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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE YEAR 1915. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1916

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT
OF   THE
PEOYINCIAL MUSEUM
OF
NATURAL HISTORY
FOR THE TEAR 1915.
THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PRDIMCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE  LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by William H. Ccllin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1916.  To His Honour Frank Stillman Barnard,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The undersigned respectfully submits the Annual Report of the Brovincial Museum of
Natural History for the year 1915.
THOMAS TAYLOR,
Provincial Secretary.
Provincial Secretary's Office,
March 11th, 1916.  Provincial Museum of Natural History,
Victoria, B.C., March 17th,  1916.
The Honourable Thomas Taylor,
Provincial Secretary, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour, as Director of the Provincial Museum of Natural History, to
lay before you the Report for the year ending December 31st, 1915, covering the activities of
the Museum.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
FRANCIS KERMODE,
Director.  PLATE   I.
John Cochrane. Sir Richard McBride. K.C.M.G.; A. A. Freeman. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt,
Hon. 1). M. Eberts, K.C., and F. Kermode.  PROVINCIAL   MUSEUM   REPORT
FOR THE YEAR 1915.
Since the Report of 1914 considerable progress has been made in the gathering of
specimens of natural history of the Province. Most of these specimens, like the material that
has been secured in recent years, will have to be placed in storage, as it is impossible now to
place any more material on exhibition owing to the fact that the collection has outgrown the
present building. The subjects which are best represented and which have been as a whole
most completely classified, and can therefore be most advantageously exhibited for the benefit
of the public, are, namely: Anthropology, mammalogy, ornithology, oology, ichthyology,
entomology, and botany. In the several branches of these subjects the collections are already
important and extensive, including a number of type specimens, and arrangements are under
way for valuable additions. While it is a primary duty of the Museum to preserve and
exhibit specimens confided to its care, the importance of the collection does not rest there, nor
upon the number of specimens assembled and their value in currency, but upon the use to
which they are put. From an educational point of view the collections are of great value to
those persons who are interested in studying the natural history of this Province. The
specimens in the exhibition halls have been carefully labelled, and there is also a large study
series in the several branches in the annex at the rear of the Museum Building. These study
series are available, on application to the Director, to those persons who wish to consult them.
This annex is only a frame building and not fire-proof, therefore every precaution is taken to
ensure its safety, as it contains many valuable specimens that it would be impossible to replace,
especially in the branch of anthropology. It also contains a large study series of bird-skins
for which moth-proof drawer-cases were made during the summer. During the early part of
the year the botanical collection which has been in the Department of Agriculture was
transferred to the Museum, as it was thought that this collection would be more accessible to
the general public for study were it placed in conjunction with the Museum collection which
was started in the year 1898, and which has been greatly added to by the Department
collectors in the last few years.
A great deal of attention was given during the past year to the proper labelling of specimens and the sorting of collections preparatory for storage. This work was principally carried
on after the close of the collecting season and entails considerable work. A number of
specimens in the several branches of natural history have to be sent to authorities on the
different subjects to be identified and verified. This work is done gratis for the Province by
larger institutions principally in the United States, who have a large staff of scientists with
whom the Director keeps in touch. The collections of the Provincial Museum are developing
so much that before long our scientific staff will have to be increased by having custodians in
charge of some of the most important branches of natural history, more particularly if the
Museum is to be expected to carry on educational work. A great deal more interest is being
taken in the flora and the fauna of the Province by school-teachers, especially, during the
session of the summer school which is held in Victoria. The Museum is always ready to
assist visiting teachers in any way possible, and from remarks that have been expressed, this
seems to be thoroughly appreciated. It is gratifying to see that the number of teachers who
bring their scholars to visit the Museum for nature-study is increasing, also the interest taken
by the children, some coming from the surrounding districts near Victoria.
A larger number of persons visited the Museum this year than during the past year.
This, no doubt, was due to the Panama-Pacific Exposition being held in San Francisco, California. Had it not been for the terrible European war at present in progress, no doubt the
number of visitors would have been nearly doubled. One of the most notable visitors to the
Museum this year was Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, who passed through Victoria on Sunday,
July 18th, and visited the Museum accompanied by the Premier, Sir Richard McBride,
K.C.M.G., the Honourable Thomas Taylor, and the Honourable D. M. Eberts, Speaker of the
Legislative Assembly. The party was shown over the exhibits by the Director, and many
complimentary remarks were made by Colonel Roosevelt, which were greatly appreciated. N 8 Provincial Museum Report. 1916
The Provincial Museum wishes to extend grateful thanks to the following gentlemen who
have greatly assisted with identifications in their respective branches of biology :—
Identification of Birds and Mammals.—The Biological Survey, United States National
Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., and personally the following scientists :
Messrs. H. W. Henshaw, Chief of the Biological Survey; E. W. Nelson, Assistant Biologist,
Vernon Bailey, E. A. Preble, A. H. Howell, and Jackson; also Mr. IL C. Oberholser,
who kindly identified a large series of bird-skins.
Identification of Entomological Specimens.—The Biological Survey, United States National
Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., and personally the following : Messrs.
0. H. Townsend. Curator of Entomology, J. C. Crawford, R. P. Currie, Nathan Banks, Knab,
S. A. Rohwer, and E. A. Schwarz ; also Doctors Barnes and McDunnough, of Decatur, 111. ;
Professor Raymond C. Osburn, of Columbia University; Mr. F. H. Wolley Dod, of Calgary,
Alberta; Mr. L. W. Swett, Boston, Mass.; and Mr. E. H. Blackmore, Victoria, B.C.
Thanks are due also to Professor John Macoun, Naturalist of the Geological Survey,
Ottawa; Mr. J. M. Macoun, Curator of the Herbarium, Ottawa; Mr. Lawrence M. Lambe,
Vertebrate Palaeontologist, Ottawa, and C. F. Newcombe, M.D., Victoria.
Notes on bird migrations and observations have been received from the following : J. E.
H. Kelso, M. D., and W. B. Johnson, Lower Arrow Lakes; A. II. Palmer, New Westminster;
W. R. Carter, Deputy Game Warden, Alberni; Rev. A. C. Maekie, Vernon ; J. A. Munro,
Okanagan Landing; and W. A. Newcombe.
The Museum has been pleased to loan specimens and data in the different branches to
authorities in the larger institutions throughout the East for the purpose of assisting specialists
in their work of monographing several species of mammal and bird life. Ornithological
specimens have been loaned to Mr. P. A. Taverner, Ottawa, and to Mr. J. H. Fleming, Toronto;
also to the Biological Survey and Smithsonian Institute, Washington, birds and mammals ; and
a large collection of grizzly bear skulls to Dr. C. Hart Merriam for study and comparison, to
assist him with his work on the " Grizzly Bears of North America," to be published under the
Harriman Alaska Series of the Smithsonian Institution.
Exploration.
During the year the Director arranged for three men to engage in field-work during
the summer in widely separated districts, so as to cover as much territory as possible, and
also to make the appropriation which is made by Legislature for this purpose go as far as
possible, get results, and yet practise the strictest economy, which is necessary in the administration of this Department at the present time. These men were instructed to collect specimens
in all branches of biology and in botany. Their respective reports show that they were
successful, and I think the Museum has been more greatly benefited by this arrangement than
by sending all the collectors out in one party.
Mr. E. M. Anderson, of the Museum staff, was stationed at Sahtlam, about eleven miles
from Duncan, Vancouver Island, for the months of May, June, and July, and reports as
follows :—
" Camp was established from May Sth to July 29th in an old log cabin built on a side-hill
close to the Cowichan River and situated midway between the town of Duncan and Cowichan
Lake. The latter is noted as a splendid fishing and hunting resort. The lake, being easily
reached both by railway and stage, induces many sportsmen to spend a few days' sport during
the open season; this fact also applies to -the Cowichan River at certain times of the year.
Sahtlam Valley varies from two to six miles in width, with thickly timbered mountains (chiefly
Douglas fir with considerable cedar along its base), ranging from 2,000 to 3,000 feet above sea-
level, whose general trend is to the north-west, forming a continuous chain the whole length of
the Island, with a gradual decline at both ends ; the highest snow-clad peaks attain an altitude
of over 7,000 feet. The bottom lands, through which the Cowichan River flows, are mostly
covered with willow, cottonwood, alder, fir, and cedar. Clearings and roads intercept many
parts, which otherwise would have been difficult to collect in. Regarding weather conditions,
considerable rain fell during May and the first week of June, after which the weather became
more settled. From July 1st to the 6th it became very hot, the thermometer registering 86
degrees in the shade; however, the heat soon modified and most delightful weather was
encountered until my departure from the district on July 29th. Most of my time afield was
devoted chiefly to the collecting and preserving of birds and mammals, therefore allowing but 6 Geo. 5 Provincial Museum Report. N 9
few hours daily for the collecting of botanical and entomological specimens and a few fishes,
reptiles, and batrachians. The total number of specimens, including duplicates, are as follows:
Mammals, 53; birds, 209; nests and eggs, 11 ; plants, 35 species; insects, 1,382; fishes, 17;
reptiles, 29; batrachians, 11."
Mr. J. A. Munro, who collected in the Okanagan District, carried on excellent field-work,
and reports as follows :—
"The field-work extended from May 1st to August 31st. With the exception of a week
spent near Nahun, on the west side of Okanagan Lake, work was confined to a small area in
the vicinity of Okanagan Landing. Okanagan Lake is at an altitude of 1,140 feet, and at
this point is enclosed between low mountains. The timbered portions close to the lake are
open and park-like, with yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa) predominating. Towards the summits
the growth of timber is heavier, with Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia) in the majority.
Deciduous trees, principally quaking-aspen (Popidus tremuloides), western birch (Betula
occidentalis), black haw (Cratcegus douglasii), bitter cherry (Prunus emarginata), etc., are
confined to the creek-bottoms and to certain w7ell-defined draws in the mountain-side. On
both sides of the lake are large areas of open range land, with many alkaline lakes and
sloughs, most of them surrounded by a heavy growth of deciduous trees. This section proved
a very productive collecting-ground. The muddy shores of the lakes were frequented by
numbers of migrating waders, and several species of ducks were found breeding, notably
Barrow's golden-eye (Clangula islandica) and buffle-head (Charilonetta albeola). During the
past fifteen years the greater part of the arable land has been brought under cultivation, and
with the protection and the increased food-supply afforded, there has been a marked increase
in the number of summer birds. This is somewhat offset by the lessening numbers of breeding water-fowl following the drainage of the sloughs and marshes. The district described lies
entirely in the Transition Zone and can be taken as typical of the Okanagan country. The
months of May and June and early part of July were unusually wet for this region, there
being weeks of almost constant rain, which interfered with field-work to some extent. Birds
were shy and inactive and many transient species were late in arriving. This period of wet
weather was followed by six weeks of dry heat that parched the vegetation on the hills and
dried up many of the small lakes and sloughs. The week from June 7th to 14th was spent
near Nahun, on the west side of Okanagan Lake, eighteen miles south of Okanagan Landing.
Here a settler's cabin was rented, on a wide flat 2,000 feet above the lake, at an approximate
altitude of 3,200 feet. This district lies in the Canadian Zone, as characterized by the dense
growth of lodge-pole pine (Pinus murrayana) and western larch (Larix occidentalis).
Englemann's spruce (Picea engelmanni) and balsam fir (Abies lasiocarpd) occur in isolated
clumps. Such typical Canadian forms as olive-sided flycatcher (Nuttallornis borealis) and
Columbian chickadee (Penthestes hudsonius columbianus) were noted. In some places the line
between the Transition and Canadian Zones is very sharply defined, the yellow pine and
Douglas fir ending abruptly at the summit, to be succeeded on the level top by lodge-pole pine
and western larch. The creek-bottoms are heavily wooded with quaking-aspen (Populus
■tremuloides) and mountain-birch (Betula fontinalis), both of which grow to great size.
Following is a summary of the material collected during the four months of field-work : 471
birds, representing 130 species; 21 sets of eggs ; 126 mammals; 1,900 insects ; 17 batrachians ;
9 reptiles; 40 fishes ; and 430 plants. Particular attention was paid to the collecting of
moulting birds and juvenals in their various plumages, much of this material being new to the
Museum collection."
Mr. C. B. Garrett collected in East Kootenay District, in the vicinity of Cranbrook, and
reports as follows :—
" Field-work was started on May 5th in the district surrounding Cranbrook, which is
situated about the centre of the East and West Kootenays, but at the more southerly end.
The district is hilly or mountainous and runs from 2,900 to 9,600 feet in altitude. Land is
not at all highly cultivated, except in very small areas, and is chiefly covered with coniferous
trees. Occasionally one runs across small patches of poplars which are found chiefly in the
river and creek-bottoms, accompanied by willow and other smaller shrubs. Creeks are
numerous from the mountain-slopes, and numbers of sloughs and small open lakes occur
throughout the district. Owing to the fact that the land is uncultivated and therefore offers
no special attraction to them, the birds occur in very small numbers to a species, although the
number of species is fully up to the average of other districts. From a collector's standpoint
the weather was most disappointing, for out of the ninety-two days (collecting was carried on N 10 Provincial Museum Report. 1916
from May 5th to the end of July) it rained on forty-eight days. Material collected is as
follows: Birds, 291 specimens, covering 81 varieties; mammals, 107 specimens, representing
16 species; 43 sets of eggs; 1,627 insects of various orders; also a collection of botanical
specimens."
(Note.—It is proposed by the Director, at some future date, to publish separate
pamphlets on the birds and mammals collected in these several districts.)
Anthropology.
Very little has been done in the way of collecting anthropological material during the
past year, owing to the fact that no appropriation was made for expenditure in this department of the Museum. However, a few minor purchases were made, which, with a number of
small donations, have increased the collection to a certain extent. Following is a short
description of the several objects added to the anthropological collection :—
Salishan.
Cylindrical stone, pointed at both ends ('? whetstone), Dallas Road, Victoria.    Presented
by Arthur Warren.
Perforated anchor-stone, Dallas Road,  Victoria.    Presented by Sir John Jackson Co.,
Ltd., per A. L. Elgee, OE.
Perforated stone sinker,  torpedo-shaped  (i for salmon-trolling),  Brentwood  Bay,  V.I.
Presented by A. Shotbolt.
Dene.
Packing-basket, edged with quills.    Purchased from F. D. Marriott.
Kwakiutl.
Skull, sugar-loaf shaped, from the beach, Cape Scott, V.L    Presented by C. J. Wilson.
Stone adze or slave-killer and child's toy of cedar-bark matting, Quatsino.    Purchased
from Jum Killchait.
Haida.
Carved stone maul of white quartzite, Graham Island, Q.C.I.    Presented by Pte. G. S.
Mayer, 48th Battalion, C.E.F.
Carved slate totem-poles (7) and carved slate dish.    Purchased from D. Cochrane, Q.C.I.
(Note.—Stories accompanying these slate carvings are appended to this list.)
.Tsimshian.
Lynx-head mask, Metlakatla.    Purchased from C. C. Perry.
Kootenaian.
Sling pouch, fringed, embroidered in beads in front, two-arrows design, blue on white
ground.
Pair of moccasins, top beaded, native design.
Basket.
Pouch, front all beaded, two-hands design.
Large abalone, perforated.
Nez Perce bag.
Wampum necklace, white and green.
Head-scratcher.
Fish-hook.
Stone pipe.
Two eye-teeth of 1 on skin string.
The above Kootenaian specimens purchased from Mrs. J. Gill. H
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Stories accompanying Slate Totem-poles from Queen Charlotte Islands.
No. 2866. Nahnasimgh was a mighty warrior ; one day when his wife was on the beach,
the King of the Whales saw her and carried her off. Nahnasimgh followed them to the whale
country, where he succeeded in rescuing her, but was hotly pursued by the whales. The
fugitives ran until they met the Giant Mud Crane, who hid them in his breast feathers.
When the whales came to the crane they asked him if he had seen any one, and he said that
he had not. So the whales went another way and Nahnasimgh and his wife went home and
lived happily ever after. Moral: It is quite right to tell lies when your friends are in trouble.
(Pole No. 2866 shows the Crane, Nahnasimgh, his wife, with the lip-jewel and bracelets of a
lady of quality, and the Whale.)
No. 2867. Shows the wife of Nahnasimgh being carried off, holding the whale's back
fin.
No. 2868. The Beaver's Lake. Once upon a time all the fish belonged to the Beaver,
who kept them in a lake behind his house. The Raven (who made the world out of what he
could steal and became the ancestor of the Haida Indians) wanted the fish, so one day he
dressed up as a poor man, met the beaver one evening, and asked for a night's lodging. The
Beaver had just come home from a gambling-feast, and was feeling pretty good, so he took
him in. After supper the Beaver went to sleep and the Raven stole out of the back door,
picked up the lake in his beak and flew off with it. He gave it to the Indians. Moral: It is
quite right to steal for. your friends. (No. 2868 shows the Raven dressed as a poor man, then
the Raven carrying the lake with the fishes in it, and the Beaver.)
No. 2869. The Bear saw the above, and told it. The Beaver had to take to chewing a
stick for a living, and has done so ever since. The face on the tail seems to indicate that the
Beaver had human intelligence at that time.
No. 2870. The Raven and the Fisherman. The Raven when he was hungry used to
dive down under the water and steal the bait off the Fisherman's hook. Once he got the hook
caught in his beak, and the Fisherman, thinking he had caught a fish, pulled in the line so
hard that the Raven's beak broke off. The Fisherman was much astonished to find the
Raven's beak on his hook. As for the Raven, he had to go with his face hidden until his
beak grew again.    Moral: The best of us get into trouble sometimes.
No. 2871. Illustrates the story of the Raven's Midnight Feast. The Raven was visiting
some Indians. In the night when all were asleep, except a half-human-half-whale creature
who saw and told the story, he stole out and soon came back with something under his wing.
He scraped the fire aside and dropped his burden in the hot ashes. When it went off with a
"pop" he ate it. Then he went out again and did the same thing. This happened many
times. In the morning it was found that all the other inhabitants of the village had lost one
eye each.    Moral:    Feed your guests well so that they won't get hungry in the night.
No. 2872. The Raven in Disguise. One time the Raven disguised himself as a woman,
and came to live with the Indians. After living with them for some time they saw him eating
fish on the beach, so they recognized him and he flew away. (No. 2872 identifies the Raven
as the great one, by showing his partner, the Eagle, who could eat a whale.)
No. 2873. Kholqu'haludi. Kholqu'haludi was a little boy who was always late for his
meals. One day he came in too late for dinner and his mother would give him nothing but a
piece of dried salmon. He went down to the beach to eat it, and dipped it into the water to
soften it. The King of the Salmon saw him and carried him off and turned him into a salmon.
The next year when the salmon began to run, Kholqu'haludi's father caught a fine big fish in
the stream and took it home, to eat. When he started to cut its head off, just inside the skin
his knife struck copper. He remembered that the boy had worn a copper ring around his neck,
so he took the salmon outside and laid it on the ground under the drip of the roof. As the
water fell on it the salmon skin sloughed off, revealing Kholqu'haludi inside. The boy grew
up to be a great medicine man, but he always had a sore neck where his father had started to
cut the salmon's head off. (This plate shows Kholqu'haludi emerging from the salmon skin,
holding in his hand the short wand used by Haida medicine men.)
Mammals.
The collection of mammals on the first floor is now so crowded that it is impossible to
adequately display them. It has been the intention to carry on the work started several years
ago, in grouping the different species and displaying them with painted backgrounds illustrating NT 12 Provincial Museum Report. 1916
the natural surroundings which they inhabit, but this has been postponed indefinitely until
more space is acquired, as it takes considerable space to do this class of work. The DejDart-
ment already has in storage a large number of mammals for this work, namely : Moose (Alee
americanus), three species of caribou (Rangifer montanus, osborni, and dawsoni), mule-deer
(Odocoileus hemionus), white-tail deer (Odocoileus virgultus), panthers (Felis oregonensis), wildcats (Lynx fasciatus), grizzly bear (Ursus horribilis), gray wolves (Canis occidentalis), sea-lions
(Eumetopias stelleri), and many others. The Department was also successful in securing
another specimen of the white bear (Ursus kermodei), a male in perfect fab pelage, killed on
Gribble Island in L. 53, 129 W.L. A large collection of small mammals is being studied at
present, and a number of specimens representing many species are being prepared for exhibition.
This latter branch has not been very well represented until recently; it is difficult with a
small staff to pay particular attention to all branches of museum-work, and the public does
not take as keen an interest in small mammals as in the display of big game.
The Director had a very fine collection of heads of the big game of the Province mounted
for exhibition in the offices of the Agent-General in the British Columbia Building, Regent
Street, London, England.
Investigation of Reported Disease in the Black-tail or Columbian
Coast Deer (Odocoileus columbianus).
For a number of years the deer of Texada Island have been reported by settlers and
others in the vicinity of Vananda to be infested with some disease. The Director, accompanied
by Drs. S. A. K. White and Ansen Knight, Veterinary Surgeons of the Live Stock Branch,
Department of Agriculture, undertook to carry on an investigation in regard to this reported
disease. In November, 1915, a trip was taken to Vananda, Texada Island, were three deer
were secured for examination. Upon being dissected, two of these animals were found to be
in a healthy condition; in the third, however, the liver was found to be badly affected by a
fluke-worm. Settlers of this Island report that about every third deer is affected in this
manner with what they term " hard or black livers." This term comes, of course, from the
black fluid that is found in the parts affected by the fluke. They also advise that numbers of
deer are killed and never taken from the bush, being considered unfit for food. Later, on
November 22nd, the Director received from Mr. W. A. Embleton, of Vananda, another liver
which was in a very bad condition ; this was taken from a smaller deer than the one which
we had dissected while there. This liver was forwarded to Dr. S. H. Hadwen, D.V.Sc,
Dominion Pathologist at Agassiz, for examination. Dr. Hadwen reported on December 2nd
that he had taken from this liver eighteen large flukes which he identified as Fasciola magna,
two of which he sent to Dr. Ransom, of Washington, for further determination. This appears
to be the first actual record of this parasite having been discovered in the Coast deer; the
particular fluke being known in sheep raised on the Fraser River as Fasciola hepatica. Later,
in January, 1916, another trip was arranged to Texada for further knowledge regarding this
fluke. Drs. WThite, Hadwen, and Mr. Whittaker, of the Museum, composed the party which
was taken to the island by the launch " R. V. Skinner," kindly loaned for the occasion by the
Forestry Department. On this trip only one deer was secured, and this was found to be in a
healthy condition, with the exception of three tapeworms. (These resembled Cestoidea tenui-
collis.    Dr. Hadwen is having this verified.)
It is impossible at the present time, until further investigation is carried on, to make any
suggestions as to how to get rid of these parasites.
Destruction of Sea-lion (Eitmetopias stelleri).
On April 8th, 1915, the attention of this Department was called to the fact that the
Fisheries Department of the Federal Government at Ottawa had set aside the amount of
$6,500 for bounties of $2 each to be paid on the lips of sea-lions killed along the Coast of
British Columbia. The Director of this Department immediately took the matter up with the
Honourable J. D. Hazen, Minister of Fisheries at Ottawa, asking that the payment of bounties
for the killing of sea-lions on this Coast be suspended, and suggested that, as there was a
diversity of opinion on this matter, a thorough investigation be made in regard to the life-
history of this mammal by the Ottawa Fisheries Department, not only having fisheries experts
on the Board, but other biologists. Later Mr. F. J. Desbarat, Deputy Minister of Naval Service
at Ottawa, wrote that it had been arranged to have the Biological Board of Canada investigate PLATE  TIL
Fig. 1. Liver of Black-tail or Columbian Coast Door (Odocoileus columbianus), showing the effect of liver-fluke (Fasciola magna Bassi). Note
enlarged ducts, and  fluke cut across at point  " x."
Fig. 2. Measurement of oggs of Fasciola magna.
Length,  140 mlcro-mm. ; width,  100 micro-mm.
(See  page  12.)
Average  length  of Fasciola  magna*
45.4 mm. ; width, 18.5 mm.  6 Geo. 5
Provincial Museum Report.
N 13;
this matter during the summer, and that to this end a special committee had been formed.
Dr. A. B. McCallum, who is Secretary of the Board, arrived in Victoria towards the end of
July to make arrangements for a meeting of this special committee, which is composed of
C. F. Newcombe, M.D., Chairman ; Dr. McLean Fraser, of the Biological Station at Departure
Bay; and W. Hamar Greenwood, Esq., of Vancouver, Secretary ; to carry on investigations
for the Biological Board throughout the summer. Until this special committee hands in a.
report of their findings it is impossible to say what will be done in the matter.
It will be seen by the following data received from Mr. F. H. Cunningham, Chief
Inspector of Dominion Fisheries, New Westminster, dated August 10th, the amount of
damage and the ruthless destruction that has been carried on at the sea-lion rookeries on the
Coast:—
Bounties paid.
•
Year.
Hair-seals.
Year.
Sea-lions.
No.
Amount.
No.
Amount.
1913
2,237
750
2,978
$7,829.50
750.00
1913	
1914	
2^875
1914	
1915
1915	
Totals	
$5,750.00
Totals
$8,579.50
2,875
$5,750.00
Further information was received from Mr. J. A. Pauline at Bella Bella, to whom the-
Director wrote, having heard of certain persons in that vicinity killing large numbers for-
bounty. Quoting from Mr. Pauline's letter : " The largest lot we received here were shot by
Jno. Wootten and Lome Williams (the last man is an Indian), they shot three days and
brought to Bella Bella over 1,600 noses, and killed easily half that amount to get on the-
islands, which were lost in deep sea and not recovered. Below is a list of those who worked
seals and sea-lions this year :—
" Sea-lions.—Killed outside of Price Island, on rocks, Indian of China Hat killed to show
noses 123, and half the number sunk.
" Hair-seals.—Bella Bella Indians were after hair-seals, and killed for money about 639 ;.
number killed would be easily 1,000.
"J. Wootten and Indian shot at Queen Charlotte Sound, in the groups you name (Sea
Otter Group, Pearl Rocks, and Watch Reef), and in three trips, costing $78 in launch got,
cheques as follows : $40, $684, $98, $2,348 ; total $3,170."
On making further inquiries, I find that one man presented a claim for 1,173 sea-lions
from one rookery; of this number, 800 representing about 75 per cent, were pups probably
not more than a few days old. The pups are born about the middle of June. There are only/
three main rookeries along the Coast, all north of Vancouver Island and south of the southern-
end of the Queen Charlotte Islands—namely, Cape St. James Group, Sea Otter Group, and
the Cape Scott Islands. (See Report of Commissioner of Fisheries of British Columbia, 1913,.
page 131, "Sea-lions on the Coast of British Columbia," by Dr. C. F. and W. A. Newcombe.)
I am thoroughly convinced that placing a bounty of $2 per lip on each sea-lion taken will
in a very short time rid our Coast of this life entirely, as they are mammals which do not
migrate far north and south along the Coast, but are to be found on hauling-out and feeding
grounds not far distant from the main rookeries. I know from personal experience, having
visited some of these rookeries, that if a man or men go there with the intention of killing
these mammals for bounties, that for every matured specimen they shoot and secure they will
lose at least six, as the animals when shot fall off the rocks and disappear almost immediately
beneath the surface of the water and seldom float. Further, they are easily frightened off the
rocks and come within 30 or 40 yards of the boat, roaring constantly, and are an easy mark
for an ordinary shot. Landings can be made on almost all of the rookeries in moderate
weather and the poor puppies slaughtered indiscriminately. If it is found that the sea-lions-
do the damage which the canners say, it would be far better for their numbers to be kept N 14 Provincial Museum Report. 1916
down by the Government under Government supervision, so that there will be no unwarranted
waste of life. True it is that at the present time they do not stand very high in commercial
value, but there is a company in Vancouver which in the year 1914 undertook to go out to
Pearl Rocks and Watch Reef, in the Sea Otter Group, about seven miles south-west of Cape
Calvert, in Queen Charlotte Sound, with the object of starting a new industry on this Coast.
It appears that this firm did not make a very great success of their venture on accouut of
starting rather late in the year, and experiencing very heavy weather; but the leather made
from tbe sea-lion skins has been pronounced by experts to be excellent glove material. It
seems a pity to clear out these herds, which at some time, with a certain amount of protection
and a little judgment, could possibly be made of great commercial value.
One further point in this matter I would like to mention is the fact that possibly the
sea-lions of the Coast of British Columbia should really come under the jurisdiction of the
Provincial Government, being not migratory in their habits, and being born and reared on the
islands along our shores.
I might also state that this matter has been taken up by Mr. Madison Grant, Chairman
of the. New York Zoological Society, who happened to be visiting in Victoria last July, and
made inquiries regarding a report in a New York press of the bounties paid on sea-lions along
this Coast. Mr. Grant was surprised to hear of this being a fact, after the investigation which
had been carried on some years ago by Professor L. D. Dyche, of the University of Kansas,
under the Washington Biological Department, regarding the sea-lions of the California Coast.
(See B-eport of the United States Fisheries Commission, 1902, part 28, page 111.) Mr. Grant
also remarked that the matter of the Steller sea-lions would be taken up by the Zoological
Society this winter.
Very little has been written with regard to the life-history of this mammal, and it is hoped
that the investigation will be carried on until definite conclusions are formed.
Birds.
The bird collection displayed in the exhibition cases on the second floor of the Museum
received attention during the early part of the year, being relabelled and brought up to date
as nearly as possible, with the correct data on each label. A large number of specimens were
added to fill in gaps in several of the families, particularly birds that had beeu collected in
Atlin during the past two seasons, and which were new to the Museum collection. During
the past collecting season Mr. E. M. Anderson, of the Museum staff, added 209 bird-skins,
representing 76 species, collected on Vancouver Island; in the Okanagan District Mr. J. A.
Munro collected 471 birds, representing 130 species; and in the East Kootenay, near Cranbrook, Mr. C. B. Garrett collected 291 birds, representing about 80 species. These skins have
been added to the reserve series which is kept for study, and which is now a large representative collection of skins from all parts of the Province. This series shows the changes of moult
in the different seasons, and also contains a large number of juvenals. The study collection
represents a great deal of work, and considerable time has been spent in the systematic
arrangement of the different families and species. Further work on the study collection will
be done as soon as additional sectional storage cases are made. These cases are made of cedar
throughout, with drawers and air-tight doors on the front, being moth- and dust-proof, and
have been found very satisfactory and more economical as to space than the old cabinet
drawers. The osteological series of sternum bones of birds has had to be taken from the
exhibition cases and placed in storage, so as to provide space for the extension of the oological
series, which seems to be more attractive to visitors, especially children, as many of the sets of
eggs are exhibited in their nests, and therefore are instructing and educating both to young
and old. This arrangement of the series of eggs was carried on in the early spring, the
specimens being labelled, giving full data, number in set, incubation, material nest is composed
of, locality, and date.    This series now represents about 250 species.
Bare Island Bird Reserve.—Following up the matter referred to in last year's report—
namely, the obtaining of Bare Island (known as Indian Reserve No. 9, Saanich Tribe) to be
kept as a permanent bird sanctuary for the preservation of bird-life on this Coast—arbitration
has as yet been impossible owing to financial reasons. However, the Department is glad to
report that the Honourable H. E. Young, M.D., at that time Provincial Secretary, on June
9th arranged through Mr. Duncan C. Scott, Deputy Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs
at Ottawa, giving the Provincial Museum authority to place a guard on the island in charge PLATE   IV.
■■She"
■■ ■■- -,,,:; •
"'
Fig.  1.  Sea-lions on Pearl  Rocks, south-west of Cape Calvert, Queen Charlotte  Sound,  B.C.
June  21st,   1013.
Fig.  2.  Large  Sea-lion killed on Pearl Rocks and towed to Grief Bay.  back of  Sorrow Island,  June
21st, 1913.    Approximate weight. 2,100 lb.
(Sec page 14.)  6 Geo. 5 Provincial Museum Report. N 15
of the bird-life during the nesting season. Mr. W. B. Anderson was appointed warden of the
island, and while stationed there also made a small collection of marine life and botanical
specimens.    Mr. Anderson reports as follows :—
"In accordance with instructions, on June 15th I proceeded to Bare Island, in the Haro
Strait, to act as warden and collector in the interests of the Museum.
"The glaucous-winged gull, the only species which breeds on this island, had commenced
to lay a few days before the date of my arrival, as of perhaps fifty-eight nests noted on the
16th and 17th a few had three eggs—the maximum number—and a very few birds had begun
to sit on the 17th. The total number of nests noted up to July 10th was 352. Upon this
date I stopped counting these nests on account of there being so many sitting birds which
would be disturbed at a critical stage of incubation. From the number of birds congregated
on the island and outlying rocks, I estimate that not less than 450 bred this year on the
island, a small number compared with what bred there twenty years ago, but still enough for
nucleus of a large breeding stock if afforded adequate protection. The incubation period of
these birds I have estimated to be about twenty-five days; the first-sitting bird's eggs marked
on June 16th hatching on July 10th and 11th.
"The pigeon guillemot breeds on the island in fair numbers; I judge there were 200
nests there this year, as well as some on outlying rocks and on Halibut Island, Jones, Gooch,
and other rocky islands adjacent. Though laying but two eggs, these are deposited in such
cunningly concealed positions among the broken rocks and deep crevices, without any nest,
that their extinction will be harder than in the case of the gulls, who make a big nest, plainly
visible, in most exposed places. The incubating period of the guillemot is practically the same
as that of the gull, the young being jet-black when hatched, the feet even lacking the brilliant
scarlet colouring showing in the old of these interesting little birds. To make up for the lack
of colour, however, the young are possessed of most pugnacious tempers, kicking, squealing,
and biting very vigorously when drawn from their nests.
" Fifty cormorants, I judge, nest on the high cliffs on the west side of the island, laying
from three to five eggs. These birds get quite used to a human being moving about near the
nests, provided one goes quietly and without unduly exciting movements. The young, which
emerge in twenty-six days, are shiny black when first hatched, apparently sparsely covered
with black bristles.    In this stage they are very reptilian in suggestion.
"During my stay on the island I noticed but three pair of puffins. These birds used to
be plentiful, but shooting and other causes have brought about their almost entire disappearance from these islands. It is said that they breed in fair numbers on Skipjack Island, over
the International Boundary from Bare Island.
"The birds here mentioned comprise the entire breeding sea-colony of the area. The
rare black or Bachman's oyster-catcher, in former years plentiful, has disappeared. The little
auklet, said at one time to have made this island its breeding-ground, has also deserted it for
other parts. The causes for these diminutions and desertions is plainly evident : human
beings—whites, Indians, and Japanese—carrying away the birds' eggs and young.
"As a gull, after laying a first set of eggs and having them taken, lays onlv two the
second time, it follows that the stock of young is diminished; and when the second laying is
removed it is probable that no more will be laid, or if by chance there are, the hatching will
be so late that it is doubtful if the young will be strong enough to survive the rigours of the
autumn. The practice of shooting on the grounds cannot be too strongly condemned. To say
nothing of shooting during nesting season, winter shooting should also be rigidly prohibited.
" During the autumn and winter months, even into late spring, the Canada goose and
laughing goose frequent the rocky Gulf Islands, and, judging from the number of blinds built
there, Bare Island seems to be a favourite haunt of these birds. In the interests of them
alone a sanctuary should be provided, for the continual harrying of the flocks by sportsmen
all over the Province leaves them scant opportunity to rest their weary wings and to glean a
hasty meal. Apart from this, the strictly maritime birds of which I have already written are
kept away from the island, and continual driving away, even outside of the nesting season,
has a pronounced tendency to cause these birds to seek more secluded and therefore more
distant spots in which to rear their young.
" Another reason for shooting on the island is that there are a number of rabbits there.
Some years ago a very ill-advised person turned out some tame rabbits on several of the Straits
islands, Bare Island being among them. The animals have increased and they are now an
incentive to visiting hunters.    A further evil in connection with these animals is their taking N 16 Provincial Museum Report. 1916
possession of the holes and crevices formerly occupied by puffins and guillemots, and driving
these birds from many of their old breeding-haunts entirely. No time should be lost to-
exterminate the pests so as to allow the puffins to regain possession.
" Of other mammals on the island, a species of deer-mouse seems to be the only one. It
is apparently somewhat different from the Mainland and Vancouver Island forms. These
mice are quite harmless in relation to bird-life.
"Many fine flowering plants and shrubs adorn the island, especially in the early spring;
one of the most notable, because of its rarity on the Pacific Coast, being the choke-cherry,,
which grows out of the dry, earthless crevices of the rock.
"Marine life is well represented about the reefs and pinnacles adjacent. On South Reef
there may be found fine specimens of the large rock-pecten, sea-urchins, and a variety of
smaller mollusks and crustaceans. I do not doubt that a large and most interesting collection
could be made of marine life with proper appliances.
" I left the island on July 28th, having stopped there continuously, except for short trips
occasionally to outlying rocks and islands. During the six weeks' sojourn several parties of
whites arrived seeking to explore the island, and as they had no permits to land, I refused'
them according to instructions. Two parties of Indians landed, and one of these began
robbing the gulls' nests. They, however, desisted when I spoke to<them, after surreptitiously
concealing the eggs they had gathered.    These I afterwards found and photographed."
Reptiles and Batrachians.
This branch of the collection has been practically at a standstill for a number of years.
Quite a number of specimens have been secured during the last two years' field-work. It is
hoped to be able to carry on this work through the coming year, and have a number of the-
specimens already on hand sent to authorities for proper identification.
Fishes.
A most unusual visitant to this Coast was a sunfish (Mola mola) which was captured at
Ucluelet, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, by some Indians fishing about two miles offshore on July 14th, and presented to the Museum by Second Officer E. F. Jordan, of the
S.S. "Tees." This appears to be the first record of this species north of San Francisco,
California.
Another straggler, a white sea-bass (Cymoscion nobilis), was taken in the salmon-nets off
Port Alberni, Barkley Sound, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, by Messrs. Butterfield
and Maekie, and presented to the Museum through Deputy Game Warden, W. R. Carter,
of Alberni. This is the third record of this fish having been taken along this Coast; the first
was taken some years ago in Sooke Harbour by Sir Clive Phillipps-Wolley, and the second in
Todd's traps at Sherringham Point, Strait of Juan de Fuca.
A number of smaller fishes have been added to the collection by our field collectors.
These specimens have not, up to the present time, been studied and systematically arranged.
Entomology.
During the past three vears much greater attention has been paid to this branch of natural
history, with the result that the Museum collections have been enriched by large numbers
of desirable specimens, many new to British Columbia and several new to science. The trip
to Atlin undertaken by Mr. E. M. Anderson, of the Museum staff, in 1914 was very successful
in this respect. Naturally a practically virgin country and one so little traversed by the
entomologist would be expected to produce good results, and these expectations were fully
realized by the quantity and quality of the material collected, over 2,000 insects being taken
during the three months.
Amongst the butterflies taken on this trip were several very rare ones, and many new to the
Province, viz. : Parnassius smintheus var. nanus, Neu.; Papilio machaon var. aliaska, Scudder
(this is a very interesting and rare capture; very little is known about this insect, and thus
far it has been taken only in Alaska and is still very rare in collections); Eurymus hecla var.
glacialis, McLachlan (this is an exceedingly rare species, its habitat being Arctic America and
Arctic Europe); Brenthis triclaris, Hub., a high-altitude species ; Brenthis polaris, Bdv., an
inhabitant of Arctic America; Brenthis frigga varieties saga, Kallen, and improba, Butler,
the latter being still very rare in collections;   Erebia disa var. mancinus, Dby., a beautiful PLATE   V.
iiiiiiwi iiiioiiiiMMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiMyiiiWinw' iiimi niiiii hi min inifflffliMMi^
Fig.   1.  Bare Tsiand   Bird  Sanctuary,  Haro  Strait,   near   Sidney.
*.—* '**.-"
Fig. 2.  Glaucous-winged Gulls nesting on Rare Island.  PLATE VI.
Fig. 1.  Young Glaucous-winged Gulls on Bare Island, showing protective colouration.
Fig.  2.  Mass of egg-shells of the Glaucous-winged Gull.    These eggs were dropped by Indians when
caught  robbing the Gulls' nests.
(See pa.ge  15.)   Fig.
1
Fig.
2
Fig.
3
Fig.
4
Fig.
5
Fig.
6.
Fig.
7
Fig.
8
Fig.
9
Fig.
10
Fig.
11
Fig.
12
PLATE VTL
Geometiud.^  new to  Science.
(Taken by E. IL Blackinore at Victoria,  B.C.)
Stamnodes blaekmorei Swett.     (.Paratope male.)
Stamnodes blackmorei  Swett.     (Under side.)
Hydriomena speciosata  var.   ameliata   Swett.     (Type  female.)
Hydriomena grandis var. saaniehata Swett.     (Paratype female.)
Petrophora defensaria var. gigantiearia Swett.     (Paratype male.)
Petrophora defensaria  var. giganticariet  Swett.     (Allotype female.)
Petrophora defensaria var. conciliaria  Swett.     (Paratype male.)
Petrophora defensaria var. conciliaria Swett.
Petrophora defensaria var. thanataria Swett.
Petrophora defensaria var. thanataria Swett.
Petrophora defensaria var. mephistaria Swett.
Petrophora defensaria var. suppuraria  Swett.
(See   page   IS.)
(Allotype female.)
(Paratype male.)
(Paratype female.)
(Paratype male.)
(Paratype male.) :   ;   . - .
'^V^oW
PLATE V I.  6 Geo. 5 Provincial Museum Report. N 17
form which only occurs in high altitudes and in the extreme north ; Ccenonympha kodiak,
Edw., two specimens were taken (this I believe is new to Canada, its previously recorded
locality being Alaska); (Eneis uhleri, Rkrt., a Rocky Mountain species; (Eneis noma var.
taygete, Hub., a large series of this butterfly taken (this species was first recorded from
Labrador in 1824); Rusticus scudderi, Edw. (this is closer to the typical form than the
Eastern specimens going under this name); and Hesperia centaurce, Rambur (this latter
species occurs in the North Atlantic States and in Europe).
Moths were not so plentiful, noctuids being especially scarce; the long days with little
or no darkness of this region in the summer-time making the usual attractions of "light " and
" sugaring " of very little use. However, Mr. Anderson took several specimens of Anomogyna
lostabilis, Zett., which is an exceedingly rare noctuid moth hitherto only recorded from
Labrador. These are the only known North American specimens in Canada at the present
time. The specimens were taken flying at dusk on dates ranging from July 6th to 15th.
This species also occurs in Arctic Europe, where, however, it is still very rare. The following
noctuids taken are also new to the Province : Hadena morna, Streck; Mamestra sutrina, Grote;
Anarta cordigera, Thunb.; Anuria richardsoni, Curtis; and Autographa oropliila, Hampson.
Amongst the Geometridse a large number of very desirable species were captured, including
the following which are new to British Columbia, viz. : Eustroma destinata var. lugubrata,
Mosch., a very handsome insect and quite rare; Rheumaptera hastata var. hastulata, Hub. ;
Rheumaptera luctuata, D. & S. ; Petrophora circumvallaria, Taylor (this species was described
from specimens taken at Calgary, Alberta); and Leptomeris frigidaria, Mosch., an inhabitant
of Arctic America.
Good collections in Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera were made, many of which
still await classification and identification.
During the past season a quantity of material in this branch has been collected by Mr. E.
M. Anderson in the Sahtlam District, Vancouver Island (1,382 specimens), Mr. J. A. Munro
at Okanagan Landing (1,900 specimens), and Mr. C. Garrett at Cranbrook (1,627 specimens).
Amongst the many good things taken by Mr. Anderson the following Noctuida: are rare :
Feralia columbiana, Smith; Rhynchagrotis niger, Smith ; Noctua calgary, Smith; Rancora
solidaginis, Behr.; Euchalciaputnami, Grote; and Eosphoropteryx thyatiroid.es, Gue. Mamestra
radix, Walker, is new to Vancouver Island, and the following are new to British Columbia :
Autographa bimaculata, Stephens; Melalopha albosigma var. specifoca, Dyar, belonging to the
family Notodontidse; and Albuna pyramidalis var. montana, Hy. Edw., a member of the
Sesiid group. In the Geometridfe, whilst nothing new was taken, there nevertheless were
some very desirable species, of which the following are worthy of mention: Eupithecia.
perfusea, Hulst; Dysstroma occidentalis, Taylor; Hydriomena multiferata, Walker; Chlorosea
nevadaria, Pack.; Aplodes darwiniata, Dyar; Euchlaena mollisaria, Hulst; E. pectinaria,
D. & S.; and Metanema quercivoraria, Gue. It is well to note that several specimens of that
pretty little butterfly Pamphila palaemon, Pall., were taken, a species which is rapidly becoming
extinct on the southern portion of Vancouver Island.
The material collected by Mr. Munro, while large in quantity, did not produce many rare
species, the following Noctuidie being most worthy of note : Hadena allecto, Smith ; Rhynchagrotis trigona, Smith; Agroperinapendrina, Smith; Euxoa obeliscoides, Gue.; and Graphiphora
curtica, Smith. However, one variety new to British Columbia was taken—Platyprepia
virginalis var. guttata, Bdv., a moth belonging to the Arctiidao- family.
Mr. C. B. Garrett, of Cranbrook, also added four more species to the list, viz.: Agroperina
lincosa, Smith; Mamestra canadensis, Smith, previously recorded from New Brunswick;
Syneda seposita, Hy. Edw.; and Ceryconis octus. Amongst the Geometridse taken by Mr.
Garrett there were three species new to the Province, viz.: Leptomeris ancellata, Hulst;
Diastictis occiduaria, Packard; and Metanema determinata, Walker (this latter an inhabitant
of the Atlantic States). In addition to these, the following desirable species were taken :
Entrepia multivagata, Hulst; Marmopteryx marmorata, Packard; Euchlcena johnsonaria,
Fitch ; and E. astylusaria, Walker.
Mr. W. A. Newcombe, of Victoria, B.C., while in the Chilcotin District this past summer
took five specimens of Basilarchia arthemis, Drury. This is a very interesting record, as it
definitely settles the fact that this butterfly does occur in British Columbia. Although this
species has never been admitted to the list, it has been a debatable subject for some years as
to whether it did or did not occur in the Province. Its habitat is the North Atlantic States,
but it is also taken in the three Prairie Provinces. N 18 Provincial Museum Report. 1916
During the past two years Mr. E. H. Blackmore, of Victoria, B.C., who has been specializing on the Geometridse of British Columbia, has discovered one species and seven varieties
new to science, viz.: Stamnodes blackmorei, Swett; Hydriomena speciosata var. ameliata, Swett;
Hydriomena grandis var. saaivichata, Swett; Petrophora defensaria varieties mephistaria,
giganticaria, conciliaria, thanataria, and suppuraria, all described by Swett. Mr. Blackmore
has generously donated to the Museum collection paratypes of S. blackmorei, II. grandis v.
saawichata, P. defensaria varieties giganticaria, conciliaria, and thanataria, and typical specimens of P. defensaria varieties mephistaria and suppuraria.
Amongst a collection of Diptera sent to the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.,
for identification, three species were found to be new to science, which necessitated the erection
of new genera by Mr. C. H. T. Townsend, who described them in the Canadian Entomologist,
Vol. XLIL, No. 9, page 285, et seq.    They are as follows :—
Okanagania hirta, Townsend. This is a new genus with hirta as its genotype, and was
described from a male taken by Mr. E. M. Anderson at Okanagan Falls on April 27th, 1913.
Rhachogaster kermodei, Townsend. This is also a new genus with kermodei for its genotype,
and was described from two males taken at Penticton by Mr. Anderson on July 4th and Sth,
1913.
Another new genus, Pseudodidyma, was created by Mr. Townsend, having for its genotype
a new species named pullula, described from a female taken at Farragut Bay, Alaska. Of a
male taken by Mr. Anderson at Victoria on April 2nd, 1906, Mr. Townsend says : "It may
be a new species, but seems congeneric with the above female."
During the present winter the two exhibition cases of Lepidoptera have been entirely
overhauled by Mr. Anderson, who has rearranged and relabelled the entire collection of butterflies and moths down to the Geometridse, the latter having been put in order by Mr. E. H.
Blackmore, of this city, who has contributed many specimens in this group to make it more
complete. The collection as it now stands is thoroughly up to date in nomenclature and
scientific arrangement.
Botany.
In pursuance of the policy announced in the Museum Report for 1914, to devote more
attention to the Botanical Branch, a request was made early in the year for the loan of the
Herbarium formed by Mr. J. R. Anderson when Deputy Minister of the Department of
Agriculture. This request was favourably considered and the transfer made to the Museum
on April 28th. The collection of plants was made by Mr. J. R. Anderson in his leisure hours,
both on Vancouver Island and in districts on the Mainland visited by him on his official tours.
In some of these expeditions Mr. Anderson was assisted by the late Dr. James Fletcher, of the
Dominion Experimental Farm at Ottawa, who was w7ell known for his botanical zeal. It was,
of course, impossible to cover more than a small portion of a Province of such a vast area as
that of British Columbia, but a large number of rare and interesting plants were secured as
occasion offered, and it is hoped that these may form the nucleus of a more fully representative
collection, and also be more accessible to the general public than heretofore. To facilitate
reference to these plants it is proposed to make a card catalogue of the collection, as unfortunately no record of the Herbarium accompanied it, except the data on the labels. By
comparing these cards with the catalogues and supplementary lists published by Professor John
Macoun in the Reports of the Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada and in
numerous other papers, and also with the " Flora of Southern British Columbia," by Professor
Henry, it will be possible to discover the species still absent from our collection and to set in
motion certain agencies to fill the blanks.
Professor John Macoun and his son, Mr. J. M. Macoun, have both interested themselves
in this Herbarium for years. Mr. J. M. Macoun spent some hours in the Museum in September
looking over the new collections.
In the flowering season many inquiries are made as to the names of the more popular
plants, and as to where their description can be found. To meet these demands it is intended
that specimens of some of the most noticeable plants may be mounted and placed in wall-
frames, also that some of the more useful books will be held available in the office of the
Museum in charge of Miss W. A. Andrew, who has shown great interest in this branch of
our work.  Fig-
1
Fig.
2
Fig.
3
Fig.
4
Fig.
5
Fig.
6
Fig.
7
Fig.
8
Fig.
9
PLATE  VIII.
Papilio'machaon var. aliaska Scudder.
Pamassius smintheus var. nanus Ncumoegen.     (Male.)
Parnassius smintheus var. nanus Neumoegen.     (Female.)
Euryinus hecla var. glacialis Maclachlan.     (Male.)
Burymus hecla var. glacialis Maclachlan.     (Female.)
Brenthis polaris Boisduval.     (Male.)
Brenthis frigga var. saga Kaden.     (Female.)
Brenthis frigga var. improha Butler.     (Under side.)      (Female.)
Brenthis frigga var.  improha Butler.     (Under side.)      (Male.)
(See page  10.) PLATE VIII.   Fig-
1
Fig
2
Fig-
3
Fig
4
Fig
3
Fig
i;
Fig
7
Fig
8
Fig-
!)
Fig
10
PLATE   IX.
Erebia   disa   var.   maneinus   Donbleday.     (Male.)
Hrcbia   disa   var.   maneinus   Donbleday.     (Female.)
Oeneis jutta  Ilnbner.     (Male.)
Oeneis  jutta   Ilnbner.     (Female.)
Oeneis   noma   var.   taygete   Hubner.     (Male.)
Oeneis  noma  var.   taygete  Hubner.     (Female.)
Oeneis uhleri  Eeakirt.     (Male,  northern   form.)
Oeneis  uhleri  Reakirt.     (Female,   northern   form.)
A nomogyna  ImtaMlis  Zett.     (Male.)
Anomogyna,  latabilis  Zett.     (Female.)
(See page  10.) PLATE  IX.   PLATE  X.
New  Species  op  Diptera.
Fig.  1. Rhachogaster  kermodei   Townsend.     Penticton,   B.C.,   July.   1*913   (E.   M.   Anderson).
Magnified 4%  times.
Fig.  2.  Pseudodidyma   pullula   Townsend.    Victoria,    B.C.,   April,    11)00    (E.   il.   Anderson).
Magnified 8% times.
Fig.  3.  Olianagania  hirta  Townsend.    Okanagan  Falls.   B.C..   April,   11)13   (E.   M.  Anderson).
Magnified ."> V%  times.
(See page 18.) PLATE  X.
Fig.  1.
>
Fig.   2.
Fig.  3.  6 Geo. 5
Provincial Museum Report.
N 19
Amongst the accessions to the Herbarium are :—
(1.) A collection made by Mr. E. M. Anderson in the Atlin region in 1914, to which
brief mention was made in last year's report. This contains a number of rare species, and the
collection has been listed as follows by Professor John Macoun and his son, Mr. J. M. Macoun,
mentioned above :—
Polypodium occidentale (Hook), Maxon.
Aspidium spinulosum, Swartz.
Aspidium fragrans, Swartz.
Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh.
Lycopodium annotinum, L.
Luzula spadicea melanocarpa, E. Meyer.
Eriophorum polystachion, IL.
Veratrum viride, Ait.
Tofieldia glutinosa, Willd.
Tofieldia borealis, Wahl.
Zygadenus elegans, Pursh.
Cypripedium passerinum, Rich.
Habenaria dilatata, Pursh.
Habenaria hyperborea, R. Br.
Habenaria obtusata, Richards.
Smilacina sessifolia, Nutt.
Smilacina amplexicaulis, Nutt.
Orchis rotundifolia, Pursh.
Polygonum viviparuni, L.
Silene acaulis, L.
Cerastium arvense, L.
Stellaria longipes, var.
Arenaria lateriflora, L.
Anemone multifida, Poir.
Anemone  patens,   L.,   var.    Wolfgangiana
(Bess), Koch.
Anemone parviflora, L.
Caltha leptosepala, DC.
Aquilegia formosa, Fisch.
Corydalis aurea, Willd.
Draba alpina, var. hebecarpa, Gray.
Arabis lyrata occidentalis, S. Wats.
Arabis drummondii, A. Gray.
Sedum stenopetalum, Pursh.
Saxifraga occidentalis, Wat.
Saxifraga tricuspidata, Retz.
Saxifraga oppositifolia, L.
Mitella trifida, Gray.
Parnassia palustris, L.
Rubus arcticus grandiflorus, Ledeb.
Potentilla dissecta, Pursh.
Potentilla nivea, L.
Potentilla fruticosa, L.
Potentilla palustris, L.
Dryas inlegrifolia, Ch. & Sch.
Lupinus arcticus, Wats.
Lupinus nootkatensis    (?)
Oxtropis lamberti, Pursh.
Astragalus alpinus, L.
Geranium erianthum, DC.
Viola nephrophylla, Greene.
Viola langsdorfii, Fischer.
Epilobium latifolium, L.
Epilobium augustifolium, L.
Cornus canadensis, L.
Moneses unif/ora, Gray.
Pyrola incarnata, DC.
Cassiope mertensiana,  G. Don.
Kalrnia glauca, Ait.
Ledum latifolium, Ait.
Vaccinium ceeespitosum, Mx.
Primula sibirica, Jacq.
Androsace occidentalis, Pursh.
Polemonium cceruleum, L.
Polemonium elegans, Greene.
Polemonium pulchellum, Bunge.
Polemonium humile, R. & S.
Mertensia platyphylla, Heller.
Mertevsia paniculata (Ait.) Don. (albino).
Myosotis sylvestris, L.
Myosotis sylvatica var. alpestris.    Koch.
Myosotis alpestris, Lehm.
Pentstemon   confertus   cceruleo-purpureus,
A. Gray.
Pentstemon confertus, Doug].
Mimulus langsdorfii, Donn.
Pedicularis capitata, Adams.
Pedicularis euplirasioides, Stephen.
Pedicularis langsdorfii, Fisch.
Castilleja pallida, Kunth.
Pinguicula vulgaris, L.
Galium boreale, L.
Linncea borealis, Gron.
Valeriana sitchensis, Bong.
Solidago multiradiata, Ait.
Solidago   multiradiata,   Ait.,   var.   scopu-
lorum, Gr.
Erigeron compositus, Pursh.
Aster sibiricus, L.
Achillcea borealis, Bong.
Arnica cordifolia, Hook.
Senecio lugens, Rich.
Senecio cymbalarioides,   Nutt.
Aniennaria microphylla var. rosea, Greene.
Hedysarum boreale, Nutt.
(2.) A collection from the Okanagan country by Mr. J. A. Munro (43 species).
(3.) A collection from Bare Island, in the Gulf of Georgia, by Mr. W. B. Anderson (25
species).
(4.) A collection from Uchucklesit, Barkley Sound, by W. B. Anderson.
(5.) A collection from Sahtlam District, Vancouver Island, by Mr. E. M. Anderson (35
species). N 20 Provincial Museum Report. 1916
(6.) A collection from Cranbrook, East Kootenay, by Mr. C. Garrett, now in the hands of
Mr. J. M. Macoun, Ottawa.
(7.) A collection from Chilcotin District by W. A. Newcombe (over 100 species).
Also minor accessions have been received from Professor Henry, of Vancouver, Dr. C. F.
Newcombe, and several local specimens have been added by the Museum staff.
Bibliography.
In the absence of any separate lists of the flora of British Columbia, a short bibliography
relating to some of the work done by the botanists of the Geological Survey of Canada is here
presented, together with local lists prepared by certain non-official writers.
Professor J. Macoun.
Report Geological Survey of Canada, 1875-76—
Page 110 : Professor Macoun reaches Victoria May 2nd, 1875.
Page 113: List of plants of Southern Vancouver Island for early part of May,
1875.
Page 118': List of plants of Yale.
Page 186: List of plants of Vancouver Island; British Columbia to base of
Rockies ; and Rocky Mountains.
Same Report, 1878-79, Appendix E—
Page 219b : List of Dr. G. M. Dawson's Queen Charlotte Islands plants.
Same Report, 1879-80—
Page 143b-146b: Dr. G. M.  Dawson's plants from northern part of British
Columbia.
Annual Report of Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada (New Series)—
Vol. IL, 1886, Appendix II. to Part B : List of plants obtained by Dr. G. M.
Dawson on Vancouver Island and adjacent coasts in 1885.
Vol. XL, page 86a : A collection of 525 species of flowering plants and some
cryptogams made in the Yellowhead Pass country by Mr. Wm. Spread-
borough.
Vol. XII., page 13b : Reference made to 79 species of plants collected in Atlin
region in 1899-1900 by J. C. Gwillim.
Catalogue of Canadian plants, Parts 1-7.
J. M. Macoun.
Vol. XV., Annual Report of Geological and Natural History Survey of Canada.
Page 469-471 : Mention of collections made along International Boundary.
These, with numerous alterations in nomenclature and additions to the flora
of British Columbia, have for many years been listed by Mr. J. M. Macoun in
his "Contributions to Canadian Botany," published from time to time in the
Canadian Record of Science and the Ottawa Naturalist.
Additions to the Flora of Vancouver Island. (Ottawa Naturalist, Vol. XXVI.,
Nos. 11, 12.)
F. S. Collins.    The Marine Algae of Vancouver  Island, Bull. 1, Geological  Survey of
Canada, 1913, page 99.
J. K. Henry.    The Flora of Southern British Columbia, August, 1915.
Jno. A. Davidson.    Second Annual Report of the Provincial Botanical Office, 1914.
For other local " Floras" reference may be made to the following :—
Port Renfrew, Vancouver Island.    Postelsia, a Year Book of the Minnesota Seaside
Station, 1906.    Records Newberrya congesta and other rare species.
Queen Charlotte Islands.    United States Department of  Agriculture,  Biological
Survey.    North American Fauna No. 21, 1901.    List of plants collected by
W. H. Osgood, mainly identified by Coville.
Canadian Rocky Mountains and Selkirks.    Edith  M.  Farr.    Contributions to a
Catalogue of the Flora  of  the  Canadian  Rocky Mountains and the Selkirk
Range.    Philadelphia, 1907.
Other lists are also published in the reports of the Alpine Club of Canada.
Useful comparison may be made between the above and the following:—
Piper, C. V.    Flora of Mount Rainer.
Flett, J. B.    Flora of the Olympian Mountains.    The Mountaineer, Vol. 1, No. 4,
Seattle, 1908.  PLATE   XL
Fig.  1. Mammoth  tooth   (Elephas primigenius  Blum.),  Shuswap Lake.     Presented  by the late
Frederick Hussey.
Fig. 2. Mastodon   tooth    {Mastodon   americanus   Cuvier),   found   1003,   Dago   Gulch,   Hunker
Creek, Y.T.     Bequest :   the late Mrs. C. A. Coulson.
Fig.  3. Mammoth  tooth   (Elephas  primigenius  Blum.),  Cordova  Bay,   Victoria.
(See page 21.) PLATE XL
:.
Fig-  2.
Fig.  3.  6 Geo. 5 Provincial Museum Report. N 21
Palaeontology.
Accessions to the palseontological collection have been of late years few and far between.
Early in 1915, however, the finding of a tooth of a fossil elephant in the Mount Tolmie gravel
aroused fresh interest in our small collection of mammalian remains. On comparing this
specimen with fossil elephant-teeth from the Yukon country, it presented several marks of
distinction. Photographs of two teeth from the Yukon and three from Vancouver Island and
the neighbouring regions were sent to Dr. O. P. Hay, of Washington, who has written largely
on the subject of Pleistocene fossils. He reported that, in his opinion, the northern specimens
were true molars belonging to the hairy mammoth Elephas primigenius, while those from the
south, which had fewer and wider plates, belonged to the Columbian elephant E. columbi.
Another specimen which has been in the Museum for many years was identified by Dr.
O. P. Hay as the worn vertebra of some species of whale. This was found in Pleistocene
gravels between Parson's Bridge and Langford Lake, Vancouver Island, when collecting ballast
for the Esquimalt & Nanaimo Railway.
In the year 1913 remains of bison were recorded from two parts of the Province. In the
Atlin country Mr. E. M. Anderson found a fine skull with horns. In the low-lying ground
between George Jay Public School and the Protestant Orphanage, east of Cook Street, Victoria,
Dr. C. F. Newcombe found a fragment of horn which the Director identified as belonging to a
species of bison. Both of these specimens were forwarded for examination to Mr. Lawrence
M. Lambe, Vertebrate Palaeontologist of the Geological Survey, Ottawa. The Victoria fragment, in his opinion, belongs to Bison bison. His report on the Atlin specimen is given herewith in his own words :—
" The occiput with horn cores from the Atlin District is of Bison bison (L.), (B.
americanus); that is, I regard it as such. It gives measurements which place it in this species.
The range of the American bison extended up into the Mackenzie River District, and these
animals are known to have passed well into the Rocky Mountains. It is probable that your
specimen was a straggler toward the Coast in the Far North, or possibly the range of the
buffalo extended well westward from the Mackenzie District, the animals taking advantage of
the broad and comparatively low passes through the northern mountains. The specimen is
light and not at all fossilized. Whether it belonged to a wood buffalo, which appears to be
not more than a subspecies of the plains buffalo, it is difficult to say."
Mr. Lambe was also good enough to make a careful examination of a tooth of a mastodon
which has been for many years in the Museum.    His report upon it follows :—
" The tooth from Yukon is of Mastodon americanus (Cuvier), and is a lower third true
molar of the left side. The front transverse ridge is broken off and with it the front root,
which was slender and, in comparison with the hinder one, of small size. The specimen has
been considerably shaken in transit and some fragments have become detached. These I have
cemented back in place. Your tooth is an excellent one, although not complete. As you
know, remains of mastodon are, in comparison with those of mammoth, rather rare in the
extreme North-west."
Four casts of a scallop were presented by Mr. A. J. Dempster, found in a road-cut at
Clo-oose, Vancouver Island. They seem to belong to Pecten branneri, Arnold, and to have
come from the Monterey formation.
General Accessions.
White-tail Ptarmigan.    Presented by W. B. Conroy, Atlin.
Indian stone sharpener (?), found on Dallas Road foreshore, Victoria,  and
presented by Arthur Warren.
Indian basket.    Purchased.
Western Evening Grosbeak (3), Parksville, V.I.    Presented by H. Rawlins.
Marine specimens (16), Prince Rupert.    Presented by M. L. Bird.
Fossil pectens, Clo-oose.    Presented by A. J. Dempster.
Indian stone anchor, found while excavating for breakwater, Dallas Road,
Victoria.    Presented by A. J. Elgee, C. E.
Sparrows (2).    Presented by Dr. E. Hasell, Victoria.
Crayfish, Victoria Harbour.    Presented by A. Halkett through the Natural
History Society of British Columbia.
May     24.    Slate totem-poles, Queen Charlotte Islands.    Purchased.
Jan.
25.
Feb.
15.
II
24.
March
12.
u
17.
ii
20.
April
6.
ii
18.
H
26. N 22
Provincial Museum Report.
1916
Presented by Pte. Geo. S.
Presented by S.S.
Presented
combe;
by  W. A. New-
collected in Chil
cotin District.
June       5.    Indian stone hammer, found on Graham Island.
Mayer, 48th Battalion, C.E.F.
July      14.    Sunfish, caught by Ucluelet Indians three miles off-shore.
" Tees " through E. F. Jordan, second officer.
ii       29.    Prionus califomicus.    Presented by Geo. Nelm, Ganges, B.C
Aug.     15.     Silk-moth.    Presented by Laura Carrington, Nicola.
Sept.        5.     1 nest and eggs, Mallard
2 „ Willow Thrush
2 ii Redstart
1 ii Audubon's Warbler
2 ii Shufeldt's Junco
2 Squirrel
1 Chipmunk
1 White-footed Mouse J-
1 Sparrow Hawk
1 Gambel's Sparrow
1 Shufeldt's Junco
1 Western Meadowlark
1 Ruby-crowned Kinglet
1 Willow Thrush
Miscellaneous collection of 300 papered insects
Sept.        6.    Jack-hare, White Lake.    Presented by C. deB. Green.
ii        14.    Broad-finned Cod, Saanich Inlet.    Presented by A. H. Maynard.
ii        20.    Painted Fish, Gulf of Georgia.    Presented by P. Walker.
ii        22.    Sea Pen, Trial Island.    Presented by B. Bonner.
'n        30.    White Sea Bass, Port Alberni.   Presented by Messrs. Butterfield and Maekie.
Oct. 7.    California Quail, Victoria.    Presented by R. Powell.
ii        20.    Camp Robber's nest and set of three eggs.    Purchased.
ii        —.    Lynx.    Presented by Beacon Hill Park.
Nov.        4.    Indian Mask, Metlakatla.    Purchased.
ii 6.    Small mammals, Okanagan District.    Purchased.
n        15.    Chipmunk (in alcohol).    S. Hadwen.    Experimental Farm, Agassiz.
Dec. 1.    Stone sinker, found on Brentwood beach, V.L    Presented by A. Shotbolt.
ii 1.     80 specimens  of   mounted  Geometridse.     Presented  by  E.   H.   Blackmore,
Victoria.
Accessions—Publications of other Institutions.
Smithsonian Institution.      Washington,  D.C.
Vol. 47—N.A. Parasitic Copepods, C. W. Wilson.
ii 48—Crustacea Euphausiacea of U.S.N. Museum, H. J. Hansen.
ii 48—New African Birds,  E. A. Mearns.
i. 48—Extinct Marsupial, J. W. Gidley.
ii 48—Conchological Illustrations, J. W. Gidley.
ii 48—Mammals of Pleistocene of N.A., O. P. Hay.
ii 48—Long-tailed Goatsucker, H. C. Oberholser.
• i 48—Ruddy Kingfisher, H. C. Oberholser.
M 48—Pourtales' Haliotis.
ii 49—Catalog of Washington Relics in U.S. National Museum.
ii 49—Fossil Mollusks, genus Rissoina, West Coast of America.
n 49—Genera and subgenera of Raccoons.
ii 49—Philippine Land Shells.
M 59—Spotted Owl, Strix occidentalis, Xantus.
ii 49—Stegosaurus.
n 49—Colored drawing of Medeba Mosiac Map of Palestine.
ii 49—Extinct Sibenair desmostylus hesperus, Marsh.
ii 49—Eperetmus, new genus of Trachomeduca3.
ii 19—Flora of New Mexico, Wooton & Standley.
ii 17, p. 6—Tropical N.A. species Panicum.
Ex. Proc. Is
io. 2063,
M
■    2065,
it
■    2076,
II
It
II
, 2077,
, 2079,
.    2086,
M
, 2088,
. 2090,
,    2091,
II
i 2092,
, 2094,
,    2100,
,    2104,
II
-    2106,
II
i 2110,
, 2111,
, 2113,
,    2114,
U.S.
Herbs
rium, 6 Geo. 5 Provincial Museum Report. N 23
Bull. No. 71, Pt. IV.—Foraminifera of N. Pacific Ocean, J. A. Cushman.
ii       ii     71     ii    V.—Foraminifera of N. Pacific Ocean, J. A. Cushman.
ii       ii    82—Monograph of existing Crinoids, A. H. Clark.
ii       ii    88—Paleozoic Stelleroidea, C. Schuchert.
ii       n     89—Armoured Dinosauria in U.S. Nat. Museum, C. W. Gilmore.
i,       ,i    90—Molluscan Fauna, Tampa, Fa., W. H  Dall.
ii       ii     91—Turton Collection of S.A. Marine Mollusks, P. Bartoch.
ii       ii    92, Vol.    I.—Bibliographic Index of American Ordovician and Silurian Fossils.
ii       H     92,     ii    II.—Bibliographic Index of American Ordovician and Silurian Fossils.
Publication 2340 (from 1914 Report)—National Zoological Park, F. Baker.
ii 2360—Index to Museum Boltenianum, W. H. Dall.
Reprint from Report 1913—Whale Fisheries.
Miscellaneous Coll., Vol. 65, No. 12—Jaw of Piltdown Man, G. S. Miller.
Ex. Proc. No. 2120, Vol. 49—Allosaurus fragilis, C. W. Gilmour.
U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Farmer's Bull. 630—Birds useful to Farmers, F. E. L. Beal.
ii 621—To attract birds, W. L. McAtee.
ii 692—Game Laws, 1915.
670—Field-mice Pests.
Bull.  171—Food of Robins and Jays in U.S., F. E. L. Beal.
ii       185—Bird Migration, W. W. Cooke.
ii       217—Mortality among Waterfowls, Alex. Wetmore.
ii       187—Preliminary Concensus of Birds of U.S., W. W. Cooke.
i.       205—Eleven Important Ducks, W. L. McAtee.
280—Food of Thrushes, F. E. L. Beal.
ii      292—North American Gulls and Allies, W. W. Cooke.
ii       301—Silver-fox Farming in Eastern North America, N. Dearborn.
N.A. Fauna, No. 37—American Marmots, A. H. Howell.
ii ii    38—American Moles, H. T. Jackson.
ii ii    39—Pocket Gophers, g. Thomomys, V. Bailey.
Dominion Government Publications.
Museum  Bull. No.     6—Arctic Coast Esquimo, V. Stefanson.
-New sp. Dendragapus from Yukon, P. A. Taverner.
-Timiskaming Region, W. H. Collins.
-Skull of Eskimo," F. H. S. Knowles.
-Winnebago Indians, Paul Radin.
-Plateaus of B.C., Leopold Reinecke.
-Horned Dinosaurs, L. M. Lambe.
-Double-crested Cormorant, P. A. Taverner.
-Magdalen Is., J. W. Goldthwait.
-Gay Gulch Meteorites, R. A. Johnston.
ii ii     16—North American Mythology, P. Radin.
ii ii     17—Lake Timiskaming, M. Y. Williams.
ii n     18—Ottawa and St. Lawrence Valleys, Kindle and Burling.
ii ii     19—Nass River Indians. Ed. Sapir.
n ii    20—Niagara Formation of Ontario, M. Y. Williams.
ii ii     21—Lower Saskatchewan Ry. Valley, E. M. Kindle.
Memoir 19—Geological Boundary District of B.C., E. 0. LeRov.
30—Nelson & Churchill Rivers, W. Mclnnis.
34—Devonian of S.W. Ontario, C. P. Stauffer.
36—Victoria and Saanich Districts, C. H. Clapp.
38, Pt.    I.—N.A. Cordillera at 49th Parallel, R. A. Daly.
38,   ,i    IL—N.A. Cordillera at 49th Parallel, R. A. Daly.
38,   ii III.—N.A. Cordillera at 49th Parallel, R. A. Daly.
46—Iroquois Radicals.
47, Pt. III.—Clay and Shale of Western Provinces.
Bull. No.
6
7
n
8
H
9
..
10
II
11
,,
12
ft
13-
,,
14
II
15 N 24 Provincial Museum Report. 1916
Memoir 49—Malecite Tales, W. H. Mechling.
ii      53—Coalfields of Western Provinces, D. B. Dowling.
H      56—Franklin Mining Camp, B.C., C. W. Drysdale.
ii       57—Corundum, A. E. Barlow.
n      59—Coalfields of Canada, D. B. Dowling.
ii      61—Moose Mt. District, Alberta, D. D. Cairns.
62—Nootka Salish, B.C., E. Sapir.
ii      64—Clay Shale, Province of Quebec, J. Keele.
ii      65, 66—Clay and Shale, Western Provinces, J. Keele.
n       67—Yukon Alaska International Boundary, D. C. Cairns.
M       68—Geological Reconnaissance C.P.R., B.C., R. A. Daly.
ii       69—Coal of British Columbia, D. B. Dowling.
ii       70—Algonquin Indians.
ii      74—Canadian Mineral Occurrences, R. A. A. Johnston.
H      75—Indians of Connecticut, F. G. Speck.
*i       76—Cranbrook Map Area, S. J. Scholfield.
ii       77—Ore Deposits at Rossland, B.C., C. W. Drysdale.
ii       78—Wabana Iron Ore, Newfoundland, A. O. Hayes.
ii      79—Ore Deposit, Beaverdell Map Area, L. Reinecke.
Summary Report of Geological Survey, 1913.
1914.
(Chemistry) Circ. No. 7—Potash in Agriculture, F. T. Shutt.
Bull,  ii  80—Lime in Agriculture, F. T. Shutt.
(Entomolgy)    m      n    9—Army-worm, A. Gibson.
Reprint from Ottawa Naturalist, Vol. XXIX.—Suggestions for Ornithological Work in
Canada, P. A. Taverner.
ii Summary Report, 1913—Anthropological Report.
Preliminary Report No. 1, 1914—Natural History of the Herring, J. Hoyt.
Division of Forage Plants—Summary of Results, 1914.
ii       Field Husbandry —Summary of Results, 1914.
Contributions Canadian Biology, Pt.    I.—Marine Biology.
n ii Pt. II.—Marine Biology.
Manitoba Fish Commission Report, 1910-11.
Dominion Shad Fisheries Commission Report, 1908-1910.
Summary Report Geological Survey (Dept. of Mines), 1913.
„ „ (Dept. of Mines), 1914.
Division of Botany—Medicinal plants, J. Adams.
Reprint from Summary Report, 1914—Biology Division: Zoology.
California Academy of Sciences.
Zool. Ser., Vol. IV., Nos. 4, 5—Genus Plethodon from Mt. Rainier, Wash.; Spotted Night
Snake from Calif.
4th Ser.,      n    IV., Pt. I.—Galapagos Island Expedition.
IV.—Neocene Record in Temblor Basin, Calif.
IV.—Fauna, Roseburg, Oregon.
IV.—Reptiles and Amphibians, Islands of West Coast.
IV.—Pocket Gopher, San Jacinto Peak.
V., Nos. 1, 2—Report of Academy, 1914; Report Museum, 1914.
V.,    ii    3—Fauna TypeTejon, R. E. Dickerson.
V.,     ii    4—Amphibians and Reptiles of Utah.
Constitution and By-laws, 1915.
University of California.
No\. 12, No. 12—New Amphibia of S. California, C. L. Camp.
H    15,    ii       1—Records, Scripps Institution for Biological Research.
ii    12,    ii 11—New Chipmunk of California, J. Grinnell.
ii    16,    ii      1—Life History of Crithidia leptocorides, sp. nov., I. McCulloch. 6 Geo. 5
Provincial Museum Report.
N 25
Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station.
Circular 135—Dairy Herds.
136—Dairy Herds.
139—County Experiment Farm Law.
140—Orchard Bark-beetles.
142—Seventeen-year Locust.
143—San Jose Scale.
144—Experiments, Central Farm.
145—County Experimental Farm.
147—Cost of Tile Drainage.
148—Spraying Orchards.
149—Spraying Orchards.
150—Tree Fillings, etc.
151—Soil Fertilization.
Bull. 249—Report, 1912.
254—Forest Conditions.
255—Mineral Analyses of Foods.
259—Ohio Weather, 1912.
260—Fertility.
261—Soil Investigations.
262—Poultry.
263—Report, 1912-13.
2 6 4—Bark-beetles.
265—Cob Root of Corn.
2 6 6—Corn-raising.
267—Soy Bean.
268—Fattening Swine.
269—Forage Crops.
270—Winter Lamb Production.
271—Nutrition of Swine.
272—Report.
273—Paulding County B.eport.
274—Miami County Report.
275—6th Annual Report, Forestry.
276—Clermont County Report.
278—Report, 1913, 1914.
279—Fertility.
Technical Series, Bull. 5—Phosphorous Composition in Animal Melabolism.
ii ii      6—Phosphorous.
ii .i      8—Phosphorous.
Circular 152—Swine.
Bulletin 283—Swine Rations.
American Museum of Natural History.
Bull, Vol. XXXIIL, Article XL.—New Columbian Birds, F. M. Chapman.
„    XXXIV.,        .1       VI.—Notes on Ptilosis, Miller,
n        ,i    XXXIV.,        ii   VIII.—South American Sciuridie, Allen.
American Association of Museums.
Reprint from Proceedings, Vol. IV., 1910—Training of Museum Curators, Dr. A. R. Crook.
Bureau of Science, Manila.
Mineral Resources, 1913 and 1914.
Description new sp. Prionochilus. ■» N 26
Provincial Museum Report.
1916
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum.
Vol. IV., No. 1—Fishes of the Southern Pacific, A. Seale.
-Report, 1907.
-Report, 1908.
-Report, 1909.
-Report, 1910, and Index, Vol. IV.
-Plants.
-Report, 1911.
-Flora, C. N. Forbes.
-Report, 1912.
-Report, Journey around the World, 1912, W. T. Bingham.
-Report, 1914.
IV., N
0.   1-
IV,
i   2-
IV,    ,
,   3
IV,    ,
,   4
IV,    ,
,   5
v.,
,   1
v.,
i   2
v.,
,   3
v.,
,   4
v.,
,   5
VI.,    ,
,   2
Miscellaneous.
Illinois State Laboratory, Vol.
X., Art.      V.—Effect of Kerosene on Sea Mais.
X.,     ii      VI.—Midges in Illinois River.
X.,    „   VII., VIII—Two New Earthworms.
ii ii     XI,     ii I.—Relations  of  Animals  to  their   Inland
Environments.
ii Fresh-water Fishes.
National Museum of Wales—Annual Report, 1913-14.
Cincinnati Museum Association—Annual Report, 1914.
U.S. Bureau of Education—"The Educational Museum of St. Louis Schools."
Department of Agriculture, N.S.W—Science Bull. 2 : Pests of Coconut Palm.
ii ii    —Catalogue of Scale Insects of Australia.
ii ii    —Farmer's Bull. 95 : Sheep Maggot Flies.
Connecticut Natural History Society—Bull. 20 : Birds of Connecticut.
Manx Museum—Tenth Annual Report and List of Additions.
Jahresbericht des Historischen Museums in Bern, 1914.
Bishop Museum, Honolulu, H.I.—Handbook, Pt. I. : Hawaiian Collections.
National Museum of Victoria, Australia—Ethnological Collections.
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences—" Fossil Birds in the Marsh Collection of
Yale University."
Oakland Free Library—Report, 1914-15.
Grand Rapids Public Library—Report, 1914-15.
Reprint American Journal of Science—Arctic Paleozoic Fossils, by C. Schuchert.
Pterophyllum Foliage, G. R. Wieland.
Mammals and Horned Lizards of Niobrara Co.,
Wyoming, by R. S. Lull.
The Lower Ordovician  at  St.  John,  N.B.,  by
F. H. McLearn.
Vertebrate   Fossils   of   Rock   Creek,   Tex.,   by
E. L. Troxell.
American Fossil Cycads, by G. R. Wieland.
Pleistocene Ground Sloth, Texas, by R. S. Lull.
Reprint   Proceedings   American   Philosophical   Society—Black   Shale   Deposition,   C.
Schuchert.
ii      "Sauropoda and Stegosauria," by R. S. Lull.
ii       "Medina and Cataract Formations of the Siluric of New York and Ontario," by
Chas. Schuchert.
Legislative Assembly of Ontario—Archseological Report, 1914.
Reprint Royal Society of Canada—New sp. Platysomus, Banff, L. M. Lambe.
ii H New sp. Aspideretes, L. M. Lambe.
ii ii Bibliography   of   Canadian   Geology,   1912,   Wyatt
Malcolm.
ii ii Bibliography   of   Canadian   Geology,   1913,   Wyatt
Malcolm. 6 Geo. 5 Provincial Museum Report. N 27
University of Michigan—Report of Museum of Zoology, 1913-14.
Art, Historical and Scientific Association, Vancouver—Handbook, 1915.
National Museum, Melbourne—Memoir No. 2 : Silurian Bivalved Mollusca.
ii ii Memoirs 3, 4, and 5.
Winnipeg Industrial Bureau—Annual Report, 1914.
Museum of History, Science and Art, Los Angeles—Guide to Fossils 1915.
Zoological Society of Philadelphia—Annual Report, 1915.
Entomological Society of British Columbia—Proceedings, 1914 and 1915.
Colorado Museum of Natural History—By-laws and Annual Report, 1913 and 1914.
Royal Canadian Institute—Transactions, May, 1915.
Paper—"The Eyelids and Lachrymal Apparatus of Birds," Dr. C. A. Wood.
Reprint from Ottawa Naturalist—Rare Cases of Albinism, Prof. E. E. Prince.
ii ii New Zealand Peripatus, Prof. E. E. Prince.
it ii Cheap Case for Small Museums, H. I. Smith.
ii ii Additions to the Flora of  Vancouver Island, J. M.
Macoun.
ii ii Geological Survey Work on Point Pelee, Ont., P. A.
Taverner.
Bristol Museum—Report, 1914 and 1915.
Dominion Museum, New Zealand—Annual Report, 1914-15.
Reprint from " The Auk," Vol. XXXII—Water and Shore Birds of Puget Sound, S. F.
Rathbun.
Charleston Museum, Vol. XL, No. 6—Natural History Notes.
XL,    „    1—Report, 1914.
3—Financial Support of Museums.
4—Incorporation of the Museum Charter.
5—Constitution.
7—Notes from the Museum.
8—Progress in School Work.
Brooklyn Institute—Annual Reports, 1913 and 1914.
John Crerer Library—Report, 1914, and List of Books on the History of Industry, A. G.
S. Hosephson.
Pennsylvania Museum—Bulletins, 1915, and 39th Annual Report.
Manchester Museum—Report, 1913-14, and Handbook "Stela of Sebak-khu."
Field Museum, Zoological Pub., No.  185, Vol. X., No. 13—New Mammals from Brazil
and Peru, W. H. Osgood.
,i ,i No. 184, Vol. X., No. 1—The Diamond, B. Lauffer.
Philadelphia Museum—Annual Report, 1914.
XL,
XL,
XL,
XL,
XL,
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by William H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1916.

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