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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS FOR THE YEAR ENDING… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1915

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPOBT
OP
THE FOEEST BEANCH
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. WILLIAM  R.  ROSS,  K.C.,  Minister
H. R. MACMILLAN, Chief Forester
FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 3 1st
1914
THEGOVERNMENTOF
THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by William H.  Ctjllin, Printer to tho King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1915.  Victoria, B.C., January 28th, 1915.
To His Honour Franks Stillman Barnard,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Yopr Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Branch
of my Department for the year ending December Slst, 1914.
WILLIAM R. ROSS,
Minister of Lands.  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH,
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
December 31st, 1914.
Hon. William R. Ross, K.G.,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Four matters made the year 1914 remarkable from the point of view of forest administration in this Province. The first was the passage of the " Timber Royalty Act," which defined,
for half a century ahead, the stumpage price of Crown timber; the second was the strenuous
and successful struggle with one of the worst Are seasons ever experienced in the West; thirdly,
in spite of the unprecedented conditions created by wars and financial depression, the forest
revenue was well over $2,000,000; while, fourthly, previous conjectures as to the large amount
of timber remaining in the Crown reserve were confirmed by the results of exploration.
The " Timber Royalty Act" attracted widespread attention on account of its bold application
of the modern legislative theory which calls for the retention by the State of a due share in
the unearned increment upon natural resources. By establishing a sliding scale under which
the Government is assured a full proportion of future increases in the selling-price of lumber,
the Act made it possible for the Government to give stability of tenure to the lumbermen without
injury to the public interest. Financial institutions are now able to accept timber licences as
permanent investments. There is no doubt but that the added strength which has been given to
British Columbia timber titles by this Act was of great effect during the stress of the past few
months in maintaining faith in this, the most important, class of Provincial securities and in
enabling investors and manufacturers to meet their obligations.
The fire season was one of the worst in the history of the West, being comparable in most
ways with that of 1910. But although there were more fires in 1914 than in any year on record,
they resulted in far less damage than has occurred in many previous seasons; a gratifying
result to which the efficiency of the patrol and fire-fighting system of the Province undoubtedly
contributed. We have only to observe the effect of weather conditions in the American States
to the south of us to realize how strenuous conditions were. Over $1,600,000 was expended there
upon timbered areas no larger than those of this Province, and yet the cost to British Columbia
did not exceed $400,000 for fire-fighting and patrol. Property damage was estimated at about
the same amount.
Future forest revenue will depend upon the protection from fire of the young forest now
in various stages of maturity on the non-agricultural lands of the Province. This young growth,
together with the large quantities of unalienated mature timber, will in a very few years be
required for use and become valuable. The present fund available for fire-protection is not
sufficient to protect such areas from fire. The direct interest of the public is so great in the
protection of these timber lands, some of which will begin producing revenue in a very few
years, that as the fire hazard increases in their vicinity it may become necessary to ask that a
larger Government contribution be made toward the cost of their protection.
But a portion of the Province has so far been covered by the forest survey of the past three
seasons, yet the merchantable timber definitely located in the Crown reserve already reaches
a considerable total. The boundaries of no less than 954,950 acres of unalienated statutory
timber land have been established on the official maps of the Province, without including any of
the areas covered by reconnaissance during the past season. The preliminary reports concerning
the latter show that an additional 30,000,000,000 feet of timber were located by our field parties
in 1914; and when the full reports have been tabulated the Crown reserve will receive a further
most satisfactory increase on account of unalienated timber that is included in this large stand.
The market problem confronting the lumber industry and the Government's efforts to assist
in solving it, are dealt with in the following report.    The first hint of war temporarily paralysed I 6 Department op Lands. 1915
building operations in the market supplied from the Pacific Coast. The lumber industry, which
was in a weak condition following the inflation of a year ago, was brought to a dead halt. The
effects are now felt in every community throughout the Province by every class of the population, for this industry furnished our greatest export product, met the adverse balance of trade
in every community, and provided settlers with a market for both their labour and their produce.
In the majority of the villages and towns in the Province prosperity will return quickest through
revival in the lumber business. There is no lack of timber to cut; there is no lack of mills to
cut it. It is the market that must be sought, both in Canada east of the Rockies and in the
United States from the Mississippi Valley eastward, in Australia and the Orient, and to a certain
extent in Europe. An aggressive campaign for the capture of these markets is now under way
iu the North-western States, lumber manufacturers and the Federal Government pushing it
together. I cannot too strongly urge that the most important duty of the Forest Branch at the
present time is to assist in extending the markets for British Columbia's forest products. If the
present opportunity is lost the lumber industry of this Province will have a long uphill fight in
establishing its position.
"ROYALTY ACT."
In 1888, when the Legislature first dealt in a comprehensive way with the disposal of Crown
timber, a royalty of 50 cents per 1,000 feet B.M. was established as the standard figure for
stumpage upon all logs cut for sawmilling purposes in the Province. It was not until the timber
asset of British Columbia took on a new importance, with the issue of licences covering some
14,000 square miles during the years 1905-6-7, that the question of readjusting the stumpage rate
was brought forward. In issuing those timber-cutting licences it was expressly provided that
the royalty to be paid when logs were cut was not to be any fixed amount, but w7as to be subject
to increase at the discretion of the Legislature, so that as the commercial value of the timber
increased the Provincial Treasury should receive its due proportion of the increment. A
proposal to make an immediate increase of 25 cents in the royalty was brought forward soon
after this, but the financial depression of 1908 caused the matter to be postponed until the
end of 1912, when a revision of the Act was made and submitted to the Legislature at the
beginning of the following year. The draft proposal was for certain fixed increases fo be made
in the royalty during the ensuing period of ten years. This tentative proposal formed a basis
for keen discussion, and in the upshot it was decided to postpone legislation for a year. Investigation of the whole subject was carried on until in February last the result was embodied in
the " Timber Royalty Act."
Since under the system of timber licences the Crown and the licensees share between them
the stumpage value of the timber held, the main object of the Act was to define the terms of
the partnership. As security of tenure was essential for the development of the lumbering
business, it was necessary to provide for a long term of years. Future changes in stumpage
values, however, can only be guessed. Hence a sliding scale had to be devised in order that
the stumpage obtained by the Government in time to come might reflect any change in timber
values, up or down.
Since these values are the difference between selling-price and cost of manufacture an exact
determination of royalty could only be made after a complete audit of the books of every
operating concern. As a practical matter the sliding scale had to be based on some simpler
method than this, and accordingly the average selling-price of lumber was taken as the barometer
of stumpage value. A certain initial increase, to take effect at the year's end, was made in
the existing royalty; no further increase was to be made until the selling-price of lumber had
passed the $18 level; and the future was provided for by enacting that the stumpage payable
to the Crown at any future date should be the 1915 royalty plus a certain percentage of the
increase in the average selling-price of lumber over $18.
This " Timber Royalty Act" attracted a great deal of attention in other countries, and was
much discussed in the press as an important example of advanced legislation. A summary of
its provisions is as follows:—
1915-19:    Royalty, 85 cents and 50 cents on grade, for Coast districts;  50 cents on
British Columbia rule for Southern Interior; 65 cents for Northern Interior.
1920-24:    Royalty increased by not more than 25 per cent, of any increase over $18 in
average selling-price of lumber. 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
1 7
1925-29: 30 per cent, of increase over $18.
1930-34: 30 per cent, of increase over $18.
1935-39: 35 per cent, of increase over $18.
1940-44: 35 per cent, of increase over $18.
1945-49: 40 per cent, of increase over $18.
1950-55: 40 per cent, of increase over $18.
In order to obtain the necessary data upon which this sliding scale will be based, the average
wholesale selling-price of lumber in the Province must be ascertained each year.
ORGANIZATION.
Distribution op Total Force, British Columbia Forest Branch, 1914.
Permanent.
Temporary.
G
u
d
g
'0
s
Forest District.
t3 +3
up
,0-2
02
0>
o
rM
rJ.
O
'£
in «j
S|
i~    tri
5 p
M %
crj
C
ca
on
'S3
£
r/J
tr
OJ
'ri
OJ
'3
to
B
3J
1
s,
05
QrS
£ 0
0)
0
c
0
C
rt
c
|
0
0
a
Cj
O
rt
If
? s
rfS
So
Is
0
H
-d
c
rt
D
3
Cl
o
k,
03
1
<j
K
r-l
0
P4
iA
K
a
l
l
l
l
1
2
3
5
21
28
12
1
7
2
16
1
44
Fort George ,	
60
i
i
l
l
1
2
4
3
' 2
23
IS
1
5
4
35
3
35
i
l
1
3
11
4
1
29
l
l
i
l
l
l
1
1
2
4
3
10
22
1
42
1
9
1
25
73
20
i
l
7
7
16
l
l
1
7
1
38
15
20
13
18
'■•,■
7
5
2
7
"3'
27
12
9
35
2
4
6
4
1
15
78
60
Victoria Headquarters	
5
83
ii
Totals	
5
1
55
34
16
190
112
12
5
49
23
558
Areas of Administrative and Protective Units, 1914.
Forest District.
Total
Land Area.
No. of
Ranger
Districts.
Average
Area,
Ranger
Districts.
No ol
Regular
Guard
Districts.
Average
Area,
Guard
Districts.
Maximum
No.
Guards
and
Patrolmen
during
Season.
Average
Minimum
Area,
Guard and
Patrolmen
Districts.
7,560,000
36,650,000
23,100,000
6,390,000
6,970,000
12,670,000
7,950,000
21,880,000
5,225,000
15,770,000
5,835,000
150,000,000
3
5
4
3
3
2
4
3
1
5
2
2,520,000
7,330,000
5,620,000
2,130,000
2,325,000
6,335,000
1,987,500
7,296,000
5,225,000
3,154,000
2,915,000
21
29
23
19
11
10
22
11
9
24
12
360,000
1,263,793
1,064,348
335,314
633,636
1,267,000
361,363
1,989,091
580,561
657,083
486,625
30
31
24
21
22
11
64
11
9
33
40
252,000
1.182,258
Hazelton	
Island	
962,500
304,286
316,818
1,151,818
124,219
Prince Rupert	
1,989,091
580,561
477,878
126,848
Totals, 1914	
35
4,285,714
191
789,473
302
499,000
Totals, 1913	
150,000,000
34
4,645,454
159
943,396
224
669,464
The work of bringing together and training a. force to carry out the duties placed upon the
Branch by the " Forest Act" has now passed the first preliminary stage. The groundwork of
the organization is complete, and a field force has been developed which is capable of attending
to all the most pressing lines of work. Attention was first, most properly, devoted to putting
revenue collection ou a substantial business basis and to systematic fire-prevention; although I 8
Department op Lands.
1915
a beginning has been made at other work, such as a survey of the forest resources of the
Province, a study of the methods necessary to ensure the highest productivity of forest land,
and an investigation of wider markets for forest products. The Branch is therefore now
entering upon the second stage of development, and can now devote itself henceforth to the
study of ways and means to increase the output and use of forest products. This programme
will be energetically carried out.
The tables presented above give the permanent and temporary force employed during 1914,
with the areas of the guard and patrol districts. No change was made in the number of forest
districts, although minor adjustments of the boundaries were found to be necessary.
On account of the large amount of business transacted in the Vancouver District, it was
necessary to give the District Forester there more assistance, and the position of Deputy District
Forester was created.
The great increase in field-work this year made a corresponding increase in office-work.
The large number of fires, especially in the southern districts, entailed a great amount of
correspondence and other office-work. During the fire season the office staff as well as the field
staff was working overtime. In order to cope with this office-work, and at the same time allow
the District Foresters to be in the field, where it is their business to be, it was necessary to make
a small increase in the office staff, fifty-four persons being thus employed, as against forty-three
in 1913.
The number of Forest Assistants, Cruisers, Rangers, and Scalers remains practically
unchanged from last year. In the temporary force there was a great increase over 1913, the
number of guard districts being increased by thirty. Most of this increase was in the northern
districts, where the opening-up of the country by railways has caused a large influx of people.
Besides this increase in the number of Guards, there was necessary a much greater increase
in   the   number   of  patrolmen,   hired   by   the
FOREST    REVENUE
CANADA
GOV1 EXPENDITURE
0FORESTS.
i\i. rv
month or day during midsummer, when hazard
is greatest, to supplement the regular force.
Altogether the temporary force, including
Guards, patrolmen, canoe-men, packers, and
lookout men (but not Railway Patrolmen, who
•are a special class patrolling only the railway
right-of-way), at the height of the fire season
in 1914 numbered 323, an increase of 99 over
the 284 of 1913. The fact that the Forest
Branch was able to employ a larger force
during the most dangerous part of the year
undoubtedly is one of the chief reasons why
the fire-damage was so small.
The effects of the war have been felt in this
Branch as elsewhere. Both the field and office
staffs have been reduced through enlistment,
seventeen of the permanent force and a considerable number of Guards and patrolmen
having so far undertaken military service.
FOREST REVENUE.
Severe depression existed in the lumber
business in the earlier part of the year under
review, and, coming on top of this, the outbreak of war in August made the conditions
for the collection of revenue during the autumn
unfavourable. Under the circumstances, the
collection of $2,157,019 for the twelve months
ending November SOth is satisfactory.
In the previous year the amount passed
through the books included about $350,000 that
had accumulated in the Trust Deposit Account Geo.
Forest Branch.
I 9
from previous years, and, allowing for this, the net decrease in collections due to the unprecedented financial conditions in 1914 is the comparatively small amount of $325,770.
Revenue taken to account during the fiscal year ending March 30th, 1914, amounted to
$2,612,900. Taking the taxation of private timber lands into account, the total Provincial
revenue from forest sources was $2,698,561.
Statement of Forest Revenue.
12 Months to
December, 1314.
12  Months to
December, 1913.
Timber-licence  rentals   	
Royalty and tax   	
Trespass penalties    "	
Lease rentals	
Scaling fees 	
Scaling  expenses   	
Seizure expenses	
Licence penalties  	
Timber stumpage  	
Transfer fees	
Hand-loggers' licence fees   	
Interest   	
Timber-mark fees	
Timber-sales rentals   	
„ cruising   	
,, advertising	
Scalers'  examination fees   	
Copies of documents  	
Exchange  	
General  miscellaneous   	
Taxation from Crown-grant timber lands .
Total revenue from forest sources
$1,555,980 28
391,118 36
7,170 95
88,792 08
30,472 32
1,805 82
270 90
25.335 00
36 545 33
7,085 00
5,200 00
115 13
508 50
3,477 87
1,550 83
534 05
425 00
569 57
61 96
$2,112,876 18
482,707 05
9,016 95
119,291 44
23,978 99
1,759 41
24,291 00
18.719 92
10,385 00
5,025 00
17,208 84
924 50
2,597 95
1.140 40
691 40
585 00
119 95
1,469 73
$2,157,018 95
$2,832,788 71
$185,661 00
$166 540 00
$2,342,679 95
$2,999,328 71
B.C.FOREST FINANCE.
REVENUE
FOREST PROTECTION
EXPENDITURE
♦IMPROVEMENTS
•SALES
ADMINISTRATIVE
EXPENDITURE
I. CRUISERS
2. HEADQUARTERS I 10
Department of Lands.
1915
District Revenue from Logging Operations.
amount charged.
District.
Royalty
and Tax.
Scaling
Fees.
Trespass
Penalties.
Seizure
Expenses.
Sealing
Expenses.
Stumpage.
Totals.
$ 31,509
15,994
8,161
7,541
3,262
2,384
13,521
1,888
86,700
220,094
36,547
$  "81
352
9
43
25,396
4,186
$1,830
549
166
389
218
779
4,823
60S
3,529
$ 10
377
478
$' 304
67
42
"63
40
1,354
402
$     322
16
16
439
2,422
465
4,804
12,961
8,423
30,187
$ 33,671
Vernon   	
Prince Rupert	
16.S63
8,491
8,763
5,902
3,700
Fort George	
Tete Jaune Cache . .
Cranbrook    	
Island   	
23,525
15,457
95,206
281,038
41,135
Totals	
$427,601
$30,067
$12,891
$865
$2,272
$60,055
$533,751
Special Licences.
Number, December 1st, 191J/.—Number renewable while timber remains, 12,429; number
renewable for fixed period only, 1,255; total, 13,684.
Expiries.—Average expiries in 1913 were 14 per month; average expiries in 1914 were 29
per month. As it happens, the number of expiries has decreased somewhat during the last
half-year.
Surveys.—The number surveyed in 1913 was 1,S79; the number surveyed in 1914 was 2,054.
There remain 6,019 licences still unsurveyed.
Transfers.—Change of ownership was registered in 2,035 cases in 1913; change of ownership was registered in 1,417 cases in 1914.
'  Location of Licences.
Forest District. licences.
Cranbrook      905
Hazelton      560
Kamloops     1,659
Lillooet     53
Nelson     1,300
Prince  Rupert     1,244
Fort George      962
Tete Jaune Cache    1,001
Vernon     325
Vancouver     3,327
Vancouver  Island  2,348
Total     13,684
Total     13,684
East of Cascades       6,919
West of Cascades      6,665
Royalty.
Last year, in spite of the depression, I was able to report a slight increase in the collections
of timber royalty over 1912. In the past twelve months, the general financial condition and the
war resulted in the collection of $467,3S0 as royalty, stumpage, etc., from operations, as against
$536,179 for 1913. Geo.
Forest Branch.
I 11
Estimated District Revenues, 1914.
Cranbrook  $   187,544
Fort George     121,819
Hazelton     70,760
Kamloops     179,896
Lillooet      10,253
Nelson     167,461
Prince Rupert     169,042
Tete Jaune Cache   117,513
Vancouver Island     362,777
Vancouver     720,933
Vernon     49,002
Total  $2,157,000
Crown-grant Timber Lands.
Year.
Area of Private Timber
Lands.
Average
Value
per Acre.
1911	
Acres.
824,814
874,715
922,948
960,464
$8 72
8 60
1912	
1913	
9 02
1914      .	
9 66
The extent and
the following table :-
value of timber laud in the various assessment districts * are shown by
District.
Acreage,
1914.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1913.
Average
Value per
Acre.
Change   in
Value per
Acre since
1913.
Victoria   	
Cowichan	
Alberni	
Nanaimo    	
Comox   	
Rossland   	
Kettle River . .
Slocan   	
Kamloops    . .. .
Vancouver  . ..
Nelson   	
Vernon	
Golden   	
Revelstoke  . ..
Fort Steele  . . .
Totals
17,920
107,261
44,718
77,463
216,634
28,704
6,041
47,368
7,428
182,013
6,473
77,974
48,599
91,868
+ 579
+ 38,152
— 15
— 6,736
— 2,709
— 681
No change
+ 15,600
— 4,960
No change
— 360
+ 1,781
+ 27
+ 1
— 3,163
$12 84
13 88
18 59
13 06
14 11
4 26
3 00
5 28
15 72
3 75
3 89
3 86
11 43
6 43
—0.46
— 1.00
+ 3.14
+2.01
+ 1.57
—0.24
No change
—2.58
+6.69
— 0.07
+ 0.83
+ 0.01
—0.04
+0.02
060,464
17,516
9 66
-0.64
* It should be noted that these are different from the forest districts.
Expenditure. i
In addition to the Government's contribution of $166,000 to the Forest Protection Fund, the
sums voted for forest-work during 1914 were:—
Vote   10—Salaries      $202,636
„    296—Miscellaneous     129,700
„     292—Exhibits, export lumber trade   15,000
„     293—" Royalty   Act"     7,500
„     294—Forest products investigations    10,000
„    295—Vancouver Exhibition   3,000
Total   $367,836 I 12
Department of Lands.
1915
Of this amount, about $28,000 is refunded to the Treasury by the collection of scaling fees.
Retrenchment carried out in view of prevailing conditions will, it is estimated, result in an
economy of 30 per cent, of this total.
General Administrative Expenditure.*
(Fiscal Year ending March 31st, 1915.)
Headquarters     $ 85,828
Field staff    22,308
Launches     10,877
Cranbrook      9,834
Fort  George     12,300
Hazelton    7,689
Island  8,977
Kamloops     8,841
Lillooet     5,534
Nelson     9,034
Prince Rupert   11,834
Tete Jaune Cache    4,706
Vancouver     49,498
Vernon  6,944
Total  $254,204
* Expenditure for last four months of fiscal year being estimated.
As the accounting system was organized for the most part in 1913, there is comparatively
little change to comment on except its gradual extension. During the past twelve months a cost
system has been installed in order that expenditure may be closely analysed. Launch expenditure, for instance, shows cost per mile of engine fuel and supplies, and similar matters.
Forest Protection Fund.
At April there was remaining from the previous fiscal year a credit balance of $26,856. The
Government vote for the year was $166,000, while from licences (8,460,000,000 acres), leases
(945,000 acres), and private timber lands (1,669,199 acres) there was due an equal amount;
and the total fund available for the year was thus estimated at $359,082. The plans for the
season allotted the surplus from the previous year for improvements, and $232,000 for patrol,
leaving a balance of approximately $100,000 available for fighting fires. The unusually heavy
cost of fire-fighting caused by the severe season experienced will cause a deficit of $21,000 on
the year.
Total Expenditure.
1913.
1914.
Patrol    	
Improvements   . .
Fires    	
Totals
$205,000
104,000
9,600
$318,600
$223,239
27,505
144,014
$394,758
It should be noted that about $1S,000 of this total for 1914 has been expended on behalf of
railway companies, and will be refunded. 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 13
* Note.—Black square for Vancouver Island expenditure   represents   $11,005,   the   other   squares   being
drawn to same scale to represent expenditure in other districts.     (Refer to statement of costs below.)
Forest Protection Fund, 1914.
Patrol.
Improvements.
Fires.
Total.
Headquarters . .
Cranbrook ....
Fort George  . . .
Hazelton   	
Island   	
Kamloops   	
Lillooet   	
Nelson   	
Prince Rupert .
Tete Jaune ....
Vancouver ....
Vernon    	
Totals
1913 	
f. 8,370
18,720
37,615
19,945
17,317
14,566
13,173
23,895
10,989
8,230
32,424
18,065
$223,309
205,000
$1,375
421
1,528
3,880
6,582
2,246
9,845
1,628
$25,194
1,717
1,113
11,005
21,113
123
48,970
427
983
10,007
23,362
? 27,505
104,000
$144,014
9,600
$ 8.370
45,289
39,753
22,586
32,202
42,261
13,296
75,111
11,416
9,213
52,276
43,055
f394,828
318,600 I 14
Department of Lands.
1915
Monthly Patrol Expenditure, 191 J/.
April.
May.
June.
July.
August.
Sept.-Oct.
Headquarters   . . .
Cranbrook  	
Fort George
Hazelton   	
Island    	
Kamloops   	
Lillooet   	
Nelson  	
Prince Rupert .
Tete Jaune . ..
Vancouver ....
Vernon    	
Totals
$1,920
170
1,132
1,282
590
690
536
680
480
207
1,070
559
$1,640
2,809
6,869
3,640
3,084
2,149
2,179
3.415
1,976
1,486
6,352
2,453
$9,316
$38,052
$1,679
3.352
7,902
5,068
3,573
2,699
2,375
3,418
2,507
1,452
6,561
2,871
$43,457
$1,237
4,294
8,370
3,965
3,429
2,965
3,027
4,419
2,381
1,495
6,697
3,596
$1,062
4,759
7,336
3,651
3,575
3,448
2,965
6,922
2,391
1,726
6,644
4,859
$ 834
3,345
5,996
2,333
3,068
2,820
2,091
5,042
1,245
1,550
5,150
3,727
$45,875
$49,338
$37,201
Status.
The Status Office is responsible for the investigation of the numerous questions of land title
which are involved in so much of the work carried on by the Branch. There are in this Province
many different forms of land alienation, each subject to different conditions. Every field examination, timber-sale, permit, logging report, application for a timber-mark, and scale and royalty
account must be analysed, and this means constant and careful search of maps and records.
Statutory Timber Land.
From the reports of reconnaissance parties and District Foresters must be extracted all
information concerning areas of merchantable Crown timber, in order that these may be marked
upon the official reference maps of the Province, and so protected from alienation. No less than
fifty-one reports have been so dealt with during the past few months; and from these the following areas of merchantable timber have been entered upon the maps and placed in the reserve of
merchantable timber held by the Crown :—
Crown Timber
Forest District. Reserved.
Acres.
Cranbrook         2,097
Fort George   41,250
Hazelton   251,888
Island     100
Kamloops     162,464
Lillooet     126,290
Nelson     22,664
Prince Rupert   21.500
Tete Jaune Cache    141,190
Vancouver     131,560
Vernon  53,955
Total     954,950
That nearly a million acres of merchantable timber should have thus been located and placed
in the Crown reserve confirms the conviction held by Foresters that the quantity of merchantable
timber in the Province is far larger than was at one time supposed. The asset represented by
the areas above mentioned amounts to several million dollars. As only a portion of British
Columbia has so far been covered by our cruisers, the continuance of the forest reconnaissance
will obviously result in further discoveries.
Timber-marks.
The present system of marking timber has now been in operation for over a year, and,
judging by the scale and royalty accounts and logging reports, it appears to be working well.
The advantage of the system lies in the ease with which the class of land from which the
timber was cut, and the royalty due to the Provincial Government, can be ascertained by a 5 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. I 15
glance at the stamp carried on any particular log. The distinction between exportable and
non-exportable timber is also shown. Four hundred and sixteen marks were issued during
the past twelve months, while 143 transfers were made where the mark-holder applied for
an extension of his mark to cover fresh ground. This makes a total of 1,120 marks effective
at the present time.
The following table shows the number of marks issued under the different classes:—
On old Crown grants         74
Ou Crown grants, 1887-1906, exportable       143
On Crown grants, 1906-14, non-exportable       208
On timber falling under the " Royalty Act, 1914 "        188
On leases          39
On sixteen-year leases    3
On timber-sales           65
On hand-loggers' operations        377
On timber reserves and Dominion timber        23
Total     1,120
The timber-mark List, the first issue of which was printed at the end of last year, has proved
its value by the ease with which logging reports and scale and royalty accounts can now be
checked, and in its constant use by the various Forest Branch officials during their inspection
of logging operations in the field. This list, which is under constant revision, is published every
month, and contains a complete record of ail the lands in the Province covered by a timber-mark
on which logging operations are carried on. It enables one to tell at a glance the owner of any
marked log and the land from which the timber was cut. It is kept up to date by checking off
dead material at frequent intervals.
Hand-logger Licences.
As delay in dealing with applications for these licences creates hardship to small operators,
every effort is made to handle them with dispatch. They are now mailed invariably within three
days of the receipt of the applications. The number of these licences issued in past twelve
months is 224. Last year there were 201, and the year before 165. The making of small timber-
sales will, it is anticipated, reduce the number of licences of this character required.
Forest Atlas.
To secure necessary accuracy, constant aud careful search of maps and records is inevitable.
Here again it is possible to reduce labour and save delay. The compilation of a " ready reference " to all land titles—extracts from the registers of the Lands Department—will save many
hours of routine work each week. This is being pushed forward as fast as circumstances permit,
but is a laborious undertaking, and will take some time to complete.
The Forest Atlas, on the other hand, has been in working for a long time past, and has
proved an invaluable short cut to efficiency. The atlas shows at a glance the complete record
of field-work in each district, the results of that work, and the status of forest lands. The
number of land examinations entered in the atlas so far is 1,459, made up as follows:—
rr       x  t^. i. ■ i. Examinations
Forest District. entered.
Cranbrook     137
Fort George   33
Hazelton   64
Island     272
Kamloops    11
Lillooet    10
Nelson    40
Prince Rupert  73
Tete Jaune Cache 	
Vancouver     792
Vernon     27
Total     1,459 1 16 Department of Lands. 1915
The 400 maps which compose the atlas deal with timber-sales, reconnaissance reports, railway permits, logging reports, ranger stations, mill-sites, logging-roads, booming-grounds, and
hand-logger licences.    The main function of the atlas is to prevent duplication of field-work.
Correspondence.
In this third year of the Branch's existence there has been a considerable increase in the
volume of general business in spite of the war and the general financial depression. Incoming
mail, for instance, increased 25 per cent, and outgoing 40 per cent, as compared with the previous
year, the total number of letters being 26,000 inward and 43,000 outward. For book-keeping
purposes mail for the Accounting section of the office is handled by letter-book entry; but
to economize labour and speed up the office machinery all other mail is dealt with under a
" subject" filing system, which does away with book entries and attendant delay.
FOREST RECONNAISSANCE.
The survey of the forest resources of the Province, commenced in 1912, was continued during
1914, but on account of the great need of funds for administrative work fewer parties were
engaged on this work than in previous years. Besides the work done by the regular reconnaissance parties, however, reports on many areas were obtained from Forest Assistants, Rangers,
and Forest Guards, a number of whom were able to make satisfactory surveys of territory into
which their other duties took them.
Altogether 12,000,000 acres were reported upon, and, as was expected, considerable bodies
of valuable timber were discovered. At the time of writing this report the results of the year's
work have not yet been tabulated and placed upon the records, and only a preliminary estimate
can be made. Roughly speaking, some 5,000,000 acres of statutory timber land were located,
carrying a stand of 30,000,000,000 feet of merchantable forest. Undoubtedly a considerable proportion of this will be found to be in the Crown reserve of unalienated timber. While most of this
timber will not come into the market for many years, it will be logged in time, and will eventually yield a large revenue to the Province, besides providing material for an extensive lumbering
and sawmilling industry, which will be a strong influence in promoting agricultural development.
It forms a reserve of timber capital which, provided we protect it from destruction by fire, can
be drawn upon any time in the future.
While the reports of the fieldmen have not yet been completed, the following rough summary
of the reconnaissance work of last summer may be given:—
Babine Lake.
An area of 1,691,000 acres on Babine and Stuart Lakes, showing the following classification
of cover:—
Acres.
Merchantable timber    905,000
Burned-over and second-growth lands    732,000
Barren areas and unmerchantable scrub timber   148,000
Open  meadows     6,000
Total    1,791,000
The 905,000 acres of merchantable timber bear a total stand of 5,470,000,000 feet B.M. of
spruce, Douglas fir, lodge-pole pine, and balsam. The Douglas fir is confined to the slopes of
Stuart Lake, this locality being near the extreme northern limit of this valuable species. Of
the 732,000 acres classified as burned over and second growth, 358,000 acres is covered with a
young stand of timber which is even now suitable for pulp-wood, and if protected from fire will
in twenty-five to fifty years yield saw-timber. Of the area examined 432,000 acres is reported
as of agricultural value, the land when cleared being suitable for hay and hardy root-crops, so
that dairying could be carried on successfully. A Forest Branch cabin, Columbia Valley, Kamloops District. A telephone is installed
here connected with the Forest Branch telephone-line, Revelstoke to Big Bend, a distance
of  120  miles.
Dense stand of cedar on line of Grand Trunk Pacific near McBride, to be sold by Forest
Branch.  5 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. I 17
Willow and Bowron  (Bear)  River.
One million one hundred and ninety thousand acres on the headwaters of the Willow and
Bowron Rivers, near Barkerville, were examined and mapped during 1914. The forest cover
on this area was classified as follows:—
Acres.
Merchantable timber     1,095,000
Burned over and second growth          95,000
Total    1,190,000
The merchantable timber is estimated at 8,000,000,000 feet B.M., over half of which is spruce,
the remainder consisting of balsam fir, lodge-pole pine, Douglas fir, and hemlock. A very small
amount of cedar was also found. The region covered is rolling or mountainous and is valuable
chiefly for the production of timber, about 15,000 acres being fitted for agriculture.
Pine River Pass.
Three million four hundred and sixty thousand acres along the proposed route of the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway from the mouth of the Misinchinka River, through Pine River Pass and
down the South Pine River to the Dominion Peace River Block, were covered by rough reconnaissance during the past season, and merchantable timber in surprising quantity and quality was
discovered.    The forest cover was classified as follows:—
Acres.
Merchantable timber over 5,000 feet per acre      1,138,000
Non-merchantable timber under 5,000 feet per acre        410,000
Burned over and second growth   -   1,232,000
Barren areas, swamps, and muskegs        680,000
Total     3,460,000
The region is mountainous, including as it does the main range of the Rocky Mountains, but
on the east side the mountains give way to the Peace River plateau, and there, and also along
some of the larger rivers, about 200,000 acres of the land examined are reported to possess
agricultural possibilities. The territory is undoubtedly capable of producing timber of good
quality in great quantity. At the present time the area classified as merchantable timber carries
over 7,000,000,000 feet of good spruce and balsam fir. The immense area of burned-over land,
1,200,000 acres, indicates the great need for fire-protection in this district, since had fire not
run over it, this land, judging from the unburned areas, would bear an additional stand of
7,000,000,000 feet of merchantable timber.
Upper Parsnip River.
One of the largest unbroken bodies of merchantable timber in the Province was discovered
last season on Parsnip River above the mouth of the Misinchinka River. This tract, containing
over 1,000,000 acres, bears a stand of excellent spruce and balsam. The stand is estimated at
6,000,000,000 feet B.M. The logging conditions are favourable and the Parsnip River is easily
drivable, so that in time large logging operations will be established in this district. In the
meantime this immensely valuable tract of timber must be protected from fire. No agricultural
land has been reported in this area.
Cariboo.
The reconnaissance of the Lillooet and Cariboo Districts, commenced last year, was continued, and the entire territory between the Fraser River and the North Thompson and Clearwater Rivers has now been covered. The southern and western portions of this district is a
rolling plateau. Being within the Dry Belt, it is lightly timbered as compared with other sections
of the Province, but the stand of timber will furnish millions of railway-ties and much tow-
timber, and eventually nearly all of it will be sought for pulp-wood. Agricultural land is confined to the valleys and a few river benches. Around the many alkali lakes and on south slopes
the timber is sparse or lacking, and here good forage is found. From 150-Mile House (on the
Cariboo Road) north and eastward the timber is denser, and where fire has not destroyed the
growth the timber is of good size and fair quality.   In the Cariboo Range the rainfall is heavier
2 and cedar and hemlock are present in the stand.    Generally, however, Douglas fir, lodge-pole
pine, and spruce are the most important species.
The forests of this region have suffered most severely from fire, the present stand being only
a fraction of what it should be. The data for the area examined this season have not yet been
compiled, but a preliminary estimate places the area of merchantable timber land at over
1,000,000 acres and the stand at over 5,000,000,000 feet B.M.
West Slope or Cascade Range.
A reconnaissance of the west slope of the Cascade Range from the Railway Belt to Cape
Caution was commenced in 1914, and, while the work was interrupted, a start was made in
collecting information in regard to the timber stands in this rugged region. The area examined
included that portion of the Lillooet River drainage system lying between Harrison Lake and
Pemberton Meadows, the whole of the Toba River watershed, and the lower portion of the
Homathko and Klinaklini watersheds. The data for the Lillooet River area have not yet been
compiled. Those for the Toba, Homathko, and Klinaklini Rivers show the following classification of the cover:—
Acres.
Merchantable timber land      81,564
Non-merchantable timber land      41,363
Burned over timber land        2,655
Alder and cottonwood bottom land      20,019
Gravel-bars        17,492
Meadows and swamps   527
Water-surface          2,196
Total      165,816
The total stand of merchantable timber on this area is 1,400,000,000 feet B.M., of which
200,000,000 feet are on vacant Crown lands. The timber is that typical of the Coast Douglas fir
type, averaging about 17,000 feet per acre. While the alder and cottonwood bottoms may be
classified as agricultural lands, they are subject to occasional overflow. Some of the heavily
timbered lands possess good soil and can be opened to settlement after the timber is removed.
LUMBERING INDUSTRY.
From the earliest days the pioneer industry of British Columbia has been the manufacture
of forest products. Of all the resources with which the Province is endowed, the forest, because
of its quantity, high quality, varied usefulness, and accessibility to many waterways and transportation routes, has been the resource from which the population of most districts first sought
their livelihood. The fact that agricultural development in many sections of the Province has
waited upon the market for labour and for produce provided by the lumber industry has done
much to make our forest industries prominent.
A Province so noted for its forests has naturally attracted workers and investors who have
received their training in other forest regions, and who are eager to take part in the development
of the last important stand of commercial timber in Canada. It is not surprising, with these
considerations in mind, to find that British Columbia led all the Provinces in Canada in
lumber production in 1913, and that the manufacture of forest products was the Province's
most important source of w7ealth.
The report issued by the Dominion Forest Branch for 1913 shows Canada's production of
lumber to have been as follows:—
Total Lumber Cut, 1913, by Provinces.
Province. M. Ft. B.M.
British  Columbia     1,173,647
Ontario       1,101,066
Quebec         630,346
New Brunswick       399,247
Nova  Scotia      247,722
Saskatchewan      114,800
Manitoba          71,961
Alberta          44.462
Prince Edward Island          6,391 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 19
The prime importance of the forest industries of this Province is seldom realized, for they
have become so much a part of our daily life that they are taken for granted. The volume and
value of manufactures for the calendar year 1913 is shown below:—
Coast lumber, 1,200,000,000 feet B.M  $20,400,000
Interior lumber, 400,000,000 feet B.M  6,400,000
Pulp  products     3,000,000
Construction material  (cut by railroads, mines, settlers, hewn ties,
cordwood), 100,000,000 feet B.M  1,000,000
Further value contributed by wood-using industries, box-factories,
planing-mills,  sash and door factories, cooperage,  wood-block
paving, wood pipes, slab fuel   1,000,000
Shingles from bolts    550,000
Poles and piles, 5,000,000 lineal feet   400,000
Product of Dominion lands    450,000
Mining props and posts    250,000
Lath    .'  200,000
I $33,650,000   :
During the year 1913 this large amount was distributed within the Province, about
$13,440,000 going to transportation companies, $11,760,000 to labour directly employed in
the industry, $5,040,000 to merchants for equipment and supplies, and $3,360,000 for taxes,
insurance,  and interest on capital invested.
The lumber industry in 1913 ranked above the other basic wealth-producing industries.
Forest  products      $33,650,000
Mining        30,296,398
Agriculture        25,974,529
Fisheries        14,455,488
Of these industries, mining and fisheries are confined to certain favoured portions of the
Province. The other two, lumbering and agriculture, are found to contribute to the support of
every community. When the logging camps and mills are running at full capacity and agricultural settlement and production are being encouraged thereby, no community in the Province,
great or small, fails to feel the impetus.
The distribution of lumber-manufacturing plants throughout the Province is ■ as follows:—
Saw and Shingle Mills or Province.
Sawmills.
Shingle-
mills.
District.
Up to 15 M.
Feet Daily
Capacity.
15 to 40 M.
Feet Daily
Capacity.
Over 40 M.
Feet Daily
Capacity.
Total.
22
14
12
15
19
20
23
18
2
4
2
6
5
6
1
6
1
1
5
46
16
12
20
21
37
1
29
Totals, East of 'Cascades	
125
37
15
5
182
20
24
11
18
35
6
12
30
1
12
63
1
62
152
19
55
180
59
96
43
53
76
SI
233
415 I 20
Department of Lands.
1915
The life of the lumber industry is the export trade. The population of the Province, which in
1912 and 1913 used one-fifth of the lumber used in the Province, does not now use one-twentieth.
Thus the market for British Columbia forest products must be found almost wholly outside the
borders  of the Province.
The policy of the Government for over a quarter of a century has been to restrict the export
of unmanufactured products in order that a manufacturing industry based upon our large
supplies of raw material might be built up. Thus the export of logs is restricted to timber cut
from lands Crown-granted prior to 1906. Export is rigidly supervised by an export patrol and
by co-operative arrangement with the Dominion Customs authorities. Two seizures were made
during 1914, for attempted export of improperly marked logs, while another case of attempted
export in defiance of the Provincial Statute was frustrated by the inability of the exporter to
secure clearance.
To minimize the effects of the trade depression due to the war it was found advisable on
a temporary measure to allow export of logs from any lands upon the following rates:—
Grade 1.
Grade 2.
Grade 3.
Cedar 	
$2 00
50
2 00
2 00
50
50
$1 50
50
1 50
1 50
50
50
$1 00
Fir	
50
1 oo
1 00
50
50
During 1914, 163 permits to  export logs  were issued,  the total  amount  exported  being
65,678,054 feet, which compares with previous years as follows:—
1911       47,000,000
1912       63,280,375
1913       58,752,678
1914    65,678,054
The quantity of each species was:—
Feet B.M.
Cedar      41,660,300
Fir         9,916,1S0
Spruce        7,733,035
Hemlock         2,683,388
Pine        3,599,325
Balsam fir    25,589
Cottonwood      60,237
All logs exported during 1914 were graded, the quantity of each grade for each
being:—
species
Export, of Logs, showing Species and Grades.
Species.
Exportable on Payment of Export Tax.
Exported
at Ordinary
Royaltv,   50
Cents.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Cedar 	
Feet  B.M.
3,253,221
266,738
314,639
41,549
Feet  B.M.
12,159,637
911,596
1,649,174
35,723
3S7.902
6,055
Feet  B.M.
12,328,498
374,572
688,557
62,697
356,865
3,464
Feet  B.M.
13,918,944
8,363,274
5,080,665
2.584,968
2,813,009
16.070
60.237
Feet B.M.
41.660,300
Fir	
9,916180
7,733,035
2.683 388
3,599,325
25,589
60,237
Balsam fir  	
Totals   ,
3.S76.147
15,150,087
13,814,653
32,S37,167
65.678,054 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 21
Other products exported in an unsawn state are poles, posts, props, and hewn or slabbed ties.
About 3,000,000 lineal feet of poles and piles were shipped from British Columbia in 1914;
1,836,000 lineal feet from Cranbrook and Nelson Forest Districts to the Prairies, Ontario, and
the Central States; 1,133,810 lineal feet from Prince Rupert, Vancouver, and Island Forest
Districts to California. An important industry in Cranbrook and Nelson Forest Districts is
the shipping of posts, props, and ties to the Prairie.    These exports for 1914 were:—
Forest District.
Posts,
Cords.
Props,
Cords.
Ties,
Pieces.
15,971
370
7,525
507,813
2,700
Totals   	
16,341
7,525
510,513
There is practically no export of posts, props, or ties to the United States.    The values of
unmanufactured exports in 1914 were:—
Logs      $   520,000
Poles aand piles
Unsawn ties
Posts 	
Props   	
240,000
150,000
130,000
60,000
Total value of unsawn exports    $1,100,000
The total value of such exports in 1913 was $1,321,641. No immediate rapid Increase in the
annual exports of these products can be expected, for the low value of such materials precludes
their being transported in great quantities for the long distance necessary to reach densely settled
countries. Their consumption appears to be restricted chiefly to Western America, and may be
expected to grow with the growth of population.
Lumber is the one item of export which has established the otherwise adverse balance of
Provincial trade. The only important market developed for British Columbia during the past
decade has been the Canadian Prairie. In the best of times the Canadian Prairie is a hotly
contested market for lumber, as is shown by the following statement of imports from the United
States during the past four years:—
Imports into the Canadian Prairie from the United States op Lumber, Laths, and Shingles
prom January 1st to November 1st, 1911; January 1st to November 1st, 1912; January
1st to November 1st, 1913; and January 1st to November 1st, 1914.
1911.
1912.
oi rr
O rH
Feet B.M.
Value.
Average
per M.
Feet B.M.
Value.
Average
per M.
$11 44
13 09
2 11
1 84
r-l   OJ
rj   >
a °
02 0-
OS
t. r-l
Planks, boards,  etc.,  dressed one side, not dutiable....
190,768,000
31,348,000
12,824,994'
390,866
$12,13
12 11
2 31
1 90
207,702,000
49,291,000
$2,377,262
645,670
9
53
222,116,000
Pieces.
58,220,000
17,206,050
$2,715,800
134,795
32,781
257,053,000
Pieces.
63,720,000
82,887,000
$3,022,932
134,624
152,402
9
3S1
$2,883,436
$3,309,958 I 22
Department of Lands.
1915
Imports into the Canadian Prairie from the United States—Concluded.
Feet B.M.
1913.
Value.
Average
per M.
aj
oi   .
02 IN
Is
fifc
.   QJ
-u >
fl o
<" 11-1
Oh
kS
as
Feet B.M.
1914.
Value.
Average
per M.
§   .
J~ I—I
C- cr.
OJ i-l
Q       r-
QJ
-r-i       >
fl o
OJ rl
Planks, boards, etc., dressed one side, not dutiable
Sawn boards, etc.. dutiable	
106,299,000
17,843,000
$1,552,760
303,971
$1,856,731
78,361
65,153
$2,000,245
$14 61
17 04
49
64
71,130,000
5,996,000
$842,227
86,002
$11 85
14 34
33
66
124,142,000
Pieces.
32,996,000
34,003,000
77,11 ,000
Pieces.
13,112,000
10,456,000
$928,229
29,920
18,112
$ 2 37
1 92
48
59
$ 2 28
1 73
60
69
Totals	
.$976,261
Further competition which cannot possibly be eliminated during the next decade is that of
the Prairie Spruce Mills, which cut 225,000,000 feet annually, and the Western Mills of Ontario,
which send 50,000,000 feet a year. For several years past British Columbia has cut 1,000,000,000
feet to 1,200,000,000 feet of lumber for the Prairie trade. So acute was the building depression
in 1914 that only about 700,000,000 was cut for the Prairie trade, and not all this quantity was
delivered.
The situation plainly calls for general reorganization, for the mills of British Columbia
have looked to the Prairie for a sufficient market during the past ten years. The output capacity
for these mills is as follows:—
Sawmills, 1914.
Forest  District.
No. of
Mills.
Capacity   per
Ten-hour
Day.
Capacitv per Year
of   300   Days.
Cranbrook	
Fort George	
Hazelton	
Island   	
Kamloops  	
Lillooet	
Nelson  	
Prince Rupert . . .
Tete Jaune Cache
Vancouver	
Vernon   	
Totals  . .
46
16
12
50
20
21
32
18
1
89
29
1.153,200
200,000
41,000
1,594,000
683,700
20,000
877,000
392,000
100,000
3,176.000
2S2.00O
334
8,518,900
345.960,000
60,000,000
12,300,000
478,200,000
205,010,000
6,000,000
263,100,000
117,600,000
30,000,000
952,800,000
84,600,000
,555,570,000
The Prairie market has never yet in any one year taken over 60 per cent, of the output of
these mills; the export market has not in any one year in the past decade taken 4 per cent,
of the annual output. Manifestly the only relief which will enable the lumber industry to meet
its obligations is an extension of export markets. 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 23
The part played at present by British Columbia in the export trade of the Pacific Coast is
shown in the statement of the foreign exports for 1914:—
Export Cargo, Shipments, 1914.
Africa   	
Atlantic Coast	
Australia 	
United Kingdom and Continent
India  	
South Sea Islands	
Japan   	
China   	
West Coast of South America .
California  	
New Zealand  	
Hawaiian Islands  	
Panama	
Philippine Islands   	
East Coast of South America .
Alaska	
Mexico	
Central America 	
Totals  	
From  British
Columbia.
,521,137
439.892
850,426
S24,265
153,631
,710,153
.082,327
,290,139
983,927
806,400
368,949
38,031,246
From Washington
and Oregon.
3.045,051
26,209,981
176,706,113
30,106,409
11,543,134
8,606,427
8,853.809
122,545,014
7S,3S2,689
1,045,801,406
11,486,055
35,963,438
19.293,733
12.513.5S3
7,,945,010
6,516,625
5,324,474
104,703
1,610,947,654
The same necessity for expansion of markets exists in the North-western States as In
British Columbia. British Columbia, therefore, in striving for sufficient markets to keep her
mills operating, will be forced to meet the keen competition of the American mills. The nature
of that competition may be judged from the fact that, although the market in the Canadian
Prairie has never been great enough to take more than three-fifths of our output, the Americans
have in nearly every year of the past five supplied at least one-fifth of it. Although there is
now free lumber into the United States, only 40,000,000 feet were shipped from British Columbia
to the United States in 1914, as compared with,the 77,000,000 feet imported into the Canadian
Prairie from the United States during the same period.
To find and hold a wider lumber market will tax every resource of both manufacturers and
Government through years of effort. There can, however, be no argument about the necessity
of making an attempt.
The extension of markets for British Columbia is such a public necessity that it should
engage the attention of the Government as the largest shareholder and as trustee of the public
prosperity, though obviously no great improvement can be expected until the selling-price of
lumber is again greater than the cost of producing it. This selling-price can only be increased
by the operators of British Columbia and the North-western States.
The mills of the Western States with their 12,000,000,000 feet annual capacity will eventually
determine the price at which lumber will be sold in export markets, both in the Canadian Prairie
and elsewhere. Therefore, to stay in business, the British Columbia logger and manufacturer
must meet American costs. That is the first essential. The present great variation in costs
between different manufacturers in this Province shows that the average production costs may
be reduced even as things are, while changing economic conditions in the near future will make
this easier. Cheaper production and a more aggressive marketing system to bring consumers
into closer touch with manufacturers are problems to be solved by the industry.
That the lumber industry has not yet sufficiently effective salesmen in the Prairie is
shown by the number of farmers still without implement-sheds.    The Conservation Commission I 24
Department of Lands.
1915
investigating this point found that the proportion of implement-sheds to farms in the different
provinces was:—
Manitoba.
Saskatchewan.
Alberta.
Farms.
Implement-
sheds.
Farms.
Implement-
sheds.
Farms.
Implement-sheds.
94
14
94
21
92
55
Implements are not more necessary to farmers than lumber to protect the implements. It
has been a question of personal salesmanship.
The Government can rightfully help the lumber industry to advance into new markets in
three ways: Firstly, by furnishing the lumberman data as to the strength and other characteristics of our timber for advertising purposes ; secondly, by studying foreign markets and supplying
information to the trade; thirdly, by making British Columbia products known in the markets
which British Columbia manufacturers are endeavouring to enter. The wisdom and the propriety of this work cannot be too strongly urged. One of the most important Government
obligations in forest-management in British Columbia is to cause the forests to bear their full
share in the support of the community.
Though the Forest Branch endeavoured to make a systematic beginning in this work this year,
the war unfortunately interfered, but information secured by the Branch has already resulted
in the placing of important trial orders in British Columbia. Through co-operation with the
Dominion Department of Trade and Commerce a great deal of information has been placed
before British Columbia operators. Sample exhibits of manufactured lumber products have
been sent to Dominion Trade Commissioners in important foreign lumber-importing countries.
Information concerning the markets and foreign countries for special products has been secured
from the actual importers and supplied to exporters here. Where foreign opportunities have
been discovered samples have been sent.
THE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY.
One of the unlooked-for effects of war was the sudden flood of orders received by the pulp
and paper mills of the Province. But for the shortage in available shipping there would have
been a very large increase in their output. Even under existing circumstances business has
been very brisk, as the following figures show:—
Tons.
Shipments of paper     45,S16
Shipments of high-class chemical pulp     10,698
TIMBER SALES.
Areas of Crown timber which are not obstructing agricultural settlement and which are not
needed for present development are not being put on the market. Every endeavour is being
made, however, to sell the following classes of timber: Small quantities of timber adjoining
areas now being logged over where such timber would be wasted if not cut in connection with
existing logging operations; areas of timber easily accessible to new railways, the cutting of
which will aid in the development of new communities; timber standing on land needed for
agricultural settlement; timber needed by pulp-manufacturing companies; and, finally, saw-
timber, cordwood, mining-props, poles, shingle-bolts, or any other material necessary to supply
the wants of the small operator or of settlers. Small contractors represent a growing class
who are greatly assisted by the privilege of purchasing from the Government, because they can
thus obtain timber on reasonable terms and in any quantity or location suited to their means
and needs. Slash left after  tie operations  on  the  C.N.P.   Ry.,   North Thompson  Valley.
Brush-piling on timber sales.    This one is located near Clinton in the Dry Belt.    The
forest is an open stand of Douglas fir.    Note the low stumps.  5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 25
For various reasons prices realized by timber-sales during 1914 have averaged somewhat
higher than those commonly secured by private owners for similar timber, the average price for
the 4S,605,000 feet of timber sold being $1.15 per 1,000 feet. The average for each species in
the different districts wras:—
Average Sale Price by Species, 1914.
Saw-timber.
Board-feet.
Price per M.
Fir	
25,224.000
14,596,000
1,018.000
6,159,000
215,000
223,000
639,000
531,000
$1 32
1 12
1 33
52
58
80
1 82
50    ■
Total	
4S,605,000
1 15
In general, the yrear 1914 was one of severe depression in the lumbering business. Such
conditions naturally affected timber-sales. The volume of the timber-sale business in 1914 is
shown by the following table:—
Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1914.
District.
No. of
Sales.
Area in
Acres.
Estimated Quantity.
Estimate of
Revenue.
Board-feet.
Poles.
Piles.
Ties.
Cordwood.
Posts.
Saw-Mm~ber.
Cranbrook 	
Fort George  . . .
Island	
Kamloops	
Prince Rupert..
Tete Jaune  ....
Vancouver  	
Vernon   	
6
9
1
'io
1
2
30
2
447
1,240
160
1,669
7
333
3,491
360
760,000
3.166.995
1,013,000
1,949,000
il5,000
49,053,248
175,000
' 100
7,500
2,255
2,823
21
52
12,520
6,000
1,400
1,000
1,200
200
3,815
25,0(
K)
$    3,309 25
11,089 73
1,359 70
3,971 50
93 81
741 90
61,434 19
345 29
Totals   	
Pulp-timber.
Vancouver 	
61
10
7,707
20,425
56,232,243
221,845,663
12.678
232
18,520
7,615
25,000
82,345 37
267,613 32
Totals   	
71
28,132
278,077,906
12,678
232
18,520
7,615
25,000
$349,958 69
Both to the Forest Branch and the public the most important matter has been the sale of
fractions adjoining existing operations, and the sale of small quantities of timber to small loggers
or contractors. Such purchasers do not, as a rule, apply for timber until they are in immediate
need of it, and then delay in selling may kill the sale. I hope to effect improvements in the
procedure under which timber-sales are being handled, so that these may be handled more
expeditiously in future.
Logging on areas under timber-sale during the year was seriously affected by the depression
in the lumber industry. The poor market for logs after the outbreak of war rendered it necessary to extend for one year several sales for which the contracts were expiring within the next I 26
Department of Lands.
1915
few months.    The volume of logging and the revenue actually derived from timber-sales during
1914 is shown in the following table:—
District.
Quantity cut from
Timber-sales   durins-
1914.
Net   Revenue   including  Stumpage,
Royalty  and   Rental.
Board-feet.
29,146,913
4,540,059
1,026,119
933.128
581,228
14,850
417,961
$46,950 81
11,288 90
1,373 78
946 44
3,000 18
303 77
531 S3
Totals
36,660,258
$64,395 71
The receipts from timber-sales have already become an appreciable item in the revenue of
the Forest Branch; and as the markets for lumber increase, and as transportation facilities
improve in the districts where the Province holds in reserve large quantities of timber, this
source of revenue will become of great importance For instance, timber explorations by the
Forest Branch have shown that, particularly in the northern valley of the Hazelton and Fort
George Districts, there are billions of feet of merchantable timber which will sooner or later be
made accessible. This timber will produce revenue w7hen transportation is provided, and will
support large lumber and pulp-manufacturing enterprises. Its future value depends only upon
fire-protection.
It has been found advisable to cruise and advertise in advance of application small areas
of timber in those districts where loggers and contractors depend upon purchasing a proportion
of their needs from the Government. During 1914 the quantity of timber cruised and advertised
in this manner w7as as shown in the following statement:—
Timber now offered for Sale.
Area
in
Acres.
Estimated Quantity.
Total
Estimated
Value.
including
Stumpage
and Royalty.
District.
OJ
o
rr,
3
O
m
w
QJ
s-S
•6
o
o
o
u
TR
02
O
Ch
—< w
W  bX)+->   ■
p.
p
o
O 5
BJ  Or
OrH
o
Saic-timber.
Cranbrook    	
1,880
1,088
1,511
1,933
562
8,785
13,872
200
2,448,792
5,638,000
1,500,000
12,877,090
1,137,000
17,725,000
159,137,811
375,000
15,000
50,000
28,500
34,000
12,970
2,653
1,800
30,775
10',763
837
2,boo
1,542
$    4,658   00
5,638   00
3,400   00
15,598   51
Prince Rupert   . . .
Tete   Jaune   	
1,719   00
20,395   75
240,875   51
907   50
Totals. .
Pulp-timber.
29,831
1,346
200,838,693
16,220,000
140,470
4,453
41,538
837
122
2,000
1,542
22,315   85
Totals. .
31,177
217,058,693
140,470
4,453
41,538
959
2,000
1,542
$315,508   12 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 27
In addition, there has been a quantity of timber cruised, and now awaiting advertisement,
as shown below :—
Timber not yet offered for Sale.
Area.
Estimated Quantity.
District.
02
CJ
IH
rp
03
o
n
•a
o
o
o r
OS 2-r
■O 3
TJ
o
0
tr
V
0
o
01
s
m
+J
O
on 5
o
m
o
o
w
0>
Estimated
Value,
including
Stumpage
and  Royalty.
Saw-timber.
Fort George   ....
Hazelton   	
Vancouver	
Kamloops    	
Prince Rupert . . .
19
115
5,344
11
50
147,000
25,021,688
397,000
330
837
480
2,106
290
10,283
1,330
2,500
$     420   00
459   00
47,180   00
100   00
490   00
Totals. .
Pulp-timber.
Vancouver  	
5,539
2,601
25,505,688
35,520,000
330
3,423
290
10,283
1,330
2,500
44,400   00
Totals..
8,140
61,085,688
330
3,423
290
10,283
1,330
2,500
$93,055   00
Areas cruised for sale purposes during the year were chiefly fractions remaining in districts
now being logged, important areas not being placed on the market. That the stumpage value
of scattered fragments should amount to close on half a million dollars is a very strong argument
for the most effective fire-protection in the timber reserve of the Province.
Clean logging and the leaving of the ground in shape for settlement (where the land is
agricultural) or for the production of another forest crop of valuable species (where the ground
is non-agricultural) are aimed at by the timber-sale regulations. The character of these regulations depends upon local conditions, the idea being to require every purchaser to log according
to the standard set by the best loggers of the district, and to dispose of slash in a manner which
will favour reproduction of the most valuable species. In fixing the upset price for sales allowance is made for the estimated cost of carrying out such regulations.
Each purchaser deposits before logging 10 per cent, of the estimated value of the sale.
This deposit is not refunded until the logger complies satisfactorily with the regulations. On
nearly all sales so far completed compliance with regulations has been satisfactory. Only iu a
few cases has it been necessary to retain the 10 per cent, deposit mentioned above, to cover the
cost of slash-disposal.
In the Coast District the force of Rangers has not been sufficient to administer timber-sales
effectively, for during the summer the men on duty were occupied entirely with the supervision
of fire-fighting and patrol. Clean logging such as will return to the Government full stumpage
value for the timber on each area sold can only be secured by frequent checking-up of high
stumps, long tops, and logs left in the woods by careless operators, which in the aggregate may
amount to half or even more of the timber which would be taken off by good loggers. Inspection
of each sale should be made at least once a month to protect the Government's financial interest
in the timber, and the cost of such inspection would be more than met by added revenue.
Up to the present clean cutting and slash-burning have been the only measures enforced
by the Forest Branch iii timber-sales. Other regulations have not been considered feasible for
the class of land now being logged and in the present condition of the lumber business. There
are three ends to be met—the prosperity of the logger, the complete utilization of the timber,
and the encouragement of a second crop. No system of cutting should be introduced which will
unduly increase the cost of logging without returning results commensurate with the cost. Under
present conditions there is often a loss of profit where only a portion of the stand is taken owing
to the great cost of the improvements necessary for logging, the fire hazard created, the probability of loss by fire or windfall after the first logging, and the increased cost of slash-disposal.
Therefore the regulations in Forest Branch timber-sales are being based upon clean cutting and
broadcast slash-burning. I 28
Department of Lands.
1915
In nearly all situations where timber-sales have taken place it is believed that broadcast
slash-burning will both remove the danger of future fires and assist in producing a valuable
second growth. If not, modifications of the regulations must be tried; but, whatever the modifications, they cannot be enforced with success unless the cost is sufficiently low to leave the logger
a profit.
A sample of the timber-sale regulations used in mixed fir and cedar on the Coast is quoted
below:—
The following trees will be cut: All living and dead and down Douglas fir and cedar trees and
all hemlock and balsam trees 20 inches and over in diameter at breast height, containing 50 per cent,
or over of merchantable timber suitable for the manufacture of any grade of lumber, as directed by
the officer of the Forest Branch in charge.
Stumps will be cut so as to cause the least practicable waste, and will not be cut higher than
the diameter of the tree at the point where it is cut, and in no case higher than 30 inches on the
side adjacent to the highest ground, except in unusual cases in the discretion of the officer of the
Forest Branch in charge.
All trees will be utilized to as low a diameter in the tops as practicable, so as to cause the least
waste, and to the minimum diameter of 10 inches when merchantable in the judgment of the officer
of the Forest Branch in charge. Log-lengths will be varied so as to provide for the complete utilization
of merchantable timber.
Brush will be disposed of as follows: After logging, brush will be burned broadcast by the lessee
at his own expense, as directed by the officer of the Forest Branch in charge.
Merchantable trees designated for cutting which are left uncut, timber wasted in tops and stumps,
trees left lodged in the process of felling, and any merchantable timber which is cut and not removed
from any portion of the cutting area after logging on that portion of the cutting area is completed
shall be scaled, measured, or counted as hereinbefore provided, and paid for as follows: At the rate
of $1.50 per 1,000 feet, such sums to be due upon receipt of account.
The cost of carrying out such regulations is only a few cents per acre. The results appear
up to the present to be excellent.
The regulations are varied in different forest regions. The following regulations were used
on sales of tie-timber in lodge-pole pine forest in Cranbrook District:—
The following trees will be cut: All trees suitable for the manufacture of rail-road ties, as
directed by the District Forester at Cranbrook.
Stumps will be cut so as to cause the least practicable waste, and will not be cut higher than
the diameter of the tree at the point where it is cut. and in no case higher than 18 inches on the
side adjacent to the highest ground, except in unusual cases in the discretion of the officer of the
Forest Branch in charge.
All trees will be utilized to as low a diameter in the tops as practicable, so as to cause the
least waste, and to the minimum diameter of 8 inches, when merchantable in the judgment of the
officer of the Forest Branch in charge. Log-lengths will be varied so as to provide for the complete
utilization  of  merchantable  timber.
Brush will be disposed of as follows: Tops will be lopped and all debris resulting from the
operation will be brought into as close contact as possible with the ground, as directed by the District
Forester at Cranbrook.
The first pulp-sales made under the " Forest Act" were completed during 1914, when
222,000,000 feet of timber, chiefly hemlock, spruce, and balsam, comprised in eleven tracts covering 19,555 acres, accessible from salt water in the Vancouver Forest District, were sold to one
company under a thirty-year contract. The prices realized for the various species, in addition
to royalty, were :—
Species.
Board-feet.
Price
per   M.
Fir    	
4,311,000
29,911,000
43,449,000
47,112,000
96,932,000
130,000
$1 13
94
Cedar   	
70
19
22
White  Pine	
1 00
Total	
221,845,000
Means are provided in the contract for increasing the royalty on this timber in accordance
with the terms of the " Royalty Act." 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 29
The greater part of the area covered by these pulp-wood sales is non-agricultural and
valuable only for the production of timber. Therefore all the sale contracts require complete
utilization of timber and such slash-disposal as will bring about conditions conducive to the
growth of another timber-crop. Such regulations must necessarily be adapted to the particular
needs of each sale. The clauses quoted below are representative of the efforts of the Forest
Branch to accomplish such management as is now economically possible on the Coast.
The following trees will be cut:—
All living and dead and down cedar and fir trees, containing 50 per cent, or more of timber
suitable for the manufacture of pulp or lumber ; all living and dead spruce, hemlock, and balsam-fir
trees 10 inches or more in diameter at the stump, containing 50 per cent, or more of sound timber;
and all cedar suitable for telephone and telegraph poles, as directed by the Forest Officer in charge.
Stumps will be cut so as to cause the least practicable waste, and will not be cut higher than
the diameter of the tree at the point where it is cut, and in no case higher than 30 inches on the side
adjacent to the highest ground, except in unusual cases in the discretion of the officer of the Forest
Branch in charge.
All trees will be utilized to as low a diameter in the tops as practicable, so as to cause the least
waste, and to the minimum diameter of 10 inches for cedar and Douglas fir, and 6 inches for hemlock
and balsam fir and spruce, when merchantable in the judgment of the officer of the Forest Branch in
-lengths  will be  varied  so  as  to  provide   for   the   complete   utilization   of   merchantable
After logging, brush and slash will be burnt by the lessee
or according to the instructions in writing issued by the
charge.    Lo,
timber.
Brush Will be disposed of as follows :
as directed by the Forest Officer in charge
Forest Officer in charge.
The cruising completed by the Forest Branch has shown that comparatively large quantities
of fine pulp-timber still remain available on Crown lands, both in the Island and Vancouver
Forest Districts, and in the valleys of the Nass, Babine, Finlay, Parsnip, Willow, and Bear Rivers.
These timber areas are being held under reserve so as to be available for future industries.
LOGGING INSPECTION.
There were 926 logging operations in the Province during 1914, distributed as shown below :—
District.
Logging
Operations.
Hand-
loggers.
Cranbrook ....
Fort George . .
Hazelton  	
Island   	
Kamloops   ....
Lillooet	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert
Vancouver . ..
Vernon	
Totals
117
22
13
102
47
22
166
1
166
100
100
132
170
Though inspection of logging operations by the Rangers was kept up through the year, each
operation was only visited once in six months on an average, the small number of Rangers
employed greatly hindering the work during the summer fire season. Yet, even so, the results
were excellent in enforcing the timber-marking regulations upon which so much revenue depends,
in preventing the employment of Orientals, stopping logging upon unsurveyed licences and preventing trespass, and in securing co-operation of operators in slash-burning and closer utilization
of timber. As market conditions improve it will gradually become possible for the Forest Branch
to raise the standard of utilization in logging operations to that set by the best loggers. Such a
policy will, when adopted, work out to the profit of all concerned. Similarly, the Branch can do
a great deal to reduce the risk of serious fires by keeping in touch with loggers and securing
compliance w7ith the provisions of the " Forest Act." I 30
Department of Lands.
1915
Generally speaking, the aim of inspection is to give service to the logger to secure the prompt
transaction of business and prevent trespass. A number of trespasses occurred, however, in 1914.
The extent of these may be judged from the following table:—
Districts.
No. of
Cases.
Area
in
Acres.
Quantity  Cut.
Feet, B.M.
Lineal
Feet.
Cords.
Ties.
Amount
realized.
Cranbrook  	
Fort George   . . .* .
Kamloops   	
Lillooet   	
Nelson  	
Prince Rupert   . . .
Vancouver	
Vernon 	
Totals   . . .
16
3
8
16
D
O
13
8
69
515
37
260
20
300
398
33.887
230.2S5
276,532
339,351
19,596
621,000
1,144,974
30,809
7.325
17.556
41,435
45,441
24,635
196i/2
318
260
895
60
70
32,792
17,S20
2,086
1,144
10.
567
74
1.599
2,662,625     167,201
1,709%     53,842 I 10,507
361 65
,477 99
320 06
.439 96
,685 25
365 05
,815 15
964 80
$S,429 91
The facilities offered for making small timber-sales are having an undoubted effect in
reducing trespass.
Very few infractions of the timber-marking regulations now occur, though the temptation
is sometimes great enough.    Two seizures were made for improper marking of logs.
RAILWAY PERMITS.
The worst danger in railroad-construction has been the fire hazard created by slash from
the cutting of ties and timbers on lands adjoining the right-of-way; and as a considerable portion
of the 2,000 miles of railway which has been under construction in this Province is in hitherto
unopened forests, the whole future of the lumbering industry in many new regions has depended
upon effective supervision of this hazard. The system under which the railway companies have
been required to obtain permits for all cuttings has proved very effective in securing clean logging
and brush disposal, while, by defining cutting to definite areas, it prevented desultory operations
and the mere culling of extensive stands of timber.
Sample Regulations governing Permit Cuttings.
1. All tops to be lopped, and slash and debris resulting from the cutting must be piled to keep
pace with the logging operations in compact piles in such manner that it can be burned without
danger to the standing timber; such debris to be burned by the railway company, as directed by
the District Forester at Lillooet.
2. When approaching boundary-lines, timber to be thrown, where practicable, in towards the
cutting area, thereby leaving at least 50 feet free of slash and debris along these lines.
3. Where brush is dense, a fire-break consisting of a trail cleared of all inflammable material
for a width to be left to the discretion of the District Forester.
4. No long butting will be allowed; where timber is too heavy butted to work into square timber
needed, same shall be cut into short log-lengths, and be utilized, except in cases of defect.
5. Stumps must be cut so as to cause the least practicable waste, and should not be cut higher
than the diameter of the tree at the point cut, except in unusual cases.
6. All trees must be cut to as low a diameter as practicable in the tops, so as to cause as little
waste as possible.
7. The right is reserved to alienate any lands for agricultural purposes, covered by this permit,
which do not carry timber in excess of 5,000 feet per acre.
8. The District Forester to be advised in writing one week previous to commencement of any
operations on this permit.
9. Cutting by settlers under section 9 of the " Forest Act" will be allowed on any portion of
the area. 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 31
During the year fifty-four permits, covering 51,000 acres, were issued to the Pacific Great
Eastern, Canadian Northern Pacific, and Kettle Valley Railways. The location of the cuttings
was as follows :—
Forest   District.
No. of
Permits.
Vancouver   .
Fort  George
Kamloops
Vernon   ....
Lillooet    . . .
6
26
2
9
11
54
Acres.
3,860
21,284
630
12,878
12,355
51,007
While every facility has been given the railroads to obtain necessary construction material,
the interests of settlers have been borne in mind, so that the granting of permits should not
interfere with the needs of local residents for cordwood and other timber. Where agricultural
areas were involved the land has been logged, cleaned up, and thrown open for settlement as
promptly as possible. It should be noted, also, that the considerable areas of timber land dealt
with indicate large timber resources in the regions opened up by the new lines—resources
that will assist settlement by attracting capital and labour for the lumbering business which
has pioneered development in so many regions of the West already.
A general view of the effect of the regulations under which permits covering 189,283 acres
have been issued during the past .two years shows that this matter has been handled in a very
satisfactory manner. While exercising close supervision, the District Foresters and Rangers
have secured the co-operation of railway officials, with the result that the fire-danger on lands
logged during railway-construction has been reduced to a minimum.
FOREST INVESTIGATION.
Although the first and most pressing duty of the Branch has been forest protection and
administration, it is plain that in the long run the progress of the work depends on a better
knowledge of our forests, and though, under present circumstances, money should not be spent
in acquiring information which cannot now7 serve any purpose, there are certain points upon
which the Branch must be informed before wise policies can be developed. Some of the more
important points requiring investigation are the conditions affecting reproduction of various
important commercial species, so that brush-disposal and cutting regulations to favour those
species may be developed as far as is commercially possible; the rates of growth of the various
species in different types of soil, necessary in order that we may know how soon another crop
of merchantable timber will be produced; and the volume in board-feet of trees of different
sizes of each species in different regions, so that cruising may be based on exact methods, and
not on guesswork.
The staff of the Forest Branch up to the present has not been sufficient to undertake any
systematic investigative work such as that now carried on in other forest administrative organizations of equal importance. The officers of the Forest Branch are, however, fully aware of
the importance of this branch of the work, and as opportunity offers are collecting the data which
will form the basis of sound forest administration in the Province.
The greater part of the 75,000 acres logged over in British Columbia each year is land
whose only possible crop is timber. The continued prosperity of the Province depends upon the
eventual adoption of systems of logging or slash-disposal that will encourage on such lands the
natural reproduction of valuable tree species. To do this we must know what conditions affect
regeneration. I 32 Department of Lands. 1915
The most important species, in point of commercial value and area logged over each year,
is Douglas fir. A co-operative study of the conditions affecting Douglas fir second growth on
the lower coast was made during the summer by the Commission of Conservation and the Forest
Branch. The following is a summary of the results obtained by Dr. Howe, of Toronto University,
who was in charge of the work for the Commission of Conservation:—
" During the past summer an investigation was made by the Commission of Conservation to
determine the conditions under which the reproduction of commercial tree species is occurring
most advantageously in the coastal region of British Columbia. Particular attention was paid
to the effect of fire upon the reproduction of Douglas fir, which is the most valuable and most
widely distributed species in the Province. The study was conducted by Dr. C. D. Howe, of the
Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto. In this work the Forest Branch co-operated by
assigning a Forest Assistant to work with Dr. I-iowe, and by furnishing a considerable amount
of information from the head office at Victoria. It is expected that Dr. Howe's report will be
published at a later date by the Commission, and that copies will be available for distribution.
" The report emphasizes the fact that the popular assumption that nature alone will provide
satisfactorily for the replacement of valuable commercial forests on cut-over and burned-over
lands is only partially true. Nature is oftentimes wasteful in her methods, and needs to be aided
by man in order to secure the best results. This is particularly true in regard to forest resources.
The detailed investigations made by Dr. Howe show, in the first place, that the burning of
logging-slash, at selected times and under proper supervision, not only greatly reduces the fire
hazard, but favours the reproduction of Douglas fir by exposing the mineral soil. However,
repeated fires and fires occurring during dry periods not only destroy the young growth, but the
seed-trees as well, thus preventing or greatly retarding the establishment of a stand of commercial species. As a general rule, a sufficient number of seed-trees is left after logging, so
that one fire leaves enough for seeding purposes. Each fire thereafter, however, reduces them
in proportionately larger quantities. Thus, through the diminution of seed-trees, each fire makes
it increasingly difficult to re-establish the forest on the repeatedly burned areas. On this account,
in many sections reproduction of valuable species is wholly inadequate in amount or is entirely
lacking, since each successive fire diminishes the earning capacity of the area from the point of
view of timber production, and makes artificial planting the more necessary; and this is
impracticable at the present time on any large scale on account of the great expense involved.
The same results can, however, be secured at relatively slight expense by providing more adequate
protection from fire on cut-over lands, especially those bearing young forest-growth at the present
time. In a sense, protection of young growth is more essential than in mature timber, since the
effect of fire is so much more disastrous, a single fire entirely destroying the young trees, while
the old timber is very fire-resistant, being covered by a thick covering of bark. The additional
protection needed naturally means the employment of a larger patrol force than has previously
been practicable on account of the limited funds available."
This investigation has shown that broadcast burning of slash after logging is completed will
favour the natural reproduction of Douglas fir. Subsequent fires will, however, kill out the
second growth. The conditions affecting the regrowth of the remaining commercial species of
the Province have not yet been studied, though field officers of the Forest Branch are securing
a certain amount of data for their particular districts.
No thorough study has yet been made of the rate of growth of any of our timber on different
sites. I propose paying some attention to this work during the coming year, in order that some
opinion may be formed as to the length of time necessary to grow a second crop in logged and
burned districts.    This information may be gained by the existing staff at slight expense.
The merchantable contents of trees vary so greatly in different localities that volume tables
must be based on actual measurements before accurate estimating is possible. Volume tables
have been made of the important species of the lower coast and are printed herewith.  S.s.ss,
■:,:,.■;.
-   s:*    vj      ,      ■ :.-7 , ..-      -      Sr;7
■    .-     ■    ^   -ym MffiM# ■■-■
*»,      -, "... .. 'i    Si,'
Douglas   fir  sixteen   years   old,   1,200   trees
per acre, on area burned once.
Second-growth fir on area logged about
fifty years ago, near Tort Moody. Not burned
since   logging.
Logged and burned twelve years ago ; 5,000 fir, 1,300 cedar, and 400 hemlock seedlings per acre,
near Shawnigan Lake. An area burned severely at least twice.     Before the last fire it was well covered with
young fir-trees, the remains of which can be seen, by careful observation, in the foreground.
Burned twice  since logging,  the last being a  light  ground fire.     Compare  abundance
of reproduction with that on areas burned only once.
M    O
4^/M;v^.M
.'  >**..'
.^MM-frM.--:'MM   ;!MM':-: Y^M^MMM'-M^M.v- .
-'      •slSW'SSS.rfv
,.*M''
;... s
Young flr and  hemlock  killed by fire in  1914.    The  seed trees  have been killed,  so
another stand cannot re-establish itself here.  5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 33
Volume Table for Cedar.
(Giving Merchantable Contents, British Columbia Rule, under Present Conditions, with no
Allowance for Breakage or Defect. Compiled from Measurements taken of 354 Trees on
the Lower Coast.)
D.B.H.
Short.
Medium.
Tall.
D.B.H.
Short.
Medium.
Tall.
Inches.
Inches.
20
190
290
410
42
1,440
1,895
2,340
22
260
375
530
44
1,650
2,125
2,600
' 24
335
475
660
4B
1,865
2,370
2.875
26
420
585
800
48
2,090
2,640
3,175
28
510
705
950
50
2,330
2,925
3,515
30
600
835
1,115
52
2,580
3,220
3,865
32
710
975
1,300
54
2,835
3,525
4,250
34
825
1,125
1,485
56
3,195
3,840
4,650
36
960
1,290
1,685
58
3,360
4,150
5,080
38
1,100
1,475
1,890
60
3,630
4,480
5,530
40
1,260
1,675
2,100
(Giving Merchantable Contents,
Allowance for Breakage or
on the Lower Coast.)
Volume Table for Hemlock.
British  Columbia Rule,  under Present  Conditions,  with no
Defect.    Compiled  from  Measurements  taken  of  207   Trees
D.B.H.
Short.
Medium.
Tall.
D.B.H.
Short.
Medium.
Tall.
Inches.
Inches.
16
220
300
410
30
1,030
1,440
1,730
18
300
410
530
32
1,230
1,680
2,040
20
385
530
670
34
1,450
1,950
2,380
22
480
670
830
36
1,680
2,260
2,780
24
590
830
1,020
38
1,930
2,580
3,200
26
715
1,010
1.235
40
2,200
2,920
3,620
28
865
1,210
1.470
Volume Table for Douglas Fir.
(Giving Merchantable  Contents,  British  Columbia Rule,  under Present  Conditions,  with  -no
Allowance for Breakage  or Defect.    Compiled from Measurements  taken  of  726  Trees
on  the  Lower  Coast.)
D.B.H.
Short.
Medium.
Tall.
D.B.H.
Short.
Medium.
Tall.
Inches.
Inches.
22
350
440
600
44
2,250
3,020
3,810
24
420
560
750
46
2,550
3,370
4,230
26
510
710
920
48
2,875
3,750
4,675
28
610
880
1,130
50
3,225
4,150
5,130
30
730
1.075
1,375
52
3,580
4,565
5,610
32
890
1.280
1.650
54
3,960
5,000
6.090
34
1,060
1,520
1,955
56
4,350
5,475
6,580
36
1,250
1,770
2,280
58
4,775
5,950
7,075
38
1,470
2.050
2.640
60
5,230
6.460
7,575
40
1,700
2,350
3,010
62
5,750
7,000
8,080
42   ,
1,970
2,675
3,400
Some measurements for volume tables for the Interior districts are being collected this
winter.
Much new information has been gained during the past three seasons concerning the range
of commercial timbers in the Province, and it is now clear that the forests of British Columbia
are more extensive and more valuable than is indicated by botanical or forest literature.
3 I 34
Department of Lands.
1915
The survey of the timber resources of the Province conducted by the Commission of Conservation in co-operation with the Forest Branch is still going forward. It is expected that field-
work will be completed during the coming year. The Commission has shown great interest in
the matter and have assisted generously in the prosecution of investigations.
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
There are three important reasons for classifying lands in this Province before they are
alienated from the Crown: (1) To prevent the alienation of land valuable chiefly for timber;
(2) to make available for settlement all areas suitable for agriculture; (3) to hold under reserve
lands which are unfitted for agriculture. These three principles of classification of public lands
have been adopted in nearly all the countries of the world, and are now practised to an increasing
extent each year by the different land administrations in Canada. The results of such a classification of public lands are twofold—the confining of settlement to agricultural lands, where such
settlement is prosperous and productive, and the segregating of non-agricultural lands for fire-
protection and management of the timber-crops.
During the year the land-classification work of the Forest Branch was devoted chiefly to
cruising and securing the reserve upon public lands carrying timber over the statutory limit.
The total area of unalienated public lands classified during 1914 was 492,298 acres. In
addition to this, 12,000,000 acres, a great deal of which is unalienated, was covered by forest
reconnaissance parties. This is dealt with elsewhere in this report. The balance referred to
here consists of tracts for which some form of application has at some time been made, and for
which particular information was necessary to decide the disposition of the land.
During the year 167,456 acres, carrying 956,000,000 feet of timber, were put under reserve,
and information was secured by field parties during the past season which will place under
reserve a considerable portion of the 12,000,000 acres mentioned above. It is important in the
present condition of the timber market that important bodies of timber such as these, which
represent an asset of many million dollars, should remain off the market under public control.
The examination of logged-over and expired timber licences and leases was continued through
the year in order that final disposition might be made of the lands. In certain districts of the
Province where the remaining unalienated public lands are valuable chiefly for timber, applications for alienation are so far as possible examined by the Forest Branch before disposition of
the land is decided by the Lands Department. A large area of lands so applied for in timbered
districts was examined.
Expired Licences and Leases, Applications to Purchase, and Pre-emptions examined in 1914.
Forest   District.
Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Area   recommended  for
Reserve.
Estimate  of
Timber.
Cranbrook   ....
Fort George   . .
Hazelton   	
Island   	
Kamloops 	
Nelson   	
Prince Rupert
Vancouver ....
Vernon 	
Totals
Acres.
53,119
8,647
20,067
70,127
4,649
10,825
30,450
189,424
104,990
492,298
Acres.
16,827
7,400
12,307
26,524
2,864
8,902
15,761
41,977
1,595
Acres.
21,202
7,547
10,060
25,558
625
5.353
13,920
79,561
3.630
134,157
167,456
Board-feet.
21,508,625
73,516,100
139,001,842
297,313,810
2,600,000'
15,895,390
7,993,000
371,731,118
27.239.692
956,799,577
.The result of the examination of these lands is to retain for the public benefit timbered
lands which, if they passed into private hands, would be sold or logged for their timber value
in competition with lands now held under lease or licence. Oases occur where the timber is
worth far more than the land; for instance, by the retention of 160 acres out of an area of
193 a timber revenue of $2,739 was secured; a similar area comprised in Timber Sale X282 has
a timber value of $4,125 apart from the land, which can be sold separately, and so on. 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 35
In addition to the above, 7,860 acres were cruised for other branches of the Government
service.
Areas desired for mill-site purposes or booming-grounds are now examined by the Forest
Branch. During 1914 sixteen applications were received, twelve were dealt with, and four still
await action.
SCALING AND GRADING.
The system of licensing scalers in the Interior districts of the Province, which was
inaugurated in 1913, was extended during the past year, fifty-six men passing the examination
successfully. The total number of licensed scalers is now 159. In two cases licences were
cancelled as penalty for ill-conduct. Reports from every district speak highly of the improvement shown in scaling-work since the new system has been introduced. As the duties of a
licensed scaler make him in part the agent of the Government, it is recommended that those
whose work, tested by check-scaling, is found to reach a certain standard of accuracy should
receive a Government grant based on work done. In every district Rangers on the staff of
the Branch will be required to qualify scaler's licences during the present year.
On the Coast the Official Scalers are now charged with the work of grading logs under the
provisions of the new " Royalty Act." Besides acting for the Government, an Official Scaler
holds the balance between logger and manufacturers, and accurate judgment as to the true
contents of logs is thus doubly necessary. Scaled booms are therefore tallied through the mills
when opportunity offers, and in the following table some results are shown which fully justify
(in the case of cedar) both the grades established by the Branch and the judgment shown by
the scalers in interpreting these grades. The contention of the Branch that No. 2 grade would
yield 10,000 shingles per 1,000 feet scale measurement is shown in this table to be correct.
Cedar-scaling—Shingle Tests.
No. 2 Grade. Logs.
Mill No.
No. of
Logs.
Scale
B.M.
No. 1
Shingles.
No. 2
Shingles.
Total
Shingles.
No. 1,
Average
per M. Ft.
No. 2,
Average
per M. Ft.
Total
Average
per M. Ft.
1  	
20
22
22
27
19,203
14,289
16,317
17,772
214,481
140,250
156,050
161,500
12,600
6,000
16.460
9,500
227,081
146,250
172,510
171,000
11.17
9.81
9.563
9.08
0.65
0.42
1.008
0.54
11.82
10.23
3 	
10.571
4	
9.621
91
67,581
672,281
44,560
716.S41
9.95
0.66
10.61
No. 3 Grade Logs.
Mill No.
No. of
Logs.
Scale
B.M.
No. 1
Shingles.
No. 2
Shingles.
Total
Shingles.
No. 1,
Average
per M. Ft.
No. 2,
Average
per M. Ft.
Total
Average
per M. Ft.
2  	
3 	
24
■       4
24.116
1,672
182,750
12,440
24,500
2,250
207,250
14,690
7.57
7.44
1.01
1.34
8.58
8.7S
28
25,7SS
195,190
26,750
221,940
7.56
1.03
8.60
No. 1 Grade Logs.
Mill No.
No. of
Logs.
Scale
B.M.
No.  1
Shingles.
No. 2
Shingles.
Total
Shingles.
No. 1,
Average
per M. Ft.
No. 2,
Average
per M. Ft.
Total
Average
per M. Ft.
2
3 	
2
1
1,551
1,070
15,500
11,740
1,500
250
17,000
11,990
9.99
10.97
0.97
0.23
10.96
11.20
3
2,621
27,240
1,750
.    28,990
10.39
0.67   .
11.06
- I 36
Department of Lands.
1915
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Forest Branch.
I 37
An attempt was made during 1914 to segregate the cut into species, and the following table
gives the approximate figures obtained. Douglas fir comprises almost half of the total cut.
Douglas fir and red cedar together comprise more than 70 per cent, of all the timber cut in the
Province in 1914.
Species Cut.
Forest
District.
Ol
Ot
w
3
O
a
02
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28,768
4,931
44
7,373
2,606
13,882
2,820
68,104
850
241,500
M.B.M.
4,355
327
2,183
28
10,541
2,697
28,107
1,347
140,500
M.B.M.
18,043
2,655
975
2,918
156
1,457
M.B.M.
M.B.M.
2,090
M.B.M.
19,457
M.B.M.
426
M.B.M.
24,766
M.B.M.
M.B.M.
M.B.M.
M.B.M.
97,479
8,012
933
30
8
2,317
19,188
6,714
88
8,648
10,753
2,878
517
1,644
762
5
1,500
2,941
37,986
17,914
6,906
6,059
35,000
19,442
526
44,190
5,012
1,290
5,700
14,092
128,333
85
10,162
170
8
468,560
Totals '...	
370,878
190,085
74,169
65,608
45,660
4,337
27,707
85
200
792,829
Totals: M.B.M., 792,829.
The following table divides the output of the year into four classes—board feet for logs;
lineal feet for poles and piles; railway ties by number cut; and cords for shingle-bolts, mine-
props, fence-posts, and fuel. This information is given for each Forest District for each month
of the year. I 38
Department of Lands.
1915
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0 5 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. I 39
GRAZING.
Owing to the emergency created by the bad fire season, which demanded the attention
throughout July and August of the Victoria staff, it was not possible to begin the investigation
into grazing conditions until September. Consequently only two districts, the Nicola and Lillooet,
were examined. The investigation, however, showed plainly the need of a definite policy in
regard to the use of Grown land for the grazing of stock. When completed, the investigation will
indicate the lines upon which this important matter should be handled.
FOREST RESERVES.
On December 31st, 1914. a notice appeared in the British Columbia Gazette to the effect
that certain lands in the Elk River Valley have been 'made a forest reserve. That notice marked
the establishment of the first Provincial forest reserve in British Columbia.
The Elk River Reserve is situated at the headwaters of the river, and the Alberta line forms
its eastern boundary. It covers an area of approximately 100 square miles. The land bears
timber and is underlaid with coal; it possesses also many attractions in the way of scenery and
game. None of the land is suitable for agriculture. As a whole, the area is suitable only for
growing timber, and it is for this reason it has been made a forest reserve. The timber will be
valuable for the Prairie market and for use in local coal-mining, the establishment of the reserve
in nowise preventing utilization of its resources.
The Calgary and Fernie Railroad will pass through the reserve, making accessible its wealth
of timber, coal, and scenery, and aiding in their use and development. On the east is the Rocky
Mountains Forest Reserve in Alberta, nearly 10,000,000 acres in area, under the jurisdiction
of the Dominion Government, which covers practically the whole eastern slope of the Rocky
Mountains.
The principal reason for the establishment of a forest reserve is because the area as a whole
is more useful for growing a forest crop than for any other purpose. This often means that
the area as a whole is fit for no other purpose.
It cannot be emphasized too strongly that a forest reserve does not reserve land from use—
does not lock up its resources. It neither prevents nor retards the use of agricultural and
grazing land, coal, oil, and mineral land, and timber situated within the area reserved. Camping,
hunting, and fishing may be enjoyed just as freely as elsewhere.
In addition to forest reserves of which the Elk River is so far the only example, there is
another class of forest land which is automatically reserved by Statute if it is known to be
statutory timber land—i.e., land east of the Cascade Mountains bearing over 5,000 feet B.M.
per acre, and land west of the Cascade Mountains bearing over 8,000 feet B.M. per acre.
Altogether over 1,000,000 acres of such land has been examined and reported on by officers of
the Forest Branch and reserved to the Crown. This total is made up of parcels of timber land
of all sizes scattered over the Province.
Such a form of reservation differs from a forest reserve proper, in that the basis of it is
the stand of merchantable timber existing on the land rather than consideration of what the
laud itself is permanently most useful for. In other words, it is the timber wealth which is
reserved rather than the land itself. After the timber is sold and removed the land may be
devoted to whatever purpose it is best suited. Thus such a reservation may and does include
some land suitable for agriculture, when cleared, as well as land which will be of use only for
the production of timber-crops.
The advantages of locating and reserving this timber are many and are obvious. In the
first place, it gives definite information of where the valuable Crown timber is situated, so that
arrangements can be made to protect the timber from fire and from trespass, and the land from
accidental alienation. It guarantees that when the timber is sold the public treasury will receive
full value for it.
It does not retard settlement. As a rule, where there are large areas of agricultural land,
especially in the interior of the Province, the proportion of the area which is statutory timber
land is not great; much or most of the land has been burned over one or more times, and bears
a cover of reproduction more or less dense.    The lightly wooded land will naturally be cleared I 40 Department of Lands. 1915
and settled first. The reserved timber lands will not only provide lumber for settlement and
for export, but also will provide a source of employment for settlers and a market for their
produce. Finally, after the land is logged, if it is suitable for agriculture, it is then opened
for settlement aud is the easier to clear because logged off; if it is fit only for growing timber,
it can be kept in reserve for that purpose, or perhaps ultimately placed in permanent forest
reserve.
FOREST-PROTECTION.
The weather during the fire season of 1914 was exceptional, the general opinion among Fire
Wardens and lumbermen being that the conditions for bad fires were even more serious than they
were in 1910, when a number of lives and much property aud timber was lost. It was to meet
just such conditions, however, that the Government established a forest protective force, and the
season therefore provided a thorough test of the value of this force. Everything considered, the
record for the past season can be looked upon as very satisfactory, and as fully justifying both
the advanced position British Columbia has taken in forest-protection. Compared, however,
with the value of the protected timber and the extreme importance of the forest resource to the
future of the Province, the cost of fire-protection is small.
Despite the good general record, the season's experience brought out a number of weak
points in the protection system.    The more important of these points are as follows:—
(1.) Owing to the large size of the individual districts the force of regular Fire AVardens
cannot handle the situation in a bad season. Whenever the danger becomes great several patrolmen are needed to assist each regular Fire Warden.
(2.) A reserve corps of efficient and experienced foremen to take charge of fire-fighting crews
must be selected, and made available for duty upon immediate notice.
(3.)  Plans for mobilizing, transporting, and feeding fighting crews must be improved.
(4.) Facilities for transportation and communication in the mountains away from settlement are inadequate. Thousands of miles of trail and hundreds of miles of telephone-line must
be built before the fire-danger in such districts can be controlled.
Plans to overcome these defects are already under way, but staff increase and trail and
telephone construction are, of course, limited by the funds available.
The Weather Recokd.
Particularly in the Fraser Valley and the Fort George District the month of May was very
dry and hot, and numerous fires occurred, some of them doing considerable damage. June was
normal on the Coast and in the northern districts, but dry and hot in Cranbrook, Nelson, Vernon,
and Kamloops. During July and August and the first week of September the weather was
abnormally hot and dry throughout the whole southern part of the Province, the mean temperature being 2 degrees above normal and the total precipitation 2% inches below normal. This
long-continued excessive heat and marked drought created conditions extremely favourable to
fires. On Vancouver Island and the Coast, fortunately, there were few winds and an entire
absence of the dreaded dry east wind. In the Southern Interior, however, strong winds were of
frequent occurrence, and in some districts blew for days at a time. There also occurred in this
region a number of electric storms, which were not accompanied by any considerable amount of
rainfall, and a very large number of fires were started by lightning in remote localities. As a
result of these weather conditions the vegetation dried up early, and from July 25th to September
7th was in an extremely inflammable state, and fires, besides spreading with unbelievable rapidity,
were almost impossible to put out. During this period of seven weeks the force in the Nelson,
Cranbrook, Vernon, and Kamloops Districts, and to a lesser extent that in the Island and
Vancouver Districts, was engaged almost night and day in fire-fighting.
In the Prince Rupert, Hazelton, Fort George, and Tete Jaune Districts the rainfall was above
the normal in June and July, but deficient in August and September. Towards the end of
August the conditions in the Fort George District became serious, and a number of fires escaped
control, the worst ones being in the Peace River District, but the cool nights in September
effectually checked their extension.   In the other three districts there was very little trouble.
Below are tables, kindly prepared by F. Napier Denison, Superintendent of the Meteorological
Observatory, Victoria, giving the weather records for the summer months at representative
stations, which show in detail the unusual nature of the season. 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 41
Temperature ano Rainfall Data, 1914.
Station.
Tempekatuke.
Mean.
Difference
from
Average.
Rainfall.
Rainfall.
Difference
from
Average.
No. Days
Rain fell.
May, 1914.
Nanaimo	
Vancouver  	
Chilliwack  	
Kamloops  	
Revelstoke	
Vernon  	
Nelson	
Quesnel 	
Barkerville	
Stuart Lake  	
June, 1914.
Nanaimo   	
Vancouver 	
Chilliwack  	
Kamloops	
Revelstoke 	
Vernon	
Nelson	
Quesnel	
Barkerville    »	
Stuart Lake  	
July, 1914.
Nanaimo   	
Vancouver 	
Chilliwack   	
Kamloops	
Revelstoke	
Vernon	
Nelson 	
Quesnel	
Barkerville   	
Stuart Lake  	
August, 1914-
Nanaimo   	
Vancouver	
Chilliwack  	
Kamloops	
Revelstoke  	
Vernon 	
Nelson	
Quesnel	
Barkerville   	
Stuart Lake  	
September, 1914
Nanaimo   	
Vancouver	
Chilliwack  	
Kamloops	
Revelstoke 	
Vernon	
Nelson 	
Quesnel	
Barkerville   	
Stuart Lake  	
57.0
56.4
54.8
58.0
53.5
55.5
55.1
52.1
43.1
43.0
58.8
58.7
58.3
63.9
58.6
61.2
5S.5
59.7
50.4
54.6
64.4
63.5
63.2
70.9
65.1
68.6
68.8
5S.0
52.1
55.1
63.7
61.8
61.7
0S.7
62.4
67.1
68.6
61.7
51.9
58.1
54.7
54.8
54.7
56.5
52.7
55.1
53.1
52.4
43.8
47.2
+ 3.6
+ 2.6
—0.4
+0.6
+ 1.5
+ 1.0
+ 1.3
+ 0.6
— 1.3
— 0.1
+ 1.1
+ 1.0
—1.1
—0.1
+0.2
+ 0.6
—0.9
+ 1.0
+0.9
+ 1.2
+0.5
—0.8-
+ 2.5
+2.0
+ 1.7
+2.6
—4.0
—2.3
+0.5
+ 1.0
+0.3
—0.8
+ 1.0
+ 1.0
+ 1.5
+ 5.0
+ 1.4
—1.6
+ 4.5
— 1.4
—0.8
—2.2
+0.9
—0.2
+0.1
— 2.6
+ 0.6
+0.7
+2.2
0.16
0.74
1.97
1.31
1.25
1.07
1.95
1.21
3.22
0.43
1.70
3.5S
3.14
0.54
2.53
1.05
2.56
2.37
4.39
1.10
0.10
0.42
0.17
0.53
0.97
0.62
1.05
2.76
4.69
2.75
0.33
0.75
0.45
0.38
1.19
0.53
0.24
0.30
0.96
0.32
4.03
6.86
6.35
1.09
3.87
1.96
3.44
1.39
3.75
1.00
—1.84
—2.60
—1.72
+ 0.33
—0.97
—0.21
— 0.21
+0.31
+0.80
+0.62
—0.74
+0.77
—0.80
—0.52
—0.71
—0.26
+0.69
+ 0.85
— 0.39
—0.62
—0.91
—1.7S
—0.71
— 1.53
— 0.64
—0.88
+ 1.10
+ 1.54
+ 1.42
—0.45
—0.90
—1.77
—0.65
—1.47
—0.48
—0.84
— 1.40
—2.27
—0.98
+ 1.73
+2.39
+ 3.72
+0.14
+ 0.48
+ 0.55
+ 1.53
—0.35
+0.11
—0.37
5
6
11
5
14
7
9
5
13
9
9
11
10
12
14
15
9
20
o
4
5
5
4
4
5
10
17
18
17
17
17
11
18
15
13
8
16
12 I 42
Department op Lands.
1915
CO-OPERATION.
In a forest Province such as British Columbia the prevention and suppression of fires is of
universal concern and importance. Every interest, private, corporate, municipal, Provincial, and
Federal, is affected in some way, and mutual assistance and co-operation is necessary if the
efforts at fire-protection are to be effective. It is safe to say that in no other Province or State
is there a more active interest taken or more help given by the public in fire-protection matters
than in British Columbia.
The Forest Branch much appreciates the helpful attitude of farmers and settlers, who,
besides conforming cheerfully to permit regulations, have assisted the field officers by reporting
fires and by helping to fight fire at times when they could ill afford to leave their work. The
lumber, mining, irrigation, and transportation companies have likewise been of very greatest
assistance, and in a number of cases have employed patrolmen of their own. An incomplete list
of firms who do this is as follows:—
Names of Timeer-owners, Irrigation and Mining Companies employing Men fob
Fire-patrol Work.
Forest   District.
Name of Firm.
No. of
Patrolmen.
Region  patrolled.
Island	
ii       	
Vancouver .
Vernon ....
,,        ....
,,        ....
Nelson  ....
,,        ....
i'        	
Cranbrook  .
Fort George
Cowichan Lumber Co	
V. H. May  	
British American Timber Co.
Merrill & Ring   	
Lacy Timber Co	
North Pacific Lumber Co.  . ..
B.C. Copper Co	
Nicola Valley Pine Co	
Belgo-Canadian Irrigation Co.
Coalmont Collieries	
Penticton Lumber Co	
Munson Lumber Co	
Mankin Lumber and Pole Co.
E. R. C. Clarkson	
Traders' National Bank	
Western Pine Lumber Co. ...
Western Canada Timber Co. .
British Canadian Lumber Co.
Kootenay Cedar Co	
Royal Lumber Co	
C.P.R. Forestry Branch	
Grain-growers' Grain Co	
Cowichan Lake.
Campbell River.
Mamquam Valley.
Salmon* River.
Chilliwack River.
Upper Similkameen.
Coldwater River.
Mission Creek.
Hedley Mountain.
Naramata.
Blueberry Creek.
Salmon River.
North Fork, Kettle River.
Lardeau River.
Slocan River.
Lardeau' River.
Duncan River.
C.P.R. Tie Reserves.
South Fork, Fraser River.
Mr. Napier Denison, of the Dominion Weather Service, very kindly furnished special
forecasts of wind and heat conditions which proved of great assistance.
As in previous years, the Public Works Department and the Provincial Police gave every
assistance in their power.
The mutually advantageous agreement with the Dominion Forestry Branch, under which
the Wardens of both services co-operated in handling fires along the boundary of the Railway
Belt, and by which the Dominion Wardens received authority to grant burning permits in the
Belt, was continued.
EDUCATION.
In a Province so dependent on forest industries as British Columbia the importance of
protecting the forests from fire must be kept before the public constantly. This can best be
done by following the recognized principles of advertising. Last spring, therefore, besides
posting along roads, at logging camps, and other convenient places notices bearing information
about the fire law, the attention of the public was sought by the distribution of art pictures
carrying  their own story of fire-protection,  attractive  and striking  calendar posters,  pocket 5 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. I 43
whetstones bearing appropriate inscription, and coloured slides which the proprietors of moving-
picture theatres generously agreed to show.
The wisdom of these modern methods of education was shown by the many favourable
comments that were made upon the attractive and useful articles used to present the educational
matter. The effectiveness of such methods are, of course, dependent on the mental impression
made by the article and its association with the warning of information contained in the subject-
matter.
The assistance and co-operation received from the public in fire-protection matters, the
manner in which the regulations in regard to setting out and clearing camp-fires were carried
out, and the general interest which all classes of people take in fire-protection is effective evidence
of the value of such an educational campaign.
FIRE-PATROL   FORCE.
Through various economies and by shortening the period of employment it was possible to
employ 190 regular Forest Guards in 1914 against 159 the previous year, and 115 extra patrolmen and look-out men for short periods against 65 in 1913, at an increased expense ot only a
few thousand dollars, the figures for patrol being $206,000 and $214,000 respectively for 1913 and
1914. This increase in force permitted a reduction in the size of the patrol districts and was
largely responsible for the good record of the past season. The important part which the size
of the patrol districts plays in forest-protection is indicated by the fact that the timber-owners'
protective associations of the North-western States and Eastern Provinces consider 50,000 acres
the largest area one man can patrol efficiently. In British Columbia in 1914 the average district
covered 500,000 acres, while in 1913 the area was 670,000 acres. The great difference between
the size of patrol districts in British Columbia and other forest regions is, however, partly offset
by the lower hazard in this Province, due to sparser settlement and the existence of large forest
areas at high altitudes where the dangerous season is of short duration. Moreover, by reference
to the table given in the Organization section it will be seen that in the southern districts, where
the hazard is greatest, the districts are comparatively small.
The efficiency of patrol was also increased by improving the means of travel of the Guards,
a much larger number of horses and motor-boats being used than in preceding years. Detachable
low-priced motors for canoes were found to be very effective for patrol on the inland lakes.
Owing to the immense size of the Rangers' districts a more rapid means of travel than that
provided by horses is very badly needed, and in districts well supplied with good roads cheap
motor-cars would greatly facilitate the supervision of the work of the Guards by the Rangers.
This is of the highest importance in a bad fire season, where poor judgment on the part of an
inexperienced Guard may result in the unnecessary expenditure of thousands of dollars. The
only possible way of preventing such waste is through close supervision on the part of the
Rangers.
It is a pleasure to say that the w7ork of the individual Guards and patrolmen showed
marked improvement this year, due partly to the close supervision by the District Foresters
and Rangers, but largely to the active interest taken in the work by the men themselves. A
careful record is kept of the work of each Guard, and those who prove their ability are given
appointments the following year. In this way the personnel of the force becomes better each
year, and eventually the Province will have a corps of thoroughly trained men, competent to
handle big fires effectively and economically, as well as to perform the ordinary duties, such
as patrol and the issuance of burning permits.
Each spring finds most of the trails through the timber rendered impassable by fallen logs
and brush broken down by snow. Then there are many abandoned trails which need to be
opened up. It is the duty of the Guards to clear out these trails so far as their other duties
permit.   Even in 1914 they were able to clear out 245 miles. I 44
Department of Lands.
1915
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Forest Branch.
I 45
Table B.—Damage to Property other than Forests.
Forest  Districts.
Forest
Products in
Process   of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway   and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
Per Cent.
$ 68,100
160
498
13,865
385
114,445
3.740
540
$    2,000
275
1,200
123.070
945
900
1.000
7,585
620
$ 1,100
1.000
570
8,400
$     125
505
3,025
325
200
600
7,275
1,775
247
$ 71,325
940
4,723
138,260
2,100
1,500
122,720
21,500
1,407
19.6
0.3
1.3
37.9
0.6
0.4
33.6
Prince Rupert  ....
'5.9
0.4
Totals   	
$201,733
$137,595
.$11,070
$14,077
$364,475
100.0
Per cent. . ..
55.3
37.7
3.0
4.0
|       100.0
Table C.—A Comparison of the Damage caused by Forest Fires during the Past Five Years.
1010.
1911.
1012
1913.
1914.
Total number of fires 	
Total area burned-over (acres)   	
Standing timber destroyed or damaged   (M.
ft. B.M.)  	
Damage to forest  	
Damage to other forms of property	
Total damage	
1.184
218,388
130,650
$193,976
435,939
629,915
331
Not given.
3,570
Not given.
47,000
347
160,000
200,000
$200,000
113,273
313,273
578
10,270
3,845
$ 4,387 00
13,967 25
18,354 00
1,832
355,124
102,804
j> 72,057
364,475
436,532
Notes.—Damage to forest in 1910, 1911, and 1912 includes only estimated valuation of damage to
timber ; in 1913 and 1914 it includes also estimated damage to valuable reproduction; 1910 was a very
hazardous fire season (seven lives were lost through forest fires) ; 1911 season favourable on the Coast,
dry in the Northern Interior; 1912 season dry and hazardous In spring; 1913 season very favourable ;
1914 season in southern districts worst in many years; in northern districts normal.
Damage to Forest.
Though in southern British Columbia the past fire season was said to be the driest and
most hazardous for twenty years, the damage caused was relatively light. While the number
of fires is much greater than in any previous year, the area and quantity of standing timber
damaged or destroyed is less than in both 1910 and 1912. Only about 12 per cent, of the total
area burned bore merchantable timber, and a considerable part of the timber can be salvaged
within the next few years.*
Valuable second growth burned comprised about 16 per cent, of the total area and about
a quarter of the total damage to the forest. Over half the total area burned over was land
which bore very little merchantable timber or valuable second growth. It includes logged-off
land; areas of unmerchantable though mature timber; and areas which were burned off in
former years and on which little or no reproduction of forest takes place. Some of it is agricultural land and will eventually be used for that purpose. Some of it is unfit for farming,
but capable of bearing merchantable timber; and in this case the fire has seriously delayed
the future timber-crop.   Again, some of the burned over is unfit either for agriculture or for
* It should be stated that three large fires were reported on the watershed of South Pine River—a
tributary of the Peace—this summer, but since reliable estimates as to the area burned over and timber
killed could not be obtained, they are not included in the Are statistics. I 46
Department of Lands.
1915
growing merchantable timber, its chief value being for watershed protection. Where large
areas are severely burned and the forest cover destroyed, the damage manifests itself in floods,
soil-erosion, and the choking-up of streams.
Nearly 16 per cent, of the total area burned over was grazing land either open or only
lightly timbered.
Damage to other Forms of Property.
Over half the total damage listed in this table is made up of two items. In the Island
District the destruction of the town of South Wellington by a forest fire, believed to be of
incendiary origin, is responsible for $120,000 out of the $123,070 damage to buildings. In Nelson
District the value of a sawmill and lumber destroyed by a forest fire makes up most of the
$114,445 listed in the column headed " Forest Products in Process of Manufacture."
COST  OF FIGHTING FIRES, 1914.
Fires, 1914, classified by Place of Origin and Cost of Fighting.
w
QJ
O
H
si
S§*.
OT!  ri
r-i  vi  02
oOrr.^2
-eg
o
31
gig
^ jrg
g ° c
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o
Extinguished
without Cost.
Cost Money to
fight.
Total Cost
fighting
Fires.
Average
Cost per
Fire.
Forest District.
No.
rt"g
OH
H»
oS
^ s
S ■
o £
Ph
68.7
81.1
68.9
37.5
65.0
85.7
63 9
62.5
84.0
48.6
51.0
Srt '$1
!J
HO
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g  C
o'S
,     02
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No.
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o'S
li
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02
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rt
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02
No.
No.
No.
tr
(2
246
323
103
120
146
49
418
8
81
140
198
36
164
35
78
35
87
4
14
58
88
210
159
68
120
68
14
331
4
07
82
110
169
262
71
45
95
42
267
5
68
68
101
14.2
22.0
5.9
3.8
7.9
3.5
22.4
0.4
5.7
5.7
8.5
77
61
32
75
51
7
151
3
13
72
97
31.3
18.9
31.1
62.5
35.0
14.3
36.1
37.5
16.0
51.4
49.0
12.0
9.5
5.0
11.8
8.0
1.1
23.6
0.5
2.0
11.3
15.2
22,383
2,832
1,276
10,760
20,266
127
46,515
427
328
12,051
23,142
16.0
2.0
0.9
7.7
14.5
0.1
32.2
0.3
0.2
8.6
16.5
291
46
40
143
397
18
308
142
25
167
241
13.3
2.1
1.8
6.5
18 1
.8
14 0
6.5
1.1
7 6
Totals	
1,832
100
599
32.7
1,233
67.3
1,193
65.1
100.0
100.0
639
34.9
100.0
140,107
1O0.O
219
10.0
1913 totals	
578
100
347
100
420
73
158
27
8,929
86
1912 totals	
113
33
234
67
29,879
128
	
109
1911 totals	
331
100
199
60
132
40
14,344
1910 totals	
1,184
100
615
52
569
48
140,000
(approx)
246
* Includes timber licences, timber and pulp leases, Crown-granted timber land, tie reserves, etc.
t Includes pre-emptions, purchased land, various forms of leases, as coal, grazing, etc., mineral claims, and some Dominion
Government land, as Indian reserves.
The total cost this year is the greatest since 1910, for the fire season was the worst in many
years. Judged by the value of timber and other property protected, however, the sums expended
represent only a small insurance premium. Compared with the much greater expense incurred
under similar conditions in the AVestern United States in 1914, the cost is moderate.
The number of fires which cost money to fight is greatest in the southern districts, where
the hazard is most serious. In Kamloops District nearly half the total cost of fighting fires was
incurred in one very bad fire. In Prince Rupert District the number of fires was small, and
nearly the total expense was incurred in fighting two fires, one of which was set by lightning
in a situation very difficult to reach. 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 47
Fires, 1914, classified by Size.
OJ
K
"rt
o
H
Under \ Acre.
\ Acre to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres.
Forest District.
No.
rt o
*r "r
o h
■go
g»
D £
*h£
02 ^
Pr
H 1
S3
Hr   00
"a a
ID.a
O eo
^ cu
P-Es.
No.
'rt o
■go
^ a
g'«>
o£
%'"
"rt oo
OR
°1
a a
m .-
O or
t. °
— '-rS
No.
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•SQ
II
r-    US
d rt
OR
H°
^'1
"a C
m.r
O   01
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SS~ —
e   .
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1-s
a
No.
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3d
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fc£-H
rt'»
£ o
rt-"
O
No.
ar
c
02 Q
bEO
2          r
is
o
No.
No.
246
323
103
120
146
49
418
8
81
140
198
119
115
19
10
76
20
130
48.4
35.6
18.4
8.3
52.0
40.8
31.1
18.1
17.5
2.9
1.5
11.6
3.0
19.8
77
126
34
54
28
19
159
6
16
31
56
31.3
39.0
33.0
45.0
19.2
38.8
38.0
75.0
19.7
22.1
28.3
12.7
20.8
5.6
8.9
4.6
3.1
26.3
1.0
2.6
5.1
9.3
50
82
50
56
42
10
129
2
8
61
79
20.3
25.4
48.5
46.7
28.8
20.4
30.9
25.0
9.9
43.6
39.8
8.8
14.4
8.8
9.8
7.4
1.8
22.7
0.3
1.4
10.7
13.9
45
58
45
30
22
7
110
2
5
44
60
2
17
4
24
13
3
17
3
7
1
2
7
'2
57
48
63
70.4
34.3
31.8
8.7
7.3
9.6
3
14
12
3
7
Totals •	
1,832
657
100.0
606
100.0
569
	
100.0
428
109
32
100
35.9
33.1
200
34.6
-—
31.0
75.2
19.1
5.7
1913 totals	
578
100
299
79
13.7
51.7
SIZES OF FIRES, 1914.
In a very dry season fires spread more rapidly than in a normal year. The result is a
greater proportion of large fires. The dangerous weather conditions of 1914 are shown by
the fact that only a little over one-third of the fires in 1914 were extinguished while still very
small, as against over half in 1913; and nearly one-third of the fires of 1914 reached formidable
sizes before being controlled, as against about one-seventh of those in 1913.
CAUSES   OF   FOREST   FIRES,   1914.
Table A.—Number and Causes of Fires, 1914.
(1.)
(2.)
(R.)
(4.1
(5.)
(6.)
(7.)
(8.)
(9.)
(10.)
■o
si
, a
Totals.
*»
o   .
O
3
rji
■a .2
Forest District.
O
02
1 °
r-j
CO—;
Ggd
ti
O Cj
a
£2
*,£
CS
rrt
«2
as
O oo
c 2
iji 00
au
a
"Si
a
oZS 0
« 02
02
1°
■a
a
02
02
a
02 on
~ a
rO   O
a oj
No.
Pei-
Cent.
hJ
o
J
M
«
IS
Ph
31
79
97
9
5
1
11
13
246
13.4
Fort  George   ....
185
38
2
7
29
54
1
1
4
2
323
17.6
Hazelton	
34
25
1
1
32
1
6
2
1
103
5.7
34
31
2
23
1
11
13
4
1
120
6.6
Kamloops	
34
18
9
50
11
9
10
4
1
146
8.0
23
31
3
14
50
1
206
'79
1
2
32
3
2
6
13
1
4
2
2
49
418
8
2.7
22.8
Prince Rupert ...
0.4
28
6
25
0
1
15
i
81
4.4
Vancouver   	
27
47
9
16
8
11
21
i
140
7.6
57
58
10
17
10
7
24
3
ii
1
198
10.8
Totals  	
487
367
361
169
164
98
83
50
42
11
1,832
100.0
Per cent.   . . .
26.6
20.0
19.7
9.2
9.0
5.3
4.5
2.8
2.3
0.6
100
Notes on Causes.—(1.) Includes prospectors, hunters, fishermen, picnickers, smokers, floating labourers, hoboes, etc. (2.) Chleflv locomotives. (5.) Chiefly for clearing agricultural land; not for clearing
railway rights-of-wav. (6.) 'Right-of-way clearing, locomotives, steam-shovels, etc. (8.) Logging operations, 'donkey-engines, sawmills, etc. (10.) Also construction of power, telegraph, and telephone lines not
connected with railways. I 48
Department of Lands.
1915
Table B.—Number and Causes of Forest Fires for Past Five Tears.
Causes.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
Campers and travellers  (including smokers, Indians, prospectors, hunters, tramps, etc.)   	
Unknown 	
Operation of railways  	
Lightning  	
Brush-burning to clear farm land, etc	
Railway-construction	
Miscellaneous  	
Industrial operations (as logging)   	
Incendiary   	
Public road-construction   	
Totals  	
487
367
361
169
164
08
S3
50
42
11
1,832
195
104
110
34
26
62
7
24
7
9
578
51
149
34
23
47
11
6
17
"9
347
126
126
31
1
14
8
3
14
" 8
331
188
374
272
103
184
63
1.184
It is an interesting fact that for the past five years the chief causes of forest fires have
been almost the same each year, and altogether have been responsfble for from 85 to 94 per cent,
of the total number of fires. In the above Table C it is seen that " campers and travellers,"
" operation of railways," " unknown," " brush-burning," and " lightning " are largely responsible.
Campers and Travellers.
Over 90 per cent, of all forest fires in British Columbia are due to human agency of some
kind, and therefore are preventable. Of all such fires, those known to be caused by campers
and travellers are greater in number than those from any other single known cause, amounting
to nearly 25 per cent, of all fires during the last five years. There is no doubt, too, that most
of the " unknown" fires are due to campers and travellers. Of all causes, this then is the
most prolific of fires; it is also the most unnecessary and the most irritating, for the reason
is carelessness, ignorance, or laziness. All such fires are avoidable. They stand in a class by
themselves. The operation of railways and brush-burning are regulated by special legislation
which it is comparatively easy to enforce, because such matters are conspicuous and readily
supervised. The regulations regarding raiiwa57s and brush-burning, their enforcement and compliance by the companies and persons affected—all these are satisfactory.
Legislation aimed to control the setting and care of camp and smudge fires, and the disposal
of burning tobacco, matches, etc., in the forest could not well be enforced. With an average
patrol area of several hundred thousand acres, it is obviously impossible for the force to prevent
destructive fires originating from such causes, though a great many are detected and extinguished before they become dangerous. It is just as obviously impossible to have a patrol force
large enough to prevent all these fires. Nor should this be necessary, for every person in British
Columbia has a stake in its forest wealth, directly or indirectly, and the public should itself help
in the work. The lumbering industry pays half the wages in British Columbia in normal times.
Everybody shares in that to some extent. Even greater than the present revenue derived from
the forests, which is in normal times about one-quarter of the total Provincial revenue, is the
future revenue which will result when the great areas of public forest, now immature or inaccessible to market, are utilized. Everybody should realize that a forest fire touches his own
pocket as well as other people's pockets. But, apart from the personal pecuniary interest which
every inhabitant of British Columbia has in the forest wealth, there are many other considerations which should make every one careful with fire in the woods. There is the destruction of
game, the injury to watersheds and soil, and, most important of all, the destruction of life and
property resulting from forest fires. The remedy lies largely in public education. Every effort
is being made by the Forest Branch to educate the public to be more careful of fire in the woods,
and to obtain its co-operation in the work of protecting the forest wealth of the Province.
Unknown.
The percentage of fires of which the causes are unknown has decreased markedly in the
past two years, previous to which it had been greater than any other class each year since 1910. Fire set by lightning on North Thompson River on top
of mountain,  making fire-fighting difficult and expensive.
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should therefore be fired purposely when weather conditions are favourable.  5 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. I 49
This is because improved organization and a larger force have enabled more complete records
to be obtained. There is no doubt that many of these " unknown " fires are due to campers and
travellers.    It is also probable that a number this year were of incendiary origin.
Operation of Railway's.
This comes third on the list of causes in 1914, and has varied from second to fourth since
1910. During the past few years a very large amount of new railway-line has been built and
put under operation, and a great deal more will be put in operation next year. It might be
expected, therefore, that the number of fires due to the operation of railways would have increased
proportionately, and especially in a year of such great hazard as 1914. This, however, has not
been the case. The percentage of railway fires is not excessive; it is practically the same as in
1913, a year of small hazard, and less than 1910, a year of great hazard. It should be remembered, too, that the great majority of the railroad fires reported are small and soon put out, and
that much more complete records are now kept of railroad fires than was previously the case.
An order of the Board of Railway Commissioners this year required the railways to report to
the Board every fire occurring within 300 feet on each side of the right-of-way. On this account
many small fires put out by the sectionmen and railway patrolmen before they had time to
spread were reported, of which formerly no reports were obtained.
The good record this year is a tribute to the effectiveness of the regulations of the Dominion
Board of Railway Commissioners and of the provisions of the " Forest Act," as well as to the
satisfactory way in which railways on the whole complied with them.
Two districts, Nelson and Cranbrook, had 84 per cent, of these fires, and Nelson alone had
nearly CO per cent. Deducting them, the number of fires in the rest of the Province due to
railway operation is trifling. Both those districts had in the parts where most of these
railroad fires occurred somewhat similar conditions—viz., heavy railway-grades, and Dry Belt
climate and vegetation, with its inflammable dead grass and shrubs in summer. Under the
conditions existing in July, August, and the first week in September, practically every spark
thrown out from the locomotive would start a fire. The locomotives were all equipped with
spark-arresters, but it appeared that a certain number of live sparks will escape from any of
the spark-arresters used, especially on heavy grades, where the engine is labouring under forced
draught. To further aggravate all this, the Canadian Pacific Railway, which caused most of
these fires, unfortunately used for a short period during the dry weather a kind of coal which
sparks very freely. Its use was abandoned as soon as its danger w7as discovered, but not before
a large number of fires had been set.
In the Vernon District, where the conditions as regards railway hazard were very similar
to Nelson and Cranbrook, the number of railway fires is small. The reason is that oil-burning
locomotives were used. The Canadian Pacific Railway used them all summer, and the Great
Northern Railway, after the coal-buruing locomotives set several expensive fires in August,
replaced them with oil-burners.
Lightning.
Lightning is the one absolutely unavoidable cause of forest fires. The number of lightning
fires in any one year is a fairly good index of the hazard for that year. Referring to Table C,
it is seen that both 1910 with 103 and 1914 with 169 lightning fires had an unusually large
number of such fires.    Both were years of great fire hazard.
Referring to Table A, it is seen that three districts of the Southern Interior, Vernon, Kamloops, and Nelson, and especially the latter two, are much more liable to lightning fires than
the others. Over 85 per cent, of all such fires in 1914 occurred in those three districts, and
nearly half of the total were in the Nelson District alone.
Brush-burning.
Brush-burning to clear land for agriculture, to burn logging-slash, etc., is always attended
with a certain amount of risk, as is explained under the head of " Permits." However, it is
both desirable and necessary, and therefore the risk must be taken whenever it is reasonably
safe. The regulation of such burning by the permit law during the fire season reduces this risk
to the minimum. I 50 Department of Lands. 1915
Railway-construction.
Considering the many uses of fire necessary in railway-construction for clearing right-of-way
and other purposes, the great amount of this work done this summer, and the very dry weather,
the small number of fires due to this work (92, or 5 per cent, of the total number of all fires)
is noteworthy. Over half the total of these fires occurred in Fort George District, chiefly during
late May, When an unusually dry period and high winds caused a number of fires burning right-
of-way slash to get beyond control. At this time, too, the patrol force was smaller and the
contractors less careful in burning than later in the season. The comparatively small total
number of railway-construction fires shows the value of the policy adopted to prevent and
control them—viz., maintaining a sufficient force of railway patrolmen to thoroughly patrol
the right-of-way, and requiring the railroad company to burn under permit all right-of-way
slash, to pile all dangerous slash lying adjacent to the right-of-way, and to fight at its own
expense all fires resulting from construction-work.
Industrial Operations.
The number of fires due to industrial operations—which means chiefly logging operations—■
is also gratifyingly small,-being only fifty, or less than 3 per cent, of all fires. The location of
these fires (Table A) shows where the greatest activity in logging operations occurs—viz., Vancouver, Island, and Cranbrook Districts. These districts had 90 per cent, of the fires due to
such causes. 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 51
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1   1 I 52 Department of Lands. 1915
The provision of the " Forest Act" which requires farmers, loggers, railway contractors,
section foremen, and others to obtain a permit before setting out fires in May, June, July,
August, and September is the most effective method so far discovered for the prevention of
forest fires. In a timbered country such as British Columbia fire must be used everywhere to
dispose of brush, slash, and refuse caused by agricultural, logging, railway, and other industrial
operations. But in summer, and especially in a season as dry as the past one, almost every fire
set out in a wooded region is dangerous and liable to escape control. The necessity for supervision over the setting of fires is therefore evident. Without it settlers, towns and villages,
timber-owners, loggers, and others would be exposed to the constant menace of loss of life and
property.
The enforcement of the permit law necessarily places something of a burden upon the
farmer, since delay in obtaining a permit is sometimes unavoidable, and the conditions which
must be imposed to ensure safe burning not infrequently mean added expense. Notwithstanding
these .objections, the public generally have cheerfully accepted and approved the regulations,
and have arranged their plans for clearing land and burning brush accordingly, realizing that
with all its disadvantages the law provides security against loss of life and property.
The policy adhered to by the Department has been to allow the greatest possible freedom
for slash-burning in summer consistent with reasonable forest-protection. Instructions are
issued by the District Foresters and also by the Rangers to the Guards through the season as
required. The gist of the instructions is that permits should be issued without delay; that each
area should be examined by the Guard, except iu special cases; that the duration of the permit
should be made as long as safety allows.
rersonal examination was made of 95 per cent, of all areas for which permits were granted.
The duration of permits varied from two to thirty days and averaged from seven to fifteen, being
greatest in the early and late parts of the season.
In most of the southern districts, including the Island, Vancouver, Vernon, Nelson, Cranbrook, and Kamloops Districts, dry, dangerous weather, high winds, and numerous fires made it
necessary to restrict or cancel permits in the latter part of July, all of August, and the first
week of September. While this action no doubt worked individual hardship in a few cases, yet
the public as a whole realized its necessity and willingly accepted it.
The value and effectiveness of the permit regulation is indicated by the fact that in 1914,
the dryest and most hazardous summer in many years, only 12S permit fires escaped control,
which is about 1 per cent, of the 11,523 fires set out under permit, and is about 7 per cent, of the
1.S32 forest fires occurring in 1914.
That the fire season of 1914 was very much more hazardous than the two preceding ones
is shown in a measure by the following comparison of the permit fires which escaped control
in the respective seasons:—
1912.—Eight permit fires escaped control; less than J/M of 1 per cent, of the 9,477 permits
issued, and about 2 per cent, of the 347 forest fires.
1913.—Seventeen permit fires escaped control; less than 2/10 of 1 per cent, of the 11,925
permits issued, and 3 per cent, of the 57S forest fires.
1914-—One hundred and twenty-eight permit fires escaped control; about 1 per cent, of the
11,523 permits issued, and 7 per cent, of the 1,832 forest fires.
It is instructive to note that many of the forest fires caused by escaped permit fires were
due to sudden high winds which blew live sparks and embers considerable distances into the
forest. For instance, in Kamloops District a man was burning a pile of stumps under permit
in his orchard. A sudden wind sprang up, carried the fire 300 feet into the adjoining brush,
and started a forest fire. This is one illustration of the many which could be given to show that
in dry weather, when the forest is like tinder, there is hazard in almost any fire burning out-
of-doors near standing timber, slashings, or any inflammable material, even under conditions
apparently safe. It explains why it is necessary to restrict or cancel all permits in the extrahazardous periods.
Only eighty, or about 4 per cent, of the total number of forest fires, were caused by persons
burning brush without first obtaining a permit. Most of the prosecutions instituted by the
Forest Branch were for these violations of the Act. Nothing is more certain than that had
there been no permit regulation the results would have been disastrous in the extreme. 5 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. I 53
PERMITS   FOl!  CLEARING  AGRICULTURAL   LiAND.
About the same number of permits was issued in 1914 as in the previous year, but the total
area burned over was nearly twice as large, the increase being practically all in permits for
clearing agricultural land. This shows that advantage was taken of the dry weather and easy
burning conditions by the settlers to clear land on a much larger scale than previously. It
also indicates how much greater was the fire hazard and work of supervising burning in 1914
than 1913.
A comparison of the number of permits granted for clearing agricultural land and the area
humed gives some idea of the relative progress of settlement in the different districts. It is
greatest in the Island, Vancouver, Vernon, and Nelson Districts in the south, and in Hazelton
and Fort George Districts in the north. Evidently the completion of the Grand Trunk Pacific
Railway has greatly stimulated settlement in the latter two districts. In Hazelton in 1913 only
463 permits were issued for clearing agricultural land and about 500 acres burned, while in 1914
750 permits were issued and 8,950 acres burned. In Fort George in 1913 the number of permits
for this purpose was 391 and the area burned 380 acres, while in 1914 the figures are 1,313
permits and 5,138 acres.
In Vancouver and the Island Districts in 1914 the permit law was modified by exempting
all or parts of certain municipalities (which comprised chiefly settled agricultural lands in
the valley of the Dower Fraser) for all or part of the Are season; while in other municipalities
the administration of the permit law was turned over to the municipal officials. The municipalities affected were: Vancouver District—Burnaby, South Vancouver, Point Grey, Richmond,
Delta, Surrey, Langley, Matsqui, Sumas, Chilliwack, Mission, Maple Ridge, Pitt Meadows, and
Coquitlam.    Island District—Saanich and Esquimalt.
This plan, of course, can only be adopted in settled regions where the land is largely cleared,
and the forest therefore broken up into blocks with few or no large tracts of valuable timber
left; in fact, where the agricultural interest outweighs that of the forect. It not only allows
the settlers a freer hand in clearing up land, but also relieves the Forest Branch of the expense
of patrol and supervision in such areas, and allows more attention to be given to the forest
regions proper. The amount of work thus saved is shown by the fact that only 787 permits
were required in the past year in Vancouver District, as against nearly 4,000 in the previous
year. The decrease is due to the fact that the great bulk of the permits in 1913 were issued in
those areas in the Fraser Valley lands mentioned above, where this year permits were either
not required or were issued by municipal officers. The comparison gives further proof of the
easier burning conditions, greater activity in burning, and greater fire hazard of 1914.
Permits for Logging-slash.
The area of logging-slash burnt over under permit (5,727 acres) is less than in 1913 (7,655
acres), though over twice as many such permits were issued. The chief reasons for this are that
the very hazardous weather conditions made burning on a large scale unsafe for a long period
in the summer, and, furthermore, the depressed condition of the lumber industry made the logging
operators unwilling to spend money in burning on any large scale.
Permits for burning Railway Right-of-way.
Altogether an area of 7,204 acres was burned, which, at 12 acres to the mile, means approximately 600 miles of right-of-way. Though some of this was cleaning up old right-of-way, the
great bulk of it was done on new construction-work. The construction of the Pacific Great
Eastern is responsible for most permits in Lillooet and Fort George Districts, the Canadian
Northern Pacific in Tete Jaune District, and the Kootenay Central Railway in Cranbrook District.
It should be noted that some of the logging-slash burned under permit was caused by the cutting
of construction timber for railways.
Permits for clearing Public Roads.
Public Road Superintendents are authorized by the Forest Branch to grant permits to their
foremen to burn slash on public roads in order to give every possible facility to the work.    The I 54 Department of Lands. 1915
amount burned is considerably greater than in 1913, and was carried on over a larger part of
the Province.
Permits in the Railway Belt.
Since the great bulk of land within the Railway Belt belongs to the Dominion Government,
fire-protection there is under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Forestry Branch. For the purpose
of issuing permits their officers are appointed Acting Forest Guards without pay by the Forest
Board.
SLASH-DISPOSAL.
During the past fire season there was burned under permit a total of 53,000 acres of slash,.
and in addition 290 miles of public road slash.* The 53,000 acres was made up as follows:
50,000 acres burned by settlers clearing land for agricultural purposes; 5,700 acres by logging
operators; and 7,200 acres by railways for clearing right-of-way and land from which construction timber had been cut.
During 1933 and 1914 brush resulting from the cuttings which covered a large portion of
the 190,000 acres included within the boundaries of railway permits was filed by the contractors.
These permits were granted to allow railroads under construction to cut timber for construction
purposes free of charge from specified areas of Crown timber land. For the sake of fire-protection and close utilization brush-piling was required by the regulations, and these were enforced,
so that railway-permit areas now show probably the best examples of brush-piling on a large-
scale which has been done in Canada; moreover, settlers and land-owners from whom the railway
companies secured construction timber have in many cases followed the example of the Forest
Branch, and required brush-piling on their lands.
The importance of slash-disposal from the standpoint of fire-protection is now universally
recognized. If slash is not burned it is a constant hazard during dry weather. Slash from
logging operations, if not disposed of each year, will accumulate during normal summers and
then provide material for destructive fires which may defy control. Some of the worst and most
costly fires of 1914 occurred in slashes which were the accumulated result of several years''
logging in one tract of timber.
The systematic burning of heavy logging-slash is possibly the only measure necessary to-
secure good reproduction over a large part of British Columbia's forest area. If it is burned
with proper precautions in spring or fail, when weather conditions are safe, the brush and litter
covering the soil are cleared off, but seed-trees still standing and seed buried in the soil are not
destroyed, and the soil is put in just the right state to act as a good seed-bed for the most
desirable species, such as Douglas fir and cedar. Moreover, sufficient sunlight reaches the ground
to ensure the germination of the seed and the healthy growth of the seedlings. If, however, the
same slash burns in summer, when the weather is hot and the forest floor dried out, the fire
kills the seed-trees and consumes not only the slash and litter on top of the soil, but also much
of the soil itself and the seed buried in it, and thus delays regeneration of the forest for a long
period.
under " Burning Permits." 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 55
VIOLATIONS  OF THE FIRE-PROTECTIVE  PROVISIONS  OF THE  "FOREST  ACT."
Prosecutions for Violations of Fire-protection Provisions of " Forest Act," 1914.
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Results ok Cases.
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During the fire season of 1914, 11,523 burning permits were issued. Eighty fires were set
without permit in violation of the Statutes. Thirty-one informations were laid. Of the 1,846
fires reported for the season, forty-eight were reported to be of incendiary origin. Evidence
sufficient to lay information was obtained for five of these incendiary fires. For 471 fires caused
by campers and travellers only one information was laid. Altogether convictions were obtained
in thirty-one cases; while seven were dismissed on the grounds of insufficient evidence.
DOMINION  RAILWAYS.
During the season of 1914 the arrangement made in 1912 by which the administrative oflicers
of the Forest Branch acted for the railways under Dominion charter outside the Dominion Belt
under the direction of Chief Fire Inspector Leavitt, of the Board of Railway Commissioners,
continued in force. This arrangement is very7 advantageous to the Forest Branch, since it brings
the field officers into personal contact with the officers and employees of the railway companies
and ensures co-operation.
Under the arrangement described the Forest Branch supervised the protection-work on a
total of 2,466 miles of railway, 200 of which, on the Kettle Valley and Kootenay Central Railways, was under construction. On the former road half of the expense of supervision was
reimbursed to the Government. This plan is much more successful than the employment of
patrolmen by a railway company, since the chief hazard in construction-work is the carelessness
of railway employees.
The number and distribution of the patrolmen to be employed by the railways are fixed by
Chief Fire Inspector Leavitt after consultation with the officers of the Forest Branch, and are
based on the degree of danger, amount of traffic, and means of travel. Thirty-one patrolmen on
power-speeders, nine on hand-speeders, and nineteen on foot were employed for a period of from
two to five months exclusively on patrol and fire-protection work. On lines where the danger
was slight or the traffic light the patrol was performed by sectionmen.
This system was very successful, and there is no question that had such a patrol not been
in force during the past summer the numerous fires starting along railways would have burned I 56
Department of Lands.
1915
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Slash resulting from  road-construction.
Public Works crew burning slash caused by construction of road, thus reducing fire hazard
and greatly improving appearance of road.  '5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 57
over hundreds of thousands of acres. Attention is called to the large number of fires (more than
300) caused by sparks from locomotives; over a hundred of these being due to a new untested
kind of coal, the use of which was immediately abandoned on discovery of its sparking qualities.
The great risk from this cause is undeniable, and is the chief reason why forests along railways
have been so badly burned. The figures also indicate, however (what the railway officials have
long claimed), that trespassers frequently cause railway fires. Thirty-nine fires are known to
have been started in this way, to which can be added a portion of the fires set from unknown
causes.
A total of 31,679 acres of land were burned over by fires starting along the railways, causing
a loss in property and timber of $129,869. The greater portion of this loss resulted from the
destruction of buildings. Considering the financial depression, all the companies did remarkably
good work in keeping their rights-of-way cleared of brush and debris. During the time in July,
August, and September, when so many fires were being fought, particularly in the Cranbrook,
Nelson, and Vernon Districts, all the companies gave most valuable assistance to the forest
officers, and their co-operation is greatly appreciated by the Forest Branch.
PROVINCIAL   RAILWAYS.
Fire-protection  Statistics of Provincial Railways.
'D
No. op Patrolmen
EMPLOYED.
No. of Fires starting within 300 Feet of Track,
by Causes.
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19,832
$9,317
5,460
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Pacific Great Eastern	
445
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391
846
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12
41
15
11
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9
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156
210
470
4,692
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72
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20,042
$9,787
10,152
The past season saw the completion of the clearing of right-of-way7 and grading ofi the
Canadian Northern Pacific and the Pacific Great Eastern Railways, Both of which roads are
under Provincial charter. To supervise fire-fighting and the destruction of debris forty-five
patrolmen were employed for periods ranging from five months to a few weeks. The cost of
such patrol is refunded to the Government by the railway companies.
The figures showing the causes of the fires are significant, in that they prove that the
majority of the fires starting are due to the carelessness of labourers and camp followers rather
than to actual construction-work. The area burned over consisted almost wholly7 of cut-over
and burned-over lands, and practically no merchantable timber was destroyed. Most of the
loss caused by the fires resulted from the destruction of railway-ties and camp and construction
equipment.
Next year the Canadian Northern Pacific will be under operation and will then come within
the -jurisdiction of the Board of Railway Commissioners.
It may be said that as a result of the supervision of the right-of-way clearing and
construction-work by the Government, and the co-operation of the railway officials and contractors, the right-of-way of both these roads is free from debris of any sort, and that there
is no previous record of the construction of railways through forested regions where the timber
has suffered such insignificant damage.
The Forest Branch desires to acknowledge the excellent manner in which the contractors,
officers, and employees of the Canadian Northern Pacific and Pacific Great Eastern gave their
assistance in fighting fire. I 58
Department op Lands.
1915
PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS.
SUMMARY  OF  NEW   IMPROVEMENT-WORK  OONE,  1914.
Kind of Work.
Number.
Miles.
Cost.
Average   Cost
per Mile or
Unit.
28
10
4
9
9
27
238
22
94
$ 8,803 00
164 00
11,692 00
1,665 00
604 00
5,344 00
$ 37 00
7 50
123 50
185 00
67 00
197 00
Total  	
$2S,272 00
Maintenance-work done on Improvements, 1914.
Kind of Work.
Number.
Miles.
Cost.
Average   Cost
per Mile or
Unit.
26
9
259
224
$   716 00
1,212 00
$2 75
5 40
Total  . .
$1,928 00
At the beginning of the season a comparatively small amount of money was allotted for
improvement-work. In the end, on account of the dangerous and expensive season, the expenditure on such work was only about a quarter that of 1913, though the total amount of work done
was considerably more than a quarter that of 1913; owing to improved organization, a greater
amount of work was done by the Guards during periods when weather conditions made patrol
temporarily unnecessary than has been the case heretofore. At the beginning of the season each
Guard was given a definite programme of improvement-work on which to engage himself during
non-hazardous periods and the work was supervised by the Rangers and District Foresters.
List of Permanent Improvement Projects worked on, 1914.
Cranbrook Forest District.
New work—■
Upper Kootenay Telephone-line   19.75 miles.
Elk-Fording River Horse-trail     12 „
Letcher Horse-trail       2 „
Maintenance-work—
Baker Mountain Telephone-line      7 miles.
Elk River Telephone-line   45 „
Phillips Creek Horse-trail    16.5 „
Fort George Forest District.
New work—■
Barkerville-Stony Lake Horse-trail    5      miles.
Willow River Horse-trail   5.25
Sucker Creek-Horsefly Lake Foot-trail    1
Bobtail Lake-Mud River Horse-trail    8
Blackwater-Nazko Horse-trail    12
Willow River Look-out Foot-trail   0.75
Summit Lake-Teapot Mountain Look-out Foot-trail  0.66
Deadmans Lake Look-out Foot-trail  1.5
Finlay Junction Look-out Foot-trail   0.63 5 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
I 59»
New work—■
Finlay Junction Ranger Station Cabin.
North Fork Tool Cache.
Cariboo Lake Boat.
Spectacle Lake Boat Portage Trail ...
Aleza Lake Canoe Channel	
Mount Pope Look-out Foot-trail	
Maintenance-work—
Barkerville-Stony Lake Horse-trail  . ..
Willow River Horse-trail	
Blackwater-Fraser River Horse-trail   .
St. James-McLeod Trail Bridge	
Chief Lake-Salmon River Horse-trail  .
Cluskus Patrol Horse-trail  	
Tsasha-Cluskus Horse-trail	
Upper Mud River Horse-trail  	
Pollys Lake Horse-trail  	
Antoine Lake Horse-trail	
Quesnel Forks-Keithley Horse-trail  . ..
Nazko Road Horse-trail 	
4
miles
1.5
,,
1.5
»
5
miles
2
,,
15
,;
30
feet.
32.5
miles
35
,,
15
»
25
,
15
,
5
18
,
5
,
Hazelton Forest District.
New work—
Burns Lake Cabin.
Copper River Cabin 	
Takla Lake Cabin 	
Takla Lake Boat-house 	
McPherson Ranger Station Horse-trail	
Lakelse  Cabin   	
Lakelse Boat-house 	
Kitimat-Onion Lake Horse-trail   	
Babine Lake Boat-house 	
Francois Lake Boat-house  	
Ootsa Lake Boat-house 	
Mud Lake Stable	
Maintenance-work—
Breckenridge-Coldwater Horse-trail   	
Zimgotitz River-Mud Lake Horse-trail 	
Terrace-Lakelse Telephone-line 	
18 x 14 x 6
20 x 16 x 8
22 x 10 x 10
1.25 miles.
20 x 14 x   7
20 x 10 x   6
7 miles,
x 11 x
x 11 x
24 x 12 x
14 x 12 x
wall.
wall.
23
23
6 wall.
6    „
6    „
6    „
9 miles.
10     „
17     „
Island Forest District.
New work—
Gordon River-Cowichan Lake Horse-trail  	
Gold River Horse-trail 	
Maintenance-work—
Harris Creek Horse-trail 	
5.25 miles.
8.28    „
10      miles.
Kamloops Forest District.
New work—
Big Bend Telephone-line  	
Coldstream Ranger Station Cabin 	
Spruce Flat Ranger Station Cabin 	
Launch for Adams Lake 	
Clearwater-Myrtle Lake Horse-trail 	
Hardscrabble Horse-trail 	
Little Clearwater-Pyramid Horse-trail	
Maintenance-work—
Big Bend Telephone-line 	
60 miles.
14
x 16
14
x 16
32
x   7
9
miles
1.5     „
4
"
32
miles. T 60
Department of Lands.
1915
Lillooet Forest District.
New work—■
North Bridge River, LeMare Lake, and Johnson Lake Horse-trail...    6    miles.
100-Miie House to Alkali Lake Road Horse-trail   30       „
Cedar Creek Horse-trail     3.5    „
Parkes Ranch to Pavilion Mountain Horse-trail     5        „
Leon Lake to Jamieson Ranch Horse-trail      1       „
Maintenance-work—
Nemiah Valley and Hanceville Trail.
Bridge River Horse-trail      5    miles.
Miscellaneous old Horse-trails     30       „
Nelson Forest District.
New work—
Installation of Big Sheep Creek Telephone.
Mosquito Creek-Whatshan Lake Horse-trail    5    miles.
Wilson Creek Horse-trail   2       „
Boulder Creek Horse-trail   4        „
James Lake-Fish Lake Horse-trail   2        „
Mosquito Creek Telephone-line    2.5     „
West Fork of North Fork of Kettle River Horse-trail  38
Lower Arrow Lake Boat-house   16 x 32
Installation Donaldson Mountain Look-out Telephone.
Duncan River Telephone-line Foot-trail    6    miles.
Big Sheep Creek Horse-trail    13        „
Twelve-mile Creek Foot-trail    2        „
West Fork of Little Slocan River Foot-trail   4.5    „
Installation Duncan River Telephone.
East River Cable Crossing.
Fifteen-mile Horse-trail   3        „
Donaldson Mountain Horse-trail   2
Maintenance-work—
Kettle River Telephone-line   18    miles.
Boulder Creek Horse-trail   1
Erie Second Relief Telephone-line  13
Duncan River Horse-trail    12
Donaldson Mountain Horse-trail   2
Wilson Creek Horse-trail  3
Prince Rupert District.
New work—
Meziadin Lake Cabin
14 x 16
Vancouver Forest District.
New work—
Heriot Bay Telephone-line (including 14,300 feet of submarine
telephone-cable laid as follows: Okishollow Channel, 5,000 feet;
Nodales Channel, 6,300 feet; and Cardero Channel, 3,000 feet..  11.5 miles.
Campbell-Salmon River Horse-trail      7       „
Thunder Bay-Lund Horse-trail     25       „
Maintenance-work—■
Heriot Bay Telephone-line    63.5 miles.
Campbell-Salmon River Horse-trail       7 5 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. I 61
Vernon Forest District.
New work—
Eilis-Penticton Creek Horse-trail       5    miles.
Whitemans Lake to Bear Creek Horse-trail      5       „
Mable Lake Boat-house    16 x 20
B.X. Look-out Cabin  12 x 10
Little White Mountain Look-out Cabin    12 x 16
Maintenance-work—
B.X. Mountain Telephone-line    16      miles.
Little White Mountain Telephone-line    12
Little White Mountain Telephone-line Horse-trail ..:     6       „
Shorts Creek Horse-trail       5 I 62
Index.
INDEX.
Page.
Agricultural land, fire .permits for  53
Areas of forest districts, ranger districts, and
guard districts    7
Atlas, Forest   15, 16
Babine Lake reconnaissance    16
Balsam (fir cut    37
Birch cut  37
Booming-grounds     35
Campers and travellers, and fires caused by
 47, 4S
Cariboo reconnaissance   17
Cascade Range, west slope, reconnaissance . . IS
Cedar, red, cut   37
Cedar scaling, shingle tests  35
Cedar, volume table    33
■Cedar, yellow, cut  37
Clearing agricultural land, fire permits  53
Co-operation, fire   42
Correspondence  16
Cottonwood cut    37
Crown-grant timber lands, tables  11
Crown grants, timber cut from  36
'Crown timber reserved   14
Cut of timber 18, 19, 21, 26, 36, 37
Douglas fir—
Cut  37
Reproduction      32
Volume, table    33
Education, fire-prevention  42, 43
Examinations, land,, table  15
Expenditure, forest,  British Columbia—
Diagram  9
Tables  11, 12
Exports—
Cargo shipments, 1914  23
Logs, poles, etc 20, 21
Finance, forest—
Expenditure   S, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 46
Exports    20, 21, 23
Imports 21, 22
Markets  5, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24
Products 18, 19, 21, 26, 36, 37
Protection Fund, Forest 12, 13
Royalty    5, 6, 10
Revenue 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 26, 27
Sales, timber   24-28
Fire—
Causes  47, 48, 49, 50
Co-operation     42
Damage   44, 45, 46, 56, 57
Effect of on Douglas fir reproduction  32
Fighting costs  46
Force, patrol  43
Patrol expenditure   • 13, 14
Patrol force     43
Page.
Fire—Concluded.
Permits   51, 52, 53, 54
Protection Fund, table   13
Railways   56, 57
Season     5
Sizes   47
Trespass     55
Force, 1914, distribution of 7, S
Grading and sealing 35, 36, 37, 38
Grazing     39
Hand-logger licences    15
Hemlock cut  37
Hemlock, volume tables of  33
Imports into Canadian prairie districts from
United States 21, 22
Improvements, permanent   58, 59, 60, 61
Industrial operations, fires caused by. .47, 48, 50
Investigations—
Forest 31, 32, 33, 34
'Shingle tests   35
Land classification   34, 35
'Land-clearing, fire permits for 53, 54
Land examinations, table  15
Larch  (tamarack)  cut   37
Licences—
Hand-logger  15
Scalers'  35
Special   10
Lightning, fires caused by 47, 48, 49
Log exports  20
Lumber exports, cargo shipments  23
Lumber imports to Canadian prairie districts
from United States 21, 22
Lumber industry    18
Lumber markets  24
Lumber production 18, 19, 21, 26, 36, 37
Management, forest—■
Cut of timber 18, 19, 21, 26, 36, 37
Exports, timber 20, 21, 23
Hand-logger licences    15
Investigations, forest 31, 32, 33, 34, 35
Imports, lumber    21, 22
Land examination and classification, 15, 34, 35
Land, Crown-grant timber  11
Marks, timber   14, 15
Markets 5, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24
Mills    19, 22
Mill-sites     35
Permits, regular timber  31
Products, forest 18, 19, 21, 26, 36, 37
Pulp and paper industry    24
Pulp sales    28
Reproduction, Douglas fir  32
Reserve of statutory Crown timber	
 14, 34, 39, 40 Index.
I 63
Page.
Management, forest—Concluded.
Royalty   5, 6,    10
Sales, timber   24-28
Scaling and grading  35-38
Volume tables   32,    33
Market, Prairie        22
Markets ,. .5, 20, 21, 22, 23,    24
Marks, timber   14,    15
Mill-sites       35
Mills, saw      22
Mills, saw and shingle       19
Organization 7,
Patrol expenditure, table 	
Patrol force   	
Patrol on Dominion railways 55, 56,
Patrol on Provincial railways	
Paper and pulp industry  	
Permits—
Burning 51, 52, 53.
Railway timber   	
Parsnip River reconnaissance	
Pine River reconnaissance	
Pine, white, cut of	
Pine, yellow, cut of	
Prairie, lumber imports of, from United States
 21,
Prairie markets  	
Pre-emptions, timber cut from	
Products, forest, of British Columbia	
 19, 21, 26, 36,
Products, forest, of Canada, by Provinces...
Prosecutions for fire trespass  	
Protection, forest   40-
Co-operation   	
Education 42,
Fire causes   47, 48, 49,
Fire damage   44, 45,
Fire, effect on Douglas fir reproduction . .
Fire-fighting expenditure 13,
Fire permits  51, 52, 53,
Fire season 	
Fire, sizes of  	
Fund, Forest Protection 12,
Fire trespass and 'prosecutions	
Force   	
Improvements, permanent 5S, 59, 60,
Patrol expenditure  	
Railways,, Dominion   55, 56,
Railways, Provincial	
Slash-disposal  	
Weather record  40,
Pulp and paper industry	
Pulp sales  	
8
14
43
57
57
24
54
31
17
17
.18
55
54
42
43
50
46
32
40
54
5
47
13
55
43
61
14
57
57
54
41
24
28
Railway Belt, fire permits in  54
Railway right-of-way fire permits  53
Railway timber permits    31
Railways—
Fire-protection on Provincial  57
Fires caused by  47, 48, 49, 50
Patrol on Dominion 55, 56, 57
Reconnaissance, forest 5, 16, 17, 18, 34
Regulations, timber-sales 27, 28
Reproduction studies  32
Reserve of Crown statutory timber   14, 34
Reserves, forest 39, 40
Revenue from timber sales   26, 27
Page.
Revenue table  11
Revenues, forest 5, 8, 9, 10
Roads, fire permits for clearing  53
Royalty     10
" Royalty Act "  5, 6
Sales—
Timber  24, 25, 26, 27, 28
Pulp  28
Saw and shingle mills  19
Sawmills  22
Scalers—
Licensed  35
Official  35
Scaling and grading ' 35-3S
Shingle tests, cedar scaling   35
Slash-burning and reproduction  32
Slash-burning fire permits   53
Slash-disposal    54
Special licences  10
Status Office   14
Spruce, cut of  37
Statistical diagrams—
Fire-fighting expenditure    13
Forest   revenue   and   expenditure,   British
Columbia    9
Forest revenue and expenditure of British
Columbia,   Dominion,   New   Brunswick,
and Ontario  8
Statutory Crown timber reserved   14, 34
Surveys, forest   5, 16, 17, 18, 34
Babine Lake reconnaissance    16
Cariboo reconnaissance  17
Cascade Range, west slope, reconnaissance 18
Examinations, land   15
Land classification   34, 35
Parsnip River reconnaissance  17
Pine River reconnaissance  17
Reserved Crown timber 14, 34, 39, 40
Willow and Bowron Rivers reconnaissance 17
Timber-
Cut  18, 19, 21, 26, 36, 37
Exports  20, 21, 23, 24
Land, Crown grant    11
Land, statutory Crown  14
Leases, timber cut from   36
Licences  10
■Licences, timber cut from  36
Marks   14, 15
Markets  20, 21, 22, 23
Permits,  railway     31
Products   19, 21, 22, 36
Reserved Crown statutory timber land. . 14, 34
Royalty   5, 6, 10
Sales 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 36
Sale regulations 27, 28
Sales, timber cut from   36
Scaling and grading 35, 36, 37, 3S
Scaled  (by months and districts)     3S
Trespass, fire    55
 47, 48
Unknown fires
Volume tables   32,
Weather record  40,
Willow  and  Bowron   (Bear)   Rivers  reconnaissance 	
41
17 ERRATA.
In title of right-hand centre picture facing page 32,  read  " sparseness'
instead of " abundance."
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by William H.  Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1915.

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