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op the
printed by
authority ob* the legislative assembly.
Printed by William H. Oiillin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1818.  To His Honour Frank Stilljian Barnard,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Eeport
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1917.
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., February 7th, 1918.  -~,. ......... ..... :.ffi£. #
Report of the Deputy Minister—Wm. E. Scott—
Activities of Department    4
Act,  Agricultural     10
Act,   Brand     9
Act, Dairies Regulation    9
Act, Eggs Marks    10
Act, Sheep Protection  9
Agricultural Journal    11
Appreciation    13
Association, British Columbia Bee-keepers'     12
Association, British Columbia Dairymen's    11
Association, British Columbia Fruit-growers'   11
Association, British Columbia Goat-breeders'    12
Association, British Columbia Poultry   12
Association, British Columbia Stock-breeders'    11
Association, Vancouver Island Flockmasters'   12
Associations,  Agricultural     11
Associations, Cow-testing    4
Associations, Provincial     11
Board of Horticulture   13
Clubs, Boys' and Girls'    4
Competitions, Crop   4
Competitions, Horticultural   7
Co-operative Variety Tests    5
Crop  Conditions     1
Crops, Farm   1
Demonstration  Orchards     6
Demonstration Plots     4
Demonstration   Spraying     6
Demonstration Station, Pitt Meadows   5
Diseases, Control of   6
Entomological  Work     8
Experimental Spraying   6
Experimental  Stations,  Dry-farming    5
Experimental Work, Drainage   '.  5
Farmers'  Institutes     10
Federal Grant    12
Field-work  7
Fire-blight      8
Food-conservation  3
Hog Production   3
Horticultural Branch   5
Insect Pests, Control of  6
Inspection of Imported Fruit and A'egetables   8
Labour  3
Legislation     9
Live  Stock     2
Live Stock Branch   4
Markets Commissioner, Coast  7
Markets Commissioner, Prairie    7
Noxious Weeds   8
Packing-schools     6
Pathological Work   8 vi. Contents.
Report of the  Deputy Minister—Concluded.
Production     1
Pruiiing-sehools     6
Settlement, Land  3
Silo-construction     5
Southern Okanagan Fruit and Vegetable Experimental Station   7
Statistics Branch     9
Tribute   13
Variety Tests, Co-operative    5
Veterinary Inspection     4
Women's  Institutes     10
Report of Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests  (January to July)—R. M.
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association    17
Bud-mite, Black-currant   15
Codling-moth     15
Competitions, Horticultural Crop   16
Crop Estimates   ,... 14
Demonstration Orchards   15
Demonstrations, Orchard    14
Experimental Plots, Northern   16
Experimental Station, Summerland  16
Experiments,  Spraying    16
Experiments,   Storage     10
Fire-blight   15
Inspection, Nursery    14
Inspection of Potatoes for Export   14
Inspection-work    14
Institute Meetings     15
Markets Commissioners  16
Packing-schools     14
Pest-control Work     14
Pruning-schools     14
Scope of Work   13
Staff  13
Thrips  15
Visits,  Orchard     14
Report of Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests—M. S. Middleton—
Activities    17
Anthracnose, Apple     20
Black-currant Mite   19
Codling-moth     19
Competitions, Horticultural Crop   22
Demonstration Field-work    IS
Demonstration  Orchards     21
Diseases,  other     20
Diseases, Potato    20
Experimental Orchards   21
Farm Survey and Statistics   IS
Fire-blight  20
Grasshoppers     20
Inspection of Empty Cars   19
Inspection of Nurseries     19
Inspection-work   .'  18
Institute-work     22
Judging     22 Contents. vii.
Report of Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests—Concluded.
Lecture-work     22
Leaf-curl     20
Markets Commissioner, Coast  23
Markets Commissioner, Prairie    22
Oflicials     IS
Packing-schools     IS
Peach-mildew    20
Peach-twig Borer     20
Pear-thrips     19
Pest Situation and Control, Summary  21
Pests, other   20
Plots, Central British Columbia   21
Pruning-schools     IS
Publications  22
San Jose Scale   19
Scab, Apple and Pear  20
Southern Okanagan Vegetable and Fruit Station  21
Strawberry-plot at Hatzic   21
Strawberry-root Weevil     20
Woolly Aphis    19
Report of Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, Northern Okanagan,
Shuswap Lake, Canadian Pacific Railway Main Line Section East of Lytton, and
Upper Columbia Valley Districts—P. E. French—
Aphides     27
Apple-scab    26
Codling-moth  2S
Competitions, Crop   24
Crop Estimates  24
Experiment, Locality   25
Experimental Orchards   24
Experimental Work    24
Farmers' Institute Meetings  24
Field-work   27
Fire-bligbt    2S
Inspection of Empty Cars  27
Inspection of Export Fruit and Vegetables ,  27
Inspection of Nurseries     27
Inspection, Pest  27
Judging     24
Oyster-shell   Scale     28
Packing-schools     23
Pruning-schools     24
San Jose Scale   28
Survey-work    24
Report of Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, South Okanagan and
Similkameen Districts—B. Hoy—
Codling-moth     30
Competitions, Crop    30
Experimental Work    29
Fairs   29
Inspection, Fire-blight   30
Inspection of Fruit  30
Inspection of Vegetables   30
Meetings  29
Pruning-schools     29 viii. Contents.
Report of Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests—Concluded.
Short Course    29
Survey, Orchard    30
Report of Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Fests,  Vancouver  Island and
Lower Mainland Districts—E. W. White—
Change of Position   31
Competitions, Horticultural   33
Crop Reports    35
Demonstration-work   35
Diseases   35
Experimental Fall Spraying  34
Experimental Strawberry-plot  33
Fairs   34
Insect Pests     35
Inspection of Export Potatoes    32
Inspection of Nurseries   34
Pear-thrips Work, Saanich   31
Production  35
Pruning-schools     33
Report of Assistant Horticulturist, Kootenay and Boundary Districts—E. C. Hunt—
Competitions, Horticultural    36
Demonstration Orchards   37
Experimental Orchards   37
Experiments in Spraying   36
Fairs   37
Inspection-work    37
Packing-schools     36
Production ....,  37
Pruning-schools     36
Report of Assistant Horticulturist, Prince Rupert District—A. R. Neale—
Institute Meetings  37
Office-work  38
Prospects     3S
Resignation   38
Report of Prairie Markets Commissioner—J. A. Grant—
Activities    38
Advertising     45
British Columbia Markets, Expansion of  44
Buying, f.o.b  39
Co-operative Marketing   45
Fruit     40
Impressions   39
Packages    •  39
Packing    i  39
Products sold f.o.b., Refusal of   40
Market wants, Growing for what  39
Refrigerator-cars, New    40
Supply, Increasing    39
United Grain-growers want 400 Cars Apples  40
Vegetables    43
Weekly Reports   40
Report of Coast Markets Commissioner and Inspector in Charge of Exports—R. C. Abbott—
Fruits    46
Inspection of Eggs    46
Inspection of Fruit  46
Inspection of Potatoes   46 Contents. ix.
Report of Markets Commissioner and Inspector in Charge of Exports—Concluded.
Local Markets    46
Summary   48
Vegetables    47
Weekly Reports   46
Report of South Okanagan Fruit and Vegetable Experimental Station, Summerland—J. L.
Cantaloupes     50
Cucumbers  50
Egg-plant     50
Peppers  49
Tomatoes  49
Report of Plant Pathologist—J. W. Eastham—
Apple-scab    52
Anthracnose     51
Blight,  Fire     53
Blight, Late    53
Codling-moth  54
Diseases, Potato   ,  54
Diseases, New  51
Educational Work  56
Experiments, Field   51
Fusarium Rots  54
Peach-worm  53
Silver Scurf    54
Twig-borer  53
Vernon Office    55
Report of Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock—W. H. Lyne—
Buildings, Fumigation   58
Diseases infecting Imported Nursery Stock  59
Fumigation, Experimental    58
Importation, Fruit  60
Importation, Potato    60
Imported Nursery Stock must come to Vancouver   59
Insects infecting Imported Nursery Stock   59
Insects infecting Rice, etc :  58
Mediterranean Fruit-fly  57
Nursery Stock condemned  59
Nursery Stock Imports    59
Protest, Rice-millers  58
Regulations, Dominion  60
-Staff     56
Tuber-moth    ,  57
Weevil     57
Report of Live Stock Commissioner—W. T. McDonald—
Brands     65
British Columbia * Goat-breeders' Association    66
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association   65
Clubs, Boys' and Girls'  65
Conditions    61
Dairy Division   63
District Agriculturists   64
Farmers'  Institutes  66
Poultry   Division     64
Silos     65
Soil and Crop Division  63
Veterinary Division    62 x. Contents.
Report of Dairy Instructor and Inspector—T. A. F. Wiancko—
British Columbia Dairymen's Association    70
Canadian National Record of Performance  68
Cheese-making     67
Cow-testing Associations  6S
Creameries     67
Dairies,  City     67
" Dairies Regulation Act "   6S
Dairy Industry  66
Demonstrations, Dairy  70
Fairs   70
Lectures   70
Office-work     70
Prices of Dairy Products  66
Testers, Official Milk  69
Tests Official  68
Report of Poultry Instructor—J. R. Terry—
Association, Provincial Poultry  72
Breeding-stations   75
Clubs  74
Competitions, Boys' and Girls'  74
Conditions    71
Demonstrations     71
Diseases  75
Egg-laying Contest    73
" Eggs Marks Act "   73
Fairs   72
Inspection  75
Instruction     75
Lectures   71
Office-work  76
Publications     75
Rabbit-breeding     71
Returned Wounded Soldiers, Instruction to  74
Show Groups, British Columbia  >  73
Report of Soil and Crop Instructors—H. O. English and E. W. Hogan—
Co-operative Variety Testing  82
Correspondence  85
Cost of Production Survey   S4
Demonstration Clover and Alfalfa Hulling   80
Demonstration Seed-cleaning  SI
Demonstration Stations  76
Demonstration Underdrainage  80
Field-crop competitions    SI
Inspection, Farm and Crop   85
Meetings  85
Seed Fairs  82
Short Courses  S5
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector—A. Knight—
Abortion, Contagious    86
Dairies and Stables, Sanitary Condition of  86
Influenza     86
Tuberculosis     86
Verminous Bronchitis  86
Report of District Agriculturist, Kamloops District—G. C. Hay—
Activities    S7 Contents. xi.
Report of District Agriculturist, Kamloops District—Concluded.
Competitions,  Field        88
Crops        87
Fairs        88
Live Stock     87
Report of Silo Demonstrator—R. J. Ferris     88
Report of Agriculturist and Acting-Editor—M. A. Stuart     89
Report of Secretary—W. J. Bonavia—
Associations, iVgricultural Fairs        92
Bee Inspection      92
British Columbia Students     91
Correspondence        90
Farmers' Institutes     93
Financial        90
Horticultural Licences      92
Noxious Weeds       95
Seed-grain Distribution      91
Staff        89
Women's Institutes      94
Report of Statistics Branch—A. B: Tweddle—
Consumption per Capita      97
Correspondents, Crop      97
Cost of Production  '..    97
Exports—Collection of Data     97
Imports—Collection of Data     97
Production, Statistics relating to      98
Publications        97
Results, Comparative      97
Results of 1917 Methods      96
Scope     90
Report of Foul-brood Inspector, Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island Districts—F. D.
Activities       99
Crop, Honey    100
Disease      99
Foul-brood ;    99
Season        99
Report of Foul-brood Inspector, Okanagan and Thompson River Districts—L. Harris—
Exhibits     100
Foul-brood   100
Organization    100
Season     100
Report of Foul-brood Inspector, Kootenay and Boundary Districts—W. J. Shephard—
Bees in Orchards   101
Crop, Honey   '   101
Demonstrations     101
Experiments    '  101
Foul-brood   102
Honey Sources    101
Loss, Winter   101
Report of Secretary, Advisory Board, Women's Institutes—Mrs. M. S. Davies—
Advisory Board    102
Clubs, Boys' and Girls'  102
Conferences   102
Flower-shows     _ 102
Lectures   _ 102
Patriotic Work     102 xii. Contents.
Report of Secretary, Advisory Board, Women's Institutes—Concluded.
Programmes     102
Publications      102
School-work      102
Appendix No.—
1. Pruning-schools    104
2. Packing-schools    105
3. Fruit and Vegetables received at Vancouver, 1917    107
4. Stocks of Fruit and Vegetables on hand, Vancouver    107
5. Receipts and Expenditures, Southern Okanagan Fruit and Vegetable Experimental
Station     10S
6. Chilliwack Cow-testing Association    109
7. Records of Individual Cows, British Columbia    110
8. Creameries in British Columbia    Ill
9. Summary of Creamery Report  Ill
10. Examination for Tester's Licence, " Dairies Regulation Act "     112
11. Egg-laying Contest   113
11a. Summary of Egg-laying Contest   :   114
12. Poultry Associations     115
13. Fertilizer Tests with Potatoes    116
14. Crop Competitions—Yields, Costs, etc  110
15. Tuberculin Tests     117
16. Silos built   US
17. Silos filled      118
IS. Temporary Staff appointed    119
19. Correspondence received and dispatched    120
20. Publications issued by Department    121
21. Publications sent out     122
22. Summary of Appropriations    124
23. " Agricultural Instruction Act"      125
24. Provincial Votes    126
25. Fairs arranged   126
26. Grants to Agricultural Associations    128
27. Expenditure in Aid of Farmers' Institutes   129
28. Farmers' Institute Meetings    129
29. Expenditures in Aid of Women's Institutes    131
30. Women's Institute Flower-shows     132 BRITISH   COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT  OF AGRICULTURE.
Minister of Agriculture:
Hon. John Oliver.
Deputy Minister:
Wm. E. Scott.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
A. B. Tweddle.
Secretary to Minister:
E. J. Rossiter.
Horticultural Branch:
R. M. Winslow, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests to July
7th, and Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests from July 7th to
December 31st.
B. Hoy, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
IL Thornber, B.S., Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
E. W. White, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
P. E. French, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
E. C. Hunt, B.S., .Bering Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of -Fruit Pests.
W. H. Robertson, B.S..1., Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests   (on
active service).
M. H. Chesbro, B.S., Assistant District Fruit Pest Inspector.
W. T. Hunter, B.S.A., Assistant District Fruit Pest Inspector.
J. Tait, Assistant District Fruit Pest Inspector.
H. H. Evans, Assistant District Fruit Pest Inspector.
C. R. Barlow, District Fruit Inspector.
H. Guttehidge, Assistant Potato Inspector and Investigator of Potato-diseases.
R. C. H-iBBOTT, Coast Markets Commissioner and Inspector in Charge of Exports.
W. E. McTaggart, Prairie Markets Commissioner.
J. A. Grant, Prairie Fruit Markets Commissioner, succeeding W. E. McTaggart.
J. L. Hilborn, in charge, Fruit and Vegetable Experimental Station, Summerland.
S. LeC. Grant, Caretaker, Demonstration Plot, Bella Coola.
H. T. Thompson, District Fruit Pest Inspector.
E; W. Buckell, Inspector on Codling-moth.
J. R. Cheesman, Inspector on Codling-moth.
Imported Fruit Inspection Branch:
W. H. Lyne, Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Rice, etc.
D. Gavet, Assistant Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Rice, etc.
W. J. Graham, Assistant Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Rice, etc.
H. F. Olds, Assistant Inspector of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, etc. XIV.
Branches and Staff Members.
Plant Pathology aiul Entomology Branch:
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist.
M. H. Ruhmann, Assistant Plant Pathologist.
Live Stock Branch:
W. T. McDonald, M.S.A., Live Stock Commissioner.
S. H. Hopkins, B.S.A., Assistant Live Stock Commissioner.
H. Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Instructor and Inspector (on active service).
T. A. F. Wiancko, Dairy Instructor and Inspector.
J. R. Terry, Instructor in Poultry-raising.
H. E. Upton, Assistant Instructor in Poultry-raising.
H. O. English, B.A., B.S.A., Soil and Crop Instructor.
E. W. HoGniN, B.S.A., Soil and Crop Instructor.
W. Newton, Soil and Crop Instructor (on active service).
H. E. Walker, B.S.A., Agriculturist.
G. C. Hay, B.S.A., Agriculturist.
J. H. McCulloch, B.S.A., Agriculturist.
S. F. Dunlop, B.S.A., Agriculturist (on active service).
Dr. A. Knight, V.S., Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. S. A. K. White, V.S., Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. W. W. Alton, V.S., Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. B. R. Ilsley, V.S., Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
E. Rive, Official Milk-tester.
G. H. Thornbery, Cow-tester.
J. B. Watson, Official Milk-tester.
R. J. Ferris, Silo Demonstrator.
W. H. Stroyan, Poultry Caretaker.
F. D. Todd, Victoria.
Foul-brood Inspectors:
W. J. Shephard, Nelson.
L. Harris, Vernon.
Women's Institutes:
Mrs. M. S. Davies, Secretary, Advisory Board.
Mrs. J. S. Chalmers, Lecturer.
G. B. Martin.
G. L. Foulkes  (on active service).
L. Flett.
C. P. L. Pearson.
T. Williams.
Geo. Pilmer.
F. Babington
R. E. Mitchell.
M. Patchett.
G. S. Rothwell.
J. H. Buckett.
E. Hill.
G. H. Stewart  (on active service).
A. H. Shotbolt, General Assistant.
D. E. Mackereth, Carpenter.
Publications Branch:
J. R. McLennan, Editor.
M. A. Stuart, Agriculturist and Acting-Editor. REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
Wm. E. Scott.
Hon. John Oliver,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report on agricultural conditions and the
work of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1917.
The total value of agricultural production for the past year shows an increase in value in
excess of $3,000,000 over 1916. This is due to the high prices which have prevailed for practically
all lines of farm produce. Actual production, however, shows a slight decrease, due to the acute
labour shortage which exists and to the unfavourable climatic conditions which prevailed in
many of the farming sections of the Province, and which materially curtailed production.
Crop Conditions. i
The year 1917 was an unfavourable one for our agriculturists in most parts of the Province.
On Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland tbe spring was cold and backward, with persistent
wet weather at seeding-time, -which delayed unduly the seeding of low-lying lands. The summer
months were exceptionally dry and crops on light soils consequently suffered. In the Southern
Interior districts an exceptionally hot, dry summer seriously affected crops, especially in those
parts in which irrigation is not practised. In the dry-farming areas especially, crops were very
light and in some cases a total failure. In the cattle-raising districts of the Thompson and
Nicola Valleys, Cariboo, Lillooet, and Chilcotin, whilst field crops were below normal, range
lands were in good condition and cattle and sheep did well. In the farming districts between
Prince Rupert and Tete Jaune Cache, adjacent to the line of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway,
the season was on the whole a favourable one. Hay and grain crops yielded well and were of
excellent quality. Summer frosts occurred in places and did some damage to crops, more
especially root-crops. In the Pouce Coupe and Fort St. John districts of the Peace River
country good crops were secured. A considerable settlement of these districts has taken place
during the past few years and crop production has consequently been largely increased. A very
considerable amount of grain is now grown.
Farm Crops.
Wheat.—The wheat-crop of the Province shows a lighter yield per acre, due to an unfavourable season in many districts, but there was a considerable increase in the acreage sown to this
crop. This increase is particularly noticeable in the Peace River District, in dry-farming areas,
Cariboo, Lillooet, Thompson, Nicola, and Okanagan. The crop -was of good quality and on the
whole harvested in excellent condition. The growing of winter wheat should be practised more
extensively by farmers in many of our districts, especially on Vancouver Island and the Lower
Mainland, on high-lying lands. It has been clearly demonstrated that winter wheat will give
better yields than spring wheat on lands of this description.
Oats.—This is our principal grain-crop. The yield was below the average. Late crops on
Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland suffered from wet weather in the month of September.
Excellent crops were grown in Central British Columbia and the Peace River country. Production shows a slight decrease as compared with the previous year.
Barley.—This crop is not grown to the extent it should be. Good crops are secured in
practically all parts of the Province, and, considering its value as a stock-food, it should be
grown more extensively by farmers who keep stock, especially hogs. N 2 . Department of .Agriculture. 1918
Peas.—The extremely high price of seed-peas has prevented any extensive seeding of this
crop by farmers. Peas and oats are generally grown, cut green, and used either as a roughage
or for ensilage purposes. It is a favourite crop with dairymen, who find it very suitable for
milk production.
Hay.—The hay-crop was a fair one and generally harvested in good condition. There is a
decrease in the quantity of natural meadow and clover and timothy hay grown in the Province,
due principally to the fact that the high cost of grain has resulted in farmers ploughing up some
of their hay lands and seeding to grain.
Alfalfa.—The acreage devoted to growing this valuable fodder-crop is rapidly increasing,
especially in the irrigated districts of Southern British Columbia, where three cuttings of this
nutritious grass are generally made, with a yield in many cases ranging from 5 to S tons per
acre. Good results are being obtained by many of our farmers in pasturing hogs on alfalfa,
and it is also, of course, of great value for ensilage purposes.
Corn.—The year was an unfavourable one for corn, the yield being generally light. The
acreage devoted to the growing of fodder corn is increasing very rapidly, principally owing to
the extensive use of silos, which are now being built over practically all our farming districts.
Potatoes.—There was a considerable increase in the acreage planted to this crop, but the
yield was lighter, being approximately 95 per cent, of a normal crop. Tubers were small, and
consequently the amount available for commercial use was materially reduced. There was also
a considerable amount of disease in the potato-crop. Farmers should be more careful in the
selection of seed, and in all instances should treat their seed before planting it.
Roots.—The acreage devoted to roots showed a material decrease, due principally to the
acute farm-labour shortage.    The crop was considerably below normal.
Other Vegetables.—These were generally a fair crop, but light in some districts owing to
unfavourable weather conditions.
Tree-fruits. The crop of tree-fruits was light but of good quality in the Coast districts.
In the important fruit-growing centres of the Interior the crop was on the whole a good one.
The fruit was of excellent quality and very free from disease. There was an increase of
approximately 15 per cent, over 1916 in the Okanagan Valley. In the Boundary, Kettle Valley,
and Kootenay Districts the crop was a light one, the fruit being clean, but small in size.
Small Fruits.—The strawberry-crop on Vancouver Island was a light one, but the berries
were of excellent quality and the crop was successfully harvested and marketed. The picking
season, owing to the hot, dry weather which prevailed at picking-time, was of exceptionally short
duration, with a resultant curtailment of the crop. Raspberries also were a light crop, but on
the whole gave satisfactory returns to the growers. Some damage was done by wet weather at
the picking season.
Live Stock.
Dairying.—The dairying industry has suffered owing to the labour shortage, which has
caused many dairymen with limited means to sell off or curtail their herds.
Beef Cattle.—The year was a successful one for beef cattle, the ranges of the Interior
affording good pasturage.
Hogs.—The high prices prevailing as a result of the world shortage of hogs have encouraged
farmers to keep more of this stock, and the patriotic appeal to farmers for increased hog
production has met with a ready response from them, and we may anticipate a large increase
in hog production during the present year.
Sheep.—The high prices of mutton and wool have given a decided stimulus to the sheep
industry. In many of the Interior districts of Southern British Columbia there are considerable
flocks of sheep which are proving very remunerative to their fortunate owners. The " Sheep
Protection Act," passed at the last session of the Provincial Legislature, provides means whereby
owners of sheep are protected from the ravages of dogs. The south-eastern part of Vancouver
Island, with the adjacent Gulf Islands, has been proclaimed a sheep district under the Act, and
beneficial results are apparent. There is a great scarcity of breeding ewes, and this, added to
the very high price, makes it difficult for those who wish to start in the sheep-raising industry
to make a beginning. There are many suitable areas for sheep-raising in the Province, and we
may look forward to a rapid development in the near future of this phase of the live-stock
industry. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 3
Poultry.—The excessive cost of poultry-feeds has militated against the development of the
poultry industry. Farmers who are in a position to raise on their farms the necessary poultry-
feeds are making good profits with the high prices that have prevailed for poultry products, but
the poultryman on the small holding who has to purchase all his poultry-feed finds it difficult
to make a satisfactory profit, and many of these poultrymen have consequently gone out of the
Goats.—Many people in the Province are giving attention to the keeping of goats, which
are of great service to small land-owners who are unable to keep a cow. Goats are also very
useful for land-clearing purposes, and there are many parts of our Province where these could
be ranged in large numbers; and with the very high prices prevailing for mohair, there should
be good returns to be made out of goat-raising in suitable localities. A Goat-breeders' Association has been formed and has now a considerable membership. Importations of pure-bred goats
have been made into the Province, and it is likely that in the near future this industry will
become firmly established in certain parts of the Province.
As a result of the great world war, immigration to our Province has materially declined.
A considerable settlement has, however, taken place recently in the Dominion Peace River Block,
more particularly in the Pouce Coupe and Fort St. John Districts; the completion of the
Dunvegan-British Columbia Railway to Spirit River, which is distant about seventy miles from
Pouce Coupe, has facilitated ingress to this fine agricultural district. At the present time all
business from the Peace River country goes to the Province of Alberta, and will, of course,
remain so until an outlet has been afforded to our Coast cities by the completion of railway
transportation. What settlement is taking place is practically all from the United States and
the neighbouring Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. The scarcity of labour
and the high cost of stumping-powder have also proved detrimental factors to the settlement
of our vacant lands.
British Columbia, in common with all other countries, is suffering from an acute labour
shortage, and this especially applies to farm labour. When we consider that not less than
40,000,000 producers from the soil are either fighting or engaged in other lines of war-work, it
is not to be wondered at that labour should be scarce. Whilst our farmers by dint of hard work
and strenuous effort have kept production nearly up to the level of the previous year, unless
some solution to the labour problem can be found immediately our production must show a
further falling-off in 1918. Efforts have been made towards the mobilization of our home supply
of labour, and by a proper and effective organization of our women and boys from public and
high schools the .situation can no doubt be materially improved and alleviated. We see what the
women of Great Britain and France are doing on the farms, and the time has come when women
of Canada must also come to the rescue and help in our fields and orchards, so that we may
not only maintain our production, but increase it. Food is now the vital factor in the war, and
America and Canada are being called upon to supply large quantities, so that our fighting forces
and those of our Allies and the civilian population may be sufficiently fed. Throughout the
Dominion strenuous efforts are being made to solve the labour problem and to produce the
foodstuffs so vitally needed.
Increased Hog Production.
Bacon is the fighting food and must be supplied to the fighting forces in sufficient quantities.
A campaign for increased hog production is being vigorously prosecuted throughout the Dominion
and good results are expected. An energetic publicity campaign is being carried out by our
Department, and we have thoroughly competent men in the field who are holding publicity
meetings for farmers, visiting them on their farms, in order to discuss ways and means, and
generally to advise how they may keep more hogs and raise them economically and profitably.
Food-conservation. ,
A Dominion-wide appeal has been made directed towards the conservation of beef, bacon,
and wheat-flour, the exportable products needed by the Entente nations. The public of Canada
are being asked to conserve these foods by voluntary saving, by using perishable products in N 4 Department of Agriculture. 1918
their place, and by eliminating all waste. Already a good response has been made by the people
of British Columbia. " Increased production, conservation of exportable products, and the
elimination of waste " is the slogan for 1918, and all departmental officials are featuring this in
their work amongst farmers.
Activities op Department or h^griculture.
Owing to the depletion of the staff of agricultural experts and the curtailment of Provincial
appropriations, the educational activities of the Department have of necessity been somewhat
reduced, but every effort has been made to maintain our chief lines of work in a state of
Live Stock Branch.
The work of the Live Stock Branch has been actively maintained under the direction of
Live Stock Commissioner W. T. McDonald.
Veterinary Inspection.—An active campaign was undertaken by the Veterinary Inspection
Division towards the control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis amongst our dairy herds,
and with very satisfactory results. There were 15,398 dairy cows tested during the year. Out
of this number there were 579 reactors, or a percentage of 3.8. The result of the aggressive work
of previous years directed towards the control of this insidious disease—which is not only a
serious menace to the public health, but is also a cause of great economic loss to dairymen—is
plainly evidenced by the substantial decrease in the percentage of reactors to the test, and is
also shown by the lessened degree of infection. A vigorous continuation of the work will
undoubtedly result in the practical elimination of this disease from our dairy herds.
Demonstration Plots.—Work on the various demonstration plots which has been carried on
for the last few years was discontinued at the end of the year, as it was considered that the
object for which these plots were originally established had been practically accomplished.
It was also thought that the money used on this work might now be more profitably employed
in other lines of work. Valuable data and information have been secured by the Department,
which will later be published in bulletin form for the information and guidance of farmers.
There were eight of these demonstration stations operated under the supervision of the Soils
and Crop Division during 1917, being located at Armstrong, Chilliwack, Edgewood, Errington,
Pitt Meadows, Grand Forks, Rock Creek, and Rose Hill. Work on the demonstration plot at
Pitt Meadows will be continued during the present year.
Cow-testing Associations.—The work of the Cow-testing Associations at Chilliwack, Langley,
Surrey, Delta, and Comox continues to hold the interest of farmers in this important phase of
their dairy operations. Results obtained by keeping careful records of weights and tests of each
cow's milk, together with the approximate cost of her feed, have been most useful, in that the
farmer has been able to intelligently weed out his poor cows and save for breeding purposes the
progeny of his profitable cows. There is no doubt that these associations have been the means
of starting some of our progressive owners of high-producing dairy cows on the way to permanent
success, and have by example assisted to a great extent many other dairymen. This work
could be largely increased and extended if suitably trained men were available as Supervisors.
Great difficulty has been experienced in securing efficient testers, owing to enlistments and the
general scarcity of help and the high prices being paid for ordinary labour.
Crop Competitions.—Many competitions in the growing of various field crops were carried
out during the year under the auspices of Farmers' Institutes, and on the whole they were very
successful, and keen rivalry was shown by competitors in their work. By encouraging a spirit
of friendly rivalry between farmers in this manner, undoubtedly better farming methods are
engendered. The value of the work is plainly evidenced by the better farming methods which
are now practised in the districts in which these competitions have been held for a number of
j*ears, and in the heavier crops which are now produced. Eighty competitions were carried out,
with a total entry-list of 718 plots. The crops grown in these competitions were potatoes, oats,
grain-hay, wheat, mangels, carrots, corn, clover, alfalfa, turnips, and kale. It is anticipated that
there will be a large increase in this important educative work during 1918, and plans are now
being made to carry out the work to the best advantage.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.—Boys' and Girls' Clubs have proven a very important line of
agricultural extension work, and the results have been very gratifying.    During the year 1917 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 5
there were thirty clubs and forty competitions held. Plans are being made to emphasize the
pig-raising competitions during the year 1918. It is hoped that a closer supervision of the work
of the boys and girls may be feasible in future.
Co-operative Variety Testing.—Good educative work has been carried out among our farmers
by means of supplying selected seed of various kinds to farmers in different districts in order
to try out their merits. The scarcity of reliable information as to varieties of mixed-farming
crops suited to soil and climatic conditions in different districts has resulted in each farmer
growing those varieties which he considered best. By the distributon of samples of first-class
seeds of the more important field crops to farmers more uniformity in crop production has been
ensured, and this very important work will be further extended during the present year.
Drainage Experimental Work.—The need for underdrainage in certain parts of our unirri-
gated districts has become more evident each year. In order to find out how this matter may
best be handled, the Department secured a Cyclone ditcher and offered to loan this machine,
together with the services of a drainage expert, to the farmers free of charge. Unfortunately,
through some delay, the machine was late in being delivered, and we were therefore not able
to carry out as much experimental work as we had intended. Seven farmers, however, availed
themselves of this offer during 1917. The official in charge of this work visited various farms
wherever fields needed drainage and advised the various owners as to how they might best
handle the situation. It is anticipated that this experimental work will result in showing
farmers how they can reduce the labour incidental to work of this nature.
Pitt Meadows Demonstration Station.—The site for this station was chosen in 1916, being
located on the farm of F. V. Harris. Work was commenced in the autumn of 1916, when the
land was ploughed deeply and a system of tile draining installed. The demonstration-work was
commenced in 1917. Valuable data have been secured as a consequence of the operations on
this plot as to the best methods of soil-treatment on peat lands. Whilst some very striking
results were obtained, it will be necessary to continue the work for several years before the
Department will be in a position to make any definite recommendations as to how the soils of
the Pitt Meadows may best be handled and the highest crop production secured. The investigational and experimental work being carried out on this plot should prove of inestimable value
to farmers in the Pitt Meadows District and other places where they have similar soil conditions.
Dry-farming Experimental Stations.—The Department of Agriculture took over the management of the dry-farming stations at Quilchena and 105-Mile House at the beginning of April,
1917. A larger number of live stock is being maintained on these farms than formerly, and
they are being placed on a self-supporting basis by reducing the extent of experimental work
with grains.    More or less extensive work will be carried on with grasses and other forage-crops.
Silo-construction.—The Department of Agriculture commenced their campaign for the
increase of silos in 1914. In that year three silo-filling demonstrations were given in Chilliwack.
At that time there were about forty silos in the Province; to-day there are approximately 525.
Of this number there have been erected by the Department's representatives fifty-three, or
10 per cent, of the actual number. More than 50 per cent, of the silos in the Province are of
the type which have been advocated by the Department from the commencement of the campaign.
I consider this work one of the most valuable lines which has been undertaken by the Department. The silo-construction work was carried out hand in hand with a corn-growing campaign.
Silos are being rapidly constructed in all parts of the Province, especially in those districts
where corn can be successfully grown. Dairymen who have silos universally state that they are
getting infinitely better returns than they did before they had them. By means of the silo the
farmer is able to cut down very largely on the expensive grain ration and feed his dairy and
other stock far more economically and profitably. Oats and peas give ensilage of a quality
equal to that of corn and are being grown by many of our farmers. British Columbia will
shortly become the silo Province of the Dominion, and there is nothing that will do more to
further the dairy industry and to increase milk production than the use of silos by our farmers.
Horticultural Branch.
The work of this Branch is ably directed by M. S. Middleton, Provincial Horticulturist and
Inspector of Fruit Pests, who was promoted to the position rendered vacant by the retirement
earlier in the year of R. M. Winslow, who for so many years energetically and faithfully
administered the work of this Branch. Demonstration Orchards.—The work on demonstration and experimental orchards has been
discontinued, the orchards which were started some years ago having run the time agreed upon
between the Department and the owners. Much valuable data have been secured by their
operations as to the varieties best adapted to the respective districts, right methods of orchard
practice, control of insect pests, diseases, etc., which have proved of great .value to our fruitgrowers.
Control of Insect Pests and Diseases.—Efficient work has been carried out by officials of
this Branch towards demonstrating to fruit and vegetable growers the most effective and
economical methods of controlling and eradicating insect pests and diseases affecting fruits and
vegetables. Special efforts have been directed towards the control and, if possible, eradication
of the codling-moth, which has'obtained a foothold in some sections of the Province. Very
satisfactory results have been obtained in our strenuous fight against this serious pest which
has caused such a great economic loss in other countries in which it is prevalent. R. C. Treherne,
representative in this Province of Dr. Gordon Hewitt, Dominion Entomologist, has carried out
valuable investigation and research work in the life-history of the codling-moth, which has
proved of material assistance to the officials of this Department and to our growers in combating
the pest. This co-operation on the part of the Federal Government in this important work is
highly appreciated.
Fire-blight.—It is satisfactory to report that fire-blight is now well under control. It is
necessary, however, that our fruit-growers be vigilant and keep a close watch on their orchards
for any reappearance of this serious bacterial pest, which has caused the loss of thousands of
fruit-trees in the Okanagan Valley and other fruit districts in the Interior. Demonstration-work
directed towards showing the most effective method of control of the apple and pear blight has
been strikingly successful, and fruit-growers have had it clearly demonstrated to them that this
disease, which annually causes a great loss, can be kept almost completely uuder control by-
spraying with correct mixtures at the right time. Thanks to the capable and energetic work
carried out by R. C. Treherne and Dr. Cameron, Assistant Entomologist to Dr. Gordon Hewitt,
Domiuion Entomologist, in co-operatioii with officials of the Horticultural Branch, the pear-thrip,
which was commencing to work such havoc in orchards on Vancouver Island, more particularly
those adjacent to the City of Victoria, has been effectively handled. The work carried out by
these officials has clearly shown fruit-growers how the damage caused by these pests may by
the adoption of right methods be reduced to a minimum. The thanks of this Department and all
fruit-growers must be accorded to tbe Dominion Entomologist and his competent assistants for
the valuable services they have rendered.
Fruit-packing Schools.—The policy of the Department of holding fruit-packing schools in
different fruit districts in order to teach correct methods of grading and packing fruit, and
thereby providing a corps of expert packers amongst our young men and women who are available
when their services are required for putting up ready for market our various fruits, was further
extended in 1917, and in conjunction with the Education Department, who arranged classes to
be held for high-school boys and girls, no less than sixty-one schools were successfully held. The
total number of pupils at these classes was 1,037. With very few exceptions there was a full
attendance, and great interest and application was shown by those taking the classes. In the
case of adults the classes were of five and three days' duration, with six hours' tuition a day.
In the case of schools for boys and girls from our high aud public schools the classes were of
ten days' duration, with three hours' tuition a day. Competent instructors were furnished by
the Department. An entrance fee of $1 was charged; all other expenses were paid conjointly
by the Agriculture and Education Departments. The value of this work, which is now in its
fifth year, is plainly apparent in the steady improvement of the quality of the pack of fruit put
up in our fruit districts, which bears favourable comparison with that of our United States
Pruning-schools.—A number of pruning-schools were held by our officials in the different
fruit districts. This work is very necessary. Many thousands of boxes of fruit have been lost
in past years by injudicious and incorrect pruning, and it is with the object of avoiding future
loss from this cause that these pruning-schools are held. Much interest is shown in them by
fruit-growers and they are well attended.
Experimental and Demonstration Spraying.—The officials of the Horticultural Branch, in
co-operation with the Provincial Plant Pathologist, have been conducting plots at different points 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 7
in the Province, viz.: Salmon Arm, Vernon, Kelowna, Needles, Nelson, and Creston, for the
control of apple-scab; at Keating for the control of apple anthracnose; and at Royal Oak, in
co-operation with the Dominion Entomological officials, for the control of pear-thrips. All these
demonstrations have proven very successful and instructive to growers in the different districts.
They have proven conclusively in each case that these pests can by proper application of the right
materials at the correct time be successfully controlled from a commercial standpoint. They
have in all cases verified the information given out by the Department in the most impressive
Horticultural Competitions.—During 1917, twenty-seven different horticultural competitions
were held in various parts of the Province, with very excellent results. Twelve farm garden,
eight city garden, three strawberry, two bearing orchard, one raspberry, and one onion competition were conducted. The interest created by these competitions wherever they were held has
greatly encouraged the growing of better crops and increased production generally. The farrn-
and city-garden competitions have encouraged the growing of fresh vegetables, etc., to supply the
home needs throughout the season, with very gratifying results.
Southern Okanagan Vegetable and Fruit Station, Summerland.—The principal aim at this
station was to demonstrate that by practising proper methods tender-vegetable crops can be
profitably and successfully grown in this section of the Province. The yields and returns which
Mr. Hilborn, who is in charge, has obtained at the station this year fully justified the undertaking,
and will lead to the encouragement of other growers taking up this profitable line of crops.
The demand for these vegetable-crops—such as tomatoes, egg-plant, cucumbers, and cantaloupes—
is growing very rapidly; in fact, much faster than the production can take care of it, and the
accurate data as to yields, costs, and returns furnished by Mr. Hilborn are of the greatest value
as information to this Department.
Coast Markets Commissioner and Inspector of Exports.—R. C. Abbott is our Markets Commissioner and is stationed in the City of Vancouver. Very valuable work has been done by this
official in the way of helping farmers and fruit-growers to find the best markets for their produce.
By means of a weekly market report Mr. Abbott keeps farmers in close touch with market
conditions, crises, etc., and this information has undoubtedly resulted in saving farmers many
thousands of dollars. Mr. Abbott as an Inspector under the " Eggs Marks Act" has done good
work in the City of Vancouver in seeing that the provisions of the Act are being observed.
Several prosecutions for violations of the Act have been instituted and offenders fined, and in
consequence the Act is now being well observed by dealers in Vancouver. A very important
work carried out by Mr. Abbott is that of the inspection of potatoes for export. All potatoes
shipped to markets outside the Province are inspected by our men, and if found free from disease
a certificate is granted; if not, they are not allowed to be shipped out and may be sold to
evaporators or in our local markets. As a result of this work the standard of our potatoes has
been well maintained in foreign markets and a good export business has been built up.
Prairie Markets Commissioner.—J. A. Grant was appointed, on the retirement of Mr.
McTaggart, to fill the position of Prairie Markets Commissioner. Valuable services have been
rendered to our farmers marketing their fruits and vegetables in the Provinces of the Middle
West by our Commissioner. A weekly markets report was issued throughout the season from
the Calgary office by Mr. Grant, and both fruit-growers and shipping organizations were kept
well posted on prices, condition of shipments on arrival, best markets, etc. Valuable publicity
work was also carried out and every effort made to encourage the policy of Canadian fruit for
Canadian people. As a result of the vigorous campaign directed towards popularizing British
Columbia fruits and vegetables in the markets of the North-west, dealers, other things being
equal, will always now give the preference to the British Columbia products. The grade and
pack of our fruits bears favourable comparison with the best shipped from the United States.
Fruit-growers, however, must not rest content on their laurels, but continue to improve each
year, for it will only be by their putting up an honest and -attractive pack that they will be
able successfully to hold their own against the keen competition that they will inevitably have
to face from their United States neighbours.
General Field-work
Probably the most valuable results obtained by District Agriculturists and assistants,
Horticulturists and assistants of the Dairy, Poultry, Live Stock, and Soils and Crops Branches N 8 Department of Agriculture. 1918
are by means of personal visits made to farmers and fruit-growers. It is by visiting the farmer
on his place, discussing with him his problems and difficulties, and endeavouring to help him to
find a satisfactory solution to them that the most useful and valuable work can be done, and
farmers encouraged and educated along lines of better farming, which naturally leads to better
crops, better stock, and more production. The greater part of the time of our officials is employed
in this manner. It has been the experience of other countries that the best results can be
obtained and farmers assisted to the best advantage by means of the appointment of men of the
right type as District Representatives in the various districts. By their means the Department
and farmers are drawn into a closer and more sympathetic touch, which ensures results in better
and more effective work.
Noxious Weeds.
It is regrettable to have to report the continued spread of noxious weeds in the Province.
Farmers do not sufficiently realize their responsibility in the matter. The " Noxious Weeds
Act " is a stringent one. To see that it is enforced in their district is the duty of farmers.
All Provincial constables are Inspectors under the Act, and in the event of neglect to observe
the provisions of the Act Provincial constables should be informed. It would then be their
duty to take the necessary action to compel delinquents to effectively destroy noxious weeds
on their lands, so that they may not prove a menace to their more progressive neighbours
who are endeavouring to keep their lands clean. Whilst it would be manifestly impossible to
undertake the destruction of noxious weeds on all wild lands in uncultivated areas, every effort
should be made to deal with weeds in settled agricultural communities, and the destruction of
weeds on public roads passing through such areas should be taken in hand by the Public Works
Department. It is the duty of all municipalities to take care of the noxious-weeds question
within the confines of their municipality, and a rigid enforcement of the Act by municipalities
will materially help to combat this evil. Weeds can be effectively handled and are not feared
by the up-to-date farmer who follows a proper crop-rotation method, and it is only by these
means that weeds can be effectively kept under control on the farm.
Pathological and Entomological Work.
This work is under the direction of J. W. Eastham, Plant Pathologist. We have two
laboratories in which investigational and research work is carried out—at the Court-house,
Vernon, and at the Court-house, Vancouver. Mr. Ruhmann, Assistant Entomologist, is in charge
of the laboratory at Vernon and carries on all entomological work. A very satisfactory arrangement, through the courtesy of Dr. Gordon Hewitt, has been made between this Department and
that of the Dominion Entomologist, whereby all entomological work in the Province will in future
be carried out under the direction of R. C. Treherne, assistant to Dr. Gordon Hewitt, and his
representative in our Province. This co-operation of the Federal Government so kindly given
by Dr. Hewitt is much appreciated, and will tend to better and more effective entomological
work being carried on. Mr. Eastham will concentrate his energies on the study of plant-diseases
and in general pathological investigation and research work, so that our farmers and fruitgrowers may be put in possession of the best information with regard to methods of control of
plant-diseases and thereby safeguard themselves from economic loss. Full sets of the different
plant-diseases and their different steps of development have been prepared by Mr. Eastham and
are put up in Riker mounts. Similar work is being carried out in the laboratory at Vernon by
Mr. Ruhmann with regard to insect pests. During the year field-work is carried out by these
officials, and advice and assistance given to fruit-growers on their places with reference to correct
methods of treatment and control.
Inspection of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock.
This work is carried out under the supervision of W. H. Lyne, Inspector of Imported Fruit
and Nursery Stock. The Provincial Fumigation and Inspection Station is situated in the City
of Vancouver. All importations of nursery stock, trees, plants, etc., have to come direct to
Vancouver, where they are thoroughly inspected by our officials. If found free from disease
they are forwarded without delay to destination. If found infected with any serious disease
or pest they may be destroyed or fumigated as occasion demands. A rigid system of inspection
is maintained, and by this means the Province undoubtedly has been safeguarded from the H
*" i': " ,--
■ ,-
" "Hsi
- ■-,..-.. -
...        .. A.;>-i  . .•/
Corn-field  near  Nanaimo,   B.C.
British Columbia wheat-crop.    Averages 27.57  bushels per acre. Model   dairy-farm.   Vancouver   Island.
Good   stand   of   corn   near   Victoria.    A'ancouver   Island.
Thirty   tons   to   the   acre. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 9
introduction of the -most serious pests which have worked such havoc in other countries and
been the cause of great economic loss. Inspection is maintained on all importations of corn,
rice, grain, etc., and fumigation, when necessary, undertaken both at Vancouver and Victoria.
Quarantine officials have been appointed at all points of entry into the Province, and a careful
watch is kept on all importations of fruit and vegetables from United States points, so that the
Province may be protected from the introduction of codling-moth, San Jose scale, and any other
injurious pest or disease. Through an arrangement made between the Federal and Provincial
Governments, the Province undertakes the work of enforcing the provisions of the Dominion
" Injurious Insect and Pest Act," which provides for inspection at Vancouver. Previous to this
arrangement a double inspection was carried on at Vancouver, and it was in order to do away
with this unnecessary duplication of work that this arrangement was made, which is satisfactory
to all parties concerned.
Statistics Branch.
The work of this Branch, under the direction of A. B. Tweddle, Statistician, has been actively
carried on during the year, and as complete data as possible have been secured with regard to
agricultural products and importations, both dutiable and from other Provinces of the Dominion.
This information was collected in accordance with an arrangement made between the Federal
and Provincial Statistics Departments, and in this way unnecessary duplication of work which
heretofore existed has been to a large extent eliminated. R. H. Coates, Dominion Statistician
and Controller of Censors, sent out forms which had previously been approved by us to 19,300
farmers in the Province whose names appeared on our voters' lists. The forms when filled in
by farmers were then mailed to our Provincial Statistics Branch. The information was then
compiled for our own use and afterwards forwarded to Ottawa for inclusion in Dominion
statistics. The response from farmers was encouraging, replies being received from approximately 7,000. Taking into consideration the fact, that many of our farmers as a result of the
war have left the Province, and that in many cases there appeared on the voters' lists several
names, all of which represent members of tbe same family and living on the same farm, .the
response from our farmers may be looked upon as eminently satisfactory. The data so secured
are carefully checked by means of information secured by our officials of the Horticultural and
Live Stock Branches, and by the personal canvass of Mr. Tweddle additional information is also
secured from the outlying districts in Central British Columbia and the Peace River country
from reliable resident farmers. Unless statistics are reliable they lose their value, but I am
convinced that by means of the methods adopted by us, and the checking system which we have,
the accuracy of our figures will bear favourable comparison with those of any other Province in
the Dominion.
"Brand Act."—Under the supervision of the Recorder of Brands, the registration of brands,
throughout the Province has been effected and the duplication of brands that previously existed
has been remedied.    An inspection is maintained by our Inspectors at the principal shipping-
points for cattle, horses, and hides, and a much-needed protection has been thereby afforded to
stockmen of the Interior.
" Dairies Regulation Act."—Under the provisions of this Act, official testers are licensed
after having passed an examination held by our Provincial Dairy Instructor. Two official testers
have also been appointed'and are paid by the Department, who are stationed at Vancouver and
Chilliwack. These men test all samples of milk and cream sent in by farmers, thus ensuring
that they will receive equitable treatment and be paid strictly in accordance with the butter-fat
contents of their milk or cream.
" Sheep Protection Act."—In accordance with the provisions of this Act, a sheep-protection
district has been established taking in the territory from Oampbell River in the north to the
south end of the Island, including all adjacent Gulf Islands, the' western boundary being the
line of the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway. AH owners of dogs within this district are required
to pay a licence fee of $1 for a male and $2 for a female. All dogs must also carry a metal tag
for identification. The formation of this district will do much to remove the dog nuisance which
has in the past militated so adversely against the extension of the sheep-raising industry. The
administration of this Act is vested in the Superintendent of Provincial Police. " Agricultural Act."—By the amendments made to the " Agricultural Act " at the last session
of the Provincial Legislature many important improvements in the administration of the Act
have been effected. Provisions are made for the payment of a per capita grant to Farmers' and
Women's Institutes in accordance with the membership fee, and for the formation of district
institutes, which will tend towards a better and more effective co-ordination of our institute-
work.    Each institute district will have the appointment of a member on the Advisory Board.
" Eggs Marks Act."—Much good has been accomplished by the operation of this Act. By its
provisions all dealers in eggs are required to plainly indicate by means of a placard placed on
all containers the grade of the eggs offered for sale, whether imported, storage, or fresh, and
all restaurants or public eating-houses must, if they use Chinese eggs, prominently display a
legend to that effect. A number of convictions for violations of this Act were secured in the
Cities of Vancouver and Victoria during the past year, and dealers are now generally observing
the provisions of the Act. All Provincial and municipal police, our Poultry Instructors and
Markets Commissioner in Vancouver have been appointed Inspectors under the Act.
Farmers' Institutes.
For tbe first time since the inception of this important movement Farmers' Institute
membership shows a material decrease. This is altogether owing to the fact that many hundreds
of our members have responded to the call of Empire and are serving their country at the Front
or in other lines of war-work. Interest in the work has, however, been well maintained, and
many of our institutes are now strong organizations doing excellent co-operative work in the
purchasing of supplies for members on a wholesale basis, thus tending towards economy in
production. More appreciation of the efforts of the Department on behalf of farmers is being
shown, and more willingness to take advantage of the assistance and facilities offered institute
members by the Provincial Government. The number of incorporated institutes is now 148, with
a membership of approximately 8,000.
Women's Institutes.
It is gratifying to be able to record a year of good progress in Women's Institute work.
Membership, in spite of present conditions, shows a material increase over the preceding year.
Several new institutes were formed in 1917. There is no doubt but that many improvements in
the conditions affecting women in our rural districts have been brought about by their agency.
All the efforts of our Women's Institutes have been concentrated on patriotic and war work, and
I gladly take this opportunity of expressing my admiration for the noble and unselfish national
services of our institute women, which have been directed towards the alleviation of suffering
and distress in war-stricken Europe. Field comforts for our fighting forces, supplies for our
hospitals, food, clothing, aud cash contributions for the European countries overrun by the
Kaiser's hordes, food for our prisoners of war, etc., have been generously and willingly supplied
by institute members. I also take this opportunity of expressing my appreciation of the work
so capably carried on by members of the Advisory Board of Women's Institutes, to whose
initiative is largely due the success which has attended this important organization of the
women of our rural districts. There are now fifty-nine incorporated Women's Institutes in
the Province, with a membership of over 3,000. The personnel of the Advisory Board for the
year 1917 was as follows: Mrs. J. Johnson, Nelson, Chairman; Mrs. W. V. Davies, Chilliwack,
Secretary;   Mrs. Blackwood-Wileman, Duncan, V.I.; Mrs. R. L. Lipsett, Summerland.
Conferences.—Four annual district conferences of Women's Institutes were held in the months
of October and November at the following places: Cranbrook, Vernon, Mission, and Duncan, V.I.
I had tbe privilege of attending three of these conferences, being unable to be present, through
unavoidable circumstances, at the Mission conference, and it gives'me pleasure to testify to the
unqualified success that they' were. The attendance was splendid, interest well maintained
throughout, and addresses and papers of a high order of merit given and read. The interchange
of ideas and discussions on institute-work between delegates must tend towards better and more
effective work and closer co-operation between institutes. " Patriotism, production, and conservation" was the key-note of all conferences, and delegates went back to their homes determined
to preach this gospel in their institute district to the fullest extent. 8- Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 11
hVgricultural Journal.
A monthly Agricultural Journal is issued by the Department and supplied free to all members
of Farmers' and Women's Institutes where the annual membership fee is $1. This Journal is
purely a farmer's magazine containing timely hints and articles by expert officials of this Department, members of the staff of the British Columbia University, and officials of the Federal
Department of Agriculture, as well as by farmers. This Journal has a wide circulation amongst
our farmers and is generally well appreciated by them.
Agricultural Associations.
Out of a total of sixty-seven Agricultural Associations, forty-five held their annual fairs in
1917, with, on the whole, satisfactory results. Whilst there was a falling-off in the number of
entries, due to the fact that farmers have to work early and late on their places and experience
great difficulty in getting any assistance, the quality of the produce and live stock exhibited was
generally good, and a marked improvement was noticeable in the majority of instances in the
arrangements made by the fair managements for placing exhibits. The Department supplied
judges for all the fairs held, tbe majority of whom were departmental officials. It was often
necessary, however, owing to the number of fairs that were held, and to the fact that many of
them -were held about the same time, to get some outside assistance. The judges were instructed
.to carry out educative work at all the fairs in the way of explaining the reason for their awards.
Much valuable work is accomplished in this way.
Provincial h-associations.
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association.—This association has had a year of good
progress and has been active in its efforts to further the interests of fruit-growers. The work
has been under the direction of President Barnes, backed up by a capable Executive. Professor
dement, of the Provincial University, acted as Secretary, filling the position rendered vacant by
the resignation early in the year of R. M. Winslow, Provincial Horticulturist. The association
is to be congratulated in procuring the services of Professor Clement, who has worked constantly
to advance the aims and objects of the association. The main activities of this organization have
been directed towards the most efficient advertising and marketing of the fruit and vegetable
crop. Good work has also been done in the way of securing from the freight and express companies more just rates. The association published a capital booklet on the British Columbia
apple, which was widely distributed throughout the Prairie Provinces and elsewhere, and proved
a very good advertising medium for our British Columbia fruit. A very successful annual
convention was held early in the year, which was attended by representative growers from all
the fruit districts of the Province. Many matters of interest were fully discussed, and there is
no doubt but that good and practical results are obtained by a mutual interchange of ideas on
the part of fruit-growers.
British Columbia Stock - breeders' Association.— Material assistance has been given to
importers of pure-bred stock by this association, which granted a rebate of half the 'transportation charges on all shipments of pure-bred stock, either imported or moved from point to point
within the Province. This association has done a good deal towards encouraging breeders to
use pure-bred sires and to encourage the sound principle of breeding from selection. A Breeders'
Directory, which must prove of great use and assistance to stockmen, was published by the
association and distributed to its members in the Province and elsewhere. A successful annual
convention was also held.
British Columbia Dairymen's Association,—The British Columbia Dairymen's Association
has enjoyed one of its most successful years during 1917, and it is satisfactory to see that a
widespread interest is being taken in the problems of the dairy-farmer. The membership of the
association is steadily increasing and its sphere of usefulness continually widening. The annual
convention of the association held at Nanaimo in January, 1917, was most successful, both from
the point of attendance and from an educational point of view. An extra convention was held
in Kelowna in June for the benefit of the dairymen in the Okanagan. This was also largely
attended, and it is safe to say that the stimulus given to the dairy industry by reason of these
conventions will not soon be forgotten. The policy of the association has been, as in previous
years, to utilize its grant from the Government in the carrying-on of contests, competitions, and
other activities that would have an educational value and encourage the industry. N 12 Department of Agriculture. 1918
British Columbia Poultry Association,—The British Columbia Poultry Association, through
its central organization and local associations, has tended largely to promote and standardize
the poultry industry by the help of shows and by offering special prizes at the International
Egg-laying Contests. The publication of the annual Breeders' Directory has been a great aid
to poultry-breeders throughout the Province. The annual poultry fairs held under the regis
of the association were very successful, and the exhibits were of a high order, a marked
improvement in the quality of the birds exhibited being noticeable.
British Columbia Goat - breeders' Association.— The British Columbia Goat - breeders'
Association has just concluded its first year, which has proved a very satisfactory one, and
the fact that the membership reached the total of 176 shows that there was need for such an
association to co-ordinate and direct the development of the industry. The work done during
the year includes assistance to importers of pure-bred stock by refunds of freight, which has
helped members to bring some fine stock into the country, and helped towards a successful exhibit
of milk goats at Vancouver Fair, a campaign of education as to the value of milk goats and their
products, and various other minor activities. With the co-operation of the Dominion Government, purebred registry was inaugurated for goats, and a representative of the Live Stock
Commissioner at Ottawa spent some months in the Province inspecting milk goats and recording
them as foundation stock, from which it is hoped to build up a successful industry.
British Columbia Bee-keepers' Association.—This association is growing rapidly and has
now a very good membership. It is doing good work in the way of encouraging right methods
of bee-keeping amongst its members. A most gratifying exhibit was staged by the association
at the Vancouver Exhibition, which attracted a great deal of interest and favourable comment,
and which was generally a fine educative exhibit. It is an interesting and, if properly managed,
a lucrative side-line of farming and is rapidly increasing throughout the Province, and before
long British Columbia will be exporting honey. The quality of the honey produced in many of
our districts cannot be excelled, and the average production per hive bears very favourable
comparison with any other honey-producing country.
Vancouver Island Flockmasters' Association.—This association reports a year of progress.
In addition to the placing of pure-bred rams in the different districts of Vancouver Island and
adjacent Gulf Islands for the improvement of flocks, the grading and classification of wool is
also undertaken, and as a result higher prices have been obtained. The wool is sold by the
association on a co-operative basis after it has been properly graded and packed.
Federal Grant.
By means of the moneys granted the Provincial Department of Agriculture under the terms
of the Dominion " Agricultural Instruction Act" it has been made possible for us to greatly
extend the scope of our educative activities. A portion of this grant is used towards the appointment of Instructors and Inspectors, and several of our agricultural experts have been appointed
under this section. The following lines of work are also taken care of by this Federal appropriation : The operation of field-crop demonstration stations, dry-farming demonstration stations,
horticultural demonstration stations, poultry demonstration stations, and egg-laying contests;
alfalfa-plots, silo-construction work, drainage demonstrations, seed distribution and co-operative
variety tests, seed production; Cow-testing Association work ; bee-keeping; field-crop competitions;
Boys' and Girls' Clubs; fruit-packing schools; market-work; pathological and entomological
investigation and research work; weed investigation; and, in addition, the whole work of
compilation, editing, and printing our monthly Agricultural Journal. By means of the policy
of the Federal Government in making appropriations to the different Provincial Governments
for carrying on various lines of educational work we are enabled to undertake these valuable
lines of instructional and educational work, which undoubtedly has proved of the utmost benefit
to our agriculturists throughout the Province. The supervision of expenditures of this grant by
the different Provinces is undertaken by Professor W. J. Black, Commissioner of the " Agricultural Instruction Act," Ottawa. Valuable advice and assistance towards the wisest and best
expenditure of this grant has always been freely given by Professor Black, and it is with great
pleasure that I express the thanks and appreciation of our Department for his kindly help. The
moneys are expended in accordance with an agreement made at the beginning of each fiscal year
between the Dominion and Provincial Ministers of Agriculture.   8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 13
Board of Horticulture.
Two meetings of the Provincial Board of Horticulture were held during the year and various
matters dealt with, viz.: Inspection of nursery stock, trees, plants, fruits, etc., and the fumigation
of imported rice, corn, and grain. The following is the personnel of the Board: J. C. Metcalfe,
Chairman; W. C. Ricardo, K. R. Streatfield, C. F. McHardy, R, M. Palmer, A. J. Woodward;
W. E. Scott, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, and Hon. John Oliver, Minister of Agriculture,
ex officio.
In concluding my report, I take the occasion of expressing the thanks of the Department
to the Canadian Pacific Railway, Canadian Northern Railway, Grand Trunk Pacific Railway,
Pacific Great Eastern Railway, Kettle Valley Railway, and the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway
for their courtesy in affording transportation privileges to those officials of the Department who
in the discharge of their official duties have to travel through the various farming districts of
the Province.   This concession has greatly facilitated our work amongst the farming communities.
It is with pleasure that I bear testimony to tbe capable way in which the officials have
administered the work of the various branches and divisions for which they are responsible, and
for the loyal co-operation and work of all other members of the staff.
A Tribute.
The Department of Agriculture pays a tribute to those gallant men, former members of tbe
staff, who have made the supreme sacrifice on the battle-fields of Europe, and who died like loyal
Britishers fighting for the cause of freedom against oppression and wrong: Captain Norman S.
Payne, Accountant; Lieutenant Bernard Shipton, Fruit Inspection Branch; Flight-Lieutenant
Charles Rayner, Fruit Inspection Branch.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. E. Scott,
Deputy Minister and Superintendent of Institutes.
R. M. Winslow.
W. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to report on the work of the Horticultural Branch for the period
January 1st to July 7th, 1917, which is my final report as Provincial Horticulturist and Chief
Inspector of Fruit Pests.
Scope oe the Horticultural Branch.
My report covering 1916 can serve very well under this subject for 1917. The policy followed
during the year is essentially the same as that of last year. In many lines the work is being
being somewhat extended;  in others reduced.
Changes in Staff.
The period which this report covers is marked by an unusual number of resignations, for
various causes. These resignations have necessitated changes. E. W. White, Inspector for
Vancouver Island, took over the whole of the Branch work on the Island and part of that on
the Lower Mainland. IL H. Evans was appointed Inspector, under P. E. French, vice R. J. Kyte.
J. A. Grant, of Victoria, was appointed Prairie Fruit Markets Commissioner, vice W. E.
McTaggart. E. C. Hunt, Acting Assistant Horticulturist, Grand Forks, was given charge of
the Kootenay territory as well as his own. On January 2nd C. P. Pearson was appointed
Secretary, vice B. Whittaker, who resigned on December 18th. J. Tait, Inspector for Summer-
land in 1916, was re-employed on March 1st.
Needless to say, these numerous changes have made it extremely difficult to carry on the
work of the Horticultural Branch with even a reasonable measure of efficiency. N 14 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Orchard Visits and Demonstrations.
This line of work, which is one of the most valuable and most appreciated of all activities
of the Branch, \yas continued in 1917, but in all districts there is less of it than usual because
of the reduced staff.
A total of twelve pruning-schools was held during the winter of 19W3-17, as shown in
Appendix No. 1. The number of these pruning-schools was smaller than usual: Firstly, because
a very large proportion of the fruit-growers and orchard-helpers of the Province have now been
pupils of these schools; and, secondly, because the great shortage iu help through the fruit
districts made it impossible for many, who would otherwise have attended, to give the necessary
week to this work. It is a satisfaction to say, however, that the general class of tree-pruning
throughout the Province has greatly improved since the pruning-schools were started, and the
deficiencies in pruning methods which may now be observed are much more largely due to lack
of labour than want of knowledge.
This Branch has just concluded a series of sixty packing-schools, which is the largest number
ever held in one season. The fruit districts were very short of packers in 1916, and expect a
considerable increase in crop in 1917, for which a large number of new packers had to be trained.
Arrangements were also made with the Education Department under which they paid the
cost of six-lesson periods of instruction to the pupils of high schools and of the fourth grade
in public schools; twenty-eight of the schools were of this type. The Agricultural Department
supplied the Instructors and carried on all of the work after the applications were received by
the Education Department, The plan worked very satisfactorily, and from many districts it has
been heard that the school pupils averaged up well, and will probably save the situation with
respect to packing in the season of 1917.
From Appendix No. 2 it will be noted that the pupils totalled 1,037, with an average
proficiency of S4.5 per cent.
Crop Estimates.
The Horticultural Branch has already issued a preliminary estimate on the various small-
fruit crops. A further report on small fruits and a preliminary report on tree-fruits will be
issued as soon as possible; at the same time, there will be a preliminary report on the acreage
of vegetables and their condition. The various members of the Horticultural staff have co-operated with the Statistics Branch of the Department in securing field-crop and live-stock reports
in their districts. In the Lower Mainland District the Inspectors under the Coast Markets
Commissioner paid visits to over 900 potato-growers, taking records of their acreage and varieties,
soil conditions, seed-treatment, etc. This will be most valuable information in moving the 1917
potato-crop in the fall.
Inspection and Pest-control Work.
This work was continued during the present season along very much the same lines as those
followed in 1916.
Inspection of Potatoes fob Export.
The movement of potatoes from January 1st into May was very heavy. Mr. Abbott's reports
show a total of 943 cars and 268 sacks inspected and passed for export or for Eastern Canadian
points since January 1st. The condemnations for the same period totalled 341 cars and 150
sacks. Your Horticulturist, is more than ever convinced of the extreme value of this work in
establishing a desirable reputation and permanent markets for British Columbia potatoes.
Nursery Inspection.
At all of the nurseries of the Province the necessary inspection of stock for spring shipment
was made. In many cases it was possible to give the nurseries, after general inspection, a
release form permitting shipment of the whole of the stock; in other cases it was necessary to
give detailed inspection with a view to preventing shipment of diseased or injured trees.
All nurseries are required to be bonded and licensed under the Act. This Branch has pushed
this matter vigorously and is pleased to report that it is now in much more satisfactory shape
than it has been hitherto. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 15
Okanagan Landing.—The work commenced in this district in 1916 was continued. Three
power outfits were operated, and it is proposed that, if justified, three sprays be applied during
1917. On request of this Department, R. C. Treherne, of the Dominion Entomological staff, was
giving his time as far as possible to the codling-moth work during the codling-moth season.
The result of bis investigations as to life-history details will, of course, govern our spraying
programme.    The first spray has been already put on and all of the old bands reinspected.
Westbank.—The same general plans as apply at Okanagan Landing apply at Westbank.
At the latter point the infection was comparatively slight, and the work of 1917, followed
through vigorously, should bring the codling-moth very close to eradication.
Walhachin.—Quarantines have been placed on the orchards in and near the area known to
be infected.    The trees have been pruned under our direction and the first spraying has already
been applied.    The conditions in this district are very favourable for a quick clean-up and good
results should be had.
Thrips-conthol on Vancouver Island.
This work has been continued along the lines of the previous season, except that the power
outfit at Gordon Head was operated by the growers themselves. The results are apparently very
satisfactory. General improvement in the condition of the orchards, which have now been
sprayed for two years, is very well marked and is having good effect in promoting general
It is now well established that the thrips can live and reproduce on the common maple and
possibly on other native plants; this further establishes the contention that the thrips is here
to stay. The two years' work have, however, shown amply that it can be controlled by methods
well within the reach of commercial fruit-growers.
Black-currant Bud-mite.
R. Glendenning was again employed during last spring to inspect black-currant plantations
on Vancouver Island. His report shows greatly reduced infection as a result of the 1910 season's
work, and during the present season he secured the destruction of a number of bushes found to
be infected.
As far as the cultivated black currants are concerned, we are satisfied that the policy
followed will, if continued for another year, result in eradication. Mr. Glendenning has,
however, just reported that he has at last discovered the mite well established on the native
currant;  this being tbe case, eradication is no longer possible.
Throughout the winter of 1916-17 your Inspectors and Assistant Horticulturists in the fruit
districts have worked vigorously to secure a complete clean-up of the over-wintering blight-
cankers. This has taken a large amount of orchard-to-orchard visitation, some cases requiring
as many as three or four visits. However, a very good degree of co-operation has been had from
the growers, and there have been no cases where it was necessary to adopt any measures stronger
than persuasion.
At the present time the amount of blight in the Province is very slight indeed; it has been
less, in fact, than in any year since 1912.
Institute and other Meetings.
A large number of meetings were held throughout the fruit districts during the latter half
of February and the month of March;   these meetings were addressed by various members of
the Horticultural staff.    The attendance, as a rule, was excellent.    A number of other meetings
and demonstrations have been held at various times.
Demonstration Orchards.
A certain amount of supervision to the orchards at Nanaimo, Hammond, Birchbrook,
Rossland, New Denver, Wardner, Baynes Lake, and Windermere is being continued. The
Department also did some replanting in the orchard at Lower Nicola, replacing winter-killed
trees. In some of these cases the agreements have not yet expired, and in others it seems
desirable, in the interests of the districts served, that supervision be continued for another year
or two at least. N 16
Department of Agriculture.
Experimental Station at Summerland.
The small-fruit and vegetable experiment station at Summerland, operated under the
direction of this Branch by J. L. Hilborn, is being continued in 1917 on lines similar to those
of previous years.
The strawberry-plot at Hatzic is also being continued and should give valuable results in
1917 in tbe way of different varieties being tested.
Northern Experimental Plots.
Following the resignation of A. R. Neale, Acting Assistant Horticulturist, Prince Rupert, the
Department decided to discontinue the operation of the plots at Terrace and Lawn Hill, operating
only that at Bella Coola.
Horticultural Crop Competitions.
The number of crop competitions of which the Horticultural Branch has had charge totals
thirty in 1917, as against twenty-four the previous year,
been judged by officials of the staff for the first time;
cases a third judging will be given.
The competitions are classifiable as follows:.—
Most of these competitions have already
all are to be judged twice, and in some
Kind of Competition.
City garden   . ..
Farm garden  . .
Orchard, bearin*
Strawberry   . . .
Rasp-berry   ....
Maywood and Lynn Valley.
Sooke, Metchosin, Penticton, Natal, Robson, Needles,
Harrop, Wynndel, Hammond, Nicola, Crawford
Bay, Baynes Lake, Willow Point, and Mara.
Notch Hill, Grand Forks, and Willow Point.
Maple Ridge, Saanich, and Gordon Head.
Maple Ridge.
Experiments in Spraying.
The apple-scab spraying experiments of 1916 were continued; in addition to the plots at
Arernon, Kelowna, Samlon Arm, Nelson, and Creston, a plot is being operated at Edgewood for
the Arrow Lakes District. Numerous other experiments are being conducted on the control of
insects and diseases. The experiment on apple-tree anthracnose on Vancouver Island shows
remarkably good results.
Apple-storage Experiments.
The six years' tests of the cold-storage capabilities of different varieties of British Columbia
apples in different districts were concluded in June, 1917. Under instructions, H. Thornber has
taken possession of all of the material with a view to preparing a final report and also a snort
summary of the same, the latter for publication and the former to be made available to those
few who would be most directly concerned.
Prairie Markets Commissioner's Work.
Mr. McTaggart's resignation, as above recorded, made necessary the appointment of- the
new Commissioner, J. A. Grant, of Victoria, who took charge on April 15th, and has since been
engaged very largely in getting acquainted with the fruit districts of this Province and of the
North-western States and in visiting various Prairies centres. The series of weekly reports
started on June 16th.
Coast Markets Commissioner's Office.
Mr. Abbott and the staff have been engaged principally, since the beginning of the year, on
potato-inspection work, shipments, and the instruction to potato-growers on the selection and
disinfection of seed.   Mr. Abbott's annual report will, however, go fully into these activities. 8 Geo. 5' British Columbia. N 17
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association.
The Horticulturist, as Secretary of this association, devotes a considerable share of his time
to this work. The membership for the current season is being well maintained, the total up to
date being 486 and eleven life members.
The Secretary7 made all arrangements for the annual meeting, and also arranged and
attended two Directors' meetings, five Executive meetings, and several other committee meetings.
The annual report was prepared for publication and a price-list of spray materials was issued.
The association and the Department, in conjunction, have worked to advantage in securing low
railway rates for the movement of fruit-harvesters from the Coast cities to the fruit districts,
and have also been of assistance in organizing the labour of women and children in Vancouver,
etc., so as to make it available. A good deal of the Secretary's time has been devoted to correspondence in connection with the British apple embargo and the preparation of the association's
case in that respect.
A full report of the association's work, with financial statement, will be submitted to the
Department in due course.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
R. M. Winslow,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
M. S. Middleton.
W. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my ninth annual report as Assistant Horticulturist for the Kootenay and Boundary Districts, and my first report on the work of the
Horticultural Branch for the period from July 7th to the end of the year 1917 as Provincial
Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
The general work of the Horticultural Branch has been carried on along somewhat similar
lines to those conducted by my predecessor, R. M. Winslow, resigned, with the exception that
the Secretaryship of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association was taken over by Professor
F. M. Clement, of the University of British Columbia. This change has enabled the Provincial
Horticulturist to give more detailed attention to the very important work of his Branch in the
office and in the field. It has allowed and encouraged a more personal working connection
between the Horticultural Branch and the growers and growers' agencies, etc., throughout the
Province. An opportunity was permitted to get out and get in touch with conditions, and so
acquaint myself with the actual needs and demands of the work. At the same time, the
heartiest co-operation has been encouraged between the Secretary of the British Columbia Fruitgrowers' Association and this Branch, your Horticulturist being added as an ex-officio member
of the Executive and Directorate of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association.
Co-operation with and co-ordination of the work of the Horticultural Branch with that of the
other branches of the Department and the Dominion officials in the Province have been aimed
■at, and at least some progress made towards this end. A working understanding between the
Provincial Pathologist and the Acting Provincial Entomologist has been agreed upon, in that
the officials of this Branch work with and under their guidance in pest-control work, etc.; the
officials of this Branch to receive all local credit in their respective districts, while the
co-operating heads receive all Provincial credit for the work carried out. This arrangement
has met with very pleasing appreciation from all concerned.
The general work of the Branch need only be mentioned as consisting of all duties in
connection with fruit and vegetable crops, special attention being given to the successful
growing of same, control of pests, etc. The proper marketing of the crops has also been well
taken care of, and every assistance given by the Markets Commissioners towards holding our
present markets and extending them wherever opportunity offered.
3 Officials.
Assistant Horticulturists.—These men are all doing horticultural and fruit-pest inspection-
work, which includes inspection of orchards for diseases and insect pests, and the control of
same; conducting of demonstration spraying in the control of pests; inspection of all exports
in the way of fruit and vegetables to foreign countries; inspection of foreign cars for insect
pests, etc., and general assistance to the fruit and vegetable growers in the district; and, at
the same time, the collection of data as to crop statistics in their particular district.
Markets Commissioners.—The main work of the Markets Commissioners is to keep in touch
with the markets and to encourage the shipping of the products in most demand iii these markets,
and to give advice of the arrival of the same, and, generally, to assist the British Columbia
shipper in marketing his produce to best advantage.
Demonstration Field-work.
Realizing the importance of personal orchard visits and discussions on the spot, this line
of work has been continued and encouraged as far as possible, but, owing to the great reduction
in the staff as compared with former years, along with the growth of the industry, it was
impossible to visit every orchard in each section. It is, however, pleasing to state that, by
energetic work on the part of the Inspectors, the majority of the most urgent calls were made
and main orchards visited at some time during the year. It was impressed on all fieldmen that,
during the war, only the most urgent and necessary work should be carried on, and at the least
expense consistent with efficiency.    This practice has been followed out.
Pruning and Packing Schools.
The pruning and packing schools held during the late winter and early spring were fully
reported on by my predecessor, and nothing further need be added, except to state that the
expression of opinion on the results obtained by these classes warrants their continuation, at
least, on somewhat modified lines.
Farm Survey and Statistics.
During 1916 a very thorough survey of the fruit and vegetable sections of the Province was
made by practical and painstaking enumerators. This work is being followed up by a card-filing
system, whereby every grower will be numbered and a record of his place kept, including acreage
in different crops; number, variety, and age of trees, as well as cultural methods and results,
in such a way that it can be seen at a glance. These cards will be made effective for five years
by additional data from notes entered in a pocket loose-leaf field-book, which will show all annual
crops, new plantings, replacements, or losses, as well as yields which may occur from year to
year. This work is being undertaken with a view to co-operating with the Statistical Department, so that better, fuller, and more accurate information may be available.
In co-operation with the Departmental Statistician, crop estimates and reports have been
furnished from time to time during the growing season by the members of this Branch, and these
have been followed up by a detailed, accurate report at the end of the season, showing the actual
shipments which have been made during the year. In this way the work of the Statistical
Branch is greatly assisted, not only by way of material for a quick preliminary report, but
the enumerators having the knowledge and interest of their districts at heart, it naturally follows
that more accurate information is obtained. The Horticultural Branch, in turn, benefits by the
systematic compilation by tbe Statistician of all the available information and data relative
to fruit and vegetable crops. Information and data are also gathered in a similar way each
year from the various jam, canning, and evaporator plants in the different parts of the Province;
this is a very valuable and useful information for each official in his own district, and can be
obtained easily and accurately by bim.
Inspection constitutes one of the most important phases of the work of this Branch. It
consists of prevention of the introduction of any serious pest in the Province or any section;
inspection of all nurseries and nursery stock grown in the Province; the control or eradication
of any pest within the Province;   the inspection and certification of export shipments of both 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 19
fruit and vegetables; the protection of our markets, and, at the same time, encouragement in
the production of cleaner and better crops. In all this work acknowledgment is due to the hearty
co-operation of the various branches of the Provincial Department of Agriculture, the Inspection
of Imports Branch, the Plant Pathologist and Entomologist, the Dominion Department of
Agriculture officials, and the shippers and growers.
Inspection of Foreign Empty Cars.—One of the greatest sources of infection from codling-
moth is, without doubt, through the foreign railway-cars brought into the Province from the
codling-moth infested areas in the United States. These cars are all inspected at central,
divisional, or icing points; all rubbish is cleaned out and burned, a thorough inspection given,
and the cars iced several hours before loading. As an instance of the importance of this work,
this year no less than fourteen healthy, full-grown larva; were discovered in one foreign car at
Okanagan Landing.
Inspection of Nurseries.—A most careful preliminary, summer inspection is given to nurseries
in the Province; this is followed up by a thorough tree-to-tree inspection at the time of digging,
and after they are dug, or, at least, before they are shipped out; all inferior, infested, or infected
stock is destroyed. Woolly aphis, crown-gall, hairy root, and winter injury were the main sources
of condemnations. This is the only safe way of protecting the growers and the Province against
the possible introduction or spread of any serious pests, and the varying results towards success
due to planting inferior stocks.
The nursery business has not been as active as usual during the last few years; a goodly
number of firms have gone out of business, or have discontinued propagating fruit-trees and
fruit-plants, and are giving their attention to the ornamental business and floral trade. This
accounts for the laxity to take out the nursery bond and licence under the " Agricultural Act,
1915," Part VII. The demand for nursery stock in 1918 will be a great improvement over the
last few years, due to the successful year experienced by the fruit-growers. A great many soft
fruits, such as apricots and peaches, will be planted, and a number of the winter-injured varieties
in some districts will be replaced by more adaptable sorts.
Codling-moth.—The quarantine areas at Westbank, Okanagan Landing, and Walbachin were
given close attention during the season, and we are able to report encouraging results in the
reduction of worms to about 10 per cent, of last year's number. At Okanagan Landing the
area has been greatly reduced, so much so that negotiations are being considered to destroy all
the fruit in the two remaining orchards with a view to eradicating the pest in this section. The
work will be carried on at Westbank and Walhnchin as in previous years, viz.: All trees will
be banded and several band inspections made during the larva; and pupa periods, and two and
three sprayings given; all the older trees scraped to remove their rough bark; all the fruits
inspected thoroughly, all wormy and cull fruit being destroyed by boiling, and the good fruits,
after close Inspection, shipped out of the Province.
San Jose Scale.—No new infested areas were found and the infested orchards at Spences
Bridge have been cleaned up successfully. Some infestation was found on the choke-cherry at
this point and careful attention is being given to its eradication.
Woolly Aphis.—This pest is on the increase, particularly in the Okanagan Valley; every
effort will be made this coming season to assist the growers in controlling it.
Pear-thrips.—This pest, which gained such a thorough foothold on the southern end of
Vancouver Island some few years ago, and on which the Provincial Horticultural Branch, in
co-operation with the Dominion Entomological Branch, carried out very successful work during
the past two years, has by demonstration proven to be easily and successfully controlled by
spraying. It has been discovered that this insect pest is not dependent upon our common
deciduous fruit-trees, but may be found working on the maples, willows, choke-cherries, and
even on the Douglas fir, and on many of our common shrubs and plants, so that the possibility
of eradicating it is out of the question. However, its life-history has been exhaustively worked
out by the Dominion Entomologists, and the practicability of spraying for its successful control
has been fully demonstrated, so that we need have no anxiety in this connection. E. W. White's
report deals with this pest in detail, and for still further reference it might be noted that a
Dominion bulletin is about to be issued on the pear-thrips work on Vancouver Island.
Black-currant Mite.—Infestation in the Duncan District by this pest was well taken care
of by Mr. Glendenning, whose report may be referred to. Discovery of the pest on the wild
currant places a serious phase on eradication possibilities. N 20 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Strawberry-root Weevil.—This pest was troublesome In the strawberry sections of Vancouver
Island and on the Lower Mainland, but growers are experiencing that it can be kept in check
by following the preventive measures as advised by the Government officials—viz., rotation,
short-cropping system, and delaying the ploughing-down of the patch until the insects have laid
their eggs.
Peach-twig Borer.—This pest is on the increase and has caused considerable loss to growers
in the southern end of the Okanagan Valley, particularly in apricots and peaches. A survey
is at present under way to ascertain the number of trees, their age, size, the spraying equipment
owned or available, with a view to encouraging a community effort for successful control. A
campaign will be worked out along educative and gentle persuasive lines towards controlling
the pest, but in some cases more drastic measures may have to be resorted to with some of the
neglected or absentee orchards.
Grasshoppers and Wireworms.—During 1917, grasshoppers did great damage in some sections, particularly at Kelowna and Midway. Excellent results were obtained at Kelowna by
using the Kansas mixture, as per Mr. Hoy's report.
Wireworms were also numerous and troublesome in the Kelowna section in 1917, and
experiments were carried on by Mr. Hoy at Kelowna, using rice, bran, and molasses as a trap
for the worms, with very satisfactory results.
Fire-blight.—Generally speaking, those districts where blight-infection was so bad in the
past look very encouraging. The shortage of labour for this particular work has affected its
control and possible eradication. The inspection for hold-over cankers of this disease is carried
on during the winter months, and very excellent results through the efforts of this Branch can
be reported. It is a matter in which the majority of the work has of necessity to be carried out
by the growers themselves, but at the same time a great deal of assistance in locating and
cutting out the blight is being rendered by our fieldmen. Blight showed up quite badly in the
Armstrong, Vernon, Kelowna, and Grand Forks Districts in 1917, and extra efforts are being
exercised by our men in these sections;   other sections show greatly improved conditions.
Apple and Pear Scab.—Apple-scab was not as prevalent during 1917 as in previous years.
Our scab-control work was carried on as usual with equally marked success at Salmon Arm,
Vernon, Kelowna, Needles, Nelson, and Creston; some conbination pear-thrips and scab sprays
were also used on Vancouver Island with excellent results. Comparative tests with different
spray materials and mixtures were carried on by Mr. French at Salmon Arm. Locality tests
were carried on at Salmon Arm and Vernon, and. in addition, different strengths of lime-and-
sulphur solution for scab-control were tested out at Vernon. The detailed results are contained
in Mr. French's report. At all the different points above mentioned the three-year test-plots for
scab-control were continued on the same trees, and the continued striking success was obtained
with lime and sulphur at different times during the scab-infection season. For further details
refer to the reports of Assistant Horticulturists.
Apple Anthracnose.—This disease has become quite serious in the moist Coast sections.
Fall spraying with Bordeaux mixture at different times was again carried on in 1917 at Keating
with very good results.
Peach-mildeiv and Leaf-curl,—Owing to seasonable conditions these diseases were not
troublesome, and sprayed plots showed no marked results over non-sprayed ones.
Potato-diseases.—Late blight of potatoes, particularly in the Lower Mainland districts, was
extremely prevalent during 1917; in some cases where inspections were made as high as 80
per cent, of the tubers were found to be infected. Other common potato-diseases were common
scab, Rhizoctonia, and Fusarium wilt. Owing to the scarcity of good seed in the spring of 1917,
much infected stuff was planted, and, although every effort was made by district men to impress
on planters the importance of thorough selection and disinfection of the seed, much room for
improvement remained, and was the cause of great losses and dissatisfaction when the potatoes
came on the markets. Every effort will have to be made towards improving this very important
crop, not only in respect to disease, but in the selection of seed and improvement of grading and
Other Insect Pests and Diseases.—Many other insects gave considerable trouble in local
sections throughout the Province and were attended to by the fieldmen as far as possible. The
following might be mentioned: Cutworms, onion-thrips, cabbage, turnip, and onion maggots,
cabbage-worm, green aphis of the apple, and other crops;   bud-moth, oyster-shell scale, and red 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 21
spider.    In fungus diseases:   Raspberry  anthracnose,  strawberry-leaf spot,  and mildew;   also
many other minor insect pests and diseases affecting vegetable and fruit crops.
Summary of Pest Situation and Control.
It has always been a great deal of pleasure to all Government men to be able to state that
British Columbia was practically free from all pests. In a degree this might still be said
without exceeding the practical truth. With our rigid and careful service of inspection of
imports and field-work, this Province is in a class by itself as far as serious pests are concerned.
There are certain indigenous pests, or those just as common as the plants on which they live,
which no inspection system could guard against, but there are very few pests of a really serious
nature at the present time, with perhaps the exception of the codling-moth, which happily is small areas, and these areas are being rapidly reduced by our rigid inspection and
spraying measures. It cannot, of course, be expected that this pleasant state of affairs will
continue for all time, as pests are bound to gain their entrance sooner or later in spite of every
precaution. It will, however, be our serious aim to keep out every pest which might become
a dangerous one, and to control or eradicate, as far as possible, those pests which have already
gained an entrance.
Demonstration and Experimental Orchards.
The majority of the demonstration and experimental orchards, which were started in 1911
on a five-year agreement, have been turned over to the owners. In the case of some of these
orchards the district men have seen fit by mutual agreement to carry on the orchards at no cost
to the Government, except for supervision; the owners agreeing to give all information and
keep records as desired. The experimental orchards at Nicola, Windermere, Wardner, Waldo,
and Rossland have required a number of replacements each year due to varieties not succeeding,
and it was felt advisable to keep these on under our supervision until the orchards could be left
in at least a fairly complete condition. This will be made possible after the spring of 191S,
when all varieties not likely to succeed will be replaced by more suitable hardier sorts, and the
orchards will be turned over to the owners in as good a commercial state as possible under
existing local conditions.
The results obtained from these demonstration orchards have been as good as could be
expected under a five-year agreement. The experimental orchards have at least allowed us a
good opportunity to test out different varieties in the different sections and to ascertain what
varieties of fruits might succeed in each. The information, although negative in the majority
of cases, is very valuable in giving advice to future settlers in these parts.
Central British Columbia Plots and Test Trees.
At Bella Coola, S. LeC. Grant continued to operate the plot this past season, but the severe
flood which visited the valley in October destroyed all the crops, so that no report could be made.
The plot has been closed down.
A few fruit-trees of varieties likely to succeed were sent out by this Branch to be planted
on the different Agricultural Department plots in the central sections of the Province; no report
has been received on these.
Strh-iwberry-plot at Hatzic.
Owing to changes in Branch officials and general labour shortage, it was not possible to give
this plot the attention it required, and it was considered best to cancel the lease between the
Government and Mr. Catherwood, on whose place the plot was located. The size of the plot—
namely, Vi acre—was considered too small in order to do justice to the small-fruit possibilities
of the district. The discontinuance of this work in the Mission-Hatzic District is to be regretted,
and it is hoped that a plot on a-much larger scale may be undertaken by the Government, where
all small fruits adapted to this district could be grown and possibilities demonstrated from a
commercial standpoint.
Southern Okanagan Vegetable and Fruit Station, Summerland.
The work at this station, under J. L. Hilborn, was well executed in 1917, very excellent
yields and returns being obtained at the station. It has been very clearly demonstrated that
by proper methods tender vegetables can be grown successfully and profitably in this section. N 22 Department of Agriculture. 1918
A large and growing market for all tender vegetables is opening up yearly, and the work done
by7 Mr. Hilborn (backed up by his long and successful experience in this line of work in the
East) has unquestionably created a wonderful interest in the possibilities of this section of the
Province in the production of these crops. The accurate data as to yields, costs, and returns
furnished from this station are exceptionally valuable to have at hand, and the work should be
continued.    Mr. Hilborn's report fully covers the work done at the station.
Horticultural Crop Competitions.
There were twenty-seven competitions held in the Province during 1917, as follows:—
Farm garden  12
City garden  8
Strawberry     3
Bearing orchard     2
Raspberry     1
Onion     1
Total    27
The interest and friendly rivalry created by these various competitions in the different
sections are very satisfactory, and undoubtedly lead to better crops and increased production.
The judging was done by the district men who were in a position to extend any help or Information with regard to the crops and the cultural methods practised while doing the scoring. This
is a good line of work and should be continued with some modification in the number and size
of the prizes awarded.
The supply of horticultural circulars and bulletins in the Department is in • most cases
exhausted, or almost so, and to meet the great demand for this information the Branch is having
prepared some fifty-odd circulars 5% x 8% inches in size, four fo eight pages, with two to four
illustrations. These will be written by experts on the particular subjects, with the object of
supplying up-to-date, concise, practical information suited to our local needs and conditions.
Contributions to the Department's Agricultural Journal and other papers have been prepared
from time to time on timely subjects.
Judging at Fairs and Flower-shows.
Practically all the fruit and vegetable judging at the Provincial fairs was done by officials
of this Branch. These fairs afford a good opportunity for meeting the growers, discussing their
problems and the merits or demerits of their produce, so that the time entailed on this line of
work is usually -well spent. A report on all fairs judged is submitted to the Department at
the end of the fair, and comment, suggestions, or recommendations towards their improvement
is made to the Secretary of fairs.
Institute hVnd Lecture Work.
A good deal of the time of the officials of the Branch is devoted to attending meetings and
demonstrations at which are given lectures and talks on various horticultural subjects. The
specific information at hand, backed by our demonstration and experimental work in the
different districts, is of the greatest value to the growers.
The appreciation expressed by the growers at these institute and other special meetings
warrants the extension of this valuable feature of our work.
Prairie Markets Commissioner's Office.
J. A. Grant was appointed in April to fill this position on the-resignation of W. E. McTaggart.
The Commissioner spent some considerable time iu acquainting himself with trade and crop
conditions in British Columbia and in Western United States before establishing himself at
Calgary, on the Prairies, where bis main work was carried on. The way in which Mr. Grant
acquainted himself with conditions and became familiar with the markets and their peculiar
requirements on the Prairies has met with the most cordial appreciation from growers and the
trade. The extension of our markets to the larger centres in Eastern Canada in 1917 was also
encouraged, with very promising and gratifying results. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 23
The long, practical fruit experience which Mr. Grant possesses has enabled him to give very
valuable information to the growers with respect to the condition of their fruits on arrival on
the market, besides useful hints and suggestions given in the Commissioner's weekly bulletin
issued from June to November. His work has also included numerous personal visits and letters
to growers and shippers. It can well be stated that there has been the heartiest cordiality
between the Commissioner and the British Columbia growers and shippers, brokers, jobbers,
and retailers of fruits and vegetables on the Prairie and Eastern markets. The knowledge and
information gathered by the Commissioner during the year will be of still greater value in
years to come, and it is hoped that his valuable services may be retained and his work extended
as our markets demand.
The Commissioner's report deals fully with the work.
Coast Markets Commissioner's Office.
This office, at Vancouver, under R. C. Abbott, has been of invaluable assistance to British
Columbia growers and shippers on the Coast. Much timely information has been given through
the weekly market reports issued by his office from June to December, inclusive, as well as
through many personal letters and visits made to growers and shippers iu British Columbia.
The export potato trade was given particular attention, and the inspection system on
potatoes and export fruits has greatly improved our exports and been heartily received by all
concerned. Much good advertising by timely articles in the press, and the distribution of
circulars on the canning of fruits and vegetables, the potato and fruit booklets, etc., have
informed and greatly helped the growers and consumers of our fruit and vegetables to get
together to the very best advantage. In this way the great wastes which often occur in the
larger centres have been eliminated to a great extent.
The Commissioner also assisted in the enforcement of the " Eggs Marks Act," with very
gratifying results.
The full report of the Markets Commissioner will be seen elsewhere.
Conclusion. i
This report w7ould be incomplete without an expression of appreciation of the hearty
assistance rendered by the various officials of this Branch and of the careful and capable way
in which they have carried on the work during the period your Horticulturist has been in
charge. In every instance they have been covering extra territory besides working short-handed,
so .that the greatest credit is due them for the invaluable work they have rendered under the
existing difficulties.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
M. S. Middleton,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
P. E. French.
M. S. Middleton, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
,Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report on the work in the above districts for the year 1917..
A large number of our fruit-packers have responded to the call for overseas service. This,
coupled with prospects of an increased crop of fruit, made the packing situation appear rather
serious for the 1917 season. On this account your assistant thought that the promoting of
packing-schools was an important feature of the work during the early part of the year. The
number of pupils who made application for instruction far exceeded expectation, and as a result N 24 Department of Agriculture. 1918
of schools held many 1917 pupils were found making good in fruit-packing houses during the
past season. About 200 pupils were accommodated in the Vemon-Oyama District alone, a large
percentage being girls and women.
The call for pruning-schools was not as great as it has been formerly, on account of the
large number of pupils accommodated the past few years and on account of the heavy enlistments
from the fruit-growing sections.
Your assistant personally conducted one school for adults and one for high-school boys in
the Vernon District.
Crop Competitions.
Two farm-garden competitions were held during the year, one under the Northern Okanagan
Farmers' Institute at Grindrod and Mara, and one under tbe Nicola Farmers' Institute at Lower
Nicola. Your assistant acted as judge of the former and C R. Barlow of the latter. Great
interest was taken by the competitors and keen rivalry shown. Some of the gardens were a
credit to any district and showed that great pains had been taken. Scores and reports of these
competitions have been submitted.
Farmers' Institute and other Meetings.
During March lectures were given on horticultural subjects at Farmers' Institute meetings
at Notch Hill, Salmon Arm, and Armstrong, and twice during the year at the Coldstream Fruitgrowers' Association.    Reports of these meetings have been submitted.
On June 4th your assistant attended the Spallumcheen Farmers' Institute annual picnic at
Hullcar, Armstrong.   '
Judging at Exhibitions.
In September your assistant acted as judge of the fruit and vegetable sections of a Coast
circuit of fairs. Separate reports of each fair, with marked prize-lists attached, were submitted
at the close of each fair.
Experimental Orchards.
The five-year agreement between the owner of the Windermere Experimental Orchard and
the Government terminated last spring. Considerable replanting was necessary in the -spring,
and all injured trees were replaced by the Department with hardy varieties and the orchard left
in good order for the owner. A separate report on this orchard is being forwarded. The ofher
experimental and demonstration orchards have been turned over to the owners.
Crop Statistics.
At various seasons of the year estimates of crop yields and conditions were reported on, and
at the end of the season statistics are forwarded regarding the total production of fruit and
vegetables, the total amount of the manufactured products, etc. As this district has been
considerably increased in area, the amount of time entailed in collecting these statistics has
also increased.
In the winter months during weather which is not favourable for field-work, the local
Inspectors have been filing and working out data from the orchard and truck-crop statistics
collected in 1916.    Considerable useful information can be obtained from these survey reports.
Experimental Work.
Experimental work was again undertaken along much the same lines as last year. This
included principally spraying experiments for the control of apple-scab and aphides with different
spray mixtures and strengths of lime-sulphur. The experiments which were carried on in 1916
were duplicated this past season; the locality tests being conducted at Vernon and Salmon Arm
and the material test at Salmon Arm.
Different strengths of lime-sulphur were tested at Vernon for the control of apple-scab,
and different spray materials were tested for the control of aphides. British Columbia apples are superior In quality. Fruit-packing  school,   1917.
Fruit packed by packing-school class at Vernon, 1917. 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 25
The following is a summary of these experiments:—
(A.) Locality Experiment.—Conducted on the same plots as in 1916, both at Salmon Arm
and Vernon. Variety, Mcintosh Red. Trees eleven and thirteen years old, former at Salmon
Time of Spray.
Plot 1.
Plot 2.
Plot 4.
Plot 5.
Plot 6.
Plot  7.
Delayed dormant
10-14 days later
10-14 days later       L.S. 1-35   L.S. 1-35   L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-25
L.S. 1-30
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-25
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-30
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-30
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-30
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-30
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
Arsenate of lead, 2 lb. to 40 gallons, was added for the calyx spray on all plots.
In making the final count, all the apples on certain uniform trees in each plot were carefully
examined and notes taken on the scab.
Result of Locality Experiment at Salmon Arm (Average for Two Years).
Fruit free
from Scab.
Scabbed but
Culls on
Account of
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
0 45
69 40
From these results it can easily be seen that Salmon Arm fruit can be produced free from
scab, even those varieties which are very susceptible to the disease. In 1916 three sprayings,
as per Plot No. 6, gave the most economical results, but in 1917 the three sprayings, pink, calyx,
and four weeks later, gave the best results for the money expended.
Result of Locality Experiment at Vernon.—At Vernon, Plot No. 8 was added the past
season, and on this only two sprays were applied—the calyx and one two weeks later—both with
lime-sulphur 1-35. The following results are the averages for the two years except in the case
of Plot No. 8:—
Fruit free
from Scab.
Scabbed but
Culls on
Account of
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
17 18
0 35
According to these results, apples in the Vernon District can be produced commercially free
from scab by the application of two sprays, the calyx spray and one in two to four weeks later,
depending on the weather conditions. From results obtained it is quite evident that the calyx
spray is the most important. N 26
Department of Agriculture.
(B.) Materials Test.—Lime-sulphur;   atomic sulphur;   Bordeaux mixture.    This test was
conducted on Mcintosh apples at Salmon Arm on the same trees as in 1916.
Plot 1.
Plot 2.
Plot 3.
Plot 4.
Plot 5.
3-4 weeks later
L.S. 1-30
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
A.S. 6-40
A.S. 6-40
A.S. 5-40
L.S. 1-30
A.S. 6-40
A.S. 5-40
L.S. 1-30
L.S. 1-35
A.S. 5-40
B.M. 4-4-40
B.M. 4-4-40
B.M. 4-4-40
L.S.—Lime-sulphur.    .'V.S.—Atomic sulphur.    B.M.—Bordeaux mixture.
Arsenate of lead, 2 lb. per 40 gallons of the spray mixture, was added to all calyx sprays
in this test.
Result (Average of Two Years, 1916 and 1917).
Fruit free
from Scab.
Scabbed but          Total
Marketable.     Marketable.
Culls on
Account of
Per Cent.
SI. 74
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
4    ■	
Plot No. 5, which was sprayed with Bordeaux mixture, had 40 per cent, of the fruit russeted
on account of burning. This russeting lowered the grade of this amount to No. 2 and No. 3
From the above results it will be noticed that the lime-sulphur spray gave the best results
right through the experiment.
A field-day was held to show the growers over these plots, and great interest was taken by
them in the results obtained.
There was practically no difference in the amount of fruit taken from the lime-sulphur and,
Bordeaux-mixture plots.   The atomic-sulphur plot yielded about 80 per cent, of the amount taken
from each of the other two plots.    This decrease was undoubtedly due to the damage done by
scab and not to the set of fruit.
(O.) Experiment to test Different Strengths of Lime-sulphur in the Control of Apple-scab.—
Conducted at Vernon on Mcintosh apple-trees thirteen years old.
Plot 1.
Plot 2.
Fruit free
from Scab.
Scabbed but  !        Total
Marketable.   I  Marketable.
Plot 4.
L.S. 1-30
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-40
L.S. 1-45
L.S. 1-40
L.S. 1-45
L.S. 1-45
L.S. 1-40
L.S. 1-50
10-14 days later 	
L.S. 1-50
! Per Cent.
1                                                     99.S8
2 '                             • I 99.55
3                                             99.56
4 I 99.36
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
on Account
of Scab.
Per Cent.
0.30 8 Gso. 5 British Columbia. H 27
In this case the weaker strengths of lime-sulphur have given practically the same results
as the stronger ones which have been usually applied. It is hoped that this experiment will
be carried on again in 1918, because results show that a great saving can be effected in the cost
of the spraying.
A separate report will be forwarded on the experimental work in regard to the control of
aphides.    The results should be carried on another year before being published.
Pest-inspection Work.
On March 31st R. J. Kyte resigned the position of local Inspector for the Vernon-Armstrong
District, and on April 9th H. H. Evans was appointed as his successor. C. R. Barlow has again
acted as Inspector for Salmon Arm District and Canadian Pacific Railway main-line points.
The very satisfactory manner in which these gentlemen performed their duties is hereby
Inspection of Export Fruit and Vegetables.
During the shipping season all export fruit and vegetables were inspected and certificates
issued. This required constant attention, although the shipments were not as heavy as usual,
due principally to the embargo put on by Great Britain and Australia. Generally speaking, the
quality was very good and the fruit free from disease. In a few cases portions of the car had
to be condemned on account of apple-scab, lesser apple-worm, or water-core.
Inspection of Empty Cars.
To guard against the possibility of codling-moth infection, empty railway-cars were again
inspected the past season. The Canadian Pacific Railway had all foreign cars collected at
Okanagan Landing for icing and inspection purposes.
The greatest danger from infection from codling-moth is undoubtedly from foreign cars
which come up from codling-moth-infested areas in Washington, Oregon, and other States.
In one car no fewer than fourteen healthy full-grown codling-moth larva*; were discovered in
the cracks.    In four others live larvae or pupre were found.
On arrival at Okanagan Landing all foreign cars were immediately inspected, all rubbish
cleaned out and burned, and the car iced several hours before being forwarded to Vernon for
loading. Where a car was found to be infested it was immediately iced, ventilators and doors
closed, and the car sent out either empty or loaded with fruit right at the landing for shipment
to the Prairies.
Eighty-seven foreign cars and a large number of Canadian Pacific Railway cars were
inspected in this way during the season.
The Canadian Pacific Railway agent at Okanagan Landing and the freight agent at Vernon
assisted in every way possible to get the inspection-work and icing done promptly.
Inspection of Nurseries.
The various nurseries in this district were inspected several times during the growing season
and the trees examined carefully at digging-time. A percentage of the st*pck was condemned for
crown-gall, hairy root, or winter injury, these being the three main troubles. Separate reports
on each nursery have been submitted.
The staff of Inspectors is hardly adequate to make as thorough systematic inspections as
might be desired under normal conditions. However, under the present war conditions every
one realizes that it is only the most necessary work that is to be carried on. This has been
the case in the work in this district, and expenses have been kept down as low as possible
consistent with efficiency.
Aphides.—Green aphides have not been very troublesome during the past season. Woolly
aphides, however, are certainly getting a strong foothold in some parts of the valley, and growers
should see to it that more thorough control measures are practised.
Apple-scab.—This disease has not caused as much damage to fruit in the past season as iu
1916. This is partly due to the season and partly to the more efficient methods of control
practised by the growers. N 28 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Oyster-shell Scale.—This insect is not a very serious pest in the well-managed orchards.
It is noticed mainly in the neglected and old orchards.
Fire-blight.—This disease is scattered here and there throughout the Vernon and Armstrong
Districts. In a few cases the disease is well established, but, generally speaking, it is mostly
scattered on odd limbs on such varieties as the Spitzenberg. The extreme shortage of labour has
made it very" hard for the average grower to keep the blight under control. Mr. Evans has the
various infections fairly well located, and it is the aim of your assistant to clean this up during
the present dormant season.
The Oyama growers have the blight well under control in that district.
In the Shuswap Lake districts a few infections occurred throughout the season, but Mr.
Barlow has these well under control. An inspection will be made for any hold-over cankers
during the dormant season.
San Jose Scale.—The orchards at Spences Bridge, where a bad infection of this pest had
occurred, have been cleaned up, and no San Jose scale was found during the past season on the
fruit-trees or fruit. New infections were, however, found on some wild growth of choke-cherry,
willow, and maple, and these are being attended to.
Codling-moth.—The codling-moth quarantine area at Okanagan Landing required very close
attention again the past season, and I am pleased to report the satisfactory progress which was
made. The worms were reduced to about 10 per cent, of the number captured in 1916, and the
infested area was cut in half. The fruit was very small in this infested area on account of the
dry season and lack of irrigation. This caused more work in the inspection and eradication
methods employed than there otherwise would have been. Eight band inspections were made.
All the quarantined area was sprayed thoroughly twice, and the portion where codling-moths
were showing up this season was sprayed three times. The rough bark was scraped off the
trees, all wormy fruit and culls were destroyed by boiling, and the good fruit, after close
inspection, was shipped to the Prairie Provinces.
About 65 acres of orchards were put under quarantine at Walhachiu on account of the
codling-moth discovered there in the fall of 1916. Methods of eradication employed here were
similar to those practised at Okanagan Landing. Very thorough work was done by Mr. Buckell,
who was in charge of this work at Walhachin for the season, and I feel sure that the results
of work done will be shown by the very small emergence of the pest next season. The growers
at Walhachin co-operated with the Department in every way possible to eradicate the pest.
No evidence of codling-moth w7as discovered in the Kamloops District during 1917. Mr.
Barlow has had instructions to keep a close watch on this district for any recurrence of this
Many calls have come in for general orchard visits and demonstrations, and considerable
time is taken up with this line of work, which is always popular.
The volume of office-work has steadily increased and necessarily had to be attended to.
This was especially true since the inspection-work was turned over to the Horticultural Branch.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
P. E. French,
Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests. 8 Geo. o British Columbia. N 29
B. Hoy.
M. S. Middleton, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith submit my annual report as Assistant Horticulturist for the South Okanagan
and Similkameen for the year 1917.
Meetings and Fall Fairs.
Lectures on horticultural subjects were given at the following meetings: Glenmore (two),
Ellison, Rutland, Benvoulin, Westbank (two), and Peachland.
Fall fairs were attended in the capacity of judge of fruit and vegetables at Nanaimo,
Lasqueti Island, Denman Island, Duncan, Saltspring Island, Central Park, Ladysmith, Parksville, Courtenay, 'Alberni, Summerland, and the Home Products Exhibition, Victoria.    A report
on this work has been submitted.
Pruning-schools were organized and instruction given at Westbank, Naramata, and Kelowna.
Short Course in Agriculture.
A two weeks' short course in agriculture was organized and held at Summerland.    The
horticultural lectures were given by your assistant and the Horticulturist for the Kootenay
District. „ _
Experimental Work.
Experimental spraying was conducted this year on apple-scab and woolly aphis at Kelowna,
and peach-mildew, leaf-curl, and twig-borer at Summerland.
At Kelowna work was done in the control of grasshoppers, also in the control of wireworms
and cutworms in onions.
Apple-scab.—In these experiments the following sprays gave 95 per cent, clean fruit: Lime-
sulphur 1-30 when the blossom-buds were pink; lime-sulphur 1-35 when the petals had just
fallen and 1-35 two weeks later.    On the unsprayed plot there was 70 per cent, clean fruit.
Following are the results of apple-scab experiments at Kelowna, 1917, showing the benefits
of certain sprays  (lime-sulphur used In all sprays) :—
Plot 1:   Unsprayed; 30 per cent. scab.
Plot 2:   Sprayed once, May 10th;   20 per cent. scab.
Plot 3:   Sprayed twice, May 10th, 1-30, and May 30th, 1-40;  5 per cent. scab.
Plot 4: Sprayed three times, May 10th, 1-30; May 30th, 1-40 ; and June 12th, 1-3*5; 5 per
cent. scab.
Plot 5: Sprayed five times, May 10th, 1-30; May 17th, 1-30; May 30th, 1-40; June 12th,
1-35;  and June 25th, 1-40.    Practically free, about same as where sprayed four times.
Plot 6: Same as above, only sprayed six times, the first spray being put on May 2nd.
Results same as where only sprayed four times.
Main orchard: This was sprayed the s&me as Plot No. 4 and again on June 25th, and was
commercially free of scab. From the above results it would seem that the pink, calyx, and one
later spray thoroughly applied would control scab in any normal season.
Woolly Aphis.—In these experiments several sprays were tried, but tbe regular formula of
Black Leaf 40 and soap gave as satisfactory results as any. In this experiment it was found
that thoroughness of the work was the chief factor, and that even then only a small percentage
of the aphides were killed with one spray. High pressure and thoroughness are very essential
in controlling this pest.
Peach-mildew and Leaf-curl.—Owing to the climatic conditions these diseases did not become
prevalent enough to show any difference between the check-plots and the sprayed plots.
Peach-twig Borer.—In this experiment arsenate of lead and lime-sulphur were used. The
best results were obtained with lime-sulphur 1-9 when the buds were swelling. On the trees
sprayed there was 92.4 per cent, clean fruit and on the unsprayed plots only 49 per cent. A
detailed report of this work has been submitted. N 30 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Grasshoppers and Wireworms.—A detailed report of these experiments has been submitted
to the Department. The so-called Kansas mixture gave excellent results in grasshopper-control,
and the mixture, 10 lb. of rice, bran, and one cup molasses, with enough water to make into a
dough, made a splendid trap for catching wireworms. Small balls of this mixture were buried
about 3 inches deep at intervals of 10 or 12 feet in the infected soil of the field. These were
marked and the balls taken up and worms removed every three or four days during the early
part of the season. T. W. S. Taylor gathered over 50,000 worms from less than one acre in one
day by this method.
Chop Competitions.
A competition in onion-growing was held in the Kelowna District. There were fifteen
competitors, and in nearly all cases much interest was shown. These plots were judged by
your assistant three rimes during tbe season.
Orchard-survey Work.
The 1916 and 1917 orchard-survey reports are being compiled, and this survey is being
followed by another at the present time to get new plantings and an accurate record of the
condition of each orchard.
Besides this, a special peach and apricot survey is being made for the purpose of outlining
a plan of control for the peach-twig borer, which is becoming more prevalent each year and a
menace to the peach and apricot industry.
Codling-moth Control.
In 1917 this work at Kelowna was dropped and no new outbreaks were found. n\t Westbank
the work was carried on similar to last year, with the exception that a third spray was applied
and the bands were inspected seven times instead of five. In all, forty-eight worms were found
and ten punctured apples. This year there was an increase of 6,000 boxes of apples, making a
total of 18,000 and a decrease of over 80 per cent, in the number of worms found as compared
with 1916.
Fire-blight Inspection.
This work is being carried on as in previous years. In the early spring of 1917 there was
considerable blossom-blight, but only a few cases of severe infection. Owing to the great
shortage in labour it is becoming more difficult each year to get efficient men to do the cutting-out
of this disease.
Inspection of Fruit.
Apples for export were inspected at Kelowna and certificates issued to the shippers
throughout the district. Besides the export shipments, a great deal of fruit was inspected
for growers at their request during the shipping season. .111 packing-houses were visited from
time to time throughout the year in order to locate any new diseases or insects that might find
their way into the district.
Vegetable Inspection.
No potatoes for export left this district this year, but several cars of onions, potatoes,
carrots, etc., were inspected in order to advise on the condition of produce for shipping.
General Work of Branch.
Work along the same lines as in previous years was conducted this year. Many requests
came in from growers in various parts of the district, who wished advice on certain operations,
and a great many visits were made to various places for this purpose. Office duties have been
increasing each year, and much time is taken up answering inquiries and interviewing growers
in the office.
Respectfully submitted.
B. Hoy,
Assistant Horticulturist. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 31
E. W. White.
M. S. Middleton, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector
of Fruit Pests for Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland for the year 1917.
Change in Position.
From January 1st to June 2nd, your assistant occupied the position of District Fruit Pest
Inspector for Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands, being attached to the temporary staff. On
June 2nd H. Thornber, Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests for the Kamloops
District, with headquarters in Victoria, and acting in the same capacity for the Lower Mainland
and Vancouver Island, in place of W. H. Robertson, on active service, resigned his position with
the Department to accept a more lucrative position in Montana.
Following instructions from R. M. Winslow, then Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector
of Fruit Pests, your assistant on June 4th assumed the duties relinquished by Mr. Thornber and
was gazetted to the permanent staff as Assistant Horticulturist as from June 1st.
Continuation of the Pear-thrips Work in Saanich.
The pear-thrips work which was begun in 1916, and on which a full report has been given,
was continued during 1917 on practically the same basis, but with a few minor changes.
R. C. Treherne and Dr. A. E. Cameron, Field Officers for the Dominion Entomological
Branch in British Columbia, again had charge of the investigational and life-history work, while
your assistant was again detailed to take charge of the spraying operations for the Provincial
Department. The major portion of the months of March, April, May, and June were occupied
on this work.
As in 1916, this Department again supplied the three power-sprayers free of charge to the
growers in the districts where the investigations were being carried on, and under the same
agreement, with the exception that no paid engineer was put in charge of each machine.
Machine No. 1 remained in the orchard of T. A. Brydon & Son, Royal Oak, and was operated
by J. M. Brydon.
Machine No. 2 was again operated in the orchards of Stewart Bros., Tanner Bros., J. H.
Sutton, and A. E. Gale, and was in personal charge of the writer during the season.
Machine No. 3, located in the Gordon Head section, was not operated by the Department
owing to the slightness of the pear-thrips infection in that district, but permission was given
to a number of growers to use the machine in their own interests, on the understanding that
it be returned in the same condition in which it was received. A. E. Cameron, of Gordon Head,
had supervision over the machine.
No special attempt was made to sell spray material at the different centres in 1917, but the *
material held over from last year was disposed of to the growers who applied for it.
Three general spray applications were again made this year, as follows: The first, just as
the buds were bursting in the spring, which is coincident with the emergence of the thrips; the
second, just as the blossom-clusters were showing pink, which corresponds to the maximum egg-
laying period;  and the third, just as the blossoms were falling, to control the larvae.
Owing to the prevalence of apple-scab in the orchards sprayed for thrips in 1916, the formula;
were changed somewhat this year in an endeavour to control the scab. In 1916 the main object
was to control the thrips, and the results were very satisfactory as far as they were concerned.
This year an endeavour was made to. control the scab as well as the thrips, and efforts were
In 1917 the formula used for the first spraying was the same as in 1916, being the remedy
recommended by the New York authorities, and was as follows (United States measurements) :
Nicotine sulphate (Black Leaf 40), 1% pints;  whale-oil soap, 10 lb.;  water, 200 gallons. N 32
Department of Agriculture.
Miscible Oil No. 2, prepared by the Balfour-Guthrie Company, of San Francisco, which has
been used extensively in California on pear-thrips work, was again used experimentally in 1917
for the first spraying in the following proportion (United States measurements) : Miscible Oil
No. 2, 5 gallons;  nicotine sulphate (Black Leaf 40), 1 pint;   water, 200 gallons.
This spray was used almost exclusively for the first application on pears, on which satisfactory results were not secured in 1916. The oil mixture is much more penetrating than the
soap preparation, and the results were very promising, but the control of the thrips on pears
will need further consideration in 1918.
For the second and third general sprayings in 1917 the following formula was used instead
of the soap mixture used the previous year (United States measurements) : Nicotine sulphate
(Black Leaf 40), 1% pints; lime-sulphur solution, 4 gallons; arsenate of lead, S lb.; water,
200 gallons.
It will be seen that in an endeavour to control the scab the spreading properties of the soap
was sacrificed—so essential in the control of thrips—for the fungicidal value of lime-sulphur,
which is equally valuable in the control of scab.
The general results were that, while the lime-sulphur did not have the same killing effect on
the thrips, still they were held in check, and at the same time scab was controlled to a large
extent.    Arsenate of lead was added for the control of any leaf- or fruit-eating insect.
While the spring of 1916 was considered exceptionally backward, the season of 1917 was even
worse in that respect. A comparison of the main spraying dates for the two years may be noted
in the following:—
Pear-thrips  Spraying.
March 29 to April 8
April  27   to   May   3
May  22   to  May  29
April 9 to April 24.
May  4  to  May  17.
June  4  to  June  12.
A factor entering into the control of the pear-thrips was discovered during the present
season, when it was found that, besides being a pest of deciduous fruit-trees, it had become
thoroughly established on many other trees and shrubs on Arancouver Island, principal among
which are the broad-leaved maple (Acer maerophyllum), June-berry (Amelanchier florida),
willow (Salix scouleriana), red-flowering currant (Ribes sanguineum), choke-cherry (Prunus
demissa), Nuttall's cherry (Nuttalia cerasiformus), and also incidentally on skunk-cabbage
(Lysichiton fcamschetkense), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga nmcronata), Oregon grape (Berberis
nervosa), daisy (Bellis perennis), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). It was also found
to occur on ornamental shrubs, such as Andromeda floribunda, Viburnum opulenta, and Japanese
flowering plum.
In some cases in 1917 the injury caused to maples was even greater than that done to
deciduous fruit-trees. In one case at Duncan twenty buds of a maple, on examination, yielded
approximately 1,000 thrips.
It has been demonstrated that the species can successfully complete its life-history on the
broad-leaved maple, the June-berry, choke-cherry, and Nuttall's cherry, causing damage exactly
parallel to that which it commits on deciduous fruit-trees.
On an' inspection tour conducted by Dr. A. E. Cameron and your assistant, the pear-
thrips were found to exist as far north as Nanaimo and on some of the islands of the Gulf.
R. C. Treherne, who made a thorough examination of the orchards of the Lower Mainland,
failed to find the species located in that district.
After two years' investigation the life-history has been thoroughly worked out and the
efficiency of the various control measures demonstrated. At the present time a bulletin is being
prepared by Messrs. Treherne aud Cameron on the pear-thrips, and it is hoped it will be available
for distribution by March, 1918, so that the fruit-growers will have it as a reference for their
spring campaign.
Inspection of Potatoes for Export.
During January, February, and March considerable time was occupied in the inspection of
potatoes for export. 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 33
This export trade resulted from the shortage of the 1916 crop in the United States and
the high prices offered local dealers for their stocks. Out of a large number of cars inspected
only three passed for export. This small percentage was due to the fact that a number of the
cars offered here for export were cars which had already been turned down by the Inspectors
on the Lower Mainland earlier in the season. Another factor against export was due to the fact
that none of the local stocks had been inspected in the field before being sent to the trade, and
they were not selected with the idea of being exported.
During October several cars of Ashcroft potatoes were inspected, which had arrived in
Victoria in very poor condition for that season of the year. These potatoes were intended for
winter storage, but it was fouud necessary to sort them all over and to dispose of them as soon
as possible.
During the latter part of February and the first week of March two pruning-schools were
conducted, one each at Rocky Point and Metchosin. The attendance was well up to the average
and a great deal of interest was shown. There are a number of young orchards in these districts
which need attention.    The weather was very unfavourable.
Hatzic Experimental Strawberry-plot.
This plot was operated under rather unfavourable conditions in 1917; Mr. Thornber, who
had charge of the work, having resigned just at the beginning of the strawberry season.
It was found very difficult to secure suitable help during the shipping season owing to the
great labour shortage; also owing to the rush of other work personal attention could not be given.
However, the crop was harvested, records kept, and disposition effected to the best advantage.
As the lease for this plot expired at the end of the 1917 season and it was not possible to
secure the results desired, it was decided to discontinue the plot.
Horticultural Competitions.
During the summer your assistant was called upon to judge at all of the competitions held
in his district; in fact, a greater portion of the time during July and August was spent on
this work.
Keen interest was taken in all the competitions, especially those which were held for the
first time in 1917. These competitions do a great deal to stimulate interest and better care in
the lines in which they are held.
At this time when " Increased Production" is the slogan, the city-garden competitions,
arranged with that idea in mind, were especially interesting. In Victoria four different competitions were held, in which ten prizes ranging from $10 to $1 were awarded in each. Although
the Department only made the one $35 grant for the four competitions, this was added to by
J. H. Todd, of Victoria, by the very generous gift of $200.
The following is a list of the competitions judged and the number of entries in each :—
Ward 2,  Saanich
North  Vancouver
Gordon Head . . .
City garden,  No.  1   	
Vacant lot, 3,000 to 6,000 square feet, No. 3
Vacant lot, 6,000 to 20,000 square feet, No. 4
Boys and girls under seventeen years, No. 5 .
Cottage garden  	
City garden  	
Farm garden  	
Farm garden	
Strawberry     ,	
No. of
7 N 34 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Fall Fairs.
The following fall fairs were attended by your assistant, in the capacity of judge of fruit
and vegetables, at the following places: North Vancouver, Cranbrook, Fruitvale, Trail, Nelson,
Rossland, Grand Forks, Cobble Hill, and North and South Saanich.
At North Vancouver, Nelson, and Rossland assistance was rendered to Professor F. M.
Clement, of tbe University of British Columbia, who had charge of the judging, and at Cobble
Hill and North and South Saanich the same assistance was rendered to the Provincial
On the whole, the number of entries were much fewer than in previous years. This falling-
off is due to two main facts, which apply generally to all the fairs concerned: First, the absence
at the front of so many producers and former exhibitors; and, secondly, the great shortage and
high price of labour, which made it almost impossible for the men and women who were left on
the farms to take the time to prepare a creditable exhibit.
In general, the management of the fairs have been just carrying on and doing the very best
they could while the war lasts, but as soon as normal times return they expect to be able to
bring their fairs back to the former standard of excellence to which they had attained.
Experimental Fall Spraying with Bordeaux Mixture.
This work, which was begun in 1916 in conjunction with J. W. Eastham, Plant Pathologist,
to determine the efficiency of Bordeaux mixture (3-4-40) spray in September while the fruit
was still on tbe trees, to control anthracnose, was continued in 1917. Very satisfactory results
were obtained, as shown by the counts made in the spring of 1917. A full report on this work
will be submitted by Mr. Eastham.
Inspection of Nurseries.
Owing to the shortage of help in the Department and the rush of other work, it was found
impossible to make a thorough summer inspection of the nurseries. A complete inspection was,
however, made in the fall at digging-time.
The following nurseries in the Lower Mainland District were visited and inspected: British
Columbia Nurseries Co., Ltd., Sardis; Fraser Valley Nurseries, Aldergrove; J. H. Dean, " Rose-
land Nursery," Aldergrove; Charles H. Provan, Langley Fort; David Spencer, Ltd.. Hastings
Street, Vancouver; Dominion Nursery Co., 21S4 Fourth Avenue West, Vancouver; Gladstone
Nurseries, Gladstone; T. Tophain, 946 Fifteenth Avenue East, Vancouver; R. J. Taylor, 2456
Main Street, Vancouver; Keeler's Nursery, 145 Fifteenth Avenue East, Vancouver; R. T. Copley,
Nanaimo Road, corner Fifteenth Avenue, Vancouver; A. R. McDougall, 524 Kingsway, Vancouver; Nonus H. Abray, Thirty-fourth Avenue and Prince Edward Street, South Vancouver;
Foster & Buzzard, Eburne; R. D. Rorison, Royal Nurseries, 207 Hastings Street West, Vancouver; Royal Nurseries, Bridgeport; Brown Bros. & Co., Ltd., 48 Hastings Street East,
Vancouver; Garden City Nursery, Lulu Island, Eburne; Granville Nurseries, P.O. Box 343,
Kerrisdale; West End Nurseries, 732 Granville Street, Vancouver; Great West Nurseries,
Seventeenth Street and St. Andrews, North Vancouver; J. G. Speller & Co., 2000 Larsen Road,
North Vancouver; North Vancouver Nursery, Seventeenth Street East, North Vancouver;
William Livingstone, Twelfth and Lonsdale, North Vancouver.
The Vancouver Island nurseries visited and inspected were as follows: A. Ohlson, Oakland
Nursery, 1580 Hillside Avenue, Victoria; G. A. Knight, Mount Tolmie Nursery, Mount Tolmie
P.O.; Quadra Greenhouses, North Quadra Street, Victoria; R. Layritz, Layritz Nurseries,
Colquitz P.O., Victoria; Brown's Victoria Nurseries, Esquimalt Road, Victoria; John Barron,
Glanford Avenue Nurseries, Victoria.
The nursery business has been more or less stagnant for tbe past few years, and the stocks
at the various nurseries have become very low. However, there are indications at the present
time that there will be quite a revival of planting in 1918.
The Layritz Nurseries and the British Columbia Nurseries Company, Limited, are the only
firms which have been propagating any considerable amount of new stock. The latter firm dug
their own stock from their nursery at Sardis for the first time this year; the stock was in
excellent condition.    A full report has been submitted on the Nurseries. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 35
Insect Pests and Diseases.
The black-currant bud-mite infection in the Duncan District was again very carefully
handled by R. Glendenning, of Duncan, who had charge of the work in 1916. The amount
of infection was very greatly reduced over the previous year. Mr. Glendenning has submitted
a full report.
The strawberry-root weevil again caused considerable damage in the Gordon Head, Keating,
and Lower Mainland Districts, but growers are adopting the remedies recommended by tbe
Department and feel confident in their ability to check its ravages.
The codling-moth on Vancouver Island was of necessity left to itself in 1917, as it was
impossible to do any work on it owing to the pressure of other duties. It is the opinion of your
assistant, however, that this pest has reached almost a negligible stage.
Cutworms were a very serious menance to growers of garden-truck and field crops, and
caused a great deal of damage while they were active.
Other common insects were of about the same severity as usual and did not cause undue
Late blight of potatoes was very serious in the Chilliwack and Agassiz Districts in the fall
of the year. Growers will of necessity have to adopt stringent control measures in the very
near future or go out of the potato business. One 14-ton pit in the Chilliwack District, opened
up just three weeks after the potatoes were dug, showed over 50 per cent, shrinkage from blight.
Apple-scab was not as severe as usual, and there was a considerable quantity of clean fruit.
Where proper remedial measures were adopted the percentage of clean fruit was high.
Other diseases did about the same damage as usual, but there is an increasing amount of
potato-diseases which need careful attention in the future.
Demonstrations and General Work.
A large number of demonstrations in the various branches of horticultural science were
given in all parts of the district during the year, and many personal calls were given to persons
inquiring for information. This line of work takes up an increasing amount of time and is much
appreciated by growers.
Crop Reports.
Considerable time was spent each month during the summer and fail in gathering crop
statistics for Mr. A. B. Tweddle, Statistician.    However, no detailed survey-work was undertaken.
Fruit and Vegetable Production.
Climatic conditions were not as favourable as they might have been. A very late spring
was followed by an exceedingly dry summer. The fall of the year was exceptionally open, and
the apple and pear crop was gathered in excellent condition and much fall work on the land
was possible.
On Vancouver Island the strawberry-crop was small, as a late season always means a short
crop. It is customary to have the first strawberries on the market on May 24th, but in 1917 it
was June 21st before they were offered for sale. The exceedingly hot, dry weather prevalent
the first part of July dried this crop up very fast, and, whereas the season usually extends for
a period of six weeks, in 1917 it was limited to slightly over three.
The one redeeming feature was the fact that the price was good, and the Gordon Head and
Keating Fruit-growers' Associations jointly shipped twenty-two cars, amounting approximately
to 17,600 crates, to the Prairies, besides disposing of approximately 150 tons of jam-berries.
The tree-fruit crop was an average one and good prices prevailed in the early part of the
season.    Olivet-cherry growers received an exceptionally good price for their crop this year.
Potatoes showed a very marked increase in acreageTamounting to almost 25 per cent., but
the very late spring and dry summer mitigated against a big crop, and the average yield per
acre fell considerably below 1916, making the total tonnage about the same as in 1916.
Vegetable-crops varied greatly, but had a tendency to run light.    Fall crops did well.
On the Lower Mainland the raspberry-growers were favoured with much better climatic
conditions than in 1916 and were able to ship a great proportion of their crop. The price
realized on the Prairie markets was very satisfactory. The canneries took care of a good
proportion of the crop at very reasonable prices. N 36 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Tree-fruits in this district were not a heavy crop, and the late season and wet weather at
blossoming-time seem to have had a very detrimental effect on pollonization. The absence of
bees at that period was also very noticeable.
The potato-crop varied greatly, but on the whole it was an average one. Some yields were
exceptionally heavy, while others were exactly the reverse. In the Chilliwack District late
blight was very severe at digging-time and caused a great deal of shrinkage in marketable stock.
Other vegetable and truck crops were average on tbe low lands, but suffered from drought
on the benches.
Office Work and Correspondence.
It was necessary to spend an increasing amount of time in the office owing to Mr. Thornber's
resignation, and the correspondence assumed increased very considerably.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
E. W. White,
Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
E. C. Hunt.
M. S. Middleton, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report on the work carried on in the
Kootenay and Boundary Districts for the year 1917.
Tbe work of the Horticultural Branch in this district included the conducting of packing
and pruning schools, horticultural competitions, spraying experiments, supervising the demonstration and experimental orchards, judging fairs, general inspection-work, and personal visits to
Packing and Pruning Schools.
During the early part of the year seven packing-schools and one pruning-school were held
in this district. The packing-schools were held at the following places: Three at Grand Forks,
three at Creston, and one at Passmore. Four of these schools—two at Grand Forks and two
at Creston—were held for the boys and girls attending the public and high schools. The only
pruning-school held was at New Denver. As a whole, the schools were well attended and a good
deal of interest shown by the pupils taking part. A full report of each school was sent in to
the Department at the time the schools were held.
Horticultural Competitions.
In 1917 there were held in this district by the Department twelve horticultural competitions
of various kinds, at the following places: Three city-garden competitions, one at Natal and two
at Nelson; seven farm-garden competitions, one each at Robson, Needles, Baynes Lake, Crawford
Bay, Willow Point, Wynndel, and Harrop; and two bearing-orchard competitions, one each at
Grand Forks and Willow Point. These competitions were judged from two to three times during
the season. The details of the scores in connection with these have been submitted. A very keen
and friendly rivalry has been created by this work among the farmers where these competitions
have been held. The results have been that greater areas have been cultivated and made to
produce good crops by careful tillage and management of the soil.
Spilvying Experiments.
Spraying experiments and demonstration-work for the control of apple-scab in this district
were started in 1916 at Nelson and Creston, while in 1917 a similar experiment was started at
Mr. Forslund's, on the r-Vrrow Lakes. Each of these experiments are to be carried on for at
least three years on the same plots, using the same material (lime-sulphur) each year. The
results obtained this year w7ere on the whole very successful, although not so good at Nelson as 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 37
in 1916. A full report of the work done and the results obtained from each of the experiments
has been submitted. There has been a big improvement in the quality of the apples this year
over that of 1916, due to the very satisfactory results obtained, both this year and last, from
these experiments, and to the fact that growers of the district have made special efforts to
control the scab by a thorough application of the sprays recommended by the Department.
Demonstration and Experimental Orchards.
At present there are five demonstration and experimental orchards in this district. These
orchards are located at Rossland, Birchbank, New Denver, Wardner, and Waldo. These were
pruned in the spring, and considerable replanting was done at Waldo, Wardner, and Rossland.
Some hardier, shorter-seasoned varieties were planted in place of the more tender sorts. On the
whole, most of the orchards have done well, in spite of the very dry and hot summer that was
experienced during the season. A separate report dealing with the operations carried on at
each orchard for the year has been submitted.
Fall fairs were judged during September and October at Kelowna, Heffley Creek, Armstrong,
Needles, Burton, Nakusp, and Rock Creek.    A report on each fair has been submitted to the
This work for the year, as far as time would permit, consisted of orchard, potato, and
nursery inspection in the various sections. The fruit pests, other than apple-scab and fire-
blight, have been very scarce this year. The vegetable-growers have had considerable trouble
with the cabbage, turnip, and onion maggots, cutworms, and the green cabbage-worm. The
main potato-diseases have been scab, Rhizoctonia, and Fusarium wilt. In the Boundary section
fire-blight has been quite bad again iu some of the orchards, while in the Kootenay section
apple-scab has been by far the worst disease to deal with. Fire-blight did not show up anywhere in the Kootenay in 1917. The nursery stock of the Riverside Nurseries, of Grand Forks,
was inspected in October and a full report submitted.
On the whole, nearly all fruit-crops of the district were light.    The potato-crop was also
light, while other vegetable-crops were about normal.    Prices growers received this year for
their fruit and vegetables have been very satisfactory.    About 50 per cent, of the apple-crop in
the district graded up to No. 1, which is quite an increase in this grade over that of 1916.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
E. C. Hunt,
Assistant Horticulturist.
A. R. Neale.
M. S. Middleton, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report on the work in the above district during the first
three months of 1917.
It being the winter season, the ground covered by your representative was of necessity very
small, and the greater portion of the time was devoted to office-work.
Institute Meetings.
Early in January your assistant attended a. meeting of the Farmers' Institute at Cedarvale,
where there was a fair attendance and the subject discussed was " Small Fruits." An attempt
was made to organize a short course at Terrace, but owing to extensive logging operations which
were being carried on this had to be abandoned. N 38 Department of Agriculture. 1918
During February a visit was made to Bella Coola and two very well-attended meetings were
addressed. The subjects treated were " Co-operation " and " Better Farming Methods as applied
to Local Conditions." As a result of these meetings it is gratifying to note that a local Farmers'
Exchange has been organized, and it is hoped, with this and the new spirit which has sprung up
in this district, that the disadvantages of isolation will be greatly overcome.
During the three months prior to vacating the office, the annual reports, preparation of a
manuscript dealing with Northern British Columbia, sundry correspondence with settlers on
various subjects, and winding up the business cpnnected with the office, which is to be closed for
an indefinite period, were attended to. Everything has been left in the charge of Mr. McMulIin,
Government Agent for the Skeena District.
Prospects for 1917.
While in some respects the winter of 1916-17 was somewhat severe in parts, yet this was
on account of storms and excessive snow rather than unusual cold. On the other hand, the
presence of so much snow bodes well for wintering crops and fruit-trees, and there should be
very little damage experienced from winter injury as compared with the severe winter of 1915-16.
On account of the large number of men enlisting from all parts it would be unreasonable to
predict that there will be greater production during the coming season than during that of
1916, yet from all indications it is certain that all those who are remaining on the land are
determined to make far greater efforts than ever before, especially along tbe lines of producing
more vegetables for home consumption.
With the submittal of this report your assistant resigns from the Government service with
regret, as the work has been of great interest and the acquaintances made in various sections
of a very large district have been very congenial.
Respectfully  submitted.
A. R. Neale,
Acting Assistant Horticulturist.
J. A. Grant. ,
M. S. Middleton, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report as Prairie Markets Commissioner for tbe year 1917.
Appointment and Activities.
Under your instructions and following up the work instituted by my predecessors in developing the Prairie market for British Columbia products, your Commissioner's first duty last April
was to examine the possibilities of British Columbia crops as a source of supply, and ascertain,
as nearly as possible, the state of competitive crops in the United States, which have usually
been shipped to the Prairie Provinces in competition -against British Columbia.
As the shipping season was well under way before the Commissioner's Calgary office was
opened, no time was lost in interviewing the large brokers and jobbers to ascertain their opinion
of the possibilities of the Prairie market and to inform them of the prospective supply they may
expect to handle during 1917. This involved several visits to the larger trade centres. Much
information was given and received on these visits, but the consensus of opinion prevailed that
if the producer wanted to fix the price of his products, the stopping of consignments, especially
to the retail trade, must precede it. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 39
Impressions. :
Among other impressions gained was that British Columbia fruit was well known on the
Prairies, largely due to previous advertising; that British Columbia Mcintosh Red apples were
prime favourites; and that " minimum weight" stamped on fruit-containers, as adopted by
American shippers, aud lived up to, placed British Columbia containers at a disadvantage on sale.
Your Commissioner soon found that the greatest service to British Columbia shippers could
be rendered by linking up the extreme ends of the fruit business, by placing the growers and
shippers in touch with tbe buyers, and tbe buyers in touch with those who had something to
sell.    This was the key for the year's work.
It is very gratifying to report that in every effort made to benefit trade the dealers gave
their harmonious support, and market quotations were honestly and cheerfully given.
The general shortage in all lines of fruit, from all quarters of the United States and Canada,
was a feature of the 1917 season.
The embargo on apples to Great Britain and Australia had not the disturbing effect that was
feared at the opening of the season. The crop shortage in Ontario, Quebec, and the Eastern
States gave Nova Scotia, which had a bumper crop, sufficient outlet for her surplus without
exploiting the Prairie market to the extent that was at first threatened.
A shortage commenced with the Southern strawberries and was felt during the entire season,
resulting in unusually firm prices for all fruits offering and big demands for former sluggish
sellers, the better and more popular fruits not being sufficient to go around. Care should be
exercised not to plant heavily to varieties usually in poor demand, as conditions in 1917 were
abnormal and may not occur again for several years. Berry fruit has not been sent from
British Columbia in sufficient quantity to fill the demand for some years, and there was little
fruit preserved in 1917 for this reason.
Growing what the Market wants.
Planting suitable fruits is an imperative need, and immediate steps should be taken to
regulate it, so that the popular fruits may be grown in sufficient quantities for the growing needs
of the Prairie market. It is plainly apparent that far too many varieties of apples are grown
and many of them should be rooted out or top-worked.
Another point needing attention is the indiscriminate flooding of the market in the late fall
with winter apples, many of which are consumed out of season. Apparently, quick returns was
the aim of the merchant;  therefore the matter should be regulated at the shipping end.
Packing and Packages.
In some instances, especially on the part of Individual shippers, the packing left much to
be desired. Southern shipments were in many cases preferred, not because of the quality of
the fruit, but because the packages were better filled, and it is painful to admit that in many
instances both quantity and quality were judged to our disadvantage. It is evident that the
United States organizations are' more strict regarding rules than those in British Columbia, as
every package, besides being properly marked, also had a " minimum weight" stamped on it.
It was apparent that care in filling the packages well and stamping the weight on the package
was well paid for in the extra price obtained for the goods.
Increasing Supply and F.O.B. Buying.
The increased supply of produce in British Columbia resulted in 1917 in the wholesale
dealers of the Prairie Provinces sending their buyers into our valleys to purchase f.o.b. shipping-
point. Our supply is now such that British Columbia is the leading factor in their trade, and
by coming on the ground they can examine the goods offered for sale and secure a sure supply.
This method has a strong bearing on steadying the price, as goods bought at market prices
must be sold at a profit, and jobbers have no incentive to cut prices to secure trade, as happens
under the consignment system. Wholesalers find this a clean and healthy way of doing business,
as it gives them all a fair field and no favour. This method of trading is general in fruit
sections, excepting in British Columbia, where the old and unsatisfactory method of consigning
produce is practised to a great extent and is as unsatisfactory as it is antiquated. Refusal of Products sold F.O.B. Shipping-point.
The chief drawback to this system is the never-failing claims made by jobbers at the other
end, especially on a falling market. Sales subject to Government inspection at the selling end,
as explained elsewhere in this report, would offset this evil, and is strongly to be recommended.
When this is not possible, the cars on which claims are made, if refused, should be turned over
to a competitive house on consignment, or be subject to advice from your Commissioner as to
the best thing to do under the circumstances. If shippers would follow this plan the claim bogy
would vanish.
United Grain-growers want 400 Cars of Apples.
The 1917 supply for this organization wa^ largely lost to British Columbia growers. The
fruit-buyers for this great organization missed securing their supply when buying was good,
and completed their deal when British Columbia dealers had almost sold out and were unable
to fully supply them. This organization can handle 400 cars in 1918, and perhaps the lesson
of 1917 will work to our advantage then. They are beginning to see that we have the goods
and our prices are right.
Weekly Reports.
The regular weekly bulletin reports were issued from Calgary as usual, from June to
November. The circulation of this report has greatly Increased, and the advice to shippers
contained therein has been favourably commented upon in many districts. The market prices
have been carefully recorded by a staff of competent correspondents and the whole field of
prices reported. The f.o.b. shipping-point price, the wholesale and retail prices have appeared
weekly. The bulletin was mailed every Saturday by the afternoon train, and reports up to 9.30
of that day were included in it. If the urgent requests from the wholesale trade are complied
with during the coming season there will be a greater circulation, in which event it is intended
to furnish this bulletin to every wholesale dealer in fruits and vegetables on the Prairies. The
weekly circulation in 1917 was over 850, and with this change would reach 1,200 in 1918.
New Refrigerator-cars.
Owing to the general scarcity of labour the fifty new refrigerator-cars expected were not
ready in time for last season's berry-crop. These cars are now reported available. They are
larger than the old ones and modern in every way, and there will be no difficulty in getting the
minimum weight into them. Every district that can assemble express shipments in car-lots
should do so, as the limit of local express transhipments at Calgary has about been reached.
These new cars should land tender and perishable produce on the market with dispatch and in
prime condition.
After a season's experience at the Prairie end your Commissioner has no hesitation in
recommending shipments by car-lots wherever possible.
The demand for strawberries was far in excess of the supply. The general shortage in
the United States virtually shut out that competition, and any that were imported from Hood
River and Kennewick were sold at a high price.
Dry weather was responsible for a short crop in British Columbia strawberries in 1917.
Early estimates pointed to a big supply, with a great increase in shipments to the Prairies over
previous years.
The Gordon Head and Keating Associations expected to send twenty-eight cars and
succeeded in shipping twenty-two, as against eleven in 1916. The Creston growers expected
to ship twenty cars and only shipped equal to twelve cars, six of which were in car-lots. These
are the only points in British Columbia that shipped iced car-lots of strawberries, and the
condition on their arrival showed clearly the superiority of this method of shipment over
L.C.L. lots.
There was no loss from shrinkage in any of the strawberry-cars, and one sent to Winnipeg
arrived on Saturday, and Sunday and Monday (Dominion Day) passed before it was opened,
when it was found to be No. 1 condition. Had this happened under L.C.L. conditions the car
would have been a total loss.    Berries shipped in iced car-lots are worth 25 cents a crate more :       l
Clean cultivation in tbe Kootenays.
Fruit-packing  school,   Vernon,   B.C.,   1917. ?   , -.-
r.«   ■
, *.-
S x
»   5
><aii 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 41
than those shipped L.C.L., and wherever this method of shipment is possible it is strongly
recommended. The car-lots were handled exclusively by the Mutual Brokers, and their work
was very satisfactory in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Five cars of strawberries were sent from
Victoria to Winnipeg to the Mutual Brokers there. These berries were in fine condition when
they arrived in Winnipeg and the market was hungry for berries, but, due to mismanagement,
the prices realized were very unsatisfactory.
Signing Contracts.—The custom of signing a contract to send all the strawberries to a
brokerage concern from a given district or from the Province has its weak points. Other
brokers on the Prairies have to seek elsewhere for their customers' needs, and if at all possible
to meet our price they buy from United States points. It would be fair if every responsible
broker had the option of buying f.o.b. shipping-point at prices set by the association, as is
customary elsewhere, and if they could not get buyers for the total crop, then ship the balance
on consignment or to an agent, with a proviso that they should not undersell the f.o.b. buyer.
As the strawberry-supply is far below the demand, there is little chance that any will be left
unsold f.o.b. shipping-point, and if the association can get along without this extra service (for
which they pay very handsomely)  it would be a considerable saving.
The local express shipments were very heavy and were made without any system, and the
unorganized growers of the Fraser Valley were responsible for an early break in market prices
that was unwarranted. The demand was far in excess of the supply, but as the Calgary retail
merchants had consignments made to them without restriction they became the price-setting
factor. Your Commissioner had to call dealers' attention to the unwarranted state of the prices,
and this was met in a very fair spirit, but the consignments spread and no general control could
be exercised.    The result was that the Alberta market was shattered on a bare market.
The Japanese growers of Haney sent in a good pack of well-filled hallocks and shapely
berries, but consigned them to every wholesale and nearly every retail house in Calgary, with
the result that they had to meet competition against themselves, and these shippers were not
alone in their folly.
Some new shippers sent in a slack pack of sandy and ill-shaped berries, which created much
unfavourable commen? and had a bad effect on the market. Some system of inspection should
prevent such stuff from ever appearing on a distant and critical market. The home by-products
plant could absorb them at a profit, whereas they were a loss to the growers which sent to
Calgary, and an injury to the district as well.
There has been a decided unwillingness on the part of Prairie dealers to handle big strawberries, as they are usually lacking in uniformity; are poorly shaped and insipid to the taste.
Growers should send such berries to the jam-factory or to whoever may desire them; they
should not send them to the Prairies. A general organization of such growers would work
wonders in their bank account, as by this means a well-regulated trade would replace a very
uncertain and dangerous condition  of affairs.
Salmon Arm and Armstrong sent in some very creditable strawberries, and they, with those
from Creston, netted the best average price for the season for this fruit; the express rate from
these points, being less,  helped towards this result.
Raspberries. \
Early in the season it was feared that, as a result of a freeze the previous October, the
raspberry-crop of the Pacific North-west would not exceed 40 per cent, of an average. This
estimate proved too true, and the competition with Puyallup was almost entirely cut off. The
Fraser Valley, which has undisputed superior conditions for producing this popular fruit, had
matters all their own way in 1917, but lack of organization prevented the growers from getting
the full advantage that would otherwise have fallen to them. Their crop was also less than
normal, and the supply was only sufficient in some cities to annoy the dealers.
Owing to the general shortage, buyers appeared in the valley and offered good prices f.o.b.
for all the fruit obtainable. Several growers undertook to do a mail-order business and advertised ahead of the season at prices very far below the market. These advertisements had a
depressing influence on the market, and these men had orders, far beyond their ability to fill,
all paid for in advance.
In one instance a grower shipped 'individual crates of raspberries at $1.80 on days that he
was offered $2.25 by a prominent broker for all he had at the Mission City depot.    The demand N 42 Department of Agriculture. 1918
was so brisk that the association could not rally their members to concentrate and ship cars,
with the outcome that only three cars were shipped in that way. Two of these contained wet
berries and, as was expected, arrived in mouldy condition, and it is doubtful if the iced cars
averaged as well as L.C.L. shipments; under the circumstances, the iced cars did not have a
fair test and growers should not abandon the car-lot shipments on the 1917 results. All competitive berries came in iced car-lots, and some of them came in precisely the same condition
at the same date. Very few cars came from Puyallup, and those which did netted a high price.
These growers use the shallow pint hallock with the net weight stamped on it, and as the Prairie
trade like their containers and filled ballocks they showed their preference by paying more for
them than for the British Columbia %-quart, although our fruits had the edge on them when
shipped, but tbe journey under L.C.L. conditions gives raspberries a very muddled appearance.
If conditions were normal the car-lot stuff would command a better price and would sell in
preference. Last season's results of the respective ways of shipping did not constitute a fair
test. Prices varied in different cities and the variation was governed by the amount of consignments arriving at different points, and was not subject to competitive prices or the law of supply
and demand. If the Fraser Valley growers would organize and plant many times their present
acreage of raspberries they would rival the famous Puyallup Valley, and be in a very enviable
position financially. The Fraser Valley should be and will be the reputed raspberry-growing
district of Canada when their opportunities are used as they should be.
Loganberries were off in crop in 1917 due to an October freeze in 1916. The fruit has
been popular on the Prairies, but a poor shipper; it will never be a great factor in the fruit-
supply of the Prairies in its raw state, but its future as a preserving fruit for factory and
home use would warrant its acreage being slightly increased.
The Fraser Valley thornless variety was a good crop in 1917. The demand was good and
a fair price realized; apart from the soft condition of this fruit on arrival towards the end of
the season, there were no complaints.
Black and Red Currants and Gooseberries.
Both the supply and demand for these fruits are limited, and growers in districts where
these overlap their staple crop should leave their production to those that have no special line.
There is little risk in planting black aud red currants if labour is available to pick them when
British Columbia apples were by far the most satisfactory to the trade, and this is gratifying
as they constituted the lion's share of our offerings. Both package and pack were favourably
With a view to extending our No. 1 apple market, your Commissioner would recommend the
consideration of shipping the choice stock to more distant markets and shipping a smaller
proportion to the Prairie market. If Nos. 2 and 3 were placed in crates and shipped under a
special brand, the ordinary domestic trade would be suited about as well as they are now, at a
less cost. No. 1 stock would command a higher price, being further distributed and therefore
scarcer. This is briefly the policy of our competitors to the south; almost all their high-priced
apples sold east of tbe Mississippi River, and if it is good policy for the growers in Washington
State to cater to the high-class trade in the Eastern States, it would reasonably follow that the
Canadian cities would absorb our finer grades at a higher price. Montreal and other Eastern
Canadian cities are to-day buying Washington apples for the fancy trade, and at a price that
should make us envious. Why not push our British Columbia No. l's there? We have the goods
and should go after that business.
Some consideration should be given to the spread in sizes on dessert apples constituting
No. l's. Complaints were made on several shipments that the spread was too great in the count,
especially in Jonathan, Wealthy, and Winesap varieties. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 43
Most of the pears consumed on the Prairies in 1917 came from the United States. In the
early season market this is inevitable, but when British Columbia pears come in there is still
a predominating supply of Washington stuff. The keeping season of the Bartlett variety is so
short that a big planting to that sort would be unwise, but where other pears thrive well there
are good prospects for an increased acreage.
This popular fruit is not well enough known on the Western Prairie market. The Winnipeg
market shows the difference in price for the respective varieties in the same season. This
condition will change and other markets will be just as critical when we send varieties into
the market of quality and in sufficient quantities to make the difference in merit noticeable to
It would be wise to limit the number of varieties coming in at one time. A good spread
in season would be beneficial; winter varieties are shortest. Prices on the Prairies were high
in 1917 for good stock.
Apricots and Crab-apples.
Apricots were a short crop in British Columbia; they were small, but sold at a very high
price. This is a fruit that seems to have little competition from the South on the Prairie
markets. British Columbia apricots and crab-apples seemed to monopolize the Prairie market.
Where apricots can be successfully grown there should be increased plantings, as the supply is
very scarce. The Hyslop crab-apple has been in great demand and should also be further
increased in acreage.
The early British Columbia varieties, such as Governor Wood and Early Richmond, are not
profitable; they come in competition with Bings and Lamberts from Kennewick, Wash., and
make a very poor showing by comparison. The Black Tartarian is presentable, as is the Royal
Anne, but the high-priced varieties are the Bing and Lambert. Growers should think well
before planting other varieties of sweet cherries. Prices were good when our cherries were
presentable, and our Bings and Lamberts were very fine.
The Olivet and Morello are the leading varieties in cooking-cherries. Prices were good in
1917, but previously did not pay their way. There is only a limited market for sour cherries
and the present plantations seem sufficient to supply all demand in the near future.
Plums and Prunes.
During the season plums and prunes were in brisk demand. Some fine plums were shipped
from the Fraser Valley, but developed plum-rot en route and had to be jobbed off quickly at a
low price. In districts where this disease is not under control quarantine regulations should
be enforced, as many cases became infected en route. If plums were free from this disease
they would be welcomed on the Prairies, but as it is now dealers refuse to handle stuff from
infected places.
The 4-basket crate is the favourite for plums and sour cherries, and the ability of our
Southern growers in getting over 5 lb. in each basket resulted in their getting a slightly higher
price than our average. As the season advanced this was largely overcome and our growers
met them on the level with an equal pack.
British Columbia prunes had an off-year and. sizes were under the average, but the scarcity
saved the situation and good prices ruled. It is your Commissioner's opinion that prunes only
should be shipped in the 14-lb. prune lug-box, unless for special purposes.
There is a growing demand for onions, celery, beans, and potatoes, and an increasing
market is assured for these vegetables.
Tomatoes, Cantaloupes, and Cucumbers.
The Okanagan Valley, Walhachin, and other up-country growers placed a greatly increased
supply of these on the near Prairies;   they have found it profitable, and this field can also be N 44 Department of Agriculture. 1918
enlarged.    British Columbia tomatoes and cucumbers are superior to any others offered on the
Prairie market.
The trade admits the superiority of the Fraser Valley shipments over Walla Walla importations. Prices were a little better in 1917 than formerly, but these suffered because the British
Columbia associations did not insist in setting the price f.o.b. shipping-point.
It was gratifying to see the superiority of the commodity from British Columbia over
all-comers, both in pack and quality, but, notwithstanding this fact, it realized the smallest
price.    This trouble can be regulated in another year if the local organizations set the price.
ExphYNsion of British Columbia Markets.
British Columbia apples, potatoes, and onions are gradually finding favour in markets
beyond the Prairies. Toronto, Montreal, and Ottawa are now buying all these three food staples
from us in increasing quantities. Every car we succeed in placing in Canadian cities displaces
the imported stuffs. It is only the high-class produce that cannot be produced locally which
will pay to send so far. We have also sent an iucreased quantity of crab-apples and Mcintosh
Reds to Minnesota; this territory is tributary to the Prairie Markets and should receive some
extra efforts on our part to further increase this desirable trade.
I regret to state that some British Columbia shippers seem to think that their operation on
these markets is their individual concern, and when asked for a statement of their shipments
to new markets refuse to give it. This secretive tendency on the part of shippers prevents
proper attention being given to develop the possibilities of this trade. If a Markets Commissioner is to give good service, he must not only have the full confidence of those he seeks to
serve, but all the information available on shipments to the markets. The growers of produce
cannot hope for the best services in development of new markets if their agents (public or
private) do not co-operate with them to the extent of giving the information that is necessary
for the best results in the least time.
The question of uniformity of package is a hardy annual which yearly gives your Commissioners much concern. Year by year uniformity is gaining ground and only a few packages
now require adjustment. Our competition comes from the United States, where packages have
been standardized as the outcome of hard plodding; the growers there have had much more
experience than British Columbia growers, and a close observation will show that we are
following slowly in their wake In this respect. Our apple, pear, and peach crates are satisfactory, and lack but the net and gross weight stamped on them to make them equal to the best.
The 24 1-pint deep hallock strawberry-crate is now entirely used. The greatest difference
is now noticed between the %-quart shallow hallock crate and the shallow pint hallock crate;
these are used for loganberries and raspberries; the %-quart only being in use in the Fraser
Valley, and the shallow pint all over the United States and in other parts of British Columbia.
Tbe shallow pint hallock is preferred by most of the Prairie dealers, as it is a direct stand-off
to the American hallock; but either or both would be satisfactory if a reasonable minimum
weight were put up in them. Raspberries in bulk will shrink greatly in transit, but if the
weight is there when sold purchasers know that they are being honestly dealt with. Without
this minimum weight there is room for much dissatisfaction.
Every day during the shipping season complaints were registered about short weight in
raspberry-packages. Without a weight standard the measure means nothing, and unscrupulous
pickers can give much trouble to the grower, the jobber, and the consumer. The American
competitor is compelled by association rules to give honest measure. Your Commissioner would
like to see the shallow pint made general for berry fruits, but first in importance comes the
minimum weight. Without a minimum weight we cannot defend our position when claims are
made for short weight, even though damage in transit may have caused the trouble, and as only
a small percentage of growers ship a slack pack, why should the majority of careful packers
allow the market to be regulated by the minority's dishonest packers? We certainly should
have a minimum weight for raspberry-hallocks.
It should be definitely settled whether apricots should be shipped in 4-basket crates, peach-
boxes, or prune-boxes. At present all these aforementioned boxes are being used, which is
confusing to the trade. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 45
Advertising was a special feature of your Commissioner's predecessors. The result of their
well-placed general advertising is apparent, and it is chiefly due to this that British Columbia
fruits are so well known on the Prairies. While it seems that the day of general advertising
is over for us on this market, still it must be understood that we cannot afford to neglect special
advertising. During the peak of each fruit season, from the strawberry to the peach, there is
a period of seemingly oversupply. It is necessary to draw the attention of the busy housewife
to the cheapest time to buy a particular fruit and the best time to buy for preserving. The
public press is the best medium for this purpose to ensure immediate results. These passing
opportunities should be presented to her in the same way as bargain-times in the dry-goods
business are presented. The wholesale and retail merchants do this advertising now in a small
way, but it could be augmented with the co-operation of the growers. The result of well-placed
special advertising in most cases would turn a loss account into one of profit. A fund for this
purpose is a good insurance policy, which to be effective should be operated under one head.
Co-operation in Marketing.
The time has come when shippers should have an understanding as to the value of their
produce; at present there is too great a spread between their quotations. Our Prairie market
is undergoing a rapid expansion, and a better understanding amongst shippers as to quotations
would prevent them being so much at the mercy of the middleman.
The greatest market demoralizer is the grower who finds his own market; he is unconsciously
the means of much suffering and hard feeling, as he usually succeds in lowering the market for
himself and others. It was the exploitation of the individual shipper by the middleman that
led to the organizations of to-day. His control of price-setting and exaggerated claims on
conditions of goods received forced the growers to protect themselves. It is only by organized
effort that growers can protect their interest on the distant market.
Organizations must co-operate to a greater extent in the co-ordinating of prices quoted on
the produce they offer for sale. The main result obtained by a proper understanding between
shipping organizations would be to limit the spread, on a given date, of similar produce. An
understanding of this kind, if lived up to, would prove a benefit both to buyers and sellers, by
preventing hold-ups and sacrifices, and would secure a live and let-live price. It would also
acquaint the growers as to the exact state of the markets and help them to regulate their crops
If we cannot establish a mutual faith in our fellow-growers the working power of co-operation
is lost. The history of such a failure shows decline in prices below cost of production, followed
by a decline in production and loss of the market to those who maintain their organizations
in a healthy state.
In conclusion, it should be impressed on all British Columbia growers that the Prairie
market wants good sound produce honestly packed. It should be borne in mind that British
Columbia is meeting competition from districts in good favour.
The shipping districts must protect themselves against the loss of a certain portion of their
crop which it would be unwise to ship, by encouraging by-product factories to establish as near
them as possible. It would be beneficial if interprovincial and export shipments of all perishable
produce were subject to Government inspection at shipping-point; this would prevent the shipment of culls and other low-class produce that is so injurious to the reputation of the Province.
There has been a strong cordiality between the growers, shippers, and brokers and your
Commissioner, as well as a continuous demand for information by the jobbers and retail
merchants from this office.
■ This report would be incomplete if mention were not made of the unanimity of purpose
that prevails between this office and tbe Dominion Fruit Inspectors' offices, both in British
Columbia and the Prairies. In every emergency that has arisen the full co-operation of their
staff has been available, which has greatly added to the success and results of our efforts. N 46 Department of Agriculture. 1918
The general outlook for the future points to a rapidly increasing market and a continuation
of good prices, and British Columbia's portion of the business will be in relation to our supply
and the amount of energy we exert in stimulating trade.
Respectfully submitted.
J. A. Grant,
Prairie Markets Commissioner.
R. C. Abbott.
M. S. Middleton, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report on the inspection-work under
my charge; also on marketing conditions within the Province of British Columbia, and more
especially iu the Coast cities, during the year 1917.
Weekly Reports.
The weekly reports were issued regularly from June 2nd to December 22nd, inclusive.
These reports dealt with the weekly market conditions and export trade. The total number
sent out was 13,050. These reports were also printed in the press throughout the Province
and were very much appreciated by the general public. In addition to the above, the city
press was given material from time to time which would be of interest to the growers.
A large number of circulars on the canning of fruits and vegetables, potato booklets, British
Columbia fruit booklets, and Department bulletins and circulars were distributed from this
Throughout the year the work of giving out information re buying and canning of small
fruits was continued, a part of the work which is very much appreciated by the consumers of
the City.
Fruit Inspection.
This work was carried on throughout the year and used in connection with an educational
campaign in the matter of putting up a better class of produce. The attention of your Inspectors
was also given to export apples going through the Port of Vancouver and which amounted to
77,760 boxes.
Potato Inspection.
This work was carried on, not only in regard to potatoes for export, but also field inspection
throughout the growing season.
Egg Inspection.
Large quantities of Chinese eggs were shipped through this port in bond in the early part
of the year. Your Inspectors made a determined stand to carry out the provisions of the Act,
with the result that brokers decided to ship such eggs to Alberta rather than go to the expense
of marking each individual egg. During the year there were twenty-two prosecutions and a
conviction in every case obtained.
Local Markets. ■
Generally speaking, the local markets for fruit, vegetables, and all other classes of farm
produce have been excellent.
Strawberries.—These were somewhat short in supply and maintained a high price throughout
the season. The greater amount came in from the Japanese colony at Haney. The berries were
well packed and graded and showed a marked improvement over former seasons. A considerable
quantity from Burnaby, which formerly came into this market, were shipped to the Prairies.
Raspberries.—The Coast cities received their supply principally from Burnaby, South Vancouver, and Lulu Island.   Approximately 90 per cent, of these were shipped into this market 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 47
from the above districts in the local two-fifth crate. Some 500 crates were shipped from Burnaby
to the Prairies during the season. Wmile this office received but few complaints on light-weight
crates of strawberries, it was continually receiving complaints on light-weight raspberries. The
tolerance of the use of the local two-fifth crate gives every opportunity for short weight.
Loganberries.—These met with strong demand and prices were good. This berry is steadily
increasing in demand in the Coast cities and the future outlook is indeed bright.
Currants.—The supply of currants was still short of the demand. Both black and red
varieties, if put up in good shape, have been coming more in favour each season.
Gooseberries.—The past season has been the best yet for gooseberry-growers. One of the
greatest difficulties in marketing gooseberries successfully has been the determined practice of
many growers of picking and marketing their entire crop in one shipment. In the weekly
market reports for the last three years your Commissioner has reported against this method,
and is pleased to say the results obtained this past season from marketing steadily a small supply
each day over a long period have doubly repaid the growers, not only by the elimination of waste,
but by increased prices and weight obtained as well.
Plums and Prunes.—The supply of these came In gradually last season and, with the exception of two or three days, moved out rapidly, thus bringing the loss from plum-rot down to a
minimum. The average prices were higher than usual and there was very little competition
from foreign stocks.
Cherries.—Sweet table-cherries, such as Bings, Royal Annes, and Black Republicans, sold
well all through the season. Early Richmonds and half-ripe Montmorencys found little call
and growers usually suffer a loss on these varieties. Owing to the bulk of the Olivet and
Montmorency cherries from Vancouver Island going to the Prairies in 1917, Vancouver City
received very few crates of these varieties.
Apricots, Peaches, and Pears.—British Columbia supplied a very small portion of these fruits
during 1917. While the total consumption of apricots in Vancouver was 8,675 crates, British
Columbia supplied only 2,325, and 6,500 out of a total consumption'of 62,653 boxes of peaches.
Tbe greater bulk of pears also came from outside of the Province.
Apples.—British Columbia apples now predominate on the Coast. It would appear that the
old prejudice against British Columbia apples has been wiped out, and, with the exception of one
firm, the wholesalers have given preference to home products.
The heavy imports during 1916 and 1917 have been during the months of February, March,
and April, when there was not a sufficient supply in British Columbia. With the stock on hand
on December 31st, 1917, and the available supply yet in the Interior, it would appear as though
these three months of 1918 will not see any large amount being imported from the United States.
Potatoes.—Much attention has been given to the development of the potato market, both
local and export. The results gained, although slow, have, it is believed, been very beneficial
to the growers. In three seasons the average price at digging-time has risen from $7 to $24
per ton.
Durmg the shipping season for the 1917 crop a most perplexing economic question confronted
your Inspectors, as to how it would be possible to eliminate the waste on the market, due to
shrinkage from diseases, principally late blight in shipments from west of Yale, and jelly end-rot
in shipments from the Interior. On examination, it was found that shipments resorted in
Vancouver showed as high as 70 per cent, infection, and many with an actual loss of from 3 to
15 per cent. This was a great economic loss, especially to growers. They were not only losing
stock they might have fed to hogs or other stock on the farm, but they were compelled to pay
freight, resorting, and incinerator charges. Also the already overworked transportation facilities
were being utilized in carrying stock which turned out to be a total loss as food. A hurried
survey showed the major portion of the wastage coming from the Districts of Chilliwack and
Agassiz. Steps were taken at once to try and stop, if possible, this unnecessary wastage by
inaugurating an inspection service at the shipping end.
While the inspection-work no doubt saved the growers, shippers, and consumers untold
financial loss, it also demonstrated clearly that, no matter how careful the inspection -might
be, it is impossible to always detect conditions causing serious losses on the market.
Just previous to and during the planting season of 1917, demonstrations and lectures on
the treatment and selection of potato-seed were given each Friday at the New Westminster
Market.   These lectures created much interest and were well attended by farmers.   This same NT 48 Department of Agriculture. 1918
work was carried on throughout the Lower Mainland by your Inspectors, who visited 1,032 farms
during the season.
While powdery scab was very prevalent in 1916, only a slight trace was found in 1917.
Two Chilliwack farmers who have for the past two seasons been following the recommendation of this office in the selection of seed and planting of seed-plots claim to have increased their
yield of marketable potatoes 30 to 50 per cent.
During the year the inspections were as follows:—
Total potato inspections      5,832
Total cars passed for export, January 1st to December 31st, 1917      766
Total cars condemned        541
Total cars inspected in city for local use      333
Tomatoes.—The British Columbia crop of both hothouse and field tomatoes was marketed
with more satisfactory results to the growers in 1917 than in any previous year. It might be
said that the shipments totalled more than 60 per cent, of those in 1914. The wastage was so
small that it cannot be recorded as against the loss of some eight cars in 1914.
The home canning of tomatoes in the City of Vancouver is increasing each season. Since the
arrival of the tomatoes from the Keremeos District, which are far superior in flavour fo those
produced in other districts, the table consumption has increased wonderfully.
Beans.—The production of beans was much greater than in former years. These have found
a ready sale at good prices when car-loads could be made up.
Other Vegetables.—With the exception of onions and carrots, other table-vegetables have
been scarce, and a great deal of difficulty was encountered in finding a supply for export trade.
In the month of March a very large shipment of Australian onions was received in Vancouver, but owing to heating in transit became almost an entire loss. During the month of
November there was a heavy storage of British Columbia onions in Vancouver, and at the end
of the year these showed approximately 70 per cent, growth. Speculation In onions during 1917
has caused a great wastage' of foodstuffs.
Farmers were encouraged by the evaporators to grow red carrots and onions. These
evaporators then bought their supply of carrots and onions from California early in the season
before British Columbia stocks were ready for use; consequently, the growers on the Lower
Mainland have their stocks still on hand.
The export demand for mixed cars of vegetables is gradually increasing, and our trade has
suffered a great loss this season on account of the shortage in cabbage, parsnips, and beets.
There was a decided increase in the shipments of British Columbia peppers and egg-plant
from the Okanagan Valley.
Rhubarb.—This office has encouraged to some extent the growing of forced rhubarb, and
growers who are giving attention to this part of the industry have indeed done well during 1917.
This produce was found on the Vancouver market almost continually from January 1st to
August 1st.
Cucumbers.—In the early part of last May all assistance possible was given to a new-
pickle company who were desirous of starting in Vancouver. They were able to contract and
arrange with some growers to grow plckling-cucumbers, and although it was late in the season
before arrangements could be made, the pickling company are satisfied with the results, and it
is understood the growers did as well as could be expected. Encouragement has been given to
this industry for the past four years, and it is one which we believe has a very bright future
before it. This company will extend their efforts to the Okanagan Valley in 1918, and will also
take cauliflower, beans, etc.
Summing up the situation for the year, it was found that there was very little loss in
wastage of foodstuffs in Vancouver as compared with other years.
Every effort has been made on the part of this office to assist wholesalers and dealers of
foodstuffs where the movement was slow. The marked improvement in the packing and grading
of fruit and vegetables has a great deal to do in the elimination of this waste. Where carelessness was shown on the.*part of the producer in the shipments of fruit and vegetables into the
city, this office took the matter up direct, and if necessary visited the farm and gave instructions
as to the proper methods of packing and grading.   Assistance was also given in the marketing 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 49
of dressed meats and poultry, and, when complaints were made, assisted in adjusting same to
the satisfaction of both shipper and dealer.
Producing shippers have been protected in their collections.    In every case where farmers
notified this office there has been no loss whatever.   This is a very important branch of the
work of this office, and growers in general appreciate it very much.
Respectfully submitted.
R. C. Abbott,
Coast Markets Commissioner and Inspector in Charge of Exports.
J. L. Hilborn.
M. S. Middleton, Esq.,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report on the work of the above station during the year
There were grown 3,240 plants of sweet peppers, which yielded 142 peach and 326 apple
boxes of fruits at a total cost of $220.70, including allowance for rent of land, also all taxes,
fertilizers, boxes, and all expenses incurred in growing and marketing the crop, which brought
a gross return of $820, leaving a net balance of $599.35 for the Vu acre grown.
As usual, the seeds were started in the greenhouse early in March, and twice transplanted
before going to the field. They were planted in rows which were 3 feet 4 inches apart, the
plants being set about 20 inches apart in the row, and given very thorough cultivation throughout
the season, and irrigated when they seemed to require it.
We are ever striving to produce or obtain better varieties of peppers as well as other
vegetables, and this season grew two varieties obtained from the South which gave excellent
satisfaction—Pimento, a medium-sized pepper of very smooth and perfect form, and very heavy,
the flesh being fully a quarter of an inch thick. The other new variety, called Giant Neapolitan,
promises to also be a valuable variety. It is a large early sort, worthy of further trial, and
it is hoped to improve it by selection.
The land for this crop was prepared as described for the growing of cucumbers.
As in the case of cantaloupes, the chief commercial crop of tomatoes was grown on a
neighbouring farm, but a portion was also grown at home. In both cases the crop was quite
satisfactory as to yield and prices obtained, showing a net balance per acre of about $670 over
total cost of production.
As heretofore, the seeds were started in the greenhouse, but this season the first sowing
was done a little later than heretofore, and it is thought that March 1st is sufficiently early for
starting. The plants were transplanted three times, each time into other flats, and given more
space, as is done in the growing of all vegetables grown in this way. The flats used for this
purpose are 12 x 22 inches, inside measurement, and 4 inches deep.
For the last transplanting with tomatoes, cucumbers, and melons, only eight plants were
put in a flat. Hence in moving to the field they receive no check. This enables the bringing
of the crop forward much earlier than would be possible if the root system was disturbed in
Regarding varieties, while we are still obtaining good results from the Bonnie Best, the bulk
of the crop is still produced from Earliana, and, although testing many other varieties, we have
been unable to discover anything as good if a good type of seed is used. Best results have been
obtained from seed procured from H. P. Langdon & Son, Constable, N.Y. By selecting fruits
from the best plants throughout the field, and repeating this year after year, has enabled the
production of a type as good but not better than that purchased from the sources referred to. N 50 Department of Agriculture. 1918
While some growers claim to have had good results from planting tomatoes on rich soil,
the same cannot be said of the results at this station, as the plants grow so large that tbe crop
is produced too late to secure satisfactory prices. This station obtained the best results from
soil of only moderate fertility.
From Vu acre in 1917 662 apple-boxes of this valuable but little-known vegetable were
produced at a total cost of $293.30, which sold for $829.80, leaving a net balance of $536.50.
The seeds for this crop were started under glass, and the plants handled in much the same
way as described for peppers, and the crop is cultivated and handled in much the same manner.
This crop, as well as the peppers, requires a rich soil and thorough cultivation. These plants
require more space in the field than do peppers, as they grow larger and have a much stronger
root system. The rows were planted 3 feet 8 inches apart, and the plants about 34 inches apart
in the rows.
The same result applies for this crop as has been mentioned for the other crops; the season
being warmer and longer than ordinary, the yield was unusual.
This vegetable is not very well known In the majority of markets; we were able to increase
the sales to a great extent by having printed circulars describing how to treat and cook this
vegetable, placing a few of these in each box when they were packed. This apparently is
causing a rapid and continued increase in the quantity sold to the different dealers.
Cantaloupes grown, 1917.
At the home station this last season only a small quantity of melons were grown, chiefly
for the purpose of testing new varieties, while the commercial crop was grown on a farm near by
which was rented from the owner, who was at the Front. The season being warmer than usual,
the cantaloupe-crop was a remarkably good one, the fruits being much larger than usual, causing
the yield to be better than in previous years, a net return of about $870 per acre being realized.
The seeds were started in sand on April 19th, and the plants transplanted three times before
setting in the field the first week of June, after which they were given very thorough cultivation.
As soon as the fruits began to ripen they were gone over every week-day and all fruits from
which the stems would slip with reasonable pressure were gathered.
For the main crop the variety called " Hoodoo " was grown, but this was crossed with a
much larger and earlier variety, and, judging from tbe first cross, it will be possible to obtain
from this a larger and earlier sort, which will be very desirable If the flavour and shipping
qualities of the Hoodoo can be maintained as we hope.
There is a wide market available for this crop If the right varieties are properly grown and
marketed; there is little fear of overproduction, as is the case with cucumbers and some other
From l*/9 acres of cucumbers there were harvested 5,445 peach-boxes of fruits at a total cost
of $1,281.90, which sold for $3,728.30, leaving a net balance of $2,446.40.
The seed used was a three-year selection of our own, starting with some saved from selected
plants grown from seed of Stokes' Hothouse Perfection, and no doubt the selection of seed used
contributed somewhat to the heavy yield of uniform fruits that was obtained. The seed was
planted in sand on April 18th, and the plants transplanted three times before taken to the field
in the first week of June.
About Vs acre of the above amount was grown from seed planted on May 21st directly in
the field; these were given extra care and nursing in an endeavour to produce a profitable crop
in that way, but with all the care the crop failed to develop until the market was well supplied
and the price such that the average was reduced to such an extent that it is not the intention
to grow any more in that way. These, as well as the plants started under glass, were grown
in rows 4 feet 8 inches apart, the hills, containing one plant each, being 3 feet 6 inches apart in
the rows. The whole plot was cultivated about once a week for nearly the whole of the growing
season and was kept fairly well irrigated, but if more water had been available it is thought
the crop could have been increased by at least 15 per cent.
As the weather was much warmer during the past season and continued for a longer period
than usual, the crop of cucumbers, as well as that of the other warm-season vegetables, was 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 51
better than ever before, but this was partially due to the fact that the same plot of land has
been used for these crops for four years, and each season the land given a more thorough
preparation than the last, including a fair application of well-rotted stable manure which is
not all used by the crops the first season.
Each year, as soon as the crops are harvested, the old vines which produced them are
removed and the land given a good working with a spring-tooth or orchard cultivator, then
whatever manure is available is applied and worked into the soil by more cultivation; the
land is then well ploughed late in autumn. In the spring, as soon as the land is in good condition,
it is well cultivated again, and the plank drag used to pulverize any small lumps that have
formed; it was then ploughed, plank-dragged again, and before planting the cultivator and
planker passed over the plot once more. The soil being a gravelly loam, the amount of labour
used in preparing the land for vegetables would be too much for a very sandy soil, but there is
no doubt that it will pay well on most soils.
(For statement showing receipts and expenditures in connection with the station during
the year 1917 see Appendix No. 5.)
Respectfully submitted.
J. L. Hilborn,
In Charge.
J. W. Eastham.
W. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for the year 1917.
New Diseases.
A fairly comprehensive plant-disease survey has now been made of the fruit-growing districts
of British Columbia, and the diseases at present to be found or to be guarded against recorded.
No new disease of economic importance has been noticed during the past year. The only
observation worthy of being recorded during the past season is the occurrence of a case of
mushroom root-rot in an apple-orchard in the Shuswap District. The main axis of the tree
from the crown downwards was completely rotted by the fungus, the mycelium of which was
obvious to the naked eye all through the rotted tissues. The characteristic rhizomorphs were
also present in abundance. The owner of the orchard complains that nearly his whole orchard
is dying from apparently the same cause. Unfortunately this case was brought to the attention
of this office too late in the season to visit the place, but the disease is of sufficient interest and
importance to warrant some attention next season. This is the first authentic case of the
diseases from the Mainland, although your Pathologist has looked very carefully for it, as it
is well known in the Pacific Coast States. The fungus apparently is present on the roots of
the natural trees and shrubs of the bush, and the only way of avoiding the disease in the orchard
would appear to be the removal of the old roots, etc., from soil as completely as possible, and
the growth of field crops on the land for two or three years before planting out to orchard. Not
only apple-trees, but most varieties of fruit-trees and some bush-fruits are liable to be attacked.
Field Experiments.
Apple-tree Anthracnose.—Last year an experiment was begun, in co-operation with the
Horticultural Branch, to ascertain the relative value, in the control of this disease, of spraying
at different dates in the fall. It is known that the disease can be largely controlled by fall
spraying, but that this work must be done before the heavy fall rains begin, since it is through
these rains that infection with the fungus takes place. With late varieties, however, to be sure
of spraying in time, it is necessary to do this before the fruit is picked. Growers have been
averse to this, since it means extra trouble and expense in wiping the fruit. The experiment
was designed to test the relative efficacy of spraying before and after the rains had begun and
the extra cost in the former case. It was necessary, therefore, to use a late variety susceptible
to the disease. N 52
Department of Agriculture.
A summary of the results of the first season's work was published in the Agricultural
Journal, and it is only necessary to state here that the results were decisively in favour of the
early sprayings. When trees had one spraying given on September 6th, only 11.4 per cent,
of the first- and second-year-old growth was attacked by anthracnose, whilst on those not sprayed
until November Sth, 77 per cent, was attacked. Where both sprayings were given the infection
was 7.2 per cent. These figures show well the relative value of the two sprayings, which is
further emphasized by the fact that most of the infections on growth of this age result in the
death of the branch above the point of infection.
The most surprising thing, however, was the fact that no extra charges were incurred in
handling the fruit as a result of the adhesion of Bordeaux mixture. The apples were placed
in cellar storage until after Christmas, and when they were then packed the Bordeaux mixture
was found to have disappeared, possibly having been detached as a consequence of the sweating
of the fruit.
The experiment is being continued, and will probably have a still greater advantage for
the early spraying as the disease comes more under control.
In this connection it is of some interest to note the curious ideas which an ignorance of
the real cause of a parasite plant-disease still renders possible. A certain gentleman having
memoralized members of the Cabinet and others in reference to a specific remedy which he
had discovered for anthracnose, I made an investigation of his claim. Tbe method of procedure
consisted in slitting up the developing cankers in eary spring, and injecting by means of an
oil-can a coloured liquid, whose composition is a profound secret. This method of treatment
ignores altogether the fact that infection takes place in the fall, and that the canker ceases
to extend by the time growth has well begun. Naturally, therefore, the canker does not develop
much after treatment, as it is due to stop in any case. On the other hand, such treatment can
have no influence in lessening new infection. It is known that shaving off the surface of a
developing canker and allowing it to dry out will check it, but this would only be of practical
value where the cankers are small, at which time they are not easy to see. In any case, the
process is too tedious to be of much value, and it is more important to prevent an infection than
to treat the cankers after they have developed. Effective protection can be obtained by spraying
as in our experiment.
Apple-scab.—Apple-scab was not so prevalent this season as in 1916, and the results of our
experiments last year had convinced many growers, who had become discouraged, that scab is
a controllable disease. As a consequence spraying has been more extensively and more carefully
practised. From the nature of the case it is not possible for the Plant Pathologist to be present
personally at the picking and counting of the crop on all the experimental plots. . This year he
devoted most of his attention to the experiment in the Kootenay, since it is there that the disease
is of most economic importance. The results at Nelson were not as good as those obtained In
1916, owing probably to tbe fact that it was necessary to have some of the spraying this season
done by Chinamen. It is probably not desirable to give a full account of the results here, but
the following contrast between two Mcintosh trees, one sprayed "commercially" (that is, three
sprayings, "pink," "calyx," and two weeks later), and a check-tree, may be given:—
No. of
Scabby but
of 60
of 50
Three sprays
Although the check-tree was, if anything, more favourably placed than the other, it had
not a clean apple on it, whilst the greater proportion of the fruit was absolutely useless for any
purpose whatever, as may be judged from the fact that the fifty worst apples weighed less than
1 oz. each. It was also difficult to pick out the worst, there being so little to choose amongst
them. On the sprayed tree 58 per cent, of the apples by count and 62 per cent, by weight were
perfectly clean, and a further 31 per cent, by count and 27 per cent, by weight, although slightly
scabby, were still marketable. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 53
Another interesting feature is the greater set of fruit on the sprayed tree. It has been
contended that the use of lime-sulphur in the " pink " stage or later is likely to bring about a
serious dropping of the fruit. None of our experiments to date have indicated this, although
for the " pink " spray a solution of 1-30 was used, probably somewhat stronger than necessary
for scab-control.
The past season at Creston was not so conducive to scab as that of 1916, but there was
sufficient to demonstrate the value of spraying. Owing to some misunderstanding on the grower's
part, this office was not informed in advance as to date of picking the fruit, and therefore
no detailed analysis of results was possible. Field observations made on August 18th showed
that where two or more sprayings had been given, no scabby fruit could be found and very little
scabby foliage. On the check-trees 75 per cent, of the fruit was scab-infected, although in most
cases not sufficient to materially reduce the size, only the market grade.
Peach-tvorm, or Tieig-borer (Anarsia lineatella).—This insect is becoming a most serious
pest of the peach and apricot crop In the Southern Okanagan. It is only recently that it has
begun to attack apricots, and apparently still prefers peaches. Where the latter are few in
number, however, apricots are being very seriously attacked, and where the insect is on the
increase its attacks on apricots are becoming more frequent. This is much to be regretted as
the apricot has hitherto been a crop much in favour with the growers, not only on account of
its value as a market crop, but owing to its comparative freedom from pests and disease.
The peach-worms winter over in the larval stage in the crotches on the upper part of the
tree. In spring these worms eat the young growth, hence the name " twig-borer." These larvae
pupate on the tree and give rise to a moth, and the eggs then laid give rise to another generation
of larvse which attack the fruit. It is this attack on the fruit that is chiefly serious with us.
Numerous observations in the Southern Okanagan have convinced your Pathologist that where
spraying with lime-sulphur is done as required for peach-leaf curl, this will largely control the
twig-injury from over-wintering larvte. This is confirmed by the experiments at Summerland
carried out by J. Tait, Inspector for that district. Hardly a worm could be found at this stage
on the sprayed trees. Since, however, the moth is winged, such spraying gives no protection
against the brood which enters the fruit, since the female can migrate from any near-by unsprayed
orchard to lay her eggs. Moreover, it is much more difficult to protect the fruit by spraying
against this phase of attack. There is good reason to believe that one thorough spraying of
peaches, apricots, and perhaps prunes, with lime-sulphur, between the time of the first swelling
of the buds and the appearance of the pink of the blossom in the opening buds, would control
the pest; but it is absolutely essential that all trees of these species be treated. Control of this
pest is as much a community matter as is that of fire-blight. The difficulty, however, lies in the
presence of so many abandoned lots with peach-trees, especially in the vicinity of Summerland.
The simplest and most satisfactory means of dealing with these would be to cut them down and
burn them, but this is perhaps rather a drastic measure. It may be that the shortage of water
during the past season will help to give the finishing touch to many of these trees. It is certainly
advisable that spraying with lime-sulphur, not weaker than 1-12, between the time of the first
swelling of the buds and the showing of the petals be practised for peach and apricot trees in
the districts of the Southern Okanagan from Peachland south to Keremeos.
The share of the actual spraying operations which it is necessary or desirable that the
Government should undertake cannot be decided upon until certain data, which are now being
collected by the district horticultural officers, can be worked over. These include the number
of trees to be sprayed and the number of machines available in the areas under consideration.
In any case, it is intended to conduct an educational campaign through the medium of institute
meetings and through the press in the early part of the year.
Fire-blight. .
A considerable amount of fire-blight was present in the Okanagan during 1917, although it
did not assume the proportions of an epidemic. There was apparently a little primary infection
of the blossoms, which developed slowly, forming a focus for numerous secondary infections on
the twigs later in the season. The late development of the disease prevented the injury from
becoming as serious as would otherwise have been the case. Much of the trouble is to be
explained by the absence of skilled labour to cut out the dormant cankers or to detect and
remove the earliest infections. JSf 54 Department of Agriculture. 1918
The worst injury, however, from fire blight was at Grand Forks, and apparently due to
deliberate neglect. Many of the farmers there have replaced much of their orchards by agricultural crops. Those who intend continuing this process are apparently very negligent of what
happens to their trees, as they intend to take them out, anyway. Unfortunately, while they
remain in this neglected condition they are a menace to those orchardists who wish to make the
most of their fruit land. The worst fire-blight infection seen this season was in a block of
Transcendent crabs here. As the grower proposes to take them out this winter, a fruitful source
of infection will thus be removed.
In view of the increased importance of the potato-crop as a source of food-supply at the
present time, it is very regrettable that so much disease should be present with the 1917 crop.
Much loss occurred in the field and during transit, and it is to be feared that there will be a large
shrinkage in storage.
In the past two seasons, owing to the increase in the powdery-scab infestation, attention
has been given by this Branch to bringing before the growers the necessity of more care in the
selection of seed free from disease, and the advantage to be derived by disinfecting the seed as
a safeguard against surface-borne diseases. Early last spring a special circular was prepared,
giving detailed instructions for treating seed. This was widely distributed. Seed-disinfection,
however, is no safeguard against internal diseases, and owing to the scarcity of seed last spring
it is to be feared that much seed of an unsatisfactory character was employed. The diseases
which have caused so much loss this season have not been the surface-borne ones, but the
internal ones, especially late blight and certain Fusarium rots.
Late Blight.
Late blight has been very widespread. Specimens of tubers affected with it have even been
found in potatoes from the Ashcroft area, although the Dry Belt is usually quite free from the
disease. There is only one effective control measure—namely, the spraying of the tops with
Bordeaux mixture three or more times during the season. If the disease can be controlled in
the tops the tubers will not be affected. In Eastern Canada this practice has now become well
established owing in part to the presence there of the Colorado potato-beetle. This pest is so
destructive that unless the grower sprays for it he will get no crop. Since he has to spray for
this in any case, it is comparatively little extra trouble to add Bordeaux mixture to the Paris
green and control both the potato-bug and the late blight. It has, of course, been objected that
since late blight does not occur in epidemic form every year, the money spent on spraying may
be thrown away. It has been shown, however, by repeated experiment that, even when no blight
should occur, the spraying pays for itself in increased yield. Bordeaux mixture has a stimulating effect on the foliage, resulting in more assimilation and a longer growing season, and hence
in the larger yield. Whether this would be true or not with the present high cost of production,
it is difficult to say.
Fusarium Rots.
Several of these have been determined, and the amount of loss, especially in transit and in
storage, due to these diseases is very great. Fusarium rots take the place in the Ashcroft
District of the ever-present late blight at the Coast. Another form is very prevalent in the Delta
District. Many field observations have been made and laboratory studies, but experimental
field-work is now desirable to settle a number of points in the life-history of these parasites.
Silver Scurf.
Silver Scurf (Spondylocladium altrovirens).—This disease has been found to be very
frequent in the Coast and Island sections. The sclerotial stage, however, has been met with
only rarely. While the disease is not very serious, it can only be controlled by seed-selection;
although it is of a superficial nature, seed-disinfection does not seem to be effective.
Investigations under the direction of R. C. Treherne, Provincial officer of the Dominion
Entomological Branch, have now been.well advanced. The results of these investigations will
ultimately be published by the Dominion Government.   At the same time, information for 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 55
immediate practical use has been supplied to those officials of the Department employed in
suppressing outbreaks of this pest.
When the material being bred through in the insectary at Vernon reached the critical stages,
the aforesaid field officers were at once notified and took measures of spraying or banding
accordingly. These operations, therefore, were based upon definite knowledge, and not on probabilities affected by the judgment of the individual and the character of the season.
The codling-moth conditions in the quarantined areas of Westbank and Okanagan Landing
are showing great improvement. The Westbank infestation is now well under control, only
forty-eight larvae being found during the entire season. These were all found in eleven orchards,
fourteen orchards previously infested being found to be entirely free. A further result of the
quarantine-work in this district is the clean and healthy appearance of the orchards as a whole
and the excellent grade of fruit produced. The rosy aphis of the apple (Aphis sorbi), which
was becoming a serious pest In this district three years ago, was not observed to be present during
the past season.
At Okanagan Landing the infestation has been greatly reduced; the total number of larva?
found during the past season was 550, being a reduction of over 50 per cent, as found in the
year 1916. Furthermore, the area of infestation has been greatly reduced, being now confined
to two adjoining orchards with a small front yard of about thirty trees still in doubt.
Vernon Office.
This office, as heretofore, is in charge of Mr. Ruhmann, and is the centre for the entomological work of this Branch. The most important piece of work has been the codling-moth
investigation, which has already been noticed. Work has also been carried out in co-operation
with Mr. Tothill, in charge of Natural Control Investigations in the Entomological Branch of
the Dominion Department of Agriculture. In this connection Mr. Ruhmann spent two weeks at
Lillooet investigating an outbreak of spruce-bud moth (Tortrix fumiferana). This pest was
doing much injury in the area specified, and it was important to collect data on its natural
enemies, since ordinary control measures are not feasible. Work along these lines was also
done with the cherry-tortrix (Archips cerasivorana), tent-caterpillars, and oyster-shell scale.
In the last-mentioned case a predatory mite collected in Eastern Canada and sent out by the
Dominion Entomological Branch was placed out and is being kept under observation, in the
hope that it may assist in the control of this pest.
An undetermined species of wireworm was found doing much damage to the onion-crop at
Vernon and Kelowna. A bait of rice-bran, molasses, and arsenic was found very effective in
controlling it. The materials were mixed to form a stiff dough, and small balls of it were placed
just beneath the soil between the rows. These proved a great attraction, and when examined
three days later were found to contain a large number of the dead wireworms.
An apple-miner of a very unusual character was found at Creston and sent in by the
Provincial Horticulturist. Only one reference to such an insect could be found in the literature
at our disposal, and the insect was not named. It was determined, however, by A. L. Quaintance,
of the Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D.C., as the work of a small moth, Marmara pomo-
nella, an insect only described in 1915. As this would be a serious pest should it increase, a
photograph of its work is appended, and it is requested that specimens of any similar injury be
sent to the Vernon office.
The cage used for the past two years for the study of the life-history of the codling-moth
has been removed from its site, and will be erected on the grounds at the rear of the Vernon
Court-house in the spring of 1918. A further sectional addition measuring 12 x 16 feet is being
constructed as an addition to the cage, the cost of the material for this work being borne by
the Entomological Branch, Ottawa. This will make a commodious insectary measuring 12 x 28
feet, and will be used for rearing, and studying the life-history of, the insect pests most prevalent
in the Okanagan Valley, and will also facilitate the making of life-history sets of economic
insects for -distribution and exhibition purposes.
The collection of insects has been largely increased during the year. The collection of the
late E. S. Wilmot, of Coldstream, has also been donated to us by Mrs. Wilmot. It is strong in
specimens of Coleoptera, containing a considerable number of species new to our collection.
A collection of Lepidoptera has also been presented by F. B. Jacques, of Vernon. We take
this opportunity of expressing our thanks to these donors. N 56 Department of Agriculture. 1918
A new sectional insect-cabinet is being purchased for the housing of our collections, the
previous accommodation having proved unsatisfactory.
It is gratifying to note that the Vernon office is being increasingly visited by Okanagan
growers who are troubled with insect pests or diseases. The absence for a considerable time of
any officer in charge, and later the removal of the office from the Smith Block to the Courthouse, probably caused some falling-off in personal inquiries, which are in most cases the most
satisfactory form of inquiry.
Educational Work.
In addition to attending various institute meetings, your Pathologist took part in the short
course at Summerland in February, as did Mr. Ruhmann, who lectured on insect pests. Your
Pathologist gave a series of five lectures on plant-diseases at the short course in horticulture at
the University of British Columbia in January and three lectures at the similar short course
held in November. In July the summer school for teachers was attended, giving part of the
course in botany and also a series of lectures on plant-disease.
Over eighty Riker mounts of plant-diseases have been prepared during the past year and
are now being distributed. A number of similar insect mounts have been made up, although
the number so prepared have been less than expected. A large quantity of material was
collected during the summer of 1916, but most of it failed to survive the Vernon winter in the
accommodation available.    The new insectary should prevent a similar occurrence in 1918.
Considerable attention has been given to preparing a good exhibit on diseases and insect
pests for the fall fairs. Such exhibits were shown at Vancouver, Duncan, Coquitlam, Langley,
Kelowna, Grand Forks, Nelson, and Summerland. The exhibit at the Upper Country fairs
was in charge of Mr. Ruhmann, except at the last named, where personal charge was taken.
Much interest was shown, especially in the fruit-growing districts.
In addition to regular duties, the bacterial tests in connection with the Dairymen's
.Association milk competition were again made.
In the past the major part of the Pathologist's time has been spent in making a survey
of the Province for plant-diseases; in taking up difficulties with individual growers; in going
around with District Horticulturists and Inspectors, inquiring into the more obscure or difficult
cases of disease; and in connection with the field experiments on anthracnose, apple-scab,
peach-curl, twig-borer, etc.
Owing to the extent of the Province, this necessitates being away from the laboratory a
great deal, and it is very difficult to keep investigational work going. The spraying experiments
now under way should be concluded in 1918.
Respectfully submitted.
J. W. Eastham,
Provincial Plant Pathologist.
W. H. Lyne.
W. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my annual report on the inspection of imported fruit,
nursery stock, vegetables, rice, corn, beans, and peas during the year 1917.
Staff. |
The work of this Branch has been carried out by a staff of officials recorded as Inspector of
Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, first, second, and third assistants, and clerk-stenographer,
stationed at Vancouver. Extra men, under a foreman, have been employed at the fumigation
and inspection station, when required, for the work of unpacking and repacking trees, shrubs,
plants, etc., during process of inspection and fumigation.
Fruit Inspection Quarantine Officers, under direction of your Inspector, are stationed at
Victoria, Nanaimo, Prince Rupert, Abbotsford, Huntingdon, Similkameen, Midway, Grand Forks,
Cranbrook, Newgate, Cascade, Kingsgate, Fernie, Rossland, Waneta, Revelstoke, and Bridesville. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 57
At Penticton and Osoyoos, in South Okanagan, and Rykert, near Creston, the Customs Officer
at each place looks out for any infected fruit that may be brought across the boundary by way
of wagon-road. These three last-mentioned men were employed only through July, August,
September, October, and November, during which months there is most danger of codling-moth
being brought across the boundary by tourist or other traffic.
The Pea-weevil from Eastern Canada and United States.
The pea-weevil (Bruchus pisorum) is an insect of considerable economic importance with
which this office has had to deal. Owing to the fact that up to the present it has not become
an established pest in British Columbia, and knowing the havoc it has caused in Eastern Canada
and certain parts of the United States and Europe, every possible precaution should be taken to
keep it out. With that aim in view, ail shipments of peas entering the Province have been
carefully inspected, and if found infected with any sign of live weevil were immediately ordered
to the fumigating station at Vancouver or Victoria, where they were thoroughly fumigated
with carbon bisulphide at the expense of the importer. This remedy, properly applied, has been
found very effective.
During the early part of the year, when several Eastern Canadian seed-houses were shipping
in their spring garden seed, considerable trouble and annoyance was caused in having to open
sealed packets containing peas. After a diligent inspection of such packets no live infection was
found, and in order to avoid further trouble the shippers agreed to furnish a guarantee that all
such stock had been properly disinfected. This arrangement was accepted by the Department
as applying to sealed packets only, stipulating that the inspection of peas, beans, and corn in
bulk should continue, and that freedom from infection of such shipments should govern the
concession granted to the sealed packets.
Pea-weevil from Japan.
Several hundred tons of peas from Japan have arrived at Vancouver, some of the consignments being infected with the live weevil, necessitating prompt fumigation. This illustrates the
fact that the Inspectors have to be continually on guard against this destructive insect invading
the Province from many directions.
The bean-weevil (Bruchus fabm) is a very close relative to the pea-weevil, and can be just
as destructive. We may congratulate ourselves on being free from this pest in British
Columbia for the time being. Consignments of beans infected with live specimens of this insect
have arrived at Vancouver and Victoria from California, Peru, China, and Japan. In a few
shipments the beans were so badly riddled with the weevil as to be of very little value, and
were refused entry.   The other shipments were fumigated.
The heavy importation of beans and peas has been largely in connection with Army supplies.
Potato-tuber Moth.
The potato-tuber moth (Phthorimca operculella) is another very serious insect pest that has
not yet troubled this Province, and for which California potatoes are barred entry into Canada.
On May Sth, 1917, the S.S. " Waitotara " arrived at Vancouver with 9,759 crates of potatoes
from Australia badly infested with the tuber-moth. The whole consignment was refused entry
and taken to San Francisco, to which port it was originally consigned.
Mediterranean Fruit-fly.
All consignments of fruit and vegetables coining from the various latitudes in the Pacific
Ocean are carefully inspected for any sign of the fruit-fly (Ccratitis capitata), about the most
destructive insect known to many kinds of fruit and vegetables.
All fresh fruit and vegetables from the Hawaiian Islands were barred entry into Canada
for reason of this pest. The Hawaiian Islands, however, is not the only place in the Pacific
where the fruit-fly exists, and it is never known what shipments arriving from other parts may
carry infection. N 58 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Insects Infecting Rice, Corn, and Stored Products.
The object of inspecting imported rice, corn, peas, beans, and other cereals, or stored
products, not only applies to insects affecting field or garden crops during growing period, but
also to those insects that are often so objectionable and injurious to the stored product. The
Mediterranean flour-moth (Ephestia kuehniella), Indian-meal worm (Plodia interpunctella),
the Angoumous grain-moth, the flour-beetle (Tribolium confusum), Tenebrio worm, rice and
granary weevil (insects infecting stored products) have been imported during the year with
rice, peas, beans, peanuts, etc. These particular insects do not apparently survive confinement
to a cold storehouse, but will flourish and become a general pest in warm stores or storehouses.
It has therefore been the practice during the last twelve years to fumigate all imported shipments of rice, corn, beans, peas, etc., that are infected, in order to prevent the imported insects
becoming a serious pest in our wholesale and retail stores.
This ruling has had a good effect on recent importations in general, as shipments seldom
arrive so badly infected as in previous years.
Rice-millers' Protest.
On July 12th, 1917, a meeting of the Board of Horticulture was held at the office of the
Inspector in the Court-house, Vancouver, which was attended by a deputation of the Vancouver
rice-millers, who presented a formal complaint against the expense and delay incurred in tbe
fumigation of infected rice. They also expressed the opinion that fumigation of rice was not
necessary, claiming that all infection was destroyed in the process of milling, and that which
escaped into the building did not survive the winter.
After due consideration of the statements made by the rice-millers, the members of the
Board decided that, even though the process of milling would destroy the insects in the rice
milled, a certain amount of infection would still remain with the sacks. The fact that the
insects did not appear to survive the winter temperature of the mills did not prevent the
infection being carried from the mills to the stores during the milder seasons of the year. Once
the stores were infected, it was often very difficult to rid them of the infection.
There was therefore very good reason why every precaution should be taken to keep the
rice-mills free from the objectionable insects imported with the products the mills handled.
The Board had no wish to endorse any method of procedure that would work an unnecessary
•hardship on the millers, but would have to uphold the Inspector in using the proper discretion
as to treatment of infected shipments imported.
An experimental concession was granted, allowing the rice-millers to mill certain infected
rice direct from the wharf or a quarantined warehouse, and immediately send the empty sacks
to the fumigating station. This avoids storing in the mill anything infected, and the method
appears to work fairly well if carefully carried out.
Experimental Fumigation.
The several methods of fumigating infected products, warehouses, cars, and ships have
become a very important undertaking of late years, in order to prevent as much as possible the
enormous loss resulting from destructive insect pests and diseases.
During the last two years R. C. Treherne, Assistant Dominion Entomologist, has co-operated
with your Inspector in a number of experiments. Hydrocyanic acid, carbon bisulphide, hot air,
cold air, steam, and sulphur methods have each been given a trial, and some very good results
obtained, details of which would be too long for this report.
It is hoped to obtain in the near future more valuable results from cold-storage experiments
regarding rice-infection, which promise to greatly assist in solving the problem of dealing with
that product in a satisfactory manner.
Fumigation Buildings.
Owing to the necessity for economy, the erection of the new fumigation building at Victoria,
for which an appropriation was made, was postponed.
The fumigation buildings at Vancouver were repaired by the Public Works Department to
the extent of $200, putting them in fairly good working condition for the time being. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 59
Nursery-stock Importations.
Very little nursery stock arrived from England or any part of Europe, most of the importations coming from the United States and some from Eastern Canada and Japan. There was a
larger quantity of apple and pear trees from the United States and some increase in apricot
and prune trees, also seedlings.
Stock Condemned.
The condemnation of apple, plum, and prune trees, blackberry stock and seedlings was not
so heavy as the year previous; pear, cherry, grape, and ornamentals about the same, but more
apricot, sweet chestnut, and raspberry.
There has been a vast improvement in the nursery stock from Japan, very little having to be
condemned, for which the Yokohama Nursery Company deserve great credit.
Insects infecting Imported Nursery Stock.
The following insects were found infecting the several varieties of trees, shrubs, and plants
during process of inspection at the fumigating station, Vancouver, and were condemned and
destroyed accordingly :—
San Jose scale  (Aspidiotus perniciosus) :   On apple, pear, plum, cherry, peach, apricot,
chestnut, currant, and ornamental.
European scale (Aspidiotus ostreceformis) :   On apple, plum, cherry, and ornamental.
Oyster-shell scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi) :   On apple and ornamental.
Brown scale (Lecanium) :   On peach, apricot, plum, and ornamental.
Black scale (Saissetia olew) :   On ornamental.
:Scale (Aulacaspis rosw) :   On blackberry, raspberry, and ornamental.
Scale  (Chionaspis) :   On blackberry, raspberry, and ornamental.
Cottony cushion-scale  (Icerya) :   On grape-vine.
Cottony scale (Pulvinaria) :  On gooseberry, currant, and ornamental.
Greedy scale (Aspidiotus rapax) :  On ornamental.
Mealy bug  (Dactylopis destructor) :   On plants.
Scale  (Diaspis) :   On ornamental.
Woolly aphis (Schizoneura lanigera) :   On apple and seedlings.
Peach-root borer (Sanninoidea exitiosa) :  On peach, plum, and cherry.
Peach-twig borer  (Anarsia lineatella) :   On apricot.
Raspberry-root borer (Bembecia marginata) :   On raspberry, blackberry, and rose.
Raspberry-cane borer  (Oberea bimaculata) :   On raspberry and blackberry.
Blackberry gall-beetle (Agrilus ruflcollis) :  On blackberry.
Blackberry gall-mite  (Diastrophus) :   On blackberry.
Phylloxera :   On grape-vine.
Fire-blight  (Bacillus amylovorus) :   Infecting apple, pear, and quince.
Anthracnose, or bark-canker:   Infecting apple, pear, cherry, plum, and ornamental.
Sour-sap:  Affecting apple, pear, cherry, apricot, and ornamental trees.
Gummosis:   Affecting cherry, plum, peach, and apricot trees.
Root or crown gall (Pseudomonas tumefaciens) :  On all varieties of standard fruit-trees
and small-fruit bushes.
Chestnut-bark disease  (Diaporthe parasitica) :   Affecting sweet chestnut.
Fungus root-rot:   On grape-vines and ornamental trees.
Powdery mildew:   On apple seedling, gooseberry, and grape-vine.
Imported Nursery Stock must come to Arancouver.
All nursery stock coming into British Columbia, or imported into Canada through a British
Columbia port of entry, must be inspected and fumigated at Vancouver Fumigating Station, thus
complying with both Dominion and Provincial regulations.
Your Inspector was also appointed a Dominion Inspector under the Dominion " Destructive
Insect and Pest Act," and was responsible for the inspection and fumigation of all nursery stock
imported into Canada through British Columbia. N 60 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Amendment to Dominion Regulations.
The Dominion regulations under the " Destructive Insect and Pest Act"' were amended
during 1917. Owing to the possibility of their carrying the disease known as " white-pine
blister-rust," all varieties of currant and gooseberry (Ribes and Grossularia) are included with
other varieties of stock that are prohibited entry into Canada.
Fruit Importations.
The fact that fewer apples have been imported during 1917, and that a fairly good supply
of British Columbia apples has been in evidence at Vancouver, is a good indication that this
Province is continuing to make headway in supplying the local market from its own resources.
The importation of Japanese oranges w7as much less than in the year 1916 owing to the high
freight and limited shipping accommodation. Grapefruit and tomatoes were also less. There
was not much change in the quantity of plums and prunes, but an increase in crabs, pears,
apricots, cherries, peaches, California oranges, and lemons; peaches and California oranges being
the most conspicuous.
With the exception of apples and Japanese oranges, there was less fruit condemned than
during the previous year.
The apples and pears were condemned for codling-moth principally, and a few for San Jose
scale. Peaches, apricots, and plums were condemned for peach-twig borer (Anarsia lineatella)
and brown-rot. Cherries were condemned for brown-rot. Lemons, oranges, and grapefruit were
condemned for scale (Aspidiotus aurantii, citricola, Chwnaspis, Diaspis, Mytilaspis, Lecanium
olea)  and brown-rot.
The condemned fruit was all shipped out of the Province, with the exception of a few small
consignments that were cremated.
, Potato Importations.
Practically all the potatoes imported have been used by the evaporators, only a few very
small shipments being for consumption within the Province. These have been imported from the
following places during the year: China and Japan, 94 baskets, or about 3 tons; Florida (new
potatoes), 143 hampers, or 4 tons 580 lb.; Washington, U.S., 11,592 sacks, or 651 tons 317 lb.;
Alberta, Canada, 585 tons ; Australia, 9,769 crates, 4,648 sacks, or 803 tons; total, 2,046 tons 897 lb.
The following potatoes from .Australia must be deducted from the foregoing: Refused entry,
9,759 crates, or 500 tons;   shrinkage from decay, 174 tons.
Besides the 9,759 crates of potatoes from Australia ex S.S. " Waitotara," which were refused
entry for reason of their being infected with tuber-moth, another consignment of 4,648 sacks, or
304 tons, ex S.S. " Niagara," arrived at Vancouver on June 1st, 1917, from Australia for New
Westminster evaporator.
Unfortunately this particular consignment of potatoes w7as all in sacks, and apparently very
little thought had been given to ventilation. By the time they were unloaded it was evident
that from 50 to 75 per cent, of the potatoes were so badly rotted as to be absolutely worthless.
The result was that the refuse of what had been 174 tons of potatoes was loaded on a scow and
towed out to sea.
It would be a very poor business-man who would fail to take advantage of such a practical *
lesson, and not realize that the only sensible way to ship potatoes under such conditions would be
in crates.
In conclusion, it may be well to state that this Branch has been self-supporting owing to
inspection fees collected, the financial sheet for the year showing a good margin in favour of
the Department.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Lyne,
Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock. ____ _ _ ' '     ■■        7-4;7>r:7.-
Three Clyde  mart
• Baron's Craigie," Clydesdale  raised at Westholme,  Vancouver  Island. ', ..Ui
'   ■■"■'-    ■'
fe^:;-- --a 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 61
W. T. McDonald.
W. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report of the Live Stock Branch for the year
ending December 31st, 1917.
The abnormal conditions that have prevailed have fortunately not to any great extent at
least disturbed the development of the live-stock industry, and, speaking generally, we can say
that steady progress has been maintained. Immediately following the opening of the war the
rapid advance in the price of grain and other feedstuffs was a disturbing factor, but now an
adjustment has taken place which in some cases has meant a change in the methods of feeding,
and there is now a general feeling among farmers and stockmen that production must be maintained at the highest possible point.
The labour problem has become a serious factor in determining the extent of the operations
of our agriculturists, and in spite of earnest endeavours no satisfactory solution has been offered
up to the present moment. Returned soldiers have helped out somewhat, but the number of
these men who have taken up farming has been so limited that they have not as yet become a
factor in solving the difficulty. Organized efforts are now being put forth to encourage the
women to take up farm-work, and 1 confidently believe that women and girls will help to a
marked degree on dairy and other farms, as they have already done in the fruit districts.
Favourable reports have been received of the work done by women on the farms in Ontario and
During the year 1917 there has been a tendency in certain districts of the Province, and
particularly on portions of Vancouver Island, to reduce the size of dairy herds owing to the
price of feed and labour and the difficulty of securing labour at any price, but on the whole we
expect a steady increase in the number of our dairy cows. Milking-machines have been installed
on a large number of farms, and to a marked degree have helped to solve the labour problem.
Owing to a short hay-supply, with the experience of two severe winters fresh in their
memories, some of the stockmen felt obliged to sell more than the usual number of cattle during
the past fall, and in a few cases it has been learned that good young breeding cows were sold
for slaughter. In most districts the beef cattle went into the winter in very good shape, this
being especially true in the Chilcotin and Nicola. Satisfactory prices have prevailed, and throughout the year there have been many inquiries for breeding stock on the part of people who
contemplated launching out in the cattle-raising business.
During the past season trouble was experienced in securing bulls for the beef-producing
districts, and owing to the apparent shortage and keen demand, prices have been very high as
compared with those of a few years ago. Bulls of the quality that could be purchased a short
time ago for $100 have during the past year commanded prices ranging from $200 to $300 and
even considerably higher.
Unfortunately the limited supply and high prices have had a tendency to encourage the use
of some bulls of inferior quality, and so far as can be judged at the present time this condition
will be no less acute during the coming year.
To a considerable extent spaying has been practised in the beef-producing districts, and it
was generally rumoured that much more than the usual amount was being carried on during
1917. However, investigations showed that if there was any increase in the practice it was
comparatively slight.
Owing to the high price of mutton and the extremely high price of wool, sheep production
has had a very great incentive, and the numbers within the Province have been steadily increasing. A large part of the 1917 clip of wool was sold for about 60 cents per pound, and there is a
firm belief that the price will be even higher during 1918. In addition to the Vancouver Island
Flockmasters' Association, the Interior Wool-growers' Association was formed, with headquarters
at Kamloops. These two associations have marketed wool co-operatively, and with very satisfactory results.    To further improve market conditions for this commodity, the Federal Depart- N 62 Department of Agriculture. 1918
ment of Agriculture has established a national wool warehouse at Toronto, and it is anticipated
that nearly all of the Canadian wool will be handled in a co-operative manner through this
warehouse. It is proposed that the grading shall be done after the wool reaches Toronto. In
the cases where wool is to be held for a more favourable market, a liberal advance will be paid
to the grower at the time of shipment. As the market for wool is in Eastern Canada and the
Eastern United States, it has been agreed that it would be a decided advantage to assemble the
wool offered for sale at a point that can be conveniently reached by the buyers.
By Order in Council the Dominion Government removed the duty from breeding sheep
imported Into Canada for the duration of the war. As a result of this new regulation, many
inquiries have been received from sheepmen in the United States who are planning to move
their flocks Into British Columbia.
In a few sections of the grazing areas a wood-tick has been giving trouble through the fact
that it acts as host to a bacterial disease-producing paralysis in sheep, but it is hoped that by
systematic dipping this trouble can be overcome.
In certain districts there is an abundance of timber or pine grass, which, though unsatisfactory for cattle, is excellent for the grazing of sheep, and we trust that in the near future
flocks can be placed on these areas for the utilization of this feed which is now going to waste.
In such cases the difficulty to be overcome in connection with such grazing operations is that
of providing winter feed.
Horse-breeding has been at a rather low ebb during the past three years, but we now look
for a steady improvement. The surplus of horses has been purchased by the Militia, and also
for export to the Prairie Provinces. Towards the spring of 1918 we anticipate that there will
be a local demand for horses at good prices. While the tractor has not been used to any great
extent on British Columbia farms, we have reason to believe that a number will be purchased
during 1918, but it will be some time before they will prove a serious factor in so far as the
horse market is concerned.
Veterinary Division.
In addition to the regular staff of four Veterinary Inspectors, two temporary men were
employed in April. The time of these men was devoted chiefly to the tuberculin-testing of cattle
and inspection of dairies and stables under the " Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act." During
the year, 15,598 head of cattle were tuberculin-tested. These cattle were kept on 1,889 different
premises, and 579 reactors and 54 suspects were found. This shows approximately 3% per cent,
of reactors among the number tested, and is very gratifying indeed when compared with the
work of previous years. In addition to the reduced percentage, our Inspectors have found that
to a large degree the tubercular lesions are not very extensive. This fact, together with the
greatly reduced percentage, justifies the conclusion that the disease may be controlled and
possibly entirely eradicated. After investigating the question from all standpoints, we have
become firmly convinced that in order to obtain the most satisfactory results the work should
be prosecuted in a most vigorous manner. It is highly important that all herds should be tested
once a year, and those herds in which disease Is found should be tested every three to six
months until the disease is entirely eradicated. In this manner those animals which possess the
disease in its incipient stages may be detected before the disease has become sufficiently far
advanced to prove dangerous to other animals in the herd. The support of the dairymen and
farmers to the tuberculin-testing of cattle has been very gratifying, and adds greatly to the
efficiency of the work. The intradermal test still continues to give excellent satisfaction as a
means of diagnosis.
Contagious abortion has given more or less trouble in our dairy districts, and is almost
invariably accompanied or followed by more or less trouble from sterility.
A number of cases of trouble due to the eating of poisonous plants have been reported, but
apparently there was less trouble from this source than during the previous year. A considerable number of cases of verminous bronchitis and one outbreak of influenza were handled by the
Veterinary Division.
There is a noticeable tendency to improve the sanitary conditions of dairy and other barns,
particularly in the older sections, while in many of the newer districts the settlers deserve great
credit for the efforts they are putting forth to provide sanitary equipment for the housing of
their live stock. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 63
Elsewhere a report of Dr. A. Knight, Chief Veterinary Inspector, gives in full the work of
the Veterinary Division.
Dairy Division. i
In spite of a shortage of labour in many localities, the dairy industry of the Province has
on the whole made satisfactory progress during the year 1917. In nearly all of the newer
agricultural districts of the Province there is a tendency to follow dairy-farming, and in a
number of places plans for the building of creameries are receiving consideration.
A new creamery has been established at Kamloops, and G. M. Longhout has developed a
very creditable business in the manufacture of fancy cheese, and during the past year has opened
a branch factory at Alberni. He repots a very keen demand for his product, and would be able
to sell much more than he is manufacturing.
Prices for dairy products have been fairly satisfactory, and it is to be hoped that the
granting of permission to manufacture and sell oleomargarine in Canada will not seriously
interfere with the butter market. While there may be a place for this product during the period
of the war, we are convinced that it is not a satisfactory substitue for butter, nor is it as
The " Dairies Regulation Act," which provides for Government supervision of the testing
of milk and cream where the same is purchased on a butter-fat basis, gives every indication of
proving very satisfactory. The chief benefit derived from this Act is due to the fact that it has
inspired confidence, which is an advantage to both producer and purchaser.
The Cow-testing Associations continue to do excellent work, and have done more than any
other one factor to place the producing end of the dairy industry on a business basis and give
the farmer the opportunity of carrying on both breeding and feeding operations in an intelligent
In the month of November the Holstein cow " Zarilda Clothllde III. DeKol," No. 14887,
owned by the Colony Farm, completed the highest official world's record for milk production
for any age or breed. She produced 30,467.3 lb. of milk in 365 days. " Grandview Rose,"
No. 37030, owned by Shannon Bros., of Cloverdale, made a new Canadian record for the breed
by producing 21,423 lb. of milk and 890 lb. of butter-fat. These new records, added to many
other records now held by dairy cows owned within the Province, furnish abundant proof of
the natural advantages of the Province and of the progress being made by our breeders.
The British Columbia Dairymen's Association, of which T. A. F. Wiancko is Acting-Secretary,
has had the most successful year in its "history, and reflects the progress being made in the
Mr. Wiancko's report gives in detail the work carried on by the Dairy Division.
Soil and Crop Division.
Co-operative demonstration stations have been carried on under the supervision of the Soil
and Crop Division at the following points: Armstrong, Chilliwack, Edgewood, Grand Forks,
Rock Creek, Rose Hill, Errington, and Pitt Meadows. Detailed reports of the work conducted
on the various demonstration stations will be found in the report of the Soil and Crop Division,
submitted by H. O. English and E. W. Hogan, as well as the results of other lines of work
conducted by this Division.
Believing that the purpose of most of the demonstration stations had been achieved, it was
decided by the Department to conclude the work at all of the above-mentioned points with the
exception of Pitt Meadows. This has been the first year in which crops were grown on the
Pitt Meadows plot. The results, however, were very striking, and clearly pointed out that much
valuable information could be secured by a continuation of the work and a verification of the
results of the past year. The value of an application of barnyard manure and lime was clearly
demonstrated throughout the growing season and in the yields obtained.
Equipment for demonstration-work in underdrainage, clover and alfalfa hulling, and seed-
cleaning is now in the possession of the Department for the use of the Soil and Crop Division.
The seed-cleaning demonstrations have been especially satisfactory, and promise to achieve
marked results in awakening farmers to the value of the use of good seed.
The field-crop competitions were conducted along similar lines to those followed in previous
years, with the exception that the number of entries required in each competition was increased N 64 Department of Agriculture. 1918
from six to eight, while the total amount of prize-money paid in each competition was reduced
from $45 to $30. A special prize, consisting of ten of the best agricultural periodicals, was
awarded to the Farmers' Institute conducting the most successful competition, while a special
machinery prize was offered where, in the opinion of the judges, a special prize was warranted.
In connection with field-crop competitions, valuable information has been secured in regard to
the cost of production of the various crops.
Seed fairs were conducted at the following points: Armstrong, New Westminster, and
Duncan. Although this was the first seed fair held at Duncan, the exhibits were very creditable
in both number and quality. These fairs should prove an important factor in educating our
farmers along the line of seed selection and production.
Co-operative variety tests were conducted with the following crops: Wheat, oats, barley,
corn, potatoes, flax, and sugar-beets. Altogether, 1,757 samples were distributed. The main
purpose of this work is to determine the suitability of various varieties for the different districts
in the Province.
Poultry Division.
Following the beginning of the war and the incidental advance in the price of grains, many of
our poultrymen greatly reduced their breeding flocks, with the result that for a time the poultry
industry of the Province appeared to be somewhat disorganized. Now, however, we find that the
industry is again on a substantial basis, and our poultrymen are giving closer attention to the
cost of production, and where practicable to do so are growing a large amount of the feed
required. The price of eggs during the past year has been relatively high, but the advance has
not been in proportion to tbe advance in the price of grain.
The poultry-shows have shown a splendid improvement in quality. The grouping of the
various local Poultry Associations for the pur-pose of holding district shows instead of local
shows has proven satisfactory. The Provincial Show and Convention of the British Columbia
Poultry Association were held at Kamloops this year. It has now been decided to permanently
locate the Provincial Show at Vancouver.
The International Egg-laying Contest still continues to be a most satisfactory feature of
the work of the Poultry Division. A detailed report of the contest ending in 1917 will be found
in the report by J. R. Terry, Chief Poultry Instructor.
The British Columbia Poultry Association, through its central organization and its locals,
has been carrying on a good work in the interests of the poultry industry.
District Agriculturists.
During the year two of our three District Agriculturists have resigned: J. H. McCulloch,
of Kamloops, resigning on June 20th, 1917, and H. E. Walker, of Prince George, resigning on
November 15th. On the resignation of Mr. McCulloch, George C. Hay, who had been stationed
at Smithers, was transferred to Kamloops. These District Agriculturists have been doing good
work as representatives of the Department of Agriculture, and are able to get in close personal
touch with the farmers, thus forming a connecting-link and adding much to the efficiency of our
work. Owing to the scarcity of suitable men we are finding it difficult to extend our organization
along this line, but it is to be hoped that in the near future all agricultural districts of the
Province will have a representative of our Department.
On April 1st, 1917, the two dry-farming stations, located respectively at 105-Mile House and
Quilchena, were transferred to the Department of Agriculture and placed under the supervision
of the District Agriculturist located at Kamloops. An effort is now being made to manage these
farms along self-supporting lines, and a larger amount of stock is being carried on them than
heretofore. From the time they were first operated much valuable information has been secured
from the experiments conducted, and the yields obtained have been very satisfactory, and in
some cases surprisingly heavy.
Prior to Mr. Walker's resignation he spent one month in making an inspection of the Peace
River District. His report is very instructive indeed, and will be a valuable acquisition to the
Department. The character of this report and'the information it contains will abundantly justify
the publication of it in pamphlet form. The thanks of the Department are due to Mr. Walker
for the thorough and efficient manner in w7hich he secured such information as he has presented
in his interesting report. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 65
Owing to the territory which the District ^Agriculturist is now endeavouring to serve from
his office at Kamloops, the Department decided to purchase a Ford motor-car for his use. By
this means he is able to cover a large territory in a more or less effective manner, and reports
from various sources indicate that his services are very much appreciated throughout the
district,    (For further details see Mr. Hay's report.)
In 1914 the Live Stock Branch inaugurated a campaign for increasing the number of silos.
A very liberal estimate places the number of silos in the Province at that time at about fifty,
w7hile to-day there are approximately 525, and of this number the representatives of the Live
Stock Branch have erected fifty-three. The campaign has now made such marked progress that
we are confident there will be a great increase in the number of silos built during the year 1918
over that of any previous year, and we are convinced that within a comparatively short time
nearly all of our dairy-farmers will be using silage. In addition to corn, a number of crops
have been used for silage, among them being clover, alfalfa, oats, peas and oats, vetches and
oats. The range of crops that can be used makes the silo practical for almost any district in
the Province. In certain districts it is being made use of to store crops which are cut for hay
during wet weather. Silage is not only valuable to provide succulent feed during winter months,
but also to supplement pasture during the dry months of summer. We consider the campaign
to popularize the use of silage as one of the most valuable lines of work conducted by the Department, and the results achieved have been, indeed, gratifying. (For further details see report of
R. J. Ferris, Silo Demonstrator.)
During the year 1917, 414 horse-brands and 583 cattle-brands were recorded. In the new
"Brand Act" of 1917 provision was made for the licensing of all dealers in hides, and a large
number of licences were granted. The stockmen of the Interior of the Province have been
particularly desirous that Indians be required to record their brands. I am pleased to report
that W. E. Ditchburn, Chief Inspector of Indian Agents for British Columbia, has been heartily
in accord with this movement and has given every assistance. It is expected that, without
makihg any change in Dominion legislation, the Indians, acting upon the advice of the various
Agents, will have all brands recorded. At tbe present time nearly all the brands on some of
the reservations have been recorded.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
During the year 1917, thirty clubs were organized, with a membership of 474. The following
competitions were conducted: Poultry-raising, 23; pig-raising, 5; calf-raising, 1; potato-growing,
11. The results achieved by means of Boys' and Girls' Clubs have been very gratifying, and we
consider the value of this work second to no other line of agricultural education. Not only does
it stimulate to a very marked degree an interest in agriculture on the part of the boys and girls,
but, in addition, through these competitions the adults usually become interested as they would
by no other means.
Owing to the urgent demand of other duties, it is impossible for your Commissioner to devote
the personal attention to this work which its importance justifies.
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association.
The Stock-breeders' Association held a most successful convention in Victoria during the
past year, and its members are keenly alive to the various problems brought about by the war.
At all times the association has shown an earnest desire to support the Live Stock Branch in its
efforts to bring about better conditions and to promote a campaign for more and better live stock.
Five delegates from this association attended the annual convention of the Western Canada
Live Stock Union, which was held in Regina, and where many important matters of vital interest
to the live-stock industry and to agriculture in general were considered and dealt with. While
originally formed for the purpose of securing more equitable representation for the West in the
Dominion associations, the objects of the Western Canada Live Stock Union have been extended
to include all problems that have to do with the betterment of agricultural conditions, and it has
6 N 66 Department of Agriculture. 1918
been able to give valuable assistance to both Federal and Provincial Governments in advising on
matters of legislation. It has also been successful in securing more favourable transportation
rates and facilities.
British Columbia Goat-breeders' Association.
During the past year there has been organized a'British Columbia Goat-breeders' Association,
of which George Pilmer, Secretary of the Live Stock Branch, has been elected Secretary-
Treasurer. Owing to an increasing interest being taken in goat-breeding, particularly in regard
to milch goats, it was deemed advisable to organize for the purpose of harmonizing all interests
concerned and for mutual encouragement and benefit. The members now number 176, and at
the Vancouver Exhibition in August, 1917, a most creditable exhibit of milch goats was held
under the auspices of the Provincial Association.
As a result of the Provincial organization, the British Columbia goat-breeders have been
successful in securing the organization of the Canadian Goat Society, which has made arrangements for the recording of pedigrees, and has secured the recognition of the National Records
Board. This achievement on the part of the British Columbia breeders will place the goat
industry throughout Canada on a firm basis.    Mr. Pilmer is Secretary of the Canadian Society.
Farmers' Institutes.
The various members of the Live Stock Branch have assisted in Farmers' Institute meetings
throughout the Province, and also in judging at fall fairs.
Respectfully submitted.
W. T. McDonald,
Live Stock Commissioner.
T. A. F. Wiancko.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as Dairy Instructor and Inspector for the year
Dairy Industry.
The dairy industry may be said to have been in a fairly healthy condition during 1917,
and when full reports are to hand it is expected that a small increase in total dairy production
will be noted.
Weather conditions were not always favourable to dairying. The winter season was one
of unusual severity, and thus, coupled with high-priced grain and mill feeds and an inferior
quality of hay owing to wet weather during the hay harvest of 1916, had a measurable effect
in decreasing the winter milk-flow. Spring opened up later than usual, further depleting the
winter feed-supply and also occasioning late spring pasture. This was, however, greatly offset
by good growing weather in May and June, resulting in abundant forage until well on into the
summer. Dry weather during August and September was rather severe on the dairyman who
through lack of foresight failed to provide supplementary feeds. A fine, mild, and open autumn
helped out considerably in lengthening the period of heavy milk-flow, and resulted in a great
saving of winter feeds for the present winter season.
The labour problem has been one of the most perplexing that has ever confronted the
dairyman. Owing to heavy enlistment from the agricultural population, the securing of satisfactory help on the farms has been most difficult and in many cases impossible. Mechanical,
milkers have come to the assistance of many of the more prominent dairymen, and many of them
declare that without them they would be obliged to largely curtail their dairy operations.
Prices for Dairy Products.
Butter prices have been higher the past season than ever before reached .in Canada, resulting
in reasonable returns to cream-producers,  notwithstanding  high prices  of feed and labour. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 67
Prices for British Columbia Cheddar cheese also have been very satisfactory, ranging from
23 to 26 cents wholesale. At these figures it has been found profitable to make cheese in competition with cream prices in some districts.
Milk prices on the whole were more satisfactory during the past year than in 1916. This
is especially true on the Lower Mainland, where, owing to proper organization in a co-operative
way, the producers held the prices at a point that ensured a reasonable profit over actual cost
of production.
The regular inspection of creameries has received as much attention as time would allow,
and the majority of them were visited at least twice during the year. Continued improvement
in the quality of British Columbia creamery butter has been noted. Makers are showing a more
intelligent interest in their work and a desire to improve. Several creameries have installed
improved pasteurizing apparatus during the past season, and several others have commenced
a system of cream-grading. With intelligent grading and pasteurization, there is no reason
to fear competition from the finest grades of imported butter. Sanitary conditions at the
creameries were found to be quite satisfactory.
During the year a new creamery has been established at Kamloops. The Abbotsford
Creamery has been closed, and the Clayburn Creamery has been opened up in the old stand of
the Meadowbrook Creamery, consequent upon the removal of the latter to Vancouver early in
the year.
Many inquiries have, as in former years, been received relative to the opening-up of new
creameries in new districts. This indicates that the number of dairy cows is increasing in the
newer districts, and that settlers regard dairying as one of the safest methods of getting a start
on the land. In a number of cases your Instructor, after careful inquiry, has recommended that
the matter be left over for a year at least, in order that a sufficient number of cows be available
to make the venture a success from the start, bearing in mind that a premature creamery has
so often been the cause of^ serious set-back in such districts. It is much better to postpone
action in such cases for a year or so and encourage the shipment of cream to existing creameries
even at great distance. Your Instructor is convinced that the policy of more or less centralizing
the business is the only one suitable for a large portion of the Province at the present time.
Patrons then have the advantage of a larger output of butter of a uniform quality, thus reducing
the cost of manufacturing and correspondingly decreasing the chance of failure.
A list of the active creameries and condenseries of the Province is given in Appendix No. 8;
also a summary of creamery report for the year 1917 in Appendix No. 9.
During the year the Ferrara Cheese Company, Limited, established a factory for the
manufacture of fancy cheese at Chilliwack. The Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz
has continued to make up a large part of the milk produced on the farm into Stilton, cream,
and other fancy cheese. G. M. Langhout, of Colquitz, manufactures a very fine quality of
Gouda, Swiss, and other fancy cheese, amounting to about 1 ton per month. Besides these, quite
a number of private dairies make small quantities of cream and cottage cheese, which finds a
very ready sale. Since importation of fancy cheese has been very largely curtailed by reason
of the w7ar, there is a great demand for that of local manufacture, and it would be to the
advantage of our dairymen to further increase the supply.
Cheddar or Canadian cheese has also received some attention in a small way. The creamery
at Revelstoke has manufactured a few thousand pounds. The Fraser Valley Milk Producers'
Association have turned a considerable quantity of this surplus milk into cheese during the
flush season.
City Dairies.
Owing to other duties, not quite as much time was allowed for the inspection of city dairies
and milk-vending establishments as formerly. Generally speaking, these are in a fairly good
sanitary condition, and continue to show improvement in the way of new and up-to-date equipment and facilities for rapid handling.
At the present time the Vancouver City dairies are considering the advisability of amalgamating or combining in order to improve the distributing end of their business.   Great waste N 68 Department of Agriculture. 1918
of time, energy, and money has taken place for years past, due to the multiplication and
duplication of milk routes and excessive costs in handling. It is felt that a very material saving
can be effected by a proper organization of the business under one or two heads, resulting in
the reduction of the* price of milk to the consumer, as well as allowing a fair margin of profit
to the producer.
Cow-testing Associations.
The Cow-testing Associations at Chilliwack, Langley-Surrey, Delta, and Comox have had a
satisfactory year, and at each centre a number of farmers are awaiting a chance to become
patrons should there become any vacancies. This in itself is an indication of the hearty way
in which the work is being appreciated. Great difficulty has been experienced in securing
efficient testers, or Supervisors, owing to the general scarcity of help and high prices being paid
for ordinary labour. At the present time three out of the four Supervisors are returned soldiers,
and the fourth is a man who is unfit for military service.    All are rendering satisfactory service.
This work could be largely7 extended and increased if suitably trained men were available
as Supervisors, and at this time there is an opportunity for the training of returned soldiers
for the work.
Referring to the work of the Cow-testing Associations in British Columbia, in an address
before the Annual Convention of the British Columbia Dairymen's Association at Nanaimo in
January, 1917, Geo. H. Barr, Chief Dairy Division, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, said:
" I think this Province is doing better work than any other Province in Canada in cow-testing.
I think that at the present time the method followed here is the simplest and cheapest that
will get the largest number of men interested in the work."
The British Columbia Dairymen's Association have for the past three years given prizes
for the greatest production of butter-fat by individual cows in the several associations. Three
prizes (first, $10; second, $6; third, $4) were given in each of two classes for each association.
Appendix No. 6 gives the records of the prize-winners, and indicates very forcibly the productiveness of some of our grade dairy cows.
Official Tests.
Testers are still being supplied for Holstein Advanced Registry tests, and during the past
years such tests have been carried on at the Colony Farm, Essondale; Experimental Farm,
Agassiz;   and the farms of Dr. S. F. Tolmie, Victoria, and J. M. Steves, Steveston.
Two noteworthy official records during the year are those of cows owned by the Colony Farm,
Essondale, as shown in Appendix No. 7.
Canadian National Record of Performance.
The value of this national record for pure-bred stock, conducted by the Dominion Live Stock
Branch, continues to be recognized by British Columbia breeders. About fifty-six dairymen
have had cows entered during 1917, as against forty-four and thirty-five in the years 1916 and
1915 respectively.
One of the notable cows entered in this test for the past year is " Grandview Rose,"
No. 37030, whose C.N.R.P. test gave 21,423 lb. milk and 890 lb. fat, but went ten clays over
the fifteen months' freshening period, therefore failing to qualify. She is the first Ayrshire cow
in Canada to produce over 20,000 lb. of milk in one year, and is second high cow in the C.N.R.P.
over all breeds in Canada. She gave birth following test to twin calves, a bull and a heifer.
She was bred and is owned by Shannon Bros., Cloverdale.
" Dairies Regulation Act."
Rules and regulations governing the "Dairies Regulation Act" (chapter 16, 1916) were
passed by Order in Council iu March, 1917, and became operative upon publication in the
British Columbia Gazette during August last. This law makes it necessary that each and
every creamery, dairy, or milk-handling plant of any kind accepting and dealing in or paying
for milk or cream on the basis of the percentage of butter-fat contained therein to be licensed,
and to have in its employ a properly qualified licensed milk-tester.
Up to the present time fifty-four applications for testers' licences have been received. Of
these, thirty-six candidates have been examined and have obtained licences. The examination
in each case consisted of a practical examination in testing by the Babcock method, followed H*S Part    of    Southern    Okanagan    Fruit    and    Vegetable    Experimental    Station.
Summerland, B.C.
Pruning-school  in  Kootenays,   1917.
Netted Gem potatoes grown in bottom land ; yield, 12 tons per acre. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 69
by a written examination consisting of a series of questions on the composition, sampling, and
testing of milk and cream. (Specimen examination paper is shown in Appendix No. 10.) One
candidate failed in the first examination and will be given another chance within a few weeks.
Further examinations will be held for the balance of the applicants as time permits.
Creamery and dairy licences will date from January 1st each y7ear. Applications for 191S
are now being received, and licences will be issued in due course.
The following is a list of licensed testers up to date:—
Milk-testers licensed under " Dairies Regulation Act."
Name. Address.
Batey, Herbert S   Armstrong.
Bougbtwood,  Geo   Valley Dairy, Ltd., Vancouver.
Bubar, D. T   Courtenay.
Bunting, Thos   Heffley Creek.
Burmeister, J   Oxford Dairy, New Westminster.
Carman, J. E   Revelstoke.
Campbell, A. M   Fraser Valley Dairy, Vancouver.
Carter, J. N   Turner's Dairy, Vancouver.
Carroll, W. J   Courtenay.
Clark, F. J   850 Fourteenth Ave. East, Vancouver.
Cranswick, P   Royal Dairy, Vancouver.
Dudman, Alfred     Meadowbrook Creamery, Vancouver.
Dunn, J. S   Nanaimo.
George, II. H. S   Kamloops.
Gillman, R. H   Northwestern Creamery, Victoria.
Hall, F. D. B   Chilliwack.
James, David A   Standard Milk Co., Vancouver.
Jenne, R. Everett    Grand Forks.
Johnson,  Alfred      Salmon Arm.
Karnagel, R    Salmon Arm.
Kell, Geo   New Westminster.
Lewarne, A. E   City Dairy, Vancouver.
Livingstone, J. M  Vancouver Creamery, Vancouver.
MacKenzie, H. H   New Westminster.
MacLeod, W. K   Chilliwack.
Magar, J. A   Kamloops.
Matheson, D. W    Spencer's Creamery, Vancouver.
Rive, E    1170 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Sellers, Jas. H   City Dairy, Vancouver.
Silver, M. R   c/o P. Burns, Ltd., Vancouver.
Smith, Geo. W   Nelson.
Smith, W. S   Spencer's Creamery, Vancouver.
Thomas, S. J   Kelowna.
Turner, L. H   Turner's Dairy, Vancouver.
Washington, F. J   Fraser Valley Dairy, Vancouver.
Watson, J. B   Sardis.
Official Milk-testers.
The appointment of official testers in places where there is sufficient business to warrant it
has been provided for under the rules governing the " Dairies Regulation Act." In May last
Elias Rive and J. B. Watson were appointed such official testers at the request of the dairymen
of the Lower Mainland. These men are under the direct supervision of this Department, and
their duties consist of determining butter-fat tests of milk and cream, checking up weights and
tests, etc., for both producers and purchasers. Very valuable service has been rendered by them,
in that they have established a bond of confidence and closer co-operation between producer and
purchaser. N 70 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Dairy Demonstrations and Lectures on Dairy Subjects, 1917.
Covering a period from February 17th to'March 20th, assistance was given to the usual
Farmers' Institute meetings. Twenty-one institutes were addressed on subjects of general
interest to dairymen, and in a number of ifistances practical demonstrations in butter-making
were given. At the Summerland short course an address was given on the " Care of Milk and
Cream," followed by a butter-making demonstration. At the latter meeting over ninety persons
were present. A full report of the several meetings addressed has been submitted to the Secretary of the Department. At other times during the year special addresses in connection -with
Cow-testing Associations, British Columbia Dairymen's Association, Summer School for Teachers,
Women's Institutes, and organization of new creameries were delivered.
Fall Fairs.
During the season of fall fairs assistance was given in the judging of dairy products. The
following fairs were included in the itinerary: Nanaimo, Parksville, Vancouver, Armstrong,
Kamloops, and Saanich.    A report on these has also been submitted to the Department.
British Columbia Dairymen's Association.
The British Columbia Dairymen's Association has enjoyed one of its most successful years
during 1917. The membership roll for 1917 stands at 277, representing an increase of fifty-seven
over the previous year.
The annual convention of the association was held in Nanaimo on January 25th and 26th.
The policy of the association of holding its conventions in the different dairying districts in turn
has been fully justified, as the nearer these conventions can be brought to the dairymen, the
better they will be attended, and the better the purposes for which the association exists will
be promoted.
At the earnest request of the dairymen of the Okanagan Valley an extra convention of the
association was held in Kelowna on June 22nd and 23rd. At that time demonstrations in livestock judging and field-crop demonstrations were made special features of the meetings. These,
together with addresses on dairy subjects by our most prominent agriculturists, rounded out
by several picnic lunches and motor trips through the surrounding district, resulted in a most
instructive and happy time to all who attended.
The eleventh annual report of the association was prepared and published. This includes
a full statement of the affairs of the association, and is supplied free to all its members.
This branch of the work has continued to increase.   The letters received and replies sent
out have never been so numerous, as evidenced by the following comparative statement:—
Letters received—
1914        977
1915         814
1916         767
1917          923
Letters dispatched—
1914        936
1915     1,152
1916   •   1,175
1917     1,303
Respectfully submitted.
,    - T.   A.   F.   WlANCKO,
Dairy Instructor and Inspector. "Janet," No. 180517.     Age, 4 years 85 days.    Yearly  record:     Milk,  23,004 lb.
butter-fat, 717 lb.     Owned by Dr. S.  F. Tolmie, Victoria, B.C.
Up-to-date  dairy-barn,   Crescent  Valley,   B.C.
Young Yorkshire sows.    They show quality and uniformity. Crystal May," 420, milked 4%  quarts to 5 quarts per day within sixty days
of dropping her first kids.
Angora   goats.
Good land-clearers. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 71
J. R. Terry.
IF. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report of the work of the Poultry Division for
the year 1917.
General Conditions.
During the year just concluded the industry has continued to experience the same unfavourable conditions that have been present practically since August, 19*14. Feedstuff's have greatly
increased in price as compared with the year previous. To partly offset this, the prices received
for eggs, dressed fowls, and breeding stock have been higher, fortunately.
The climatic conditions could hardly have been worse during the spring months—the natural
period of incubation. Bitter cold winds, snow, sleet, and rain were quite general in March and
early April. From then on the season still continued cold and backward. There were numerous
complaints of poor hatching results in consequence. In some cases the hatching season was
delayed almost two months. A.s a result pullets were slow in developing, thus missing the good
prices being paid for eggs in the fall and early winter.
Owing to the scarcity of fresh eggs in the spring the prices obtained were higher than usual,
and continued a few cents above the 1916 average.
A peculiar condition was brought about in midsummer through the general public continuing
to purchase eggs for packing, even when the price asked was almost 100 per cent, higher than
usual. Fearing a big shortage during the winter, the public commenced packing early in April
and continued right through May and June. It is computed that the quantity of eggs packed
by householders was more than threefold that of previous years.
The number of chicks hatched was somewhat smaller than in 1916, but the increased prices
received would bring the estimated total value well up to that of other years.
The well-established breeders have not reduced flocks to any extent, but in most cases have
arranged so that their laying flocks contain a larger percentage of pullets than usual. Yearlings
have been marketed since July last.
Where feed was purchased in large quantities in the spring of 1917 the poultry-keepers have
been satisfied with the year's turnover.
The Prairie Provinces continue to purchase both eggs and breeding stock from our breeders
as in previous years. It may be interesting to' note that the Dominion farms in the Province
now supply the poultry-breeding stock to practically all of the other experimental farms in the
East. The egg records made, notably at the Experimental Farm, Sidney, on Vancouver Island,
far exceeds all other records made elsewhere at similar farms in the Dominion.
Eggs and stock were again exported to the n-iiitipodes, Japan, China, and to the United States.
The number of day-old chicks, especially, going to the United States was in excess of all other
The city markets throughout the Province have again proved of value in providing means
whereby local produce could be profitably marketed.
This industry has again made rapid strides, due, no doubt, to the high prices received.
The city markets have again done much to popularize rabbit-meat as an article of food. A large
quantity of commercial rabbit-meat is now being canned, particularly in the Interior, where
markets are not so easily secured as at the Coast. The prices received for some kinds of rabbit-
furs are still high enough to make it worth while saving the skins. Pure black furs are most in
demand.    An association of breeders is now in course of formation.
Lectures and Demonstrations.
During the year, particularly the spring and summer months, the members of this Division
spoke and demonstrated before members of Farmers' Institutes during the regular itineraries
given, and also at supplementary meetings. The summer school for teachers was again resumed, and this Division lectured and demonstrated to those taking the rural-science course. In addition, trips were arranged to local
farmers; proceedings much appreciated by the students. Mr. Upton, Assistant Instructor, again
spoke to the first-year class, which was, as usual, larger than the second-year one.
Lectures and demonstrations were also delivered before members of local Poultry Associations throughout the Province, whilst in each locality the speaker endeavoured to visit as many
poultry-breeders as possible.
Fall Fairs.
The members of this Division, assisted, as in former years, by competent Provincial judges,
placed the awards on poultry exhibits at the fall fairs and exhibitions. Whilst there was a
slight falling-off in the number of exhibits, the majority of specimens shown were well up to
former years in quality.
It is a pleasure to again report that accommodation for the poultry exhibits has improved.
Undoubtedly this is due in a large measure to the fact that where poultry-breeders are elected
to the show committees, more attention has been given to this matter.
The breeds most largely shown in other years again held popular fancy during the year.
Plymouth Rocks, Wyandottes, Orpingtons, and Rhode Island Reds were the favourites in the
general-purpose class, and Leghorns, Minorcas, and Anaconas in the egg-producing class. The
Leghorns (White variety) are probably the most numerous breed in the Province, with the
Wyandottes (White) a close second. The number of fairs giving classes for single entry is
Egg exhibits were more numerous than usual, and some very creditable displays were made.
Several fairs still offer prizes for the largest eggs, regardless of freshness or otherwise of
Provincial Poultry Association.
In 1917 the association, despite continued enlistment of farmers keeping poultry, was again
able to show a total membership as large as the previous year. A decrease in the number of
affiliated associations has to be recorded, however. Four associations dropped out, and one new
association (New Denver) was affiliated during the year, making a total of thirty local societies
now in being. A majority of the associations engaged, as before, in the co-operative purchasing
of feedstuff's, which very materially benefited its members.
The association again published Its directory of breeders. The same number of copies were
printed as usual, and distributed throughout the Province and also on the Prairies. The date
of publication was a little earlier than heretofore, thus affording intending purchasers of* eggs
or stock plenty of time before the hatching period took place. The directory has proved of
inestimable value, both to purchasers and vendors of poultry.
The district grouping of poultry-shows has proved a very satisfactory move, and has been
the means of enabling those concerned in operating such shows successfully, especially from a
financial standpoint. The districts now consist of ten groups, included in which is the Provincial
The Provincial Show has now been located permanently at Vancouver, where it is confidently
expected that it will again become the largest show held west of Guelph, Ontario.
The annual convention was recently held in Kamloops, and proved a great success. Nearly
all the local associations were represented by their delegates. The show was held at the same
time and place. It was pre-eminently a show of quality, and in numbers of exhibits was equal
to the previous one. For the first time, this show has been operated without loss. A lady was
elected Secretary for the first time, which showed the good judgment of the Executive by the
successful manner in which the event was handled.
The association again donated prizes of $5 each to its members competing in the egg-laying
contest whose pens laid at least 175 eggs per bird during the year. Diplomas were also awarded
Members of the association also did remarkably well in the Egg-laying Contest held at
the Washington State College, Pullman. As a result an excellent export trade was worked up
in stock and eggs during the year. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. „. N 73
Your Instructor was again appointed Secretary-Treasurer and Mr. Upton Assistant Secretary,
as per requirements of the constitution. (For list of the affiliated associations see Appendix
No. 12.)
British Columbia Show Groups.
(As revised, August, 1917.)
District   No.   1.—Vancouver   Island,   from   Duncan   north   and   including
Duncan, Comox, Parksville, and Nanaimo        7
District   No.   2—Vancouver   Island,   from   Duncan   south   and   including
Victoria, Saltspring Island, Sooke, Langford, and Cobble Hill       10
District No. 3.—Vancouver City, includes the territory west of the eastern
boundary of Burnaby; includes Vancouver City, North Vancouver,
Central Park, and Point Grey       12
District No. 4.—From North Bend south and west to the eastern boundary
of Burnaby, including Maple Ridge, Mission, and Chilliwack       9
District No. 5.—From North Bend north and east to Sicamous Junction,
including Ashcroft, Kamloops, and Salmon Arm      25
District  No.  6.—From  Sicamous  Junction  south  through  the  Okanagan
Valley to Vernon, including Northern Okanagan        7
District  No.   6a.—Kelowna,   south   to   International  Boundary,   including
Kelowna, Summerland, and Penticton        7
District No. 7.—From Sicamous Junction east to Alberta on the main line
of the C.P.R. and south from Revelstoke to Slocan, including Revelstoke, Golden. Arrowhead, and Nakusp         7
District No. S.—From Kootenay Lake west to Okanagan Valley, excepting
that part included in District 7, including Nelson, Trail, Grand Forks,
and Greenwood (Provincial Show)         9
District No. 9.—Crowsnest Valley, from Kootenay Lake east to Alberta,
south of the main line of the C.P.R., including Fernie and Cranbrook     7
Total      100
Egg-laying Contest.
The Sixth Egg-laying Contest ended in October Sth, 1917, running the full year. The pens
were filled as follows: Class 1, 21 pens; Class 2, 19 pens. With one exception, all the pens
were Canadian-bred. One pen was entered from Oregon, U.S.A., and one pen came from Ontario.
In the first class all prizes were won by White Leghorns, and in Class 2 the prizes were won as
follows: First, second, fourth, White Wyandottes ; third, Rhode Island Whites; fifth and sixth,
Rhode Island Reds.
Additional special prizes, in the form of silver and bronze medals, were kindly donated by
The weather conditions were certainly not an improvement on the year previous. Throughout the spring and early summer the abnormally cold weather kept down egg production very
The fowls that were not needed by contestants at the conclusion were sold by auction in
Victoria. The final report of the contest, together with summary of same is shown in Appendices
Nos. 11 and 11a.
" Eggs Marks Act," Inspection.
In addition to the members of this Division and the Coast Markets Commissioner in
Vancouver who were originally appointed Inspectors to enforce the above Act, amendments
were passed at the last session of the Legislature appointing all Provincial and municipal
police officers and Health Officers to be Inspectors also. In addition, the poultryman in
charge of the Egg-laying Contest was also appointed Inspector.
Infractions against the Act were very few during the first half of the year, but towards
the period of egg shortage—October and November—so many complaints were made that charges
were laid both in Vancouver and Victoria.    In the majority of cases convictions were made. N 74
Department of Agriculture.
It has been found necessary to suggest further amendments to the Act, owing to the fact that
in several cases Inspectors were unable to secure convictions on account of the Act lacking
comprehensiveness. As it was, a great improvement is to be noted in regard to the sale of eggs
as compared with the period before the Act w7as in being.
During the year the Inspectors paid regular visits to all city markets on the Coast, besides
making numerous calls on dealers, producers, and cold-storage plants.
Boys' and Girls' Competitions.
The past season was the second in which these competitions have been held, and great strides
have been made. No less than twenty-four clubs were organized, as compared with eight the
previous year. An earlier start was made in 1917, thus affording the children a better chance
of success.
Considering the differences in climatic conditions, the results achieved by members of the
clubs have been very creditable indeed. For instance, owing to the very late season in the Fort
George District, the chicks were not hatched till weeks later than other districts, and yet the
young stock showed signs of maturing well when visited in early fall. The largest club was
that organized at Nelson, with forty-five competitors.
Complaints were numerous from almost every club regarding the depredations of birds of
prey, coyotes, cats, mice, etc. The hawks and owls were especially bad during the fall months.
It is to be hoped that the bounty about to be placed on owls will have an immediate effect.
Where possible, the flocks were visited twice by the judge and scored, while with the others
the two scorings were made during the fall visit. An encouraging feature is the evident improvement in the general flocks kept by parents of contestants as compared with last year. The
children have also sold a goodly number of breeding males from their flocks of both 1917 and
1916. In writing the essay required from each club member, a large majority of the children
show that they fully realize the importance of attention to detail as essential to success. A list
of clubs, etc., follows :—
Boys' and Girls' Clubs—Competition Entries in Poultry.
Name of Club.
No. of
Name of Secretary.
Address of
Edward  Garrard   	
Charles F. Daly 	
T. M. C. Tayolr  	
Miss Martha Uvila   	
Fort George.
Chas.  McC.  Mottley   	
Miss  Catherine Hancock   	
Box 202. Kamloops
Miss Erna Spiller  	
Sooke and Milne's Landing . . .
Scarf and Otter Point  	
Miss Margaret Woolsey  	
Salmon Arm.
Parson P.O.
F. W. Ball  	
Miss Rose E. Watts	
White Wyandotte,  Castlegar. .
Mission City, Wyandottes  ....
Instructions to Returned Wounded Soldiers.
This Division has during the year visited returned soldiers who have engaged in poultry
fancy either as a side-line or main occupation.   The Convalescent Home at Esquimalt, where 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 75
both poultry and rabbits are kept, was also visited and helpful discussions taken part in. The
poultry plant at the Sanatorium at Tranquille has been in charge of the sick soldiers there, to
whom bulletins have been supplied. Special prizes were awarded their exhibits at the recent
Provincial Show at Kamloops.
Dincontinuance of Breeding-stations.
No stations were operated during the year, although it is hoped that the Department may
see fit to again locate breeding-pens in the least accessible parts of the Province, as formerly.
The demand for bulletins has been as great as in former years, and as a consequence several
reprints have been made. A bulletin dealing with the selection of breeding stock and a circular
bulletin treating of chicken-pox were issued during the year.
Regular monthly reports of the Egg-laying Contest were issued, and articles ou poultry
subjects were supplied by members of this Division to the columns of the poultry periodicals,
the Agricultural Journal, and Provincial press.
Inspection and Instruction Work.
Every opportunity has been taken by this Division to visit poultry-farmers and others
interested.    The parties visited have always showed a willingness to accept advice and help.
The cold spring and early summer again made conditions extremely favourable for the
development of colds and allied diseases. Epidemics of diphtheritic roup have continued to
break out in various parts. The investigational work in connection with this disease has been
continued.    Favourable results have been obtained by means of vaccination.
Mr. Upton, who carried out this work, which has entailed much labour, and care, reports
as follows:—
". . . The cases of diphtheritic roup and chicken-pox, however, are being continually
brought to our attention; many, however, in tbe embryonic stages, where a little care and
attention has served to hold this trouble in check. We can say, however, -that this disease has
been checked to a great extent on Vancouver Island, where it was mostly prevalent in 1915,
1916, and 1917. During the past twelve months we have injected some 2,091 birds. Each bird
was given the usual two inoculations with the vaccine which was prepared by ourselves. Very
good results cannot be reported from the vaccine used, and the, owners of the flocks injected
were desirous of having the 1917 hatched stock injected also. This could only be done in cases
where necessary, owing to the scarcity of material for making vaccine. At this time we can
report excellent results from 591 birds out of 831 injected since September, 1917; nob one
instance of this disease having shown itself in any of the 591 birds. One lot of 240 birds,
representative of some forty flocks, were injected, and the results were not as good, the vaccine
used seeming to take a longer time to cause immunization in the stock than in the other 591
birds representing three other flocks. The same vaccine was used * in all the birds, however.
From these results it is again felt that we can produce even more evidence to prove the first
statement, that the vaccine prepared by using the exudate and scabs together gives better and
quicker results than when the vaccine is prepared from the pox-scabs alone.
" Some 10,000 c.c. of vaccine have now been prepared and 9,000 injections made, 3,831 birds
inoculated being recorded. On one place alone were three deaths placed by the owner against
the vaccine. This, however, could have been avoided by the owner removing the exudate from
the mouth of the trachea.    There was no other mortality due to the vaccination.
" Owners of some 9,000 head of old stock are desirous, if opportunity offers, of having their
stock injected.
" The Lower Mainland cases are about the same, having been held in check by a germicide
in the water and treatment of parts affected. The epidemic is now present in a slight form in
many of the Interior birds."
Tuberculosis amongst fowls continues to be on the wane, thanks to the work of the Department in conducting tests among cattle again during the year.    With the elimination of this scourge from farm animals, it will be only a short time before the disease will be unknown
amongst poultry.
This branch of the work has developed as in former years.    The number of callers has been
up to average, and tbe number of letters received and forwarded has increased owing to the
additional work incidental to the duties of members of the Division as Inspectors under " Eggs
Marks Act," Boys' and Girls' Poultry Club judging, etc.
Respectfully submitted.
J. R. Terry,
Chief Poultry Instructor.
H. O. English and E. W. Hoga.n.
IF. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—We have tbe honour to submit herewith tbe annual report of the Soil and Crop
Division for the year ending December 31st, 1917.
Demonstration Stations.
Eight demonstration stations were operated under the supervision of officials of the Soil
and Crop Division during 1917. These were located at Armstrong, Chilliwack, Edgewood, Grand
Forks, Rock Creek, Rose Hill, Errington, and Pitt Meadows.
With the exception of those located at Errington and Pitt Meadows, the Soli and Crop
officials were assisted in the direction of the work by committees appointed by the local Farmers'
Institutes.    A local manager was employed on each station.
For various reasons it has been decided to discontinue work on all the above stations except
that located at Pitt Meadows. In view of this fact we will include in this report a summary
of the work attempted and the results obtained on each plot during the four years since the
inception of the work.
Armstrong.—The field chosen for this station was situated about the centre of the large
bench south-east of Armstrong, in the Northern Okanagan Valley. The soil on this bench was
a heavy lifeless clay, almost devoid of humus and with poor natural drainage. The fertility of
the soil was depleted by the continuous growing of grain-crops. An attempt was to be made
to improve the fertility of the soil on tbe plot and to increase its productivity by methods within
the means of the average farmer of the district.
The station, w7hicb consisted of 4 acres, was divided into five plots of equal size. In 1914
three plots were seeded to a mixture of oats, barley, and peas; one heavily manured and
planted to corn, and the other summer-fallowed. The yield of 1,350 lb. of grain-hay or 2 tons
of corn fodder per acre is a good indication of the condition of the soil. Two plots were seeded
to alfalfa in rows in 1915, one summer-fallowed; the plot summer-fallowed the previous year
was manured and planted to corn, while the 1914 corn-plot was seeded to oats. The two plots
seeded to alfalfa were allowed to remain down to this crop for three years, while a rotation
involving corn, oats, and summer fallow was followed on the other three plots.
Although the alfalfa had been planted in rows and the potato-cultivator used to cultivate
the spaces between the rows, this crop made very little headway during the three j7ears. In 1917
the alfalfa blossomed freely and gave promise of the production of a fair seed-crop. The crop
when harvested yielded only about 20 lb. of seed per acre. Grasshoppers were very plentiful
and were partially responsible for the low yield. Each year the plot to be summer-fallowed
received 15 tons of barnyard manure. Deep ploughing was practised and the land frequently
disked and harrowed. In 1916 sweet clover was seeded with the oats, the aim being to use
this crop as a subsoiling agent and to plough it down in 1917 as a green manure. In spite of
the good treatment the land received, the corn-crop never returned interest on the investment,
while in only one year—1915—did the oat-crop pay for the cultivation of the land. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 77
The station was so located that an experiment in underdrainage was out of the question.
It would appear that underdrainage, deep cultivation, and a liberal application of lime would
render conditions more favourable to crop production, but the expense involved prevents
individual farmers from conducting the experiment.
Chillhvack.—The land chosen in 1914 for this station in the Lower Fraser Valley was
located on the property of Mr. Gardiner, adjoining the east road between Chilliwack and
Sardis.    The soil was a clay loam, lacking humus.    The land was very weedy.
In 1914 the station, which consisted of 4 acres, was divided into four plots of equal size.
While it was decided to ultimately adopt a crop-rotation including corn and roots, oats, clover
mixture for hay, and clover mixture for pasture, in 1914 one plot was seeded to oats and vetches,
one to corn and sugar-beets, one to oats, and one to vetches. Eventually tbe plan of pasturing
one plot each year was altered to that of harvesting one crop of hay from the second-year clover-
plot and the cultivation of the plot for the balance of the season to eradicate the Canadian
thistle and couch-grass. Each year the plot selected for the corn and roots received a dressing
of about 15 tons of barnyard manure per acre.
Minnesota No. 13 corn was grown on % acre each year, and during 1915-16-17 seed-corn of"
this variety was saved. Between 900 and 1,000 lb. of first-class seed was harvested each year.
By selecting for early maturity an earlier ripening strain has been developed. On the remaining fourth of this plot mangels were grown. During 1915-16-17 the Sludgstrop variety was used.
The preparation of the plot for mangels was practically the same each year, and under the
cultural methods employed a marked increase in yield has been recorded each year except 1916,
when climatic conditions were unfavourable.    The yields by years per acre were:—
Tons per Acre.
1914       21%
1915       37%
1916       33
1917       42
Oats followed corn in the rotation. Banner oats were grown each year until 1917, when the
acre plot was divided into four equal plots and four varieties—viz., O.A.C. No. 72, Carton No.
22, Seger, and Banner.    These were grown under identical conditions as a variety test.
The oats were seeded at the rate of 50 lb. per acre.    With the oats, as with the mangels,
an annual increase in yield has been recorded, as follows:—
Lb. per Acre.
IM-4    Cut for hay.
1915     1,030
1916  2,285
1917    "  2,911
The oat-plot was seeded down each year to a mixture of red clover and alfalfa, 12 lb. of
the former and 6 lb. of the latter. Two crops of clover-hay were harvested the first year after
seeding, which yielded from 4% to 5 tons per acre each year. The second year after seeding
down to hay mixture only one crop of hay was removed, the second crop being turned under to
improve the condition of the soil and the plot cultivated in such manner as to weaken the weeds
which infested the land.
Couch-grass was the worst weed with which we had to contend. The practice was to plough
the land about 5 or 6 inches deep about tbe first week in August, and then cultivate frequently
with the spring-tooth and drag harrows to drag the roots of the couch-grass to the surface aud
expose it to the sun.    When dry the roots were burned.
The success of this method of eradicating this weed may be judged from the following: In
1916 the cultivation of the corn and mangel plot to control tbe weeds where special cultivation
bad not been practised in 1915 cost the Department $51.20, while the cost during 1917 was only
$40.50. The weeds were easily controlled in 1917 with less cultivation, although this plot had
been the most weedy part of the station in former years.
It should be mentioned that the alfalfa-seed was mixed with the clover-seed to inoculate the
soil with a view to future alfalfa-culture. The alfalfa in every case survived and produced even
more sturdy growth during the second year after seeding.
The Division has been successful at this station in improving the soil condition, greatly
increasing crop yields, and at the same time bringing tbe weeds under control by methods within
the means of the average farmer of the district. N 78 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Edgewood.—This station was located in 1914 on the property of Mr. Wm. Calder, about four
miles from Edgewood, on the Arrow Lakes. The soil was a very heavy clay. The 4 acres
comprising the station was divided into three plots of equal area, and a rotation involving an
intertillage crop, a grain-crop, and clover was adopted.
This station was operated during four seasons. Deep cultivation was practised and from
10 to 15 tons of manure applied to the intertillage plot each year.
The mangels were a total failure and this crop was dropped from the rotation in 1916.
The corn-crop was given a three-year trial and discontinued in 1917. The soil was too wet
in the winter, sour in the spring, and baked too hard during the early summer to permit the
successful culture of either of the above crops. Underdrainage and a heavy application of
lime were recommended, but labour was too scarce and the revenue too small to warrant tite
Oats and clover yielded fairly well each year, the oats averaging about 1 ton and tbe alsike
clover about 4 tons per acre.
Grand Forks.—The centre of the Agricultural Association grounds at Grand Forks (Kettle
Valley District) was selected as the most suitable location for a demonstration station for tbe
district.    The plot consisted of 4 acres of silty soil.
The crop-rotation adopted in 1914 included summer fallow, intertillage, grain, and alfalfa.
Existing conditions at this station have proven the location to be unsuitable for demonstration-
work. There were no facilities for irrigation. The annual rainfall was not sufficient to produce
a crop, and the growing crops were forced to depend upon subirrigation subsequent to the rise
of the river in midsummer for their moisture. The river did not rise to the same height each
year, and the consequent variation in amount of moisture supplied to the crops caused considerable variation in yield. In addition to this, the fence around the association grounds was not
cattle-proof and the crops were frequently damaged by the live stock of the district.
The crops at this station yielded very fair returns in 1915 when sufficient moisture was
available.    Only partial crops were harvested in 1914-16-17.
One interesting feature of the work at this station was the way in which the alfalfa survived
the midsummer drought each year to produce one fair crop of hay the following spring. In 1916
this crop appeared to suffer severely from drought and it was feared it would not survive.
However, it not only survived, but produced a first cutting of hay on June 29-th, 1917, which
yielded at the rate of 5,500 lb. per acre.
Rock Creek.—A part of A. D. McLennan's farm on the Rock Creek-Bridesville Road was
selected as the most suitable location for demonstration-work in the Rock Creek District. Work
was begun at this station in 1914. One acre was devoted to the culture of alfalfa seeded broadcast, while the balance of the station (4 acres) was divided into five plots, and a crop-rotation,
including alfalfa, intertillage, oats, and summer fallow, adopted.
The soil was a clay loam. Barnyard manure was not available; hence a cropping system
was adopted which provided for the ploughing-down of a crop of peas each >7ear on the plot to
be summer-fallowed.
Results at this station have varied. Corn and mangel growing was attempted, but unsatisfactory yields were obtained, due in part to the poor condition of the soil and also to the high
altitude and cool nights. The alfalfa caught readily when good seed was available and only
winter-killed slightly. In districts such as this only the best of the hardiest strains of alfalfa
should be used.
The oat-crop gave a maximum yield in 1916 of about 90 bushels per acre. All crops suffered
from drought and gophers in 1917 and were harvested for hay during July.
Rose Hill.—Demonstration-work was commenced in 1914 on C. R. Green's farm, near the
Beresford School, south of Kamloops, which was to serve that large mixed-farming district.
A corner of Mr. Green's farm near the road which contained about 8 acres was selected.
The soil near the road was a clay loam. The land sloped into an alkali pond, about 1 acre
along the pond being affected by alkali.
The rotation adopted included alfalfa, summer fallow, intertillage, and grain. While the
alfalfa lived, it did not produce a satisfactory crop of hay in three years. The intertillage
crops—corn and roots—w7ere given a three-year trial, but failed to produce profitable yields in
any year, the maximum being about 10 tons of mangels and 3 tons of immature fodder-corn
per acre.    It was then planned to try mixtures of oats, wheat, vetches, and peas in order to 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 79
determine which combination gave the heaviest tonnage for silage purposes. Oats and peas
gave a maximum yield of 6 tons per acre.
Banner oats were grown for seed following the intertillage crop.    The yields per acre by
years were:—
Oats. Wheat.
Lb. Lb.
1914         1,231
1915          2,272 1,646
1916         1,726 1,886
1917         1,776 2,232
Considering climatic conditions in this district during 1916 and 1917, the yields obtained
would tend to indicate that either the cultural methods or the seed-selection practised had
produced definite positive results.
In the winter of 1916-17 the fall-sown wheat, oats, and vetches winter-killed so badly that
peas and flax were seeded as a catch crop. Three varieties of peas—Arthur, Solo, and Prussian
Blue—were sown, the Arthur giving by far the greatest yield. The flax yielded approximately
12 bushels per acre. The above plot was not seeded until May 26th and the rainfall was
Errington.—This station was located in 1914 on the property of the Vancouver Island
Fruitlands, Limited, near the Errington Post-office. Prior to 1917 about 13 acres were cultivated. In 1917 an additional 7 acres were seeded. The soil was variable, there being about
15 acres of black muck and 5 of gravelly loam.
The rotation adopted included corn, grain, and hay crops. Barnyard manure, except in
limited quantities, was not available, only four dairy cows, three horses, and a few pigs being
fed at the station. The manure was applied each year to the land to be devoted to corn. No
commercial fertilizer was purchased after the first year, yet by practising crop-rotation, through
cultivation, and utilizing all available manure the crop yields have been gradually increased,
until in 1917 maximum' results were, obtained. Fodder corn yielded approximately 7 tons,
clover-hay about 2 tons, and barley % ton per acre.
Pitt Meadows.—The site for this station (near New Westminster) was chosen in 1915.
A part of F. V. Harris's farm was considered most suitable. The surface soil is a mixture
of peat and undecayed vegetation and the subsoil a silty clay.
Work was not commenced on this station until the autumn of 1916, when the land was
ploughed deeply and a system of tile drains installed. These worked satisfactorily during the
winter of 1916-17.
Demonstration-work was commenced in 1917. The station was divided and subdivided in
order to demonstrate the effect of various methods of soil-treatment on the common mixed-
farming crops.
On a part of the station, oats, barley, and turnips were grown on plots which had previously
received applications of various fertilizers. The balance was divided into five large plots.
Barnyard manure was applied to the first plot at the rate of 20 tons per acre and lime at the
rate of iy2 tons per acre. The second plot received an application of lime only. The third plot
was not treated and served as a check. Plot No. 4 received an application of barnyard manure,
while commercial fertilizers (sodium nitrate and superphosphate of lime) were applied to Plot
No. 5. Sodium nitrate was applied at the rate of 100 lb. and superphosphate 300 lb. per acre.
These plots were subdivided and the effect of the various applications on the common mixed-
farming crops tested. The crops grown were oats, barley, peas, flax, vetches, millet, fodder
corn, mangels, turnips, carrots, and potatoes.
Heavy rains in June caused a rapid rise of water in the main ditches and tile drains. The
land became too soft to bear the farm-horses and cultivation was delayed. This allowed the
weeds to gain temporary control, and necessitated the harvesting of some of the crops for hay-
to prevent the ripening and scattering of the weed-seeds.
The plots receiving a treatment of barnyard manure and lime produced the heaviest yields
of marketable produce. On the small series the presence of manure was readily noticeable
whenever used, while on the larger series the lime-and-manure treatment was followed in
almost every instance by manure alone, and this by lime. Tbe crops grown on the plots
receiving commercial-fertilizer treatment were very' little better than those on the check-plots. N 80
Department of Agriculture.
Banner and Leader oats were tested under similar conditions. It was estimated that either
variety would yield over 100 bushels per acre on the plot treated with lime and manure. On the
series the Banner averaged approximately SO bushels per acre, while the Leader yielded 85
bushels per acre.    Both varieties lodged badly.
The barley was damaged more than the other crops by the high water in June. Except on
the manure and lime and manure plots, it was entirely drowned out. Vetches, peas, and flax
grew very satisfactorily, but only matured properly on plots receiving manure. The Longfellow
fodder corn gave the heaviest yield, followed by the North-west Dent and Minnesota No. 13 in
the order named.
The following table gives the yield per acre of the various root-crops:—
Fertilizer Tests with Root-crops.
Long Red.
Commercial fertilizer   	
Note.—Mangels were a complete failure on Plot No. 5.
It will be noted that with all varieties except the Jumbo the manured plots yielded more
than tbe limed plot. Tbe mangels were most affected by the absence of barnyard manure and
the carrots least affected, while turnips were intermediate. (For table showing yield per acre
of potatoes see Appendix No. 13.)
Demonstration Clover and Alfalfa Hulling.
The 1917 season was not favourable to the growing of alfalfa and clover seed. The rainfall
was light and injurious insects plentiful. Labour was not available, and many who planned iu
the spring to save a part of their hay-crop with a view to seed production, later abandoned the
idea and cut the crop for hay.
The Department clover and alfalfa huller was operated in three districts only—Edgewood,
Kelowna, and Armstrong. Ten farmers availed themselves of the Department's offer and had
their seed-crops threshed, paying at the rate of $1 per bushel of seed threshed. During the
season there were threshed by the machine 1,190 lb. of clover-seed and 1,685 lb. of alfalfa-seed
All of the seed threshed will be disposed of locally.
Demonstration Underdrainage.
The need for underdrainage in certain parts of the irrigated districts of the Province has
become more evident each year, yet, owing to the high cost of drain-tile and tbe scarcity of
labour, very few drainage systems have been installed. The most serious need was found in
the Summerland and Kelowna Districts, where irrigation-water carries the soluble salts down
from the benches and, evaporating, deposits large quantities in the lower lands. The need for
some efficient system of drainage to remove this surplus water is becoming more urgent each
In an endeavour to assist the farmers of the above districts the Department purchased a
" Cyclone " ditcher and offered to loan it, together with the services of a drainage expert, to the
farmers free of charge. Seven farmers availed themselves of this offer during 1917. The official
in charge of this work visited the various farms, surveyed the fields needing drainage, and
advised the various owners regarding the best way to cope with the situation. Although the
ditching-machine was purchased early in February, it was not delivered until late in September.
As a result, very little actual underdrainage-work was done.    The machine was operated on one 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 81
farm in the Summerland District, where a field of 2 acres was ditched. The machine worked
satisfactorily to a depth of 28 inches. While no data are available as to the actual cost of
removal of earth by this method as compared with other methods, those in charge of the work
consider that for the excavating of long ditches, where frequent turning is unnecessary, this
machine should materially assist in reducing the labour problem incident to work of this nature.
Demonstration Seed-cleaning.
Farmers' Institutes were notified early in the year by circular letter that the Department
had purchased a " Clipper " seed-cleaner and was prepared to conduct demonstrations in seed-
cleaning. Thirteen Farmers' Institutes applied for demonstrations, but owing to conflicting dates
only eleven were conducted. Seed was cleaned in the following districts: Bridesville, Chilliwack,
Duncan, Kaleden, Kelowna, Lumby, Nanaimo, Pitt Meadows, Pritchard, Vernon, Victoria, and
Westbank. Sixty-five farmers were benefited in actually having seed cleaned, while a large
number of others were present at the demonstrations and benefited indirectly. Between 50 and
60 tons of seed was cleaned. Seventeen kinds of seed were put through the machine, including
wheat, oats, barley, speltz, peas, beans, alfalfa, clover, mangel, cabbage, onion, parsnip, radish,
tomato, sweet peas, and flower-seeds.
While the " Clipper " cleaner will remove all very small, oversized, and light seed as well
as refuse, it does not separate the foreign seeds of similar shape or weight. A few of those
attending the demonstrations claimed that they had fanning-mills at home that were more
efficient than the " Clipper," but as they had failed to take advantage of the Department's
invitation to bring such machines to the demonstration, their claims were not substantiated.
The " Clipper " used by the Department was a No. 2 B. The machine could be more conveniently
operated were some means provided to prevent seeds lodging in the lower screen; otherwise the
work was quite satisfactory.
Field-crop Competitions.
A bulletin announcing the results of the 1916 crop competitions and seed fairs was published
in February. In this bulletin the rules and regulations governing the 1917 field-crop and seed
competitions were announced.    A few important changes were made in the rules, including:—
(a.) The increasing of the number of entries necessary from six to eight.
(6.) A reduction in the total amount of prize-money paid per competition from $45 to $30,
and the division of this among the five successful competitors as follows :   $10, $8, $6, $4, $2.
(c.) The offering of a special institute prize to the institute conducting the most successful
competition. (The special institute prize consisted of ten of the best agricultural periodicals
published in Canada and the United States; these to comprise the nucleus of a circulating
library in the district qualifying for same.)
(d.) A special machinery prize to any competitor winning a first prize in a keenly contested
Eighty competitions were conducted with a total entry-list of 718 plots. Competitions with
potatoes, oats, wheat, and grain-hay were again popular, as the following list indicates:—
Kind of Crop. No of
Potatoes   40
Oats    11
Grain-hay      9
Wheat      g
Mangels        3
Carrots       3
Corn        2
Clover, alfalfa, turnips, and kale       1 each
The Metchosin Farmers' Institute was awarded the special prize provided for the institute
conducting the most successful competitions.   This institute conducted competitions with potatoes
and grain-hay, having an entry-list of twenty in the former and fourteen in the latter.    The
majority, of the competitors in each competition appeared to be deeply interested in the scoring
of the plots, and the judges report having spent two interesting days in that district.
7 N 82
Department of Agriculture.
Special prizes were awarded to the winners of eleven competitions, in which the interest
evinced was exceptional and the scoring close. The districts in which special prizes were
awarded, the winners of the prizes, and the prizes chosen in each case are given below:—
Prize selected.
Bella  Coola   	
Eagle River Valley
Rock Creek	
Rose Hill  	
O. J. Nygaard   	
P.   W.   Anketell-Jones
A.   Anderson   	
A. W. Cooke   	
R.  AV.   Dodding   	
Geo.  Ball   	
Percy D. Hillis	
J.  J.  Malcolm   	
William   Johnson   . ..
C. R.  Green   	
Chas. E. King	
R.R. 1. Bella Coola
Lower Nicola   	
Rocky Point   	
Rocky  Point   	
R.R. 1, Rock Creek
Cedar Hill   	
Planet Junior.
Portable  spraying
Planet Junior.
In districts were the seed-cleaner was the prize chosen, the present holder must win the
prize a second time before it becomes his property.
Seed Fairs.
The Field - crop and Seed Competitions Bulletin published in February contained the
announcement of the rules governing the local and Provincial seed fairs. The prize-list was
published at the same time. Provision was made in this bulletin for the holding of two
Provincial and eight local seed fairs. After the bulletin went to press the Island farmers
were granted a seed fair.
The labour shortage was so acute that districts formerly holding local seed fairs were
forced to abandon the practice in 1917. As a result, only the three Provincial seed fairs were
The Islands Seed Fair held at Duncan, November 29th and 30th, brought out the largest
entry-list and the greatest variety of exhibits. As the first Islands Seed Fair the showing was
creditable. The Southern Interior Seed Fair was held at Armstrong, December 6th and 7th.
The classes were well filled and competition keen, although prevailing conditions in this district
in 1917 were not favourable to seed production. The showing at the Central Seed Fair, conducted under the auspices of the Department at New Westminster, December 13th and 14th,
was not satisfactory. Some exhibits of outstanding quality were placed, but competition was
lacking. In view of the possibilities for seed production in the central district, this lack of
interest is inexcusable.
The feature of the seeds fairs in 1917' was the quality of the exhibits of root, vegetable,
and flower seed.
A seed-growers' directory was compiled from the lists of those competing at the 1916 seed
fairs, and published early in January. This directory contained the names of the seed-growers
competing in the various classes, the variety exhibited by each, the quantity of seed for sale,
and the price asked. This directory was mailed to all Secretaries of Farmers' Institutes and
to others on request. This publication assisted materially in bringing those needing seed into
touch with the seed-grower. A similar one is being prepared containing a list of the exhibitors
at the 1917 seed fairs.
Seed-growers' meetings were held in conjunction with the seed fairs. Professor L. Stevenson,
Superintendent of the Dominion Experimental Station at Sidney, B.C., addressed meetings at all
three fairs, while Professor P. A. Boving, of Vancouver, assisted at Duncan. E. W. Hogan, of
the Department, assisted at Armstrong, and P. W. Anketell-Jones, of Chemainus, addressed a
meeting at New Westminster.
Co-operative Variety Testing.
The scarcity of reliable information as to the varieties of the mixed-farming crops best
suited to soil and climatic conditions in the various agricultural districts of the Province has
resulted in each farmer growing those varieties which he considered best. As a net "result of
this lack of data, one would experience considerable difficulty In placing in any one district of S Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 83
the Province an order for a car-load of seed-grain or potatoes of any one variety. As an initial
step toward the settlement of this uncertainty the Department decided in 1916 to distribute
samples of first-class seed of the more important field crops to farmers in the various districts.
The public was notified of this contemplated action early in January through the Farmers'
Institutes. The Department offered to supply 10-lb. samples of each of three varieties of wheat,
oats, and barley; 15-lb. samples of each of three varieties of potatoes; and 1-lb. samples of each
of three varieties of fodder corn. At the same time 5-lb. samples of seed and fibre flax and 1-lb.
samples of sugar-beets were offered for distribution.
The public appeared to realize the need for reliable data as to adaptability of varieties to
local conditions, and this office was flooded with applications for seed. Unfortunately, the
Department's supply of seed was limited and many applicants were disappointed. Below is a
list of the varieties and the number of samples of each distributed:—
No.  of
Total Quantity
of Seed
Red Fyfe  	
Oats    /	
Garton No. 22   	
O.A.C. No. 72 	
O.A.C. No. 21 	
White  Hull-less   	
N.W. Dent  	
Minnesota  No.  13   	
Netted Gem   	
About 10 per cent, of those receiving seed report crop-failures, due either to unfavourable
climatic conditions or to the ravages of live stock.
Reports already received would seem to indicate that results differ with climatic conditions
in the various parts of the Province. A summary of the results compiled from reports received
is given in the following tables. The numbers in the columns represent the suitability of the
varieties to the various districts as determined from the reports received.
Summary of Results with Wheat Varieties.
Marquis.      Red Fyfe.
Lower Mainland 	
Central Interior (Nicola to Revelstoke and Okanagan)
Boundary and Kootenays   ■	
Northern Interior	 N 84
Department of Agriculture.
Summary of Results with Oat Varieties.
Seger or
No. 22.
No. 72.
Summary of Results icilh Barley Varieties.
No. 21.
2   •
Summary of Results with Potatoes.
No. 1.
3   .
Owing to the variation in climatic conditions within the various districts, the results compiled
from one year's test should not be considered as final, but rather as a preliminary report. It
will be necessary to continue this line of investigation for at least five years, using the best
seed available each year, before the results may be considered reliable. While the above tables
give the actual rating of the different varieties in the various districts as regards yield, other
factors, such as the disease-resistance of the variety, its quality, suitability to market, etc.,
must be considered in determining which variety should be grown.
The Bluestem, while the heaviest-yielding variety of wheat is soft, and as such had not as
high a milling value as either of the other varieties.    The Marquis had the strongest straw.
Of the oats, the Banner and the O.A.C. No. 72 have a long thin kernel, the Seger a kernel
of medium size, and the Leader and Garton No. 22 very plump kernels. The Garton No. 22 has
perhaps the strongest straw and is the earliest of the five varieties. The O.A.C. No. 72 displayed
exceptional strength and length of straw in view of its fineness. The Leader, a coarse-strawed
variety, produced the heaviest yields in the Coast districts, but did not stand up well. The
Seger or Victory is a very pretty oat, straw medium fine, kernel medium size, and yield fair in
all districts.
The O.A.C. No. 21 barley outyielded the other variety in almost every test, in many instances
producing almost as much as the other two varieties combined.
Seasonal variation and the source of the seed used has such an important relation to the crop
yield with potatoes that conclusions drawn from a one-year test are apt to b.e misleading. The
rating in the above tables should be taken as a preliminary report only.
Cost of Production Survey.
ii.s in 1916, those entering in the field-crop competitions were induced to keep records of
the cost of producing the crops entered. Some interesting data compiled from such reports are
submitted in Appendix No. 14.  Alfalfa planted in rows with a view to seed production.    Two pounds of seed used per acre
Pure-bred  Jerseys  at  Keating. 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 85
The costs are based on the actual cost of farm crops in storage on the farms on December
31st. From data submitted by eighteen farmers the actual cost of delivering potatoes at the
market shipping-point entailed a further expenditure of $4 per ton. Adding this to the cost of
producing a ton of potatoes as submitted in the table in Appendix No. 14, the cost f.o.b. shipping-
point would be $16.90.
In view of the recent controversy as to the actual cost of production of farm crops, it is
interesting to compare the 1917 reports with those submitted in 1916.
Yield, 1916.
Yield, 1917.
Cost, 1910.
Cost, 1917.
Potatoes (field crop) ....
Potatoes (boys and girls-
Per Cent.
$ 9.77
Per Cent.
Lack of rain during June, July, and August was responsible for the lighter yields of potatoes
and grain-crops. The root-crops benefited by the early fall rains. It is interesting to note that,
while there was a decrease in yield per acre of from 15 to 40 per cent, and an actual increase
in cost of production in 1917 over 1916 of from 32 to 67 per cent., the actual increase in the price
to the farmer did not on any of the above crops exceed 10 per cent.; while in the case of potatoes
there was a decrease of 8.5 per cent. Considering shrinkage in storage, losses due to disease, etc.,
and the average price paid to growers of potatoes to the end of 1917—i.e., $23.10 per ton—the
grower selling his potato-crop at or even a little above the average price has lost money on the
Farm and Crop Inspection.
Over 1,000 farms were visited by officials of this Division during the year and land or crops
inspected. A number of farmers were visited and seed-plots scored for the Canadian Seed-
growers' Association.
In addition to the above, officials of the Division assisted with the judging of the Boys' and
Girls' Club competitions. One hundred and two potato-plots were scored during the growing
season. Harvested exhibits from the plots were scored at the Provincial seed fairs, and the
financial reports and essays received and scored at this office.
Meetings, Short Courses, and Fall Fairs.
Officials of the Division conducted or delivered addresses at twenty-one farmers' meetings
during the year. The wide range of subjects included underdrainage, fertilizers, soils, seed-
growing, potato-growing, weed-eradication, mixed-farming crops, and crops for ensilage.
Judges were supplied who assisted in the placing of the awards at a number of tbe fall fairs.
The correspondence for the year consisted of 1,S69 letters being filed and 2,562 dispatched.
This is an increase of 15.3 per cent, over 4916 and an increase of 39 per cent, over 1915.
Respectfully submitted.
H. O. English,
E. W. Hogan,    ■
Soil and Crop Instructors. N 86 Department of Agriculture. 1918
A. Knight.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my report of the Veterinary Division for the year ending December
31st, 1917.
The early part of the year was devoted to meetings of various Farmers' Institutes, more
particularly in the Okanagan and Kootenay and Columbia River Valleys. The report on these
meetings has been submitted.
Considerable time was given to assisting stock-owners in the outlying districts by7 correspondence for the common ailments among their stock, and in a number of instances a personal
visit was made and treatment advised.
Verminous Bronchitis.
The experience of your Inspectors during the year with this trouble was confined to young
stock, mostly under one year of age. The disease was confined to those localities as reported
in 1916; that is, those lands subject to overflow in the early summer and after the water has
receded. Treatment was adopted as advised on stock already affected, with good success, and
the fatalities were practically nil. Stock-owners were also advised to keep young stock off
contaminated pastures, as a precautionary measure.
Influenza. '
An outbreak was reported from the Columbia A'alley, where two horses had died. On
investigation it was found that death was due to pneumonia, following an attack of influenza.
The remaining affected animals were isolated and treated. No further trouble was reported
from this source.
Contagious Abortion. \
This trouble, which was reported widely in previous years apparently gave very little
concern in 1917, only two outbreaks being reported. The one case, your Inspector is satisfied
was due to mechanical means, and not of a contagious nature. In the other case, by isolation
and treatment by use of disinfectants the trouble was confined to three cows in the herd.
Sanitary Conditions of Dairies and Stables.
In the older and more progressive districts some improvements have been noticeable; the
erection of new stables, more light, better floors and drainage have been adopted, and more
thought given to the health and comfort of stock. Other sections are making little, if any,
improvement, especially in those localities where the owners of farms have retired and the farms
are leased; the owner refuses to expend money on improvements, and the renter refuses to
improve the buildings unless he has a long lease. Those dairymen with Grade A premises, it is
believed, are maintaining their standard for quality of their dairy products, and this may be said
also of a good many of the Grade B class.
The time of the Veterinary Inspectors was devoted largely to dealing with this disease.
During the year 15,398 head of cattle on 1,889 premises were tested, with the result of 579
reactors and 54 suspects. Of these reactors 526 were killed; 53 reactors and 54 suspects remain
in quarantine. The great bulk of these will be disposed of very shortly. The number of reactors
to the number tested figures out at about 3.75 per cent., which result is very gratifying compared
with previous years, more especially since this work has been confined to the more thickly settled
districts and where tuberculosis was more prevalent in former years. (For districts in which
the cattle have been tested, number of premises visited, cattle tested, reactors, and suspects,
see Appendix No. 15.)
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight,
Chief Veterinary Inspector. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. ' N 87
Geo. C. Hay.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I beg to submit my annual report as District Agriculturist for the Kamloops District
in 1917.
During the year 1917 your Agriculturist has served in his capacity for two different districts.
The first six months of the year were spent at Smithers as headquarters for the Bulkley Aralley,
Central British Columbia, and the balance of the year at Kamloops as headquarters for the
surrounding district, including Cariboo, Lillooet, and the Nicola Valley.
The time during the winter months was mainly spent In holding institute meetings at
different points along the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway and in making personal visits to as
many of the ranchers as could be conveniently visited. In the early spring the applications
for seed-grain were received, and three car-loads distributed to the applicants before your
Agriculturist left early in June for the Kamloops District.
After reaching Kamloops an endeavour was made to cover that district in so far as possible,
and while doing so meet the settlers and discuss their problems with them, and become familiar
with conditions in the different localities, as well as the individual problems confronting the
settlers therein. This, together with the supervision of tbe two dry-farming stations at Quilchena
and 105-Mile House, kept your Agriculturist busy during the latter six months of the year.
Live Stock.
The Kamloops and Cariboo Districts have for many years been famed for beef-raising.
They are recognized to-day as amongst the largest, if not the largest, open range countries in
Western Canada. The cattlemen have had a good year. Beef has been a good price and many
car-loads have been shipped out. This high price, however, has not influenced the cattlemen
to dispose of their breeding animals as might be supposed. All are assured of a stable market
for some years to come. In almost every case breeding animals have been conserved in so far
as it was possible. The small hay-crop last season rendered it necessary for some of the owners
to diminish their number of cattle. The late winter now is of untold value to them in bringing
their cattle through in good shape.
Dairying has been successfully practised to some extent in the vicinity of Kamloops. A
creamery was opened in the town in June, 1917, and by December 31st 15,000 lb. of butter had
been made. This creamery has fifty patrons at the present time, and several other farmers have
expressed their intention of starting in dairying, thus making tbe outlook promising.
The sheepmen in the Kamloops-Cariboo District did exceptionally well on their flocks in
1917, due chiefly to the high prices paid for wool and mutton. However, a small proportion of
the wool sold in this district realized the top market price. A very small number of the ranchers
co-operated and sold their wool through the AVool-growers' Association at Kamloops. It is
believed, however, that the results of marketing wool co-operatively were demonstrated sufficiently by the association last year that it will have practically all the wool in the district
to handle next spring.
The season of 1917 was anything but favourable to the development of good crops throughout
most parts of the Kamloops District. The cold, backward spring seriously withheld the growth
of most crops, and later during the months of July and August a continued spell of dry weather
seriously affected those who were practising dry-farming. The crops in the Nicola Valley,
generally speaking, were better than those in most other districts, especially the oat-crop. The
hay-crop in general was light, and at present the ranchers realize there is not a superabundance
of hay in the country for the number of cattle that are being kept over.
Summer frosts towards the latter part of July caught some of the crops in places along the
Cariboo Road and in the Bonaparte District. The potatoes in several places did not recover
from a frost, that occurred on July 24th. No frosts occurred in the Thompson River Valley
until October, when beans were damaged somewhat in several sections. N 88 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Fall Fairs.
The fairs visited during the past season were: Knutsford, A'ancouver, Prince George,
Hefferly Creek, Armstrong, Kamloops, Quesnel, and Summerland. Of these, your Agriculturist
judged the cattle at Knutsford, the live stock and field produce at Prince George and Quesnel,
and the live stock at Summerland. At the fairs attended a good interest was shown and a keen
desire on the part of the exhibitors to help the fair along.
Field-crop Competitions.
The field-crop competitions judged during the summer were as follows: Wheat and potatoes
for the Martin's Prairie Farmers' Institute, and oats for the Nicola Valley Farmers' Institute.
The Roe Lake Institute found it necessary after a rather severe frost to call off their crop
competition for the season. The three competitions at Pritchard and Nicola were very well
conducted, and, generally speaking, there was keen competition; especially was. this the case
with the Nicola Valley oat competition.
The patronage to this office on the part of the local farmers and of those interested in the
work of the Department of Agriculture is most encouraging.    A live interest has been taken in
the work, and anything that the Department can do to further the interests of agriculture in the
District of Kamloops is greatly appreciated by all concerned.
Respectfully submitted.
Geo. C. Hay,
District Agriculturist.
R. J. Ferris.
TU. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report of the silo-demonstration work for the year 1917.
As the work of this part of the Live Stock Branch develops, there is an increasing desire
by the farmers of British Columbia to become more acquainted with the merits of silage as
an aid to the cheaper production of live stock. Operations have covered to a large extent
the southern part of the Province, w7here on every hand the familiar type of silo which the
Department has advocated for the last three years is observed. The initial policy of placing
the silos in the outlying districts, such as the Okanagan, Arrow Lakes, Kamloops, etc., instead
of the more thickly settled parts of the Province, has proved a first-ciass method of advertising,
with the result that they are now being built more rapidly. The offer of assistance to the first
farmer in an institute district who erects one of the type of silos recommended by7 the Department has taken advantage of by 30 per cent, of the Farmers' Institutes. There are still a large
number of institute districts where they have not yet begun to feed silage to their cattle, which
Is an economic necessity, and the modern dairy-farni is not complete without a silo.
Under your instructions, a circular entitled " Tbe British Columbia Farmer and his Silo "
was compiled. The information it contained has been the means of a large number of farmers
building silos. Some 2,500 of these circulars were printed and 2,400 have been distributed.
There has also been a large demand for the bulletin entitled " Silos and Silage."
The correspondence in connection with this work is increasing: Letters received, 320; letters
sent out, 450.
Twenty-three silos have been erected by the Department representatives and thirteen filled.
(For tables showing silos built and filled see Appendices Nos. 16 and 17.)
Respectfully submitted.
R. J. Ferris,
Silo Demonstrator. Clover and alfalfa liuller, owned by Department of Agriculture. Victoria, B.C.
-     V      •■      . .,   ..   .:.-      "*'
Home-made silos on a  British  Columbia farm,  8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 89
M. A. Stuart.
W. T. McDonald. Esq.,
Live Mock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith a brief report of the work of the Publications
Branch from November Sth to December 31st, 1917.
On taking temporary charge of the work of this Branch following J. R. McLennan, the
duties assumed were as follows: The publication of the Agricultural Journal, mailing out
bulletins, etc., issued by the Department, and answering correspondence in connection with
the Branch.
During the last two months of the year, 196 letters were received from farmers, Secretaries
of Farmers' Institutes, and various other agricultural organizations, asking for bulletins and
other publications. A number of subscriptions to the Agricultural Journal were received from
both old and new subscribers. There were 'sent out 93 letters and 106 bulletins to various
farmers, Secretaries of Farmers' and Women's Institutes, Agricultural Colleges and Schools,
and Departments of Agriculture throughout Canada and the United States.
Agricultural Journal.
This Journal at the end of the year contained twenty pages, but judging by the rate material
is now coming in from outside, and the lengthy articles written by members of this Department,
an increase of eight pages more will be necessary. The mailing-list, together with the names of
subscribers, are so arranged in alphabetical order on filing-cards that in future the mailing of the
Journal and other publications will be much easier.
I hereby acknowledge the valuable assistance rendered this Branch by members of the
Department and outside correspondents in supplying articles for the Journal.
Respectfully submitted.
M. A. Stuart, Agriculturist.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Superintendent of Institutes,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report on the general work of the Department
for the year ending December 31st, 1917.
The Estimates for the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1918, provided for forty-four permanent
officials of all ranks.    The year has been marked by an unusual number of resignations;   the
following table briefly records the details :—
A. R. Neale
J. H. McCulloch  .
W. E. McTaggart
A. H. Thornber
S. H. Hopkins .
R. M. Winslow .
J. R. McLennan
H. E. Walker ..
G. H. Stewart
Assistant Horticulturist, Prince Rupert
District Agriculturist   	
Prairie   Fruit   Markets   Commissioner,
Assistant Horticulturist. Arictoria   ....
Assistant Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria
Provincial Horticulturist  	
Editor, Agricultural Journal, Victoria..
District Agriculturist, Prince Rupert. .
Accountant, Arictoria
Taking up general farming in the
Newspaper-work at Winnipeg.
Newspaper-work at AVinnipeg.
Experimental Sub-station, Corvallis,
Instructor in Elementary Agriculture, Education Dept., Duncan.
Private business.
Newspaper-work at Vancouver.
Superintendent, Experimental Farm.
Killarney, Man. ,
Royal Flying Corps, Toronto, Ont. N 90 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Roll of Honour.—During the year officials of the Department w7ere grieved to hear of the
death of Captain F. Norman Payne, who had enlisted in 1915 with the 2nd C.M.R., and after
training in England proceeded to Mesopotamia, where he went through the campaign for the
relief of Kut-el-Mara and the capture of Baghdad. His death from cholera at the latter place
was reported in November.
The death was also reported through the press of Lieutenant Bernard Shipton, who died of
wounds in France. He had also enlisted with the 2nd C.M.R. and won the Military Medal,
while the Military Cross was awarded to him after his death.
Flight-Lieutenant Charles Rayner had been an Assistant Inspector with the Inspector of
Fruit Pests from the years 1911 to 1914 and was regarded as a very promising official. Enlisting
in 1915, he soon obtained a commission and changed to tbe Royal Flying Corps. He met his
death late in 1917.
Temporary Staff.—Following the usual procedure, a number of appointments of temporary
officials were made, in addition to the temporary officials already employed, in connection with
such matters as inspection of orchards, inspection of fruit at ports of entry, judges at fall
fairs, etc. The total number of these appointments during the year was 109, as compared
with eighty-three in 1916, these appointments being about equally divided between Provincial
expenditure and that under the " Agricultural Instruction Act." (Appendix No. 18 will show
the nature of the appointments.)
The correspondence has again shown a slight upward tendency; the total number of letters
received during the year being 21,430, as against 20,897 in 1916. Letters dispatched showed a
considerable increase over 1916, the figures being 24,952 and 21,856 respectively. The general
increase in the inward letters was those due to the Live Stock Branch, whilst the letters sent
out from the Deputy Minister's office during the year again constitute a record, being 45.4 per
cent, of the total number dispatched.
Circular Letters.—The total number of circular letters sent ont was 32,040, as against
46,680 in 1916. These letters were divided under eleven headings, as per attached statement.
The decrease in the number due to a larger number of individual letters being sent, and also
the lessened activities of Farmers' Institutes and Agricultural Associations.
Agricultural Associations        1,135
British Columbia Dairymen's Associations          965
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Associations      4.950
Horticultural Branch       4,100
Farmers' Institutes       5,780
Miscellaneous        1,005
Poultry Division        6,850
Publications Branch       1,025
Statistical Branch       1,380
Soil and Crop Division       3,700
Women's Institutes     1,150
Total     32,040
Publications issued during 1917.— (See Appendix No. 20 for detailed statement.)
New Publications.—Less  bulletins  and  circulars  have  been  issued  during  1917  than   in
previous years, owing to the large stocks carried forward;   the total editions of new bulletins,
circulars, and miscellaneous publications amounting to 88,400 copies.    The Agricultural Journal
was published throughout the year,  with  an average circulation of 4,000 copies per month.
(See Appendix No. 20 for full list of publications.)
Bulletins and Circulars dispatched during the year.—The actual number of publications
dispatched by mail during 1917 was 115,811, including the copies of the Agricultural Journal.
Information dealing with poultry was much in demand and publications on the subject of general
farming.    (See Appendix No. 21 for full list.)
The financial appropriation for this Department totalled $208,002, as against $251,996 for
the previous fiscal year, the chief reduction being in grants made to various associations, sup- 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 91
pression of noxious weeds, etc.    (Appendix No. 22 will give a summary of the appropriations
compared with those in previous years.)
During the year a special warrant of $7,000 was obtained by Order in Council for stocking
and operating the Frondeg Farm, on Vancouver Island, which had been turned over to the
Government of the Province by Griffith Hughes, rent free, for a period of five years.
" Agricultural Instruction Act."—Instalments were again received from the Federal Governments as follows:—
January 19th, 1917, second half of 1916-17 grant   $31,866 25
August 6th, first half of 1917-18 grant     34,599 63
Total      $66,465 88
As stated previously, a large number of temporary appointments of Inspectors and Instructors were made possible by the moneys provided under this Act.
The annual increase for the period 1917-18 was $5,466.56. This, however, was offset by
the grant to the Education Department on account of elementary instruction being increased
from $15,000 to $20,000.
The number of vouchers issued during the year was 1,248. The number of cheques from
the _ special account at the Canadian Bank of Commerce was 1,261. The total number of
Provincial vouchers issued during the year was 2,498, making a grand total of 3,746 vouchers
issued. (See Appendices Nos. 23 and 24 for sections of the " Agricultural Act, 1917-18," and for
details of vouchers issued.)
Seed-grain distributed in 1915 and 1917.
Year 1915.—Payments from Government Agents responsible for the collection of promissory
notes given by settlers in 1915 have come in but slowly during the year, the total amounts
collected being $1,108.92, leaving a balance of $5,782.15, distributed as follows:—
Government rAgent at Fort Fraser    $    57 80
Cranbrook            626 14
South Fort George          300 42
Greenwood          129 00
A'ernon     *.     1,203 88
Nelson           165 93
„ „ Kamloops        1,444 05
„ „ A'ancouver        1,854 93
Total   $5,782 15
The Government Agents reported that many of the parties who were supplied with seed-
grain have gone overseas, whilst a few have left the Province for other parts of the Dominion,
so that unless a special effort is made by legal process to recover the amounts due there will
probably be a large deficit.
Year 1917.—Representations having been made to the Government that settlers in the area
of Tete Jaime Cache and Hazelton were so situated financially, owing to the failure of the
harvest in 1916, that they were unable to provide seed for the 1917 crop, Orders in Council
were accordingly passed as follows :—
January Sth, 1917     $ 3,000
February 26th, 1917       7,000
Total      $10,000
The Department officials at once took the matter in hand, seed-grain to the sum of $7,031.07
being purchased and distributed along the line of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway promptly.
Freight and handling charges amounted to $1,488.11, making a total cost of this work $8,519.18.
Promissory notes did not fall due until December 31st, 1917. Indications are that prompter
payments will be made than in connection with the year 1915.
British Columbia Students.
Owing to -the University of British Columbia now providing a first-year's course in agriculture, the number of students leaving the Province for Eastern colleges to take up such work N 92 Department of Agriculture. 1918
has decreased considerably, and the Honourable Minister of Agriculture has made a ruling that
no grant will be made to British Columbia students who commence an agriculture course outside
the Province, but the grants will still be made to students who wish to take a second- or third-
year course or full graduation at Eastern colleges. The names of the students for the year 1917
are as follows :—
Ontario Agriculture College.—Spring term, 1917: First year, Cecil C. Evans, Mary Gertrude
Steele, Mildred E. Ruttan, Arthur Jas. Mann, Herbert Butters, and Geo. Paitchett; second year, *
Miss Mabel A. Witmer; third year, Harold L. Davis; fourth year, A. H. White and Oliver C.
Evans. Fall term, 1917: First year (no grant), Charles James Butt; second year, George
Patchett; third year, George Knowles; fourth year, Leslie Harold Davis and Arthur James
Manitoba Agriculture College, Winnipeg.—Spring term, 1917: First year, Donald Budge;
second year, Ross MacKinnon; fourth year, David W. Robertson. Fall term, 1917: Course in
Agriculture, D. W. Robertson and R. E. Wells; Course in Home Economics, Miss Gladys E.
Hallwright and Miss Florence M. Elliott.
Macdonald Institute.—Fall term, 1917: Home Economics, Associate Course (two years),
Miss Gundrid M. Rebbeck.
University of Toronto.—Fall term, 1917:   Household Science Course, Miss F. L. Fullerton.
Horticultural Licences.
Thirty-nine horticultural licences of principals and agents were issued during the year, as
against thirty-five in 1916.    These were made up as follows:—
Principals, nurserymen, foreign and British Columbia     22
Agents, nurserymen, foreign and British Columbia    17
Total      39
A good feature of the year's work has been the establishment of a nursery by one of the
firms who had the majority of the importation-work. Energetic action was taken by the
Horticultural Branch and the Provincial police in connection with possible infractions of the
Statute, but there are several cases of nurserymen who claim their business does not justify
them putting up the $25 necessary for a bond and licence.
Bee-inspection Work.
Following the procedure in previous years, temporary appointments of Inspectors were made
to inspect the apiaries of the Province and give advice and practical demonstrations. The season
of inspection lasted from April 18th to August 31st. F. D. Todd, of Arictoria; L. Harris, of
A'ernon; and W. J. Sheppard, of Nelson, were again employed for the districts covered by them
in 1916. The expense of this work was borne from a special section of $2,500 provided in the
" Agricultural Instruction Act, 1917-1S." Compensation was again paid to owners of hives
whose premises had been inspected and condemned on account of the presence of foul-brood,
a total sum of $312.85 being expended in this connection.
Agricultural Fairs Associations.
For the first time for many years no new associations were incorporated during 1917.
Owing to the necessity of economy no annual convention was called by the Department, but
arrangements for dates of fairs were made by correspondence, the associations being circularized
as to the most suitable dates and the final decision left to the Department.
Although some fifty-six fairs were originally arranged, forty-eight were finally held; forty-
three of these being by incorporated associations, four by Farmers' Institutes, and one by a
Horticultural Society.    (For details of dates and places see Appendix No. 25.)
Judges.—Thirty-seven staff and outside judges were supplied by the Department to Fair
Associations, as against thirty-nine in 1917. 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 93
The following statement shows appointments for years 1916-17:—
|         22
Reports sent in by judges were, on the whole, encouraging, especially those from the poultry
judges; the improvement in the number of entries of birds and the excellent condition of same
being very noticeable. Generally speaking, however, the displays of fruits and vegetables were
good in quality, but were lacking in quantity ; this being partly due to the shortage of labour
preventing exhibitors from preparing exhibits and attending fairs, and also to the rather dry
season experienced. There is no doubt, however, that the determination of districts to continue
holding these fairs during war-time is a good one. A special feature of the fair season was the
sending round of pathological exhibits to Duncan, Victoria (Home Products Fair), Coquitlam,
Langley, Kelowna, Grand Forks, Nelson, and Summerland. These exhibits drew attention to
the various diseases affecting horticultural products, and J. W. Eastham, Plant Pathologist,
and his Assistant, M. H, Ruhmann, were in attendance to give explanation and advice.
Financial,—The appropriation for Fair Associations was $20,000, of which $12,850 had been
awarded in grants in aid of prize-lists.    (See Appendix No. 26 for details.)
Farmers' Institutes.
The total number of institutes existing at the end of the year was 148. There were five
new institutes organized in 1917, whilst three—Vargas, Okisollo, and Nitinat—were temporarily
closed down during the continuance of the war. The new incorporations were as follows:
January 10th, Houston Farmers' Institute; January 25th, Westside Okanagan Farmers' Institute; February 6th, Trapp Lake Farmers' Institute; March 19th, Roe Lake Farmers' Institute;.
May 7th, Similkameen Farmers' Institute.
Several institutes have lost so many members that they may be regarded as dormant during
the continuance of the war, and no grants were possible to those whose membership was below
fifteen. The total membership recorded for the year was 6,194, as against 6,974 in 1916. The
institutes with the largest membership were as follows :—
Creston   232
Spallumcheen     192
Francois Lake    137
Nanaimo-Cedar     130
Delta    129
Cowichan    119
Martin's Prairie     119
Surrey  108
Bella Coola      97
Northern Okanagan       94
The Advisory Board of Fanners' Institutes met at Victoria in February and dealt with the
resolutions submitted to the Department. District meetings were also held in the Okanagan
and Kootenay Districts, and the Department is now perfecting a scheme of grouping all institutes
into nine districts corresponding with the electoral districts of the Province, and a new Advisory
Board will be appointed in accordance with the 1917 amendment to the " Agricultural Act, 1915."
Financial—The Estimates for 1917-18 reduced the institute vote to $15,000, the total expenditure at the close of the calendar year being $12,633.02, as shown in Appendix No. 27. The
total cost of a Farmers' Institute to the Department was $85.36, as against $103.35 in 1916-17. Short Course and Lectures.—The programme for the winter meetings comprised forty-two
institutes in the itinerary, the period extending from February 16th to March 17th. (See
Appendix No. 28 for full list.)
A short course in general agriculture and horticulture was again arranged to be held from
February 5th to 16th. The subjects dealt with were live stock, breeds and management; feeding
stock; cattle-diseases and first aid; succulent crops; field crops; forage-crops; soil-treatment;
vegetable-growing; potatoes, varieties, etc.; fertilizers; orchard insects, insect pests, plant-
diseases, sprays, etc. Demonstrations were given in poultry and in dairy and live-stock judging.
The co-operation of the British Columbia University was very heartily appreciated.
The lecturers included the following: Professor J. A. McLean, Professor P. A. Boving,
Dr. A. Knight, H. O. English, T. A. F. Wiancko, J. R. Terry, M. S. Middleton, B. Hoy, and
J. AV. Eastham.
The interest evidenced and the attendances, however, were rather disappointing, both at the
short course and at many of the Institute centres.
Fairs held by Farmers' Institutes.—In 1917 only four institutes held fairs, as against seven
in the previous year; the dates were as follows: Evergreen (San Josef Bay), September 13th;
Cape Scott, September 17th; Denman Island, September 18th ; Rock Creek, October 26th; Pouce
Coupe.    The Department again sent judges to tbe first four by special request.
Women's Institutes.
During the year only one new institute was organized, this being the Tillicum AVomen's
Institute on December 29th. The total membership for the year was 2,754. The following table
will show comparison with the two previous years:—
No. of
1915   *.	
In the early part of the season membership returns were so encouraging that it looked as
though, in spite of the decreased population in the Province, membership records would again
be broken. At the time of this report annual returns from institutes are still coming in, and
it is not possible to give a full account of the activities of same, but extraordinary efforts have
been made during the year in raising funds for patriotic purposes. The total value of cash
contributions by Women's Institutes to various patriotic organizations exceed $16,000, whilst
some 21,000 articles were sent overseas. (See Mrs. Davies's report for details.)
The institutes with the largest membership during the year were as follows :—
Kelowna     1S5
Cowichan     167
Cranbrook    '   13S
Penticton     105
Creston       9S
Shawnigan and Vernon      79
The average membership for all institutes was forty-five, as against fifty-one in 1916.
Financial.—The Department again secured the vote of $7,500 for AA-'omen's Institutes,
including educational work, for the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1918. The total actual
expenditure on this work was $8,742.03 for the calendar year, the average cost of an institute
having risen to $148.17, as against $104.28 the previous year. (See Appendix No. 29 for full
Conferences.—District conferences were again held as in 1916, as follows: Okanagan
District, at Vernon, September 18th to 20th; Kootenay and Boundary District, at Cranbrook,
September 25th to 27th; Arancouver Island, at Duncan, October 3rd to 5th; Lower Mainland,
at Mission City, October 11th and 12th.
These conferences were run in a very business-like manner. A large number of resolutions
dealing with women and children were submitted to the Department at the close of the year for 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 95
action. Only actual expenses of official delegates were paid by the Department; the institutes
in several cases bore the expense of one or more delegates themselves.
Lectures and Demonstrations.—Mrs. J. S. Chalmers, of Thrums, B.C., continued her lecture-
work to the institutes which she had not visited at the close of 1916. Her third, fourth, and
fifth itineraries took up her whole time from January 5th to May 2nd.
There has never been such a highly successful series of lectures and demonstrations to
institutes provided by the Department before. Mrs. Chalmers won golden opinions from every
district she visited, and there is no doubt her practical advice and clear demonstrations have
stimulated interest, not only amongst the Women's Institutes, but also in many cases of the
farmers of each district.
Flower-shows.—Forty-one institutes held flower-shows and were paid the grant for same,
as against forty-three in 1916. The Department was not able to appoint horticultural judges
from the staff, as had been done previously, owing to being short-handed. From reports received,
however, both the financial and social sides of these events were very satisfactory. (See
Appendix No. 30 for list of dates.)
Competitions, Year 1916.—These competitions were not decided until rather late in 1917,
the winners being as follows:—
(a.) Best Average Attendance at Meetings based on June Membership.—First prize (books,
$20), Upper Sumas, 77 per cent.; second prize (books, $10), Gordon Head, 74.4. Next in order
of merit: Nakusp, 74.3; Crawford Bay, 68.4; Robson, 66.8; Lake Hill and Mission, 66.6;
Cranbrook, 64.9;   Penticton, 60.7;  Harrop, 60.3.
(b.) Programme Competition.—First prize (books, $15), Salmon Arm; second prize (books,
$10), Nelson. Next in order of merit: AVest Saanich, Haney, Chilliwack, Agassiz, Surrey,
Naramata, West Summerland, Hazelmere, Summerland, and Langley.
(c.) Essay Competition.—First prize ($10), Mrs. Henry Calhoun, Tappen Institute (subject,
"Reading-matter for the Home") ; second prize (specially raised to $10 on account of merit),
Mrs. E. H. Lock, Summerland Institute (subject, " The Importance of Vocational and Technical
Training") ; third prize ($5), Mrs. A. John Grigg, Vice-President, Nakusp Institute (subject,
"Economics in the Home"). Specially mentioned: Mrs. E. L. Winson, Upper Sumas Institute
(subject, "Reading-matter in the Home"); Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan, Garden City Institute
(subject, "Economics in the Home.")
(d.)  Competitions for Junior Members.—No prizes awarded.
The programme competition attracted a large number of competing institutes, and the first
twelve were all excellent and deserving of note.
The competitions for 1917 follow similar lines, institutes having been given to March 31st,
1918, to send in essays and other matter.
The new scheme of allowances authorized by the 1917 amendment to the " Agricultural Act,
1915," whereby the Department paid a $1 per capita grant for each first fifty members of an
institute who paid a like amount, has resulted in a larger sum being paid to institutes, although
many of the latter have written in hoping that the Secretary's allowances, which had been
discontinued, would be revived. Owing to the activity of institutes, supplies of stationery,
books, etc., now amount to a considerable annual charge, the same having risen from $190 86
to $1,257.94 in 1917.
An interesting feature in the year's work was the holding of a " better babies " contest on
August 1st by the Garden City Women's Institute. The institute ye*r has been one of intense
activity, each institute vying with the other in its output for material for the Red Cross and
other patriotic societies in connection with the Great War.
Noxious AVeeds.
No special vote for the suppression of noxious weeds was provided in this year's Estimates,
and work of this nature was delegated to Provincial constables, acting as agents for the Department, whilst an Order in Council was approved on June 3rd appointing all District Forest
Rangers and Assistant Rangers of the Forest Branch to be Inspectors under' the "Noxious
AVeeds Act." Full reports are not yet to hand, but the expenditure in cutting noxious weeds
on absentee-owner property has only amounted fo about $500.   It is probable that agriculturists N 96 Department of Agriculture. 1918
and owners of property who are interested in increased production are taking greater care to
look after the land, and the vigorous campaigns conducted by this Department in 1914, 1915,
and 1916 are also bearing fruit.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bonavia,
A. B. Tweddle.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my annual report on the work of the Statistics Branch
during the year 1917.
With the beginning of the current fiscal year, supervision of the work of this Branch was
assigned to your present Statistician.
In scope, the work was much the same as during the previous five years—that of collecting
data relating to agricultural production, imports and exports—but methods varied in part.
During the three years 1914-15-16 the plan used in collecting information respecting production was by personally visiting as large a number of representative farmers as possible. The
scheme adopted in 1917 was in accordance with one of the many recommendations submitted
in 1912 by a Commission to inquire into the statistics of Canada, appointed by the Federal
Government. This recommendation was that statistics relating to agricultural production in
Canada be collected annually and by joint effort of the Federal and Provincial Governments,
thereby doing away with much duplication of effort and conflicting results. This recommendation was strongly endorsed by a conference consisting of representatives of both the Federal
and Provincial Governments and held at Ottawa in 1914 for the purpose of informal discussion
of statistical matters in the light of the report of the Commission. As a result of the understanding of this conference, a scheme was drafted by R. H. Coats, Dominion Statistician and
Controller of Census, for the collection of statistics relating to crop areas and live stock in
1917, and which was adopted by the Provinces of Quebec, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta,
and British Columbia.
This scheme provided for the mailing of card schedules direct from Ottawa to all agriculturists In this Province whose names appeared on the Provincial voters' lists of 1916. Returns
were required to be forwarded to this Department and there compiled.
Results of 1917 Method.
Some 19,300 cards were distributed in British Columbia. About 4,300 were returned through
the Dead Letter Office owing to " enlistment," " dead," " removed," etc., whilst approximately
7,000 were duly filled out and forwarded to this office, which represents 46 per cent, of the
estimated number of actual farmers in the Province at that time.
Considering an initial experiment, this may be accepted as a very satisfactory response,
and is the second highest percentage secured by any of the Provinces where this scheme was
The time available for the completion of details of this plan prior to putting same into
operation on the scheduled date was limited, thus rendering impossible tbe necessary campaign.
However, with improved details, an up-to-date mailing-list, an effective campaign toward educating farmers in the importance of statistics, and which has already been started through the
medium of the Department journal, future results will undoubtedly prove much more satisfactory.
By the adoption of this method and its operation with clear definition, the collection of
statistics will not only be placed on the most economical basis, but results will form a sound
basis on which to determine annual progress of the agricultural industry. 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 97
Comparative Results, 1916 and 1917.
Comparing results of the 1917 method with those of the previous year, when only general
information could be obtained, it is noted in the case of the total area of grains that the 1917
figure was 0.5 per cent, and that of fodders and roots 9 per cent, higher. In numbers of live
stock, however, the 1916 estimates were apparently too optimistic, being from 2.6 per cent, in
the case of dairy cattle to 15 per cent. In that of horses higher than the 1917 results show, and
which demonstrates clearly the impossibility of determining the numbers of live stock by any
means except a census. Many farmers may have a fairly reliable knowledge of crop areas,
but in the majority of cases they know little about live-stock progress.
Crop Correspondents.
For the purpose of obtaining information from time to time relating to crop conditions,
yields, values, etc., some 200 farmers, Secretaries of Farmers' Institutes, and Department officials
were asked to submit periodical reports to this office, whilst the Federal office appointed an equal
number who were asked to report to that office. Separately compiled results from these two
sets of correspondents were then exchanged by these two offices, and the average result, mutually
agreed upon, adopted and published.
Imports and Exports—Collection of Data.
In the continued absence of data from the transportation companies relating to the volume
of interprovinciai trade, particularly inward movements, the same method which has been in
use since 1914 was adhered to—viz., the collection of the required data from the chief wholesale
establishments within this Province. Forms were mailed to over 500 establishments, asking for
a return of the total quantity and value of Canadian food products imported from all the other
Provinces during the year. Results have not been as satisfactory as desired, since only about
50 per cent, responded, but which is doubtless partially due to the prevailing shortage of clerical
assistance. With the data secured in former years, it will, however, be possible to determine
fairly well the year's imports into the Province. Export data are being supplied by the various
shippers, Department officials, and transportation officials.
During the year the annual statistics bulletin for the year 1916 was compiled and published;
also three circular bulletins containing results of the various crop returns, these latter being
distributed amongst the various newspapers, farm journals, etc., for publication.
Statistical articles were supplied from time to time to the departmental journal.
Cost of Production.
Through the efforts of the Soil and Crop Division, data relating to the cost of producing
certain field crops have been collected in recent years. It became desirable that such data
should be extended to include all crops, as well as live stock, and these, to begin with, based
upon a complete inventory of the farm. By mutual arrangement with the Soil and Crop Division,
the work already being conducted under its supervision was surrendered to this Branch.
Tt is planned to begin this work the first of February next, and the necessary details are
now nearing completion. These include the selection of about 400 carefully chosen farmers who
will undertake the necessary recording for one year along the lines of forms and diaries now
being printed.
Similar wo'rk has been carried on in some sections of the United States for the past fifteen
years, and at the outset results proved very valuable, not only to farmers in particular, but
administrators as well. To those farmers taking up this work the benefits will soon be manifest
by showing the economic status of the farm, and serving to stimulate greater interest in better
management, whilst the data made available in compiled form to this Department should prove
a valuable basis in fostering the welfare of farmers generally.
Consumption per Capita.
During the past year an effort was made to secure data relating to the per capita food
consumption in this Province.   Returns including some 500 persons of all ages were obtained
8 N 98 Department c3f Agriculture. 1918
and compiled, and results are very interesting. This work was conducted as an experiment,
but results warrant further effort on a more comprehensive plan to include city as well as
rural consumers, the latter only being considered so far. Results are intended for the purpose
of determining total food requirements of this Province, as well as surplus supply. While there
are data relating to other countries, these do not necessarily apply to this Province, and it was
therefore considered advisable to establish our own basis.
Owing to the method of collecting statistics by mail in 1917, the time of your Statistician
was necessarily largely spent in the office compiling returns and issuing reports. The editing
of the annual report of the Department was also undertaken.
Statistics relating to Agricultural Production, Year 1917—Preliminary Estimate.
While the following summary is merely intended as a preliminary estimate of production
during the current year, since returns are yet incomplete, it nevertheless will serve as an
indication when compared with that of 1916.
Figures relating to live stock, meats, poultry, and dairy products may be accepted as
approximately correct, but those of fruits, fodders, and grains are subject to more or less
revision, pending more complete returns.    A'egetables for the time being are not considered.
Owing to unfavourable crop-growing conditions and the fact that the year's postal census
of live stock revealed that our previous estimates were over-optimistic, it was not anticipated
that there would be any material increase shown in the total value of the 1917 production.
Notwithstanding decreased production In live stock, mutton marketed, poultry and eggs, fodders,
grains and hops, prices of these and all other products which obtained throughout the year were
sufficiently high to more than offset this effect.
The total value of all products except vegetables, when compared with the value of the same
products in 1916, shows an increase in the current year of approximately $2,125,000, or nearly
7 per cent. The increase in the total value of all products in 1916 over 1915 was 3.39 per cent.
While it is desirable not to set down a definite figure of the total value this year, in the absence
of returns relating to vegetables, yet it is reasonable to expect that this figure will approach the
$34,000,000 mark, as against $32,182,915 in 1916.
Live Stock.—With the exception of those of dairy cattle, prices have averaged 10.7 per cent,
for horses, 14 per cent, for beef cattle, 15 per cent, for sheep, and 10 per cent, for swine, higher
than 1916. The total value of the year's production of live stock is estimated to be $8,632,137,
or 0.8 per cent, less than 1916.
Meats.—The quantity of British Columbia beef marketed in 1917 was 10 per cent, greater
than 1916, and that of pork 34.5 per cent, greater. Mutton shows a reduction of 5 per cent.
The total value of all meats marketed is estimated as 26.2 per cent, greater.
Poultry and Eggs.—These both show a production during the year of 10 per cent, less than
1916, but 2.7 per cent, greater in value.
Dairy Products.—Production in quantities is estimated to be about the same as in the
previous year, but in value 15.7 per cent, greater.
Fruits.—Whilst conditions were unfavourable to normal maturity in size, particularly of
apples, thus reducing total production from early estimates, yet it is estimated that the total
quantity of all fruits was about 5 per cent, greater than 1916. Reports from the Okanagan
District show marked increases in shipments. Prices throughout the Province have averaged
about 18 per cent, more than 1916.
Potatoes.—In showing an increased production in this crop, it is necessary to point out that
only commercial areas were included in the 1916 estimate, whilst in 1917 city-garden and other
small plots were included, thus showing the total to be 18.2 per cent, greater in quantity than
the previous year, and 7.7 per cent, greater in value.
Fodders.—These crops show increases in both quantity and value, being 6.7 and 16.8 per
cent, respectively.
Grains.—These important crops probably suffered most from unfavourable growing conditions, the spring being backward and drought during the period of maturity being excessive.
Total quantities were reduced 20.2 per cent, below the previous year. Prices were such, however,
that the total value is estimated to be only 3.4 per cent, below 1916.    It is interesting to note 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 99
that the quantity of grains produced  (in terms of bushels) in this Province in 1917 shows a
decrease of over 45 per cent, since 1915.
Honey.—Reports at hand indicate that the crop of honey will be 33.3 per cent, more than
1916, and values 40.4 per cent, greater.
Hops.—The greater relative reduction occurring in any one crop was in hops, this being
76.2 per cent, below 1916. This was due to the removal of a large percentage of the area. The
total value was 48.3 per cent. less.
Respectfully submitted.
F. D. Todd.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report on the work conducted In the above districts during
the year 1917.
Owing to wretched weather it was not until April 18th that your Inspector was able to
start on his seventh season's service as a Bee Inspector for the Province. On arriving in
Vancouver and getting into work in the field, it was very soon learned, as was expected, that
the winter had been a very trying one, and that about 40 per cent, of the colonies in the district
had died during the winter. In most winters in British Columbia, bees do well without any
protection, the result being that the majority of bee-keepers are willing to take a chance, with
direful results as a consequence in the severe ones. However, the beginners in bee-culture as a
whole are now handling their bees on the principle of safety first.
Until the end of June activities were confined chiefly to the region extending from New
Westminster to the mouth of the Fraser River, in which there are about 450 bee-keepers. Early
in July a series of demonstration meetings was started along the north bank of the Fraser, then
up the west coast, across to Comox, and southward on A'ancouver Island to Nanaimo. In tbe
first week of August lectures were given on bees and demonstrations to the school teachers in
the summer school at Victoria. The rest of the month demonstrations were given between
Chilliwack and Vancouver, on the south bank of the Fraser.
In the beginning of September a new outbreak of American foul-brood was discovered in
the River Road district of Burnaby, traceable to a hive brought from South Arancouver in 1912
or 1913. About the same time there appeared the first case of European foul-brood in the Lower
Fraser region. This outbreak was probably due to the affected honey attached to the woodwork
of a honey section from Idaho, on which the bee-keeper found his bees busy early in the season.
The user, after cutting out the honey, had flung the woodwork out-of-doors. As far as could be
judged, this was an illustration of the way in which practically all our outbreaks of foul-brood
originate. British Columbia in 1917 has become practically self-supporting so far as extracted
honey is concerned; in another year she will probably be entirely so, after which the chance of
new infection will be confined to imported section-honey. As the demand for section-honey is
rapidly lessening every year, the present prospect is that bee-keepers will soon confine themselves
to the production of extracted honey, thereby minimizing the chance of the introduction of foul-
brood to our Province.
Your Inspector is glad to report that the outbreak of foul-brood discovered in his district
in 1914 is now well in hand. Five municipalities—Arancouver, Point Grey, Coquitlam, Chilliwack,
and Nanaimo—in which it had a footing are apparently clear. It still lingers a little in South
Vancouver, and has appeared in Burnaby. N 100 *   Department of Agriculture. 1918
In 1917 the honey-crop in your Inspector's districts was by far the largest in its history.
Once acquainted with apicultural conditions In the Province, an endeavour was made in 1913
to estimate our crop in 1910, the year before the Bee Inspectors began this work. Twenty tons
was the highest total which could be arrived at. The 1917 crop is indicated to be 160 tons, an
increase of 700 per cent, in seven years.    The Coast region apparently produced 120 tons.
The outlook for 1918 is very encouraging. The winter stores are excellent, the hives are
filled with young bees, and the Province has a fine band of enthusiastic new bee-keepers whose
heart is in their work, so with a favourable season it would not be surprising if the crop of 191S
nearly doubled that of 1917. With sugar conditions as they are, this result is devoutly to be
wished for.
Respectfully submitted.
F. Dundas Todd,
Foul-brood Inspector.
L. Harris.
W. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my annual report of bee-inspection work in the Okanagan
and Thompson River Districts for the year 1917.
The season was the most backward experienced during the ten years your Inspector has
lived in the Okanagan District.
The result of the late, cold, and backward spring had a very injurious effect on the bees
generally, in that they were unable to breed as early and continuously as in an average season.
As a consequence, a great many colonies that survived the actual winter dwindled away from
lack of young bees to take the place of the old ones that died, the result being that the losses
for the winter of 1916-17 were above the average, being about 45 per cent. In a few cases where
the owners took the precaution to re-queen in late summer, the results were very different and
most satisfactory.
Following the late spring, and the bees generally in a backward condition, they were not
ready to take advantage of the honey-flow season, which both came and ended suddenly, including not more than ten days as far as storing surplus goes, the result being that in this district
the honey-crop was not an average one.
In the Thompson and Fraser River Districts better conditions prevailed, and in some cases
quite a satisfactory crop was secured.
There appears to be a distinct improvement in the foul-brood situation, eight colonies only
having been found diseased throughout the district.
Several displays of honey and bee products were staged at the different fall fairs, which
proved an agreeable attraction, especially at the Vancouver Exhibition, where the bee-keepers
of the Province met together in competition for valuable prizes.
On Friday during the exhibition week the bee-keepers met in convention, and the different
problems of the bee-keeper were freely discussed. It was thought desirable that the whole of
the Province should form itself into one organization, with central headquarters at A'ancouver.
It was proposed to divide the Province into four districts, as follows: No. 1, A'ancouver
Island; No. 2, Coast; No. 3, Okanagan; No. 4, Kootenay; with an executive for each district.
This body was to consist of one delegate for every ten members, and to be elected by the members 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. JS 101
of each district; each district to be entitled to send two delegates to the central organization,
to represent their respective district for general and special business. How this will work
remains to be seen.
Respectfully submitted.
L. Harris,
Foul-brood Inspector.
AV. J. Sheppard.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report on the above work for 1917.
The past season, although not quite equal to that of 1916, was a successful one for the beekeepers in this territory, there having been a good yield of excellent honey, quite up to the usual
standard. The exceptionally dry summer had the effect of considerably curtailing the period
of honey-gathering by the bees, as, owing to the prolonged drought, the clovers and other nectar-
secreting flowers did not remain in bloom as long as usual.
Winter Loss.
The losses during the winter of 1916-17 here averaged about 25 per cent., and in many
instances were caused by honey-dew stored by the bees in the brood-combs during tbe preceding
fall. In 1917 honey-dew seems to have been almost entirely absent. The bee-keepers have not
worried much over their winter losses, as they have been able to ship in bees in 2-lb. packages
from California at a cost delivered of about $4 per lot. These little colonies have done remarkably well, 100 lb. and upwards of honey having been secured from many of them, thus paying
for their cost several times over.
Your Inspector gave demonstrations in bee-keeping to the following AVomen's Institutes, in
accordance with your directions: Willow Point, Greenwood, Creston, Nakusp, Arrow Park,
Crawford Bay, and Rock Creek, and also to the Robson Farmers' and Junior Farmers' Institutes.
Nearly all these meetings were well attended and much interest was shown by those present.
Demonstrations were given at apiaries visited in the use and construction of a simple form
of hive^case which appears to be well adapted for both summer and winter conditions in this
territory. Its use will no doubt tend to reduce winter losses and help to keep swarming in
check, thus increasing the honey yield.
Experiments have been carried out in your Inspector's personal apiary In Nelson in new
methods for swarm-control, the production of sections, etc., the results of which promise to be
of value to the bee-keepers in this territory.
Bees in OrcHh-vrds.
The fruit-growers are realizing the importance of keeping bees in their orchards. The short
fruit-crop this past season has been attributed by many to the almost total absence of wild bees
and other pollinating insects during the blooming period, caused no doubt by the late cold spring,
which is generally fatal to wild-insect life.
Honey Sources.
White clover continues to spread in this territory, especially where cattle are allowed to
range, and farmers are growing more alsike. Some of the bee-keepers who hare land available
are trying sweet clover (Melilotus alba), which not only yields honey in quantity, but has been
found to be a good forage-plant that will withstand drought and improve the soil. One or two
are also experimenting with sainfoin, which is a good honey-plant. N 102 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Foul-brood was found in two apiaries—viz., at Kaslo and Nelson—and the colonies affected
were destroyed.
Respectfully submitted.
AV. J. Sheppahd,
Foul-brood Inspector.
Mrs. M. S. Davies.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Superintendent of Institutes, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report on the work of the AA'omen's Institutes
for the year 1917.
During the year one institute was organized at Okanagan Centre and Woods Lake, Okanagan
Valley, making a total of fifty-nine institutes now in active work, with a membership of nearly
The membership reported for 1917 is a little less than in 1916. In many sections members
have moved away, and others have become absorbed in patriotic societies.
These have been held by thirty-nine institutes. The prize-lists were comprehensive, in many-
oases including early vegetables. The quality%f exhibits was excellent. Many institutes have
a department for needlework and one for cooking. More attention should be given tow7ards
interesting children in gardening and taking part in these exhibitions.
The Department assisted each show with a per capita grant of 25 cents and five book prizes.
Forty-five institutes carefully prepared their yearly programmes, the majority having these
printed for distribution, while others economized—having typewritten or written copies for
members.   The topics show a wider range of study than formerly.
During the year conferences were held in the four institute districts, as follows : Okanagan,
at Vernon, September 18th to 20th ; Kootenay, at Cranbrook, September 25th to 27th; Arancouver
Island, at Duncan, October 3rd to Sth;  Lower Mainland, at Mission City, October 11th and 12th.
The delegates greatly appreciated the presence of our Superintendent of Institutes at the
first three of these conferences. Professor Davidson, of the University of British Columbia, gave
splendid addresses on " The Wild Flowers of British Columbia," and Mrs. Chalmers gave helpful
talks on " Food Conservation " ; these two speakers illustrated their lectures with lantern-slides.
At the two Coast conferences Dr. Young, Secretary of the Provincial Board of Health, added
much to the general help given by his address on " Public Health."
The earnest discussion on every paper showed the interest taken by the women in all matters
dealt with. A large number of resolutions were brought up, many of which were adopted and
forwarded to the different departments for consideration.
During the winter of 1916 and spring of 1917, Mrs. J. S. Chalmers, of Thrums, visited each
of the institutes, giving a two-day course of lectures on vegetable-gardening; live stock on the
farm ; values of silos ; home canning, etc. Judging from enthusiastic reports from the institutes,
these lectures were very helpful and much appreciated.
Fifteen of the institutes have School Committees. These committees, by permission of the
trustees, visit schools regularly and co-operate with teachers toward improving sanitary and 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 103
other conditions of local schools. This helps to bring teachers, trustees, and parents into helpful
relationship. The matter of Parent-Teacher Associations was discussed at two of the conferences. Reports show that twenty-one Women's Institute members are working on School Boards.
The Kalamalka Women's Institute instituted a Scholarship Fund to assist some student each
year who, if successful in the entrance examinations, wishes to prepare for college. The scholarship of $100 was won this year by Miss AVinnifred Brown, of Oyama.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
These have not been generally formed, only sixteen being reported from three Women's
Institute districts.    Only one Poultry Club has been reported.
Patriotic Work.
This has been the principal work undertaken in 1917. The institutes raised the splendid
sum of $16,824.07 for this purpose, as reported for the conference year. Many have been the
special calls upon Women's Institute funds for needed help, and none have been refused.
Military hospitals have been assisted; the Agricultural. Relief of the Allies Fund has been
generously helped; the Military Y.M.O.A. has perhaps received the greatest contributions, with
the exception of the Red Cross, to which $6,490.39 was given, and $2,371.19 to Y.M.C.A.
Among articles made and sent overseas the following have been reported: 6,404 pairs of
socks; 2,560 suits of pyjamas; 1,977 shirts; or a total of over 21,000 articles from the institutes.
Only two numbers of the " Quarterly Bulletin " were published in 1917, the cost proving
greater than expected. A number of pages are given each month to Women's Institute work
in the Agricultural Journal, thus making AVomen's Institute news up-to-date, and also making it
possible for a greater number of other helpful papers being printed.
Advisory Board.
Owing to the retirement of Miss Ravenhill in January, another member had to be appointed
to represent the Island institutes, and Mrs. Blackwood-Wileman, of Duncan, took her place.
The resignations of Mrs. Lipsett, of the Okanagan institutes, and Mrs. Davies, of the Lower
Mainland institutes, to take place at the close of the year, was laid before the Superintendent
of Institutes in the early fall.
The following statement relating to AVomen's Institutes for the conference year may be
Junior members  	
Total receipts	
B^or patriotic purposes
Red Cross  	
Prisoners of war	
The institute-work has steadily grown in interest and efficiency. The members expect by
the study of Canadian civics, that many are planning to take up during the coming year, to fit
themselves for greater efficiency. Another feature of recent date is the food-conservation pledge
cards, and the distribution of these, also the study of food-conservation problems, promises
earnest work and planning.
Respectfully submitted.
Mrs. M. S. Davies,
Secretary, Advisory Board. H 101
Department of Agriculture.
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©q IC
co eo j]
-fl   '-"-
§ r*^  :
Lh   t"-   "H^   *H^   ^    r—1
g ■* X 00 Ol Cl
fe    s           *-
£     fc
S                 <
S     fa
*i-**o*COt-       XCIO
,-i*.ij*r]i*fl*3NaiC)OH(N*M'tiOCDNCOOOHMn*i,iOCON N 106
Department of Agriculture.
CH   eg
r-l CM     •
1-1 ■""■
5 S
co eo   o   itseo
CO i—i CO t-1        rHiOCOi—ICOl—IrHrH
n - - -
CO    ■    ■    '.    '■    '    -    ■
5-10 .
'£- > 'Si gL o i
&« Kg-Si rt a
r-Hffl^*-q gpu.* - -
On  O   J^f-  O
*■»_.*■ 0   .   •   . c
09 g CO ■-? W *-s OP
- fl fl iu fl
C   W ta.   <D
rir.   (V,   E   ftj
s o  _ o
.a a
^  fci.
Es 9
— *5 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 107
Amount of Feuit and Vegetables received at Vancouver during 1917.
Apples     boxes
Apricots     crates
Blackberries     crates
Cherries     lb.
Crab-apples     boxes
Currants     crates
Gooseberries     crates
Peaches     boxes
Pears     boxes
Plums and prunes    crates
Raspberries     crates
Strawberries     crates
Loganberries   •  crates
Asparagus     boxes
Lettuce     crates
Mixed vegetables     tons
Onions      tons
Peppers    •  boxes
Potatoes     tons
Rhubarb     boxes
Tomatoes     boxes
Cantaloupes      crates
Egg-plant    boxes
Nectarines     boxes
Stocks of Fruits and Vegetables on hand in the City of Vancouver.
Potatoes, B.C	
14,600 N 108
Department of Agriculture.
Statement relating to Southern Okanagan Fruit and Vegetable Experiment Station.
Receipts and Expenses, Season of 1917.
Plants sold ...
Cucumbers   ...
Sweet peppers
Cantaloupe   ...
% 67 10
3,728 30
1.61 00
820 00
829 80
123 35
— $5,729 55
Red currants
Black currants   ..
Black raspberries
Sweet cherries ...
Apples  (net)   . .. .
$ 153 45
19 80
23 30
9 90
36 00
33 40
6 25
9 25
249 45
924 75
Hired labour   $1,073 50
Land and water taxes	
Boxes, nails, and paper	
Horse-feed bought 	
Manure and fertilizer  	
Stationery,    postage,    telegraphing,
smithy, and incidental expenses..
128 50
70 20
$1,465 55
$7,195 10
Balance, being profit
$2,237 85
4,957 25
$7,195 10 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 109
Chilliwack Cow-testing Association.
Name of Cow and Breed.
Two Years old.
Mabel, Gr. J	
Cherry, Gr. J	
Three Years old and over.
Fox 7, Reg. G	
A. E. Dumvill  	
S. W. Keith	
M. Clarkson  	
A. E. Dumvill  	
G. T. Richards
Langley-Surrey Cow-testing Association.
Two Years old.
Dinah, Gr. Ayr	
Fortune, Gr. Ayr  	
White, Gr. S	
Three Years old and over,
Lily,  Gr. H	
No. 8, Gr. H	
Ruby, Gr. J	
Shannon Bros.
Shannon Bros.
Haggerty Bros.
Alex. Hastie ..
L. H. Delesalle
B. A. Harrison
Cloverdale .
Cloverdale .
Clayburn ..
Matsqui . . ,
Langley   . . .
Delta Cow-testing Association.
Two Years old.
Belle, Gr. H	
Perfection, Gr. H	
Blanch, Gr. H	
Three Years old and over.
Lady Bountiful, Gr. S. . .
Dairy Maid, Gr. H	
Cherry, Gr. J	
Alex. Davie .. .
Alex. Davie . . ,
Alex. Davie  . . ,
A. D. Paterson
E..B. Nobles .
E. B. Ladner  .
Comox Valley Cow-testing Association.
Two Years old.
Nancy, Gr. Ayr 	
Annie, Gr. J	
Tiny, Gr. J	
Three Years old and over.
Boss, Gr. J	
Rose, Gr. J	
Tiny, Gr. I	
G. O. Game
H.  Gurney
H.  Gurney
W. T. Wain & Son.
W. T. Wain & Son.
R. V. Hurford	
Comox . .
435.6 N 110
Department op Agriculture.
Showing Records of Individual Cows, British Columbia.
Madam Posch Pauline, No. 10291, C.H.F.H.B.
S0%  Fat.
7-day  record
30-day record
60-day  record
90-day record
120-day record
240-daj7  record
365-day record
Note.—This  record was finished about August  1st,   1917,  and  up to  that  time   is  tile  largest  official
milk  record yet reported in  Canada,  and tbe  second largest butter record.
Zarilda Clothilde Srd De Kol, No. 11,887, C.H.F.H.B.
80%   Fat.
7-day record
30-day record
60-day record
90-day record
120-day record
240-day record
365-day record
Y. M. D.
6 10 12
6 10 12
6 10 12
6 10 12
6 10 12
6 10 12
6 10 12
Note.—This record was finished in November, 1917, and thus establishes a new strictly official world's
record for milk production. The Canadian record for butter-fat production is still held1 by the British
Columbia  cow   " Lady  Pietje  Canary's  Jewel,"   No.   17311. 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 111
List of Creameries in British Columbia.
Secretary or
P.O.  Address.
Burns, P., & Co., Ltd	
Chilliwack Creamery Association, Ltd	
Comox Creamery Association, Ltd	
Cowichan Creamery Association, Ltd	
Cranbrook Butter Co., Ltd	
Curlew Creamery Co	
Heffley Creamery   	
Kamloops District Creamery Association  	
Kelowna  Creamery Co.,  Ltd	
Meadowbrook Creamery Co	
Nanaimo  Creamery Association, Ltd	
Curlew Creamery Co., Ltd	
New Westminster Creamery Co., Ltd	
Northwestern Creamery, Ltd	
Northern Okanagan Creamery Association, Ltd.
Oxford Dairy Co., Ltd	
Revelstoke Creamery Co., Ltd	
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association  ....
Royal Dairy Co	
Royal Dairy Co	
Saltspring Island Creamery Association, Ltd.   .
Salmon Arm Creamery Association, Ltd	
Spencer,  David,  Ltd	
Standard Milk Co., Ltd	
Turner's Dairy,  Ltd	
Vancouver Creamery Co., Ltd	
Clayburn Creamery 	
B.C. Milk Condensing Co., Ltd	
Courtenay Milk Condensing Co., Ltd	
Pacific Milk Products Co	
M. R. Silver	
W. K. MacLeod. .
R.  FJ.  Hurford.. .
W. Paterson 	
H.   A.   Ammerman
Ira Carter   .....'.
T. Bunting  	
J.  A.   Magar   ....
W. G. Benson  . ..
A. P. Slade  	
Jos.  Randle   	
I. Carter	
D. E. Mackenzie. .
Norton  &  Snelling
A. E. Sage  	
J.  Burmeister   . . .
H.   McKinnon   . ..
E. G.  Sherwood.. .
C. W. McAllister..
A. A. Young	
F. L. Wheeler . ..
R.   Karnagel   ....
W.  S. Smith   ....
E. W.  Clark   ....
F. Turner	
J.   M.   Livingstone
H. Hanson  	
L. Chevalley ....
E. G. Emery ....
Bert  W.   Keatings
Woodland Drive, Vancouver.
Grand Forks.
Heffley Creek.
199 Water Street, Vancouver.
New Westminster.
New Westminster.
1327 Standard Bank Building, Vancouver.
Douglas Street, Victoria.
1001 Pender Street West,
Ganges Harbour, Saltspring
Salmon Arm.
Cordova Street West, Vancouver.
405 Eighth Avenue West,
Seventeenth Avenue and Ontario Street, Vancouver.
15 Alexander Street, Vancouver.
Number of creameries   27
Number of patrons   1,550
Number of visits to creameries   49-
Number of creameries using pasteurizer   5
Average per cent, of fat in cream    27-30
Average per cent, of moisture in butter   15
Average amount of salt per pound of butter   % oz.
Number of creameries using Babcock test .,. . . 27
Number of creameries using cream-scales (metric)     26
Number of creameries testing each delivery of cream separately  10
Number of creameries using composite samples  17
Number of creameries having mechanical refrigeration  12
Average temperature of storages 45° Fahr.
Number of creameries having poor water-supply   2
Number of creameries having poor system of sewage-disposal  1
Expenditure, new creameries and general improvements   $16,700 N 112 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Written Examination for Tester's Licence, " Dairies Regulation Act."
1. Give briefly directions for testing milk with a Babcock tester  15
2. What are the various uses of the Babcock test?  10
3. Upon what principle is the Babcock test founded?    Explain briefly.... 10
4. How7 much milk by weight is supposed to be placed in the Babcock test-
bottle, and why do we use a 17.6-c.c. pipette for that purpose?     10
5. Name four important requirements for accurate testing of milk and
cream        5
6. What are the principal points to be considered in taking and keeping
samples for composite tests?       10
7. (a.)  Upon what factors is the quantity of preservative used in com
posite tests dependent ?        5
(6.)  In case of trouble with mould growing on the walls of composite
test-bottles, give remedy       5
8. (a.) When the milk sample is sour and contains lumps of curd, bow
should it be treated before testing?        5
(6.)  How7 should composite samples of milk and cream be prepared for
the test ?        5
9. (a.) Explain briefly why cream for testing should be weighed into the
test-bottle rather than measured by pipette  5
(6.)  What precaution should be observed in the weighing of the cream? 5
(c.) What is the correct weight for testing cream?   5
10. (a.)  What action has sulphuric acid on milk?   5
(8.)  At wiiat specific gravity and how much acid should be used?  5
(c.) At what temperature should milk and acid be before mixing?  5
11. (a.)  What is the required speed in revolutions per minute of a tester
whose diameter is 18 inches?       5
(b.) Plow is the speed of a turbine tester ascertained?        5
12. (a.) Wbat is the proper temperature of the water to be added to the
test-bottles while making the test?        5
(b.) Plow many minutes should the bottle be whirled in the tester?....      5
13. Draw diagrams of how the test should be read:—
First, for milk         5
Second, for cream         5
14. If foam appears on the surface of the fat column, what is it caused by?
What remedy should be applied?   » 5
15. (a.) What are the causes of dark-coloured or burnt readings?  5
(6.)  What are the causes of light-coloured or cloudy readings?  5
16. At what temperature should the test be read, and how is this tempera
ture best regulated ?         5
17. Find the correct average test of:—
Cow No. 1, 340 lb. milk, testing 4.3 per cent.'
Cow No. 2, 460 lb. milk, testing 4.0 per cent.
Cow No. 3, 760 lb. milk, testing 3.0 per cent.
Cow No. 4, 620 lb. milk, testing 3.5 per cent.
18. What is the composition of average, normal milk?     10
•       Total     180
10 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 113
Sixth International Egg-laying Contest, Victoria, B.C.
Class 1.—Light-weight Varieties (Six Birds to a Pen).
J. O. M. Thackeray, Chilliwack (winner of first prize, $100)
H. Dryden, Corvallis, Oregon (winner of second prize, $50) ..
G. O. Pooley, R.R. 1, Duncan (winner of third prize, $25) ...
Graves   &   McCulloch,   Saturna   Island    (winner   of   fourth
prize, $10)
P. D.  Hillis, Rocky Point   (winner of fifth prize,  Canadian
Poultry Review bronze medal)
Norie Bros., Cowichan  (winner of sixth prize, bronze medal,
given by H. D. Reid)
J. L.  Smith,  Shawnigan Lake  	
W. McEwan, R.M.D. 1, Duncan  	
Mr. and Mrs. R. W. Chalmers, Thrums  	
W.  Bradley. Maywood   	
M. H. Ruttledge, R.R. 2, Sardis  	
Madrona Farms, R.R. 4, Victoria  	
F. E." Pullen, Whonnock  	
D. Edwards, Somenos 	
F. Hoey, R.M.D. 1, Duncan  	
L. M. Ross, Cowichan   	
H. A. Hincks, Langford Station 	
A. V. Lang, R.R. 3, Victoria 	
C. G. Golding, Qualicum  	
Mrs. F. C. Kenward, Invermere 	
H. Colbourn, Forty-ninth Avenue W., Vancouver	
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
White Leghorns
Black Minorcas
Class 2.—Heavy Weights (Six Birds io a Pen).
Messrs. Dean Bros., Keatings (winner of first prize, $100) ...
E. D. Read, Duncan  (winner of second prize, $50)	
F. W. Frederick, Phoenix  (winner of third prize, $25)	
G. D. Adams, Box 840, Victoria  (winner of fourth prize, $10)
V. T. Price, Dublin, Ireland  (winner of fifth prize, Canadian
Poultry Review bronze medal)
P. iS. Lampman, York Place, Oak Bay (winner of sixth prize,
•bronze medal, given by H. D. Reid)
S. S. F. Blackman, R.M.D., Sidney  	
Norfolk Farms, St. Williams, Ont	
F. G. Barr, Colquitz 	
A. W. Cooke, Kelowna   	
W. H. Mahon, Duncan 	
Regan Bros., Seventy-eighth Avenue, Edmonton, Alta	
W. H. Catterall, Mount Tolmie 	
J. P. Wood, R.R. 1, Cowichan Bay 	
R. N. Gierke, Vernon  	
W. H. Willins, Stannard Avenue, Victoria  	
D. Gibbard, Mission   	
A. L. Lowe, Lake Hill P,0	
,1. P. Bloore, Chilliwack  	
White  Wyandottes..
White Wyandottes..
R.I. Whites	
White Wyandottes..
S.C.  Reds   	
S.C.  Reds   	
S.C.  Reds   	
Barred Rocks   	
White  Wyandotte's..
Buff O'rpingtons   . ..
White Wyandottes..
Buff Orpingtons  . ..
White Wvandottes..
S.C.  Reds   	
R.C. Reds   	
R.C. Reds   	
Barred Rocks  	
S.C.  Reds   	
White Wyandottes..
Special-prize winners:   Best winter-egg yield, Class 1, J. Thackeray, Chilliwack;   Class 2,
G. Adams, Victoria;  both winners of silver medals donated by J. Idiens & Son, Victoria.
Winners of Poultry, Pigeons, and Pet Stock Journal silver medals to pens laying most eggs
during three concluding months:   Class 1, Pen 10;   Class 2, Pen 34.
9 N 114 Department of Agriculture. 1918
Summary** of Results, Sixth International Egg-laying Contest, Victoria, B.C.
Duration of contest (months)    12
Number of pens   40
Number of birds    240
Number of eggs laid  38,360
Value of eggs laid    $1,310.63
Average monthly revenue  $109.21
Cost of feeding  $611.05
Average monthly feed cost  $50.92
Profit over cost of feeding   $699.58
Average price of eggs per dozen  .41
Highest price received per dozen (October 9th)     .60
Lowest price received per dozen (March 12th)     .30
Average cost to produce dozen eggs   .19.1
Average number of eggs laid per pen  959
Average number of eggs laid per bird   159.8
Average cost of food per pen (six birds)     $15.27
Average cost of food per bird  $2.54
Profit over cost of feed per pen   $17.48
Profit over cost of feed per bird   $2.91
Eggs laid by winning pen, Class 1   1,193
Average per bird winning pen, Class 1   198.8
Eggs laid by winning pen, Class 2   1,183
Average per bird winning pen, Class 2   198
Comparison between Fourth Contest (12 Months), 1914-15, and Sixth (12 Months), 1916-17
(240 Birds in each Contest).
Fourth Contest.     Sixth Contest.
Number of eggs laid     39,757 38,360
Cost of feed    $527.38 $611.05
Profit over cost of feed     $549.37 . $699.58
Average price of eggs            .32.5 .41
Cost to produce dozen eggs        15.9 19.1 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 115
Poultry Associations in British Columbia, 1917.
Arrow Lakes   	
Central Park  	
Cobble  Hill   	
Grand Forks	
Maple Ridge 	
Mission City	
New Denver	
Northern  Okanagan
North  Vancouver   ..
Point Grey   	
Saltspring Island
Summerland   ....
West  Kootenay   .
T.  Sellers   	
G. H. T. Edwards
J. A. Thurston ..
A. H. Turvey .. .
Mrs. McMillan ...
L. F. Solly  	
E. T. 'Cooper  	
R.  Jones   	
L. F. Mitchell .. .
T.  Bowen   	
W.   Brennan
A.  Notley   ..
H. A. Hincks  	
A. H.  Anderson   . . .
Rev.  C. McDiarmid
J.   Isherwood   	
B. Parkinson   	
H. A. Allison  	
W. W. McGregor  . .
J. F. Reason
Mrs. Barnes   	
W. Stanhope
F. Bourne   	
Rev.  G.  Dean   . ..
J.  Tait   	
.1. A.  Wadsworth
H.  E.  Waby   	
D.   Nicol   	
R.   Wilson   	
G. Horstead   	
Central Park.
Cobble Hill.
West Fernie.
Grand Forks.
Langf ord Station.
Port Hammond.
Mission City.
New Denver.
230 Twenty-eighth Street,
North Vancouver.
Ganges Harbour.
Bank Street, Victoria.
Nelson. N 116
Department of Agriculture.
Fertilizer Tests with Potatoes.
Manure,  20
Tons ;  Lime,
1%  Tons per
H    .
Ol u
r*~- O
o .
CN *r
M *» cj
Sodium   Nitrate,
10*0  Lb.;
Superphosphate of Lime,
300 Lb. pei-
■3 ■
O 0
Marketable ..
Marketable  ..
Marketable ..
Marketable . .
Marketable ..
Marketable ..
Marketable   . .
Early St. George
Early St.  George
Carmen No. 1. . .
Carmen No. 1. ..
Netted- Gem  ....
Netted Gem ....
S.973   ■
Statement showing Average Yields and Highest, Lowest, and Average Costs in Crop
Competitions, 1917.
No. of
Yield per
Yield per
Yield per
Cost per
Ton  in
Cost per
Ton on
Cost per
Ton on
Potatoes  (Field-crop
Potatoes   (Boys'   and
Girls' Competitions)
$29 33
24 30
36 80
56 34
15 75
$ 6 98
6 18
27 20
15 10
6 00
$12 90
15 88
32 00
33 07
9 57
3 78
Note.—It must be remembered that above reports were submitted by those winning prizes in the
various districts. The crops on which reports were submitted were, therefore, above the average of the
district, and the cost per ton determined on such cro ps will be below tbe cost to the average farmer. This
table shows that the cost of growing and delivering at shipping-point of crops averaging 8.12 tons per
acre was $137.22. Basing the above charges on a 5.8-ton crop (the average Provincial yield), we find
that the cost to grow an average acre of potatoes in British Columbia in 1917 would be $127.14, or
$22.70 per ton. 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 117
Tuberculin Tests.
, ,
• •
Denman Island   .
Cobble  Hill   	
Galiano Island .
Pender Island   ..
Point Grey  	
North Vancouver
Lulu Island   ....
Pitt Meadows   . .
Prince Rupert ..
Bowen Island . .
Roberts Creek ...
Barnston  Island
Campbell River  .
Grand Forks   . ..
Grande Prairie   .
Okanagan Landin,
Okanagan Centre
Queen's Bay ....
Rick Island	
Summerland  ....
14 N 118
Department of Agriculture.
hLPPENDIX No. Id—Concluded,
Tuberculin Tests—Concluded.
Silos built in British Columbia, 1917.
Agur, R. V	
Calhoun, H.
Carlin, J. C.
Carlin, J. A.
Davie, A	
Dawson,  Rev. L.
Dean  Bros	
Gainer, R. H.   . .
Green, C. R.   . ..
Hall,  C.   S	
Lowe,  W.  H.
McGuire,   J.   D.
McLean, H	
Nelson,  N	
Oldfield & Son   .
Pemberton, F. B.
Piercy,  H	
Robson, J. M.  . .
Spetch, S. W.
Thulin,  F	
Townsend', F. W.
Troup,  H.  D.
Mount Olie	
Salmon Valley	
Cobble Hill  (two)   .
Salmon Arm   	
Saltspring Island...
Elk Lake  	
Denman Island ....
South Vancouver ..
Pemberton  Meadows
Mount Tolmie  	
Gabriola  Island   . ..
14 x 32%
12 x 30
12 x 28
11 x 32
Silos eilled in British Columbia, 1917.
Size.             Capacity.           Crops Used.
Bekker    B    . .
14 x 32%
10 x 20
Calhoun  H
Carlin, J. C	
Green, C. R	
Heddle, M	
Lowe. W. H	
Oats and vetch.
Cobble Hill (two)   	
Willow Point	
Macdonald. J. D	
Corn and alfalfa.
Alfalfa. 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 119
APPENDIX No. 17—Concluded.
Silos built and filled, 1916 and 1917.
Temporary Staff Appointments.
Nature of Appointment. No.
Advisory Board of Women's Institutes, Secretary   1
Agriculturists  (District)    3
Assistant Horticulturist    1
Demonstration Plots     8
Egg-laying Contest  1
Carpenter   1
Clerical   5
Cow-testers    7
Foremen at Dry Farms   2
Farm Superintendent   1
Assistant, Fruit Pests    2
Brand    2
District Fruit (with Assistants)     26
Foul-brood   3
Imported Fruits at Ports of Entry   17
Potatoes   1
Judges (fall fairs)   ,  17
Lecturers    1
Markets Commissioner    1
Milk-testers   2
Plant Pathologist (rAssistant)    1
Publications Branch   (Editor)     2
Soil and Crop Instructor    1
Silo Demonstrator  1
Veterinary Inspectors  2
Total   100 N 120
Department of Agriculture.
Total Correspondence received and dispatched by the Department of Agriculture for the
Years ending December 31st, 1916, and 1917.
Deputy Minister's Office—
Farmers' Institutes  	
Women's Institutes  	
Agricultural Associations  	
Publications Branch  	
Re Bulletins  	
Horticultural Branch—
British Columbia Fruit-Growers' Association
Inspection of Fruit Branch 	
Live Stock Branch—
Dairy Division  	
Poultry  Division   	
Soil and Crop Division 	
21.856 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 121
New   Bulletins,
Circulars,   and   Miscellaneous   Publications
Agriculture in 1917.
issued   by   Department   of
No. issued.
Poultry-breeders' Directory.
Programme, Stock-breeders' Convention.
Programme,  Farmers'  Institute meetings.
Bull. 75
Boys' and Girls' Crop Competitions.
Cir.    14
Community Breeding.
Agricultural Journal, March.
List of Publications.
Notice to Nurserymen.
Circular, Disinfecting Seed-potatoes.
Cir.    15
Crop and Live Stock Report, 1916.
Additional, Disinfecting Seed-potatoes.
Bull. 75
Boys' and Girls' Crop Competitions.
Additional, Disinfecting Seed-potatoes.
Agricultural Journal, April.
Circular re Alfalfa and Clover Seed Produce.
Circular re Mosquito-control.
Agricultural Journal, May.
Cir. Bull. 20
Chicken-pox in Poultry.
Instructions re " Noxious AVeeds Act."
Programme, Dairy Convention.
Twenty-seventh Annual Report, British Columbia
Fruit-growers' Association.
Bull. 76
Agricultural Statistics, 1916.
Agricultural Journal, June.
Agricultural Journal, July.
Cir. 15
British Columbia Farmer and his Silo.
Agricultural Journal, August.
List of Publications.
b                    ...
Agricultural Journal,  September.
Circular on Statistics.
Rules, Seventh Egg-laying Contest.
Leaflets, Songs for Women's Institute Conferences.
Programme, Women's Institute Conferences.
Programme, Women's Institute Conferences.
Programme, Women's Institute Conferences.
Rules, " Dairies Regulation Act."
Supplement to Brand Book.
Reply Post-cards for Honey Reports.
Cir. 17
Crop Report for September.
Journal for October.
.  . *
Leaflets, Agricultural Relief of the Allies.
Programmes, Armstrong.
Programmes, New Westminster
Cir. 18
Crop Situation in British Columbia.
Agricultural Journal, November.
Diaries re Cost of Producing Farm Crops.
Agricultural Journal, December.
Annual Report of Department, 1916.
88,400 H 122
Department of Agriculture.
Bulletins and Circulars sent out during the Year 1917.
No. 26.
Practical Poultry-raising  	
Fruit-growing Possibilities on Skeena River ....
Natural and Artificial Incubating and Breeding .
Irrigation in British Columbia 	
Exhibiting Fruits and Vegetables  	
Market Poultry 	
British Columbia Women's Handbook  	
Care and Marketing of Eggs 	
Farm Storages for Fruits and Vegetables*	
Agricultural Statistics for the year 1913	
Hog-raising in British Columbia  	
Poultry-house Construction  	
Angora and Milch Goats  	
Agricultural Statistics of British Columbia, 1914
Silos and Silage  	
Feeding and Management of Dairy Cattle	
Diseases and Pests of Cultivated Plants 	
Field-crop Competitions, 1916 	
Boys' and Girls' Field-crop Competitions  	
Butter-making on the Farm  	
Milk-testing and Dairy Records 	
Field-crop and Seed Competitions, 1917	
Breeding and Selection of Commercial Poultry ..
Boys' and Girls' Competitions, 1917  	
Agricultural Statistics of British Columbia, 1916
sent out.
Total    36,290
No. sent out.
No. 11. Honey Production in British Columbia, 1916   1,500
•„    12. Seed-growers' Directory     750
,,    13. Instructions re Co-operative Variety Tests   1,200
„    14. Community Breeding    800
„    15. The British Columbia Farmer and his Silo  2,850
Total        7,100 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 123
APPENDIX No. 21—Concluded.
Circular Bulletins.
Thousand-headed Kale   	
Tuberculosis in Poultry  	
Construction of Fresh-air Brooders 	
Management of Turkeys 	
Clover Dodder 	
Seed Improvement  	
Keeping Poultry Free from Lice 	
Corn-growing in British Columbia   	
Care of Milk and Cream 	
Poultry-keeping on a City Lot  	
Management of Geese  	
Root-seed growing	
The Use of Agricultural Lime in British Columbia ..
Profitable Ducks 	
Noxious Weeds, their Identification and Eradication
Poultry Rations and their Practical Application
Chicken-pox in Poultry 	
No. sent out.
. .    1,671
. . 1,306
.. 2,695
. . 1,625
Total    13,351
Horticultural Circulars.
Selection of Orchard Sites and Soils 	
Insects Injurious to Orchards  	
Spray Calendar 	
Fungous Diseases of Orchard and Garden	
Packing Orchard Fruits  	
Sprays and Spraying 	
Progress and Prospects in Fruit and Vegetable Growing	
Orchard Intercrops	
Practical Irrigation  	
Cabbage, Celery, and Tomato Production 	
Planting Plans and Distances  	
Fruit Markets Commissioners' Report 	
Propagation and Selection of Nursery Stock 	
Thinning Fruitntrees   	
The Home Vegetable Garden for Southern Interior Districts.
Methods of Fruit Picking and Handling 	
Fertilizers for Fruits and Vegetables 	
Varieties of Fruit recommended for Commercial Planting ...
Total     10,881
Annual Report, Department of Agriculture, 1915 	
British Columbia Fruit-growers' .Association; Annual Report, 1915.
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association Annual Report. 1916.
Farmers' Institute Annual Report, 1915 	
Women's Institute Annual Report, 1915 	
British Columbia Dairymen's Association Annual Report, 1915
Third International Egg-laying Contest Report 	
Proceedings of the Entomological Society, 1916 	
2,267 N 121
Department of Agriculture.
APPENDIX No. 21—Concluded.
Agricultural Journal  (monthly)  37,800
List of Agricultural Books recommended for Farmers   126
Revised Rules and Regulations, Board of Horticulture   256
Finance in Relation to Women's Citizenship   225
Rules and Regulations, Women's Institutes  540
List of Books and Magazines recommended for Women's Institutes  120
Rules and Regulations for Farmers' Institutes  530
Stock-breeders' Directory   325
Poultry-breeders' Directory  1,500
British Columbia Crop and Live Stock Reports   4,500
Total     45,922
Total Bulletins    36.290
Total Circulars    7.100
Total Circular Bulletins  13,351
Total Horticultural Circulars   10,881
Total Reports    2,267
Total Miscellaneous   45,922
Grand total    115,811
Summary of Appropriations, Department of Agriculture.
1         1915-16.
$72,428 00
50.000 00
$73,496 00
45.000 00
$65,752 00
38,000 00
Administration. General Department vote, travelling
expenses of officers on duty, and miscellaneous
Agricultural Associations—
Agricultural Associations,  including grants  in  aid
50,000 00
30,000 00
20,000 00
of prize-lists, specific grants for buildings, and
judges' expenses
8,000 00
27,500 00
27,500 00
22,500 00
Board    of   Horticulture,    experimental    orchards.
13,250 00
9,750 00
demonstration   spraying,   precooling  and   cold
storage,  and British Columbia Fruit-growers'
Association                                              .
j-  34,250 00
Inspection  of fruit,  fumigation  of nursery  stock,
35,000 00
35,000 00
2,000 00
1,500 00
Live stock—
13,250 00
7,750 00
25,000 00
5,000 00
12,000 00
j-   27,500 00
10,000 00
1    $301,428 00
$251,996 00
$208,002 00 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 125
" Agricultural Instruction Act, 1917-18."
(A.) Instruction and Demonstration.
1. .Agricultural and Horticultural Instructors and District Repre
sentatives   $ 3,500 OO
2. Field-crop demonstatlon stations   5,000 00
3. Dry-farming demonstration stations    3,000 00
4. Horticultural demonstration stations    3,000 00
5. Poultry demonstration stations and egg-laying contests  1,500 00
6. Alfalfa-plots    500 00
7. Silo demonstrations  3,000 00
8. Drainage demonstrations  1,000 00
9. Seed-distribution and co-operative variety tests, seed production,
seed fairs  5,500 00
10. Dairying Cow-testing nAssociations  3,000 00
11. Bee-keeping   2,500 00
12. Field-crop Competitions  2,000 00
13. Boys' and Girls' Clubs   1,000 00
14. Fruit-packing schools and demonstrations    1,000 00
15. Market-work   4,500 00
16. Agricultural Journal, Publications Branch   5,000 00
(B.) Investigation and Research.
17. Pathological and entomological investigation and research   2,000 00
18. Weed investigation and survey   1,500 00
(C.) Elementary Agricultural Education.
19. Agricultural  instruction  in  public,  high,   and  normal   schools,
household science, training of teachers, grants   20,000 00
20. Contingencies and miscellaneous    699 06
Total    $69,199 06
Note.—Cost  of  preparing  and  printing  bulletins and  circulars,  if undertaken, may be  charged the
subdivision to which said publications relate. N 126
Department of .Agriculture.
Provincial Votes, Year ending December 31st, 1917.
No. of Vouchers.
Administration and miscellaneous	
Board of Horticulture  	
Demonstration orchards, etc	
Cold-storage  work   	
Fruit-packing  schools   	
Agricultural Associations  	
British Columbia Dairymen's Association . . .
British Columbia Entomological Society ....
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association
British Columbia Poultry Association  	
British Columbia Stock-breeders' Association
Flockmasters' Association 	
Farmers'  Institutes   	
Women's Institutes   	
Inspection of nursery stock, etc	
Suppression of diseases, etc	
Compensation for T.B. cattle killed	
Travelling expenses, officers  	
British Columbia Bee-keepers' Association ..
British Columbia Goat-breeders' Association .
Special warrant  	
Total Provincial vouchers	
Total Federal vouchers	
Grand total  	
Fairs arranged by Department of Agriculture, Season 1917.
Circuit No. 1—
Parksville   Sept. 12
Nanaimo        ,, 11-13
Evergreen  (Farmers' Institute)        „ 13
Lasqueti Island     ,. 15
Cape Scott (Farmers' Institute)        ,. 17
Denman (Farmers' Institute)    , 18
Courtenay  20-21
Duncan  , 20-22
Islands     „ 22
Ladysmith        „ 26-27
Alberni     „ 27
Cobble Hill Oct. 2-3
Saanichton      ,.       5-6 8 Geo. 5 British Columbia. N 127
APPENDIX No. 25—Concluded.
Fajrs arranged by Department of Agricultube, Season, 1917—Concluded,
Circuit No. 2—
Vancouver    Aug. 20-26
North Vancouver  Sept.    7-8
Central Park      „ 13-15
Maple Ridge       „ 18-19
Coquitlam      „ 20
Mission       ,. 20-21
Agassiz     „ 26
Langley Fort      „ 26
Burquitlam      „ 28-29
Surrey Centre   Oct.     3
Aldergrove       „       4-5
Circuit No. 3—
Heifley Creek  Sept. 19
Pritchard     ,. 21
Kamloops     „ 25-27
Circuit No. 4—
Invermere Aug. 29-30
Natal  Sept.   3
Creston        „       5
Cranbrook     „ 12-13
Fruitvale     „ 15
Trail     „ 18-19
Nelson       ,, 19-20
Rossland (Horticultural Society)        „ 21
Grand Forks      „ 25-26
Circuit No. 5—
Kelowna   Sept. 12-13
Armstrong        „ 20-21
New Denver     25-26
Needles        ,, 28-29
Burton  Oct.     2
Nakusp        „       3-4
Summerland     ,. 24-25
Rock Creek (Farmers' Institute)        „ 26
Circuit No. 6—
Prince George  Sept. 11-12
Prince Rupert  19-21
Quesnel       „ 28-29
Bella Coola    Oct. 12 N 128
Department of Agriculture.
Grants to Agricultural Associations, Year ending December 31st, 1917.
Nanoose Agricultural Association   $    100 00
Nanaimo Agricultural and Horticultural Association  500 00
Lasqueti Island Agricultural Association    100 00
Comox Agricultural and Industrial Association    300 00
Cowichan Agricultural .Association   600 00
Islands Agricultural and Fruit-growers' Association   400 00
Ladysmith Agricultural Society  350 00
Cobble Hill District Agricultural Association   100 00
North and South Saanich Agricultural Society   300 00
Alberni Agricultural and Industrial Association   200 00
Aldergrove Agricultural Association    100 00
Central Park Agricultural Association and Farmers' Institute  250 00
Maple Ridge Agricultural Association   200 00
Coquitlam Agricultural Association    150 00
Agassiz Agricultural and Horticultural Association    250 00
Langley Agricultural Association    200 00
District of Surrey Agricultural Association  250 00
Burquitlam Agricultural Association   150 00
North Vancouver Horticultural Society    250 00
Mission Agricultural Association  200 00
North Thompson Agricultural Association v  150 00
Pritchard Agricultural Association y. 100 00
Kamloops Agricultural Association  800 00
Windermere District Agricultural Society   300 0*0
Elk Valley and Natal Agricultural Association   100 00
Cranbrook District Agricultural Association   600 00
Fruitvale Agricultural Association   100 00
Trail Fruit Fair Association    250 00
Nelson Agricultural and Industrial Association    S00 00
Grand Forks Agricultural Association    600 00
Kelowna Agricultural and Horticultural Association    COO 00
Armstrong and Spallumcheen Agricultural Society       1,000 00
Slocan Lake Agricultural Association   150 00
Arrow Lakes Agricultural and Industrial Association    300 00
Needles and District Agricultural Association  200 00
Summerland Agricultural Association   400 00
Burton District Agricultural Association   100 00
Fort George Agricultural and Industrial Association  500 00
Northern British Columbia Agricultural and Industrial .Issociation 500 00
Bella Coola Fair and Agricultural Association  100 00
Cariboo Agricultural and Horticultural Association   250 00
Total   $12,850 00
Total, 1916    $13,425 00 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 129
Expenditure in Aid of Farmers' Institutes, Year ending December 31st, 1916, and 1917.
Year 1917.
Year 1916.
Cost per
Cost per
Membership  allowances   	
Grant to Secretaries  	
Field-crop  competitions   	
Short courses, spring meetings, and general lecture-
Importation of pure-bred stock   	
Erection of manure-hopper at Prince Rupert
Postage, printing, and bulletins  	
Poison for " gopher" campaign  	
Advisory Board,  expenses   	
Grants to institutes holding fairs 	
54,022 35
3,493 70
830 00
1.539 61
160 00
1.606 15
122 75
339 50
200 00
318 96
$12,633 02
$27 17
23 60
5 61
10 40
1 09
10 86
2 29
1 35
2 16
$3,370 75
2.506 18
997 00
404 00
2,955 77
620 75
629 33
838 28
$85 36
$15,088 69
$23 09
24 01
6 85
2 76
20 24
4 25
4 31
$103 35
Farmers' Institute Meetings, 1917.
South Saanich  	
South Saanich   	
South Saanich   	
Lower Mainland—
Maple Ridge  	
Maple Ridge  	
Nicola to Salmon Arm—
iNotch Hill and Shuswap
Martin's Prairie	
Salmon Arm 	
Salmon Arm   	
Silver Creek  	
riace of Meeting.
Temperance Hall, Keating
Temperance Hall,  Keating
Agricultural Hall, Gordon Head
Agricultural Hall. Gordon Head
East Chilliwack  	
East Chilliwack   	
Sardis, Chilliwack  	
Sardis, Chilliwack  	
Lower Nicola  (Coyle)   	
Notch Hill   	
Salmon Arm  	
Salmon Arm  	
Silver Creek  	
Feb.  .
2 N 130
Department of Agriculture.
APPENDIX No. 28—Concluded.
Farmers' Institute Meetings, 1917—Concluded.
Place of Meeting.
Okanagan, North—
North Okanagan	
North Okanagan	
'   Okanagan 	
Okanagan,  South—
Okanagan Centre  	
Grand Forks and West Kootenay
Grand Forks  	
Grand Forks  	
South Slocan	
Harrop and Procter   	
West Kootenay	
West Kootenay	
Willow Point   	
Arrow Lakes to Golden—
Arrow Lakes	
Arrow Lakes	
Burton City	
Fire Valley  	
Columbia Valley	
Armstrong . ..
Armstrong . ..
Enderby (King
Grindrod ....
Coldstream   . .
Naramata   . .
Peachland   ..
Peachland   . .
Westbank   . .
Woods Lake
Penticton  .. .
Penticton   .. .
Grand Forks .
Grand Forks .
Bridesville ...
Erickson    . . . .
Willow Point
Revelstoke  . . .
Malakwa   ....
Wapta School
Ma rch
March 10
March 10
March 10
March 12
March 10
March 10
March 12
March 12
March 12
March 12
March 13
March 13
March 14
March 14
March 15
March 15
March 15
March 16
March 16
March 17
March 17 8 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
N 131
Expenditures in Aid of Women's Institutes, Years ending December 31st, 1916 and 1917.
Year 1917.
Year 1916.
Cost per
Cost per
Department grant to Secretaries
Membership  allowances   	
Lecturers' expenses	
Advisory Board—
(a.) Salary of Secretary . . .
(6.)   Expenses of members   .
(a.)  Prizes   	
(6.)   Grants    	
Printing, subscriptions, etc	
$1,475 00
1,566 75
1,349 03
480 00
1,055 86
233 12
483 00
341 60
1,257 94
499 73
$25 00
26 56
22 86
8 14
17 90
3 95
8 18
5 79
21 32
8 47
$1,475 00
1,361 25
165 05
480 00
940 38
288 47
529 25
448 31
190 86
274 20
$25 00
23 07
. 2 80
8 13
15 94
4 89
8 97
7 60
3 24
4 64
S.742 03
$148 17
$6,152 77
tt N 132 * Department of Agriculture. 1918
Women's Institute Flower-shows, 1917.
1. Hatzic    June 21
2. Lake Hill   , 29
3. Matsqui       „ 30
4. Haney   July 6
5. Parksville      ,, IS
6. South Saanich     „ 21
7. Colwood     „ 25
8. Kaslo       „ 27
9. Shawnigan       „ 28
10. West Saanich       „ 28
11. Tappen Aug. 1
12. Agassiz        „ 2
13. Kelowna    , 4
14. Langford *. , 4
15. Nakusp     ,, 7
16. Harrop      „ S
17. Langley Fort      ,. 8
IS. Upper Sumas     „ 9
19. Willow Point      ., 9
20. Central Park  10
21. Peachland     „ 10
22. Garden City  (child-welfare)        „ 11
23. Mount Ida       „ 15
24. Salmon River Valley      ,, 15
25. Penticton  I , 16
26. Cranbrook  , 21
27. Tynehead     „ 22
28. Kalamalka  Aug.
29. Okanagan Centre      „
30. Crawford Bay  Sept. 5
31. Creston    , 5
32. Garden City  " , 5
33. Similkameen     7
34. Strawberry Hill        „ 12
35. Coquitlam       „ 20
36. Hazelmere     „
37. Summerland and West Summerland Oct. 24-25
38. Naramata        „ 25
39. Rock Creek        „ 25
40. Gordon Head (exhibition of women's work)	
41. Nelson   	
Printed by William 11. Clllin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.


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