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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF WATER RIGHTS BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS FOR THE YEAR ENDING… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1917

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
EEPOET
OF
Watee Eights Beawch
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS
HON. T. D. PATTULLO, Minister
WILLIAM YOUNG, Comptroller
FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31st
1916
£&-*■
THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH C0U3KB1A.
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY   OF   THE   LEGISLATIVE   ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
rrinted by William H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1917.  Victoria, B.C., March, 1917.
To His Honour Frank Stillman Barnard,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Water Bights
Branch of my Department for the year ending December Slst, 191G.
T. D. PATTULLO,
Minister of Lands. Water Eights Branch,
Department of Lands,   '
Victoria, B.C., March, 1917.
The Hon. T. D. Pattullo,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Water Bights
Branch for the year 1916.
In submitting the report for the year 1914, the recommendation that reports
be issued biennially, with interim reports on the intervening year, was followed,
an interim report being submitted for that year.
Tn 1915 a brief general report was submitted, which, however, did not contain
full reports of the several districts. An interim report being due for this year, it
has been deemed advisable to follow the form adopted for the year 1915, and submit
a brief general report.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
WILLIAM YOUNG,
Comptroller of Water Rights. REPORT OF THE WATER RIGHTS BRANCH.
Victoria, B.C., December Slst, 1916.
The Hon. T. D. Pattullo,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report concerning the administration of the Water Plights Branch
of the Department of Lands for the year ending 1916. The report of the Chairman of the Board
of Investigation is included, and refers in particular to some of the difficulties dealt with in
the adjudication of records.
Organization.
The enlistment of a large number of efficient men has very seriously affected progress of
the general work. Where formerly there were eight District Engineers who were dealing with
many problems, there now remain but four. Needless to say that with such a reduction it has
been impossible to carry out the general policy laid down in former reports in respect of field-
work essential to the solution of problems in the several districts. In the head office it has
been- practically impossible to do little more than keep pace with current work. This reduced
staff has in a measure delayed the completion of the Board-work on old records. The completion
of this work cannot be too greatly emphasized. Many problems' affecting administration are
dependent upon such completion, and the earlier it obtains, the sooner will the Water Rights
Branch organization be established on a permanent basis.
The difficulties thus contended with, however, have had the effect of drawing attention to
improvements which may be made in the organization that will not only mean economy, but
effectiveness in administration. At the present time this organization provides for concentration
at Victoria with district offices. The establishment of water communities under the " Water
Act" has been a means of bringing the actual water-user into closer touch with the Department.
Such communities, with the co-operation of the Department, have, in cases, been instrumental
in solving their own difficulties; but while it may not be possible in one season to have
communities established in all districts, as provided in the Act, it is important that settlers
should form associations which will take an active interest in the solution of their own
particular problems, and once a year send a representative to a central meeting where water
problems in general may be discussed. Briefly, a Provincial Water-users' Association might be
formed which would be representative of all districts, and which would annually meet with
departmental officers to consider water problems.
The revision of districts proposed in the report of 1915 has been carried into effect. At
present, however, but four offices are maintained—viz., Nelson, Kamloops, Okanagan, and
Vancouver. To cope with the problems and keep pace with general development, more attention
will require to be given to the northern portions of the Province; in particular, those sections
along the line of the Pacific Great Eastern and the Grand Trunk Pacific Railways. To this
end offices might well be located at Lillooet and Fort George or Hazelton for the season, of
1917.
" Water Act."
Inasmuch as the " Water Act" was not opened at the session of the Legislature of 1916,
a number of suggestions in respect of amendments were not brought into effect. These
suggestions are still in order and are briefly as follows:—
(1.)  That District Engineers may exercise the powers of Water Recorders in receiving
applications:
(2.)  The necessity for legislation that will permit of the partial incorporation of towns
to enable them to finance waterworks installations:
(3.)  Legislation in respect of the irrigation companies:
(4.) Legislation in respect of artesian water.
Attention may be called to the fact that certain provisions of the " Municipal Act" and the
" Health Act " are at variance with those governing similar matters in the " Water Act."    The
two former Acts should be amended so that the procedure under the several Acts may be uniform. M 6 Department op Lands. 1917
Under section 140 of the " Water Act" a municipality may purchase an irrigation licence
with the approval of the Board. Under subsection (30) of section 53 of the "Municipal Act,"
as amended by section 5 of the " Municipal Act Amendment Act, 1915," a municipality may pass
a by-law for the purchase Of the whole or any portion of a licence, etc. As matters stand, a
municipality can apparently acquire water rights and irrigation-works in contravention of the
" Water Act." In more than one case holders of water records have sold and attempted to
convey to municipalities rights which under the " Water Act" were in excess of anything they
possessed.
Sections 22, 23, and 24 of the " Health Act," as enacted by section 4 of the " Health Act
Amendment Act, 1915," provide that a municipality or waterworks company shall submit plans
and specifications of their proposed works to the Board of Health, which shall be approved by
that Board. Under the " Water Act" plans and specifications of all proposed works must be
approved by the Comptroller of Water Rights before any works can be constructed. The
necessity for filing them with and having them approved by the Board of Health does not
appear.
Raihcay Belt.—Records issued within the boundaries of the Railway Belt prior to the date
of the Railway Belt agreement carried with them the right-of-way to ditches, or in the case
of the storage rights, the site. This has been the stand takeu by the Department, inasmuch as
the first record-holder complied with all the requirements of the law at the time. In respect
of records issued since such date—viz., 19th April, 1884—the stand taken by the Department of
the Interior at Ottawa is that, notwithstanding anything in the " Railway Belt Water Act,"
which validated all such records, no rights-of-way over Crown lands in the right of the
Dominion were acquired. This has necessitated notifying by letter all holders of such records
or licences issued in lieu thereof.
That the Dominion authorities might more closely follow water applications, complete sets of
Railway Belt water maps have been sent to both Ottawa and the Dominion Land Offices in the
Belt. As water applications are received copies are immediately forwarded to Ottawa, and,
notwithstanding that the "Water Act" states the applicant must file his application to cross
Dominion lands with the Comptroller of Water Rights for transference to Ottawa, he is advised
immediately on receipt of his water application to notify the Dominion Land Agent, just as he
would any private owner whose lands he proposed to cross. The object in such procedure is
that the applicant may by prompt action establish priority in his land application, whereas, if
he delays, a pre-emption entry in the meantime may be made covering the land it is proposed
to cross, when the question of entry on such land is similar to the procedure in respect of
private lands involving special agreement or compensation.
Public Irrigation Corporations.
In respect of the formation of public irrigation corporations as a solution to the irrigation
company problem, little progress was made during the year, excepting in one case—viz., Peachland. The requirements of the Act were carried ont and the finding of the Board laid before
the residents at a meeting held in Peachland. The outcome was that the question did not go
to a vote, it being deemed preferable to continue on for a time under existing conditions.
Of the petitions filed, but two, Peachland and Kelowna, have been fully complied with.
Considerable work was done in respect of the others, enough to make it evident that conclusions
to be arrived at would be similar to those in the first two mentioned. In fact, it became more
and more obvious as time passed that the public irrigation corporation as proposed under the
Act for the purchase of the irrigation systems of the users was not a solution to the company
problem, although the administration as proposed thereunder might have proved effective.
The problem is more fully referred to hereinafter by E. Davis, M.Can.Soc.C.E., Chief
Engineer of the Branch, in his report on the findings of the Board in respect of the several
petitions.
The apparent ineffectiveness of the irrigation corporation legislation soon became obvious
to the water-users in several districts, and many petitions came in urging action that would at
least protect those water-users who were now on land subject to works that were iu more or
less danger from the failure of parts which were much in need of repair, and for which no
provision could lie made by those in charge.    These petitions crystallized in the appointment 7 Geo. 5 Water Bights Branch. M 7
of A. R. Mackenzie, towards the end of 1915, to make an investigation into the physical and
financial conditions of several of the irrigation companies. Reference is made to this report
in the Water Rights Branch Report of 1915, as being awaited before any decision could be
made iu respect of legislation that would place the Government in a position to effectively cope
with the situation brought about through the financial difficulties of these companies. The
report, however, submitted no recommendations; so it became necessary to follow the situation
closely for another season, and to take such action as might be expedient in providing that the
various company systems should continue to operate and supply water to consumers.
The season happily passed without disaster in any system, the Department being of some
assistance in bringing about satisfactory arrangements for the supply of water in four different
sections. The experience gained has not only confirmed the conclusions arrived at by departmental officials, but has brought out other points which make it more and more evident that
legislation cannot be further deferred.
A report of the company situation was prepared by the Comptroller and submitted on
March 27th, 1916. This report dealt with the various phases of the questions—viz., the causes
leading up to the present condition; the status of the companies; the status of the user in
respect of water contracts; the limitations of the " Water Act" in its application to the problem;
and the necessity for legislation. In summarizing, the report points out that, if any solution is
worked out, it will involve, among other things:—
(1.)  A legal investigation to determine the relative rights of the company and the water-
user :
(2.)  Legislation of a public-utility nature which will provide for the operation and
maintenance of works:
(3.)  Legislation that will authorize such expenditure as may be deemed necessary to
repair the works of any company which may be in financial difficulties and upon
whose works large acreages of land are dependent for water.
General Work.
•
Surveys.—Field-work throughout the year was confined to two parties—one on the Willow
River, Prince George District, and the other on Campbell and Peterson Creeks, near Kamloops.
The work on the Willow River was with a view to ascertaining the facts in respect of
water-power possibilities. Another season's work remains to complete the information required,
such pertaining largely to storage possibilities. The work was in charge of George Anderson,
M.Inst.C.E., whose report is to be found on page 25.
The Campbell Creek survey was in the nature of an investigation into reservoir possibilities,
that the Board might have definite information on which to base decisions affecting records.
This creek is one of the most difficult problems before the Board; not only because of the
number of records involved, but because of the uncertainty that surrounds many of the storage
records.
The field-work in the Kamloops District will require to be continued another season. The
work must cover not only Campbell Creek, but other sources of water on both sides of the
Thompson River as far east as Chase. Some investigation is essential on the divide at the head
of Guichon Creek to provide definite information on the question of the diversion of flood-water
to the Railway Belt side. Field-work of a minor nature will be necessary in many places in
connection with pending applications on creeks that are almost, if not fully, recorded.
Well-boring.—The investigation carried on in 1914 and 1915 by George Anderson, M.Inst.C.E.,
on artesian water directed attention to the extent that such is made use of in the Lower
Mainland. That the development of such water has been a great factor in the growth of that
section is beyond question, and it confirms the conclusion that if other sections are to be
developed, then well-drilling must be brought within the reach of every rancher in districts
where the water-plane is too deep for the ordinary well to reach.
In view of the number of applications filed for assistance, a boring-machine that had been
used on but one job was purchased, fitted up, and shipped to the Chilko District iii charge of
W. Marsh, whose report on page 13 goes into detail.
The experience gathered in this work has made possible the drafting of proper rules and
regulations for the hire of the drill or drills, as the case may he, if the scope of the work is M 8
Department of Lands.
1917
enlarged. A proper form of contract has also been considered, as it cannot be expected that in
every case immediate payment will be possible. These, However, are matters for consideration
upon the determination of a policy in respect of this problem.
The importance and necessity for the continuation of survey investigation along definite
lines should not be overlooked. It has been referred to in the reports of the last three years,
and in the circumstances need not be repeated here.
Bulletins and other Reports.
Attention is directed to the annual report of R. G. Swan, Chief Engineer of the British .
Columbia Hydrometric Survey, for the year 1915.
The Water Rights Branch Hydrometric Bulletin referred to in previous reports is ready.
It is now but a matter of printing.
Bulletin No. 44 on Irrigation, as issued by the Department of Agriculture in 1912, might
well be revised, as the demand for such information has exhausted the issue.
In respect of the report of the Commission of Conservation on the water-powers of British
Columbia, A. V. White, states that everything possible has been done to facilitate publication,
but circumstances connected with the war have made heavy inroads on all the office staffs,
including their own.
Appendices.
The appendices to this report include " Irrigation Headgates," " Water-powers of 500 Horsepower and Upwards," " Grizzly Bar Self-clearing Intake and Diversion," and " Useful Data."
In respect of the water-powers, in many instances the information available is insufficient
to check the amount of power given.    As data has come to hand, however, corrections are made.
The grizzly bar or self-clearing intake was designed by W. J. E. Biker, A.M.Can.Soc.C.E.,
District Engineer at Nelson, to get over the difficulties met with in diverting water from steep
mountain streams.    Several have been installed and are giving excellent results.
»
GENERAL OFFICE.
The system of administration in order during the year 1915 continues, the report hereinafter,
as for that year, being largely statistical. The work has still been handicapped by the reduction in staff caused by the number of enlistments, and the transfer of the Chief Clerk, C. A.
Pope, to the Lands Branch as Acting-Secretary.
The comparison each year since the outbreak of the war is of interest:—
Inside Staff.
July, 1914.
Dec, 1915.
Dec, 1916.
4
26
12
o
o
(J
17
5
0
15
6
*>
Of the outside staff the comparison is equally interesting:—
Outside Staff.
July, 1914.
Dec, 1915.
Dec, 1916.
7
2
4
6
7
2
4
2
4
3
9 7 Geo. 5
Water Bights Branch.
M 9
Applications received, etc
The following statement is of interest in that it is an index to the volume of work passing
through the Branch. It may be noted that within a period of three years from the establishment of the Branch the number of applications per annum increased from 154 to 741, or about
five times. It may also be noted that the number per annum has since decreased by two-
thirds. As well as being an index to the volume of work, the statement indicates the boom
period through which the Province has passed.
Applications received.
Licences issued.
Permit
and
Authorization
issued.
Applications
Year.
At                At Gov"
vi„r,„i„         eminent
Victoria.      Agencies,
Total.
From
Victoria.
From
Government
Agencies.
Total.
lapsed,
withdrawn,
cancelled.
1909    	
1910   	
1911   	
1912   	
1913   	
1914   	
1915   	
1916   	
20
31
47
691
580
493
284
231
i
134
575
594
154
406
741
691
580
493
284
231
10
132
51
69
335
323
248
56
278
433
56
288
565
51
69
335
323
248
64
396
141
36
17
75
190
187
125
43
Totals . .
2,377
1,203
3,580
1,168
767
1,935
654
620
In respect of the applications filed during the years 1909, 1910, and 1911, a large number
came from the Dominion Railway Belt. Owing to the deadlock ill respect of administration in
the Belt these applications could not be dealt with. However, upon the transfer of the administration of water to the Province under the Dominion " Railway Belt Water Act" in August
of 1913, the work of disposing of such applications was taken up, and has, in the light of
conditions, progressed with reasonable satisfaction.
The effect of the amendment in the " Water Act" of 1914 which enables the Comptroller
to shorten the procedure and issue a conditional licence directly in lieu of an authorization may
be noted in the small number of permits or authorizations issued since 1914.
Revenue.
The revenue for 191G is given in the following statement. Notwithstanding general
conditions, the rentals have come in fairly well. There are, however, a large amount of
arrears in respect of power licences; the matter of these has- already been referred to herein.
Exception has been taken in a number of cases to statements rendered on back rentals due.
Record-holders in these cases seemed to have an idea that when they acquired the water
privilege on the payment of the recording fee, there were no annual rentals to pay. At the
present time there is a Suspense Account of about $45,000, representing fees paid on applications
pending. An effort is being made to dispose of as many of these applications as possible and
bring the money to account. M 10
Department of Lands.
1917
Revenue for Year ending December 31st, 1016.
Purposes.
Record Fees.
Rentals.
Totals.
$   114 00
243 00
825 70
952 00 '
1 00
25 00
264 50
1,567 50
95 55
5 00
1,250 00
$     108 50
867 45
2,469 17
6,437 98
369 41
55 75
1,225 42
45,590 07
175 00
822 60
$ 222 50
1,110 45
3,294 87
7,389 98
370 41
80 75
1,489 92
47,157 57
175 00
12. Storage   	
918 15
5 00
1,250 00
Totals   	
$5,343 25
$58,121 35
$63,464 60
Summary of Revenue to December 31st, 1916.
Total record fees and rentals of year ending—
June 1st, 1910 .' $    4,057 IS
June 1st, 1911   49,591 04
June 1st, 1912   29,849 08
June 1st, 1913   37,794 60
June 1st, 1914    42,004 94
December 31st, 1914 (seven months)    IS.195 97
December 31st, 1915    2S.116 48
December 31st, 1916    63.464 60
Total     $273,073 89
DRAWING OFFICE.
E. G. Marriott. Chief Draughtsman, reports as follows :—
" Owing to the enlistment of two more of the draughtsmen and the resignation of another,
the Draughting Office staff was for some time reduced to three, and even with the continuous
assistance of one of the Field Engineers, it has been impossible to deal adequately with the
work in hand, especially as owing to other enlistments the work of dealing with the engineering
side of current applications, conditional and final licences, and approval of plans was handed
over to this office, the result being that there has been throughout the year more than it has
been possible to handle.
" The situation was somewhat relieved by fewer water-rights maps being called for by the
Board of Investigation, but an additional seventy were completed, bringing the total up to 800,
and a further sixty have been compiled from the Surveyor-General's official plans, but are held
over for completion till there is an opportunity for a competent draughtsman to print them
up. These maps nearly cover the ground required, (he remaining records being more scattered,
so that in many cases standard water-rights maps will be unnecessary for the purpose -of
adjudication.
" The making of plats to accompany the orders of the Board has afforded constant work,
over 400 having been prepared during the period under review.
" There are two important features of the Board-work affecting this office that might be
brought to your attention—namely, that applications for approval of plans called for by the
Board where record-holders whose rights were confirmed had not begun to utilize the water
are now coming in.   The number falling under this head is not easily available, but working 7 Geo. 5 Water Bights Branch. M 11
on a tested percentage basis of the total number of records, it may be in the neighbourhood of
1,500, each of which as it is received requires approval of the proposed works and a plan of
same; also many holders of conditional licences under orders issued by the Board are called
upon to show proof of completion of works in the immediate future, so that plats for about
4,000 final licences will have to be made.
" The number of front-office files (in distinction from Board-work) dealt with during twelve
months was 569, this covering the work on new applications and licences taken over by this
office this year; there has also been the usual demand for tracings and general information.
" The Department of the Interior, finding it difficult to locate lands described in licences
as parts of the old Provincial townships in force before the British Columbia Railway Belt
was formed, asked the assistance of this Branch, and a special series of water-rights maps was
prepared, consisting of two index sheets and twenty-six maps, showing the comparative positions
of the old Provincial and present Dominion townships. These have proved of service on many
occasions.
" The ultimate aim of this office, besides dealing with current work, is to have a series of
maps showing all water rights in the Province, either granted or applied for, and also, where
possible, the positions of all flumes, ditches, pipe-lines, and others. To this end every opportunity
has been taken during the last three years to place these rights on our plans, and it is a pleasure
to report that this has now been completed to date, except for records not yet dealt with by the
Board, the total number of live rights shown on our maps being approximately as follows :—
" Authorizations for which conditional licences have not yet been issued...     250
Conditional licences  2,028
Final licences        220
Water licences         972
Water records    3,300
Total     6,770
" It will be noted that it has been impossible to have this work done by the experieuced
draughtsmen, as their time is fully occupied, but the services of juniors and fieldmen temporarily
in the office have been utilized. Also in 1913 and 1912 especially there was such a rush in the
preparation of the water-rights maps that they were drawn up by any one who could trace, with
the result that a considerable number are of very varied quality and divergent style. Also
alterations suggested by experience have been made in the later maps that have greatly increased
their general usefulness ; so that, although this office is now in possession of a very large amount
of information readily available, it is not in such shape as to give any idea of the amount of
work involved."
THE BOARD OF INVESTIGATION.
The Chairman of the Board, J. F. Armstrong, reports as follows:—
" The chief duty of the Board since its appointment has been the hearing of claims to water
records granted by virtue of Acts in force previous to March 12th, 1909, and prescribing the
terms (not inconsistent with the 'Water Act') upon which the licences replacing such records
will be granted.
" These rights had been acquired under Mining Ordinances and Acts from 1858 to 1897, and
under the Lands Ordinances and Acts from 1865 to 1897.
" In 1892 important enactments were made regarding the vesting of all unrecorded water in
the Crown, and authorizing the granting of water records for waterworks systems and for the
generation of power.
" Most of these records made before 1886 were very defective, very few containing all the
material information required by the Acts. Much litigation ensued, and the Courts found that
some of the records produced before them were invalid, in consequence of such information not
being set out. The result was that doubt was cast on many of the records then in existence.
The situation was met to a certain extent by the enactment of section 3 of chapter 10, ' Land
Act Amendment Act, 1886,' which I quote in full as it has a bearing on a groat number of the
Board's determinations:—
" ' Section 3. And whereas many records of water rights and privileges have in past times
been honestly but imperfectly made, and it is desirable that such records should have legal M 12       > Department of Lands. 1917
recognition: Therefore it is declared and enacted that in all cases where the validity of any
water record heretobefore made may be called in question and the Court or Judge before whom
the case is pending shall be of opinion that such record was bona fide made, the same shall be
held to be good and valid so far as the making and entry thereof is concerned, and effect shall
be given thereto according to the intent thereof.'
" This legislation was satisfactory as far as it went, but the majority of ambiguous records
never came up before any Court for interpretation under this section. Besides this, unfortunately
no steps were taken to have subsequent records correctly made. ■ In fact, records still continued
to be made imperfectly until the provisions affecting water rights in various' Statutes were
repealed by the enactment of the ' Water Clauses Consolidation Act, 1897.'
" In hundreds of cases the streams from which water was to be taken and the lands on
which the water was to be used were not clearly set out or were omitted altogether, and many
a record-holder was of the opinion that the water could be used on any land which he might
subsequently acquire. This, of course, would have given the holder of the first record on any
stream such a monopoly that all who had later rights were threatened with the probability of
their water rights becoming useless whenever the holder of the first right should acquire sufficient
land to use all the water in the stream. A decision by the Court of Appeal of British Columbia,
rendered in 1915 on an appeal from the Board (Morens v. Board of Investigation, XXXI., W.L.R.
468), has, however, made it clear that the water can only be used on land which was legally
occupied by the holder at the date of the water record.
" In 1897 the ' Water Clauses Consolidation Act' was passed, and under it the water records
were prepared with more care, but yet the Board has found that many errors were still made
hi the descriptions of the lands and of the streams. In such cases the Board has followed the
Act of 1886, and has confirmed the right according to the intent of the parties, so far as the
jurisdiction of the Commissioner allowed.
" There have been many cases where storage rights have been claimed and have beeu objected
to, and these have been difficult to decide. Until 1908 there was no legislation authorizing the
issue of a record for the storage of water, but as early as the ' Land Act' of 1875 there was an
enactment (section 55, chapter 98) which protected a record-holder who had constructed any
dam, breakwater, or other improvements made for saving or economizing the water of the
stream, and which forbade any interference by a prior record-holder. In 1908 an amendment
to the ' Water Clauses Consolidation Act' provided that records theretofore granted conferring
or allowing the storing of water should be considered to carry this right or privilege from the
date thereof. When a person who had been authorized to divert water at a specified point on
a stream had constructed storage-works at the head of the stream or one of its tributaries without
having special authority to do so, and such storage-works have been substantial, the Board has
directed that a licence for a storage purpose should be issued to the claimant.
" The Board in determining rights under water records has followed the rule laid down
for the guidance of Gold Commissioners " in regard to the adjustment of water-supply and the
equitable distribution thereof' in certain cases—viz., to procure the greatest beneficial use of the
entire available water-supply.    (Section 144 of the ' Water Clauses Consolidation Act.')
" In order that the confusion caused by the imperfect and sometimes erroneous descriptions
of the streams and lands in the old licences may be eliminated for the future, the licences which
are being issued under the present Act to replace the former v/ater records contain specific
description of the lands and the streams, springs, or other sources of water-supply. To make
these points as definite as possible a blue-print is attached to the licence showing the boundaries
of the land, the stream, the point where the water is diverted therefrom, and the position of
dams, ditches, and other works. In licences for irrigation purposes, whenever sufficient information is at hand, the particular part of the land that is irrigable ii marked, but where the
exact situation of the irrigable portion of the land is undefined, the licence states that a certain
number of acres within the boundaries of the land are claimed to be irrigable. A final licence
for irrigation is not issued until the irrigated area has been exactly located and mapped out.
" The difficulties encountered by the Board in its researches and its endeavours to arrive at
a true interpretation of some of the older water records have been many and varied.
" In the case of hundreds of records issued, say, fifty years ago to persons long since dead,
where streams are called by names quite different from those by which they are now known and
the land is not even referred to, the problems before the Board may be imagined, especially when 7 Geo. 5 Water Bights Branch. M 13
it is remembered that it is next to impossible to find any one now living who has a clear recollection of the facts connected with any particular record.
" Owing to a want of knowledge on the part of the public of the limitations of the rights
conferred by old water records, and to a very general ignorance of the somewhat complicated
provisions of the present Act, which prevails throughout the country, the efforts of the Board
and the difficulties it has to contend with are not always understood or appreciated.
" Of the water records and claims which have come to the knowledge of the Board since
1909—
5,985 have been determined.
149 are under consideration.
35S are Indian claims.
566 have not yet been heard.
7,05S
" During the past year the Board has issued—
557 orders directing the issue of licences.
606 orders cancelling water records.
1,163."
ENGINEERING INVESTIGATION.
Owing to the strict economy practised and also to the fact that the majority of the engineering staff have volunteered for the front, this phase of work has been almost eliminated, and the
administration of the " Water Act " has practically wholly occupied the remaining members of
the staff.
Water-supply to Cities, Towns, etc
No investigations for this work have been carried out during the past year.
Artesian Wells.
The operations oil boring for water were under the direct supervision of W. Marsh, and his
report on the season's work is as follows :—
" On arrival at Vanderhoof in the middle of June last, the district reaching from Chilko
east of Vanderhoof to Fort Fraser was looked over, a distance of approximately fifty miles, and
found that water was greatly needed on the majority of the lands settled on. In every locality
settlers were anxious to have water procured on their farms. At Fort Fraser alone seven settlers
applied for the use of the drill; considering that the writer arrived in the district unannounced
and only had four hours in the town, seems to show the great need for this form of aid to the
farmers. On the return to Vanderhoof a number of improved farms were passed, having excellent
buildings, etc., the late settlers of which had left the country after spending much time and
expense in sinking wells for water, some having dug down as deep as 80 to 100 feet, and, being
unsuccessful, this it was understood was the direct cause for their leaving the country. All this
dry land lies to the south of the river and in the neighbourhood of Tatchet and Noolki Lakes.
On the property of one fanner visited was a lake of about 50 acres. There was a well 6 feet
deep on this property and had been used ever since the farmer had located, and it was apparently
a permanent one; this year it has dried up entirely. The lake bad also dried out and he had
ploughed the whole of its bed. This man sunk a well in the bottom of the old lake, but was
unsuccessful in obtaining water.
" Chilko District.—This district lies six to fourteen miles east of Vanderhoof, on the north
side of the Nechako River, and is of somewhat higher altitude, and seems to the writer to be
the driest in these parts. Of the settlers, who number about thirty families, there seems to be,
from a personal canvas, only two who have what might be called a sufficient supply of water.
One of these has several very good springs which never freeze up; while the other has put in
much labour in damming up a creek which runs only in the spring and early summer, and which
gives him, he considers, a sufficient supply of water; although in view of the fact that several
lakes, considered permanent, have disappeared this year, the dam is in a measure an experiment.
There has been a well dug on nearly every farm, but beyond a few feet of water in the spring M 14
DePo^rtment of Lands.
1917
none have given a permanent supply, so the settler, being somewhat discouraged and seeing
nothing else to do, leaves the country. Of course, it must be understood that this year has been
an exceptionally dry one, and lakes and creeks never known to fail have gone completely dry.
There remains this fact, however: that for the last three years there has been a steady lowering
of lakes and drying-up of creeks, which sources of supply may or may not return. Water-carting
seems to occupy six months of the year, and many farmers have had to travel three miles and
a half for water, making seven miles for the round trip.
" Public Bore.—From a careful study of this locality and conditions prevailing, the writer
would suggest that a well be sunk on the north-east corner of Section 2, Township 10.    This
31
32
33
34
-35
36
5ARGENT
30-
LATHAM GILBERT
29
TO VANDERHOOf _
DAVIS        jsj^
Mc MORAN
-26-
RAY        AINSLEY
27-
BURNSTEAD  MOORE
26^
M REID £
-25 I-
I
O.JREID        f=f
19
20
REID
21
©
Proposed Well
tur
^22
-T£
\&
COTT        L REID
23-
cameron! f reid
m REID
-24
18
17
16
15
14
13
would be on the existing main road to Vanderhoof and railway-station, and as near as possible
to the centre of the settlement a pump could be installed in the event of artesian water not
being obtained at a reasonable depth. The owner of the section is willing to donate one acre
for this purpose, which would be included in the road allowance. By boring at the site suggested
some thirty settlers would at the most have only two miles to drive their stock and to haul
water for domestic purposes, which would improve conditions for the present at least.
" In concluding this report on the Chilko District, it might be said that the only time that
the drill at present in this district could be used would be in the spring, when an abundance of
water is easily available for the use of the plant.
" Brae Side.—During the writer's stay in the Vanderhoof District and for some little time
before the opening-up of the land for settlement (viz., October 10th), many intending settlers
arrived and were shown the land by the proprietor of the local livery-stables. All seemed to
be well satisfied with the land, but when they inquired as to the possibilities of getting water, 7 Geo. 5 Water Bights Branch. M 15
the majority decided not to locate, as the drill would have to operate before a settlement could
be established. Of course this is stated with some reserve, as up to the time of the writer's
visit no wells had been dug.
" Snell's Well.—It was decided to start drilling in the present dug well, which is 34 feet
deep, 5 feet by 3 feet, and well cribbed. On starting, a blue clay mixed with sand was drilled
in and reached to the level of 80 feet, running into a soft grey silt. In this material it was not
necessary to drill, it being possible to drive the pipe and clean out afterwards, the strata gradually
hardening until at the 137-foot level quicksand was encountered, causing considerable trouble.
It was here that this static pressure was sufficient to throw up sand and water 106 feet; so
quickly did the sand settle that the pipe could not be driven into it more than 12 inches at a
time. This necessitated the drilling and removing of the 106 feet of sand to allow another foot
to be driven as soon as the sand again freed the bottom of the pipe. An interesting fact connected
with this strata of sand was the great amount of bark and lignite taken out with each flush or
cave-in of sand, each piece of bark being water-worn, showing conclusively that it must have
been washed for some very considerable distance to have become round and smooth. The time
taken to lower the casing through this strata was ten days, and approximately 5 cubic yards of
sand was taken out and 1,600 feet of drilling done to obtain 184 feet of bore. At the 146-foot
mark blue clay was again struck, but without the gravel and sand mixture, and continued on
to the 183-foot level, when a hard green sandstone appeared. This strata was only 12 inches
thick, and when pierced a good flow of water was got, running to within 15 feet of the surface,
or, in other words, 169 feet of a rise. A deep-well pump has been installed, with l^-inch
delivery-pipe and a 3-inch barrel 40 feet from the surface, and with constant pumping does not
seem to affect the height of the water to any extent.
" Redman's Well.—Situated six miles north of Vanderhoof and at a slightly higher altitude.
Again drill was started in an old well. The writer was given to understand that when the old
well was dug some three years ago water was struck at 35 feet from the surface and flowed
over, necessitating the digging of ditches to carry the water away, but, like many wells in the
district, has dried up completely.
" The common grey silt was found to exist for 107 feet, when reddish-coloured hard-pan was
struck, continuing for 2 feet, under which a 21-foot strata of dry coarse gravel was met with,
and the pipe with difficulty driven through and the gravel afterwards drilled out. As in the
previous well, soft grey silt (almost a slime) was then encountered, lasting to the 202-foot mark.
It was here that the hardest rock yet found was struck, and proved to be 2 feet thick, of a
greenish colour and of a honeycomb appearance, under which the first flow of water was struck,
which rose to 150 feet and carried with it about 15 feet of sand. Some difficulty was found in
driving the pipe through this strata of rock, but with hard driving it was eventually accomplished.
On continuing drilling, brown clay was drilled through for 7 feet, and the next material proved
to be green sandstone fairly soft at first, but hardening as drilling proceeded, until at 214 feet
water was struck, which rose rapidly to within 11 feet of the surface. No time was lost in
installing a pump with a 2-inch delivery, 4%- x 10-inch barrel, 27 feet down the bore. Pumping
was started, and by constant {jumping for two hours the water was cleared of mud, the pump
throwing a full stream during the whole time, and as far as could be seen had not lowered the
water at all. The water is very cold, as soft as rain-water, and apparently is'excellent for
domestic purposes.
" Beaudoin's Well.—This bore proved to be the easiest to complete, there being no quicksand
encountered, and owing to the short'distance drilled was completed in seven days' drilling. The
farmer decided to have the drill start in the existing dug well, 54 feet deep by 2 feet 6 inches
by 5 feet, and well cribbed. This well, like others, has had for three years 35 feet of water.
Two years and a half ago the water began to lower, and this year, with the exception of
6 inches or so of seepage-water, was non-producing. The blue clay and sand mixture common
to other wells was first found to exist, and the strata lasted to the 108-foot level, followed by
soft grey silt through which it was possible to drive the pipe without drilling (but, of course,
using the drill occasionally to ensure a straight hole being drilled), until at 150 feet a green
sandstone was struck which proved to be 10 feet thick. At this depth a moderate flow of good
water was obtained, but the dirtiest water yet found, which rose to 100 feet, or, in other words,
50 feet from the surface of the ground. 31 16
Department of Lands.
1917
SECTIONS
OF WELLS SUNK IN THE
NECHACO  VALLEY.
SNELL
Ground
Old yv,dt
O tm
341
2
Blue clay     X
SO
Very soft
grey silt
92
r
Grey silt
harder
Quicksand
great pressure
Blue Clay
tfh $
Sandstone ?s
164
Depth
;\
■:
-2378'
2363
2333
a.
v
s
.2238
REDMAN
"O'BB —
Old well
17
N
Gney silt
«
Sloe hard
io7;
pan
-109
Dry coarse
gravel
130
Very soft
grey silt
_2I34
above se<3 level
Sandstone^ |
Sandstone
214
;
S
M W
-2378
2367
BEAUDOIN
 O'
Old we I
2324
54'
US
Blue clay &
fine gravel
108 &
Very soft
grey silt
150
Sandslbne
1601
Ik,
Ii
2174
_2I64'
Level.
2328'
2216 7 Geo. 5 Water Eights Branch. M 17
" In the writer's opinion it was a mistake to stop drilling at this point, as it has been
proved by both Redman and Snell wells that there is another water-bearing strata within a
short distance of the first flow which proves to be of greater static pressure, and consequently
rises nearer the surface, making it possible to install a larger pump for the same amount of
power used.
"Discoloration of Water.—The condition of the water calls for some little study, and has
occurred in each of the three wells. At the first starting of the pump the water naturally is
dirty, but in time becomes quite clear; but on continuing pumping it again becomes discoloured.
The cause of this, it seems to me, is the caving of the fissure at some spot. For instance, if the
pump has, say a 2-inch capacity and the fissure at some place has a l^-inch pipe capacity, it
seems to me that sufficient friction would be caused at this point to break away the walls,
causing loose material to discolour the water. This is proved, the writer thinks, by the water
iigain becoming clear. This has happened in all the wells, but a greater time elapses between
the dirty periods and will probably right itself in time."
Public Irrigation Corporations.
The report by E. Davis, M.Can.Soc.C.E., member of the Board, in respect of the formation
of public irrigation corporations is as follows:—
" Although considerable work was done towards the formation of public irrigation corporations, the Board of Investigation has been unable to report- satisfactorily to the Minister of
Lands recommending the establishment of these co-operative associations.
" Since the coming into force of the ' Water Act' of 1914, in which are incorporated the
sections which deal exclusively with the formation of public irrigation corporations, several
petitions have been received by the Minister of Lands for incorporation of localities, and
considerable interest has been manifest as to how the Act would work out in actual practice,
and whether it would solve the difficulties which were evidently foreseen as coming to the
irrigated districts.
" The Board of Investigation were required by the Minister to report upon the practicability
and feasibility of the proposed corporations, and have issued preliminary reports in two cases.
These reports clearly set out the inadvisability of proceeding with the incorporation of districts
under similar conditions, and it is the purpose of this review to outline the difficulties which
have to be faced and for which solution must be found before the Minister of Lands would be
justified in giving his consent to the formation of corporations.
" As is well known, the agitation which led the Government to make provision on the
Statutes of the Province for co-operative irrigation was strengthened considerably by the action
of the Western Canada Irrigation Association at a meeting held at Kelowna, Okanagan Valley,
in 1912. The resolutions passed at this meeting were strongly in fayour of the Government
making investigations for the placing of provisions in the Statutes for co-operative irrigation.
This resulted, as stated before, in the sections in the 1914 " Water Act" for the formation of
what are there called public irrigation corporations, or what have received the name in the
Dry Belt of water municipalities. As stated at the Kelowna Convention, the reason for the
agitation was the fact that the water-users under the ' Company systems' were ' absolutely
dependent on the successful operation of a large system over which they have no control, and
that the companies may go out of existence, or get into difficulties and pass into a receiver's
hands and cease operating.' The benefits as stated which would be derived by the co-operative
control would be: (1) Absolute insurance of perpetuity; (2) cost of service reduced or better
service installed; (3) majority of Board (called trustees in 'Water Act') being actual owners
of land and users of water, their management would be in the interest of users.
" As will be shown, the actual procedure of how this was to be accomplished was not
worked out, especially when works of the companies had to be acquired, otherwise the statement that water would be cheaper with co-operative control would probably not have been
made.
" Consideration has been given by the Water Rights Branch in five cases to the formation of
public irrigation corporations, namely :—
(1.) Kelowna, including Ellison.
(2.)  Peachland.
2 M 18 Department of Lands. 1917
(3.) Naramata.
(4.) Westbank.
(5.)  South Vernon.
" The Board of Investigation have made preliminary reports respecting the first two; these
reports having been submitted to the trustees of the proposed corporations.
" It may be noted that in the first three cases it is the intention to take over control of
irrigation systems now being operated by companies, and to continue the operation with small
extensions, as now carried on. In the fourth case a new system on a large scale would be
required, taking in and replacing two small ones now in operation; while in the fifth case the
scheme of irrigation is for land no portion of which has been irrigated up to the present. Owing
to the fact that it was suggested that the irrigation companies would take bonds issued by the
public irrigation corporations, it was considered at the time that those schemes which involved
the control of existing irrigation-works would be the easier ones to be incorporated into districts,
and with that in view the Department has spent more time on this class of petition.
" The report required from the Board of Investigation is one which is absolutely necessary
if the bonds or debentures which the proposed corporations would issue are to have any
standing in the financial world. The failures of so many of the irrigation districts in California
may nearly all be attributed to the lack of State supervision before being allowed to organize,
and there is no doubt that similar failures would result in British Columbia if the report of
the Board of Investigation did not fully consider the feasibility and practicability from every
standpoint. The Board acting for the Government must look at the matter as a perpetual
undertaking, and not from the point of view of the land companies who apparently constructed
the irrigation systems for the purpose of selling land.
" This investigation by the Board must include data on the supply of water available for
the land; the character, location, and area of lands to be served with water; and the probable
capital cost per acre, together with an estimate of the annual charges per acre which the
district would have to meet. Included in the capital cost per acre, as suggested in the
petitions, was a price which tvould have to be paid to the companies for the irrigation
systems, and it is this item, together with the reconstruction costs, as can be seen from the
following figures, which are the factors causing the excessive annual charges the Board consider
will have to be met by the proposed corporations. A short statement will clearly show that
until these facts are realized it will be impossible for a district to be organized unless the
water-users are prepared to pay an excessive annual rental for water. As stated before, the
land and water companies were organized In the first place with the object of dividing up
large blocks of land and selling small holdings after having constructed the irrigation system
for bringing water to the land. There was to be an annual charge for this water, and it is
clearly evident after analysis that this charge as originally made did not contemplate the
payment of interest charges on the cost of the system, but was an operation and maintenance
charge.
"To further this point the following extract is made from a letter of a firm of lawyers acting
for a land company:—
" ' When the land is all sold it would be easy to turn over the waterworks to the occupants
and let them run it themselves, as we have not the least doubt that our people would be
perfectly willing to do this, because they have no interest in the water company except as a
benefit to the land they are selling.'
" If the spirit shown in this extract of a letter is endorsed by the various companies, there
would appear to be far greater hope for the formation of public irrigation corporations than
at present, and if only the companies followed what their conscience indicated was a fair and
natural course towards the purchasers of their lands, they must see the situation in the light
as outlined in the foregoing extract. It may be argued that it is indicated in the extract
that the company would turn over the waterworks for a consideration, but the latter part of
the sentence dissipates that idea entirely.
" It is evident to every one that if the water-users on these small holdings have to purchase
the irrigation systems from the companies, after paying a high price for the land, in most
cases varying from $100 to $400 per acre, that interest charges on the bonds issued by the
public corporations would have to be met; that being the case, the annual rentals are bound
to be higher than the companies are charging at present. 7 Geo. 5 Water Eights Branch. M 19
"However, it would appear that the high charges (which would then include interest and
sinking fund on the capital cost of the system) could be met if the purchaser of the land had
only paid a price such as was necessary for the purchase of the land in its arid state plus a
reasonable commission. As it is at present, the water-users on the small holdings invested
practically all their money in the land on the understanding that they were buying irrigated
lands, and now are asked to put up more money for the purchase of the irrigation system. It
is patent to every one that they will be paying for the system twice over, or they could not,
in the first-place, have been buying irrigated lands, for had it been such it must certainly have
included that which was absolutely necessary for it to be called irrigated land—viz., the irrigation system. It is not intended to go further on this point, as it is a matter on which there
is a great difference of legal opinion.
" Referring to the items in the annual charges which will have to be met, it will not be
out of place to give a short description of each:—
"(1.) Interest.—In the case of money which will have to be raised for the purpose of
either acquiring or constructing works, bonds will have to be issued, and for this money interest
will be charged. The bonds will be issued for long terms, probably thirty to fifty years, and
will have to be redeemed sooner or later, for which a sinking fund will have to be provided.
"(2.) Sinking Fund for Redemption of Bonds.—As the name implies, this fund is for the
purpose of redeeming bonds, and must not be confused with the sinking or reserve fund, which
must be provided for the replacement of worn-out structures. In this review thirty years has
been allowed for the redemption of bonds.
"(3.) Depreciation.—For a definition of this item reference is made to the following extract
from the ' Operation and Maintenance Use Book' of the United States Reclamation Service :—
"' No. 182. Classes of Depreciation.—Depreciation may be divided into three or more
well-defined classes: (a) Ordinary wear and tear resulting in small breaks, which are
repaired from day to day, constituting ordinary maintenance; (b) the deterioration which takes
place in a machine or structure in such a way as not to appear as a necessary immediate repair,
but which ultimately results in the entire machine or structure being replaced as a whole after
a more or less extended period of service; (c) unusual or accidental damages resulting from
extraordinary conditions, as floods, fires, etc. The first should be taken care of in the current
maintenance expenses and need not be provided for in any depreciation estimate, as the expense
of repairing the damage is usually coincident with the damage. The second and third divisions
are those which in commercial.undertakings are usually provided for by setting aside a definite
monthly or annual allowance for depreciation. This is sometimes computed on a product basis,
but there is no way of arriving at a mathematically accurate amount to set aside to provide
for such losses. The best that can be done is to set aside in reserve a sum to create a fund
to draw upon when such losses occur. This should be done having in view the constant and
extraordinary deterioration noted above.'
" Referring to the last sentence of the extract, it is proposed to arrive at a sum to be
annually set aside by estimating the life of the various works which compose the system. This
estimate could be revised, say, every five years, and the sum adjusted to meet any extraordinary
deterioration which appears to be going on. It is apparent to every one that this is a very
important fund, especially where, in British Columbia, the life of the structures is not long,
and they will have to be replaced every ten to fifty years, according to their nature and
construction; it would be very unwise to wait until a large structure costing $30,000 or $50,000
had to be replaced, and then charging the whole to the water-users in a few annual payments;
besides, it would mean more selling of bonds or borrowing money.
"(4.) Repairs.—This item would vary from year to year, as the works, no matter how
substantially constructed, will need some attention annually.
"(5.) Management and Operation.—Under this item would come all office expenses, and
wages paid to water bailiffs, ditch-riders, etc.
"(6.) Delinquencies.—Under practically all irrigation systems there will be found cases
where all the moneys due cannot be collected, and it has been found under the irrigation district
laws of California that provision must be made for these bad debts.
" It has been suggested that the towns, etc., which might be close to a proposed corporation
might be included in the territorial limits, so that assistance to meet the annual charges could
be obtained from the townspeople, who are so dependent on the welfare of the district.   However, M 20 Department of Lands. 1917
in the present cases before the Board, it was not considered that at either Peachland, Naramata,
or Westbank could any revenue be derived, so that the whole burden will have to fall on the
water-users. It is very patent to every one that unless the water-users prosper the towns are
certainly not going to, and that a small tax would not be out of place on all property in the
towns. It may be said in this connection that the town of Modesto, in California, is shouldering
approximately one-quarter of the annual taxes of the irrigation district wherein it is situated.
" It is, of course, intended to tax all land inside a territorial limit, whether irrigable or
non-irrigable, but at different rates. However, unless the non-irrigable land has some value
it would be useless to tax it, as it would only pile up a lot of bad debts; and for the purpose
of this article it has been ignored, as it stands to reason that revenue-producing land must bear
the greater portion of the taxes.
"Kelowna Public Irrigation Corporation.—Taking the petition up more in detail, it was
suggested by the proposed trustees for this water corporation that the Kelowna Irrigation
Company would require $400,000 for the irrigation system. From the report of A. R. Mackenzie,
an Engineer employed by the Government, who investigated the books of the Company, the
following figures are available:—■
Cost of works  (book cost)    $496,248 54
Valuation of works by A. R. Mackenzie     165,000 00
Estimated reconstruction cost up to 1922 by A. R. Mackenzie   325,500 00
" In considering the above figures, it would appear that there are three conditions which
might be analysed by using:—
First:   Sum of $400,000 plus reconstruction costs.
Second:   Valuation of system by A. R. Mackenzie plus reconstruction costs.
Third:    Reconstruction  costs   alone.
" In the first case the proposed corporation would have to meet, besides the $400,000, $325,500
additional by the year 1922 to put the company's system in good repair, and also extensions to
the system would be required to supply the other lands inside the proposed territorial limits
which are not at present being supplied with irrigation-water by the Company. This would cost
approximately $50,000, so the total capital cost of the system to the proposed corporations would
be in the neighbourhood of $775,500. Interest on this sum alone would be $46,530 per annum,
and on the 8,850 acres which are considered as irrigable in the Board's report a charge would
have to be made of $5.25 for interest alone. This, together with a sinking fund, depreciation
allowance, operation, and repair expenses, would amount to at least $8.50 per acre per annum.
" From the figures of A. R. Mackenzie as given for valuation of works—i.e., $165,000, plus
reconstruction costs $325,500, and adding $50,000 as cost of extensions—-a sum of $545,000 will
be required by the year 1922 to put the works into good repair. Interest charges at 6 per cent.
on this will amount to $32,430, or approximately $3.70 per acre per annum on the 8,850 acres,
and the total annual charge would be in the neighbourhood of $7.20 per acre.
" Should the proposed public irrigation corporations have possession of the irrigation system
without paying the company a cent for what interest it is supposed to have, it would have to
meet the enormous reconstruction costs as outlined in A. R. Mackenzie's report plus the extensions necessary to serve the other land than that which is supplied by the company inside the
territorial limits. This would mean a charge of $2.43 per acre for interest alone on the 8,850
acres. Adding to this figure ($2.43) a sum of $3.50 per acre for sinking fund, depreciation,
operation, and repairs, it is seen that the water-users would have to meet an annual charge
of at least $6 per acre per annum.
" That the water-users who purchased land from the company could live and thrive under
such a high annual charge is very doubtful, and it was the general opinion of these water-users,
as expounded to the Board, that such a charge was impossible to them, and that they had better
give up their holdings than to try and make good with such a millstone hanging about their
necks. The owners of land Inside the territorial limits who did not purchase their land from
the company, and who at'present have only an indifferent supply of water, should be willing to
meet an annual charge of $6 per acre for a plentiful supply of water, if they take into consideration the fact that part of this charge is payment towards the cost of the works for bringing
water to their land, which is thereby enhanced in value. It is therefore apparent that under
this most favourable condition—viz., obtaining possession of the irrigation system without paying 7 Geo. 5 Water Eights Branch. M 21
the company anything—those who purchased land from the company will have to write off as
lost a considerable portion of the money they have paid for their holdings. Another reason why
the Board could not recommend the incorporation of this district was because the sources of
water-supply were not considered sufficient for all the land inside the proposed territorial limits.
" Peachland Public Irrigation Corporation.—This petition was filed for the purpose of
obtaining co-operative control by the water-users of the system being operated by the Peachland
Townsite Company.
" After the Board of Investigation had been duly authorized to report on the advisability,
etc., by the Minister, an appraisal was made of the irrigation system in order to ascertain what
figure might be used in the Board's report on which calculations, etc., as to annual costs might
be based.    The figures set out in the appraisal were as follows:—
Present value of the irrigation system    $15,000 00
The renewal  expenditure necessary  by  the year  1926 to  put the
system into good shape      19,734 00
Other additional expenses        1,000 00
Total      $35,734 00
The area of land considered as irrigable and arable  under  the
system        700 acres.
Total area of irrigable land under the system    1,660     „
" Using these figures as a basis, it would appear that the proposed corporation would have
to meet a capital charge of approximately $36,000 by the year 1926. Interest at 6 per cent, on
this sum would amount to $2,160 per annum, and for the 700 acres at $3 per acre per annum.
The annual charge for sinking fund for redemption of bonds, depreciation allowance, operation,
and repair expenses would amount to approximately $4 per acre per annum, making in all a
total charge of $7 per acre per annum for the 700 acres of irrigable and arable land. It will
be noted that the operation and maintenance charges are put at 50 cents per acre higher than
at Kelowna, owing chiefly to the fact that the Peachland system is not compact, the 700 acres
being more or less scattered. As the water-users are at present paying at the rate of $2.50 per
irrigable acre, the proposed trustees are loath to recommend to the water-users that the system
be purchased from the company. A point which might be well to draw attention to is that the
company charges $2.50 per irrigable acre irrespective of whether the land is arable or not,
whereas the Board's report only includes in the 700 acres land which is considered both irrigable
and arable, or otherwise land which can be looked upon as revenue-producing in the near future.
It appears, therefore, that the water-users at present are really paying more than $2.50 per
acre per annum for water rental on their revenue-producing land.
" Naramata Public Irrigation Corporation.—In this case the object sought by the petitioners
was also co-operative control of an existing system owing to the fact that during the latter part
of the irrigation season there is a decided shortage of water, and that the company, now called
the Okanagan Securities, Limited, did not appear to recognize any obligations on their part to
make good this shortage by the construction of reservoirs.
" This would appear to be another case where the irrigation system was constructed by a
land company for the purpose of selling its land. It appears that the sale price of land was
in the neighbourhood of $200 per acre. The cost of the system was approximately $45,000 for
1,600 acres, or $28 per acre, and the value of the land without irrigation being barely worth $50
per acre.
" An appraisal has been made of this system for the purpose of the Board of Investigation,
and the following figures are available:—
Present value  of  the  system,  including  irrigation,   domestic,   and
electric light     $23,496 00
The renewal expenditure and the estimated cost of storage-works . %   60,638 00
Other additional expenses        1,000 00
Total      $85,134 00
Area of land considered as irrigable and arable under system      900 acres.
Total area of irrigable land under system    1,600      „ M 22 Department of Lands. , 1917
" Using these figures as a basis, it would appear that the proposed corporation would
eventually have to meet a capital charge of $85,130. Interest at 6 per cent, on this sum would
amount to $5,107 per annum, and deducting the interest ($567) on a capital of $9,464, being the
combined cost of the domestic and electric-light systems, a sum of $4,540 would have to be met
by the water-users on the 900 acres, making a charge per acre of $5 for interest alone. Adding
to this the annual charge for sinking fund for redemption of bonds, depreciation allowance,
operation, and repair expenses, which would be in the neighbourhood of at least $4.50 per acre
per.annum, makes a total of approximately $9.50 per acre to be met by the water-users on the
900 acres.
" The water contracts between the company and the water-users varies from $2.50 to $5 per
acre per annum irrespective of whether the land is revenue-producing or not,
" Westbank Public Irrigation, Corporation.—A petition was prepared for the inauguration at
Westbank, Okanagan Valley, of a public irrigation corporation, the object sought being the
construction of an irrigation system for the supply of water to approximately 13,000 acres of
land. There are at present two small systems supplying 600 acres, and it was intended to
replace these by a much larger and comprehensive system. Considerable work was done by the
Department in making a topographical survey of the land and an investigation into the water-
supply. Owing, however, to the fact that most of the owners of the lands resided at a distance,
interest in the scheme lagged and the details required by the Department were not forthcoming.
From a cursory glance at the map of the headwaters of Powers Creek and the knowledge of the
contentious nature of this stream for the present water-users, it would appear that the scheme
was decidedly ambitious, and that the area of land to be included within the territorial limits
would have to be considerably reduced. Until the money market is in a better condition it will
be practically impossible to go further with the incorporation of a district here, as the money
would have to be raised from outside sources. It would appear that the petition has died a
natural death.
" South Vernon Public Irrigation Corporation.—This petition was filed for the purpose of
incorporating an irrigation district and constructing a system for watering what is locally known
as Mission Hill.
" No works exist at the present time for irrigating any portion of the lands inside the
proposed territorial limits, and it would appear that this petition would be one which would
make a suitable example for the working-out of the public irrigation corporation section of the
' Water Act.' However, as will be shown later, the physical characteristics of the scheme are
against the inauguration of a successful corporation.
" Two schemes were suggested for the irrigation of this land and estimates made by an
Engineer of the Department on both. In the gravitation scheme it was intended to make connection to the Grey Canal of the White Valley Irrigation and Power Company, and thus obtain
water from the Jones Creek watershed (Lakes Aberdeen and Haddo), whilst in the pumping
scheme it was intended to get the water-supply from Long Lake.
" The estimates of cost as given in the Engineer's report to convey water to the 3,185 acres
are as follows :—■
Gravitation scheme     $232,137 00
Pumping scheme     15S,581 00
" Being $72.S7 and $49.7S per acre respectively. Using these figures as a basis, it is seen,
that this land which is at present without irrigation will be increased in capital value to the
extent of either $72.87 or $49.78 per acre, as the case may be.
" The annual expenses are set down for the two schemes as follows:—
" Gravitation—
Interest at 6 per cent, on $232,157    $13,929 00
Sinking fund for redemption of bonds in thirty years       4,875 00
Depreciation at 2% per cent, on $200,000       4,500 00
Operation and repairs         2,750 00
Cost of water      10,000 00
Total     $36,054 00 7 Geo. 5 Water Eights Branch. M 23
" Being $11.35 per acre, including payment of capital, or $5.45 per acre for the operation and
maintenance only. It is seen that the difference between the $11.35 and $5.45—viz., approximately $6 per acre—is the annual payment the present owners would have to pay for the actual
construction of the system; or, in other words, they will be paying off the $72.87 per acre cost
of system by annual payments of $6 per acre for thirty years. (Note.—This includes capital
and interest.)
" Included in the capital cost of $232,157 is a sum of $25,000 suggested by the White Valley
Irrigation and Power Company as a figure they estimate would be required to enlarge their
Grey Canal and provide additional storage facilities. This would have to be met as noted by
the proposed corporation. In addition, the proposed corporation would have to pay an annual
rate of $3 per acre-foot of water, and allowing 1 acre-foot per acre plus an amount of water
the proposed corporation would lose in delivering, an amount of approximately $10,000 per
annum would have to be paid to the White Valley Irrigation and Power Company. This is an
excessive amount, especially as the company is selling water in bulk and not undertaking the
distribution. There appears to be no reason why the company should not obtain from the
Government a revision of the rates at which it at present can sell water, so that a lower rate
could be allowed the proposed corporation. It is this rate which makes the charge of $5.45 per
acre look excessive, as it can be seen that only $2.45 per acre is estimated as being the annual
cost of depreciation allowance and operation—maintenance expenses on the portion of the works
which would be under direct control of the proposed corporation.
" Pumping—
Annual expenses—
Interest at 6 per cent, on $158,581   $ 9,515 00
Sinking fund for redemption of bonds in thirty years  (2.1 per
cent.)          3,330 00
Depreciation at 3% per cent, on $150,000        5,150 00
Operation and maintenance, etc       4,000 00
Cost of electrical energy at 1% cents per kilowatt-hour     38,885 00
Total      $60,880 00
.  " Being $19.10 per acre, including payment of capital, or $15.10 per acre for the operation
and maintenance only.
" In this case it is seen that only approximately $4 per acre would be the annual charge
for the payment of the cost of construction, whereas $15 would be the annual cost of keeping
the system operating. Included in the capital costs is an item for extending the electrical
connections from the City of Vernon limits to the pumping plant at Long Lake, and in the
annual expenses is an item of $38,885 per annum for electrical energy, which is figured at a
rate of 1% cents per kilowatt-hour. This item alone amounts to an annual charge of $12 per
acre, so it is practically out of the question to consider this alternative scheme. The physical
feature which is against the pumping is that the pumps will have to work against a head of
540 feet.
" From the foregoing it is seen that only the ' gravitation ' scheme could be considered, and
providing the charge for water" by the White Valley Irrigation and Power Company was at all
within reason, there is no reason from the figures quoted above why the proposed corporation
should not be successful. The physical features are naturally against an inexpensive system
for providing water for irrigating, and the land-owners cannot expect to have as cheap water
as could be supplied to another tract of land under a more favourable condition.
" Under this arrangement it will be noticed that, if the present value of the land in its
arid state is worth $50 per acre, an additional capital value of $73 will be put upon it by the
system, making in all a value of $123. Also there will be no disputing the fact that the system
belongs to the land-owners, and they cannot be called upon to pay again to obtain control as
is required by the companies in the first three cases mentioned previously.
" Conclusion.—In conclusion, it can only be said that it is very evident that petitions which
are filed for incorporation of districts which intend to take over control of existing works
cannot expect to only pay annual charges for water no higher than they are paying the
companies at present, as it is impossible for these latter to pay interest on the cost of the
systems and at the same time make provision for the permanent upkeep from the annual charges M 24 Department of Lands. 1917
being made at present. This does not mean that the companies would be able to charge what
rental they pleased, as up to the present very few of them have had their rates approved by
the Government, and it is very evident that, when considering these rates, cognizance must be
taken of the high price the water-users paid for their so-called irrigated land.
" The relief which was anticipated would be forthcoming owing to the passage of an Act
for co-operative irrigation has not materialized, nor will any progress be made under the petitions
filed while the companies expect the water-users to ' buy them out.'
" The ' Water Act' as it stands to-day provides sound measures for successful co-operative
irrigation, and it may be said that no Act, however well framed, will in any way relieve the
conditions arising out of the unwholesome way in which the irrigated sections of the Province
have been exploited."
Pritchard Public Irrigation Corporation.—A public irrigation corporation has been proposed
for certain lands in the vicinity of Pritchard and Ducks, in the South Thompson River Valley.
Two schemes for supplying the area with water were proposed, and Clifford Varcoe, the District
Engineer at Kamloops, has made a preliminary report.    This is as follows:—
" On my first trip I went over what might be termed the Chase and Bolean Creek scheme,
including storage on Pillar and Harper Lakes. I was fortunate in securing the services of
R. H. Brett, whose knowledge of the country proved valuable.
" We drove from Pritchard back over the bench lands known as Martin's Prairie to Pillar
Lake, situated a short distance south of the almost right-angled bend in Chase Creek. Some
three or four miles south of Pillar Lake, Bolean Creek (Blair on maps) after an almost
precipitous descent from the mountain enters the valley, thence flowing south-easterly to its
confluence with the Salmon River.
" From Pillar Lake we drove down Chase Creek to Chase, including a side-trip up Charcoal
Creek. A trip was also made to Harper Lake which is situated, at an elevation of some 1,000 to
1,500 feet above the Thompson River between Shuswap and Pritchard.
" As a result of the trip I am convinced that the scheme is impractical from a financial
point of view, even providing there were no other difficulties. To serve the land proposed to be
included, the length of the main system would be from thirty-five to forty miles. The larger
part of such a system would be along steep and in some parts precipitous mountain-sides.
Leaving the construction of the system entirely out of the question, there are other very
important matters to consider.
" According to the figures of the British Columbia Hydrometric Survey for 1915, Chase
Creek has a maximum flow of 300 c.f.s., and a minimum flow of 11 c.f.s. Unfortunately, Bolean
Creek measurements are of very little value, as they include practically the whole of the watershed.    An estimate of the low-water flow from Blair Creek would be from 3 to 4 c.f.s.
" Pillar Lake appears to be negligible as a storage-site for a large scheme. Its area is
probably from 150 to 200 acres. The construction of a dam high enough to store a large quantity
of water would be a very expensive one. Apparently the lake was formed at the end of a long
valley by the action of Chase Creek in bringing down huge deposits of sand and gravel, carrying
it across the valley, thus cutting off the southern portion and forming a lake on the south end.
It is impossible to say to what depth this sand aud gravel extends. This feature plus the length
of dam necessary makes the project impractical. Harper Lake presents many advantages as a
storage-site, provided the water could be put into it. There appears to be a very fair dam-site,
and it should not cost an exorbitant amount to store upwards of 2,000 to 3,000 acre-feet.
" Any scheme that would include less than 7,000 to 10,000 acres is not feasible. Figuring
on a basis of 15,000 acre-feet only, there is not sufficient water without resorting to storage,
which, at best, and including Harper Lake, would not in any event exceed 5,000 acre-feet.
" Additional to the above difficulties would be the diversion of water from one watershed
to another. Along Chase Creek and its large tributary, Charcoal Creek, are thousands of acres
which at some future period will need irrigation. There are other lands, including a large Indian
reserve west of Shuswap, which are more directly tributary to Chase Creek than the lands
considered in the scheme.
" My second trip was to Nisconlith Lake, and up Leakin Creek to the divide between it and
Bear Creek (Hiuihilt Creek). This scheme includes the diversion of Bear Creek into Leakin
Creek and storage in Nisconlith Lake. Bear Creek is a tributary of Adams River. There
appears no difficulty in the way of diverting Bear Creek into Leakin Creek.    Time prevented 7 Geo. 5 Water Bigjits Branch. M 25
us getting as far as Bear Creek, but we did not get over the divide, which appears very low.
I do not think there are any figures available as to the flow of Bear Creek. From all accounts
it is a large stream and is used at the present time by the Adams River Lumber Company for
the fluming of logs. My informant told me that a year ago there was sufficient water to float
large logs down the V-flume, and that a large stream was left in the creek. Nisconlith Lake is
already used for storage purposes by the Indians. From my brief iuspection there appears to be
no great difficulty in the way of increased storage. The lake could be probably raised from 6 to
8 feet above its present high-water level without involving undue expenditure. It is possible
that some land along the eastern end might be flooded. According to Dr. Dawson's plan, Nisconlith Lake is at an elevation of 1,620 feet, or from 450 to 500 feet above the river-flats. To
serve the land on the southern bank of the Thompson River the water would have to be
carried across the river; not an impossible task, but expensive. The scheme deserves further
investigation.
" It would appear necessary, owing to the great complication over the water rights on
Campbell Creek, that a public irrigation corporation is desirable for taking full advantage of
the water and for the construction of the necessary storage-works. The storage capabilities
on the stream have been investigated during the past season and much valuable data collected."
Water-users' Communities.
Several new commuuities have been suggested, and it is probable that before long these will
become a reality.    Those at present existing have continued beneficial operation.
The community at Hefferly Creek, fourteen miles north of Kamloops, has again worked
very satisfactorily, and no complaints have been received from any of its members.
A. P. Augustine, District Engineer at Penticton, reports that at Trout Creek the community
has been in operation the whole season, and that the users declare that it is the first season in
which absolute harmony has prevailed; distribution has been effected without friction, while
operation and maintenance have been both satisfactory and efficient.
At Trepanier some trouble has arisen over the maintenance and upkeep of the water system,
but it is hoped an amicable arrangement can be made w-hen the conflicting parties realize the
true position of affairs. At present there is a cloud on the title to the system, but the matter
will shortly right itself.
These communities do not call for much engineering investigation, as the works are generally
constructed, and the formation of the community is for better and more economical operation of
the ditches, etc. However, the District Engineer is frequently called upon for suggestions or
improvements.
Storage-sites.
Considerable work has been done during the past season in the investigation of the storage
possibilities at the headwaters of Campbell and Anderson Creeks, in the vicinity of Kamloops.
This work was undertaken jointly by Clifford Varcoe and O. J. Bergoust, A.M.Can.Soc.C.E., the
final report of which has not yet been received. Owing to complications over the water records
which came before the Board of Investigation, it was found to be impossible to give decisions on
these records without detail information of the possibilities of storage. This information will
be of great value when considering the incorporation of a public irrigation corporation, which
will have to be formed for the successful operation of these waters.
In respect of storage-sites, mention must be made of the valuable assistance being given
the Water Rights Branch by the Survey Branch of the Department of Lands. The photo-
topographical branch, under the direction of R. D. McCaw, have completed a survey of the east
side of the Okanagan River watershed from Penticton to Vernon. , This work is of great help
in determining the watersheds of the rivers, and therefore invaluable when storage is considered.
Further co-operation in this work is very desirable.
In view of the importance of storing the water of the streams of the Province, this phase
of work will require more and more consideration.
Power Possibilities of Streams.
Owing to the economy practised, this phase of work has not received the attention it merits,
and only one stream—i.e., Willow River—ha;s received attention during the past season.    Geo.
Anderson, M.Inst.C.E., was detailed for this work, and the summary of his season's work is as
follows:— M 26 Department, of Lands. 1917
" The River.—The source of the Willow River is in Jack of Clubs Lake, which is a
comparatively small body of water and is fed by two small streams. Its elevation is about
4,200 feet, and its outlet is at Mile 130 from the junction of the Willow with the Fraser River.
" I have been told that from this point the river falls away northwards to Mile 53, with
gradually changing grades, and from what I have seen it continues so on grades of 10 to 25 feet
per mile, with the exception of the Upper Canyon, to Mile 8.59, at the head of the Lower Canyon,
where the elevation is 1,980 feet.
" The total distance along the river-course from the outlet at Mile 130 to Mile 8.59 is 121
miles, and the difference of elevation is 2,220 feet. Deducting the fall of 178 feet in the two
miles of canyon, leaves 2,042 feet as difference of levels, or 19 feet per mile as the average grade
on this 119 miles.
" The length of the valley from Jack of Clubs Lake is about seventy-three miles, and the
river from its source at Jack of Clubs Lake to north end of valley at Mile S.59 is 121 miles,
or 1.66 times the length of the valley proper.
" Generally speaking, the river presents a series of long stretches of channels, mostly shallow
and fairly uniform in character as to grade, cross-section, depth, and flow of water, with only
a few intervening flatter grades and slow-running stretches of deep water, except at the two
canyons.
•; " The average conditions, other than near and in the canyons, appear to be as follows:
Width about 150 to 200 feet at high water; at low water from about 100 to 150 feet. Depth
on free-running water over the fords from 2 to 2% feet, on shallowest line of crossing at low
water. Deep or sluggish pools, or contracted channels with deep and strong-flowing currents,
are few and far between. The bed throughout is generally small boulders, ranging from a few
inches to half a foot and upwards. Many large boulders and rocks scattered over the river-bed
are to be seen only at low water, and at this stage they would seriously obstruct rafting operations. During high or mean water level they would not cause much trouble, but they would
be dangerous at all stages of the water. During high water the course of the river is free from
sharp bends, but during the dry weather and low water there are a few contracted channels
and sharp angles.
"To make the channel of real value for rafting by removal of the boulders and straightening
the channel at the sharpest curves would only cost a small sum—I mean compared with the
value of this channel for transportation of raw timber. On the shallower fords the flotage
could be established, even at lowest water, by means of cheaply constructed booms, which would
contract the channel to required depth.
" A matter that is likely to seriously affect both the fishing and pulping industries is the
silt-laden condition of the water of the river during floods and up till September. Owing to
considerable amount of mica in this silt-laden water, it may not be good for domestic purposes.
The river-bottom during this period is invisible, owing to the dense grey colour due to the
immense quantity of fine silt in suspension. As a result of this condition, the whole of the
river-bed is covered with a fine powder, which, as deposited under the pressure of water, is a
soft, slimy, tenacious paste.    When dry, it forms a hard crust.
" This condition of things must be detrimental to fish life and development in this river,
for it tends to prevent the water being used freely for feeding or breeding purposes, at least by
fish of the more valuable sporting and commercial species.
" Water-powers.—The only points where power possibilities have been found worth considering during my investigations are at the Lower and Upper Canyons—Sites Nos. 1 and 2.
" Owing to lack of information as to the full value of these reservoir-sites for storage
purposes, and their poor value for same within the 70-foot T.W.L. (which was the limit of
investigation possible this season), combined storage and power cannot be considered at present.
" Nothing decisive can be said as to the storage and power possibilities in the valley, or
as to the industrial developments that might follow thereon, until the whole river is thoroughly
investigated. This might show that with storage at Sites Nos. 1 and 2, with T.AV.L., raised to
some point above the 70-foot contour-line, the conditions governing the storage capacity and
value, in relation to size and cost of dam, etc., may be so altered compared with those within or
below the 70-foot line that storage and power development would be commercially possible and
advisable for pulp-mills." 7 Geo. 5 Water Eights Branch. M 27
Reclamation-work.
Considerable data is being collected by W. J. E. Biker, A.M.Can.Soc.C.E., District Engineer
at Nelson, respecting the conditions affecting the discharge of the Kootenay Lake, and he reports
as follows:—
" Kootenay Reclamation.—On account of war conditions and lack of funds it has not been
possible to give special attention to this scheme as a whole, but by simply confining the time not
taken up by other work in continuing the hydrographic work commenced in 1915. However,
much valuable information has been collected since the gauges were established at Granite, below
Nelson, on the Kootenay River, at several points along the West Arm, and at the outlet from
Kootenay Lake at Procter.
" A gauge was also fixed in October, 1916, at Kootenay Landing, to which datum it is
intended to reference considerable data collected by the Canadian Pacific Railway Lake & River
Service over a period of years, in addition to taking continuous readings at this point.
"The two chief elements calling for elucidation (in so far as the hydrographic data is
involved) are time and volume. In other words, the amount of water required to be dealt with
passing a given distance or point. The information in hand is progressing along this line and
has reached a point where a traverse survey of the main lake and West Arm are necessary, with
contours establishing 5-foot intervals to a height, say, of 30 feet above the low-water stage. The
time has also arrived to make a close and careful study of the behaviour of the flood-water on the
flats, to be enabled to state the economic level at which the lake can be maintained. In fact, it
is now a question for the Government to decide as to how far the investigation shall proceed.
" A line of levels has been taken from Granite to the outlet of Kootenay Lake at Procter,
tying in all gauges established between these points to the same datum. But at present no levels
are available between Kootenay Landing and the International Boundary ; nor is Kootenay
Landing gauge datum referred to the gauge at Procter. This latter obstacle, however, can be
overcome for the present by a comparison of simultaneous readings at Procter and Kootenay
Landing during low-water season, when the velocity of current in the lake is not perceptible,
and the difference in elevation of the water surface at the two places must, as a result, be
confined within'extremely narrow limits.
" Under present conditions the evidence deduced from the data collected on the West Arm
goes to show that there is little in the nature of an obstruction at the Thirteen-mile and Nine-
mile Narrows during the flood stage. There is, however, a distinct control at Procter Narrows,
this year (1916) registering a difference in elevation of water-surface between Sunshine Bay
(which is directly below the Narrows) and Procter of 1.80 feet. This difference occurred at a
gauge height of 23.3 at Procter (Sunshine Bay 21.5), which was high-water mark for 1916. At
extreme low water the fall is reduced to practically nil. It can also be said with reasonable
accuracy that the water-surface in the West Arm between Procter and Nelson during the months
of January and February (or the period of low flow) is level. For the stage of average flow
the same remark would apply to the water-surface between Sunshine Bay and Willow Point,
with a difference between Willow Point and Nelson of from two to three tenths of a foot.
"The main control of the lake and West Arm is divided between the Narrows at Procter,
Grohman Rapids, and Granite (Canadian Pacific Railway Bridge), the two latter situated below
Nelson, and the readings would seem to indicate that up to a certain stage of water the control
is at Grohman Rapids, when they become partially submerged and the.control is taken up at
Granite Bridge. As far as the Procter Narrows are concerned, it would appear that a partial
control exists at all stages, but increasing as the water rises. However, a careful study will
have to be made of the conditions existing at each control, since at each point it is necessary
to know the percentage impounding effect in terms of cross-sectional area. With this object
in view it is proposed to establish a gauge at Grohman Rapids this low water.
" In view of the magnitude of this project it would seem prudent to commence with an
investigation of the flats. It has been an accepted statement, since reclamation was first talked
about, that the land to be unwatered was of the very best. This may or may not be so.
Information has come to hand that many of the sloughs are from 20 to 30 feet deep in ' slurry '
or soft mud. It is also told that in many cases a 20-foot green cottonwood or willow stick will
completely sink into the slough without assistance. This calls for attention, and should it be
found correct, presents greater difficulty of solution than the handling of the flood-water. It
also has a bearing on the financial side by the reduced area reclaimable. M 28
Department of Lands.
1917
" Therefore it is all-important to be thorough in making the preliminary investigations,
particularly in the collection of physical and hydrographic data. If the basic work can be
depended upon, the economic feasibility of the scheme can then be definitely settled and application given to the data for the preparation of plans for the disposal of the flood-waters, with
every confidence that nothing has been left undone.
" It must not be assumed from the above that reclamation is impossible or possible, but
simply a plea for the research-work to proceed in consistent harmony with itself."
Duty of Water.—Some further data has been collected by A. P. Augustine in the Okanagan
Valley relative to the duty of water. J. Wright co-operated in the work at Peachland, and the
following figures were obtained:—
Acreage under irrigation       702 acres.
Irrigation period         133 days.
Total quantity of water used    2,944.47 acre-feet.
Duty of water in acre-feet per acre   4.19
This duty included the loss by seepage in the main ditch, which by measurement amounted
to approximately 20 per cent. There must also have been a loss in the distribution of the water,
so that at least 25 per cent, should be deducted in order to obtain the quantity of water actually
used by the users. After deducting these losses it would appear that approximately 3 acre-feet
per acre were used. This figure may appear excessive; however, it must be remembered that
most of the land is of a very porous nature and has a large slope; also in many of the orchards
fodder and other crops are grown between the trees. During the past season in many cases
three crops of alfalfa have been cut.
At Penticton co-operation has again been extended by J. W. Jackson, of the municipal system,
to whom we are indebted for the following figures for the past three years:—
1914.
1015.
1916.
Period, May -lst-September 30th	
Duty of water (acre-feet per acre)   ...
1.574       acres
133       days
2,234       acre-feet
1.41 acre-feet
1,574       acres
133      days
2,588.7    acre-feet
1.64 acre-feet
1,574       acres.
133       days.
2,597.9    acre-feet.
1.65 acre-feet.
Under this system clean cultivation is mostly practised amongst the orchards;   the soil is
fairly compact and retains the moisture to a marked degree when kept well cultivated.
The following figures were also obtained from an orchard under the Penticton system by
Donald Budge:—
Area of orchard    10 acres.
Water used   12.09 acre-feet.
Duty of water      1.2 acre-feet per acre
At Westbank C. E. Clarke has again co-operated with the District Engineer, and we are
indebted to him for the following figures:—
1913.
1916.
241       acres
98      days
316.15 acre-feet
1.31 acre-feet
283       acres.
123      days.
494.9    acre-feet.
1.78 acre-feet.
In connection with the above it might be mentioned that the Water Rights Branch assisted
materially in extending the period of irrigation during the past season by cutting the beaver-dams
at the headwaters of Powers Creek and letting the water out gradually. By this means some
121 acre-feet of water were made available to the Westbank people.
Percentage of Run-off to Precipitation.—The snow on the watersheds in the southern
Okanagan Valley appeared to be of average depth during the winter of 1915-16,  but during Geo.
Water Eights Branch.
M 29
the spring of 1916 it melted so slowly that less water than usual found its way into the creeks,
the remainder being lost by evaporation and percolation. The following figures relative to the
run-off of Penticton Creek are of interest in this respect:—
1914.
I
1915.
1916.
0.59
37%
0.58
31%
0.52
Percentage of run-off to precipitation  (assuming 24 inches of precipi-.
tation)
28%
Seepage.—A problem which is becoming more and more acute and one which will require
considerable care and thought from the District Engineers is that of taking care of the seepage-
water resulting from irrigation. Considerable damage has resulted in the past, probably through
overirrigation of the land, and although this may be remedied to a considerable extent, there are
bound to be cases which will require attention.
The District Engineer at Penticton found it necessary- to insist on the installation of
measuring-boxes in order to prevent the overirrigation of some land in the vicinity of
Summerland.
Another question requiring considerable attention is that of the loss by seepage in* long
earth ditches. Although this may be reduced to a minimum, it cannot be altogether eradicated,
and in order to prevent this waste of water the Department must exercise its jurisdiction in
not allowing the duplication of parallel ditches where one would suffice for the needs of several
areas of land.
ENGINEERING-WORK FOR THE BOARD OF INVESTIGATION.
Work for the Board has only been carried on in two localities during the past season. As
before-mentioned, the storage possibilities at the headwaters of Campbell Creek near Kamloops
engaged the attention of C. Varcoe and O. J. Bergoust for some time, and was undertaken at
the instigation of the Board.
The other work was in the hands of W. C. Smith, A.M.Can.Soc.C.E., who has reported on
water records principally in the vicinity of Quesnel and Barkerville, but who also investigated a
number of records all along the Cariboo Road.
There remains very few records to be reported on for the Board, and what there are are
mostly isolated and in scattered districts.
METEOROLOGICAL REPORT, 1915-16.
Meteorological work during the past year has been carried out on the lines previously laid
down.   The total number of eighty-three stations have been maintained.
Owing to the great reduction in the staff no analytical work has been carried out.
In order that the public may benefit more than formerly in the meteorological work carried
on by both the Dominion Meteorological Service and the Water Rights Branch, a greater degree
of co-operation has been established, and in future it will be possible to obtain complete precipitation and temperature data from the publications of both departments.
The season 1915-16 will generally be considered as a wet one. This has followed a season
which was considered a dry one, and where a number of lowest records were established.
Owing to the war it has been difficult to keep the records unbroken, and although the data
for some months are missing, as a whole the Department has to thank the numerous observers
for their thought and care during the past season.
The following table is compiled from all sources of available information and for all stations,
whether maintained at the present time or not. In making use of this table for average precipitation, reserve should be placed on the figures for a period of less than ten years. M 30
Department of Lands.
1917
Precipitation, 1915-16.
Station.
No. of
Years of
Complete
Observations.
Average
Precipitation.
1915-16.
Precipitation of
Year.
Percentage
Above
Average.
Percentage
Below
Average.
Abbotsford    	
Agassiz	
Ayansh    	
Alberni  (Somass River)   	
Alberni  (Beaver Creek)   	
Alert Bay  (Mission)   	
Alert Bay (Wireless -Station)   . .
Alkali Lake   	
Alouette   Lake   	
Alvaston   	
Armstrong    	
Asheroft    	
Aspen  Grove   	
Atlin-   	
Babine  Lake   	
Bamfield   	
Barkerville   	
Bear Creek  (Jordan River)
Beaver Lake, V.I	
Bella  Coola   	
Bevan, V.I	
Birchbank   	
Bonnington Falls	
Boswell   	
Bridge  River   	
Britannia Beach   	
Britannia Mines  (Tunnel Camp)
Briscoe    	
Bullion (Quesnel Forks)   	
Buntzen   Lake   	
Bute Inlet	
Cache Creek  	
Cameron Lake  	
Canal  Flats   	
Canoe Point (Shuswap Lake)   ..
Cape Scott  	
Capilano Intake  	
Carcross   (Yukon)    	
Carmanah   	
Carmi    	
Chilcotin  (Big Creek)   	
Chilliwack    	
Chinook Cove 	
Christina  Lake   	
Clayoquot   	
Clo-oose  	
Cobble Hill (Boatswain Bank)   .
Coldspring Ranch  (Quilchena)   .
Coquitlam   	
Coquitlam  Lake   	
Cowichan Bay  	
Cowichan Lake   	
Cranberry  Lake   	
Cranbrook   	
Cranbrook  (City)   	
Crawford Bay   	
Creston   	
Crowsnest  	
Cumberland 	
Dawson   	
Deer Park (Lower Arrow Lake)
15
27
2
20
20
1
1
4
5
1
4
11
2
2
27
5
21
15
9
13
2
2
i
2
6
9
12
19
3
3
16
2
15
13
Inches.
60.82
63.10
27.S2
71.70
68.82
40.05
41.45
11.24
99.11
19.75
9.04
16.04
10.75
20.82
84.83
34.76
99.86
35.26
42.84
74.68
28.49
26.39
27.42
17.88
76.41
98.06
18.44
23.33
110.04
64.99
7.91
22.25
23.31
113.79
118.88
9.21
111.18
20.37
13.38
60.60
15.89
24.11
122.94
78.89
36.88
12.94
71.32
150.20
35.90
85.39
16.94
17.32
30.67
21.26
16.58
57.67
10.06
16.83
Indies.
77.29
29.44
82.94
8.05
116.32
13.27
17.95
8.95
19.54
8.19
38.23
131.35
44.06
45.96
87.91
30.85
24.03
28.57
17.80
85.31
99.47
20.83
121.85
71.36
7.24
68.10
21.99
25.64
132.35
5.16
18.26
12.36
68.10
16.08
24.51
143.24
46.39
11.72
81.66
158.25
44.27
87:37
19.97
25.31
22.49
45.97
24.7S
1S.95
10.19
19.24
Inches.
22.5
20.5
Inches.
23.:
10.0
25.6
7.3
10.7
12.4
16.5
14.5
5.4 7 Geo. 5
Water Eights Branch.
M 31
Precipitation, 1915-16—Continued.
Station.
No. of
Years of
Complete
Observations.
Average
Precipitation.
1915-16.
Precipitation of
Year.
Percentage
Above
Average.
Percentage
Below
Average.
Denman  Island   	
Donald   	
Douglas Lake 	
Duncan   	
East Arrow Park   	
Echo Lake  (Telegraph Trail)   	
Edgewater   	
Edith Lake  	
Elko   	
Elko   (Town)   	
Enderby   	
Entrance Harbour 	
Estevan Point   (Wireless)   	
Fairview   	
Fauquier  	
Ferguson   	
Fernie   	
Fernie   (Dominion)    	
Fifth Cabin  (Telegraph Trail)   	
Fort Steele	
French Creek   c
Gillies Bay (Texada Island)   	
Glacier    	
Glenemma   	
Goat River Lodge (Powell Lake)   . .
Golden   	
Goldstream  Lake,  V.I	
Gooseneck Camp  (Campbell River)
Grand  Forks   	
Grand Forks   (City)   	
Grande  Prairie   	
Greenwood    	
Griffin Lake  	
Harpers Camp  	
Hartley  Bay  	
Hatzic   	
Hazelmere    	
Hazelton   	
Hedley   	
Hedley   (Nickel Plate Mine)   	
Holberg   	
Holt Creek  (near Duncan)   	
Hope    	
Hornby Island	
Ikeda  Head   	
Invermere   	
Invermere   (Experimental Farm)   . .
Invermere  (Comfort Ranch)   	
James Island  	
Jones Lake  	
Jordan River, V.I	
Kamloops   	
Kaslo   	
Kelowna   	
Kelowna  (Rutland)   	
Kelowna   (Hydraulic Summit)   ....
Keremeos   (Centre)    	
Keremeos   (Town)   	
Kingsgate   	
Kitimat   	
Klinaklini   	
8
3
3
21
12
1
1
2
4
8
2
1
10
2
10
2
2
7
20
1
1
1
6
2
12
11
6
1
S
6
8
23
5
17
5
4
O
4
2
3
2
Inches.
52.08
23.51 -
12.47
39.69
30.87
24.15
14.83
14.59
21.56
23.35
21.06
90.31
5.40
24.78
48.77
42.09
35.80
20.24
36.53
40.72
62.39
22.45
74.60
18.91
64.45
50.44
16.59
17.74
13.35
18.67
42.01
16.25
84.75
82.23
52.96
19.18
11.84
24.61
131.29
39.18
53.46
46.02
124.27
14.04
14.01
13.61
25.28
84.75
67.59
10.35
23.04
12.67
12.58
22.23
11.29
8.98
29.42
82.50
14.66
Inches.
57.14
51.09
33.21
25.51
13.06
13.19
26.24
17.34
32.33
24.18
52.80
52.55
44.59
34.39
23.45
67.64
19.50
S5.17
73.48
15.37
16.82
16.02
16.99
12.73
27.66
132.21
55.18
15.48
12.71
32.23
105.67
79.65
10.84
19.99
12.70
11.34
19.91
11.82
32.73
12.53
Inches.
28.
Inches
8.4
14.0
r.e
7.5
12.4 M 32
Department of Lands
1917
Precipitation, 1915-16—Continued.
Station.
No. of
Years of
Complete
Observations.
Average
Precipitation.
1915-16.
Precipitation of
Year.
Percentage
Above
Average.
Percentage
Below
Average.
Knouff  Lake   	
Kootenay Lake (Reclamation Farm)*
Kuper Island   	
Ladner   	
Ladysmith    	
Langley   	
Lazo   (Wireless  Station)    	
Lazy " L " Ranch  	
Lillooet   	
Little Qualicum  	
Lumby   	
Lynch Creek 	
Lynn  Creek   	
Malakwa   	
Mamete   Lake   	
Mary Island  	
Masset   	
Metchosin   	
McCoy Lake 	
McClure  Lake   	
Midway   	
Mill Bay  (Nass)   	
Moha   (Bridge River)   	
Monte Creek  (Ducks)   	
Nakusp   	
Nanaimo   (Bray's)    	
Nanaimo   	
Nanaimo  (Biological Station)   	
Nanoose Bay   	
Naramata   	
Nass Harbour   	
Nelson   	
New Denver  	
Newgate  (Yakite Ranch)   	
New Westminster  	
Nicola   (Clapperton  Creek)    	
Nicola Lake   	
Ninth Cabin (Telegraph Trail)   	
Nitinat Lake   	
North  Bend   	
North Nicomen   	
Observation Bay  (Quadra Island)   ..
Ocean Falls  	
105-Mile, Cariboo Road  	
Parksville   	
Pavilion	
Peachland   (Trepanier Creek)   	
Pemberton Meadows 	
Pemberton  Hatchery   	
Penticton  	
Perry Siding	
Phoenix   	
Pilot Bay (Kootenay Lake)   	
Porcher  Island  	
Port Essington  	
Port Moody   	
Port   Simpson   	
Powell Lake (upper end)   	
Powell River  	
Prince  George   	
Prince Rupert   	
1
7
9
16
3
13
16
1
1
2
7
4
12
14
3
4
o
16
13
25
O
36
1
2
1
22
1
2
3
1
1
9
3
3
2
1
4
6
19
Inches.
23.11
42.94
35.43
54.22
54.S7
46.63
17.51
13.8S
39.09
17.08
21.94
91.60
31.16
13.93
50.07
51.93
86.49
18.77
12.67
76.91
14.51
10.31
28.51
44.90
39.78
38.38
33.30
11.11
78.20
26.S4
31.55
17.50
57.53
16.13
11.19
133.63
74.82
163.11
12.50
10.77
18.08
37.38
32.09
11.85
26.75
29.79
39.73
122.86
66.83
89.30
102.02
41.52
21.20
109.77
Inches.
15.82
41.64
64.75
48.26
50.77
21.88
122.78
32.56
12.56
53.18
65.24
44.02
13.04
81.49
18.52
9.41
30.44
44.22
43^68
35.48
10.24
74.24
28.59
34.12
16.96
68.82
17.03
13.11
25.46
160.10
45.72
83.04
78.07
9.21
40.20
40.68
38.12
12.68
30.66
27.58
81.06
73.33
114.18
49.19
97.80
Inches.
17.5
Inches.
25.6
11.2
6.5
19.6
17.1
li.o
5.1 7 Geo. 5
Water Eights Branch.
M 33
Precipitation, 1915-16—Concluded.
Station.
No. of
Years of
Complete
Observations.
Average
Precipitation.
1915-16.
Precipitation of
Year.
Percentage
Above
Average.
Percentage
Below
Average.
Princeton    	
Princeton Crossing  	
Quatsino   	
Queen Charlotte City	
Quesnel   	
Quilchena  (Dry Farm)   	
Revelstoke    	
Richlands   (near Lumby)   ...
Rivers  Inlet   	
Rock Creek  (Boundary)   ....
Rossland   	
Salmon Arm  (Hobson)   	
Salmon Arm   (Sharp)   	
Saltspring  Island   	
Sandwiek    	
Seymour   Intake   	
Shawnigan Lake  	
Soda  Creek   	
Sooke   Harbour	
Sooke  Lake   	
Sorrento   	
Spences Bridge   	
Sproat Lake  	
Stave River Falls  (Ruskin)
Steveston    	
Stewart   	
Stuart Lake  	
Summerland   	
Swanson   Bay   	
Swift River  (Cariboo)   	
Sidney   (Experimental  Farm)
Tappen    	
Terrace   	
Tete Jaune  Cache   	
Thetis  Island   	
Thrums   	
Tobacco   Plains   	
Tranquille   	
Ucluelet   	
Valdes Island	
Vancouver 	
Vancouver   (City  Hall)    ....
Vavenby    	
Vernon   (Coldstream  Ranch)
Victoria   	
Waneta   	
Westley   	
Wilmer    	
IS
2
13
2
16
3
15
2
12
4
11
11
5
3
5
2
4
5
3
11
1
7
20
3
22
9
5
1
2
3
2
2
2
3
6
4
14
3
3
16
42
3
1
6
Inches.
13.36
24.58
110.16
56.80
15.11
14.79
41.69
21.30
112.81
15.79
29.69
18.96
18.82
39.73
57.42
110.82
41.50
12.18
45.01
66.00
17.87
9.44
47.32
77.44
38.01
64.62
16.13
11.55
183.71
22.93
3L16
2l\97
38.55
14.42
36.57
28.66
17.21
10.00
119.82
58.83
58.77
55.95
14.30
14.21
29.41
29.83
23.24
13.92
Inches.
15.06
26.69
92.29
68.36
11.16
16.30
43.21
19.03
31.97
17.80
50.39
66.37
120.17
57.02
10.61
52.98
79.49
19.01
92.59
41.59
12.61
13.13
37.12
22.82
36^84
12.93
30.i2
128.48
66.44
66.75
12.98
13.66
34.27
33.75
14.44
Inches.
12.7
3.6
Inches.
16.
26.
7.7
9.4
13.0
16.5
21
Notb.—The averages of those stations with a less period of observations than ten years must be taken
with reserve.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
WILLIAM YOUNG, B.Sc, M.Can.Soc.CE.  7 Geo. 5 Water Eights Branch. M 35
APPENDICES TO WATER REPORT.
APPENDIX No. 1.
GRIZZLY BAR, OR SELF-CLEANING INTAKE AND DIVERSION.
Specification.—The box, which should be constructed of not less than 2-inch lumber, to be
set in a trench cut across the creek, the top of box being flush with creek-bed. Box to be 2 inches
wide by 1 foot 6 inches deep at shallow end, sloping to 2 feet deep where it terminates at the
sluice-gate, at the connection to the flume. The length to be determined by local conditions, but
should be only sufficiently long so that the sluice-gate and flume thereto can be conveniently
located. Wing-boards and aprons of substantial size, depending on the particular site where the
box is installed, to be provided, great care being exercised that the foot-steps are sunk sufficiently deep to avoid the possibility of the water getting underneath the box.
Grizzly bars to be fixed across top of box, the sides of the box being so shaped that the bars
in the centre of the stream will be lower than those at the side. The middle 3 feet of bars to
be sunk 1 inch lower than the sides in order that two pieces of %-inch sheet 'iron or steel, each
2 feet by 1 foot 6 inches, may be set therein. These plates to be set prior to the spring floods,
so that the greater quantity of water and gravel passing down the creek may be carried over the
box and so prevent it choking,
A sluice-gate to be provided and fixed on the side of the lower end of the box, in order that
all gravel and sand may be automatically discharged through a flume to the creek at a point
below the grizzly bars.
APPENDIX No. 2.
WATER-POWERS  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
In preparing the list a careful analysis was made of all water records, licences, engineers'
and surveyors' reports, and 457 sites were indexed.    In many instances, however, the information
available was scanty and insufficient to check the amount of power given.    In the list, wherever
the figures are uncertain, note is made under the " Remarks " column.
The 270 power-sites given are divided under the following heads:—
Wholly or partially developed     30
Sites applied for      93
Sites known and unstaked    147
With regard to those power-sites located by the Commission of Conservation, the figures
must for the present be taken with reserve. A. V. White, of the Commission, intimates that
it is unnecessary to emphasize the paucity of the hydrographic information existent for the
northerly part of the Province. With respect to the estimates given, while these were based
on such data as were available, it is clear that without explanation the quantities mentioned
might be misleading. When the report on the " Water-powers of British Columbia " is published,
in connection with the tabular material relating to horse-power, there will be explanatory notes
and comments, also description governing the use of the tables. M 36
Department op Lands.
1917
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Water Eights Branch.
M 43
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- M 44
Department of Lands.
1917
APPENDIX No. 3.
IRRIGATION HEADGATES.
Fakmer's Headgate.
The farmer's small headgate shown in Fig. 1 will deliver up to 4 second-feet in the ditch
below under favourable conditions of grade and size, assuming the gate-box can be kept full
of water.
It will be noticed that the two inner planks of the front wings extend 1 inch beyond the
inner face of the side-walls, thus forming front guides. The extension of the two planks in
the front cut-off wall above the floor-boards by an inch makes a tighter gate; the gate fits down
behind them.
Va holes sytaqqered I"
spaced for^'raises
"ore top hole atlei
Design for
Farmers Headgate.
Capacity to about 4 eft. per sec.
Des/gned and drafted fry
Fred C 5cobey /rr/ganon c~ng'r
Fig.  1.
If possible, the stem of the gate should be hardwood and the holes bored therein staggered
as shown; %-inch holes will take a i/.-inch pin, which could have an iron ring at one end and
a small slot at the other to receive the tongue of a thin padlock.
The dimensions of lumber are suited to a structure of the size indicated; a considerable
increase in size would need other dimensions and a rearrangement of struts and braces. 7 Geo. 5
Water Rights Branch.
M 45
The depth of the wing and front walls must be determined by the nature of the soil; one of
sand would require a greater depth than those shown. Whatever depth be decided on, the dirt
excavated must be well puddled round the walls, thoroughly tamped down with a rammer,
previously having been worked to the consistency of stiff mortar. If the dirt be replaced in a
dry state, carelessly shovelled in, there is every likelihood of a washout.
Small Lateral Headgate.
The small lateral headgate shown in Fig. 2 is 3 feet high and
of about 15 second-feet under favourable conditions.
feet wide, with a capacity
Design for
Small  Lateral  Headgate.
Capacity to about 15 c ft. per sec.
Designed and drafted by
Fred C Scobey Irrigation Ingr
Should it be preferred, angle-iron can be used instead of a T-iron as a stem; it costs less.
The gate is raised by means of a short crowbar inserted in the notches and used as a lever.
The same care should be taken to carefully install this type of gate as the farmer's small
headgate; if necessary, the vertical planks of the wing-wall can be driven down with a wooden
mallet, and cut to length after.
Timber should be notched and fitted as shown in the drawings; whilst this entails slightly
more labour at the time, it adds a great deal to the strength and stiffness of the structures.
Bills of material for both types of gates are appended; the lateral type has quantities for
three sizes. M 40
Department op Lands.
1917
Farmer's Headgate.
CAPACITY UP TO ABOUT 4 SeCOND-FEET   (DEPENDING ON  GRADE AND  CONDITION
of the Ditch below the Gate).
Bill of Lumber.
Use.
Pieces.
Dimensions.
Feet, B.M.
Side boards   	
Floor  	
Front  wings   ....
Front cut-off wall
Cap   ....". '.'..
Joist   	
Gate-posts   	
Cap for gate-posts
Sill   	
Cap  	
Posts   	
Lower wings   ....
Cut-off sill  	
Cap   	
Bolts	
Gate-stem   	
Gate-boards  	
2"
X
12'
' x 5'
2"
X
12'
' x 5'
2"
X
12'
' x 4'
■ j"
X
12'
' x 2' 3
2"
X
10'
' x 2' 3
2"
X
4"
x 5' 10
3"
X
4"
x 5' 10
3"
X
4"
x 4'
2"
X
4"
x 2'
3
X
4"
x 2' 8"
2"
X
4"
x 2' 8"
2"
X
4"
x 1' 11'
2"
X
12'
' x 2' 6
2"
X
0"
x 3'
2"
X
4"
x 3' 8"
A"
X
6"
■>"
X
4"
x 5'
1"
X
V2'
' x 23%
1"
X
10'
' x 2'
Total feet, B.JI.
40
20
32
5
4
4
6
8
1
10
155
Two bolts  %" x  5",  with washers  for each  end.
Headgate for  Small Lateral.    Capacity up to about 15  Second-feet   (depending on  Grade
and Condition of the Lateral below Gate).
(As per Plans in Drawing.    Bottom, 3 feet wide;  sides, 3 feet high.)
Bill of Lumber.
Use.
Pieces.
Dimensions.
Feet, B.M.
6
O
6
3
i
i
i
2
1
4
O
O
l
2
1
0
2
1
1
2
2
o
i
2" x 12" x 6'
2" x 12" x 6'
2" x 12" x 5'
2" x 12" x 2'
2" x 4" x 9'
3" x 4" x 4'
3" x 4" x 3' 4"
3" x 4" x 3'
3" x 4" x 9'
2" x 12" x 5'
2" x 12" x 2'
3" x 3" x 7'
3" x 3" x 2' 11%"
3" x 4" x 7'
2" x 4" x 2' 10"
3" x 4" x 3' 2"
3" x 10" x 3' 8"
1" x 10" x 2' lli/3"
1" x 12" x 2' 11%"
1" x 8" x 2' 10"
1" x 6%" x 2' 10"
2" x 6" x 2' 10"
Total feet, B.JI.
72
36
60
12
6
Sill   	
4
4
Posts  	
6
9
40
12
Posts   	
5
5   '
Cap   	
7
4
6
10
3
6
4
4
o
.  "
318
T-iron—One piece 4" x 4" x %" x 3' 2". bored as per detail.
Bolts—Seven %" x 4%", with washers for each end. 7 Geo. 5
Water Eights Branch.
M 47
Headgate for Small Lateral.    Capacity' up to about 20 Second-feet   (depending on Grade
and Condition of the Lateral below Gate).
(As per Plans in Drawing, except 4 feet wide instead of 3 feet wide.)
Use.
Side boards  	
Floor 	
Front wings   	
Front  cut-off wall   .
Joist   	
Sill   	
Posts   	
Cap (front wings)   .
Lower wings  	
Lower cut-off wall .
Joist   	
Posts  	
Cap  (lower wings)
Front guides   	
Rear guides  	
Foot-plank   	
Gate-boards   (front)
(back)
Dimensions.
12" x 6'
12" x 6'
12" x 5'
' x 2'
x 10'
x 5'
x 4' 4
x 3'
x 10'
x 5'
1" X
1" X
1" X
1" X
12
4"
4"
4"
4"
4"
12
12'
3"
3"
4"
4"
4"
10
10'
12'
10" x :
10%" :
6" x 2
x 8'
x 2'
x 8'
x 2'
x 3'
x 4
x 3
x 3'
ny2"
10"
2"
.8"
11%"
ll%"
10"
2' 10"
10"
Total feet. B.JI.
Feet, B.M.
4S
60
16
a
6
10
40
16
6
5
8
4
6
13
4
8
5
5
T-iron—One piece 4" x 4" x %" x 3' 2", bored as per detail.
Bolts—Seven %" x 4%", with washers for each end.
Headgate for Lateral.     Capacity up  to  about  28  Second-feet   (depending  on   Grade  and
Condition of Lateral below Gate).
(As per Plans in Drawing, except 4 feet wide and 4 feet high instead of 3 feet wide and 3 feet
high.    Cut-off and wing-walls 1 foot deeper.)
Use.
Dimensions
Feet, B.M.
Side boards   	
Floor  	
Front  wings   	
Front cut-off wall   .
Joist   	
Sill   	
Posts    	
Cap (front wings)   .
Lower wings  	
Lower cut-off wall .
Joist   	
Posts  	
Cap  (lower wings)
Front guides  	
Rear guides 	
Foot-plank  	
Gate-boards   (front)
(back)
3"
3"
3"
2"
3"
3"
1"
1"
1"
1"
2"
12
12
12
12
4"
4"
4"
4"
4"
12'
12'
3"
3"
4"
4" s
4" 3
10"
10"
12"
10"
10%
x 10'
x 5'
x 4' 4"
x 4'
x 10'
x 7'
x 3'
x 8'
x 3' U%"
x 8'
x 3' 10"
x 4' 2"
x 4' 8"
x 3' 11%"
x 3' 11%"
x 3' 10"
x 3' 10"
96
48
84
24
7
5
5
8
10
56
24
6
8
13
4
12
7
6" x 3' 10"
Total feet, B.JI.
44S
T-iron—One piece 4" x 4'
Bolts—Seven %" x 4%",
2". bored as per detail (for additional foot),
with washers for each end.
%" x 4' 2" M 48 Department of Lands. 1917
APPENDIX No. 4.
USEFUL WATER DATA.     /
Duty of Water.
One second-foot is generally considered sufficient to irrigate 120 acres of land.
One second-foot flowing 120 days equals 240 acre-feet.
One second-foot flowing 120 days would cover it 2 feet in depth. If applied on 100 acres it
would cover it 2.4 feet in depth.
Three to four acre-feet capacity in the reservoir is usually considered necessary to irrigate
1 acre of land in addition to overcoming all seepage and evaporation losses.
From 1 to 3 acre-feet on the land, depending upon the kind of crop, and the rainfall in the
particular locality, is usually considered sufficient. One acre-foot on the land, if properly
distributed, is equal to 12 inches of rainfall.
From 3 to 5 acre-inches is applied for each irrigation, depending upon the kind of crop
and the method employed in irrigating.
From 1 to 3 second-feet is usually considered a good irrigation-head. Irrigators on the
same stream may secure a better head through the adoption of rotation in use of water.
One-half inch per acre continuous flow is equivalent to 1 inch per acre used every other
day or week, or 1% inches per acre used every third day or third week, rotating with others.
Water Units.
The cubic foot per second is the standard for measuring rate of flow. It is abbreviated
second-foot or sec.-ft.
One sec.-ft. equals 35.7 miners' inches.
The miners' inch is a very indefinite unit, and its use should be discontinued.
The acre-foot is the standard unit of volume.
One acre-foot equals 43,560 cubic feet; equals % sec.-ft. flowing 23 hours; equals 1 acre
covered 12 inches deep or 12 acre-inches.
One cubic foot equals 6.25 gallons and weighs 62.5 pounds.
The unit of work is the foot-pound, or the amount of work to overcome a weight of 1 pound
falling 1 foot.
Power equals rate of work, equals work divided by time.
One horse-power equals 550 foot-pounds per second.
One horse-power equals 1 cubic foot of water falling S.S feet in one second.
To calculate horse-power (theoretical), multiply flow in second-feet by vertical fall in feet,
and divide by S.S.
To calculate net horse-power on wheels of SO per cent, efficiency, multiply flow in second-feet
by fall in feet, and divide by 11.
One and one-third horse-power equals about 1 kilowatt.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by William II. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1017.

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