913       800,847
And the increase from the orchards already planted will be enormous within the next few years.
While the districts proven to have such favourable conditions as to enable tjiein to compete
on even terms in the world's markets with the best fruit districts of other countries are not so
numerous as optimists have believed, there is an immense area of unplanted
Possibilities for   land in the proven districts.    When a fair proportion of that area is brought
Agricultural       to the producing stage, the exports of fruit from the Province should add
Development.      enormously to its wealth.    The excellence of the British Columbia potatoes,
celery, cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, etc., is such that large quantities of them
have already been sold in the towns of the Prairie Provinces, and there is room for great
development in those lines of production.
It will therefore be seen how well the conditions in many parts of the Province are suited
to intensive farming. With a large population in close settlements, the development of rural
life, with all its advantages, would thus be made possible.
We will now refer briefly to some of the unfavourable conditions which are most common:
The rapid growth of the Coast cities and the consequent increase in the price of lands has led
to the subdivision of many farms, resulting in a large acreage being with-
Rapid Growth     drawn from cultivation.    The very large amount of public works being carried
of Cities. on in the cities, with the wages paid, has attracted working-men and made
farm labour scarce as a result.    However,  this state of affairs is rapidly
adjusting itself.    A number of new settlers have gone into districts lately opened up.    Many
of those who had a reasonable amount of capital have already made tine farms.    But too many
of them were without capital and were unable to obtain the credit necessary to enable them to
clear their land and bring it under cultivation.    Many of these sought work in the cities, and
others became disheartened and have moved away.
In older communities in the heavily timbered parts of the Province, it was very commonly
found that when a man had succeeded, perhaps after years of effort, in clearing enough land to
make a living from it, with perhaps some earnings from other work, he made no further attempt
to bring more land under cultivation.
Many  witnesses explained that the struggle to accomplish what they  had  done  without
capital, and to make a living at the same time, was too strenuous to encourage them to continue
it further; that if they could borrow money on reasonable terms they would
Need of Capital    be anxious to use it towards increasing their cultivated area.    They were
for Land- confident that they could not only provide for interest and amortization of
clearing, etc.      such loans, but increase their revenue, and this confidence was based on the
profits from the operations of the past.    In many cases, especially on Vancouver
Island and the Lower Mainland, good drainage systems and the use of lime would double the
productiveness  of farms;  but,  again,  lack  of  capital  has  hampered  development.    In  other
cases where better live-stock, silos, buildings, and similar improvements would greatly increase
the earning-power of farms and encourage the owners to increase the scope of their operations,
. lack of capital has deterred them.
Frequently, with a good market within reasonable reach, lack of co-operation and efficient
marketing methods has led to returns so much lower than they should be (even though still
profitable) that discontent has been caused; and discontent does not lead to increased effort, nor
•encourage others to engage in the same business. In a large number of instances, even where moderately profitable results were being gained,
there was room for much improvement in farming methods, more systematic rotation of crops,
better live-stock, etc.
In short, we found that there is plenty of scope for extension of the educational work of
the Department of Agriculture, notwithstanding the large amount of good work already done, of
which we saw the proof, and which often was brought to our attention by witnesses.
In many cases discouragement and disappointment were due to misrepresentation by real-
estate agents or land companies. Sometimes people had bought land before coming to British
Columbia; and sometimes they saw the land before buying, but had not enough knowledge of
conditions to save them from buying under a misapprehension of the facts.
The most common forms of misrepresentation have been the underestimation of the cost of
clearing and the exaggeration of the earning-power of land. For instance, the earnings of a
celery farm, in some locality especially adapted to its growth, have been quoted as the basis.
of estimation of the income to be derived from 10 acres of land in some other part of the
Province with different conditions.
The fact that, with some intensive form of cultivation, or with poultry-farming, a living
can be made on a small acreage is too often taken as ground for advising people without especial
fitness, aud in districts where a considerably larger area would be advisable, to buy 5 acres of
land at high prices, and to depend upon the earnings from it for a living.
As representative of the opinion of many farmers, we quote the following from the evidence
of a representative of a Farmers' Institute in the Fraser Valley: " With regard to the division
and spoliation of the farms, I would suggest that any one who is in any way responsible for it
be sentenced to five years on five acres without any other means of support."
To warrant the large investment required to develop a commercial orchard, it is necessary
that the conditions should be favourable to the production of large yields of the best varieties
of fruit,  with a minimum of climatic and other risks.    Undoubtedly, some-
Conditions        parts of the Province conform to these requirements, as has been proved by
necessary for     actual experience.    In others, to say the least, it has not been proved that
Commercial       these requirements are met.    The fact that a few trees have been grown for
Fruit-growing,     a home supply of fruit is not sufficient evidence of the suitability of a district
for profitable commercial orcharding, but the experience of the proven districts
is used indiscriminately to force the sale of land for orchard purposes in unproven districts.
The accounts sent out by people disappointed in these w7ays are the worst possible advertisement,
as victims are usually prone to discredit a whole country rather than take blame for imprudence
or poor judgment.
In the well-proven fruit districts there has been disappointment as to the number of years,
from the time of planting of the average orchard before substantial returns could be depended
upon. Estimates of this period have been too much influenced by the results realized under
somewhat special circumstances, such as, for instance, from varieties of early bearing habit.
Added to this, it has not been found by any means as easy as it reads in a prospectus to-
get the returns from intercrops in growing orchards.
Apart from its great value as a permanent business, the growing of small fruit offers the
greatest advantages for the above purpose, and with present market conditions would, we believe,
enable orchardists to make a living during the early years after plantiug their
Small Fruit.       trees; but in most places the impossibility of securing a sufficient supply of
suitable labour at reasonable prices for picking has prevented the development
of this business, and consequently in many cases the settlers have exhausted their means before
the returns from their investment have become sufficient to provide for their expenses.
It is difficult to hire white men for this work under present conditions. They do not like
it, and they do not pick quickly. Boys and girls are more suitable, but generally in the towns
of this Province they do not seem anxious enough to earn money in this way to make them ai
dependable source of supply. Indians in some cases furnish fairly efficient pickers. Chinese
and Japanese are by nature physically well adapted for this work. In the Nelson District
the industry has been greatly stimulated by the action of the Doukhobors' Society in operating a jam-factory and making contracts for the purchase and picking of berries grown by-
settlers. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 11
The lack of successful co-operation as a means to better organized and more profitable
marketing was found to be the greatest drawback in many communities.    Although there have
Ibeen some notable successes in operating co-operative associations, there have
Lack ot been enough failures to show the need of special care in planning their organi-
Co-operation.      zation and operation to secure success.    Under the stimulus of the new loan
provisions of the " Agricultural Associations Act" and with some assistance
from your Department of Agriculture, a very general and determined effort has been made in
the Okanagan to carry the principle of co-operation further than had hitherto been attempted
successfully in British Columbia, by the creation of a central selling organization representative
of a number of local associations.
Transportation facilities of all kinds are good, considering the stage of development of the
Province.    The  railway  and  steamer  service  is  extending  rapidly,   and  there  is  an  evident
disposition to meet the needs of increasing production.    The roads, over many
Transportation    miles of which we travelled, were generally excellent; but the country is so
Facilities.        immense and settlement has been so widely scattered that there are still many
who lack necessary roads, or, having roads, need them improved to cheapen
baulage.    Some complaints on this score came from residents in the back part of municipalities.
Though an inquiry into the high cost of living does not properly fall within the scope of
our commission, it appears to us necessary to record here that, as far as we can gather, any
inflation there may be in the cost of food products to the consumer is not caused by any excessive
profits realized by farmers. We believe, however, that the cost of manufacture can be reduced
by lessening interest charges on the capital employed; by increasing, through education, the
production of each acre; by the extension of the productive area of each individual, and so
effecting a corresponding reduction of the overhead charges, which can be promoted by making
it easy to get capital for that purpose; by extending the area of production through the increase
of operators, and so lessening many costs and making possible better facilities.
Distribution can be cheapened by promoting: (1) Co-operation in marketing by the producers; (2) co-operation in buying by the consumers. Everything that can be done to make the
business of the producers safe and profitable, and so encourage men to engage in production, will
tend to the reduction of the cost of living.
The question of the best method of administering the public lands of the Province is a very
wide one, and is necessarily so related to other governmental problems, especially that of finance,
that we have not felt that it came within the scope of our commission.
In inquiring, however, into means for the promotion of agricultural settlement of a permanent and satisfactory character, much evidence bearing upon the subject has been tendered
to us, particularly in the sections recently opened up by the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, and
we have given much consideration to the matter from that point of view.
We realize that the nature of some of the problems related to a land policy is such that
the extent of our investigations would not warrant us in offering advice upon them, but we feel
that on some points we have reached conclusions that justify us in making certain definite
We have inquired into the nature of various colonization schemes which have been proposed
from time to time in this Province, and have learned something of the work done by such
agencies elsewhere.
In Alberta the Canadian Pacific Railway Company is carrying on extensive work, but, in
order to give the settler brought in a fair chance of success, it has been found necessary to Invest
larger sums of money and to inaugurate a broader and more liberal policy
C.P.R.'s than  might be expected  from any  company  without  large  and  permanent
Colonization       interests at stake.    That company has not only its large land-holdings and
Policy. its enormous investment in irrigation-works to protect, but can hope for a
steady traffic revenue for the future from every producing farm which its
policy assists in creating.    Under its Department of Natural Resources, with its Land Settle- L 12 British Columbia. 1914
ment Branch and its Live-stock and Agricultural Branch administered by able men, a progressive policy of assistance to settlers is carried out.
The company sells, with settlement and occupation conditions, land, either irrigable or non-
ii-rigable, on terms of payment spread over twenty years, with 6 per cent, interest, on any of the
following plans:—
(a.) Up to 1,280 acres for settlement without loan:
(b.) Up to 320 acres for settlement with loan for improvements, limited to $2,000, to
be expended on house, barn, well and pump, breaking land:
(c.)  Improved or ready-made farms.
The Agricultural and Animal Industry Branch has a number of practical demonstration
farms, also experimental farms, and advises and helps the farmers in many ways; sells them
live-stock ou easy terms of payment and inspects it regularly thereafter; studies every problem
affecting the interest of their settlers and helps in their solution.
Where the interest of the colonization company is confined to making a profit on the sale
of the land, there is danger of an outcome unsatisfactory to the settler and the Province.
We are of opinion that if the recommendations which we make in this report are acted
upon, such a stimulus will be given to individual settlement as to render it unnecessary for
your Government to consider the advisability of granting special concessions to colonization
In some districts of the Province, as, for instance, the Okanagan and Kootenay, the most
active colonizing agents have been companies which bought tracts of land sufficiently large to
justify expensive selling campaigns; and in one case, notably, we found very extensive clearing
operations being carried on, and irrigation-works being installed before any land was being
offered for sale.
In considering the effect upon production of the holding for sale of tracts of land without
any improvements being made, we found that very many of the pre-emptors were not doing
much more in the way of farming than were the holders of these tracts, but were also waiting
for an opportunity to sell. We attribute this inactivity in many cases to lack of necessary
capital, and suggest that the adoption of the proposed scheme of agricultural credit will lead
many of such pre-emptors from being simply speculators to become active farmers.
It may be reasonably anticipated that the pressure of the wild-land tax will stimulate
holders of large tracts to energetic efforts to sell, and that the competition of free land or land
at the standard Government price in the " closer settlement areas," which we
Effect of Wild-    will describe presently, will have a modifying effect on the prices demanded,
land Tax The first step towards settling new districts naturally is the provision of
anticipated.       railways, roads, and bridges to make the lands accessible and to bring markets
within  reach  of the expected settlers.    This  has involved in  such  a  vast
territory a large expenditure in a short time, and the proceeds from sales of lands in new-
districts have made possible the provision of needed facilities in such districts  without the
imposition of an undue burden upon other parts of the Province.
To illustrate this, w7e may mention that the expenditure on public works in the Skeena
District outside of Prince Rupert during the past five years has amounted to $2,443,669.26. To
this amount might be added the sums spent upon education, surveys, administration of justice,
civil service, etc. Receipts on account of land-sales in the same district and period, $2,502,423.43.
We have found that, following the opening-up of new territory by transportation facilities,
there has been adopted a policy designed to encourage settlers to pre-empt land, and to make
i provision in some cases for closer settlement, by—
Closer (1.) Free pre-emptions, with an increase of the amount of improvement
Settlement.        and length of residence required.
Conditions of Pre-emption.
Prior to 1913. Act of 1013.
Residence, two years   Three years.
Improvements, $2.50 per acre   $5 per acre and 5 acres to be
brought under cultivation.
Payment, $1 per acre   Free grant.
Payment for survey    No survey fee. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 13
(2.) Much activity in surveying areas for settlement, and in publishing maps of such areas
and collecting information about them, as well as other districts, from surveyors and Government employees, and making it available for inquirers. No preparatory step is more essential
to any satisfactory scheme of settlement than this.
(3.) The adoption of the principle of reducing or increasing the size of pre-emptions on
account of local conditions, so tending in suitable localities to closer settlement.
From our study of the conditions in some of the arid parts of the Province and the results
which we saw in the Springhouse District in the Chilcotin Plateau, and the Rose Hill District
south of Kamloops, and from what we know is being accomplished in other
Dry-farming       dry countries, we attach much importance to the work which has been under-
Experiments.      taken in this direction and anticipate that it will yield valuable results.
In connection with the system under which settlers now pre-empt land,
we find the following disadvantages:—
(1.)  Absolute freedom of selection, while doubtless attractive to many for various reasons,
leads to sparse, widely scattered settlements,  with a consequent expense for roads,  bridges,
schools, etc., out of proportion to the population served and the shipments
Free Selection    of produce.    In such cases the settler and his family lack educational and
of Land dis-      social opportunities, co-operation is difficult or impossible, and consequently
advantageous,     marketing is often unsuccessful.
(2.) Unregulated settlement may lead to complication with coal and
timber licences, and cattle-ranchers complained of the trouble caused them by the harrying of
their cattle by pre-emptors settled on land unsuited for agriculture.
(3.) Loss of time and money by settlers in their search for homes. "Far pastures look
In Australia and New Zealand, after many years of comparatively slow progress, the fact
was recognized that, if steady and satisfactory advance in agriculture was to be secured, it must
be by the encouragement of a multiplicity of comparatively small holdings,
"Closer Settle-   and accordingly a policy of "closer settlement"  was introduced.    Iu  these
ment" Plan in    countries, owing to the fact that so much of the desirable land had been
Australasia.       alienated before the new policy was introduced, expropriation was necessary
to get land for such settlement.
Being therefore convinced that a satisfactory solution of many of these problems would be
found in a system of " closer settlements on living areas," we recommend now the adoption of
a policy for closer settlement, based on the following lines:—
(1.) That certain areas be determined upon, in suitable parts of the Province, to be thrown
open for closer settlement.
(2.) That these areas be surveyed, with special reference to the require-
Recommenda-     ments of "living areas," as defined later, and that fully detailed information
tions. be recorded with regard to each such area.
(3.) That to carry out the above recommendations a separate branch of
the Land Department be formed, to be called the " Land Classification Branch."
(4.) That the rest of the unalienated land in the Province be reserved, except as suggested
hereafter, until such time as your Government is advised that further areas should be opened up
on the above principles.
(5.) That preference be given to these areas in the construction of roads.
In making selections, areas should always be taken as close as possible to existing settlements and transportation facilities, and from unalienated lands; but where it is found necessary
to include in such areas any block or blocks of alienated land they should be resumed by
By " living areas " is meant an area from which a settler and his family might reasonably
be expected to make a comfortable living, and such areas would vary greatly in size and form,
according to climate and soil conditions, topography, and the form of agricul-
Living Areas      ture to be developed.    The result of the adoption of the two principles of
defined. " closer settlement" and " living areas " has been most satisfactory in Aus
tralasia, both to the public purse in the matter of expenditure on roads, and
to the settler as regards—
(a.) Facilities for selecting land suited to his requirements: L 14 British Columbia. 1914
(6.)  Prospect of making a success thereafter.
As regards the disposal of the land in these closer settlement areas, we would recommend:—
(1.)  That they be open for either pre-emption or purchase.
(2.)  That both pre-emptors and purchasers be subject to the completion
Recommenda-     of specific improvements before a Crown grant is issued.
tions. (3.)  That purchasers be exempt from the residential obligation.
(4.)  That on account of this exemption the improvemeut conditions be
made more onerous for the purchaser than for the pre-emptor.
(5.) That the improvements required from both pre-emptors and purchasers should be fixed
by departmental regulations for each closer settlement area, as the cost of such work will vary
greatly according to local conditions; for instance, clearing costing in some cases $25 per acre,
in others $250.
(6.) That legislation be enacted which will effectually prevent any person directly or
indirectly acquiring from the Government, either by purchase or by pre-emption, or both, more
than one living area.
(7.)  That no payment be exacted on account of survey fees on such lands.
Our recommendation of a policy of closer settlement areas does not mean that it is our
opinion that no lands should be alienated outside of those areas.
We can conceive of financial or other circumstances which would make such a Provincial
policy advisable or even necessary, but, in the consideration of any application for such lands,
care should be taken that no alienation should take place without due regard to the recommendations outlined in the foregoing.
(1.) We would recommend that a sufficient number of deposits of lime should be reserved
by your Government in every district where it is possible to do so, and that a bonus should be
offered for the discovery of suitable deposits of phosphates and potash salts.
(2.) We would also draw attention to the fact that the kelp groves of the Pacific Coast of
the United States are being harvested by several companies to provide a fertilizer rich iu potash,
and suggest that some investigation should be made of similar groves on our own coast.
The fact that the other sources of potash-supply are largely in Germany, and exports from
them are regulated by the Government, makes any home supply of this important fertilizer of
special value.
Recognizing the fact that very large areas of most fertile land upon which no improvements
are made are held as Indian reserves, we are pleased to note that a joint Federal and Provincial
Royal Commission is inquiring into the matter, and we trust that means may be found whereby
these lands may be brought under cultivation.
Many complaints were received regarding nuisances arising from proximity to Indian
reserves, particularly with regard to—
(a.) Bulls and stallions running at large:
(6.)  Dogs worrying sheep:
(c.)  Noxious weeds.
And we would therefore suggest that your Government approach the Indian Department
with a view to instructions being issued to the Indian Agents requiring on each Indian reserve
an observance of regulations regarding these matters as effective as obtains generally in the
district in which such reserve is situated.
We find that Oriental ownership or leasehold of farm land is detrimental to the truck-
farming industry as pursued in this Province by white settlers, and we recognize that such
truck-farming is of vital interest to general farmers in the early stages of development, and
is also in some sections of the Province a growing industry by itself.
Our attention has also been called to the fact that Hindus are becoming troublesome competitors for dairymen who supply the Victoria market with fresh milk. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 15
There are now twelve firms made up of about fifty Hindus, owning about 400 cows, engaged
in this trade, and the number is increasing. Some of the dairymen who were shipping milk to
Victoria are discontinuing it in consequence of the nature of this competition.
We therefore submit for the consideration of your Government, and through it to the
authorities at Ottawa, the importance of seeking a solution of this difficult problem.
The injury that many individuals have suffered and the harm to the reputation of the
Province that has resulted by real-estate operators misrepresenting essential conditions, such as
soil, climate, irrigation, land-clearing, and earning-capacity affecting the value of land, have
been pressed strongly upon us for consideration.
We have not been able to come to any conclusion as to a remedy, but recommend the matter
for the consideration of your Government, with the suggestion that registration and licensing
of all persons, companies, or corporations doing real-estate business in the Province, and the
furnishing by them of bonds, would tend to reduce the evil, and would certainly be of service
to injured parties in obtaining redress.
Over the greater portion of the Province the timber-growth is the chief natural obstacle
to be overcome before crops can be grown. The cost of clearing varies greatly, the heaviest
growth being in the moister districts at the Coast, the lightest in the dry
Prevailing valleys of the Interior.    In the second part of the report some information
Conditions. will be given of the conditions found in different parts of the Province.
The problem of cheapening the cost of clearing has received much consideration by farmers in this and other countries. We have inquired into a number of methods and
have reached the following conclusions:—
That the advantage of the use of the largest machines hitherto operated in this country is
greatly overestimated. In many cases it has been found that clearing with heavy machinery,
contrary to the expectations of the operators, has proven more costly than by the use of
explosives and horse-power with or without machines, or by the use of explosives and high-
geared stump-pullers operated by hand. This has been due to the breakages, delays, and the
difficulty and expense of moving the machine.
That, however, where a large block of ground, say 100 acres and upwards of heavy timber,
is to be cleared near good transportation, and of contour which permits the cheap moving of
a very heavy machine, the lowest cost as well as the greatest speed can be attained by the use
of such a machine as the Clyde stump-puller of the latest design (see Appendix), with skilled
men in charge.
That where a number of farmers have adjoining land to be cleared, making a sufficiently
large block under suitable conditions to be economically cleared with a large machine, there
would be an excellent opening for a co-operative scheme of operation.
That there is a great difference in result accomplished with the same means at their
command and under similar conditions by skilled and unskilled men.
That the best methods of blasting stumps and managing clearing operations are not commonly practised, and consequently that there is much unintentional extravagance in the use of
That char-pitting can only be effectively done where the soil is a fairly stiff clay, and that
in general practice it does not give the results claimed for it.
That the claim made that by modern methods such saving can be made of by-products from
distillation of stumps as to be an important economy would not at present apply under conditions
here; that our fir yields much smaller quantities of these by-products than is obtained from
Eastern wood, and that one of the best-equipped plants experimenting in this work has done so
at a loss.
That under the conditions as to size of proposed clearing, topography, etc., most commonly
found, the work has been done more economically by the use of explosives, aided by horse-power
or hand-power stump-pullers.
This view is expressed here as the conclusion resulting from our investigation up to this
time, but we feel that special investigation should be undertaken, both upon this point and upon L 16 British Columbia. 1914
the question of the most safe, effective, convenient, and economical explosive for farmers' use in
We find that, generally speaking, most good will be done by encouraging and assisting
individual effort, and recommend—■
(1.) That your Agricultural Department should carry on systematic experimental work
on some block of Government land where varieties of conditions are found, so as to determine  on  methods   to  be   recommended  for   general  adoption,   and  through
Recommenda-     the   departmental   magazine   keep   the   settlers   informed   of   results   and
tions. conclusions.
(2.)  That it should send expert men to give instruction and demonstrations in the use of explosives and stump-pullers in different parts of the country.
(3.) That it should investigate different explosives in an endeavour to find the most economical, convenient, and safest for stump-blasting.
(4.) That Fire Wardens should be given full discretionary powers to grant permits for the
burning of slashings and log or stump piles as freely and w7ith as little delay and at as little
trouble to settlers as is consistent with a due regard to safety. The conditions vary so in
different parts that blanket regulations may unnecessarily interfere with clearing operations
where they might be carried on with little or no risk. Many settlers complained of the hardship
to them of the operation of the general order issued two years ago prohibiting the issue of
any permits.
(5.) That the stumpage royalty shall not be exacted on cordwood cut from land by oona-flde
farmers in clearing it.
Iu the second part of this report we intend to include some particulars, and we are communicating to your Department of Agriculture such information as we have obtained upon
these subjects.
We consider these subjects of such importance as to justify expense and trouble in fuller
We found that the fact that the provisions of this Act are only applicable to organized
districts materially lessens its usefulness.
We therefore recommend that the above-mentioned Act be amended to make its provisions
applicable in unorganized as well as in organized districts, and also to allow of working arrangements being made between the two classes of districts where a general scheme would be applicable
te both.
The evidence brought before us with respect to irrigation shows the existence of a great
deal of confusion with respect to water rights.
We heard of a large number of disputes w7hich have been pending for a long time. In one
case plans that are ready to be carried out and which would bring large tracts under water are
held in abeyance.
The work done by the Forestry and Water Branches of the Lands Department in carrying out
a policy protecting the forests of the Province from fire and placing reserves on timbered watersheds for the conservation of water is especially appreciated by those interested in irrigation.
There are various districts where large tracts of fertile land could be brought under
irrigation if the means were furnished to the owners of such lands for concerted action.
We believe that the general policy embodied in the " Act respecting Public Irrigation
Corporations " as just brought down by the Minister of Lands should very largely meet the
situation. We had the advantage of interview's with the officials drafting the Bill and made
certain suggestions that we thought advisable.
In various sections of the Province evidence was given showing that water is unobtainable
through ordinary wells, and that individual farmers could not afford to conduct experiments in
artesian-w7ell boring.
We therefore recommend that your Government should purchase an artesian-well boring
outfit for the purpose of making experiments at these various points, as to the feasibility of
obtaining domestic water-supplies in this manner. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 17
In most parts of the Province, evidence, both oral aud ocular, demonstrated that noxious
weeds are a serious evil, and that, except in a few localities, no reasonable control over them
has been secured.
Further, the evidence showed that settlers, as a rule, were inclined to lay the blame for this
condition on the presence of weeds on the roads and on other people's land, rather than on their
own system, or want of system, of cultivation.
We hold strongly, and the experience of other Provinces and countries bears out our view,
that the only effective means of control is the adoption of better systems of cultivation, and that
penal control must be purely supplementary. No law can be of any real or permanent use, nor,
indeed, could it long remain on the statute-books, if its provisions have to be enforced on the
majority of the people by the active intervention of the constable.
Penal clauses and the cutting of weeds on the roads are a necessity and provision must be
made for them, but we strongly advocate concentration on the educational side of this question.
We understand that the Government is contemplating amendments in the present " Noxious
Weeds Act," and we would suggest that the following points be kept prominently in view in
framing such amendments :—
Recommenda- (1.)  That the educational side of the question be emphasized on the lines
tions. of the Saskatchewan Act.
(2.)  That the duty of destroying weeds on roads be placed on the Government and municipal authorities respectively.
(3.) That the preparation of the list of w7eeds be placed iu the hands of the expert advisers
of the Government to be included in the Act, with a view to the inclusion only of weeds that can
be properly termed noxious.
(4.)  That the procedure necessary for the enforcement of the penal clauses be simplified.
In other Provinces of Canada excellent Acts are in existence under which a Weed Commissioner is appointed by the Government and Weed Inspectors by municipalities. Such Weed
Inspectors act under the instructions of and in close communication with the Weed Commissioner.
The duties of the Commissioner and Inspectors are entirely educational, or nearly so. In this
Province such duties could well be undertaken by the District Instructors whose appointment
is suggested in the section of our report dealing with education. It is of the utmost importance
that those entrusted with the carrying-out of the Act should have a full scientific knowledge of
the weeds with which it is proposed to cope, and of the proper system of coping with them.
The danger which constantly menaces the agricultural and horticultural industries from
the introduction of such serious pests as the codling-moth, the San Jose scale, or potato-tuber
moth has been impressed upon us by the evidence given upon the subject.
The Province is to be congratulated upon the fact that, thanks to its preventive legislation
and to the efficient administration of the Act by its officials, no more serious damage has been
done or expense caused.
The experience in suppressing such outbreaks as have occurred in limited areas has, however,
given warning which should not go unheeded. The Chief Fruit Inspector now feels that with
the present large volume of imports, especially of wrapped fruit, the difficulty of prevention has
greatly increased.
It has been advised by many that this Province should prohibit the importation of certain
fruit from infected areas, following, in so doing, the example set by other countries and States
of the United States.
In some of the latter,  certain infected districts are quarantined in  this  way  from  the
markets in their own State.
We have concluded that, having in view all the circumstances, we would not recommend
that   importation   from   any   district  be   prohibited   at   present,   but   we   would   recommend
that legislation be enacted empowering you,  by  Order  in  Council,  in case
Recommenda-     of emergency,  to proclaim  a  quarantine  against  any district in  or  out of
tion. the Province infected with an injurious insect, pest, or disease of agricultural
or horticultural product. L 18 British Columbia. 19.14
The evidence tendered almost unanimously expressed approval of the action of your
■Government in coping with this scourge, and we trust the work will be vigorously and
continuously prosecuted.
We find that, while the Act respecting this evil is sufficient, its enforcement is ineffective,
and we therefore recommend that police officers and constables be instructed to bring action on
their own initiative against owners as soon as they become aware of an infringement of the
Act, without waiting for complaint or the laying of formal information.
A considerable amount of evidence w7as given showing dissatisfaction with the present
■" Cattle-marks Act," and we recommend that the Act be amended to provide for—
(1.) Registration of all brands at one office instead of, as at present, at separate offices in
separate districts, thus giving a brand a Provincial instead of a district standing.
(2.)  Elimination of duplication or similarity in brands.
(3.)  Registration of vents.
We have had the benefit of consultations .with some of the directors of the Stock-breeders'
Association, and understand that an Act meeting the above requirements is now in course of
Evidence w7as given at various places proving that the worrying and killing of sheep by dogs
has become very prevalent. In one instance it was shown that in two nights dogs had killed
sixty-seven ewes and lambs and badly worried sixteen, a total of eighty-three ewes and lambs
out of a flock of 202.
Where the evil has become prevalent, it is so serious that the industry is rapidly declining.
We find that the present Act is ineffective, and we recommend that legislation be enacted on
the following lines, the principles of which are laid down in the Ontario Act
Recommenda-     for the protection of sheep:—
tions. (1.)  Any person may kill any dog which he sees pursuing, worrying, or
wounding auy sheep.
(2.) The owner or occupant of a farm, or his servant, who finds a dog without lawful
permission in an enclosed field on such farm, giving tongue and terrifying any sheep on such
farm, may kill such dog.
(3.) (a.) Any person may kill auy dog which he finds straying between sunset and sunrise
on any farm. w7hereon sheep are kept.
(h.) No dog so straying which belongs to or is kept or harboured by the occupant of auy
premises next adjoining such farm or next adjoining that part of any highway or lane which
abuts thereon, nor any dog so straying either when securely muzzled or when accompanied by
or being w7ithin reasonable call or control of its owner or of any person having the charge or
care thereof, shall be so killed unless there is reason to believe that such dog, if not killed, is
likely to pursue, w7orry, wound, or terrify sheep then on such farm.
(4.) (a.) On complaint made in writing on oath before a Justice of the Peace, that any
person is the owner of a dog which has within six months previous worried or injured or
destroyed any sheep, the Justice may issue his summons, directed to such person, stating shortly
the matter of the complaint, aud requiring such person to appear before him, at a certain time
and place therein stated, to answer such complaint, and be further dealt with according to law.
(&.) In case of conviction, the Justice may make an order for killing the dog, describing
the same according to the description given in the complaint and in the evidence, within three
days, and in default thereof may, in his discretion, impose a penalty upon such person not
exceeding $20.
(5.) No conviction shall be a bar to auy action by the owner or possessor of any sheep for
the recovery of damages for the injury done to such sheep. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 19
Without any wish to press the point unduly or to bring up individual cases, and while
agreeing that game is a valuable asset of the Province and its preservation highly desirable,
we desire to express our opinion that when the interests of agriculture and game preservation
clash, the latter should not be allowed to interfere with the former, aud we would suggest that
this principle be embodied in instructions to Game Wardens.
In particular, we consider that the Act presses unduly on farmers and settlers in—
(a.) That free licences are only granted for use on their own lands; and
(6.)  That owners of herds and flocks have to take out and pay for licences individually
in the name of each employee engaged in herding.
In the first case, under free licences, a farmer or settler may not even follow up game or
vermin off his own land.    In the second, he must take out and pay for a fresh licence whenever
the personnel of his herders changes.
We therefore recommend-—
(1.)  That the Act be amended so as to allow free gun licences to be issued to farmers
for use within their own electoral districts; and
(2.)  That stock-breeders should be granted, free, transferable licences for their herders
while on duty.
The necessity for the protection of the British Columbia poultrymen against the importation
of diseased birds was brought before us, and in view of the great and growing importance of the
industry in the Province, we would recommend that the Dominion Government be asked to
make similar regulations for the inspection of imported poultry as are now in force regarding
There are considerable areas of land in the Province the productive value of which would
be greatly increased by drainage.     The present very high cost of tiles,  especially with  the
addition of an ordinary freight rate on such heavy material, almost entirely
Prohibitive        prevents their use—the rather limited amount of draining now being done
Cost of Drain-    being carried out in a less permanent way.    In many districts liming would
tiles and   Lime,   be of great benefit to the soil, but for the same reason is little practised.
A  cheap  supply  of  these  two  materials  would be  of  great  assistance  in
increasing production.
A small number of prisoners in the Province are at present employed in breaking stone for
road purposes, showing clearly that the State, in its penal system, recognizes the reformatory
and disciplinary effects of healthy work. In some parts of the United States, State prisoners
are employed upon the roads, and while this may be satisfactory from the point of view of
preventing idleness, it is not conducive to the development of the prisoner's self-respect.
(1.) We would suggest that by employing prisoners in—■
(a.) Drain-tile making; and
(6.)  Quarrying and crushing of lime for farm purposes—
the prisoners and the Province would be benefited.    The w7ork might be performed under prison
conditions, and, owing to area required, would not entail much expense, nor any serious apprehension as to escape, while at the same time it w7ould provide healthy and useful occupation.
Although realizing that the following proposal may be somewhat outside the scope of this
inquiry, we would also suggest—
(2.) That where prisoners are employed at such useful and productive work, a small wage
should be allowed, which, in the case of those who have families to support, should be payable
to those dependent upon them, and in the case of single men should be paid to the prisoners
themselves upon their release.
In all parts of the Province not yet served by telephone systems, the need of such communication was very earnestly pressed upon our attention on the grounds of—
General improvement of conditions of country life: L 20 British Columbia. 1914
The great assistance to co-operative marketing, which, for some products, it is difficult
to manage successfully without such means of communication:
The advantage commercially in many other ways:
The aid in urgent cases of sickness and accidents:
Assistance in apprehending criminals:
Advantage to the Forest Fire Department and other kinds of Government work.
It was commonly asked that the Government should provide telephone-lines on the ground
that they are a necessary public convenience like roads or postal service.
We are fully impressed with the great importance of an extension of telephone service
throughout the country, and have found it is considered by the people of the Prairie Provinces
that their extensive telephone facilities have been a great factor in the rapid
Telephone settlement of their country districts, and we realize that commercial enter-
System as a      prise will not furnish so extended a service as is called for in British Columbia.
Factor in Before, however, any one could be in a position to report for or against a
Agricultural       system of  Government-owned telephones,  it would be necessary to  go  into
Development.      the matter much more exhaustively than we have been able to do in the time
at our disposal, and to consider not only its desirability as a factor in the
development of the country, but the financial burden that it would impose upon the Province.
In our opinion, the first step preparatory to giving that possibility consideration would be
the employment for some months of a capable and reliable man, with experience in both the
commercial and technical branches of the telephone business,  to study  the problem  in this
Province and report upon it.
We have, however, given the matter much consideration, and have looked into systems in
various places outside of the Province, some particulars of which will be given in the Appendix.
It was learned from these that the rural lines are the least profitable part of general systems,
that the expense of keeping such lines in repair is much reduced where the work is co-operatively
done by the residents instead of by a company or Government, that other expenses are smaller
for the same reason, and that subscribers on such lines are satisfied with a less expensive service.
A modification of the principles of the Saskatchewan system appears to us to be the safest
means of increasing the present rural facilities where lines already exist, but are not extended
far enough from centres.    In such cases we recommend—
Recommenda- (1.) That assistance might well be given to settlers outside the three-
tions. mile radius, within which the companies find it profitable to work at present,
: on the following lines :—
(a.)  Settlers outside the three-mile radius desiring communication should furnish and
erect the poles necessary, the Government subscribing at the rate of $1 per pole,
and allowing settlers to cut the poles from Government land, if available:
(I).)  The Government Should pay the cost of wire, cross-arms, and insulators, and defray
the cost of putting same in place on the poles:
(c.)  The telephone company should furnish the instruments, install same and keep them
in order:
(d.) The settlers should maintain the lines:
(e.) The telephone company's charge not to exceed $1.50 per month for each subscriber,
and the number of subscribers on a party line not to exceed six:
(/.)  On receipt of an application for the installation of such a service, the Inspector
of Electrical Energy and the superintendent of the telephone company concerned
should investigate its practicability and report to the Government.
The approximate cost to the Government under this proposal would be about $70 per mile.
The company w7ould bear the whole cost of the lines up to the three-mile radius.    It would also
supply the instruments and bear the cost of their installation and maintenance while settlers
would bear the balance of the cost of installation outside the three-mile radius and the w7hole
cost of the maintenance thereof.   If they so desire, the settlers could do much, if not all. of
this work themselves, at a much lower cost than by letting the work out, and an efficient service
would be obtained at a minimum total cost.   We therefore recommend—
(2.) That legislation should be enacted authorizing the incorporation of associations on
these lines, with power to levy assessments on original members of the association and on
members who join after the installation has been effected. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 21
We think that a trial of this form of assistance in the manner suggested might show that
the principle could be further extended in aiding the building of other rural lines, and we would
suggest that the special knowledge of the Superintendent of Electrical Energy might be taken
advantage of to promote the building of lines under the " Rural Telephone Act" by assigning
to him the duty of giving information and advice to communities desiring to form such companies
under that Act.
Finding that the liveliest interest was taken in it everywhere throughout the Province, and
seeing how important a bearing it has on successful agricultural development, we have given
the road question much consideration.    We now summarize our conclusions:—
(1.) That the physical nature of the Province and the scattered nature of the settlements
in many parts have required an expenditure large in proportion to the population, and that to
provide a road system such as the Province needs, and to maintain it, will call for very heavy-
expenditure in the future.
(2.) That, though there is an extraordinarily large mileage of fairly good roads in the
Province, there are many settlers with inadequate roads, a condition that was sometimes
complained of by those in the outlying parts of municipalities, and that main roads through
adjoining municipalities do not always connect.
(3.) That demands are frequently made for roads by settlers located at a distance from
others, the building of which would entail an expenditure entirely disproportionate to the public
benefit or to the use they would receive, or the value of the improved property served.
(4.) That the system under which the roads have been built has been of great use in
providing work for many settlers who have been dependent upon other earnings than they could
make from the small acreage which they had been able to bring under cultivation.
(5.) That this need for such employment to enable them to remain on their holdings was
generally due to the lack of capital with which to bring under cultivation a sufficient area for
their support.
(6.) That, while many witnesses recommended the adoption of a contract system, -we feel
that there is a very general misapprehension of the conditions necessary to make contract work
economical. We feel that where the proposed expenditure for a section of road is sufficiently
large to keep the cost of engineering down to a reasonable percentage of such expenditure, the
contract system might be used with advantage. But where it has been necessary, as has been
frequently the case, to furnish means of communication without providing for expensive construction, the cost of engineering would often have amounted to more than the saving w7hich would
have been effected by letting a contract as compared with day-work.
(7.) That the wages paid have generally been higher and the hours of work shorter on road-
work than were customary for farm labour, thus tending to make the farm-labour situation more
(S.) That consequently the cost of road-building has been greater than if it had been done
under competitive conditions, and that this difference in estimated cost has been much greater
in some sections than in others.
(9.) That, while the road-work has provided settlers with opportunities of earning money
to supplement the revenue from their farms, the work has very commonly been done at seasons,
such as seed-time or haying-time, when their farming operations suffered most from their
(10.) That the sentiment of the farmers throughout the Province is now strongly in favour
of getting the largest possible amount of road-work accomplished for the money available w-ithout
regard to the convenience of those desiring the employment at this work.
(11.) That the adoption of our recommendations regarding agricultural credit would render
road-work much less necessary as a means of support and enable farmers to attend to their own
work at the proper season.
(12.) That the adoption of our recommendation on the subject of settlement areas would
lead to greater economy in expenditure and consequently to provision of better roads.
(13.) That the adoption of our recommendation requiring roads in subdivisions to be graded
before completion of the registration of the subdivision plans would lessen the demands upon
the general road fund and serve to protect purchasers from lack of proper roads. (14.) That, as fast as conditions admit, the business of the Provincial road making and
repairing should be commercialized.
(15.) That, although it may not be desirable at the present stage of Provincial development
to place the control in the hands of a Road Commission, it is suggested that by developing as
fast as possible a technical road-making branch of the Department of Public Works, and placing
more responsibility and power in the hands of that Branch, and by holding its officials responsible
for results in economy and good work, with promotion dependent thereon, a great step would
be made in the desired direction. ■
We find that an undue burden is placed on the public by the fact that, while subdivision
plans show a provision of land for roads, the making of such roads is placed upon the public
at a later date.    We hold that all roads as shown on subdivision plans should
Roads  in be made by the owner, at least as far as grading is concerned, and we recom-
Subdivisions. mend that subdivisional plans, when approved as submitted for registration,
should be provisionally accepted, subject to the grading of the roads to the
satisfaction of the Provincial or municipal authorities, as" the case may be, and that, on completion of such grading, the owner should obtain registration. In this way, owners wishing to
subdivide would be in a position to obtain exact information as to what would be required in
the matter of roads, and they would not be subject to a possible change of policy regarding
roads or registration between the time of provisional acceptance and registration, while the
public would be relieved of the first cost of road-making.
Much interest was evinced throughout the Province in the matter of the width of the
roads, and the general opinion expressed was that the reservation of 66 feet is excessive: that
the full reservation will in only a small percentage of cases be utilized; that
Width  of serious loss is caused by the withdrawal of an unnecessary amount of land
Roads. from agricultural use; and that those portions of the road allowance which
are not occupied by the track act as a breeding-ground for noxious weeds.
The subject of discussion, as a rule, was not whether 66 feet may be necessary in some cases,
but whether such a width is necessary in all cases, and we would recommend the matter to your
Government for consideration.
In regard to road matters generally, we would like to call the attention of the Railway
Department of your Government and the railroads themselves to the heavy expense now incurred,
i iboth by the Department of Works and the various municipalities, in the haul-
Low Freight      age of gravel and rock used for purposes of road-building.   In this connection,
Rates   on   Road    we would point out that in the State of Wisconsin the Highway Commission
Material. took this matter up with the railroad companies running through that State,
and made the following arrangements, namely: A rate of % cent per ton
per mile, with a minimum rate of 25 cents per ton, for material used in the making of State
and municipal roads, saving the State in one year $34,375, and in consequence assisting in
securing much better roads.
We found everywhere in the Province a very strong feeling that farm improvements should
be exempted from taxation, and we are convinced that their inclusion for taxation purposes
is a penalty on progressive farming.   We understand that this view7 is already
Real-property      held by your Government,  and that it is  its declared intention  to  exempt
Tax. improvements from taxation, as recommended by the Royal Commission on
Taxation.    We would urge that this be done at the earliest possible moment,
making the basis of valuation of land for taxation purposes as nearly as possible the price that
a willing purchaser would pay if the land were in a state of nature.    We found a considerable
amount of complaint of the high assessment of land due to the alleged fictitious value given by
excessive subdivision and speculation.    Though we are convinced that hardships do exist in
this way, we are not in a position to suggest any remedy, but believe that, if the values set under
the assessments are, as stated, excessive, the right to appeal leaves the remedy in the hands of
owners, and that no permanent hardships will be inflicted. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 23
We found in many parts of the Province a strong feeling of discontent with respect to the
present methods of dealing with the school tax.
(1.) In unorganized districts, although the school trustees fix the amount
School Tax. which must be raised locally over and above the Government grant, the Government undertakes the realization of that amount from the individual taxpayers
just as they do in the case of general taxation. There the similarity ceases. In the case of
general taxation, the Government arranges for expenditure in accordance w7ith the estimates,
irrespective of the date of collection. In the case of school taxes, school trustees are only
entitled to receive the same as they are collected. The result is that in rural school districts
school trustees are always liable to find themselves without the necessary funds to carry on the
schools, although they have fulfilled all the obligations entailed by the law to provide them.
It was found that in some cases teachers' salaries and other debts legally incurred were
unpaid, and that in other cases school trustees had raised funds on their own personal credit
to discharge such liabilities.
(2.) The extension, under the Act, of municipal boundaries for school purposes into adjoining
territory has entailed an undue burden on individual land-owners, as compared with individual
residents in towns. Cases were cited where the school tax on lands included in a municipal
school area for school-taxation purposes equalled the total Provincial tax, and in one case a
farmer proved that in 1913, while his total Provincial tax amounted to only $14.40, the school
tax on the same farm for the neighbouring city schools amounted to $52.80.
While we feel that the question of taxation is somewhat out of the scope of our inquiry,
yet, having regard to its bearing on rural life and the large amount of evidence urged upon
our attention, we feel that we should bring these matters to your attention. We therefore
(1.) That, at as early a date as possible, improvements on farm lands be exempted from
taxation, and that the basis of valuation of land for taxation purposes be made as nearly as
possible the price that a willing purchaser would pay if the land were in a state of nature.
(2.) That the amount voted under "school tax" in each district be paid direct by your
Government to the school trustees by equal quarterly instalments throughout the year.
(3.) That the " School Act" be revised in so far as the clause referring to extended areas
is concerned, so as to prevent the recurrence of such hardships.
The difficulty in securing efficient labour was frequently assigned by witnesses as a reason
not only for failure to extend farming operations, but even for their curtailment, as where small-
fruit growing has been abandoned and dairying given up in favour of selling hay. Particularly
as regards land-clearing, emphasis was laid on this point, and witnesses showed that on Vancouver Island comparatively little progress has been made since the days when Oriental labour
was cheap and plentiful. Many witnesses testified that Chinese labour was to them the most
satisfactory, and they favoured admitting it more freely, even in the form of indentured labour.
Although many witnesses thought the rate of current wages too high, there was a greater
amount of evidence to the effect that the real difficulty lies in the scarcity of labour possessing
a high degree of efficiency.    The information gained leads us to believe that
Scarcity of        the cost for the service obtained averages about 25 per cent, greater than in
Efficient Labour.   Washington, Oregon, California, and New Zealand.    One of the causes of the
above conditions is common to the world—viz., the glamour of city life; but
the special circumstances peculiar to our Province are that labour has to be recruited entirely
from immigrants, that the proportion of white immigrants suitable for agricultural work is
relatively very small, and that, owing to restrictive legislation, Oriental labour, which in many
ways is naturally best suited to the actual requirements of the farmer, has become much more
difficult to obtain and can command a much higher rate of wage than prevailed a few years ago.
Without entering into a discussion of the Oriental labour question, the fact must not be
overlooked that the Chinese head-tax of $500, though nominally paid by the Chinese, is really
collected many times over from the farmer or other employer of labour in the increased wages
exacted. L 24 British Columbia. 1914
Another factor which aggravates the situation is the fact that, under the " Master and
Servant Act," farmers are hindered from assisting servants to come to them from any place
outside the Province—even from other parts of Canada or from Britain—because any contract
made for that purpose would not be binding on the servant. The master could neither hold the
servant to the contract nor recover any advances made. This appears to us to be opposed to
the declared policy of your Government as regards agricultural labour.
With this is closely associated the difficulty of domestic help, which is even harder to obtain
than outdoor labour. Increasing the staff of outdoor labour means increasing the burden of
work upon the housewife, as white labourers, as a rule, will not stay on a farm if they have to
cook their own meals. Many farmers, while desirous of extending their operations, hesitate
to do so when they cannot locally secure domestic servants to undertake the extra work in the
house, or safely make arrangements to bring them in.
As the restrictive legislation in respect to Oriental labour bears most severely upon the
employer of agricultural and domestic labour, we feel that the Government should use every
endeavour to provide other suitable and efficient labour of the nationalities desired as settlers
in the Province. For this purpose the large sums that are, and have been, paid under the
Oriental head-tax to the Province should be drawn upon. With a good deal of force it might
be said that the money paid to prevent a large number of Orientals from coming into the country
should be spent in bringing in British people to take their place.
We would suggest a number of courses which could with advantage be adopted to assist in
the improvement of the situation:—
(1.) The appointment of a Board of Immigration w7ith representative in the United Kingdom
to select and direct into the Province a desirable class of agricultural labourers and domestic
(2.) The granting by that Board of financial aid to agricultural labourers with families
willing to come to the Province.
(3.) The amendment of the "Master and Servant Act" to make contracts entered into in
respect of white farm or domestic labour as binding upon the servant as they now are upon the
Having thoroughly Investigated the different sources of labour-supply, we have looked into
the subject of child immigration.    Here the following facts may be pointed out:—
(a.) That there are about 70,000 children, boys and girls, under the care
Child of the Poor-law Guardians of Great Britain.
Immigration. (6.) That the best authorities compute that at least 15,000 of these child
ren, between the ages of ten and fourteen, would be available for emigration.
They are healthy and might become good and worthy citizens if given a chance.
(c.) That through the auspices of Dr. Barnardo's Homes over 20,000 children have been sent
to Canada, principally to the Province of Ontario, and that 95 per cent, have done well.
(d.) That these children should be given a chance to become self-respecting and law-abiding
citizens, and incidentally replace Oriental labour by people speaking our own tongue and brought
up under our civilization.
We would recommend the following plan:—
(1.) That arrangements be made, as suggested above, to bring children (both boys and girls)
into the Province from the British Isles.
(2.) That training-schools for such children should be established in which—
(a.) The boys would learn the elementary and practical side of farm life:
(li.) The girls would learn the duties required of them as domestic servants.
(3.) That after having received this elementary training they should be placed on farms
and with families for a specific term, until able to provide for themselves.
(4.) That a system of inspection should be inaugurated to ensure the proper treatment of
such children. With this end in view, legislation along the lines followed in Ontario is
(5.) That the capital expense incurred for this purpose should be discharged from the
revenue derived from the Chinese head-tax.
(6.) That these training-schools should, be partially self-supporting after the initial cost
has been defrayed. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 25
Following the plan already outlined, we now propose to submit a summary of our conclusions
and recommendations and to deal more fully in the second part of our report with the matter
relative to this question.
The evidence from farmers as to the great need of a system of long-term loans at low
interest; of the effect that might be expected in healthfully stimulating agriculture; as to the
soundness of the security which could be given; and as to the protection of the lenders, has been
moderate and sane and almost unanimously affirmative.
The evidence from Boards of Trade and individual business-men has been strong as to the
wisdom of providing such a system with the assistance of bonds guaranteed by the Government.
Provincial managers of loan companies and bankers corroborated the evidence of farmers
as to the inadequacy of any present source of agricultural credit, both as to amount and terms,
and from them we learned that such increased financial facilities for farmers, soundly administered, would be welcomed by them, and in their opinion would be likely to greatly increase the
prosperity of all classes of the community.
It is not to be wondered at, in a country requiring generally either land-clearing, dyking,
drainage, or irrigation, and settled by so large a proportion of pioneers with little or no capital,
that this need should be acute when we consider what has happened elsewhere.
Urgent Need      In many old countries, with the land in cultivation for centuries, it has been
of Capital.        found necessary to have some special means of providing such credit.    In the
Australasian Dominions, with many conditions resembling our own, the same
conclusion was forced upon the people.    In the United States, with its well-established agricultural industry, this question became so pressing that investigation was undertaken, and as a
result steps are now being taken to make the needed provision.    Even in Saskatchewan, where
the virgin land is ready for the plough, where neither irrigation nor drainage is practised, and
where loaning institutions have furnished $86,000,000 of capital to farmers, it has been found
that the welfare of the Province demands that funds shall be available for agricultural credit
on long terms at low interest.
While this need was being conclusively brought home to us, we paid especial attention to
the question of the security that could be furnished by borrowers for such loans. Our conclusion
is that for loans of a reasonable percentage of the value of improved land, the valuation being
based on the demonstrated earning-power of similar land in the same locality, and with a satisfactory moral risk, the losses should be as low as they had been shown to be in other countries
under somewhat similar systems.
That under such a system many applications w7ould be refused, or smaller amounts granted
than applied for, must be expected, and the careful administration necessary would cause many
disappointments. The agricultural community would benefit from the lessons taught by such
discrimination as to the market value of a reputation for honesty, industry, and thrift, as well
as by the necessity for prudence in any projected agricultural undertaking.
We think that the experience of other countries warrants the belief that the guaranteeing
of bonds to provide funds for such loans would not have the effect of impairing the credit of
the Province.    Any  tendency in that direction from the additional respon-
Credit of sibility incurred would be offset—
Province  would (a.)  By the increased assets in the form of improved farms created by
not be the loans.
impaired. (0.) By the increased amount of money retained in the Province through
the production within its boundaries of much of the food products which now
have to be imported.
(c.) By the increased amount of money brought into the Province from the export of such
(d.)  By the increase of traffic for railways, the bonds of which are guaranteed by the Province.
As bearing on this point, we quote a passage from a published interview with Sir George
Paish, the eminent statistician and editor of the London Statist.    He said:—
" I have no doubt as to the ability of Canada to carry its existing burden of interest, amounting to nearly four pounds sterling per head, but for some years the burden will require stringent
economy in national and municipal as well as individual expenditure. L 26 British Columbia. 1914
" In brief, I am convinced that every possible effort will be made by all concerned—the
Canadian Government, the Provincial Governments, the municipalities, great railway companies,
hankers,  traders,  and others,  as well as  by British  investors—to  increase
Necessity of      rapidly the agricultural and mineral output of the country, upon which the
increasing welfare of the Canadian people, both individually and collectively, absolutely
Agricultural       depends, and that the effect of their concerted efforts will be so great that
Production.       the country will carry'with safety the burden of interest which otherwise
might overtax its strength.    It is, however, of the greatest possible importance
that the work of directly increasing the productive power of the country by placing a larger
proportion of population upon the land and in the mines should be carried out with the least
possible delay." ,
For reference we here give the last available returns of the production of the mines, forests,
agriculture, and fisheries of the Province:—
Minerals $30,15S,793
Lumber     29,820,278
Agricultural products    23,974,524
Fish products      14,455,488
We will briefly recapitulate some of our conclusions on this subject, as follows:—
We decided that the employment of some intermediate agency such as a loan company to
manage the loaning and collecting operations would increase the cost to the borrower without
increasing the security against losses.
In New Zealand and Australia the work of the Commission has been absolutely divorced
from political influence, and the general public is satisfied with the impartiality of the
administration of the loans.
We found no ground for fear that with an independent Commission in charge of the fund
there would be any danger of political influence interfering with the management of its business.
We find that conditions in British Columbia are such that it requires considerable capital
to bring the land into a proper state of cultivation for profitable production, and that in a large
proportion of cases the making of farms rather than farming alone is the task that is being
That most of those who are taking up land with the intention of making a living from it
are men with small capital.
That for large industrial, transportation, and municipal undertakings, which call for investment of a permanent nature, it has been found necessary to obtain capital from abroad by the
sale of long-term debentures.
That the permanency of the investment is a feature to an exceptional degree in the case of
the development of farm lands.
That there is no monetary institution in British Columbia from which the farmer can borrow
money on the security of his land on terms that would enable him to meet the payments out
of the products of his farm.    That modern transportation and cold-storage
No Capital        systems have brought the farm products of every nation in the world into-
available. competition on practically equal terms in the markets of the world, and that
farmers with less  capital  available and higher  interest charges  than their
competitors are severely handicapped.
That, in competing for settlers, a country with an efficient system of long-time credit will
have a great advantage, and agricultural countries which do not adopt some such system are
likely to lose many of their own farmers by their emigration to countries furnishing such
That the greater freedom with which credit is granted for industrial and business purposes,
than for farming tends to attract people to those pursuits.
That in countries where long-term farm-loan systems have been adopted there has been
a marked improvement in the standard of living on the farms, which,  including as it does
more  recreation  and  culture,  is  not  only good  for  the  farmers  and  their
Effect of families, but tends to keep the boys and girls on  the land and to attract
Farm Loans,     others to follow this pursuit.    This is found to be good for general business
and for the welfare of the whole people. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 31
This condition is largely due to the greater ease and certainty with which arrangements
can be made by dealers for regular supplies by purchasing them in a large producing market
than by trusting to local consignments, irregular in quantity and quality, and not uniform in
grade or pack, as has been too often the case with the home products.
Whether the condition complained of affects any large proportion of the production, we are
not in a position to state, but there is no doubt that the care and certainty w7ith which arrangements can be made for regular supplies from large producing centres in America must induce
dealers to make such arrangements rather than trust to local supplies, which have too often
been irregular, both in quantity and quality.
We suggest that co-operation among farmers will remove one of the weaknesses of the
situation by making it easy for merchants to make definite contracts for large amounts of homegrown produce at uniform prices; that city markets well organized and managed will further
improve matters; that increased production will be greatly stimulated by the better marketing
which should result; that the larger production brought about by these and other measures
recommended in this report will furnish a supply large enough to command the attention of and
properly supply our home markets.
It was found that the New Zealand and other butter which arrives in bulk is frequently
prepared for sale by reworking and washing, and then made into 1-lb. packets, labelled with
the name of a creamery, sometimes imaginary, or without anything to indicate the place of
origin. In this process a considerable percentage of water is absorbed, lessening the food-value
of the butter proportionately. This will be seen by comparing analyses of the British Columbia
creamery butter made in co-operative farm creameries, and of the " blended" or worked-over
butter sold under various names:—
British Columbia creameries (average of several samples)   ..     10 per cent, water.
Processed or blended butter (average of several samples)   .. 19.5 per cent, water.
With butter at 40 cents per pound, the difference in food-value of butter is as 36 cents in
the case of our farm creameries to 32 cents in the case of the " blended " or worked-over butter.
It would appear that all blended butter should be plainly marked as " blended " or worked-
over butter, and not sold in competition on even terms with creamery butter that is fresh from
the farm and creamery.
Marketing of Eggs and Butter.
We were informed that it is a common practice to expose for sale foreign cold-storage
eggs labelled "fresh eggs." In seeking a remedy for the conditions referred to, we learned with
satisfaction that the Dominion Department of Agriculture is preparing legislation dealing with
the classification and inspection of eggs, and proposes to consult the British Columbia Poultry
Association regarding the Bill before submitting it to Parliament. We would therefore like to
impress the view that this legislation should be brought down this present session, and that it
would be well if the Federal Inspectors under Part IX. of the " Inspection and Sale Act" were
also Inspectors with regard to poultry products. The same views are held with regard to the
inspection of butter.
(1.) It is our opinion that cases and cartons containing eggs should be labelled with the
name of the State or Province from which they come, together with the words " fresh," " held,"
or " cold-storage," as the case may be, and that all dealers offering same for sale should placard
them in the same way. Also that the Provincial Poultry Instructors should be Inspectors under
the Act.
With regard to the outside markets for our produce, the conditions were found to be greatly
improved over those of 1912. This was due to smaller crops of fruit in countries which are our
competitors, better organization of co-operative selling associations, both in those countries and
in our own fruit districts.
We found that the grading and packing of British Columbia fruit and vegetables were
pronounced by dealers in the Prairie Provinces to be much better and more uniform than ever
before. These markets are increasing very rapidly, and the popularity of our fruit on the
grounds of quality, reliability, and convenience of package is growing fast.
The consumption of apples in the three Provinces is about five times as much as our
production. L 32 British Columbia. 1914
The most severe competition comes from Washington, which looks to cities in the United
States for a market at profitable prices for its best apples, and offers its lower grade fruit to
the Dakotas and the North-west Provinces at much lower prices. Co-operative fruit associations in Ontario have sold a large number of cars of apples to co-operative farmers' associations
in those Provinces.
Although there is a large market for berries, which should be supplied from this Province,
the great part comes by refrigerator-cars from the United States.
In order to promote better marketing, we find—
(2.) That it is desirable to promote co-operation among the producers and also among the
buyers of agricultural produce.
(3.)  That the maintenance of the present amount of protection afforded
Findings by the Customs tariff to the articles produced by farmers is necessary and
summarized.       reasonable in view of the fact that these articles are produced under conditions and at costs influenced by the similar protection afforded to other
classes of labour; not only because the farmer uses many of those products, but because the
cost of labour employed by him is regulated by the wages that are rendered possible in other
industries by the protection enjoyed by them.
In the case of the boxed-apple industry, it is found that a duty of 13 cents per box of apples,
which is being collected as an equivalent of the duty by tariff of 40 cents per barrel, while as
high per pound, does not give the same relative protection on the labour and material used in
their production. This is due to the fact that the labour expended in producing higher class
fruit and packing it more carefully, with the higher wages ruling in this Province, costs nearly
twice as much for three boxes as for one barrel, making the protection about one-half as
(4.) That much assistance can be given to the British Columbia producer in his fight for
a sufficient share of the North-west markets by the active co-operation of the Canadian railways
and express companies operating in those Provinces, by making rates from British Columbia as
low as possible, giving them as fully, as is reasonable, the advantage of their proximity to those
markets; by furnishing the best possible facilities in refrigerator-cars and terminal storage ;■
and by a specially fast freight service for fruit and vegetables.
We note that much assistance is being given in marketing of farm products by the Wells
Fargo Express by means of a system of distribution through the medium of the company's
branches.    The same principle is carried out by State railways in South Africa and New Zealand.
We found throughout the Province a strong theoretical belief in the benefits of co-operation,,
but in very many places great discouragement as a result of the attempts already made. Even
where the worst failures had been made, however, the farmers were ready to try again if the
Government would step in and take charge of the organizing and afterwards exercise some
control or influence by means of audits and inspection.
While we were believers in co-operation before we began this investigation, we had not fully
realized what had been accomplished through its means until this closer study of its history
in many countries where its usefulness has been extended into many departments, and where the
results of the development of the principle upon national life and prosperity have been so
In other parts of this report reference will be made to directions in which we believe
co-operative effort can be well directed in this Province, and recommendations with a view to
facilitating that end be submitted.
We may, however, here point out some of the features which we think necessary to success,
and some of the besetting dangers to which co-operation is peculiarly liable, especially at its
inception in any locality. Where a successful start has already been made under the direction,
and with the assistance of the Government, the movement should be forwarded along the lines
of approved experience.
The first and greatest danger to which co-operation in its infancy is exposed is the attempt
to form a complete organization before there is a certainty of sufficient produce to enable the
movement to run at a reasonable expense ratio.   AH who have had experience recognize that a 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 27
That the effect of such a system is to encourage productive effort in comparison with speculation as a means of making money.
That the following figures are suggestive as to the effect of such systems upon production:—
Exports of Domestic Products per Capita.
(See "Official Yearbook, Commonwealth of Australia.")
United States (no general farm credit system)    $ 24 14
Canada (no general credit farm system)     40 OS
Australia (has general farm credit systems)    79 60
New Zealand (has general farm credit systems)     Ill 78
That, not including loans of school funds on farm mortgages amounting to $22,351,451 in
eight of the United States at 5 or 6 per cent., and recently even 7 per cent., the principle of
State-guaranteed loans or of loans of State funds has been recognized in the following countries,
with conditions somewhat similar to ours, viz.: New Zealand in 1894; Western Australia in
1894; South Australia in 1895; Victoria in 1896; Tasmania in 1898; New South Wales in 1899;
Queensland in 1901; Nova Scotia in 1912; and the Union of South Africa in 1912; and in
Saskatchewan to the extent of enacting necessary legislation but requiring proclamation to
become effective.
That under none of the long-term loan systems under consideration has there been any
loss to the lender not covered by the 1 per cent, usually provided for expense of administration
and for losses, although the loans made have amounted to over $1,000,000,000,000.
In many parts of Europe the problem has been successfully solved in more than one way,
but there the problem of whence the necessary capital should be drawn has solved itself, for
in  the  accumulated  savings  of  the  people  themselves  there  exists  a  fund
Characteristics    amply sufficient to meet all requirements.    All that was necessary was the
of formation of channels through which that capital could flow.    Such channels
European Loans,   have been provided by the creation of various forms of land mortgage and
co-operative banks.    In some cases  the  Governments  supplied  some  of the
funds to the banks; in others they did not.
Through these banks loans may be obtained on long-term mortgages at low rates of interest,
and with the privilege of amortization. Short personal credit loans may also be obtained on
favourable terms.    Co-operative associations are also afforded facilities for loans.
The method of making the advances differs under different systems. In some cases direct
loans are made; in others debentures are issued to the borrower, who disposes of them in the
open market.
The method of fixing the security also differs. In some cases each borrower is responsible
only for his own borrowings; in others all borrowers in groups are collectively and individually
responsible for the borrowings of the w7hole group.
But under all the various systems extreme care is exercised that the security shall be
ample and good.
Investigation of Australasian systems showed that New Zealand adopted a system of issuing
bonds for a long term of years, disposing of them in London,  and loaning the proceeds  to
farmers for the purpose of making productive improvements on their land.
System in The Act authorizing this provided for the appointment of a Superintendent
Australasia.       and a Board of Directors through whom the loans were made, and by whom
all the business connected therewith  was transacted  and controlled.   The
system was established eighteen years ago.   They have loaned out over $65,000,000, and not
only have they made no losses, but there has been an accumulation of profits over and above ■
flotation costs and other charges in connection with the system of over $1,500,000.
These loans are made on first-mortgage security, at a rate of 4% per cent, for terms up to
thirty-six years, and the loans are up to 60 per cent, of the value of the property after the
improvements for which the money was borrowed have been made. The Commissioners require
the money to be spent for the purpose for which it was borrowed; and at the discretion of the
Commissioners the money may only be available as the work progresses. L 28 British Columbia. , 1914
The mortgages contain covenants as to proper methods of farming to maintain the fertility
of the soil, repairs on buildings, insurance, and similar provisoes.
At the time the system was introduced, it was recognized that the agriculturist required
short-term loans to carry him through the season, as well as long-term loans for the making
of permanent improvements.    It has been found in New Zealand that where
Short-term        long-term credit was supplied, short-term credit was available from the banks
Loans   provided   and by one neighbour loaning to another.    Under the working of the New
by Banks.        Zealand system, the commission being, as it were, a friendly mortgagee, and
the amortization payments small, the banker is able to calculate the applicant's
ability to repay a short-term loan at the end of the season.
The idea underlying the New Zealand system is wholly constructive, the loans being calculated to supplement the industry and ability of the farmer, and the result has been a wonderful
increase in the export of domestic products of that country.
For the fifteen years preceding the introduction of the farm credit system the exports
increased 35.30 per cent.; for the fifteen years after, the exports of the same products increased
161.54 per cent.
New Zealand has increased her land under cultivation from 2% acres per head of population
in 1893 to 6% acres per head in 1913. In addition to that, there are 9,000,000 acres in sown
grasses on land that has not been ploughed.
During the last four years the total number of cattle, sheep, lambs, and hogs slaughtered
for home consumption and for export was over 10,700,000; and during the same time the flocks
and herds of the same animals increased by 3,325,000. During the same period, the cattle, sheep,
and pigs in the Dominion of Canada actually decreased 1,600,000, and her agricultural production
is at a standstill, despite the fact that production has increased enormously in the three Prairie
The adoption of the New Zealand loaning system has not only resulted in largely increasing
the output of the farms and giving a great impetus to the agricultural industry, but it has
reacted in related and other industries in a further stimulation of trade in
General Results    general.    Failures  have  decreased  50  per  cent,  in  the  last  fifteen  years.
of " Advances     Commissioner Lucas, who visited New Zealand, reports as follows upon the
to Settlers."       effect on the rural life of that country:—
" With money available on terms suitable to the industry, the farmers-
have built better houses or remodelled their old ones; brought a large acreage of land under
cultivation that would otherwise be lying idle; have bought and kept better live-stock; have
bought and used more labour-saving machinery on the farms and in the houses; have erected
elevated tanks and windmills; have laid on w7ater in their dwellings and in their outbuildings;
have irrigation for their vegetable and flower gardens around the houses; and have increased
their dairy herds. They keep more sheep and pigs and have so largely increased the revenue
from their farms that they are able to meet the payments on the mortgages and to adopt a
higher standard of living, and a better one. Throughout the country a higher and better
civilization is gradually being evolved; the young men and women who are growing up are
happy and contented to remain at home on the farms, and find ample time and opportunity
for recreation and entertainment of a kind more wholesome and elevating than can be obtained
in the cities."
It is interesting to note that during the last decade New Zealand has raised 19.13 per cent,
of her loans at home, the total amount now being carried by her people being £15,660,943 out
of a total debt of £84.353,913. The average rate of interest on the outstanding debt on
March Slst, 1891, was £4 10s. 3d. per £100, as compared with an average rate of interest of
£3 13s. 9d. on March 31st, 1912, being a decline of 16s. 6d. per £100, and the highest and lowest
price for New Zealand bonds and stock during the year 1911 was as follows:—
High. Low.
4 per cent., 1929   106% 102%
3 per cent, 1940    9Sy2 95^4
3 per cent.,    87% 85 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 29
Of the total debt— „    _.   .
Per Cent.
£      15,200 bears   6
321,000 bears   5
27,900 bears   4%
39,489,763 bears   4
2,397,000 bears   3%
32,303,344 bears   3%
9,799,706 bears   3
£84,353,913 (total debt).
The six States in the Commonwealth of Australia have adopted systems similar to that in
force in New Zealand, the principal difference being that they depend largely on the State
savings-banks for capital. Consequently they have not always been able to meet the demands
for loans; neither have they loaned as much, the total amount in the Commonwealth being
about $45,000,000. The loan system has not been in force as long as in New Zealand, being
but very recently established in some of the States; but the results in proportion to the money
loaned out have been equally as satisfactory as in New Zealand, and the benefits resulting
therefrom have been similar.
As a result of the consideration of the features in the different systems best adapted to the
present needs of British Columbia, we recommend—
(1.)  That your Government adopt a system of direct agricultural credit
Recommenda-     on the lines of the system in force in New Zealand.
tions. (2.)  That an Act be passed providing for the creation of a Board, to be
known as the " Agricultural Credit Commission," consisting of a Superintendent and four Directors, to deal with all matters pertaining to the administration of Government mortgage loans to farmers, and that such Act shall embody the following principles:—
(a.) That the Lieutenant-Governor  in  Council  appoint  the  Superintendent  and  two
members, the latter to be practical farmers:
(6.)  That the Superintendent and two members so appointed serve till voluntary retiral
or until removal by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council upon an address from the
Legislative Assembly:
(e.) That the Deputy Ministers of Finance and Agriculture be ex-officio members of
the said Commission:
(d.) That, in order to provide capital for the purposes of the Commission, the Legislative Assembly be asked each year to authorize the Minister of Finance to borrow
up to a specified amount by the issue of stock or debentures bearing interest at not
over 4 per cent, and having a currency of years:
(e.) That the Minister of Finance raise from time to time such sum or sums as may be
required, not exceeding in any one year the amount so authorized, and provided
(i.)  In raising the moneys, the Minister shall be deemed to be acting on behalf
of the Agricultural Credit Commission:
(ii.) Accordingly, the moneys raised shall be deemed to be raised by the Agricultural Credit Commission in its corporate capacity:
(iii.) All mortgages and securities taken by the said Commission in respect
of loans made from the said moneys shall be held as collateral security for the
particular bonds or debentures in addition to the general credit of the Province:
(/.) That the proceeds of the sale of such stock or debentures shall be available for the
Agricultural Credit Commission to lend to farmers in respect of permanent improvements made on their land and for other productive purposes:
(g.) That such loans shall bear interest at a rate of 1 per cent, per annum greater
than the rate paid by the Government upon the actual amount realized from the
sale of the stock or debentures:
(h.) That such loans shall be repayable by amortization over such periods as the Commission may decide, but in no case exceeding 36% years; always provided that
the borrower shall have the option of paying off the whole or any portion of the
loan in advance of the contract period by payments of not less than $25: L 30 British Columbia. 1914
(i.) That interest and amortization charges shall be payable half-yearly:
(j.) That all applications for loans must be made on forms supplied by the Commission,
and shall set forth clearly and definitely the purposes for which the loan is
required. Such applications must be accompanied by testimonials from two well-
known residents in the vicinity as to the adaptability and fertility of the land
offered as security, and the personal character aud responsibility of the applicant.
(7c.) That the basis of valuation of any land for loan purposes under this Act shall be
the actual productive value after the improvements in respect of which a loan is
desired have been made; and such value shall be ascertained by appraisers acting
under the direction of the Agricultural Credit Commission:
(I.) That the maximum loan which may be made on any land shall not exceed 60 per
cent, of the value calculated on a productive basis as specified in the previous
(m.) That with the Agricultural Credit Commission shall rest the sole responsibility
of making or withholding loans, and the Commission, before making any loan,
must satisfy itself as to—
(i.)  The desirability of the proposed improvements:
(ii.) The character and reliability of the applicant:
(Hi.) The value of the security on the basis specified:
(iv.) The ability of the applicant to make a fair living from the farm after
paying interest and amortization charges :
(n.) That the Commission may, in its discretion, make advances as the work proceeds,
but in no case shall the amount advanced exceed the proportion which the work
done bears to the total work undertaken in connection w7ith the specific loan:
(o.) That the mortgage shall contain provisoes for good husbandry, repairs to buildings,
insurance, and such matters:
(p.) That no loan shall be made for less than $250 or for more than $10,000 to one
applicant, or upon one property, and that applicants for loans not exceeding $2,000
shall be given priority.
The above recommendations have been framed with a view to the conditions of mortgage
loans on farm property.    We would, however, recommend—
(g.) That all loans made or to be made to associations under the " Agricultural Associations Act" or to any other co-operative concerns, such as the proposed Public
Market Associations in cities, should be placed under the care of the Agricultural
Credit Commission; that the funds necessary for such loans should be provided
in the same manner; and that the necessary provisions to carry out these suggestions be made in the Act.
With the exception of fruit and vegetables, all the farm produce of the Province is marketed
within it, and supplies only a portion of the demand.
The principal outside markets for fruit have been found in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and to
a less extent in Great Britain and Australia, and for vegetables in Alberta and Saskatchewan.
Notwithstanding the possession of high-priced home markets, we heard much complaint of
the market conditions. Many witnesses testified to dissatisfaction with the treatment received
from commission merchants to whom they had shipped produce on consignment, and some
evidence was very positive as to the selling-price stated in account sales made to them being
lower than was actually realized by the commission agent. These individual cases were not
investigated by us, and we are therefore not in a position to say how much of the trouble is
due to misunderstanding.
The examination into the sworn complaints of either consignors or consignees by impartial
officials would, we think, greatly reduce the number of complaints and promote mutual confidence
and better understanding.
A common complaint was that the commission agents, being also generally wholesale dealers,
press the sale of goods which are their property more than those on consignment in their warehouses, resulting in frequent loss to the consignor through deterioration of his goods while so
held. INDEX.
Act, Agricultural Associations   34
Act, Ditches and Watercourses  16
Act, Game 19
Advisory Board of Agriculture 38
Agriculture, Separate Portfolio   38
Areas, infected  17
Bulls and Stallions running at Large  18
Cattle-marking   18
College, Agricultural—Relation to University  36
Commercial Branch, Department of Agriculture   33
Commission, Members of      5
Commission, The     3
Conditions affecting Agriculture    9
Conditions, Agricultural     8
Co-operation    32
Credit, Agricultural   25
Education, Agricultural    36
Education, Agricultural—Monthly Journal  36
Education, Agricultural—Teachers   36
Farm, Experimental, at Agassiz  37
Fertilizers, Deposits of—Conservation  14
High Cost of Living   11
Immigration, Child    24
Improvement, Land  14
Investigation in other Countries      7
Irrigation 16
Journal, Monthly   36
Kelp Groves to be examined  14
Labour 23
Labour, Domestic  24
Labour, Prison 19
Land Classifiers, Branch of Lands Department 13
Land-clearing   15
Land, Oriental Tenure 14
Land, Public 11
Lands, Public, Reservation of 13
Letter of Transmittal    1
Licence, Gun 19
Licence, Real-estate Agents  15
Markets, City  34
Markets, Public 34
Marketing and Co-operation 30
Master and Servant Act 24
Misrepresentation, Real-estate   15
Note    4
Noxious Weeds   17
Oriental Land Tenure  14
Permits to burn 16
Poultry, Imported, Inspection of  19
Pre-emption Conditions  13
Procedure of Inquiry      6 Page.
Reserves, Indian  14
Roads, Public  21
Roads in Subdivision  22
Roads, Width of  22
Royalty Stumpage, Repeal of  10
School, Farm Training  37
Sessions held     5
Settlements, Selection of Lands for   13
Sheep, Protection of  IS
Tax, Improvement    22
Tax, School—General    23
Tax,  School—Municipal    23
Taxation  22
Telephone System, Rural   19
Transportation    35
Tuberculosis, Bovine 18
Weeds, Noxious  17
Well Boring, Artesian  10
Seriated by William H.  Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1914. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 33
co-operative business in any line entails greater efficiency and attention to detail work than
any private business in the same line, and that an advantage to producers is only secured when
a co-operative concern conducts its business as w-ell as, but at a lesser margin than, a private
concern. On account of the extra expenses involved by the nature of the work it follows that,
when the produce to be handled is small in amount, an individual can work at a lesser cost
than a co-operative concern, and the latter is foredoomed to failure unless a sufficient volume
of business can be assured to allow of its being run at' a low expense ratio. Where such a
volume cannot be assured, the only hope of ultimate success is for local producers to arrange
for one of their number to undertake the marketing of the produce of all and wait for growth
until the volume of business justifies extension.
Another fruitful cause of failure in co-operation in the past has been the inability of
producers to provide sufficient capital to run the business, but this need not be enlarged upon,
as the Government has fully recognized this difficulty and shown its willingness to help to
overcome it.
We approve the action taken in providing for loans to co-operative associations and in
encouraging and assisting their formation, which has put new life into the movement and was
spoken of by witnesses with warm appreciation.
The necessary volume of business and capital being obtained, the next great danger is the
failure to secure efficient management. The difficulties of successful co-operative management
are so great that no price that the turn-over can possibly afford is too great to pay for the
services of an efficient man. To secure and retain such a manager, it is an absolute essential
that the Board of Directors should be men able and willing to make themselves masters of the
intricacies of the business, to lay down the lines on which it should be run, to see that the
manager carries out his duties efficiently along these lines, to support him loyally with the
members if he does, and to dispense with his services if he does not. Good management is the
keystone to success in any business, co-operative or otherw-ise, but it is more difficult of attainment in the former than in the latter.
Commercial Branch of Department of Agriculture.
With reference to marketing and co-operation, we recommend the establishment of a Commercial Branch of the Department of Agriculture, the business of which would be—
(1.) To promote the organization of co-operative associations over the
Recommenda-     whole Province according to the particular needs of the different districts,
tions. and the development of the central marketing organizations for those local
(2.) To organize a market news service to collect and disseminate information as to supply
and demand of agricultural products.
(3.) To study transportation problems, assist in securing the best service by freight and
express possible, and the lowest rates, and to give assistance to shippers of produce in negotiations with railway and express companies.
(4.) Generally to study all the problems connected with the marketing of farm produce
and assist the farmers in their solution.
(5.) To assist by investigation of complaints of consignors and consignees in adjustment of
It is submitted that this Department might well have the power of investigating complaints
between producers and merchants. While we do not at present suggest that plenary powers
shall be given to the investigator of such complaints, believing that producer and merchant will
realize the benefit derived from such inquiry, we desire to express our view that, if the powers
suggested do not prove sufficient to bring out the facts of the cases submitted, plenary powers
should be conferred on the investigator.
Pending the completion of such arrangements, we advise the continuance of the present
policy, with the absolute determination to avoid the encouragement of the formation of full-
fledged co-operative associations by financial assistance or otherwise, unless the Government
is satisfied in each case that such an association has a reasonable prospect of success. L 34 British Columbia. 1914
" Agricultural Associations Act."
We would here make some specific recommendations regarding the principles to be followed
in the organization of the co-operative associations, regarding some of which we have made
suggestions to your Department of Agriculture upon these points, and others
Recommenda-     iwith a view to having them embodied in the provisions of the " Agricultural
tions. Associations Act."    .
(1.) That it should be the duty of the organizer or organizers under the
Commercial Branch of the Department of Agriculture to conduct educational work in the
different districts in the direction of co-operation, and to advise the proposed Agricultural
Credit Commissioners on the feasibility and soundness of any proposed scheme.
(2.) That the principle of " one man, one vote " should be substituted for the principle " one
share, one vote."
We have become convinced, not only from Provincial but also from world-wide inquiries,
that this principle holds out the greatest prospect of success, but we are well aware that thei
•opposite view is held by many observers with a full knowledge of the particular circumstances
in the Province.
(3.) That provision should be made for regular audits by auditors chosen by shareholders,
subject to the approval of the Minister of Finance.
(4.) That the co-operative associations should be subject to inspection by the Commercial
Branch of the Department of Agriculture.
Public Markets.
In considering the question of marketing from the point of view of the producer, we have
never lost sight of the effect upon the consumer, and in this connection have investigated the
work of various public markets. The most successful of those which came under our observation
were in Seattle, where there are four, the first of which, the Pike Place Market, was built by
a private citizen and transferred to the city, while the others have since been built and maintained by private effort. Apart from a few small stalls outside of the market proper reserved
for the use of local producers at a daily rent of 10 cents and upward, the stalls are rented often
for years at from $10 to $50 a month to retailers of fish, meats, groceries, vegetables, flowers,
fruit, dairy and poultry products. Some of the stalls are held by producers selling their
own and their neighbours' produce, but the great majority of stall-holders are strictly retailers;
and the prices charged by the two classes are identical. The markets are primarily designed to
reduce cost to consumers. They do not eliminate the middleman, for even the producer marketing
his produce is a middleman in the sense that he requires an additional price for the added services
he renders, but they do provide a class of middleman who is willing and able to work on a small
margin. Not only is the standard of prices in the markets considerably lower now than in
ordinary retail stores, hut the prices in the latter have been considerably modified by the competition. These markets are entirely self-supporting and successful; thousands of residents visit
them daily, pay cash, and take away their purchases.
We cite this Pike Place Market in Seattle as an example, because it was the most successful
of those that were investigated personally by any member of the Commission. It is, moreover,
convenient for further study of methods and results by citizens of the Coast cities.
Believing, as we have said, that such a market is primarily of interest to consumers and
depends upon their co-operation and support for success, we are proposing means of assisting
the consumers to co-operate similar to those now provided for producers.
In order to develop the co-operative buying of farm produce in cities, we therefore recommend
that encouragement and information should be given by your Government upon this subject, and
that legislation should be enacted providing for the financing of co-operative
Recommenda-     (public markets on the same basis as is now done in the case of agricultural
tion. co-operative associations; that is to say, by lending 80 per cent, of the amount
of subscribed capital on the security of the balance due by shareholders on
their shares aud of the real estate held by the associations.    As already recommended in the
case of other co-operative associations, we would lay stress upon the importance of the principle
of " one man, one vote " being adopted in public market organizations.    This would give every 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 35
consumer and producer a like advantage and opportunity to aid in the upbuilding of an active
city market, and would prevent the possibility of any particular interest gaining control.
i Transportation.
Cases were brought before us in which complaint was made of freight and express rates
being too high, of slow freight service, of difficulty in recovering compensation for animals
killed on the track, of ineffective cattle-guards, of damage to the banks from the wash of
steamers; and suggestions made as to the need of a better refrigerator service for fruit, as to
the supply of refrigerator-cars for the future, the advantage of a cooled compartment in express
cars for less than car-load shipments of fruit, and the great advantage it would be to have a
special expedited freight fruit service during the season of fruit shipments.
Apart from special cases, some of which we have taken up, we have felt that there are some-
matters of general policy that might well be discussed with the various transportation companies,
and we therefore, as opportunities offered, had conversations with Sir Donald Mann, Vice-President
of the Canadian Northern Railway Company; Mr. Morley Donaldson, Vice-President of the Grand
Trunk Pacific Railway Company ; Mr. F. W. Peters, General Superintendent for British Columbia,,
and Mr. Larmour, representing the Traffic Department of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company;:
and Mr. Alan Purvis, Manager Interurban System of the British Columbia Electric Railway
We discussed with them the question of co-operating with your Government in a forward
movement for the promotion of agriculture, and received assurance that their companies
appreciate the importance of such action at this time, and would give favourable consideration
to suggestions in that direction. We took up with them particularly the question of special rates
on drainage-'tiles for farm use, on crushed raw lime-rock for use as a fertilizer, and on fertilizers
generally, on the ground that at ordinary freight rates the cost of drain-tiles and lime was practically prohibitive at any considerable distance from the point of shipment, while their general use-
would greatly increase the produce to be hauled.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company has special rates in effect now from Atkins to-
various points on crushed lime-rock shipped by the British Columbia Government under certificates of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
Mr. Peters was fully in accord with the wisdom of this policy, and promised that proportionately low rates would be made from any point in British Columbia from which this material
could be shipped, and that the certificate of any secretary of the Farmers' Institutes would be-
accepted in place of that of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
Sir Donald Mann and Mr. Donaldson agreed that special rates would be made on these
As an instance of the appreciation this principle has received, we may say that in Illinois
all railways haul this lime for farm purposes at % cent per ton per mile up to 200 miles.
Regarding cattle-guards, an effective guard will, we are told, be gladly adopted if it can be
It was suggested by Mr. Donaldson that, if a uniform value were fixed for animals killed,,
there would be much less trouble about settlement, as contests and delay commonly arose from
a disposition to overvalue the animals killed.
An expedited freight service is now furnished by the Canadian Northern on ordinary goods
from Winnipeg. The Grand Trunk has a fast fruit service from the Niagara District. The
Northern Pacific gave this improved service last year with great satisfaction to the Washington
fruit districts, and this matter and others relating particularly to fruit and vegetable traffic are
receiving the consideration of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
Mr. Purvis informed us that the company has placed freight-sheds at the disposal of
co-operative associations, and is considering plans for assisting in marketing.
A very large number of those who are engaged in agriculture in British Columbia have had
no previous training in their profession. This has made more pressing than it might otherwise
have been the need of the educational work that has been carried on by your Department
of  Agriculture,  by  means  of bulletins,  lectures,  demonstrations,   packing-schools,   and   visits L 36 British Columbia. 1914
to the farms  and orchards of the instructors  in agriculture,  horticulture,  dairying,  poultry,
bee-keeping, etc.
In all parts of the country we found that this work was greatly appreciated not only by
those who were most dependent upon it, but by experienced farmers who had been thus assisted
in the improvement of their methods, and we feel that much very valuable work has been
The immense importance of agricultural education is being generally recognized: " Everywhere it is accepted as an axiom that technical knowledge and the general enlightenment of the
agricultural class are the most valuable of all levers of progress." (Report of the Recess Committee of the House of Commons.)
M. Marey-Oyens, the head of the Dutch Board of Commerce and Industry and head of the
Agricultural Council, says: " Every guilder spent in the promotion of agricultural teaching
brings back profit one hundredfold."
Dean Rutherford, of the Agricultural University of Saskatchewan, says that the Women's
Home Making Clubs, corresponding with our Women's Institutes, are revolutionizing rural life
in that Province, although they have been at work for a very short time. Many men leave farms
for city life because their wives and daughters are discontented with the conditions of rural life,
and the work of these institutes does much to train vomen in making farm home life more
While we realize that your Department is alive to the importance of extending and improving
the work of agricultural education, we desire to call attention to features of this work which
particularly struck the various members of the Commission in other countries, and to suggest
modifications in the system under which the work is carried on, which appear to us likely to
lead to the most effective work at the least expense.
(1.)  Beginning with the rural schools, w7e would suggest the teaching of nature-study and
of the fundamental principles of agriculture, aided by the use of school or home plots, with the
aim of giving boys who do not continue their education beyond the primary
Recommenda-     schools some knowledge of botany,  soils,  and kindred subjects,  and,  where
tions. possible, some manual training;  and providing for girls a useful course in
domestic science.
(2.) To be effective, this will require that provision shall be made for training teachers to
fit them for the work.
(3.) In these rural schools it is desirable that some simple form of farm book-keeping should
be taught.
(4.) In the curriculum of high schools should be found a place for such special work as
would prepare a boy for entrance to an agricultural college, or better fit him for the business
of farming, without further theoretical education.
We have learned with satisfaction of the policy with regard to the new University which
will give the training for the profession of agriculture the same prominence as that accorded
to the courses for other professions.
In some Provinces and States the agricultural colleges in connection with the universities
undertake a great deal of special work, such as short courses for fanners, and we have no doubt
that such useful methods will be fully developed in our own University.
(5.)  AVith reference to the educational work now done by means of bulletins, we would
recommend that they be replaced by a monthly magazine to be Issued by the Department, which
iwould be a most convenient means of reaching all members of Farmers'
Monthly Institutes, and other subscribers throughout the country, with such informa-
Journal. tion as is now published in bulletin form and with articles selected from other
magazines. This plan has been followed with great success in Australia and
South Africa. By that means the advice which farmers would get from such articles would
be more practical and more applicable to the conditions of the Province than most that they
now find in agricultural journals, and the knowledge that it has been edited by your departmental
officials would give the readers confidence in acting upon the advice. Such a journal would,
moreover, be a most convenient channel for notices and other than technical information intended
for farmers. We think that the payments made for approved advertisements by manufacturers
of implements, sprays, etc., might cover much, if not all, of the expense of publication. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 37
(6.) It has seemed to us that the system now being followed in Ontario of having a representative of the Department in each district, to be called " District Instructor," might be
followed with advantage. It w7ould, of course, be necessary that the districts should be smaller
than those now assigned to your Assistant Horticulturists, for instance; but as the representative
w-ould attend in his district to all the work of instruction, inspection, and reporting, we think,
that it would not involve any increase in the field staff. The idea in Ontario is that the district
representative shall be the active promoter of every movement in the interest of the industry
in his district; that he shall be the guide, counsellor, and friend of every farmer, and shall
remain long enough in a district to thoroughly understand its conditions and have an interest
in making a special study of them, and to get credit for the improvement which he brings about.
(7.) We would suggest that each farm and orchard in each district should be numbered,
and that every one of them should be inspected, if possible, once a year; but, at any rate, that
the inspections should be reported, and that no undue time should be allowed to elapse without
every one being visited.
(S.) At these visits, as well as giving advice and instruction, it would be the duty of the
representative to inspect orchards and farms carefully for pests and weeds, and to take the
necessary steps in case of need.
We saw with interest the demonstration orchards and farms in proven districts and the
experimental orchards in doubtful districts, and experimental dry farms, the last named being
established under the Department of Lands, and we expect that valuable results will be obtained
from this work.
(9.) We would recommend that arrangements be made so that a reasonable number of
samples of soil may be analysed by the Provincial Assayer for members of Farmers' Institutes.
The application should be made to the Deputy Minister of Agriculture, accompanied by the
sample, and if approved by him would be analysed at a fee sufficient to cover cost.
(10.) As a result of these experimental stations and the observation of the district representatives, we hope to see such agricultural charts published as would make it plain to prospective
settlers and the resident farmers what grains, vegetables, fruits, etc., are best adapted to every
locality, and what are the respective advantages and disadvantages of each locality for each
branch of the industry.
The dissemination of authoritative information of this character would save much wasted
effort, loss, and discouragement, would encourage men to come to a country where they would
be so safeguarded from the misrepresentation of interested parties, and would be some check
upon the activities of unscrupulous promoters or land speculators.
We paid a visit to the Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz, where some interesting
investigations were being carried on in animal-diseases, particularly red-water in cattle; and
paralysis of sheep, traced by Dr. Hadwen to the effects of tick; by Mr. Treherne, in plant-
diseases, especially the strawberry weevil; and by Superintendent Moore, in animal and plant
husbandry; some feeding experiments then being carried on being likely to give valuable results.
We felt that, with the considerable overhead charges necessary to such an institution, its
usefulness could be increased greatly in proportion to any additional expense by some strengthening of the technical staff in order that special and definite experiments of such practical value
can receive full attention.
We are of opinion that the change of policy under which the work of the farm is directed
along such lines rather than to fruit-growing, for which the conditions are not very favourable,
has been wise, and that if well supported the institution will be of much practical benefit to the
farmers of the Province.
As another means of attracting to the Province a very desirable class of settler—viz., lads
and young men intending to become agriculturists and with means to do so—we wrould suggest
the establishment of Government training farms, in which fees sufficient to cover the cost of
operation would be charged.
We believe that there are many men, in Great Britain especially, w7ho would gladly avail
themselves of such an opportunity to give their sons a fair start in colonial life. L 38 British Columbia. 1914
At present parents hesitate to allow lads fresh from school to come to a new country to
establish themselves as farmers without oversight or training. Pupil farms conducted as a
private enterprise have not proved generally effective. Agricultural colleges do not fill this
want; they do not supply the manual training, the lack of which is the great handicap of so
many lads, and, moreover, devote an amount of time to theoretical training that is only desired
by a small proportion of those intending to take up practical farm-work.
The training which the proposed farms would give would be in the all-round every-day work
of the farm, from clearing land to milking cows, with the use of a library of agricultural textbooks, and a course of lectures taking up an hour or two a day.
After some time spent on such a farm the pupils would be fit to take service with approved
farmers or to embark upon farming on their own account.
We believe that by this means would be encouraged in the most practical manner the settlement in the Province of a large number of a class of farmers who, with experience and training
before attempting to farm on their own account, would be most successful settlers.
One incidental result would naturally be that a direct personal interest in this Province
would be created among the relations and friends of young men who thus become satisfactorily
established in the country.
The knowledge of the resources and opportunities that would be disseminated in this way
might be expected to lead to visits to the Province of men seeking homes or fields for investment.
If the recommendations which we make in this report are adopted by your Government, the
duties of the Minister of Agriculture, which have been rapidly increasing of late, will become
still more onerous.
In order to deal most effectively with the needs of the agricultural industry of the Province
at this critical juncture and to carry forward an aggressive policy in the future, it is in our
opinion necessary that at the head of the Agricultural Department of your
Separate Government there should be a Minister able to devote his undivided attention
Portfolio of to the great work which lies ready to his hand. We do not conceive it to be
Agriculture. possible for any man, if distracted by the care of another important department, to accomplish the immense amount of work which will be involved in
thoroughly studying and successfully grappling w7ith the problems awaiting solution, and which
will continually arise.
Moreover, we desire to draw your attention to the valuable assistance the Ministers of
Agriculture in many other countries receive from Consultative Councils, whose function is to
i advise the Ministry and to keep it in touch with the agricultural classes.
Functions of These Consultative Councils are as a rule two-thirds elective, their con-
Consultative       stituencies being the agricultural societies, and one-third nominated by the
Boards. State, generally from amongst leading agriculturists or scientists interested
in agriculture. The Consultative Councils meet a few times a year, and
their sessions are attended by the Minister and some of his chief permanent officials. They
propose subjects for legislation and discuss all matters administrative and legislative bearing
upon the promotion of agricultural interests. The Minister invariably consults these Councils
before he introduces any "important legislation or any serious administrative reform, though
he is not necessarily bound to take their advice. The Councils appoint a permanent Committee
for more frequent consultation with the Ministry in the intervals between their sessions.
We believe that the services of such a Committee or Board would prove very valuable in
keeping the Minister informed upon matters affecting the industry in its different branches in
the various parts of the Province. The close personal knowledge of conditions and difficulties,
combined w7ith experience, judgment, and independence of men such as should be selected for
such a Board, should make their suggestions so practical and reliable as to give the Minister
confidence in initiating new measures or making reforms which had received their endorsation.
In administration it would lead to much speedier action than w7ould be otherwise prudent, and
this sharing of responsibility would embolden the Minister to adopt measures which, however
beneficial he might personally believe them to be, he might hesitate to make effective without
such support. 4 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Agriculture. L 39
We therefore recommend—
(1.)  That the Minister of Agriculture be relieved from the charge of any other Department.
(2.)  That an Advisory Board of Agriculture consisting of nine members
Recommenda-     be created.
tions. (3.)  That  the   Chairman  of  such  Board  and  two   of  its   members  be
•appointed by your Government.
(4.)  That one member be elected by the Directors of each of the following associations:
British   Columbia   Fruit-growers'   Association,   British   Columbia   Stock-breeders'   Association,
British Columbia Dairymen's Association, and British Columbia Poultry Association.
(5.) That one member be selected by a committee of five appointed by the Annual Convention
of British Columbia Farmers' Institutes.
(C.) That one member be selected by a committee of five appointed by the Annual Convention
of British Columbia Agricultural Associations.
Under the suggested arrangement the Advisory Board could perform the duties now pertaining to the Horticultural Board, and would serve without fees as is the case with the
members of the latter body.
There have been brought to our attention many matters which we considered to be of a
personal character rather than typical of a condition requiring remedial action, and many others
that we felt to be outside the scope of this inquiry.
Some of these have been taken up informally with that department of your Government
most interested and some with transportation companies.
In the second part of our report reference may be made to evidence upon which we have
not felt that we could base recommendations.
We hope to have the second part of this report with appendices finished by May, and request
that the same, when ready, may be printed and given the same circulation as is proposed for
this first part, which we now respectfully submit.


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