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SECOND ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL OFFICE OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1914 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1915

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   SECOND ANNUAL REPORT
BOTANICAL OFFICE
OP   THE   PROVINCE   OP
BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1914
BY
J. DAVIDSON, F.L.S., F.B.S.E.
PROVINCIAL  BOTANIST
VOLUME I.
PART TWO
THE GOVERNMENT  OF
THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by William H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1915.  To His Honour Frank Stillman Barnard,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The undersigned has the honour to present herewith the Second Annual Report of the
Botanical Office.
Provincial Secretary's Office,
January, 1915.
H. E. YOUNG,
Provincial Secretary. CONTENTS.
Page.
(1.) The Herbarium  35
(2.) Volunteer Correspondents  37
(3.) Co-operation of British Columbia Land Surveyors      38
(4.) Botanical Garden  39
(5.) The Staff  41
(6.) Proposed Experimental Work      43
(7.) Lectures on Botany  43
(8.) Botanical Exploration of the Province  44
(9.) Botanical Survey of the Garibaldi Mountain Region  50
(10.) Botanical Research  74
(11.) Publications  74
(12.) Acknowledgments  76
ILLUSTRATIONS,
Fig. 38. Frontispiece, Botanical Garden, 1914.
« 39.   "Fir-sugar."
// 40.  Roots of Abronia latifolia.
n 41.  Staff of Botanical Office.
n 42. Camp at Botanie Valley.
a 43. Lady's-slipper orchid.
n 44.  Indian woman digging roots.
a 45.  Pack-train on Murray Creek.
a 46.  Analysis of Geum.
a 47. Camp at Garibaldi.
/; 48. Floriferous zone, Black Tusk.
a 49.  Summit of Empetrum Peak.
Fig. 50. Summit of East Bluff of Black Tusk.
a 51.  Helmet Ridge and Valley.
a 52. View of Garibaldi region from Black Tusk.
a 53.  On the edge of Sphinx Glacier.
a 54. Luxuriant growth of Saxifraga Tolmiea.
a 55. Pinus monticola (cones).
/■ 56.  Abies lasiocarpa.
a 57. Cones of Abies lasiocarpa and Abies amabilis.
a 58.  Lupines on Black Tusk.
« 59.  Analysis of Garibaldi lupines.
/■ 60. Variation in Artemisia,
n 61. Variation in Senecio. SECOND ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL OFFICE.
Botanical Office,
Vancouver, B.C., January, 1915.
To the Hon. Henry Esson Young, M.D., LL.D.
Provincial Secretary and Minister of Education, Victoria, B. C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my Second Annual Report of the British
Columbia Botanical Office for the year ended December 31st, 1914.
The past year has seen marked progress in the work of this Department. The publication
of the Annual Report has been the means of drawing the attention of the principal botanical
institutions in various parts of the world to the botanical research being carried on in this
Province, and the numerous requests from universities and libraries to be placed on the
mailing-list of this office to receive copies of future publications give some indication of the
interest which has been aroused outside British Columbia.
Besides those who have applied for information on our native flora, requests have been
received from some of the leading herbaria and botanical gardens in Great Britain, Australia,
and the United States for herbarium specimens and live plants. In acceding to these the
wealth of the flora of British Columbia becomes more widely known, and we furnish the most
accurate and reliable data regarding the climatic and other conditions which favour the growth
of such a varied and luxuriant vegetation.
Within the Province the interest has increased beyond our expectations. This is largely
the result of an effort to interest teachers in the study of the native flora as an aid to the
teaching of nature-study in schools.
It seems that many teachers had been waiting for such a stimulus and promptly took
advantage of the opportunity of becoming botanical correspondents for the district around
their schools. Several of those who intimated their desire to assist in this work have been
enthusiastically collecting specimens and making notes on the flora, but have had to struggle
along as best they could with inadequate means of verifying their determinations.
As a result of their co-operation with this office, teachers receive assistance in the
identification of their specimens, so that they may act as local authorities on the plant-names
in their neighbourhood.
Correspondents have also the satisfaction of knowing that the names given are in
conformity with those in use in other parts of the Province and in other parts of the world;
whereas, at present, these vary according to the particular book at the disposal of the collector,
and, as most of our Western floras are compiled by American authors, there is no uniformity
in plant-names ; their nomenclature does not conform to the rules drawn up at Vienna by the
International Congress of Botanists.
(1.)    The Herbarium.
The growth of the Herbarium has been so rapid that our accommodation was taxed to its
utmost capacity. It was necessary to get six more herbarium cases, providing seventy-two
additional compartments; this enabled us to thin out certain sections which were overcrowded. 0 36 British Columbia 1915
The continued influx of specimens made it necessary to move to more commodious quarters,
and, as the Herbarium, records, library, etc., were increasing in value, it was considered
advisable that these should be protected in fire-proof rooms.
On October 1st the Botanical Office was transferred to the London Building, where it is
believed sufficient accommodation has been secured to meet the needs of this Department until
permanent quarters are provided.
During the summer over 120 collections of specimens came into the office for identification
from different parts of the Province; some of these contained close on 300 specimens. Several
correspondents sent in collections at different seasons as the plants came into flower or fruit.
In practically every instance the specimens were sent to be retained in the Herbarium
according to the arrangement set forth on pages 8-10 in the Report for 1913. In this way
specimens were received from the following localities :—
Armstrong.—Charles Webster, Esq. ; Eli Wilson, Esq., B.A. (six collections).
Atlin.—W. G. Paxton, Esq. (four collections); R. Pelton, Esq. (two collections).
Blue River (North Thompson).—David McLaren, Esq.
BoswelL—Mrs. E. L. Wallace.
Crawford Bay.—H. Murray, Esq.
Chilkat— E. S. Wilkinson, Esq., B.C.L.S.
Chu Chua (North Thompson).—Miss D. M. Jones.
Finlay, Parsnip, and Ingenika Rivers (Headwaters of Peace River).—G. V. Copley, Esq.
(288 specimens).
Golden.—R. Landells, Esq., B.A.
Graham Island (Masset).—C. de B. Green, Esq., B.C.L.S. (four collections).
Groundhog Country.—T. H. Taylor, Esq., B.C.L.S.  (a few specimens).
Hedley.—Mrs. H. C. A. Cornish, Rossland.
Kamloops.—Miss Muriel Costley; Jas. A. Wattie, Esq., M.A.
Liard River.—E. B. Hart, Esq.
Malcolm Island.—John Stephen, Esq., M. A., Sointula.
McBride.S. A. Walker, Esq., B.C.L.S.
Mission City.—Miss A. S. Mackenzie (seven collections).
Nelson.—M. S. Middleton, Esq.
New Westminster.—Mrs. A. Lyall.
Point Grey.—J. Bain, Esq.
Prince Rupert.—M. L. Bird, Esq. (ten collections); M. S. Howitt, Esq. ; H. S. Irwin,-
Esq.
Rossland.—H. C. A. Cornish, Esq., B.C.L.S. (two collections).
Spences Bridge.—J. A. Teit, Esq. (four collections).    (Eig. 39.)
Vancouver and District.—Miss Macnaughton; Mrs. Morris (four collections); A. E.
Baggs, Esq.; F. Perry, Esq. ; H. Sampson, Esq.; W. Taylor, Esq.; R. Thorburn, Esq.
Vancouver Island.
Victoria.—Mrs. J. T. Higgins (three collections) ; C. C. Pemberton, Esq. (two collections);
W. H. Robertson, Esq.; F. M. Philips, Esq. ; E. S. Wilkinson, Esq., B.C.L.S.
Cowichan Lake.—G. B. Simpson, Esq.
Duncan.—Mrs. Stoker.
Saanich Inlet.—Gerald O. Case, Esq., M.S.E. (Victoria).
Nanaimo.—Professor A. B. Klugh, Queen's University, Kingston
Holberg.—Tl. H. Browne, Esq., B.C.L.S. 5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. 0 37
Port Alberni.—Dr. C. T. Hilton (six collections).
Ucluelet.—J. G. Darling, Esq., B.Sc. (five collections).
Vavenby (North Thompson)—E. P. Heywood, Esq., B.C.L.S., Kamloops.
Windermere.—Miss A. B. Mackenzie.
In addition to these, large collections of specimens were secured during botanical exploration expeditions to the Garibaldi Mountain region and to the mountainous region between
the Lower Thompson and Fraser Rivers. Full details of the former are given later on in this
report.
In the short time that has elapsed since the establishment of this office almost 8,000 sheets
of herbarium specimens have been prepared as the nucleus of the Provincial Herbarium. These
represent over 510 genera, and all are native plants of British Columbia ; it being practically
impossible to undertake the formation of a general Herbarium without much further addition
to our staff and accommodation.
In the early part of the year the " Eli Wilson collection " of over 1,000 specimens, donated
towards the end of December, 1913, was gone through and all the specimens poisoned and
remounted on standard-size herbarium sheets, with the exception of some two or three hundred
duplicates.
Over 1,160 sheets have been remounted and incorporated in the Herbarium, each sheet
being stamped with the donor's name. The collection contained many rare and interesting
species, and is a valuable contribution to our collection of the flora of the interior.
(2.)    Volunteer Correspondents.
We have to acknowledge our indebtedness to the whole-hearted co-operation of those
who have undertaken to act as botanical correspondents for their district. Much interesting
and valuable information regarding the flora and the conditions existing in some of the little-
known districts in the Province has been obtained from the collections received.
Of the forty-nine names mentioned in the foregoing list, twenty-four appeared in the last
Annual Report; this indicates that their interest has not flagged. ' Twenty-five new
correspondents have taken part with the above in sending in 124 collections, compared with
sixty-four sent in last year.
Every week sees the addition of new correspondents; many of these are teachers, and
this suggests the beginning of a new era in the teaching of nature-study in the Province. If
the children are encouraged to bring specimens to school so that the teacher may name them,
the information is carried by the child to its home; in this way parents have an opportunity
of becoming acquainted with the names of the common plants around them, and are enabled
to distinguish between native plants and introduced weeds.
The following have intimated their desire to co-operate by supplying specimens of the
flora of their district during 1915, being too late to make a commencement in 1914 :—
Matthew Beatty, Esq., Anaconda.
George Bowyer, Esq., Cowichan Station.
J. R. Brown, Esq., Fairview, Okanagan.
Miss A. L. Burpee, Princeton.
Edgar Clark, Esq., Brisco.
Laurence M. Colpitts, Esq., Clinton.
W. Croft, Esq., B.A., Kaslo.
Miss G. Davies, Field. O 38 British Columbia 1915
Claude Emry, Esq., Hosmer.
Miss A. M. Easton, Keremeos.
Andrew Flett, Esq., Corbin.
Miss A. Holman, Riondel, via Nelson.
W. Kidman, Esq., Crawford Bay.
Miss F. K. Lawrence, Larkin.
Sherley MacDonald, Esq., Creston.
Miss Blanche MacDonald, Nanaimo.
Miss Edna Macpherson, Cascade.
Miss E. A. Murray, Nicola.
Miss E. F. Murray, Wardner.
Miss L. Nilsson, McMurdo.
H. Paterson, Esq., Wilmer.
Mrs. E. P. Simmons, Big Bar.
Miss M. E. Slack, Albert Canyon.
T. L. Thacker, Esq., Hope.
J. F. Tupper, Esq., Kaleden.
Miss K. E. Walker, Heriot Bay.
Percy E. Warner, Esq., Fort George.
R. F. Worthington, Esq., Porcher Island.
G. H. Wailes, Esq., F.L.S., Cortes Island.
Altogether fifty-four new correspondents have been added to our list during the year,
and, as will be seen by observing  the localities, this justifies the anticipation that many
valuable collections will begin to come in with the return of spring.
(3.)    Co-operation of British Columbia Land Surveyors.
One cannot overestimate the value of the assistance of surveyors in the field, especially
those engaged in the exploration of new regions of the Province.
Survey parties in the past have gone into districts where the flora was absolutely unknown,
and have returned with practically no information concerning the vegetation of the country,
further than a few observations regarding the timber.
Through the courtesy of the Surveyor-General, G. H. Dawson, Esq., surveyors in the field
are allowed to render such help as they can to the Botanical Office, provided it does not interfere with the particular work they have to accomplish.
If a surveying party is out from three to six months, and if one member of the party
devotes but half an hour each week to collecting specimens in his immediate vicinity, he has
no difficulty in finding in that time from twenty to forty different species, including grasses
and sedges, as well as the ordinary flowering plants which appeal most to him. Taking an
average of thirty per week, he is able to bring or send back from 300 to 700 specimens to
illustrate the flora of the region traversed. Three hundred specimens, including wrapping-paper,
etc., weigh less than 4 lb.; this does not seriously impede the progress of regular survey-
work.
Definite information on the vegetation of any region incorporated in a surveyor's report
adds much to its interest and value, especially if available for future reference by scientific
men in solving some of the problems of an economic nature in the Province.
A few surveyors who appreciate the utility of such co-operation have been supplied from
time to time with lists of the specimens sent in by them, so that the information can be
recorded in their reports. 5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. O 39
Apart from its scientific value, it is of economic importance to know the flora of every
region. Certain associations of plants indicate whether the soil and climate is suitable or
unfit for agricultural purposes. Some species are characteristic of muskeg land, others of
rocky ground, others of cold regions and high altitudes, and so on. The flora tells accurately
the conditions existing in each area.
Collections received from surveyors have resulted in the supply of valuable data regarding
the distribution of certain species in the Province. Plants which were formerly believed to be
rare have turned out to be widely distributed in British Columbia. Other specimens are
valuable in showing intermediate stages of variation, giving us a fuller knowledge of some
closely allied species in critical genera.
The following surveyors have helped in this work during 1914 :—
H. H. Browne, Esq., B.C.L.S.
G. V. Copley, Esq. (assistant to F. C. Swannell, Esq., B.C.L.S.).
H. C. A. Cornish, Esq., B.C.L.S.
E. B. Hart, Esq.
E. P. Heywood, Esq., B.C.L.S.
T. H. Taylor, Esq., B.C.L.S.
J. A. Walker, Esq., B.C.L.S.
E. S. Wilkinson, Esq., B.C.L.S.
Most of the above have called at the Botanical Office from time to time, and have been
shown how much assistance they can give without interfering with their other duties.
(4.) Botanical Garden.    (Frontispiece, Fig. 38.)
It is believed that one of the best ways of "boosting" (if I may be permitted to use a
Western word) the climate of British Columbia would be by the establishment of a large
public Botanical Garden devoted chiefly to the display of native herbs, shrubs, and trees.
This in conjunction with a well-equipped Botanical Museum and Herbarium would give
visitors from all parts of the world an opportunity of seeing at a glance the enormous variety
of beautiful, curious, and useful plants indigenous to British Columbia. Probably no one
would be more suprised than those who have made British Columbia the land of their adoption.
There are so many different environments between the Coast and the Rocky Mountains, and
between the southern and northern boundaries—each particular environment supporting a
vegetation peculiar to itself—that the majority of British Columbians are only familiar with
the flora of their own immediate vicinity; many have not even reached that stage.
If supplies of characteristic plants from the regions in Kootenay, Columbia, Fraser, and
Peace River Valleys, from the northern region east and west of Atlin, and from the Coast and
islands were brought together, it would constitute one of the most unique and interesting
collections to be found on this continent.
Yet this is what may be seen on a small scale in the Botanical Nursery at Essondale.
Hundreds of specimens have been transplanted from most of the above regions, and are now
thriving vigorously within twenty miles of Vancouver. The cactus, sage-bush, and milkweed
of the hot, arid Dry Belt may be seen growing side by side with the Rocky Mountain anemone,
yellow erythronium, and other plants from the regions of perpetual snow, or with the beautiful
iris from the more northerly regions.
Notwithstanding the distance, many visitors have gone to see the collection at Essondale,
and practically all have expressed the wish that the gardens were nearer Vancouver and more
accessible, so that more frequent visits could be made at different seasons in order to see the
various plants in flower. 0 40 British Columbia 1915
Considerable progress has been made towards the formation of an arboretum of the native
trees and shrubs. This, it is hoped, will form an attractive feature when transplanted to the
grounds of the Provincial University. Some of the more showy specimens are being propagated,
so that they may be available for use in landscape-work.
In addition to this, new species are being added to the collection of native herbs, comprising many plants of great beauty, as well as some of economic importance, including grasses
from various parts of the Province. Then there are sets of species belonging to particular
genera which are being cultivated for research-work on variation, etc., and rare species are
reared for exchange with other botanical institutions.
Dr. C. E. Doherty, the Medical Superintendent at Essondale, has given the use of a small
ravine in which runs a small creek, so that it may be planted with various native plants. This
will enable us to grow several aquatic species, which, through the lack of a suitable environment,
we formerly had no proper facilities for. Two small lakes are being made, and it is proposed
to use these as well as the banks of the creek for the establishment of such plants as require
an equatic environment.
During the year, seeds or specimens for the nursery have been received from the
following :—
G. V. Copley, Esq., Victoria (seeds from headwaters of Peace River).
H. C. A. Cornish, Esq., B.C.L.S., Rossland (seeds).
David Gellatly, Esq., Gellatly, B.C. (plants).
C. F. Newcombe, Esq., M.D., Victoria (seeds).
W. G. Paxton, Esq., Atlin (plants).
R. L. Pelton, Esq., Atlin (plants).
F. M. Philips, Esq., Victoria (bulbs).
C. C. Pemberton, Esq., Victoria (plants).
H. Sampson, Esq., Vancouver (bulbs).
Wm. Sinclar, Esq., Port Moody (seeds).
Mrs. Stoker, Duncan (seeds and plants).
J. A. Teit, Esq., Spences Bridge (seeds and plants).
T. L. Thacker, Esq., Hope (plants).
Mrs. L. E. Wallace, Boswell (plants).
J. A. Wattie, Esq., Kamloops (plants).
Chas. Webster, Esq., Armstrong (plants).
E. S. Wilkinson, Esq., B.C.L.S., Victoria (roots).    (Fig. 40.)
Eli Wilson, Esq., Armstrong (seeds and plants).
Tom Wilson, Esq., Vancouver (plants from Bulkley Valley).
In connection with our study of variation in Amelanchier, specimens and fruits were
received from :—
W. W. Price, Esq., Lake Tahoe, California.
L. S. Smith, Esq., Cisco, Placer County, California.
These included interesting variations leading up to an extreme form which had been raised
to specific rank under the name Amelanchier glabra (Greene). Seeds of the latter were obtained
and have been sown, so that the variation may be noted and compared with that shown by our
native species.
A number of packages of seeds were received from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Eng.
These have been sown and kept separate from our native plants. They include particular
species of grasses to be used in future research on the members of this family. Pig.  39.     Fir-sugar.     Specimen of Pseu&otsuga Douglasii, with  exudation  of sugar from  water-
pores at tips of leaves.    Found frequently in Dry Belt.
Fig 40.    Roots of Abronia latifolia.    From sandy  beach  near  Victoria,   showing  great  size  of
root (compared with one-foot rule in photo),    riant is low and fleshy.  5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. 0 41
As director of the botanical work at Essondale, it is necessary to make frequent visits to
the nursery during the summer, particular attention having to be paid to those species which
are being grown for research-work.
With the garden in proximity to the Botanical Office, this work could be under closer
supervision and daily observations made, but being approximately twenty miles apart the time
occupied in travelling has to be taken into account, and the number of visits limited accordingly.
During the season from March to November seventeen visits were made, on several occasions
accompanied by botanical correspondents, who in every instance returned with greater enthusiasm towards assisting in this work.
The Botanical Gardener, in his report for this year, supplies the following data:—
3,500 cuttings have been prepared of showy or rare species.
216 packets of seeds were sown in seed-boxes, in addition to those sown directly in
the beds.
10,000 young plants are being protected in frames during the winter.
7,650 plants are in the garden (including duplicates), numbering over 600 species.
350 specimens in the collection of native trees  (approximately   thirty   different
species).
780 specimens were received from different parts of the Province; about twenty-
five or thirty of these died.
425 permanent lead labels have replaced the former wooden ones.
53 habitats have been prepared for bog-plants, and
47 habitats for Dry Belt specimens.
It may be of interest to explain how the ground is prepared for the reception of plants
requiring special habitats.
For bog-plants a hole is dug approximately 3 feet in diameter and 2 or 3 feet deep. The
sides and bottom of this are plastered with 3 or 4 inches of soft clay, and then filled up with a
compost prepared with peat and loam, according to the species to be planted. The clay helps
to retain the moisture for the particular species planted there, and prevents the adjoining
habitat from receiving more moisture than is necessary.
For Dry Belt plants a similar hole is dug and only the walls lined with clay ; the bottom
is filled with rocks and gravel to provide free drainage, and a compost is prepared from sand
and loam, according to the species to be planted. In either case the casual observer sees no
trace of this special preparation, as the top of each habitat is usually covered by an inch or
more of ordinary garden soil.
In many cases the plants would grow without such precautions being taken, but some
would be abnormally developed, while others would be stunted, resulting in the plants
presenting an unnatural appearance.
This year one corner of the garden was too wet for Dry Belt species and had to be drained.
This necessitated the digging of a ditch 372 feet long, in the bottom of which was laid a 1-fooc
box drain of cedar.
Several loads of clay, loam, sand, and gravel have been dug and brought to the garden in
preparation for next season.
(5.) The Staff.    (Fig. 41.)
Assistant Botanist.—Last year the appointment of an Assistant Botanist helped greatly
to prevent the congestion which must inevitably have resulted from the increased number of
collections received. O 42 British Columbia 1915
J. A. Wattie, M.A., late Instructor in Botany at Kamloops High School, was appointed
to this post and commenced duty on June 1st. He has been engaged in attending to collections
as they are received, assisting in their classification, and recording them for the various districts
from which they are sent. He has also taken part in carrying on research-work in particular-
groups of plants where sufficient material has accumulated, besides assisting in general herbarium
and field work.
Herbarium Assistant and Stenographer.—The duties of this dual post have now become
so heavy as to make it desirable to separate them. Miss M. Gruchy, who was appointed on
June 1st, 1912, as stenographer, has gone through a course of training in the various departments of herbarium work, and in her own time has attended classes in botany in order that
she might more efficiently perform these duties.
During the past year the work of the Herbarium Assistant has been greatly increased by
the numerous collections received from correspondents; so much so that at times it has been
necessary to utilize the services of the Assistant Botanist in order to cope with the pressure,
which is usually greatest at a season when his services are required for more technical work.
It is therefore desirable that the Herbarium Assistant should be free to devote her whole time
to the preparation of the specimens for the Herbarium ; this includes the pressing, drying,
poisoning, and mounting, and also the preparation of fluid specimens for future laboratory or
museum work. The Herbarium Assistant has also to account for the various collections until
thev have been worked out and recorded and finally incorporated in the Herbarium.
The stenographic work of the office has also increased in volume, especially since the
publication of the report. In this department over 800 letters have been dictated during the
year, and this number would have been greatly augmented had the conditions in Europe been
normal. The bulk of this correspondence, however, has been Provincial, and there seems no
likelihood of it diminishing ; on the contrary, from the number of teachers throughout the
Province who have recently intimated their desire to act as botanical correspondents, there is
every indication of an increase during 1915.
Botanical Gardener.—In connection with the Botanical Nursery at Essondale, it is
essential to have a responsible man to take charge of the specimens received from this office or
sent direct from our correspondents. Mr. I. van der Bom, who for several years had a large
nursery business in this Province, was appointed to this post at the inauguration of the
Botanical Nursery two years ago, and his horticultural training and experience has been
invaluable in saving many specimens which would have been lost in the hands of a less
capable man.
Many of the specimens have to be collected at the wrong season of the year for transplanting, and often suffer a good deal during transportation. Sometimes, on account of having
to send specimens by several days' journey on pack-horses, and further delays at railway-stations
or shipping depots, the specimens arrive in what appears to be a hopeless condition; but
through careful nursing in the frames the vast majority have been successfully reared and
transplanted to the beds in the nursery.
In other cases, when it is impossible to secure specimens for transplantation, efforts are
made to obtain seeds, and these are sown either in the beds, or in frames and afterwards
planted out. In every case the gardener has to keep record of the locality from which specimens have been received, and treat each species as nearly as possible according to its natural
environment. So far this has been done successfully, and one can see plants from the hot,
arid regions of the Dry Belt growing practically side by side with specimens from the
perpetual-snow regions of our high mountains, or with specimens from a more humid environment near the sea. ,-4',
Fig. 41. Botanical Office staff at Botanical Gardens, Fssondale. From left to right—I. van der
Bom (Gardener), J. A. Wattie (Assistant Botanist), Miss M. Gruchy, (Herbarium Assistant),
J. Davidson (Botanist).  5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. O 43
(6.) Proposed Experimental Work.    Introduction of New Species of Economic Value.
Various botanical and horticultural institutions throughout the world are engaged in
carrying on experiments on the introduction of new species of more or less economic
importance. Up to the present time we have been devoting practically our whole attention
towards acquiring native species. One feels, however, that a suitable tract of land might be
secured in the Dry Belt in order to experiment on the introduction of species adapted for
these hot and arid regions.
The vast areas which are at present unproductive may yet be turned to good account if
suitable herbage could be grown. It may be necessary to first introduce from other countries
trees adapted to such an environment, so that the resulting shade might permit the growth
of grasses or other plants of economic importance.
The mildness of our winters and the long growing season, accompanied by a sufficient
rainfall, is a great asset to the south-west part of British Columbia in experimental work on
the introduction of new species. Other gardens on this continent have received supplies of
seeds of many choice herbs, shrubs, and trees from Europe, China, Australia, etc ; many of these
have been lost on account of the severity of their winters or the long drought during summer.
It would be interesting to see what can be done in British Columbia in plant-industry
work. We have been offered the assistance and co-operation of botanical institutions on this
continent as well as in Australia, Europe, and the Far East. In the meantime, however, we
have no provision made to undertake this on a proper scale, and must be content to introduce
only those of special botanical value.
(7.) Lectures on Botany.
Long before the date of the opening of the School Board evening classes, inquiries were
being received from suburban districts as to whether or not these lectures were to be repeated.
This was followed later by a request from the Secretary of the Botanical Section of the British
Columbia Mountaineering Club to deliver another course.
Through the courtesy of the Board of School Trustees a class-room in the old High School
on Dunsmuir and Cambie was placed at our disposal and the classes resumed on October 27th.
As in previous years, two lectures are given each Tuesday—the elementary from 7.30 to 8.30,
and the advanced from 8.30 to 9.30. These are illustrated by diagrams, specimens, and
microscope preparations.
Of the forty-seven students attending the class, several are school principals and teachers ;
the others represent many trades and professions, and hail from all parts of Greater Vancouver;
one student travels twenty miles to attend the class, and of this distance four or five miles each
way are done on foot. This gives some indication of the interest and enthusiasm displayed by
those who wish to know more about the flora of the Province.
Following the close of each session a series of excursions is arranged in order to give the
students an opportunity of studying the plants in the field. Localities illustrating different
environments are selected and the relation of the flora to those habitats is pointed out. Class
excursions were held to the following districts :—
Whiterock, returning along the Coast to Crescent. Collections of seaweeds and sea-shore
plants were made.
Grouse Mountain (4,000 feet), comparing the vegetation found on the wooded slopes at
various altitudes with that found on the plateau and on rock-slides.
Savary Island.—During the week-end, including Victoria Day, a large number of interesting plants were found; the sand-dunes being specially instructive. 0 44 British Columbia 1915
Botanical Garden, Essondale.—During this visit students had an opportunity of seeing
many species found on previous excursions, and of making the acquaintance of other alpine
and Dry Belt species. Unfortunately the visit had to be cut short owing to the inconvenient
train service.
In addition to the botany classes, several lectures were delivered with the object of
interesting more of the general public in the native flora.
On April 21st, under the auspices of the British Columbia Mountaineering Club, a lecture
was given in the large Pender Hall, Vancouver, on " The Exploration of the Garibaldi Mountain Region," illustrated by slides and specimens showing the nature of the country and its
flora.
On October 14th a lecture was given to the Victoria Teachers' Institute in the auditorium
of the new High School, Victoria, on " Some Aspects of Plant-life in the Province." The
specimens and slides illustrated the general, economic, and educational aspects.
(8.)    Botanical Exploration of the Province.
Headwaters of Skoonkon, Botanie, Laluwissin, Murray, and Twaal Creeks, between
the South Thompson and. Fraser Rivers.
Information had been received from various sources that there existed a region abounding
in all kinds of beautiful and rare flowers, but considerable difficulty was experienced in obtaining details regarding the flora. The most that could be ascertained was that the upper part
of Botanie Valley produced a rich supply of many of those species of plants used by Indians
as food, and that in former times hundreds of Indians gathered there annually from the
adjacent districts to dig roots and collect supplies for future use.
With the exception of Lower Botanie Valley, this region is seldom visited by white
people. Two German botanists are believed to have collected specimens from the Lower
Botanie Valley a number of years ago, and big-game hunters are known to have passed
through certain parts of this area on their way north; but it is a region well known to the
Indian tribes, there being at least two Indian reserves in it. At the time of our visit many
Indians were met, and much interesting information was obtained regarding the uses of several
of the plants which abound in the mountains and valleys.
I was fortunate in securing the services of Mr. J. A. Teit, who is well known for his
ethnological work amongst the Indians. Mr. Teit acted as guide and interpreter, and the
success of the trip was largely due to his intimate knowledge both of the country and of the
various Indian tribes met during the journey. The information obtained from the Indians
was supplemented by Mr. Teit's knowledge of the uses to which many of the plants are put by
the Indians, and visits to old camping-grounds showed to what an extent these nomadic
peoples depend upon the native flora to supply their needs. The remains of root-pits, earth-
ovens, sweat-houses, etc., were pointed out and their uses explained.
A large and interesting collection of specimens was made during the journey, and these
have been added to the Provincial Herbarium. A series of photographs was taken to
illustrate the region and its flora; a few were also obtained of Indians, and some of their
implements used in collecting roots.    (Figs. 42-45.)
It is intended to give a detailed account of the botanical exploration of this part of the
Province in the form of a bulletin to be issued later on, and, as this mountainous region is
surrounded by Dry Belt country, several points of botanical importance will be dealt with
which may be of future economic value to the Province. 5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. 0 45
"The Lions."
The mountains which have been so appropriately named, and which are well known to
every resident in Vancouver as the highest peaks visible from the south shore of Burrard
Inlet, lie about eighteen miles north by north-west from the above city. They reach an
altitude of over 6,000 feet, and, from their resemblance to two prostrate lions, such as are
seen at the base of Trafalgar Monument in London or so frequently displayed at the entrance
to large public buildings, are easily recognized amongst the miles of peaks forming the
northern horizon.
Early in the summer several mountaineers brought in from that region one or two
specimens which had not been collected on the adjacent mountains, and which suggested the
possibility of other rare plants being found in that vicinity.
Amongst the plants brought in was a specimen of Geum (Sieviersia), closely resembling
Geum Peckii and Geum calthifolium. The former has only been found on the mountains of
the Eastern States and has not been recorded for Canada. The latter has been recorded for
some parts of British Columbia, and it seemed more likely to belong to this species in spite of
its resemblance to the description of Geum Peckii.
A specimen was forwarded to the Smithsonian Institution to obtain the expert opinion of
Professor E. L. Greene, one of the best known botanists on the Pacific Coast.
In his reply, Professor Greene stated that it was much more closely related to Geum
Peckii than to Geum calthifolium, and suggested that our plant was probably a new species,
being much more delicate and having " larger and handsomer " flowers than his specimens of
Geum Peckii possessed.
Unfortunately, our plants were only in flower, and the species could not be definitely
settled without specimens in fruit, so it was decided to visit the region for the purpose of
obtaining specimens in fruit, and also specimens for the Botanical Garden. At the same time
a general survey of the flora and its environment was to be made.
I secured the services of Mr. F. Perry, an expert mountaineer who acted as guide, and
who brought down 'the first specimens of this Geum to the office. Accompanied by my
Assistant (Mr. J. Wattie) and Gardener (Mr. I. van der Bom), we left Vancouver at 9 a.m. on
August 21st in a small launch. Soon after leaving Vancouver a dense fog was encountered
which made it impossible to see when we were opposite "The Lions." This necessitated our
following the coast-line for some distance to obtain a suitable landing-place, which was found
a little before noon at a point on Howe Sound a few miles north-west of our objective.
As it was estimated that the return journey over the mountains to Vancouver might
occupy four or five days, we had to carry food supplies, tent, sleeping-bags, and cooking-
utensils, in addition to the plant-presser, botanical collecting-cases, camera, etc., sufficient for
that length of time. Hence the desirability of transporting our loads by launch to the nearest
point on Howe Sound.
The western slopes of the mountains—forming the foot-hills of " The Lions"—are densely
timbered, and at many places drop by a series of rocky ledges to the sea. On the ledges near
the sea the smooth cinnamon-brown trunks of the madrona (Arbutus Menziessii) stood out
conspicuously amongst the more dwarf Pinus contorta ; the underbrush was composed largely
of Vaccvninm parvifolium and Gaultheria shallon.
Occasionally the shore was made up of boulders and pebbles, and at such a point we landed,
near the outlet of a small mountain-creek. Here, owing to the mixture of fresh and salt
water, the shore was covered with a luxuriant growth of Enteromorpha, which from a distance
stood out as a conspicuous patch of green upon the otherwise barren rocky shore. 0 46 British Columbia 1915
After lunch the ascent was begun ; the dense fog still continued and helped to make things
unpleasant by the resulting wet vegetation, and by obscuring our view of the " lie of the
country." At first the ascent was up a slope of boulders and sand of apparently sedimentary
origin. This slope had a light growth of timber, and the presence of many dead trees and
windfalls indicated that these alders and firs were not adapted for such an environment, except
in the vicinity of creeks.
A blazed trail was struck and followed for some distance into fairly open bush composed
of tall firs and hemlocks. One of the most interesting plants at this altitude (600 feet) was
Tiarella laciniata. Throughout a comparatively large area this plant was common, associated
with Tiarella trifoliata, which is abundant around Vancouver.
The trail was evidently an old trapper's or prospector's trail, and led upward and around
the side of the mountains, becoming at times almost obliterated by fallen logs or by the dense
growth of brush, and finally lost in a dense thicket of Taxas brevifolia (yew), Alnus sitchensis
(mountain-alder), and Fatsia horrida (Devil's-club) in the vicinity of a steep mountain creek
which made its way to the sea by a series of innumerable small cascades.
As the bush was so dense, in places being almost impenetrable, the bed of the creek was
followed to an altitude of 3,050 feet, where about 8.30 p.m. a halt for the night was made, on,
a rocky slope of between 45 and 60 degrees. The approaching darkness compelled us to spend
the night on an irregular ledge of rock which scarcely provided accommodation for the party
of four.
During the ascent of the creek specimens of Geum were found in fruit, and supplies were
obtained for the Herbarium as well as for the Botanical Garden. Other plants of special
interest including Romanzoffia sitchensis, Sanguisorba sitchensis, Mimidus Lewisii, and
Epilobium luteum.
Next day at 6 a.m. the ascent was resumed, a slight breeze suggesting the possibility of
the fog clearing up. After reaching an altitude of approximately 3,700 feet, we got beyond
dense timber and found ourselves on the huge rock-slides surrounding the base of " The Lions "
on their north side.
The lower part of these slides have a fair amount of vegetation, and one can see the gradual
ascent of the flora, illustrating the transition stages between bare rock-slide and the densely
wooded mountain-slopes. The vegetation higher up is limited to areas which are fed by water
from the melting snow, and is composed chiefly of Spiraea pectinata, Bryanthus empetriformis,
Cassiope Mertensiana, with a few bushes of Cladothamnus pyrolaftorus and Vaccinium ovali-
folium.
The,route lay in a south-east direction across the rock-slide to a point opposite the "back "
of the Western Lion. From this the ascent was steep but the slopes were well covered with
Bryanthus, Cassiope, and Vaccinium. Round the edge of precipices occasional clumps of
Loiseleuria procumbens and Empetrum nigrum were found, while on a broad ledge near the
top a few more plants of Geum were observed.
The trees on the "back" of the Western Lion are composed chiefly of a rather scrubby
growth of Tsuga Mertensiana (mountain-hemlock), with Cladothamnus, Rhododendron albi-
florum, Vaccinium ovalifolium, and Menziesia glabella as underbrush. On the south-eastern
slope of the huge amphitheatre formed by the two " Lions " and adjoining mountains, there
are some small trees of Pinus contorta, Pinus monticola, and Abies amabilis or grandis amongst
the more predominant Tsuga Mertensiana. Fig.  42.    Camp at head of Botanie Valley.
Fig. 43.     Lady's-slipper orchid.     Cypripedium montanum in Upper Skoonkou
Valley.  5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. 0 47
There were numerous large patches of snow on the top, and in the vicinity of these one
could always rely on finding supplies of Saxifraga Tolmiea, a plant characteristic of high alpine
regions. Here, too, was found Phlox Douglasii closely approaching the variety diffusa
associated with Spircea pectinata. Crevices and small ledges of rock bore many specimens of
Penlstemon Menziesii, Campanula rotundifolia, and Saxifraga leucanthemifolia.
On the following morning at 9 a.m. the descent was commenced via a gully leading into
the amphitheatre, and an examination of the rock-slides and bluffs on the south side of " The
Lions" was made, but no additions were obtained; the flowering season on these slopes,
having a southern exposure, was past its best.
The descent was continued via a small creek which led us into a canyon near the headwaters of Sisters Creek; this creek was followed down through the canyon until we came to
the comparatively wide river-bed strewn with huge water-worn boulders. The vegetation along
this valley is varied and full of interest. Being at an elevation of approximately 2,650 feet,
and having a plentiful supply of water from several small meandering creeks fed by the melting
snow, the growth was luxuriant, especially along the sides of the creek where the plants obtained
abundant light.
Farther down Sisters Creek the valley became more open, and the woods afforded suitable
habitats for many species of plants which formed a similar plant association to that found about
five miles up the Cheakamus Valley.
About half-past 4 a halt was made for the night at an altitude of 1,500 feet. The remainder of the day we spent in botanizing in the open woods in the vicinity of the camp and in
pressing specimens.
On the fourth day we completed the remaining nine miles via Sisters Creek to Capilano,
and one of the most noticeable features during the latter part of the journey was the frequent
occurrence of Taxus brevifolia (yew). Isolated specimens of this tree are occasionally found,
but on the slopes of Hollyburn Ridge they are comparatively common. (Hollyburn Ridge, it
may be mentioned, is bounded by the Capilano and Sisters Creeks.)
Summary.
In addition to our success in securing specimens of the desired Geum in fruit, besides a
few other unrecorded specimens for the vicinity of Vancouver, the exploration of the " The
Lions " region supplied an excellent example of a similar environment producing a similar flora.
The valley of Sisters Creek duplicates, on a small scale, the valley of the Cheakamus
opposite Mount Garibaldi. In both instances the substratum is composed of a fine silt and
gravel, affording free drainage. The Cheakamus is fed by the melting snow and glaciers on
the many peaks on both sides of its valley. Sisters Creek is fed from the melting snow on
"The Lions," which usually have snow on them all the year round. Even at the time of our
visit, towards the end of August, there were large, deep patches of snow on the summit and
on some of the slopes, in spite of the fact that during the previous winter the snowfall was
abnormally light.
Plants common to both valleys are Thuja plicata (white cedar), Pseudotsuga Douglasii
(Douglas fir), Tsuga heterophylla (hemlock), Alnns rubra (reda lder), Acer circinata (vine-
maple), Fatsia horrida (Devil's-club)—constituting in some places the predominant underbrush competing with Vaccinium ovalifolium and Vaccinium macrophyllum.
Towards the margin of the bush, where more light is admitted, the ground is carpeted
with Rubus pedatus, Linneea borea/is lougiftora, Glintonia uniflora, Tiarella trifoliata and T.
unifoliata (common), with and abundance of Polystichum munitum and Asplenium felix- 0 48 British Columbia 1915
fasmina.    Grasses are conspicuous by their rarity, except on some parts of Pemberton Trail
where they have been introduced by horses.
It was also interesting to find several alpine plants common to the mountains of the
Garibaldi region and those in the region of "The Lions," such as Phlox Douglasii, Loiseleuria
procumbens, and Empetrum nigrum.
Other species could be added, but the above are those plants which have not yet been
recorded from the neighbouring series of mountains in this vicinity. Several additions have
thus been made to our knowledge of the flora of the Vancouver District.
The specimens of Geum collected on "The Lions" have since been carefully studied in
relation to their most closely allied species, and the result may be of some importance in
showing a closer relationship between Geum radiatum and Geum calthifolium than is generally
shown in floras dealing with those two species.
Professor P. A. Rydberg's work on the genus Sievisrsia, in the North American Flora—
a work which, when completed, will probably be the most comprehensive flora on this
continent—has been of great assistance in determining the true position of our specimens.
The simplest plan would have been to describe our specimen as a new species, pointing
out the difference from (1) 67. calthifolium in the size and shape of the petals (the flowers
being 3 cm. in diameter) and in a few minor points of difference in the leaves, etc., and from
(2) G. radiatum in the shape of the bractlets, size of flower, and pubescence of style ; at the
same time pointing out its relationship to G. Peckii by its large flowers, scant pubescence,
occasionally open sinus, and in the pubescence of the style.
The description of our plant as a new species would only add further confusion to that
already existing in our floras, but it would have been the easiest way of disposing of this new
form, thus leaving it for future botanists to show that the so-called differences between G.
radiatum and G. calthifolium have practically broken down, and that Geum Peckii must again
be regarded as a variety of G. radiatum—nothing more.
No doubt a careful study of the variation of 67. Peckii will result in the breaking-down of
some of the points of distinction between it and 67. radiatum. The tendency to describe every
little variation as a new species can only be accounted for by a lack of observation on the
effect of environment on the plant.
If Geum radiatum presents certain morphological characters when grown in a region east
of the Rocky Mountains where there is a limited rainfall, it would be surprising if these
characters remained unaltered when grown in a region near the Pacific Coast where there is
much greater precipitation, the winter less severe, with abundant vegetation affording shade,
shelter, and a greater amount of humus.
Such an environment results in the plants becoming less hirsute, and suggests that a
similar environment in the Eastern States may account for the more or less glabrous form
which has been described as Geum Peckii, and which, it appears, has only been found in the
mountains in Maine and New Hampshire.
Professor Greene's belief that our plant is more closely related to G. Peckii than to 67.
calthifolium is very significant, especially in view of the fact that, after a careful analysis of
67. radiatum, 67. calthifolium, and G. Peckii, our specimens unite the two former, and show a
close relationship to the latter. This also tends to show that Dr. W. J. Hooker, in his " Flora
Boreali Americana," was right in regarding our Western plant as 67. radiatum in spite of the
fact that other floras place his 67. radiatum. as a synonym of 67. calthifolium. 67. radiatum
(Michx.) is the earliest name and has precedence over 67. calthifolium. Fig.  44.    Indian  woman  digging  roots  in   Upper  Botanie   Valley.
Fig. 45.    On the return journey near headwaters of Murray Creek.  5 Geo. 5                                     Botanical Report.                                               0 49
Fig. 46.    Analysis of Geum.
Geum Peckii.              Geum radiatum.
Geum calthifolium.      '' Lions " specimens.
Puberulent and
sparsely hirsute.
More or less hirsute
Puberulent and
sparsely hirsute.
Petiole	
Glabrous or sparingly
ciliate
More or less hirsute
Leaves	
Round-reniform  with
truncate base, glabrous,    shining,    3-5
patmately    round-
lobed
Reniform, short hairy
above, long hirsute
beneath, especially
on  the veins;   obscurely lobed
Broad,  round-reniform, more or less
hirsute, at least on
veins;    7  rounded
lobes
Thin  round-reniform-
obscurely appressed,
pubescent    above,
more or less, hirsute
beneath,   especially
on the veins.    From
very obscurely lobed
to 7 rounded lobes.
Doubly    crenate-dentate.
Margin	
Doubly-dentate	
Sharply    doubly-dentate
Crenate-dentate ....
Rounded to narrow.
Sinus	
I
Lateral leaflets..]Obovate,   cuneate,  or
ovate, 5-20 mm. long
Lanceolate,  minute,
less than 5 mm.
Very    small   2-6   in
number
2-5 in number, ovate
to oblong,  1-6 mm.
long,   more  or  less
toothed orlobed.
Stem leaves ....
Blades united to stipules, ovate or lanceolate, acute
Sessile,     obovate,
rounded at apex
Sessile,   clasping   in-
cised-lobed
Sessile, obovate, apex
rounded,   incised-
dentate.
3  mm.   high,   5   mm.
broad.
Hypanthium .. •
1 cm. high and broad
(extraordinary size.
J.D)
1 mm.   high,  6 mm. Broadly obeonio.....
broad
Bractlets	
Linear-subulate, 3
mm. long
Linear-subulate,    3-5
mm. long
Oblong or elliptic; 3-4
mm. long
Triangular-ovate to
lanceolate, 3-4 mm.
long.
Sepals	
5-8 mm.  long, ovate,
acuminate
8-10 mm. long, lanceolate-ovate, acuminate
Triangular-ovate to
lanceolate-ovate,
acute, more or less
toothed
Oblong-lanceolate to
ovate-lanceolate,
nearly acuminate, 7
mm. long.
Petals, size ....
10-15 mm	
10 mm	
8-10 mm	
13 mm.  (flower 3 cm.
diameter).
Rounded-obovate ,
apex  rounded or
merely emarginate
Broadly obcordate..
Broadly obovate, apex
rounded or retuse
Broadly obcordate.
Style 	
Hairy  one-half  or
two-thirds length
Plumose at base only
Hairj- more than half
their length
Hairy  two-thirds-
three-quarters their
length. O 50 British Columbia 1915
Dr. Hooker remarks that his 6r. radiatum is closely related to 67. Peckii. It is therefore
not safe to assume that, because the latter has only been recorded from a few localities in the
mountains of the Eastern States, it does not exist on mountains farther west. Mountains are
often the last places to be explored, and much of our knowledge of the distribution and
relationships of plants has been obtained through the study of mountain species.
The accompanying analysis has been prepared mostly from the descriptions given in the
" North American Flora " and by a description of the corresponding characters exhibited in
the specimens obtained on "The Lions."    (Fig. 46.)
Those parts of the analysis surrounded by a dark line indicate where our specimens are
related to each particular species. In cases where our specimens are intermediate, it is shown
by connecting the characters of two or three species, as the case may be. It will be seen that
a description of our plant would tend to include some forms of 67. radiatum, 67. calthifolium,
and possibly some of 67. Peckii.
(9.)    Botanical Survey of the Garibaldi Mountain Region.
The botanical survey of this region was continued from July 26th to August 9th, when
new areas were explored, several additions made to the collections of the previous two years,
and further information was obtained regarding the distribution of species.
Future exploration of this part of the Province will necessitate the selection of another
centre for camp headquarters, as most of the country within a day's journey of the Black Tusk
Camp has been visited.    (Fig. 47.)
The new ground from which specimens have been secured include the region adjacent to
Sphinx Glacier and Castletowers Ridge, and a stretch of country lying north-north-east of
Black Tusk.    (See map opposite page 16, Report I.)
Empetrurn Peak and Ridge.     (Fig. SI.)
On July 28th a visit was made accompanied by three members of the British Columbia
Mountaineering Club Camp, to the range of mountains forming the west side of Helmet
Valley. To the north of Black Tusk lies a large glacier filling the head of a deep valley, the
sides of which are composed of loose rocks—a kind of scree. A huge moraine separates this
valley from Helmet Valley, and at the time of our visit the northern slopes of this moraine
were mostly covered with snow. Bare patches here and there were of such a loose and porous
nature that no vegetation could get a hold. The top of the divide between the two valleys
was 925 feet above the camp (approximate altitude, 6,025 feet above sea-level).
Following this divide one comes to the southern slopes of the above-mentioned range;
these support a good covering of " grassy " vegetation containing a liberal supply of lupines,
Arnica, Erythronium, Castilleia, and other showy flowering plants, with here and there
thickets of black hemlock (Tsuga Mertensiana) from 2 to 5 feet high. Above this (6,400 feet)
there are no trees on this range, the top of the mountain having a good coat of short vegetation
forming a kind of sward in which many dwarf forms of plants were found. The Indian paintbrush—from one to two feet at 5,000 to 5,800 feet altitude—was found in flower on plants 2
or 3 inches high. Several species found on this range had not previously been found on other-
peaks in this region.
The underlying rock is different from that on Panorama Ridge, being of a more granitic
nature; some sides (N.) present perpendicular precipices. At 6,500 feet the top is undulating,
and from a botanical point of view is very interesting. Fig. 47.    Camp at Garibaldi.     (Note plant-presser drying in the sun.)
Fig.   48.    The  floriferous   zone   between   5,000   and   5,500   feet  on
Black Tusk slopes.  Fig. 49.     Summit of Empetrum Peak  (6,650 feet altitude).
"■•-■HT-.rV'
o J*
-     :~ ■'■'■"   7 .
Fig. 50.     Summit of East Bluff of Black Tusk (6,600 feet).  5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. O 51
The extreme summit rises to a small peak (approximate altitude, 6,650 feet) which is the
highest on the range between Black Tusk and the end of Helmet Valley. Near the summit a
few specimens of Empetrum nigrum (crowberry) were found ; being a rare plant in this region,
and being only found near the summit, the peak was named " Empetrum Peak " (6,250 feet),
and is referred to under that name throughout the report.    (Fig. 49.)
The range of lower mountains whose summits average 5,700 feet, and which form a ridge
running north-east between Helmet Valley and Cheakamus Valley, was named " Empetrum
Ridge "—after the dominant peak; it is not likely that these names are duplicated in any
other part of Canada. ,
As this region was previously unexplored, the mountains were without names, and for the
purpose of botanical survey-work they were named so that the localities of the specimens could
be recorded.
On the 29th a trip was made along Empetrum Ridge almost to the north end. The
lower slopes are well wooded, and in places a dense growth of underbrush makes it difficult to
penetrate. Higher up, this gave way to a dense covering of scrubby black hemlock (Tsuga
Mertensiana), above which the country was comparatively open and " grassy," with frequent
large patches of snow and occasional clumps of Abies.
On the lower slopes Ribes Howellii was very abundant, associated with Rhododendron
albifiorum and an abundance of Veratrum viride. In the more moist situations Saxifraga
punctata was profuse, and on the open-wooded south-eastern slopes, a gorgeous display of many-
coloured flowers was given by Senecio triangularis, Potentilla fabellifolia, Arnica latifolia,
Erigeron salsuginosus, Lupinus arcticus?, Valeriana sitchensis, Erythronium parviflorum,
Spircea pectinata, Parnassin fimbriata, and Habenaria dilatata, with a few scattered specimens
of Castilleia miniata and C. angustifolia.
Such an association as the above is characteristic of the south-eastern and south-western
slopes of most of the mountains in this region at an altitude of 5,000 to 5,500 feet. One may
occasionally find a stray specimen of A ster foliaceous or clumps of Bryanthus empetriformis,
but such specimens do not belong to this association.
Above this floriferous region one comes to the short "grassy " sward composed of grasses,
sedges, and rushes. There are few trees to afford shade from the sun's rays, which are hot in
these alpine regions, or protection from the winds blowing off the glaciers, consequently the
vegetation is stunted; clumps of Juniperus communis montana and a dwarf juniper-like growth
of black hemlock are the only conspicuous plants above 6,000 feet. In some places large areas
are covered with a stunted growth of Cassiope Mertensiana, Bryanthus glanduliflorus, and
B. empetriformis, with occasional clumps of Carex nigricans, C. festiva, and a few alpine
grasses such as Poa alpina, etc.
On the highest part of the ridge, in the immediate vicinity of Empetrum Peak, Anemone
parviflora and Amemone multifida were fairly common on a limited area; these had not been
found on any of the neighbouring mountains, and on this peak they were associated with
several of the rarer plants in this region,  such as Saxifraga nivalis arid Empetrum nigrum.
Lower down on the slopes of the moraine between Black Tusk and Empetrum Peak Crepis
nana was very abundant.     These species, though common in other parts of the Province, are
rare in this region.     Anemone multifida was very dwarf—only a few inches in height when
in fruit.
Black Tusk.
The actual summit (7,350 feet) rises precipitously for about 800 feet from an area which
is practically surrounded by glaciers and snow-fields. Round the base of the precipices there
is a huge deposit of scree composed of sharp-cornered rocks from 3 to 6 inches square; in this O 52 British Columbia 1915
scree no vegetation can exist. The "Tusk" itself is of volcanic origin. A long ridge runs
south-west from Black Tusk, and although the lower part of this ridge has also a deposit of
scree, the upper part seems to have weathered more, and the rocks are more or less embedded
in a fine muddy silt of a dark-grey, almost black, colour, corresponding to the colour of the
surrounding rocks.
Amongst the first plants to obtain a hold of such a habitat are those with a deep root
system, and whose leaves and stems form large compact tufts, such as :—
Carex nigricans. Sibbaldia procumbens.
Carex Pyrenaica. Phlox Douglasii.
Silene acaulis. Phacelia sericea.
Potentilla villosa. Aplopiappus Lyallii.
The flora is chiefly composed of the last six species, but these are so sparse that from a
distance the whole summit of the ridge looks absolutely barren.
The East Bluff (6,600 feet) is of a different geological formation,—evidently sedimentary.
The whole summit between the East and West Bluffs is covered by a deep layer of thin flat
rocks, like large slates, but of a reddish or grey to almost white colour, from a distance
appearing like snow.    (Fig. 50.)
In some places the sharp edges of these plates are exposed; this is most noticeable on the
top. On the sides these are piled one above another, and, as it is necessary to climb about
800 feet over these loose slabs, it is both difficult and not altogether free from danger. These
slabs vary in size up to 3 or 4 feet in diameter and from 1 to 4 inches thick. Sometimes when
one is stepped on it is overbalanced and goes rattling to the bottom, displacing others during its
descent. On such slopes we find no plant-life, further than a few lichens on the surface of
slabs near the top.
It was surprising to find on the summit of the East Bluff that one or two species had been
able to establish themselves. Carex nigricans seemed to grow in tufts amongst the loose
plates, but it was found that some silt had accumulated at a point where the rock had not
disintegrated and where the plates were set on edge. Nevertheless, the xerophytic nature of
this species was forcibly illustrated. In similar habitats specimens were found of Bryanthus
glanduliftorus Juniperus communis montana, and Pentstemon confertus var. ccerulea-purjjureus,
and these constituted the total flora of the East Bluff.
Between the East and West Bluffs runs a ridge wholly composed of this loose sedimentary
rock. At one place water from the melting snow on the north-west glacier runs down the
south-west slopes of Black Tusk. At this point a considerable amount of silt fills the interspaces between the rocks, and provides what appears to be a suitable substratum for many
plants, but only one species was found in this habitat—Saxifraga Tolmiea. Here it grew
vigorously within a few feet of the glacier and in close proximity to the ice-cold water. All
the specimens of this species found in this region occupied similar habitats near glaciers or
water from snow-fields. Its cold-resisting powers evidently enables it to grow where it is too
cold for its competitors.
The West Bluff also appears to be of volcanic origin, as in its vicinity was found scree
similar to that around the base of Black Tusk. One often finds small five-or six-sided columnar
portions of rock (columnar andesite) over 12 inches long by 3 or 4 inches in diameter; these,
in falling, break up into scree. On the ledges left by these columns, sufficient soil accumulates
by the weathering of the rock to afford a foothold for plants of Pentstemon Menziesii. These
at first sight appeared to be growing on the bare rock, but it was found on examining some
large clumps that the roots had got down behind loosened columns, and by a mass of roots and
soil helped to keep the columns from falling away. On removing one or two of the columns
by means of an ice-axe an extensive root system was exposed.   5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. 0 53
Descending to an altitude of about 5,800 feet, one comes into a zone of Cassiope Mertensiana and Bryanthus glandulijiorus, with a few scraggy specimens of B. empetriformis. On
these slopes were found our first specimens of B. intermedins, which is believed to be a hybrid
between the two latter. .   -
A little lower (5,500 feet) one enters the floriferous zone of the south-west slopes, including
all those species mentioned as found on the slopes of Empetrum Ridge, but having the following
in addition—(Fig. 48):—
Phleum alpinum. Heracleum lanatum.
Trisetum spicatum. Vaccinium cosspitosum.
Juncns Mertensianus. Pentstemon confertus var. ceerulea pur-
Jancus tenuis var. secundus. pureus.
Carex Mertensii. Mimulus Lewisii.
Habenaria gracilis. Mimulus alpina.
Tofieldia glutinosa. Veronica alpina
Ckiytonia caroliniana var. sessilifolia. Castilleia pallescens.
Stellaria borealis, Pedicularis bracteosus.
Aq&ilegia formosa. Solidago multiradiata.
Caltha leptosepala. Arnica laevigata.
Trollius albifiorus. Arnica alpina.
Anemone occidentalis. Arnica cordifolia.
Leptarrhena amplexifolia. Troximon aurantiacum.
Potentilla dissecta. Troximon glaucum var. dasycephalum.
Epilobium alpinum. Troximon glaucum var. parviftorum.
Osmorrhiza nuda. Hieracium gracile.
It will be seen that on these slopes the flora is rich and varied; and botanists familiar
with such an association of species can tell that the slopes have a covering of good soil, abundance
of moisture, and exposure to the south or south-west, and are more or less sheltered from cold
winds.
These slopes, being fairly open and exposed to the sun, present a mass of bloom long before
the opposite northern slopes of Panorama Ridge, or even the plateau—several hundred feet
lower—have got rid of their winter's coat. This supplied a magnificent illustration to students
of the botany class, show-ing how one side of a mountain supports a totally different flora from
that borne on the opposite side. It also served to show the value of vegetation in protecting
the mountain-slopes from erosion, by acting as a gigantic sponge, absorbing the water and
preventing the washing-away of the soil.
Panorama Ridge.    (Fig. 52.)
This ridge runs for two miles east of the camp headquarters. (See map, page 16, Report
I.) The slopes are comparatively steep and rocky, especially on the western and southern sides.
The summit of Helmet Glacier rises almost to the summit of Panorama Ridge, and covers
practically the whole of the northern slopes, with the result that little vegetation can grow
there.
The top of the ridge is approximately one mile long—that is, from the western to the
eastern peaks—but owing to its undulating nature and an intervening central peak, a much
greater distance is covered than that shown on the map. The western peak is approximately
6,350 feet ; the centre peak, 6,675 feet; the eastern peak about the same, if not slightly higher.
The whole summit above 5,700 feet is open, the last of the trees—a low scrubby growth of
Tsuga Mertensiana—being found on the south slopes at that altitude. Above this, clumps of
Juniperus communis montana were found, but only towards the south and west sides. O 54 British Columbia 1915
It was interesting to observe the difference in the flora of Panorama Ridge compared
with the other mountains in this region ; various factors played a part in creating quite a
different environment. The southern slopes of the ridge were so steep—in places forming
precipices of rapidly disintegrating rock—that they could not carry a heavy coat of snow;
consequently when the warm season returned the snow soon melted and trickled away through
"the rock-slides forming the base of the slopes. Most of the melted snow on the actual summit
either soaked down into the loose rocks or was temporarily dammed into small pools which
occasionally found an outlet on the north side towards Helmet Glacier.
In the open valleys between the peaks, where these pools had been formed, one found a
short growth of vegetation composed chiefly of carices and alpine grasses, including:—
Agrostis humilis. Carex nigricans.
Air a atropurpurea. Carex Pyrenaica.
Trisetum spicalum. Luzula sjncata.
Poa alpina.
In some places a low growth of Spireea peclinata carpeted the ground, in association with
some or all of the above grasses and sedges. In this carpet the following plants were found,
some in large patches, others scattered throughout:—
Vaccinium cmspitosum (patches). Bryanthus ylandidiflorus (patches).
Potentilla villosa (clumps). Phlox Douglasii (patches).
Potentilla dissecta (scattered). Aplopappus Lyallii (scattered).
Sibbaldia procumbens (patches). Solidago multiradiata (scattered).
Salix nivalis (patches).
This constituted the flora of these small valleys at an altitude of about 6,000 feet. Above
this the flora changed suddenly, owing to the loose and rocky nature of these slopes leading
up to the summits of the peaks. Below this altitude the change was less sudden, due to a
series of ledges or terraces which merge into each other at the south-west end of the ridge.
The peaks were characterized by their apparent barrenness, but a careful search revealed
several interesting species, amongst which were the following :—
Agrostis humilis. Sibbaldia procumbens.
Aira atropurpurea. Phlox Douglasii.
Luzula spicata Phacelia sericea.
Silene acaulis. Aplopappus Lyallii.
Stellaria longipes var. Iceta. Antennaria lanata.
Arenaria sajanensis. Artemisia norvegicavar. longepedunculata.
Draba alpina var. glacialis. Erigeron compositus.
Draba stellata var. nivalis. Erigeron compositus var. discoideus.
Potentilla villosa.
On the eastern and south-eastern slopes of the ridge below 6,000 feet abundance of
Silene Macounii is found. This plant is rather local, having been found in only two places
in this region.
On the western and south-western end of the ridge below 6,000 feet is found a closer
resemblance to the flora of the neighbouring mountains. On the higher and open situations
Sedum divergens is prolific, so also is Phlox Douglasii, associated with Pentstemon confertus
var. ccerulea-purpureus, and these gradually merge into a zone not quite so floriferous as that
seen on Black Tusk and Empetrum Ridge; but here were found many of the transition forms
of lupine, from the dwarf, villous forms of the higher altitudes to the taller and less pubescent
forms of the lower altitudes. Fig. 53.    On the edge of Sphinx Glacier.
,.'.,--   /   .    ■-■■■"
■a ,,.»*.
Fig. 54.     Luxuriant growth of Saxifraga Tolmiea.  5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. 0 55
A little below 5,000 feet—that is, about 500 feet below timber-line in this region—is
found in the open wooded slopes a quantity of Lonicera ccerulea, this being the only locality
in this region where it has been found. It grows in association with Rhododendron albiflorum ;
specimens were found the previous year in flower, and this year with the fruits almost mature.
Corrie Ridge.
This ridge lies about one mile east of Panorama Ridge, and is reached by descending
from the latter by a gradual slope bearing sparse vegetation, becoming more dense near the
bottom of the divide at an approximate altitude of 5,600 feet (about 1,000 feet of a descent).
The ascent of Corrie Ridge is steep and rocky, the rocks disintegrating so readily that some
caution has to be taken in climbing.
The northern slopes are almost bare; being composed of much loose and crumbling rock,
few opportunities are afforded for vegetation until near the summit (approximately 6,800 feet
altitude), where there are numerous inhabited " nooks " and ledges. It was common to find
a small ledge entirely occupied by one species—e. g., Silene acaulis, or Phacelia sericea, etc.
In two small " crannies " were found beautiful clumps of Romanzoffia sitchensis, this being
the only locality in this region where it was found. A careful search revealed no more of it,
though it is believed that there must be more in that neighbourhood.
From the peak or summit the ridge runs south in a more or less gradual slope to Garibaldi
Lake, about two miles distant. Above 5,500 feet the slope is open ; below this altitude it
gradually becomes wooded. A comparatively narrow belt fringing the timber-line represents
the characteristic floriferous zone, not quite so varied as on Black Tusk, but one in which
Veratrum viride, Heracleum lanatum, and Carduus edulis are conspicuous. It is of interest
to note that a similar environment—soil, exposure, and altitude—on one of the shoulders of
Black Tusk shows almost identically the same species in similar proportions.
On the southern slopes some additions to last year's collection were made, Salix petrophila,
Polygonum viviparum, Draba alpina glacialis, and Saxifraga caespitosa being added to those
mentioned in last year's report.
Castletowers Ridge and Sphinx Glacier.     (Fig. 52.)
As these lie several miles to the east of Black Tusk Camp, several mountains have to be
crossed in order to reach them. This trip is considered a fairly strenuous one, and about as
much as can be done, on one day; especially when one has to stop to collect specimens, take
notes or photos, and make observations on habitat, altitude, etc.
An early start was made on the morning of August 1 st, accompanied by several members
of the botanical section. It was decided to take the route via Helmet Glacier. This route
was selected in order to avoid the necessity of crossing Panorama and Corrie Ridges—which
had been already worked over—thereby saving a few hours on the journey. Helmet Glacier
covers several miles of country at the head of Helmet Valley, and in order to reach Castletowers Ridge it was necessary to travel about two miles over ice.    (Fig. 53.)
During our first visit in 1912 this glacier exhibited many crevasses varying in width up
to 10 feet or more and in depth to 60 or 80 feet, but this year these were hidden under a layer
of snow which had to be probed at every step. Abundant opportunities were afforded of
seeing " red snow " like patches of blood-stains caused by the alga, Hcematococcus nivalis.
The members of the party were, of course, roped together. At the margin of the glacier
—where the ropes were adjusted—in Helmet Valley, Saxifraga Tolmiea grew most vigorously
and abundant on ground which at one time had been covered by ice, but which now had a
thick deposit of fine silt. (Fig. 54.) In this region also was found some specimens of
Artemisia norvegica longepedunculata. O 56 British Columbia 1915
The glacier was crossed at a point between Corrie Ridge and Helmet Peak (see map), and
this led to the steep slopes of the northern spur of Corrie Ridge. On these slopes the new
additions were found this year.
Descending into Corrie Valley, the trip was continued due south, crossing the shoulder
of Castletowers Ridge near Garibaldi Lake. (Fig. 21, Report I.) From the top of this there
is a steep descent of about 2,000 feet to the tongue of Sphinx Glacier. The slopes here are
densely wooded with large trees of Tsuga Mertensiana and some small Pinus monticola ; the
underbrush consisted chiefly of Vaccinium ovalifolium and Rhododendron albiftorum.
In the valley occupied by Sphinx Glacier are the remains of huge moraines, some fairly
well covered with vegetation, others showing gradual transitions between them and those most
recently formed. Near the tongue of the glacier there are many different environments, and
it was interesting to observe the curious associations of plants in such an odd situation.
Alpine and sub-alpine species were found growing together, constituting such a mixed
collection as to make it impossible to ascertain what plant association is characteristic of such
an environment.
In so far as this region is concerned, Senecio Fremontii, Epilobium latifolium, and Lupi-
nus arcticus ? are always associated together on the debris near the tongues of glaciers. At
the north-east tongue of Helmet Glacier these are the only species in its proximity. Near the
north-east glacier of Black Tusk these constitute the predominant species, but, though they
were again found associated near Sphinx Glacier, the encroachment of other species on this
habitat showed that certain factors had to be taken into account which evidently played no
part in the two other situations mentioned.
In the first instance, the altitude here is approximately 4,600 feet—which is given as the
elevation of Garibaldi Lake—compared with 5,500 feet at Helmet and Black Tusk Glaciers.
This difference of 900 feet may at first sight not account for such a difference in the flora, but
it will be remembered that the floriferous zone is situated between those two altitudes, and the
intruders near Sphinx Glacier were mostly plants from this zone. About one-half of these
plants are adapted for wind distribution, but, as there is in that vicinity a wide belt of densely
wooded country, this would interfere with the distribution of seeds if the wind happened to
blow from the north; but it so happened that this area was more exposed to winds from the
south, and the country for several miles to the south is covered with glaciers and perpetual
snow-fields. In short, it was evident from the first that wind was not an important agent in
bringing the intruders from the higher altitudes to compete with what were believed to be the
characteristic plants of this environment.
The journey was continued east for over a mile along the moraine at the edge of the
glacier, and it was soon ascertained how the plants were brought down from the upper slopes.
There was abundant evidence that huge avalanches are frequent during winter; this was
illustrated by the deposition of heaps of debris on the glaciers, having in some cases been
carried several hundred feet over the ice. In this debris were blocks of rock reaching almost
8 feet in diameter; whole trees were also torn up and strewn over the glacier in several
localities. This explained the presence of similar deposits found between the base of the
slopes and the glacier, and left no doubt as to how the flora in the region of Sphinx Glacier
became such a miscellaneous collection.
From Sphinx Glacier an ascent was made of the south-west slopes of Castletowers Ridge
to an altitude of over 7,000 feet. During this ascent the tracks of several avalanches had to
be crossed, and the hundreds of fallen and broken trees presented a fairly good illustration of
the devastating effect of this factor in the distribution of plants. 5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. O 57
Near the brow of the ridge (6,000 feet) was found an area in which dwarf specimens of
Campanula rotundifolia were profuse; in one or two habitats they reached a height of 8
inches, but on the whole did not exceed 3 or 4 inches. These were found frequently up to an
altitude of 7,000 feet in the vicinity of a steep rock-slide, on searching which we were
rewarded by numerous clumps of Polemonium confertum growing between the huge boulders
which cover the surface of the slide.
On the return journey more specimens of Silene Macounii and Pentstemon Menziesii were
found abundant on a southern exposure near the headwaters of a creek which finds an outlet
into Sphinx Valley. The latter species, though common within a few miles of Vancouver, is
rather rare in the Garibaldi region.
Summary.
The botanical survey of the Garibaldi Mountain region has resulted in revealing the
presence of an extensive alpine region in close proximity to Vancouver, and which on
completion of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway may be reached in one day from that city.
The region to the north of Mount Garibaldi was previously unknown, and as far as can
bo ascertained the first person to enter it was Mr. William Gray in 1912, when he went in to
select a suitable location as a base for the British Columbia Mountaineering Camp.
Since 1912 this region has been thoroughly explored, and much scientific data has been
obtained. A contribution to the geology of the region has been given by Dr. E. M. Burwash
and published in the Journal of Geology, Vol. XXII., No. 3, April-May, 1914. Some work
on the fauna has been done by various members of the Mountaineering Club, and a list of the
mammals and Lepidoptera found there will no doubt be published in the next issue of the
Northern Cordilleran.
The work in connection with the botanical survey of the region has been intensely
interesting, and has supplied much material and data regarding the distribution of plants in
the Province, many species being recorded that had not previously been found near Vancouver.
The collections made during the three visits are all incorporated in the Herbarium, and
have already prompted research on some critical species. Several transition forms have helped
to connect a few so-called species or varieties, and have cleared up some previously doubtful
points which have been used in Western botanical works as reliable characters in the segregation
or definition of species.
Field-study of the plants in relation to their alpine conditions—taking into account the
altitude, exposure, soil, and other factors which, when combined, constitute the plants' environment—gives one a wider idea and truer conception of what is meant by " species " than can
be obtained from the study of isolated herbarium specimens.
Several of the forms found would by some botanists be regarded as distinct species, and
if isolated specimens had been collected and sent to specialists, there is no doubt that the
present confusion would have been increased by the description of several new species from
this region.
By studying the plants in their relation to environment, not only do we come to a fuller
knowledge of the variation within the limits of a single species, but it helps to show that
several so-called species must ultimately be regarded as environmental forms ; when this is
done it will greatly help to clear up the existing chaos in some of our Western genera.
The following list is given as a contribution to the flora of the Garibaldi region, and from
it one can judge how interesting this part of the Province is. The list is by no means intended
to be a complete one, as it is practically a list of the plants collected during the three visits
which were made towards the end of July and the beginning of August in the years 1912-14. 0 58 British Columbia 1915
Contribution to the Flora of British Columbia (Garibaldi Mountain Region).
Woodsia seopulina, Eaton.
(Glabrous variety.) The Garibaldi specimens have the deeply cleft lacinate scaly indusium
of W. seopulina, but have the smooth glabrous frond of W. oregana. (This intermediate form
tends to connect W. seopulina with W. oregana. Collectors should be on the look-out for
specimens of W. seopulina with a minute indusium composed of a few beaded hairs.) Northeast slopes of Black Tusk.
Asplenium Trichomanes, Linn.
Between Stony Creek and Cheakamus.
Cryptogramma acrostichoides, R. Br.
On rock-slides along Pemberton Trail and Stony Creek up above 3,000 feet.    Common.
Botrychium ternatum, Schwartz.
In open woods about four miles up Pemberton Trail.    Rare.
Equisetum hyemale, A. Br.
By Pemberton Trail.
Lycopodium clavatum, Linn.
Common on slopes from Stony Creek up to 2,500 feet.
Lycopodium selago, Linn.
One or   two specimens found on Gentian  Ridge near Castletowers,  an also on slopes
near Mimulus Creek.
Lycopodium sitchense, Rupr.
Rock-slide on trail from Stony Creek to camp, and near Garibaldi Lake.
Lycopodium alpinum, Linn.
Rock-slide on trail from Stony Creek to camp; Castletowers Ridge; Panorama Ridge.
Lycopodium annolinum, Linn.
Near Garibaldi Lake, near Mimulus Creek, ten miles north of Squamish.
Pinus monticola, Dougl.
On Pemberton Trail.    Common near Stony Creek.    (Fig. 55.)
Tsuga Mertensiana, Carr:
Common from 3,000 to 5,000 feet.
Abies lasiocarpa (Hook), Nutt.    (Figs 56, 57.)
This species has been recorded for various parts of the Province as Abies subalpina (Engl),
which is a synonym.
In connection with the classification of our specimens, some interesting points have been
brought out.
In the first place, the cones were only about 1 inch long, instead of from 2-4 inches; so
short that it was suggested our plant may be a new species. I am unwilling to accept this
suggestion, because, after a careful search of several dozen mature cones, no fully formed seeds
were found, and I concluded that the trees referred to, although well grown, have their cones
stunted, probably due to the short growing season.
During our first visit in 1912 mature cones of Abies were found about 3 or 4 inches long,
and as these agreed in size, shape, and most other characters of Abies amabilis—as supplied in
our Western floras—they were referred to that species. But the cones being pubescent or
puberulent (a characteristic of Abies lasiocarpa), I was a little doubtful until I observed in
Sudworth's " Trees of the Pacific Slope " that in British Columbia A. lasiocarpa was chiefly Fig.   55.    Pinus  monticola.  Fig. 56.    Abies lasiocarpa.     (The cones are stunted, being only
3-3% cm. long, producing no matured seeds.)
1,     i
,-fMn?  ■
\ thM
Jj&&\
^^^P^s^l^'
/         ^ >-*,    i
■^^^^^^k.
:-!!=::   ■:-       j?   ™<     o«       II?: •     1
n • ^ ■
Fig.  57.    Cones of Allies  lasiocarpa   (left),  and A6tes amabilis   (right).  5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. 0 59
confined to the Rocky Mountains and " not on west slopes of Southern British Columbia
Coast Range nor on Vancouver Island." On the other hand, A. amabilis is given as found
on the " Sea-side of Coast Range, recorded only from Queen Charlotte Islands, and a point
opposite north end of Vancouver Island ... on Dean or Salmon River, mountains of
Fraser River (below Yale), also in Vancouver Island." This seemed to indicate that our plants
must be A. amabilis.
During the next two visits, 1913-14, no large cones were to be found, only small stunted
ones.
In 1914 this was looked into minutely, and cones of Abies amabilis obtained from
correspondents at Prince Rupert and Vancouver Island. These were compared with cones of
Abies amabilis from our local mountains and with the Garibaldi specimens.
It was soon evident that either Sudworth erred in his geographical distribution, or that
the characteristic differences between Abies amabilis and A. lasiocarpa given in our Western
floras were unreliable.    The result has shown that both were at fault.
Specimens of the Garibaldi small-coned Abies were sent to Professors E. L. Greene
(National Museum) and C. S. Sargent (Arnold Arboretum), and in both cases it was referred
to A. lasiocarpa on account of the puberulent cones. This, however, I did not consider a
reliable character, because practically all our cones of A. amabilis were puberulent, some
distinctly velvety, much more so than some of the cones of A. lasiocarpa.
I called Professor Sargent's attention to this point, and he furnished another character
which is not given in our floras—viz., that in A. lasiocarpa the stomata are abundant on the
upper surface of the leaves, and in A. amabilis absent or rare.
This proves to be a point of considerable botanical importance; the difference under the
microscope is very marked, and should be of value to botanists and foresters in determining
the species even when cones are not obtainable.
It is of equal importance to know that the size and pubescence of the cones cannot be
relied on as distinctive points.
With regard to the geographical range, it now extends to southern British Columbia near
the west coast, and no doubt will soon be reported from other regions in this vicinity.
Abies amabilis appears to occur frequently in this region, several instances being known
where they were mistaken for A. grandis until the purple cones were found on them.
A. amabilis is well represented in the Garibaldi region.
Thuja plicata, Donn.
Common on lower slopes.
Chammcyparis nutkaensis, Spach.
Pemberton Trail; Stony Lake.
Juniperus communis montana, Ait.
Panorama Ridge, 6,000 feet; Gentian Ridge.
Sparganium simplex, Huds.
Near Pemberton Trail.
Phleum alpinum, Linn.
Crater Lake ; Black Tusk ; Helmet Valley.
Agrostis humilis, Vasey.
Panorama Ridge. O 60 British Columbia 1915
Aira atropurpurea, Wahl.
Corresponds with description of Deschampsia atropurpurea, but has no prolongation of
rachilla.    Aira given as synonym of D. atropurpurea.
Trisetum spicatum, Linn.
Panorama Ridge; Black Tusk Valley; Helmet Valley.
Poa Lettermani, Vasey.
Specimens of this grass were brought down from near the summit of Mount Garibaldi by
one of the botanical members of the British Columbia Mountaineering Club, Mr. Ernest Burns,
who informed me that it was the last plant found during the ascent. Mount Garibaldi has an
altitude of close on 9,000 feet. This constitutes a new record not only for British Columbia,
but for Canada. (My determination of this species has been verified by Dr. M. O. Malte,
Dominion Agrostologist; Prof. C. V. Piper and Professor A. S. Hitchcock, State Agrostologists,
Wash., D.C,
Poa alpina, Linn.
Panorama Ridge.
Poa laxa ?,  Hsenke.
Specimens which I consider belong to this species, were found in Helmet Valley at an
altitude of approximately 5,400 feet. I endeavoured to have the identification verified by three
above-mentioned specialists in grasses, and as a result received different specific names from
each. By one it was considered to be near Poa Olneyce or P. Wheeleri, another referred it to
P. saxatilis, and the other referred it to P. paddensis. This was all the more interesting in as
much as the same specimen was sent first to one, then to the others. On comparing our
specimens again with the descriptions of the above species, I find that it comes nearest Poa
laxa, whose range is given as  "Washington to Alaska."
This is no reflection on the abilities of these botanists, who have rendered valuable
service in this difficult section of the flora; but it serves as a good illustration of the necessity
for full and accurate details in the descriptions of new species, a necessity which is by no
means confined to grasses.
Carex festiva, Dewey.
Empetrum Ridge and near Garibaldi Lake.
Carex Mertensii, Prescot.
Between Lesser Garibaldi Lake and Garibaldi Lake; Stony Creek ; Black Tusk slopes ;
near Sphinx Glacier.
Carex nigricans, C. A. Meyer.
Black Tusk Valley.    Common on Panorama Ridge.
Carex Pyrenaica, Wahl.
Near Garibaldi Camp; Panorama Ridge. This species may be often overlooked on
account of its resemblance to young plants of 67. nigricans.
Carex glareosa 1, Wahl.
Two specimens collected for 67. alpina near the camp came very near to this species.    Two
or three other carices were found, but were too immature to ascertain the species.
Juncus Mertensianus, Bong.
Between Garibaldi Lake and Lesser Garibaldi Lake; Black Tusk slopes ; Helmet Valley.
Juncus tenuis var. secundus, Engelm.
Black Tusk ; Lesser Garibaldi Lake. 5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. O 61
Luzula spicata, DC.
Near Crater Lake; Panorama Ridge.
Corallorhiza Mertensiana, Bong.
Common on slopes above Stony Creek and by Pemberton Trail.
Habenaria orbiculata, Torr.
Pemberton Trail north of Swift Creek.
Habenaria dilatata, Hook.
Common on Black Tusk slopes.
Goodyera Menziesii, Lindl.
Common by Pemberton Trail and on slopes above Stony Creek.
Spiranthes Romanzoffiana, Cham.
Frequent around Brackendale.
Lilium columbianum, Hanson.
Near Garibaldi Lake on south-west slopes of Panorama Ridge.
Erythronium parviflorum (S. Wats.), Gooding.
On slopes of Black Tusk and on slopes of Empetrum Ridge.
Veratrum viride, Ait.
Common from 3,000 up to 5,500 feet, on Black Tusk slopes; Empetrum, Castletowers,
and Helmet Ridges.    Generally distributed.
Tofieldia glutinosa (Michx.), Pers.
Black Tusk Valley.
Smilacina sessilifolia, Nutt.
On lower slopes of Black Tusk near Stony Creek.
Maianthemum bifolium dilatatum, Wood.
Common along Pemberton Trail and on lower slopes of Black Tusk near Stony Creek.
Disporum oreganum (S. Wats.), Benth & Hook.
By Pemberton Trail.
Streptopus amplexifolius (Linn.), DC.
Near Mimulus Creek.
Streptopus roseus, Michx.
Near Mimulus Creek and on Empetrum Ridge.
Salix Scouleriana, Barratt.
Common along Pemberton Trail.
Salix Barclayi, Anders.
Common at base of Black Tusk slopes at 5,200 feet.
Salix commutata, Bebb.
Common near Black Tusk at 5,000 to 5,500 feet.
Salix petrophila, Rydb.
Corrie Ridge ; Black Tusk ; near Sphinx Glacier.
Salix nivalis, Hook.
Common on Black Tusk, Panorama Ridge, Castletowers Ridge, and Empetrum Peak,
etc., at altitudes of 5,500 to over 6,000 feet; near Sphinx Glacier.
Populus trichocarpa, Torr & Gray.
Common to the head of Stony Creek.
Alnus rubra, Bong.
Common along Pemberton Trail. 0 62 British Columbia 1915
Alnus sitchensis (Regel.), Sargent.
Common on the lower slopes of the mountains.
Asarum caudatum, Lindl.
Common along Pemberton Trail; on lower slopes from Stony Creek to between 2,000 and
and 3,000 feet.
Oxyria digyna (Linn.), Hill.
Common on Stony Creek and throughout the higher regions up to between 5,000 and
6,000 feet; near Sphinx Glacier.
Polygonum viviparum, Linn.
Rather rare between Table and Red Mountain; Corrie Ridge.
Polygonum minimum, Wats.
By shore of Stony Lake.    Locally common.
Claytonia sibirica, Linn.
Stony Creek and Pemberton Trail.
Claytonia caroliniana sessilifolia (Michx.), Torr.    (Fig. 13, Report I.)
Common in vicinity of Black Tusk above 5,000 feet.
Silene acaidis, Linn.    (Fig. 15.)
Common on southern slopes of Black Tusk, Panorama Ridge, Castletowers, etc., at about
5,500 to 7,000 feet.
Silene Macounii, S. Watson.
Common on Panorama Ridge and on Castletowers Ridge.
Steilaria borealis, Bigel.
Black Tusk; Helmet Valley.
Steilaria longipes leeta (Bich.), Wats.
Panorama Ridge.
Sagina Linncei, Presl.
Garibaldi Camp ; Stony Creek.
Arenaria sajanensis, Willd.
Panorama Ridge; near Sphinx Glacier.
Nuphar polysepalum, Engelm.
Starvation Lake (alt. 600 feet).
Caltha leptosepala, DC.
Black Tusk alp-lands and slopes.
Trollius albiflorus (Gray), Ryd.
Black Tusk slopes and alp-lands.
Actaea spicata arguta (Nutt.), Torr.
Pemberton Trail.    Common.
Aquilegia formosa, Fischer.
Black Tusk slopes ; Helmet Valley ; round Garibaldi Lake;  near Sphinx Glacier.
Anemone occidentalis, Wats.    (Fig. 18.)
Black Tusk slopes ; near Helmet Glacier; Panorama and Corrie Ridges.
Anemone parviflora, Michx.
Empetrum Ridge.
Anemone multifida, Poir.
'    Empetrum Ridge. 5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. 0 63
Ranunculus Eschscholtzii, Schlecht.
Black Tusk slopes ; Stony Lake ; near Helmet Lake (on divide).
Dicentra formosa, DC.
Pemberton Trail.    Common.
Corydalis glauca, Pursh.
Pemberton Trail near Stony Creek.
Cardamine oligospermia, Nutt.
Stony Lake ; Black Tusk.
Draba alpina glacialis, Dickie.
Panorama Ridge and north side of Corrie Ridge.
Draba stellata nivalis, Regel.
Black Tusk slopes ; Panorama Ridge.
Arabis lyrata occidentalis, Wats.
Black Tusk slopes.
Radicula officinalis, R. Br.
Brackendale.
Radicula alpina, Wats.
By Stony Lake and between it and Lesser Garibaldi Lake.
Sedum divergens, Wats.
Common on Panorama Ridge.
Leptarrhena amplexifolia (Sternb.), Ser.
Common on marshy alp-lands near Sphinx Glacier.
Saxifraga Lyallii, Engler.
Black Tusk slopes ; Helmet Valley ; slopes of Empetrum Ridge.
Saxifraga ccespitosa, Linn.
Corrie Ridge.
Saxifraga nivalis, Linn.
Moraine near Sphinx Glacier; Empetrum Peak ; Corrie Ridge.
Saxifraga bronchialis, Linn.
Pemberton Trail; Empetrum Ridge; Panorama Ridge; south slope of Sentinel Peak.
Saxifraga Tolmiea, Linn. (Fig. 54.)
Abundant in Helmet Valley near the glacier.
Saxifraga punctata, Linn.
Helmet Valley; Black Tusk. (This I have referred to S. punctata. Our specimens
agree with Professor Piper's description of S. odontophylla, and with Fischer and Meyers's
description of S. aestivalis, but the "Index Kewensis " indicates the latter is equivalent to S.
punctata, L.    It seems that S. odontophylla may be but a variation of S. punctata.)
Saxifraga Mertensiana, Bong.
Panorama Ridge.
Saxifraga leucanthemifolia, Michx.
Stony Lake, Panorama Ridge, and Pemberton Trail.
Mitella pentandra, Hook.
Stony Lake; slopes to Garibaldi Lake.
Mitella Breweri, Gray.
Panorama Ridge; Black Tusk; slopes round Garibaldi Lake.
3 O 64 British Columbia 1915
Tiarella unifoliata, Hook.
Pemberton Trail; Garibaldi Lake; Stony Lake ; slopes above Stony Lake.
Tiarella trifoliata, Linn.
Abundant along Pemberton Trail.    (One specimen found was intermediate between the
two above-mentioned species, showing two unifoliolate leaves and two trifoliolate, with the
pubescence and acute calyx lobes of T. trifoliata.)
Parnassia fimbriata (Banks), Kcenij.
Black Tusk slopes, Helmet Valley, etc.
Ribes Howellii, Greene.
Cheakamus ; west side of Panorama Ridge; Helmet Valley ; Empetrum Ridge.
Ribes lacustre (Pers.), Poir.
Common in Cheakamus Valley.
Ribes bractosum, Douglas.
Common in Cheakamus Valley.
Ribes divaricatum, Douglas.
Common in Cheakamus Valley.
Spiraea Menziesii, Hook.
Pemberton Trail.
Spiraea pectinata, T. & G.
Common throughout the region above 4,000 feet.
Aruncus Sylvester, Kostel.
Frequent along Pemberton Trail.
Pyrus emarginata (Dough), Walp.
Common along Pemberton Trail.
Rubus leucodermis, Douglas.
Common along Pemberton Trail and by Stony Creek.
Rubus spectabilis, Pursh.
Common along Pemberton Trail and on lower slopes of mountains, etc.
Rubus nutkanus, Moc.
Common along Pemberton Trail, etc.
Rubus pedatus. Smith.
Common in woods of lower slopes.
Rubus ursinus, Cham. & Schlecht.
Common along Pemberton Trail, etc.
Potentilla villosa, Pall.
Helmet Valley ; Black Tusk slopes ; Panorama Ridge.
Potentilla flabellifolia, Hook.
Black Tusk slopes ; Helmet Valley.
Potentilla dissecta, Pursh.
Panorama Ridge, common; Black Tusk slopes.
Sibbaldia procumbens, Linn.
Common above 5,500 feet.    Panorama Ridge; Helmet Valley; near Stony Lake.
Geum macrophyllum, Willd.
Frequent along Pemberton Trail. 5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. O 65
Lupinus arcticus, S. Watson (?).    (Figs. 17, 58, 59.)
I have tentatively referred our specimens to this species pending further research on
L. nootkatensis. This genus is one which, in so far as our Western species are concerned,
requires to be more thoroughly studied in the field. It seems probable that several of our
so-called " Western species" will yet turn out to be mere environmental forms of this
polymorphic species.
From specimens collected during the first year it was thought that at least two species
were represented ; some agree with the description of L. arcticus, except that the keels are
ciliated; L. arcticus is described as having a naked keel. Other specimens seemed to belong
to an undescribed species having characters which showed relationship to L. nootkatensis, L.
subafpinus, and one or two other closely related species which differ from each other only by a
few points of minor importance.
The field-study of this genus during 1914 was undertaken with the object of securing
complete data concerning the supposed undescribed lupine, and the result was the finding of
every intermediate link connecting the two.
A splendid opportunity was afforded for studying the great variation in—what I now
believe to be—a single species. The height of the plants, pubescence, size and form of leaflets,
size and colour of flowers, and the ciliation of the keels varied so much in different specimens
that practically every combination of characters was to be found in some of them. Much of
the variation was directly due to habitat, and numerous transition forms prevented these being
separated into distinct varieties.
Miss A. Eastwood, of the California Academy of Sciences, who has made a special study
of this genus, recognized our specimens referred to as L. arcticus, but was not familiar with
the taller and less villous specimens.
The ciliation of the keel was a point of great interest, as this is the only point of difference between our specimens and the description of L. arcticus. No specimens were found
with the keel absolutely naked; most were distinctly ciliate, some markedly so, while others
had only traces of ciliation.
If the ciliation of the keel is to be regarded as an infallible character, then our plant is
not L. arcticus; but from the range of variation exhibited in our series of specimens, one
would not be surprised to find a specimen with no trace of ciliation. Further, L. nootkatensis,
L. subalpinus, and other species may or may not have ciliated keels, and it is possible that L.
arcticus had been described without any attempt to investigate its range of variation.
Several of our specimens come very near L. nootkatensis, and it is possible they may yet
prove to belong to this species. If this turns out to be the case, it will also prove that several
of the above-mentioned species are only environmental forms, or at most mere varieties of this
species.
Of course, there is no reason why L. nootkatensis (usually looked on as a Coast plant) may
not also be found in the mountains, especially in such a situation as the Garibaldi region, and
in the mountains to the north of Vancouver, where this same lupine is found. It is common
in various parts of the world to find maritime species associated with alpine or sub-alpine
species, and instances of this are not unknown in British Columbia.
When the geology of the district is taken into account, there is good reason to believe that
the Garibaldi specimens may prove  to be L. nootkatensis.
Dr. E. Burwash has shown that this region was formed by volcanic action, during which
the lavas have been deposited on a raised beach now between 2,000 and 3,000 feet above sea-
level. 0 66 British Columbia   ' 1915
By a curious coincidence the lupines on Black Mountain near Vancouver and in the
Garibaldi region appear at an altitude of approximately 3,000 feet, though in the Garibaldi
region they are more abundant at an altitude of 5,500 feet, having been forced up> by their
more successful competitors of the lowlands.
Relation to Environment.
From a careful study of the conditions under which they grow, it is evident that these
lupines readily respond to a change of environment.    (Fig. 58.)
In deep black soil with abundant moisture they grow about 2 feet high, the other parts in
proportion. The leaflets are oblanceolate, varying from acute to obtuse, usually with a distinct
mucro, though this may be absent.
In such a habitat the pubescence is sparsely villous or pilose, accompanied by a finer
canescence. In the more moist, shady habitats the pilose hairs are absent and the plant becomes
sparsely canescent to glabrate.
Compare this with the forms found on exposed slopes where few other plants can compete
with them, such as in pockets, near the base of a rock-slide, with a south-west exposure. It
is evident that its deep root system enables it to get sufficient moisture from what appears to
be a dry and hot habitat. The plants in such a situation are only from 6-8 inches in height,
the leaflets reduced in proportion, some becoming obovate and obtuse; add to this the dense
spreading villous pubescence—some plants being quite hoary—and we have a plant which no
one at first sight would consider to be the same species as those found in the rich, moist, and
shady habitats.
There are so many points of difference between the two extremes that they could be
described as well-marked species ; but the intermediate forms found around and adjacent to
those two environments complete the series of transitions from one to the other, rendering it
impossible for one familiar with the plants as they grow in field to separate them into more
than environmental forms.
If a description was drawn up to include all these variations it is certain that several
" species " would be united together under one specific name. By doing this one might be
able to retain the relationships of the various lupines under varietal names, whereas at present,
as soon as a lupine reaches a certain degree of variation, it becomes more closely " related " to
some other "species."
A series of between thirty and forty specimens was obtained, and, from this, one is able
to separate them into five groups, the plants in each group agreeing in certain characters, but
characters which are so liable to vary as to be of no value as points upon which to segregate
species.
The accompanying table shows the range of variation in the five groups, and a considerable degree of variation is shown amongst the specimens of each group.    (Fig. 59.) Fig.  58.    The lupines as they grow  in  good  soil  in a  sheltered  situation  with
plenty of moisture on slopes of Black Tusk.     (Photo by W. Park.)  5 Geo. 5
Botanical Report.
O 67
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(The co-operation and assistance of other botanists in procuring specimens of our Western
lupines from all localities and habitats would be much appreciated.)
Empetrum, nigrum, Linn.
Castletowers Bidge and Empetrum Beak.
Pachystima Myrsinites, Bursh.
Panorama Bidge, 5,500 feet.
Acer glabrum, Torr.
Common along Stony Creek and around Stony Lake.
Acer macrophyllum, Pursh.
Common on the lowlands along Pemberton Trail.
Acer circinatum, Pursh.
Common on the lowlands near Pemberton Trail.
Rhammus Purshiana, DC.
Frequent along Pemberton Trail.
Viola palustris, Linn.
In Helmet Valley. (These specimens are the most typical I have obtained from any
part of the Province. Most of our former " marsh-violets " seem to belong to closely allied
species.)
Epilobiwm paniculatum, Nutt.
Stony Creek.
Epilobium augustifolium, Linn.
Black Tusk Valley and Stony Creek.
Epilobium latifolium, Linn.
Near Helmet Glacier * Black Tusk slopes ; Stony Creek ; near Sphinx Glacier.
Epilobium luteum, Pursh.
Stony Creek.     Common, but local.
Epilobium Hornemanii, Reichen.
Stony Creek, along with E. paniculata.
Epilobium alpinum, Linn.
Black Tusk slopes; near Sphinx Glacier.
Epilobium minutum, Lindl.
Stony Creek.
Falsia horrida, Benth & Hook.
Common along Bemberton Trail.
Osmorhiza nuda, Torr.
Mimulus Creek ; Black Tusk slopes.
(Enanthe sarmentosa, Presl.
Common by Pemberton Trail.
Heracleum lanaturn, Michx.
Black Tusk slopes, Helmet Valley, etc.
Comus canadensis, Linn.
Common along Pemberton Trail and on lower slopes of Black Tusk.
Pyrola picta, Smith.
Pemberton Trail and above Stony Creek. 5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. O 69
Pyrola secunda, Linn.
Pemberton Trail and on lower slopes of Black Tusk.
Pyrola rotundifolia bracteata. Gray.
Common all along Pemberton Trail and foot-hills of Black Tusk.
Moneses uniftora, Linn.
Frequent on foot-hills of Black Tusk.
Chimaphila umbellata (Linn.), Nutt.
Common along Pemberton Trail and on foot-hills of Black Tusk.
Allotropa virgata, Torr & Gray.
Foot-hills of Black Tusk.
Monotropa uniftora, Linn.
Frequent along Pemberton Trail.
Cladothamnus pyrolaeftorus, Bong.
Very common about 3,500 feet and associated with the white rhododendron and tall
blueberry.
Rhododendron albiflorum, Hook.
Very common on foot-hills of Black Tusk from 3,500 to 5,500 feet. There is considerable
variation in the colour of the corolla of this species, from practically pure white to a yellowish
or creamy white, the anterior and two lateral petals often having a few yellowish or orange-
coloured spots, which are usually pale in the whiter flowers or absent altogether. There is
considerable variation also in the number of flowers, according to the nature of the soil and the
exposure to sunlight. Plants in shade are usually less floriferous.
Menziesia glabella, Gray.
Common along Pemberton Trail, and on foot-hills of Black Tusk.
Loiseleuria procumbens, Desv.
Castletowers Ridge.
Kalmia glauca micropihylla, Hook.
Helmet Valley ; Castletowers Ridge.
Bryanthus empetriformis, A. Gray.
Common above 4,000 feet.
Bryanthus empetriformis intermedins, Gray.
Castletowers; Black Tusk slopes. (I agree with Dr. P. A. Rydberg in believing this to
be a hybrid, as in all the areas where this was found it was associated with both B. empetriformis and B. glanduliftorus.)
Bryanthus glanduliflorus, Gray.    (Fig. 19, Report I.)
Common near perpetual snow and in the vicinity of glaciers on Panorama Ridge and
Black Tusk.
Cassiope Mertensiana, Bong.
Common above 5,000 feet.
Gaultheria shallon, Pursh.
Common everywhere up to 2,000 feet.
Gaultheria Myrsinites, Hook.
Common on foot-hills of Black Tusk and on Panorama Ridge up to 5,500 feet.
Vaccinium macrophyllum (Hook), Piper.
Foot-hills of Black Tusk, constituting the underbrush from 3,500 up to 5,000 feet, and
often associated with Cladothamnus and Rhododendron. O 70 British Columbia 1915
Vaccinium eaespitosum, Michx.
Common on Black Tusk slopes and in Helmet Valley and Panorama Ridge.
Gentiana glauca, Pall.
Gentian Ridge near Castletowers.
Apocynum androsaemifolium, Linn.
Very common along Pemberton Trail near the beginning.
Phlox Douglasii, Hook.    (Fig. 14, Report I.)
Panorama Ridge • Black Tusk ; Empetrum Bidge ; near Sphinx Glacier.    (The Garibaldi
specimens are intermediate between the type and the var. diffusa (Gray).    Specimens of this
species collected on " The Lions " near Vancouver show the calyx almost glabrous, but one can
usually find a few long white hairs present.)
Collomia heterophylla, Hook.
Frequent along Pemberton Trail.    (Probably introduced to this district by "horse-feed,"
as a few stray plants of oats are found here and there along the trail.)
Polemonium confertum, Gray.
Frequent on southern rocky slopes of Castletowers Ridge, overlooking Sphinx Glacier.
Phacelia sericea, Gray.
Black Tusk and Panorama Ridge.
Romanzoffia sitchensis, Bong.
On Corrie Ridge (north slopes).
Micromeria Douglasii, Benth.
Frequent along Pemberton Trail and on foot-hills of Black Tusk.
Pentstemon diffusus, Dougl.
Common along Bemberton Trail to Stony Creek, also found on Sentinel Bidge (5,000 feet).
Pentstemon Menziesii, Hook.
Black Tusk; Panorama Ridge ; Pemberton Trail; near Sphinx Glacier.
Pentstemon confertus var. ccerulea-purpureus, Gray.
Panorama Ridge, Helmet Valley, Black Tusk slopes, etc.
Mimulus Lewisii, Pursh.
Moraine near Sphinx, Mimulus Creek, Helmet Valley, etc.
Mimulus alsmoides, Dougl.
Rare, Pemberton Trail.
Veronica alpina, Linn.
Common on slopes of Black Tusk, etc., from 4,600 to 5,500 feet.
Castilleia miniata, Dougl.
Common, Black Tusk slopes; near Sphinx Glacier.
Castilleia angustifolia, Nutt.
Frequent on Black Tusk slopes, etc.
Castilleia pallescens, Greenman.
Common on Black Tusk Valley.
Pedicularis bracteosa, Benth.
Common on Black Tusk slopes above 5,000 feet.
Pedicularis racemosa, Dougl.
Near Stony Lake and near Camp, 4,000 to 5,200 feet.    Locally common. 5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. 0 71
Boschniakia strobilacea, Gray.
On foot-hills of Black Tusk; a parasite on roots of salal.
Sambucus racemosa, Linn.
Common along Pemberton Trail.
Symphoricarpos racemosus, Michx.
Common along Pemberton Trail.
Linnaea borealis longifiora, Torr.
Common along Pemberton Trail and on foot-hills of Black Tusk.
Lonicera caerulea, Linn.
On slopes of Panorama Bidge near Mimulus Creek.    One specimen was found in flower
which seemed to differ from the others in having absolutely glabrous leaves of a thinner
texture, more resembling L. ulahensis (Wats.), but, as no fruits were found, it cannot be with
certainty recorded as such.
Valeriana sitchensis, Bong.
Common from 4,000 to 5,800 feet.
Campanula rotundfolia, Linn.
Pemberton Trail; Castletowers.    (The plants found at 7,000 feet were much dwarfed.)
Aplopappus Lyallii, Gray.
Common on higher mountains, Panorama Ridge, Black Tusk, etc., 6,000 to  7,000 feet;
near Sphinx Glacier.
Solidago multiradiata, Gray.
Panorama Ridge, Black Tusk, etc., about 6,000 feet; near Sphinx Glacier.
Aster foliaceus, Lindl.
Stony Lake; Lesser Garibaldi Lake, Black Tusk slopes, 4,400 to 5,500 feet. (Those
specimens collected at the lower altitudes are taller, no doubt due to a longer growing period,
greater protection, a more abundant supply of water, and better soil. The specimens found
at the higher altitudes are dwarf and exhibit considerable variation, showing a gradual
transition between the extreme forms. It is probable that some of the " varieties" or so-
called " closely allied species " may be represented by some of these variations.
Erigeron salsuginosus, Gray.
Common in Black Tusk slopes and Helmet Valley.
Erigeron acris, Linn.
Barrier, Stony Creek, and Sphinx Glacier.
Erigeron compositus, Pursh.
Panorama Ridge, Black Tusk, etc.    Common, but local.
Erigeron compositus discoideus, Gray.
Panorama Ridge; Sphinx Glacier.
Antennaria rosea, Greene.
Sentinel Ridge ; Corrie Ridge ; near Sphinx Glacier.
Antennaria lanata, Greene.
Panorama Ridge ; Corrie Ridge; Black Tusk.
Antennaria media, Greene.
Panorama Ridge; Black Tusk.
Anaphalis margaritacea, Benth. & Hook.
Common along Pemberton Trail to Stony Creek. 0 72 British Columbia 1915
Achillea millefolium, Linn.
Castletowers Ridge, 7,000 feet.
Artemisia norvegica var. longepedunculata, Rudolphi (Comb. nov.).
Panorama Ridge and various places in the region of Helmet Glacier. There seems to be
considerable difference of opinion regarding the nomenclature of this species in Western
botanical works. In Gray's & Coulter's "Western Botany" our plant is described under A.
norvegica (Fries). In Professor C. V. Piper's " Flora of the State of Washington" it is
referred to A. longepedunculata (Rudolphi), and A. norvegica pacifica (Gray) is given as a
synonym. In Coulter & Nelson's "Manual of Rocky Mountain Botany" it is called A.
saxicola (Rydb.), and A. norvegica is given as a synonym, followed by a statement to the effect
that "true A. norvegica does not occur on this continent."
As there are vast areas of unexplored mountainous country in our northern regions, no
one is justified in making such a sweeping assertion; and, if it has not'been found, there
seems no reason why it may not yet be collected.
In this connection it is interesting to note that several of the plants associated with our
specimens belong to species common to Europe and North America, such as Silene acaulis,
Empetrum nigrum, and Loiseleuria procumbens.
If our specimens are not mere variations of true A. norvegica, and if they are to be
regarded as belonging to a distinct species, I agree with Professor Piper in adopting the oldest
name, A. longepedunculata (Rudolphi); but I see no reason why it should be separated from
A. norvegica. In this view I am supported by the " Index Kewensis," which turns down A.
longepeduncidata to A. norvegica.
There is no doubt that this species has a wide range of variation, both in regard to
pubescence and the length of the peduncles. In our specimens some of the capitula are
almost sessile, while others are borne on pedicels of varying lengths up to 70 mm., and this
amount of variation may be found even on one plant.
In the description of A. norvegica the pubescence is given from villous to glabrate ; most
of our specimens are sparsely pilose, and there seems no doubt but that specimens collected
near Mount Robson, B.C., and described by Mr. Paul C. Standley as a new species under the
name Artemisia laevigata, are merely glabrate forms of the above, not being sufficiently
glabrous to be referred to A. Parryi (Gray), which is absolutely glabrous in all its parts,
including the corolla.
One of our specimens is perfectly glabrous in all its parts except the few hairs on the
corolla; if they too had disappeared it would, according to some botanists, have then been
referred to another species (A. Parryi, Gray).
The occasional pubescence on the corolla of the so-called " A. laevigata " serves to connect
A. Parryi with our species, and I think Professor Nelson, in his revision of Coulter's "Flora,"
is right in regarding A. Parryi merely as a variety instead of as a separate species.
In a communication received from James M. Macoun, Esq. (Curator of the Dominion
Government Herbarium at Ottawa), regarding Artemisia longepedunculata, he says : "I must
confess that, while the name may be good for extreme forms, we have intermediate specimens
that make me doubt whether the whole thing is not A. norvegica," and he informs me that he
collected his series " from between Vancouver Island and Behring Straits, where we find true
norvegica."
Believing that true A. norvegica does occur on this continent, and knowing the wide
range of variation in our specimens. I can only regard them at the most as a variety of A.
norvegica, not being sufficiently distinct to entitle them to specific rank. Fig   60.    Variation in Artemisia.    (1)  Heads almost sessile;  (2,  3, and 4)  variation in length
of pedicels ;   (5)   glabrous form.
Fig.  01.    Variation of Senecio.    Note bases of leaves,  number of capitula,  length  of pedicels,
and size of cauline leaves.  5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. O 73
As the name longepedunculata was applied to our plant before Dr. Gray gave the name
A. norvegica var. pacifica, it seems to me that the new combination A. norvegica longepedunculata (Rudolphi) is in accordance with the Vienna Rules, and the following are evidently
synonyms :—
Artemisia longepedunculata, Rudolphi.     1834.
ii norvegica pacifica, Gray.     1884.
ii saxicola, Rydberg.    1905.
ii laevigata, Standley.    1912.
Petasites nivalis, Greene.
Stony Lake and Black Tusk.
Arnica Parryi, Gray.
Near south end of Garibaldi Lake; near Sphinx Glacier.
Arnica laevigata, Greene.
Black Tusk slopes, etc.
Arnica alpina, Linn.
Black Tusk slopes, etc.
Arnica cordifolia, Hook.
Black Tusk Slopes and Helmet Valley.
Senecio triangularis, Hook.
Stony Lake, Black Tusk, etc.
Senecio Fremontii, Torr. & Gray.
East slopes of Black Tusk; moraine of Sphinx Glacier; north-east of Helmet Glacier.
(Our specimens have the typical glabrous and angular fruits.)
Senecio aureus var. discoideus, Hook.    (Fig. 60.)
Panorama Ridge; near Helmet Glacier; also near Sphinx Glacier. Senecio aureus of
Linneaus seems to be about as polymorphic a species as any species could well be; indeed, this
is admitted by most botanists who have done any work on it. Dr. Gray endeavoured to
separate the different forms into varieties based more or less on the height of the plant, the
shape of the radical leaves, and occasionally by the particular shade of yellow exhibited in the
flowers. Since then other botanists including Dr. P. A. Rydberg, Professor E. L. Greene,
Professor J. M. Greenman, and others, have set to work to mark off certain limits of variation,
and apply specific names to those forms which come within those limits.
Each seems to have done his best to segregate those species according to the characters
which he considered of most importance, and when each individual's work has been studied by
itself, one feels that not a little has been done towards the segregation of the numerous forms
into at least well-marked varieties, if not into species. (Professor Greene, in " Pittonia," IV.,
page 115, considers S. aureus as "an aggregate of some dozen or two of species." ) But when
one compares one's specimens with the different descriptions of the so-called "species" or
varieties as supplied by the various authors, one sees the futility of the attempts to delimit
the various forms by laying importance on characters which are so liable to vary according to
the environment of the particular specimen.
The specimens found at' Garibaldi, and which I have referred to S. aureus discoideus
(Hook.), seem to vary so much in minor details that some of them might easily be referred to
other varieties or so-called " species "; that is to say, they do not show all the particular
degrees of variation to place them exactly within the limits of one of those species or varieties
which have been so artificially defined. O 74 British Columbia 1915
According to Piper's " Flora of Washington," our plant is S. pauciflorus (Pursh). The
"Index Kewensis" refers iS1. pauciflorus to S. auretis; and Britton and Brown's "Flora of
North America " (latest edition) gives S. pauciflorus as a synonym of S. aureus ; yet Professor
Piper distinguishes S. pauciflorus by its discoid heads, whereas S. aureus is given as having
conspicuous rays. According to Britton and Brown's " Flora of North America " and Coulter
and Nelson's "Manual of the Rocky Mountains," our plant is S. discoideus (Hook.), Britt. &
Br., and S. aureus discoideus (Hook.) is given as a synonym; while in Gray and Coulter's
" Manual of the Bocky Mountains " our specimens connect S. aureus borealis with S. aureus
crocceus. (The latter is raised to specific rank by Professor Rydberg under the name S.
crocatus.) The majority of our specimens had absolutely no trace of ray florets; but, on
minute examination, two or three specimens were found with small inconspicuous rays, shorter
than, or scarcely exceeding, the bracts of the involucre.
Regarding the colour, I am of the opinion that this depends largely on environment,
because the majority of specimens found in proximity to glaciers had a rich brownish-orange or
copper colour, while the majority of those growing in more sheltered places were much lighter,
ranging to pale yellow. The colour, however, was not invariable, there being exceptions in
both habitats.
Regarding the comparative size of radical and cauline leaves, our specimens vary greatly.
Some are well supplied with radical leaves corresponding in size and shape to S. aureus
discoideus, but most of them have crenate-serrate margins instead of sharply serrate.
This seems to connect those crenate-dentate forms with the sharply serrate ones. Other
specimens showed only remnants of radical leaves, small and withered, while the cauline leaves
were greatly developed, giving the plant an entirely different appearance. This is a frequent
form, and I think can be explained by the probability that an early disappearance of snow
allowed the radical leaves to develop, and, while still young, as the result of freezing winds,
they were destroyed. It is natural, therefore, that the remaining food-store should be utilized
by the only other available leaves—the cauline ones—resulting in a different-looking plant.
The peduncles, too, in our specimens vary from almost sessile to over 7 cm. in length.
Several live plants were brought  out to be grown in  the Botanical Nursery for future
study on variation,  and  also to observe the relation of the change of environment on the
presence or absence of rav florets.
Senecio lugens, Richards.
Black Tusk slopes.
Carduus edulis, Greene.
Black Tusk slopes and Helmet Valley.
Taraxacum scopulorum (Gray), Ryd.
Gentian Ridge.
Troximon glaucum dasycephalum, Torr. & Gray.
Black Tusk.
Troximon glaucum parviflorum, Gray.
Moraine of Sphinx Glacier.
Troximon aurantiacum, Hook.
Empetrum Ridge and Black Tusk slopes.
Crepis nana, Richards.
Between Black Tusk and Empetrum Ridge.
Hieracium gracile, Hook.
Black Tusk slopes, near Garibaldi Lake, etc. 5 Geo. 5 Botanical Report. O 75
(10.) Botanical Research.
During the identification of plants for the Herbarium and for correspondents, it has been
necessary to note from time to time certain species or groups of species which require to be
studied more fully in the field. This is often due to the lack of information on important
points in the descriptions of many of our native species, or to undue prominence being laid on
characters of little value on account of their variability.
It is hoped that by bringing all our field observations and all our available literature and
information to a focus a little more light will be got regarding each of the selected species.
The notes incorporated in the list of Garibaldi plants and in other parts of the report may be
of service in prompting other botanists to co-operate by supplying the results of their field
observations, so that we may come to a fuller knowledge of the variation of species under-
different conditions.
If botanists would take a wider view of the distribution and variation of species, our
" Floras" would soon get rid of much of the confusion which at present exists regarding
certain genera. It is when one specializes in some particular genus that this chaos is most
felt, and specialists have repeatedly stated that the further they pursue their investigations,
the deeper they find the confusion.
The research on the genus Newberrya, summarized in last year's report, has supplied
information and data which by having ascertained the true structure of the pistil will
necessitate the modification of its generic characters. The clearing-up of this point, which
has remained obscure since 1855, enabled us to record our plant definitely as Newberrya
congesta (Torr.). This constitutes another new record for British Columbia, and, as far as can
be ascertained, a new record for Canada.
Following the study of the range of variation in this species, I ventured to suggest that
various other species of this genus were merely forms of the same plant in different stages or
from different habitats ; and after the publication of the data a communication was received
from Professor W. L. Jepson, of the University of California, supporting this suggestion. It
is therefore likely that in the near future we will see most, if not all, of our Western species
of Newberrya included as synonyms of Newberrya congesta, thus clearing up some of the
confusion which has resulted through describing new species from insufficient or immature
specimens.
It is hoped that some of the work done on other species this year may ultimately lead to
a similar result.
(11.) Publications.
On account of the lateness in issuing our first report—being well into the month of
August—and owing to the extra pressure of office-work during the collecting season, no other
publications have been issued this year.
As there is an increasing demand from teachers and other correspondents for information
on the collection and preservation of plants for the Herbarium, it is expected that before next
summer a beginning will be made with the series of leaflets, so that collectors may make the
most of their opportunities during the season.
The series on this subject will supply modern methods on the selection and preservation
of material, so that all the preparations in our school herbaria or private herbaria may be of
standard size and in conformity with those in the Provincial Herbarium.
It is expected that sufficient material will be available after this year's Dry Belt collection
has been worked out to make a commencement with the bulletin series, as referred to in
section 8 of the report. 0 76 British Columbia Botanical Report. 1915
It is proposed to supply details regarding the flora and to give the results of field observations on one or two particular species ; at the same time, the information gathered concerning
the plants used by the Indians of that region may prove useful, as well as interesting,
(12.)   Acknowledgments.
Before concluding the second report of the Botanical Office, I beg to acknowledge the
co-operation and valued assistance of several well-known botanists who have shown their interest
in our work by examining some of our critical species or by supplying specimens for comparison
with ours.
The following are amongst those to whom our thanks are due : Professor W. L. Jepson,
University of California, for enabling us to obtain specimens of Amelanchier glabra for future
research; Professor E. L. Greene, for the examination of some critical species, helping us in
their determination; Professor A. S. Hitchcock, Professor C. V. Piper, and Dr. M. O. Malte,
for assistance in verifying our identification of grasses ; Professor C. S. Sargent, for identifying
cones of Abies; Sir David Prain, Kew, for seeds of special grasses for the Botanical Garden ;
Wm. R. Maxon, Esq., United States National Herbarium, for loan of herbarium specimens of
Amelanchier for comparison.
Respectfully submitted.
JOHN DAVIDSON,
Provincial Botanist.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by William H.  Cullix, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1915.

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