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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FARMERS' INSTITUTES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AND MINUTES OF THE PROCEEDINGS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1913

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  ffl FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF  THE
FARMERS' INSTITUTES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
MINUTES OF THE FROCEEDINGS
OF  THE
FIFTEENTH CONVENTION OF THE CENTRAL FARMERS' INSTITUTE
THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTOBIA, B.C.:
Printed by William  H.   Cullin,  Printer to the King's  Most Excellent Majesty.
1913.  The Hon. Price Ellison,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., April 11th, 1913.
Sir.—I have the honour to transmit herewith the Fourteenth Report of the
Farmers' Institutes of British Columbia, embodying the proceedings of the Fifteenth
Annual Convention of the Central Farmers' Institute, held in the Empress Hotel,
Victoria, B.C., on January 21st, 22nd, and 23rd, 1913.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
WM. E. SCOTT,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture,
Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes.  FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF   THE
FARMERS' INSTITUTES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
AND
Minutes of the Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Convention of the
Central Farmers' Institute.
The statement appended herewith shows the number of meetings held, the number of
addresses given, attendance, and cash on hand of the various Farmers' Institutes in the
Province. The growth of the institutes during the past year has been most satisfactory, and
testifies to the greater interest which is now being taken by the farmers of the Province in
institute work.
Members appear to be realizing more and more the many advantages which are to be gained
by joining an institute.    The quantity of institute powder used during 1912 is far in excess
of what was used in 1911, which shows plainly that land-settlement is progressing satisfactorily.
The short courses and fruit-packing schools held under the auspices of Farmers' Institutes
were, on the whole, very well attended, and an increased interest was shown.
The attendance at the regular spring and fall meetings was good, and a decided improvement
on the previous year. Perhaps the most pleasing feature of institute work is the great movement which has taken place along the lines of co-operative principles. Most of the institutes
are taking action towards the securing of supplies for members co-operatively and in wholesale
lots, thus effecting a material saving to each individual member. Seeds, fertilizers, spraying
materials, dairy and poultry supplies, etc., are secured by these methods, and the results have
been most satisfactory and an incentive to further efforts.
Arrangements have been effected by the Department whereby powder may be secured by
institutes in lots of 100 cases and over, the cost of which is prepaid by the Department, and'
refunded by the institute as sales are effected.
In order to encourage breeding from good pure-bred stock, the Department has notified
institutes that they are prepared to supply institutes with good selected bulls, rams, and boars,
at cost price, freight prepaid, under easy terms of payment.
Altogether, the past year has been a very successful one, and it is confidently anticipated
that 1913 may witness a still further advance in institute work.
The following institute competitions have been arranged for the year 1913:—
(1.) Highest percentage in increase of members for the twelve months ending December
31st, 1913, over the membership for 1912. Three prizes, first, second, and third—
books to value of $12, $8, and $5, respectively.
(2.) Best set of annual statements, taking into consideration neatness, punctuality in
sending in reports, and general excellence during the year. Three prizes consisting
of books. First prize, value $12; second prize, $8; third prize, $5.
(3.) Best address given by a member of a Farmers' Institute during the year 1913.
Three prizes, first, second, and third—$12, $8, and $5, respectively.
WM. E. SCOTT,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture
and Superintendent of Institutes. N 6
British Columbia
1913
Record of Institute Meetings, Addresses, and Membership, etc., for 1912.
Institute.
Alberni 	
Arrow Lake	
Arrow Park	
Aldergrove	
Bella Coola	
Burton Citv	
Bulkley Valley*	
Comox	
Chilliwack	
Central Park	
Cowichan*	
Creston	
Cranbrook-Fernie	
Crawford Bay	
Celista	
Coquitlam	
Delta	
Eagie Ri ver (new)	
Fire Valley and Lake Shore*...
Greenwood	
Graham Island (new)*	
Graham Island, East Coast	
Graham Island, Tow Hill (new).
Glenside	
Golden*	
Howe Sound	
Islands ,	
Kitsumgalhim	
Kent	
Kelowna	
Kamloops	
Kettle Valley	
Kootenay Lake	
Langley	
Louis Creek (new)	
Metchosin	
Maple Ridge	
Martin's Prairie	
Moyie Valley (new)	
Matsqui	
Mission* 	
Nanaimo-Cedar	
North Vancouver*	
Nicola	
North and South Saanich	
New Denver.   :	
Northern Okanagan 	
Notch Hill (new)	
Okanagan* 	
Okanagan Centre	
Pender Island (new)	
Peachland	
Penticton	
Procter and District (new)	
Robson	
Rose Hill	
Rock Creek	
Richmond	
Rossland (new)*	
Revelstoke (new)	
Surrey	
Spallumcheen	
Summerland	
Salmon Arm	
Sooke* 	
Shawnigan ...   	
Strawberry Hill	
South Kootenay	
Sumas	
Salmon Valley	
Slocan Valley	
St. Elmo (new)	
Victoria	
Valdes Island	
Windermere	
Westbank	
West Kootenay	
11
i
Total.
lEveng.
13
1
10
11
11
10
'5
3
2
3
4
10
14
1
2
Attendance.
4
3
1
15
13
2
4
1
fl
2
9
4
4
10
55
213
27
6
32
34
42
31
76
243
118
75
175
52
248
32
95
24
40
23
51
64
28
75
15
235
40
53
120
323
280
170
61
IC
355
25
151
73
108
103
306
245
30
79
75
180
40
395
180
499
89
30
129
119
147
68
167
116
142
73
205
139
90
51
18
229
»i
115
231
133
37
40
144
103
120
150
37
14
17
199
378
323
132
45
222
77
45
6994
11
9
11
6
11
4
6
12
14
6
4
10
25
14
4
4
22
io
9
27
5
7
ii
4
4
1
12
25
17
17
3
13
9
14
5
7
4
7
16
■93
53
82
53
104
74
137
217
271
184
66
54
49
32
143
32
46
143
74
119
134
107
46
117
93
50
88
126
114
186
195
134
67
44
162
187
51
45
55
40
41
219
103
287
52
140
43
121
33
137
93
53
29
124
34
61
49
188
51
78
37
124
73
80
80
106
93
187
236
188
67
87
85
33
177
38
39
44
.58
41
32
39
53
90
135
137
49
54
112
49
71
132
114
35
123
108
303
96
156
ii
193
65
46
72
49
46
75
51
70
47
27
112
288
62
78
52
126
27
132
108
53
139
54
118
91
43
44
159
6895
) 37.00
87.23t
168.05t
32.60
79.10t
133.11
48.85
179.11
236.20
130!85t
98.50t
57.79t
39.10f
41.10
260.10
25.00
47.85
112.50
24.65f
80.75
58.70
52.40
48.20
92.00f
117.66t
6.00
58.20t
151.95t
121.94t
9.50
102.78,
156.42t
94.65t
32.08
104.88t
92.92
71.26t
6l!i9t
152.73t
29.70
91.47t
71.45t
47.50
96.09
127.30
37.55
34.141
166.05t
183.60t
206.55
50.60
16L60t
234.52
60.25
159.30t
30.55
126.05
42.00t
89.00t
22.55t
37.34t
59.85
76^28t
29.30t
62.80t
43.25
59.08
$5941.63
■ No details supplied to Department.
t Cr.
: Exhausted.
i Dr. balance, 810.43. 3 Geo. 5
Farmers' Institutes Report.
N 7
Tear 1913.
Average attendance—
Morning meetings    20
Afternoon meetings     23
Evening meetings    14
Number of meetings held in—
Morning      5% of total.
Afternoon   39%
Evening      56%       „
Average attendance at all meetings for year 1913  26
Average attendance for ten years' period (1903-1912)    28
Largest Number op Meetings,  Attendance, Membership,  etc., during 1912.
Farmers' Institutes holding largest number of meetings during year ended 31st December,
1912:
Burton City    27
Kosehill    16
Salmon Valley   16
Celista    14
Summerland   14
Slocan  Valley     13
Arrow Lake   13
Crawford Bay   13
Nanaimo-Cedar     12
Robson      12
Farmers' Institutes having the largest attendance at their meetings:—
Crawford Bay    675 Creston     395
Summerland    664 Slocan  Valley     355
Spallumcheen   522 Celista     354
Salmon Arm     493 Burton City    318
Northern  Okanagan     474 Comox     310
Farmers' Institutes with the largest membership during year 1912:—
Nanaimo-Cedar     303 Central Park    187
Spallumcheen   288 Delta  177
Cowichan      236 Richmond     176
Northern Okanagan    193 West Kootenay    159
Creston     1S8 Nicola      156
Farmers' Institutes showing the largest increase in membership in 1912 over 1911:—
Institute.
Membership.
Year 1011.
Year 1912.
Increase in 1912.
Nanaimo-Cedar
Slocan Valley  	
Maple Ridge  	
Howe Sound  	
Valdes Island 	
Delta 	
Islands   	
Comox   	
Aldergrove  	
Northern  Okanagan
186
29
50
32
34
143
46
74
93
162
303
139
132
90
91
177
SO
106
124
193
117
110
S2
58
57
34
34
32
31
31 N 8
British Columbia
1913
Synopsis of Farmers' Institutes in the Province of British Columbia, 1897-1912.
Year.
No. of
Institutes
formed.
No. of
Meetings.
Addresses.
Attendances.
Membership.
Cash Balance at
End of Year.
1897  	
1898   	
1899  	
1900  	
1901  	
1902  	
1903  	
1904 	
1905  	
1906  	
1907  	
1908  	
1909  	
1910  	
1911  	
1912  	
2
12
19
20
20
21
24
25
27
27
28
33
41
49
62
77
7
*
111
93
144
183
175
225
230
220
226
284
314
248
375
445
25
*
149
109
231
277
260
327
300
333
307
250
329
268
475
502
163
*
3,527
2,369
4,372
6,043
5,673
7,171
5,892
7,431
6,861
8,661
9,105
7,451
7,024
11,577
73
528
765
1,031
1,432
1,591
1,969
2,062
2,183
2,481
2,970
3,372
4,120
5,226
6.070
6,895
?   530 09
680 90
772 62
966 78
1,183 61
1,411 64
1,630 00
1,787 21
1,581 58
1,836 48
2,148 38
2,372 05
3,478 98
5,941 63
* No record.
Summary of Institutes formed and Delegates attending Convention of Centkal Farmers'
Institute at Victoria, British Columbia.
Year and  Date  of Convention.
No.   of   Institutes
formed   up   to
December  of Previous  Year.
Delegates Present.
1897—July 19th   	
1898—No  Convention   	
1899—February 3rd 	
1900—December 17th   	
1901—No  Convention   	
1902—February 24th	
1903—March 3rd   	
1904—February 1st  	
1905—No  Convention   	
1906—February 27th 	
1907—June 3rd, 1908   	
1908—February 24th and 25th, 1909
1909—February 1st and 2nd, 1910 .,
1910—January 25th, 1911  	
1911—January 25th, 1912  	
1912—January 21st to 23rd, 1913 ...
2
12
19
20
21
24
25
27
28
33
41
49
62
78
13
19
21
19
23
26
28
32
40
45
58
69
Packing-schools conducted by the Horticultural Branch of the Department of Agriculture in connection with Farmers' Institutes, Winter of 1911-1912.
The total number of packing-schools held in the Province during the winter of 1911-12 was
thirty-four, as against thirty in the winter of 1910-11. These schools were held at twenty-
seven centres, the attendance totalling 425.
The schools proved very popular and undoubtedly filled a great need in the districts in which
they were placed, it being estimated that 80 per cent, of the fruit sold and 90 per cent, of that
exhibited during the year 1912 was packed by pupils of departmental packing-schools. 3 Geo. 5
Farmers'" Institutes Eeport.
N 9
The following is a list of places at which packing-schools were held on Vancouver Island and
Gulf Islands:    Gordon Head, Metchosin, Royal Oak, and Salt Spring Island.
The Okanagan Valley schools were located at Hullcar, Armstrong, Vernon, Kelowna, Rutland, K.L.O. Bench, Peachland, Summerland (4), Naramata, Penticton, Okanagan Falls, and
Keremeos.
In the Lower Mainland no schools were held.
In the Boundary and West Kootenay Districts, schools were held as follows: Grand Forks
(2), Creston (2), Kaslo (2), Harrop, Willow Point, Thrums, Nelson, Slocan Junction, Crawford
Bay, New Denver, and Burton.
It is interesting to note that in the latter districts the number of applications for schools
was greatly in excess of previous years, and the attendance per school was high. The average
proficiency as given by the Packing-school Instructors was 83.4 for all schools, as against a
maximum attainable of 100 points.
The pupils of Salt Spring Island School headed the list with the remarkably good average
of 89.5, the next in order being:    Willow Point, 86.1; Keremeos, 84.6.
The local organization through the institute Secretaries has been very good at all points,
particularly so in the Kootenay District, and the scheme of packing-schools as conducted by the
Horticultural Branch has met with great approval, especially where orchards are just coming
into bearing and where there are few or no good fruit-packers.
Short Courses held in the Year 1912 by the Horticultural Branch of the Department
of Agriculture in connection with Farmers' Institutes in the Province of British
Columbia.
A series of meetings conducted by the Horticultural Branch, which were designated for
convenience " short courses," were held during 1912, as in the previous two years. The object
of these short courses is to place before the fruit and vegetable growers of the Province the
facts relating to the theory and practice of fruit and vegetable growing more thoroughly than
•can be done in the case of ordinary institute meetings. The ordinary institute meeting has
been found rather too short to accomplish such thorough results as were desired.
Each Farmers' Institute was expected to guarantee a minimum attendance of thirty at
each meeting, and this number was usually exceeded. The energy displayed by the Secretaries
of the various institutes concerned is much to be commended in providing facilities for meetings,
in advertising same, and in generally arousing the public interest in their districts.
Short-course work commenced on January 3rd and was concluded on March 25th, meetings
ibeing held at sixty-six different points, as follows:—
Royal Oak.
Metchosin.
Saanichton.
Gordon Head.
Ganges.
Pender Island.
Shawnigan Lake.
Ladysmith.
Alberni.
Aldergrove.
Strawberry Hill.
Langley.
Sardis.
Abbotsford.
Mission City.
Whonnock.
Hammond.
Enderby.
Notch Hill.
Celista.
Mara.
Greenwood.
Hullcar.
Glenemma.
Armstrong.
Okanagan Centre.
Woods Lake.
Vernon.
Okanagan Mission.
Glenmore.
K.L.O. Bench.
Rutland.
Ellison.
Kelowna.
Westbank.
Naramata.
Peachland.
Penticton.
Lower Summerland.
West Summerland.
Keremeos.
Sidley.
Rock Creek.
Midway.
Grand Forks.
Robson.
Creston.
Procter.
Kaslo.
Crawford Bay.
Queen's Bay.
Nelson.
Fruitvale.
Waneta.
Trail.
Rossland.
New Denver.
Edgewood.
Arrow Park.
Burton City.
Brouse.
Nakusp.
Salmon Arm.
Chilliwack.
Columbia Gardens.
Nanaimo. N 10 British Columbia 1913
Lectures and demonstrations to the number ol 391 were given, the total attendance being
6,176, giving an average attendance at each meeting of 15.7. The evening lectures were
illustrated by means of lantern views from photographs specially taken for the purpose, and
materially increased the interest and educative value of the lectures. The practical demonstrations on pruning, spraying, grafting, and budding were very popular, and both addresses and
demonstrations were thoroughly practical in their character.
The value of these short courses is shown by the attendance and also by the gratifying
reports of the various institute Secretaries and others, and a very great increase in the number
of applications for short courses is expected for the year 1913.
Speakers and Subjects.
R. M. Winslow, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.—Horticulture.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.—Pruning; Spraying; Planting
Plans and Distances; Culture and Propagation of Nursery Stock.
B.  Hoy,  B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist,  Vernon,  B.C.—Orchard  Cultivation;  Fertilizers,
Composition and Uses, etc.
P.  E.  French,   B.S.A.,  Assistant  Horticulturist,   Salmon  Arm,   B.C.—Commercial   Potato-
culture ; Orchard Planting and Care of Young Orchards, etc.
H.  Thornber,   B.S.,  Assistant  Horticulturist,   Kamloops,   B.C.—Culture  of   Small  Fruits;
Grafting and Budding Demonstration.
J. F. Carpenter, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.—Orchard Pests and their
Control; Demonstration in Pruning; How Plants Feed and Grow; Judging and Exhibition Standards, etc.
Geo. G. Barber, Salmon Arm, B.C.—Co-operation.
Spring Meetings, 1912.
The spring meetings this year were conducted in six circuits, as follows, commencing on
May 31st and terminating June 25th:—
(1.) Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands.
(2.)  Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands.
(3.)  Lower Mainland.
(4.) Nicola, C.P.R. Main Line to Sicamous, and Okanagan Valley..
(5.) Arrow Lakes and West Kootenay.
(G.)   Boundary.
Meetings were held at eighty-one points situated in fifty-two institute districts. The following speakers were furnished from the Department:—
Names and Subjects. s
R. M. Winslow, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.—Marketing and Vegetables;
Fruit-culture.
P. E. French, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.—Cultivation of Young
Orchards; Irrigation.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.—Horticulture; Vegetable
Production.
Henry Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Instructor, Victoria, B.C.—Farm Stock and Dairying; The
Milch-cow.
J. R. Terry, Chief Poultry Instructor, Victoria, B.C.—Poultry.
H. E. Upton, Assistant Poultry Instructor, Victoria, B.C.—Poultry.
H. Thornber, B.S., Assistant Horticulturist, Kamloops, B.C.—Orchard Spraying; Potato-
growing ; Irrigation and Conservation of Moisture.
Dr. A. Knight, V.S., Chief Veterinary Inspector, Sardis, B.C.—Veterinary Science and Appliances ; Live-stock Industry.
Speakers from outside Sources.
W. N. Scott, Trail, B.C.—Egg Production, Incubation, Marketing of Poultry.
N. G. Knotts, Hammond, B.C.—Small Fruits.
Professor R. C. Ashby, Superintendent Farmers' Institutes, Pullman, Wash., U.S.A.—Diseases
of the Horse and Cow, and Remedies; Feed of Live-stock; The Horse; Live-stock
Industry; Animal Husbandry; The Prevention of Tuberculosis in Farm Animals. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 11
W. Schulmerich, Hillsboro, Ore., U.S.A.—General Agriculture; Cow-testing  (Danish Plan).
H. B. Vaughan, Victoria, B.C.—General Farming; Animal Husbandry; Live-stock.
R. B. Cooley, B.S.A., Vancouver, B.C.—Agricultural Conditions; Dairying; Stock-raising.
C. Dunkley, Cobble Hill, V.I., B.C.—Animal Husbandry; Poultry; Incubation and Brooding.
A. E. Keffer, Arrow Park, B.C.—Grain-growing; Dry-farming.
G. W. Stewart, Keatings, V.I., B.C.—Fruit Growing and Culture; Strawberries.
H. D. Reid, Victoria, B.C.—Egg Production; Preparation of Poultry for Market; Practical
Poultry-raising; Co-operative Associations.
H. A. Woolverton, Nelson, B.C.—Small Fruits; Fruit-growing; Fruit and Vegetable Culture.
Fall Meetings, 1912.
Owing to the very efficient manner in which horticultural matters had been dealt with during
the short-course work and the spring meetings this year, the Department decided to limit the
institute fall meetings to those districts which had made special application for live-stock
subjects.    The following itinerary was accordingly arranged:—
Institute and Place of Meeting.
Nicola       Nicola.
Nicola      Lower Nicola.
Kent     Agassiz.
Matsqui     Matsqui.
Metchosin      Metchosin Hall.
Rosehill     Rosehill.
Salmon Arm      Salmon Arm.
Northern Okanagan    Mara.
Northern Okanagan   Enderby.
Valdes  Island      Heriot Bay.
The speakers and their subjects being as follows:—
Agricultural Department Staff.
W. T. McDonald, B.S.A., Provincial Live-stock Commissioner—Animal Husbandry.
Henry Rive, Dairy Instructor—Dairying, etc.
H. E. Upton, Assistant Poultry Instructor—Poultry.
Speakers from other Sources.
H. L. Blanchard, West Washington Experimental Station, U.S.A.—Crop Rotation; Forage
Crops.
H. Riddle, Salmon Arm, B.C.—Poultry.
C. Dunkley, Cobble Hill, B.C.—Poultry.
Dr. S. F. Tolmie, Dominion Live-stock Commissioner, Victoria—Diseases of Farm Animals.
Dr.  Seymour Hadwen, Dominion Health of Animals Branch, Agassiz, B.C.—Diseases of
Farm Animals.
The meetings were very successful, much interest being aroused in the up-to-date methods
advocated of handling the problems which confront stock and poultry men.
Results of Field-crop Competitions during 1912.
The field-crop competitions conducted in various districts throughout British Columbia
during the past season owe their inception to the offer of financial co-operation received by
this Province, in common with the other Provinces of the Dominion, from the Federal Department of Agriculture at Ottawa. The original purpose of these co-operative subventions of the
Dominion Government was mainly to encourage the production and use of good seed, as well
as the eradication of weeds and the application of good cultural methods in farming. Permission,
however, was given by the Honourable the Federal Minister of Agriculture to include crops for
fodder purposes, to the growing of which British Columbia is particularly suited.
It was thereupon announced to the Farmers' Institutes throughout the Province that field-
crop competitions would be held with any one, or any two, of the following crops and areas:—
Oats     2    acres.
Barley      2
Wheat      2 N 12
British Columbia
1913
Peas    .'   1     acre.
Potatoes      Vi
Turnips        %
Mangels       %
Field-carrots        %
Fodder-corn      1
Kale  (Thousand-headed)        Vs
Red clover     2    acres.
Alfalfa     1    acre.
Seventy-five dollars, of which each institute must furnish fifteen, would be offered in cash
prizes for each competition, as follows : First, $20; second, $15; third, $12; fourth, $10; fifth,
$8; sixth, $6; seventh, $4. The remaining $60 to be received from the Provincial Department
of Agriculture, itself providing one-half of the total expenditure for prizes and the expenses of
judges.
In addition to the funds thus made available, a further sum of $500, to be applied as special
prizes for fodder-crops such as thousand-headed kale, corn, mangels, red clover, and alfalfa, was
offered by the British Columbia Dairymen's Association.
The announcement occurring, unavoidably, at a rather late date in the spring of 1912, many
institutes were unable to take part. Twenty competitions, however, were organized and brought
to a successful completion, and 226 plots, representing, fairly, soil conditions of the Province,
were scored by the judges. Of these twenty contests instituted, thirteen were with potatoes,
three with oats, two with wheat, one with turnips, and one with red clover. These five crops
only were dealt with, due, no doubt, to the insufficient time allowed for preparation.
Competitions organized in 1912.
Crop.
Institute.
Secretary and Address.
Langley   	
Jas. R. Motion, Alberni.
A Hammer, Bella Coola.
A. Letts,  Sidley.
W. S. Ritchie, Ganges.
G. W. Hardy, Agassiz.
Jos. Allen, Langley.
N.  G. Knotts, Hammond.
J.  Gordon Fraser,  Pritehard.
Wheat, oats  	
M. A. Porter, Metchosin.
R. Whittaker, Lower Nicola.
G. Brown, Robson.
A. McKay, Kamloops.
A. B. Muir, Fruitvale.
Much credit is due in most instances to the Secretaries of these institutes, without whose
earnest efforts few competitions would have been carried out.
In the matter of judges, the Department was fortunate enough to secure, for several competitions, the services of Mr. A. Eastham, of the Seed Branch Staff at Ottawa, who, with Messrs.
H. L. Keegan, Agassiz, A. B. McKenzie, Chilliwack, H. Thornber, Assistant Provincial Horticulturist, Kamloops, and S. LeC. Grant, Bella Coola, carried out the judging-work under
conditions that were often most trying and unfavourable. These gentlemen report that their
labours were greatly increased by the non-observance of the rule which states that " the plots
entered for competition must be clearly defined and marked with stakes or otherwise by the
competitor in advance of the visit of the judge." It is desired to direct the attention of future
competitors to this regulation, and also to the fact that more than one variety of any crop
should not be permitted on plots entered for competition. 3 Geo. 5
Farmers' Institutes Report.
N 13
Potatoes (Thirteen Competitions).
Many varieties of potatoes were found, certain kinds predominating in certain districts,
others scattered through the entire territory. The following partial list indicates, in the order
named, the most widespread and popular: Early Rose, Carmen, Burbank, Dakota Red, Up-to-
date, Uncle Sam, Beaverton, Irish Cobbler, Gold Coin, Empire State, Beauty of Hebron.
Summary of Field-crop Competitions.
Institute.
Crop.
Name of Winner of First Prize
$20.
O o
s
I-
rU
Variety.
Alberni   	
Bella  Coola   . . .
Glenside   	
Islands   	
Kent   	
Langley   	
Maple   Ridge   . .
Martin's Prairie
Matsqui    	
Metchosin   	
Nicola   	
Robson   	
S. Kootenay   .. .
Alberni   	
Glenside   	
Rosehill    	
Martin's Prairie
Rosehill    	
Langlev    	
Kent   	
Potatoes
Oats
Wheat
Red Clover
Turnips   . .
T.   R.  Plaunt,  Beaver Creek   . .
A.   Oveson,   Hagensborg   	
E. Gardiner, Bridesville   	
T. H. Lee, South Salt Spring  .
S.  P.  Chaplin, Agassiz   	
K. Mclvor, Langley  	
J. H. Laity, Hammond   	
J. T. Hutchinson, Jr., Pritchard
M. McLagan, Mt. Lehman ....
C. E. Whitney, Griffiths,
Metchosin
J.   Smith, Lower Nicola   	
H.   Batchelor,   Westley   	
J.  Buchanan,  Fruitvale   	
R. W. Thompson, Beaver Creek
S.   Knutson,   Sidley   	
H.  Anderson.   Rosehill   	
Mrs. A. Harrison, Pritchard . .
W.  H.  Scouten,  Long Lake   . . .
J. W. Berry, Murrayville  	
S.  West, Agassiz   	
13
8
7
13
21
15
9
10
10
16
13
12
10
9
10
11
9
9
10
11
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
88
80
79
82
80
731
80
81i
90
90J
89
88|
86
84i
94|
89J
98
Uncle Sam.
Early   Rose.
Burbank.
Dakota Red.
Rural New Yorker.
Burbank.
Carmen   No.   1.
Early Rose.
Up-to-date.
Irish Cobbler.
Moneymaker.
Bluestem.
Canadian   Gem.
Field-crop Competitions, 1913.
Rules and Regulations.
1. All Farmers' Institutes desiring to organize these competitions must notify the Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C., on or before May Slst,
stating the kind or kinds of crops for which competitions are to be provided.
2. Competitions may be organized and conducted with any one, or any two (but not more
than two), of the following crops and areas for each exhibit:—
Oats    i   2     acres.
Barley      2
Wheat      2
Peas      1    acre.
Potatoes      %    „
Turnips         %    „
Mangels       %    „
Field-carrots      %    „
Fodder-corn   1        „
Kale (Thousand-headed)        %    „
Red clover  2    acres.
Alfalfa    1    acre.
3. The fields or crops entered for competition must be clearly defined and marked with stakes
or otherwise by the competitor in advance of the visit of the judge, which shall be made at the
discretion of the Superintendent of Farmers Institutes.
4. There must not be less than ten bona-fide entries for each kind of crop entered, and no
conipetitor*may compete for prizes offered by more than one Farmers' Institute.
5. There shall be at least $75 offered in cash prizes for each kind of crop, as follows: First,
$20; second, $15; third, $12; fourth, $10; fifth, $8; with prizes for six additional entries over
ten, as follows:    Sixth, $6; seventh, $4.    Of this amount, the Farmers' Institute conducting the N 14 British Columbia 1913
competition will be entitled to a grant of $60 when the competition is arranged for one kind
of crop only, or to a grant of $120 when competitions with two kinds of crops are organized,
which grants will be paid to the institute by the Provincial Department of Agriculture.
6. An entry fee of not less than 50 cents and not more than $1, the exact amount to be at
the discretion of the institute, shall be paid by each competitor for each kind of crop into the
funds of the institute, which money shall be applied to the $15 to be contributed by the institute
to the prize-money for each crop in competition. A competitor may not enter more than one
exhibit of any one kind of crop, but he may enter one exhibit of each kind when two crops are
provided. All of the fields entered for competition must be within the area defined by the
institute holding the competition.
7. All individual entries for each competition must be forwarded by the Secretary of the
institute to the Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria, B.C., not later than June 1st.
. 8. The British Columbia Department of Agriculture will furnish expert judges free of charge
to the Farmers' Institute and pay their expenses throughout. When required by the judge,
however, Farmers' Institutes must furnish a non-interested guide who has knowledge of the
location of the different exhibits to be judged.
Result of Competitions held amongst Farmers' Institutes in the Year 1912.
(1.)  Largest number of members enrolled during the year 1912.    Prizes, books to value $25.
Winner—Nanaimo-Cedar Farmers' Institute    303 members.
Next in Order—Spallumcheen Farmers' Institute   288       ,,
(2.) Best set of annual statements, considered together with periodic reports, etc., sent into
the Department.    Prize, books to value $25.
Winner—Northern Okanagan Farmers' Institute.
Next in Order of Merit—Nanaimo-Cedar, Kamloops, Central Park, Metchosin, Salmon
River Valley, Spallumcheen, Summerland, Aldergrove, Windermere, Celista, Burton
City.
(3.)  Best address given by a member of a Farmers' Institute during the year 1912.
(a.)  Prize, $12—A. E. Keffer, Arrow Park Farmers' Institute.
(6.)  Prize, $8—W. O. Sweatman, Metchosin Farmers' Institute,
(c.)  Prize, $5—T. S. Gill, Cranbrook-Fernie Farmers' Institute. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 15
CENTRAL FARMERS' INSTITUTE.
FIFTEENTH ANNUAL CONVENTION.
The fifteenth Annual Convention of the Central Farmers' Institute of British Columbia was
convened at 10 a.m. on January 21st, 1913, at the Empress Hotel, Victoria, B.C. Wm. E. Scott,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Superintendent of Institutes, being moved to the chair,
presided over the proceedings. The following delegates from the Farmers' Institutes were
present:—
Name of Delegate. Name of Institute.
John Best   Alberni.
A. K. Goldsmith  Aldergrove.
C. Handing  Arrow Lakes.
A. E. Keffer   Arrow Park.
R. E. Williams    Bulkley Valley.
S.  Smillie    Burton.
S. Le C. Grant  Bella Coola.
W. Thompson  Celista.
F. E. Harmer  Central Park.
James Bailey   Chilliwack.
S. MacDonald    Cranbrook-Fernie.
W. W. Mooney   Crawford Bay.
J. M. Edmundson   Creston.
J. S. Shopland   Comox.
W. Hornby  Delta.
R. A. Coppock   Eagle River Valley.
J. W. Ford   Fire Valley and Lake Shore.
E. Gardner    Glenside.
A. Richardson    Graham Island, East Coast.
W. E. McArthur  Greenwood.
G. E. McDermot   Golden.
A. H. Burley    Howe Sound.
E. Walter    Islands.
J. A. Morrow   Kent.
J. T. Lawrence   Kettle Valley.
W. G. Robb   Kootenay Lake.
C. E. Lawrence   Kamloops.
D. B. Kenny   Kitsumgallum.
James Allen  Langley.
F. D. Campbell  '  Maple Ridge.
R. H. Brett  Martin's Prairie.
C. E. W. Griffiths   Metchosin.
J. A. Catherwood    Mission.
A. L. Earnhardt   Moyie Valley.
P. Jackman     Matsqui.
H. H. Matthews    Nicola.
O. F. Porter   Notch Hill. N 16
British Columbia
1913
Name of Delegate. Name of Institute.
J. C. Harris    New Denver.
S. Mottishaw   Nanaimo-Cedar.
C. S. Handcock   Northern Okanagan.
C. Little  (Mara)     Northern Okanagan.
A. Venables      Okanagan.
M. P. Williams    Okanagan Centre.
H. C. Smith    Penticton.
Alex. Hamilton     Pender Island.
H. Fraser     Procter and District.
C. W. Whyte   Peachland.
A. F. Mitchell     Robson.
H. A. Pearson    Rock Creek.
Angus McKay    Rosehill.
J. G. Denison   Rossland.
W. C. Calder    Revelstoke.
Thomas Laing    Richmond.
L. J. Botting   Salmon Valley.
J. M. Stuart    Sooke.
W. E. Paull    South Kootenay.
A.  Walden      Strawberry Hill.
C. J. Thompson    Summerland.
W. Anderson     Slocan Valley.
D. Matheson   Spallumcheen.
J. W. Winson     Sumas.
W. H. Stuart    Shawnigan.
E. F. Wade    Surrey.
W. F. Monteith    Salmon Arm.
Thos. Noble      Valdes Island,
Alex. Angus     Victoria.
T. W. Turner    Windermere District.
L. Featherstonhaugh    Westbank.
J.  Johnstone      West Kootenay.
Also present during the proceedings:—
Mayor Morley      Victoria.
W. H. Hayward, M.P.P   Cowichan.
Dr.  S.  F. Tolmie     Victoria.
Professor W. T. McDonald  Victoria.
R. M. Winslow   Victoria.
H. E. Upton    Victoria.
A. E. Trotman   Victoria.
— Townsley    Vancouver.
W. A. Pitcairn   Kelowna.
— Taylor     Kelowna.
Morning Session.
The Convention was called to order by Wm. E. Scott, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, at
10.20 a.m.
As your Superintendent, gentlemen, I must tell you how very much I appreciate meeting
you all again at this Annual Convention. I was just saying to a gentleman coming over to the
Buildings that seven years ago the Farmers' Convention was held in a room of the Department,
and there were about seven round the table. We now have the whole of the Province represented,
from Windermere, Golden, and Cranbrook in the east, right away to Bulkley Valley and the
Queen  Charlotte  Islands  in  the north.    Every  district  in  British  Columbia  which  has  any Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 17
agricultural production is represented here, and I am sure that this Annual Convention can be
made a means of good to any one who derives his living out of the land. I am not going to
say anything more to you at present, except to bid you all welcome to the Fifteenth Annual
Convention of the Farmers' Institutes.
Moved and seconded, " That Mr. Scott act as Chairman."    Carried.
Wm. E. Scott: Gentlemen, I thank you for the confidence you have again placed in me in
appointing me to preside at this Convention.
Moved and seconded, " That Wm. J. Bonavia act as Secretary."    Carried.
The Chairman asked the Secretary to read the roll-call.    (See page 27.)
It was decided that the item on the Agenda re Credential Committee should be struck out.
Wm. E. Scott intimated that Mayor Morley was unfortunately unable to address the
Convention to-day.
Superintendent's Report.
Gentlemen,—Once again I have the honour and pleasure of meeting the delegates of the
Farmers' Institutes of British Columbia at their Fifteenth Annual Convention, and I take this
opportunity of bidding you all welcome, and trust that we may have a most successful and useful
meeting, and that good results will accrue therefrom.
As your Superintendent, I take great pleasure in reporting a marked advance and growth in
Farmers' Institutes, both in point of number and membership. It is also pleasing to have to
state that there seems to be far greater interest taken in the Farmers' Institute movement
throughout the Province, and farmers generally seem to be awakening to the fact of the good
results which may be secured by unity of purpose amongst the members and the adoption of
co-operative methods.
Additional Institutes.
When I had the opportunity of addressing the Convention last year, and submitting my
report, there were sixty-two institutes, with a total membership of 6,070, which gave an average
for each institute of ninety-five members. This year shows a material advance, there being at
the present time seventy-seven institutes incorporated in the Province, with a total membership
of 6.S95, giving an average of 89.5 for each institute. The following is the list of institutes
which have been formed during the past year:—
(1.)  Bulkley  Valley.
(2.) Eagle River Valley.
(3.)  Graham  Island.
(4.)  Graham Island  (East Coast).
(5.)  Louis Creek and Mount Olie.
(G.)  Moyie Valley.
(7.)  Notch  Hill  and  Shuswap.
(8.)  Pender Island.
(9.)  Procter and District.
(10.)  Rossland.
(11.)  Revelstoke.
(12.)  St. Elma.
(13.)  Graham Island, Tow Hill.
(14.)  Golden  District.
(15.) Ucluelet.
Whilst most institutes show a good increase in membership and a gratifying interest in their
work, I regret to have to state that there are several which show a falling-off and lack of interest
in the work. There is one institute which had a membership of 187 in 1911, and had only
forty-six members on the roll for 1912. This state of affairs is very regrettable and unsatisfactory. There must be some reason for the lack of interest shown. I would request the
Directorate of those institutes which have shown such a retrogressive movement to inquire into
the cause, with a view to having the same remedied.
Regular Spring and Fall Meetings.
The attendance at the regular meetings held in the spring and fall, and to which the
Department sent demonstrators and lecturers free of charge, has been very good at those points
2 N 18 British Columbia 1913
where there are live and progressive institutes, but decidedly unsatisfactory in the case of a
few institutes, and the Department cannot be expected to incur the large expenditure which is
naturally involved in supplying the best men they can secure to institutes where the members
show such indiffereHce and lack of interest, and I would appreciate an expression of opinion
from this Convention on this point.
Short Courses.
Encouraged by the great success of the short courses in horticulture which were conducted
in 1911 under the auspices of Farmers' Institutes by the Horticultural Branch of this Department,
it was decided to give each institute during 1912 an opportunity to have these courses held at any
points which they mught designate, in place of the regular fall meetings.
It was also decided that short courses should be conducted by the Live-stock Branch of the
Department on live-stock topics, forage and soiling crops, etc. Accordingly the institutes were
notified, and the great majority elected to have short courses in place of evening meetings.
Itineraries were therefore prepared by the two branches of the Department. The short courses
in connection with the Live-stock Branch were held in the fall, and the following is a list of
the places at which they were conducted: Ladner, Huntingdon, Chilliwack, Ganges Harbour,
and Comox. At these courses, subjects such as diseases of farm animals, dairying and swine-
breeding, poultry-keeping, crop-rotation, etc., were dealt with.
The courses under the direction of the Horticultural Branch were held in the winter and
spring at sixty-five points. Subjects such as orchard pests and their control, spraying methods
with orchard demonstration, pruning with orchard demonstration, soil cultivation and fertility,
vegetable-growing, culture of small fruits, etc., are being taken up by the expert officials of the
Department.
It is the opinion of your Superintendent that these courses accomplish far better results
than evening lectures, and I would suggest that they replace to a large extent lecture-work.
What one hears at a lecture is apt to go in at one ear and out of the other, but if there is an]
actual demonstration of work in field or orchard, it conveys a far more lasting impression. It is
one thing to tell a man how to do a certain piece of work, and another thing to show him.
Circulars are prepared beforehand by the officials of the Department, dealing with the
subjects which are to be taken up at these short courses. These are distributed to those
attending.    The evening sessions will be illustrated with lantern-slides.
Fruit-packing Schools.
This work was largely extended by the Department last year, and with very gratifying
results. Packing-schools were held at all points where a minimum attendance of twelve was
guaranteed by a Farmers' Institute or Agricultural Association. Capable instructors, the best
that the Department could secure, were detailed for this work. The nominal fee of $3 was
charged each pupil, and the duration of tuition was one week, of six hours' work per day. This
work has undoubtedly resulted in making available a considerable number of young men and
women in our fruit-producing districts capable of grading and packing the fruit from the
orchards on up-to-date methods, and the value of this work can be gauged from the fact that
about 80 per cent, of the fruit put up for export was put up by those who have learned the art
from fruit-packing schools.
Prizes are awarded by the Department at the principal fall fairs for packed-box exhibits
put up by packing-school pupils, and diplomas awarded for efficiency, which is measured by the
number of points given each exhibit, 75 per cent or over entitling the exhibitor to a diploma
from the Department.
It is gratifying to know that the quality of the British Columbia pack now compares most
favourably with that of our competitors in the American States, and this fact is largely
attributable to the work of our packing-schools.
Packing-schools were held at the following places: Vernon, Armstrong, Creston, Kaslo
Harrop, Willow Point, Thrums, Tarrys, Nelson, Kelowna, Rutland, Summerland, Naramata
Penticton, Okanagan Falls, Keremeos, Grand Forks, Slocan Junction, Crawford Bay, New Denver
Burton, K.L.O. Bench, Peachland, Hullcar, Gordon Head, Metchosin, Royal Oak, and Saltspring
Island. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 19
Field-crop Competitions.
A new departure was inaugurated this past year under the auspices of the Farmers'
Institutes, in the growing of competitive field crops. This work was conducted by the Seed
Commissioner's Branch of the Federal Government and the Live-stock Branch of this Department,
and very generous prizes were offered for the best crops grown by Farmers' Institute members.
The following institutes took advantage of these competitions:—
Alberni Farmers' Institute   Potatoes and oats.
Bella Coola Farmers' Institute  Potatoes.
Glenside Farmers' Institute  Potatoes and oats.
Islands Farmers' Institute   Potatoes.
Kent Farmers' Institute   Potatoes and turnips.
Langley Farmers' Institute   Potatoes and red clover.
Maple Ridge Farmers' Institute   Potatoes.
Martin's Prairie Farmers' Institute    Potatoes and wheat.
Matsqui Farmers' Institute    Potatoes.
Metchosin Farmers' Institute    Potatoes.
Nicola Farmers' Institute     Potatoes.
Robson Farmers' Institute     Potatoes.
Rosehill Farmers' Institute   Wheat, oats.
South Kootenay Farmers' Institute     Potatoes.
I am pleased to state that great interest was taken, and the work proved more successful
than it was anticipated would be the case, considering that it was a new departure. Notice has
been given in the public press of the intention of the Department to further extend this work
during the present year, so that farmers may take the necessary steps beforehand by preparation
of ground, fertilizers, etc., so as to ensure the maximum of production in the crops they grow for
competition. These contests are valuable, inasmuch as they arouse a friendly spirit of rivalry
between farmers, and thus tend towards improvement in methods. I would therefore point out
to each institute the advisability of arousing an interest among members, and entering for
competition those crops which are best suited for their particular districts.
Institute Powder.
One hears a good deal nowadays concerning the slow progress of land-clearing in this
Province. The large increase in the amount of powder used by members of institutes, however,
points in another direction. During the year 1912, Farmers' Institutes throughout the Province
of British Columbia used no less than 17,016 cases of stumping-powder. According to resolutions
passed at your last Convention, the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture and your Superintendent
took up with the powder companies the question of a reduction in price of powder, but were
unable to accomplish anything, the powder companies maintaining that they are selling at the
lowest possible price, and that it would be impossible for them to make further reduction.
I may point out that settlers in British Columbia secure their powder at a considerably
lower cost than is the case in the Western American States. Investigations were made by the
Department concerning the char-pit method of land-clearing. As a result a bulletin is now
in the Printing Department, and will shortly be available for distribution, dealing with this
method of land-clearing. It is my opinion, however, that whilst this may work to advantage
in individual instances, in the great majority of eases there is no cheaper way of clearing land
than by the use of stumping-powder in combination with a stumping outfit. It is a vital matter
that the farmer should have powder at the lowest possible cost, and you may rest assured
that if it is possible at all to secure a further reduction, the same will be done.
Institute Bulletins, Reports, etc.
During the past year a large number of bulletins, circulars, and reports have been issued
by this Department. The bulletins and reports were sent to all members of Farmers' Institutes
whose names are sent in toy the Secretaries and are on our mailing-list. In this connection, I
may state that some complaints have been received by the Department that members have not
received bulletins. On investigating such cases, it has always been found that this is the
fault of the Secretaries—that the names have not been sent in to the Department. I would
therefore impress on Secretaries the necessity of sending in names of new members regularly. N 20
British Columbia
1913
Another complaint which has been received is that new members do not receive bulletins
which have been published prior to their joining the institute. This is not done unless a special
request is made. Members receive all bulletins which are issued after they join the institute,
but I shall be pleased, on request, to furnish past bulletins, if available, to those new members
who make application for the same.
It was originally intended that the circulars should only be for the use of those attending
the short courses. I have decided, however, in future, to have a sufficient number of these
printed so that all members of institutes may receive copies of them. These circulars, dealing
with different phases of horticulture and general farming, are, I consider, very valuable. They
are compiled by officials who have an expert knowledge of the subject, and should prove of
great service to farmers generally.
The following is a list of bulletins, reports, and circulars which have been issued during
the past year:—
Bulletins—
26. " Practical Poultry-raising."
33. Revised edition of " Fruit-growing Possibilities of Skeena River and Porcher Island
District."
35. " The Place and Purpose of Family Life."
36. " The Preparation of Food."
37. " The Preservation of Food.'
38. " The Construction of Silos."
39. " Natural and Artificial Incubation and Brooding."
40. "Alfalfa."
41. " Labour-saving Devices in the Household."
43. " Women's Work in British Columbia."
44. " Irrigation in British Columbia."
45. " Agricultural Statistics."
46. " Food and Diet."
Live-stock Circulars—
" Thousand-headed Kale."
" Crop Competitions."
" List of Poultry-breeders."
" Tuberculosis in Poultry."
" Construction of Fresh-air Brooders."
Horticultural Circulars—
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
' Short  Courses  in  Horticulture."
' Commercial  Onion-culture."
' Selection of Orchard Sites and Soils."
' Insects Injurious to Orchards."
' Plant-growth."
' Spray  Calendar."
' Fungous Diseases of Orchard and Garden."
' Packing Orchard Fruits."
' Sprays and Spraying."
' Commercial Potato-culture."
' Progress and Prospects in Fruit and Vegetable Growing
' Orchard Intercrops."
' The Home Vegetable Garden for Coast Sections."
' Practical Irrigation."
' Cabbage, Celery, and Tomato Production."
' Culture of Small Fruits."
' Planting Plans and Distances."
' Report of Market Commissioner."
' Propagation and Selection of Nursery Stock."
' Orchard Cultivation and Cover Crops."
' Pruning Fruit-trees." 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 21
Horticultural Circulars—Concluded.
22. " Thinning Tree-fruits."
23. "Fire-blight  (Bacillus amylovorus—Burrill)."
24. " Home Vegetable Gardening for Interior Districts."
25. " Culture of Small Fruits for the Interior Districts of British Columbia."
26. " Top-working Fruit-trees."
27. " Fertilizers for Fruits and Vegetables."
28. " Varieties of Fruit recommended for Commercial Planting."
Reports—
Farmers' Institutes, Agricultural Fairs,  Stock-breeders' Association, Dairymen's Association, Poultry Association, and Fruit-growers' Association.
Co-operative Institute Work.
I would like again to call attention to the value of co-operative work amongst institute
members, especially towards the securing of supplies, foodstuffs, etc., for the use of members.
There are a good many institutes which are doing very valuable work along these lines, and
thereby effecting a material saving to members. One institute brought in five car-loads of
supplies, feeds, etc., for the use of members during the past year, with very gratifying results.
It stands to reason that if the members unite towards securing supplies by this method, they
may be obtained at a much lower price than when they are purchased individually.
I am of the opinion, also, that valuable work might be done towards the marketing of
produce by the co-operation and unity of the members. This, however, is a more difficult
question, but there is no doubt but that something might be done, provided the support of every
member can be secured.
The primary object of Farmers' Institutes is to engender the spirit of co-operation. I trust,
therefore, you will endeavour to feature this in your work for the present year.
Membership.
I would again call your attention to the necessity for an efficient canvass of all institute
districts, in order to secure every one who is making his living out of the land to become a
member of his institute. I receive very many letters from newcomers to the Province, asking
for departmental literature and information, who, when I point out to them the advisability
of becoming a member of the Institute, state that they had no idea there were such organizations in the Province, and who immediately become members. Let it be the duty of the
Directorate and members generally to notify such new-comers of the benefits which they will
secure by becoming members of an institute.
Attendance at Regular Meetings.
Whilst, on the whole, the attendance at the regular spring and fall meetings, and also at
short courses held under the auspices of institutes, has been satisfactory, still, there were some
meetings held which were very poor as regards attendance. I consider that, even at the cost
of a little self-sacrifice, every one should make a point of being present. No matter how expert
we may be in our farming methods, there is always something to be learned by the interchange
of ideas, and by listening to lectures and witnessing demonstrations. Any one will acquire from
these some information which will prove of value to him. It seryices also to draw the members
together, and engender unity of purpose and good fellowship.
Supplementary Meetings.
I would urge on all institutes the importance of holding supplementary meetings in addition
to the regular ones. At these meetings it is advisable to introduce the social element. Try to
get the ladies to attend and brighten proceedings by their presence. Each institute should have
a hall. In order to secure the necessary funds to build one, I would point out that this may
be done by starting a subscription for the purpose, and by the holding of picnics and social
functions of various kinds, such as dances, concerts, theatricals, etc., for which a small
admission fee may be charged. You will find that if you adopt this method you will soon have
sufficient funds to start building your own hall. I might instance the excellent results which
have been accomplished in this way by one of the Women's Institutes, which collected during N 22 British Columbia 1913
the past year over $400 from holding social events of this kind and rent of their hall. Adopt
the method of printing programmes for your supplementary meetings, and let the institute
Secretary mail one of these to each member.
Institute Prizes.
An offer was made during the past year by the Department to give prizes for the best essay
sent in to the Department by an institute member, and also a prize to the institute which
sent in the largest membership for the year. These prizes have not as yet been awarded, as it
involves a large amount of work going through all the essays, but a decision will be arrived
at and the awards made, I hope, very shortly.
The Department is prepared to continue this for the present year, and I hope that it may
prove an inducement to institutes to increase their membership. The essays received by the
Department are of great value, as it enables us to select from them men who are likely to
prove useful as speakers, and the best of them can be printed in the Annual Institute Report,
so that every one may have an opportunity of reading them.
Agricultural Fairs.
I am pleased to have to report that the agricultural fairs held during 1912 have been the
most successful that have ever been held. The quality of the exhibits was in most cases most
satisfactory and an improvement on previous years, also the entries in most classes showed a
marked increase, A better interest is now taken and keener rivalry shown by farmers and
fruit-growers. This is as it should be. If by means of these fairs the spirit of friendly rivalry
is engendered, it must of necessity lead to improved methods in farming. It is human nature
to try and excel, and if a man is beaten, he goes away determined to beat the other fellow
next year. This causes him to think how he can grow a finer apple, a bigger turnip, or a better
colt, and as a consequence leads to the adoption of better cultural methods and the better
selection of stock.
The majority of the agricultural associations, I am pleased to state, have a good balance
to their credit. The Department, as usual, supplied judges to all fairs, and our selection, I
think, met with general approval.
Collection of Agricultural Statistics.
Arrangements were effected by the Department at the beginning of last year with the
object of collecting reliable statistical information concerning agricultural production. With
this end in view, institute Secretaries were appointed Crop Correspondents, and printed forms
were sent out to them with instructions to mail them to each member of their institutes, and
have them returned to the Department.
I regret to have to report that 5this has worked out very unsatisfactorily. Farmers seem
strangely adverse to supplying this information, and in the case of some institute districts a
very small percentage of farmers have sent in the forms supplied them. I would therefore
take this occasion of appealing to all members of Farmers' Institutes to help out the work of
this Department by supplying the information sought for on these forms. The information given
will be treated as confidential, and will simply be used for the compilation of statistics as to production in the Province. The time occupied in filling out these forms would not be long, and if
we had the support of all farmers we would be able to give out for the information of the
general public reliable statistical information which would prove interesting and of great
value.
I trust, therefore, that farmers will endeavour, to work in co-operation with the Department in this regard during the present year.
Agricultural Commission.
Mainly as a result of the last Central Convention of Farmers' Institutes, Royal Commission
on Agriculture has been appointed by the Provincial Government in order to make a thorough
investigation into agriculture and its needs, with the view of evolving some method by which
agriculture may be legitimately aided and developed. This Commission has already been
appointed, and has held its first sessions.    Some time ago notification was sent to all institute 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 23
Secretaries informing them that the delegates attending the Annual Convention would have an
opportunity of meeting the members of the Commission. I interviewed the Chairman of the
Commission on this subject, and he has made arrangements so that any delegate who wishes
■to give evidence may have an opportunity. It appeared to me that it was a unique opportunity
for the farmers of the Province, through their delegates to the Central Convention, to present
their views to the Commission while it is in session in Victoria.
Growth of Department of Agriculture.
In order to meet the rapidly increasing demand for information on agricultural matters,
and in order to more effectively cover the vast territory contained in this Province, new officials
were appointed in this Department dn various lines. The following are the new additions to
the staff for 1912 :—
Permanent Staff.—W. T. McDonald, Live-stock Commissioner; W. J. Bonavia, Secretary
and Statistician; H. Thornber, Assistant Horticulturist, Kamloops; H. E. Upton, Poultry
Instructor; W. H. Brittain, Plant Pathologist.
Temporary Assistance.—Edwin Smith, Cold-storage and Pre-cooling Investigator; A. B.
Tweddle, Crop and Labour Commissioner; J. B. Acland, Clerk; G. Foulkes, Clerk.
As evidencing the very rapid extension of work which has taken place in the Department
during the past- two years, I may state that 141,760 bulletins, reports, and circulars were sent
out, principally to institute members. There were 14,35S letters received in the Department
and 43,124 sent out.
Exhibition and Publicity Work.
The valuable work which has been undertaken by the Provincial Government in past
years was carried out this year more extensively by the Department. Exhibitions of fresh and
bottled fruits, vegetables, timber, minerals, fisheries, etc., were made at many places in the
North-west Provinces, Eastern Canada, and the United States. A car-load of apples was also
sent over to the Hon. J. H. Turner, Agent-General in London, for exhibition in that country.
These were exhibited at Manchester, and later at the Royal Horticultural Society's Show at
Vincent Square, London. The Society awarded the Provincial Government their gold medal,
this being the seventh time this coveted honour has been secured by the Province.
The places at which exhibitions were made in the North-west Provinces were as follows:
Winnipeg, Edmonton, Saskatoon, Regina, Brandon. The work was taken in hand by W. J.
Brandrith as Exhibition Commissioner, who was very effectively assisted by H. McClure
Johnson.
All these exhibits attracted a great deal of attention and favourable comment, and
undoubtedly will prove the means of encouraging immigration from the Middle West to this
Province.
A large amount of literature was distributed at these fairs to those attending. Our fruit
was universally admired, and visitors always stated that they preferred British Columbia fruit
when they could get it.
In addition to advertising the resources and advantages which our country possesses, this
work will tend towards establishing a market for our fruit in these Provinces. The huge timber
specimens which were on display at these exhibitions attracted great wonder and admiration,
and very effectively advertised our timber resources.
Late in the year, exhibits were made at Toronto, Ottawa, and London, Ont., which were
conducted by the same gentlemen. A very large show was made at the great Toronto National
Exhibition. This fair is one of the largest in the world, and attendance during the time it was
in progress was.over one million.
There is no doubt but that the British Columbia exhibit, with its tempting array of luscious
fruits, wonderful timber display, etc., was the centre of attraction at this great fair, and was
constantly thronged with eager admiring crowds, seeking for information about the country
which could raise such wonderful products. Not only have many desirable settlers been attracted
to our Province through the exhibitions carried out during the past five years at Toronto, but
it has had the effect of attracting a large amount of capital also.
Exhibits were made also at London, Ont., and at the Dominion Fair at Ottawa. Both of
these were well staged and attracted good attention.   The one at Ottawa was especially creditable. "N 24 British Columbia 1913
This was staged and managed exclusively by H. McClure Johnson, and reflected great credit on
his artistic taste and abilities.
One of the largest exhibits which the Department has ever staged was made later at the
International Dry-farming Congress, held in the City of Lethbridge, Alta. Boards of trade and
public bodies were invited to contribute, and many of them responded with capital exhibits,
which were staged in the same building, all forming a part of the Provincial exhibit. This also
was certainly the most attractive display on the grounds, and attracted very great attention
and favourable comment. It was to be regretted, however, that the beautiful display which we
made was not staged in the large building in which the' other principal exhibitors had staged
theirs. The building which we had was unsuitable for the purpose, but in spite of this w,e
managed to make a very effective showing.
The last exhibit of the season was made at the great 'United States Land Show, held in the
City .of Chicago, November 23rd to December Sth. Through the courtesy of the C.P.R., a
car-load of exhibits was taken free to Chicago. I had the honour of taking charge of this show
myself, and had associated with me in the work H. McClure Johnson, A. T. Johnson, M. S.
Middleton (Assistant Horticulturist), A. T. Shotbolt, and Judge Ryan, of Cranbrook. The U.S.
Customs Department very kindly allowed this car-load to go in free of duty, an act of
international courtesy for which I should like to express appreciation. The space secured by
the Department was well situated in the centre of the building, directly opposite the main
entrance, and extended 70 feet in length, consisting of seven booths. Two booths were devoted
to minerals, timber, fisheries, preserved fruits, canned goods, tobacco, etc. The other five booths
were devoted exclusively to fresh and bottled fruits. The whole exhibit was very striking, and
caught the eye with its wonderful blaze of colour immediately one entered the building. Two
hundred boxes of fruit were staged and a fine collection of bottled fruits. The whole display
was draped with green velvet, which showed the colour of the fruit off to very good advantage.
Interspersed along the front of the exhibit and on side-tables were fancy baskets filled with
extra fine specimens of apples. The whole display was decorated with palms and ferns, which
put on the finishing touches. The demand for information about our Province at Chicago, more
especially about the northern lands, was possibly greater than at any of the other exhibitions.
The Americans showed a very keen interest in the potentialities of our Province, and many
hundreds of these signified their intention of taking up lands or otherwise investing in our
different industries.
Our presence at Chicago will go a long way towards correcting the false impression which
the American people seem to have regarding climatic conditions in British Columbia. Our
exhibit showed more plainly than any words could do what our climate must be to produce the
wonderful fruit which they saw. During the progress of the Chicago Land Show, lectures
illustrated with kinematograph views showing the different industries of the Province, also
lantern-slides, were given four times daily to attendances averaging from 200 to 500. These
lectures were undertaken by Mr. Ryan and myself.
At the conclusion of the show all perishable products were distributed to leading people in
Chicago and to charities. A great deal of credit is due to those who supplied exhibits for the
excellent quality of what they sent, and the effective way in which they were graded and packed.
Concluding, I would say that the exhibition-work which has been conducted during the past
year has beeii a great success, and must bring before the public very forcibly the wonderful
opportunities and natural resources possessed by this Province.
Resolutions adopted Last Year.
You will probably all be interested in learning of the action taken on the resolutions adopted
by this Conference last year. I note that a resolution has come in to be considered by this
Convention, asking that in future your Superintendent report as soon as possible as to what
action has been taken by the Government on resolutions passed at the Convention. This is a good
suggestion, and shall be acted upon. I will state shortly what result has been accomplished by
the resolutions passed at the Central Convention last year.
Resolution 1 (South Kootenay). Re Discretionary Power being given to Deputy Fire
Wardens to issue Permits.—This was referred by me to the Forestry Department, and an answer
was received from them, stating that the matter would receive consideration, so that the wishes
of the farmers might be met in this respect. 2 (South Kootenay). Re Telephones.—According to this resolution, a committee was
appointed by your Superintendent, who interviewed the Premier concerning this matter. It is
a question of policy for the Government, and I am not in a position to state whether action will
be taken along these lines.
3 (Fire Valley and Lake Shore). Re Exemption of Farm Property from Taxation.—In
connection with this resolution, I beg to inform the Convention that the recommendations of the
Commission on Taxation will come before the present session of the Legislature in the form of a
Bill, and there is every probability that the same will be carried into effect.
4 (Chilliwack). Re Foul Weeds and Orchard Pests on Indian Reserves.—The Federal
Department of Indian Affairs was communicated with on this subject, and a reply received from
them, stating that they were prepared to take any necessary action when any case was called
to their attention. I understand that an investigation was made regarding the state of the
Indian reserve at Chilliwack.
5 (Summerland). Additional Experimental Farms.—Since the last session of the Farmers'
Institute Convention, an experimental farm has been started by the Federal Government on
Vancouver Island, and another one in the Columbia Valley.
6 (Arrow Park). Erosion of Banks of Rivers.—This resolution was drawn to the attention
of the Attorney-General's Department and the C.P.R. I am not aware whether any definite
action has been taken concerning it.
7 (Burton City). Cancellation of Reserves.—I am not aware of any action having been
taken concerning this resolution.
8. (Burton City). Alteration of "Municipal Clauses Amendment Act."—A reply was
received from the Hon. the Attorney-General stating that by section 34 of the Act of 1912 the
" Municipal Act" was amended so as to permit of agricultural associations being exempted from
taxation.
9 (Crawford Bay). Assistance to Public Libraries.—A reply was received from the Hon.
the Provincial Secretary, stating that it was the intention of his Department at the next session
of Parliament to submit a Bill to the Government, and recommend that same be passed, providing
for the establishment of such libraries.
10 (Kootenay Lake). Re Fence Law.—No action has been taken on the lines of this
resolution.
11 (Crawford Bay). Bounty on. Hawks, Skunks, Coyotes, and Gophers.—This resolution
was submitted to the Hon. the Attorney-General, who replied that he had submitted the matter
to the Provincial Game Warden, asking for his opinion.
12. (Summerland). Duty on Fruit.—This resolution has been taken up vigorously by this
Department, and also by the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association, and every influence
will be brought to bear, and pressure made, with a view of having it carried into effect.
13 (West Kootenay). Cheaper Money for the Farmer.—Largely resulting from this
resolution, which was submitted to the Government, and from others passed at the last session
of the Farmers' Institutes, a Royal Commission on Agriculture was appointed by the Government
to inquire into all matters affecting agriculture, with a view to the betterment of conditions.
This Commission has now been appointed.
14 (New Denver). Careless Fire Patrol by Railways.—Resulting from this resolution. I
have to inform the Convention that it is the intention of the Forestry Department that railway
companies shall be compelled to maintain an efficient fire patrol during the summer months,
when there is danger of bush fires.
15 (Salmon Arm). Enilorsation of Amendment to "Inheritance Act."—This resolution was
submitted to the Hon. the Attorney-General.
16 (Northern Okanagan). Employment of Road Engineers on District Work.—This is
receiving the attention of the Public Works Department.
17 (Northern Okanagan). Travelling Expert in Tobacco.—Demonstration-work in the
growing of tobacco was not carried on by this Department during the past year, owing to the
lack of interest shown and the difficulty of securing a suitable man for the purpose. The
Department considers that the money spent on this work might be used to better advantage.
IS (Burton City). Repeal of Stumpage on Forest Products.—No action has been taken on
this resolution. N 26 British Columbia 1913
19 (Spallumcheen). Instruments to warn Approach of Frost.—This matter was taken up
with the Meteorological Branch of the Dominion Government, and as a result several new
stations have been started by them. The Provincial Government considered that it would not
be advisable for them to furnish instruments, as it would be duplicating the work which is being
carried out by the Dominion Government in this regard.
20 (Kettle Valley). Exhibit at Dry-farming Congress, Lethbridge.—As a result of this
resolution, the Provincial Government, through this Department, staged one of the largest
exhibits representative of the whole Province, and effectively advertising our agricultural and
fruit-growing possibilities, as also all the industries of the Province, which was an unqualified
success, and attracted very great attention.
21 (Nanairno-Cedar). The Importation of Birds as Farmers' Friends.—The Natural History
Society is importing to Vancouver Island the birds stated in the resolution, and also some other
birds which are insectivorous, but not injurious to the fruit industry.
22 (Aldergrove). Railroads to maintain Proper Fences along Lines.—Concerning this
resolution, a reply was received from the Hon. the Attorney-General, stating that it was a case
for the Railway Commission, in the case of all Dominion railways operating in this Province, the
majority of which are authorized by Dominion charter.
23 (West Kootenay). Enforcement of " Water Act."—This resolution was referred to the
Comptroller of Water Rights, and a reply was received, stating that section 289a, which was
added to the " Water Act" last year, provides a summary method of determining whether
licensees are complying with the terms of their licences, and provides for penalties as requested
by the resolution.
24. Re Resolutions to be in Secretary's Hands in Good Time to be printed.—Printed
resolutions as received from institutes were sent out from the Department as requested.
25 (Sooke). Terminal Elevators.—I understand that this matter is being considered by the
Dominion Government.
Agricultural Conditions.
In spite of articles which appear from time to time in the press, agricultural production
is steadily increasing in the Province, though in some lines, such as dairying and stock-raising,
there is a temporary falling-off, owing to conditions which cannot be controlled. Statistics, when
they are available for the past year, will show a material increase over the previous years.
The unexampled prosperity of the Province has retarded the full measure of agricultural
production which we should like to see brought about. Our young men can secure more
remunerative work with shorter hours of labour in our cities, mining and logging camps,
canneries, sawmills, road-work, etc. This has had the effect of making it very difficult for the
farmer to secure suitable and efficient help at prices which he can afford to pay.
Lack of organization and co-operation amongst farmers also materially delays agricultural
expansion. The middleman and retailer have perfected their organization, and if the farmer is
to secure the price for his produce to which he is justly entitled, he must follow their own
example and fight them by their own methods.
The experience of the past year in marketing the fruit-crop points to the imperative necessity
of co-operation amongst the farmers. There was an exceptionally heavy crop of fruit of excellent
quality, for which, on the whole, very poor prices were obtained. This was not owing to
overproduction, but to lack of efficient organization and co-operation amongst the fruit-growers
themselves. The American States of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho had the best crop in their
history. The same applied to British Columbia. These four countries endeavored to market
their total output in the three Prairie Provinces, with a population of under one million people,
i-n practically two months' time. The result could be foretold. The lesson, though it has proved
expensive, will be salutary. It is not right to judge the industry on one year's result with bad
business methods.
British Columbia growers more than held their own in the markets of the North-west. The
American shipping organizations were badly demoralized, and shipped a great deal of their fruit
on consignment to glutted markets. The prices they obtained for their fruit were not as
satisfactory as those obtained by British Columbia growers.
In order to guard against this deplorable state of affairs happening again, there are several
matters which should receive immediate attention:— 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 27
(1.) The protection of the Canadian grower against unfair and ruinous competition by an
increase in duty. Why should we have to pay 25 cents a box duty on apples shipped into the
United States when they can send a box into our Dominion on payment of 13 cents? Ordinary
fairness demands that the duty on American fruit should be put on a parity with that on
Canadian fruit entering America.
(2.) Strong representations should be made to the Federal authorities towards the
enforcement of proper legislation prohibiting the dumping of the surplus production of American
fruit in the Dominion.
(3.) The organization of the growers is imperative. At the present time we have about
twelve shipping associations, which are putting up a good grade of fruit, and marketing their
produce individually, without any agreement between the different associations as to prices.
The establishment of a central selling agency to control prices and arrange for the proper
distribution of the fruit must be taken in hand.
(4.) It is essential that cold-storage facilities be provided to hold fruit. The fruit-grower
himself should have storage-room on his ranch to take care of part of his winter stock.
Cold-storage warehouses should be established in our Coast cities, and also in the principal
distributing centres of the North-west Provinces, and till this is done there will always be a
risk of a glutted market. This most necessary work can only be accomplished by the co-operation
of producers.
(5.) The best man that can be procured, no matter what salary it may be necessary to pay
him, should be put in charge of the selling and distribution of the fruit. He should have his
correspondents at all the principal centres at which fruit is sold, advising him of requirements.
It is to be hoped that growers will now finally wake up to the absolute necessity for
effecting arrangements along the lines which I have enumerated.
In conclusion, gentlemen, I would like to express my appreciation of the courteous treatment
which has always been shown me as your Superintendent by the officials and individual members
of all institutes. These harmonious relations between those who are making their living out
of the land and the Provincial Department of Agriculture are a good sign. It is my earnest wish
that this Department may be made the most efficient organization possible, and one that will
prove of real service to farmers and fruit-growers, and towards this desired result I would ask
your cordial co-operation. We are always ready to listen to suggestions and advice from farmers
as to how conditions may be bettered and agricultural production increased. Though we may not
always be able to act on these suggestions, you may rest assured that they will receive the most
careful attention.
Please accept, one and all, my best wishes for your prosperity and success during the present
year, which I hope may be one of good crops and high prices. May I, as a last word, again
suggest to you the absolute necessity for co-operation and unity of purpose, so that you may secure
the prices for your produce to which you are justly entitled, and which you are not getting at
the present time.
Moved by 3. Bailey (Chilliwack), and seconded, "That J. Johnstone (West Kootenay), J.
A. Catherwood (Mission), and D. Matheson (Spallumcheen) be appointed to deal with the
Superintendent's report."    Carried.
Discussion on Resolutions.
Alex. Hamilton (Pender Island) : We did not have time to forward resolutions, and I was
instructed to support certain resolutions and to support amendments, and what I want to say
now is, will there be a chance of seeing the Resolutions Committee before they make their
final report? 1 was instructed to support certain resolutions, and to add a little to them in
places; therefore I would like to meet with the Resolutions Committee before they report
finally.
Wm. E. Scott: You will have a full opportunity of supporting the resolutions or otherwise
when the resolutions come up for discussion.
T. Noble (Valdes Island) : I do not find certain resolutions printed, and I wish to know
if they could be received later.
Wm. E. Scott: Such resolutions will not be considered until all the other resolutions have
been dealt with. N 28 British Columbia 1913
W. H. Stuart (Shawnigan) : I notice there are many resolutions dealing with the same
question. Could we have a copy of the resolutions we are to discuss before we discuss them,
showing what resolutions are coupled together, so that we would know whether they would
embody the resolution we have in this printed form?
Wm. E. Scott: About 30 per cent, of the resolutions dealt with the same subject and I
understand they have been consolidated. As regards supplying every member of this Convention with a copy, I regret that it is impossible. They will be read out and explained by the
Secretary when they come up for discussion.
Report of Resolutions Committee.
The Secretary then read the report of the Resolutions Committee:—
Victoria, January 20th, 1913.
Wm. E. Scott, Esq.,
Deputy Minister and Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes.
Yours Resolutions Committee beg to report as follows: That we have carefully considered
the resolutions as sent in from the various institutes throughout the Province for discussion
at the Central Convention, and in doing so have in several instances grouped all such resolutions bearing on the same subject into one, and in other cases have brought some forward in
the form of the resolution of the institute which apparently covers the subject best, and those
which we consider do not duly come under the scope of this Convention or are already provided
for in their respective Provincial departments have been entirely eliminated.
Yours respectfully,
Chas. J. Thomson,
Summerland Farmers' Institute.
W. W. Mooney,
Crawford Bay Farmers' Institute.
F. E. Harmer,
Central Parle Farmers' Institute.
W. E. Paull,
South Kootenay Farmers' Institute.
Cheap Money for Settlers.
Resolution 1 (South Kootenay Farmers' Institute). "Whereas the settlers of this Province have, in almost all districts, to pay an extremely high price for their lands, and the cost
of clearing and improving same is also very high; and whereas considerable time must elapse
before sufficient returns can be derived from recently cleared lands to enable them to live on
and continue to clear and improve their property, especially those entering upon the fruitgrowing industry, which the Government is in many ways endeavouring to assist and establish
in this Province; Be it therefore Resolved, That the Government of British Columbia be urged
to adopt a system of loaning money to bona-flde settlers at a low rate of interest, thereby
enabling them to develop their land to a state of remunerative production in a much shorter
space of time."
The Chairman: This is a resolution which naturally has my cordial support. I may
point out that the establishment of the Royal Commission on Agriculture was effected mainly
to consider points of that sort. Still, it will do no harm to have some discussion from the
delegates attending this Convention.
Moved by J. Johnstone (West Kootenay), seconded by D. Matheson (Spallumcheen),
" That the mover have ten minutes and the seconder five minutes in speaking to resolutions."
Carried.
W. E. Paull (South Kootenay) : I do not think I have anything further to say on the
matter. We have heard in our Superintendent's report that the thing has been very' well
threshed out beforehand, and probably better than I could have done it. We can easily see
that the majority of the institutes are in sympathy with us. I consider, and most of you
consider, that agriculture is the backbone of every and any country, and the Governments of
most countries are assisting and endeavouring to assist a great many trust companies, manufacturers, corporations, and so forth; why not assist us in one of the best industries and Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 29
followings that men have—i.e., agriculture? Personally, I came into the Province with a
great deal of hope and faith. I bumped against all the problems I expect most of you bumped
up against. I brought in a little capital with me and made a few mistakes, but I felt that if
I could get a little assistance I could go along and see my way clear before me, and I think
this Convention can do no better than press upon the Government some resolution of this
nature.    I would be one of the first to make application for it.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : I have much pleasure in seconding that resolution. There
must be something wrong with agriculture, because we find the different countries of the
world working along the same lines. We find the United States doing the same thing. We
find the banks are practically shut down on the farmers and the loan companies at the
present time do not loan to them. There must be some reason for this, and so far as the
banks are concerned as an index of the financial standing of the countrj', and the banks are
the best, they consider the farmers are a bad risk from some cause or another. It becomes
our duty to inquire why. There are a good many reasons why, and I do not think we need
ask any farmer here why, because it is patent to any one. I just want to say something with
regard to the question as it affects this Province. We find the condition something like this:
We find the one great proposition in this Province is the clearing of land. We find that a
very expensive job. We find people, good citizens, who take up land, have about $2,000 or
$3,000 capital, which, owing to the high cost of living and clearing, is soon exhausted, and
they are suffering from lack of capital. That is as it affects the individual. You may say
this is a poor business proposition, and the individual has not any right to come in under the
circumstance; but there is another side, as it affects the Province. Suppose a man had $10,000
or $12,000, and he could hold himself up and cultivate his land until it is revenue-producing,
that is not the man who is going to invest his money in that way. As I say, when the different
countries are taking it up. when the C.P.R. will advance $2,000 to the settler on the land,
asking nothing but the security of the land, it becomes a pertinent question to the different
Provinces and to the Dominion as a whole. In this morning's paper I see it is considered a
most feasible way to advance money, but I suggest that this matter be referred to a committee in order that they may bring forward a scheme to submit to the Government, whereby
this thing may be done. I will not move this motion, but I would suggest that this would be
a feasible way of handling the question. It is a live question; it was a live question last
year; therefore I would suggest that a Committee be appointed before it is voted on.
Premier McBride entered the room at this point, and discussion was postponed.
Wm. E. Scott: Gentlemen, our Premier, Sir Richard McBride, has always made a point
of attending this Convention and encouraging us by his addresses. You may remember, sir,
about seven years ago, being present at a Convention in the Department, when there were
less than a dozen people sitting round the table. It will probably give you an idea of how
we are progressing when I tell you that we had an increase of membership of over 1,000 in
the last year. We have representatives in attendance to-day from every part of the Province,
from the Bulkley Valley, the west coast of Vancouver Island, the Queen Charlotte Islands,
and right away in the south-east of the Province from Windermere, Golden, Cranbrook,
Revelstoke, and other points. You have here men selected by their institutes as capable of
representing the. views of the farmers at this Convention. These delegates represent 8,000
farmers in the Province of British Columbia, and their views, therefore, must carry weight.
I have much pleasure, on your behalf, gentlemen,- in asking the Premier to kindly address the
Convention.
I am very glad indeed that it is my good fortune to again address the Annual Convention of
the delegates from the various Farmers' Institutes throughout British Columbia. It is not a
difficult task for me to recollect the first occasion upon which I was privileged to speak to your
organization in the rooms of the Department in the Parliament Buildings. The number present
then was indeed much less than the splendid audience I face this morning. This circumstance
in itself is a very gratifying evidence of the increased interest that the years have brought about
in the work of your Association, and, of course, in the participation in that work which the
farmers themselves are responsible for. The Government from year to year has been asked to
appropriate public funds in order to assist in the movement that you stand for, and I think that
I can say with satisfaction that the moneys voted to date have always been well and wisely
distributed.    Here and there certain questions may have arisen, but in the main there has as yet N 30 British Columbia 1913
to be placed on record anything of a serious character that would reflect in the slightest degree
on the efficiency of your undertaking. The Farmers' Institutes of British Columbia seem to
exercise in a peculiar sense a paternal care, and the variety and volume of business with which
they are accustomed to deal make up an interesting programme. I find, as the years roll on, you
seem to take up more and still more responsibility, and to exhibit, if it be at all possible, still
closer interest in all of these subjects that come within your jurisdiction.
Now, with regard to the increase in numbers as well as volume and variety of business, there
is nothing more pleasing to the Government than to find evidences of these facts on all sides,
because we feel that with the co-operation of you gentlemen the efficiency of the Department of
Agriculture of British Columbia is bound to be all the more pronounced. I think the one aim
and object is to promote, as far as may be consistent with the general public interest, the
expansion of agriculture and horticulture as our Provincial industry. If the Department were
not to have the goodwill and kindly encouragement from the farmers of the country themselves,
I feel that any of the efforts—I care not how strenuous they may be that it might put forth—
would be more or less futile; but with the inspiration and encouragement of the farmers we
ought to have a Department second to none.
In British Columbia it is said that farming is still in its earliest infancy, but for my part,
if the result of the undertaking to date of the fruit-growers and agriculturists of the land may be
measured by the successes in various competitions at home and abroad, why, sir, I do not hesitate
to be responsible for the assertion that, though we may be young in years in regard to agriculture,
we are quite aged in experience. My experience leads me, gentlemen, to the conclusion that,
apart altogether from what help may be offered you by the Government of the day, the best
stimulus which the Administration may give to your industry will be found in the transportation
of this country. We make the boast that we have productive lands, but if feasible means be not
at hand whereby these lands may be reached they might just as well be away in the Arctic
regions. To the end that a policy of transportation may be developed, much time and means
have been devoted by the Administration in the last few years towards securing for you
additional trunk roads and competitive railway-lines. When once agriculture in British Columbia
is given competitive railway systems and afforded trunk roads and fair means of reaching the
railway-tracks and near-lying markets, I think a great deal will have been accomplished towards
making your industry a success, and much will have been done towards a long-looked-for relief,
in so far as the supply of dairy and farm products is concerned, to our own local markets.
Every year we are brought face to face with the disappointing statistics only too well known to
you in British Columbia. We hope to see these disappointing statistics quickly done away with,
and the money which heretofore has been sent abroad to other sections of the Dominion and the
United States for these foodstuffs kept at home for our own farmers. On this question of
transportation, it is a pleasure to me to be able to tell you that the programmes of the
Government for the past few years are being well lived up to, and give every promise that the
undertakings which we expected to be completed within a given time will be in a position to
operate by the dates fixed. Not only will the farmers in the older sections of the country at
once secure profitable support, but in the great interior and northern country we hope to see such
an added interest taken in the development of our agricultural wealth as to bring these zones of
the Province equally into light. With respect to associations that have been cultivated so
profitably, I may say that we who form the Executive Council always feel gratified at the
evidence of co-operation which obtains between you. We know the Deputy Minister and his
staff are good men and true, and earnest in the endeavour to have the various duties assigned to
them performed earnestly; and we know on your part we can look to you for recognition of this
in a very pronounced way, one that will mean that wherever Farmers' Institutes can afford any
assistance at all it will be readily forthcoming.
I find from the Deputy Minister that the various departmental' works which he and his
staff have undertaken to carry out in the way of fruit-packing schools, field-crop competitions,
expert demonstrators and lecturers, distribution of powder, and a score of other items all equally
important have been taken up by you, and have been given that acknowledgment which their
importance demands. AVhile the Government is in office it is there as your servant, and it is
intent upon giving to you a stewardship that will bring to you the best results. There is one
condition that is gratifying in British Columbia, and that is that people generally are anxious
for greater expansion than has been experienced by the farming industry.    Away in the far 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 31
north you will find complaint and criticism that there is a great deal still to be done, and even
down in the old-settled southern zones the same conditions obtain. Nothing serves to make
success more certain than a feeling of dissatisfaction such as I have attempted to portray. If
we were all of the mind that we were doing everything we possibly could do, and were content
to rest on our oars, it would in the end lead to naught and cultivate an apathy; but when you
find everyone critical and exacting, you can look for a lot of live farmers and institutes, and that
should mean an energetic Department and ambitious Government. I would like you to believe,
whether you can give your support to the Administration or not, that we want to do everything in
fairness for the farmers, and we do not want anything to stand in the way of a progressive
policy when we feel that the best interests of the country are being preserved. Just now British
Columbia has undertaken in the way of Provincial responsibility more than any other Province
has ever done, but we have faith in British Columbia. We have no hesitancy in endorsing the
statements made with regard to the lumbering, farming, fishing, and mineral wealth of the
country. There is but one duty before us, plain and simple; that is to offer the country and the
people within it every reasonable and fair opportunity that will bring about the development
of these marvelous latent resources. There is still more to be done, and these remarks refer as
well to the farming industry. We want to help you still more; we feel with a live Department
and energetic policy, and with a fair amount of encouragement, we can make for you a success
in agriculture.
Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, it is not my intention to detain you at any length.
I was anxious to come here and say, on the part of the Government, we were all delighted to
know this year's meeting was so well attended, and that the work on the part of the Farmers'
Institutes had been so well attended. We know the inconvenience and self-sacrifice it means to
forgather in convention, and we appreciate what you individually and collectively as citizens of
British Columbia are doing to make this most important industry hold and maintain the place
in British Columbia it is easily entitled to.
Moved by Mr. Campbell, seconded by Mr. Johnstone, "That a most hearty vote of thanks
be tendered to the Premier for his address."    Carried.
Sir Richard McBride, K.C.M.G.: I am indeed grateful for your very generous recognition
of my services. I am sorry I cannot stop to listen to some of your discussions this morning. I
wish you well, and hope it will be a most successful Convention. I will be pleased to see any
delegates later on.
Cheap Money for Settlers.—Discussion Continued.
J. M. Edmundson (Creston) : Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Convention,—As the
cheap-money question is one which seems to concern a great many here, I wish to make a few
remarks from our little place of Creston. We want cheap money. Why? As a matter of fact,
land in British Columbia is dear. It is $100 an acre. Now, gentlemen, some time ago, seven
years ago, I came to Creston, and I bought land at $17; many other people did the same, and
they went to work, and all of those men to-day are getting along very nicely. They have made
marked advancement. On the other hand, a firm comes in and buys 7,000 acres in the
neighbourhood of $13 an acre. They put it on the market at $100; they keep the timber. We
used to have the timber. We find in buying a 10-acre lot the man has to be possessed of, say,
$3,000—-$1,000 for the land, $1,000 to build the house, and $1,000 to clear the land. The
Government has done wisely and well to put a 4-per-cent. tax on these propositions. We never
could pay these prices. We can take $3,000 and go into the interior or the west and get along
with a going concern and make it stick. Then again, so soon as we ranchers come in and improve
our land we are assessed at $100 an acre. There is a lock and key en the land in our part of
the country. How in the world is the Government going to grant a loan to a man on a proposition
if they have got to have a valuation? What is that valuation going to be? If the lands in
British Columbia were settled all over, and the land became a little cheaper and the Government
lent on this land, their loan would not be so good as if developed by actual experience to a
certain price. People have started at the wrong end of the ladder. I think this cheap-money
proposition and the assessment should be regulated; then if the Government wished to make a
loan to people they would have a basis of valuation to go on, and then on that basis of valuation
they would know how to give a loan to the rancher. There are people in there to-day who want
to get along, and they say they want a little cheap money.    We have gone so far, we have got N 32 British Columbia 1913
our land partly improved and our fruit-trees beginning to bear. If we could just get the money
to tide us over it would be a great advantage to us. If a man gives a mortgage on his property
for three years, before he knows it the mortgage is up and they crowd him at once, and he does
not know what to do. Perhaps he goes to the bank and gives his note for $100. Then there is
the search in the Registry Office and all of those expenses which usually make up another one
per cent. I have been through the mill, and it cost me this to get what I have got. You go to a
lawyer and ask him to put that loan through for you; he goes to the registry and searches title,
and the bill possibly comes to $50. If a man could get his money at a 5 per cent, rate, and the
Government would give him twenty years to pay that money in, he would be able to develop his
land, knowing he had only to pay a very small rent, and it would give him encouragement. On
the other hand, a man gets a 10-acre proposition, but he cannot develop it. The Government
cannot give him very much, because he has not much on it. The Government says: " Here, we
will give you a loan, and then you can pay part when you clear some, and the rest when you clear
some more." Then, again, there is the man who is a little better off, who has a little clearing.
He is giving you a better security. If he gets his interest at 5 per cent, that is $5 if he makes
$100; it is helping his family out. In that way it would help us out Then, again, the next
proposition is the express rates; I was very pleased to hear the Premier enlarge on this
proposition, but at the same time we cannot say that competition is going to lower the rates.
They won't do that. I would say, gentlemen, that if the railway companies gave the rancher a
show for three or four months of the year to handle his perishable product, you would see this
Province go  ahead.
S. Smillie (Burton) : Our institution had a resolution something along these lines. Our
district is settled up by people who have not a great deal of means. Owing to the lack of means,
a great many of them find they have to go out from their places and work on Government roads
and logging camps. If they were able to get loans as they improved their places, they would be
able to do more. If they were able to stop at home, they would be able to pay interest on the
money without borrowing, also the land would be cleared up much faster and everything would
progress.
Moved and seconded, " That the debate on this resolution be adjourned until 2 p.m."
Carried.
The Chairman announced that photographer would take a photograph of delegates on.
steps of Empress Hotel, and requested all present to attend.
The Convention adjourned at 12 noon.
Afternoon  Session.
The Convention was called to order at 2 p.m. by Wm. E. Scott.
\
Resolution on Superintendent's Report.
The Committee on the Superintendent's report beg to endorse this excellent report in its.
entirety, and especially do they draw the attention of the members of this Convention to his
remarks on the necessity of immediately devising means for the proper distribution and marketing of the fruits and produce of our Province.
Jas. Johnstone.
J.  A.   Catherwood.
D. Matheson.
Carried unanimously.
The Chairman: It has been suggested to me by a number of delegates to this Convention
that, owing to the fact that the Annual Provincial Poultry-show is being held at the Agricultural
Grounds, the delegates should have an opportunity of attending it. I would like an expression
of opinion as to whether they wish to do that. We might arrange to postpone on Thursday
afternoon, and have an extra meeting on Thursday night.
Moved by F. D. Campbell (Maple Ridge), and seconded, "That the business be proceeded
with, as the delegates could attend the Poultry-show in the evening if they wished to do so."
Carried.  v* 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 33
Cheap Money for Settlers.—Discussion Continued.
The discussion on resolution 1 was then resumed.
The Chairman: Regarding this resolution, I would say, gentlemen, that the Provincial
Government is not likely to take any action on the lines of the resolution until it has the report
of the Royal Commission on Agriculture.
Alex. Hamilton (Pender Island) : I thought it would take less time if a committee was
appointed to go before the Agricultural Commission.
C. S. Handcock (Northern Okanagan) : Do you know if the Agriculture Commission is
going to hold meetings in the interior?
The Chairman: Certainly. I was asked to prepare an itinerary, just as a guide to them,
not necessarily for them to follow, but as a basis on which to work.
R. E. Williams (Bulkley Valley) : If it is put up to the Royal Commission, do you intend
to close discussion?
The Chairman: I think it would be advisable, as nearly every one at this Convention would
want to say something on this most vital question, and it would take a great deal of time.
Friday and Saturday have been set aside by the Commissioners for the use of the delegates from
the Farmers' Institutes.
J. Best (Alberni) : Would it not be well for this meeting to sanction this resolution,
anyway? Probably, if it is going to be brought before the Commission, it would not be
necessary to go into the details so much as if we were not going before the Commission; but,
of course, all are in favour of cheap money, anyway.
H. Fraser (Procter and District) : In bringing this before the Agricultural Commission, will
there be any opportunity to enlarge? What I wish to bring in is this: I was instructed to
support this resolution, but my institute has instructed me to endeavour to enlarge on this by the
addition of another clause to the resolution. I understand that any resolution brought to this
Convention is enlarged, restricted, negatived, or anything this Convention desires.
The Chairman:   That is undoubtedly open to the wish of the Convention.
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) : In regard to this very important question, I have had the
pleasure of attending one of the sittings of the Agricultural Commission, and I noticed there the
length of time taken in giving evidence, and I am sure the gentlemen here could not all speak
on such a subject; it would take fifteen days. Three gentlemen I heard, and they took up the
whole of the time. It would be necessary for us to condense it, and let the committee attend.
The Agricultural Commission should sit in every part of this Province. It is an Agricultural
Commission and we want them. I don't know how much they go to the cities, but it is
Agriculture, and we have got to get them down to the country. I inquired if they intended to* sit
in Metchosin, and they said they would go to the country, but did not say they would go to
every institute.    I think it is so important; let us have this Commission right down amongst us.
F. D. Campbell (Maple Ridge) : The best idea is to appoint a strong committee of three
or five, as the Convention agrees, to appear before the Commission. I quite agree with the last
gentleman who got up. To appear before them on Friday or Saturday, it is the best way we
can go about it.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : It is with a view of putting our views before the Commission
that induced me to suggest that we appoint a committee in order that it would be put in shape,
and formulate a policy, so that we will be able to present our case intelligently before the
Commission.
The Chairman: I would say that I think it advisable that the delegates for the institute
who put forward this resolution should be appointed a committee in toto to attend the
Agricultural Commission. I think that any institute that brought forward that resolution should
have its delegate attend the Commission and present its case, and 1 would suggest that you
simply appoint those delegates as your committee.
H. Fraser (Procter) : If the committee is to appear before this Commission, I would like
to have the clause I was instructed about put into the resolution before the committee attends.
The clause was to this effect: that our association was quite satisfied with this resolution, as
it had been endorsed from every part of the Province, and it was confident that every one desired
that the Government should take some action in the matter; but before they did, our institute
desired that the Commission should appoint at once a Commission to inquire into the preparation
S N 34 British Columbia 1913
of similar Acts in other lands where they are in force, particularly in Australia, New Zealand,
etc., as we have in our association a banker from Australia who could give us a great deal of
information on this matter; and the request of my association was that we should request that,
whatever Commission should be appointed to inquire into this matter, there should be at least
one practical farmer who had had experience, as he would understand the conditions under which
the farmer had to labour, and as this Act would solely be passed in the interests of the farmer,
and our association wished to have a practical working-farmer appointed on the Commission, not
from France or Germany, but from Australia and New Zealand, where the conditions approximate
our own.
C. S. Handcock (Northern Okanagan) : The last meeting of our institute brought up this
resolution, but we decided not to bring this forward, so your special instructions to go before a
Commission on' Agriculture rather cuts us out. If you have a committee like that, our institute
would be put out of Court.
The Chairman: If you appoint this committee to wait on the Agricultural Commission from
all those who put up this resolution, it does not mean that other members who wish to present
evidence should not do so. It should be open to all of you, but I would strongly recommend your
appointing this committee to speak on this question.
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : Our institute at Kamloops are so deadly in earnest that they
have given me strict instructions with reference to this cheap money. If you appoint this
committee and the rest of us are left out in the cold, we have no opportunity of saying what we
are instructed to say. It seems to me that we shall fail in our object in a very great measure,
because our institute, and it may be other institutes, although their names are not connected
with this resolution, have discussed this matter thoroughly, and wish to be heard on the subject;
so I hope, if you appoint a committee to go before this Commission, that those of us who are not
associated in this paper with this resolution shall have an opportunity of speaking upon it.
The Chairman: You will all have an opportunity of saying and presenting what evidence
you like.
J. S. Shopland (Comox) : The best thing I can see now is to appoint the whole Convention,
because, as far as I can find out, the whole Province where they have got any land-clearing are
in favour of this proposition. I was surprised to hear so many from the Mainland; I thought it
was the Island only that was so poor and ready for this money-loaning. We have some few who
are wanting to borrow cheap money, but it must not be cheap either. I must say, gentlemen,
that you have to consider the man who is borrowing the money, just as hard as the one who is
loaning it. There is one thing I must say, gentlemen, here, and that it, for buying stock you
cannot get my support unless you can get the Government to insist that it be insured. In every
institute there are quite a number of people who would like to see this through, but I do not
know about 5 per cent.; they are figuring on a lower figure than that. I would like to see this
go through, but I hope it will be well considered on both sides.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : After this Convention has concluded its work, we should
appoint a committee of those interested, and let them thrash out the matter and then appear
before the Commission. Appoint a committee from the whole, and in the meantime we will have
three days in which to think out a practical scheme.
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) : The Commission sits in different sections; that is being
overlooked.
The Chairman : I thought it was quite a good and advisable thing that two days be set apart
for us, but I must also tell you that this Commission is going to sit in every part of the Province
in which there is any agricultural production, and I have been asked by the Chairman to submit
an itinerary of places where there are institutes. If the Royal Commission on Agriculture will
follow out that itinerary, I have no doubt but that you will all be able to give your views. Any
of you who cannot do it here will have an opportunity later of doing it in your own district. I
think Mr. Keffer's suggestion to appoint a committee from the Convention is a good one; then
the rest of you will have the opportunity when they come to your district.
D. B. Kenny  (Kitsumgallum) : Do you think they will go as far north as Kitsumgallum?
The Chairman:   Certainly, there is no reason why they should not.
Moved by Mr. Keffer, seconded by Mr. Griffiths, " That a committee be appointed at the end
of this Convention to present the views of the farmers of the Province of British Columbia
before the Royal Commission on Agriculture."    Carried. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 35
Resolution 1, on being put to the Convention, was carried.
Duty on Fruit coming into Canada.
Resolution 2. " Whereas, owing to the cheaper transportation charges paid by fruit-growers
of the United States, the present duty imposed on fruit coming into Canada does not afford any
protection to the fruit-growers of this Province: Be it therefore Resolved, That we hereby ask
the Dominion Government to raise the duty on fruit coming into Canada to a point which will
afford adequate protection to the fruit-growers of Canada; and that copies of this resolution be
sent to the fruit-growers' associations of the different Provinces of Canada, asking their
co-operation in the matter."
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : If you remember, two years ago we had an investigation, and
I believe there is a reduction, but from the States immediately south of us the freight rates are
just about equal. I think, if you remember, that would be the case, and I believe it was the
understood thing that, if a reduction was made on this side, a reduction would be made on the
other side, and so we would be in the same position. A cheaper rate has been brought about in
Nova Scotia, which will bring the fruit of Nova Scotia in competition with ours in the North-west
Territories. The product of the farmers cannot be influenced, as a rule, by any duty that can be
imposed, because the price is dependent on the markets of the world. But this one particular
item, fruit, for the reason that the best market on the American market is right at home, is the
one thing that can be benefited more than probably any other product; so if it is the policy of
the country to protect the products, then I think we are entitled to that duty being increased, and,
if you notice, the resolution asks the co-operation of the fruit-growers in the East, and I feel
quite sure they will feel quite as strongly on the point as we do.
The Chairman: Before the seconder speaks to that, I must say that you know perfectly well,
gentlemen, and it was embodied in my Superintendent's report, the Government's position in this
matter. That part, of course, is all right, but I would not like this resolution to go through
under a false impression about the cheaper transportation charges made by the fruit-growers in
the States. I see a gentleman at the back of the hall who might give us some information-
on this point, Mr. Pitcairn.
W. A. Pitcairn (Kelowna) : Mr. Scott stated what is no doubt perfectly correct, that in a
great many cases the transportation from Washington and Oregon into the Prairies is greater
than that from the fruit-growing districts of British Columbia. Mr. Scott is evidently seeking
for some amendment to this resolution, or rather he is hoping for criticism upon it. It seems
to me it is rather obscured if you try to pass the resolution as read. Surely every purpose of
your resolution will be carried out by just the last part of your resolution. The present duty
does give some protection. I think the word " any " should not be there. I think you would do
well not to obscure your resolution by talking about railways, and so on.
A. Venables (Okanagan) seconded the resolution, and he was agreeable to the change, saying:
We need better protection on fruit coming into Canada, similar to what the Americans have
established in their country. Therefore I have much pleasure in seconding the motion as
amended, that the Dominion Government raise the duty on fruit.
J. M. Edmundson (Creston) : I have here a list made by the fruit-growers with regard to
the fruit rates, and we will take from Creston to Winnipeg, freight rates per car, 75 cents a
hundred. Well, from Wenatchee to Winnipeg is 60 cents, and that is divided up between two
railways; and if you take to Regina, Moosejaw, and Winnipeg, the rates are about the same as
they are from Wenatchee and Yakima; if the C.P.R. can split up with another railway and carry
at the same rate, there is some discrimination.
The Chairman: The question of freight rates and express rates has been taken up by the
transportation committee of the Fruit-growers' association, and they have effected a very
material saving. There are some exceptional cases, however, where owing to a longer haul our
freight-rates are higher.
Alex. Hamilton (Pender Island) : If you are going to talk tariff, we might as well bring in
another point. There is a high duty on agricultural implements, and it seems to me that if we
are going to meddle with the tariff there is another point we should think about; we should have
free agricultural implements. I think we are placed at a great disadvantage here on the other
side of the mountains.
The Chairman:   I do not think that question could be taken up at this Convention. N 36 British Columbia 1913
S. Smillie (Burton) : Down on the Arrow Lake this last fall a car-load of fruit was sent
down to Medicine Hat and arrived in good condition, the best that season, and they wanted two
or three cars more. Are not some growers of British Columbia fruit selling fruit in Australia
and England? Then the quality of British Columbia fruit was mentioned this morning, the
superior quality, and that it took prizes wherever it was shown. We have a little organization
at Burton, and while we are operating in a small way, we wrote to the Prairie about small
fruits. We were able to sell all the strawberries we could sell at $2.50 a crate at the landing,
and at the same time we got inquiries for this car-load of apples. These inquiries were from
little places one seldom hears of. I met an American, and he had $5,000 to invest, but he had
been told we could not grow fruit here in competition with Washington, and be thought that he
might as well raise fruit in Washington.
D. Matheson (Spallumcheen) : I want things even. If we have reciprocity, let us keep it
even. I think the labour is cheaper over there, and although our lumbermen are protected, they
buy their boxes cheaper over there too. I think the thing ought to be on an even basis. If we
cannot get reciprocity in free trade, let us have reciprocity in tariff.
J. Best (Alberni) : My opinion of this tariff question of the fruit-growers with reference
to duty is that, if I wanted a change of tariff, I would like to see the duty go up on butter and
a few other things. If you are going to have reciprocity on fruit tariffs, I want it on the whole,
cheese, butter, eggs, etc. I don't think it right to specialize on one industry and ask the
Government to take action for one particular industry.
J. Johnstone (West Kootenay) : I have produced butter as well as fruit, and, as I
understand it, no one is asking for a higher duty on fruit than the Americans charge, but wle-
want an equal duty. I propose to ship in cherries into the States, and I don't think it fair that
they should be able to ship in cherries to this Province at a lower rate. I have heard no one
say they want a higher duty, but to have things equal.
The Chairman: If the American ships fruit into Canada at the payment of 13 cents, and
in order for us to tap his markets for fruit, like Chicago, Minneapolis, etc., we have to pay 25
cents, I say that is not equal. Let us bring every pressure to bear with reference to this
question. Why should we send this large amount of money which goes annually into the States,
when we can produce all the fruits that are grown in temperate climes in the Dominion of
Canada?
Motion was carried, amended by substituting " sufficient protection" instead of " any
protection."
Mixed Car-loads of Flour, Feed, Hay, etc.
Resolution 3. " Whereas the refusal of the railway companies to bill a mixed car-load of
flour and feed (in sacks) and baled hay and straw is a hardship to the settler, many of whom
desire to purchase these commodities in wholesale quantities at a time when the same could be
secured at reasonable prices, and are thereby compelled to purchase their supplies from retailers
at greatly enhanced prices: Be it therefore Resolved, That we hereby bring this matter to the
attention of the Railway Commission for their consideration."
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : There is a paradox in reference to the railways refusing and
not refusing. The railway company have refused us along the Arrow Lake, but in talking the
matter over they say they require two kinds of cars for hay and feed; therefore they would have
to bill a car according to the heaviest weight. The weight of a grain-car would be somewhere
about 40,000 lb. on a mixed car; in place of paying for a 20-ton you would have to pay for a;
30-ton car, which would raise the freight, and for that reason they refuse to do it. But there
is a great deal of growling amongst the retailers along that same lake, and there is more or less
collusion amongst the company and merchants, that the one will help the other where it is
possible. We wrote to Nelson to the freight agent, and he simply told us that they would not
do it, but have been told since they would do it. If we could get those commodities at a fair-
rate, there is no doubt it would be of great benefit to the individual rancher who has three or
four head of stock, and some poultry,to get in a supply at a time in the fall when it is cheap,
as a rule. I think one fellow took his wheat to market and got $4 for the load, and we were at
the time paying 2 cents a pound on the lake. That is one of the hardships the settler is up
against. I thought by this resolution it could be brought to the attention of the Railway
Commission.    We were just on the point of ordering the car-load of grain, and in place of it we Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 37
got a letter that the firm found out we were not regular dealers through them, and could not
deal with us, although we were ordering it through the institute. That is the condition of things
that the rancher in British Columbia is often up against.
Seconded by S.  Smillie  (Burton).
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) : We are ninety-four miles out on the G.T.P. If we want to
ship a ton of potatoes it costs $7.80. From Ashcroft to Prince Rupert I believe it is $7. We
consider that we are labouring under a great difficulty in regard to these freight rates. We are
after the members of Parliament and Martin Burrell.
The Chairman:   Has the institute put this up to the Railway Commission?
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) :    Yes, we have a nice letter from Hon. Martin Burrell now.
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : I do not think there is a single institute suffering as these
gentlemen have said, and it is a great pity some effort is not made in order to get a certain
amount of co-operation between these different districts. If it is a question of potatoes being
shipped from Prince Rupert District at these excessive rates, it is also true there are other
things we cannot ship. In Kamloops we have 2,000 to 5,000 tons of wheat that cannot be
marketed, although wheat is continually being brought in from the Prairie Provinces. That
ought not to be. If we can grow wheat and potatoes in the interior of British Columbia, we
ought to be able to find a home market for these things. And I would especially commend it to
the consideration of the gentlemen now present, whether something could not be done, if we can
co-operate to dispose of our surplus crops amongst ourselves in the first place, and so eliminate
what is being brought in from these distant points. I think something should be done in order
to move our surplus stocks amongst ourselves. I was surprised to hear about the freight rates.
Should not these Farmers' Institutes formulate their grievances with reference to freight rates,
tabulate them, and go unitedly before the Royal Commission?
The Chairman:   It is a question of the refusal of railway companies to bill a mixed car-load.
C. E. Handing (Arrow Lake) : We sent away for a car of mixed feed and flour, oats,
rolled oats, etc., and we had this car shipped right to our siding, and we had no trouble in
having it shipped to our destination.    There was no hay or straw in it.
D. Matheson (Spallumcheen) : I have had an experience with the C.P.R. with regard to
the freight rate. The C.P.R., no matter how you present matters to them, are going to levy
their rate on the heaviest part of the freight. I think it is unreasonable in a way, because when
you take a car-load of hay jtou can only get about 12 tons of hay, while in the other commodities
you get about 20 or 30 tons. I do not think the C.P.R. are likely to base their rates on the
lightest.
W. Hornby (Delta) : I would move an amendment. Instead of that resolution for flour
and feed, bale hay and straw, I would like to see the resolution read " farm produce." At the
present time they will charge us the maximum amount for the minimum load on the biggest
car. Hay is generally a minimum load of about 12 tons, and comes at a small rate, and grain
has a minimum load of about 20 tons. If you mix them they will charge you on a minimum
of 20 tons, at the highest rate of commodity on the car. I think if we could get a rate on a
mixed car it would be more to the point.
F. D. Campbell (Maple Ridge) : We were promised at Vernon that we could put in these
mixed car-loads, but I do not think hay and straw was mentioned.
H. Fraser (Procter) : The question I would like to bring into consideration is, if we put
through this resolution about endeavouring to get them to give us a mixed car, we should also
stipulate the minimum; a minimum car of hay is 12 tons, grain 20 tons.
J. Johnstone (West Kootenay) :  I was at a meeting at Vernon, and Mr. Lannigan certainly
allowed a mixed car.
The Chairman: I think you should put this matter up to Mr. Lannigan. We might talk
for ages on this point: I quite see the desirability of allowing mixed car-loads. If it takes
10 tons of hay to fill a car and 20 tons of grain, they are not going to allow you to ship a
mixed car at the lowest rate. The rating of that car would have to be at a fixed price which
would be established by the C.P.R.
Resolution carried. Through Rate on Powder to Lake Points.
Resolution 4. " Whereas the C.P.R. have cancelled its through rate on powder to lake
points, with the exception of railway-stations: Be it therefore Resolved, That the Department
of Agriculture be asked to use its influence to get such rate restored."
S. Smillie (Burton) : The reason that the Burton City Institute passed this resolution was
just about this way: There was a rate on powder to lake points, but this last summer Burton
built a powder-magazine. Immediately we received notice that the rate on powder was cancelled.    I would like this Convention to influence the Department to have that rate restored.
The Chairman: This question was taken up direct by me with the C.P.R. They said,
and naturally too, that the powder could not be carried on passenger-boats, so they had to go
to the expense of specially delivering the powder, and must put a higher rate on it. The
institutes concerned wrote to me about it some time during the past year, and I immediately
took it up with the C.P.R., and that is the answer they gave me.
J. M. Edniundson (Creston) : As a matter of fact, I understand it has been proven that
transportation by water facilities is much cheaper than by rail; therefore that ought to help
them out a little.
F. D. Campbell (Maple Ridge) : I think, if Mr. Scott has already taken this matter up
with the C.P.R., it would hardly be worth our whole passing a resolution asking him to do
what he has already done. I think it would be best for the representative here to withdraw
that resolution.
Resolution lost.
Price of Stumping-powder.
Resolution 5. " Resolved, That the Government be asked to further reduce the price of
stumping-powder to $3 a case."
J. S. Shopland (Comox) : We have voted for money, now we want something else to clear
our land. We have been fighting this powder question for the last ten or twelve years. We
have got it from $10 to $5, and they find now that it is just as hard to handle the work of
clearing the land with the $5 as they did twelve years ago before the stumping-powder came
in. The labour is so hard to get or the men to work, or if you get those men, it is to see how
little they can do in the hours that they are working. The land-clearing proposition is a very
hard one to-day, and I think, if we will take the thing into consideration, what the Government
has done for the Fraser Valley in regard to dyking and clearing that upper country, they
have not yet given Vancouver Island one cent piece for clearing. They do give a car-load of
powder, but it is all refunded to the Government again. They don't give the land-clearing
people of Vancouver Island a fraction. I have been here since '77. I have work and cleared
land; I have used powder and cleaned land before the powder came into existence; and I say
it is up to the Government, where the heavy stumps are, to help these people to clear the land.
Up in Comox, where you have taken the timber off. and dragged it over the land and made
gullies, who will clear the land without help? It is a hard proposition, gentlemen, and if the
Government could see their way clear to put that powder into the hand of the land-owners
for $3 a box, that is my proposition. Of course, those who get it should pay the freight, and
I don't think these people are asking anything out of reason for that, because we have to
pay from $2.75 to $3 a day to a man, and they will not do the day's work. Any man who has
any energy or get-up about him will look for his own home and try and get it, so we have
only the working-class, who will see that they will do as little as they can in the time. We do
not ask the powder company, because we hear from the Government that they cannot manufacture it any less than $5 a box. All we ask for is a rebate in some way, and we want your
support here for Vancouver Island, and anywhere else. I will ask that this Convention here
will give its support, not for Comox, or Nanaimo, or Saanich, or any part of the Mainland, but
for the Province.
R. E. Williams (Bulkley Valley) : I have been asked by my institute to voice the sentiments
in regard to this. We may say that our institute is selling at $9.25 a case for clearing. Our
freight charges are about 6 cents per pound. We were charged full price, and I doubt if we
can afford to get it.
The Chairman: The railway company promised me a special rate, and I took it for
granted you had received it. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 39
R. E. Williams (Bulkley Valley) : We have paid the full rate, and have not received a
rebate as yet. I was going to say I was asked to support this. We can conceive what a kick
you would put up in the lower part of the Province if you had to pay that amount for powder,
and I want to say we are entirely in sympathy with this movement to get a lower rate.
E. F. Wade (Surrey) : I have much pleasure in seconding Mr. Shopland's resolution we
all want it, and we want to get it as cheaply as we can.
C. S. Handcock (Northern Okanagan) : Did you not, Mr. Chairman, with Mr. Ellison,
take up the matter with the powder company?
The Chairman: Yes, it is a question that has been very carefully considered by the Government. You are asking that a direct monetary grant be given to the farmers. Well, I have
been in this Province twenty years and paid a great deal more for powder than we do now,
but it never occurred to me to ask the Government for a gift. I do not think that the farmers
want to ask direct financial help from the Government. We have been working with the
powder company, and have been scheming so that the price may be brought as low as possible;
but it seems to me that you should not ask for a direct monetary grant which this resolution
amounts to.
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) : I would move an amendment, that we ask the Government to give us that powder at cost. I believe it to be utter nonsense for the powder company
to say it is at the bottom price. The powder company have not given us the lowest price, I
am satisfied. Wait until the upper parts of the Island and Mainland are settled through. It
is a big question; if we had powder at half the present cost we would then double the land
cleared; we would not need the help. You need the powder for labour-saving. Although you
can get a stump pulled, what is the use of that. When you have pulled your stump you have
to cope with the size, and you cannot burn it up if you have not help. If you pull up the stump
whole it is a mass of earth, possibly 20 and 30 feet across, and you can save the labour of a
hired man by having the powder. You can use the auger, burn into 20-foot pieces, and split
them up. Again there is a big saving of labour. You can split them into small pieces and
handle them with a horse. I look at it from the standpoint of the man with $1,000, and he
wants to make that money go as far as possible. There are no lecturers on land-clearing, or
printed lectures, but there are millions of acres of this land to be cleared.
The Chairman: Last year, when we were trying to make a reduction on the powder, the
manager said: " We will throw open our books to an auditor, and you will find that the profit
we are getting is under 10 per cent." You may be sure the Government is getting the powder
at the lowest possible price, consistent with a fair profit to the powder companies.
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) : In regard to getting this powder at cost, can we expect a
powder company to manufacture goods and turn them over to us in the quantity we would use at
cost?    We do not think the Government is making anything out of it.
The Chairman:   They certainly are not; in fact, they have lost on this powder question.
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) : If we can get the Government to put a freight rate in on an
equal basis, all over, I think they would be doing remarkably well for us, and I think it would
be an absurd idea to get powder cheaper from the Company.
J. Bailey (Chilliwack) : If we can give to the outlying settlers powder at the same rate,
that would be a move in the right direction. I think a resolution supporting the sentiments of
the Chair would be in the right direction.
Amendment to amendment, " That an effort be put forth that the Government be asked to pay
freight to all outlying districts and Farmers' Institutes where the settler is struggling against
difficulties."
The Chairman: The matter is under discussion, and I can assure this Convention that it
will have my undivided support.
Amendment to amendment seconded by Mr. Catherwood.
Alex. Hamilton (Pender Island) : If it is a question of getting privileges from the
Government, I think that there are other classes of people that can beat the farmers at that
game, and I do not think it is a good idea for us to get privileges. It seems to me that if we are
going to get powder for which the rest of the citizens of this Province are going to be taxed, we
need not fight the privileges that other classes have. The timbermen have privileges, the railways
have privileges, and if we want privileges we have a hard road to hold.   I think our line of N 40 British Colu.mbia 1913
work should be in the direction of doing away with the privileges of other classes. I am against
asking for anything for nothing, and am against paternalism.
S. MacDonald (Cranbrook): I do not think we should be continually harping on the
Government. I think it is not the price of powder, but the freight rate on it. If it were
possible to get the powder company to put a factory somewhere in the other end of the Province,
so that the freight rate would be much smaller, it would bring the price of the powder more on
an equality.
The Chairman: The powder company will not do it. Outlying institutes, like Kitsumgallum,
Graham Island, Bulkley, and your own institute, Mr. MacDonald, have to pay for it coming all
that distance, but if the whole of the districts could be put on an equal rate it would be a good
thing.
S. MacDonald (Cranbrook) : I think if you could bring one of the officials over to the
meeting, and he explained that they could not positively do it any cheaper, it might be well.
J. S. Snopland (Comox) : The last words that you heard here were that you should have
the powder delivered to all the outlying places at the same rate. The people here pay three
times more taxes for their property than they do far away. I am not asking for powder to-day,
and I am not going to use any more powder, but I am going to fight for my fellow-men to have it
cheaper. Gentlemen, if we can pass that amendment, that is all right; then the people here will
not get the same privilege as those two or three hundred miles away.
Amendment carried.
Scarcity of Pre-emptions.
Resolution C. " Resolved, That, in consideration of the scarcity of pre-emptions, the
Government of British Columbia be asked to take all lands held under timber licences as soon as
licence expires, to be advertised and thrown open for pre-emption of 160 acres each to bona-flde
settlers; and that, in lieu of paying for the land at expiration of duties, as much land be cleared
as the Government may decide is equivalent to paying for same."
S. MacDonald (Cranbrook) : In regard to that resolution, Mr. President, I may say that
Cranbrook District has some thousand acres of land that were in the past timber licences.
Over two years and a half ago I attempted to enter a pre-emption myself of 160 acres. I was
told it was held by the Government until they decided what to do with it. A good deal of land
that is held by these timber limits was purchased at $1; I believe they had that privilege. We
have had men come into that district and purchase 5 acres of land at $1, stumps and stones
thrown In, and it costs about $75 an acre to clear. You can easily see that a man with small
means is not going to stay. At the present time we do not claim to be a fruit district. I think,
myself, from my own experience, it is best for mixed farming. If this land was thrown open to
actual settlers, these men with small means, if they came in and put up small buildings, it is
natural they would reap benefit from this land. It has been lying idle for, I think, two years.
I hope it is not correct what I heard, that it was going to be put on the market for auction.
Speculators will get hold of it. You are troubled with that in every district. It is allotted into
small allotments from $100 to $200 an acre. What Cranbrook wants to do is to get an
agricultural settlement; there is plenty of good land and water; there are many settlers who
will take up the land, but there is nothing facing them for less than $75 to $200 an acre. By
getting the country settled up we will get better transportation.
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) : I move an amendment, "That the figures 100 should be
80 acres." No man in this audience can clear 160 in his own lifetime with the ordinary capital
he has. You cannot clear it, and it becomes a case of speculation. I move an amendment that
it be 80 acres.
R. E. Williams (Bulkley Valley) : I would like to know how many acres on his farm are
not improved, and I would like to ask the farmers present how many of them have every acre
of their farm cultivated.
J. Best (Alberni) : I was instructed by Alberni Institute, if this question came up, to be in
favour of 40 acres; that the Government should clear 10 acres and charge up to the man who
got it, and sell it at what it cost to clear it. I make an amendment to the amendment, " That
the Government clear 10 on each 40 acres, and sell at the price it cost to clear."
D. Matheson (Spallumcheen) : In regard to the size of the acreage that a man can pre-empt
to-day in the Province, I do not agree with the. amendment to that resolution.   Personally, I do Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 41
not want any more. I don't want to speculate in pre-emptions or anything else, but I have some
idea of the land that is to be pre-empted to-day. I know, as regards the land round our way, if
you get 10 to 15 or 20 and the largest 40 acres, that is all we have cultivated. I do not think
you could get any more, and I think a man wants something else than he can get from that
which is cleared. He wants a house and a cow and a few sheep, and I think the person coming
in now should have the privilege of the old-timers, because they are getting the worst of it.
F. D. Campbell (Maple Ridge) : I do not think 160 acres is anything too much. If there
is any speculation coming on, we have just as much right to that as any one else.
The Chairman: If you go in for mixed farming, I do not at all think 160 acres is any too
much. I think it is only the fair thing that farmers should have the advantage of any rise in
the value of land.
Alex. Hamilton (Pender Island) : I second the amendment to the resolution. I think the
amendment should read so much of good land. At the present time there is something like
1,000,000 acres of the land on the coast under timber limits. These timbermen have a soft thing.
The Government should make a special effort to have this land logged before they clear their
rough land. If a man gets 20 acres cleared, it is about as much as he does, unless he is a
capitalist; therefore I second this amendment.
R. E. Williams (Bulkley Valley) : I come from a part of the country that has 10 acres to
your 1 ready for cultivation and development. I have seen hundreds of homesteaders stay at my
place; I have taken them to 80-acre and 40-acre lots, and they have turned away. They say, " I
want 460 acres." We have more natural wealth there than in the southern part of the
Province. There is ample room for all the settlers you can get for the 460 acres, and I am
opposed to this fraction idea. I wish to say that in the north there are reserves of millions of
.acres, belts 50 and 75 miles long and 50 and 100 miles wide. Some are for townships, quite good
land, and will be open in March. When there are 2 or 3 feet of snow on the ground, there will
be a crowd of men lying around Hazelton representing the Eastern States and all over, with
thousands of dollars, staking 50, 60, or 100 sections. Then this reserve will be thrown open, and
within twenty minutes it is wired from here to these men and it is staked. If it is the intention
and wish of this meeting to open up the whole country, I would want it to include such lands
as have already been reserved; that we would like such lands that have been reserved held for
the pre-emptors. I would like to have you apply it to all reserves. You have no idea of the
situation there in the north. I have come down here with no grievances; that is not my
intention.
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) : I would like to ask how these gentlemen expect to define
good from poor land. If it is to be the 80 or 40 acres of good land, he will be compelled to get
SO or 40 of anything he could get. If they get 160 acres of land which has anywhere from 40 to
100 of good acres on it, they are satisfied; but if there is only a quarter of it good, what
inducement is it for a man with a family of three or four boys growing up?
A. Walden (Strawberry Hill) : I would like to say, with reference to pre-emptions, that
personally I do not think 160 acres in any part of the East Kootenay districts would be any too
much for a man to have. In 1897 I went and pre-empted, and after two years I got cold feet.
I have been interested in homesteads and pre-emptions three different times; first in 1891 and
last in 1902 or 1903. Now I have abandoned them all; I have won out, and the man who endures
the hardship and pioneers it through and waits for comforts and civilization, I say he is entitled
to anything that is coming to him, and I think it would be a crime to cut it down.
The Chairman: Might I suggest that the resolution be amended as follows: " Resolved,
That, in consideration of the scarcity of pre-emptions only, the Government of British Columbia
be asked to take all lands held under timber licences as soon as licence expires, to be advertised
and thrown open for pre-emption of 160 acres each to Iwna-flde settlers; and also all lands held
under Government reserve."
R. E. Williams (Bulkley Valley) moved resolution as amended by Chairman.
Alex. Hamilton (Pender Island) : I would like it included that the Government use means
to have the timber cut.
R. H. Brett (Martin's Prairie) : I think it should be made general, covering the Province
in general, and not in any particular parts. I think there should be some way of getting out of
disposing of the part that is already cleared of the timber. Then, as regards the amount that a
person should be allowed, that is quite a matter of interest in our district too.    I do not know ISf 42 !      British Columbia 1913
how it stands to-day; I do not think it is settled yet, but I believe it should stand at 160 acres.
If a man had 160 acres, perhaps he could sell 40 acres when he gets title for his land, to give him
a lift; so that I think it would be a hardship to make it any less, especially when we consider
we are pretty lucky if we can clear half of it.
Amendment moved and seconded, " That the following be added to the resolution: ' And
that the Government be requested to bring pressure to bear on timber licensees to log arable land
m before rough land.' "
S. MacDonald (Cranbrook) : I am sure my institute would be willing to take the resolution
to cover the whole of the Province, but I object to the appendix.
Amendment, which included the above appendix, was lost.
Resolution, as amended by Mr. Scott mentioned above, carried.
Bounty on Gophers and Squirrels.
Resolution 7. " Resolved, That the Government be asked to put a bounty on gophers and
ground-squirrels, as their depredations are a great loss to the farmers' and gardeners' crops."
S. MacDonald (Cranbrook) : Gophers are becoming a pest in this Province. You can see
little paths leading into the grain and other produce, and those who are acquainted with the
work of the gopher knows that he eats the sap out of the little bulb, and then it is all wasted.
Years and years ago the Government gave a bounty on gopher-heads, and not the tail, because the
Indians used to cut off the tail and let it go, and let it grow another tail! I understand from
some of the delegates it is a more excessive pest in their districts than even in ours.
R. H. Brett (Martin's Prairie) : In regard to the gopher, it is not embodied in our resolution,
but it is probably an oversight; they are a great menace to us. We do not mind so much the
grain they destroy, as our fruit-trees. Summer or winter, snow or no snow, it is the same. Our
trees do not bud out when they should, and it is because there is not a root left. So that in
that way they are a very serious menace to us. We have a very promising fruit country there,
and I don't know if a bounty would be the most effective way. I would like to hear from some
gentleman. We use strychnine; I guess it kills them all right when they get it. We have a
resolution from our institute on coyotes; we were not sure, if the bounty was raised to double the
amount, that there would be any more coyotes killed. My experience is, if a man happens to see
a coyote and has a gun with him he kills it, but he does not make a practice of it. We thought
we should do something ourselves if we wanted more protection.
A. Venables (Okanagan) : We have had a great deal of trouble with gophers, but when we
used strychnine wheat they disappeared absolutely within six or seven months.
J. S. Shopland (Comox) : This last summer I was in Saskatoon; that is all I know of them.
I have never seen them in British Columbia. My cousin was feeding them on wheat soaked with
strychnine; another cousin of mine had chopped oats soaked in strychnine; and another man in
another part used 1 lb. of currants soaked well in strychnine, and that was the best clean-out
he had. There was no chance of the chickens in the barnyard getting it, for it was put down
the gopher-holes. I pretty near lost their dog while I was there, for I forgot to put the stuff
down the hole.
C. Hamling (Arrow Lakes) : Is the Government at the present time supplying the farmers
with strychnine?    I understood they were.
The Chairman:    Oh, no; that is much too dangerous.
C. Hamling (Arrow Lakes) : We are terribly infested with gophers, and the Farmers'
Institute has paid 5 cents a head for every gopher they bring in, so I think the Government
might help as well as the Farmers' Institute.
W. H. Stuart (Shawnigan) :    Do I understand that covers all the bounties on all animals?
The Chairman: Yes. There were a great many not mentioned here, but resolutions came in
to have a bounty put on   nearly every injurious animal and bird.
H. H. Matthews (Nicola) : I think that is a very indefinite resolution, and I object to it
covering anything else than what it states on the face of it.
A. Venables (Okanagan) :   If you put that resolution, that includes coyotes.
J. Johnstone (West Kootenay) : Is it correct that the Government has taken off the bounty
on horned owls?
The Chairman : Yes. There is such a difference of opinion as to whether they are a pest or
not, Mr. Johnstone. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 43
W. H. Stuart  (Shawnigan) :    If you let that motion go through as it is and cut out all
these others, you leave out what affects other parts of the country-
Moved by Mr. Campbell, " That whole matter be referred back to Resolution Committee."
F. E. Harmer (Central Park) :   The question of bounties has been brought up year by year.
If those gentlemen who want the bounty raised or lowered will get up and get that off their
chest, we will be able to sift the thing down.
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) moved, "That the Government be further impressed with the
necessity of increasing the bounty on those animals which are proved by settlers in districts to be
a serious pest."
L. J. .Botting (Salmon Valley) : Would it not save time if each separate resolution was
taken down and voted on separately?
S. MacDonald (Cranbrook) : You cannot reasonably expect more than 5 cents put on a
gopher; you cannot expect the same bounty as on other animals. If we pass that resolution, I
do not think, any sane person should expect more than 5 cents on a gopher.
F. E. Harmer (Central Park) : There is no use having a lot of resolutions on bounties,
because the Government will say these men are scrapping amongst themselves as to whether we
will give them this, that, and the other thing.
The Chairman: I would ask you to put the resolutions and take a straight vote on them,
as it is going to take us a great deal of time otherwise.
Decided by the Convention that the resolutions on bounties should be taken separately.
Resolution 7 carried.
Resolution 8. " Resolved, That the bounty on coyotes be raised from $3 to $5." Lost; 19 for,
21 against.
Resolution 9. " Resolved, That a bounty be placed on prairie-squirrels and on hawks."   Lost.
Resolution 10. " Resolved, That a bounty of $2 be put on chicken-hawks." Lost; 22 for, 25
against.
Resolution 11. " Resolved, That the Provincial Government be requested to place a bounty
on the chicken-hawk and blue mountain-hawk."    Lost.
Resolution 12. " Resolved, That the bounty on owls be removed and the bounty on coyotes
be increased."   Lost.
A delegate: The resolution was that $2 was to be the bounty on chicken-hawks, but there
was no resolution that $1 should be put on; I think that should be brought up now.
On being put to the Convention as to whether the matter should be opened up again, the
motion was lost.
Telephonic or Telegraphic Communication.
Resolution 13. " Resolved, That the British Columbia Government be asked to use its
influence with the Dominion Government to extend either telephonic or telegraphic communication in British Columbia where none such is at present in operation."
W. W. Mooney (Crawford Bay) : I wish to move that resolution in view of the Premier's
report to the Convention last year.
D. Matheson (Spallumcheen) : I would like to amend that resolution; that an amendment
be made to the " Municipal Clauses Act" that the Government give power to municipalities to
own their own telephones.
C. J. Thompson (Summerland) : We can own everything but the telephone system under
the municipalities.
S. MacDonald (Cranbrook) :  That does not apply to incorporated cities.
R. H. Brett (Martin's Prairie) : We consider the telephone is pretty near as much a necessity
as any other utility, if you had anything to sell, and you were a day's journey away, and if
you had sickness in your family.    I think the Government might take it up.
The Chairman read extract from page 10 of last year's report.
D. Matheson (Spallumcheen) : Even if the Dominion Government could take hold of it,
I think it would be right for the municipalities or any co-operative bodies to have power to
operate their own utilities within their own boundaries. In our municipality there is a telephone through there to the villages, but the outside district, where it is most necessary to
the farmers that they should have all the opportunities in the world to get their produce to
market, or any other business with the town for doctors, etc., they have not got it.    If he just N 44 British Columbia 1913
could go to the telephone and convey his message in that way he would save a day's work
for himself and his team. As we stand now at the present time, competing so close in every
department, we must be up to the time or we are out of it. I don't think there is anything
that gets us quicker to our business concerns than the telephone. I would like the " Municipal
Clauses Act" amended.
C. S. Handcock (Northern Okanagan) : In my own place I have the telephone-line within
three miles, and we could not get them to go down there. They wanted three people to the
mile, but I do not see how we can do that with all the farms 160 acres each.
J. C. Harris (New Denver) : This is a very old subject to me, and of very great interest.
We are all agreed about the tremendous importance of the telephone. And we are .all agreed
that wire is pretty cheap, and these telephones could be wired up pretty quickly, and would
be cheaper than a public road. I think we are quite in order in bringing this up again, as we
want it pretty badly. I think we had better jog them up again. I have a very strong feeling
on this matter, and I think we should let the Government know that they have got to do something pretty soon, as the need of the telephone is very great in farming districts.
Angus McKay (Rosehill) : That resolution was sent in from our institute, but was
overlooked for some reason or other, but I certainly would support the resolution as it is sent
in.
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) : It is an old question, and I was one of those who went
into the question with the Premier last year. In our district we went ahead and petitioned the
Dominion Government to build the line out to Metchosin. It is a single line, that is all, $10
a month, but we could not pay it; there were only about five or six who saw the need of a
telephone there. I saw the telephone company, and asked them to reduce it, on condition that
we put others on the line. They put four or five others, and the charge was reduced to $5.
It is the telephone company that are grabbing things. The Dominion Government are very
good, but you are up against these little companies. We have everything for building the lines;
we only need the wire.    I speak strongly in favour of that resolution.
R. H. Brett (Martin's Prairie) : In our district alone, I am quite sure we could save
hundreds and probably more than a thousand dollars a year; that is, speaking from a commercial sense. Then I have known of cases of death where it was impossible to bring a doctor
or physician for more than twenty-four hours, whereas, had the telephone been there, they
could have telephoned into town, and the doctor could come out by the next train, and be
there in a matter of two or three hours, and that life might have been saved. While I have
every respect for our Premier's opinions, still on the telephone system we must have our
views, and I think if he had met some of the difficulties we have had for the lack of it, I
consider that he would think we are asking for a good thing. We are asking for one of the
best things the Government can give us, and I believe it is one of the things we should impress
upon this Agricultural Commission. I again wish to say that if we had the telephone in the
country we should not wish to be without it, even though we had our taxes raised.
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) : Would it not be wise to leave that, as in the matter of
the cheap money, for the committee to bring up? I think it would be wise to form another
committee upon this.
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : My friends at Rosehill and Martin's Prairie wish me to add
my testimony. 1 would call to your remembrance the time when we had the hold-up by Bill
Miner and his coadjutors, and they, fortunately for the rest of the community, took to the
south, right in the midst of the telephone country, and the consequence was that the police
were kept in touch with the people and they ran those fellows to ground. Now, the next
hold-up, almost in the same place, I should think, benefitting by that experience, those fellows
took to the other side of the river, where there was no telephone, and they were lost sight of
for a whole week. The people did not. know there had been a hold-up, and those fellows got
their supplies from them, and they killed a constable at Ashcroft. I think that is a pretty-
good proof that the interior of this Province really needs the protection of the telephone when
it comes to the detection of crime. The matter of sickness and death through medical attendance not being able to be procured has been touched upon. I do not attribute the death of
my own son to that lack, but I do say that we were very much handicapped. I think this
should be taken up with earnestness of purpose, for health and life and the protection against
crime. Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 45
R. W. Brett (Martin's Prairie) : I think that the resolution would put the onus of the
telephone on our local Government, and I think, too, they are the proper people to deal with
it, and not the Dominion Government.
C. Little (Northern Okanagan) : The question is this: The municipalities have the power
and the Farmers' Institutes, but the point is that the Legislature should make it absolutely
compulsory to give connection to any other company. If we build a line, unless we have the
right to connect with other telephone companies, it is no use to us. We are at the present
time fighting for it, but it is no practical use to us unless we can get a long-distance connection,
and the Okanagan company will not give it to us. We are willing to pay for the long distance,
but unless we can show them that there is not less than 20 per cent, of the dividend going to
the shareholders, they are not prepared to build a line. The proposition was put up to me in
this shape: We wanted the telephone; I got in some one who knew pretty well what the inception of the telephoue-line cost—$S50 he estimated; and the telephone company came to us and
said they would put it up if we had $1,250 worth of stock, and guarantee three 'phones to
the mile.    That meant $750 gross return on the first year on a line that cost $850 to build.
J. A. Catherwood (Mission) : The B.C. Telephone Company are very good up at Mission.
We built our own telephone-line; we can telephone to Vancouver, Victoria, or Westminster, and
we do not have to pay a cent, only the usual long-distance charges; and I think any other small
company would do the same. As far as the " Municipal Clauses Act" is concerned it does not
give them power to build their own telephone-lines. They are taking this up at the present
session.
The Chairman: I should advise that this matter be referred back to the Resolutions Committee, and that Mr. Little and others draft another resolution covering the point. I cannot
tell you whether the municipalities have power or not.
Moved by Mr. Williams, and seconded, " That this resolution be referred back to the
Resolutions Committee, and be brought up again to-morrow."    Carried.
Moved and seconded, " That the Convention adjourn until to-morrow at 10 o'clock."    Carried.
The Convention was adjourned at 5.30 p.in.
Wednesday, January 22nd, 1913.
Morning Session.
.   The Convention was called to order at 10.15 by Mr. Scott.
The Resolutions Committee reported that they would like to look further into the matter
of telephones, and report during the afternoon session.
Moved by Mr. Campbell, seconded by Mr. Handcock, " That the Superintendent's report be
adopted."    Carried.
Enforcement of " Noxious Weeds Act."
Resolution 14. " Whereas the ' Noxious Weeds Act' and its enforcement is practically a dead
letter: Be it therefore Resolved, That we recommend that our Provincial Government be
prevailed upon to take further action in making same effective."
J. M. Edmundson (Creston) : With regard to the "Noxious Weeds Act" in our country, I
am going to be very brief. That part of the programme is taken care of by the Constabulary,
who tell Tom Jones or John Smith that he has got to get his weeds out. Then there are people
who own wild land in there, and their land has thistles growing all over that, and so the people
at Creston thought it right that it should be seen to.
F. D. Campbell (Maple Ridge) : I second the resolution. This year we had more success
than in the past. As far as the police constables are concerned, they are not satisfactory,
generally speaking. Three times one of our farmers notified our constable of a patch of thistles
that was on the road going on to his place. He told him he had not time to bother with
thistles. 1 took the matter up as Secretary of the institute. The thistles were cut, and I think if
we kept after these fellows a little we would get them cut.
The Chairman: I would like to say a few words on this point. It is a very vital matter and
requires immediate attention. You will remember that Fire Wardens were appointed last year,
in addition to the constables, as agents for the Department in the enforcement of the " Noxious Weeds Act." In addition to that, we sent out to all the institutes notices asking them to help
the work as a body. Now, the Act itself is absolutely stringent, but it is to a large extent up to
the general public, to you farmers yourselves, to see that the Act is enforced. The trouble is
that you don't like to inform on your neighbour, but if you have the institute take it up as a
body, it does away with that individual difficulty. A great deal has been done the last year by the
Government towards enforcing the provisions of the " Noxious Weeds Act," but it is not nearly
enough. If we appointed Inspectors to go over the Province it would entail an enormous expense,
but if it were possible to have Inspectors assigned to different parts, they could do a great deal,
and see that the Fire Wardens and constables were serving notices and that the people were
taking action. We will have nothing done until some of the people have been put into Court for
neglecting to destroy noxious weeds. They look at the notice and do nothing, but we will have to
see that they do take action.    A lot can be accomplished by the institutes themselves.
Jas. Edmundson (Creston) : The fact is, I think the Government should look a little more
into the getting of our seeds pure into the country. I bought about $25 of seed and scattered it
through the woods, but when the seeds came up there was all kinds of thistles in it.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : We find weeds are particularly prevalent where timber
operations  have  been  conducted.
The Chairman:    I suppose the man who holds the timber limits is responsible.
D. Matheson (Spallumcheen) :   Does the Act cover the Indian reserves?
The Chairman: Certainly. The Indian Agents have been notified by the Department, and
I think in all cases they have taken action.
A delegate: This weed question is quite a live question in our district. There was not any
action taken, because there is considerable Government land, and we do not know what to do
about that, and for that reason we did not take any action in regard to our neighbours.
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) : Our district has very little cleared land, and five years ago
I saw about a mile of thistle-down on one side of the road. It has now gone the whole length
of that,road, has crossed two bridges, and now I suppose there are 40 or 50 acres of this noxious
weed; we have no constable, and I don't believe if you made complaint you could appoint one
to handle it. That is getting very bad in Metchosin. Wherever land is getting improved it is
thick with the Canadian thistle, but they are now slashing, and there does not seem to be any
notice taken of them at all. Companies have bought up a lot of the land, and take no notice of
the thistle at all.
J. Best (Alberni) : In Alberni it was enforced pretty good this year. The constable got
around, and ordered them to cut the thistles, and they had to do it.
A. Venables (Okanagan) : In the case of a municipality, is the municipality responsible for
the road, or the holders of the land on both sides?
The Chairman: The municipalities have power to formulate by-laws with regard to noxious
weeds.
A. Venables (Okanagan) : Can you give us any idea as to the best way to destroy this
Canadian thistle?
The Chairman: My experience with the Canadian thistle is to keep it constantly cut down,
never allow it to flower; cut well down into the ground.
A. Venables (Okanagan) :   I burned it down to the ground, but never got rid of it.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : We find the best way in Ontario is to keep it entirely under
the ground for one year.
C. Hamling (Arrow Lakes) : The first people we should suggest should be put into Court
would be the, C.P.R. in our district. The last season that I was working along by the C.P.R.
right-of-way, I informed our Fire Warden about the thistles, and he really had to go and cut
them down himself, so I do not see why there should not be a little more acclon taken.
J. Johnstone (West Kootenay) : The unfortunate C.P.R. had cut the thistle in our district,
but not until the flower had commenced to bloom.    Is there any instruction as to the time?
The Chairman:   No instructions have been sent out as to time to cut them.
J. S. Shopland (Comox) : In Comox I have been rather severe jawing with my neighbours,
but I say it is up to every one not to allow the thistle to seed on his own land. But there are
the Indian reserves and the local Government reserves, and they are not touched any time; and
the thistles come up 5 feet high and the seeds go up in showers. The man who is working hard
to get a clean farm cannot get it.    With regard to cutting the thistle, if you cut them too early 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 47
they will come up and seed again, and if you leave them too late the seed will ripen after it is
cut. Since I have been in the institute we have fought that noxious-weed question every year,
and I do not know that there has been one man or individual that was ever hauled into Court
yet to make an example of. I was inquiring in Ontario about the Canadian thistle, but they do
not bother with them, only in rotation of crops, and I was surprised to see so few. There are
fewer back there than we have here, but we have the Dominion reserves and bush land to
contend with.
C. S. Handcock (Northern Okanagan) : We had a meeting on this subject as to what we
would do with it. The Canadian thistle has threatened the whole district. There doesn't seem to
be any means of stopping it. The gentlemen mentioned in Ontario seem to be able to control it,
but my nearest neighbour is an Ontario man, and he has never seen anything like it. He has
tried everything, and I have tried everything. At this meeting the men felt it was up to the
Department of Agriculture to find some effective means of destroying this Canadian thistle. It is
in some districts that the thistle seems to be hard to control; with us there is no control. Up in
our district there is a matter of 2,000 acres of land held by a company and nothing is done with
it.    The mills bring in Ontario wheat for chicken-feed; is there any means of stopping that?
The Chairman: I would say the Seed Commissioner's Branch of the Federal Government
should deal with that question. It has been brought strongly to their attention. It is not a
Provincial matter; it is dealt with by the Dominion Government.
C. S. Handcock (Northern Okanagan) : We thought they ought to inspect the grain that
is brought in.
The Chairman: I quite agree with you, but it is very easy to come here and complain about
noxious weeds in the Province, and it is a very vital matter; but I would just ask you to make a
suggestion, taking into account the enormous size of this Province, how do you think it could
be handled any better than it is now? I am only too glad to hear any suggestions on this vexed
question.
J. C. Harris (New Denver) : The only way we can handle it is by the extension of municipal
powers in the districts so that they can enforce the law. A general law I don't believe is ever
going to work, and where the people are suffering, they will then be able to deal with the weeds,
and this is the only system by which you will ever be able to have this question effectively dealt
with.
At this point the Mayor of Victoria came in, and addressed the Convention as follows :—
Address by Mayor Morley.
Mr. Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Gentlemen,—This is not the first time by quite a
few that it has been my great pleasure to come here and say a few words of hearty welcome to
you on behalf of the City of Victoria, and I must say, Mr. Chairman, that at no time has it been
more of a pleasure than it is on this occasion. We do not meet so many farmers now in the
Cities of Victoria and Vancouver as we used to; the species is almost extinct; and instead of
hearing people speak of how much they are growing to the acre, we only hear of how many town
lots they are growing to the acre. It may be all right from the speculative point of view, but I
am rather wondering where we are going to get something to eat and drink. I am glad I have
had the pleasure of addressing this live meeting, and I want to say to you that there are no
political meetings or civic meetings where things are taken hold of with the same tenacity as
they are taken hold of by the farmers of the Province, and it augurs well for the farmers when
it is said that when the farmers' vim is dead the cities are dead. We look to the farming stock
for the regeneration of the city stock.   All my ancestors were of the farming stock.
It occurred to me, without being flippant, while I was listening to your discussion on weeds,
to ask why don't you get our friend Burbank up here? Make the weeds serve you. Mr. Burbank
did very similar things in California with the cactus. But what is the Scotchman going to do
if you do away with the thistle?
Going back to mundane affairs, Mr. Chairman, it gives me very great pleasure indeed to see
such a fine representative body of the farming element of British Columbia this morning, and,
apart from their labours in these meetings, I sincerely hope they will find sufficient enjoyment in
our little city to make their stay pleasant. I am quite sure it has always been your Chairman's
ardent endeavour to suggest to us gentlemen of the city any means by which to make your stay
more pleasant while with us.    On behalf of the City Council and myself, I sincerely extend to N 48 British Columbia 1913
you the very heartiest welcome to our city, and hope you will stay with us just as long as you
can—at any rate, just as long as your money lasts. I hope you will make plenty of money on
the farms, but I sincerely hope you will come to the cities to spend it. We will help you all we
can!    I thank you for this kindly hearing.    (Applause.)
Enforcement of " Noxious Weeds Act."—Discussion Continued.
J. W. Edmundson (Creston) : I am rather amused at Mayor Morley's remarks with reference
to the Scotchman and the thistles. If we don't do away with it, I am afraid that the Province
will soon be all Scotch! I would like to know what we are going to do with the weeds on the
Government lands.
Alex. Hamilton (Pender Island) : It is the Canadian thistle that troubles us, not the Scotch.
I think it does not blossom the first year if you cut it. If you cut the Canadian thistle and never
let it seed, it will spread from the root. The way to kill the Canadian thistle is to go over the
ground twice a week, and not let a green thing appear on the surface. I have even seen it in
the cities. Boxes and crates coming out from the cities into the country bring it, and I have-
seen it on the Court-house Square in Vancouver. I have seen it all over Hatley Estate, but that
is some years ago, and no doubt it is attended to now. I have never seen the Canadian thistle
here, but I see it wherever there is an opening 12 feet square in the woods. How it gets there I
cannot tell, but I would not care to undertake to kill the Canadian thistle along fences and edges
of uncleared land.
R. H. Brett (Martin's Prairie) : In our district we are not seriously troubled with the
Canadian thistle, although there are a few. We have the Russian thistle there. I have not come
across much of it, but at the present time our trouble is the mustard. It blows all over the
country; nothing will stop it. I have seen it cross fields where there was not a stalk of mustard
the previous year, and next year there you find the mustard. It is very true that a farmer
should be ashamed to let weeds grow, but some of us do. Our institute has talked the matter
over, and they have thought that there should be an Inspector appointed to look after noxious
weeds. Of course, I know that it would be expensive to have Inspectors appointed for every
locality, but there are Inspectors for fruit; that costs a good deal of money, but I believe in the-
end it would be mouey well expended to have Inspectors appointed to enforce the " Noxious
Weeds Act," and these Inspectors when appointed should be practical men.
The Chairman : This is a question that has troubled all countries in the world, and I do not
know at the present time of any country that is effectually and thoroughly handling this matter.
I think that the question could be handled to the best advantage by the appointment of
Inspectors Of course, it would necessitate an expense. A start might be made this year by
mapping out certain districts for Inspectors, who would go round and see that the people are-
living up to the Act. I have discussed the matter with the Hon. Minister of Agriculture, and
told him that I thought it would be necessary to have some Inspectors. 1 have not been able-
to ascertain that it will be done, but I am going to use all my influence. I would like any one
here to tell me if they know any country outside of the Old Country, any new country, that is
handling the noxious-weed question better than we are.
W. Hornby (Delta) : I know most of the Lower Mainland, and I think, of all the
municipalities in the Lower Mainland, the Delta is freer from the noxious weeds. I think the-
reason is that twelve years ago they took a very strong stand on this " Noxious Weeds Act."
There was a number of prosecutions, and the consequence is that to-day they are pretty nearly
free of them.
The Chairman:    It is in unorganized districts that the difficulty is.
W. Hornby (Delta) : I owned some land in Chilliwack, near an Indian reserve, where there
were Scotch thistles. I had one field in particular; I had it quite clear, and the following year
the thistles were so bad I could hardly use the hay at all.
Mr. Taylor (Kelowna) : The South African Government have taken the matter of the
" Noxious Weeds Act " in hand. After the Avar the noxious weeds were extremely bad there,
and they formed a special branch of the Agricultural Department for looking after these noxious
weeds; they had a Chief Inspector, who had a staff of Sub-Inspectors in certain districts, who-
also had their staff of workers, and if a man was not in a position to handle the weeds himself,
the Government did it for him, and charged expenses to the land-owner.    They went round to. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 49
farms and inspected the farms. Certainly they have been very successful in handling the noxious
weeds. You would be able to find out full information from the Transvaal Agriculture
Department.
The Chairman: I might point out I approached the Canadian Northern this year. They
had the Canadian thistle very bad on their property, and they said they were quite willing to
conform to the Act, but that they had no men to spare to do it; but they said: " If your
Department will put on the men and do it we will pay you for it." It was a very difficult matter
for us to get the men to do the work; that is the difficulty in this country. The weeds were cut
down and they sent a cheque in payment, but the trouble is to find the men.
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : The difficulty, as you say, is to get these corporations to do
their share of work, and also to get Inspectors or officials to look after this question. Now,
could not the Road Superintendents take part in this matter? I could tell you of one district,
not sixty miles from Kamloops, where you can see miles of Canadian thistle along the roadsides.
It had no business to be so, as all the cultivated land will be seeded down eventually. I might say
that Mr. Robert Turner, of Salmon Arm, was trying for years to get rid of this weed, and he
used a Kimball cultivator every two or three weeks and cut the Canadian thistle 2 inches below
the surface. He had tried all things before that, and had utterly failed, but he succeeded even
beyond his best expectations. But there are other things besides Canadian thistles. In my own
district, five years ago, we did not know what the foxtail weed was. But it is growing now on
hundreds of acres of the range land. We are struggling with it on our farms, but the range
keeps us supplied with the weeds. These things really need to be looked into. You spoke of
the Canadian Northern, but go into the Boundary Country; there the tumbling mustard has been
brought in on the Great Northern Railway—" Jim Hill" it is named, after the president of the
Great Northern. You will find it all down the tracks, and nothing practically is done to
eradicate it. Weeds are all over the Province, some in one place and some in another, but it is
a most serious matter and a very difficult one.
J. T. Lawrence (Kettle Valley) : It is almost impossible to get rid of the mustard from
cultivated land except by ploughing. The trouble is not only along the railroads, but along the
city limits. Our farms are all around the city, and the wind blows from there and we get the
seeds.
Motion, on being put, was carried.
Royalty on Timber cleared from Ploughed Land.
Resolution 15. " Resolved, That royalty should not be collected from actual settlers on any
timber whatsoever cleared from land ploughed or to oe ploughed,."
E. Gardner (Glenside) : We sent in that resolution because there are lots of people who
come into these countries with only $100; we think that this royalty should be removed.
Seconded by I-I. A. Pearson  (Rock Creek).
R. H. Brett (Martin's Prairie) : I have a good deal of sympathy with the motion, but I
think that might be left to the discretion of the Government Agent. It is possible at times for
a person to take advantage of the homestead or pre-emption Act. I have known the homestead
or pre-emption taken up purely for the sake of getting the timber, and when they get rid of that
they don't want the land; and I sometimes think the law that prevails is a very good one.
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) : In our country the actual farmer does not pay any royalty
on any timber.    He sells it to the millman and he pays the royalty.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : It appears that there is a new ruling now. Any timber taken
out by the rancher must have a stamp with the number put on his logs. The cost of the registration is $2 and the stamp $4. If they only got out 3,000 or 4,000 feet, it would be about 25 or
30 per cent, of their output.    I intend to inquire and get the Act if I can.
The Chairman :   I can easily find out and let the Convention know.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : It seems a bit of an imposition if the stumpage is enforced
as well as that. It would be a hardship if every stick in the case of cordwood had to be
stamped with this stamp.   I would like a copy of the Act.
Resolution carried.
Permits to take Logs over the Line and bring Lumber back.
Resolution 16. " Resolved, That settlers be granted permits to take logs over the line and
bring lumber back when no mill is near by in Canada." N 50 British Columbia 1913
E. Gardner (Glenside) : We sent in that resolution from our institute because there were
several mills along the line on the American side and there were none in our own country, and
we are not allowed to take any logs at all. We could not haul logs over thirty miles to be
sawed up; we would have to pay from $12 to $15 a thousand for labour at our own mills, and
we have to haul them quite a distance.
Seconded by Mr. Harmer for the purpose of bringing the resolution before the Convention.
The Chairman: It would be a difficult thing to grant these permits. I can understand
that in some cases it may be a little hardship, but one must look at the question from a
Provincial standpoint.
Resolution lost.
Pure-bred Bulls for Farmers' Institutes.
Resolution 17. " Resolved, That the Government be asked to supply pure-bred bulls to
Farmers' Institutes."
A. H. Burley (Howe Sound) : We have been looking into this bull proposition quite a bit.
In our district we have no large tracts of land; it is cut up into small acreage. We thought
one bull would be sufficient for the requirements of all the farmers in our district.
C. S. Handcock (Northern Okanagan) : I second the resolution. We feel that it is up to
the Department to try and improve the quality of the stock in the districts, and we feel it is up
to the Government to try and lead the way.
The Chairman:  How many members are here in your institute?
Mr. Handcock:   One hundred and seventy-two.
The Chairman:  In the Howe Sound?
Mr. Burley :    Ninety-three.
The Chairman: The Department is prepared to supply a pure-bred animal to any institute
in the Province, to be repaid by instalments, in one, two, or possibly three, but we are not going
to give them to you. I may say that the Federal Government gave quite a generous appropriation in aid of agriculture, and I believe it is their policy to continue giving it every year, and
quite a considerable portion has been laid aside for the purpose of encouraging farmers to keep
pure-bred swine, horses, cattle, sheep, etc.
R. H. Brett  (Martin's Prairie) :   Does that apply to anything outside of cattle?
The Chairman:  I have just said cattle, horses, sheep, swine, etc.
Resolution carried.
Legislation to exclude the Admission  of Insect  Pests.
Resolution 18. " Whereztte there is continual danger of the importation of insect pests
which will seriously affect the fruit industry of this district; and whereas it is advisable to
prevent deciduous fruit, fruit-trees, and vegetables from districts infected by such pests from
entering British Columbia; and whereas the Kelowna Board of Trade has unanimously passed
a resolution on the above lines: Be it therefore Resolved, That we, the Kelowna Farmers'
Institute, in annual meeting assembled, do hereby commend and endorse this resolution and
request the British Columbia Department of Agriculture to use its influence to secure the
passage of the required legislation," as follows:—
" Whereas the policy of the Dominion Government of Canada and the Provincial
Government of British Columbia, respectively, has been for many years directed towards the
encouragement of immigration into this Province:
" And whereas the aforesaid Governments have jointly and severally, by exhibitions,
lectures, circular letters, bulletins, and other means, pointed out to intending settlers the
splendid advantages that British Columbia offers, by reason of her climate, soil, geographical
position, and extensive markets :
" And whereas both the aforesaid Governments have from time to time, by numerous
methods, held out to intending settlers unmistakable assurance that the fruit industry would
be fostered and protected by such legislation as may be found necessary in the development of
the horticultural industry:
" And whereas the effect of such assurance has resulted in large and ever-increasing areas
of agricultural land being planted in orchards, many millions of dollars have been invested,
and numerous settlers of a very superior character have embarked in the fruit industry, greatly
to the advantage of the Dominion and the Province: 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 51
" And whereas the importation of trees and plants during the three years ending December
31st, 1911, reached the enormous total of 8,975,663, which, when added to the output of our
local nurseries, will swell the total to considerably over 10,000,000 trees and plants (this is the
best evidence of the great expansion of the fruit industry) :
" And whereas there is undoubted evidence before this Board that this valuable industry
is now, and has been for some time, threatened with very serious danger by the importation
of insect pests and diseases in fruit and fruit-packages infected with such pests as codling-moth
(Carpoeapsa pomonella), which attacks apples, pears, crab-apples, and quinces; also several
destructive scale-insects, such as Aspidiotus perniciosus, Aspidiotus rapax, Saissetia oleae, Lepi-
dosaphes ulmi, and several other scales of economic importance; also the very destructive peach-
worm, technically known as Anarsia lincatella, which is reported by the horticultural authorities of California as being responsible for the annual destruction of from 25 to 30 per cent, of
the entire peach-crop of California:
" And whereas the imminence of the clanger of the introduction of these destructive pests is
abundantly proved by the returns of fruit condemned for infection at the Port of Vancouver
during the three years ending December 31st, 1911, which are as follows: 1909, 12,351 packages;
1910, 8,394 packages; 1911, 7,199 packages; and to October 31st of present year, 12,480 packages;
making a grand total of 40,424 packages; besides some twenty-seven cars intended for this
market, but were diverted by reason of their infection, the shippers not caring to run the risk
of condemnation:
" And whereas the United States Federal Government, in Congress assembled, in the month
of August, 1912, did enact a General Quarantine Law, whereby nursery stock, plants, fruits,
vegetables, bulbs, seeds, or other plant products may be excluded from entering the United
States and its territories, when such nursery stock, plants, fruits, vegetables, bulbs, seeds, or
other plant products are shipped from any country known to be infected with diseases and
insect pests not commonly found in the United States and its territories:
" And whereas the States of California and Arizona have already put into force the provisions of the Federal ' Quarantine Act' against the States of North Carolina, South Carolina,
Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Utah, and Hawaii, or other territory infested with
certain insect pests; also the following countries foreign to the United States, namely: Newfoundland, the Islands of St. Pierre, Miquelon; Great Britain, including England, Scotland,
Wales, and Ireland; Germany and Austria-Hungary :
" Be it therefore Resolved, That this Board respectfully, but very earnestly, urge the
Dominion Government to enact such legislation as will exclude deciduous fruit, such as apples,
pears, crab-apples, quinches, peaches, apricots, and plums, from being imported into this Province from countries, States, and Provinces known to be infected with the before-mentioned
insect pests, or other insect pests and diseases not widely prevalent or distributed within or
throughout the Province of British Columbia."
A. H. Burley (Howe Sound) :  There is one of our resolutions cut out.
F. E. Harmer (Central Park) : That has been cut out, but there are some that may be
taken up at the end of the resolutions.
The Chairman: Last year, you will remember, I asked if a Resolutions Committee should
be appointed, and you agreed. You must therefore support the action of this committee concerning resolutions.
Mr. Taylor (Kelowna) : I do not wish to make any extended remarks; I simply wish to
move the resolution.
Seconded by Mr. Matheson.
Resolution carried. •
The Chairman: I consider this is one of the most important matters in the Convention.
The Government has spent large sums of money in inspection-work, and we hope and think
that by the prompt action taken by Mr. Cunningham and his staff under him that we have
totally eradicated the codling-moth. The cocoons of the codling-moth are in the boxes in many
of the cars which come into the Province; conditions are favourable for them; the moth hatches
out, and then they fly outside, and unless prompt action is taken infection will come into this
Province sooner or later. We are not establishing any precedent in asking the right to protect
ourselves, as the United States are at the present time quarantining one State against another. N 52 British Columbia 1913
Address by Thos. Cunningham, Inspector of Fruit Pests.
I am very glad to have the opportunity of bringing the matter to your notice, which Mr.
Scott has explained is of vital importance to the future of British Columbia and the success of
horticulture. Before taking that up, I would like to express my deep sympathy with some
of the sentiments that have been made by several of the delegates here to-day in reference to the
needs of agriculture. I have always held from childhood till now, and fifty or sixty years'
experience has only confirmed me in the fact, that agriculture is the basis of all success and
prosperity. The country that is not progressing in agriculture, which embraces horticulture, is
not really prosperous. We have millions of acres of land in British Columbia waiting for the
settler. I think that if our Legislature now in session would devote the whole of this session to
this one thought, they would do more for British Columbia than anything else. As I go over the
country from one end to another, I see vast areas of land, just as good as in the eastern parts
of Canada. I had the privilege of travelling over the Cariboo District last October. I travelled
with a gentleman from Kansas, and we got to be very friendly, and as we went along I asked
him what he thought about this land. " Why, it is as good as any we have in Kansas," he said;
"but why are not the people there?" Surely that is not a question that is beyond solution;
surely there must be a means, and I think it is the duty of the Government and the Legislature
to devise the means and ways whereby this land can be brought into cultivation and bring
settlers thereon. I think that is the most important thing that 'any man can do who wishes
British Columbia to progress to-day. We are doing great things in the beautiful city. Where do
they get their money? Borrowed on long time—forty years. Can a farmer do that? Surely
there are ways and means to be devised. I lost my fortune in 1894. I bought a home, and by the
time I made the last payment, in ten years, it had not cost me more than my rent. What Is
possible for me to do should be made possible for a farmer to do. There must be, or we will
never get the country settled. There must be some means devised to borrow—some system of
banking. In some places they can obtain money at 3 and 3% per cent., and hand it out to the
farmer. That is the question that should be dealt with. There is no reason why the money
hoarded up in Europe, which is spent in buying breweries and so on, could not be obtained and
advanced to the actual settler and take his farm as security. That is the problem that must be
cleared up. Who is going to bring the land into cultivation? Not lawyers' clerks and broken-
down professional men.    It is the hard-working men.
Now, coming to our own question of the production of our fruit industry, I need not remind
you that both the Provincial and the Dominion Government have adopted a policy of many
years' standing to encourage the fruit-grower to invest money in fruit-growing. They have
assured them by exhibitions to England, Ireland, Scotland, and Germany I think, and we have
sent out bulletins, and we have employed lecturers for the fruit industry. We have attracted the
settler here. We have encouraged them to plant, and have protected him in so far as we knew
from planting infected trees, but not as fully as would warrant him to be absolutely sure. Sooner
or later we are going to be infected; that is sure to come unless more drastic measures are
adopted. Now, during the past year we have had some very instructive lessons along that line.
On two occasions right in the centre of the Okanagan Valley we found infection of the codling-
moth. What was to be done? There was only one remedy; and I can assure you that that
remedy may be successful if it is thoroughly done, and that is the only remedy that is possible.
That is to pick the fruit where the codling-moth is, and destroy it absolutely. So, with the consent
of my friend the Deputy Minister, we employed four men, bought the fruit from this fruit-grower,
and then destroyed it, and cooked it at the sawmill. That, so far as we know, has dealt with that
infection. Farther down the lake, still more danger. It was a little too late to destroy the fruit,
but I set a gang to examine the fruit, and examined the trees and the ground, so that I think
as far as I know now, that we have stamped out that infection. How does this come in here, this
codling-moth larva? It comes in on California pears and apples that are picked green. It is
impossible for any man, no matter how thoroughly trained, to detect the infection on fruit sent
in green. They are all wrapped in paper. You would have to unwrap every fruit and inspect
it individually, and rewrap it. But you see that is a physical impossibility. When I tell you
that in 1912 there was imported into Vancouver alone over 200,000 boxes of foreign fruit more or
less infected with the codling-moth larva, how many men would it take to inspect that amount?
It would take over a hundred Inspectors and a staff of fifty packers to restore it to its original 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 53
position and hand over to the importer. Well, that is not business, is it? There is a better way.
What? Why, to exclude it altogether. There is only one way of doing it. Every box that comes
in from infected countries carries infection with it. Shall we run this risk? I say, "No, by no
means." We are not wise men if we do. I want to assure the gentlemen here that my purpose,
my whole life is devoted to the thought of how to improve agricultural conditions of British
Columbia. How to protect the fruit-grower. (Applause.) I have devoted the whole of my life
to this; I am not sorry, and I have not grown rich. My consideration has been always the
amount of good I could do as I go along. We hear it stated by some of our wise men in the
Legislature that agriculture is the foundation of all prosperity. I was reading a chapter in the
Bible the other day, where it says: " If the foundation be destroyed, what will the righteous
do? " If the foundation of the prosperity of British Columbia be destroyed—meaning agriculture
—what will the bankers do? What will the financial institutions do? If the foundation is wrong,
what else can be right? Nothing, of course. Let us, gentlemen, devise some ways and means
to make the foundation of prosperity permanent. I have been reading of the condition of affairs
in the Old Country. What is wrong with England to-day? Sixty-five per cent, of the people
sixty years ago were living on the farms. How are they to-day? Less than 10 per cent, are
living on the farm. What is the result? Is it prosperity? No. Is it moral advantage? No.
Moral and physical declension; and they are producing and reproducing under the most adverse
circumstances, and there are millions who never get a proper meal.
Address by W. H. Hayward, M.P.P., Chairman of the Royal Commission on Agriculture.
I am exceedingly glad to be here, and to meet you for a few minutes, so that I may say how
we might organize the evidence. As you understand, we propose to go the length and breadth of
this Province, and shall no doubt meet you all. But I also understand that the Deputy Minister,
Mr. Scott, has made arrangements for Friday and Saturday for members of the Farmers' Institute
to attend the Commission. May I suggest to you that the easiest way, as there is a large number
of resolutions on your order paper, is to create a series of committees—the smaller the better,
if I may suggest it—and lay before the Commission through a committee each of the points you
want to bring up. In that way we can get through a great deal in a short space of time. Then,
again, it will prevent repetition in going back into your several districts. We propose, as nearly
as possible, about the first of April we shall start out, to go the length and breadth of this
Province, and try and meet the farmers on their own grounds. It seems to me to be the only way.
The Commission is thoroughly practical, and they will understand your difficulty only by going
into your districts. One other thing I would ask; will you be good enough, when you go up in
your several districts, to do your best between now and May to try and organize your several
witnesses? It would be a very difficult thing if we had a great deal of repetition. If the
Farmers' Institutes will take hold of this suggestion and get one man to speak on that particular
subject, then we will have no repetition. If that is done, I am absolutely certain that the
Commission will take it up most heartily, and I cannot help thinking that the evidence will be
more valuable instead of our having repetition after repetition, as has been the case in other Royal
Commissions. Let us have one man on one point, another man on another point. In a short
time—I am not in a position to say just when, but possibly in three weeks' time—there will be
a notice put in all the papers of the itinerary of the Royal Commission, so that every single place
and every single institute will kuow when we will be in their particular place, and they will have
lots of time to get evidence together. We not only want to have the evidence, but we want to
see the conditions, and if I myself can be of any use to an institute meeting in your several
districts, in speaking on co-operation or anything else I may happen to know about, I shall be
very pleased to meet that institute in the evening; but I would like to know beforehand, and I
should like it to be taken as a general invitation, and, of course, the meeting would have to be
in the evening. If I can meet the farmers and we can discuss things in general, it might be a
good opportunity to do things in that way. The Commission is out for the one and sole purpose of
improving the conditions of the British Columbia farmer; it is their one object and one aim;
therefore if we meet on mutual ground and we meet after organizing our evidence, I think it
will be better all round. (Applause.) I do not know how many matters you are going to bring
before the Commission on Friday and Saturday, but probably it is not worth saying very much
about it now, as we will be hearing it all through the Province in the several institutes and
districts we go to.   Thank you very much; I hope we will all meet later. N 54 British Columbia 1913
The Chairman: I am sure we are all very much obliged to Mr. Hayward for his very clear
and lucid explanation of how the Commission is going to work.
Mr. Cunningham then finished his address on the proposed quarantining of fruit from infected
countries.
Moved by J. Johnstone, seconded by A. Venables, " That Mr. Cunningham's resolution be
adopted."   Carried unanimously by standing vote.
Moved by A. Venables, and seconded by J. Johnstone, " That a hearty vote of thanks be
tendered to Mr. Cunningham."    Carried.
The Convention adjourned at 12.45 until 2 p.m.
Afternoon Session.
The Convention was called to order by Mr. Scott at 2.15 p.m.
The Chairman: A suggestion has been made to me with reference to the noxious weeds.
The Dominion Government publishes a very excellent illustrated work, with instructions as to
the best means for the eradication of weeds. This can be obtained from the Seed Commissioner's
Branch, Ottawa, for $1.    I think it would be a very good thing if all the institutes got that book.
A delegate asked Mr. Cunningham if anything had been done in reference to selling nursery
stock.
T. Cunningham : Oh, yes; we are doing that all throughout the nurseries. No nurseryman
can get a licence until his nursery has been inspected.
The Chairman: There was a lot of talk when the question was up about the price of
powder, and several of the delegates state that companies can secure it at a lower price than
institute powder, and I told you I would get information on this point for you this afternoon.
The powder company were telephoned by me, and they say the usual rate is $5.75, but if they
get a car-load they get it at the same price as the institutes; so that when it is stated that it
can be got cheaper than by the institutes, it is not correct. The price is, for others than institute
members, $5.75 for less than car-loads, and $5 for car-load lots.
Moved by Mr. Handcock, and seconded, " That each delegate just speak once on a subject,
the mover to have the opportunity of replying at the end."    Carried.
Marketing of Fruit and Agricultural Products.
Resolution 19 (Martin's Prairie). " Resolved, That the Central Institute take up the matter
of establishing a market for the produce of Farmers' Institute members."
Resolution 19a (Kettle Valley). "Resolved, That the Kettle Valley Farmers' Institute
favours the creation of a general selling agency, under the supervision of the British Columbia
Government, for the marketing of fruit and agricultural products."
J. T. Lawrence (Kettle Valley) : I spoke to one of the Resolutions Committee last night
and asked, with the consent of the Martin's Prairie delegate, to have the resolution read as
Kettle Valley. If so, I may be permitted to speak on the Kettle Valley resolution. T don't
think it necessary to go into all the details. I think our experience of last fall has taught us
that something must be done. In the first place, we know what competition means, and we
want exchange with one another and one district with another. At first each one of us is
anxious to sell. We think in this co-operation we have the cheaper method of handling this.
Now, in fruit as well as vegetables, but more particularly in fruit, we want to get a very
large market. We want to create a demand for this fruit, and in order to do this we must put
it on at a price so that it can be used as a staple article and not as a luxury. In order to do
this, we have to find the cheapest methods of producing, and also of handling it so as to get
it to the consumer, and we know that in the Prairie, just outside the districts round the wholesale centres, they practically get no fruit at all. The commission merchants just handle enough
to supply their immediate districts, and by this means we cannot supply more than one-fifth
of the Prairies. This, of course, is a great drawback to the interests of the fruit-growers, that
we lose that market. We know that a trust is a good thing for the people who control it. Why
should not the farmers form a trust? By this means we can handle our products, not only in
growing, but especially in marketing, so much cheaper, from the fact that we will go to them
in an organized body.    I do not wish to speak very long on it, because possibly some gentleman 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 55
has studied the matter out more than I have; but I would like to say, in regard to the system
of managing this thing, that we would like to have the Government, as the resolution reads, to
supervise. I would like supervision by the Government, not under the control of the Government
any more than that they would enact laws under which it is governed, and prosecute any one
who breaks any of the laws and regulations. On the other hand, it will give the members of
the institute, or those who wish to go into it, more confidence in the organization. We all know
the farmer is one of the hardest men to make believe that his neighbour is as trustworthy as
himself, and by having the Government's name attached to it they will have confidence in it and
know that it will go through. On the other hand, we think the consumer who sees the marking
on the fruit-box, and sees the Government mark and knows it is all right, will buy from this
organization in preference to any other.
L. J. Botting (Salmon Valley) : I second this, although my institute would like a market
something on the lines of the Old Country. We have been pretty badly hit in our part of the
world during the last fall, and we have come to the conclusion that it is necessary to do something to bring the consumers and producers more closely in touch. It is the middleman in
between that has absorbed all the profit. I suppose you have all heard about the man who got
75 cents for his barrel of apples and the consumer paid $5.75 for them. When it was analysed,
Mr. Middleman had got $3 out of it. There is an instance of a friend of mine who sold big
onions at 90 cents, and a little while after he had to pay $1.50 a sack for the same onions. We
do want a little of the profit left in the hands of the farmer, and if we had some system of
marketing as in the Old Country, where they have a fixed market-day, so arranged that they
will follow in sequence, so that dealers can travel from one to another, the farmers then know
where they can meet the dealers, and they can go there and make their deals direct. I think
that would be a great improvement on the present system.
J. Johnstone (West Kootenay) : I take this opportunity to bring to your notice that I hold
in my hands articles of the North Pacific Fruit Distributers. This has been found absolutely
necessary by our competitors in the South. It includes Wenatchee, Yakima, Walla Walla, Hood
River, Spokane, and the mountain districts, particularly the whole of the fruit-growers south of
us. They find it necessary to combine in order to secure a market, and their articles of incorporation are practically a repetition of the articles with which we formed the exchange five
years ago, but we were then a little ahead of our time. We must co-operate, the time has come;
and I quite agree with the first speaker that it must be the Government to take the first step
in this matter, because I, for one, however enthusiastic I may toe over an exchange, will never
ask a man to put $1 in a central exchange again. We do need the moral support of the Government. Now, what we certainly want is a distributing agency. I simply wish to say that these
articles of incorporation in my hand show all you people here of something being done, and
something being done at once. I remember perfectly well the opponents of the exchange said:
" Look at Wenatchee; look at Hood River."* I always maintained they would have to form a
central distributing centre, and here it is.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : I think we all recognize the necessity of some concerted
action. We have heard a great deal about co-operation. We know in Ontario the fruit situation
has been practically saved by co-operation. We know how Denmark has sprung up in the eyes
of the world, and it has been under Government auspices that Denmark has so rapidly increased
their output. I was considerably struck, when going up the Arrow Lake the other day, with
a placard on the steward's desk that apples could be obtained at 5 cents each. That was a
vast difference to what obtains in the Okanagan. It is up to us as fruit-growers to find the
remedy. We have found the Government in Canada in the different Provinces encouraging
increased production of every commodity that grows on the farm, but in Canada in particular
the Governments are particularly silent in regard to helping out incorporation. Now, the move
must come from the farmers, and I am glad to see the question come up here as a representative
body of the farmers of British Columbia, and it is up to us to devise some scheme, and I am
certain that some idea will be evolved as a remedy. We have something to contend against
in British Columbia. The Ontario Department of Agriculture have been considering cold-storage,
and so on. We must get into line if we are to hold our own market. As Mr. Cunningham has
stated, if we stop fruit coming in from infected districts, it will mean more to us than even
enhanced duty. In the City of Lethbridge, some years ago, I wondered why we could not get
British Columbia fruit; I had heard so much about it.    The wholesalers said:   " We cannot N 56 British Columbia 1913
get it." Why? Because the channels of trade have been established with the States south of
us, and all they have to do is to telegraph what they want and they get it. It is on account
of the lack of organization. It is up to us to act, and I am very glad that the question has been
mooted  here.
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) : We are very much interested in the market question in
the Metchosin District. Now, perhaps I may not speak altogether along the lines of this
resolution, but I wish to point out some of the advantages of the market as we feel them down
there. You have heard the remarks passed in regard to the high prices paid by the consumer.
There are a good many reasons for that at the present time. You go to the grocer, and he has
to give credit. If you had an open market you would go and pay cash for it. You pay a high
price to the grocer because of the many unpaid bills. At the present time we cannot get $1
a box for No. 1 apples in Victoria; the best we can get is 85 cents, and they are selling from
$1.50 to $2. If we had these series of open markets you could get credit or cash, but you could
also get a grade of goods that we do not now get on the market. One cause of the high price of
living is the particular way they are putting things on the market. Everything is fancy wrapped
and packed. But there is a lower grade of fruit that we do not get on the market. That would
reduce the cost to the working-man if he could get it. They argue that a market would not be
used because one would use the telephone. You could have the telephone in the market. If you
peddle fruit you have the Chinaman against you; he will not buy off you if his brothers are
handling fruit. I believe the most ancient charters are the market charters, and on these market
days it is illegal to peddle fruit. At the end of the day's sale, with your load of produce, what
you did not sell would be bought, you will find, by men in the city, who would buy it and take it
round from door to door. What is not sold at the end of the day could be put in cold-storage, and
the market commissioner have authority to sell it or ship it from point to point. I don't believe
it is right for the Government to encourage settlement here if we cannot show a market. We have
a rich land, but we want markets.
R. H. Brett (Martin's Prairie) : It was my hope to have had the privilege of seconding that
resolution, but being late I failed to report. That does not matter. On the resolution from
Martin's Prairie you will find something on the same line. I believe I can claim credit for
putting that before our institute. At that time I had no hope that it would be taken up, so
I am greatly pleased to see the question well discussed, because I think it is capable of a great
deal of discussion and consideration. I feel it is a good question. My idea is to have the
producer and consumer brought closer together, so that they could be mutually benefited. In our
present system, unless you are close to a city where we can load up our produce and peddle from
door to door, we must take whatever we are offered for it. In the oatlying districts, such as I
represent, at times a gentleman will come into the neighborhood and make inquiry as to what you
have to dispose of. If he wants your produce, he makes you an offer and tells you where to
ship it. It makes no difference what the price is, jou have to take that price or leave it. It
goes into the city. It is put on the markets, and Mr. Consumer can pay the price or leave it.
Who sets those prices? As far as I understand, they are put on by the people who neither sow
nor reap. Why should we submit to this condition of affairs? Why should we not get busy and
market our own produce? I don't see any reason why we should be exploited by them, and I
would like to see the Farmers' Institute take it up thoroughly; and if they cannot convince the
Government to take it up, surely they can work out some system whereby the farmers themselves
can do something.
Jas. Edmundson (Creston) : May I suggest a little idea? As a matter of fact, " municipal "
means freedom, and we have in British Columbia, I thinK, twenty-five municipalities. I think
there is no provision made in the " Municipal Clauses Act" to give people the privilege of buying
outside in any other territory for the selling of fruits, vegetables, or anything of this kind.
Now, if the Government do not want to take this up, why not the municipalities, and if provision
was made in the " Municipal Clauses Act" to give them power to buy, say, for instance, a lot
in Calgary, one municipality could buy a lot there, and if they bought it in a good place they
would always have it there in creasing in value. Another might buy in Edmonton and one in
Winnipeg, and another in Saskatoon; they might buy a dozen different lots, and put on storehouses
at a cost not too great. If all these municipalities could get together, we could ship to the Prairie
a car-load at any time in any of these places, then if they wanted to send out any stuff by
express, we have on the Prairie three or four different railways, and the competing rates on 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 57
express are a good deal lighter than they would be otherwise. Now, if each of the municipalities
sent a representative, and let that Inspector look after the arrangements as to keeping of books,
etc., I think that we could handle the whole proposition; that is, providing that the Government
did not take it up in some other way. An Inspector could go to each and every city and see how
things were getting along; and I think that if we could get laws, and we can, regulated, so as
to handle this matter in a businesslike way, it would be a very cheap proposition, and always a
safe proposition. You would always be able to ship a car-load to any one of these warehouses,
because if you could not sell it at your own, you could possibly divide it up between Calgary and
Saskatoon or Edmonton, or some of those places. Inasmuch as those cities are always going
ahead, you would always have a great amount of profit on the investment of your money, should
you wish to sell out at any time.
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) : I cannot say that I quite agree with the last speaker. If
the farmers are so poor that they cannot do it, the middlemen will not do it, as it is detrimental
to their own cause. As far as the Upper Country, Kitsumgallum, and Queen Charlotte Island,
are concerned we want some help up there. I think if we could get the Government to take hold
of it in some way, in whatever way they think best, it will be far better than any municipality.
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : I have had some experience in shipping in the Kamloops
District, and during that time have been making myself acquainted with the selling conditions.
I would like to put this idea before the meeting. In regard to local markets, that surely should
be in the hands of the local farmers. They certainly would need some one who was capable of
organizing such a market and supervising it. There are markets from which we can learn; I
believe there is one in Victoria and one in Vancouver.
The Chairman:    Not in Victoria, just Westminster and Vancouver.
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : As far as local markets are concerned, we should be able to
learn from those two instances; but when the local demand is not equal to the local production,
such as car-loads of fruit and vegetables which must be shipped out to the Prairie points, then
you have conditions that require different treatment. Now, as to buying lots and building
warehouses, I don't think that would be successful; but what I think would be successful is that
you should get a firm who were anxious to do business and would represent the Province of
British Columbia entirely, that we could ship to them and we could sell to them on commission,
not to take the stuff at their own price and then sell at their own price, but that their business
should be done on commission; you would find the greatest possible demand for all the products
in Alberta. The merchants in Calgary, when they are selling stuff, and the consumer complains
that the price is high, says: " Ah! but this is British Columbia stuff "; and I maintain, as I
have for the last five years, that these two letters " B.C." are the hall-mark of quality, and are
accepted as such. The merchants will tell you to a certain extent, the consumers will tell you
that there is only one fault, and that is the price they have to pay for it. You know we don't
get that price, and in order to remedy that state of things, I think if we had a firm who would
confine themselves to British Columbia produce, and sell on commission, that we would have the
market for all we would send. It is not merely the City of Calgary; these jobbers have their
travelling agents to small places, and it is just those small places that cannot get this stuff.
Between Calgary and Edmonton, in Mr. Metcalfe's report, complaint was made, not of the price,
but of the quantity offered, as the retail merchants could only get 50 per cent, of what they could
handle, and yet we were having peaches rotting in the Okanagan, and for what were sold at
those points we did not get our fair share of the price that was received for them by the jobber.
D. Matheson (Spallumcheen) : This marketing of produce has been a burning question for
a great many years back. Twelve or thirteen years ago it was broached here, just the same as
it is to-day. Personally, I took a great deal of interest in it, and got it started, and am very
sorry to say that every branch I went into it has been a failure, and on that account I am really
at a loss what to say about it. But I learned an experience, and I am convinced it is the only
remedy we have of marketing our produce successfully, and that is by co-operation of the whole
of the farmers of British Columbia. I notice the last speaker spoke of a commission firm to
hold the produce until there is a market for it. That is the only way. I think Mr. Johnstone
has the only remedy we ought to follow, and simple, only we have to get it into working-order.
It' you get the Government behind it you have got the whole thing in a nutshell.
Alex. Hamilton (Pender Island) : I lived in New Westminster when the market was brought
in there, and it was a great success.    The butchers were against it because it was going to S 58 British Columbia 1913
compete with them. The leading banker's wife went down to the market and carried the goods
home in her basket; that set the pace for every one else. The butchers then took stalls in the
market and competed there. The only consequence was that the rents along Front Street went
down a little. Here in Victoria there was a market building, but it was not a success. Well, I
believe in markets and corporations, but I think we are barking up the wrong tree when we go
too hard after the middleman. I sent milk-fed chickens to town, and I had a dozen which
averaged 7 It). I got a little over $2 a head clear on these chickens. Of course, it cost about
75 cents for the feed to bring them to that, and the work over and above. The middleman had
about 70 cents each for profit. So far we travelled together, but that is too much of a rake.
On the other hand, this middleman has high expenses, delivering, and all that sort of thing, and,
to crown all, rents are increasing. I could easily go to a corner shop where the rent has
increased 300 or 400 per cent. The actual fact of the matter is that this immense boom in real
estate has been a bad thing for the city and for the country, and the owner of a fat corner lot
is the man who reaps the whole lot.
F. D. Campbell (Maple Ridge) : In the early part of the month there was a committee
appointed by the Fruit-growers' Association to look into all this. I had the honour of serving
on this committee, and I think that if this resolution went through it would strengthen our
hands.
J. T. Lawrence (Kettle Valley) : I just want to make a suggestion, that when this resolution is put to a vote (I know it will be carried), I would suggest that another motion be put
asking that a committee be appointed from this institute to investigate this, and work in conjunction with the Fruit-growers' Association committee.
The Chairman: Just one word. Co-operation has been talked here for the last twelve
years. How is it that the farmers will not co-operate? Every other business has organized, but
the farmers have not, and it should come from the farmers themselves. You cannot expect the
Government to sell your stuff for you. The Government will not undertake that responsibility;
that is for the farmers themselves to do. We have instances of successful co-operation; I
would instance the Cowichan Creamery. This is a creamery which is not only handling dairy
produce, but eggs and all kinds of produce, and there is another on Salt Spring Island doing
similar work. Co-operation will have to come if the best results are to be secured, but the
people will have to pull together as one unit. I do not know what is meant by " Government
supervision," but, so far as I am concerned, I will do my best to forward co-operative movements amongst farmers.
Resolution 19a carried.
Re Resolution 8, referred back to Committee.
" Your Committee beg leave to submit the following: ' Resolved, That the British Columbia
Government be asked to use its influence with the Dominion Government to extend either telephonic or telegraphic communication in British Columbia where none such is at present in
operation, and also that this Central Farmers' Institute request the Provincial Government to
enact such legislation at this session to enable municipalities to own and operate telephone-
lines.' "
Moved and seconded, " That resolution as amended be adopted."   Carried.
Appointment of Representative.
Moved by A. E. Keffer, and seconded, " That the delegate from Kettle Valley be appointed
a representative from this Convention to confer with the Fruit-growers' Association committee
investigating the question of co-operation and successful marketing.
F. D. Campbell (Maple Ridge) : I am certain we can assure the Convention that their
interests are safe in our hands, just as much as we would watch over anything else.
J. Johnstone (West Kootenay) : As one of the committee of the Fruit-growers' Association,
one at least from this Convention would strengthen our hands.
Resolution carried.
Setting Fires for Land-clearing Purposes.
Resolution 20. " Resolved, That Fire Wardens and their deputies be given full discretion
in setting fires for land-clearing purposes." 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 59
The Chairman: This was taken up last year, and the Government made arrangements,
consistent with guarding against the danger of a disastrous forest fire, for the Wardens when
possible to give permits to burn up clearings.
P. Jackman (Matsqui) : According to this resolution, I might say that it is submitted to
this Convention for adoption, and it was quite understood that there were different conditions.
In our locality there is not so much danger of fire as there is in some other districts. In the
spring of the year, when we undertake to clear a bit of land, up to this year we could not get
a permit to burn; we have never been able to get a permit to have it burned. I don't think
it necessary for me to enlarge on this to any great extent, because I think it is just wasting
time.    The Government men see that it is made elastic according to the different districts.
Thos. Noble (Valdes Island) : Our district is on the Coast, and think it would be only
common equity if we had a different permit from the farmers in the Dry Belt.
The Chairman: I can only say that the Fire Wardens have received instructions to issue
permits when in their opinion there is no danger. You may have a clearing and you may think
there is no danger in having that burned. The Fire Warden comes along, and he looks at it
from an impartial point of view, and he may think there is a danger, but they have been
instructed to give permits when there is no danger.
Thos. Noble (Valdes Island) :    The Fire Wardens are very difficult to get at.
Resolution carried.
R. E. Williams (Bulkley Valley) : In regard to this, I would like to ask one question. To
whom should we write when we have Fire Wardens who are overburdened with responsibility?
The Chairman :    The Minister of Lands.
Cattle-guards on Railways.
Resolution 21. " Resolved, That the Provincial Government be requested to lay before the
proper authorities the uselessness of the present cattle-guards on railways, and have them
replaced by efficient ones."
The Chairman: I would suggest that this be brought to the attention of the Railway
Commission; have the resolution sent from this Convention to the Railway Commission.
P. Jackman (Matsqui) : I would be quite satisfied to have it go that way, but I would
like to ask one question. Does the Railway Commission have control over the tram-line from
Chilliwack to Vancouver?
The Chairman:   I cannot answer that without making inquiries.
C. S. Handcock (Northern Okanagan) : I think the tramway at Chilliwack has a Dominion
charter.
The Chairman: If this is passed it will be put up with strong representations to the Railway Commission.
Resolution carried.
Discharging Firearms from Automobiles.
Resolution 22. " Whereas the practice of discharging firearms from automobiles on the
public highways in unorganized districts has grown to such an extent as to be a menace to
the public safety; and whereas considerable damage has already resulted to the live-stock and
property of residents in these districts; and whereas the residents have no remedy except a
civil action at law for damages: Be it therefore Resolved, That the Government be requested
to make it illegal to discharge any firearm either on or within 60 feet of any public highway
in settled districts."
The Chairman:  Have not the municipalities power to do that ?
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) : Yes, they have. I was specially requested to push this
resolution before this Convention. The municipalities are all adjacent to the cities, but we in
Metchosin have no municipalities, and we look to the Government, the same way as the municipality does to their Council, to regulate the discharge of firearms, and we look to the Government to protect us and abate this nuisance if they can. The district is very close, and there
are good roads, and hundreds of motors pass through, but we are still an unorganized district.
It was the common practice during the last shooting season for them to start before daylight,
and you would wake up to hear the discharge right under your window. The school-children
were peppered with shot on two occasions, and there is considerable danger to the children N 60 British Columbia 1913
and the houses. We had two cases which were very close to accidents last year. We have
no objection to them shooting at all, if they will go about it in a proper way. We want to
make it a penalty.   We wrote the following letter to Mr. Bowser:—
October 21st, 1912.
Hon. W. J. Bowser, K.C.,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Dear Sir,—1 am requested by the Directors of the Metchosin Farmers' Institute to call your
attention to the dangerous practice of discharging firearms from automobiles upon the public highways in this district. This is now almost a daily occurrence and a menace to the public safety. I
am also directed to inquire whether the practice of sending dogs into enclosed- premises for the pur-pose
of driving out game to he billed on adjacent lands is according to law, and have the residents any
remedy.
Your kind attention to these matters will be greatly appreciated.
Attorney-General,
Victoria, October 22nd, 1912.
Mr. Maurice A. Porter,
R.D. Route No. 1,
Cohcood-Metchosin, B.C.
Dear Sir,—I beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 21st instant, asking if anything
can be done to prohibit the discharging of firearms from automobiles on the public highway.
So far as I know, there is no Statute which hinders people from discharging firearms from automobiles if they see fit to do so. Of course, if they cause any damage they can be sued in our Civil
Courts.
The same remark applies to the practice of sending dogs into enclosed premises for the purpose
of driving out game. If they do this they are technically guilty of a trespass, and if you can show
any damage done in the enclosed premises by the dogs, the owners -may be held responsible.
Of course, this is a matter of an entirely civil nature, and on which, under the strict rule of
the Department, I cannot give you advice ;  your (proper course is to consult some local solicitor.
Yours truly,
W. J. Bowser,
Attorney-General.
Now, gentlemen, if we had a municipality we could have that very easily, but the Government is our municipality, and we look to them to bring in some legislation. I beg you,
gentlemen, to support this motion, and ask the Government to do something.
The Chairman:  How would you define settled districts?
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) :  Would you suggest that we take any course at all?
The Chairman: As regards this, I am surely in sympathy with you as regards the menace,
but how are you going to draw the line where they can shoot from the road and where they
cannot?
C. S. Handcock (Northern Okanagan) : I would say, strike out the last three words in
that motion.
The Chairman: If you get into the wilds, you would surely not want to prohibit this
shooting there.
C. S. Handcock (Northern Okanagan) : There is not likely to be any constables and you
can take the chance.
Thos. Noble (Valdes Island) : The roads are about the only place we can go through to
shoot.
The Chairman:    Will it not -be a short time only before Metchosin is organized?
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) :    I hope not.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : In that case you could not discharge a firearm on your own
premises within 60 feet of the road.
Resolution lost.
Parcel-post System.
Resolution 23. " Resolved, That, in view of the great benefits to be derived by farmers
from a parcel-post system such as is in operation in Great Britain, the Provincial Government
is earnestly requested to press upon the Dominion Government the desirability of introducing
at once a similar system into Canada."
The Chairman: Before the mover speaks to that, that seems to need no discussion, as
the Dominion Government are considering the question now. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 61
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : I must object to the asking of the Provincial Government to
go to the Dominion Government when we have representatives there. I think we should go to
the Dominion Government direct.
S. Mottishaw (Nanaimo-Cedar) : Speaking to the resolution, it has been a great boon to
Great Britain, and I think it would be a great boon to British Columbia, as well as a great
convenience to the farmers.
The Chairman: Would it meet the wishes of this Convention if the resolution were
amended as follows: " Resolved, That, in view of the great benefits to be derived by farmers
from a parcel-post system such as is in operation in Great Britain, this Convention beg to call
the attention of the Dominion Government to the desirability of introducing at once a similar
system into Canada."
Resolution carried as amended.
Control of Water in Irrigated Districts.
Resolution 24 (Okanagan Centre). " Whereas in the irrigated districts of this Province
there are extensive tracts of arid land which could be reclaimed and rendered highly productive
if more water was stored during winter in reservoirs at the headwaters of most of the streams
in these districts; and whereas the proper development of these headwaters by the construction
of dams of sufficient capacity and other permanent works, and also the future maintenance and
the impartial control of such works, are matters of supreme importance to the settlers in the
said districts, and should not be left in the hands of private companies and individuals, many
of which are interested in the development only of certain limited areas: Be it therefore
Resolved, That, in our opinion, it is desirable that the Government should expropriate and
further develop and control, where necessary, all irrigation-works at the headwaters of streams
in the said districts; and, secondly, that the Government should, after taking over the irrigation-
works at headwaters as aforesaid, exercise control in the matter of the rates to be charged to
users of the water."
Resolution 24a (Peachland). "Resolved, That this institute again draw the attention of
the Government to the necessity for conserving the water in natural basins in the irrigation
belt."
Resolution 24b (Windermere). "Whereas, in the opinion of this institute, the subject of
the proper demonstration of the use of water and the general conditions of farming under
irrigation are very important features, not only to this district in particular, but to the greater
portion of the interior of British Columbia: Be it therefore Resolved, That this institute
memorialize the Minister of Agriculture with this petition, asking him to take steps to have
more literature of an educative nature published for free distribution on this subject; and that
he also take steps to have public lectures delivered in regard to the carrying-out of work of
this character; and that at some time in the future a competent corps of public instructors on
irrigation be appointed to hold office under his direction."
The Chairman: As you are aware, the Irrigation Convention has been in session in
Victoria. This question was taken up very earnestly by that Convention. Although undoubtedly
you would strengthen their hands in passing this, I think a discussion is not necessary.
Resolution 24 carried.    Resolutions 24a and 24b ruled out.
A question arose as to resolution sent in by Windermere with reference to irrigation.
The Chairman: I do not think you can expect the Government to do anything better than
they have done as regards the application and distribution of water, by the publication of
Professor Etcherberry's report on this subject. We had 5,000 copies printed. Any one interested
in irrigation can get that on applying to the Department.
Transportation Charges on Pure-bred Stock.
Resolution 25. " Whereas the present transportation charges on pure-bred stock between
points within the Province, and also from the Prairie Provinces to points in British Columbia,
are so high as to be almost prohibitive to the average stock-raisers; and whereas we believe
the increased importation and free exchange of pure-bred stock, especially siring stock, would
be of great benefit to the flocks and herds of this Province: Be it therefore Resolved, That the
Government of British Columbia be requested to arrange with the railroads operating in the
Province for a special rate on pedigree stock from the Prairie Provinces, and especially between
points within the Province." Is* 62 British Columbia 1913
The Chairman: I do not think the mover of this resolution quite understands the situation.
There is a special rate on all pure-bred stock. In addition to that, the British Columbia Stockbreeders' Association grant a rebate of half of that special rate to any member of the association
that introduces any pure-bred stock from any of the Provinces, or from point to point within the
Province, so that any one who breeds stock should undoubtedly belong to the Stock-breeders'
Association. If you are a member of the Stock-breeders' Association and you import a purebred bull, you get half the transportation refunded you.
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : That rule does not apply if you want to import a pure-bred
sheep by express; you have to pay full transportation rate.
The Chairman:    People don't generally get them by express.
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : Yes, that is just what we do; the Dominion Express Company
makes no reduction.
R. E. Williams (Bulkley Valley) : The G.T.P., as well as the C.P.R., signified their intention
of giving us a lower rate.
The Chairman:    I don't quite understand why this resolution was brought in.
W. E. Paull (South Kootenay) : The reason this was brought in was on account of some
of the hardships; moving from points within the Province has worked a great hardship. One
particular man who shipped a pure-bred bull paid $35 freight rate by the Great Northern.
The Chairman:    Was he a member of the Stock-breeders' Association?
W. E. Paull (South Kootenay) :    I don't think he was.
The Chairman: Your resolution was brought in as applying to the Great Northern. You
have got the special rate from the C.P.R.?
W. E. Paull (South Kootenay) : We are quite aware that we can get special rates from
the C.P.R., except express rates.
The Chairman: It will be to the interest of all farmers to pay their dollar and belong to
the Stock-breeders' Association.
W. E. Paull (South Kootenay) :   I will withdraw this resolution; perhaps it is too local.
Resolution withdrawn.
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : May I express my gratitude for the information? It is very
much needed, and I will take care it is circulated in my district. May I point out something
that is relative to this resolution? On the east side of the Arrow Lakes it is necessary to take
mares over to the higher valley for breeding purposes.    It only costs $5 to take them over.
Express Rates and Refrigerator-car Service.
Resolution 26. " Resolved, That a committee of the Central Institute be appointed to confer
with the express and railway companies for the purpose of securing a reduction in the express
rates and the securing of a fast freight and refrigerator-car service between the chief fruitgrowing regions and the Coast on the one hand, and the Prairies on the other, and that the
Government be urged also to take up this question with the various companies concerned."
The Chairman: If you ask us to appoint another committee you are duplicating the work,
because a committee was appointed by the Fruit-growers' Association.
J. Johnstone (West Kootenay) : I move, as an amendment, "That this Convention endorse
the action being taken by the Transportation Committee of the British Columbia Fruit-growers'
Association."
Seconded and carried.
Public Libraries.
Resolution 27. " Whereas there is at present no general Statute providing for the organization of public libraries in British Columbia; and whereas public libraries are requisite if farmers,
orchardists, artisans, etc., are to be supplied with the technical works they need; and whereas
it is of the first importance that our excellent system of education should be supplemented by
public libraries for the use of students and the public at large: Be it therefore Resolved, That
we request the Government to place on our Statute-books an adequate modern ' Public Libraries
Act.' "
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) : I do not think the Peachland Institute are familiar with the
library system in our country. The Provincial Library will ship out a lot of books as a travelling
library on the request of institutes. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 63
The Chairman: It seems to me this covers the ground of a resolution given in last year
along similar lines. I mentioned in my address that at the next session of Parliament—that is
this year's—the Provincial Secretary intended to submit a Bill to the Government providing for
the establishment of such libraries.
Resolution  withdrawn.
Insects Beneficial to Farmers and Fruit-growers.
Resolution 28. " Resolved, That the Department provide prints to schools showing the
various stages of insects beneficial to farmers and fruit-growers, such as ichneumon, lace-wing,
and lady-bird."
H. A. Pearson (Rock Creek) : I would like the opinion of Mr. Cunningham on this
resolution. If he thinks this cannot be done satisfactorily, I am willing to withdraw the
resolution.
F. E. Harmer (Central Park) : I might call attention to the fact that the Resolutions
Committee took this matter up with Mr. Winslow, and it would cost $300 per set, and it is much
too expensive for the Government to handle at the present time.
The Chairman: I think it is more or less an impossible resolution. I was talking to
Mr. Winslow some months ago along the same lines, and the cost of obtaining a complete set
and supplying all the schools would involve the outlay of a tremendous amount of money.
Mover withdrew resolution.
Moths, Butterflies, and Insects of British Columbia.
Resolution 29. " Resolved, That the Entomological Department of the Government offer an
inducement for publishing an up-to-date work on the moths, butterflies, and insects of British
Columbia."
The Chairman: The Department has grown very rapidly, but so far we have not a distinct
Entomological Department. There is an Entomological Society, a Provincial one, which I hope
will accomplish very good results, and I hope that we may have an Entomological Department
eventually.
Mover withdrew resolution.
Indian Lands in Okanagan Valley.
Resolution 30. " Whereas a few Indians hold a great deal of land in this, the Okanagan
Valley; and whereas this land is quite unproductive, being without water: Be it therefore
Resolved, That the Government be urged to take steps to have this land opened for settlement
and irrigation."
L. Featherstonhaugh (Westbank) : I want you to pass this resolution and send it on to the
Commission.
The Chairman: The question of Indian reserves is being taken up by the Government, and
no doubt arrangements will be made. I saw in yesterday's paper where the Dominion Government
had passed an Order in Council dealing with the question.
L. Featherstonhaugh  (AVestbank) :    I would ask you to pass this on to the Commission.
Seconded by M. P. Williams (Okanagan Centre).
Resolution amended by Chairman as follows: " Whereas a few Indians hold a great deal
of land in the Province of British Columbia : Be it therefore Resolved, That the Government be
urged to take steps to have this land opened for settlement."
Resolution as amended carried.
Operation of " Fruit Marks Act," etc.
Resolution 31. " Whereas during this season the markets of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and
Manitoba have been used as dumping-grounds for the surplus fruits of the United States; and
whereas the present dumping clause is not applicable to fruits, thereby causing great injury and
injustice to the fruit-growers of the Dominion: Be it therefore Resolved, That the Dominion
Government be requested to take immediate steps to have the dumping clause made operative in
respect to fruit shipped into Canada from foreign countries."
And " Resolved, That we urge the Dominion and Provincial Government to co-operate in
regard to the inspection of fruit; that the Inspector of Fruit Pests for the Provincial Government N 64 British Columbia 1913
be also appointed by the Dominion Government to look after the enforcement of the ' Fruit
Marks Act,' and that the Dominion Government Inspectors be also appointed by the Provincial
Government to look after the enforcement of the Provincial Government's ' Fruit Pests Act.' "
The Chairman: The second part of the resolution appears to me to not be feasible. The
first part of it, of course, is what we want, and what has been taken up by the British Columbia
Fruit-growers' Association also in a very effective manner. I do not think, myself, that what
you ask for in the second part would be workable, but still I would like an expression of opinion.
J. Johnstone (West Kootenay) : The idea of that was simply this: that when an Inspector
opens a box, one inspection could include both men's work; that is to say, the one Inspector opens
it for fruit pests, and yet it may not be up to the requirements of the Dominion " Fruit Marks
Act," and it would simplify the matter very much if the two could work in harmony. In the
past it was almost impossible to get them to work in harmony on account of different ideas in
politics, but now that we are all in the same boat we will work better.
T. Cunningham: I want to correct my friend Mr. Johnstone—kindly, you know. It makes
no difference to our officers who are in power in politics. We keep clear of it. It has been a
question of protecting the grower, and I may say the two departments, although working in two
different schools in politics, have worked in perfect harmony. When we found anything wrong
in the way of the grading of fruit we reported it to the Inspector, and vice versa. There is no
politics in the growing of fruit, and never shall be with my consent. It is the best fruit, no
matter who is in power; so I think, Mr. Johnstone, you will withdraw that.
J. Johnstone (AVest Kootenay) :    I will withdraw the second section.
S. MacDonald (Cranbrook) : Is there any settled percentage or proportion for inspection of
fruit?
T. Cunningham: Sometimes it is necessary to inspect the whole car. In the Californian
shipments we inspect every package. In AA^enatchee fruit it is not so dangerous ; in North Yakima
there is less than AA'enatchee, and in Hood River there is some. The Inspector carefully inspects
at least fifty boxes as the least quantity coming from any car from these districts, and if fifty
boxes are found to be free, it is a guide, but still it is not perfect protection. I hope by the time
we meet again we will get rid of all these questions.
S. MacDonald (Cranbrook) : The reason I asked this question was because a man had 100
out of 600 boxes inspected. I happened to be on the ground at the time, and he was making a
very vigorous protest, that it was a loss and delay to him. The Dominion Inspector was there, but
not the local man. He said: " He possibly does not know an apple from a turnip, anyway."
The local man was a member of our institute. I said, no doubt he was acting on instructions
from the Department, but he maintained he had no right to inspect one-sixth.
The Chairman: I think the resolution might be arranged to read like this: " AVhereas
during this season the markets of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba have been used as
dumping-grounds for the surplus fruits of the United States; and whereas the present dumping
clause is not applicable to fruits, thereby causing great injury and injustice to the fruit-growers
of the Dominion: Be it therefore Resolved, That the Dominion Government be requested to take
immediate steps to amend the " Tariff Act," so that the dumping clause be made operative in
respect to fruit shipped into Canada from foreign countries."
Carried as amended by Chairman.
Moved, seconded, and carried, " That the Convention adjourn until 10 a.m. Thursday
morning."
Thursday, January 23rd, 1913.
Morning Session.
The Convention was called to order by Mr. Scott at 10.15.
Moved by L. J. Botting (Salmon Valley), and seconded, "That Mr. Townsley, the secretary
of the Mutual Insurance Company of British Columbia, be asked to address the Convention.
Address by Mr. Townsley.
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—I appreciate the privilege which you have given me again
to speak to you at your annual meeting. The company of which I am manager was founded by
the Farmers'  Institute.    It was founded for the benefit of British  Columbia.    Our company  Ill
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3 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 65
has now been running some years, and to-day I am glad to tell you that it is in a stronger
position than it ever was before. During the past year we have had great success, and in the
three years that I have been manager the increase has been $1,033,000. The total amount of
insurance carried by the company now is nearly $3,750,000. I may say a word or two as to the
manner in which the company is carried on and the system. The rates were fixed low in order
that the farmer might get the insurance as near cost as possible. The rate is 4 per cent., and
we collect the premiums annually, and there is a charge of $1 for the policy; that is, every three
years we collect $13 in cash, but in addition we take a premium note, and we now take 2 per cent,
instead of 3 per cent; that is really a promissory note; and when we have not enough money
to meet a year's claim we can levy. A 5-per-cent. levy on our promissory notes would meet the
full year's losses. Again, the Act of Parliament limits the liabilities of the farmer, so when a
member takes out a policy with us, if the worst came to the worst, the total liability to us is
$33. As a matter of fact, there has never been a cent collected on any of the notes, and not
likely to be. We do not take insurance in any city, and we do not take isolated risks. I want
you to understand that, because those who are competing with us often make a great deal about
the premium. There never was an Act of Government more closely drawn; we are tied hand
and foot. AA"e cannot make a levy on our premium notes; we have to give every member thirty
days' notice, I think it is, and each member would have a voice, and if we had to make a levy
we could only call for the actual amount we had lost. The company is not a money-making
company; no director has ever had a cent benefit, except cheap insurance; no director has had
any salary except his travelling expenses, so there are only the fixed expenses and commissions
paid to the agents. Again, it is no advantage for the membership to be increased unless very
largely. With a total amount of insurance of getting on for $4,000,000—we hoped this year it
would reach $4,000,000—we are getting on very well, and the present members are getting all
the benefit they are likely to get. We directors would like the benefits of the company to be
spread all over.
We do not take any property near the bush, or with stove-pipes through the roof. AVe
take the very best of property, and we are very particular, and in that way we would benefit
all who give us their insurance, because we are doing it on a low rate of premium.. The company has been a perfect success. In the Old Country I had to deal with the Yorkshire Union
of Farmers' Clubs. This has been a success from the very beginning, has paid its way, and
paid its way easily. During the last year we have had rather more than the average of losses,
but we have paid promptly, and we have never had a claim where there was any dispute.
Most of them were settled within the week. The largest loss was a $3,000 loss, and I paid
that myself within five days of the fire.
I am much obliged to you for the courtesy in hearing me, and I hope this little address
may be the means of you joining our company; and if you do join us, I can assure you we will
use you fairly, satisfying you to the best of our ability.
J. M. Edmundson (Creston) : There are a lot of people here who put in resolutions, and
they want them to get through, and as this is a Farmers' Convention I do not think it is the
proper thing for us to be listening to these matters.
The Chairman ruled Mr. Edmundson out of order.
Mr. Johnstone (AArest Kootenay) : I move a vote of thinks to Mr. Townsley. For the
past seven or eight years I have induced every one possible to join this company, because it is
a great saving and it is absolutely secure.
Seconded and carried.
Regulations regarding the Importation and Fumigation of Young Trees.
Resolution 32. " Resolved, That, in consideration of climatic conditions in East Kootenay
necessitating the planting of varieties of fruit not propagated or offered for sale by the British
Columbia nurseries (but the use of such varieties would, we believe, add much to the opportunities of fruit-growers in East Kootenay), the Government be asked to amend or relax or
otherwise change the present regulations in connection with the importation and fumigation of
young trees, necessitating the shipping across the Province twice of such trees as are bought
by East Kootenay fruit-growers."
The Chairman: Before this resolution is spoken to by the mover, allow me to give you a
little explanation. This question has been brought up on several previous occasions. It would
5 N 66 British Columbia 1913
be quite inadvisable for the Government to establish a fumigation-station in the interior; it is
not necessary. AVhat we want the growers to do is to use local-grown stock. We want to
encourage planting clean home-grown stock; and the expense in starting a fumigation-station
in the Upper Country would not be justified by the fees collected for the stock which would
come through this station.
S. MacDonald (Cranbrook) : The point we have in contention is this: I have been in
that district for ten years, and one rancher lost $200 in plums. These plums we especially
refer to; the season is too short, and the plums that are supplied by the British Columbia
nurseries do not seem to ripen quickly. The plums I have reference to have been a hybrid
plum, and have been crossed by wild Minnesota plums and the Japanese, and they have produced
four to six weeks earlier than any from the British Columbia nurseries. I believe, from
conversation, that these plums have proved a success in Manitoba and the Dakotas. The season
is so short they do not attain their natural sweetness. I will say this, Mr. Chairman: Our
season is changing a little. A year ago last fall it was scarcely possible to ripen a potato. I
have seen my potatoes cut down by July. Last year we had no frosts until October 1st. I
have been asked to bring this up by the institute. I don't believe in going away from home to
get produce, but I have been asked to deal with this.
Seconded by Mr. Harmer.    Lost.
The Chairman: I think that if you called this matter to the attention of the nurserymen
they would experiment with these varieties.
Skylarks and Wagtails.
Resolution 33. " Resolved, That the Department import skylarks and wagtails as farmers'
friends into Vancouver Island, in order to combat the wireworm and other farm pests."
The Chairman: The Natural History Society have sent their orders to England for robins,
wagtails, bluetits, and skylarks, and they will be shipped in, I believe, about March.
S. Mottishaw (Nanaimo-Cedar) : The wagtail is the most important bird. Are they going
to send in any of them? I am practically chewed up with wireworm; I have had as many as
twenty-eight on one solitary potato ; practically chewed up with them in the Nanaimo District,
and the wagtail is the most important bird.
The Chairman: Last year an article came out in the papers that thrushes and blackbirds
were going to be brought in, and letters of protest poured in, and I took the matter up with
the Attorney-General, and he took it up with the Natural History Society. A lot of letters came
in to the Department asking that birds should not be brought in, as a bird that was harmless
in the Old Country might develop a taste for small fruits, and so on, in this country. The
Natural History Society had a meeting with the Attorney-General, and I was there and took
the position of the fruit-growers, and I said we did not want any birds at all.
S. Mottishaw (Nanaimo-Cedar) : Robins have been shot and have been found to be full
of wireworms.
The Chairman: I put up my argument against it, but it was decided that they should be
allowed to bring out the birds I have mentioned to you.
S. MacDonald (Cranbrook) : AA'hat is the difference between the thrush and the robin
here?
The Chairman:  They are very much the same, but there is a difference.
S. Mottishaw (Nanaimo-Cedar) : The pheasant is nearly as great a pest to me as the wire-
worm.
J. S. Shopland (Comox) : Last year this same resolution was brought up; I seconded the
resolution from Nanaimo-Cedar last year. I will give you a little illustration. We had a patch
of strawberries, and the robins were stealing my strawberries, and I drove one robin away six
different times, but the robin persisted in coming again. " If you come back again I will shoot
you," I said, and I shot it, and I was very, very sorry; there were twenty worms packed in his
mouth. These worms were of different kinds, and the robin, I maintain, is our friend to a great
extent. If you salt your land, the wireworm cannot stand the salt and will not live there.
In some districts it is much harder to destroy than others, and these small birds will do much.
I second the motion.
Resolution carried. Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 67
Contagious Diseases.
Resolution 34. " Resolved, That the Provincial Government be asked to notify all farmers
of the prevalence of any contagious diseases existing among animals in the district, also to send
out pamphlets dealing with the said disease."
W. H. Stuart (Shawnigan) : I was asked to bring this resolution up. As you know, this
is rather a bad state of affairs. Our worst enemy is a hidden one. In informing farmers as to
methods of dealing with diseases, here is a chance for the Government to get out a pamphlet
on disease, to demonstrate to farmers the best way of treatment. I would call special attention
to the hog-cholera that existed in our district. Inspectors were sent up, the hogs were killed,
but the other farmers were not notified of that disease. The news circulated around, but many
of them did not get this news; but if notice was sent to the Secretary of the institute, he could
then inform all members.
W. Hornby (Delta) : I was instructed to bring in a resolution along similar lines. I think
that if these diseases were reported to the proper authorities it would be a good thing. At the
present time there are a good many veterinarians in the Province. If this were reported to
the Provincial authorities, I think it would be a great help in exterminating the disease. I think
that Dr. Tolmie could give us a great deal of light on this.
The Chairman: I would ask Dr. Tolmie, Dominion Live-stock Commissioner, to speak on
this subject.
Dr. S. F. Tolmie: Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—I have listened with a great deal of
interest to the resolution. We have had this year in British Columbia probably the greatest
outbreak of hog-cholera we have ever had. They have also had great losses in the United States
from hog-cholera. Many of these cases arise through giving raw swill containing, portions of raw
pork. There was a man in Arernon who, as long as he was cooking the swill, the animals were all
right, but later he was compelled to give them raw swill. We had another similar outbreak in
this district. AA'hile it may seem desirable to publish the news broadcast, still there are some
disadvantages. The publishing of the presence of contagious disease is very much exaggerated.
One paper in Duncan announced that the hog-cholera had been contracted through the animals
being exhibited at our exhibition. I showed them that it would have taken from seven to eight
days only, and that a great many more days had elapsed before it showed there, so it was
impossible for them to have got infection at that point. Another paper in A7ancouver took the
matter up and exaggerated it; I don't know what the other papers said after that, but I expect
that each went one better than the other. The result was that there was no sale of pork in
Duncan, and it had a very serious effect in interfering with the purchase of pure-bred stock
from that district. Then, again, our neighbours to the south get hold of these reports of outbreaks, and they get exaggerated, so that the Government, after looking carefully into the
matter, have decided that this system of publicity is not the best to be adopted. At the time
of that outbreak I took the trouble of communicating with the Areterinary-General at Ottawa,
and received a reply which confirmed my views as expressed above. When we get an outbreak
we disinfect the premises and quarantine for three months. It breaks up a man's plans of
breeding; he has to have a hog-cholera sign, and he receives hundreds of questions. I have
taken up with the Areterinary-General the question of publishing a bulletin giving the farmers
as full information as possible with reference to hog-cholera. Contagious abortion is not a
disease; that is not a contagious disease.    We do not deal with that.
W. II. Stuart (Shawnigan) : I wish to move a vote of thanks to Dr. Tolmie for the
information.
Seconded and carried.
Resolution 34 lost.
Duty on Woven Fence-wire.
Resolution 35. " Resolved, That the Provincial Government be requested to represent to the
Dominion Government the desire for the removal of duty on woven fence-wire and the placing
of duty on barbed wire."
H. A. Pearson (Rock Creek) : I will withdraw that resolution, as the Resolutions Committee have seen fit to consider it rather out of the province of this Convention. N 68 British Columbia 1913
Auditing Accounts of Co-operative Societies.
Resolution 36. " Resolved, That in regard to the Government support of co-operation in
agricultural matters, the Government be urged to appoint a travelling auditor to audit the
accounts of all co-operative societies twice annually."
L. J. Botting (Salmon Valley) : I may mention that in two cases alone the loss was no
less than about $70,000, and, from all I can gather, inquiries simply led to the fact that there
were no books to speak of, and they were not able to trace the leakage. It is thought that we
should have a system of auditing which would be in the hands of a Government audit, so that
members could safely embark on co-operative movements. There is no use asking a man to
embark on any of these schemes, when he says: " Yes, but look at those two schemes; what has
occurred in one district may occur in another." And what to any extent affects the district
affects the Province as a whole, and I think that the saving of hundreds and thousands of
dollars to farmers is well worth a little consideration from the Government, to see if they can
institute such a system as this by which a Government auditor will go round. In many of these
instances they appoint a secretary or manager; so long as they get things cheaply they trouble
no more, and then apart from the fact that it places temptation in the Way of that man, there
is nothing done till the smash comes. Many farmers would claim that they had too much work
to look after books, and so we put it up to the Government, not as a matter of paternalism, but
to prevent any of these leakages of money from bad management or dishonesty, and it ought
to be stopped in some way; we want a dependable auditor.
J. C. Harris (New Denver) : I have much pleasure in seconding this. The average farmer
is very apt to. let things like this slide, and I think that is one of the causes the movements
have failed.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : I do not see why any institution cannot employ a chartered
accountant, who would be equal to any sent out by the Government. We all know that the
farmer as a class is not competent to do this thing, but it is up to the farmers who belong to
the co-operative society to protect themselves.
C. S. Handcock (Northern Okanagan) : You will find that if you had the best chartered
accountant in British Columbia the average farmer will not trust him. He will trust the
Government before anybody else.
Alex. Hamilton (Pender Island) : It seems to me that the co-operative society has equal
rights with banks.
D. Matheson (Spallumcheen) : I quite agree with the mover of this resolution. I think,
from my experience in co-operation, something of that nature is necessary. We do not ask any
paternalism from the Government, but at the same time, if they had their auditors go round
and audit the books, it would give a confidence to the shareholders, and to those patronizing
co-operative movements, and would help them along. My experience with auditors is that if
the manager or book-keeper is not true to the business they are very easily influenced to do
something.    I could prove that if it was necessary.    I quite agree with that resolution.
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) : I beg to support that resolution. I have had experience
with the Victoria Fruit Exchange, and we had more confidence and stood by the Exchange as
soon as auditors were appointed, but I am sorry we were disappointed. We would like to have
the Government behind us.
W. Hornby (Delta) : AVe had a little experience in Chilliwack corporation; we had an
auditor there, supposed to be an English chartered accountant. He audited our books for some
years, and then another man was put in, and we found to our astonishment we were somewhere
in the neighbourhood of $5,000 behind. Our books were always audited every six months, and we
were perfectly satisfied we had not gone behind in that short time, but that it had been through
the whole time. If we had regular Government appointed auditors, it need not be any gift on
the part of the Government.
F. E. Harmer (Central Park) : It seemed to us to be a purely local matter. There are a
good many of us who are secretary-treasurers, and handle from $500 to $2,000 a year, and we
go down to our hall and make up our books so often a year. Then, if a Government auditor were
appointed to go round twice a year, probably it would mean we would have a notice that he was
coming, and we would have to neglect our work and go down and do our books again.   There Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 69
are perhaps four or five associations in the Province of British Columbia that have lost confidence
in their men during the last few years, so why should they want to throw a lack of confidence on
other associations?
The Chairman: I think Mr. Harmer has put the matter very well. I am quite satisfied,
myself, that if any of the co-operative associations wished to have it, it could be done; but to
have a travelling auditor go round to all of them and audit twice annually, I do not think would
be a wise move at all.
R. H. Brett (Martin's Prairie) : I would like to support the motion for this reason: that
if it was the Government auditor's business to drop in, the books are likely to be kept straight.
L. J. Botting (Salmon Valley) : With reference to supplying an auditor on request, that is
like a lack of confidence. I do not think that would do at all; and as to a chartered accountant,
that is a big expense.
J. Bailey (Chilliwack) : Our experience has been that we must get some one who is
responsible. It is all right, as the representative of the Resolutions Committee has said, it is
not every one who wants to stop at a moment's notice; but I believe it is in the interest of the
co-operative societies to step in, just the same as in the banks; the banks never know when an
Inspector is going to step in.
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) :   Are not the secretary-treasurers under bond?
The Chairman:   Only if required by the association.
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) : If the secretary-treasurer is not under bond, I think it is
entirely up to the directors to see that he is under bond, especially if this auditor is to be paid
for by the institute.
L. J. Botting (Salmon A'alley) : I am speaking of the big co-operative associations; I am
not speaking of institutes only.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : There is one under the "Institute Act" and one under the
" Co-operative Associations Act."
The Chairman:    They are all now under the " Agricultural Associations Act, 1911."
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : We applied under the " Co-operative Associations Act," and we
have an association under that Act.
The Chairman: All corporations under these Acts enjoy the powers according to the Act
under which they were incorporated, but there is a clause in the " Agricultural Associations Act"
whereby societies incorporated under these different Acts may, if they elect to do so, come under
the provisions of the " Agricultural Associations Act, 1911."
L. J. Botting (Salmon Valley) : I understand that we should have mentioned the
" Agricultural Associations Act."
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : I shall support this resolution. I think it is absolutely
necessary, the more so when I remember a case within the last two or three years, when the
whole thing had to be gone into. It is necessary in nine cases out of ten that they should be
auditors under authority, and if the concern is such a small one, the books might be closed twice
a year and sent to headquarters for audit.
J. S. Shopland (Comox) : There is nothing said as to who will pay this expense. We have
been saying here that we must not take any money from the Government. Now, I would like to
know who is going to foot this bill. I heard here that the majority of farmers were not fit to
do this. Now, I am very sorry to hear that, not for myself, but we have sent our sons to the
colleges, and I am sorry that we have to go to the Government to pick out a suitable man.
Why don't you send away and get a stranger to audit your books? There is good talent in
British Columbia, and I don't think it right for the farmers to suggest that we have not got the
ability on the land as well as in the cities.
Result of vote as follows:   28 for, 30 against.   Resolution lost.
Address by A. E. Tbotman, of the Victoria-Vancouver Lime and Brick Company.
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—I will be as brief as I can. The value of liming land is
beyond dispute, and such eminent authorities as Dr. Hopkins, Professors Eckhardt and Thatcher,
agree with other specialists that the soil of the whole Pacific Slope is badly in need of lime.
These authorities also agree that the proper applications will consist of crushed lime-rock—not
caustic or hydrated lime, as these do very great harm. The causticity burns the humus out of
the soil, and it must also be considered that these are wasteful ways of using lime.    To spend N 70 British Columbia 1913
money in burning rock, then in slaking or hydrating same, and have the product revert in a
very little while to carbonate of lime, otherwise lime-rock, is the reverse of common-sense. This
is exactly what happens when caustic or hydrated lime is used in agriculture.
Liming land is of immediate benefit in increased crop weights, in rendering available stores
of nitrogenous and potassic plant-foods, that would otherwise be insoluble and lost, and by
reason of the fertility of the soil being rendered more permanent. Its use in many cases effects
mechanical improvement, rendering stiff soils easier to work, and by coagulation making the
land more open and friable, improving the drainage, whilst the land is warmer, ensuring a good
tilth, and securing an earlier seed-bed. It is of the greatest value in sweetening sour soils and
in checking fungoid growths, also in checking and destroying destructive insects and soil pests.
Experiments establish the fact that as much as half a ton of lime per acre per annum isj lost
by percolation in temperate climes, and this has to be replaced if the land is to be kept up to its
full productive value. In potato-cultivation, root-crops generally, and for club-root disease in
cabbage (Brassica) family, lime is one of the greatest disease-preventers, and where root-crops
are grown on same ground for several seasons it is imperative to use lime. In fruit-cultivation,
especially during stoning or pipping, the call for lime is heavy, and growth and fruition are
stimulated by applying it in an easily assimilable form.
The agricultural lime we are selling contains a proportion of quicklime, which is immediately available, and the balance is in a harder form, whereby its lasting properties are enhanced
and waste eliminated. Our price is $4.25 per ton, free on cars; our works, Atkins Siding; and
we will be pleased to give you rail rate to your point on application. The Deputy Minister of
Agriculture has also arranged with the C.P.R. for this traffic to pass over the Island Division,
and on the Mainland as far as Revelstoke, in 60,000-lb. lots, at about half-rates. This will be
found the cheapest compound on sale whereby the full benefit, both immediate and deferred,
can be secured.
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) asked questions with reference to rates.
The Chairman: As regards freight rate to your point, I would advise you to see Mr.
Trotman in recess.    Mr. Trotrnan will tell you the rate.
A. E. Trotman : Lime has been applied to the extent of 20 tons per acre in rotation. Labour
is a pretty considerable item, and you do not lose it in four years. Experiments show that the
fourth year after the application of lime to land the crops are as much as 20 per cent, over, so
it does not lose in the fourth or fifth year.    Beyond that it may.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) :   I would like to know the freight.
A. E. Trotman:   The C.P.R. stipulates 60,000 lb. shall be shipped to get the half-rates.
The Chairman: You would have to take 30 tons and then you will get the special transportation rate. You can get the rate right to your point. Mr. Trotman will give you that
information.
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : I would like to know whether the application of this lime
would affect alkali lands.    Our land is lighter than you have here.
A. E. Trotman: I think it would have a beneficial effect there. In all classes of soil it
binds the finer parts together, and opens the land for capillary action, so that the moisture can
rise.    In any case ground limestone would be beneficial on any lands.
J. S. Shopland (Comox) : In regard to liming your land, we must bear in mind it will
alkali your land. Lime is one of the best things if you put it in at the proper time. The right
time is to put it in in the fall.
A. E. Trotman: I think in England they have been using caustic lime. That is quite right
for use in the fall. Roehampton Experimental Farm say there is 5 per cent, result the first
year, and 20 per cent, the fourth year.
J. S. Shopland (Comox) : How long does it take to dissolve this ground lime—to take
action in the soil?
A. E. Trotman:  A few weeks.
J. T. Lawrence (Kettle Valley) : In the case of gravelly soil in the Dry Belt, what effect
would it have; does it help to draw moisture and hold the moisture in a case of that kind?
A. E. Trotman: I think it would help to hold the moisture. It would draw the moisture
from the subsoil.
A delegate: I would like to know whether your firm deals in calcium sulphide. For the
Dry Belt that is the most important. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. 1ST 71
A. E. Trotman:  Yes, probably.    There is a mill producing commercial gypsum in Oregon.
L. J. Botting (Salmon A^alley) :   There are big gypsum-deposits going to be worked in the
Salmon Valley.
Information as to Action taken on Resolutions.
Resolution 37. " AA^hereas the members of institutes, in framing resolutions to Central
Farmers' Institute, have no accurate knowledge of what action has been takeu by the Provincial
Government on resolutions sent in by the preceding Convention: Be it therefore Resolved,
That the Superintendent of Institutes be requested to send to each Secretary of Institutes, in
due season, a copy of said resolutions, and an account of what action has been taken by Legislative Assembly in regard to each."
The Chairman: I think I covered this resolution in my Superintendent's address to you.
I shall be quite prepared to let the Secretaries know what action has been taken as soon as
possible, but it will be some considerable time before I can get the information. It generally
takes some little time to get any changes carried into effect, but I shall be very pleased to let
the Secretaries of the institutes know as soon as possible.
Resolution withdrawn.
Financial Aid to Veterinary' Surgeons.
Resolution 38. " Whereas there is no veterinary surgeon practising within this district;
and whereas the services of a veterinary surgeon are offtimes important for the relieving of
sickness or saving of life amongst live-stock; and whereas it is the opinion of the members of
this institute that there is not at the present time sufficient work of this character for a duly
qualified veterinary to devote his entire attention to this end as a means of gaining a livelihood;
and whereas it is said to be the practice in the case of an ordinary medical practitioner for the
Provincial Government to give him financial aid in outside districts such as this: Be it
therefore Resolved, That we suggest to the Government that it be advisable to introduce such
a practice in connection with outside districts, and extend similar aid to veterinary surgeons."
T. W. Turner (Windermere) : I think the terms of the resolution speak for themselves,
and as the Department has had time to consider it since April, I do not think there is much
to say.
Seconded by F. E. Harmer  (Central Park)  in order to bring it before the Convention.
The Chairman: This resolution was one of those that was thrown out by the Resolutions
Committee to come up later for discussion by the Convention. It has been done in the case
of doctors, but in that case it is a case of human life. As districts grow up, veterinaries settle
therein when the practice is sufficient. I may say we have our own A^eterinary Inspectors, of
whom we have four, one in the Upper Country, and the others in the Lower Mainland and
Vancouver Island. They give assistance to the farmer and do any veterinary work for them
free of charge, if requested to do so. If you pass this resolution, it is one on which I honestly
think the Government will not take any action.
Resolution lost.
Removal of Tax on Improvements.
Resolution 39 (Fire A^alley and Lake Shore). " AVhereas under the present system of
taxation, whereby the tax on improved land increases proportionately with such improvements;
and whereas it is felt that such increase is a tax on energy and enterprise; and whereas it is
felt that the adoption of the single tax and the removal of the tax on improvements would be
of immense benefit to those engaged in agriculture: Be it therefore Resolved, That this institute endeavour to bring before the proper authorities the need for such removal, with an
urgent request that such steps may be taken as will bring about the change desired."
The Chairman: There is a Bill to be brought before the House according to the recommendations of the Tax Commission, by which I understand the tax on farm improvements will
be done away with altogether.   I don't see the necessity of going on with this resolution.
J. C. Harris (New Dem«er) : I thoroughly believe that this will go through, but if this
Convention just passed that resolution we will be doing the right thing.
Moved by J. C. Harris  (New Denver)  and seconded by J. Johnstone   (West Kootenay).
J. M. Edmundson (Creston) : Where can one get a report from the Royal Commission on
Taxation? N 72 British Columbia 1913
The Chairman:   It is not available for the public yet.
Resolution carried.
Resolution re Wild-land Tax.
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : I am in sympathy with this. There is a move on foot to take
the land away from the Indians, where the Indians on certain lands have been very small
compared with the extent of the land. We who have come so much later than the Indians
Should be compelled to put our own house in order. Unless that is done the land should revert
to the Crown. I know I do not get everybody's sympathy in what I say, but I think it is a
cruel thing to try to oust the Indian from land for the sake of white men who are doing nothing
in the shape of improvements.
J. M. Edmundson (Creston) : The taxation on wild land is all right if the land were
properly assessed. If I buy 10 acres at $100 an acre, my tax will be $5 at % of 1 per cent.
The wild-land man, instead of being assessed at $100—the basis of his assessment is exactly the
same, the land value is the same in both cases—is assessed at a much lower valuation. So if I
am assessed at $100 on the one hand, Mr. Speculator should be taxed on $100. I say to the
Assessor: " Take notice, I appeal against this wild-land man's land, because he is assessed at
only $20 while I am assessed at $100." The case may then be tried at the Court of Revision, and
evidence taken. If at the Court of Revision the Assessor will not reduce mine or make the same
exactly equal, then we have access to the Judge of the Supreme Court, and it is for the Judge
to decide the question. It is rigid enforcement we want. We have an excellent fruit country-
there, and it is exceedingly productive.    I produced this year 5 tons of onions from half an acre.
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) : I think, myself, there is some discrimination in regard to
this taxation. Up in our country there has been some land cut up into 10-acre lots. Within
half a mile adjoining that there is a man who will not sell for less than $75 an acre, and he is not
particular for selling at that, but I understand he is paying taxes at $1 per acre; that is the price
he paid for the land four or five years ago.
The Chairman:   Why is not objection taken to the assessment?
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) : Here's a good time to take it. I believe that is general all
over the Province. If we attempt to ask the Government to compel anybody to get on to that
land or let it revert back to the Crown, they will jnst laugh at us, and throw out the whole
thing.
The Chairman: I would suggest that you refer it back to the Resolutions Committee in
order to bring in a resolution dealing with the points we have talked upon this afternoon.
It was decided that J. T. Lawrence take the place of the representative from Fire ATalley
with reference to this resolution.
The Chairman then invited Mr. McDonald to address the Convention.
Address by W. T. McDonald, B.S.A., Live-stock Commissioner.
Mr. Chairman and Delegates,—I am sure it is a pleasure to me to have this opportunity of
saying a few words to you. There are just a few matters I wish to refer to this morning; some
of the new lines of work we are attempting, and some of them Mr. Trotman has made reference
to. One line of work which will appeal to you is demonstration-work in field crops. We have
made a start; the first work done was this last fall. So far we have been able to do jnst a
little, but I will outline what we intend to do. In the first place, it is the policy of the
Department to carry on this work in so far as possible among the people. AVhile central
demonstration farming has some very nice features connected with it, at the same time very
often this does not bring the work in touch with the people that would be interested in it. So
we have planned to carry out the work in different communities.
One phase of the work we will carry on is alfalfa-growing, and we have arranged for the
carrying-on of work in alfalfa-growing in different communities. I think there is no crop like
it, and it is good for any class of stock, and I do not except horses—some of you probably would.
I did until I had experience in feeding it to horses, but after, having been forced to that
experience I was convinced it was a good thing. They even started to use it for breakfast food,
but we hope they will not use such a good food as that for breakfast food. We also want to
carry on some work in the growing of kale. Kale is most excellent food for the dairy cow. Then
there are other sections where we want to carry on the growing of corn, and show the correct 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 73
methods of tillage. We have got such varying conditions in the Province that we must adopt plans
and carry on work that will meet the requirements of the various communities, and as delegates
from the various Farmers' Institutes you will be able to help us in this matter. You will be
able to bring before us what you think would be well to carry on in the work we are
contemplating.
Another matter that has been brought up, first by way of resolution, was the matter of
pure-bred stock distribution, and Mr. Scott has explained to you the plans we have in mind to
carry on this work. This would entail on the part of the Farmers' Institute the acceptance of
the responsibility of caring for the animal, and of paying for it on easy terms. It is work that
is most important, because we realize that in many communities a man has a few head of stock
•of some class, but does not feel able to send off some distance to secure a good pure-bred sire,
and yet it is important in these sections that there should be good stock. There is nothing that
Is better for a country than good stock. Probably I am a little too optimistic regarding the merits
of stock, and in so far as I have been able to learn of the methods that have been employed in
■old agricultural countries, live-stock has been the basis of all permanent successful agriculture.
I just wish to point out some of the things that have happened south of the line. For the last
few years I have been living in the State of Washington. The first trip on which I was sent
was through the Yakima Valley, and I never had such a discouraging time. When I started to
speak, every one stretched out until it was time for the next one to speak on fruit. I stated,
however, that I had the conviction that the Yakima Valley had great possibilities for the
production of live-stock, and I have had the pleasure of seeing it come true, or at least beginning
to come true. The most enjoyable trip was through the same valley to the same points about
a year ago, and at that time I made the statement that the Yakima Aralley would be some day
noted for its dairy industry as well as its fruit industry, and at the same time be producing
better fruit. Just the other day I noticed a statement about the number of dairy cows that have
gone into the Yakima A^alley the last few months. One thing we must consider, and that is, in
the growing of any crop, we are taking from the soil fertility, and we have not yet found the
soil that is inexhaustible. We hear of it, but we always find some mistake somewhere. I have
been in some of the most fertile sections of the Continent, I believe, and yet after a number of
years we find the soil failing to return the original crop yields. Even in the growing of fruit
we are taking about the same out of the soil in growing apples as wheat. In our irrigated
sections we are getting tremendous crops, and sooner or later we must be confronted with the
problem of the fertility of the soil. In the handling of stock we have the logical way of keeping
the land fertile; I do not say that every man should keep live-stock, but 1 will say that sooner or
later every man must secure that with which to keep the soil fertile from some source or another.
In the case of selling butter from the farm, we are leaving there about 95 per cent, of the
fertility; not taking very much away from the fertility of the soil at all. But in order to do that
we must do it properly; we must have the right stock. That is just what we are trying to get
around in supplying pure-bred sires to the people who are not in a position to do it for themselves.
AVith the expenditure of a little money now the results will be enormous. It is planned that we
leave to the Farmers' Institutes the privilege of selecting the breed to which the sires shall belong,
and we would probably ask that a petition be filed with several signatures on it, agreeing on the
breed you want. One thing we would like to impress upon you, and that is, if you choose an
Ayrshire, do not change and choose a Jersey two years later, and so on. It is a very, very bad
practice. Occasionally we think it would be a good thing to cross a Jersey and Holstein,
because the milk of the Jersey is rich and the Holstein gives a lot of milk, but nature will find
it easier to produce the smaller quantity of the Jersey and the poorer quality of the Holstein.
We hope this work will be consistent, and that by the use of sires of the same breed you will
be able to build up in each community a high grade of stock. These sires, in the case of dairy
stock, we will endeavour to secure from stock that has produced large amounts of butter-fat.
That is, we will secure the very best animals we can get, and if we cannot get them in British
Columbia we will go elsewhere; but we are going to get the animals that will do good, and
that will be a credit to us and the Department of Agriculture. This work will not be confined to
dairy stock alone, but probably the greatest need will be along the lines of dairy stock, and I
just take the opportunity of advising those who are going into the dairy stock to leave the
dual-purpose animal alone. We do not advocate a certain breed, but we have not any hesitancy
regarding the dual-purpose animal.   I was raised on a farm in Bruce County, in Ontario, and my In 74 British Columbia 1913
father and I never agreed on the dual-purpose cow. After leaving home I met Professor Shaw,
the champion of the dual-purpose cow. Out here in British Columbia, where we have such good
opportunities for the special dairy cow, it would be too bad not to proceed along that line. In
the effort to combine milk and beef we try to combine two things opposite by nature. I know
of one cow that produced 500 lb. of butter in six months, but that cow never raised a calf worth
anything. It is the easiest thing for nature to do. We find the same thing in our sheep. It
would be very fine if we could get the fleece of the merino on the body of the Southdown.
In the case of our hogs, we have the two distinct types, the lard and the bacon type. And the:
same principle applies to our horses too. So we have to decide definitely whether it be milk,
beef, bacon, and what not, and stick to it.    AVe don't want to change our minds too often.
In rural districts we find it difficult to co-operate, and the reason for it is because we are
independent. Our life has a tendency to make us independent, and a little hard to submit to
the wishes of others, which we must do in successful co-operation. We must be willing to give
in a little to the other fellow, because we have different opinions.
Another phase of the work that is being undertaken is the work which I think Mr. Rive will
have an opportunity of speaking to you about this afternoon. The field-crop competition is
another line of work in which you are nearly all interested, and during the past year, whilst
a good many took advantage of them, there were not nearly so many as I expected, and I hope
in your Farmers' Institutes this coming year that you will get busy on the crop-competition
work. Competitions of this kind is a most excellent thing to encourage the growing of better
crops, and it takes no extra expense on your part; but in each community we want a certain
number to agree on a certain crop, and I am sure that this work will be one of the most
encouraging features of your Farmers' Institute work. Encourage this co-operative principle
in crop competitions as far as you possibly can. Then, too, it will point out the advantage of
good methods. It is remarkable what a difference a fence will make in the production of soil.
See if we cannot lay the blame for lower yields on something else than the fence, and find out
if some one is practising better methods than his neighbour. I remember the time when the
man who adopted some new method in farming was often looked upon as not a desirable man
to have in the community, and we thought that if he did not exactly follow along the trodden
path there was something wrong, and that he had no business getting new ideas like that, and
it was easy to predict what would happen later on! AVe have not time to get into that beaten
path here, and we are going to do the best we can to stop out of it.
One point more I might mention, and that is, in looking over the resolutions as printed,
I was impressed with one thing, and that was the lack of evidence of live-stock throughout the
Province, which would indicate one of two things, either that everything was lovely, or a lack
of interest. Now, I hope that everything is flourishing and in very fine condition, and next year
I should enjoy seeing a little more about live-stock in your resolutions—a little more interest.
We drift in one direction for a while, and then drift back again. We want more stability than
that. I just want to mention that we do not have so many applications through the Farmers'
Institutes for live-stock speakers as I would like to have seen. I have not been able to visit
very many of the Farmers' Institutes myself so far, but I can assure you it is going to be a
great pleasure to me to visit all of our institutes as soon as ever I can.
W. Hornby (Delta) : I move a vote of thanks to Mr. McDonald for his address. I think
when it comes down to a fine point there is nothing like the much-despised cow.
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : I second the resolution. I would like to hear Mr. McDonald
say something more about sheep. I know all the wise men come from the East—here is another
proof of it!
Resolution carried.
Moved, seconded, and carried, " That the Convention adjourn until 2 p.m."
Convention adjourned at 12.15.
Afternoon  Session.
The Convention was called to order by Mr. Scott at 2.15.
F. D. Campbell (Maple Ridge) moved "That Mr. Scott, knowing every one at the Convention, should appoint the committees to attend on the Royal Commission. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 75
The Chairman: Although I know the men, I don't know so well the particular points they
want to take; say, for instance, a man like Mr. Keffer, who has some particular object which he
desires to bring before the Commission.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : I think we should meet to-morrow or this afternoon, and have
a committee of the whole to discuss this question, and then make the appointments.
Cattle Slaughtered under the Tuberculosis Test.
Resolution 40. Moved by W. Hornby (Delta), seconded by J. Bailey (Chilliwack), "That
the Government be requested to raise the price on cattle slaughtered under the ' tuberculosis
test' from $75 for grades and $125 for registered animals to $150 and $200 respectively."
The Chairman: May I ask the mover if he means that the Government should pay exactly
the valuation?
W. Hornby (Delta) : Up to $200. I may say it is chiefly to endorse the sentiments of
the stock-breeders and dairymen that this resolution has been brought in. The Dairymen's
Association passed a resolution similar to that, and I understand that the stockmen in convention next week intend to pass a similar resolution. For grade animals slaughtered under this
Act the valuation is $75, but they are only paid 50 per cent, of the valuation as fixed by the
Inspector; $75 is the highest valuation he can go to, so that even if he values a cow, and gives
it the very highest valuation, it means that $37.50 is the highest remuneration the owner will
receive for that animal. I do not think the stockmen are asking any too much, because we all
know the veterinarians do not err on the side of overvaluation, and a matter of $200 is nothing
out of the way for a good dairy cow to-day. I have seen many sold by public auction for that
amount. And with regard to pure-bred, that $200 is nothing out of the way. At the Coquitlam
Farm sale there was one animal sold for about $1,275.
J. Bailey (Chilliwack) : That resolution was passed some three years ago, asking the
Government to recompense the farmer or dairymen to the extent of half of his loss, placing the
animal at $75, but that was a fair price then. To-day that same animal will sell for $200;
therefore I think the loss is so much greater to the dairyman that it would be well to recompense
him accordingly, and one of my reasons, Mr. Chairman, for contending this is that we want to
encourage, not discourage, the man in the dairy business. I think the raise is quite within
reason. The Department, when they look into the matter, as no doubt they will, will consider
the matter reasonable.
The Chairman: The Department has registered a vow to eliminate tuberculosis from the
herds of the Province, and we will do that within a very few years with the co-operation of
the farmers. But you are asking for the full value, and I look at it in this light: If a man
keeps cows and is selling milk infected with bovine tuberculosis he is incurring a heavy moral
responsibility. The Government says: " We will meet you half-way and pay you half the
valuation of the animal." I quite agree with the mover and seconder that prices have gone
up, but you are asking for the Government to pay the full loss. The dairyman has no right to
endanger the health of the consuming public by selling contaminated milk. The Government of
British Columbia is the most enlightened Goverment as regards its efforts to eradicate bovine
tuberculosis. If we are ever going to have this country free from bovine tuberculosis, now is
the time to do it. Approximately $10,000 was paid for slaughtered animals last year. The
Live-stock Commissioner said to me the other day: " It is only a question of two or three years
when bovine tuberculosis will be eliminated." AVe brought in an amendment to the Act last
year making testing compulsory, and all dairy, herds will be subjected to the test, and reactors
destroyed.
W. Hornby  (Delta) :    I think, myself, that the dairymen are taking quite a large loss.
The Chairman: They would not be taking any, according to the way this resolution is
worded.
W. Hornby (Delta) : The way I wish the resolution to read is that the limit to be paid
for any grade animal is $150. I could never see the idea of the old regulation, where these
animals were to be valued at $75 and paid 50 per cent. As I said in the first place, the highest
price paid would be $37.50.
The Chairman: Where you have an animal that is just about dying, it is not worth $37.50.
An Inspector values a pure-bred animal, and finds that in the condition in which it is it is worth N 76 British Columbia 1913
about $150. I estimate that, if you get $75 on that, you are taking half-loss and the Government
is taking the other half. As regards the increase in price, you are quite justified in asking for
that, owing to the increase in price of dairy cows.
W. Hornby (Delta) : The intention of that resolution is that it be similar to that of the
Dairymen's Association.
Thos. Noble (Araldes Island) : Could not the full valuation be paid and no figures
mentioned?
The Chairman: No doubt it could be paid by the Government if they see fit to do it, but
the point I wish to make is that I think it is part of the owner's responsibility to pay part of it
himself.
Thos. Noble (Valdes Island) : The price of an infected cow would be very little at any
time.
J. M. Edmundson (Creston) : I think the Government is putting in a square deal for the
rancher on this matter.
J. Bailey (Chilliwack) : My idea was to raise the valuation and pay half. The present
valuation of a cow is double what it was three or four years ago.
The Chairman: Then, I think you would be quite justified in passing a resolution of that
sort, if you eliminate the last part asking that the full value be paid.
W. Hornby (Delta) :    I am quite agreeable to the change.
J. Bailey (Chilliwack) : Many of our pure-bred animals are worth $1,200, and the
Government would not feel justified in paying $600 for an animal.
W. Hornby (Delta) : Looking at it one way, it does seem quite a difference, if you take into
consideration the fact that the pure-bred animal must have passed that test before they came.
The Chairman: This regulation was passed by the Federal Government on representations
from the Provincial Department. Hon. Martin Burrell had an amendment to the Act passed
by which all pure-breds have to pass the test before coming into this Province; that only came
into effect about a month ago.
J. S. Shopland (Comox) :   Who is to value those cows?
The  Chairman:    The  veterinarian.
J. S. Shopland (Comox) : A man would have a right to say the cow was worth $150, when
possibly it was never worth $75, even being a pure-bred. I know very well that a good grade cow
would fetch $150, and other cows were sold while I was in Toronto for $700. Now you can buy
a pure-bred cow for $100. There is a great consideration there, and we don't want to take
advantage of the Government. I would like to see the thing equalized a little bit, so that we
can stamp out this tubercular disease in cattle. It is just as Dr. Nelson put it, " Would you
like to drink the milk? Would you like to sell it to your neighbour?" Then the man he was
speaking to was quite willing to have the cow slaughtered. If we can have half or two-thirds
the valuation, we ought to be quite pleased to meet the Government in that way.
A. ~Venables (Okanagan) : Some nine or ten years ago people were losing horses in the
Vernon District by the glanders, and we got two-thirds. I lost two valuable horses, and the
majority in the Vernon District were not tested at all. My next-door neighbours were not tested
at all, and they stood in a field where mine could reach them over the fence.
J. Bailey (Chilliwack) :   I think, in regard to pure-bred $50 is the limit.
The Chairman:   At the present time $125 is the valuation of pure-bred cows.
J. Bailey (Chilliwack) : I think the Inspector places $50 on pure-bred, so I think the
Department should meet us half-way on the full valuation.
The Chairman:   Blight I suggest that you eliminate the last phrase?
W. Hornby  (Delta) :    Yes.
Amended resolution carried.
Loans for Co-operative Agricultural Societies.
Resolution 41 (West Kootenay). "Whereas the agricultural industry of British Columbia
requires Government assistance to put it on a firm footing: Be it Resolved, That the Central
Farmers' Institute urge upon the Government that the ' Agricultural Societies Act' be amended
at the coming session, so that the Government can loan co-operative agricultural societies 85
per cent, of the subscribed capital."
Moved by J. Johnstone (AVest Kootenay), seconded by C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops). 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 77
J. Johnstone (West Kootenay) : This resolution is brought in in regard to helping societies
to build cold-storage warehouses, etc. With the present arrangements it is almost impossible to
raise the money locally, as you know. In fact, it is almost impossible to get any one to put up
any amount of money, however small.
The Chairman: This matter has been taken in hand by the British Columbia Fruit-growers'
Association. They appointed an executive committee composed of leading men. One of the
objects they will undertake is to endeavour to have some action taken along these lines. We are
not by ourselves in asking the Provincial Government to take some action along the lines of this
resolution, because in the Province of Saskatchewan they have legislation along similar lines.
For the erection of grain-elevators the Government loans S5 per cent, of the subscribed capital.
AVhen the Government loans money they have to safeguard it, as it is the people's money; but
it can be done, with good security, the same as Saskatchewan is doing. If 15 per cent, of the
subscribed capital is put up by the fruit-growers or farmers, the security would be ample. Of
course, it goes without saying that no loan could be undertaken by any Government unless it is
lent on perfect security.
The Hon. Price Ellison, Minister of Finance and Agriculture, entered the room.
As we have the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture with us now, I will not say anything
more about it. Perhaps he will let us have his views on this matter. I am sure we are
delighted to have the Minister with us to-day, and we appreciate very much his coming to
address us.
Address by Hon. Price Ellison.
Mr. Scott and Gentlemen,—There is nothing that I could say that would be more to the
point than to touch on the questions that have been before you in the different resolutions. They
are all very important, and I am glad that you realize the importance of presenting resolutions
to the Government. I remember when we used to think it fortunate if we got less than forty
or fifty asked by this same body. Now we are boiling them down so that they mean something,
and the more liable they are to be entertained. The first is in reference to cheap money. Well,
you all know the Government have appointed a Royal Commission to inquire into Agriculture,
to inquire into all its phases, and I hope every individual and institute will try and appear
before that Commission. The itinerary of that Commission will be such that it will touch nearly
all the places, and if there are any special requests made by institutes or individuals showing
where it will be of benefit for you to have them, I am sure arrangements will be made for
meeting them. Many of these resolutions you have passed on during the past few days you
would do well to place before them, because they all affect agriculture one way or another.
The increased duty on fruit is one of the resolutions you have passed on, and it was discussed
when the fruit-growers were in convention, and, as I stated then, I thought it was a reasonable
request, very reasonable indeed, when you stop to think that the farmer is protected less than
any other industry there is in Canada; that some of them are receiving protection to the extent
of 30 and 35 per cent., where in many cases they have not one-twentieth part of the capital
invested that you have. You cannot consider that 13 or 14 per cent, is protection when you
consider what great competitors we have just across the American side. There is an imaginary
boundary-line, and they are in a position to compete, and they do compete very successfully, with
the markets that belong to the people of Canada, and particularly to this Province, gentlemen.
Protection would not only serve British Columbia, but also every other part of Canada, and the
consumer, in my opinion, would not realize the difference if it were made 30 or 35 per cent.
The difference is so great between the producer and the consumer that the middleman would
have to cut down the difference, and it would mean no extra cost to the consumer. That is the
way I look at this, and it is very important, and I consider it is reasonable for the people of
British Columbia to ask that the duties should be increased.
AVith reference to getting mixed car-loads, that is a very reasonable request, and I think
that if you approach the railway companies you might bring that about without going to the
Royal Commission. Of course, they do not like to do it. I remember having a very fine team
of horses a number of years ago, and I sold them in Vancouver on condition that I would deliver
them for $400; the same team would bring $1,000 to-day, there is that much difference in the
price of horses. I could not get them there, and I asked to make the car up with oats. They
said:    " No one would ask for that but a crazy farmer "; but it was the only way I could get N 78 British Columbia 1913
them there. They lost the charge on their car, and of course I lost the sale of the horses; but
you are quite right, and I hope the railway will meet your views in that respect, and not only
in flour and feed, but in other things as well. I well remember how the C.P.R. and other people
get stuff in car-load lots. A man will go to a farmer and ask: "What have you got?" In this
particular instance it was cattle, two car-loads of beef cattle. The local dealer came to him
and said: " I will give you so much for it." He said: " No, I will not give you them for that."
And he passed on. Mr. Burns's man, who was then in the Kootenay, came along, bought at a
higher price, and the man from the Okanagan went to Calgary and brought them into the
Okanagan. So you see the C.P.R. get the price of these two car-loads, $500 or more, where that
money ought to have gone to the producer, gentlemen. Understand that the railway can get
the $500 just on two car-loads of cattle. These are two things that ought to be considered
along that line. The more you urge it with the railway companies, the more likelihood of your
getting it.    If they turn you down, go at them again.
With reference to logging of lands, the present law is that you can make an application
for lands that have been logged over, and it goes without saying that the timber-licence holder
is not going to pay $140 a year for land that is no use to him. In such cases the Government
usually takes it out of the reserve, and throws it open, so that any one may take it for preemption purposes. This is not generally known, but a great many inquiries come to me about
this very thing, and I always explain it to them; although it takes sixty days to raise a reserve,
and the man who applies just takes his chance with any one else. There is no doubt from now
on there will be a great deal of this land taken up. The land that grows fine timber, gentlemen,
you know will grow anything else when the roots and stumps are taken off it.
AATith reference to the Fire Wardens and permission to ranchers to burn clearings, that is
met pretty fully in the present Act, and especially in a dry country like British Columbia there
must be every precaution taken, but I do not know that there are many hardships by not
granting requests in all cases; you may be sure that the Fire Warden has looked the matter
over pretty well if he refuses.
The resolution with reference to the parcel-post that you are asking for is being considered,
I understand, and while it is not known what will be done in that matter, it is a matter that
the Dominion Government have to dear with entirely.
Now, there is the old question that really affects more of you than you think. That is
irrigation: it has been brought before your attention so many times, and you have brought it
to the attention of the Government, and it is so far-reaching, and I have said that if people only
knew of the benefits of irrigation there are many seasons when they would greatly benefit
by it. This is a very important question, and it is going before the Agricultural Commission.
There are a number of resolutions being passed and committees appointed to wait and lay
the claims of the farmers of British Columbia for irrigation legislation, and it is needless to
say that you know what my opinions are with reference to that, and I hope that something will
be done whereby the people of British Columbia will be benefited to the extent that they can
produce stuff on land where there is nothing growing to-day. Sir Richard was waited on a few
days ago, and he said very plainly: " I am going to do everything I possibly can." Mr. Ross
has promised to aniend the Act, so that it will give power to form water municipalities in the
parts of the country where there are no municipal governments. That is being asked for by
a number of individuals. I do not know how it will work out, but it is always safe to say that
if any company or individuals can take water on land and take the land as security, that the
security will be ample to pay them back. And look what it would mean to British Columbia to
have the land that is lying waste to-day. And these large irrigation companies we have in
British Columbia, I have to admit, and there is no one in a better position to tell you than I am,
that they have done a great deal for British Columbia; they have certainly shown what can
be done by the application of water, and they have spent millions of dollars in the Okanagan
alone. Every man in this room who is fortunate enough to hold land is very fortunate indeed,
because land in British Columbia is perhaps worth more than it is in any other place in the
world to-day—agricultural land. When you stop to think, and many of you know it, that a man
can go within a few miles of Toronto and can buy land for half what he can in British Columbia,
that seems strange, but it is a fact, and the people who are paying these prices for land in
British Columbia, some of them are turning them over again, and many of them are making
a good living on land they paid high prices for.    But that applies more particularly to fruit. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 79
You know there has been a high demand for our fruit, and the prices have been very reasonable.
I regret the past season has been the worst the fruit-grower has had. The crop was so bountiful
that it was a drug on the market, and our neighbours in the South had a very large stock, and
they got on the ground and beat us out; and there is no doubt but that there was a great deal
of dumping done, contrary to law, but they were able to show the authorities how it was not
dumped by simply going into the markets on the American side and saying: " We are offering
fruit this morning for so much a box as quoted in the paper." They could immediately start
cars off to this side of the line, saying that that is the price quoted on the other side, and
dumped them. To overcome that is very difficult indeed, and we feel that we have been very
keenly dealt with by the Americans in that way alone. Besides, they have been very much better
organized than we have, and that is the whole question to-day—organization, gentlemen. You
cannot get beyond that fact, and you must never forget, whether it is fruit-growing or any
other industry, don't think because you are not fruit-growing—do not think organization is not
going to benefit you; there is no part of British Columbia can be benefited but that the whole
of British Columbia is, gentlemen; as the Good Book says: "No man liveth unto himself," and
that applies so much to our undertakings in a general way. Think of the other man, and let
the fruit-grower think of the mixed farmer and the cattleman, because his prosperity means
yours, and vice versa.
As regards the resolution re Indian Reserve, I am very glad to toe able to say that the
Order in Council appointing a Commission of inquiry has been passed by the Dominion Government, and another one appointed by the two Governments, so that is a very big step along the
Indian question. You all know how difficult it has been to deal with the Indians, but I am
glad to say it is becoming easier all the time. When you think of the many hundreds and
thousands of acres that the Indians are holding to-day, it seems strange they should hold that
and not do anything with it. There is no better friend of the Indian than I; I have found
them good citizens and good workers, if you let them alone and keep the whisky from them.
There is no doubt, as the Premier says, that there are many reserves that will have to be made
smaller and others made larger, but I know there are so many thousands of acres cleared and
ready for the plough that are lying to waste to-day, and you are quite justified in asking that
something should be done that these should become the property of the people. Sir Richard
stated a few days ago that they would be dealt with, and would be sold to the public by auction.
I might just say a word with reference to what the Department intends to do, so that you
may be able to borrow more money from the Government; that is, in the way of co-operation.
We advocate now that, instead of your being able to borrow 50 per cent, on the paid-up capital,
it shall be increased, so that you may borrow all the way from 75 to 85 per cent. This we intend
to amend this session of the Legislature, so that you many be able to take advantage at the
earliest possible moment. I have always said that it will allow you to put up buildings where
you will be able to take care of your fruit, where you will not have to throw it on the market
and glut the market. It is safe to say to-day that, if you had 100 car-loads of first-class fruit,
the markets of ATancouver and Victoria would take every pound of that fruit. It would have
to be first-class. Now, I maintain that it will pay you to do this, and it will not be cold-storage
in this case; it will be warm-storage, and by carrying it over in that way you will be sure
that you will get double the price than if you were all to throw it on the market at the same
time. It is very important to you, and more so is it important to the public, that they should
get British Columbia fruit. It is no use of the Government and you and me preaching about
British Columbia fruit if you are not prepared to give it to the public when they want it. The
American people are prepared in this way; they have large storage-sheds and the dealers from
Vancouver and Alctoria place the orders, and it comes right along. Where are there places in
Vancouver or A'ictoria where our own merchant can do that to-day? There are very few, but
there ought to be more; and in that respect, gentlemen, it is to our interest; it is to the consumer's interest; and you must be able to show the Dominion Government, before you can ask
them to do certain things, that you can supply the demand. Now, there is no doubt there will
be more than sufficient fruit grown to supply the Provincial demand, if they can get it at the
right time. The more money you are able to subscribe to institutions that will go towards
building and operating these warehouses the better; I am sure the Government will be benefited
greatly by it as well, because it will keep the money in British Columbia that really belongs
to you. N 80 British Columbia 1913
The resolution that you have all unanimously passed to-day with reference to prohibiting
infected fruit and trees coming to British Columbia perhaps is one of the most important, and the
one that will affect the fruit industry more than anything else, in so far, gentlemen, that the
inspection of imported fruit and trees in British Columbia to-day has got beyond the control of
the Department of Agriculture. AVhen I say this, I say it because we find that under the most
rigid inspection the codling-moth and other pests are coining in our midst, and no one knows it
better than we do, as it has cost a pretty penny to stamp out some of the diseases this summer.
We must have this protection, because the Government is not able to protect us any more than
they have been doing. For instance, the Inspector went down to the wharf here the early part of
December to inspect a car-load; they had not opened the boxes, but they found the codling-moth
larvoe right on the outside of the boxes, and brought them to my office, and they are there to-day.
Now, you can quite see what it would mean to examine several hundred car-loads of fruit in
British Columbia, and examine it as it ought to be examined; therefore I say it is reasonable
that we ask this from the Dominion Government, and I hope you will be successful in getting it..
When Mr. Cunningham started on this mission—because it all belongs to Mr. Cunningham—I
think there is no man who has done so much, and it is owing entirely to Mr. Cunningham and his
officers that British Columbia is the only place- where they grow fruit that is not affected with
serious pests in the world. (Hear, hear.) If we are allowed to have our way in this matter,,
it will continue so; if not, it will mean that you will get so much less for your fruit, because
it is going to cost you all the way from 15 to 30 per cent, additional cost to fight these pests;
and where you will be in competition with your neighbours? Every penny you pay out, directly
or indirectly, affects your pocket. It would not make any difference if your fruit was raised to
a 25-per-cent. duty if you were paying 25 per cent, to fight the disease. So I hope something will
be done that will show the Dominion Government that we are entitled to this protection; and
when you stop to think that the American people are quarantining one State against the other,
it is surely not unreasonable for the people of Canada to ask that Canadians be protected against
the American pests.
I think those are some of the questions you have dealt with. I did not deal with that old,
old vexed question—stumping-powder. I may say the Department have done all they could with
reference to stumping-powder. We have interviewed the makers; they have assured me it is
impossible to get it to you any less than they are giving it to-day. It has been stated by some
of the people that they can get stumping-powder across the other side cheaper than they can in
British Columbia. I have gone into this matter, and find it is not the case; the farmer or any
one else over there pays more per case than you do in every instance, and, besides that, they
get a 20-per-cent. explosive against a 25-per-cent. that the Canadian makers supply. That means
about 37 cents a case difference in the cost of manufacture wherever you have a 20-per-cent.
explosive or a 25-per-cent.; and when you stop to consider that means a good deal, and that there
is not one of us in this room that would be able to judge and test that powder, we feel that we
are safe in the hands of the makers of powder in Canada; that they will not give us a 20-per-cent.
powder and cut the price down. I am given to understand that the prices of powder that you
have been getting the past two years have been based on the price that the raw material was
several years ago; that is, the dealers had contracts signed that would supply them for at least
two years; and I am given to understand now that the price of glycerine and nitrate of soda
has gone up, and that the price may rise instead of getting lower. It will not be raised if they
possibly can help it, because I am given to understand by the makers that they are introducing
machinery that they expect will offset the price in the raw material, and in every instance they
will give the farmer the benefit of anything that may take place along these lines.
There is another thing the Dominion Government are considering, and have already a Bill
before the House, where it is going to make it more difficult for the maker of powder to let you
have the powder at the prices you have been having it, because the restrictions they are going
to put on are going to make it more expensive to operate. They are going to adopt the English
" Explosives Act" in its entirety, I understand. We do not want the price of powder to be
raised, and we are very anxious that life and property should be protected in every way, and
we must be prepared to look forward to the maker of powder not reducing the price in the near
future, as we should all desire it to be, but that if you can still get it at the same figures we shall
be fortunate indeed. I know well how important it is, and perhaps it is the greatest labour-
saving   contrivance   we   have   for   clearing   land.    Some   of   you   have   been   addressing   this 3 Geo. 5       ' Farmers' Institutes Report. N 81
Convention, and have shown other means of clearing land, and have found it profitable. It is a
very important question for British Columbia that it should be cleared in our day, and not make
old men of us as our forefathers. As I said to a man many years ago: " Don't take that land."
He said: " I can get it for nothing." It was covered with timber, and he could have got the
finest fruit land in Vernon to-day at $60; a small payment down and the rest when he felt like
it; but he would not take it because he could get Government land at $1 an acre, twenty-five
miles back, away from everywhere. I shall be glad indeed if there were something we could do
that would help you more than we have done. I look to your advice as being valuable, because
you are practical men, and it goes without saying that you are the choice of the communities
that you represent, and are looked upon as good, level-headed men. We thank you very much
indeed. Mr. Scott, my deputy, is always looking forward to anything and everything that will
advance your interest, and you know we have many questions to deal with, and we cannot meet
all your wishes and requirements as we would like to do individually. We have deep interests,
all of us, and your interest is the interest of the Province generally, because after everything
has come and gone in British Columbia they will have to fall back on the rancher, because he is
the mainstay and backbone of the country. And when we look to other countries, when they get
down to farming they are more prosperous than any other country, and have more money; for
instance, France; they have more money to lend to-day per capita than any other country. I
think the time has come when we may look forward to better times. Transportation facilities
are coming to our doors; the population is increasing, and it is difficult for you men to keep pace
with the increasing demand for farm produce. I am glad to be able to say that you have
reduced it somewhat, but not much; but do not forget that you have been supplying all the new
people that have been coming in, which is an increase to be proud of in itself. I am glad to know
there are more intelligent people going on the land to-day, and more intelligent methods being
employed. I am glad to have met you here to-day, and at any time the Department will be only
too glad to keep in touch with you, and take up matters that pertain to your different sections
of the country, and you will be dealt with as fair and as liberally as we can.
There is a question here that affects fruit-growers especially; the Natural History Society
are importing some birds into British Columbia, and a letter arrived from England drawing the
Premier's attention to the tomtit—how destructive it is to fruit, that it picks it to a very large
extent, and makes the fruit unmarketable. I understand there are some of these birds coming
in here; we might as well have the bug as the tomtit, if it is going to do any harm. I didn't
know until this morning that there wias such a bird coming to British Columbia, and that it
was so destructive. I hope that we shall be able to do something that will show the Natural
History Society that we shall be better without this bird, and if any of you know of this it will
be for you to talk about it, and show the Natural History Society they must not bring it into
British Columbia.
Mr. Scott then read a letter sent from England with reference to tomtits. " I think it is a
case of mistaking the bird myself, but I am sure there are lots of people from the Old Country
who know the tomtit perfectly well."
Moved by A. ATenables (Okanagan), seconded by D. Matheson (Spallumcheen), " That a very
hearty vote of thanks be tendered-Hon. Price Ellison for his address."
Carried by standing vote, the delegates singing, " For he's a jolly good fellow," followed by
three cheers.
Hon. Price Ellison: I want to thank you and to tell you that I am just a common every-day
rancher, and your servant.
W. Thompson (Celista) : There are hundreds of tomtits in my district already. It is the
most destructive bird on blossoms in Scotland.
The Chairman: The only thing is for the Department to find out if there is any danger
with reference to this bird.   We will cause full inquiries to be made.
S. MacDonald (Cranbrook) :   I never knew them to do any damage.
Mr. Lawrence: It would be quite easy to get information from the scientific societies in
England who are in touch with the Horticultural Department which would set the matter at
rest.
Resolutions re 85 per cent. Assistance and Assessment of Land.
Resolution 41 from AVest Kootenay re 85 per cent, assistance was now put to the Convention
and carried.
6 N 82 British Columbia 1913
The amended resolution by Resolutions Committee with reference to the assessment of land
(39a) was now put before the Convention.
Resolution 39a (Fire A'alley and Lake Shore). "We desire to put on record our strong
objection to the present discrepancy in assessing land held by bona-flde settlers and non-
occupying owners, and we desire to urge the Railway Commission on Agriculture to give this
matter their serious consideration."    (Redrawn by Resolutions Committee.)
Mr. Lawrence: I do not think, after what was said this morning, there is any need to say
anything more about it. The Resolutions Committee and myself formulated this matter, and
I think it can be left to the judgment of this Convention that we intend to press the matter
before the Commission.
Seconded by Mr. Harmer.    Resolution carried.
C. Hamling (Arrow Lakes) : With reference to clover-seeds, that resolution was thrown
out?
H. C. Smith  (Penticton) :   A resolution was sent in to amend the " Fruit Marks Act."
The Chairman:  I think the fruit-growers have taken that in hand.
Evaporating Company.
J. T. Lawrence (Kettle Valley) : I would like to ask the Department about the Evaporating
Company.
W. E. Scott: I can tell you this about it: the product is excellent. I saw it and took it
home, and in my opinion it is good evaporated fruit. I am not in a position to undertake the
responsibility of giving any recommendation as to the cost of manufacture, etc. All I can
say is that what they put up appears to me to be very excellent.
J. T. Lawrence (Kettle Valley) : The representatives were up in our district; we asked
for a prospectus, and they had not got one, but said it was recommended by Mr. Scott.
The Chairman: They were taking a liberty with my name. I merely said: You have
an excellent product here."    I told them to get among the fruit-growers themselves.
D. Matheson (Spallumcheen) : I saw that product and tasted it. After it is soaked it seems
just as natural as in its first state.
AVibe Fences.
Resolution 42.    "That a wire fence be made a legal fence."     (Amendment to Fence Law.)
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) : We find that we are running up against some of the old-
time settlers who are satisfied with their old fences. A man comes along and asks, what is a
legal fence? You don't need a 57-wire fence to keep out cattle. It is necessary for wood, but
57-wire is not necessary to keep cattle out, and I would like to see the Government reduce that.
It is not only better than the wood snake-fence against fire, but it is more protective. I think
we should bring that Act up to date. AVe are adopting modern methods over the Province, and
we might ask the Government to amend that, because you naturally want to keep within the
limits of the law. Last year this was passed by the Convention, and in the Superintendent's
report there were notes that the Government wanted suggestions, and I say reduce the height
of fencing. *
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : I recommend that a 50-inch wire-fence be constituted a legal
fence. It would simplify matters, and would be asking for something definite, and I would be
very glad to second a motion of that kind.
D. Matheson (Spallumcheen) : That resolution and amendment may be applicable in some
parts of the country, but I do not think it would apply to all parts of the country. Where I
come from the present legal fence is not enough to keep horses out, and where horses and cattle
are running at large, and they see a nice field of green oats, and the grass brown at their feet,
it takes more than that to keep them out.    I don't think the present fence is any too high.
The Chairman: The difficulty is in making any laws that would be applicable to all the
different parts of this Province. I quite agree with Mr. Matheson that 50 inches would be too
low altogether in some parts; in other parts it might be advisable to have it. But you have
to make a height that will be applicable to the whole Province.
J. C. Harris (New Denver) : Define a legal fence a wire fence, because a wire fence is
the right fence. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 83
The Chairman: There are certain distances given between the bars, and it does not apply
to wire fences.
J. C. Harris (New Denver) : I would exclude barbed wire. I found a fence called the
" Pittsburg," a perfectly good fence.
C. E. Lawrence (Kamloops) : I am quite certain we ought not to lower the standard in
the range country, such as we have in Kamloops; we have difficulty now in keeping the cattle
ont. Some of them will now race over like steeple horses. I prefer a good log fence. The
barbed-wire fences will go down with a run when there is a stampede of 800 head of cattle,
but when you have a good log fence I think they are far more valuable than anything you
put up in wire.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) :   I only ask that the wire fence be made lower.
C. E. W. Griffiths (Methosin) : In our district I think we have miles of fencing, but I
would question whether one-twentieth of it is a legal height. I have never known a horse
jump a 52- or 54-wire fence yet. As for stampeding, I would like to see them tackle that wire
fencing; it will throw them back. In cases of fire, we had 200 yards of snake fencing burned
up, but not so with wire fencing.    I would like to see it put through here.
A. E. Keefer (Arrow Park) : I would move an amendment that the motion be amended,
and ask the Government to make a wire fence 54 inches high a legal fence.
J. Bailey (Chilliwack) : I suggest we pass a resolution asking the Government to make a
wire fence a legal fence.
Mr. Lawrence: If that goes through and we get a low wire fence to be the legal fence,
the cattle will go over it.
Amendment carried.
The Chairman: I will now ask Mr. AA'inslow, Provincial Horticulturist, to address this
Convention. Mr. AVinslow is a hard-working official who has your interests at heart, and who
with his staff of assistants has done a great deal to further fruit-growing and horticulture in
British Columbia.
Address by Mr. Winslow.
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen,—Mr. Scott's favourable introduction rather handicaps me.
He is certainly right that I am working whole-heartedly in the interests of horticulture, and
particularly fruit-growing in this Province, but perhaps he overestimates the amount of work
we have been able to get through. Still, in one respect at least, you as representatives of the
Farmers' Institutes have shown some appreciation of the work of our Horticultural Branch.
You would doubtless be surprised to know that the Farmers' Institutes of this Province have
asked for short-course meetings to be conducted by our Horticultural Branch at eighty different
points during the next three months, at each of which you have been kind enough to guarantee
an attendance of thirty fruit, or vegetable growers, so I think our Horticultural Branch will be
in closer touch with the farmers this year. Last year we had only sixty-six applications, and
the previous year forty, so that the work of the winter months in our Horticultural Branch has
grown considerably. It is our expectation that our men will be principally in the Dry Belt
points during February and in the Kootenay during March. Our men are at present on the
Island and Lower Mainland. I would ask of you that you do your best to bring out a good live
meeting at each point, and where we are having meetings, two or three or five meetings at one
place, I hope you will get out a good attendance at the first meeting, and I am pretty sure
that will mean a good attendance at the balance of the meetings. We have this year Mr. J.
Forsyth Smith, the Markets Commissioner of the Province, and he will lecture at most of the
points where fruit-marketing is a matter of pressing importance. Another new man is Mr.
Edwin Smith, who will lecture on methods of fruit-handling, and he will tell you some of the
ways fruit is being handled at the present time. From 8 to SO per cent, is injured in picking
and hauling. I was surprised myself that there was so much injury being caused, and I hope,
where Mr. Edwin Smith is on the programme, you will get the people whom you know are not
very careful, to hear him. Then there are Mr. Thornber, Mr. Robertson, Mr. Smith, and Mr.
Middleton. Our short-course work promises to be very successful with your co-operation, and
I hope we will get that. We are having published this year some twenty-nine circulars about
horticulture, fruit-growing, soils, fertilizing, irrigation, marketing, fruit-packing, and so on.   I N 84 British Columbia 191£
think I may safely say our circular on fruit-packing is one of the most complete I have ever
seen, covering pears and peaches as well as apples.
In another line you have also shown your appreciation of the work of our branch. We had
fifteen packing-schools two years ago; last year thirty-three, and guaranteed applications for
forty this year. It is quite a tribute to the development of the fruit industry, and we have
put through something like 1,000 pupils. I was surprised, in view of the large number of pupils
who have already passed, that there are more packing-schools wanted this year than ever before.
You have had no particular criticisms to make either of the short courses or the packing-schools.
I would like to tell you something about the various features of our work other than those
two, but you have already had a pretty strenuous three days' session. I might mention the
demonstration orchards and our experimental orchards; the work of the different Assistant
Horticulturists in their respective districts, as well as many other things. For instance, most of
the fruit-judging at our forty fall fairs is now done by the members of my staff. Fruit-judging
is a particularly ticklish proposition; I hope, if I can keep the members of my staff permanently,
that fruit-judging will be made more nearly perfect each year. I may say that we are preparing
a bulletin of some twenty-nine pages on " Preparing Fruit for Exhibition." I hope to go into
that matter more fully at the Agricultural Fairs meeting on Saturday.
With reference to the work of the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association, I know
that you have had continued evidence of their work and their results. The fruit industry is
just now in the stage between that of its first enthusiasm and that of big production. We
shipped from this Province about 1,000 car-loads of fruit last year, and that means we are
getting started. Conditions have not been altogether satisfactory. Some have been successful;
others have not been so fortunate. The Fruit-growers' Association is working very earnestly,
and I think will work successfully to correct some of the difficulties under which our fruit
industry is labouring. The matter of the protection of this Province from fruit pests, upon
which subject you heard Mr. Cunningham yesterday, is one in which the Fruit-growers' Association is much concerned, and the Association, hearing Mr. Cunningham, endorsed his action and
the resolution he had prepared unanimously. I do not think that any mortal man can handle
the inspection service more efficiently than Mr. Cunningham has handled it in this Province for
so many years, and I do not think that any other man would have handled it as zealously and
enthusiastically, and I do not think any man without a whole-hearted desire to serve the fruitgrowers would say after so many years work, " We want your endorsement of a better method."
Mr. Cunningham has done that whole-heartedly, and the people have appreciated his efforts. He
has the unqualified support of the fruit-growers, and I am glad to hear he has of the Farmers'
Institutes as well.
Matters of transportation, freight rates, the protection of our fruit on the Prairies from
unwarranted competition, have all engaged the attention of the Fruit-growers' Association, and
I understand that in many of these things you have endorsed their action. It is not right that
the fruit-grower of British Columbia should be the victim of goods shipped at less than cost of
production on the American side. We have been asked in British Columbia to develop an
industry for which the conditions are so remarkably well fitted. You know a good deal of
fruit has been planted where it should not be planted, and a great many varieties that are not
suited to our conditions, but still we have natural conditions that are not surpassed anywhere.
At the present time, however, with our neighbours on the south so utterly unorganized with a
crop they don't know what to do with, they subjected us to fierce competition. I speak of the
Fruit-growers' Association because I have the honour and also the hard work of being its
Secretary; as Provincial Horticulturist, I am very largely concerned with the cultivation end
of fruit-growing. Last week I was down in Washington addressing the Washington State
Society at North Yakima. I have a good many acquaintances down there, and some men I know
pretty intimately. I found conditions far from favourable at the present time. They are likely
to be unfortunate in their marketing during the next few years, though they are working very
hard to create a central selling agency; but I think I can say they may not be successful for
another year at least, and we can expect them coming up to Canada dumping their fruit again
this year. The situation is one that calls for action, and the Fruit-growers' Association is
working along that line.
I have enjoyed being here and talking to you; I see a good many new faces, but a great
many of you I have known in your own districts for some years.   I am glad to have had a 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 85
chance of speaking to you, and I hope that I, in company with the rest of my staff, will see
something of you in your own districts during the next few months.
Moved by Mr. MacDonald, and seconded, " That a very hearty vote of thanks be tendered
to Mr. Winslow for his address."    Carried.
The Chairman invited Mr. Upton, Assistant Poultry Instructor, to address the Convention.
Address by Mr. Upton.
Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,—I am very pleased to have the honour to address
this Agricultural Convention, which is the first one of the kind that I have addressed in this
part of the Continent. The greater part of my time since coming West has been spent in the
field amongst the poultrymen, and it must be shown to the agricultural public that in British
Columbia there exists one of the greatest fields for poultry-work that we have on the North
American Continent. The poultry industry itself has doubled during the past year. In the
previous addresses that have been heard, we were very pleased to hear so much in regard to
our fruit industry, but there is nothing that works so well in conjunction with fruit-growing as
does poultry-raising. Poultry-raising as it stands to-day is practically in its infancy. The
reason, no doubt, that we hear so much about British Columbia fruit is from the fact that it
is an article of the highest class. The same might be said of our poultry and eggs, especially
so with some of our breeds.
We are desirous in our work to prepare the poultry-raisers to work out a system with their
markets, etc., whereby they will be ready to cater to the great demand which is bound to come
as the industry develops within the next ten years. We are sorry to state that at the present
time, however, our markets are not in the best of condition. Many people who purchase poultry
and eggs on the market do not understand what a prime article really is. The egg business in
the East is making rapid strides along the lines of standardization.' It is essential that we, as
agricultural people, do the same in all our lines of agriculture, especially so with poultry-raising.
When you go to the market to-day and ask for an egg, one usually gets an egg, but what kind
of an egg it is is hard to classify. Poor eggs—that is, watery eggs, eggs with blood-spots in
them, meat-spots, etc.—should never go into a No. 1 grade of egg. Poultry, when put on the
market in dressed form, should be starved and fitted before being sent in. Our public here,
I might say, are wideawake to these facts when they are demonstrated to them, and it is on
this account that we believe the people will prepare themselves for what is to come.
I should like to say a few words to you, whether you keep 25, 150, or 1,000 birds, on how
you might better yourselves along profitable lines. In the start, I might mention that it is only
by paying attention to all the small details that one will ever progress rapidly and gain the
best profits from poultry-raising.
Firstly, we will consider housing. In regard to the type of house which is better for one
section or the other, we can lay down no hard-and-fast rule, but one of the greatest points
to take into consideration is that the colder the district in which you live, the deeper you should
build your house. A house constructed on the southern part of this Island or on the Lower
Mainland does not need to be more than 12 feet in depth. As one gets into a colder district—we
might say from Chilliwack to Agassiz, on the Mainland, and Duncan and above, on the Island—
then a 14-foot or 16-foot house will give better results.
Fresh air is essential at all times, even from the time that the chick is hatched until it is
put on the market. Coal-stoves, hot-water heaters, etc., for laying and breeding houses have
long ago been done away with. The depth of the house is the remedy to offset the need of
artificial heat. Exercise is another great feature which one must take into consideration when
trying to keep their stock in its best health.
A litter of oat-straw (about 6 inches) should answer for scratching material at all times.
This, of course, should be cleaned out often and never allowed to mat so that the stock cannot
work through it. Dirt'in any quantity should not be placed upon the floor of the house under
the straw.
The roosting-room should be large and spacious in the hen-house, and all perches should be
placed at an even height. This will prevent overcrowding at night-time. Nests also should be
large and spacious, and constructed and built in a part of the house where there are few cracks,
where darkness will be gained, and where the mites and lice will not breed rapidly.    Litter N 86 British Columbia 1913
(shavings or straw) should be placed in the nest, and each time that an egg is broken the litter
should be removed immediately. By placing the nests under the droppings-boards, we might
say that red mites have one of the best breeding-grounds that we know of.
When hatching our stock, one should not allow the hens to go under the barn or in the
buggy to hatch out chickens. If the stock is not hatched from April 15th to May 15th, providing
the stock matures nicely, the winter egg-production will not keep up to its maximum. The
reason, briefly stated, is that stock hatched before April 1st, although it will lay earlier, will
invariably moult by the last of December. Again, if the stock is hatched out in June on a
commercial scale, one has great difficulty in keeping the stock in good condition during the warm
weather. The poultryman always finds that he has the greater number of runts from the flock
which is hatched out at this time of the year.
If one intends using tireless brooders for their young stock, it would be much better to use
a heated brooder for the first ten days, and place the chicks in the tireless brooder after that
time. Invariably, on a cold night, chicks will crowd up against each other and trample each
other to death when placed in the tireless brooder immediately after hatching.
More attention should be given to selection amongst the breeding stock. One of the first
questions always asked by the beginner in poultry-raising is, " What is the best breed of
poultry?" We have many good breeds of poultry in the Province which perhaps do not conform
to the fancy standpoint, but are exceptional as to their economic qualities; but, however, we
must answer that question in this way: that one must go even deeper than the word " breeds,"
and study the strain and individuality of the birds. In selecting the stock for the breeding-pen,
one should go amongst their stock and size them up; learn each bird from the time it is put
on the range until one is ready to put it into the laying-house. Take the bird which matures
the quickest, and which conforms to your eye better as she grows. Always choose the bird with
a short, strong head, with a good-coloured eye, which is red in most breeds (never picking a
pearly-grey eye), and with a long body, which has no pinched effect in any part. The leg of
the bird should not be too long, but set quite well apart, with a strong but not coarse appearance.
This sort of a bird, if hatched at the proper time, is one which should begin laying by the last
of November or the first of December, and will come into full lay before the end of December.
Stock after this type should be the ones which go into the breeding-pen continually. The late-
hatched stock will naturally have the best appearance in February and March, while the other
stock does not look so good. It is for this reason that we have so many birds which do not
lay many winter eggs, but if one is careful and follows the above conformation, the performance
from such stock should be worthy of attention from the economic standpoint.
In relation to feeding, I wish to state that we are advising the poultrymen to use more
corn in their ration. Coming down to figures, we will find that egg-production has been quite
expensive in the winter-time, on account of feeding so much wheat. Wheat has lower
digestibility than corn, and, although a very good food, it does not contain the qualities for
winter feeding that corn does. Although I do not advocate the too-frequent use of corn, the
way our grandmothers used to do in feeding cayenne pepper in corn all winter, there is no reason
why 100 lb. of corn-meal should not be used in a dry mash made up of 600 lb. of other
constituents, with no barley-meal, or the use of 200 lb. of cracked corn with 100 lb. of wheat for
the hard-grain ration during the winter season, also. If one desires to feed oats, unless they
have a very low percentage of hull, it will be found that they are much more palatable and more
profitably  fed  when  crushed.
Disease is not very prevalent in the Province at the present time. I must state, however,
that tuberculosis is a little more prevalent than we wish to see it. The poultryman, and the
farmer as well, must remember that fresh air is a great preventive of this disease, as also is
sunshine. If one purchases stock from any outside source, it should be isolated for a short
time before placing it amongst the flock. Stock on any man's place which passes green
droppings or has a weak, emaciated appearance, or a yellow-appearing head, should be killed off
immediately. It does not pay to doctor stock, unless one has an exceptionally fine breeder.
Stock which has disease of any kind which cannot be cured with Epsom salts is much better
dead than doctored. A good preventive to use to check the spread of colds amongst the flock
(and which is inexpensive) is potassium permanganate in their drinking-water.
Lice and mites are another detrimental factor which the poultryman has to contend with.
If one sprays the house once a week with a good spray, lice and mites can be kept down quite 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. ^ N 87
readily. A good spray to use is that made up of: 3 parts of kerosene-oil; 1 part of crude
carbolic acid, 95 to 98 per cent; mixed together and applied with a brush or a spray-gun. If
one cannot get the crude carbolic, but can get crude oil, it will have practically the same effect.
I wish to say a word or two in regard to the Fall Fair catalogues, relating to their poultry
department. During the past fall, many of the Fall Fair catalogues have awarded prizes to
birds in best pairs. It is much better that stock be entered singly, rather than in pairs, for the
judge can do better justice to the stock in each case. Pens also should be entered as pens alone.
When birds are exhibited singly and allowed to compete in pens or pairs, it is a much more
difficult task for the judge to place the award, travelling about from coop to coop. Another
thing that might also be mentioned is the fact that in the rules regarding the poultry department
you should state that it is to be judged under the rules of the " American Standard of
Perfection." If possible, I should like to suggest that a department for fresh eggs and dressed
poultry, as well as utility live birds, be allowed in your poultry department of the catalogue.
If there are any questions which you wish to ask before I conclude, I shall be pleased to
answer them.
J. T. Lawrence (Kettle Valley) : In relation to the fall fairs, are you referring to the
British Columbia Poultry Association?
Answer:    I think Mr. Scott can answer that quite well.
Mr. Scott: Each fall fair gets an appropriation, and a very good one. I do not think it
would do for them to give it to the fall fairs in addition. If the Poultry Association takes up the
fall-fair work, the show must be run by the Poultry Association alone, and not by the
Agricultural Association, in order that they get a grant from the British Columbia Poultry
Association.
AV. Hornby (Delta) :    In regard to poultry-houses, do you advocate the shed-roof house?
Answer: In the Delta District a shed-roof house would work to good advantage. However,
if the soil is very wet, I should advise a good drainage of the land on which the house is to be
built. A two-story house would work well in that section, having it face the south; build the
first story 6 feet high, and the next story 6 to 8 feet high. The lower part should be boarded
on the north, east, and west sides, leaving the south side open, with a wire front. A curtain
should be provided for the lower part of the house, as well as the upper, for stormy days. The
AAroods type of house would also work fairly well in that district, but would call for more
cleaning and relittering than perhaps one would care to attend to. The house should be built
at least 12 feet deep, if a shed-roof is to be used, and a curtain front (to fit snugly) allowed for.
S. MacDonald (Cranbrook) : About what would be the proper amount of green-cut bone
to feed to a bird per day?
Answer: Green-cut bone should be fed quite sparingly. If laying stock, about 1% lb. for
twenty-five birds, three times a week, if no beef-scrap is fed. Good results would be obtained
from this amount.    I would not feed it in such large amounts to breeding stock, however.
Mr. MacDonald: Do you mean that beef-scraps and green-cut bone are separate feeds?
Is an ounce to a bird per day too much?    I think it has a tendency to drive to broodiness.
Answer: Too much green-cut bone will cause bowel-trouble. An ounce per day is a little
too heavy to each bird. As to the broodiness, we must state that that largely lies with the
strain of birds which one has.
Mr. MacDonald:   Would green vegetables help the complaint?
Answer: Green food should be supplied the stock at all times when they are not on free
range, where they may secure the same. It no doubt would help to stimulate the system, were
the stock not securing green food before.
J. S. Shopland (Comox) :   How is skim-milk for feeding poultry?
Answer: Skim-milk is an exceptionally good feed. If one cannot get skim-milk, but can
get condensed milk, it has a great tendency to offset the need of feeding beef-scraps, and is a
much cheaper food product. AAlienever one has skim-milk to feed their poultry, it is as well to
give it to the hens, and better, in fact, than giving it all to the hogs. If condensed cream is
used, it should be diluted with water, about a small can of cream to a quart of water.
Moved by Mr. Stuart, and seconded, " That a vote of thanks be tendered to Mr. Upton for his
address."    Carried. ST 88 British Columbia 1913
General Business.
The Chairman announced that the manager of the Canadian stumping outfit for taking out
stumps would arrange for the delegates to have a demonstration to suit the convenience of the
delegates.
Moved and seconded, " That arrangements be made for Friday afternoon at 3 o'clock to
take the delegates out for a demonstration of stump-pulling."    Carried.
The Chairman then addressed the delegates on the importance of institutes forwarding their
annual reports to the Department so far as possible before the Annual Convention was held.
F. E. Harmer (Central Park) :   It is not possible to get them out in time.
W. H. Stuart (Shawnigan) : According to the laws and rules of the Farmers' Institutes,
we are allowed up to the end of January to send in our reports.
The Chairman: We have our Annual Convention, as a rule, either in the first or second week
in January, and it certainly gives you very little time in which to appoint delegates, but still
the regulations say that they must be appointed at the annual meeting.
J. Bailey (Chilliwack) : We hold our annual meeting in December, and I think the date
should be changed from January to December. At our meeting yesterday of the Mutual Fire
Insurance Company we changed from the fourth Wednesday in January until the second
Wednesday in February. I would suggest that a motion be made in that line to change the date
of the annual meeting from January to December.
The Chairman: I don't think that Would work; it has to take place after the end of the
year.
J. Bailey (Chilliwack) : Our municipal elections are on the first of January, and I think
the last week in December would be a splendid time for all the annual meetings to get out of the
way of the municipal elections.
Mr. Lawrence: I don't think we shall have got over Christmas by then. Our annual
meetings were held last week, and why our Secretary has not sent in the report I cannot imagine.
W. Hornby (Delta) : I was going to make a suggestion that the annual meeting be made
in November.
L. J. Botting (Salmon Valley) : AVe changed our by-law so as to have our annual meeting
the last week in December. We experienced no difficulty whatever. As regards the resolutions
that wle sent in to the Convention, we had a special meeting for that at the beginning of
November.
J. M. Edmundson (Creston) :    We had our annual meeting in December.
A. Venables (Okanagan) :   AVe always have it in December.
The Chairman: I think a uniform rule should be adopted by the institutes, and if the
majority of the people think it would be advisable in December, let us have a resolution to that
effect.
F. D. Campbell (Maple Ridge) : Is it not down in the Act that it should be held in
January?
The Chairman:   Not later than the 15th.
J. Bailey (Chilliwack) : I move, " That the annual meeting be any time from December
15th to January 1st."
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) : I move an amendment, "That it be held not later than
January 5th, and the fiscal year to end on December 31st."
Seconded by Mr. AAllliams.
J. S. Shopland (Comox) : I think there was a resolution passed here two years ago to have
the date of our annual meetings arranged by our Superintendent.
The Chairman:   I think you are mistaken in that, Mr. Shopland.
A. K. Goldsmith (Aldergrove) : Would not this difficulty be obviated if the different
institutes arranged to have their annual meetings as early after the end of the fiscal year as
possible—that is, December 31st?    I move this as an amendment to the amendment.
Amendment to amendment carried.
Moved and seconded, " That meeting adjourn until 8 p.m."   Carried.
The Convention adjourned at 5.30 p.m. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 89
Evening Session.
The Convention was called to order by Mr. Scott at 8.15 p.m.
Appointment of Committees.
The Chairman: We have got through all our business; the Convention now is a committee
of the whole for the appointing of the committees to meet the Agricultural Commission on various
topics.    I will read out to you a suggestion which I have received:—
" If in order, I beg to propose the following suggestion on motion: With the will of the
Convention, that the. Chairman choose as a committee to meet the Agricultural Commission one
delegate from each of the following districts:—
"(1.)  East Kootenay, Golden to boundary-line; Kootenay Lake, Lardeau to boundary-
line:
"(2.)  Arrow Lakes, Columbia Valley, and Boundary country east of Grand Forks, also
Slocan Valley:
"(3.)  Grand Forks and Boundary country west and Nicola Valley:
"(4.)  Revelstoke West to Hope and Okanagan A''alley:
"(5.)  Hope AVest, including Lower Mainland:
"(6.)  A'ancouver Island and other districts north to Prince Rupert:
"(7.)  Prince Rupert and eastward along G.T.P.
" And that there be assigned to   each member of that committee one of the following items,
which shall be the duty of that member to take up the several phases of that item as it affects
agriculture:—
"(1.)  Cheap money:
"(2.)  Production:
"(3.)  Facilities   (cold-storage  buildings,  etc.) :
"(4.)  Marketing (co-operation, etc.) :
"(5.)  Protection   (duty) :
"(6.) Telephones:
"(7.) Transportation."
M. P. Williams (Okanagan Centre) :    May I offer a suggestion that the five-minute rule be
applied to all discussions?
The Chairman:    Certainly.
Moved by J. Bailey (Chilliwack), seconded by D. Matheson (Spallumcheen), "That the
recommendations come from the chair."
The Chairman: I would far sooner that the appointments came from the Convention, and
not from the Chair.
Moved by J. Bailey, seconded by D. Matheson, " That the delegates be appointed by the
Convention according to the districts enumerated by the Chairman."
The Chairman: I would ask this Convention not to appoint too many men on these
committees; to get it down as low as possible, because the Commission cannot possibly hear
th..-m all; select the best man, or two or three, no more than that, and send them up to tlhe
Commission to present your views. If all this Convention attends, you will not be able to
present your views concisely.
L. J. Botting (Salmon Valley) : I think I would rather see each subject taken separately,
and have two or three representatives for that special subject.
The Chairman: I think that is the better suggestion, that you specify your subjects and
appoint men to deal with them.
A. Venables (Okanagan) : I was with Mr. Price Ellison this evening, and he wished me
to impress upon you the fact that it would be better to have only one for each subject; that the
remarks should be put in writing, so that they could be laid before the Commission to digest.
The Chairman: I don't quite agree with you. We have got a pretty live Commission
there, and they will drag everything out of you.
A. E. Keffer (Arrow Park) : If you are going to appoint a committee here from the
different districts, that would be certainly a very good idea; but to appoint each one, and assign
them a subject, would perhaps not be advisable, but at the same time it might be done, provided
they meet beforehand and compare notes. N 90 British Columbia 1913
The Chairman:   They could meet at 9 o'clock to-morrow morning.
A. E. Keffer: If three are assigned to a committee, it would not be considered as a whole
under those circumstances, unless we can meet them and compare notes.
The Chairman:   I suggest that you meet to-morrow at 9 o'clock.
C. J. Thompson (Summerland) : I suggest we elect two men to-night to deal with each
subject.
The Chairman: That would be fourteen men. If they treat them as they did one of the
officials in my department—had him on the carpet the whole day—you will see how much they
will have to go through in two days.
C. E. W. Griffiths (Metchosin) suggested that three should be appointed.
D. Matheson (Spallumcheen) : I think it would be well if they select a speaker from
amongst themselves after the committee is appointed.
Moved by A. Venables (Okanagan), and seconded, "That one delegate be appointed for
each subject."
A. E. Keffer moved, " That the delegates be appointed and allow the delegation to assign the
subjects amongst themselves."
L. J. Botting moved, " That two delegates be appointed to meet the Agricultural Commission
on the various subjects read out."
Mr. Botting's amendment carried.
A. E. Keffer: I think that there is something morally wrong with this thing. My suggestion
was that the delegates be appointed, one or two from each district, as first voted on, and the
amendment comes up that we appoint two delegates for each subject.
The Chairman:    It was put to the meeting and carried.
A. E. Keffer:    The amendment was not an amendment; it was a different motion.
The Chairman: I cannot quite agree with you, Mr. Keffer. I think the amendment as
carried is a perfectly legitimate amendment to the motion.
D. B. Kenny (Kitsumgallum) : Many of us supported this amendment thinking it was the
original motion, making it two from each district.
The Chairman: The ruling of the Chair is that it is a perfectly legitimate amendment to
the resolution.    I will take the vote again.    It is two delegates to be appointed for each subject.
On being put to the meeting again, the amendment to amendment carried.
The Chairman declared the meeting open for nominations.
The following were the nominations:—
Cheap Money.—Mr.-Williams, A. E. Keffer, and T. Cunningham.
J. Bailey moved, " That Mr. Cunningham be elected a delegate from the Farmers' Institute
to speak on any subject."
Seconded by L. J. Botting and carried.
Production—D. Matheson, J. Bailey, and C. S. Handcock.
Facilities, Cold-storage, etc.—A. ATenables and J. Johnstone.
Marketing.—J. T. Lawrence and J. Johnstone.
Protection, Duty on Fruit, etc.—J. S. Shopland and S. MacDonald.
Telephones.—J. C. Harris and R. H. Brett.
Transportation.—D. B. Kenny, W. E. Paull, and P. E. Harmer.
The Chairman: I do not see why these committees should not add to their numbers, and
if there is time to speak, well and good. I see no reason myself why you should not add to
your numbers if you like to do so, and let them go before the Commission, but the idea is that
only two speakers should speak on the subject; but there is no reason why you should not add
more, and get your case in good shape, so that you may put it up to the Commissioners effectively.
With reference to labour and irrigation, I think in so far as labour is concerned, it is a very
good idea; but with regard to irrigation, you have the Irrigation Convention, and I do not see
any reason for appointing a special committee on that subject.
R. H. Brett:    I think it is a very good idea to bring forward these two important subjects.
Moved by J. T. Lawrence, and seconded, " That committees be appointed on the subjects of
irrigation and labour."    Carried.
Labour.—C. E. Lawrence and C. E. W. Griffiths.
C. E. Lawrence: I do think that our view of the subject should be put before the Commission.    As far as I am concerned, I shall have an excellent opportunity in Kamloops, but 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 91
I think that if it emanated from this Convention itself, it would, as coming from this Convention,
show the importance of the subject to the Commission. I think the subject is quite as important
—in fact, far more important than some of the subjects.
J. C. Harris:   I look to these delegates who put up these resolutions to deal with them.
The Chairman:    I am inclined to agree with Mr. Lawrence and Mr. Harris.
J. Bailey : I think there is nothing more important than the irrigation subject to the men
in the Dry Belt.
Irrigation.— T. AV. Turner and Mr. Williams.
J. Johnstone: This Convention has put me on a committee which I consider possibly the
most important—namely, marketing—and it would strengthen my hands very much if any one
who does not agree with my views would let me know before I go before the Commission. I will
oe pleased to answer any one's question, if they so desire.
The Chairman:    Any one interested could meet you at the conclusion of the meeting.
A. E. Keffer moved the adjournment until to-morrow morning.
Moved toy D. B. Kenny, and seconded, " That a vote of thanks be accorded to Mr. Scott for
his kindness during the Convention."
Carried by standing vote and with musical honours, followed by three cheers.
The Chairman: Gentlemen, I am afraid I make a poor Chairman, but I am interested
and do my best to conduct the meeting. As an old fellow-farmer, your interests are mine, and
I am going to do all I possibly can. Sometimes I may not be able to effect what you want; there
are different ways of looking at a subject, but you may always rest assured that what I do is
for the best interests of the farmer; in so far as I am able, I will do it. I think we have had
a very successful Convention this year. When I cast back my memory to the first Convention
I attended, ten or twelve years ago, the delegates passed about 125 resolutions, and they got no
action taken on them. But you are getting down to more businesslike methods. You are putting
up good sound resolutions to the Government. When you get a body of men representing at
least 8,000 farmers in the Province, and as a matter of fact 10,000, because you also represent
the views of those few unfortunate individuals who do not belong to the institutes, attending
a Convention for three days, and you thrash out your subjects, and go into them thoroughly,
I say those resolutions are going to be considered by the Government, and very seriously indeed;
and I must congratulate this Convention on the business capabilities of every one here. The
debating ability I have heard here has been an astonishment to me. I am quite sure there are
a lot of future legislators sitting before me that will be in the House very shortly. The only
way to accomplish good in the Department over which I have the honour to preside as executive
head is to get in close touch with the people themselves. At this Annual Convention I meet
many farmers, and in travelling about the country I meet more, and receive a lot of hospitality
from you all. If I can see the actual conditions, I am in a better condition to judge as to what
can really toe done to help out the farmers. There is one thing I was extremely pleased to see,
and that is that no man comes crying to the Government to give this and give that; they ask,
and rightly too, that the Government help them to help themselves; but the tone of the meeting
is very different from what it was ten years ago. Then they wanted the Government to run
their farms, but now you look at it from a different point of view, and in the proper light. As
long as I am in the Department your interests will be my interests, and I will do my best to
help you in every legitimate way. Gentlemen, I thank you for the very kind way you have
passed the vote of thanks, and I hope that the coming year will indeed be a prosperous one to the
farmers of British Columbia.
T. Cunningham: I would like some one to appoint another committee to meet with delegations from the following bodies: The Boards of Trade, Board of Horticulture, Central
Farmers' Institute, Fruit-growers' Association, Entomological Society, Live-stock Association,
Dairymen's Association, and Bankers' Association. I would like a committee of three wise and
influential members of this institute to meet with the delegates from these several bodies to
present this quarantine motion to our Provincial Government. I have consulted with the
Minister of Agriculture and Finance, and he is with me to the last ditch; he says it must go
through, because it means a whole lot for the future of this Province. I have not got through
yet with my work. I have got to go to Nelson, Grand Forks, and one or two other important
points to get the endorsation of these several Boards of Trade.    Every resolution that has been N 92 British Columbia 1913
passed yet has been endorsed by the president of the Board of Trade and secretary. I want
your assistance now in getting a large delegation to go to Ottawa; that is why I want this
committee.
The Chairman: I must apologize for omitting this before the proceedings close. Mr.
Cunningham's policy is a sound and a good one, and I think it is up to this Convention to
appoint that committee to meet at some future date, so that the matter can be put up with no
uncertain voice to Ottawa. The Minister is determined, and so am I, and I think this Convention, as representing the farmers of British Columbia, should appoint this committee of three
to meet at the time it is decided upon.
The following committee was appointed:   A. E. Keffer, J. Johnstone, and J. Bailey.
T. Cunningham: I am exceedingly thankful to the institute for making this nomination.
I want to explain further that I made a very bad job of my address yesterday. I had not the
time; I felt that I was inflicting delay upon hungry men, and the matter was not as carefully
handled as I would have liked it to be, and I heard from quite intelligent men that they did
not grasp all of it, and I am going to get a thousand copies printed and let every one of you
have a copy.
J. C. Harris: May I ask that the others who have information with reference to the
telephone to help us to-morrow morning; arrive in time to confer with us and get our case
together.
The Chairman: To-morrow morning at 9 o'clock the members of this Convention who want
to meet these committees will meet them here.
Moved by A. Venables, and seconded, " That a vote of thanks be tendered to Mr. Bonavia
for his work as Secretary in connection with these meetings."
The Chairman: The Secretary has a pretty arduous time, and I think that he has attended
faithfully to your interests.
Resolution carried.
Moved by Mr. D. Matheson, seconded by J. Bailey, " That a vote of thanks be tendered
to the stenographer, and a purse of $10 be collected for her."    Carried.
The donation was presented to Miss Thomson by the Chairman.
Moved by L. J. Botting, and seconded, " That a vote of thanks be tendered to the Department of Agriculture."    Carried.
J. Johnstone: I think it is due to the Chairman that we have met in this hall, and I
think a special vote of thanks should be accorded to him.
The Chairman: I am glad that my choice of a room meets with your approval; this was as
good as any we could get.
Seconded by J. S. Shopland, and carried.
The Convention adjourned at 9.30 p.m.
RESOLUTIONS    SUBMITTED,   ANALYSED,   AND   PASSED   AT   FIFTEENTH   ANNUAL
CONVENTION OF CENTRAL FARMERS' INSTITUTE (JANUARY 21st
TO JANUARY 23bd,  1913).
Resolutions submitted.
Arrow Lake Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That, owing to the high price of clover-seed and the absolute necessity of
growing same to add humus to the soil, especially in the interior of the Province, the British
Columbia Government is urgently requested to purchase same in car-loads and sell to ranchers
at cost price, as is done with stumping-powder.
2. Resolved, That, in view of the fact that the big American fruit associations are selling
their apples in the Prairie Provinces at a rate so low as to make it impossible for the British
Columbia growers to compete, the Provincial Government is urgently requested to place this
matter before the Dominion Government, with a view to passing such legislation as will protect
the fruit-growers. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 93
3. Resolved, That, since no official report has been issued bearing on the resolution passed
at the 1912 Convention respecting the loaning of money to the farmers, the Provincial Government be again requested to consider the proposition of loaning money to the farmers at a
low rate of interest.
Arrow Park Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas, owing to the difficulty of farmers obtaining satisfactory loans from the banks
or loan companies, the high cost of living and all necessities required in their work, the excessive freight rates required to place their products on the market, and the difficulties peculiar
to this Province in the clearing of lands; and whereas the Government of the United States has
now a committee investigating the system of loans to farmers in France, Germany, and other
European countries, with a view to introducing a system of loans to the farmers of that
country: Be it therefore Resolved, That we ask the Government of this Province to speedily
inaugurate a system of loans to farmers, similar to other countries, which will place those
who are suffering from lack of capital in a better financial condition.
2. Whereas, owing to the cheaper transportation charges paid by fruit-growers of the
United States, the present duty imposed on fruit coming into Canada does not afford sufficient
protection to the fruit-growers of this Province: Be it therefore Resolved, That we hereby
ask the Dominion Government to raise the duty on fruit coming into Canada to a point which
will afford adequate protection to the fruit-growers of Canada; and that copies of this resolution be sent to the fruit-growers' associations of the different Provinces of Canada, asking their
co-operation in the matter.
3. Whereas the refusal of the railway companies to bill a mixed car-load of flour and feed
(in sacks) and baled hay and straw is a hardship to the settler, many of whom desire to
purchase these commodities in wholesale quantities at a time when the same could be secured
at reasonable prices, and are thereby compelled to purchase their supplies from retailers at
greatly enhanced prices: Be it therefore Resolved, That we hereby bring this matter to the
attention of the Railway Commission for their consideration.
Burton City Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas it is of the greatest importance that the question of loans to farmers receive-
all due consideration from the Provincial Government: Be it therefore Resolved, That the meeting hereby signifies its approval of the resolution re loans to farmers as passed at the Central
Convention of 1911, and would suggest that the Government be asked not to accept any scheme
which might prove detrimental to the adoption of such loans.
2. Whereas the C.P.R. having cancelled its through rate on powder to lake points, with
the exception of railway-stations: Be it therefore Resolved, That the Department of Agriculture
be asked to use its influence to get such rate restored.
Comox Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That the Government be asked to further reduce the price of stumping-powder
to $3 a case.
Cranbrook-Fernie Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That, in consideration of climatic conditions in East Kootenay necessitating
the planting of varieties of fruit not propagated or offered for sale by the British Columbia
nurseries (but the use of such varieties would, we believe, add much to the opportunities of
fruit-growers in East Kootenay), the Government be asked to amend or relax or otherwise
change the present regulations in connection with the importation and fumigation of young
trees, necessitating the shipping across the Province twice of such trees as are bought by East
Kootenay fruit-growers.
2. Resolved, That, in consideration of the scarcity of pre-emptions in East Kootenay, the-
Government of British Columbia be asked to take all lands held under timber licences as soon
as licence expires, to be advertised and thrown open for pre-emption of 160 acres each to bona-
flde settlers; and that, in lien of paying for the land at expiration of duties, as much land be-
cleared as the Government may decide is equivalent to paying for same. N 94 British Columbia 1913
3. Resolved, That the Government be asked to put a bounty on gophers and ground-squirrels,
as their depredations are a great loss to the farmers' and gardeners' crops.
Craioford Bay Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That the bounty on coyotes be raised from $3 to $5.
2. Resolved, That the British Columbia Government be asked to use its influence with the
Dominion Government to extend either telephonic or telegraphic communication in British
Columbia where none such is at present in operation.
3. Whereas the loaning of money to farmers at a reasonable rate of interest, for the purpose
of developing their holdings, purchase of stock, etc., is more of a live issue, even then when
discussed by the Central Convention twelve months ago, and approved by that body: Be it
therefore Resolved, That the Provincial Government should be urged to immediately take the
matter into consideration.
Creston Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas, in our national progress, finance is one of the most important factors in promoting all industries; and whereas the laws relating to the financing of the farming industry
in Canada are inadequate to the demands of this, the fundamental industry of all other
industries; and whereas the most progressive foreign nations have laws in operation governing
the financing of their farming industries: Be it therefore Resolved, That the Creston Farmers'
Institute recommends to the Federal Government that it take active steps towards promoting
ways and means whereby the most perfect laws governing the financing of farmers may be
enacted, so as to give equal opportunity to the farming industry in all Provinces of the
Dominion. And be it further Resolved, That the Dominion Government be requested to obtain
through its foreign representatives copies of all such laws now in operation, with the recommendation that, when obtained, same be laid before a representative body of delegates from
the several Provinces called for the purpose of deliberating with the Government in formulating
laws on a safe, economic, and elastic basis whereby the farming industry may be adequately
financed. *
And whereas common law stipulates that none have a superior right to have a say in fitting
on the shoes than the one that is to wear them: Therefore be it further Resolved, That such
representative body of delegates should consist of an equal number of actual practical farmers
and scientific men versed in the laws of finance and economics, together with one official
Government representative from each Province.
And whereas it is essential that the Federal Government should be properly informed as to
the true sentiment prevailing as to the need of speedy enactment of such laws for the financing
of the farmers: Therefore be it further Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be forwarded
to W. E. Scott, Esq., Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, desiring him to have copies of same
■ sent the several B'armers' Institutes and other agricultural organizations affiliated with the
Department, and to urge upon said organizations the advisability of passing similar resolutions
and have same forwarded to the Federal Minister of Agriculture at Ottawa.
And be it further Resolved, That we most respectfully ask the co-operation of our Provincial
Department of Agriculture in laying a copy of this resolution before the Secretary of the
Department of Agriculture in each Province of the Dominion, that they likewise may co-operate
along similar lines and place matters before the Federal Minister of Agriculture, the Honourable
Martin Burrell, Ottawa.
2. Whereas the " Noxious Weeds Act" and its enforcement is practically a dead letter: Be
it therefore Resolved, That we recommend that our Provincial Government be prevailed upon to
take further action in making same effective.
Glenside Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That royalty should not be collected from actual settlers on any timber
whatsoever cleared from land ploughed or to be ploughed.
2. Resolved, That settlers be granted permits to take logs over the line and bring lumber
back when no mill is near by in Canada.
3. Resolved, That the British Columbia Government furnish cheap money to farmers for
farm improvements. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 95
4. Resolved, That a bounty should be placed on prairie-squirrels and on hawks.
Fire Valley and Lake Shore Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas under the present system of taxation, whereby the tax on improved land
increases proportionately with such improvements; and whereas it is felt that such increase is a
tax on energy and enterprise; and whereas it is felt that the adoption of the single tax and the
removal of the tax on improvements would be of immense benefit to those engaged in agriculture:
Be it therefore Resolved, That this institute endeavour to bring before the proper authorities the
need for such removal, with an urgent request that such steps may be taken as will bring about
the change desired.
2. Whereas there are in this district large tracts of agricultural land owned by individuals
and syndicates; and whereas such lands are not occupied by the owners; and whereas, owing
to lack of effort on the part of the owners to improve and develop sueh lands, it is felt that such
lands are being held for speculative purposes; and whereas the settlement, development, and
progress of the district are being retarded by such inaction: Be it therefore Resolved, That the
Government be approached, through the proper channels, with an earnest request that double tax
be levied on lands so owned, with a view to bringing pressure to bear upon the owners and
causing them to develop and improve such lands.
3. Whereas there are in this Province a large number of enterprising and progressive
farmers whose efforts towards further progress and enterprise are handicapped by lack of means
necessary for sustaining such progress; and whereas the acquisition of such means, through
the medium of a loan, is under present circumstances rendered inadvisable, if not impossible, by
reason of the high rate of interest charged; and whereas other British possessions have adopted,
or are adopting, a system of Government loans—at a low rate of interest—to farmers: Be it
therefore Resolved, That this question be brought to the notice of our Government, with an
urgent request for the adoption of some such arrangement.
4. Whereas it is felt that, by the privileges granted to the Doukhobors in the matter of
school attendance, registration of births, marriages, and deaths, they are being accorded better
treatment than are other communities in the Province: Be it therefore Resolved, That the
Government direct that the Doukhobors live fully up to the laws of the country.
5. Whereas an Act bearing upon the question of noxious weeds has been passed; and whereas
difficulty has arisen in the matter of having such Act enforced: Be it therefore Resolved, That
the Government be asked to make such arrangements as will ensure the rigid enforcement of the
Act.
Howe Sound Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That the Government be asked to supply pure-bred bull to Farmers' Institutes.
2. Resolved, That, when possible, none others than settlers be allowed to work on Government
roads or other work done in the district.
Kelowna Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas there is continual danger of the importation of insect pests which will seriously
affect the fruit industry of this district; and whereas it is advisable to prevent deciduous fruit,
fruit-trees, and vegetables from districts infected by such pests from entering British Columbia;
and whereas the Kelowna Board of Trade has unanimously passed a resolution on the above
lines: Be it therefore Resolved, That we, the Kelowna Farmers' Institute, in annual meeting
assembled, do hereby commend and endorse this resolution and request the British Columbia
Department of Agriculture to use its influence to secure the passage of the required legislation.
2. Resolved, That the Provincial Government be requested to provide money at a low rate
of interest to enable farmers to develop and improve their properties, as is already done in other
countries with marked success, notably the Dominion of New Zealand, parts of the Commonwealth of Australia, and Germany.
Kettle Valley Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That the Kettle Aralley Farmers' Institute favours the creation of a general
selling agency, under the supervision of the British Columbia Government, for the marketing of
fruit and agricultural products. N 96 British Columbia 1913
Kitsumgallum Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That a bounty of $2 be put on chicken-hawks.
2. Resolved, That the Government be asked to do something towards the providing of settlers
With cheaper money for land-clearing purposes.
Langley Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That the Provincial Government be requested to inquire into the char-pit method
of removing stumps.
Maple Ridge Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That, in the opinion of the members of the Maple Ridge Farmers' Institute,'no
public moneys should be expended on roads for the sole use of automobiles and not including a
traffic road; and that a copy of this resolution be forwarded to the Minister of Public Works;
also that a copy be furnished the delegate to the Central Institute, and he be instructed to use
bis best endeavour to get an expression from that body.
Martin's Prairie Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That the Central Institute take up the matter of establishing a market for the
produce of Farmers' Institute members.
2. Resolved, That the Central Institute request that the Agricultural Department continue
the Field-crop Competitions in 191.3 along the same lines as in 1912.
3. Resolved, That the Provincial Government be requested to supplement any additional
bounty on coyotes which may be offered by any individual district.
4. Resolved, That the Provincial Government be requested to establish a telephone system
in all rural districts where there is no telephone.
5. Resolved, That the Provincial Government be requested to place a bounty on the chicken-
hawk and "blue mountain hawk."
6. Resolved, That the Central Institute re-endorse the idea of the Provincial Government
supplying farmers with money for the improvement of their land at a reduced rate of interest,
as discussed at the meetings of the Central Institute in 1911 and 1912.
Matsqui Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That the Provincial Government provide some scheme whereby bona-flde
farmers can obtain money at a low rate of interest for land-clearing purposes.
2. Resolved, That Fire AArardens and their deputies be given full discretion in setting fires
for land-clearing purposes.
3. Resolved, That the Provincial Government be requested to lay before the proper
authorities the uselessness of the present cattle-guards on railways, and have them replaced by
efficient ones.
4. Resolved, That in the event of the Government establishing an experimental truck-garden
farm on the south side of the Fraser River, we suggest and claim that the said farm should be
located in Matsqui Municipality; for, owing to its central position and train connections, the said
farm could be reached from all directions.    The soil also cannot be beaten in the valley.
Metchosin Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas the practice of discharging firearms from automobiles on the public highways
in unorganized districts has grown to such an extent as to be a menace to the public safety; and
whereas considerable damage has already resulted to the live-stock and property of residents in
these districts; and whereas the residents have no remedy except a civil action at law for
damages: Be it therefore Resolved, That the Government be requested to make it illegal to
discharge any firearm either on or within 60 feet of any public highway in settled districts.
Nanaimo-Cedar Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That, in view of the great benefits to be derived by farmers from a parcel-post
system such as is in operation in Great Britain, the Provincial Government is earnestly requested
to press upon the Dominion Government the desirability of introducing at once a similar system
into Canada.   3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 97
2. Resolved, That the Department import skylarks and wagtails as farmers' friends into
Vancouver Island, in order to combat the wireworm and other farm pests.
3. Resolved, That the attention of the Department of Public Works be called to the
discrimination against farmers by road superintendents and foremen in the matter of hiring
teams for road-work in the districts.
Okanagan Centre Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas in the irrigated districts of this Province there are extensive tracts of arid land
which could be reclaimed and rendered highly productive if more water was stored during winter
in reservoirs at the headwaters of most of the streams in these districts; and whereas the proper
development of these headwaters by the construction of dams of sufficient capacity and other
permanent works, and also the future maintenance and the impartial control of such works, are
matters of supreme importance to the settlers in the said districts, and should not be left in the
hands of private companies and individuals, many of which are interested in the development
only of certain limited areas: Be it therefore Resolved, That, in our opinion, it is desirable that
the Government should expropriate and further develop and control, where necessary, all
irrigation-works at the headwaters of streams in the said districts; and, secondly, that the
Government should, after taking over the irrigation-works at headwaters as aforesaid, exercise
control in the matter of the rates to be charged to users of the water.
Peachland Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That this institute again draw the attention of the Government t« the necessity
for conserving the water in natural basins in the irrigation belt.
2. Resolved, That this institute appreciates the efforts of Mr. Cunningham and his staff in
their inspection of imported nursery stock and control of diseases and pests, and we urge that
his Department instruct him to make the inspection still more strict, even to the rejection of all
importations of trees and fruit from any district known to be infected.
3. Whereas the prosperity of the fruit-growing districts of British Columbia during the year
1912 has been considerably retarded through the poor returns received from the sale of fruits,
owing to an abundant crop, American competition, poor transportation facilities, lack of
organization, and other causes; and whereas the capital invested in the fruit-growing industry is
seriously imperilled: Be it therefore Resolved, That we request the Government to at once take
steps to appoint a commission composed of practical business-men of large experience, together
with prominent fruit-growers, to secure evidence and make a full report to the Government as to
the best means of assisting the industry to a better basis.
4. Resolved, That a committee of the Central Institute be appointed to confer with the
express and railway companies for the purpose of securing a reduction in the express rates and
the securing of a fast freight and refrigerator-car service between the chief fruit-growing regions
and the Coast on the one hand, and the Prairies on the other, and that the Government be urged
also to take up this question with the various companies concerned.
5. Whereas there is at present no general Statute providing for the organization of public
libraries in British Columbia; and whereas public libraries are requisite if farmers, orchardists,
artisans, etc., are to be supplied with the technical works they need; and whereas it is of the
first importance that our excellent system of education should be supplemented by public libraries
for the use of students and the public at large: Be it therefore Resolved, That we request the
Government to place on our statute-books an adequate modern " Public Libraries Act."
Rock Creek Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That the bounty on owls be removed and the bounty on coyotes be increased.
2. Resolved, That the Provincial Government be requested to represent to the Dominion
Government the desire for the removal of duty on woven fence-wire and the placing of duty on
barbed wire
3. Resolved, That the inspection of fruit from the United States of America be more rigidly
enforced, and that the duty be increased.
4. Resolved, That the Department provide prints to schools showing the various stages of
insects beneficial to farmers and fruit-growers, such as ichneumon, lace-wing, and lady-bird.
7 N 98 British Columbia 1913
5. Resolved, That the Entomological Department of the Government offer an inducement for
publishing an up-to-date work on the moths, butterflies, and insects of British Columbia.
6. Resolved, That the cattle-guards now in vogue on railways do not prevent valuable cattle
from being killed.
Rosehill Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That the institute endorses the report of the Royal Commission on Taxation;
that we consider this the fairest system to all.
2. Resolved, That the Government arrange to loan money to farmers at a low rate of
interest.
3. Resolved, That this institute wishes to bring to the notice of the Government the
necessity of establishing a better grade from Kamloops to Rosehill District, as in compliance
with a meeting held at Beresford on June 11th, 1912, at which our member, Mr. Shaw, and Mr.
White, Road Superintendent, were present.
Salmon Valley Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That this institute strongly urges the Central Farmers' Institute to take up the
question of cheap money for farmers with the Government at the earliest possible moment.
2. Resolved, That in regard to the Government support of co-operation in agricultural
matters, the Government toe urged to appoint a travelling auditor to audit the accounts of all
co-operative societies twice annually.
3. Resolved, That the Government be asked to send a capable man through the country to
explain the working of co-operation in agricultural matters.
4. Resolved, That the Government be urged to take the necessary steps to obtain an adequate
extension of the public-telephone system in the Province.
5. Resolved, That, in order to make, it easier for farmers to meet and be met by the representatives of wholesale firms dealing in farm produce, the Government be asked to institute a
system of markets at towns in the Interior, forming a circuit with fixed market-days for each,
and to arrange for the publication of the price prevailing at such markets.
Shawnigan Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That this institute respectfully asks the Provincial Government for financial
aid to assist bona-flde settlers in reclaiming and clearing the land for agricultural purposes.
2. Resolved, That the Provincial Government be asked to notify all farmers of the prevalence
of any contagious diseases existing among animals in the district, also to send out pamphlets
dealing with the said disease.
Slocan Valley Farmers' Institute.
1. Resolved, That the Central Institute ask the Government that all Crown lands suitable
for farming purposes held under timber licences be open for settlement as soon as possible.
2. Resolved, That the policy of the Hon. Price Ellison in regard to lending money to farmers
at a low rate of interest be carried out by the Government.
3. Resolved, That the Government toe asked to amend the " Highways Act" to permit the
construction of by-roads 30 feet in width, save and except where, in the opinion of the surveying
engineer, a greater width is necessary.
4. Resolved, That the institute protest against the proposed bridge toeing built at Koch
Siding; that the matter be further investigated, and the wishes of the settlers in asking that
the bridge be built at Gutelius be considered.
South Kootenay Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas the settlers of this Province have, in almost all districts, to pay an extremely
high price for their lands, and the cost of clearing and improving same is also very high; and
whereas considerable time must elapse before sufficient returns can be derived from recently
cleared lands to enable them to live on and continue to clear and improve their property,
especially those entering upon the fruit-growing industry, which the Government are in many
ways endeavouring to assist and establish in this Province:    Be it therefore Resolved, That the 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 99
Government of British Columbia be urged to adopt a system of loaning money to bona-fide
settlers at a low rate of interest, thereby enabling them to develop their land to a state of
remunerative production in a much shorter space of time.
2. Whereas the present transportation charges on pure-bred stock between points within
the Province, and also from the Prairie Provinces to points in British Columbia, are so high
as to be almost prohibitive to the average stock-raisers; and whereas we believe the increased
importation and free exchange of pure-bred stock, especially siring stock, would be of great
benefit to the flocks and herds of this Province: Be it therefore Resolved, That the Government of British Columbia be requested to arrange with the railroads operating in the Province
for a special rate on pedigree stock from the Prairie Provinces, and especially between points
within the Province.
3. Whereas the members of institutes, in framing resolutions to Central Farmers' Institute,
have no accurate knowledge of what action has been taken toy the Provincial Government on
resolutions sent in by the preceding Convention: Be it therefore Resolved, That the Superintendent of Institutes be requested to send to each Secretary of Institutes, in due season, a copy
of said resolutions, and an account of what action has been taken by Legislative Assembly in
regard to each.
4. Resolved, That the Central Farmers' Institute be requested to go on record as being in
favour of a more rigid inspection of fruit coming into this country from the American side,
and view with disfavour the dumping of inferior fruit on the Canadian market by the American
growers.
Spallumcheen Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas in these days telephonic communication has become an actual necessity among
the farming population; and whereas the service rendered by private companies does not give
satisfaction: Be it therefore Resolved, That the Provincial Government be asked to enact legislation this session whereby municipalities be given power to own, maintain, and operate telephone-
lines.
2. Whereas under existing conditions, such as high-priced labour, expensive machinery, high
rate of interest, etc., it is found impossible for the average settler to satisfactorily clear the
land and otherwise improve it: Be it therefore Resolved, That the Provincial Government be
asked to advance money at a low rate of interest for such purposes to settlers.
Summerland Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas a great many fruits are of such a nature that, in order that their true flavour
be enjoyed and the fruit most appreciated, it is necessary to have them ripen as fully as possible
before picking, and then got to the consumer without delay: Be it therefore Resolved, That the
Transportation Committee of the Provincial Fruit-growers' Association endeavour to arrange,
either directly with the express companies or through the Railway Commission or the Governments, that express rates and facilities be arranged or a parcel-post system be introduced that
will enable the grower to ship directly and quickly to the consumer, thereby benefiting both.
2. Whereas the British Columbia Government has taken a great deal of interest and expended
much money in opening up our orchard lands and inducing settlement, and also in overseeing the
proper planting and caring for the trees, and have helped to bring our orchards to a high state
of efficiency; and whereas the disposal and marketing of the fruit is now a crying question, and
much loss is liatole to ensue; and whereas the fruit-growers have invested most of their means
in developing their orchards, and have neither the capital nor experience to market large crops:
Be it therefore Resolved, That we petition the Government to appoint a commission or otherwise to obtain evidence and propose a general plan for marketing of the fruit, and co-operate
in carrying this out while it is in the experimental state.
3. Resolved, That the Government be petitioned to build cold-storage and frost-proof warehouses in a number of the centres on the Prairies, where fruit can be stored and distributed
at a small charge.
4. Resolved, That the time has arrived when express fruit-trains or cars attached to express
trains should be run for the rapid handling of perishable fruit.
5. Resolved, That the Canadian Pacific Railway and Dominion Express Company be urged
to provide proper warehouses to protect fruit handed to them for conveyance, for much fruit
is now left in the open, both upon receipt, transfer, and delivery- N 100 British Columbia 1913
6. Resolved, That the Provincial Government and the Canadian Pacific Railway be and is
hereby urged to have the precooling plants established throughout British Columbia.
Surrey Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas the cost of clearing land in British Columbia is so great: Be it therefore
Resolved, That the Provincial Government be asked to give a bonus of $1 a case on stumping-
powder used for clearing land.
Valdes Island Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas the present fire restrictions are too severe and work great hardship upon many
of our members; and whereas it is impossible to burn a slashing during the present open season
in our district: Be it therefore Resolved, That we request our Provincial Institute to urge upon
our Government the necessity of extending the open season during the months of May and
September.
Westbank Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas a few Indians hold a great deal of land in this, the Okanagan Aralley; and
whereas this land is quite unproductive, being without water: Be it therefore Resolved, That
the Government be urged to take steps to have this land opened for settlement and irrigation.
2. Whereas the present supply of water for irrigation is far from satisfactory: Be it therefore Resolved, That the Government should undertake the conservation and distribution of the
water.
3. Resolved, That, in view of the difficulty which the British Columbia fruit-growers
experience in marketing their fruit, the Government should take up the proper distribution
and marketing of fruit from this Province.
West Kootenay Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas market conditions for British Columbia fruit in the Provinces of Alberta and
Saskatchewan have been most unsatisfactory during the season; and whereas the condition
has been brought about largely owing to the want of a proper system of distribution, some
towns being flooded with perishable fruit, while other small places with a considerable capacity
for consumption received none; and whereas this condition will become worse as the different
local shipping associations become better organized: Be it therefore Resolved, That, in the
interest of the prosperity of the fruit-growing industry of this Province, our Government be
asked to take steps to encourage and further the immediate formation of a central distributing
medium for the fruits of all districts.
2. Whereas during this season the markets of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba have
been been used as dumping-grounds for the surplus fruits of the United States; and whereas the
present dumping clause is not applicable to fruits, thereby causing great injury and injustice
to the fruit-growers of the Dominion: Be it therefore Resolved, That the Dominion Government be requested to take immediate steps to have the dumping clause made operative in respect
to fruit shipped into Canada from foreign countries.
3. Resolved, That we urge the Dominion and Provincial Governments to co-operate in regard
to the inspection of fruit; that the Inspector of Fruit Pests for the Provincial Government be
also appointed by the Dominion Government to look after the enforcement of the " Fruit-marks
Act," and that the Dominion Government Inspectors be also appointed by the Provincial Government to look after the enforcement of the " Provincial Government's " Fruit Pests Act."
Windermere Farmers' Institute.
1. Whereas, in the opinion of this institute, the subject of the proper demonstration of the
use of water and the general conditions of farming under irrigation are very important features,
not only to this district in particular, but to the greater portion of the interior of British
Columbia: Be it therefore Resolved, That this institute memoralize the Minister of Agriculture
with this petition, asking him to take steps to have more literature of an educative nature
published for free distrit iition on this sutoject; and that he also  take steps to have public 3 Geo. 5
Farmers' Institutes Report.
N 101
lectures delivered in regard to the carrying-out of work of this character; and that at some
time in the future a competent corps of public instructors on irrigation be appointed to hold
office under his direction.     (Sent in April 16th, 1912.)
2. Whereas there is no veterinary surgeon practising within this district; and whereas the
services of a veterinary surgeon are oft-times important for the relieving of sickness or saving
of life amongst live-stock; and whereas it is the opinion of the members of this institute that
there is not at the present time sufficient work of this character for a duly qualified veterinary
to devote his entire attention to this end as a means of gaining a livelihood; and whereas it
is said to be the practice in the case of an ordinary medical practitioner for the Provincial
Government to give him financial aid in outside districts such as this: Be it therefore Resolved,
That we suggest to the Government that it be advisable to introduce such a practice in connection with outside districts, and extend similar aid to veterinary surgeons. (Sent in April 16th,
1912.)
Analysis of Resolutions submitted to Convention.
Subject.
Proposed by.
Resolution  adopted  at Convention,
or other Result.
Page.
Loans to farmers.
Arrow Lakes.
Arrow Park.
Burton City.
Creston.
Crawford Bay.
Kelowna.
Glenside. >■
Kitsu-mgallum.
ilatsqui.
Martin's Prairie.
Rosehill.
Salmon Valley.
Shawnigan.
Slocan Lake.
South Kootenay, Resolution No. 1
28-34
South Kootenay.
Spallumcheen.
Fire    A'aliey    and
Lake Shore.
Bounties   on   various  animals   and
Cranbrook-Fernie.
Cranbrook-Fernie, Resolution No. 7
42,43
birds.
Crawford Bay.
Glenside.
Kitsumgallum.
Martin's Prairie.
Rock Creek.
Imported fruits, increased duty on.
Arrow Park.
Rock Creek.
Arrow Park, Resolution No. 2. . . .
35, 36
Imported fruits, quarantine against
Kelowna.
50,51
infected   districts.     (Thos.   Cun
Okanagan.
ningham's resolution.)
!;    1
Imported fruits, inspection of fruit
South Kootenay.
Taken  up  by  B.C.  Fruit-growers'
imported from U.S.
AVest Kootenay.
63, 64
Parcel-post system.
Nanaimo-Cedar.
Nanaimo-Cedar (amendment), Reso-
60
Parcel-post  system for fruit  ship
Summerland.
ments.
I    !!     :     !'   1
Importation of birds.
Nanaimo-Cedar.
60
Marketing  B.C.  fruit and  central
Kettle Valley.
Kettle Valley, Resolution No. 19(a)
54-58
selling agency.
Summerland.
Peachland.
Westbank.
West Kootenay. N 102
British Columbia
1913
Analysis of Resolutions—Continued.
Subject.
Proposed by.
Resolution  adopted at Convention,
or other Result.
West Kootenay, Resolution No. 31
Lost  	
Taken up by B.C. Fruit-growers'
A ssotiation  	
Taken up by B.C. Fruit-growers'
A ssociation  	
Taken up by B.C. Fruit-growers'
Association  	
Taken up by B.C. Fruit-growers'
Association. (Transportation
Committee.)   (No. 26.)  	
Referred to Minister of Education.
Not dealt with.
Not dealt with.
Lost 	
To be acted upon by Department of
Agriculture 	
Withdrawn 	
Not voted on  	
Department    of    Agriculture    will
note	
Withdrawn 	
Lost 	
Withdrawn	
Not voted on	
Withdrawn  	
Glenside, Resolution No. 15	
Lost   	
Covered   by   Agricultural   Department circular	
Resolution No. 40	
Resolution No. 41	
Page.
Marketing    B.C.    fruit,    dumping
clause.
Markets    for    Farmers'    Institute
-members.
Markets    for    Farmers'    Institute
members in interior towns.
Cold-storage plants.
Precooling plants.
AVarehouse   accommodation   by
C.P.R. and Dom. Express Co.
Reduction of express rates on fruit.
" Public Library Act."
Entomological charts to be .supplied
to schools.
Moth butterflies, publication of up-
to-date work on.
Auditors for co-operative societies.
Action of Legislature re resolution
■forwarded by Farmers' Institute
Convention to be notified to Secretaries.
Grade from Kamloops to Rosehill.
Report on Royal Co-mmis.sion on
Taxation.
Co-operation lecturer to be appointed.
Bridge at Koch Siding.
Discharging firearms from automobiles.
Clover-seed to be purchased by
Government.
Doukhobors not to be granted special privileges.
Roads, public moneys not to be expended for automobile-roads only.
Royalties not to be collected from
land to be ploughed.
Logs and lumber, permits to take
over 'boundary-line to sawmills.
Logged-off lands, clearing by char-
pitting.
Cattle slaughtered for tuberculosis,
increase of compensation.
Loans for co-operative agricultural
societies.
Arrow Lakes.
AArest Kootenay.
Martin's Prairie.
Salmon A'alley.
Summerland.
Summerland.
Summerland.
Peachland.
Peachland.
Rock Creek.
Rock Creek.
Salmon Valley.
South Kootenay.
I! '    !'     !;    -ii
Rosehill.
It-osehill.
Salmon Valley.
Slocan Valley.
Metchosin.
Arrow Lakes.
Fire    Valley    and
Lake Shore.
Maple Ridge.
Glenside.
Glenside.
Langley.
Delta.
Chilliwack.
West Kootenay.
Kamloops.
63
54-5S
62
62
71
59
49
49,50
75,'76
(6,77,81 3 Geo. 5
Farmers' Institutes Report.
N 103
Analysis of Resolutions—Concluded.
Subject.
Proposed by.
Resolution   adopted  at  Convention,
or other Result.
Page.
Timber limits, expired timber-
licence lands to be available for
imimediate pre-emption, etc.
Pure-bred stock for Farmers' Institutes.
(2) Special railway rates.
Live-stock, notification of contagious diseases.
" Highways Act " amendment.
Fire Wardens.
Fire  Wardens,  open  season  to
extended.
Cattle-guards on railways.
Road-work, preference to be given
to settlers.
Railway Commission, re refusal of
railway companies, to bill mixed
carloads of feed, flour, etc.
Stumping-powder, reduction of cost,
etc.
Imported nursery stock.
" Noxious Weeds Act " to be rigorously enforced.
Telephones,   extension  of   Government telephones and telegraphs.
Fence Law amendment.
(2)  Removal of duty on fence-wire.
Water   conservation   in   irrigation
belt.
Indian reserves in Okanagan to be
opened for settlement.
A^eterinary surgeons.
Single tax and removal of tax on
improvements.
Land assessment.
Double tax on unoccupied lands.
Cranbrook-Fernie.
Slocan Lake.
Howe Sound.
South Kootenay.
Shawnigan.
Slocan Aralley.
Matsqui.
Araldes Island.
Matsqui.
Rock Creek. •
Howe Sound.
Nanaimo-Cedar.
Arrow Park.
Comox.
Surrey.
Burton City.
Cranbrook-Fernie.
Peachland.
Creston.
Fire    Valley    and
Lake Shore.
Crawford Bay.
Martin's  Prairie.
Salmon Valley.
Spallumcheen.
Crawford Bay.
Rock Creek.
Okanagan Centre.
Peachland.
Westbank.
Windermere.
Westbank.
AVindermere.
Fire    Valley    and
Lake Shore.
Fire    Aralley    and
Lake Shore.
Fire    Ara11ey    and
Lake Shore.
Cranbrook-Fernie, Resolution No. 6       40, 41
Howe Sound, Resolution No. 17. . .
Withdrawn 	
Withdrawn  	
Withdrawn 	
Matsqui, Resolution No. 20 (to be
forwarded to Railway Commission)   	
Lost 	
Matsqui, Resolution No. 21	
Withdrawm 	
Arrow Park, Resolution No. 3. . . .
Comox (amendment), Resolution
No. 5   	
Lost 	
Creston, Resolution No. 14	
Crawford Bay (amendment), Resolution No.  13	
Referred1  to   Attorney-General. . . .
Withdrawn 	
OKanagan Centre, Resolution No.
24 (to be referred to Irrigation
Convention)    	
AVestbank (amendment), Resolution No.  30	
Last  	
Fire Valley and Lake Shore, Resolution No. 39	
Fire Valley and Lake Shore. Resolution (redrawn), Resolution No.
39a  	
Not voted on	
50
61, 62
67
5S
59
36, 37
38,39
65,66
45-49
43-45,5S
82
67
61
63
71
71
81
71 N 104 British Columbia 1913
Resolutions passed.
Resolution No. 1 (South Kootenay). Whereas the settlers of this Province have/in almost
all districts, to pay an extremely high price for their lands, and the cost of clearing and
improving same is also very high; and whereas considerable time must elapse before sufficient
returns can be derived from recently cleared lands to enable them to live on and continue to
clear and improve their property, especially those entering upon the fruit-growing industry,
which the Government are in many ways endeavouring to assist and establish in this Province:
Be it therefore Resolved, That the Government of British Columbia be urged to adopt a system
of loaning money to bona-fide settlers at a low rate of interest, thereby enabling them to develop
their land to a state of remunerative production in a much shorter space of time.
Resolution No. 2 (Arrow Park). Whereas the present duty imposed on fruit coming into
Canada does not afford sufficient protection to the fruit-growers of this Province: Be it therefore
Resolved, That we hereby ask the Dominion Government to raise the duty on fruit coming into
Canada to a point which will afford adequate protection to the fruit-growers of Canada; and
that copies of this resolution be sent to the fruit-growers associations of the different Provinces
of Canada, asking their co-operation in the matter.
Resolution No. 3 (Arrow Park). Whereas the refusal of the railway companies to bill a
mixed car-load of flour and food (in sacks) and baled hay and straw is a hardship to the
settler, many of whom desire to purchase these commodities in wholesale quantities at a time
when the same could be secured at reasonable prices, and are thereby compelled to purchase
their supplies from retailers at greatly enhanced prices: Be it therefore Resolved, That we
hereby bring this matter to the attention of the Railway Commission for their consideration.
Resolution No. 5 (Comox). Resolved, That the Government be asked to supply stumping-
powder at cost.    (Amendment.)
Resolution No. 6 (Cranbrook-Fernie). Resolved, That, in consideration of the scarcity of
pre-emptions, the Government of British Columbia be asked to take all lands held under timber
licences as soon as licence expires, and also all lands held under Government reserve, to be
advertised and thrown open for pre-emption only, of 160 acres each to bona-fide settlers.
Resolution No. 7 (Cranbrook-Fernie). Resolved, That the Government be asked to put a
bounty on gophers and ground-squirrels, as their depredations are a great loss to the farmers'
and gardeners' crops.
Resolution No. 13 (Crawford Bay). Resolved, That the British Columbia Government be
asked to use its influence with the Dominion Government to extend either telephonic or
telegraphic communication in British Columbia where none such is at present in operation, and
that municipalities be empowered to install telephone systems.    (Amendment).
Resolution No. 14 (Creston). Whereas the "Noxious Weeds Act" and its enforcement
is practically a dead letter: Be it therefore Resolved, That we recommend that our Provincial
Government be prevailed upon to take further action in making same effective.
Resolution No. 15 (Glenside). Resolved, That royalty should not be collected from actual
settlers on any timber whatsoever cleared from land ploughed or to be ploughed.
Resolution No. 17 (Howe Sound). Resolved, That the Government be asked to supply purebred bulls to Farmers' Institutes.
Resolution No. 18 (Kelowna). Whereas there is continual danger of the importation of
insect pests which will seriously affect the fruit industry of this district; and whereas it is
advisable to prevent deciduous fruit, fruit-trees, and vegetables from districts infected by such
pests from entering British Columbia; and whereas the Kelowna Board of Trade has
unanimously passed a resolution on the above lines: Be it therefore Resolved, That we, the
Kelowna Farmers' Institute, in annual meeting assembled, do hereby commend and endorse this
resolution and request the British Columbia Department of Agriculture to use its influence to
secure the passage of the required legislation.
Resolution No. 19a (Kettle Valley). Resolved, That the Kettle Valley Farmers' Institute
favours the creation of a general selling agency, under the supervision of the British Columbia
Government, for the marketing of fruit and agricultural products.
Resolution No. 20 (Matsqui). Resolved, That Fire AA'ardens and their deputies be given full
discretion in setting fires for land-clearing purposes. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 105
Resolution No. 21 (Matsqui). Resolved, That the Provincial Government be requested to lay
before the proper authorities the uselessness of the present cattle-guards on railways, and have
them replaced by efficient ones.
Resolution No. 23 (Nanaimo-Cedar). Resolved, That, in view of the great benefits to be
derived by farmers from a parcel-post system such as is in operation in Great Britain, this
Convention of the Central Farmers' Institute would impress upon the Dominion Government the
desirability of introducing at once a similar system into Canada,    (xlmendment.)
Resolution No. 24 (Okanagan Centre). AVhereas in the irrigated districts of this Province
there are extensive tracts of arid land which could be reclaimed and rendered highly productive
if more water was stored during winter in reservoirs at the headwaters of most of the streams
in these districts; and whereas the proper development of these headwaters by the construction
of dams of sufficient capacity and other permanent works, and also the future maintenance and
the impartial control of such works, are matters of supreme importance to the settlers in the
said districts, and should not be left in the hands of private companies and individuals, many
of which are interested in the development only of certain limited areas: Be it therefore
Resolved, That, in our opinion, it is desirable that the Government should expropriate and
further develop and control, where necessary, all irrigation-works at the headwaters of streams
in the said districts; and, secondly, that the Government should, after taking over the irrigation-
works at headwaters as aforesaid, exercise control in the matter of the rates to be charged to
users of the water.
Resolution No. 30 (Westbank). Whereas a few Indians hold a great deal of land in the
Province of British Columbia : Be it therefore Resolved, That the Dominion Government be
urged to take steps to have this land opened for settlement.    (Amendment.)
Resolution No. 31 (AVest Kootenay). Whereas during this season the markets of Alberta,
Saskatchewan, and Manitoba have been used as dumping-grounds for the surplus fruits of the
United States; and whereas the present dumping clause is not applicable to fruits, thereby
causing great injury and injustice to the fruit-growers of the Dominion: Be it therefore
Resolved, That the Dominion Government be requested to take immediate steps to amend the
" Tariff Act," so that the dumping clause be made operative in respect to fruit shipped into
Canada from foreign countries.
Resolution No. 33. Resolved, That the Department import skylarks and wagtails as
farmers' friends into A'ancouver Island, in order to combat the wireworm and other farm pests.
Resolution No. 39 (Fire Valley and Lake Shore). AVhereas under the present system of
taxation, whereby the tax on improved land increases proportionately with such improvements;
and whereas it is felt that such increase is a tax on energy and enterprise; and whereas it is
felt that the adoption of the single tax and the removal of the tax on improvements would be
of immense benefit to those engaged in agriculture: Be it therefore Resolved, That this
institute endeavour to bring before the proper authorities the need for such removal, with an
urgent request that such steps may be taken as will bring about the change desired.
Resolution No. 39a (Fire Valley and Lake Shore). AVe desire to put on record our strong
objection to the present discrepancy in assessing land held by bona-fide settlers and non-
occupyiug owners, and we desire to urge the Royal Commission on Agriculture to give this
matter their serious consideration.    (Redrawn per Resolutions Committee.)
Resolution No. 40. Resolved, That the Government be requested to raise the price on cattle
slaughtered under the " tuberculosis test" from $75 for grades and $125 for registered animals
to $150 and $200 respectively.
Resolution No. 41 (AVest Kootenay). Whereas the agricultural industry of British Columbia
requires Government assistance to put it on a firm footing: Be it therefore Resolved, That the
Central Farmers' Institute urge upon the Government that the " Agricultural Societies Act" be
amended at the coming session, so that the Government can loan co-operative agricultural
societies 85 per cent, of the subscribed capital.
Resolution No. 42. Resolved, That a wire fence be made a legal fence; (Amendment to
Fence Law.) N 106 British Columbia 1913
1912 COMPETITIONS.
Soil Cultivation and the Conservation of Moisture.
By A. E. Keffer, Arrow Park Farmers' Institute.
(First Prize, A^alue $12.) ;
In writing an essay on "crops," many different views may be taken of the subject, such as
different systems of rotation, improvement toy seed-selection, most profitable crops to grow, etc.,
on each of which an essay could be written; but what the farmer is most interested in, is how
he can get the greatest yield of crops over a series of years. This is an age of progress, and the
science of agriculture is making as great progress as other branches of industry. Men are
thinking, and thinking differently about the matter to what they have been. We are beginning
to realize the necessity of greater knowledge of the soil itself, and of better and more practical
methods of tillage than that employed by our forefathers, and it is on the subject of soil-culture
for the increased production of crops that I propose to direct my remarks.
The best method of soil-tillage has been a matter of much research by scientists and farmers
for many years, but it is only in the last few years that a thorough knowledge of the chemistry
of the soil and its relation to the production of crops has been thoroughly understood. Scientists
have not always agreed on the nature of soil-fertility, tout most of them now admit that soil-
fertility depends more upon the physical condition of the soil than has heretofore been thought
possible.
Professor Milton Whitney, Chief of the Bureau of Soils for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, says in one of his bulletins: " I believe that through our investigations during the last
twelve years we are beginning to clearly understand the chemistry of the soil. It is extremely
interesting, but it is altogether different from our former conception of it. We are changing
our ideas about that as we are changing our ideas about the nature of diseases, and about
physical laws which we thought perfectly understood."
Professor L. H. Bailey, of Cornell University Experimental Station, says: " The texture
and physical condition of the soil is nearly always more important than its mere richness in
plant-food. ... It is useless to apply commercial fertilizers to lands not in the proper
physical condition for the very best growth of crops."
In a circular issued toy the University of Illinois, Professor Cyril G. Hopkins says: " Surely
there is no subject pertaining to agricultural science and practice regarding which there is such
a diversity of opinion as the subject of soil-improvement for the increased production of crops.
Both practical farmers and eminent scientific authorities disagree almost absolutely on some
fundamental principles. Indeed, these differences of opinion are so marked and frequent that
I feel compelled to ask, in language which has recently been declared grammatical, ' Where are
we at?'"
I make these quotations to show that we as farmers need not feel discouraged if we don't
know all about soil-chemistry, etc. There are others who don't know; in fact, there is no subject
about agriculture less universally understood than the proper preparation of the soil which will
best regulate and govern its producing-powers. There are several things which may be regarded
as settled in this connection:—
(1.) Soil-fertility is developed in the soil by tillage. It is not a substance that exists in the
soil in given quantities, nor can soil-analysis determine its crop-producing powers.
(2.) The crop-producing powers of soils depends upon the amount and availability of the
fertility contained therein.
It is a rather remarkable fact that farmers as a rule don't take kindly to the word
" scientific " when applied to farming; yet successful crop-growing depends upon the application of methods to which no better name can be given than the name evinced by Professor
Campbell, the great apostle of " dry-farming," viz., " scientific soil-culture," as it is the very
embodiment of scientific principles, a system which requires the finest judgment and initiative
to properly carry out.
No one system can be evolved which will be suited to all the different conditions of soil,
climate, and crops, but there are certain underlying principles which apply to all with but slight
variation. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 107
The most important thing in this connection is the control of soil-moisture, and the system
' which will accomplish this will prove to be the best system to combine in the soil, in the proper
combination, moisture, air, and other elements necessary to produce that chemical process which
we call nitrification, by which plant-food is made available for the growth of the plant. We
do not know, and we never will know, just how the different mineral and organic substances
are combined in the soil to furnish plant-food. We know that nitrogen is one of the essentials
of plant-life. We know that nitrogen abounds in the air; therefore it is necessary that air
be allowed to get into the soil, carrying with it a store of nitrogen, which by the action of bacteria
is transformed into plant-food. AVe know that water without air is valueless, and air without
water is equally valueless. AVe believe that electricity plays a prominent part in soil-economy;
but what is of the greatest importance to us is, we now know that the proper combination of
these elements is largely regulated by the mechanical arrangement of the soil contained in the
surface 6 or S inches.
The control of soil-moisture is therefore important, whether in the arid, semi-arid, average,
or excessive rainfall districts. In the arid districts it is of prime importance, there being no
water-line in the soil; the farmer must by proper tillage force down into and conserve the
annual precipitation for the use of the plant. In the average rainfall districts there are
periodical droughts, which amount to crop-failure, which would not occur with the proper
control of soil-moisture. In the excessive rainfall districts moisture must also be controlled,
sometimes by the more expensive method of underdrainage.
Any system of soil-culture to be successful must also provide for the proper amount of air
in the soil, and it is a rather curious fact that the proper combination of air and water is easier
maintained in districts or seasons when the rainfall during the growing season is less persistent
and larger quantities at a time, for reasons which I will explain later.
Some misleading instructions have been advocated throughout the West in regard to cultural
methods. We have all heard of the " dust-blanket " which we were taught was the great panacea
for all the ills of crop-production. How does this work out under average conditions? Suppose,
for example, we have just harvested a crop of grain, it is then necessary to provide for next
season's crop. At this time the weather is usually dry, and by the action of sun and wind a
crust is formed quickly. Evaporation of soil-moisture takes place very rapidly, and when fall
ploughing is done, if done at all in the fall, it is dry down below plough-depth; a lumpy condition
is the result. We must remember that dry soil is dead soil; no nitrification can take place
under these conditions; no fertility developed for the succeeding crop; too much air, no moisture.
If the top 2 or 3 inches is reduced to a dust-blanket it would not change the conditions very
much, as the lower 4 or 5 inches would still be lumpy and open, and not in the proper mechanical
condition for the root system of the plant or to induce nitrification. Suppose, as the average
farmer would think, the land was firmed by the frost or rain or snow of winter, we would still
have the soil, where the root system of the plant would be, in a poor condition for root-development, and have to stand the loss of a couple of months' development of fertility.
In the Province of Ontario, near the City of Toronto, where the average precipitation is
about 33 inches, the farmer had to fight hard against weeds, new varieties of which were being
continually introduced. In order to check the nuisance, he commenced to surface-work the land
immediately the crop was cut, in many cases working between the rows of shocks of grain in
order to encourage weed-seeds to grow, to be subsequently killed by fall ploughing. The only
implement he had at that time was the two- or three-furrow gang-plough, which worked up the
land to a depth of 3 or 4 inches, followed by a smoothing-harrow. It was rather slow work for
the limited time at his disposal, and he often did not get over all his fields. He found by this
process, no matter what the weather conditions were, that when ploughing took place later the
land worked up fine and mellow to the full plough-depth, while land fall-ploughed without
previous surface working was hard and lumpy, or perhaps, if much rain had fallen, tough and
leathery. He also discovered that by the first process a much better crop was harvested the
next year than by the latter process. Weeds in this case proved a blessing in disguise, and
with the advent of the disk harrow he was able to perform the work with more speed and effect.
Let me call your attention to a very material difference in the condition of the subsoil in
these two methods of tillage. By the first method the soil contained in the lower 4 or 5 inches of
furrow was in fine particles, which the action of winter packed firmly, making an ideal condition
for the root system of the plant when properly surface-worked in the spring.    By the latter N 108 British Columbia 1913
method the soil Was merely turned upside down, leaving the mechanical condition of the soil,
which would contain the root system of the plant, much the same as before ploughing.    By the-
first method considerable plant-food would be available; by the latter method much less.    If
both these methods were followed toy the dust-blanket, the relative chances of crop-production
would not be changed the slightest particle.
So far I have endeavoured to show the importance of having the subsurface fine yet firm,
and in our lighter sandy soils it is almost impossible to pack them too firmly, with the. top
2 or 3 inches composed of particles in size from a pin-head to a walnut, which forms a soil-
mulch, not a dust-blanket.
Professor King, in his book on " The Soils," records an experiment as to the effectiveness
of a mulch composed of coarse quartz that would pass as screen of 20 meshes to the inch, but
was retained by one of 40 meshes, as compared with a mulch of pulverized air-dried clay of
equal thickness. It was found that the evaporation from the soil with dust-mulch prepared
from pulverized clay was three and a half times as great as from the soil with the coarse-sand
mulch.
An object-lesson on subsurface packing may be seen along our newly made roads in this
vicinity; as you are aware, in this district, as in all districts where the forests are composed
of coniferous trees, the soil is deficient in organic matter, which, owing to the almost entire lack
of humus, makes it very hard to prevent evaporation of soil-moisture. The entire plough-depth
of our light sandy soils is sometimes turned into dust-mulch unless very firmly packed, the result
being the gradual dwindling and perhaps death of shallow-rooted plants for lack of moisture
and available fertility; and yet on ttoe roads (newly made), in very light soils, we find clover,
timothy, and vetches growing, lusty and strong, where the subsurface is packed by travel and
a mulch cut up toy the wheels. If we kick up the mulch we find lots of moisture. Step off the
side of the wagon-track where the soil has been loosely thrown over by the shovel and not
packed, you find the moisture much less and much deeper in the soil. This shows the importance
of the packed subsurface, -particularly in districts where the soil lacks humus. Our young trees
and bush-fruits and clover well established are doing fairly well, as their roots are much deeper
in the soil. Our trouble in growing grain and hoe crops in this vicinity is due entirely to lack
of moisture and humus; there being no humus, our soils dry out very quickly, humus being
necessary for the holding of moisture and the development of bacteria; therefore all shallow-
rooted plants are simply starved to death for lack of available plant-food.
We have been told that we will have to " get the indian out of our soil," but it is much
more necessary that we get more humus in. Our lack of moisture is not so much due to lack
of precipitation, but to the excessive evaporation which takes place. Our aim, therefore, should
be to never let our soils dry out. AVhenever possible, the soil-mulch should be maintained in
the proper condition, particularly after the crop is harvested, until ploughing takes place. By
this means the subsurface will be kept moist enough to properly pack at the time the ploughing
is done. It is important that the packing should be done promptly; what is ploughed in the
forenoon should be packed before dinner and again at night, as a couple of hours of midday sun
under some conditions will prevent the work being done properly. The best implement for the
purpose is the subsurface packer, invented by Professor Campbell, an implement that should
be on every farm. I am more convinced toy experience in every crop that subsurface packing
and the subsurface packer are just as necessary on the farm as the plough, and should always
be found together in the field. There are so-called subsurface packers which are practically
clod crushers or rollers. If no packer is handy, the disk-harrow run rather straight and weighted
enough to cut down to the bottom of furrow is better than nothing; in fact, better than the
roller, the use of which results in the packed surface and the unpacked subsurface, the effect
of which is to draw the moisture to the surface, where it is lost by evaporation. This statement
is one of fact, not theory, as it has been proved by repeated experiment.
One word more in regard to subsurface packing. It is not so much the aiding in storing
water in the soil, but that it practically equalizes the holding-capacity of the soil for both air
and water, thereby creating the best possible conditions for the development of fertility. It also
increases the water-holding capacity of the soil, which aids in carrying the plants over periods
of drought. In this connection the soil-mulch is also important. After every rain the surface
should be loosened up, when the surface is neither wet nor dry, tout just moist. This will require
judgment, according to the different kinds of soil, as to the time of working, but the aim should 3 Geo. 5 ■      Farmers' Institutes Report. N 109
be a mulch composed of particles in size from a pin-head to a walnut; not a dust-blanket, but a
soil-mulch. The packed subsurface has also another effect; in grain-growing, the root of the
plant is larger and stronger, and more firmly fixed in the soil, and permits of the use of harrow
or weeder without injury to the crop until it is large enough to shade the ground, when cultivation is no longer necessary.
This system of tillage applies to all crops and to all amounts of precipitation; good crops
have been harvested by this method when absolutely no rain has fallen between seed-time and
harvest, while practically no crop was taken from land not properly handled. In districts or
seasons where rainfall is frequent in small quantities, it is more difficult to control moisture,
as the constantly moist surface causes very rapid evaporation, and also prevents the air from
entering the soil. It is estimated that from 1 to 2 quarts of water per square foot evaporate
every day from a moist surface, which shows the advantage of the dry soil-mulch.
Here at Arrow Park, where we have little or no humus in our soil, the thoroughly packed
subsurface and soil-mulch is doubly important in order to control moisture. Humus with its
twofold mission of moisture-control and the development of bacteria must be added to our soil as
speedily as possible, either by applying barnyard manure or cover crops. In regard to cover
crops for our orchards clover is undoubtedly one of the best crops for the purpose, it being the
cheapest source from which we can get the two most needed ingredients into our soil, humus
and nitrogen. It must be remembered that, like life insurance, the subject must be buried
before benefits are derived, as while alive it is a great consumer of both nitrogen and moisture;
therefore, if not ploughed under annually, our trees must suffer to some extent, notwithstanding
we may persistently cultivate around the trees. The system of summer tillage or bare fallow,
from early spring until July, when the trees are needing all the moisture and fertility they can
get, then seeding to clover to be ploughed under late in the fall, is undoubtedly the best system
to conserve moisture and develop fertility.
The subject of " crops " is a very large one, and many views could be taken in regard to it,
but increased production and better quality must be the main object of discussion; and the two
principal means to accomplish this is by seed-selection and better culture, and of the two the
better culture will produce greater results.
Briefly summarized, proper soil-culture is :—
(1.) The art of doing the right thing at the right time. Don't do subsurface packing a
couple of days after the land is ploughed; surface cultivation should be done before the moisture
has evaporated; evaporation takes places most rapidly after a rain when the surface is moist.
(2.) Don't plough unless the subsurface is moist enough to properly pack; use a subsurface
packer immediately after ploughing; thoroughly disk as soon as crop is cut, in order to control
moisture and develop fertility; fall-plough if possible.
(3.) Aim to never let the soil dry out; 10 inches of rain is enough to grow a good crop, if
proper methods are used to control and conserve moisture. It is just as necessary to control
moisture where there is a precipitation of 30 inches or more.
(4.) Much profit will result when farmers will seriously investigate "scientific soil-culture"
and seed-selection for the increased production of crops.
Swine Breeding and Management.
By W. O. Sweatman, President of Metchosin Farmers' Institute.
(Second Prize, Value $8.)
Ladies and Gentlemen,—To my mind, the breeding and management of swine should occupy
a far more important place on our farms than it does at the present time, with considerable
profit to ourselves.
Selection.—To be successful, none but the best breeds should be allowed on the farm. The
fecundity of swine allows of no excuse for hanging on to razor-backs and half-wild breeds which
you have to run down with dogs and a rifle. You cannot make money out of these half-wild
hogs, neither can success be attained if you select a good breed and starve them or allow them
to shift for themselves. Hogs of the improved breeds are not so well able to take care of
themselves as those of a semi-wild breed, but when well cared for will pay far more profit than
the other, or semi-wild breed, for the amount of grain fed. This is because they are more docile
and assimilate their food more perfectly. N 110 British Columbia 1913
In breeding swine, however good the breed, they will surely degenerate unless the greatest
care in selection is exercised. You might wonder why, with the prolific nature of the swine,
the country is not stocked with none but the best animals. The simple reason is the want of
accurate judgment and care in selection. Care in selection and breeding is absolutely necessary
to ensure success. In the selection of stock for breeding purposes, look first for constitutional
vigour. Without this, no matter how beautiful your pigs may look, they will be a disappointment
to you. Then examine your pigs for the shape required for your purpose. Next in order comes
the early maturing and fattening qualities. In all farm animals tractability and quietness of
disposition are essential. In swine this is especially so, as on the disposition of the animal largely
depends the quality of fattening quickly and easily. Don't forget, when choosing your sow for
breeding, to choose one with as many teats as possible, for if a sow has only eight teats and
twelve young pigs, you will either have to feed four with a bottle or else let them die.
Breeding Age.—The sow is capable of breeding at about seven months of age, and the boar
is fit for service at the age of eight to twelve months, but one year gives best results. A sow will
breed successfully twice a year, for from six to eight years with good care.
Gestation.—The period of gestation is from 112 to 114 days. Young animals or animals of
feeble constitution carry their young for a shorter time than strong and mature ones. Old sows
make better and more careful mothers than young ones, unless they become overloaded with fat.
Farroiving.—A sow should have a quiet, dry, warm place, with very little or no bedding,
rather poor food for several days before and after farrowing. When pigs are three to five days
old and danger of inflammation is past, feed liberally with rich sloppy food to induce a good flow
of milk, but do not feed so as to fatten the young unduly. I would also advise putting a rail
around the pen 6 inches from the wall and 7 inches from the floor. It helps to keep the sow
from overlying some of her young.
Feeding.—The question of feeding can be divided into two sections—that of feeding swine
for breeding purposes, and feeding for fattening only. In feeding the animal you wish to breed,
attention must be given to feeding for a vigorous constitution, an active animal, and perfect
health. True economy in this will dictate that they have a warm, dry place in winter, and a cool
place for summer where they can get shelter from the sun and flies, plenty of good water, a piece
of rough ground to root up, a little grain, and then I think you will have ideal conditions for
keeping your breeding stock strong and vigorous.
The animals which are intended for fattening (and which form a large percentage of the
swine in this country), and whose lives should not extend beyond fifteen months, do not require
so much exercise. If the breeding stock have been kept healthy they should transmit vigorous
health to their offspring, giving them a strong constitution on which to build.
Castration.—The young pigs should be castrated at from two to three weeks old.
Weaning.—The young pig is born ready for work; its teeth in a short time become fit to
grind its food. AATe should wean at six to eight weeks old. If there is plenty of skim-milk or
buttermilk available it will help them along, and also save considerably in the amount of other
food required. It is also advisable to feed them several weeks before weaning; in fact, feed
them as soon as they will eat, as it helps the mother as well as the young. If you are without
milk to feed your young pigs, middlings, ground grain, or wheat, barley, or rye, scalded and fed
to them about the consistency of cream, may be used with a few roots. Potatoes and swedes
should be boiled; mangolds can be fed raw. One of the best green foods, and one that can be
grown profitably on any farm, is thousand-headed kale; it will give you an abundance of rich
succulent food available at any time of the year. Sow the seed in the fall, the same as you
would for June cabbage, then in the spring, and you will have cheap green food of good quality
all the year round.    It need not be harvested until needed for use.    It can be fed raw or cooked.
Management.—Hogs when fat are not susceptible to cold. Nature has provided them with a
thick layer of fat under the skin, which acts as does a covering of hair on other animals. It also
has given them the instinct of seeking warm beds in sheltered positions to lie in, and if kept
together in considerable numbers without sufficient shelter they will pile together so as to cover
each other, and then the weaker ones, if not smothered, will not thrive. 1 think it is good practice
to divide your pigs into small lots, four to eight in a lot, according to age and strength.
Provide them with good shelter and food, and fall pigs will come through the winter without
being stunted by overcrowding or rheumatics. Of all farm animals, hogs should have plenty of
good water.    The sooner we disabuse our minds of the idea that pigs are dirty or filthy feeders, 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 111
the better for ourselves as well as the pigs. It is true that, like man, they are omnivorous
feeders, but, like man, although they will eat almost anything, they like it fresh. If forced by
hunger they will eat disgusting things (so will man). The swine cover themselves with mud
to keep off biting and stinging insects, and the nearest stump or post furnishes a means for
rubbing it off when dry.
If kept from the attacks of flies, they will not wallow in the mud, but in the cleanest place
they can find. I think many of the malignant diseases to which swine are subject are caused by
their being forced to wallow in filth and drink impure water; therefore I would say, keep your
pigs as clean as possible, give them good clean food, fresh (not half-rotten, and say that's good
enough for a pig), sweet, not sour food; if you give them sour food, give it all the time, but
better give it sweet and fresh.
Pigs in confinement should have coal or charcoal, or something of that nature, always within
their reach or given to them frequently. They often suffer from acidity of the stomach, which
the charcoal or carbonate of soda counteracts. A little oilcake, say about 1 gill per day, mixed
with the sow's food when suckling pigs will help wonderfully in the secretion of milk.
Bran is not valuable as a food for pigs. If ordinary diarrhoea attacks the pigs, give them
a porridge of sweet skimmed milk and flour, or a few drops of chlorodyne. For constipation,
dissolve a small piece of soap in half a pint of water, and mix with the food, and repeat in about
eight hours if necessary.    It is also good as adiuretic and for acidity of the stomach.
If your animals are diseased, get a qualified veterinary doctor out to them. If he says kill
them, you had better do so, and bury them deep, disinfecting thoroughly; if he prescribes, you
will have some trouble giving them medicine, for they resist every effort with all their strength,
and will frequently do more harm than the medicine will do good. When it must be administered
by the mouth, a good way is to place the hog in a narrow pen in which he cannot turn round, put
a slip-noose round the upper jaw, put the end of the line over a beam or through a ring, so that
you can raise the pig's head up and give the drench through a horn; be careful not to choke
him; in the case of a ball, put it on a flat stick and place it on the back of the tongue. But I
would advise you to avoid medicine or veterinarians by keeping your breeding stock vigorous
and healthy, and feeding your stores and fatters good clean food and keeping them in clean,
warm, and dry pens; and don't forget that the hog is the most intelligent animal on the farm.
Bee-keeping for Beginners.
By I. S. Gill, Cranbrook-Fernie Farmers' Institute.
(Third Prize, Value $5.)
President and Gentlemen,—A few days ago I promised your Secretary, Mr. McDonald, that I
would endeavour to prepare a paper for this evening, so wrote an outline of one which I thought
would be interesting, but found it too complicated and more suitable for a Bee-keepers'
Convention, so discarded it for this:    " A Beginner in Bee-keeping."
You have made up your mind to get a hive of bees and try your luck. The first thing to do
is to subscribe for a bee journal to keep you posted in the yearly routine of work. The Canadian
Bee Journal, of Brantford, is very good—$1 per year. The next thing necessary is a hive of
bees, which should be ordered in winter to be delivered in early spring, about April 1st, and
should be pure-bred Italian, guaranteed free from foul-brood disease; should also order supplies,
which I would advise to consist of two hives complete (should be L pattern, 8 or 10 frame, would
recommend the 8-frame at first), three supers with frames, 5 lb. medium brood foundation;
y2 lb. spool foundation-wire, three queen-excluders, bee-veil, wire embedder, bee-brush, a 4-inch
smoker, and a hive-tool. Less supplies would carry you through, but it costs as much to bring
50 lb. as 100 lb., and always comes in handy. Will be cheaper to have it come in flat, and
you can get your hand in putting it together while you are studying your bee literature.
Spring has come and also your hive of bees. Yon will feel rather nervous when you hear
the noise they are making inside the wire screen. You make up your mind to succeed as others
have, and you will. Select the spot where you wish to place the hive, in such position to get the
early morning and evening sun; set two blocks on the ground, one for the back of the hive and
one for the front, which should be made level and about a foot from the ground, facing opposite
from the coldest wind (this is to protect them on cold windy days, and will often prevent the N 112 British Columbia 191E
young brood from chilling) ; set an alighting board from ground to hive. Now get your smoker
ready; put live coals in the bottom of it, add some dry materials such as planer shavings or old
cotton; don't use any kind of wool, it will make the bees cross and they will surely sting you.
Put your bee-veil on and for the first few times a pair of leather gloves; carry the hive to the
stand and set in the exact position in which it is to remain for the season; then remove the
wire screws after blowing a little smoke into the opening; place the cotton quilt over the frames,
driving the bees back with a little smoke; some bees may be on the top, so take hold of the sides
of the quilt and move sideways a little, so as to roll any bees off down between to avoid crushing
any when replacing the wooden cover. Next get a piece of paper and fold to the size of the
hive and lay flat on the cotton; then put on the wooden hive-cover; get some inch square blocks
and close up part of the entrance. I have found it a good plan to cover the hive, excepting the
entrance, with some sacks to keep it as warm as possible, which will assist the bees greatly in
the spring. If the weather is cold, leave them alone for a few days. On a bright warm day
get your smoker ready, your veil on, hive-tool and a bee-brush handy; lift the wooden cover off
and set aside; raise one corner of the quilt, blow a few puffs of smoke in, and then quietly pull
it back and give another puff of smoke to turn back any bees that may come up. AVhen they
seem settled, take the hive-tool and pry the division-board loose, catch the ends, and lift it out
very gently; use a little more smoke if the bees seem cross. Now pry the first comb to the side
of the hive where the division-board was; take it by the top ends and lift straight out slowly;
look carefully for the queen; there should be honey in this comb, nearly full. The three centre
combs should have brood and eggs in a half-moon shape. The queen is longer than the worker,
and slightly larger and slower in her movements over the comb. The drones are male bees,
larger than the workers, but their hind extremities are rounder, while the queen is more pointed.
If you don't find her this time, don't worry—that is, if you have discovered eggs and young
grubs. Close again, and if they have some stores, don't open for a week; if you see the bees
coining home with big balls on their hind legs, you can rest assured they are doing all right. It
will not hurt the bees to examine them occasionally, providing you do not anger them and put
them in an uproar. If the hive is full of bees in the commencement of June, put a super on
filled with foundation from your supplies; but before you do so take a comb out of the brood-
nest that is all sealed over and containing no eggs or unsealed brood; shake all the bees off on
the ground in front of the hive, to be sure the queen is not on it (should there be any queen-cells,
destroy them) ; put a comb of foundation in its place; put queen-excluder on the super; place the
comb of brood in super; put on mat and cover; remove all blocks from the entrance, to give bees
full width opening. If much honey is coming in, the bees will commence to draw out the combs
in the super and store honey. They are liable to swarm now any day, so have a hive ready and
be prepared. AVhen bees are preparing to swarm you will be attracted by the noise; they come-
out of the entrance with a rush, as if something was after them and they were leaving as-
quickly as possible; in a short time the air will be full of bees, much like a snow-storm, and you
may wonder where they all come from; get a pail of water and broom and throw water on
them, which will make them cluster quicker; when clustered, give them a good wetting if
possible to reach them; get a sheet of cotton and set the hive on it as near the cluster as possible..
You may be able to shake them off the limb if it is not high and let the bees drop on the cloth,.
or you can cut off the limb and carry it to the hive; lay close to the entrance, starting the bees-
with a spoon; after they commence to go in there is no trouble; can use the smoker to drive and
keep them going. I prefer to put a comb of brood in the hive along with the other empty combs.
Now go to your old hive, lift it off, set to the side on a new stand; then set the new hive on the
old stand; put on a super and queen-excluder. There will be no more swarming this year;
watch the bees, and give them plenty of room, not too much; should they be too crowded, add
another super, lifting a comb or two out of the other hive and put into the super, and fill both
with combs of foundation. About the end of July remove the supers and take a look at the-
brood-nests; remove any empty combs and replace with full combs; store the balance of honeycomb where bees can not get at it. This is the month to get Italian queens; if your bees are-
black, order an untested queen for each hive and introduce them. Your bees will be all Italian
by June next year. See that your bees have sufficient honey for the winter; I prefer six full'
combs for outside wintering. Now prepare a winter case in which to pack the hives; if you
are to winter outside, it should have 8 inches all round the hive of chaff or planer shavings; put
some chips in the bottom to raise the hive to the prepared outside entrance; then fill up with: 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 113
packing, set hive on and fix board from hive to allow bees to go in and out freely; then fill and
pack material down all round to top of hive; put cover on and something to keep rain and snow
out of hive. About the middle of September open hive and see if they have a queen and six combs
full; put division-boards .en each outside; then put on cotton quilt, and fill to top of box with
packing 8 inches or 1 foot deep; then cover the whole with a good protection from rain and
snow; tilt back of case about 4 inches; set a board from ground to entrance. After cold weather
sets in, place a board slanted from the ground, the top end touching about a foot or more above
the entrance, to prevent the sun from shining in; see that snow does not block entrance in
winter. If bees are flying freely in early spring, don't open hives for some time; take them
out of cases about the time they need more room.
Don't jar combs or hives while working with them, also avoid breathing or blowing on
them; always cleanse hands with unscented soap before handling the bees. Do not leave horses
standing near a bee-yard in the direction of their flight, and if handling horses or working with
them, do not go directly to the bees. Don't leave any parts of comb lying around or sweets
exposed in times of scarcity; will cause robbing and stinging. Don't strike at the bees or move
hands quickly over open hive; work quietly. Don't jerk a comb containing queen-cells; will kill
the queens. If a bee or bees follow and threaten to sting, move to one side and kill it with a
shingle. Don't use too much smoke, or it will put the bees in a panic; some bees need very little
if any. If a colony is vicious, give a good smoking at the entrance, and pound sides of hive
with your hands; repeat once or twice, then open the hive and give more smoke; after they roar
for a while you can generally handle them better; such a hive should have a new queen
introduced. Don't introduce an Italian queen to a yard of black bees, or vice versa; will spoil
the bees and make them cross; in early spring any hives from which the bees do not fly, examine
and clean entrances, etc.; see if they have queen; if not, unite with some colony with queen.
If you should have a colony whose worker-cells are raised instead of flat, the queen is no good,
and introduce another. Drones have no sting, neither will the queen sting you. Do not. touch the
queen if possible; she is easily hurt; if necessary to catch her, do so by taking hold of wings
over back; don't drop her down, set her on combs. Bees will sometimes have quite a fly and lead
you to think they are swarming, but go close and you will see that they are mostly young and
rather brighter-looking than usual, and will be flying with heads towards the hive, alighting and
running up the front. Young queens mate with the drones generally before the seventh day,
and after that should begin to lay; sometimes a virgin will be deformed and cannot fly, so
cannot be mated and will return to the hive; should you discover such a case about the time
they should have a good laying queen, better destroy her and give them a comb of eggs from
some other colony; shake all bees off at the hive you take it from.
After supplying the bees with winter stores, yon may cut up some of the combs of honey for
your own use. Such combs are valuable, and it is better to put a comb or two in with a starter
of foundation that is about 1 inch from the top. Without wire these combs should be used at
the table, because they will be drone size. You have read the bee journal the year round and
got along fairly well.    I will leave you.
CIRCULARS  ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT  OF  AGRICULTURE  WITH  REGARD  TO
THE  SUPPLY  OE  STUMPING-POWDER AND  FUSE AND  CAPS  TO
FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
Notice re Stumping-powder.
February 14th, 1913.
To Secretaries of Farmers' Institutes:
Sir—With regard to the supply of stumping-powder to the members of Farmers' Institutes,
I think it advisable to point out that there are two companies which handle this commodity—i.e.,
The Canadian Explosives, Ltd., Victoria, and The Giant Powder Co. Con., Vancouver. The
Hamilton Powder Co., is now amalgamated with the Canadian Explosives, Ltd., and certificate-
books in the hands of Secretaries should be amended accordingly. N 111 British Columbia 1913
I wish to emphasize the point that Secretaries of Farmers' Institutes have complete liberty
to place their orders for powder with whichever company appears the most suitable.
Application for powder should therefore be made either to:—
(1.) D. F. Ayres, General Agent,
The Giant Powder Co. Con.,
714-716 Bank of Ottawa Bldg.,
Vancouver, B.C.
(2.) The Manager,
Canadian Explosives, Ltd.,
Victoria, B.C.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
AVM. E. SCOTT,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture and
Superintendent of Institutes.
Re Farmers' Institute Stumping-powder.
February 24th, 1913.
To Members of Farmers' Institutes:
Sir,—In order that the correct method of procedure which must be adopted in the securing
of institute powder for the use of members at the reduced price of $5 per case f.o.b. the factory,
and special transportation rates, shall be plainly understood, it is considered advisable to issue
the following instructions, which must toe strictly adhered to by all Institute Secretaries :—
1. Institute powder must only be ordered by members of institutes for use in the clearing
and development of their land, through the Secretary of the institute.
2. All orders must be sent in to the powder company, accompanied by cash for the same,
by the Secretary, who must use the certificate-book issued, by the Department for this purpose.
Orders must not be sent in by individual members.
3. The powder companies with whom the Government have entered into agreement for the
supplying of institute powder, and from whom it may be secured, are The Canadian Explosives,
Ltd., Victoria, B.C., and The Giant Powder Co. Con., A'ancouver, B.C.
4. The price of institute powder from either company is $5 per case f.o.b. factory.
5. The special transportation rate granted by the C.P.R. on institute powder is single first-
class rate, or half the ordinary rate; and in order to secure this concession, certificates have to
be signed by the Department before the rate can be given, and this is only done on production
of Secretary's certificate ordering the powder.
6. The new non-freezing powder -may be secured from either company.
7. Co-operative orders from institutes in lots of not less than one hundred cases will be
supplied prepaid by the Department, on the distinct understanding that the institute ordering the
same will be responsible for the repayment, which must be regularly sent in by the Secretary
as sales are effected to members, to the powder company from whom the powder was secured.
8. No more powder will be supplied to an institute on these terms until full payment has
been made on previous order.
9. Institute members are advised to order caps and fuse sufficient for their requirements
at the same time they order powder, as arrangements are being made by the Department with
the powder company whereby these may be secured at the lowest possible cost.
In order to correct any false impression which may exist on this point, it may be stated
that there is no advantage to be gained in freight rates by ordering in quantity, the freight on
one case costing in proportion the same as op one car-load. There is no reduction in price by
ordering in quantity.
All Secretaries are hereby earnestly requested to follow closely the above rules, as 'any
breach of privilege may lead to the cancellation of the special freight concession granted
by the C.P.R., which is one of material advantage to all farmers, and is only granted to institute
members. I am,  Sir,
Your obedient servant,
WM. E. SCOTT,
Superintendent of Institutes. 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 115
Re Safety-fuse and Blasting-caps.
Victoria, B.C., March 6th, 1913.
To Secretaries of Farmers' Institutes:
Sir,—The attention of Secretaries of institutes is called to the fact that the Department
has arranged with The Canadian Explosives, Ltd., A'ictoria, B.C., and The Giant Powder Co.,
A^ancouver, B.C., that they keep on hand a stock of safety-fuse and blasting-caps for the use of
members of institutes. Arrangements have been effected whereby fuse and caps will be supplied
at a special price, and Secretaries are advised, when ordering powder, to order sufficient fuse
and caps at the same time.
Safety-fuse.
This is supplied in cases of 6,000 each, at the price of $23.50 per case f.o.b. the factory.
This special price only applies to orders of one case or over. If a lesser quantity is required,
the ordinary price will have to be paid, as it would mean the breaking of the case, and therefore
it could not be supplied at the special price. This fuse will be stored in Arancouver, and
Arancouver Island institutes would have to pay 25 cents per case additional to cover cost of
freight from Arancouver to A'ictoria.
Blasting-caps.
Blasting-caps are supplied in cases of 5,000, in two grades—i.e., regular caps and No. 6 caps;
the institute price arranged between the Department and the powder company being: Regulars,
$5.50 per M., and No. 6, $8.50 per M. For a less quantity than 5,000 caps, the ordinary rate will
be charged, as it would also mean the breaking of a case. The standard detonator-box contains
5,000 caps, and to break bulk is not only expensive, but there is more or less danger in repacking.
These prices are f.o.b. Arancouver, and Arancouver Island members would have to pay 25 cents
per case additional, to cover cost of freight from A'ancouver to Arictoria.
Secretaries will kindly note, and govern themselves accordingly in ordering, that detonators
cannot be shipped in the same car with powder, but must be shipped entirely separate.
The attention of Secretaries is called to the fact that No. 6 caps are strongly recommended
by the powder companies as being superior to the regular caps. The No. 6 cap is a much
stronger one, and will result in the stumping-powder giving much better satisfaction, and that
it is their belief that it would have a tendency to reduce the number of accidents that occur
in handling explosives; also, owing to the fact that the new low-freezing stumping-powder is
being used toy institutes to a large extent, it would be advisable to use these caps, as this
particular grade of powder needs a stronger cap than the ordinary. On account of the small
difference in price, therefore, institute Secretaries are advised to order No. 6 caps in place of
the regular.    A trial will soon prove whether they are more effective or not.
I am, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
WM. E. SCOTT,
Superintendent of Institutes.
Re Stumping-powder Circular Dated February 24th, 1913.
Victoria, B.C., March 13th, 1913.
To Secretaries of Farmers' Institutes:
Sir,—To correct any misapprehension which may arise with regard to section 7 of the
above circular, I beg to point out that the fresh arrangements made with the powder companies
do not apply to freight, but only to the cost of powder.
Arrangements for distributing the proportionate expense of freight amongst the various
members of institutes ordering stumping-powder remain as heretofore.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
AVM. E. SCOTT,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture and
Superintendent of Institutes. N 116 British Columbia 1913
CIRCULARS ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WITH REGARD  TO
THE SUPPLY OF PURE-BRED STOCK TO FARMERS'  INSTITUTES.
Pure-bred Sires for Farmers' Institutes.
Victoria, B.C., March 13th, 1913.
To Secretaries of Farmers' Institutes:
Sir,—I beg to draw the attention of Secretaries of Farmers' Institutes to the arrangements
which have been effected by the Department, whereby institutes may secure pure-bred stock for
the use of members on the direct understanding that institutes will be responsible for the same,
the payments to be extended over a period of three years.
It is hoped that the action of this Department in the matter will be appreciated by institutes
throughout the Province, and will be taken advantage of fully, as the opportunity for the
improvement of the quality of stock is one that should be taken full advantage of.
The following is the plan which has been decided upon, and the accompanying four
requisition forms apply to the different classes of stock required:—
Bulls will be sold on the following terms: One-third of purchase price when bull is
delivered, one-third at one year from the date bull is delivered, and one-third at two years from
the date bull is delivered. No interest will be charged except after payments have become due;
in such cases interest will be charged at the rate of ten per cent (10%) per annum. The Department of Agriculture will pay all transportation charges, so that the animals will be sold for
their initial cost to the Live-stock Branch at the points where they are purchased.
Boars and rams will be sold on the same conditions as bulls, except that they shall be paid
for by two equal payments; the first payment to be made at date of delivery, and the second
payment at one year from that date.
The selection of the breed to which a bull shall belong shall be made by the majority of
the members of a Farmers' Institute present at a meeting called for that purpose, of which due
notice shall be given. The selection of a breed should be given the most careful consideration,
and the members should have in mind a permanent policy. No progress can be made by a
periodic changing from one breed to another.
Requisition for animals shall be made by the use of a form supplied by the Department,
and signed toy the President, Secretary, Directors, and six additional members of the Farmers'
Institute.
The Department realizes that, in the case of rams and boars, it will often, if not always,
be found best to have each animal the property of one or two men. In such cases the Farmers'
Institute shall have the privilege of selling to such person or persons on the same terms and
conditions under which the Department sells the animals to the Farmers' Institute.
The Farmers' Institute shall agree to carry out the instructions of the Live-stock Branch
relative to the care and management of the animals until all payments have been made. The
Live-stock Branch reserves the right to fix a maximum fee.
The attention of Secretaries is drawn to the necessity of returning requisition forms at the
earliest possible moment, in order that arrangements may be made for the securing of sires
without delay.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
AVM. E. SCOTT,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture and
Superintendent of Institutes.
Requisition for Ram.
We, the undersigned, members of Farmers' Institute, hereby make requisition for
one [designate breed] ram. The same to be supplied by the Department of Agriculture, Province
of British Columbia, on the following terms, to which we agree: Payment shall be made in
two equal instalments, without interest. The first payment to be made when ram is delivered;
and the second payment to toe made at one year from date of delivery. Interest at the rate of
ten per cent. (10%) per annum shall be paid on all payments overdue, and in the event of pay- 3 Geo. 5 Farmers' Institutes Report. N 117
ments not being made when due, the Department reserves the right to take possession of the
ram. The Department of Agriculture agrees to pay all transportation charges, and to charge
the purchasers only the initial cost price of the ram. We, the undersigned, agree to carry out
the instructions of the Department relative to the care and management of the ram until all
payments have been made.
The Department reserves the right to fix the maximum fee to be charged for service.
[To be signed by six members of the Farmers' Institute, in addition to the President, Secretary and Directors.]
Date , 191    .
Requisition for Boar.
We, the undersigned, members of Farmers' Institute, hereby make requisition for
one [designate breed] boar. The same to be supplied by the Department of Agriculture, Province
of British Columbia, on the following terms, to which we agree: Payment shall be made in
two equal instalments, without interest. The first payment to be made when boar is delivered;
and the second payment to be made at one year from date of delivery. Interest at the rate of
ten per cent. (10%) per annum shall be paid on all payments overdue, and in the event of payments not being made when due, the Department reserves the right to take possession of the
boar. The Department of Agriculture agrees to pay all transportation charges, and to charge
the purchasers only the initial cost price of the boar. We, the undersigned, agree to carry out
the instructions of the Department relative to the care and management of the boar until all
payments have been made.
The Department reserves the right to fix the maximum fee to be charged for service.
[To be signed by six members of the Farmers' Institute, in addition to the President, Secretary and Directors.]
Date , 191   .
Requisition for Beef Bull.
(Shorthorn, Aberdeen Angus, or Hereford.)
AVe, the undersigned, members of Farmers' Institute, hereby make requisition for
one [designate breed] bull. The same to be supplied by the Department of Agriculture, Province
of British Columbia, on the following terms, to which we agree: Payment shall be made in
three equal annual instalments, without interest. The first payment to be made when bull is
delivered; the second payment to be made at one year from date of delivery; and the third at
two years from date of delivery. The interest at the rate of ten per cent. (10%) per annum shall
be paid on all payments overdue, and in the event of payments not being made when due, the
Department reserves the right to take possession of the bull. The Department of Agriculture
agrees to pay all transportation charges, and to charge the purchasers only the initial cost price
of the bull. We, the undersigned, agree to carry out the .instructions of the Department relative
to the care and management of the bull until all payments have been made.
The Department reserves the right to fix the maximum fee to be charged for service.
[To be signed by six members of the Farmers' Institute, in addition to the President, Secretary and Directors.]
Date , 191   .
Requisition for Dairy Bull.
(Holstein, Jersey, Ayrshire, or Guernsey.)
We, the undersigned, members of Farmers' Institute, hereby make requisition for
one [designate breed] bull. The same to be supplied by the Department of Agriculture, Province
of British Columbia, on the following terms, to which we agree: Payment shall be made in
three equal annual instalments, without interest. The first payment to be made when bull is
delivered; the second payment to be made at one year from date of delivery; and the third at
two years from date of delivery. The interest at the rate of ten per cent. (10%) per annum shall
be paid on all payments overdue, and in the event of payments not being made when due, the
Department reserves the right to take possession of the bull.   The Department of Agriculture N 118
British Columbia
1913
agrees to pay all transportation charges, and to charge the purchasers only the initial cost price
of the bull. We, the undersigned, agree to carry out the instructions of the Department relative
to the care and management of the bull until all payments have been made.
The Department reserves the right to fix the maximum fee to be charged for service.
[To be signed by six members of the Farmers' Institute, in addition to the President, Secretary and Directors.]
.    Date , 191    .
FARMERS' INSTITUTES INCORPORATED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
UP  TO   MARCH  31st,   1913.
Name of Institute.
Date of
Incorporation.
Secretary and Address.
Alberni    	
Arrow and Slocan Lakes  	
Arrow Park  	
Aldergrove    	
Bella Coola  	
Burton City 	
Bulkley   Valley  Agricultural  and  Farmers'  Institute   	
Comox   	
Cowichan   	
Chilliwack   	
Central Park  	
Creston   	
Cranbrook-Fernie   	
Coquitlam   	
Crawford- Bay 	
Celista   	
Cortes  Island   	
Delta   	
Eagle River Valley  	
Fire Valley and1 Lake Shore	
Fort George  	
Grand Forks  	
Graham Island	
Graham Island, East Coast  	
Graham Island, Tow Hill	
Greenwood  	
Glenside   	
Golden District 	
Howe Sound   	
Islands   	
Kent    	
Kelowna	
Kamloops   	
Kootenay' Lake	
Kitsumgallum   	
Kootenay River  (Slocan Junction)
Langley   	
Louis Creek and- Mt. Olie  	
29- 8-11
7- 2-13
13- 9-12
27- 6-11
Not completed.
9-11-12
23- 5-12
2-' 8^11
27- 6-11
5- 1-12
4-10-11
May, 1911
IS- 2-13
16- 4-12
E. M. Whyte, Alberni.
C. Buesnel, Nakusp.
R.  AAr. Ashworth, Arrow Park.
A. K. Goldsmith, Aldergrove.
A. Hammer, Hagensborg.
E. Hardy, Burton City.
Wm. Croteau, Aldermere.
J. A. Halliday, Sandwick P.O.
C. W. Sillence, Duncan.
Horatio AVebb, iSardis.
F. E. Harmer, McKay P.O.
J.  A. Lidgate,   Creston.
S. MacDonald, Box 102,  Cranbrook.
F. Cockerill, Burquitlam.
W. W. Mooney, Crawford Bay.
R. W. Reid, Celista.
Fred  E.  Froud, Cortes Island.
N. A. McDiarmid, Ladner.
R.  Coppock, Malakwa.
W.   Boothby,   Edgewood,   Lower   Arrow
Lake.
W. E. Hadden, Grand Forks.
W. Purkis, Graham Island.
R.  Scharffe, Lawn  Hill,  G.I.
R.  Watkins Baker, Tow Hill.
K. C. B. Frith, Greenwood-.
A.  Letts,  Sidley.
Robt. Landells, Golden.
Wm.  W.  Winn,  Gibson  Landing,  Howe
Sound.
Alan C. AVil'liams, Ganges.
G. T. Maurice, Agassiz.
P. J. Meyrick, Box 410, Kelowna.
J. F. Smith, Kamloops.
W. H. Burgess, Kaslo.
Jas. Turnbull, Terrace.
O. Rylett, Orescent Valley.
Jas. Allen. Langley.
Malcolm White,, Chinook Cove. 3 Geo. 5
Farmers' Institutes Report.
N 119
Farmers' Institutes Incorporated—Concluded.
Name  of Institute.
Date of
Incorporation.
Metchosin   	
Mission	
Maple Ridge	
Matsqui  	
Martin's Prairie	
Moyie Valley	
Nanaimo-Cedar   	
North Vancouver 	
Nicola 	
New Denver 	
Northern Okanagan  	
Notch Hill and Shuswap 	
Needles  	
Naramata   	
Okanagan   	
Okanagan Centre  	
Penticton   	
Peachland    	
Pender  Island-   	
Procter and District	
Pend d'Oreille   ,
Richmond   	
Robson	
Rosehill  	
Rock Creek  	
Rossland   	
Revelstoke   	
South Saanich 	
Salmon Valley 	
Surrey   	
Spallumcheen   	
Summerland   	
Salmon Arm  	
Sooke 	
Shawnigan   	
Strawberry Hill	
South Kootenay   	
Sumas   	
Slocan Valley	
South Slocan 	
S-t. Elmo  (near Hope), Fraser Valley
Silver Creek  	
Ucluelet  	
Valdes Island	
Victoria 	
Westbank	
West Kootenay  	
AArindermere 	
1- 2-12
5- 7-12
15- 1-12
12- 2-13
2- 3-12
25- 6-12
29- 3-13
31- 8-11
24-' 4-12
14-11-12
4- 4-13
27- 6-11
10- 5-11
7-11-11
13- 2-13
8-11-12
13- 3-13
13- 1-13
3-10-11
Secretary   and   Address.
Thos. C. Smart, Abbey; Farm, Metchosin.
J. A.  Catherwood, Mission City.
X.  G. Knotts,  Hammond.
P.  Jackman, Dennison Station.
J.  Gordon Frazer, Pritchard.
E. A. Lythgoe, Yank.
Herbert Skinner, Box 585, Nanaimo.
F. T. Salsbury, North Vancouver.
R.  AVbittaker, Nicola, Lower.
A.  L. Levy, New Denver.
C.  S.  Handcock,  Grindrod.
A. F. Porter, Notch Hill.
E. R.  Freeman, Needles.
J. A. Pushman,  Naramata.
A. Venables, Vernon.
H. IL Evans, Okanagian Centre.
J.  Brooks,   Penticton.
R.  H. Angus, Peachland.
A. IL Menzies, Pender Island..
Edward Watson, Procter.
A. J. Slater, W-aneta.
John MeGinnis,  Eburne.
Gordon R. Brown, Robson.
Angus McKay, Box 156, Kamloops.
A. D. McLennan, Rock Creek.
•I.   Schmidt, Rossland.
W. C.  Calder, Revelstoke.
P. Holloway, R.M.D. 1, Turgoose.
L. J. Botting, R.R. 1, Armstrong.
H.  Bos?, Surrey Centre-.
G. H.  Gamble,  Armstrong.
J.  Tait.  Summerland.
R. Turner, -Salmon Arm.
W. M. Higgs, North- -Sooke.
A.  Nightingale,   Cobble  Hill.
R  J.  Anton,  Strawberry  Hill.
Wm.  Neilson, Fruitvale.
J. W. Winson, Huntingdon.
E.  AV  Frink, Perry -Siding.
C. S. Brcckington, Koch Siding.
Ralph D. Plunder, St. Elmo.
D. G. Eaton, Silver Creek.
E. C. Williams, Ucluelet.
R.  J.  Walker,  Heriot Bay.
C. E. King, Box 561, Victoria.
C. A. Carruthers, AA'estbank.
G. G. McLaren, Nelson.
A. G. Cuthbert, Athalmere.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by William H.  Cullin, Printer to tue King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1913.

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