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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF RAILWAYS FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1920

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL EEPOET
OF
THE DEPARTMENT OF RAILWAYS
TEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31ST
1919
"    '     \   •
PRINTED by
authority of the legislative assembly.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by William H.  Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1920.  To Colonel the Honourable Edward Gawler Prior,
A Member of the King's Privy Council for Canada,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I have the honour to present herewith the Annual Keport of the operations and
activities of the Railway Department of the Government of British Columbia for
the year ending December 31st, 1919.
JOHN OLIVER,
Minister of Railways.
Victoria, B.C., January 11/th, 1920.  Report of Department of Railways.
Victoeia, B.C., December 31st, 1919.
Hon. John Oliver,
Minister of Railways, Victoria, B.C.
Sie,—I have the honour to submit a report dealing with the principal activities of the
Railway Department during the year ending December 31st, 1919.
The staff of the Department consists of Chief Engineer, Assistant Engineer, Chief Inspector
of Rolling-stock and Equipment, Assistant Inspector, clerk, and two stenographers.
In addition to railways proper, the Department has control over the Songhees terminal
improvement-works and the maintenance and operation of the combined railway and highway
bridge over the Fraser River at New Westminster, with its railway and highway approaches
and connections.
The principal activities are set forth in the pages following.
CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAY TERMINALS.
Construction of the Canadian National terminals has been proceeded with during the year
at Vancouver, Port Mann, New Westminster, and Victoria, and estimates have been approved
by the Department for payment in accordance with the provisions of section 7 of the " Canadian
Northern Pacific Railway Terminals Act, 1917," from January to November, Inclusive, as under :—
January    if 20,424 63
February        40,251 76
March           35,734 12
April        13,625 84
May       27,355 78
June         19,699 49
July    '       11,386 70
August          39,003 82
September       45,509 45
October '       50,024 89
November           37,724 IS
Total    §340,740 66
Vancouver terminal opened for public business on November 1st, 1919. During this year
the construction of the terminals at Victoria has been commenced, the operations being confined
at present to a small area north of the Point Ellice Bridge. The construction programme now
under way on this area consists of grading the necessary yard-tracks and the erection of a
five-stall engine-house, machine-shop, coaling-station, turntable, and a temporary station and
freight-shed.
The position of the terminals is as follows :—
Vancouver	
New Westminster.
Port Mann	
Steveston 	
Patricia Bay	
Victoria 	
Totals.
Estimated
Total Cost of
each Terminal.
$4,308,455 10
2,202,601 50
1,213,424 62
353,988 89
209,908 29
853,125 00
$9,141,503 40
Proportion
of Estimated
Cost.
0.4713
0.24095
0.13275
0.0387
0.0230
0.0933
1.00000
Total Cash
Available
each Terminal.
$4,262,353 21
2,179,113 97
1,200,570 16
349,996 73
208,008 39
843,790 66
$9,043,348 12
Proportion
of Total
Work now-
Done.
0.7775
0.83633
0.97S8I
0.8197
0.9846
0.0404
Amount now-
earned.
$3,313,979 46
1,822,458 41
1,175,129 92
286,892 54
204,804 68
34,089 14
86,837,354 15
$24,167 !
83,507 I
2,855 ■
8110,530,99
Amount
payable.
$3,289,811 60
1,738,950 72
1,175,129 92
286,892 54
204,804 68
81,233 70
$6,726,823 16 CANADIAN NORTHERN PACIFIC CONSTRUCTION.
(a.) On Vancouver Island.—Track has been laid as far as the crossing of the Koksilah
River, 52.5 miles from Victoria towards Barkley Sound. It is expected that the bridge across
this river will be completed by the middle of February, 1920, when it is the railway company's
intention to continue further track-laying, surfacing, ballasting, and bridge-building during the
year.
(&.) Kamloops-Vemon Line.—There are under construction 116.5 miles of line between
Kamloops and Kelowna, and a branch from Vernon to Lumby of fifteen miles, by contract entered
into with a firm of contractors under the name of J. W. Stewart & Company. This distance is
practically all cleared and 62 per cent, of the grading quantities completed. The bridging will
be commenced in the spring and will be easily finished next season. It is contemplated to obtain
running rights over the Canadian Pacific Railway tracks for a distance of twelve miles between
Kamloops and Ducks, and for a distance of about thirteen miles between Armstrong and a point
just east of Vernon.    Pending negotiations to this end, no work is being ilone on these sections.
No construction estimates covering this work have as yet been filed in this Department, nor
has any release of funds from the guaranteed securities been asked for.
WESTMINSTER BRIDGE.
In addition to the usual maintenance and repair-work carried out during the year to maintain
the bridge and its approaches in a high state of efficiency, special work has been done as follows:
Renewal of SO-lb. rails on Great Northern Railway section of spread span and ballasting track
from Great Northern Railway depot east. In July a contract teas let for reflooring south highway approach of bridge, about COO feet in length, and the old 4-inch planking was replaced by
2-- x 4-inch No. 1 fir timbers, laid with an edge-grain surface and treated with a coat of hot
tar upon which sand was sprinkled. The approach was also widened near the top end by
straightening out a sharp angle on down-stream side, and the entire work completed in October.
During progress of this contract it was found advisable to close the bridge to traffic between
11 p.m. and 6 a.m.
A crew of painters worked steadily on the steelwork during summer months, and at the same
time tests were made of a new painting-machine, with such satisfactory results that the machine
was purchased, complete with truck and compressor. From the tests made it is estimated that,
in addition to a reduced paint-consumption, the machine will cover the entire steelwork in one
season, whereas under existing conditions only, the worst places can be attended to from year
to year.
During October a careful examination of the south trestle substructure, carrying railway
and highway approaches, was made, and the northerly section, comprising thirty-two bents
beneath railway and thirty-two bents beneath highway (480 feet), was condemned. Tenders for
rebuilding substructure were called for and the contract awarded, to the T. R. Nickson Construction .Company in November. At the same time a contract was awarded to Cox & Verge for
building a sidewalk, supported on steel brackets and timber, along the up-stream side of bridge,
to accommodate foot-passengers, which the steady increase in motor traffic has rendered absolutely
necessary for public safety. During the summer a tally was taken from 9 to 9 and showed as
many as sixty-five motor-cars crossing the bridge in one hour.
The railway traffic across the bridge during the year 1919 is shown in the statement
submitted.
The unsatisfactory condition as to signal-protection on the east approach, south end, referred
to in last year's report, still exists. The Canadian National Railways, however, have started the
construction of their line into New Westminster, and, as this will necessitate an extension in
interlocking, the unsatisfactory condition above referred to will be dealt with this year in
connection with the additional protection required on account of this Canadian National
construction programme. 10 Geo. 5
Department op Railways.
B 7
The railroad traffic across the bridge for the year 1919 was as follows:—
Passenger.
Freight.
Mixed.
Trains.
Cars.
Trains.
Cars.
Trains.
Cars.
2,862
1,177
8,181
17,135
6,550
7,502
796
1,333
2,131
21,839
21,282
14,899
4,613
61
94
299
1,306
721
1,661
4,046
2,147*
Totals	
6,720
32,187
4,260
62,788
2,326
7,854
' Dairy cars.
SONGHEES RESERVE.
This is also under the control of the Department of Railways and has been utilized during
the year as shipyards. Since September, 1918, twenty-three wooden ships have been built and
launched and two 8,000-ton steel ships are now in course of construction.
SONGHEES TERMINALS, VICTORIA.
No work has been carried out this year in further development of the above terminal lands.
In addition to an area of 3.16 acres leased to the Cholberg Ship Company at a monthly rental
of $100, a further area of land amounting to 8.60 acres has been leased to the Harbour Marine
Company for a two-way shipyard at a monthly rental of $275. This area adjoins the Cholberg
area and lies to the east thereof, extending along the harbour-front a distance of about 1,000
feet and embracing all the land between said water-front and the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway
Company's property.
JOHNSON STREET BRIDGE,
A hy-law for the borrowing of $420,000 for the purpose of constructing the Johnson Street
Bridge is to be submitted to the electorate for its endorsation on January loth.
The estimated cost of the construction of this bridge is $720,000, of which amount the city
will contribute the sum of $420,000, the Provincial Government $200,000, and the Esquimalt &
Nanaimo Railway Company $100,000. The railway company agrees to pay one-third of maintenance and operating expenses, the city to assume the other two-thirds. The bridge provides
for one line of trackage for the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway Company and two lines for
the city's portion of the bridge.
EQUIPMENT INSPECTION.
During the year a large amount of new work has been added in connection with the above
owing to the amendments to the " Railway Act " having brought railways not subject to the
jurisdiction of the Dominion under the jurisdiction of this Department. This new work includes,
besides the inspection of locomotive boilers, previously under the Boiler Inspector's Department,
the examination of locomotive engineers.
A great deal of work had to be done and much investigation made before a satisfactory
standardized set of rules and regulations covering the operation and inspection of equipment
of these railways could be adopted.
A general set of locomotive rules was also drawn up, embracing the construction, inspection,
and testing of locomotive boilers and their appurtenances, covering very fully the requirements
of a locomotive, including the registering of boiler design, affidavits, yearly inspection reports,
and monthly wash-out reports. A large amount of the Inspector's time is given in instructing
to the end that all locomotives comply with these rules. Some of the most important work
required is the internal and external inspection of the boilers and the drilling of tell-tale holes
to detect broken stay-bolts. With reference to the drilling of these tell-tale holes in the stay-
bolts, it has been found in the course of inspection-work that locomotives have been operating
having as many as thirty broken stay-bolts. A very rigid inspection of new locomotives coming to the Province is required. That this
is extremely necessary, it may be cited that there has already been an instance where in a new
locomotive it was necessary to have all the stay-bolts drilled out and new and larger ones applied,
which meant the renewing of 440 stay-bolts.
Inspections are made and instructions given by the Department in air-brake equipment;
some of the locomotives under jurisdiction are not yet equipped with air.
Close attention is given to the inspection of cars and their equipment, especially with respect
to the equipping with automatic couplers and air-brakes.
There are several logging and mining railways still using link and pin couplers and handbrakes, and some operating even with no brakes at all.
The Department is enforcing the rules and regulations respecting safety appliance standards
on all new equipment entering the Province.
Before a certificate is granted to a locomotive engineer, he is required to pass an examination
on the operation of a locomotive and its equipment and on standard railway signals. These
standard railway signals are being printed in card form and will be forwarded to the railway
companies for the instruction of their employees, as it has been found on investigation that a
great variety of signals is being given. The adoption of proper standard railway signals and a
faithful observance of the same will help greatly in eliminating accidents.
At the present time there are seventy-five industrial and common carrier railways under the
jurisdiction of the Department, covering approximately 1,000 miles of line and equipped with
170 steam locomotives, thirty-two electric locomotives, and 4,000 cars and miscellaneous equipment. This does not include the railways of the British Columbia Electric Company (interurban
and street) or the Nelson Street Railway.
In order that these railways may comply with the rules and regulations of the Department,
much educational instruction is given, and it is the intention, when inspecting these railways,
to devote as much time as possible to employees and to those in authority, to the end of .obtaining
strict observance of the rules, which observance will promote very materially the safety and
efficiency of the lines.
.Since April fifty-three locomotive boilers have been given a hydrostatic test, 150 preliminary
examinations have been made, seventy locomotive engineers have been examined and granted
certificates, and there are on file fifty more applicants to be examined.
PACIFIC GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY.
Operated Section.
In addition to the regular maintenance-of-way work, carried out by the section crews and
bridge and building crews, necessary to maintain the road-bed in good operating condition and
the bridges and buildings in good state of repairs, an extra gang of an average strength of about
twenty men built 1,100 feet of cribbing of an average height of 15 feet at Miles 53.5 and 65.0,
Squamish Division; cleaned slopes at Mile 15.5, Squamish Division; and cuts north and south
of Mackinnoii, Lillooet Division; and resurfaced 34.2 miles of track on the Squamish Division,
from Mile 2 to Mile 14 and Mile 54 to Mile 76.7.
This gang also lined out track for 4.CO0 feet a distance of 8 feet from bank at Mile 54,
Squamish Division, and put in 13,000 new ties in addition to 8,000 ties put in the track by the
regular section crews.
Special work was also carried out as follows:—
(1.) River-protection WorJc.
(a.) North Shore Division.—On Capilano Creek four wiug-dams have been constructed at
very moderate expense, consisting of flexible log cribs filled in with brush and boulders. The
result has been quite satisfactory in diverting the force of flood-flow from weak spots along the
west bank and building up a gravel-bar protection where erosion was steadily undermining and
eating into the river-flats.
On the east bank a crib was built to help to remove the gravel-bar blocking the channel of
east Howe-truss span, and it had already cut out a considerable portion of same when the sudden
floods of November 23rd swept it away. The east abutment of the bridge has been protected
by laying a double brush mattress up-stream along the toe of river-bank to connect with the
crib above mentioned, which has been rebuilt.   Wreckage, Cheakamus Canyon Bridge.
A. •- --   j. - •
Cheakamus   Canyon   Bridge.
.  10 Geo. 5 Department op Railways'. E 9
Capilano Creek is a very difficult stream to handle, heading in the mountains not far from
its mouth and flowing over a bed of glacial drift formation. It is subject to sudden floods, which
carry drift down-stream with terrific hydraulic force, including trees about 100 feet in length.
Constant study and watchfulness is necessary to safeguard any structure spanning the
stream, but since the erection of the present bridge during the summer of 1918 the system of
protection used has so far been completely successful in confining the flood-discharge within
safety limits.
(6.) Main, Line Division.—Along the main line more extensive work of a similar nature
was carried out on the Birkenhead River, which had proved a constant source of trouble to the
grade between Owl Creek and D'Arcy since the railway started to operate.
Crib-work has been completed at Miles 63, 65, 70, 71, 83, 84, and 85, amounting to about
1,700 lineal feet, and, in addition at Mile 85 the channel has been deepened and a brush and
gravel diversion-dam constructed. These cribs are all built on rock and brush foundations in
the form of a mat extending well out from the crib on both sides. Ou this was laid two outside
logs, joined so as to be flexible; then rock and brush to the top of the same, and a cross-pole
floor then laid, on which the crib was built. The whole structure was loosely built, being held
from coming apart hy wires running in various directions through same.
In addition to the above protection-work, an examination of the river showed that the
original channel was blocked by an extensive collection of driftwood logs, roots, etc., which had
been piling up for years past at Mile 70, diverting the full force of the stream against the grade
and forming a new channel along the toe of same. The work of removing this log-jam was
successfully carried out and the river turned back into its original channel, which is some
distance from the railway-grade.
All the Birkenhead River protection-work withstood the test of heavy floods successfully
soon after completion last June, and the cost was kept within economical limits by using all
the material on the site of the work.
(2.) Special Bridge-icork.
(a.) North Shore Division.—Floods had undermined the following bridges, which were
repaired: At Hollyburn, extra bent at west end; at Cypress Creek, two centre piers raised and
renewed; west of Eagle Harbour, centre pier foundation repaired; Nelson Creek, west pier
raised and wing protection carried out; at Mile 11.5, nose of pier raised and protection against
scour put in.
(6.) Main Line Division.—On September 27th a forest Are totally destroyed bridge at Mile
19.1, north of Squamish. This bridge was a deck Howe-truss span of 130 feet on framed towers,
w'ith trestle approach at each end across the canyon of the Cheakamus River.
In a little over twenty-four hours it- was possible to transfer passengers by throwing a
foot-bridge across the river and grading approaches at each end to the same. By October 4th
a spur track had been put in, accommodating the outfit-cars and plant needed in the reconstruction-work ; a 700-foot pipe-Hue across the canyon was laid, and oil for engine service on the
line north of the canyon was being pumped through it; and an overhead transfer line for baggage
and light express had been established. On November Sth the first train passed over the new
bridge. A service to take care of passengers, mail, express, baggage, and a certain amount
of freight was maintained during the whole period of reconstruction by means of the foot-bridge
and aerial travellers previously referred to, and in this connection it may be noted that it
required one hour and fifty minutes to transfer a 10,000-gallon tank-car and about four hours
for a car of way freight. - The transferring of freight was done at night.
To clear the wreckage of the destroyed bridge and to build a complete new structure in an
awkward and confined position such as the canyon of the Cheakamus in the short space of six
weeks in a bad time of the year reflects great credit on all employed in the reconstruction. This
result would not have been obtained had it not been for the prompt arrival from all points of the
necessary bridge material, and the fact that there was excellent team-work on the part of the
railway company and the construction forces.
(3.) Fencing.
About ten miles of new fencing was erected, principally north of East Lillooet and between
East Lillooet and Kelly Lake. E 10 British Columbia. 1920
(Jf.)  Water-supply Stations and Siphons.
Two siphons at Fountain Indian Reserve, north of East Lillooet, were erected to take care
of irrigation, and the pumping-stations at Pemberton and D'Arcy were replaced by gravity-supply
systems.
(5.) Extra Work at Tunnel No. 3, Mile IS, North of Squamish.
On November 30th this tunnel became blocked through a cave-in of the roof. The tunnel
lies between two faults, the west or river side of the tunnel being coincident with the west fault.
The second fault lies a few feet to the east of and parallel to the tunnel. The two faults incline
toward each other, being only about 15 feet apart on the ground surface above the tunnel. The
material, between the faults has at some time been subjected to a great crushing force, destroying
its solidarity. For approximately one-third of the tunnel-length at each end timbering was
resorted to, the middle third being unsupported in apparently solid rock.
It was in this middle section that the first and second falls of the roof took place, the break
being along the westerly fault and extending from about the centre of the tunnel to the timbering
at the south end. The timbering at this point soon showed signs of distress, indicating that the
whole mass above was in motion. In order to save the remainder of the timbering at this end
of the tunnel, the first six sets of arch-frames, nearest the point of cave-in, being badly buckled
and crushed and threatening to come down at any minute, were shot out, the whole mass of
disintegrated, rock above coming down with them.
The extra gang, B. and B. gang, and two section gangs were immediately brought to the
scene and organized into a night and clay shift, and the work of clearing the debris begun with
push-cars until the arrival of a steam-shovel at the north end and the crane at the south end.
The work was in a confined and dangerous place and necessarily somewhat slow, but the tunnel
was cleared for traffic by the afternoon of December 5th. It is very doubtful if any cave-in
would have occurred had the tunnel been completely lined at the time it was built.
Although traffic is operating through this tunnel, the south portal is unstable and the
remaining portion of the unlined rock section cannot be depended on. On account of this condition orders have been issued to remove entirely the material now being supported by the
timbered section at the south end. This timbering will then be removed and this portion of the
tunnel made into an open cutting. The south portal will then he moved farther north and the
remaining portion of the rock section widened and timbered. This will give a completely lined
tunnel, safe while the timbering lasts.
(6.) Special Surveys. ,
A survey and investigation by the regular staff was made in connection with the possibility
of irrigating the railway company's lands at East Lillooet by carrying water from Cayush Creek.
(l.) Special Examinations.
A special and very thorough inspection of all the bridges (166 in number) between Chasm
Station and Squamish was carried'out for the purpose of framing a programme to take care of
the necessary bridge repairs for 1920.
Construction.
(1.) Squamish Hydro-electric.
The town of Squamish, being the southern terminal of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway,
at the head of Howe Sound, and the site of the railway terminal repair-shops, is very largely
inhabited by railway employees, while the company is a very large property-owner, both in the
townsite itself and the surrounding district. These facts, in addition to the necessity of obtaining
a permanent source of power for the shops, probably influenced the former directors of the
company towards the development of a power project to develop 500 horse-power on Monmouth
Creek, three miles west of Squamish, across the Squamish River. Plans were completed, the
machinery and pipe for the penstock were purchased and delivered on the site, and construction
'was on the point of commencing, when ou September 6th, 1915, orders were issued to discontinue
work.
The supply of water for domestic purposes in the town was not contemplated under this
project, for the reason that the Newport Water Company, Limited, had in 1913 obtained a licence Tunnel, Mile  19,   Squamish Divi
■:■■
Squainish   Hydro-electri  ^       ...
l?j
'P'fci'^t
'     "        '.'       "■   ■
Squamish  Hydro-electric.
Dam,  Squamish   Hydro-electric.  10 Geo. 5 Department of Railways. E 11
to divert and use for domestic purposes 3 second-feet of water from the Stawamus River, a
stream east of the town, undertaking to install suitable headvvorks, a pipe-line, and distribution
system to give a good supply to the town. This company had laid down a distribution system,
but had taken water from a temporary source in a small stream known as the Little Stawamus,
pumping water from the stream to a tank at an elevation of about 175 feet above the town.
This supply was most unsatisfactory and gave a lot of trouble, owing to the engine or pump
frequently breaking down at awkward times and to the difficulty of making ends meet financially.
The water company, owing to the business depression and financial stress caused by the war,
was unable to complete its project, and finally put it up to the residents of the town to run the
system as best they could, paying a nominal rental to the owners.
In the meantime the Provincial Government took over the interests of the Pacific Great
Eastern Railway Company, whereupon the residents of Squamish renewed their application that
the Government take steps either to force the water company to complete their undertaking and
provide a gravity supply, or itself, through the railway company, install a system. These
representations finally resulted in the purchase by the railway company of all the property of
the Newport Water Company for a sum of $14,256.29, being the actual cost of construction of
such works as they had completed. Investigations were simultaneously instituted with a view
to discovering the best method of utilizing and improving the property thus obtained, and it
was finally decided to apply for additional water for power purposes and make the plant a
combined one, developing electric current for the purposes of the original Monmouth Creek
project—viz., light for the town and light and power for the railroad-shops, using the machinery
purchased for that purpose—and also developing a gravity water-supply and improving the
distribution system. The date of the transfer above noted was December 14th, 1918. Surveys
were immediately commenced to decide on the possibilities of the power side of the project, and
it was found that there was a practical possibility of developing about 300 horse-power under
the imposed conditions, and that the machinery in store could be adapted and practically all the
pipe purchased for the penstock of the Monmouth Creek project used in the new pipe-line.
Plans were drawn up and tenders called for on the unit basis, as there was not sufficient time
available for completely detailing the work and obtaining lump-sum bids. The contract was
let to Robertson and Partners, Limited, of Vancouver, the lowest tenderers, on April 14th, 1919,
and work commenced immediately. The gravity water-supply to the town was first turned on
on September 23rd and continuously maintained thereafter.
Meanwhile, installation of the electrical machinery was proceeding, and on November 25th
current was generated for the first real test and everything- found satisfactory. A slight alteration in the drip-shield of the water-wheel was found to be advisable, however, and this was
completed and the plant operated under service conditions on December ISth, 1919.
Design.—The chief factors influencing the design in its general features were the facts that
the machinery purchased for the Monmouth Creek development by the company in 1915 had to
be used, with as little alteration as possible, and that the works and existing right-of-way of the
Newport AVater Company had to be incorporated in the scheme. Little time was available for
investigations or surveys of the watershed; all that was possible was to estimate as well as
possible the probable extreme flood-discharge from the area as shown on existing maps and from
the known average rainfall (which was taken as about 50 inches per annum), and to obtain
what records were available as to minimum flow, which latter showed an extreme low-water flow
of S cubic feet per second. The total length of the pipe-line from dam to power-house is
10,900 feet.
The Dam.—The construction chosen for the dam is what is known as timber-crib construction
in part, with a length of 56 feet of log wall backed by a slope of heavy boulders laid in concrete.
It was sited about 175 feet farther up-stream than the site chosen by the Newport Water
Company, for the sake of using a small island in the river as a central buttress for the structure.
It was also considered necessary to provide very ample spillway-room on account of the extreme
flood conditions expected, which fact also had weight in the selection of the site. The spillway
was made 60 feet long and at an elevation of 7 feet below the crest of the main dam. It was
calculated that au extreme flood would cause a flow of 4 feet over the spillway, which calculation
was proved substantially correct when a very sudden and heavy flood occurred in the latter part
of November. In spite of the severity of the test on new and untried work, no damage was done
to the structure hy this flood. E 12 British Columbia. 1920
Forebay.—The forebay is a simple tank, 8 x 24 feet, with a normal depth of water of
6 feet 6 inches.
Pipe-line.—Wood-stave pipe was used for nearly the entire line, varying in size from 20 inches
at the forebay to 16 inches at the connection with the steel pipe (14 inches diameter) which was
obtained as part of the original outfit. The highest static head on the wood-stave portion of
the line is 330 feet.
Power-house.—The power-house is a simple frame structure, 20 x 24 feet, hut well built,"~as
is necessary for housing the electrical machinery. It was found necessary to drive piles to
support both the building and the machinery, as it is located on the bank of the river on a sand
and silt deposit, and it was feared that the vibration would cause trouble.
The generator is a Canadian General Electric 3-phase, 60-cycle, alternating-current dynamo,
designed for 400 kilowatt output at 4,200 volts. The water-wheel is direct-connected (single
overhung) and is governed by deflectors operated by a Pelton type oil-pressure governing machine.
The hydraulic conditions being entirely different from the original scheme, it was, of course,
necessary to change the water-wheel runner. Offers were received from the Pelton Company
and from the McKinnon Water-wheel and Power Company for making the changes, the latter
being a British Columbia concern. The price quoted by the British Columbia firm was considerably lower than that quoted by the Pelton Company and the work was given to it. This may
be said to be the first special wheel of this or any type to be manufactured in the Province, and
it has proved most satisfactory during the trials,-only a few minor alterations and adjustments
requiring to be made.
The penstock anchorage, generator foundation, and beginning of the tail-race are made
monolithic in concrete, a small amount of reinforcing steel being used. On leaving the powerhouse the tail-race construction changes to a simple timber flume to the river-bank, a distance
of about 70 feet. This part of the structure is reinforced by timber brackets with outside bracing,
and is weighted down with stones and earth, a precaution made necessary by the fact that at
high tides when the river is in flood the water rises almost to the floor of the power-house, and
would otherwise lift the flume out of its place—which actually occurred once during construction.
Electric Distribution.—The high-tension distribution system consists of No. 6 hard-drawn
copper wire, and leaves the power-house in two 3-phase circuits arranged in equilateral triangles.
A telephone system has been installed iu connection with the power-house, with instruments
at the railway offices in town, at the shops, and at the power-house itself. All practicable
precautions have been taken to prevent injury to the system or to persons from contact with
high-tension wires. Lightning-arresters have been provided on both power and telephone circuits,
and emergency cut-outs are installed on each power-wire leaving the generating-station.
Water-supply.—The largest single item included in the improvements to the water system
was the laying of an S-inch main to the railway-shops for fire-protection and general water-supply
purposes. The headworks were much improved also. The temporary system installed by the
Newport Water Company included a 5,000-gallon wooden tank intended as a balancing reservoir.
The pumped supply,  however, was  so  meagre that water  was only  available  intermittently.
A tank of 25,000 gallons capacity was therefore added to the existing tank, while the latter
was raised to bring its water-surface to the same level as that of the large one. Supply was
then arranged for from the power-penstock, a 6-inch riser being put in from the main to supply
each tank, controlled by automatic valves. The two tanks were then so connected that both
could be used simultaneously, or either could be temporarily out of commission while the other
took care of the consumption for the time being.
During the Newport Water Company regime a wash-out occurred at the point where the
pipe-line at that time crossed the Mamquam River. They made a temporary repair hy installing
a section of 4-inch wrought-iron pipe, following the road and bridge crossing and joining up to
the ends of the wash-out. The main being properly of 10-inch pipe, this section of small pipe
naturally much reduced the flow. This section was therefore taken up and replaced with 1,200
feet of 10-inch wood-stave pipe.
Various short extensions to street-mains and several house and mill connections were also
made during the construction period, and the system is now in very good working condition.
Three good fire-streams can now be obtained simultaneously at any part of the system.
Miscellaneous.—All the formalities incident to obtaining water-power and domestic-supply
licences have been carried out during the summer.    This portion of the work proved unusually t>
..   WW
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Material-yard,   Horse  Lake   Summit.  10 Geo. 5 Department op Railways. E 13
complicated owing to the necessity of having the Newport Water Company licence transferred
to the Pacific Great Eastern Railway Company, and having various amendments introduced to
suit the new conditions. Some questions of right-of-way remain to be cleared up, but no difficulty
is anticipated, as the owners concerned have expressed their anxiety to assist the development
to the extent of their power.
(2.)  Construction, Clinton to Prince, George.
This work has been prosecuted throughout the whole of 1919 to date and is still under way.
The progress made this year has been in some respects very satisfactory and in other respects
disappointing. Throughout the winter 300,000 ties, 3,000 telegraph-poles, and fence-posts for
seventy-five miles of fencing were got out for the summer programme, and a large material-yard
with the necessary storage-tracks, temporary engine-house, machine-shop, and water-supply system
was created at Lone Butte, six miles north of Horse Lake Summit. At this material-yard there
was assembled during the winter about 24,000 tons of construction material which was unloaded,
classified, and piled ready for track-laying operations and for advancement to rail-head for use
as occasion demanded during the season.
The construction headquarters are still located at this point, and these consist of the usual
administrative buildings, warehouses, bunk-houses, cook-houses, dining-rooms, hospital with a
resident physician, and engineer's office.
In December, 1918, the material-yard was located at this point because it was the farthest
point to which steel could be laid, being the commencement of a section of line six miles in length,
on which no work had been done except the clearing of the right-of-way. This six-mile section
of untouched grading was followed by six miles of finished line to the commencement of another
section of 1.2% miles in length of new work. These 18% miles of new line-construction had to
be finished by early summer, as it was desired that track he laid to Williams Lake by September
15th.
The outfit was moved on and the grading was prosecuted vigorously during the winter and
spring, and it was finished, ready for track-laying, iu the beginning of July, thus enabling track
to be laid to Williams Lake by September 15th according to programme. In order that there
should be as little delay as possible at any time to track-laying operations when they started,
bridge-erection was also carried out actively all winter, spring, and summer, ahead of track.
The bridges were completely finished in some cases before track reached them, and in other cases
finished except the decking, which could not be got locally and had to he brought by train to the
bridge-sites, necessitating only a short delay before the track could be laid across them.
Track-laying was started on July 15th and Williams Lake reached on September 15th.
Between these dates sixty-six niiles of main line track and seven miles of secondary track were
laid, or seventy-three miles ail told, giving an average per day of track laid, full tied, bolted,
spiked, and lined of 1.33 miles.
After Williams Lake was reached the track-laying gang was brought back on ballasting and
surfacing-work, which, on account of the difficulty in getting good ballast material and the total
inability to secure sufficient labour to put it under, the track was and is over sixty miles behind
the end of steel.
Just as the track-laying gang was getting a good start on the above-mentioned work it had
to be brought to a piece of line crossing a muskeg at Mile 137 which started to give way.
Temporary expedients to ensure stability at this place were tried, such as extensive wing-tying,
lifting, and temporary bridging; nothing done, however, gave any warranty of obtaining a solid
and permanent road-bed, and it was finally decided to make a change in line at this place of
about a mile, taking the road-bed off the muskeg and carrying it on solid side-hill ground.
Another small change of location was made at Williams Lake Townsite, and a spur line
1.5 miles long was built, reaching a ballast-pit off the main line near the south end of Lac la
Hache, so that altogether this year there have been built twenty-three miles of entirely new line.
In addition to this, to date 113 miles of track have been laid (the end of steel at present
being 286 miles north of Squamish), 250,000 cubic yards of ballast and train fill have been
hauled, 102 miles of telegraph-line and forty-nine miles of fencing built, and fifteen bridges
containing 1,750,000 feet B.M. have been erected. Stockyards complete in every particular have
also been built at Miles 105 aud 138 (Cariboo Road mileage), three 40,000-gallon capacity water-
stations completed, as well as seven station buildings, two section-houses, five tool-houses, and
miscellaneous buildings. E 14 British Columbia. 1920
A four-stall engine-house, turntable, and first-class station with operating officials' quarters
are under construction at Williams Lake.
It is intended to establish a material depot this winter at the Williams Lake yards. The
track is now. ten miles north of this point, but it can only be advanced seven miles farther to
Deep Creek, where a halt will be necessitated pending the erection of the steel viaduct across
Deep Creek. It has been previously noted in this report that fifteen bridges have already been
built. These have been more or less minor structures, except the crossing at Little Bridge Creek,
but the bridge programme of fourty-four bridges, now under construction and under design, is
a heavy undertaking. Forty-one of the bridges are of timber, requiring about 8,000,000 feet B.M.,
and three of them of steel superstructure on concrete piers and abutments. Of these steel bridges,
the crossing of the Quesnel on three deck-plate girders on piers and abutments is simple in design
and easy of construction. The steel bridges, however, across Deep Creek and the Cottonwood
Canyon are undertakings of magnitude. Deep Creek may be classed among the important bridges
on the continent, and presents peculiarly difficult problems in foundations and in erection details
owing to its great height and the wide spread of the tower-legs.
The Cottonwood Canyon Bridge will be of cantilever design with suspended centre span, and
will be erected from both ends, as it is expected to have the track laid from Prince George south
and from Williams Lake north to this crossing by November 1st, 1920.
The construction programme for 1920 is projected to work out somewhat as followss, to the
end that there may be a through track connection between Squamish and Prince George by
December 31st, 1920 :—
In the beginning of April ballasting will be started at the south end and carried through
to Deep Creek, and the line completely finished to that point by the time it is possible to cross
the viaduct, or about the middle of July. After this date track-laying and ballasting will proceed
from Deep Creek to the Cottonwood Canyon Crossing. The ballasting and surfacing will be kept-
up as close as possible to this track-laying, and it is fully anticipated that the line will be
finished and in good running condition as far as Quesnel before the freeze-up next fall. Every
effort will he made to have the twenty miles of new line-construction completed and all timber
'bridges erected, so that there will be nothing to prevent reaching the canyon crossing from the
Deep Creek end by November 1st.
In the meantime, as early as the weather in spring will permit, track-laying will be started
from Prince George southward towards Cottonwood; the regrading of the present line, which is
of large moment, and the bridge-construction will be kept out of the way of the track-laying as
far as possible, so that Cottonwood Canyon will be reached by track from Prince George on
'November 1st, the same date on which it is expected it will lie reached by track from Deep Creek,
coming from the south. The construction of the cantilever bridge across this canyon will then
be proceeded with from both ends and a track connection established between Squamish and
Prince George.    It is fully anticipated that this will be effected by December 31st, 1920.
This is a heavy programme, necessitating the construction of forty-four bridges (trestles,
timber trusses, and steel) and the regrading of about 130 miles of line, besides the construction
of twenty miles of entirely new roadbed. As everything is planned, however, there should not
be anything to prevent its being carried out. Plant is on the ground or in sight to take care of
everything, with the exception of the organization for track-laying from the Prince George end,
which will require additional equipment to the extent of three locomotives, forty-five flatsr and
twenty-five boarding-cars. It is not intended to ballast the line this year from Prince George
south to Quesnel. This portion of the line will simply be lined up and side-surfaced and put in
a condition to operate at a low rate of speed.    It will be ballasted the following year.
The Dominion Government was lent by the Pacific Great Eastern Company for war purposes
10,022 tons of rails and 1,100 tons of angle-bars and other accessories, and these are to be
returned by the Dominion to the material-yards at Williams Lake and Prince George in time
for spring operations. There are already at Prince George about 3,000 tons of railway company's
track material.
The expenditure on new line-construction from its commencement to the end of this year
totals over $l,S0O,000, and the engineering construction expense in connection with its supervision amounted to about $40,000, or 2.25 per cent, for engineering, which, it is submitted, is an
extremely low overhead charge for such supervision. 10 Geo. 5 Department of Railways. E 15
(3.) Squamish Cottages.
A contract was let on December 10th, 1918, to Thos. Carson, of Vancouver, for the erection
of twelve houses at Squamish for $18,989. These were completed and all occupied by June 1st,
1919.
(li.)  Clinton-Asheroft Location.
This survey was commenced on July 30th and work in the field was completed on November
10th, 1919. To obtain all information required for the projection of the best possible line, sixty-
six miles of preliminary line was run.
This proposed connection between the Pacific Great Eastern Railway and Canadian Northern
Railway commences at a point 0.85 miles west of Clinton Station and joins the Canadian Northern
Railway at a point near the yard limit at Ashcroft, and the length of this projected line is 41%
miles.
With the exception of a portion of the line between Mile 5 and Mile 6, a gradient of
1 per cent, compensated is maintained for 33.8 miles to the siding at top of pusher grade from
Ashcroft; 4,400 feet on the level is allowed for passing tracks at this point. The 2.2 compensated pusher gradient from Ashcroft up to this point is 6.8 miles in length. The top of the
1-per-cent. compensated gradient at Clinton is at an elevation of 3,27S feet (P.G.E. datum),, and
at the junction with the Canadian Northern Railway at Ashcroft elevation is 1,100 feet (P.G.E.
datum) ; this equals elevation 1,000 feet (CN.R. datum), giving a fall from Clinton to Ashcroft
of 2,178 feet.
The curvature of projected line is not excessive and 10-degree curves have been adopted as
the maximum. The main engineering difficulty to overcome was the development of distance to
maintain a 1-per-cent. compensated gradient from Clinton to join up with a pusher gradient
of reasonable length out of Ashcroft, and this object has been satisfactorily gained without
encountering construction-work of excessive cost. Trestle-work is also comparatively light for
a railway running through a mountainous country. The highest trestle on the line is over Allan
Creek.    This will be 140 feet high and 800 feet in length.
The crossing over Madden Creek is 110 feet high and 500 feet in length, and over Hat Creek
85 feet high and 600 feet in length. All other trestles of any consequence run from 50 to 100
feet in height and are short.
Steel Bridges.—Provision has to he made for six steel bridges in the Bonaparte Canyon:
No. 1, 100-foot span D.P.G.; No. 2, 100-foot span D.P.G.; No. 3, 100-foot span D.P.G.; No. 4,
SO-foot span D.P.G.; No. 5, one 80-foot span D.P.G., two 40-foot spans D.P.G.; No. 6, three 80-foot
spans D.P.G., three 40-foot spans D.P.G.
Tunnels.—There will be six tunnels and the position and approximate length of them are
as follows: No. 1, Mile 10, 350 feet of solid rock ; No. 2, Mile 26, 50O feet of solid rock; No. 3,
Mile 38, 300 feet of solid rock; No. 4, Mile 39%, 050 feet of solid rock and cemented material;
No. 5, Mile 40%, 500 feet of cemented material;  No. 6, Mile 40%, 1,000 feet of cemented material.
Culverts.—Provision for numerous culverts will have to be made to carry off melting snow
in the spring;  in many places rock drains will be adequate.
Classification of Material lo be moved.—Taking the line as a whole: Solid rock, 56 per cent.;
loose rock, 15 per cent.;  hard-pan, 27 per cent.;  earth, 2 per cent.
Alternative Route via Boston Flats.—An alternative route into Ashcroft, commencing at a
point, Mile 33, from Clinton and passing over the Boston Flats, is being projected which will
he about four miles longer than that passing through the Bonaparte Canyon into Ashcroft.
There would he very little trestle-work on this line and no steel bridges, and the pusher grade
would he 4.6 miles in comparison to a pusher grade up the Bonaparte Canyon of 6.8 miles.
There would be, however, a heavy cutting at Ashcroft of approximately 140,000 cubic yards
and tunnelling at the top of pusher gradient of 3,000 feet. Comparative estimates will determine
route to be adopted.
The reconnaissance survey made by H. E. C. Carry last year proved of great assistance,
and the information contained in that gentleman's plans and profiles was remarkably accurate.
Condition of Road-bed, Prince Geoege to Quesnel.
An examination of and report on the present condition of the road-bed between Prince George
and Mile 5 south of Quesnel was carried out in June of this year, so as to arrive at the yardage E 16 British Columbia. 1920
which it would be necessary to move to make this mileage ready for track-laying operations.
This examination showed that at that date it would be necessary to move about 710,000 cubic
yards  (and this is exceeded by now) to put the road-bed in a fit condition to receive track.
Mr. Ewart, who made one of the examinations, says in his report of June 27th: " It is
impossible to say how much yardage it would take to repair moving embankments; it might
be fairly easily accomplished If the weather was dry and hot, but if the same work was attempted
in Wet weather the slip would become worse instead of better."
He also notes " that practically the whole right-of-way has grown up with brush and small
trees, and a great many large trees have blown into the original clearing from the sides," and
reports that many new culverts are required.
He estimates the cost of clearing, culvert-work, and grading necessary before track can be
laid between the above-mentioned points at $588,000. From the experience gained, however, in
having just completed over 100 miles of regrading on the line already south of Deep Creek, and
in a more favourable country, this estimated cost is very much too low.
Line Changes, Nokth and South of Quesnel.
On Cottonwood and Quesnel changes of line, estimates were made hy two experienced
independent engineers at separate times in the summer of the yardage necessary to move to
remake the grade of the old line and to reclear and construct new culverts between the points
where the new line is being built. By taking the mean of these the amount necessary to repair
the old line between the points of diversion is estimated at $256,300. Actual cross-sections were
taken over Mile 23, which showed that it would take 43,570 cubic yards to repair the grade,
whereas the total quantity involved in building the line originally was 45,610 cubic yards. This
example, together with the photographs reproduced, give an idea of the nature of the country.
In view, therefore, of the heavy expense involved in completing the line as originally
contemplated, and on account of the dilapidated condition of the road-bed, the country was looked
over with the purpose of trying to get a line which could be built in better country and not
exceeding, if possible, the cost of finishing the existing road-bed. That this result has been
satisfactorily obtained, the following statement clearly shows:—
Cost of completing  original  line   (with hridges  across  Quesnel
and Cottonwood, permanent structures)    '.   $1,821,825 00
New line     1,210,340 00
Difference in favour of new line   $   611,485 CO
Capitalized operating values          600,000 00
Total saving     $1,211,485 00
Remarks as to Probable Earnings.
The Pacific Great Eastern Railway has been graded from Lonsdale Avenue, North Vancouver,
to Prince George, a distance of 472.5 miles, with the exception of twenty-seven miles from Whyte-
cliffe to Squamish, and a diversion of about twenty miles north and south of Quesnel, which is
now under construction.
The operated portions of the line are designated as the North Shore Division, Lonsdale
Avenue to Whytecliffe, 12.55 miles, and the Squamish Division, Squamish to Lone Butte, 210.8
miles.
North Shore Division.
Nearly all the revenue derived on this division is from passenger traffic, although, with the
increasing capacity of the industries located on the North Shore, the freight traffic is likely to
very materially increase next season. It is almost certain that the ferry system heing now
operated by the Municipality of West Vancouver, and running to Vancouver City, will be discontinued, and consequently all North Shore passenger traffic will be handled by the Pacific Great
Eastern instead of being divided as it now is.
The North Shore is being rapidly settled by permanent residents, and a fairly uniform
passenger traffic the year round will result. In the holiday season this year this line has handled
as much in a single day as 7,000 passengers from North Vancouver to Whytecliffe Summer Resort.   Original  grade.
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Sqitamish Division.
The principal freight traffic handled on this division are logs, lumber, agricultural produce,
stock, general merchandise, bicarbonate of soda, Epsom salts, etc.
The territory along the line between Squamish and the head of Anderson Lake is very
heavily timbered. The Provincial Government has estimated the amount of timber tributary
to the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, on the first sixty miles along the line from Squamish, as
4,500,000,000 feet, not including varieties used in the manufacture of wood-pulp. This is practically untouched, but with regular transportation assured it is confidently expected that many
large sawmills will locate at various points on the line, and that the products will move both
to tide-wate? and to the East and Middle West.
Live Stock.
Cattle.—The cattle now in the territory between Lillooet and Prince George, tributary to
the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, number about 35,000. The cattlemen shipped this fall about
7,000 head, but this industry is capable, when fully developed, of shipping 20,000 head per annum.
Sheep.—Only a few sheep are now in the country, but there are very large areas, lightly
timbered, suitable for them, and these areas are interspersed with meadows, assuring an ample
supply of hay for winter food.
Hogs.—A few cars of hogs have already been moved, and with increased population the
industry will greatly increase. British Columbia Coast cities furnish a ready market for pork,
which is now brought from long distances.
Grain.
Wheat.—The areas suitahle for growing wheat between Clinton and Prince George are large.
It is estimated that this district should produce 10,000,000 bushels per annum.
Fruit.
Lack of market, due to former lack of transportation, has discouraged the planting of
fruit-trees to supply more than local needs; but trees planted have shown that the Fraser Valley
and branches around Lillooet cannot be surpassed in yield and quality. Settlers in this district,
however, are becoming interested in fruit-culture, and it is believed that fruit will furnish a
very important tonnage, there being an especially good market north and east of the Grand Trunk
Pacific line.
Vegetables.
All vegetables grow in greatest profusion and perfection. A ready market is found in the
Coast cities for all that can be raised. With development of mining, lumbering, and allied
industries along the line, it is confidently expected that the home market for these products of
the soil will become very large.
Mixed Farming Areas.
The amount of land suitable for mixed farming or raising grain has been estimated at
2,000,000 acres within twenty miles of the line. A very large portion of the remaining land
within the twenty-mile limit is suitable for pasturage, interspersed with mineral-bearing districts.
Mineral Resources.
For metallurgical reasons that portion of the Province which will be developed by the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway has been divided into mineral areas, each one being different from the
other, but all of them produce material of great economic importance. The areas have been
classified as: (1) Metalliferous, comprising the minerals found in situ which require concentration; (2) the chemical area, comprising the mineral earths generally known as a commercial
commodity, depending on the cost of transportation for its development; (3) the mineral-fuel
area, comprising coal and probable oil areas; and (4) secondary material, such as the large
placer-gold deposits of the Cariboo, which are known the world over.
Metalliferous Area.
This area, about 3,000 square miles, is the most important from point of tonnage.    The
minerals found therein are copper, gold, antimony, and hog-iron, all of which require a large
tonnage to be of economic importance.
2 E 18 British Columbia. 1920
The most important of these metals is the copper, which occurs in very large quantities in
close proximity to the line. The free-milling gold deposits ou Bridge River are being operated
on a considerable scale, but the output has been somewhat retarded for lack of transportation of
concentrators to recover the concentrates from the mills now in operation; these mills will
shortly be expanded and modern gold-saving devices inaugurated. The antimony deposits
situated on Bridge River have been found of sufficient value to justify development. The
antimony ore found at this point can be shipped without concentration. The bog-iron deposits
near the line will be of some importance as soon as there is a market available for the material.
Chemical Area.
This is an area of about 1,500 square miles, in which all the mineral earths of any importance
in the Province are found. These minerals consist of sodium carbonate, magnesium carbonate,
gypsum, and fireclay. These mineral earths are found in large quantities and only lack transportation for their full development. There is a market already for this produce as soon as
transportation facilities are available.
Mineral-fuel Area.
This area comprises the coal deposits and those areas which show oil indications. In all
instances the line crosses these areas, and in no instance is the coal found at a greater distance
than five miles from the line. The best coal along the line will produce 75 per cent, of coke and
has the following approximate analysis: Fixed carbon, 67 per cent.; ash, 7 per cent.; moisture,
1.5 per cent.; volatile matter, 23 per cent.;  and sulphur, less than 0.5 per cent.
Secondary Area.
This area is known as the Cariboo gold placer deposits, which were first located in the early
fifties and have produced many millions of dollars since the year 1862. This large area of gravel
has been operated hy individual miners for many years, but is now at a point where the
material can no longer be worked by manual lahour and mechanical means must be resorted
to. This portion of the country can be considered at present to be in a transition period, and
further development will immediately be considered as soon as transportation facilities are
inaugurated.
The development of all of the above areas is totally dependent on this railroad for transportation. Taking the price of metals and the exhaustion of the older mineral areas close to
transportation into consideration, these inland "areas have increased in value a great deal.
Although the price of metals has enhanced the value of these areas, the new methods of
concentration lately brought into vogue will more than offset any decreases in the price of
metals in the future.
Distributing Centres.
The Pacific Great Eastern Railway serves an exclusive territory, reaching the main British
Columbia cities of Vancouver and Victoria on the south and extending north to Prince George,
on the Grand Trunk Pacific, a distance of 472.5 miles. Prince George will be the distributing
centre "of a very large and rich district, the nearest large centre to the east being Edmonton
and to the west Prince Rupert, each over 400 miles distant. Other important centres will develop
along the line of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway as population is acquired along the line and
industries established.
Natural Resources to facilitate Industrial Development.
Water-power.—It is safe to say that no railway-line of equal length ou the continent has
so much available water-power distributed along the line at frequent intervals which may be
harnessed economically for industrial purposes, such as mining the ores, smelting, or, indeed,
furnishing power for operation of the road.
Population.—The territory served hy the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, figured as sixty
miles wide and 430 miles long, Squamish to Prince George, equal 25,800 square miles, not now
served by any other transportation company.
Considering the natural resources of this territory as briefly mentioned in' this report, we
may reasonably expect a population of not less than ten persons per square mile of territory,
or 258,000 people, as soon as the mining, timber, and agricultural resources are reasonably
developed.    Development up to this population will be attained in a very few years. 10 Geo. 5 Department of Railways. E 19
Revenue.
It is well known that timber, products of the farm, live stock, coal, and minerals produce
the most constant and profitable revenue to railways. The Pacific Great Eastern Railway
territory is especially rich in all these essentials to successful railway operation, and with the
development of the resources the profitable operation of the road will be assured.
Taking as a basis of calculation the ratio of earnings to population for all Canada for the
year ending June 30th, 1915, we find railway freight earnings about $17,000 per capita; passenger
earnings about $8 per capita. These earnings per capita will naturally he considerably greater
in western lines engaged in transporting products of the mine, farm, and forest. It may be
reasonably expected that the following annual gross earnings would be derived from the line
between Vancouver and Prince George as soon as the territory is settled up and industries in
operation:—
From freight      $4,386,000
From passengers       2,064,000
Miscellaneous mail, express, etc        150,000
Total     $6,600,000
By vigorous work on the part of the Provincial Government and by the railway company
offering proper inducements to settlers and industries, the above results should be obtained
within five years from time the Pacific Great Eastern Railway is completed to Prince George.
The above earnings will be further increased on the completion of the Peace River extension,
when the very large grain tonnage to tide-water and the return tonnage of forest products,
manufactured articles, and merchandise will be developed between Vancouver and the territory
north and east of Prince George.
It will take $4,000,000 additional to complete Squamish to Fort George and provide sufficient
rolling-stock to properly operate.
To build and equip an extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway from Fort George
to connect with the Edmonton & Dunvegan line will take about $18,000,000.
The operated line is in good condition, and the rolling-stock and power of sufficient quantity
and is well kept up. The passenger traffic transfer from Vancouver to Squamish is taken care
of efficiently by the Terminal Navigation Company's steamers " Ballena " and " Bowena," and
the freight transfer service is carried out by the company's twelve-car transfer barge and tug-boat
" Clinton," which are both in excellent condition.
The value of the equipment on the line is about $900,000.
Examinations of various lines of railway and of their power and equipment have also been
made during the year.
Applications for extension of time in which to complete their undertakings made by various
railway companies have been dealt with. A list of certificates issued during the year is given
in Appendix A.
Accidents which have occurred on railways under the jurisdiction of this Department and
reported as required by the Act are stated in Appendix B.
A list of the railways incorporated under Acts of the Legislature of British Columbia since
1SS3 is given in Appendix C.
A list of the companies operating logging and industrial railways, with their mileages, etc.,
is given in Appendix D.
Balance-sheets, in accordance with the provisions of the " Railway Act," have been filed by
the following railway companies:—
Comox Logging Railway Company.
British Columbia & Yukon Railway Company.   .
Victoria Terminal Railway & Ferry Company.
Victoria & Sidney Railway Company.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
A. F. PROCTOR,
Chief Engineer. E 20 British Columbia. 1920
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX A.
Certificates, 1919.
Cert. No.
B.C. Electric Railway Co-
Approved Standard Freight Mileage Tariff       441
Pacific Great Eastern Railway—
Authority to borrow $4,SOO,000 from Canadian Bank of Commerce     442
C.N.P. Railway and New Westminster Southern Railway Co.—
Sanction of agreement of right-of-way      443
S.E. Kootenay Railway Co.—
Extension of three months to May 27th, 1919     444
B.C. Electric Railway Co.—
Approval of express rate, British Columbia lines and Vancouver Power Co.    445
Railways operating under " British Columbia Railway Act"—
Minister's approval of rules for construction,  inspection, and listing of
locomotive boiler, also examination and inspection fees     447
B.C. Electric Railway Co.—
Approval of Car Demurrage Rule      446
Naas & Skeena River Railway—
Extension of time from May 31st, 1919, May 31st, 1920     448
Grouse Mountain Scenic Railway—
Extension of time from April 1st, 1919, to April 1st, 1921     449
V. & S. Railway and C.N.P. Railway Co.—
Authority to C.N.P. under section 150, chapter 194, B.C. Statutes     450
Pacific Great Eastern Railway Co.—
Minister's approval to operate Clinton to Lone Butte     451 10 Geo. 5
Department of Railways.
E 21
APPENDIX B.
Accident Report, 1919.
Persons injured.
B.C. Electric Rly.
Child	
Girl	
Lady	
Aged lady..
Young lady
Old man....
Boy	
Lady.
Man..
Lady 	
Crow's Nest Southern Rly.
Man, employee ;
Trespasser.
Employee .
Can. West Fuel Co.
Employee	
Eastern Lumber Co.
Employee	
Great Northern Rly.
Employee	
Result.
Killed	
Died after operation	
Ribs broken	
Killed ,	
Fractured skull	
Leg broken and slight fracture to skull ,
Lacerated leg; died in hospital from blood
poisoning	
Died in hospital	
Killed	
ii      	
Cut on face	
Bruised finger	
Swollen ankle.	
Sprained ankle	
Wound on head     	
Bruises and sprain	
Crushed foot	
Killed	
Sprained ankle..    ..  .   	
Nail puncture, foot ..-    	
Right arm amputated.	
Crushed abdomen	
Killed	
Scalp-wound, contused ear and cheek	
Sprained right thumb	
Struck by car.
Pell when car stopped.
Struck by car.
Running against car while in motion.
In auto right-hand side of road, colliding with car.
Run over by car ; suicide.
Freight-train ran into motor-car.
Struck by baggage-car.
Hit by rock.
Rail slipped, relaying ties.
Bar slipped, relaying ties.
Slipped into draw-bars.
Stepped backwards on rail.
Bar slipped, fell to ground.
Caught foot between sill and draw-bar.
Tried to cross between cars.
Slipped on ice.
Stepped on board with nail in.
Run over by coal-car.
Caught between cars.
Engine left rails, overturned.
Caboose turned over, broken rail. E 22
British Columbia.
1920
APPENDIX C.
Railways incorporated under Acts of the Legislature or British Columbia since 1883.
Name of Railway.
Cap.
Year.
Remarks.
Adams River Rly	
30
1903
Lapsed.
46
40
1898
1890
Ir
■
60
52
52
49
1890
1891
1896
1906
■
Ashcroft, Barkerville & Ft. George Rly....
„
47
1898
M
65
79
1901
1899
Atlin Short Line Rlv. & Navigation Co	
,,
80
1897
11
Barkerville, Ashcroft, & Kamloops Rlv ...
46
1897
,,
47
1897
Declared for public benefit, c. 53, 1899.
Lapsed.
46
1893
48
1907
Bella Coola & Fraser Lake	
50
1906
it
British Columbia & Alaska Rly	
56
1910
ii
32
53
1903
1906
51
1906
tt
57
52
1910
1906
British Columbia Northern & Alaska Rly..
,,
36
1893
Amended, c. 47, 1893; repealed, c. 53, 1894;  c. 39, 1894; e. 4, 1896;  c.
53, 1896; c. 33, 1897.    Declared for public benefit, c. 36, 1897.
British Columbia Electric Rly.—
31
1886
Lapsed.
Incorporation.
Amendment.
38
1889
Vancouver Electric Rlv. & Light Co...
51
1890
National Electric Tramway & Light Co.
39
1889
Victoria Electric Rly. & Light Co., c. 62, 1894.
ii                                n
52
1890
Amendment.
65
1890
Westminster & Vancouver Tramway Co.
67
1890
Amended.
49
71
1S90
1S91
c
1894
1894
|    couver Tramway Co.
51
56
55
63
1896
1894
Victoria Electric Rly. & Light Co	
City of Victoria to supply light and power.
Victoria & British Columbia Electric
81
1897
Supply electric light and power in and around City of Victoria.
49
1897
Operating.
Burrard Inlet & Fraser Valley Rly.........
54
1891
Amended, c. 48, 1893, and c. 59, 1895.    Lapsed.
Burrard Inlet Rly. & Ferry Co  	
53
1891
Lapsed.
74
1911
48
1892
3
4
1910
1910
Canadian Northern Pacific Rly	
(a.) Yellowhead Pass to Vancouver, completed ; (b.) Victoria to Barclay
Sound, time extended to July 1st, 1917.
32
1912
Barclay Sound to Nootka Sound, time extended to July 1st, 1917.
57
1913
Branch Lines.—(a.) Westminster Bridge to Vancouver, time extended
to July 1st, 1917 ;   (6.) Westminster Bridge to Steveston, time extended to July 1st, 1917; (c.) Victoria to Patricia Bay, completed.
58
1913
Amendment to c. 4, 1910.   ■
59
1913
ton, and Patricia Bay.
61
62
1914
1914
February 20th, 1917.
11
1880
Land grant.
Land subsidy.
20
1889
34
1889
Incorporation.   Amended, c. 40, 1890 ;   c. 36, 1892;   c. 39, 1893; c. 4,
1895; c. 35, 1897.    Lapsed.
60
1898
Lapsed.
Cariboo, Barkerville, & Willow River Rly..
62
1910
55
1897
Amendment, c. 50, 1897.   Lapsed.
35
1897
Crown grant.
Incorporation.    Lapsed.
Lapsed.
52
1897
Chilkat & Klehine Rly. & Navigation Co...
6S
1901
Chilliwack Rly	
55
1891
Declared for public benefit, c. 43, 1893.    Not built.
Columbia & Carbonate Mountain Rly	
61
1890
Lapsed.
21
1889
Land subsidy.
,,
62
1890
Amended, c. 49,1892 ; c. 60,1895.   Declared for public benefit, e. 80,1890.
Columbia & Kootenay Rly. & Transporta-
25
8
1883
1896
Amended, c. 24, 1884 ; c. 21, 1889 ; c. 41, 1890.    Lapsed.
Subsidy Act.   Repealed, c. 8, 1903.
	
54
1896
Incorporation.    Amended, c. 12, 1898;   c. 14, 1899; c. 4,  1900;   c. 70,
1901; c. 9,1903; c. 9,1906.   Declared for public benefit, c. 61,1898.
69
1901
Amended e. 9, 1902.    Declared for public benefit, c. 199, 1903.
58
1904
Lapsed.
71
1901
,,
Comox Logging & Rly. Co	
63
1910
Operating.
Cowichan, Alberni, & Fort Rupert Rly	
59
1904
Amended, c. 54, 1906.   Lapsed.
72
1901
Lapsed. 10 Geo. 5
Department of Railways.
E 23
APPENDIX C—Continued.
Railways incorporated under Acts of the Legislature oe British Columbia—Continued.
Name of Railway.
Crow's Nest & Kootenay Lake Rly.
Crow's Nest & Northern Rly	
Crow's Nest Southern Rly	
Delta, New Westminster, & Eastern Rly...
Dolly Varden Mines Rly	
Delta Rly	
Downie Creek Rly	
East Kootenay Logging Rly.	
East Kootenay Railway	
East Kootenay Valley Rly	
Eastern British Columbia Rly	
Esquimalt & Nanaimo Rly	
Flathead Valley Rly .
Fording Valley Rly...
Fraser River Rly.. ..
Graham Island Rly ..
Grand Trunk Pacific Rly	
Grouse Mountain Scenic Incline Rly	
Hall, Mines, Ltd., Tramway Act	
Hardy Bay & Quatsino Sound Rly	
Harrison Hot Springs Tramway	
Howe Sound, Pemberton Valley, & Northern
Rly	
Howe Sound & Northern Rly 	
Hudson Bay Pacific Rly	
Imperial Pacific Rly	
Island Valley Rly	
Kamloops & Atlin Rly	
Kamloops & Yellowhead Pass Rly..
Kaslo & Lardo-Duncan Rly	
Kaslo & Slocan Rly	
Kaslo & Slocan Trannvay Co.
Kettle River Valley Rly	
Kitimat Rly	
Kootenay & North-west Rly	
Kootenay Lake Shore & Lardo Rly.
Kootenay & Athabasca Rly	
Kootenay, Cariboo, & Pacific Rly.
Kootenay Central Rly	
Kootenay Rly. & Navigation Co.
Columbia & Kootenay Rly. & Navigation Co.
Ladysmith Lumber Co. Rly	
Lake Bennett Rly	
Lardeau & Kootenay Rly	
Lardeau JUy	
Liverpool & Canoe Pass Rly	
Meadow Creek Rly	
Menzies Bay Rly	
Mid-Provincial & Nechako Rly	
Midway-Penticton Rly 	
Morrissey, Fernie, & Michel Rly "
Mountain Tramway & Electric Rly   ..   .
Mount Tolmie Park & Cordova Bay Rly
Naas & Skeena Rivers Rly	
Nakusp & Slocan Rly	
Nanaimo-Alberni Rly ,
Nanaimo Electric Tramway Co 	
Nanaimo Railway Act	
Nelson & Fort Sheppard Rly	
New Westminster-Port Moody Rly..
Nelson & Arrow Lake	
New Westminster & Vancouver Short Line
Rly	
New Westminster Southern Rly	
Nicola,  Kamloops, & Similkameen Coal &
Rly. Co	
Cap.
Year.
44
1888
72
1888
58
1908
73
1901
57
1894
34
1S87
52
1898
62
1907
61
1897
63
1898
60
1908
13
1875
26
1903
33
1912
33
1903
62
1909
63
1905
26
1883
64
1909
65
1910
19
1908
66
1911
59
1894
55
1909
68
1891
53
1907
67
1910
61
1908
77
1901
68
1910
83
1899
48
1900
78
1901
58
1900
58
1897
37
1892
52
1892
52
1893
26
1910
35
1912
53
1912
54
1898
55
1898
53
1893
25
1887
35
1887
34
1903
79
1901
35
1903
29
1888
46
1888
35
1889
62
1908
80
1901
54
1893
64
1897
67
1891
56
1909
69
1910
SI
1901
44
1899
37
1903
56
1898
56
1893
69
1911
56
1893
66
1897
69
1891
25
1881
58
1891
38
1892
42
1894
14
1882
57
1893
37
1889
27
1883
36
1887
47
1891
Remarks.
Incorporation.    Amended, e. 63, 1890 ; c. 56, 1891.    Repealed, c. 53,1894.
Lapsed.
Land grant.
Amended, c. 64, 1911.    Lapsed.
Operating (G.N.R. or V.V. & E. Rly.).
Amended, c. 54, 1897.   Lapsed.
Act, 1917.   Time to complete, December 31st, 1918 ; amended, c. 22,1019.
Lapsed.
Operating.
Lapsed.
Operating.
Land grant.    Repealed, c. 16, 1882.    Amended, c. 28, 1S88; c. 45, 1888.
Settlers' Rights Act.
Agreement. Amended, c. 60,1913. Declared for public benefit, c. 90,1909.
Lapsed.
Amendment.    Time extended to 1919.
Crown grant.    Amended, c. 22, 1909; c. 34, 1912.    Operating
Time extended to April 1st, 1921.
Lapsed.
#5,000 deposit with Minister of Finance.
Amendment to c. 53, 1907.   Amalgamated with Pacific Great Eastern.
Lapsed.
Land grant.
Incorporation.    Amended, c. 41, 1894;  c. 61, 1894; c. 36, 1S97; C.P.R.
was paid $100,000 for reconstructing Kaslo & Slocan Rly. (c. 37,1912.)
Now operating.
Lapsed.
Agreement. "1
Ratify Agreement, Jan. 12th, 1912. [Leased to C.P.R.
Bj'-law operating. J
Amended, c. 84, 1899. Lapsed.
Amended, c. 85, 1899. Lapsed.
Lapsed.
Land grant.   Lapsed.
Incorporation.    Lapsed.
Lapsed.
Declared for the public benefit.
Land grant.    Lapsed.
Change of title.   Lapsed.
Lapsed.
Operating.
Lapsed.
Lapsed, 85,000 deposited with Minister of Finance.
Time extended to March 28th, 1919.
Amended, c.   45,  1902.    Repealed, c.  45, 1902.    Amended, c.  36, 1904 ;
c. 60, 1906.    Lapsed.
Lapsed.
Amended, c. 79, 1916.
Amended, c. 43, 1894.
Lapsed.
Extension of time to May 31st, 1920.
Operated by C.P.R.
Amended, e. 42, 1894; c. 37, 1897.
Land grant.   Declared for the public benefit, c. 57, 1893.
Amended, c. 42, 1894 ; c. 37, 1897.
Amended, c. 25, 1884.    Lapsed.
Lapsed.
Amended, c. 67, 1892; c. 60, 1896.    Lapsed.
Lapsed.
Amended, c. 36, 1889.    Operating.    G.N.P. purchased from Port Kelts to
Bridge, New Westminster.    Since sold to Canadian Northern.
Amended, c. 38, 1903.    Declared for public benefit, c. 164, 1903. E 24
British Columbia.
1920
APPENDIX C—Continued.
Railways incorporated usstokr Acts of the Legislature of British Columbia—Continued.
Name of Railway.
Nicola Valley Rly.
North Star & Arrow Lake Rly...
Northern Vancouver Island Rly.
Okanagan & Kootenay Rly.
Osoyoos & Okanagan Rly..
Pacific Great Eastern Rly.
Pacific Northern & Eastern Rly..
Pacific Northern & Omineca Rly.
Pacific Rly	
Peace & Nass River Rly....
Penticton Rly  	
Portland & Stickine Rly....
Portland Canal Short Line.
Portland Canal Rly	
Port Moody, Indian River, & Northern Rly
Prince Rupert & Port Simpson Rly	
Quatsino Rly	
Queen Charlotte Island Rly	
Queen Charlotte Rly	
Rainy Hollow Rly	
Red Mountain Rly	
Revelstoke & Cassiar Rly	
Rock Bay & Salmon River Rly	
St. Mary's & Cherry Creek Rly	
St. Mary's Valley Rly	
Shuswap & Okanagan Rly	
Skeena River & Eastern Rly	
Skeena River Rly. Colonization & Explor.
ation Co   	
South-east Kootenay Rly.	
Colo-
South Kootenay Rly	
South Okanagan Rly	
Stave Valley Rly	
Stickeen & Teslin Rly. Navigation
nization Co	
Toad Mountain & Nelson Tramway Incor-
poration	
Toad Mountain & Nelson Tramway Incorporation.    	
Tramway Inspection	
Upper Columbia Navigation & Tramway Co.
Vancouver & Grand Forks Rly,	
Vancouver & Lulu Island Electric Rly. &
Improvement Co	
Vancouver & Lulu Island Rly	
Vancouver & Nicola Valley Rly	
Vancouver & Northern Rly	
Vancouver & Westminster Rly	
Vancouver Island Hydro-electric & Tramway Co., Ltd	
Vancouver Land & Rly. Co	
Vancouver-Nanaimo Rly. Transfer Co	
Vancouver, Northern, & Yukon Rly	
Vancouver, Northern, Peace River, & Alaska
Rly. & Navigation Co	
Vancouver, Victoria, & Eastern Rly. &
Navigation Co	
Vernon and Okanagan Rly	
Victoria & Barkley Sound Rly	
Victoria & Northern America Rly	
Victoria & Saanich Rly	
Victoria & Seymour Narrows Rly.
Victoria & Sidney Rly	
Victoria & Yellowhead Pass Rly. Aid.
Victoria Terminal Rly. & Ferry Co	
Victoria, Vancouver, & Westminster.
Victoria Harbour Rly. Co	
Wellington Colliery Rly	
Yale Northern Rly	
Yukon Mining & Trading & Transportation
Co	
Yukon Mining & Trading & Transportation
Co	
Cap.
59
37
58
71
70
40
64
59
34
36
39
60
73
73
74
59
69
56
76
60
42
83
63
76
58
61
61
51
64
65
63
64
66
70
70
185
50
50
84
61
60
63
64
53
15
74
75
63
66
64
16
29
79
39
66
70
85
86
64
44
28
44
87
77
Year.
1891
1893
1898
1910
1911
1890
1890
1893
1913
1912
1903
1900
1910
1911
1910
1898
1909
1907
1910
1909
1903
1901
1905
1910
1907
1893
1898
1900
1906
1906
1887
1898
1898
1898
1906
1898
1906
1905
1397
1891
1897
1910
1891
1901
1891
1891
1908
1909
1900
1S82
1897
1899
1891
1897
1891
1909
1891
1886
1886
1902
1892
1892
1902
1901
1901
1894
1911
1883
1911
1901
Remarks.
Declared for the public benefit.
Chap. 50, 1892.
Amended, c. 86, 1899.    Lapsed.
Time extended to March 28th, 1919.   $5,000 deposited with Minister of
Finance.
Lapsed.
Amended, c 61, 1913 ; c. 62, 1913 ; c. 65,1914.
Under construction.
Lapsed.
Amended, c. 55, 1902 ;   c. 77, 1902 ;   c. 40, 1903 ;  c. 67, 1905 ;   c. 58, 1909.
Lapsed.    Security deposited with Minister of Finance.
Lapsed.
Amended,   c.   74,   1911.     Now   called  Canadian   North-eastern   Rly.
Abandoned.
Lapsed.
Amended, c. 57, 1907.
Lapsed.
Declared for public benefit, c. 60, 1895.
Lapsed.
Amended, c. 30, 1888, ; c. 42, 1890; c. 37, 1891.
Lapsed.
Amended, c. 61, 1909.    Time extended to May 27th, 1919.
Lapsed.
Amended, c. 44, 1898; c. 40, 1900.
Chap. 58, 1901, an Act respecting the Incorporation of Tramway, Telephone, and Telegraph Companies.
Amended, c. 51, 1911.
Lapsed.
Amended, c. 73, 1897 ; c. 52,1900.    Declared for public benefit, c. 86,1901.
Amended, c. 80, 1910.   Lapsed.
Lapsed.
Amended, c. 78, 1902.
Incorporated, joint-stock company, November 12th, 1912.    Lapsed.
Lapsed.
Amended, c. 55 1900.   Lapsed.
Lapsed.
Declared for public benefit, c. 172, 1905.
Lapsed.
Subsidy.
I Operated by G.N.R.
Incorporation.
Lapsed.
AmeBy-eiaw°' W' 19°5 [Operated by G.N.R.
Amended, c 76, 1897.    Lapsed.
Lapsed.
Operating.
Lapsed. 10 Geo..5
Department op Railways.
E 25
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