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SECOND ANNUAL REPORT OF THE WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION BOARD OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR THE… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1919

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Full Text

 SECOND ANNUAL REPORT
OP   THE
WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION BOARD
OF   THE
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 3 1st
1918
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OF THE  LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by William H. Collin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty,
1919.  The Workmen's Compensation Board,
Vancouver, B.C., March, 1919.
The Honourable John Oliver, Premier,
■Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
Dear Sir,—In pursuance of section 50 of the " Workmen's Compensation Act"
we enclose herewith Annual Report.
We are,
Yours very truly,
E. S. H. WINN,
Chairman. To His Honour Sir Frank Stillman Barnard, K.C.M.G.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The Second Annual Report of the Workmen's Compensation Board of this
Province is herewith respectfully submitted.
JOHN OLIVER,
Premier.
Premier's Office,
March, 1919. REPORT OF WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION  BOARD.
To the Lieutenant-Governor in Council,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In accordance with the requirements of the "Workmen's Compensation Act," the
following report is made.    It will be divided into, five parts:—
(a.)  Financial—Assessments and Audits : (d.) Accident-prevention.
(6.)  Claims: (e.)  Statistical,
(c.)  Medical Division:
(a.)  FINANCIAL—ASSESSMENTS AND AUDITS.
All moneys paid as compensation, together with the cost of administration, are obtained by
means of assessments collected from employers operating industries covered by the Act. These
collections are based upon a certain percentage of the employer's pay-roll, the amount of the
percentage being dependable upon the hazard of the particular industry. This percentage is
known as the basic rate. This rating, however, must not -be taken as indicating the true cost
to the employer, for the reason that if the accidents to be paid for do not require the full amount
of the basic rate, a portion only is called up.
As indicated in the statement of the condition of the classes on December 31st, 1918, the
industries of the Province are grouped into a number of separate and self-sustaining classes.
The industries listed in each class are, for the most part, of a somewhat similar character, either
as to the nature of the work or as to the similarity of its hazards. Where two or more different
kinds of industry are listed in the same class, the basic rates of assessment are in proportion to
the estimated relative hazards in each industry included in the class.
Assessments are made upon the employers in each several class during each year, whenever
the funds of the class in which the industry is listed require to be replenished an account of
accidents which have occurred in the work of their class. In other word's, assessments are not
made until more funds are required.
Assessments at the basic rate for each kind of industry are based upon one-quarter of each
employer's estimated annual pay-roll, and at the close of the year the true amount due from
each employer is .adjusted at the basic rate on as many quarters of his actual pay-roll for the
year as assessments are required to be made during the year.
During the first year, in only one of the classes—namely, in Class 3—was it necessary to
assess the basic rate on the entire pay-roll. In Classes 2 and 9 the basic rate was assessed on
three-quarters of the pay-roll. In eight classes the basic rate was assessed on only one-half of
the actual pay-roll for the year.
During the second year it was not necessary to assess the basic rate on the entire pay-roll
of employers of any of the classes. In only two classes was it necessary to assess the basic
rate on as much as three-quarters of the actual pay-roll, and in eight of the classes the basic rate
was assessed on only one-half of the actual pay-roll for the year. In five of the classes it was
found sufficient to assess the basic rate on only one-quarter of the actual pay-roll during the
second year; for example, take an industry with a basic rate of 2 per cent., if but one assessment
were made throughout the year the cost to that industry on its pay-roll would be one-quarter of
2 per cent., or 0.50 per cent.; if two assessments, the cost would be two-quarters of 2 per cent.,
or 1 per cent. ,
The effect of class division is that all industries in that particular class carry only the
losses which occur in that class. By way of example, take the disaster which happened in
No. 1 Mine of the Western Fuel Company, a company engaged in the coal-mining industry,
wherein sixteen lives were lost. This company is in Class 3; the cost therefore, of that disaster
is charged to Class 3 alone. No other industry placed in any other class in any way contributed
to that loss; in other words, each firm in a particular class bears only its proportion of the loss
in the class in which it is placed. If, however, accidents are reduced in number and severity,
there is automatically a lessening of the drain on the funds of that particular class. U 6 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1919
The question of the basic rate and its relation to cost is fully dealt with in the First Annual
Keport.
Penalties.
After the Act had been in force practically two years it was felt that employers generally
had a pretty thorough understanding of its requirements; it was noted that while the large
majority of the employers promptly paid their assessments, a number did not do so, the effect
of which was that those who promptly paid were providing the funds to carry the accidents for
all employers, while those who did not were getting the benefit of the moneys of those who had.
It was therefore quite apparent that to permit this condition to continue would he unfair to those
who promptly paid. For the purpose, therefore, of treating all equitably it was decided that
on and after January 1st, 1019, the penalties permitted by the Act would be imposed.
Upon those failing to pay assessments within one month after the date of the-assessment
there is imposed a penalty of o per cent, of the amount unpaid on the assessment, and for each
succeeding month or fraction thereof after the first month of default a penalty of 1 per cent,
would be payable; iu other words, default for a month or fraction thereof costs 5 per cent, of
the amount unpaid, and for each month or fraction of a month thereafter an additional 1 per cent,
of the amount unpaid.
Failure to pay medical-aid deductions within one month after their due dates—namely, the
first days of the months of April, July, October, and January—incurs a like penalty.
The moneys received from these penalties are credited to the class in which the employer
is at the time of its levy, save in the case of penalties on medical aid, in which case the penalties
when collected are credited to the Medical Aid Department.
New Classes.
For the year 191S the following new classes were created:—
Class 13:   All Government employees not engaged exclusively in clerical work.
Class 14:   All municipalities.
Class 15:   All those engaged in fishing and packing of fish, fish or oil fertilizer, and
oyster-cultivation.
Class 16 includes all those industries engaged in the manufacture of explosives, fuses,
fireworks, and chemicals.
The following classes of labour not included in a named industry were extended the benefits
of the Act: -All school mechanics, those engaged in power-laundries not operated for a profit,
and all engineers in steam-heating plants where the engineers operating are required to have a
certificate or permit.
Throughout the year a number of employers not engaged in industries covered by the Act
have applied to have the benefits of the Act extended to their employees. These applications
were granted.
The statement of the condition'of the Accident Fund on December 31st, 1918, shows the
total receipts and disbursements of the Board during the first two-year period of the operation
of the Act.
The average of the experience of the first two years affords a better basis for estimating
the normal volume of business under the Act than would the figures for the first year. Many
claims for injuries which happened during the last few months of the first year were not filed
or could not be finally adjusted until the second year, and there could, of course, be no overlap
of claims or serious development of injuries into the beginning of the first year from any previous
period. For a similar reason the payments to the Board by employers during the second was
greater than during the first year, as the true amount due in adjustment of the first year's
assessment could not be ascertained and paid until their pay-rolls were audited after the close
of the year.
While the volume of business during the second year was, therefore, considerably larger
than during the first year, the cost to the employers for the respective years and the cost of
administration did not show any material increase.
At the starting of the operations it was anticipated by the most sanguine of the supporters
of this Act, and who had given the matter much thought, that by reason of the varied classes
of industries and their location, some in remote parts of the Province, that the cost of transpor- 9 Geo. 5 Annual Report. U 7
tation and the loss of time consumed in going between the different points, the cost of supplies,
the increased payment of staff, that the cost to the employers would be at the best between 12
and 14 per cent, of the amount paid in by the employers for compensation.
The possibility of a high cost of operation was one of the chief objections to the measure.
Two years' operation at a cost of 4.83 per cent, of the amount collected from the employer is,
we believe, a sufficient answer to this objection.
The hearty co-operation which has been given by workmen, employers, and physicians, and
their greater familiarity with the requirements upon them under the Act, has much facilitated
the operation of every department of the work of the Board. Longer experience and a more
highly perfected organization has resulted in a marked growth of efficiency of the entire staff,
both in the office and in the field.
Field Auditors of the Board have visited the plants of employers in practically all parts
of the Province, and as nearly as possible the pay-rolls of all employers within the application
of the Act have been audited at least twice in each year.
Of every $100 collected from employers, $95.10 is used directly for the relief of injured
workmen and their dependents, without any expense whatever to them, and this is only possible
by reason of the Act providing for the administration of the Accident Fund by a Board appointed
for the purpose, and to the exclusion of all intermediaries who might otherwise desire to make
a profit out of the misery and distress of workmen injured hi industrial accidents.
A reserve has been set aside and invested in Government and Victory bonds at a rate to
earn 6.004 per cent., and in an amount equalling the present value of all pensions due dependents
of workmen who have been killed in industry since the taking effect of the Act, and of all
pensions or deferred payments due workmen who have suffered permanent partial disabilities
in cases where such disabilities were not paid for in lump sums. The present value of all such
pensions and deferred payments at the time the awards were made amounted to $847,024.14, of
which $60S,937.96 was on account of pensions payable to dependents of workmen who had been
killed, and $138,086.18 on account of pensions payable for permanent partial disabilities.
Each item of reserve was figured in an amount which, earning interest at 5 per cent, and
drained by the pension, would be exhausted at the end of the expectancy, to death or remarriage
of the widow, or at the end of the term of-any pension payable for a stated period, of time.
The proceeds of 1 cent per day payable by workmen under the medical-aid provisions of
the Act have gone far toward paying the expenses of physicians' treatment and hospital care
in cases of accident. As expected, however, when the Act was passed, the proceeds were not quite
sufficient, and it was necessary under the provision of section 30 (2) for employers, who did
not have hospital arrangements with their men, approved by the Board, under section 21 (4).
to make good the difference between the amount contributed by the workmen aud the cost of
the medical-aid service.
Two years does not afford sufficient experience to develop the true relation between the cost
of physicians' treatment and hospital care to the proceeds of 1 cent per day from workmen.
A number of the larger employers in the more hazardous industries, as in mining and lumbering,
have approved hospital arrangements with their men, and no medical-aid charges are payable
by the Board on account of any accidents which happen to such workmen.
Investments.
During the year 1918 the Board made the following investments: $50,C00 worth of Victory
Loan bonds bearing interest at 5% per cent., and $500,000 worth of British Columbia Government
bonds which will net the Board 6% per cent.
Merit Rating.
It is confidently hoped that at the end of 1919 the Board may have sufficient definite
statistical information as to warrant the bringing into effect of the merit-rating system as
outlined in the First Annual Keport, the effect of which is that those employers who by installation of safeguards and general accident-prevention measures have a record of cost less than the
assessments paid will be given certain merit credits, whereas those whose accidents have cost
more than their paid assessments will have a demerit differential created. Different systems of
merit rating are now in effect in other places, but are still in their experimental stage. The Board
has not yet decided upon any definite system, but those now in effect will be carefully investigated. U 8
Workmen's Compensation Board.
1919
Statement of the Condition of the Several Class Funds on December 31st, 1918, covering
First Two-year Period of Application of Act, 1917-18.
n
12
13
14
15
Lumbering, sawmills, shingle and lath
mills, pulp and paper mills, ereosot-
ing works, and logging-railways....
Lighter forms cf wood-working, planing-mills, sash and door factories,
etc	
Coal-mining '.	
Metal-mining, reduction of ores and
smelting, quarrying, brick-manufacturing, etc	
Iron and steel manufacturing, rolling-
mills, iron or brass products,
machine-shops, etc	
Lighter forms of manufacture, paints,
shoes, flour, power-laundries, warehousing, etc    	
Building and construction, generally,
wooden or steel-ship building, pile-
driving, dredging, etc	
Electric light and power plants,
N.E.S; steam or electric railways,
etc., N.E.S. ; telephone or telegraph
systems, N.E.S. ; gasworks, N.E.S.;
motion-picture machines, etc	
Navigation, stevedoring, wharf operation 	
Canadian Pacific Rly. and Cons. M. & S.
Co. of Canada, Ltd., and their
subsidiary companies	
Grand Trunk Pacific Rly. Co.. and
their subsidiary companies	
Canadian Northern Pacific Rly. Co.
and their subsidiary companies	
British Columbia Government	
Municipalities	
Canning or packing fish, fishing, fish
oil and fertilizer manufacturing,
kelp collecting	
Explosive manufacture, fireworks,
fuses, chemicals, N.E.S	
Totals..
Received
from
Employers.
$509,716 23
30,877 48
338,613 34
196,149 16
37,194 18
90,364 17
266,258 11
85,716 41
79,694 56
246,590 32
11,112 19
24,353 8S
34,975 31
39,219 04
33,684 62
12,560 91
$2,037,079 91
Refunds.
$1,176 99
2 83
1,028 00
3 74
598 59
35 99
7 13
196 57
$3,049 !
Amount
paid.
$334,700 91
16,060 23
122,856 65
100,261 22
25,928 11
45,526 49
137,225 59
40,717 96
40,608 57
83,058 85
3,990 03
9,445 33
3,634 07
6,377 73
7,095 59
2,801 93
Reserve,
Present
Value of
Pensions.
$173,393 44
11,198 68
216,892 24
75,197 59
6,012 12
34,922 62
79,116 27
43,097 46
33,912 16
90,941 03
3,557 20
11,986 92
21,529 11
33,707 04
5,480 39
6,079 87
$847,024 14
Balance in
Class Funds.
S     444 89
3,615 74
1,135 55*
19,662 35
5,250 21
9,316 47
49,880 26
1,893 86
4,977 26
72,590 44
3,564 96
2,921 63
9,812 13
865 73*
21,108 64
3,679 11
$206,716 67
Rates of Assessments,Proportion
of Basic Rates
assessed.
2/4
3/4
4/4
2/4
2/4
2/4
2/4
2/4
3/4
2/4
1/4
2/4
3/4
2/4
3/4
1/4
2/4
2/4
2/4
1/1
2/4
2/4
1/4
1/4
1/4
2/4
2/4
2/4
* Indicates debit balance.
Statement of Condition of the Accident Fund on December 31st, 1918,
covering 1917 and 191s.
Receipts.
From employers, assessments
From employers, medical aid
From interest on investments
From workmen, medical-aid dues
$2,037,079 91
69,851 96
23,205 62
$2,130,137 49
270,075 95
$2,400,213 44
Disbursements.
Current—Compensation paid to workmen 	
Refunds paid employers of overpayment of assessments 	
Medical Aid—Physicians, hospitals, transportation, drugs, artificial
members, etc	
Reserve—■
Pensions  paid   	
Carried forward
$   877,245 99
3,049 84
331,653 07
82.829 80
$1,294,778 70 9 Geo. 5 Annual Report. U 9
Brought forward    $1,294,778 70
Value,   Dec.   31st,   1918,   of  future   payments   on   approved
claims—■
Invested      $771,816 99
Cash available for pensions, Dee. 31st, 1918     15,5S2 97
 7S7,399 06
Expense  (two years)      $113,043 27
Less paid by B.C. Government, Feb. 5th, 1917 . .      10,000 00
 103,043 27
Cash on hand, Dec. 31st, 1918, to credit of classes        206,716 67
Cash on hand, Dec. 31st, 1918, to credit of medical aid  S,274 84
♦ $2,400,213 44
Ratio of net expense to total receipts from employers, 4.S37 per cent.
Statement of Condition of the Reserve Fund on December 31st, 1918, covering 1917 and 1918.
Present  value  of  all  deferred payments   at  date  of  approval  of
claims   $847,024 14
Interest on bonds        23,205 62
$870,229 76
Pensions paid     $ 82,829 80
Invested—■
20-year 5% Debenture Bonds B.C. Government—
December 1st, 1917   $300,000 00
April 1st, 1918   200,000 00
November 1st, 1918  100,000 00
December 1st, 1918  200,000 00
20-year 5%% Victory Loan, December 1st, 1917 ... 25,000 00
15-year 5%% Victory Loan, December 6th, 1918 . .. 50,000 00
$875,000 00
Purchase price of bonds '.     771,S16 99
Cash on hand, Reserve Account, December 31st, 1918       15,582 97
$870,229 76
Average rate of interest on cost of bonds, 6.064 per cent.
Statement showing Condition of Medical Aid Fund on December 31st, 1918,
covering 1917 and 1918.
Medical aid paid by workmen at 1 cent per day   $270,075 95
Share contributed by employers         69,851 96
$339,927 91
Physicians, hospital, transportation, drugs, artificial members, etc. $331,653 07
Balance ou hand, December 31st, 1918         8,274 84
$339,927 91
(6.)  CLAIMS.
The moving of the head office of the Board from Victoria to Vancouver early in the year
1.918 was found to be a distinct advantage in the Claims Department, in that, being close to the
large industrial operations, and in the line of travel for workmen and employers to and from all
parts of the Province, a great deal of time in correspondence was saved. Further, it was very
convenient to be able to deal personally wTith a large number of claimants.
With the experience gained in 1917, various improvements were made in the methods of
adjusting claims, with a view to shortening the time necessary to make payment to the injured
workmen.    Additional methods were found an advantage in the speedy adjustment of claims U 10 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1919
in necessitous cases, and the numerous letters of appreciation received from workmen whose
claims had been quickly dealt with were a gratifying feature of the year's work.
During the year 191S a total of 22,498 claims were received. This figure represents actual
claims made upon the Board either for compensation or medical aid. It does not include about
4,000 minor accidents, in which the workman did not require to lay off at all and required no
medical attention other than first aid rendered him; he therefore had no claim whatever under
the Act. Of the total number of claims received, 22,258 were non-fatal accidents and 240 claims
were fatal. During the year 8,841 claims were adjusted and made final. Some of these claims
were adjusted in several monthly payments;   others required quite a number of adjustments.
The average number of claims per month was 1,875. The number of unfinished claims on
hand at the end of the year was 1,493, so that it will be seen that the work of the Claims Department was kept up to date. This fact is emphasized when it is considered that included in the
number of unfinished claims were over 3O0 on which monthly payments are being made, and
some of which have extended over many months,%the rest of the number being new claims
received within the month. As the number on hand at the end of the year was less than the
average number received per month during the year, it proves that they are adjusted in whole
or in part within the month. In fact, all claims are adjusted generally within five to seven days
of the date on which the last report is received or the file is complete. If, therefore, an injured
workman finds delay in receiving compensation, he should see to it that the doctor's progress or
final report has been sent in, and if a reasonable time has elapsed since the date on which it
was sent the attention .of the 'Board should be called to the claim. Letters regarding claims
receive special attention.
In this connection it may be stated that one of the most frequent causes of delay in adjustment is the workman's failure to make application for compensation. The honours for sending in
first report of the accident are now about evenly divided between the employers and the doctors.
It frequently happens that workmen do not trouble to send an application for compensation for
some considerable time, even though they are written to by the Claims Department from one
to three times and the form enclosed on which to make application. Some workmen appear to
regard the compensation due to them like money in the hank, to be called for at a later date
when desired. Claims on which the workman has made no application are held in suspense for
one year, the workman having the right to apply within that time.
At the end of 1918 there were 883 claims in suspense. These were composed of claims in
which the workmen had lost from four to ten days and had not troubled to make application
for compensation, and cases where no evidence of disability had been forthcoming.
Another very frequent cause of delay in adjustment is the failure of the workman to comply
with the first requisite of the Act—namely, that of notifying his employers in writing as soon
as possible after the accident. It is well that an application should be made to the Board
promptly if the injury is such as will disable him for more than three days.
During the year 12,631 claims were received in which the workman had not lost more than
three days, and was therefore not entitled to compensation for the time lost. Medical aid,
however, was allowed in these cases.
There were 403 applications for compensation which the Board could not allow, fifty-nine
of which accidents did not arise out of and in the course of employment; for example, old
hernUc, stepping off street-car on way to work, knocked down by automobile after leaving
employer's premises, kicked by horse on way to work and not on employer's premises, etc. In
28S of these cases the applicant's disability was not the result of accident; for example, a very
large number suffering from influenza, rheumatism, typhoid fever, tousilitis, eye-strain, tuberculosis, diphtheria, venereal diseases, etc. Sixteen cases were employers who had not applied to
have the benefits of the Act extended to them; in thirty cases workmen engaged in occupations
which were not covered by the Act—for example, school-teaching, farmers, domestic help, etc.;
four were for minor injuries attributable to serious and wilful misconduct of workmen; in two
cases the accident happened outside of the Province where the workmen were neither resident
nor employed within the Province; four cases were accidents which happened prior to the Act
coming into effect.
Xo matter how wide the scope of the Act, there will always be cases that are outside the
scope, and these will continue to be. a source of much thought to the Board and more or less
dissatisfaction among the injured parties. 9 Geo. 5 Annual Report. U 11
From time to time the Board has received inquiries as to whether certain cases are included
within the scope of the Act. They have taken the position, however, that they cannot give a
decision upon a one-sided statement of a case, and that it is necessary that a claim should be
filed with the Board and evidence submitted by all parties before it can be judged. This in itself
accounts for quite a few of the number of claims not allowed: The validity of some of the
claims was questioned even by the workmen themselves before they were submitted to the Board.
It should be borne in mind that the Act is a limited form of insurance—namely, to personal
injury by accident arising out of and in the course of employment; that it does not cover all
the ills to which the flesh is heir; and that there are certain disabilities which, although they
may incidentally come upon the workman at the time he is engaged in ordinary occupation, are
not at all due to accident, and therefore not included within the scope of the Act. The broadest
possible interpretation has been given the term " personal injury by accident" consistent with
fair dealing to all parties affected.
As an example of the limitations of the Act, it may be mentioned that during the severe
epidemic of Spanish influenza in the fall of 1918, many inquiries, telephonic and otherwise, were
made as to whether the influenza was covered by the Act, some of the inquirers claiming that
it was due to their daily work. There could, of course, be only one answer to these inquiries,
that the influenza, though a great misfortune, could not by any stretch of imagination be
considered as au accident arising out of employment. Then, again, claims were made for such
ailments as typhoid fever, scarlet fever, shingles, etc., none of which can he classed under
personal injury by accident.
A total of 240 fatal accidents was reported during the year; 116 pension awards were made
and many more have been allowed since the close of the year.
It is believed that had there been a little more care exercised on the part of both the
employer and employee a number of these fatal accidents need not have happened. The Board
has the Government's assurance that all deaths in industry caused by accident will be investigated
by a Coroner's jury or some-other means of searching inquiry.
Of the claims which were finally disposed of during the first two years, 456 resulted in
permanent partial disability to workmen.
As shown in the statistical tables, a distressingly large number of these permanent partial
disabilities were of a very serious nature—eighteen workmen each lost an arm by amputation
and fifteen arms were seriously impaired; sixteen workmen each lost a leg and twenty-eight
suffered permanent leg impairment; forty-six each lost the sight of an eye, and fifteen more
sustained serious and permanent impairment of vision. A large number of injuries to the baud
resulted in loss of one or more fingers. The greater number of these resulted from accidents in
shingle-mills, but a strict enforcement of the safety regulations adopted by the Board as to the
installation of safety devices has resulted in a very gratifying and marked decrease in accidents
of this character.
A surprising number of workmen who met with injuries resulting in the loss of one or more
fingers, or even such more serious losses as the loss of an eye, are found, within a short time
after returning to work, to earn as much after accident as they did before they were injured.
In such cases, however, the Board has recognized that there has in fact been an impairment
of true earning capacity, although the evidence iu actual loss of wages may not yet have
developed. Instead of requiring such injured workmen to report to the Board regularly for
an indefinite period and making proof that any loss of wage they may have suffered was strictly
on account of their physical impairment, the practice of the Board has been to estimate the
probable future loss of wage which will be sustained on account of the disability during the
remainder of the life of the workman, and to make final settlement at 55 per cent, of such
estimated impairment of earning capacity.
Each case of permanent partial disability is carefully considered, aud whenever practicable
the injured man is examined by the Board, and the manner of the settlement is such as may
appear to be in the best interest of each individual; except in the case of minor disabilities
the awards are rarely paid in full by lump sums, but a portion of the award is paid in cash and
the remainder is either paid in a life pension or in deferred payments, extending over the period
during which the actual impairment of earning capacity will probably continue, and until, the
workman is expected to have become adapted to his disability. ..,,._ .... U 12 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1919
In the event of an award not being satisfactory to either the employer, the workman, or his
physician, a rehearing is granted, and thereupon all parties affected have an opportunity of
introducing such evidence as they may feel will give the Board their view-point and possibly
obtain a different decision. There have not been-as many rehearings this year as in 1917. This
is due, we believe, to the fact that the Act and its limitations are now better understood.
Permanent Partial Disabilities.
The following cases, among others, will serve to illustrate the method adopted in dealing
with permanent partial disabilities :—
Claim No. 5543.—Workman, age 54, whose right hand was seriously impaired while felling
a tree. Total disability in this case continued for thirty-two weeks before claimant was able to
perform lighter work. During this time compensation for 55 per cent, of lost wages and ail
charges for surgical treatment and hospital care were paid. It was found on questioning the
workman that he had previous farming experience, and he himself felt that if a sufficient sum
were advanced to him to permit him to purchase a small piece of land he would be able to make
a comfortable living thereon. A sufficient sum to purchase land, as well as to stock same, was
thereupon paid him. He is now engaged in raising pigs and chickens aud doing small farming,
and reports after a year's experience that he is doing particularly well. Fifty-five per cent, of
his estmated future loss of wages were commuted into a lump sum for the purchase aforesaid.
Claim No. 7037.—Workman, age 31, whose leg had to be amputated below the knee on account
of accident while employed as rigging-slinger in a logging camp. Claimant was paid compensation
for thirty-three weeks and was provided with an artificial leg. Before securing employment in
the woods he had earned his living by fishing. He felt that he was no longer able to work in
the woods, but that if he could be paid a sufficient amount to purchase a suitable power-launch
he would find no difficulty in earning a good living in the fishing industry. A satisfactory launch
was purchased and a sufficient portion of his life pension was commuted for the purpose. The
workman reports excellent results from such purchase. .
Claim No. 4679.—Workman, age 61, whose right arm is permanently impaired as a result
of scratching one of his fingers with rusty wire while employed as a longshoreman. The injury
was followed by a severe attack of blood-poisoning involving the bones of the arm. His wife
having had farming experience, a sufficient sum in cash was paid to enable him to buy 4 acres
of well-located good land and engage in market-gardening and raising chickens. A pension of
$20 per month will also be paid him for a term of years.
Claim No. 7031.—Workman, age 58, lost leg at knee as a result of a runaway while employed
as a teamster. Claimant was found to have a farm, and with sufficient assistance to purchase
a team of horses and wagon and other supplies he could operate it successfully, as he had become
accustomed to the use of his artificial leg. He was therefore paid a sum sufficient for the purpose,
and will receive a pension of $20 per month for several years.
Claim No. 2225.—Workman, age 34, the muscles of whose left arm were impaired in an
accident in a mine, was given a course for a number of months in a business college, in order
that he might successfully follow clerical work, and the amount of the life pension was modified
accordingly.
Claim No. 17595.—Boy, age 16, who lost portions of four fingers of his right hand in a
printing-machine. After consultation with his parents as to which line of instruction would be
most advisable in view of the partial disability.of his hand, arrangements were made for him to
take a course in telegraphy, and the tuition charges will he paid in addition to payment of a
monthly pension for a considerable period.
Claim No. 7125.—Boy, age 15. In this case portions of four fingers of his left hand were
cut off while he was operating a rip-saw. As soon as it is determined what line of technical
training will be most advisable, arrangements will be made for a suitable course of instruction.
Claim No. 20Jf52.—Workman, age 28, lost his left arm above the elbow by being caught in the
belting in a printing-office. In order that he might be qualified as an accountant, he was paid
a sufficient sum in cash to maintain his family while he took such a course. It is believed that
on the completion of his course he will be enabled to earn a good salary as an accountant.
With the exception of the last three mentioned cases, a committee of the unions to which the
injured workmen belonged were consulted, and upon the workmen and the committees being
satisfied the above arrangements were carried out. It is believed that the handling of the
permanent-disability cases in this way will reasonably ensure the success of the workman's 9 Geo. 5 Annual Report. TJ 13
future. The Board does not enter into these negotiations unless they are fully satisfied that
the workman has had sufficient experience to make a success of the work in which he desires
to engage.
Eight Chinese suffered serious permanent partial disabilities, six having lost the use of an
arm or hand, either wholly or in part, and two having lost an arm. It was arranged at their
request that they return to China, and on production of steamship tickets and completion of
their identification and passport arrangements they were each given sufficient cash for present
needs, and further payments due on their award will be paid to them in China.
Two Italians, one of whom lost an arm and the other sustained serious injury to his hand,
were returned, in accordance with their own desires, to Italy, and after arrangements had been
made for their transportation and passports they were given a part of their award in cash and
received the balance in Italy.
Re-employment.
During the past year an earnest effort was made by the Board to find the injured workman
new employment where he was unable to return to the same employment at which he was injured.
In this effort the Board succeeded, with the co-operation of the workmen and employers, in
finding new positions for practically all so injured.
Re "Sophia" Disaster.
On or about October 25th, 1918, the Steamship " Princess Sophia," a boat owned and operated
by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, struck a reef in Alaskan waters and went down with a
crew of sixty-one, all of whom were lost. This was the most shocking catastrophe of the year.
Upon the confirmation of this loss this Department immediately required the owners to report
this accident in accordance with the Act's requirements. The owners thereupon notified the
Board that they proposed to contest the validity of section 8 and other sections of the Act
relating to this particular class of accident, taking the position that those sections were beyond
the legislative authority of the Provincial Legislature. Negotiations were immediately entered
into between the Board and the company to the end that there be a final and early termination
of the dispute. Inasmuch as the validity of certain sections of the Act was in question, and
having regard to the fact that there were a large number of dependents, some of whom required
immediate assistance, and as there were difficult constitutional questions at stake, the Board
appealed to the Government to appoint the best available legal assistance to push through to
a speedy and successful termination the points in dispute. The Government thereupon appointed
Mr. S. S. Taylor, K.C., as counsel to take charge of the matter on behalf of the Board. Action
has been commenced by the company against the Board, as well as the individual members
thereof.    The plaintiff in the statement of claim asks for a declaration:—
"(1.) That sections 8, 9, and 12 of the 'Workmen's Compensation Act' are beyond the
power of the Legislature of the Province of British Columbia to enact :
"(2.)  Alternately, that the Workmen's Compensation Board is bound by and obliged
to observe Part 8 of the ' Merchants Shipping Act, 1894,' or the ' Canada Shipping
Act,' whichever is applicable, in respect of the payment of compensation to the
said dependents:
"(3.)  Alternately, that the 'Workmen's Compensation Act' is repugnant to or unworkable with Part S of the ' Merchants Shipping Act, 1894,' or said sections of the
' Canada  Shipping Act,' whichever is applicable, in respect of the payment of
compensation to the said dependents, and is therefore invalid and void:
"(4.)  For an injunction enjoining the defendants and every of them from paying compensation to dependents of the crew of the ' Princess Sophia' or any of them."
The trial of the action will be held on March 10th, 1919.    It is anticipated that the constitutionality of these sections of the Act will not be finally disposed of until the Privy Council hands
down the final judgment, which, it is hoped, will not be later than July, 1919.    In the meantime
and until restrained by the Court the Board will continue to pay all those whose claims have
been allowed.
Re Protection Shaft, No. 1 Mine, Nanaimo.
Another startling disaster was that which happened on September 10th, 1918, in No. 1 Mine,
a property owned and operated by the Western Fuel Company at Nanaimo, whereby sixteen
workmen lost their lives by the breaking of the cable between the cage and the hoisting-drum. U 14 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1919
There was a wide difference of opinion as to what caused this breaking. In order to
definitely ascertain all that could be learned on this point, the Mines Department had portions
of the cable sent East to the McGill University Testing Department, supposedly the most efficient
in Canada, for test. The findings of the McGill authorities were made known to the Coroner's
jury, with the result that they found that there was insufficient internal lubrication, which
permitted the oxidizing of the wires.
Before this report is published it is hoped that satisfactory mining legislation will have been
introduced and passed as will ensure more thorough inspection, better methods of oiling, and a
definite time-limit during which a cable may be used for the hoisting of workmen.
(c.)  MEDICAL DIVISION.
The medical aid provided under the Act entitles injured workmen to all medical, surgical,
hospital treatment, transportation, nursing, medicines, crutches, and apparatus, including artificial
members, as are necessary at the time of the injury and thereafter during disability to relieve
from the effects of the injury. It will therefore be seen that this is one of the most important
departments created by the Act. Before a claim can receive consideration it must have passed
through this department. All medical, hospital, nursing, drugs, dental, artificial members,
apparatus, and transportation accounts have to be considered. It is believed that, in the 22,498
cases handled, approximately 75,000 medical reports and approximately 50,000 accounts were
passed in connection with the past year's work.
Progress has been made in adopting various methods of reducing the number of infections
which in many cases resulted seriously. In some instances slight injuries were neglected, as no
first-aid treatment was given and infection was the result. It is estimated that slightly over
7 per cent, of the cases reported eventually show infection, and to overcome this, and to a
reasonable extent eliminate this serious condition, the following first-aid service requirements
were brought into effect at the first of this year:—
FIRST-AID SERVICE.
(1.) Every employer having more than ten and less than fifty workmen usually employed shall
provide and maintain in his factory or place of employment, or in each factory or place of employment
if he has more than oue, a first-aid kit or box containing the following supplies, with such additional
quantities as may be reasonably necessary to provide first aid to his injured workmen, and same shall
be available during all working-hours without cost to them. The said kit or box shall be in charge
of some suitable person.
Minimum First-aid Kit.
A standard First-aid Manual.
Instruments.
1 pair scissors 1 camel's-hair brush.
1 pair fine tweezers. 1 white-enamel wash-basin.
2 eye-droppers.
Drugs.
2 oz. 4 per cent, boracic acid, for eye-wash. 1 bottle, 100 tablets, bichloride of mercury.
1 (2 oz.)  bottle of boracic tablets. 1 (8 oz.) bottle saturated solution picric acid.
2 oz.    alcoholic    iodine,    half-strength    (for        1  (8 oz.)  bottle 10 per cent. Balsam-Peru in
external use). castor-oil.
Each of the above must be in bottles or containers, plainly labelled, and the specific purpose for
which the contents are to be used marked thereon.
Dressings.
6 (1 oz.) packages absorbent cotton. 2 rolls (1 inch by 1 yard) adhesive plaster.
3 1-yard packages plain sterile gauze. 6 splints (assorted sizes).
12 sterile gauze bandages  (assorted sizes). 2 packages raw cotton (padding for splints).
(2.) Every employer having more than fifty and less than 200 workmen usually employed shall
provide and maintain in his factory or place of employment, or in each factory or place of employment
if he has more than one, a first-aid kit or box containing the following supplies, with such additional
quantities as may be reasonably necessary to provide first aid to his injured workmen, and same shall
be available to workmen during all working-hours without cost to them. The said kit or box shall
be in charge of some suitable person.
Medium First-aid Kit.
A standard First-aid Manual. 1 carrying-stretcher. 9 Geo. 5 Annual Report. IT 15
Instruments.
1 pair scissors. 2 doz. safety-pins  (assorted).
1 pair fine tweezers. 1 tourniquet.
2 eye-droppers. 1 graduated medicine-glass.
1 camel's-hair brush. 1 porcelain or white-enamel wash-basin.
Drugs.
2 oz. 4 per cent  boracic acid, for eye-wash. 1 tube carbolized vaseline.
2 oz. aromatic spirits of ammonia. 1  (8 oz.)  bottle 10 per cent. Balsam-Peru in
1 (2 oz.)  bottle boracic tablets. castor-oil.
2 oz.    alcoholic    iodine,    half-strength    (for 1 bottle, 100 tablets, bichloride of mercury.
external use). 1 (8 oz.)  bottle saturated solution picric acid.
Each of the above must be in bottles or containers, plainly labelled, and the specific purpose for
which the contents are to be used marked thereon.
Dressings.
6 (1 oz.) packages absorbent cotton. 1 roll adhesive plaster (1 inch by 5 yards).
3 1-yard packages plain sterile gauze. Light board material for splints.
12 sterile gauze bandages (assorted sizes). 6 assorted splints.
3 triangular bandages. 3 packages raw cotton (padding for splints).
(3.) Every employer having 200 or more workmen usually employed shall provide and maintain
as convenient as possible to his factory or plant an emergency first-aid room, which shall be painted
white and kept absolutely sanitary at all'times. This room shall be kept in charge of a clerk, workman, nurse, or other person possessing a certificate of competency, to the satisfaction of this Board,
to render first aid to the injured, and shall be provided with the following equipment and supplies in
such quantities as may be reasonably necessary to provide first aid to the injured workmen during
all working-hours without cost to them:—
Fiest-aid Room Equipment.
A standard First-aid Manual.
Furniture.
Hot and cold water. 1 porcelain or white-enamel foot-bath.
1 porcelain or white-enamel wash-basin. 1 enamelled refuse-pail.
1 emergency operating-table. 1 couch or bed.
1 sterilizer. 1 carrying-stretcher.
1 cabinet for surgical dressings.
A. metal box or grip, fitted with emergency  dressings,  to be used by first-aid attendant when
required to attend injured men in factory or place of employment who cannot be immediately
removed to first-aid room
Instruments.
Scissors. 2 steel probes.
Dressing-forceps. 1 silver forceps.
Eye-droppers. Tourniquet.
Camel's-hair brushes. Graduated medicine-glass
Safety-pins  (assorted).
Drugs.
Boracic acid, for eye-wash (4 per cent.). Recognized   antiseptic  for  washing  wounds—
Aromatic spirits of ammonia. e.g., bichloride of mercury.
Boracic tablets. Cresol.
Alcoholic iodine, half-strength   (external use). Eusol(Dakin's solution) powder or tablet forms.
Carbolated vaseline. Burn-dressing—e.g., bicarbonate of soda mixed
Picric-acid solution. with vaseline  (3 per cent.).
The above must be in bottles or containers, plainly labelled, and the specific purpose for which
the contents are to be used marked thereon.
Dressings.
Absorbent cotton. Triangular bandages.
Sterile gauze. Adhesive plaster.
Sterile gauze bandages (assorted sizes). Splints (assorted sizes).
Cotton bandages  (assorted sizes).
(4.) Every employer employing twenty or more workmen in a place of employment situate more
than five miles from the office of a medical practitioner shall at all times maintain in or about such
place of employment one person possessing a certificate of competency to render first aid to the injured.
(5c) Every employer employing 100 or more workmen shall at all times have available for
immediate use a satisfactory vehicle or other satisfactory means of transportation to convey all injured
workmen to the nearest hospital.
(6 ) Every employer employing fifty or more workmen at a place of employment more than five
miles from a hospital shall provide a first-aid room and equipment in addition to the requirements
mentioned in paragraph (2) herein.
(7.) Every employer shall provide immediate transportation to a hospital for all injured workmen in need of such transportation.
(8.)  The foregoing requirements shall be supplied at the expense of the employer. U 16 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1919
(9.) A minimum first-aid kit as above described, or first-aid equipment satisfactory to the Workmen's Compensation Board, shall accompany the crew in charge of every railway-train in transit and
every vessel.
(10.) The Board may direct or approve of any addition to or reduction or variation in the first-aid
service or appliances above described, or may in any case not above provided for prescribe such first-aid
service and appliances as it deems warranted.
The number of injured workmen receiving the benefit of this medical-aid service are necessarily much greater than the number receiving lost-time compensation. All injured workmen are
entitled to treatment. The Board has insisted on all workmen obtaining first-aid service, and
when that is not sufficient that they go to a duly qualified medical practitioner registered under
the " Medical Act." Very seldom is a claim now made by a workman who has not obtained such
treatment. In the past the apparently insignificant cut or bruise was practically ignored, and
the result generally was serious. The importance of antiseptic treatment of even slight wounds
and for first aid in cases of emergency is now well recognized. Many thousands of dollars
compensation that the Board's statistics show might have been saved by preventing blood-
poisoning and other serious consequences is only a part of the benefit of such service. All
employers in the Province are now required to have first-aid service outlined above. The efficiency
of the service will necessarily depend much upon having it in charge of some person or persons
who take an interest in the work, and who will therefore see that the equipment is correctly
used and replenished when necessary. This interest should be cultivated among the employees
in order that they may be able to make use of the service when the occasion does arise.
During the past two years the Board has allowed and paid for medical, surgical, hospital
treatment, transportation, nursing, medicines, crutches, apparatus, artificial members, dental
expense, etc., the sum of $331,653.07. It therefore can be readily seen what an important feature
of the Act the medical service really is. The Board has adopted the practice that, in the event
of a dispute between the Medical Referee and the physician attending the injured workman, the
matter of that dispute he immediately referred to a medical man who occupies a leading position
in the profession, or, in the event of there still being a doubt, the matter is invariably referred
to a committee of three medical men for final decision. It is hoped by the adopting of this
practice that the injured workmen as well as the attending physician will feel that every effort
is being made to get the best medical opinion available.
The success of this work is due to a great extent to the energetic, enthusiastic, and hearty
co-operation of practically all members of the medical profession. The feeling between the Board
and the members of the profession has been most harmonious.
From a perusal of the files it would appear that one out of every twelve injuries that are
suffered by the workmen where there is a three-days' time loss is a hospital case. Without
exception all hospitals have most heartily co-operated with the Board, and to them also we wish
to extend our appreciation.
(d.)  ACCIDENT-PREVENTION.
Each accident prevented and each safeguard installed in an industrial establishment means
not only reducing the drain on the funds, but also conserving and preserving man-power both to
the Province and the nation.
Cost of Interruption and Replacement.
The cost of interruption and replacement due to accidents is generally admitted. This is
looked upon as an indefinite factor. There are many items which must enter into the establishment of definite figures, so necessarily there are many difficulties to be overcome before it can
be expressed in terms of dollars and cents.
In the event of a fatal injury there is bound to be, first, a complete local paralysis of activity
among the immediate workers of the injured workman. A number will naturally drop.their work
to lend him aid and will remain with him at least until he is delivered into the hands of the
staff of the First-aid Department. After the removal of the injured workman from the scene of
the accident there will be a continuance of the interruption to the regular work,-during which
time the witnesses of the accident will discuss it among themselves and with others who may
be in the vicinity, but who did not witness it and who are very humanly interested in knowing
something of the occurrence. There is also the interruption in the activities of a number of
employees whose work causes them to be along the route followed in removing the injured
workman to the First-aid Department or from the premises.    This interruption will involve an 9 Geo. 5 Annual Report. TJ 17
appreciable reduction in output among some who learn of there having been an accident only
from those who have seen the injured workman while in the process of removal. Then, again,
there is the workman or workmen who, by reason of being in a position of authority or responsibility, or both, will have to devote time to attending the injured workman, and later to learning
something of the history of the accident. In a majority of cases, at least one fellow-workman
will be detailed to accompany the injured workman, either to the hospital or his home.
Accidents which result in fatal or permanent injury or in compensable temporary injuries
invariably make it necessary to replace the injured workman. There is thus involved the
expense of breaking in a new man.
After giving consideration to those several items of interruption based on loss of time and
to the prevailing wage, together with replacement cost, it seems entirely conservative to adopt,
as some of the Boards do, the cost of interruption and replacement in a reasonably sized plant
at the sum of $50 in the case of fatal injuries; the sum of $30 in permanent and serious temporary injuries; the sum of $10 in those temporary injuries which involve from one to five
days' loss of time;  and $5 in the case of " no time loss " injuries.
Statistics.
It is vitally important, therefore, that there be a systematic campaign of inspection of plants,
depending upon the number of men employed. A portion of the work of inspection may be done
by the heads of the department. A number of the larger plants in the Province consider it
advisable to compile statistics covering all phases of the accident experience of the plant. These
statistics showing the happening of accidents in the different portions of the plant are placed
in prominent places about the plant, so that each department has an opportunity of comparing
results. This work from an educational standpoint cannot fail to produce good results, as well
as create a desire on the part of the different departments to establish the best record for the
next month;  therein the benefits of the educational work is shown.
Accident-prevention Regulations.
In the past year considerable progress has been made in organizing and conducting accident-
prevention measures.   Early in 191S the following Safety Regulations were passed:—
General.
Transmission Machinery, Shafting, Couplings, Pulleys, Gearing, Belting, and Conveyors.
1. Emergency Stopping Device.— (Except with the consent of the Board.) Wherever there is
power-driven machinery, a device shall be provided at a convenient point or points, in each department
or work-room, whereby either the entire power-supply in that department or room may be cut off as a
whole or the one or more lines of shafting used in driving counter-shafting or directly driving machines
may be cut off independently.
2. A Safety Placard shall be prominently displayed, calling attention to the stopping device and
method of operating same.
3. All Safeguards shall be well constructed and of the best material for the purpose and maintained
in place.
4. All Manufacturing Plants shall have signal-cords connected with the bell or whistle, and located
in convenient places on each floor.
5. All Workmen in a plant shall be taught how to make use of the system of signals by which all
the machines can be stopped in case of accident.
6. Oiling, Cleaning, and Repairs.—Workmen shall not undertake to oil, inspect, clean, or repair
machines in motion or moving parts of machinery unless previously authorized to do so by the foreman
or overseer.
7. Clothing.—The clothing of employees having to work around moving parts of machinery, and
particularly those whose duty it is to oil up and repair machines, shall be buttoned and close fitting.
8. Gloves or Mittens shall not be worn when handling belts when in motion, or working ou
machinery where they are liable to be caught in moving machinery.
9. Handling Belts.—No belt larger than 3 inches wide (except with the consent of the Board)
shall be connected by hand unless it be slow-running. Slow-running belts shall be defined as those
running less than 120 feet per minute.
10. When a belt is not in Use it shall be hung up in a place where it cannot be caught by pulleys
or shafts.
11. Horizontal Shafting.—Any portion of a horizontal shaft which is 6 feet 6 inches or less from
the floor or working-platform, or which may be approached while in motion, shall be guarded on the
sides and bottom or protected by a standard railing ensuring at least 15 inches and not more than
20 inches horizontal clearance from the nearest moving part.
12. Vertical Shafting.— (Except with the consent of the Board.) Vertical or inclining transmission shafting shall be encased to a height of 6 feet from the floor.
2 U 18 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1919
13. When a Shaft, pulley, or belt passes through the floor (or any guard is placed around floor
opening) a 6-inch solid section or toe-board shall be. placed at the bottom of the guard, and a heavy
top rail not less than 3% feet high.
14. Projecting Shaft Ends or Keys.—All projecting shaft ends or keys shall be cut off or properly
protected with stationary casing.
15. Fly-ivheels.—All sections of fly-wheels with spokes which are 6 feet 6 inches or less from the
floor and which are exposed to contact shall be guarded. Fly-wheels which run in pits shall be
provided with handrail and toe-board around the pit.
Exception.—Where an engine is isolated in a room used exclusively as an engine-room, the
fly-wheel of such engine may be guarded with a railing. This railing shall be constructed with two
rails, the bottom of which shall not be less than 18 inches from the floor. Whenever main or auxiliary
engines are located in a basement, they shall be completely railed or fenced off so that no unauthorized
person can gain access thereto.
16. Couiilings and Collars, Keys and Set-screws.—Shaft-couplings and set-collars shall be of a
safety type, without projecting bolts, set-screws, or other dangerous projections, or be completely
guarded.
17   Clamp-couplings shall be guarded by a cylindrical sleeve the full length of the coupling.
IS. Jaw-clutch, Couplings shall be provided with cylindrical sleeve which at least covers the jaws.
19. Universal and Flexible Couplings shall be so guarded or encased as to remove all hazards.
20. Friction-clutch Couplings shall have their operating mechanisms, where exposed, completely
guarded.
21. Keys exposed to contact shall be made flush or guarded.
22. Key-seats, where exposed to contact, shall be guarded.
23. Set-screws or revolving parts shall be counter-sunk, or covered by a guard, or a headless set-
screw shall be used.    No part of the set-screw shall project above the surface.
24. The Above Guards shall be so designed, where practicable, as not to revolve with the part ■
guarded.
25. Friction-drives.—The contact faces of all friction-drives, when exposed to contact, shall be
enclosed.
26. All Frictions with projecting bolts shall be guarded.
27. Bearings.—Accurate alignment of bearings is an important factor in safety and in economy
of operation. Frequent inspections of bearing and hangers are desirable. They should be so equipped
with oiling apparatus that there will be no occasion for the oiler to come into dangerous proximity
with shafting when it is in motion.
28. Pulleys.—Pulleys shall be placed at a slightly greater distance from bearings or hangers or
other pulleys (except tight and loose pulleys) than the width of the belt, so that in case the belt slips
off the pulley it will not become wedged between the hanger and the pulley or between the two pulleys,
thus pulling down the line-shafting. If it is impracticable to space pulleys farther from a hanger or
another pulley than the width of the belt, the intervening space shall be guarded in such a way that
it will be impossible for the belting to become wedged should it slip the pulley. This may be done
by placing a spool 4 inches larger in diameter than the pulley on the side of the pulley adjacent to a
hanger or another pulley, or by use of a belt-hanger. Pulleys shall be frequently inspected for cracks
which are likely to develop in the arms or rims. When a crack occurs a piece of the rim may be
thrown out by centrifugal force and cause a serious accident. Testing by hammer will usually disclose
any defects.
29. Idler Pulleys or Tighteners used to tighten belts on pulleys, if provided with counter-weights,
shall have counter-weights guarded or enclosed.
30. Belt-shifters.—A permanent belt-shifter shall be provided for all loose pulleys, and shall be
located within easy reach of the operator. The construction of belt-shifters shall be such as to make
it impossible for the belt to creep back on to the tight pulley. All belt-shifters shall be equipped with
a lock or some other device to prevent accidental shifting.
31. Belts.—All belts, ropes, or chain-driving machinery or shafting, and all secondary belts, ropes,
or chains, where exposed to contact, shall be guarded. In all cases the point where the belt, rope, or
chain runs on to the pulley sheave or sprocket, if within 6 feet 6 inches of the floor or platform, shall
be guarded.
Exception.—Belts which are so small that they are not in any way a source of danger.
32. All Horizontal Belts, Ropes, or Chains driving machinery or shafting 6 feet 6 inches or less
above the floor or platform, where exposed to contact, must be guarded. All overhead belts 6 inches
or more in width and over 6 feet 6 inches from the floor or platform shall be guarded underneath and
on sides, unless so guarded that persons cannot pass under them. All chains or rope-drives over 6 feet
6 inches from the floor or platform shall be guarded in like manner to belts over 6 inches in width
In all cases the guard should cover the outer faces of the two pulleys or sheaves and extend upward
to such a point and be attached in such a way that, in case the belt, chain, or rope breaks, the guard
will withstand the whipping force.
33. Vertical and Inclined Belts shall be substantially guarded as follows: If the guard be less
than 15 inches from the belt, there shall be a complete enclosure of wood or metal to a height of 6 feet,
unless it is a small belt, then with the permission of the Board a small belt-guard need only be 3 feet
6 inches high. If the guard is placed at least 15 inches clearance from the belt, a two-rail railing at
least 3% feet shall be required.
34. Belt-tighteners which control the operation of machines shall be equipped with a safety lock or
stop which will prevent the application of the tightener to its belt until the lock or stop is released. 9 Geo. 5 Annual Report. U 19
35. Transmission Gearing.—In this term is included all forms of spur-gears, pinions, bevel-gears,
mortise-wheels, and sprockets for chain-drives, etc. Such gearing, wherever located, shall be strongly
and completely encased, or when this is impracticable shall have a band guard provided with side
flanges extending inward beyond the root of the teeth. Where there is a spoke hazard the gears always
shall be enclosed on exposed side.
36. The Operation of Driven Pulleys on line or counter-shafts which have no bearing between the
pulley and the end of the shaft shall not be used unless guides be provided which will prevent the belt
running oil: the pulley.
37. Runways.—If possible, overhead runways shall not be less than 20 inches in width and
equipped with a handrail. If runway is less than 20 inches in width, then same shall have two
handrails.   Access to these runways shall be in all cases by means of fixed ladders or railed stairways.
38. If a Passage or Runway passes between the strands of a belt, a substantially covered way
with railed sides or other adequate guard shall be provided.
39. If a Passage or Runway passes over a shaft or conveyor, a substantial covered way with sides
shall be provided.
40. Ladders.—All movable ladders (except substantial step-ladders) shall be provided with either
sharp points at the foot or wide rough surface feet or other effective means to prevent slipping. Ladders
for use in oiling overhead shafting, where necessary to rest same on the shafting, shall be arranged
to hook over the shafting.    Ladders shall extend at least 2 feet above top of landing.
41. Stairways and Handrails.—All stairways shall be equipped with handrails, and the rails shall
be kept smooth and free from nails and splinters.
42. Where the Stairway is not built next to a wall or partition, rails shall be provided for both
sides.
43. Floor Openings shall not be allowed without guard-rails and toe-boards without written
permission from the Board.
44 Floor Platforms and Wharves, etc., shall be kept in good repair and free from nails and other
debris.
45. Where timber, lumber, slabs, rock, or refuse is dropped from mill floor to lower floor or ground,
the space where it is dropped to shall have a railing so as to prevent any person from walking under
said opening.
46. Emery-wheels, Hoods, and Guards.—Emery-wheels used for grinding purposes shall be equipped
with a hood connected with an exhaust-fan or water system. A guard shall be provided as a part of
the hood-construction or in addition to the hood, which shall be strong enough to withstand the shock
of a bursting wheel. This guard shall be adjusted close to the wheel and extend over the top of the
wheel at a point 30 degrees beyond a vertical line drawn through the centre of the wheel. The
exhaust or -water system is not required on emery-wheels which are in general use by all employees
in common to touch up castings or tools.
47. Arbor Ends shall be guarded.
48. Speed of Wheel shall not exceed the speed guaranteed by the manufacturer or determined by
the Inspector.
49 Goggles shall be supplied for workmen while working at emery-wheels, or the guard shall be
equipped with an extension guard with steel frame and heavy glass to prevent sparks striking workmen
in the eyes.    Celluloid frame goggles shall not be used.
50. Passage-ways and Platforms.—Whenever it is possible, thoroughfares through basements shall
be avoided. If not possible to avoid this altogether, any passage-way that may have to be used as a
thoroughfare shall be properly protected and lighted.
51. Tanks.—The supports of all elevated tanks shall be accessible for the purpose of inspection.
Every tank over 7 feet deep containing liquids shall have a fixed ladder both inside and out. Rungs
shall have a clearance of at least 6 inches.
52. Hogs and Grinders shall be properly guarded, so that it is impossible for knots, chips, etc., to
fly out and injure workmen.
53. When it is necessary for workmen to pass under bearings, said bearings shall be equipped with
drip cups or pans securely fastened in position, so as to prevent oil from falling on floor.
54 Where iron or steel scrap is broken up with drop-weight, the said area shall be completely
enclosed on sides 8 feet high, to prevent injury to workmen from flying pieces.
Scaffolds.
1. Scaffolds in particular shall receive the most careful attention as to strength and rigidity.
2. All Scaffolds shall be kept in the best of repair and all broken or rotten timbers or boards
removed.
3. The Piling of excessive weights or concentrated loads which might cause collapse of the scaffold
shall at all times be avoided. Where scaffolds are over 10 feet above the ground or floor, they shall,
where practicable, be equipped with a railing and toe-boards or skirting-boards to prevent falling
material. On suspended scaffolds, where practicable, it shall be necessary to use wire rope for slings
and stirrups.
4. Floor Openings shall not be allowed without guard-rails and toe-boards, unless by permission
of Inspector.
Cranes.
Safety Standard for Cranes.
Factor of Safety for all parts other than gears, and complete hoist mechanism, 5.
Factor of safety for brakes, 15. U 20 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1919
Floorman to warn people out of the way.
Floorman or Hoistman to be provided with megaphone or gong.
Sawmills.
1. Log-hauls.— (a.) For chain-hauls the return strand of the chain in the basement shall be so
supported over passage-ways that in the event of its breaking it cannot fall on any one beneath.
(b.)  Unless clearly impracticable, every log-haul shall have at least one runway of sufficient width
to enable a person to stand clear of logs in the chute,
(c.)  Runway shall be equipped with handrail.
2. Log-deck.—Provisions shall be made at the mill end of the log-deck to afford substantial protection from rolling logs to the sawyer and other employees who may be engaged around the band or
circular mill.
3. Carriage.— (a.) When a log-deck is equipped with a steam-operated nigger, carriage-knees
shall be equipped with goose-necks or straight bar extending 18 inches or more above top of knee.
(6.) The seat or stand of the setter shall be fitted with an adequate protection to prevent his
coming in contact with the wall timbers or rafters where the clearance between the back of the setter's
seat and the wall timbers of the mill structure is less than IS inches.
(c.) There shall be placed at each end of the carriage-travel a substantial buffer-stop, preferably
equipped with spring or pneumatic buffers.
(d.) Means shall be provided for securely locking the sawyer's log-turning and carriage-control
levers.
4. Band-mills.— (o.)  All band-mills and band resaws shall be adequately protected when running.
(6.)   Every band-mill wheel  shall be  carefully inspected  at least once  a  month,  and  all  hubs,
spokes, rims, bolts, and rivets subjected to hammer tests and examined thoroughly.
(c.)  Every band-mill shali be equipped with a saw-catcher or rest of substantial construction.
(d.) Opening above band-mill into filing-room shall be boxed and covered, with a cross-bar to
lock same.
5. Band Resaws.— (a.) These shall have gears covered on feed-rolls and shall have a sufficiently
heavy board up in front to catch the blow in case saw should break.
(6.)  Guards shall be installed to cover both upper and lower wheels of all band resaws.
(c.)  The up-travel shall be completely guarded, and the down-travel shall be guarded with a shield
extending down to the guide.
6. Circular Saivs.— (a.) A screen of wire cloth or other suitable device shall be so placed on
circular-saw mills as to protect the sawyer from flying particles.
(6.) Circular-saw mills shall be equipped with safety guides, which will admit of adjustment
without the use of a wrench or other hand-tool.
7. Edgers.— (a.) There shall be a screen of wire cloth or wood both back and front of the edger
to prevent flying knots, chips, etc., or the top of the edger must be completely covered over.
(b.) Bench- or single-saw edgers shall be equipped with splitter and saw-guard.
8. Live Rolls.— (a.) All live-roll gears shall be guarded on the top, bottom, and sides.
(&.)   Driving-shafts of live rolls shall be guarded on top and sides.
9. Jump-saws.—Jump-saws shall be guarded below the top of the roll and a stop shall be provided
which will prevent any timber from being thrown off the live-roll case and on to the carriage-track.
10. Swing-saws.—All swing-saws shall have guard over front and safety stop to keep them from
swinging out too far.
11   Slashers.—Slasher-saws shall be guarded front and back.
12. Trimmers.—A guard shall be provided in front of all trimmer-saws unless the method of
control is such that no employee is required to stand in direct line with any saw while it is cutting,
and in the case of overhead trimmers, where the duties of employees require them to stand in the rear
of the trimmer-table, a guard shall be provided in the rear of the saws.
13. Conveyors.— (a.) When the return strands of conveyors operate within 7 feet of the floor,
there shall be a shallow trough provided of sufficient strength to carry the weight resulting from a
broken chain.
(6.) If the strands are over 7 feet from the floor, a means shall be provided to catch and support
the ends of the chain in the event of a break over passage-ways or runways.
Lath-mills.
Lath-bolters.—The gears and sprockets of lath-bolters shall be fully guarded and the feed-chains
shall be guarded to as low a point as the maximum height of the stock will permit.
Lath-machines.—The feed-rolls, saws, gears, sprockets, and chains of lath-machines shall be
guarded.
SlIINGLE-MILLS.
1. Vertical Shingle-saws.—With the exception of that portion against which the stock is fed,
the shingle-saws shall be guarded. To make provision for the clearing of waste from the saw, it is
permissible to leave the periphery of the saw open, provided that the guards shall extend not less
than 6 inches beyond the point of the saw-teeth.
2. Clipper-saw.— (a.)  A guard over saw shall be maintained at all times.
(6.)   Clipper-boards shall be equipped with finger-guards.
3. Shingle-jointers.—The front or cutting face of knife-type shingle-jointers shall be fully guarded,
with the exception of a narrow slot through which the shingles may be fed against the knives. 9 Geo. 5 Annual Report. U 21
4. Power-bolters.—These shall have spreader behind saw and railing of standard size around
carriage-track from front of saw.
5. Pinion-gears.—These shall be covered on all shingle-machines.
6. Drag-saws.—All gears and frictions on drag-saws shall be guarded.
7. Fly-trips.—Fly-trips shall not be used on shingle-machines.
Wood-working.
1. Machines with Knife-heads.—All knife-heads of wood-shapers and similar heads of other
machines not automatically fed shall be guarded, or forms shall be used in which the part operated
on is securely fastened. All knife-heads of wood-working machines which are automatically fed, sucb
as stickers, planers, etc., when exposed to contact, shall be guarded.
2. Wood-jointers.—All wood-jointers shall be equipped with cylindrical cutter-heads of safety
type. A suitable automatically adjusted guard shall be placed over the whole cutting-space in the
table.
3. Sanding-machines.—Disk Sanders shall have the circumference and back of the revolving head
thoroughly guarded.    Belt-sanders shall have both pulleys enclosed.
4. Jump-satvs.—To prevent any one from approaching too near saw from back, jump-saws shall
have railing.
5. Swing-saws.—All swing-saws shall have guard over front and safety stop to keep them from
swinging out too far.
6. Cut-off Saivs.—These shall rest in hood when idle.
7. Table Rip-saws.—These shall have spreader behind them and hood over top.
8. Revolving Cut-off Saws.—These shall be boxed beneath table so they cannot be reached without
removing cover.
9. Band-saws.— (a.) These shall have gears covered on feed-rolls and shall have heavy board up
in front to catch the blow in case saw should break.
(5.)  Guards shall be installed to cover both upper and lower wheels of all band-saws,
(c.)  The up-travel of all band-saws shall be completely guarded, and the down-travel shall be
guarded with a. shield extending down to the guide-rolls.
Laundries.
1. Flat-work Ironers.—A feed-roll guard shall be provided for all flat-work ironers and kept in
good working-order.
2. Collar and Cuff Ironers.—All collar and cuff ironers shall be equipped with guards in front
of the first rolls to prevent the hands of the operator from being drawn into the rolls.
3. Body-ironers.—Asbestos shield over heated roll shall be provided for all body-ironers, same to
act as a guard for upper portion of roll.    All body-ironers installed hereafter shall have finger-guards.
4. Handkerchief-mangle shall have guard for feed-roll. •
5. Extractors.—All extractors shall be provided with cover, same to be kept closed when machine
is in operation.
6. Washing-machines.—All washing-machines and tumblers shall be equipped with brakes and lock
or other device to prevent the inner cylinders from moving during the loading and unloading process.
7. Belting.—Whenever women are liable to come in contact with belting, it shall be guarded so as
to prevent it from attracting their dresses or hair.
8. Pulleys.—All pulleys and gears shall be guarded in such a manner as to prevent women's aprons
or dresses from being caught.
Elevators.
1. Elevator Catching Device.—All elevators, except direct-lift plunger elevators, shall be equipped
With an automatic device to catch the car in case it drops.
2. On catching devices to which speed-governors are attached, the dogs or clamps of such catching
device shall be attached to the under-side of the car platform.
3. All power-driven elevators shall be provided with automatic stops which shall stop them at
the lowest and at the highest landings, independent of the operating cable or other device.
4. Safety devices shall be tested for efficiency at least once a month, and a record thereof kept for
inspection by the Board or its Inspectors.
5. Freight-elevator Gates.— (Except with the consent of the Board.) At each landing gates shall
be self-closing and not less than 5% feet in height, except at top landing, where such gates shall not
be less than 3% feet in height. The bottom rail on all gates shall be' not more than 12 inches from
the floor.
6. In case local conditions do not permit of a gate 5% feet in height, a gate not less than 3%
feet in height may be used, provided such gate is placed not less than 12 inches from the platform of
the car, and provided that tell-tale chains not less than 4 feet long and not over 5 inches apart are
suspended from the edge of the platform in front of opening.
7. Elevator-shafts—Projecting Floors, etc.—All projections in shaft, such as floors, beams, sills,
unless guarded against by the car enclosure, shall be provided with smooth bevelled guards, fitted
directly under such projection so as to push any projecting portion of the body hack into the car
instead of crushing it. This bevelled guard shall be set at an angle of not less than 60 degrees with
the floor-level.
8. Freight-elevators—Enclosure of Car.— (Except with the consent of the Board.) All freight-
elevator cars shall be enclosed solidly on all sides except on entrance side to a height of not less than
6 feet.    On side of the operating cable sufficient space shall be allowed to operate the cable. U 22 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1919
9. All elevator-cars except sidewalk elevators shall be equipped with a covering over the top; this
to be made solid or of wire screen, and shall be not less than No. 10 wire and with mesh net over
1 inch. On freight-elevators the part of such covering which faces the opening to the shaft shall be
constructed with a section of not less than IS inches in width and extending the width of the opening
to the shaft. Such section shall be attached with hinges to the screen, so that it will rise when it
meets with an obstruction as the car descends.
10. Shipper-rope Locks.—All power-driven freight-elevators controlled by shipper-ropes shall be
provided with lock, so arranged that the car can be locked at each landing.    '
11. Machine Slack-cable Safety Device.—Slack-cable devices, which will stop the elevator machines
if the hoisting-cables slacken or break, shall be provided on all winding-drum power elevators having
a travel of over 15 feet.
12. Signals.—There shall be a bell located in every power-driven freight-elevator or in the shaft-
way where it may be heard on all floors, and so arranged as to be operated from each landing.
13. Mechanical Devices shall be kept clean and free from excessive grease and dirt.
14. Cables shall be renewed when, through broken wires, wear, undue strain, or other conditions
indicating deterioration, they are considered unsafe.
15. Overhead Sheaves.—Where the overhead machinery consists only of sheaves, a metal grating
or screen shall be placed under such sheaves and extend over the entire shaftway and give safe access
to the sheaves from the floor or roof of the building. The grating or screen shall be of sufficient
strength to sustain a load at centre of span of not less than 500 lb., with a factor of safety of 4. The
opening's in such gratings or screen shall not be wider than 1 inch.
Penalty.
Every person who contravenes any of the aforesaid regulations shall be liable to a penalty of $50.
Accident-prevention- measures have not only meant fewer injuries and consequently less
suffering and distress to workmen and their families, but has increased the efficiency of the
plant's operation, so economic gain has followed.
Organization.
The work of making operations safer and of showing employers and workmen how to
organize to prevent accidents, many of which are due to carelessness and therefore avoidable,
has been primarily one of the functions of the Board. It is recognized that preventable accidents
are generally attributed to carelessness, insufficient inspection by employer, inexperience, unsafe
practices, lack of safeguards, violation of instructions, indifference, defective equipment, poor
judgment, and»other indirect causes. The accident-prevention movement aims at minimizing
such preventable accidents. It would appear that in some of the larger plants this accident-
prevention campaign, assisted by efficient first-aid service, has resulted in reducing by 20 to 50
per cent, the number of accidents and attendant lay-offs that have occurred in past years. The
financial records of these plants appear to bear out the foregoing conclusion.
Experience has proved that the satisfactory conducting of an accident-prevention campaign
requires organization for carrying out three branches of work, as follows :—
(1.)  An organization that provides an enthusiastic and hard-working safety committee
or department, adequate inspection system, and hearty co-operation of officials and
workmen:
(2.)  A system of education that will assist all workmen to follow more careful, safe,
and proper methods of work and will keep them constantly alert to the need of
caution:
(3.)  A scheme of safety measures designed to eliminate as far as possible dangerous
conditions that have caused accidents or may cause them.
In this work the Board has had considerable assistance from workmen.    These workmen
have from time to time brought to the attention of the Board different plants and places of
employment where more efficient safety-work might be done, and also from time to time have
made valuable recommendations.    It is realized that the workmen who daily come in contact
with danger-zones are in a better position to give advice as to dangerous conditions than is an
Inspector who possibly cannot visit the plant more than twice a year.   Then, again, we feel that
it is the duty of the workman to co-operate with the Board, so as to make safe his particular
part of the plant or place of work not only for himself, but for his fellow-workman.    From the
above it can be seen that an essential element of accident-prevention work is the co-operation of
the workmen themselves.
The various Inspectors under the " Factories Act," " Boilers Inspection Act," " Metalliferous
Mines Inspection Act," the " Electrical Energies Act," and the " British Columbia Railway Act"
have made over 1,400 inspections for the Board during the past year, the result of which has 9 Geo. 5 Annual Report. U 23
been the installation of numerous mechanical safeguards and the improvement of working conditions from a safety standpoint. Their hearty, energetic, and careful work is much appreciated.
Employers throughout the past year, with one exception, have complied with the accident-
prevention regulations and other suggestions for accident-prevention measures. This excellent
co-operation has greatly facilitated the work and turned what would ordinarily be a disagreeable
task into a work of pleasure, which in the end cannot help but bear fruit from a humanitarian .
as well as an economic standpoint. Only in one case above outlined was it necessary to close
down a portion of the machinery of one plant until the proper safeguard had been installed.
The opposition to the instalment of this safeguard was, we believe, more a case of ignorance
than a deliberate desire to impede the work.
(e.)   STATISTICAL.
In presenting the following data collected by the Statistical Department during the year 1918,
it cannot be too firmly impressed upon the reader that the tables given do not intend to, and do
not, represent the amounts paid as compensation in the different classes during 1918 by the
AVorkmen's Compensation Board, neither do they deal with the total accidents occurring during
the said year. The information given is obtained only from the accidents which were finally
disposed of during 1918 irrespective of the year in which they occurred. It would be manifestly
impossible to give reliable figures upon any other basis, since the extent of a workman's disability
and the amount of the compensation to which he may be entitled cannot be estimated accurately,
but must be decided by lapse of time. Many of the accidents dealt with, therefore, occurred
during 1917, and conversely a large number of accidents which occurred during 1918 are not
included, final payments on same not having been made. It is felt necessary that this explanation should be made since otherwise misconceptions might arise, and wrong deductions be made,
were these facts not thoroughly understood.
In collecting information the Department lias endeavoured to make an exhaustive analysis
of the three primary classifications which are acknowledged to be vital to sound statistical
work, i.e.:—
(1.)  Industry: (3.) Nature of injury.
(2.)   Cause:
And whilst other interesting and doubtless useful information has been added, the main
tables are based upon the aforementioned classifications.
Table A deals with the amounts paid out for temporary total and permanent partial disability
and fatal accidents according to the particular industry in which they occurred. It will be
noticed that the lumbering industry is responsible for a large percentage of accidents dealt with.
Whilst it is true that lumbering is probably the principal industry of the Province, and that
the industry would in consequence have a large number of accidents, it is also true that a number
of these accidents could have been avoided by the exercising of a little more care upon the part
of the employers and employees. It would not be possible to enter into minute details covering
such accidents, but, to take a particular cause only, it might be mentioned that there have been
several fatal accidents caused by "the fastening of cables to dead trees, which trees, breaking
when a strain was put upon the cable, fell upon the workman standing underneath same. Had
a proper amount of care been taken in the selection of these trees, some of the accidents therefore
could undoubtedly have been avoided. It might reasonably be argued, however, that in both the
lumbering and ship-building industries (the latter being also responsible for a large percentage
of the accidents) the number of accidents was adversely affected by a war-time demand for
quick production, a shortage of skilled men, and a lack in many instances of the required
material, necessitating the use of second-hand goods or makeshifts.
Table 11 is a summary of all totals showii in Table A.
Table B deals with S,S41 temporary total disability accidents finalled during 1918. Taking
the various accidents in the respective classes, the following particulars are shown:—
(1.)  Workman's total wage loss: (5.)  Conjugal state :
(2.)  Average   compensation   paid   in'the (6.)  Average age:
different classes: (7.) Whether  the workman  was  receiving
(3.)  Average daily wage: other sick benefits:
(4.)  Sex: (8.) Nationality. D 24 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1919
Particularly noticeable features are the few women workers injured and the small percentage
of workmen who were receiving other benefits, and who would consequently have been receiving
no remuneration during the periods of disability were the " Workmen's Compensation Act" not
in operation.
Table B 2 is a summary of totals shown in Table B.
Table C shows that causes of the various accidents dealt with and the amounts paid out
for time lost, permanent partial disabilities, and fatals. It is of interest to note that included
in " Accidents not elsewhere classified" is compensation paid for an aeroplane accident, the
machine crashing in the City of Vancouver whilst the airman was testing out the aeroplane on
behalf of the Provincial Government. Doubtless such claims will become common in the future,
but to date this one is unique as far as this Board is concerned.
Table D shows the various parts of the workman's body which were injured in 8,S41
temporary total disability accidents, the nature of the injury, and the classes of industry in
which such injuries occurred.
Table E covers the permanent partial disability cases in which the workman lost one or
more members of the body, suffered an impairment of same, underwent the loss or impairment
of one of the five senses, or was facially disfigured. This is of special interest, since it is
possible to group the injuries fairly representatively and to thus ascertain the average amount
paid by the Board for a particular injury.
Chart 1 is drawn to show the respective proportions of S,S41 temporary total disability
accidents according to the various classes of industry in which they occurred, the total being
made up as follows:—
Ship-building    1,444
Logging     1,282
Sawmills        943
Coal-mining         932
Quarrying and mining      686
Railways        66S
Navigation and stevedoring        341
■Shingle-mills    '. ;      288
Smelting        276
Manufacturing         258
Pulp and paper      246
Building and construction         243
Wood-working         225
Metal-working         201
Canning and packing      1S6
Machine-shops and foundries      182
Teaming           CO
Municipalities        S4
Explosives and chemicals   : ;        79
Wholesalers           41
Fishing    .'        37
Miscellaneous           33
Provincial Government        26
Telegraph and telephone         22
Laundries           18
Janitors        10
Total      S.S41
Chart 2 shows the proportions of 8,841 temporary total disability accidents with regard to
the cause of such accidents, the figures being:—
Falling, objects      1,954
Handling heavy objects        924
Hand-tools         899
Slipping and stumbling        738
Carried forward     4,515 9 Geo. 5 Annual Report. TJ 25
Brought forward    4,515
Falls of persons    545
Power-working  machinery  515
Conveying apparatus   469
Flying objects    383
Vehicles and transportation    456
Mine-cars   371
Striking projections     353
Sawmill machinery  227
Electricity and heat   ■  215
Shingle-mill machinery  166
Poison  127
Transmission apparatus    112
Animals  102
Autos and motor-cycles    99
Explosions     73
Sharp   instruments     28
Prime movers  (steam and gas engines)     27
Shutting doors     21
Miscellaneous     14
Steam-pressure apparatus    13
Miscellaneous machinery    10
Total     8,841
Chart 3 is representative of the causes of 420 permanent partial disability (or the more
serious) accidents, segregated as follows:—
Power-driven machinery    SI
Shingle-mill     59
Falling objects     50
Sawmill machinery    45
Conveying apparatus     32
Flying objects   31
Handling heavy objects  25
Vehicles and transportation   19
Hand-tools     16
Transmission apparatus   12
Mine-cars     10
Slipping and stumbling    7
Falls of persons   7
Striking projections   6
Explosions     6
Prime movers  (steam and gas engines)    4
Electricity and heat    3
Miscellaneous machinery  3
Animals     2
Shutting doors    ■  2
Total     420
Interesting comparisons can be drawn by studying Charts 2 and 3 together, when it will be
found that there is a wide discrepancy in the percentages of causes covering temporary total
(or less serious) accidents and the permanent partial (or more serious) accidents. For example,
" Slipping and stumbling " was responsible for 738 accidents, or 8.33 per cent, of the first named,
whereas it only appears in Chart 3 as causing 1.66 per cent, of the permanent partial accidents.
Again, whilst " Shingle-mill machinery " was the cause of 1.87 per cent, of the lighter accidents,
the percentage in the more serious cases was 14.05 per cent., and so forth. U 20
Workmen's Compensation Board.
1919
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Married     4,765
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  8,841
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Italian     474
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German     32
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Chinese   577
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Workmen's Compensation Board.
1919
CONCLUSION.
Re Uniform Workmen's Compensation Legislation for Western Provinces.
During the month of September the Government appointed the Chairman of the Board to
meet the representatives of the Provinces of Manitoba and Alberta on the question of uniform
workmen's compensation legislation for the Western Provinces.
With the Honourable T. H. Johnson, Attorney-General representing Manitoba, and Mr. J. T.
Stirling, Chairman of the Alberta Board, representing Alberta, the conference met in the Board
offices in Vancouver on September 30th, 1918, and was continued on October 1st and 5th.
A thorough discussion of the different Acts was had, and while the representatives gained
a useful knowledge of the legislation of the other Provinces, it was found that to secure any
uniformity would involve radical changes, in some cases in the duration of payment to the
injured workmen or the dependents; in others, in the medical service; and again in the methods
of carrying the Accident Fund. The British Columbia representative feeling that the only means
of securing uniformity would be to " level up " the legislation of the other two Provinces to the
standard of the British Columbia Act, while Mr. Johnson and Mr. Stirling would naturally desire
that radical changes in their legislation should arise from local requirements, the results then
were that no definite conclusions were arrived at. But as the interprovincial character of many
industries, and also the movements of workmen from one Province to another, makes uniformity
in this type of legislation desirable, it was decided to submit the matter to the recently formed
Commission to secure uniformity of laws throughout the Dominion.
Health Insurance.
The recent war has proved that military success depends on industrial efficiency. This
efficiency is mainly the result of the mental and physical condition of the individual worker. 9 Geo. 5 Annual. Beport. .    U 47
Many of the large plants of the Atlantic Coast, recognizing the influence of health and home
conditions on the efficiency of the workman, have established health departments in charge of
competent physicians to care for the requirements of the workman and his family. The fact that
the tendency in this direction is rapidly extending, and in this age when competition is at its
peak, is the best possible evidence that from a financial standpoint the service is justified.
Briefly summarizing, a workman is at his maximum of efficiency when in good health and
when not depressed by fears arising from home conditions that he is unable to cope with. A value
cannot be placed on this factor, yet it is safe to assume that under these circumstances errors
of judgment that lead to waste in time and material and frequently injury to the workman
himself are at a minimum.
One of the greatest items of waste in modern society is the time lost and the reduction in
physical standard caused by disease that could either have been prevented or at least limited
by efficient medical service. Another factor is the loss sustained by a family when its support
is either withdrawn by death or a long siege of illness.
If our reasoning is correct, we are forced to the conclusion that the health of the workman
and his family, as well as his ability to meet the financial requirements of the home, are matters
of public concern.
Benefit societies have done and are doing good work in this direction, but the multiplicity
of effort, the lack of uniformity, and the absence of compulsion restricts their usefulness to a
narrow field. It would therefore seem that the problem can only be met by State control of
medical service and payments in case of sickness or death similar to accident insurance.
Fortunately for those who take this view, the duty of the State in these matters has already
been decided in England in favour of the workman. Several of the Eastern States are paying
particular attention to this subject. We early realized the necessity of health insurance, and
at every opportunity when addressing the different organizations endeavoured to direct public
attention in its favour. It is, we believe, a matter for congratulation that the Subject has
already been brought to the notice of the Legislative Assembly of this Province.
Our interest in this question is particularly emphasized by the fact that our work brings
us constantly in contact with these matters. For instance, during the first year's operation of
the Act we repeatedly found cases where the workman did not obtain medical service, the
invariable excuse being that he hoped to avoid the expense, or that he felt that he could not pay
for it, wrongly believing that he would be responsible therefor.
In the closing months of the last year we have been compelled to reject a number of claims
arising out of the influenza epidemic, in which mothers with small children made application for
pensions. One case was particularly painful. When informed that we must reject her claim,
the mother of eight small children asked us in desperation: "What am I to do?" We were
unable to answer. She withdrew from the Board room accompanied by two of her frightened
children clinging to her skirts, and one in her arms, to answer the question as best she could.
These experiences also compel us, at the risk of being censured for going outside of our
sphere, to call attention to the enormous wastage of life, health, and happiness through failure
or inability to obtain medical attention. An example of the latter was presented to us early
in January last, when a widow with four children, having no other resources but her pension
of $40 per month, inquired as to whether the Act permitted her medical attention for herself and
family. In such a case medical services could only be paid for out of the funds which were
much needed for food and clothing.
The full import of this situation does not present itself to those resident in the centres of
population, and where medical charges are at a minimum. In the outlying sections of the
Province, where mileage is added to the medical fee, the matter is much more serious. If we
compute the costs of cases of delay in calling, or absence of medical attention, in loss of work,
in lowered vitality, in the failure to secure early isolation in infectious diseases, and in premature
deaths, we cannot avoid coming to the conclusion, from the humanitarian as well as the economic
standpoint, that the time has now arrived when there should be State health insurance.
During the year, as in the previous years, the members of the Board as a body, in pairs
or singly, addressed labour bodies, commercial organizations, Boards of Trade, Medical Associations, Hospital Associations and the Boards thereof, as well as fraternal organizations, explaining
the Act's requirements and soliciting co-operation from them as well as the public.    The members U 48 Workmen's Compensation Board. 1919
of the Board have at all times held themselves in readiness to address any body that was interested in the Act's requirements, and to take up with that body or any individual members or
parties interested in the work any question upon which they sought a better understanding.
An Information Bureau is maintained at the Board offices in the Board of Trade Building
at Vancouver, so those desirous of obtaining information may do so, or if unable to appear in
person a letter would receive immediate and courteous attention. Copies of the Act or the
Board's report or any other of the Act's requirements may be received for the asking.
During the year many thousands of circulars have been sent out from the offices to.the
different branches of industry, the different employers, to the Medical Associations and members
thereof, in an endeavour to clear up those misapprehensions that would appear to arise from
time to time.
The Board desires to hear public testimony to the excellent, whole-hearted, and efficient
service rendered by the various members of the staff in the energy and care of the work passing
through their hands, as well as their courteous treatment of the public, on which, to a great
extent, depends the success of the work.
Respectfully submitted.
E. S. H. WINN,
Chairman.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by William H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty,
1019.

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