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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31ST,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1917

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPOBT
OF  THE
COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES
FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31ST, 1916
AVITH APPENDICES
THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PROUINCE OF BRITISH COIUKSA.
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY   OF   THE   LEGISLATIVE   ASSEMBLY.
VICTOEIA, B.C.:
Printed by William H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1917.  To His Honour Frank Stillman Barnard,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg to submit herewith a report reviewing the operations of the Provincial
Fisheries Department for the year ending December 31st, 1916, with Appendices.
H. C. BREWSTER,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, British Columbia, May 17th, 1917.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT FOR 1916.
Page.
Standing with other Provinces   7
Total Value of Fish marketed   7
Salmon-pack in Province    8
History of Salmon Fishery, Fraser River District  10
Scientific Research   11
Salmon Spawning-grounds of Province  15
Hatchery Egg-takes, Sockeye Salmon-pack, Fraser, 1900 to 1916, inclusive   17
APPENDICES.
The Spawning-beds of the Fraser River  18
The Spawning-beds of Rivers Inlet  22
The Spawning-beds of Smith Inlet   25
The Spawning-beds of Nass River  26
The Regulation of the Halibut Fishery' of the Pacific    By William F. Thompson .... 28
The Egg Production of the Halibut of the Pacific.    By William F. Thompson  35
A Contribution to the Life-history of the Pacific Herring :   Its Bearing on the Condition and Future of Fishery.    By William F. Thompson  39
The Native Oyster of British Columbia.    By Joseph Stafford, Ph.D  88
The Pack of British Columbia Salmon, Season 1916  117
The Pack of Puget Sound Salmon, Season 1916   118  FISHERIES COMMISSIONER'S REPORT FOR 1916.
The value of the fishery products of Canada for the year ending March 31st, 1916, totalled
$35,860,708. Of that amount British Columbia produced $14,538,320, or 40.54 per cent. The
fisheries of the Dominion show an increase in value over those of the preceding year of $4,596,077,
of which $3,023,234, or 65.7 per cent., is credited to British Columbia.
British Columbia, as in recent years, again leads the Provinces of the Dominion in the value
of her fishery products. Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia by $6,371,469, and exceeded
the total combined fishery products of all the other Provinces of the Dominion by $2,482,783.
The following statement gives in their respective order of rank the fishery products of the
Provinces of the Dominion for the year ending March Slst, 1916:—
British  Columbia      $14,53S,320
Nova Scotia          9,166,851
New  Brunswick          4,737,145
Ontario          3,341,182
Quebec          2,076,851
Prince Edward Island  933,682
Manitoba            .742,925
Saskatchewan            165,888
Alberta      94,134
Yukon   63,730
Total    $35,860,708
The Species and Value of Fish marketed in British Columbia.
The total value of each species of fish marketed in British Columbia for the year ending
March 31st, 1916, is given in the following tabulation:—
Salmon  $10,726,818
Cod     300,049
Herring     1,009,708
Shad     645
Halibut     1,972,290
Flounders     7,515
Smelts     20,724
Trout     20,975
Oolachans     76,982
Whiting     1,144
Sturgeon     16,220
Perch     3,896
Octopus    .'  1,665
Soles    25,983
Skate     4,232
Mixed fish   34,665
Shrimps and prawns    6,400
Oysters   20,165
Clams    78,130
Crabs and other shell-fish  t  12,331
Salmon-roe    *  6,230
Seals   13,170
Fish-oil  12,363
Whale-oil    94,619
Fertilizer   36,477
Bone-meal     4,924
Total  $14,538,320 g 8
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
Notwithstanding the fact that the fisheries of the Province show an increase in value of
$3,023,234 over that of the previous year, the quantity of the leading species of fish caught is
notably less. The gain in value is due to an increase in the price received for the catch and
not to an increase in the catch.
The Salmon-pack in the Province for the Year 1916.
The salmon packed in the Province for the calendar year 1916 totalled 995,065 cases, as
against 1,133,381 cases in 1915. The pack of 1916 is valued at $10,726,818, as against $8,018,835
in 1915 ; a decrease of 138,316 cases and an increase in value of $2,707,983. There was a decrease
in the catch in all sections save the Nass River. The total Fraser River catch in Provincial
waters totalled 127,472 cases, as against 320,519 cases in 1915. The catch on the Skeena River
produced 223,158 cases, as against 279,161 cases in 1915, and the Rivers Inlet catch gave a pack
of 85,383 cases, as against 146,838 cases in 1915. The Nass River alone shows an increase over
the catch of the previous year. The total in that section for 1916 amounted to 126,686 cases,
as against 104.2S9 cases in 1915. The catch of salmon in outlying sections of the Province not
included in the above statement produced 307,635 cases, as against 313,894 cases in 1915.
The Pack of Salmon in the Fraser River District.
The salmon-pack in the Fraser River District, which includes the catch from the waters of
the Fraser River, Gulf of Georgia, and Juan de Fuca Strait in the Province, and the channels
in the State of Washington leading to the Fraser River, in 1916 was the smallest ever recorded
there, notwithstanding a notable increase in the pack of chum salmon, a species but little used
in former years.
The total catch of sockeye salmon in the entire Fraser River District produced a pack of
only 110,476 cases. Of that amount Provincial canners produced 32,146 cases, or 30 per cent.,
and the canners in the State of Washington 78,476 cases, or 70 per cent. The total pack of
sockeye for the district is very much less than that of any previous season, as is shown in the
following table :—
Statement showing the Pack of Sockeye Salmon caught in the Fraser River District
Columbia and the State of Washington for the Past Eight Tears.
British
Year.
British
Columbia
Waters.
State of
Washington
Waters.*
Total for
District.
1909 	
1910 	
1911 	
1912 	
1913 	
1914 	
1915 	
1916 	
Totals
585,435
150,432
58.4S7
123,879
719,796
198,183
91,130
32,146
1,959,488
1.097,904
248,014
127,761
184,680
1.673.099
335,230
64,584
84,637
3,815.909
1.683,339
398,446
186,248
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
155.714
116,783
5,775.397
* Data from Pacific Fisherman.
The foregoing statement affords a comprehensive basis for an understanding of conditions
in both Provincial and State waters of the district. It shows the vast difference in the catch
in the big and the lean years for the entire district, as well as the great difference in the
proportion of the catch in the State and Provincial waters, and also a decline in the run in the
lean years.
The pack for the years given include the last two " big years " and the last six " lean years."
Together they constitute the last two four-year cycles of the run to the Fraser River. The
grand total for the eight years is 5,775,397 cases. Of which 1,939,488 cases, or 33.9 per cent.,
were packed in the Province, and 3,815,909 cases, or 66 per cent., in the State of Washington.
In every recent year, except that of 1915, the catch in the State of Washington waters of the
district has exceeded the catch in Provincial waters.   The pack from State waters in the two 7 Geo. 5 British Columbia. S 9
big years exceeded the pack from Provincial waters by 2,671,003 cases, or more than 100 per
cent. The pack in the State in 1913 exceeded the combined pack in the Provincial waters of
the last two big years (1909 and 1913). The pack in the State in the six lean years exceeded
the pack in Provincial waters in those years by 1,038,745 cases, or 157 per cent. The decline in
the catch in the lean years is pronounced. The catch in Provincial waters in 1916 was 91,733
cases less than that of the previous fourth year, a decline of close to 300 per cent. The pack in
the State in 1916 was 100,043 cases, or 45.8 per cent, less than in the previous fourth year.
The Run to the District has been depleted.
It has been demonstrated in the reports of this Department, and by the findings of two
International Commissions, that the sockeye caught in the Fraser River District are predominantly four-year-olds, were hatched in that river's watershed, and when taken were seeking to
return to that watershed to spawn and die. It is therefore manifest that the catch in both the
big and the lean years are the product of the same spawning-beds. The catches in the big years
display the maximum product of the spawning-beds—the harvest that may be reaped four years
after the beds have been abundantly seeded. The catches in the lean years are the natural
result of a failure to seed the same beds abundantly. If the beds were as abundantly seeded
in the lean years as they are in the big years they would produce as abundantly. Since the
spawning-beds were abundantly seeded in 1909 the catch in that year represents that proportion
of the total run that was in excess of the number necessary to stock all the beds.
The great catch of 1913 was the product of the abundant spawning of 1909. Notwithstanding
the fact that the catch of 1913 was very much greater than that of any former season, investigation disclosed that a sufficient number of the fish escaped capture and passed above the fishing
limits that year to have stocked all the beds as abundantly as they were stocked in 1909 had they
been enabled to reach them. The catches of 1909 and 1913, great as they were, were not made at
the expense of the capital stock—of the foundation of the run. The catches made in those years
disclose the vast numbers that may be safely taken from every year's run when the beds are
abundantly seeded. The catches in the lean years are growing less, because they are made at
the expense of the fish necessary to seed the beds. The catches in those years are in excess of
the number that may be taken without endangering the supply of the stock fish. They are an
overdraft on the runs of the future. The run can neither be maintained nor built up under
such conditions. If for a period of lean years all the fish which return from the sea were
permitted to reach the spawning-beds and there spawn, the runs in those years would eventually
reach the proportion of a big year. It is simply a matter of conserving the brood stock—of
seeding the spawning-beds. The salmon industry does not depend upon the amount of money
invested in canneries, gear, and -boats. It depends upon the number of salmon which escape
capture and successfully spawn. The perpetuation of the run depends upon the numbers which
escape capture. The fish that escape are the stock-in-trade. If the catch is not confined to that
proportion of the total number of fish in the run that is in excess of the numbers necessary to
seed the beds, it is made at the expense of the capital stock of the industry. If the catch is in
excess of that number, it is made at the expense of the runs of the future. It is an overdraft.
The catches in the lean years in the Fraser River District have long been made at the expense
of the brood stock. A decline in the catch of any year is a matter of passing moment if it can
be shown that the number of fish which reached the spawning area was sufficient to seed the
beds. A decline in the number which spawn is a much more serious thing, for it foretells
future loss.
For the last decade and more the record of the pack of sockeye salmon in the Fraser River
District and the reports from the spawning-beds of the watershed of that river leave no shadow
of doubt as to the depletion of the runs in the lean years. It is difficult to see wherein more
proof of depletion, save the final one of commercial extinction, could be adduced.
The results of excessive fishing which were first manifested by the sparsely covered spawning-
beds of the Fraser watershed are now more forcibly called to attention by the reduction in the
size of the pack.
For the past fourteen years the reports of this Department have called attention to the
conditions on the Fraser River spawning-beds which forecasted the depletion of the runs in the
lean years.   Year after year since 1902 it has been shown that, with few exceptions, the greater S 10 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
proportion of the vast spawning area of that river's watershed has been but sparingly seeded
in the lean years;   that not enough fish reached those beds to maintain the subsequent runs.
The History of Salmon Fishery in the Fraser River District.
The history of the fishing in the Fraser River District for the past fourteen years is a record
of depletion—a record of excessive fishing in the lean years; a record of failure on the part of
the authorities of the State of Washington to realize the necessity of conserving a great fishery
question, notwithstanding the convincing evidence submitted to them by agents of their own
creation that disaster was impending to one of their great industries.
The Canadian authorities, on the other hand, have by their representations and acts
evinced, in unmistakable manner, their willingness to deal squarely and adequately with conditions that foretold depletion, and to join with the State of Washington or the United States
Government in legislation to prevent it.
Throughout the negotiations between the Canadian authorities and those of the State of
Washington the former have urged the passage of restrictive measures for both Provincial and
State waters. Following the investigation in 1905 of a joint Commission representing the
Dominion of Canada and the Governor of the State of Washington, the former approved the
unanimous findings of that body, and passed, as recommended, an Order in Council which
suspended all sockeye-fishing in the Canadian waters of the Fraser River District during the
years 1906 and 190S, conditional upon the Legislature of the State of Washington passing an
Act of like nature for her waters. The Legislature of the State refused to pass such an Act,
whereupon the Dominion Act was recalled.
In 190S Great Britain and the United States, " recognizing the desirability of uniform and
effective measures for the protection, preservation, and propagation of food-fishes in waters
contiguous to the Dominion of Canada and the United States," convoked a convention for that
purpose, and appointed an International Commission, consisting of one person named by each
Government, to investigate conditions and prepare a system of uniform and common regulations
for the protection and preservation' of food-fishes. That Commission agreed upon a uniform
system for the protection, preservation, and propagation of the salmon in the Fraser River
District. The Canadian Government promptly approved the finding and announced its willingness to adopt for her waters the regulations recommended. The Senate of the United States,
after years of delay, refused approval, and the convention was terminated. Canada's record on
this vital question is clear and unmistakable. She has been and still is desirous of maintaining
and building up the runs of salmon to the Fraser. The record of the State of Washington in
this respect is one of inaction. Unfortunately, Canada alone cannot preserve the fish. Until
such time as the authorities of the State of Washington indicate by their enactments their
willingness to meet the issue there is no relief in sight, and the runs in the lean years will
continue to be decimated.
The failure of the State of Washington to recognize the necessity for and the advantages that
would follow the suspension of sockeye-fishing in the lean years in her own and the Provincial
waters of the Fraser River District is a reflection upon her business foresight. Her proportion
of the catch of sockeye in each of the last three big years (1905, 1909, and 1913) has averaged
1,399,808 cases per year, with an average value of $11,198,464. Her average in each of the
last six lean years has been 182,091 cases per year, of an average value of $1,456,728. The
average value of her catch of sockeye in the big years exceeds the average value in the lean
years by approximately $9,741,736 per year. As has already been stated, the catches in both
the big and the lean years are the product of the same spawning-beds. It is evident that those
spawning-beds would produce averagely as great a run in the lean years as they now produce
in the big years if they were as abundantly seeded. It is simply a question of seeding. The
failure of the State of Washington to join with Canada in measures to ensure seeding those
beds every year as abundantly as in the big years has entailed a loss to the State of Washington
alone of $29,225,208 in the three lean years of the last two four-year cycles. If the State of
Washington would join the Dominion in the adoption of joint regulations that would ensure
an abundance of fish reaching the spawning-beds in the lean years—years in which there can be
little, if any, profit to those engaged in the industry—there can be no question of the result.
Provided fishing in the lean years is suspended for a sufficient period, the number of sockeye that 7 Geo. 5 British Columbia. S. 11
reach the spawning-beds would approximate the number of a big year. The ultimate return
from such a measure would be so great that it is difficult to understand the failure of those most
concerned in the industry to secure the necessary legislation in the State of Washington.
The unwillingness of American authorities to take appropriate action to perpetuate the runs
to the Fraser, and the fact that their fishermen catch 66.3 per cent, of the fish taken annually,
and the further fact that under existing conditions the run of salmon to the Fraser River will
eventually be exterminated, lend force to the contention that the Canadian authorities are no
longer warranted in maintaining the present close seasons or in operating hatcheries in an effort
to maintain the supply. Since the run will eventually be destroyed through the conditions
existing in the State of Washington, why should our fishermen be prevented from taking all
the fish they are able to catch during such times as they are in our waters?
The 1916 Salmon-catch in Northern Waters.
For the first time in many seasons the catch of sockeye salmon at Rivers and Smith Inlets
and the Skeena River was very disappointing. With the exception of the catch on the Nass
River, all the northern waters show a decided decrease over recent years. The catch of sockeye
on the Skeena gave a pack of 60,923 cases, as against 116,533 cases in 1915 and 130,166 cases
in 1914. The catch of sockeye at Rivers Inlet was but 44,936, as against 130,350 cases in 1915
and 89,890 cases in 1914, and is the smallest recorded there in the last fifteen years. The catch
of sockeye at the Nass River produced 31,411 eases, as against 39,349 cases in 1915 and 31,327
cases in 1914. The catch of sockeye at the three above-mentioned sections for 1916 totalled but
137,270 cases, as against 286,232, a loss of 148,962 cases. Usually poor packs at Rivers and
Smith Inlets and the Skeena River are attributed to unfavourable weather conditions, but no
such reason can be assigned this past season, because, notwithstanding there was much rain
throughout July and August, the reports from the spawning area disclose that the numbers of
fish which reached there this year was the smallest yet noted. The reports from the beds of
Rivers and Smith Inlets place the decrease of spawning fish to approximately 25 per cent, of
that of the four preceding seasons.
Since the spawning-beds that produce the runs to these waters were shown to have been
abundantly seeded in previous years, it is apparently manifest that the schools of young which
migrated to sea following such spawning, and which produced the adults of this year, met with
adverse conditions on their feeding-grounds in the sea. It is a further illustration that it does
not necessarily follow that a good run will be followed by abundant seeding.
The catch of other' species than sockeye, save the chum salmon, while less than in the
preceding year, was more satisfactory. There was a notable increase in the pack of chum
salmon, due entirely to the demand for this species that has recently been created.
Scientific Research.
The Department continued, during the year, its investigations of the life-history of important
food-fishes. Additions of value to the biology of Pacific marine fauna have been made. The
following papers will be found in the Appendix of this report:—
" The Regulation of the Halibut Fishery " and " The Egg Production of the Halibut,"
by William F. Thompson, Stanford University.
" Contribution to the Life-history of the Pacific Herring," by William F. Thompson,
Stanford University.
"The Native Oyster of British Columbia—Culture," by Joseph Stafford, M.A., Ph.D.,
McGill University.
The Salmon Investigation of 1916.
The Department continued its salmon investigations throughout the season. Data was
collected from the principal sections frequented by salmon, as in the past four seasons. Through
circumstances that were unavoidable, Dr. C. H. Gilbert has not been able to work up all the
data collected during the season. In consequence the publication of the results of his work
cannot be included in the Appendix of this report, but will be issued in the report for 1917.
One of the most interesting features of the season's work on the life of the sockeye was
the discovery of a seaward migration of young sockeye from Owikeno Lake, Rivers Inlet, in
November. $ 12 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
Stafford's Work on the Pacific Oyster.
Dr. Joseph Stafford, of McGill University, who began an investigation for this Department
in 1913 of the Pacific oyster, continued his study in the Province from March to September of
this year. His contribution to the subject, which will be found in the Appendix of this report,
deals with " culture." It is a very able paper, and one so full and complete that every person
in the Province that is concerned in the cultivation of oysters will find it an invaluable aid. His
observations and experiments under original conditions and determinating limits form a solid
basis of facts for methods of culture.
The Halibut Problem.
The halibut problem received further consideration during the year. It will be recalled
that the Department's reports for 1,914 and 1915 contained the reports of Mr. W. F. Thompson
on the life of the halibut. His paper of the latter year disclosed the conditions on the halibut
banks of the North Pacific as shown by a digest of the logs of over 900 fishing voyages of halibut
vessels. It was made evident therein that intense fishing on the halibut banks of the North
Pacific off the coast of British Columbia and Alaska not only has resulted in depletion of many
of them, but has made its influence felt throughout the whole biological appearance of the species,
and in so doing has rendered precarious the future of the banks, particularly the older or longest
known. The numbers of halibut still found there are so small and the percentage of mature
fish has fallen so low that it appears imminent that the halibut will drop to a minor position
among the food-fishes of the North Pacific. The species may recede northward as it did from
the shores of Massachusetts and from the coast of England, until it exists only on the more
remote of the banks. It is difficult to see wherein more proof of depletion than is furnished
ny Mr. Thompson in the Provincial Report for 1915 could be adduced. While the rate of decrease
in the catch of halibut from most of the banks—over 70 per cent.—for each decade is surprisingly-
large, it must be considered that the constant shifting to new banks has obscured the effects of
impoverishment. The extension is, in fact, evidence of depletion on the older banks. The
progress from Cape Flattery to Hecate Strait, and from there to Yakutat and beyond, has been
at a constantly accelerated rate as the total catch has grown from year to year. When the
end will be reached, perhaps in the Southern Bering Sea, or off the Siberian coast, is, of course,
difficult to forecast. In the meantime the expenses of long voyages are gradually growing, and
the necessity for vessels of larger steaming radius is becoming greater, so that it is a question
whether the final reserve of halibut will be exploited by vessels from our coast. When expansion
is at an end, as will eventually be the case, vessels must return to fishing on the older banks,
which will then be depleted beyond their present condition unless measures are taken to allow
them to recuperate.
There are evident reasons why the depletion of the supply of halibut does not evince itself
in the yearly catch. Rising prices and the extension to new banks require no comment on their
effects. It is evident, therefore, that an automatic abatement of fishing in direct proportion to
the rate of depletion is not to be anticipated, and those that rest content in the belief that it
will not pay commercially to deplete the banks beyond the limits of recuperation are on unsafe
ground.
The evidence of depletion in the supply of halibut furnished by this Department's publications in 1914 and 1915 attracted the attention of both Canadian and United States authorities
to the necessity of providing radical measures. Since the fishing is conducted in the open sea
off the coast of Canada and the United States by vessels flying their flags, it is manifest that
any measures for the conservation .of the supply must be taken jointly. The problem cannot
be solved in any other way. The vessels of both nations must be subject to the same regulations.
And, since the banks are mainly situated beyond the territorial limits of either country, regulations will have to be provided for the closing of the ports of both countries to the landing of
halibut taken contrary to the regulations provided.
The Government of the United States has already moved in this matter. A Bill was
introduced in Congress in 1916 (Senate Bill 4586), establishing a closed season for halibut in
the Pacific in December and January of each year, and providing for a closed zone of some
290 square miles near Hecate and Noyes Islands, Alaska. The enforcement of these provisions
depends upon a similar enactment by the Canadian Government. The latter has not as yet
indicated its position. 7 Geo. 5 British Columbia. S 13c
The Regulation of the Fishery-.
Mr. Thompson's paper, " The Regulation of the Halibut Fishery," issued herewith, discusses
the provisions of the Senate Bill in detail, together with alternate means of combating depletion.
Recognizing the urgency of the situation, there has been much discussion, especially amongst
the fishermen and dealers, as to the best methods of dealing with the question. The Bill before
Congress is the first fruit of that discussion. To be worthy of adoption it must be shown that
the measures are adequate to conserve the numbers of the species as a whole or in threatened
areas. The question is one of simply ensuring the existence of a sufficient number of breeding
males and females in those areas where they are known to be lacking.
It is a serious question whether an annual closed season of two or more months would not
result in even more intensive fishing during the balance of the year. Cold-storage facilities
render it possible to supply the market with halibut all the year. The catch in the open months
would therefore be as great as the fleet could make it. The cost of catching is but a small part
of that of placing the fish on the market. The cost of catching can be increased greatly without
radically affecting the price to the consumer. There has already been a considerable increase
in the expense of obtaining a cargo. The cost in 1914 was 100 per cent, greater than in 1904..
That means that the yield per vessel has fallen one-half. Yet the total catch landed has steadily
increased to meet the demand. Such being the case, it is evident that a reduction in the fishing-
time by a sixth would have a limited effect, even though it were accepted at face value.
The Winter Months unprofitable.
The apparent value of a closed season during the winter months is greatly modified by other
considerations. One of the most prominent of these is the fact that during the months of
December and January the catch for years has been but half the average for the summer
months, indicating that a two months' winter closed season would be only half as effective as
a similar period in summer. From a fisherman's view-point the winter months are the least
profitable. Provided the greater consideration of the future were not in question, there would
be no objection to legislating away the unprofitable part of the business year. But, aside from
the fact that it is not the object of the proposed legislation to increase the immediate prosperity
of the industry, it can be shown that such a measure would really be detrimental to the condition
of the banks. The proposed closed season would surely put vessels on a better financial basis,
since it would eliminate the operations in the two unprofitable months, but it would also lead
to the enlargement of the fleet and a closer fishing of the banks in summer.
Fishing on the depleted southern banks off the coast of the Province is prevalent in summer,
because the catch per unit of gear is greatest at that time, and the catch consists almost entirely
of young fish. Mr. Thompson has shown that it is these banks which most need protection.
If they are to have it, and it is to be most effective, it must be given during that period when
fishing is mostly done. Instead of affording protection at that time, a winter close season will
increase the summer season fishing. Cold-storage plants play an important part in the closure.
They not only maintain the demand, but they counteract the extensive natural increase in
winter price and uphold the price in summer. They absorb the surplus of the summer catch.
There is, nevertheless, a considerable catch of fish in winter, and but for cold storage the fish
taken in winter would control the market and bring a better price to the fishermen.
However, the most generally held reason for supporting a winter close season is that it is
designed to protect the halibut during the spawning period. There is no basis of scientific fact
back of such a contention. On the contrary, the banks where there are the most mature and
spawning fish are those least accessible. It has been demonstrated that the banks now characterized by small and immature fish formerly were populated by large numbers of mature fish, and
that their absence is due to commercial fishing. Mr. Thompson therefore reaches the conclusion
that under the Bill protection is provided for banks which show the least evidence of exhaustion.
He found that the depleted banks are characterized by a lack of breeding fish and a predominance
of fish that are immature. If the latter are to be caught, it is a matter of indifference at which
season of the year it is accomplished, as all succeeding spawning periods are eliminated. And
it is also true of mature fish. There is no reason why capture a week before spawning is more
disastrous than capture six months before, save in so far as there is a natural mortality among
the fish during the intervening time.   The areas now needing protection are those in which 8 34 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
halibut rarely have a chance of reaching maturity.    To allow them to do so they must be exempt
from capture for a sufficient length of time to reach maturity and spawn.
Summer Closed Season more effective than Winter.
Mr. Thompson is of the opinion that the effect of the closing of one month in summer would
be equal to that of two winter months, and that such action would result in curtailing the catch
of small immature fish and encourage winter fishing. But, as he indicates, the serious question
would still remain as to whether the total catch from any bank would be sufficiently decreased
to be of any value. What the banks need is a total cessation of fishing, yet a summer closure
would be more effective than a winter closure.
Supplemental to the proposals of the Senate Bill for a two months' suspension of all fishing,
provision is made for a nursery zone of some 290 square miles in which no fishing is to be
permitted at any time. There are decisive reasons for regarding such a measure as totally
inadequate. Mr. Thompson has shown that there is no considerable migration between banks;
hence it is not probable that the establishment of such a zone would be of benefit to any of the
banks, with the possible exception of those next to the zone. The area of the continental shelf
within the 140-fathom line off the coast of British Columbia and Alaska is estimated to exceed
80,000 square miles. The proposed closed zone therefore would be about Vs of 1 per cent.
Behind the idea of such a nursery there is seemingly the conviction that the small fish which
characterize that region are young. Mr. Thompson's work makes it far more probable that they
are simply a slow-growing population from which the large mature fish have been taken.
However, the idea of extending protection to an area by totally eliminating fishing is a
suggestive one.
Closing the Banks alternately.
To be effective it is evident that protection must be given to a large area for a sufficient
time to permit the fish therein to reach maturity and spawn. That is possible by applying a
closed period to portions of the banks alternately, and making it for a sufficient time o'n each
to accomplish its purpose. Mr. Thompson then comes, logically, to the consideration of a closure
of large areas for a period of years.   He suggests:—
The banks to be divided into districts of such areas as: (1) Those off the coast of Oregon
and Washington; (2) off the coast of British Columbia; (3) between Icy Straits and Dixon's
Entrance; (4) between Icy Straits and Cape Cleare; (5) between Cape Cleare and the entrance
to Bering Sea; (6) any subsequently discovered banks not properly attached to the foregoing and
including Bering Sea.
Areas 1, 5, and 6 are those least depleted. Area 2 has been shown to be nearly exhausted.
Areas 3 and 4 are presumably also depleted, the latter the less so. Areas 2 and 3 to be alternately closed and opened. Area 2 for five years, and then Area 3 for the next five years, and
so on alternately. Areas 1, 4, 5, and 6 to be closed at the same time as either 2 or 3, their
closure being subject to the discretion of conferences of the two Governments; provided, unless
otherwise agreed upon, that Areas 1, 3, and 5 would be closed together, and Areas 2, 4, and 6.
Each area would thus be closed for five out of every ten years. There is also proposed a modified
programme for the first ten years to cover the period of adjustment.
Such a provision would, Mr. Thompson suggests, allow sufficient latitude to overcome any
differences in the productive power of the areas, and at the same time make the closure automatic.
It would also obviate any danger of placing any particular port under a disadvantage.
Mr. Thompson's long and successful study and his reports give great weight to his opinion.
His judgments are based upon scientifically ascertained facts in the life of the halibut, and in
consequence must have weight in the formulation of international regulations for the successful
solution of this great question.
The Life-history' of the Pacific Herring.
William F. Thompson's " Contribution to the Life-history of the Pacific Herring," published
herewith, is a valuable addition to the biology of Pacific fauna, and of practical value to those
■concerned in the development of the herring fishery.
The principal object of Mr. Thompson's work was to afford some basis upon which the
future of the herring fishery may be judged, and to ascertain whether there was evidence of 7 Geo. 5 British Columbia. S 15
depletion. However far from attainment this yet is, many observations and records of value
are given in his report. The methods used in the work of Mr. Thompson were essentially those
employed by European workers on the herring.
The Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, of Cuvier and Valenciennes, is found along the Pacific
Coast of North America, north of San Diego, Cal., as well as along the Siberian and Japanese
coasts. It is clearly allied to the herring of Europe, Clupea harengus, and bearing sufficient
resemblance to it to pass as the same commercially. There are supposed to be differences
between the preserving qualities, but no more than are to be found between varieties of the
Atlantic herring, and none which render the Pacific herring unmarketable. Whatever prejudice
has existed has been due to unskilful preservation of the earlier catches. At present date there
is a large and growing market for what can be taken and the fishery is only in its infancy.
What development it is capable of remains to be seen. Whether it will stand a tremendous
strain such as has been borne by the European herring is still a mooted question. Certain it is
that it has not been intensively fished, save in a few localities, although in those few it might
seem that it has been subject to depletion. The localities supposed to be overfished are those
most accessible to the markets, especially certain harbours in the Gulf of Georgia, but this
would not seem to necessitate any apprehension as to the immediate future of the herring fishery
as a whole. When the fish are taken in more localities and the intensity in any one is not as
great, these phenomena of local depletion will perhaps not affect the prosperity of the fishery.
Nevertheless, it would be disquieting to know that it is possible to so readily deplete the fishery
even in limited localities thus early in its history. As there is no absolute knowledge available
concerning the causes of this, any speculation in that regard must be very cautious, despite the
prime importance of such information.
The decreased range in size of the herring at Nanaimo and Nanoose Bays, as compared
by the lack of older fish, is the first clear evidence suggestive of overfishing that has been
afforded. Much caution must, however, be used in asserting that the failure of the fishery in
certain localities is due to overfishing. To be able to show definitely that such depletion results
from commercial operations, Mr. Thompson points out, it will be necessary to have a basis, a
knowledge of several facts. First, it must be known whether the depletion is local or general,
whether it is to be found simultaneously in waters fished writh varying intensities, or only in
certain of them, which may or may not have been subject to the most energetic exploitation.
This requires the collection of data in a far more thorough manner than has yet been done.
Second, it should be proved that in case of local depletion no local environmental influences
are at work, and that, in case where widespread decrease in abundance is visible, no great
environmental changes or the prevalence of disease have caused it.
Third, granted that depletion is local, it must be shown that the herring schools are so
localized as to be capable of being individually depleted or destroyed, and that such schools are
peculiar to certain regions.
Fourth, the knowledge to be gained of the condition of the fishery throughout the above-
mentioned lines of work may be supplemented by accurately noting the changes in the composition or biological appearance of the species. A species such as the herring, depleted by
overfishing, as a rule shows diminished proportion of mature or older fish, due to the drain
of successive years of intense fishing.
In order to determine whether these criteria of depletion are present or not, or whether it
is possible to use them, it is necessary to accurately and fully investigate the biology of the
species, its normal condition, the distribution of classes and ages of fish, and the habits of life.
The possession of some means of judging the state of the herring fishery, its progress and
prospects of permanency, its capacity of withstanding exploitation, justify any effort to fulfil
these requirements. This is the more so as all the fisheries must ultimately require much the
same knowledge of the physical conditions surrounding respective species, and because fundamental facts concerning each species are of great importance in the consideration of others.
It is obvious, as Mr. Thompson shows, that for such work there must be a far-reaching
organization. The plan for the work which he outlines is a broad one and should commend itself
to the authorities while the fishery is yet in its'infancy.
The Salmon Spawning-grounds of the Province.
As in former years, the Department conducted investigations of the spawning-beds of the
Fraser and Nass Rivers and Rivers and Smith Inlets.   Reports from those sections will be found S 16 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
in the Appendix. The reports from the spawning-grounds of the Fraser River and Rivers and
Smith Inlets are most unsatisfactory.    The report from the Nass River alone is satisfactory.
The Fraser River.—The investigation of conditions on the Fraser was again conducted by
John P. Babcock, the Assistant to the Commissioner, who originated this work in 1901. His
report for the past season discloses that very few sockeye salmon reached either the Quesnel,
Chilko, Seton-Anderson, or Shuswap Lakes or their tributaries, and that only the waters of the
Lillooet-Harrison Lakes section and the Lower Fraser tributaries disclosed sockeye in promising
numbers. The egg collections at the hatchery at the head of Lillooet Lake exceeded the egg
collections of last year. A total for this season of 27,000,000, 2,000,000 more than last year, and
one of the largest collections made in any off-year at that, the best egg-collecting station on
the Fraser. The egg collections at Harrison Lake and from its tributaries was unsatisfactory,
but the hatchery was well supplied from the stations at Cultus and Pitt Lakes.
No salmon-eggs were taken at the hatchery at Seton Lake this year, because less than 200
spawn fish reached there during the season. The hatchery, however, was operated. The
Department is indebted to Lieut.-Colonel F. H. Cunningham, Chief Inspector for the Dominion,
for 2,000,000 eyed sockeye-eggs donated from the Dominion hatchery at the head of Lillooet Lake.
The eggs were received in prime condition and were hatched with little loss. The fry will be
liberated in Seton and Anderson Lakes this coming spring.
Rivers and Smith Inlets.—Fishery Overseer A. W. Stone again inspected the spawning-beds
of Owikeno Lake, at the head of Rivers Inlet, and also the beds above Smith Inlet. His reports
show a most unsatisfactory condition at both points. He estimates that there were 75 per cent,
less sockeye on the spawning-beds this year than he found there in the two preceding years.
This is the first year since the investigations of the conditions on these beds were undertaken in
1909 that they have not been found to be abundantly stocked with spawning sockeye. It will
be recalled that the catch at both Rivers and Smith Inlets was very poor throughout the season.
The lack of fish on the beds discloses that the poor catch was due to a small run and not to
unfavourable weather conditions.
The Nass River.—Inspector of Fisheries C. P. Hickman and Overseer Collison made an
inspection of the accessible portion of the spawning area of the Nass. Their report indicates
that the beds were well seeded. The catch of sockeye in the lower river exceeded that of the
previous year.
The Skeena River.—The Department was unable to send an Overseer to the Upper Skeena
this year. Lieut.-Colonel F. H. Cunningham, the Chief Inspector for the Dominion, however,
had the beds inspected, and has kindly furnished the following summary of the reports made
to him :—-
" Reports from the spawning-grounds of the Skeena River watershed show that in the
Kitsumgallum Lake District the run of sockeye was a good one and believed to be in all respects
equal to that of last year, the proportion of males and females being evenly balanced and the
creeks free from obstructions. The cohoe run was also favourable, but the number of humpbacks
in this area was smaller than last year.
" The spawning-grounds in the Hazelton District were not as well seeded as in previous years,
and the proportion of males and females in this district is estimated at eight of the former to
one of the latter.
" The first sockeye were caught in the Babine District on July 26th, but the cohoe did not
reach these waters until late in September.
" In the Telkwa District seeding of the sockeye spawning-grounds was below the average,
though the Indians apparently put up sufficient numbers of fish for their winter food. The run
of other varieties of salmon, however, was good, especially cohoe, whilst in the upper reaches
of the Skeena River reports in general show a decrease in the number of sockeye reaching the
spawning-grounds.
"The reports from the several creeks stretching all the way from Kitsumgallum up to
Pinkut Creek show that they were well seeded with sockeye-eggs this year."
The Department is indebted to Lieut.-Colonel F. H. Cunningham, Chief Inspector of Fisheries
for the Province, for the following statement of the salmon-eggs collected at the Dominion
hatcheries for the year 1916:— 7 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
S 17
Statement  showing the  Number  of  Salmon-eggs  collected  for  the  Hatcheries   in   the
Province for the Year 1916.*
Hatchery.
Sockeye.
Spring.
Cohoe.
Dog.
Steelheads.
Total.
Harrison Lake  	
14,453,000
25,750,000*
6,000,000
14.241,000
4,292,000
8,100,000
3,576,625
.  252,000
3,286,000
723,000
1,109,000
70,000
607.'600
940,000
5,055,000
405,000
28,
23,903,000
25.750,000
6.070.000
Rivers Inlet  	
14,241,000
4.292.000
Anderson Lake  	
Kennedy Lake  	
Cowichan Lake  	
500
8,505,000
3,576,625
1,359,100
1,192,000
Totals   	
76,664,625
4,009,000
2,726,600
5,460,000
28,500        88,888,725
* Two million of these eggs were forwarded and hatched at the Provincial hatchery at Seton Lake,
fry will be planted in Seton and Anderson Lakes in the summer of 1917.
The
The Sockeye Salmon-pack* of the Fraser River District from 1900 to 1916, inclusive.
Year.
Fraser River.
Puget Sound.
Totals.
1900   	
229,800
228,704
458,504
1901   	
928,669
1,105,096
2,033,765
1902   	
293,477
339.556
633,033
1903   	
204,809
167,211
372,020
1904   	
72,688
123,419
196,107
1905   	
837,489
847.122
1,684,611
1906   	
183,007
182,241
365.248
1907   	
62,617
96,974
159,591
1908   	
74,574
155.218
229,792
1909   	
585,435
1,005,120
1.590,555
1910   	
150,432
234,437
384,869
1911   	
62,817
126,950
189,767
1912   	
123,879
183,896
307,775
1913   	
736,661
1,664,827
2,401,488
1914   	
198,183
336,251
534,434
1915  	
91,130
64,584
155,714
1916   	
27.394
78,476
105,870
* Given in cases—forty-eight 1-lb. cans to case.
Sockeye Egg-take at Fraser River Hatcheries from 1901 to 1916.
1901   15,741,000
1902   72,034,000
1903    13,464,000
1904     9,469,000
1905   97,656,000
1906   51,121,000
1907    53,952,000
190S   46,709,000
1909    98,000,000
1910  37,343,000
1911    22,937,000
1912   38,500,000
1913   86,000,000
1914   28,589,000
1915   68,476,000
1916   40,203,000
Statements giving the salmon-pack of the Province for 1916, the salmon-pack of Puget Sound,
in the State of Washington, for that year, and also the record of the salmon-pack of the Province,
by species and districts, since 1901, will be found on the last pages of the Appendix of this report.
2 S 18 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
APPENDICES.
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF THE FRASER RIVER,
To the Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.:
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report of the examinations made of the
fishing and spawning areas of the Fraser River during the season of 1916:—
Following the practice first undertaken in 1902, I visited and examined the fishing-grounds
of the Fraser during the fishing season. In this work I was ably assisted by Provincial Inspector
of Fisheries C. P. Hickman. 1 also visited the spawning-grounds of the Fraser and its extensive
tributaries for the purpose of estimating the number of adult salmon which reached them, and
to ascertain the conditions under which they spawned, so that comparison might be made with
former years. In this work I was ably assisted by Fishery Overseer Newcombe, as well as by
many residents in the outlying sections of the watershed.
Evidence has been submitted in my former reports to establish the fact that the sockeye
which frequent the Fraser consist largely of four-year fish, that the numbers annually seeking
that stream in three of the four-year cycle are declining, and that sufficient fish have not in
those years reached the spawning-beds in such numbers as to adequately seed them nor to furnish
eggs enough to operate the hatcheries to anything like their capacity. It will not, therefore, be
surprising to record here that the catch of sockeye in the Fraser District this year was the
smallest yet made there, and also that the number which reached the spawning areas this season
was again so limited that the greater portion of the spawning-beds were unseeded.
The sockeye-fishing season in Provincial waters of the Fraser District, as in former years,
opened on July 1st. Very few fish were caught during that month. The principal catch and
pack was made in August, as is usual. The opening price paid the fishermen was 40 cents per
fish, the record high price. Owing to the scarcity of fish early in August the price was advanced
to 50 cents per fish, which price was paid for the balance of the season. The usual weekly closed
season was observed and the regulation strictly obeyed.
This season 2,143 fishing-boats, using gill-nets, were engaged in taking salmon in the
Provincial waters of the Gulf of Georgia and the Fraser River. Their total catch of sockeye
salmon produced 27,394 cases, or less than thirteen cases to the boat. The four traps operated
on the south shore of Vancouver Island produced a pack of 4,752 cases of sockeye. The total
pack thus amounting to 32,146 cases.
Two hundred and sixty-five traps, 273 purse-seines, and 444 gill-nets were licensed in the
Puget Sound section of the Fraser District during the season, and their combined catch produced
82,349 cases of sockeye, giving a grand total for the Fraser District of 114,495 cases. This is
the smallest pack yet recorded in that district. The 1916 total pack is but 35 per cent, of the
pack of 1912, and but 48 per cent, of the pack of 1908. This year our canners packed but 28 per
cent, of the total sockeye-pack.
The catch of red and white springs in our waters of the Fraser District was considerably
less than in 1915. The catch was canned and not tierced, there being little demand for the
tierced product since the beginning of the war.
The catch of cohoe produced 31,330 cases, being 12,184 cases less than in 1915. For the first
time in the history of the canning industry on the Fraser River there was a notable production
of chum salmon. The pack totalled 30,934 cases. A demand for this grade of fall fish has
developed since the war began. Considering the prime food value of this species, it is remarkable that a market was not sooner developed. That its merits were so long unrecognized may
be attributed, in part at least, to the prejudice arising from the name " dog-salmon," by which
name they have been commonly known. That name is said to have arisen from the fact that
at spawning-time the teeth develop prominently and resemble those of a dog. Certainly no other
resemblance to a dog is suggested, and the fact remains that when taken in salt water it is a
prime food-fish. 7 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of the Fraser. S 19
In addition to the above pack, 840 cases of pinks and 3,129 cases of steelheads were tinned
on the Fraser, giving a grand total for the Provincial waters of the district of 127,472 cases.
In consequence of the belief that the spawning-beds of the Fraser four years ago (1912)
were more abundantly seeded by sockeye than in any former off-year since 1901, it was anticipated that the run to the Fraser this year would afford a larger catch than that made in 1912.
That the catch this year shows a loss instead of an increase demonstrates, as my reports have
often pointed out, that it does not follow that four years after a satisfactory seeding of the
beds a corresponding run will result. The spawning-beds in a given year may be well seeded,
the season propitious, and the hatch a successful one, and the seaward migration of fry a year
later may be large, and yet there may be a poor return four years later. By careful observation
an approximate estimate may be made of the number of spawning fish which reach and successfully cast their spawn on the beds of a watershed, and the number of eggs hatched, as well as
the number of fry which migrate to the sea. Beyond that, all is conjectural and speculative.
From the time the young leave the mouth of the river until they return as adults three years
later, nothing is known of their movements, the abundance of their food, of their enemies, or of
their welfare otherwise. Conceivably food conditions vary on their feeding-grounds as in other
pastures. Their enemies may be more numerous and more successful in their attacks on the
schools in one season than another. Until they return to the river, three years after they entered
the sea, no estimate can be made of the number which have survived and attained maturity.
On the other hand, since it has been sufficiently demonstrated to warrant the conclusion that
the family of sockeye which issue from a stream, on reaching maturity, return to that stream to
spawn, there can be no uncertainty as to the returns from a year's spawning in which it is
shown that only a limited number of fish reached the beds and cast their spawn. The seed
being sown and conditions being favourable, a harvest may be reaped; but harvests are not
reaped from unsown fields.
The Spawning-grounds of the Fraser.
The inspection of the spawning-grounds of the Fraser River and its tributaries conducted
during the past season covered the same extensive area as in former seasons. I personally
visited all the great lake sections, passing over the greater portion of the spawning area. I was
ably advised of conditions in many sections by Fishery Overseer Newcombe, who conducted an
independent inspection.
Notwithstanding the poor catches made on the fishing-grounds, the total number of fish
which reached and passed through the canyon at Hell's Gate, above Yale, is estimated to have
been as large as last year, but very much less than four years ago. Water conditions in the
Hell's Gate canyon were so favourable that the fish which reached there throughout the season
had no unusual difficulty in passing to the waters above.
The Indians at the fishing-stations in the canyon of the Fraser, just above the mouth of
Bridge River, caught less fish than last year, although the fish reached that canyon in equal
numbers. Water conditions this season were much more favourable to the passage of the fish
and much less favourable to the Indians' method of capture than last year. The number of fish
which passed through the canyon was considerably less than four years ago.
Stuart Lake.
I did not visit Fraser or Stuart Lakes, but am advised by A. C. Murray, Esq., of Fort St.
James, that the salmon run to that section was, as in recent years, very small, and that the
Stuart Lake Indians did not catch more than 100 salmon during the season.
Quesnel Lake.
The run of sockeye salmon to Quesnel Lake this season was very small; in fact, one of the
smallest recorded there during the past twelve years. As usual, the Department maintained a
watchman at the dam at the outlet of the lake during the season. The first sockeye reached
the dam on August 24th. None was seen to enter the lake until the 26th. On the 27th between
fifty and seventy-five passed through the large fishway from the river to the lake. On August
29th the gates of the dam were partly closed to permit the removal of a log-jam. The gates
were opened on the 30th. On that date it was estimated that between 150 and 200 sockeye
were in the great pool at the lower end of the race.    They entered the lake that night.    Between 8 20 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
September 1st and 12th some fish were seen, but not more than fifty in one day entered the lake.
The watchman estimates that no more than 600 sockeye and 100 spring salmon entered the lake
this year. Among the sockeye observed there the watchman did not distinguish a single female.
The males that reach there are a brilliant red colour and the females olive-green, hence they
can be easily distinguished. The majority of the sockeye were small, indicating that they were
principally three-year-old fish. Efforts were made to catch specimens for measurement and to
collect scales for examination.    Only thirteen were taken, and they were all small males.
The run of sockeye to Quesnel Lake in 1912 was the largest recorded there in an off-year.
As noted in previous reports, Quesnel Lake is the second largest lake in the watershed of the
Fraser River. During the big run of 1909 it was estimated that 4,000,000 sockeye entered that
lake.
Chilcotin River.
The number of sockeye which entered the Chilcotin River this season, en route to Chilko
Lake at its head, was too small to seed any appreciable portion of the vast area of the spawning-
beds of that section. This is one of the largest and most important spawning-grounds in the
watershed of the Fraser River.
During the season the Department maintained a watchman at a point, some nine miles above
the river's confluence with the Fraser, known as Fish Canyon, where the Chilcotin Indians in
the last two years have congregated in greatest numbers to catch fish. The first sockeye were
observed there on August 12th. From five to eight fish per day were taken there by the Indians
between the 12th and 29th of that month. The total recorded catch of the Indians there this
season was 500.
Very few salmon were taken in the canyon near Hanceville, or at Indian Bridge above the
junction of the Chilcotin and Chilko Rivers. The total catch of the Chilcotin Indians this season
did not exceed 1,000, consequently few were dried. Four years ago (1912) the Indians engaged
in fishing at Fish Canyon caught fully 5,000 sockeye, those at Hanceville 6,000, and at Indian
Bridge 4,000;  a total for that year of 15,000.
Captain Bob, the intelligent Chief of the Chilcotin Indians, told me the last of September
that the run of sockeye to the Chilcotin River was little better than last year; that very few
reached Chilko Lake; and that the run this year was the smallest within the recollection of
his tribe.
Seton Lake.
The run of sockeye and other salmon to the Seton-Anderson Lake section was the smallest
ever recorded there. Not to exceed 100 sockeye reached there during the season. Weirs were
placed at the outlet of Seton Lake in-July. No fish appeared there in July or August. During
September a few fish were observed in the pool below the weirs, but they were at no time
numerous enough to warrant taking them to secure their eggs for the hatchery. No eggs were
taken during the season.
Four years ago 11,000,000 eggs were taken at Seton Lake, which was the largest number ever
secured there in an off-year. The run to this section that year was abnormal, and was attributed
to the low stage of the water in the canyon of the Fraser five miles above the mouth of the
hatchery stream, in consequence of which the late-running fish could not pass through that
canyon, and turned back and sought entrance to Seton and Anderson Lakes. Water conditions
in that canyon, as already stated, were favourable to the passage of fish throughout the past
season, and no fish were turned back.
Thanks to the courtesy of Colonel F. H. Cunningham, Chief Inspector of Fisheries for the
Dominion Government, 2,000,000 eyed sockeye-eggs, taken at the hatchery at the head of Lillooet
Lake, were shipped to the Seton Lake Hatchery. The eggs were received in excellent condition
after a four hours' journey, having been shipped over the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. The
fry from this hatch will be retained and fed until they are free-swimming, and will then be
liberated in Seton and Anderson Lakes.
During the spring of 1916 some 90,000 trout-eggs were collected at Little Blackwater Lake,
near the head of Anderson Lake. After being eyed they were transferred to the Seton Lake
Hatchery, where they were hatched and fed until September. They were then liberated in Alta,
Green, and Kelly Lakes, on the line of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. 7 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of the Fraser. S 21
Thompson River and Shuswap Lake*
The number of all species of salmon which passed up the Thompson River, the largest
tributary of the Fraser, this past season, was so small that the Indians living in its watershed
were unable to take them in sufficient numbers to dry any. Sockeye in numbers were not
observed in any tributary of Shuswap Lake or at any point on that lake during the year. As
stated in my former reports, the hatchery built near Salmon Arm in 1901 was abandoned two
years ago because the number of salmon which reached Shuswap Lake in the off-years could
not be secured in such numbers as to warrant operations.
Harrison Lake and Lower Fraser.
The run to Harrison Lake and its tributaries was poor. Less eggs were secured there this
year than in any recent season.
The sockeye run to Morris Creek and the Harrison River rapids afforded less eggs than last
year, but more than equalled the collection for the hatchery in 1912. It will be recalled that the
run to this section in 1912 was very light, and was the only section that was not well seeded that
year.   The collection of spring and cohoe salmon eggs was also lighter than last year.
The run of sockeye salmon to Cultus Lake was far larger than four years ago, but much
smaller than last season. The fish were again very late in coming in, the bulk of the eggs
being taken in November and December.
There was a considerable run of sockeye to Pitt Lake. The fish came in early, and upwards
of 3,000,000 eggs were collected there.
It is to be noted that no eggs were collected at any point in the watershed of the Fraser
above Hell's Gate, and that the entire supply was taken at Lillooet, Harrison, Cultus, and
Pitt Lakes.
I have, etc.,
John Pease Babcock,
Assistant to the Commissioner. S 22 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
THE SPAWNING-GROUNDS OF RIVERS INLET.
To the Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.:
Sir,—Acting under instructions from the Department, I have the honour to submit my
report upon an investigation of the spawning-grounds at Rivers Inlet for the year 1916.
Owing to the exceptionally poor results obtained by the canneries operating at Rivers Inlet
during the sockeye-fishing season, the inspection was made with more than ordinary interest.
Weather conditions in former years have been responsible for the poor showing made at the
canneries, the fishermen claiming the salmon swam deep and avoided the nets. I found this
substantiated when making an inspection of the spawning-grounds in 1913 and 1914, two years
that the canneries put up small packs. On those two occasions the salmon were found on the
spawning-beds in very large numbers. This year the weather was exceptionally bad, but the
prevailing opinion amongst the fishermen that the poor showing made was entirely due to the
poor run of sockeye, and not to weather conditions only, is borne out by the conditions existing
on all the spawning-beds which have just been inspected.
Leaving Rivers Inlet Cannery on September 19th, I proceeded to the head of Owikeno Lake
and commenced an inspection at this point. The Indian River received attention first, and on
making my way up through the rapids I observed that the few sockeye salmon met with in
the lower reaches showed no improvement farther up; very few salmon were seen spawning
on any of the riffles or in the deeper portions of the river, the spawning-beds of which were
easily discernible, due to the low stage of the river. A collection of eggs was obtained after
great difficulty, most of the female sockeye examined having all spawned out. No log-jams
obstructed the passage of the salmon to the falls about half a mile from the mouth.
An examination of the Cheo River was distinctly disappointing. In former years the fine
spawning-beds reaching up to the falls have been covered with spawning sockeye. This year
very different conditions presented themselves; few salmon were to be seen spawning on the
riffles as we made our way up through the rapids, and hardly a glimpse could be obtained of any
swimming in the deeper portions of the river. The log-jam at the bend about three miles and a
half from the mouth is assuming greater proportions each year, and should be blown out, or it
will completely block the salmon from passing through to the upper reaches. The river at
present is fortunately deep at this point and allows free passage. There is a fine stretch of
spawning-ground above the falls which could be reached by the salmon if the rocks were blasted
out and a fishway constructed. The expense of a suitable fishway would be moderate. The
cohoe salmon during a freshet have reached this portion of the river, according to the statement
of a trapper, who claimed he had seen them, and I have every reason to accept his statement
as correct. The cohoe salmon during my visit to the falls were to be seen making great efforts
to surmount them, but were hurled back at each attempt. With the exception of the log-jam
already referred to, no obstructions were met with during my trip up this river.
The Washwash, usually one of the most productive streams of spawning salmon on the lake,
although fairly well seeded, did not compare with former years. The falling-off in the number
of sockeye spawning on the beds was most marked, and especially was this noticeable as I made
my way along the bars to the falls, a distance of about four miles and a half. There is a big
log-jam stretching right across the river about 200 yards from the mouth, which with each
freshet increases in size and should be removed, or it may eventually prevent the salmon reaching
the upper portion of the river, where lie the principal spawning-grounds. Small grilse were
noticeable both in this river and the Cheo. The results of an inspection of the three rivers at
this point are very unsatisfactory; the falling-off in the number of sockeye salmon is at least
75 per cent, below the runs of 1913, 1914, or 1915.
Returning from the head of the lake, I inspected Sunday Creek, a small mountain stream
usually full of sockeye salmon. With the exception of one or two dead bodies lying on the bars,
there was nothing to indicate that a run of sockeye salmon had reached the spawning-beds in
the creek.
Proceeding down the lake, I noticed the fine stretch of spawning-ground at the Narrows
practically devoid of salmon. Very few could be seen spawning. In former years the sockeye
salmon have been seen here in large numbers. 7 Geo. 5 Spawning-grounds of Rivers Inlet. S 23
The Sheemahant River, the largest and most productive spawning-ground tributary to the
lake, was next inspected. This river stretches for about eighteen miles, where further advance
is barred to the salmon by falls. To open these to the fine spawning-grounds above, it would
be necessary to blast out the rocks and build a fish-ladder, a matter to which attention has been
drawn in previous reports. In proportion to the size of the river, the sockeye salmon observed
in the riffles did not exceed in numbers those met with in the rivers already referred to, and
in making a comparison of the run with previous years I am of the opinion a deduction of
75 per cent, would in no way exaggerate the case. Unavailing attempts were made to obtain
samples of spawn, but the few females captured were all spawned out. No obstructions were
seen as we made our way up through the rapids to the falls.
The hatchery officials were waiting patiently for the appearance of the sockeye at Jeneesee
Creek, about half a dozen having made their way in at the time of my visit, and matters certainly
looked bad for a successful collection of eggs for the Dominion hatchery; hope was entertained,
however, that with the rise of the lake the salmon would come in. I understand later quite a
respectable run entered the creek, and allowed the hatchery-men to collect a few boxes of eggs.
In comparison with other years, the 1915 and 1916 runs can be classed as failures. It will be
remembered that in 1913 and 1914 favourable reports were made of the runs to this creek.
Windfalls and jams obstruct the passage all the way to the falls, and provide little spawning
area for the salmon.
The Machmell River was very discoloured and prevented an accurate estimate of the number
of sockeye; a few were observed on the riffles, but I am inclined to the opinion they prefer the
spawning-grounds of the Nookins, a tributary to the Machmell. An inspection of Nookins River
was very disappointing. In former years it bore the reputation of being one of the most productive streams of the lake, but the Indians, who invariably depended for their supply of salmon
for winter use from this river, were unable to do so this year. A few sockeye salmon were
observed on the beds, and appeared to be in an advanced state of spawning. Several examined
were found to be voided of eggs. No windfalls or log-jams impede the onward movement of the
salmon up-stream.
Arriving at Asklum, I found that the low state of the river enabled me to wade along the
shores to the head. The lower reaches appeared to be fairly well seeded, and salmon in
respectable numbers for about two miles could be seen spawning on the beds; beyond this
point there was no sign of them. I looked in vain for the big runs experienced here in 1913, 1914,
and 1915. An examination of several sockeye was made, but were all voided of eggs. One was
obtained after difficulty, from which I was able to obtain a collection. A log-jam about one
mile from the mouth could with advantage be blown out; at present the obstruction does not
prevent the sockeye from utilizing the fine stretch of spawning-beds above.
The spawning-grounds of the Dalley Kiver were fairly well supplied with sockeye salmon,
and as we passed up through the various riffles to the falls they could be plainly seen in the
clear water. The run cannot be compared with those of 1913, 1914, and 1915. It was fair,
however, aud the spawning-beds should be plentifully seeded and provide a fair run of sockeye
from this season's spawning.
Quap River, to which attention was given next, did not come up to expectations. The
sockeye were loath to enter the stream, no doubt due to the low state of the lake, and the
hatchery officials stationed at this point had made only a small collection of eggs for the
Dominion hatchery. Signs were not lacking that a fair run of sockeye would eventually reach
the fence and enable them to make a collection, which at that time was behind its complement
by 1,500,000 at this period. I have since learned from information courteously supplied by the
Dominion hatchery officials that a big run had entered the stream and a good showing made,
but it is doubtful if the hatchery can be filled, the capacity of which is about 13,000,000 to
14,000,000 eggs. The conditions of the river above the fence had not changed; windfalls and
jams obstructed the passage all the way up, which was an advantage rather than otherwise
to the Dominion hatchery, as it provided protection to the fence during a " freshet."
Returning to the hatchery, I examined the small creek in which a fence had been erected
for the collection of spawn; few sockeye salmon had entered the stream, but were observed in
fair numbers swimming around outside; indication, however, did not point to a big run here,
as in former years, and this was confirmed by later information concerning the creek. It was
pronounced practically a failure. S 24 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
The fine stretch of spawning-beds lying along the upper portions of the Owikeno River, close
to the lake, was bare, and at that time prevented the later run of sockeye which usually drop
back from the lake from spawning. Later news received from the Indians state that sockeye
salmon in large numbers were spawning on these beds, having come in with the rise of the river,
and that they were able to obtain all the salmon required for winter use. There were numbers
of cohoe and spring salmon making use of the spawning-beds of this river, and were seen to be
continually breaking water as we made our way down through the rapids.
Owikeno Lake was exceptionally low during the latter part of my tour of the spawning-
grounds, and accounted for the delay of the sockeye salmon entering some of the streams; as
in the case of the Jeneesee and Quap Rivers, which are notoriously late in receiving their supply
of salmon.
Cohoe salmon were breaking water in large numbers in the lake, and, according to the latest
reports of the canneries operating for the fall fish, cohoes and dog-salmon had been put up in
large numbers. The spawning-grounds later on will no doubt be well seeded with this class of
salmon.
I am of opinion, after closely investigating the condition on the spawning-grounds of Rivers
Inlet, that the marked falling-off in the number of sockeye salmon reaching the beds this season
falls below that of the seasons of 1913, 1914, and 1915 by close to 75 per cent., and is entirely
due to a poor run of fish to the inlet. The size of the sockeye came well up to the average of
the runs to Rivers Inlet in 1914 and 1915.
In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation for the kindness extended to my party by
Mr. G. Johnson (manager) and Mr. W. J. Connery, of Rivers Inlet Cannery; Captain Hamer,
Superintendent of the Dominion Hatchery;  and the officials at the spawning camps.
I have, etc.,
Arthur W. Stone,
Fishery Overseer.
Rivers Inlet, B.C., November 11th, 1916. 7 Geo. 5 Spawning-grounds of Smith Inlet. S 25
THE SPAWNING-GROUNDS OF SMITH INLET.
To the Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.:
Sir,—In pursuance of instructions from the Department to make an investigation of the
watershed at Smith Inlet, I have the honour to submit my report.
Added interest was given to this inspection, since the results obtained by the canneries
operating at this point during the sockeye-fishing season were not satisfactory. Although
greater facilities had been given to the fishermen, the catch per boat was away below 1914 or
1915. The contention that weather conditions affected the fishing at Rivers Inlet does not apply
to Smith Inlet. Mr. Harris, manager of the Smith Inlet Cannery, claims that wet weather is
an advantage rather than otherwise, as from his experience better catches had been made in
wet seasons.
Leaving Rivers Inlet Cannery on October 11th by launch, I proceeded to Smith Inlet, and
after negotiating the rapids of the Docee River, the overflow of Long Lake, commenced my
examination of the spawning-grounds. The run of spring salmon up the Docee River was
exceptionally good and came well up to the number seen here last year.
Conditions at Quay, a small creek fed from a lake about half a mile distant, and from which
good results were expected, was utterly devoid of sockeye salmon. In 1914 this creek was
exceptionally well seeded; in 1915 it fell short of the number of the year before, but this year
it must be classed as a failure. I was able to obtain a sample of spawn, however, from one of
the very few salmon seen. On my return from the head of the lake I had a look again at this
creek to see if any sockeye had come in with the rise of the lake, but found conditions the same.
The Geluch River, the principal spawning-grounds of the sockeye salmon, was exceptionally
low, and provided an uninterrupted view of the river-bed to the falls, a distance of three miles
and a half. The conditions met with as we made our way up the river were anything but
satisfactory; the enormous number of sockeye salmon which invaded the stream in 1914 and
1915 were lacking. The riffles contained a fair number of spawning sockeye, and the beds
should be plentifully seeded. In making a comparison of the run this season with the two
previous years a decrease of 75 per cent, is noticeable. The Indians whom I found smoking
salmon were anything but jubilant, and were doubtful if they would be able to obtain all they
required for their winter use. I watched them make two hauls with a net at the mouth of the
Geluch River, each haul containing about 100 salmon, divided equally between sockeyes and
cohoes. I had not seen any cohoe salmon in the upper reaches of this river, the cohoes evidently
not being ready to enter the river.
The havoc wrought by the bears on the salmon reaching the spawning-beds in 1914 and
1915 was not so marked this year. Remains of salmon were lying about on the bars and in the
bush, but were all practically eaten up. Formerly it was their habit to tear a small piece of
flesh from the salmon and then leave it. The change no doubt is due to the few salmon to be
obtained.    No log-jams or windfalls interfered with the movement of the salmon up-stream.
The Delabah River, a small stream situated about two miles from the head of the lake,
appeared to have received about the same number of sockeye salmon observed spawning on the
beds last year, and which was commented upon unfavourably in my report for that year.
Outside in the lake a few schools of salmon were to be seen spawning on the beds, or waiting
for the rise of the lake to enter the river. The spawning-grounds of the Delabah will be
plentifully seeded, and should provide a fair run from this season's spawning. It is unfortunate
that the river-bed is so unsuitable for spawning, containing rocks and pebbles upon which the
salmon have to deposit their spawn, with the consequent result that the majority of the eggs
never hatch. I have already fully reported upon the desirability of a hatchery on this stream
to counteract the loss of eggs occasioned by this waste, and respectfully suggest this matter be
given due consideration.
Long Lake was exceptionally low at the time of my visit, and may have accounted to a
certain extent for the poor showing made in the rivers inspected. Spring salmon having passed
up the Docee River were seen in large number swimming around at the mouth of the lake. S 26 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
Summing up the results of my visit to the spawning-beds of Smith Inlet, and taking everything into consideration, one can look forward to a moderate run only from this season's spawning.
The falling-off in the number of sockeye salmon reaching the beds I estimate at 75 per cent.,
which corresponds closely with the decrease shown at Rivers Inlet this season. The size of the
sockeye salmon came well up to the average of runs here in 1914 and 1915.
I have, etc.,
Arthur W. Stone,
Fishery Overseer.
Smith Inlet, B.C., November 11th, 1916.
THE SPAWNING-BEDS OF NASS RIVER.
To the Commissioner of Fisheries, JHctoria, B.C.:
Sir,—In obedience to instructions from the Department to inspect the spawning-beds of the
Nass River, we beg to submit the following report:—
Leaving the town of Stewart on September 24th, our party, consisting of G. Mathieson,
assistant; J. M. Collison, Fishery Overseer, Nass River; and C. P. Hickman, Inspector of
Fisheries, Victoria, with two pack-horses and man, proceeded to the Meziadin Lake watershed
of the Nass River. On previous trips into Meziadin Lake it was possible to take pack-horses
as far as the head of Meziadin Lake, but this year, owing to the ice of the Bear River glacier
having receded, the trail over the glacier was impassable for pack-horses, so we had to pack
our outfit on our backs from near the Stewart side of the glacier to the head of Meziadin Lake,
arriving there at noon on September 27th. After lunch we found a leaky canoe and started
down the lake. On our journey down the lake we kept close to the easterly shore, and at several
places close in to the shore spawning sockeye were to be seen in great abundance. Although
these places were known to us previously as good spots to observe spawning salmon, never before
have we known so many sockeyes to be congregated in these places. Sockeyes were also to be
seen leaping in the lake at the head, and all the way down to the Hanna River, McLeod Creek,
and to the Meziadin River, which is the outlet to the lake. On leaving the lake we went down
the Meziadin River. About a quarter of a mile from the lake we came to a place known as
" The first rapid." At the lower end of this rapid spring salmon in numbers were spawning,
even at this late date. The river at this place simply abounds with rainbow trout. In all the
places that we have visited in connection with fishery duties, never have we seen a place where
so many rainbow trout abound. On our return journey we stopped at this rapid, and the three
of us fished with willow poles for less than an hour, and caught seventy-five trout, ranging from
% to 2% lb. in weight. While from an angler's point of view it is a great pleasure to find trout
in such abundance, they constitute a serious menace to the breeding salmon. The trout simply
gorge themselves with spawn during the spawning season and the young fry in the early part
of the summer. The trout there are so destructive to salmon that means should be taken to
destroy them.    The safest plan would be to net them.
On leaving the rapids we still continued down the Meziadin River until we reached the
landing-place above the falls. We then packed to the cabin at the Meziadin Falls, arriving
there at 7 p.m. on the night of the 27th.
On the 28th we made a tour of inspection of the fishway, both upper and lower falls, and
the river below, as far as its junction with the Nass River.
At the fishway, which is built on the left side of the upper falls, we found large numbers
of salmon ascending, mostly sockeye, with a few cohoe. At the foot of the upper falls salmon
were trying to get over it. These fish no doubt came up the river on the far side, or right bank,
from the fishway, and after failing to overcome the falls by leaping, eventually work over to
the fishway, through which they ascend to the upper river without difficulty. The majority
of the fish, however, come up the stream along the left bank and enter the fishway without
encountering the upper or main falls. They are not delayed there. On September 28th there
were between 300 and 400 salmon in the three lower pools and many others in all the other pools.
They pass from one pool to another with ease. 7 Geo. 5 Spawning-beds of Nass River. S 27
At the lower falls there were very few salmon assembled, as the conditions at this place
this season were very favourable for their ascent. In the reports of 1914 and 1915 it will be
noted that conditions were anything but favourable at the lower falls, owing to the low stage
of water in the river in both seasons, and because a part of the dump, taken from the fishway,
diverted the water right across the river to the channel along the left bank, making it very
difficult for travel. During low water the left channel is practically dry for more than half-way
across. During ordinary stages of water the salmon ascend on the near side or left bank of the
channel. The conditions this season were ideal, as the high water of last spring washed nearly-
all of the dump away, and the water now flows, as formerly, along the near side, affording a
splendid passage for the fish to ascend. This is evidenced by the photos attached, showing the
passage-way for the fish coming up the river.    They come directly to the entrance of the fishway.
There were very few salmon in the river below the lower falls, and no salmon were to be
observed in the Nass River at the junction of the Meziadin and the Nass. Notwithstanding
that the catch of cohoes at the mouth of the Nass was big this season, there were fewer to be
seen at the mouth of the Meziadin River and in the Nass River above that point than in former
years.
The Fish/way.—We found the fishway at the falls in excellent condition. The concrete walls
at the sides and cross-sections are in fine condition, there being no signs of any cracks or break
in the work at any place. The natural rock above the concrete-work is of a slate formation,
and at places where it is exposed to the weather is cracking, and some of it will slough off
eventually and fall into the resting-pools of the fishway. This will not cause any serious harm
to the fishway, as the pools are deep. When it does slough off and falls into the pools they can
be cleaned out with little effort.
The crib-work on the right side of the fishway that holds up the gravel encountered above
the solid rock shows signs of bulging in one place. It is possible that the cribbing will hold as
it is for several years, but we strongly recommend that it be braced by placing timbers resting
on the solid rock on the left side and extending right across and above the fishway to the cribbing.
Eight or ten braces would suffice, and work could be done by four men in a few days. Attached
hereto are photographs showing the fishway and the channel below. The wing-dam bulk-head
which guards the exit or upper end of the fishway is in first-class condition. The fact that no
logs or large drift has lodged in the fishway evidences its efficiency.
On September 29th we went up the Nass River above the junction of the Meziadin looking
for sockeye salmon. We did not see any sockeyes going there and only a few cohoes. In consequence we were unable to obtain any sockeye-scales from the Nass River proper. We made
a dip-net and caught 100 specimens from the fishway, taking measurements, sex, and collecting
scales, as per instructions.
On October 2nd we left the fishway on the return journey. On reaching Meziadin Lake we
took the opposite shore-line, or southerly side of lake, all the way to the head. There were
several places where we saw spawning sockeye on the edge of the lake, but the best place of all
is at the extreme head on the south side. At this place a stream of clear water empties into the
lake, and the spawning sockeye were to be seen here in great abundance. It is a noticeable fact
that all of the sockeye that you see in the lake, outside of those seen leaping in the centre, are
in their spawning livery. You do not see any of the fresh ones that are just getting over the
falls at all amongst those that are spawning. On examining some of the fish below the falls,
it does not seem possible that the majority of them will spawn till late in November or some
time in December, so it appears as though the fresh salmon keep out in the deep water until
they are near maturity, when they will come in close to the shore and choose a favourable
spawning-ground on the shallow gravel reaches.
On October 3rd we left the head of the lake for Stewart, arriving there after a very successful
trip on the evening of October 4th.
We have, etc.,
J. M. Collison,
Fishery Overseer.
C. P. Hickman,
Inspector of Fisheries.
Port Nelson, B.C., October 15th, 1916. S 28 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
THE REGULATION OF THE HALIBUT FISHERY OF THE PACIFIC.
By William F. Thompson.
The Condition of the Banks.
It was made evident in a previous paper (B.C. Fishery Report for 1915) that intense fishing
on the halibut banks of the coast of British Columbia and the United States has resulted in not
only serious depletion, but has made its influence felt throughout the whole biological appearance
of the species, and in doing so has rendered precarious the future of the banks, particularly the
older or longer known. The numbers still found on them are so small, and the percentage of
mature fish in this population has fallen so low, that it appears imminent that the halibut will
drop to a minor position among the food-fishes of the Pacific. It may recede northward, as it
did from the shores of Massachusetts and from the coast of England, until it exists only in the
more remote and difficult to reach of the banks. It is very difficult to see wherein more proof
than is at hand may be adduced to emphasize this tendency, save the final one of the catastrophe
of commercial extinction itself.
The rate of decrease shown—over 70 per cent.—for each decade is surprisingly large. Yet
it must be remembered that the constant shifting to new banks has staved off a portion of the
effects of impoverishment. This extension is, in its way, a measure of depletion. Just as a
mine may be exhausted and its owners reduced to working over the discarded low-grade ore, so
may the halibut fleet be compelled to rely on depleted banks. The progress from Cape Flattery
to Hecate Strait, and from there to Yakutat and beyond, has been at a constantly accelerated
rate as the total catch has grown from year to year. When the end will be reached, perhaps in
the Southern Bering Sea, perhaps on the Siberian coast, is, of course, difficult to forecast. In
the meantime the expenses of long voyages are gradually growing, and the necessity for vessels
of large steaming radius is becoming greater, so that it is a question whether the final reserves
of halibut shall be exploited by vessels from our coasts. When expansion is at an end, as will
inevitably be, the vessels must return to fishing on the older banks, which will then be depleted
beyond their present condition unless measures are taken to allow them to recuperate. They
cannot support the fishery now existent, it is very plain, or anything comparable with it.
There are many reasons why this depletion does not evince itself in the prosperity of the
fishing business in direct proportion. The rising prices demanded of the consumer and the
extension to new banks require no comment on their effects. More important than these, however, is the fact that the time and effort required by the boats to catch the fish is only a portion
of that necessary to carry the fish from the ocean to the consumer, and a seemingly overwhelming
increase in the fishing-time of the boats is but a moderate increase in the total. The length of
the voyage, as has been shown, does not increase in the same proportion as the actual fishing-time,
and the length of the voyage is but a part of the whole journey over ocean and land. In other
words, the increased expense of obtaining the fish is distributed between that of transporting
and selling, and is felt correspondingly less.
It is evident, therefore, that an automatic abatement of the fishery in direct proportion to
the rate of depletion is far from what is to be expected, and those who rest content in the belief
that it will not pay commercially to deplete the banks beyond the limit of recuperation are on
unsafe grounds.
Remedial Measures.
The reason for the existence of halibut-fishing on the older banks when they are apparently
partly depleted is seen also in the great seasonal variation in the yield obtained. It is evident
from almost all of the data presented that during the winter months the yield falls greatly, but
rises to its maximum in summer, during June and July. _ It is during these best months that it
is possible to do profitable fishing on these banks, and that fact keeps a certain number of vessels
in the impoverished areas. Notwithstanding this, it is common knowledge that even during the
best season it now pays to go to the Far North. It has also been proved that there is an
alarming lack of mature fish on the older banks. It must be borne in mind, then, that the vital
need of the southern banks, with the exception of those off the coast of Oregon, is protection
during that portion of the year when they are yielding their largest proportion of small and 7 Geo. 5 Regulation of Halibut Fishery of Pacific. S 29
immature fish.    As the main fishery has shifted to a position farther north, there should be no
great obstacle to the application of adequate measures to the older banks.
In addition to propositions discussed privately, there has been a strong effort to pass a
measure designed to meet the urgent need for the protection of the banks. This has resulted
in the introduction into the Congress of the United States, and its passage by the Senate, but
not by the House, of a Bill (S. 4586), establishing a close season for halibut during the months
of December and January, and a nursery of approximately 290 square miles near Hecate and
Noyes Islands, Alaska. The enforcement of this was to be dependent on the enactment of similar
regulations by the Canadian Government. It was the present author's opinion, as expressed in
a previous communication to the Provincial Fisheries Department, that the remedy for the
depleted condition of the banks "would be to materially restrict the fishery (1) by stopping
fishing entirely over large areas, such as Hecate Strait; (2) by making a close season of, at
the very least, twice the length suggested; or (3) by limiting the number of boats and men
employed."
The provisions of the Bill and the above alternatives are here discussed in greater detail,
with the exception of the question of limiting the " number of boats and men employed," which
cannot be seriously considered in view of the necessarily international aspect of the proposed
remedies. Brief comment on an additional means of combating depletion—namely, artificial
propagation—is also given.
Artificial Propagation.
The contemplation of experiments in hatching the halibut must lead simply to ill-founded
optimism on the part of the fishermen. The hatching of cod and plaice has been carried on by
several Governments with results which are local and limited, and have been disputed. These
species are much smaller, more easily handled, come to maturity at a smaller size, and the
near-ripe fish are obtainable in greater numbers than is the case with the halibut. The latter's
ova are shed gradually, so that to get quantities of ripe ova it would be necessary to keep fish
in breeding enclosures, and, as they reach maturity at a considerable size, this would be difficult
and expensive. It is also very doubtful whether, on the long sea voyages of the fishing-boats,
enough ripe spawn could be captured to make the attempt profitable. As the number of eggs
produced by a female during its lifetime is supposed to be proportional to the difficulties
encountered in survival after being laid, the value of such ripe eggs as are obtained from this
species would be less than that of those from less " prolific " forms. The number of ova laid in
each of the spawning periods of a halibut is about 300,000 when 35 inches long, and 1,600,000
when 56 inches, and there must be about ten such periods in the normal life of a twenty-year-old
fish. So the value of hatched eggs cannot be great unless the resultant young are carried
through more of the precarious stages than is usual, or possible without great expense. Hence,
in the face of the wholesale reduction in numbers of halibut on the banks, the establishment of
hatcheries cannot be regarded as anything but exceedingly expensive experimental work. Its
results, unlikely as they are to be of value, could not be known for many years, and those years
might mean the ruin of the industry if action were delayed pending the arrival at a conclusion.
Close Season.
Recognizing the urgency of the situation, there has been, among fishermen and dealers, a
strong sentiment in favour of the imposition of a close season of two months, December and
January. This has been perhaps the most widely approved measure of any proposed, and in
view of the widespread adoption of closed seasons in conserving other species is worthy of careful
consideration.
To be worthy of adoption, however, it is imperative that a measure be shown capable of
conserving the numbers of the species as a whole or in threatened areas, or adequate to increase
the number of spawning fish where it has fallen below the margin of safety. The question in
any case is simply one of ensuring the existence of a sufficient number of breeding males and
females in those large areas now lacking them.
It is a serious question whether the closed season would not simply result in a more intense
fishery during the open portions of the year. It must be remembered that the cold-storage
facilities now available render it possible to deliver a supply of halibut all the year round, with
or without a close season.    There is no question, then, of an interruption of the demand from S 30
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
the consumer, with a consequent lessening of the total called for;  and there is, as we shall see,
every reason to believe that this demand will be satisfied, whether there is a close season or not.
Catches of the Puget Sound Halibut Fleet.
1912.
1013.
1914.
1915.
Total.
Per Cent.
January   . . .
1,310,250
627,500
1,686,500
1,228,150
4,852,400
3.29
February   ..
1,845,600
2,246,750
3,325.250
2,834,300
10,251,900
6.94
March   	
3,034,450
3,909,750
3,467,850
2,721.400
13,133,450
8.89
4,276,400
2,628,500
4,039,550
3.863,650
14,808,100
10.09
May    	
3,901,000
6,040,850
4,585,050
4.556,500
19,083,400
12.91
3,746,000
4,283,000
4,728,000
3,151.500
15,908,500
10,76
2,844,000
3,516,000
3,255,000
3,058,100
12,673,100
8.58
3,921,000
4,731,000
4,366,950
2,290,400
15.309,350
10.36
September ..
3,096,400
2,839,000
3,752,425
2.599,911
12,287,736
8.31
October   ....
2,659,250
3.612,000
3,052,500
2,194,325
11,518.075
7.79
November   . .
2,446,700
2,747,000
3,053.600
2,147,937
10,395,237
7.03
December   .
1,071,050
1,479,500
2,512,900
2,487,140
7.550,590
147,771,838
5.11
100.06
Table and Chart showing the Percentage of the Total Catch which is landed during the Several
Months. :
(Compiled from the years 1912 to 1915, inclusive.    Those parts included in the " close season "
indicated by a triple line.    Data taken from Pacific Fisherman.)
13%
12 i.
11 »
O »
9 ■■
8 "
7 "
6 >•
5 »
4- ••
3 -
2  •■
Jan      Feb     Mar    Apr     May   June July    Aug   Sept  Oct    Nov    Dec    Jan
The cost of catching is but a small part of the cost of transporting, preserving, and
marketing. It could increase manifold before being felt greatly. If the fish may be purchased
on the docks in Seattle at 5 cents per pound, as has been done, and sold by the retailers at
25 cents, then an increase of 2% cents, or 50 per cent, of the original cost, would be but 10 per
cent, of the retail' price. Something essentially similar to this has taken place in the fishery,
the length of a voyage, and with that the expense of obtaining a cargo, having increased by
about 100 per cent, in the ten years between 1904 and 1914. That means that the yield per
vessel has fallen to a half, yet the total catch landed by the fleet has steadily increased in
response to the demand. Such being the case, it is hardly to be expected that the reduction of
the fishing-time by a sixth would have much effect even if it were capable of being accepted at
its face value.
\
\
\
^ 7 Geo. 5 Regulation of Halibut Fishery of Pacific. S 31
The apparent value of the close season during the winter is greatly modified by certain
considerations. One of the most prominent of these is the fact that during the two months of
December and January the catch is but half that prevailing during the summer months, as is
shown on the foregoing chart. That is, the effectiveness of such a close season would be
half that of a similar one in the summer. Furthermore, the decrease in total catch is in
accordance with the diminished catch per unit of gear, and indicates with it the fact that the
two proposed months are the most expensive. Providing the far greater consideration of the
future of the banks were not in question, there would be no possible objection to legislating away
the unprofitable part of a business year. But, aside from the fact that it is not the bona-fide
object of the proposed legislation to increase the immediate prosperity of the industry, it can
be shown to have a really detrimental effect on the condition of the banks. The proposed close
season would surely put vessels on a better financial basis, encouraging the building of more and
rendering them capable of profitable operation on smaller summer catches than is now the case.
This would mean the enlargement of the fleet and the closer fishing of the banks, including those
considered the least profitable.
Fishing on these more depleted southern banks off the coast of British Columbia is prevalent
mostly in summer, because the catch per unit of gear is at that time highest, and the reliance is
on young fish almost entirely. It has been shown that it is these banks which need protection,
and if they are to have it, it must come while fishing is being done on them. Instead of that,
as has been pointed out above, a winter close season will intensify the fishery, the more so as
the most depleted banks are nearer to market than the less depleted.
Cold-storage plants play an important part in intensifying this result of the closure. They
not merely maintain the demand, but tend to counteract the extensive natural increase in price
in winter and the decrease during the summer. This results from the absorption of surplus fish
in summer for freezing and its sale during seasons of scarcity. There is in the winter, nevertheless, a considerable catch of fresh fish with which the frozen product must compete. The
elimination of this catch during several months would without the cold-storage plants apparently
stop the consumption, but with them could simply force the laying by of more extensive stocks
of fish frozen during the summer. It is obvious that this has a tendency to impel still better
prices in summer and poorer in winter. In other words, there would ensue a more profitable
summer fishery, hence a more intensive one. It should be observed in this connection that the
near-by banks off the coast of British Columbia yield a medium of small-sized immature fish
(" chicken halibut") very suitable for freezing. These banks are those fished most intensely in
summer and need better, not poorer, protection. A certain measure of the harm might, it is
evident, be averted by forbidding the sale of cold-storage halibut during the close season.
The most generally held reason for supporting a winter close season is that it is designed
to protect the halibut during its spawning period. The assumption is that the fleet resorts to
" spawning-grounds " in which are to be found spawning fish congregated from other localities,
and that the catch consists to au unusual degree of such fish. However reasonable this may
sound, it is impossible to find any basis of scientific fact behind it. On the contrary, so-called
spawning-banks are those less depleted than others because less accessible, or because it pays to
resort to them only during the winter seasons. It has been demonstrated that at one time the
banks now characterized by small immature fish had a population of large, undoubtedly mature,
fish, and that their absence is due to the effects of commercial fishing. We therefore come to the
anomalous conclusion that protection is proposed for banks which show exhaustion least, as they
have a more nearly adequate supply of breeding fish.
If, however, the claim had been that within the confines of each bank winter fishing was
carried on in areas characterized by spawning fish, more weight might be given it. As a matter
of fact, however, no proof of such congregation has been found, and observation has not yet
disclosed any annual. change in average size in one portion of a bank which did not take place
in another. The shift in the fishing-grounds, according to season, is something entirely different
from this, being a removal of the fleet to other banks far distant. It is a fact worthy of every
emphasis that no such extensive movement on the part of the fish is to be found, whether there
is some possibility of a limited and local movement or not.
It would seem certain that the closure would not protect spawning fish especially, and there
would be little utility in extending protection to halibut spawning and immature alike at the
cost of more intensive fishing during other seasons.    As has been indicated, the depleted banks S 32 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
are characterized by a lack of mature fish and a predominance of immature. If the latter are
caught, it is a matter of indifference at which season it is done, as all succeeding spawning
periods are eliminated, anyway. This is also true of the mature halibut. There is no reason
why capture a week before spawning-time should be more disastrous than capture six months
previously, all the remaining periods of spawning being eliminated, anyway. If the number of
fish caught by the fleet remains the same, prohibition of fishing during such a season would mean
naturally that of those fish usually caught during spawning the more intense fishery would cause
just as many to be captured before the season as would be caught later because of the protection.
As a result the number of fish present each spawning-time would be unaltered. As a matter of
fact, the areas now needing protection are those in which halibut rarely have a chance to reach
maturity, and to allow them to do so the only method available is to give them a better chance
of escaping capture. It is not sufficient merely to alter the time of year at which they are caught.
Among other reasons advanced is one implying that fish caught during winter are of poorer
quality, with larger heads and leaner bodies, than those taken during summer. Regarding this
it should suffice to state that the observed difference is due rather to the fact that in summer
immature fish from banks with rapidly growing fish are utilized, while in winter mature slow-
growing fish are obtained. These mature poor-quality fish come from undepleted northern, or
outside, banks naturally characterized by large-headed fish, and it is extremely improbable that
they change their appearance greatly with the season. It is just as well that these fish are
utilized to some extent at least. The difference between banks in so far as quality is concerned
is far greater than can be assigned to seasonal differences. It is not to be denied that there is
such a seasonal difference, but it cannot be assigned the importance given it. This is the more
true as it has no immediate bearing on the all-important objective of preservation of the banks.
An Extension of the Close Season.
Despite the fact that there are cogent reasons against the adoption of a close season during
two winter months, it is possible that certain modifications of it might be feasible; for instance,
an extension to four months. But if not disastrous to the fishery and to the fishermen because
of its length, the objection previously held that the already depleted banks would be subject
to a still greater strain would apply to an even greater degree. The restraint on the fishery
would be accomplished principally, perhaps, by forcing vessels and men to lose a third of their
time. It is possible that some other fishery could be developed to supplement that for the
halibut during that season, but at present none offers itself; and even if such were the case,
the objection to the changed concentration of the fishery still remains. So it is hardly conceivable that such a measure could meet with unqualified approval.
A Summer Close Season.
A course, on the other hand, which might obviate the most dangerous features of the close
season would be to place it in the summer. One summer month would be the equivalent of two
winter months. Such action would result in discouraging the capture of small immature fish,
of which spring and summer catches mainly consist on the older banks, and would encourage
winter fishing. The influence of cold-storage firms would not in such a case be adverse. But
the serious question would still remain as to whether the total catch from any bank would be
sufficiently decreased. If the demand overcame the handicap of an increase of the voyage
length of 200 per cent, within ten years, would it not overcome one of a decrease in available
fishing-time of even 30 per cent? Although it is probable that what the banks need is a total
cessation of fishing in view of the great rate of depletion, yet such a measure as closure during
summer months would be certainly effective in its nature, in contrast to the winter close season.
A Nursery.
Supplementing the proposed close season, the Bill mentioned above for the conservation of
the fisheries defined a nursery of about 290 square miles to be withdrawn from use. There are
very decisive reasons for regarding the measure as totally inadequate. There are no considerable
migrations between banks, as has been shown, and it is not probable that any but the zones
nearest to such a permanently closed region would profit by it at all. The area of the continental
shelf within the 140-fathom line off the coasts of Alaska and British Columbia, between Bering 7 Geo. 5 Regulation of Halibut Fishery of Pacific. S 33
Sea and the Strait of San Juan de Fuca, is certainly in excess of 80,000 square miles, of which
about % of 1 per cent, was to be made this nursery. The nursery itself, the region to benefit
principally, would never be opened to the fishery. Behind the idea of such a nursery there is
seemingly the conviction that the small fish characteristic of this region are young, but it is far
more probable that they are simply a slow-growing population, from which, in addition, the
larger mature fish may have been caught off. Added to this is the fact that there is no reason
to believe that the reserve in question has been bearing even its proportionate amount of fishing.
So regarding this proposal it is safe to say that it would protect only the region closed. However,
the idea involved in this plan, that of extending protection to an area by totally eliminating
fishing on it, is a suggestive one.
Closure of Large Areas.
Before considering the last of the proposals designed to protect the banks, it would be well
to observe those conditions which are not met by the others. It is obvious that the winter closed
season would fail to protect the depleted banks during the proper season and appears inadequate
even if changed to summer. In fact, there is doubt whether a season short enough to allow the
vessels and fishermen a business in any way continuous would be adequate. The nursery, on
the other hand, does not benefit an adequate area outside its own limits, and is not intended to
be reopened. It is hence obvious that any measure must protect a large area for a sufficient time
and during the proper season. This would be possible, considering the welfare of the fishery,
only by applying it to portions of the banks alternately, making it adequate without doubt by
covering all seasons of the year. We come then, logically, to a consideration of the closure of
large areas for periods of years.*
There are certain general considerations which it would seem must be borne in mind in
formulating such regulations. The areas must be so balanced as to add and subtract nearly
identical reserves of halibut when closed or opened. Otherwise the fleet would be subject alternately to failure of supply and abundance. This would be the more so, the larger these areas
are made, and the embarrassment would reach its maximum with a division into two alternately
closed or opened areas. Since the depletion of the banks is unequal, it is also obvious that fixed
regulations suitable for one year might become unsuitable on the replenishment of the areas.
In fact, some flexibility must be given to any regulation applied for the preservation of favourable conditions in the fleet and the trade. A prerequisite for the passage of fixed regulations
which would not become dangerous would be the possession of data as to the exact location and
extent of the fishery and the condition of the banks. It would seem necessary, then, to make a
careful collection and survey of the logs of the fishing-vessels preceding definite regulation.
A tentative outline of legislation for the regulation of the halibut fishery may be made,
taking into account the aforesaid general considerations.
I. The banks should be divided into districts of such areas as: (1) Those off the Oregon
and outer Washington coasts; (2) the coast of British Columbia; (3) between Icy Strait and
Dixon's Entrance; (4) between Icy Strait and Cape Cleare; (5) between Cape Cleare and the
entrance to Bering Sea; (6) any subsequently discovered banks not properly attached to the
foregoing, including Bering Sea.
Areas 1, 5, and 6 are those least depleted; Area 2 has been shown to be badly exhausted;
Areas 3 and 4 are presumably also depleted, the latter less so.
II. Areas 2 and 3 could be alternately closed and opened, 2 closed for five years, then 3 for
the next five, and so on alternately. Areas 1, 4, 5, and 6 could be closed at the same time as
either 2 or 3, their closure being subject to the discretion of conferees appointed by the two
Governments; provided that, unless otherwise agreed upon by these conferees, Areas 1, 3, and 5
would be closed together, and Areas 2, 4, and 6. Each area would thus be closed five out of
every ten years.
This arrangement would allow sufficient latitude of time to overcome any differences in the
productive power of the areas, and at the same time make the closures automatic if the times
of their inauguration were not agreed upon. It would also obviate any danger of placing any
particular port under a disadvantage.
* On February 26th, 1917, G. J. Desborrats, Esq.,   Deputy  Minister  of  Naval   Service,   Ottawa,   advised
the writer that, ""in all the circumstances, and in the light of your reports, the most feasible course that
appeals to the Department is to divide the ocean into three areas, and allow no halibut-fishing, as such, in a.
given area during a term of years."
3 S 34 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
III. To cover the period of adjustment and to render protection immediately available to the
most badly depleted regions, a special programme for the first ten years might be formulated.
Thus Area 2 could be closed for five years, its opening to be simultaneous with the closure of
Areas 4 and 3. Subsequent to the first ten years, the provisions of section II. could apply.
This programme would be felt very slightly during the first five years, more in the second, and
fully in the third, allowing in the meantime the exploitation of the least-depleted banks and
protecting those in the worst condition. It would be advisable to close Area 2 for more than the
five years during this first decade.
• IV. There should be an emergency clause enabling a further closure of any area upon mutual
consent of the conferees, a closure solely in addition to the prescribed minimum.
V. Provision could be made for the collection by each Government of data from the official
log-books of the fishing-vessels, it being made compulsory for the masters of such vessels to
supply in these books, over their signatures, the following information:—
(a.)  Place and date of each fishing operation.
(6.) Amount of gear utilized and its nature (size of net, or space between hooks on long
line).
(c.) Number and approximate dressed weight of halibut taken in each place. This should
be collected by each Government and placed at the disposal of the other at the conclusion of
each year, it being expressly stipulated that such data be placed in the hands of the scientific
departments of both Governments, and that it be formulated by them, and in a wray mutually
agreed upon by the conferees. This should be the case in order that the latter could utilize the
information obtained in making their decisions regarding the times of closure.
The discretionary power vested in the officers designated as conferees should lead the fishermen to furnish this information willingly, in the interests of their trade.
It appears to the writer that the principal objection which will arise will be one of inadequate
amount of protection, but it is difficult to see how any other precaution than the granting of
discretionary powers to the appointed officials could be taken. The objection is one which would
apply to any measure.
There may be some injury worked to vessels unable to fish outside the three-mile limit, or
those with limited cruising radius. This might be greatly magnified by opponents of the
measure, but does not seem important in looking over the list of vessels. It must follow on
the exhaustion of the banks in any case, or on the imposition of any other regulations.
Stanford University, April 1/th, 1917. *
7 Geo. 5            Egg Production of the Halibut of the Pacific.                     S 35
THE EGG PRODUCTION OF
THE HALIBUT OF THE PACIFIC.
By William F. Thompson, of Stanford University.
Important as it must be in the consideration of the future of the fisheries, the relative value
to a species of large and small breeding fish has received but slight attention.    That there is
a very great difference in their value will be shown for the halibut in the present paper.    The
existence of such can hardly fail to be of great moment in judging the future of a fishery which
takes its catch from certain classes of fish, as is the case in the line-fishing for halibut.    Because
of the selection of the larger fish by the hooks, this fishery has markedly depleted* the percentage
of mature fish present on the banks in the North Pacific.    It will here be shown that those left
are individually of lesser value to the species than those of the depleted class.
To accurately judge of the value of varying sizes as breeders, it would be necessary to know
several things: First, the time of life at which they become mature;  second, the length of time
they can be expected to live and breed after becoming mature;   and, third, the number of eggs
produced at each of their spawning periods.
In the Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries for British Columbia for 1914, page 92, there
is given a plotted curve showing the age at which maturity supervenes in the female.    It is here
reproduced, and indicates that at twelve years of age 50 per cent, of the females are mature.
There are relatively few halibut which mature during the eighth year of their lives, the chances
being but one in twenty-five against obtaining such a one, and there are fish still immature in
the fifteenth year.    The time of maturity is then relatively late, and the value of a mature fish
must be proportionately greater.
90?;
70%
50%
30 7.
,0%
1
***
90%
/y*
//
70%
50%
30X
10%
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i-earl     1     M    W     I    31    TBL- 'SOS.  3L    I    CH   XI   JUL  VI   tt.  X3t 33S. xm II It ffl xnuxUXD
Fig. 1. Percentage of fish mature at any age.               Hecate  Strait  . ^ Kodiak  Island .
I
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15 Inches
Fig. 2. Grap
20                  25-                 30                   35                   40                   45                  50                   S5                  60                  6
Frederick Island .    Kodiak Island ,   .       Hecate Strait  .
lie curve showing percentage of fish mature, at any length, from Hecate  Strait,  Kodiak ai
Frederick Islands.
* Report
of
he
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sh C
'oliu
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Cor
amis
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915,
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5. S 36
Keport of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
19-17
In regard to the expectation of life there are no data at hand which will allow of an exact
answer. It is known that it has become greatly lessened by the commercial fishery. (See
previous citation.) Quoting from the above-mentioned report, page 93: "The eighth year is
the age of a large proportion of the fish in Hecate Strait at the time of their capture. In Hecate
Strait but 14 per cent, of the female fish had completed their twelfth year, and but 5 per cent,
their sixteenth. Off Kodiak Island 31 per cent, were beyond the twelfth year and 12 per cent,
beyond the sixteenth. This increased percentage of mature fish may, of course, be characteristic
of the banks which have been less intensively fished." In the Report of the Commissioner of
Fisheries for 1915, page 94, is given a table illustrating the decrease in average size of the fish
from different banks, which is, of course, tantamount to a decrease in the number of mature
fish.    This table is here reproduced :—
Table 1.—Average Weights of Halibut from Various Banks*
ROSE   SPIT-BOKILLA.                        QrEtf C^O^S.
Goose Islands.
Year.
Winter.
Summer.            Winter.
Summer.
Winter.
Summer.
1902   	
27.2-4
27.0-17
26.4-24
25.0-20
13.8-5
20.5-11
19.4-8
16.5-1
29 5-2
23.4-2
34.3-2
26.9-22
17.9-21
14.5-4
16.8-11
10.2-1
10.7-2
19.8-2
1903   	
1904   	
1905   	
1906   	
1907   	
1909   	
1910   	
1911   	
1912   	
21.9-4
24.6-31
18.4-6
12.0-1
14.3-19
16.3-17
12.0-10
28.5-1
32.5-4
34.4-10
17.0-4
27.9-3
14-.7-6
ll.CKl
13.3-1
14.6-9
11.2-18
1913   	
1914   	
9.1-10
9.0-17
Averages   . .
22.0
18.6
2S.1
23.4
12.6
10.4
* The number of records on which each record is based is indicated by the number following the hyphen
in each case.
It may be seen that by far the greatest portion of the fish population never reach maturity,
and that the chances of the younger fish reaching a considerable age are small indeed.
It is the purpose of this article to show that the egg production of a female of small size
is much less than is the case with larger fish. The significance of this will be seen when it is
considered in conjunction with the late maturity of the species and the greatly reduced numbers
of those which do beconA mature. The three considerations should clearly enough indicate the
cause of the alarming effect of the line fishery in reducing the number of fish on the banks.
For to the fact of the reduced numbers of breeding fish we must add that of the reduced value in
the production of young of those remaining.
There have been several statements by European writers as to the number of ova carried
by a halibut. Fultonf estimated the number of ova in three specimens of halibut from European
waters as respectively 4,451,212, 2,803,975, and 1,489,510, on the basis of the weight of the
individual ovum as compared to the bulk of the ovaries. Brookc|c estimated the number in a
91-lb. halibut as 1,327,000. The results obtained with the halibut in the present work would
correspond rather with the results of Brook than of Fulton. The importance of such a fact,
that the halibut produces a great number of ova yearly, is greatly lessened by the relative
certainty that the number produced is determined by the chances of those laid coming to
maturity, considering the species as a whole. The actual abundance of ova as compared to
that in some other species would have but little bearing on the ability of the mature fish to
withstand depletion.
t Ninth Report, Fisheries Board for Scotland, 1800, page 261.
t Fourth Report, Fisheries Board for Scotland,  1885, page 224. 7 Geo. 5
Egg Production of the Halibut of the Pacific.
S 37
In so far as the Pleuronectidse in general are concerned, it is worthy of note that Franz*
and Reibischt found that the egg production of the plaice increases with age and length. The
results here presented in regard to the halibut give no indication as to the influence of age.
As it was unfortunately not possible to obtain the weights of the specimens, the correspondence
of the number of ova with the bulk could not be ascertained. It would be possible, it is evident,
for the bulk of a fish to vary with age independently of the length, due to the changing proportions of the body, and if the number of ova varied as the bulk there should be evident the
influence of age.    The researches of Franz and Reibisch give no clue to this.
In ascertaining the extent of the difference in fecundity of large and small halibut, a series
of gonads was obtained from fish of various sizes. They were taken off Icy Bay, Alaska, in
59° 40' north latitude, 142° west longitude, during December, 1915. This time of year was
chosen because the ova were at that time nearly ripe and could be easily separated for counting.
The gonads were preserved in formaldehyde. To ensure adequate penetration the fluid was
injected into the lumen of each gonad, which was then wrapped, labelled, and sealed in a cask
after being sprinkled with pure formaldehyde. When the casks were opened, several months
later, the ova were found to be thoroughly hardened, and could be easily broken apart with the
hands. They separated readily from the ovarial tissues, but in the mass there were left many
fragments of the latter which it was necessary to remove. At first these were separated by
many successive decantations, but later it was found more economical of time and as accurate
to pick them out by means of forceps. The ova, when well separated from each other, were
drained of the surplus moisture, thoroughly mixed until the mass was homogeneous, and then
placed in an air-tight jar.
By subtracting the weight of the jar from that of the jar and the ova the weight of the
ova was obtained. Three 5-gramme samples were taken from the upper, middle, and lower layers,
respectively, of the mass, care being taken during their extraction and weighing that the ova were
exposed to as little evaporation as possible. Each of these samples was then counted and the
total taken as the number to be found in 15 grammes. The weight of the mass of ova being
known, a simple calculation gave the total found in the ovary. No allowance was made for the
loss of weight from the samples by evaporation, but this was carefully calculated for several and
found to indicate an excess error of one ova in each thousand of the final result.
The age of the specimen from which each pair of ovaries was taken was calculated from
the otoliths. The length given was measured to the base of the caudal fin, not to the tips of
the rays. It will be seen that there is not a sufficient number of counts to indicate accurately
the influence of age independently of size. Thus, in specimens 4, 5, and 6, age seems to have
little effect; as in 7 and 8; 9, 10, 11, and 12; or 4 and 12. But, of course, in so far as age
influences size, there can be no question as to its effect on the fecundity.
Table 2.—Showing the Number of Ova produced by Halibut of Various Lengths.
No. of Specimen.
Length.
Age.
No. of Ova.
Inches.
35y2
40
43
47
47
48
52
52y2
55
55ya
56
56
XIII.
XII.
XV.
XVII.
XV.
VXI.
XX.
XVII.
XXVI.
XXII
XXVII.
XVII.
300,656
522,268
522,733
879,185
951,602
1,167.460
1,123,210
1,061,307
1,255,891
1,282,957
1,282,667
1,592,766
* Wissenschaftliche  Meeresuntersuchungen,  N.F.   9, Abth. Helgoland, 1910.
t Same, N.F. 4, Abth. Kiel, 1890, S. 233-248, Taf. 1. The productivity of a halibut 56 inches long is, then, five times that of a 35%-inch specimen,
and three times that of a 43-inch one. In other words, there must exist five 35%-inch or three
43-inch mature females to produce the same number of ova as a single 56-inch halibut would do.
Their values to the species are in proportion, save for the greater expectancy of life in the younger
fish, an expectancy, as we have seen, greatly reduced by commercial fisheries operations.
As, then, the halibut matures late in its life, and, in consequence of the commercial fishery,
few fish are allowed to reach this age, the mature fish present at each spawning period are few
in number, small, and young. And these, it is shown, are of very much less value than they
would be if older and larger, producing far fewer ova as they do. In these circumstances must
be sought the peculiarly injurious effects of line-fishing for halibut and the cause of the alarming
depletion of the banks. There would seem but one remedy for this—namely, protection for such
a period of time as will allow more fish to become mature, and will permit of those which are
mature becoming older and of larger size.
Stanford University, May, 1917. 7 Geo. 5
LlFE-HISTORY   OF   PACIFIC   HERRING.
S 39
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE PACIFIC HERRING:
ITS BEARING ON THE CONDITION AND FUTURE OF THE FISHERY.
By William F. Thompson, Stanford University.
INDEX.
Page.
I. Introduction     41
II. Summary and Discussion  42, 43
III. Methods    45
IV. Composition of Schools     47
(1.)  Young Fish     47
(2.)  Mature Schools   49
(3.)   State of Maturity and Spawning Habits     51
(4.) Average Size of Schools   54
(5.) Age Relationships of Schools   55
Description of Age Indices on Scales     55
Undecipherable Types of Scales    56
Use of Otoliths in Age-determinations     58
Calculation of Length of Herring at Various Ages    59
Variations in Rates of Growth according to Locality and Sex  63
V. Differences in Counts and Measurements   66
(1.)  Vertebrae    66
(2.)  Gill-rakers  68
(3.)  Dorsal Rays  70
(4.)  Anal Rays  70
(5.)  Length of Head  70
(6.)  Occiput    72
(7.)  Dorsal Insertion    73
(8.)   Ventral Insertion    74
(9.)  Anal Insertion  74
VI. Tables of Counts and Measurements  75^82
TABLES EMPLOYED IN REPORT.
Page.
No.    1. Young Herring taken with Beach-seine   4S
„      2. Average Size of Kildonan Herring  50
„      3. Average Sizes of Fish from Different Localities     51
„      4. Percentage of Fish Immature at each Length   52
„      5. Percentage of Immature Fish from Various Grounds     52
„      6. Comparison of Rates of Growth of Fish with More and Less Distinctly Marked Scales 57
„      7. Ages as determined by Otoliths and Scales  59
„      8. Comparison of Results of Age-readings from Otoliths and Scales   59
9. Calculated Lengths of Two Herring at Various Ages, -Obtained by using Several Axes . . 60
,,    10. Calculated Lengths of Fish at each Year of their Age—Kildonan  61
,,    11. Calculated Lengths of Fish at each Year of their Age—Point Grey   61
„    12. Average Increment per Year of Fish in Table 11    62
„    13. Increment per Year of Fast- and Slow-gr0wing Fish—Point Grey  62
„    14. Lengths at Various Ages of Fast- and Slow-growing Fish—Point Grey  63
„    15. Increment per Year of Fast- and Slow-growing-Fish—Kildonan      63
„    16. Length at Various Ages of Fast- and Slow-growing Fish—Kildonan  63
„    17. Rates of Growth of Herring from Different Localities    64
„    18. Percentage of Fish in each Year Class, by Locality     64
„    19. Rate  of  Growth  of  Mature   (Class  B)   and Immature   (Class  A)   Fish  from  Point
Grey (October)     65
„    20. Percentage of Fish in each Year Class of Mature  (Class B)  and Immature  (Class C)
Fish from Point Grey  (October)     66
„    21. Number of Vertebrae in Herring from Various Localities  67
„    22. Number of Vertebrae according to Sex   67
„    23. Number of Specimens having each Number of Vertebrae, by Localities  67
„    24. Vertebral Counts of Slow- and Fast-growing Fish from Nanaimo   67 S 40
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
Page.
No. 25. Gill-raker Counts of Herring from Various Localities     68
26. Gill-raker Counts according to Sex and Locality     68
27. Gill-raker -Counts according to Size and Locality      69
28. Gill-raker Counts according to Rate of Growth and Age—Nanaimo    69
29. Frequency of Gill-raker .Counts according to Locality   69
30. Number of Dorsal Rays according to Locality    70
31. Number of Anal Rays according to Locality  70
32. Head-length according to Locality  . 70
33. Head-lengths according to Size and Locality     71
34. Length of Head according to Age and Size—Nanaimo      71
35. Length of Head according to Sex and Size—Nanaimo      71
36. Length of Head to Occipital Line according to Size and Locality    72
37. Length of Head to Occipital Line according to Sex and Locality    73
38. Dorsal Insertion in Small and Large Fish    73
39. Dorsal Insertion according to Locality Alone     73
40. Distance to Dorsal Insertion according to Sex and Locality    73
41. Ventral Insertion according to Size and Locality      74
42. Ventral Insertion according to Sex and Locality      74
43. Anal Insertion according to Size, Sex, and Locality     74
44. Tables of Counts and Measurements—-Point  Grey     75
45. Tables of Counts and Measurements—Nanaimo (Departure Bay)     77
46. Tables of Counts and Measurements—San Francisco    81 7 Geo. 5 Life-history of Pacific Herring. S 41
I. INTRODUCTION.
The herring, Clupea pallasii, of Cuvier and Valenciennes, is found along the Pacific Coast
of North America, north of San Diego, California, as well as along the Siberian and Japanese
coasts. It is closely allied to the herring of Europe, Clupea harengus, differing in measurements
of the body proportions and in counts of fin-rays, vertebrae, etc., as well as in the number of
ridged scales present along the edge of the belly, but, nevertheless, bearing sufficient resemblance
to it to pass as the same commercially. There are supposed to be differences between the
preserving qualities, but perhaps no more than are to be found between varieties of the Atlantic
herring and none which render the Pacific herring at all unmarketable. In fact, whatever
prejudice has existed has been due, perhaps, to the unskilful preservation of the earlier catches.
At the present date there is a large and growing market for what can be taken, and it would
appear that the fishery is only in its infancy.
What development it is capable of remains to be seen. Whether it will stand a tremendous
strain such as has been borne by the European herring is still a mooted question. Certain it is
that it has not been intensively fished, save in a few localities, although in those few it might
seem that it has been subject to depletion. The localities supposed to be overfished are those
most accessible to the markets, especially certain harbours in the Gulf of Georgia, but this
would not seem to necessitate any apprehension as to the immediate future of the herring fishery
as a whole. When the fish are taken in more localities and the intensity in any one is not so
great, these phenomena of local depletion will perhaps not affect the prosperity of the fishery.
Nevertheless, it would be disquieting to know that it is possible to so readily deplete the fishery
even in limited localities thus early in its history. As there is no absolute knowledge available
concerning the causes for this, any speculation in that regard must be very cautious, despite
the prime importance of such information.
For instance, it has been repeatedly stated by reliable fishermen and officials of the Departments of Fisheries that at one time the harbour of Nanaimo was a great spawning-ground for
herring, but that at present they rarely enter it. Granting that this is true, as is most probable,
it still remains to be shown that it was the operations of the fishermen which caused the abandonment of the grounds. There are other possibilities, it should be pointed out, such as that of
the modification of the harbour waters by the sewers and industries of the City of Nanaimo.
Moreover, in European waters it has been shown that herring fisheries are subject to great
fluctuations in the abundance of the fish, towns springing up and vanishing again according as
the schools come near them or disappear. These fluctuations may cover many years. Therefore,
much caution must be used in asserting that the failure of the fishery in certain localities is due
to overfishing.
To be able to show definitely that such depletion results from commercial operations, it
would be necessary to have as a basis a knowledge of several facts. First, it should be known
whether the depletion is local or general, whether it is to be found simultaneously in waters
fished with varying intensities, or only in certain of them, which may or may not have been
subject to the most energetic exploitation. This requires the collection and collation of data in
a far more thorough manner than has yet been done. Second, it should be proved that in case
of local depletion no local environmental influences are at work; and that, in case widespread
decrease in abundance is visible, no great environmental or hydrographic changes or the
prevalence of disease have caused it. The lapse of sufficient time for such changes to spend
their force without a return to normal of the fishery would be commonly accepted as proof
of their non-existence, without recourse to actual observation. Third, granting that depletion
is local, it must needs be shown that the herring schools are so localized as to be capable of
being individually depleted or destroyed, and that such schools are peculiar to certain regions.
It would suffice in this case to show that diffusion between regions is very slow and not adequate
to obliterate distinctive rates of growth or differences in the proportions of the body. Fourth,
the knowledge to be gained of the condition of the fishery through the above-mentioned lines of
work may be supplemented by accurately noting the changes in the composition or biological
appearance of the species. A species depleted by overfishing as a rule shows certain characteristics, such as decreased average size and a diminished proportion of mature or older fish, due
to the drain of successive years of intense fishing. In order to determine whether these criteria
of depletion are present or not, or whether it is possible to use them, it is necessary to accurately S 42 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
and fully investigate the biology of the species, its normal constitution, the distribution of classes
and ages of fish, and the habits of life. The investigation as to the degree of localization of the
schools must depend for its accuracy on a knowledge of the constitution of the material examined
and of its representative character.
It would seem that the possession of some means of judging the state of the herring
fishery, its progress and prospects of permanency, its capacity of withstanding exploitation,
would justify any effort to fulfil these requirements. This is the more so as all the fisheries
must ultimately require much the same knowledge of the physical conditions surrounding their
respective species, and as fundamental facts concerning each species are of great importance
in the consideration of others. It was obvious, however, to the writer that there were no means
by which he could attack alone either the collection of adequate data as to the abundance of the
species, or the collection of hydrographic observations in any appreciable number, for which
work there must be a far-reaching organization. It was chosen, therefore, to attempt the
distinction of herring from different regions and to collect all available facts concerning the
life-history in so far as they are related to the present or future of the fishery. This would,
of course, take much time, and as there have been months only available where there should have
been years, what has been gathered is intended merely as a survey of what must be done in the
future. The plan of the work is broad, as will be seen, and is hence incomplete in character
because of the cessation of the work at a much earlier date than was planned.
Whatever conclusions seem justified are presented, with such information as will allow of
their corroboration by any one continuing the work. It is also attempted to reach some conclusion as to the lines along which work may profitably be pursued and those which should have
first attention.    It is hoped that these considerations will justify the present paper.
The writer would thank Dr. C. M. Frazer, of the Dominion Biological Station at Nanaimo,
for notes as to the spawning season at that place, and for information supplementing his useful
paper on the spawning of the herring. The various fishing firms and fishermen with whom the
work was done, including Watson Brothers, of Vancouver, the Nanaimo Fish and Bait Co.,
Wallace Fisheries at Kildonan, and James Brown of Pender Harbour, have co-operated in every
possible way to make the work successful. A great deal of the work on the data concerning
measurements and counts has been done by Mrs. Thompson. For the use of laboratory facilities
and for many courtesies, sincere thanks are tendered Dr. C. H. Gilbert, of Stanford University.
II.  SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION.
The following summary of the conclusions reached in this paper may be given:—
(a.) Schools of herring, of which the great majority are within the first year, are found
close inshore during the summer and fall months. It is difficult to obtain a representative sample
of these yearling herring, hence no method of estimating their relative abundance is available.
(b.) Mature and immature herring of all sizes are found Inshore in close proximity to one
another during the late fall, although the larger schools of the intermediate sizes of immature
fish have thus far escaped observation. There are well-defined differences in average size between
samples of fish from the older schools from different localities, and between the sexes, the male
being smaller.
(c.) The percentage of fish mature at various lengths is given. The schools when directly
on the spawning-grounds are composed entirely of mature fish, indicating a segregation of mature
and immature shortly previous to actual spawning. The spawning migration or movement is
probably limited in extent. There exist two classes of fish at Point Grey, as is indicated by the
distribution according to size of the mature and immature fish. Alternative explanations of
their presence are advanced, neither of which is supported by arguments of a decisive nature.
(d.) The average sizes of the populations at Nanoose, Nanaimo, Point Grey, Pender Harbour,
and Kildonan are given. Depletion of the supply of herring in the Gulf of Georgia is indicated
by the small range in size of the fish at Nanoose and Nanaimo as contrasted with those at
Kildonan. The use at Pender Harbour and Point Grey of gill-nets exclusively prevents corroboration in those localities. Due to differences in method and intensity of fishing, the average size
of fish in a locality does not give an accurate idea of the comparative rates of growth.
(e.) The age indices, or winter marks and zones, on the scales are described and analysed.
Grounds are given for considering that the winter-mark of the herring-scale is formed in the latter
part of the winter, perhaps in connection with the spawning-time.   The conclusion is reached that, 7 Geo. 5 Life-history of Pacific Herring. S 48
despite difficulties of interpretation, the scale-readings are in general correct. The otoliths do
not prove sufficiently distinct for age-determinations, but the year-marks evident indicate the
essential similarity of the growth of otoliths and scales. The lengths at the various ages are
plotted for samples from Kildonan and Point Grey, and that for the first year is shown to
correspond approximately to that of the average yearling herring. The phenomenon of increased
rate of growth in the younger year classes, which has been found in the European herring, is
present in the Pacific species. The rate of growth found for samples from different localities
is shown to correspond to the average size reached, when the methods and intensity of fishing
are considered. Gill-netting takes a greater percentage of the older fish than does seining, and
correspondingly less of the younger. The intense fishery which has been carried on at Nanoose
and Nanaimo has resulted in a comparative dearth of the older fish, as compared with a less-
depleted locality—namely, Kildonan. The varying intensity of fishing probably renders difficult
any speculation as to the causes or consequences of the abundance of year classes in any locality.
The females are of more rapid growth than the males. The two classes of fish at Point Grey
differ in rates of growth and in their distribution among the year classes.
In considering the differences between the herring populations of various localities, it is
shown:—
(a.) Vertebral counts do not differ between localities in British Columbia to an appreciable
extent. Those from San Francisco specimens average one less than those from British
Columbian.
(b.) Gill-raker counts show distinctly a difference between Californian and British Columbian
forms. The variations between localities in the latter Province may possibly be due to error.
There may be a slight increase in number with increased rate of growth and greater age, but
this does not explain observed differences.
(c.) The number of dorsal rays requires further research for a corroboration of the differences indicated by them.
(d.) Anal-ray counts are slightly reduced in the sample from San Francisco.
(e.) The length of the head to the opercular edge varies between Nanaimo and Point Grey
samples, but not between Point Grey and San Francisco. The consideration of the size attained
modifies results to a considerable extent.
(/.) The length of the head to the occiput varies as does the length to the opercular edge,
corroborating the differences found in that measurement.
(g.) The position of the dorsal is different in each locality, with the Point Grey and Nanaimo
samples farthest removed in this regard.
(h.) The ventral insertion varies so extensively that the measurements available are
inadequate in number, but there would seem to be a difference present between British Columbian
and Californian herring.
(i.)  The anal insertion fails to indicate any marked differences.
Discussion.
The principal object of this report has been to ascertain whether there is evidence of
depletion, and to give some basis upon which the future of the fishery may be judged. However
far from attainment this yet is, certain observations and records of value are given. The
decreased range in size of the population at Nanaimo and Nanoose Bay as compared with that
at Kildonan, accompanying the lack of older fish, is the first clear evidence of overfishing to be
obtained. More extensive records from more localities are necessary to deal adequately with
the subject, and what has been obtained is proof of the value such would have. Yet the contrast
to be shown at present between overfished and undepleted localities is of lesser value than the
opportunities such records would give in the future for judging the changes undergone by the
fishery.   The more complete such records are made, the greater value they must have.
That there is a sufficient degree of isolation to permit of the local depletion of the supply
of herring is strongly indicated. Far apart as are California and British Columbia, an actively
moving species might so intermingle along the whole coast as to keep the stock uniform in
composition. The difference in vertebral count is one which has usually been regarded as
indicative of racial differences, and it would seem that it is at least not readily modified by
environment.   The variations in' gill-rakers, number of anal rays, and insertion of dorsal and S 44 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
ventral fins indicate that the differences found are real and deep-seated. It is regrettable that
herring from the extremes of distribution of the species (Japan and San Diego) have not been
compared, so that the part distance plays in producing differences might be more distinct.
The fact that localities as near to each other as Nanaimo and Point Grey seem to be
characterized by populations of different rates of growth, head-lengths, and position of the dorsal
insertion, is more significant than are the differences found between far-removed regions. So
important is it that corroboration is imperative. A single series of observations by one worker
cannot be regarded as competent to indicate the important conclusions which might be drawn
from such facts. Thus the essential independence of near-by fishing-grounds would be implied,
depletion existing in one but not in another near it, therefore requiring different regulations and
a different amount of fishing. It would also have an important bearing on the conceptions
concerning the extent of the migrations.
It is suggested that further work along this line be on a more extensive series of characters
with an examination of greater numbers of fish, and that several successive sets of comparisons
in successive years he undertaken. Certain facts are shown to be of importance in utilizing data
of this sort, the size attained (or rate of growth) being perhaps the most important. The sex
and, as at roint Grey, the composite character of the population must also be taken into account.
An indefinite element in considering the significance of facts concerning differences between
localities is their problematical nature. If they are the effects of environment, they are no more
significant than is the variation in the rate of growth. Certainly there is no proof that they
are due to racial and inheritable variation, although they are characters universally used for
distinction of species. Isolated cases in which such differences seem correlated with variations
in environment provide no indication as to whether the effect of such conditions has been on
the development of the individual alone or on the inheritance it receives. Treatment of such
observed variations as being indicative of separate strains of heredity, more or less permanent
and. stable, is hence unwarranted, and until some proof is brought forward the existence of
such differences should not be taken as indicative of more than the degree of interchange between
the populations of the regions considered.
Problems of direct importance are many. Prominent among them is the status of the Point
Grey herring, involving as it does questions of maturity, of summer spawners, and of migration.
The condition there may have been transitory, due to unknown agencies. If such be the case
it should be known. Another problem is the location of the schools of immature fish of more
than the year's growth, and less than that of the fish caught at present by the seiners. It is
possible, also, that schools of the youngest class of fish are found not only near the shore, but
also in the open waters outside the harbours. Finally, the element of difficulty in reading the
age indices on the scales renders it highly desirable that any alternative methods of obtaining
the age be developed as far as it is possible to do so, for the question of age is important in
many ways.
Phases of the life-history which may bear less directly on the prosperity of the fishery have
not been touched on in this paper. The details of spawning habits and egg production, the
ravages of disease or parasites, the enemies or the food of the larval or adult herrings, and
many other questions await investigation.
In conclusion, attention may be called to the differences which exist between the European
and Pacific herring. Among those noted in this, paper are the lesser age attained by the latter;
the facts that the herring of the North Sea spawns in relatively deep water and that of British
Columbia between tide-lines; and that the fishery for the former is carried on through a much
greater portion of the year, not simply during the winter. It seems, also, that the scales of the
North Sea herring are far more easily read, if it is possible to judge by the elaborate deductions
of workers dealing with that species; and that the axis along which its scales may be read is one
along which the scales of the herring of the Pacific are almost invariably illegible. These
differences, in addition to those morphological features relied on by systematists to distinguish
the species, are sufficient to produce hesitation in applying discoveries concerning one to the
life-history of the other, however suggestive the perusal of such work may be to investigators
of the species treated here. 7 Geo. 5 Life-history of Pacific Herring. S 45
III. METHODS.
The methods utilized by the writer were essentially those employed by European workers
on the herring.* They involved the thorough examination of the fish for age, sex, state of
maturity, and a careful counting and measurement of important characters. In taking measurements a simple machine which is a modification of those utilized in Scotland was used. (Fig. 8.)
It consists of a board along which, on one side, is a straight rod. A cylinder slides along this
rod with an arm attached which is kept consistently perpendicular to the rod and registers its
position on a ruler below. The arm consists of two wire supports, holding a thread taut in a
direction vertical to the rod. The fish to be measured is laid parallel to the rod and the thread
laid across the points to be measured, the indicator showing on the ruler the position of these.
In order to keep the thread conveniently taut it was made of a slender strand of rubber, twisted
until round in section.
The points at which measurements were made are indicated in the accompanying diagram.
The length was measured to the end of the silvery area on the caudal peduncle, as it was left
after the scales had been carefully scraped away, and was recorded in millimetres. This point
was chosen because the scales were frequently lacking in the examined fish, and because it was
desired to avoid including the variable caudal rays, which would have been necessary had the
tip of the middle rays been chosen. The head was measured to the edge of the opercular flap
and to the line of the occiput. The insertions of the fins were considered as at the base of the
first small ray, the fin being raised until the rays stood vertically. The fin-rays were counted
as unbranched and branched, and those joined at their bases were considered parts of single rays.
The last vertebra, the hypural, was not counted, and no distinctions were made between abdominal
and caudal. The gill-rakers on the first arch of one side were counted, the arch being removed
entire for the purpose. Scale-counts were omitted, as were the measurements of the fin terminations, snout, eyes, etc., partially because of a lack of adequate accuracy in short measurements,
and partially because patently correlated things were avoided in the interests of more essential
measurements.
In practice the fish was laid on the measuring-board, its snout pressed firmly down into
the angle of a cross-piece placed there for the purpose, and its body fixed parallel to the straight
rod before measurements were taken. As the samples used were fresh and rigor mortis was
present, the body was flexed back and forth in the hands until it could be laid flat without
distortion. After recording the measurements the counts of the fin-rays were taken. The
vertebra were exposed by cutting along the middorsal line and one side of the vertebrae, the
same cut that is used in kippering, thus also uncovering the gill-rakers. These were removed
entire, the first arch was stretched over the tip of the finger, and the gill-rakers counted with
a hand-lens.    Some practice was necessary to do the latter accurately.
The scales were obtained from an area between the lateral line and the base of the dorsal.
They were preserved dry oil paper, care being taken to dry them quickly and thoroughly. This
was no easy task in certain localities during the wet season, when no heat was obtainable in
the boats or in the accommodations available. Very frequently the mounting of the scales
became exceedingly difficult through their semi-decay. The preservation after drying was
simple, care being taken merely to keep them in a dry place.
As between 20 and 90 per cent, of the scales were lacking in a nucleus, it was necessary
before mounting to examine them under a microscope. This was most easily done by separating
them, after soaking in water, and arranging them in rows on a glass slide. The perfect scales,
having been selected, were carefully cleaned and mounted under a cover glass. Au attempt
was made to read them, after which, if not completely satisfactory, a 50-per-cent. solution of
glycerine was run under the glass and a second reading attempted. It frequently happened
that a given scale was more legible viewed one of these ways than another. If it was desired
to keep the mounts for a considerable time, the slides were simply laid one on the other in a
pasteboard box, care being taken to mark each slide. The drying of the mounts then produced
no ill effects.
* Williamson, H Charles. A Short Resume of the Researches into the European Races of Herrings
and the Method of Investigation. Annual Report of the Fisheries Board for Scotland, Scientific Investigations, 1914, No. 1, 22 pages, 7 flgg. 46
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
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a! IT 7 Geo. 5 Life-history of Pacific Herring. S 47
The age is everywhere indicated by Roman numerals, representing the year in which the
fish was caught.    Thus a IIL-year fish is a fish in its third year.
The term " winter " is used in the sense of the period of retarded growth when referring to
the scales. By it is perhaps meant rather the marine winter, or period of colder water. By a
" check" is meant any indication of retarded or faulty development of the scale, whether
correlated with that of the body or not.
IV. COMPOSITION OF SCHOOLS.
There are certain facts about the fishery as it is carried on at present which are of
importance in an understanding of the problems to be solved. It is primarily a winter fishery,
the herring being caught when the great schools come in toward shore in the fall. This movement is apparently a spawning migration, the schools being composed in great part of sexually
mature fish. The approach becomes closer and closer to the shore as the season progresses,
until in March and April the spawning begins between tide-lines on the beaches. The spawning
has been described by Dr. C. M. Frazer.* The spawning in each locality lasts several days,
and is not repeated, the school vanishing into deeper water, but during the whole of March
and part of April spawning herring are to be found on the coasts of British Columbia and,
Alaska in one place or another. During the approach to the shore gill-nets and great seines
are employed in catching them, but such fishing ceases in British Columbia with the initiation
of spawning unless permission has been granted by the proper authorities for the taking of the
spawning schools. The material to be studied was taken from the schools of mature fish.
Very rarely seiners capture schools of smaller and younger fish, presumably two and three
years old, but none of them have been examined.
As far as is known, there are no summer spawning herring, although it would be expected
that in a fish so closely allied to the European herring the same general habits would prevail.
As will be seen later, among the fish caught at Point Grey are certain fish which appear to give
some ground for a belief that they are summer spawners. It is perfectly possible, theoretically at
least, that such summer spawners could exist to a limited extent and no knowledge of them be
available, considering the prevailing method and time of fishing.
(1.)  Young Fish. :
During the late summer months it is possible to see large schools of small herring close
inshore. These are approximately the size expected from a consideration of the first winter-
marks on the scales of the adults, as will be shown later, and the great majority are supposedly
within their first year. The scales of the greater percentage are without a mark referable to
the first winter-check. Since no smaller fish-are obtainable it is highly probable, without the
evidence of the scales, that these schools are fish of the year.
With regard to this class of fish, a great interest naturally lies in their relationship to the
supply of adult fish for commercial purposes. If their abundance in relation to the adults can
be calculated, or shown to vary, a means of judging the drain on spawning fish and of estimating
the prospects for the future might be obtainable. Again,.a basis for the distinction of herring
from different localities might be possible in a consideration of the early life-history, as has
been shown to be the case with the salmon. There seems little hope of utilizing knowledge of
them in the first way, and thus far no evidence has appeared to justify the second.
The habits of the yearling herring are of considerable significance. During endeavours to
obtain them with a seine at Pender Harbour and Secret -Cove a few observations were made
which may be of value. During the day the schools of young fish were not often to be seen, and
when observed seemed to be in deeper water than at night, and to be more easily frightened into
sinking. Toward evening, if it was calm, the surface of the water could be seen at some distance
out to be agitated by the countless small herring; as it grew gradually darker, approaching the
shore and coming nearer the surface, until just -as it became dusky enough to render objects a
trifle indistinct, the edge of the school had worked inshore, among the rocks, and well into the
mouths of the small bays. The inner edge and upper layer of the school seemed -to consist in
great part of the smallest fish, the deeper layers of larger. Where the edge of the school overflowed a sunken reef or edge of rock, it could be distinctly seen that only the smaller fish passed
over.    The difficulties of obtaining a representative catch are plain.
* On Clupea pallasii Cuvier and Valenciennes.    Publications of the Biological Board of Canada, University of Toronto Press, 1916, pages 1-12, Plates VIII. and IX. S 48                           Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.                            1917
Table 1.—Young Herring taken with Beach-seine.
October 6th and 10th, in same place inside-Herring Island, portions of schools.
October 15th, at mouth of Secret Cove, a whole school.
Size.
Oct. 6.
Oct. 10.
Oct. 15.
Size.
Oct. 6.
Oct. 10.
Oct. lo.
Cm.
Cm.
6 0
2
4
8
12
30
28
36
36
32
27
20
26
17
8
12
5
6
2
5
3
1
1
'i
i
i
i
l
4
7
7
13
14
21
25
29
22
23
13
23
17
23
13
10
13
10
10
5
8
2
3
3
2
3
2
1
3
1
2
2
2
4
12
11
16
13
12
11
23
17
30
34
31
36
28
18
23
25
25
7
15
12
4
7
5
6
8
7
4
4
5
9
4
5
4
3
9.S   	
i
3
o
1
3
o
4
1
i
l
2
i
l
6.1    	
9.9   	
10.0   	
6.2   	
6.3   	
10.1   	
1
i
i
i
i
64
10.2   	
65   .
10.3   	
66
10.4   	
67
10.5   	
68
10.6   	
69   .
10.7   	
o
1
i
i
l
7.0   	
7.1	
72   .                  	
10.8   	
10.9   	
11.0   	
11.1   	
74
11.2   	
75   .                  	
11.3   	
70   .                  	
11.4   	
7.7   .
11.5   	
78   .                  	
11.6   	
7.9   	
8.0   	
11.7   	
11.8   	
8.1   	
8 2                  ...:...
11.9   	
12.0   	
8.3   	
8.4   	
8.5   	
12.1   	
I
12.2   	
l
12.3   	
12.4   	
8.6   .           	
8.7   	
12.5   	
12.6   	
l
l
l
i
i
8.8   .                	
8.9   	
9.0   	
9.1   	
12.7   	
12.8   	
12.9   	
13.0   	
9.2      	
9.3   	
13.1   	
13.4   	
9.4   	
9 5   	
9.6   	
15.1   	
1
Total No	
330
353         499
In obtaining the young herring during October, 1916, a small 95-foot draw-seine was used,
10 feet in depth, with %-inch mesh in the bag and 1% in the wings.    The first two hauls were
made on a rocky beach by running the seine around as many of a school as could be encompassed.
The first of these consisted in large part of the very edge of the school, and was of small fish
averaging about 6.7 cm. in length, while the second was made much farther out and captured
fish of 7.7 cm. in length, with specimens in some abundance as long as 10 cm. and but one in
two hundred as small as 6.6 cm.    Both hauls were in the same place, seemingly from the same-
school.    This illustrates the stratification of the schools and the difficulty which must be faced
in arriving at an exact knowledge of their constitution.    In the second haul even nearly adult
herring of over 15 cm. were taken in sparse numbers.    The gill-nets for the large fish were set
within 20 fathoms of where these hauls were made, and small catches were made of large mature
herring.    We find, therefore, that during the late fall at least, there are all sizes of herring
close inshore, seemingly in the same school.    At Secret Cove on October 15th an attempt was
made to capture a representative portion of a school.    Behind an island at the entrance to the
cove a flat-bottomed draw was located, at one part of which the shores were perpendicular and
closer together than elsewhere.    Into this draw at about dusk a school of herring was observed 7 Geo. 5 Life-history of Pacific Herring. S 49
to come, and the net was set across the narrower part of the draw in such a way as to enable
the whole school to be driven into its bag and caught. The composition of this school is indicated
in the third column of Table 1. There is no doubt that the catch was representative of the
school which entered the draw, but the question arises as to whether the small depth of this
draw—10 feet—prevented the entrance of the larger herring, which should naturally form a part
of the school. As will be noticed, larger herring are nearly absent, in contrast to the previously
made hauls. The conditions under which this sample was obtained were nearly perfect, with
this exception, and it is difficult to conceive of any method which could obtain a complete
representative, save the use of seines of such large size as to capture the whole school before
approaching the shore.    Such nets were not available.
It should, then, be obvious that it would be well-nigh impossible to form any judgment at
all accurate as to the abundance of the young fish from year to year, unless a very great number
of hauls were made. There is no possibility of estimating the proportion of young to old in
the schools. There would even be serious question as to the representative character of samples
of young fish caught at various times of the year, particularly as they became larger in size
toward the end of the year. It might, however, be possible to establish roughly approximate
rates of growth, at least for the early months of the year.
In examining the scales, it became obvious that no distinct winter-marks were to be found
until the fish had reached a length of about 9 or 10 cm. There were but few of these available,
and in them there was some difficulty in deciding as to the value of the marks. In the adult fish
the easy distinction of the winter-marks on the scales is dependent in part on a comparison with
other checks and marks, and as these are few in number on the young scales the task is difficult.
When the reading of the adult scales is on a more definite basis, and it becomes possible to decide
with more assurance, an examination of the young fish and a separation into yearlings and
two-year-olds would render it feasible to establish in general terms the limits of size of the first
two-year classes. It would seem that for the present it would be necessary to rest content with
the statement that the mass of these fish are in their first year, with a sprinkling of two-year-
olds.
Between these yearling fish and the mature spawning herring there must exist schools of
immature fish above the length of 10 cm. As shown in the preceding pages, a certain number
of these lie on the deeper edges of the inshore schools of very young. Furthermore, in examining
the catches of the seines and gill-nets, occasional specimens are found among the mass of adults.
There is no question of their existence in limited numbers at least, then, in company with the
youngest and oldest classes. The migration of the spawners to and from the spawning-grounds
cannot be so extensive and well defined as to lead to a sharp separation of sizes and ages, and,
indeed, it might be permissible to suppose that the incoming shoals of mature fish move but a
short distance and are but a part of the shifting population until nearly time for the actual
spawning. It would seem that it would be commercially advantageous to determine the habitat
of the schools of immature fish, and also that their location would aid in furnishing the key to
the extent of the breeding migration.
(2.)  Mature Schools.
In studying the composition of the schools which come inshore in the fall, careful records
were taken of at least 500 fish from each locality. This was done for both seined and gill-netted
herring. In some cases a single locality will yield larger or smaller herring in different catches,
but the differences are usually small, and none encountered by the writer were marked in
character. In the case of gill-netted herring it seemed probable that the time during which the
net was left out influenced the size caught. The fishermen stated that a net hauled shortly
after being set caught all the small herring which could have -worked themselves loose in time.
However, the differences will not greatly affect the conclusions as to what classes of herring
form the commercial catch.
In a seined sample of 1,058 examined at Kildonan, on the western coast of Vancouver Island,
the average size was found to be 20.39 cm.; the minimum 16.6 cm. with a scattering of smaller,
the maximum 24.2 cm. The males, 508 in number, averaged in length 20.24 cm., the 550 females
20.54 cm. (See Table 3.) In the chart (Fig. 9) are plotted the curves for size frequency of
the sexes. (See also Figs. 10, 11, 12, and 13, giving similar charts for other regions.) It will be
noticed that they are irregular in shape, with minor nodes at about 1-cm. distances from each
4 S 50
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
other. Whether this has anything to do with the respective year classes is difficult of decision.
The sample was evidently fairly uniform in size, with a restricted size range which would be
expected in fish given to the schooling of certain classes. The sexes were unequal in number.
The males were somewhat smaller in size.
This sample, from Kildonan, was compounded of fish from two localities, distant some
eighteen miles from each other. In order to study the variation in the average size the various
hauls from both of these as taken each day are tabled. (Table 2.) It will be seen that there
is no considerable variation between hauls nor between those from the two localities. By
inspecting Table 3 the same may be seen to be true for the catches from other regions. Whether
the differences shown are real or the result of errors and imperfect representations cannot be
told, because there is in each case but a small number of specimens. There is nothing, however,
which compares with the differences between samples from widely removed regions, for instance,
or the fixed difference between the size of tjhe sexes.
The proportion of males to females seems somewhat constant in all except those from Point
Grey, Which would seem to indicate that the catch was made from the same schools. In the
case of Point Grey the fish were gill-netted by different boats at different times, and, as will be
shown later, include two classes of fish. In those taken in the vicinity of Kildonan the males
formed 45, 49, 47, and (in the smallest sample) 61 per cent, of the total; in those from Nanoose
Bay they formed 63, 62, and 64 per cent.; in those from Pender Harbour, 59 and 62 per cent.;
in those from Point Grey during September, 50, 34, 43, and 63 per cent.; and in those from Point
Grey during October, 54 and 62 per cent. Either the schools in each locality have striking
similarities, perhaps being more or less unified by interchange, or the catch was made from the
same schools.
Table 2.—Average Size of Kildonan Herring.
Rainy  Bay,  one haul    \
Granite Creek, one haul 	
Granite Creek, one haul  	
Granite Creek, one haul  	
General average  	
Males.
No. of
Fish.
90
138
107
112
61
50S
Average
Size.
20.24
20.11
20.30
20.06
20.77
20.24
Females.
No. of
Fish.
125
152
111
124
38
550
Size.
20.52
20.52
20.84
20.15
21.88
20.54
Both
Sexes,
Average
Size.
- 20.36
20.43 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
S 51
Table 3.—Average Sizes of Fish from Different Localities.*
Locality and Date.
No. of
Specimens.
Average
Length
in Cm.
Total No. of each
Sex.
Average
Length.
Kildonan, Nov. 1 to 6
Nanoose, Oct. 24 to 26
Pender Harbour, Oct. 16 and 18 ..
Point Grey, Sept. 22 to 28
Point Grey, Oct. 20 and 21
Nanaimo
90
138
107
112
61
125
152
111
124
38
155
163
159
90
102
90
148
177
102
108
78
50
92
77
99
123
50
62
63
51
39
92
90
20.24
20.11
20.3
20.06
20.77
20.52
20.52
20.84
20.15
20.18
19.0
19.05
19.13
19.27
19.48
19.56
21.0
20.7
21.66
21.2
21.56
21.8,8
21.64
21.88
22.1
21.9S
21.8?
22.32
20.55
20.65
20.96
20.7
18.91
19.30
508 males
550 females
477 males
282 females
325 males
I 210 females
306 males
} 349 females
i
J
125 males
|   90 females
Males   . .
Females
20.24
20.54
19.05
19.44
20.8
21.42
21.72
22.01
20.0
20.84
18.91
19.30
* The fish from each locality are arranged in order as the samples from different hauls were examined.
(3.)   State or Matukity and Spawning Habits.
In regard to the state of maturity of these schools when actually on the spawning-grounds
there is no question. At Nanaimo during the early part of March a sample of 209 fish were
caught with a 95-foot beach-seine, and out of these there were but three which were not ripe
or did not show evidences of having spawned. As the hauls were taken directly over the
spawning-ground, this might be expected. A question, however, arises as to whether the schools
which first appear in September or October (and form the bulk of the catch of the inshore
fishery) are of the same composition, or whether a segregation of mature and immature ensues.
For the purpose of studying this question the gonads in each fish, male and female, were
carefully examined. It has not been so far ascertained absolutely whether a spentjgonad returns
to a state indistinguishable from an immature one. However, any prominent differences in the
state of development of gonads were noted by classifying them as immature and mature (Classes S 52
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
A and B). Those with ova plainly visible or teste white were, during September and October,
indicated by B. It seemed improbable that those classified as immature could reach a ripe state
by the following March unless their development proceeded with excessive rapidity in comparison
with those of Class B. In Table 4 is given a summary of the percentage of fish immature at
any length. It will be noted that, as would be expected, this percentage steadily increases with
the decrease in length, save in the case of the fish from Point Grey. In Table 5 the relative
numbers of Classes A and B are given. Making due allowance for error, there is no question
but that the fish captured at Point Grey are an exception. In the others the percentage of
immature fish is small, and decreases with increased length in a normal way. Although it is
probable that some of those thus classified were in reality mature, yet it cannot be doubted that
immature fish were present in the schools as they first appear.
Table 4.—Percentage of Fish Immature* at each Length.
Lengths.
Kildonan.
Nanoose.
Pender.
Point Grey,
Sept.
Point Grey,
Oct.
Cm.
14.5
15.0
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0
17.5
18.0
18.5
19.0
19.5
20.0
20.5
21.0
21.5
22.0
22.5
23.0
23.5
24.0
Per Cent.    Per Cent
100
100
75
100
52
27
27
19
15
6
5
1
1
Per Cent
100
100
100
45
27
23
24
7
5
3
2
50
'28
17
10
6
7
2
3
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
58
5
64
68
76
85
92
93
90
100
100
17
34
19
23
31
47
86
70
83
90
100
100
* The larger fish are mature save in the case of those from Point Grey.
Table 5.—Percentage of Immature Fish from Various Grounds.
Sex.
Class A.
Class B.
Per Cent.
Class A.
Kildonan  	
,, 	
Nanoose 	
Pender   	
Point Grey, Sept.
Point Grey, Oct.
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
24
41
23
35
3
34
237
334
58
49
484
509
453
247
322
176
69
15
67
41
7.3
7.4
4.8
12.4
0.9
16.0
77.0
96.0
46.0
54.0
The significance of this fact is that either the immature fish were taking part in a spawning
migration—if such the movement is called—or the migration was thus early poorly defined and
at its begimflng. If the mature fish are thus close to the spawning-grounds in October, six
months previous to the spawning period, and are accompanied by immature fish, there cannot
be much doubt that they have moved but a short distance.    It should be remembered that a 7 Geo. 5 Life-history of Pacific Herring. S 53
great part of such a school caught in October has spawned the preceding winter, having left the
spawning-grounds in April. Dr. Frazer says :* " After spawning the herring pass out into deeper
water, probably not so far away, as they make occasional visits into shallow water during the
remainder of the year." Shoals of herring have been observed by the writer in June not more
than five miles from the eastern shore of the Queen Charlotte Islands, and herring are said to
be found during the summer off Point Grey. The evidence is clearly enough significant, and
deserves more careful attention than it has been possible to give it. The spawning movement
cannot, at any rate, be as plainly defined and purposeful as it is in the case of the salmons, and
in all probability will prove very much less extensive.
As was briefly noted above, there are some grounds for believing that there are summer-
spawning herring. These grounds would not at all justify a positive statement that such exist,
but some such hypothesis seems to fit the facts adduced. Among the fish examined at Point
Grey, near Vancouver Harbour, there was a striking reversal of the natural size relationships
of these fish which seemed immature and those which were plainly mature. In Table 4 the
percentage of fish in Class B at any length are given, and in Table 5 the percentage found in
Class A in the various samples. The proportion of Class A ("immature") fish among those
from Point Grey is excessive as compared to those from other localities, and, instead of the
smaller fish being least mature, the reverse is true. The 677 " immature " fish averaged 22.01 cm.
in size, the 193 plainly mature 20.11 cm.; whereas in the sample from Kildonan, for instance,
the 65 " immature " averaged 18.11 cm. and the 993 mature 20.55 cm. That the fish captured
at Point Grey are not a homogeneous population might be supposed from the inspection of the
percentages which the males form of various catches. Whereas from other localities these are
present in much the same proportion in each haul, in those from Point Grey there is evident a
wide variation. At all events, there are two classes of fish, no matter what explanation may be
available.
The state of the gonads in these large "Class A" fish from Point Grey could perhaps be
most easily explained on the hypothesis that they are not immature, but unripe. That would
necessitate the conclusion that the spawning of such a fish is at a different season than is the
case with the smaller " Class B " fish. In fact, the appearance of immaturity presented by these
large fish during September would be such as might possibly be expected during May or June,
five months earlier, among winter or early spring spawners. It is evident, then, that their
spawning may be well removed from the normal time, but there has been no opportunity of
corroborating this by actual search for spawning herring during any particular season, nor by
an examination of Point Grey herring during any other time of the year.
In case these fish are in reality immature, which would seem most probable from an
examination of the gonads, it would be necessary to seek another explanation. The most
promising which occurs to the writer might be mentioned as worthy of future examination by
other workers. It would depend on the presence of large bodies of immature herring in the
waters of which those off Point Grey form a part (a conclusion supported by Table 5), and on
the well-known fact that the gill-net selects the largest fish from a school. Maturity, as is well
known to be the case in other species of fish, as the halibut, and as would be evident from a
glance at Table 4, does not supervene at a definite size, but the proportion of mature gradually
increases with size, leaving a small percentage of even the large sizes immature. The larger
the body of immature herring, the greater the number of these large fish with delayed maturity
will be, and, as Table 5 shows, the percentage of these near Point Grey is very large. These
fish, being immature, would have a lesser depth for their size than would spawning herring, and
would supposedly escape the gill-net that much longer and reach a proportionately larger size.
The mature herring, on the other hand, in all probability make a spawning migration and may,
if such be extensive enough, be subject to an intense fishery which would not affect the immature.
The result would be a marked reduction in the average size and of the number in the older year
classes, effects well known to be produced by overfishing. There would be, then, theoretically
at least, a reduction in the size and number of the mature herring which would be caught at
Point Grey, and a selection of large immature herring mixed with them. (See Table 18, showing
selection of older herring from Point Grey.) This might conceivably be carried so far as to
reverse the usual size relationship, especially during that season of the year when the mature
fish are migrating.   The fact that the fishery for herring ceases at Point Grey during the
* Previous citation, page 47. S 54 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
spawning season may be a fact in favour of such a hypothesis, indicating the lesser abundance
of the fish. As the probability would seem to be in favour of the correctness of the diagnosis
of the state of maturity of these fish, an investigation of the composition of the schools from
which they come would seem to be imperative, utilizing some other means than the selective
action of the gill-net.
The supposition that the catches at Point Grey come from two different races would not
explain the fact that one of th*m is characterized by immaturity or quiescent gonads. To explain
this it would be necessary to consider the large immature fish as those which were left behind
by migrating mature fish. The small mature fish would then be considered as the migrants of
a smaller race. The difficulties in the way of acceptance of such an explanation are many, the
principal one being the fact that both races were taken in the same general locality, and another
would be the fact that no such clearly cut migration has been shown to take place.
(4.)  Average Size of Schools.
It is very questionable whether the herring population can be relied upon to maintain a
constant size with merely normal increase in any one locality throughout the season. A case in
point is found in the samples collected from near Point Grey. In October their average size
was 20.7 cm., while in September it had been 21.9 cm., which would represent a fall in weight of,
very roughly, a tenth. This was due to fluctuations in the proportionate number of the large
immature fish. Although this class is absent, apparently, from other localities, it cannot be
safely assumed that such is the case until the nature of the fluctuating population is known.
It may well be that there is a progressive segregation of mature from the immature as the
spawning-tirae approaches; indeed, the presumption is in favour of that. The difficulty presented
by an effort to compare average sizes from different localities is therefore very great.
By comparison of samples from different localities taken at times not markedly different a
basis of comparison might be obtained, provided that spawning segregations are simultaneous.
In Table 3 the average sizes are presented. The samples from Kildonan and Nanoose Bay were
taken with the seine, those from Pender Harbour and Point Grey with the gill-net. Those from
Kildonan are a full centimetre greater in length than those from Nanoose Bay. In this case
the localities are far removed from each other. The Pender Harbour samples (21.06 cm. in
length) average more nearly the same as those obtained at Point Grey, a difference of 0.46 cm.
being present. This might lie within the range of error. The two localities are but forty miles
apart. The samples from Nanoose Bay and Pender Harbour were taken by different methods,
which may explain the discrepancy of 1.86 cm.
It is interesting in this connection to observe the relative positions of the plotted curves
of size frequency in samples from Kildonan, Pender Harbour, and Nanoose Bay. (Fig. 14.)
Those from Kildonan were seined from a population which has not been subject to much strain
in the past, and should have its full range of size. The samples from Pender Harbour were
taken by gill-net, a method supposedly selecting only large fish. The herring population of
Nanoose and near-by localities has been subject to energetic fishery for many years, and, in
accordance with the rule in such cases, should and seems to consist in good part of immature
and small fish. They were captured with the seine. It will be seen that the range of the two
curves, of those of Nanoose and Pender Harbour combined, is about the same as that of the
samples from Kildonan, a supposedly completely normal one. The question then arises as to
whether the herring caught at Nanoose Bay are from a population which had originally the
range of size of that at Kildonan, and whether those from Pender Harbour are taken from the
greatly reduced numbers of mature fish of a similar population. The gill-net fishery at Pender
Harbour has been poor for several years, and it might be suggested that this is a result of the
general reduction in average size of the herring in the Gulf of Georgia. This would leave a
population much richer in young and immature fish, such as is caught by the seine at Nanoose
at present.
Furthermore, if the herring in the Gulf of Georgia intermingle throughout, which is not
proved, it may be the drain of the seines which is preventing the normal number of herring from
coming to gill-net size. In other words, the gill-net fishery should suffer most acutely from
depletion of the fish, the mature and large classes vanishing first because more exposed to capture
and natural death. 7 Geo. 5 . Life-history of Pacific Herring. S 55
The solving of this problem would require the use of a seine at Pender Harbour to prove
the presence or absence of the hypothetical large body of smaller herring. It has been, unfortunately for our purposes, the fact that in British Columbia the two methods of fishing are
restricted to separate areas, and there has been no opportunity to compare their catches directly.
The contrast in average and range of size between samples from Kildonan and Nanoose indicate
a lessening of mature fish in the Gulf of Georgia, and there is no means of estimating, in
corroboration, their relative abundance at Pender Harbour, where only large fish are taken.
From a consideration of the average sizes of the fish population it is impossible to show
clearly a difference between those from different localities which might be due to racial characteristics or rate of growth. This is because of the difference in methods and intensities of fishing
in the various localities, as well as to possible natural fluctuations in the same from year to
year. Of those at which seining is done, Kildonan is characteristically undepleted and cannot
logically be compared with Nanaimo and Nanoose. The latter two cannot be compared with the
gill-netting localities of Point Grey and Pender Harbour. A comparison may be instituted
between Nanaimo and Nanoose, but not between Point Grey and Pender Harbour, because of
the known lack of homogeneity in the population at Point Grey. Comparing Nanoose and
Nanaimo, removed but eight miles from one another, a difference of one millimetre in average
length was found. Considering the small numbers compared, this certainly -proves nothing, it
lying well within the limits of error. It is hence necessary to study the age and rate of growth
directly, rather than the average size of schools.
(5.)  Age Relationships of the (Schools.
Among those things of preponderating interest in studying the composition of the schools of
herring is the question of age. A review of the great literature on the subject of age is out of
place here, as it has been repeatedly treated by other authors; although a frank discussion of
the difficulties met in reading the scales of the herring seems to be lacking. There cannot be
any question that seasonal changes leave their marks on the scales, but there is no proof that
these are always distinguishable from marks caused otherwise. In no portion of this paper is
there doubt thrown on the validity of the principles involved in this method of reading the age.
The results attained on diverse and widely separated fish, such as the flounders and the salmons,
are well known to have been too conclusive to admit of question.
The proposition that these seasonal changes are always clearly and definitely shown is an
entirely different matter. In the case of the Pacific herring an earnest effort has failed to
completely dispel doubt concerning the reading of various scales, despite the much-increased
facility acquired by practice.
Description of Age Indices on Scales.
The winter-zones in the herring-scale are indicated by transparent lines of little width,
termed hereafter "winter-marks." These are lines along which there is a slight wave in the
circuli, which in the herring run nearly transverse to the long axis of the scales and hence cross
the seasonal zones. (Figs. 1, 2, 4, and 6.) This slight wave results actually in a closer
approximation of the circuli, much as the pickets in a fence might be brought together by its
collapse. By examining the scales under reflected light through a weak lens the same marks
appear as dark lines, due perhaps to the difference in composition or to the mechanical structure.
This mark, or " check," is very probably formed during some part of the winter and does
not represent the whole season. Evidence of this would seem to be present in such scales as
are shown in Fig. 1. Preceding the formation of the sharply defined winter-mark, there is iii
each year a zone within which the circuli seem to differ somewhat from the remainder. The
inner margin of this frequently tends to be marked by a " check" of some distinctness much
resembling that indicated by "c" in the second year of the scale shown in Fig. 4. The
recognition of this characteristic feature of the herring-scale is of much importance in deciphering
the meaning of the scale-marks, and is so often met with that it cannot be regarded as otherwise
than a normal phenomenon. The conclusion would be that the winter-mark is formed during
the latter part of the period of retarded growth.*
* Compare Lea, Einar. A Study in the Growth of Herring. Conseil permanent international pour 1 exploration de la Mer. Publications de circonstance, No. 61, pages 35-57, 7 figg., Copenhague. By tracing the
growth of herring in one locality throughout the year, Lea found that during April the percentage of fish
with a new winter-ring steadily increased until all had it. S 56 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
The winter-mark, with its zone, is characteristic of the scale from the side of the body, and
a different type of. scale is found along the back. The circuli on this are parallel to the edge
of the scale and show the zones of crowded circuli characteristic of scales of that type. (See
Figs. 3, 5, and 7.) The outer edges of these zones coincide with the winter-marks of the scale
from the flank, in some cases this being evident on the same scale as in that of Figs. 3 and 7.
It is worthy of notice that the zone accompanying the winter-mark occupies the same position
on the scale that the zone of narrowed circuli does, and is probably caused, as it is, by a reduction
in the rate of growth. (See Figs. 5, 6, and 7.) Certainly the zone of narrowed or approximated
circuli in the scales from the back of the herring proves that there is not a complete stoppage
of growth in sharp contrast to the growing season, and the scales with the usual sharp winter-
mark undoubtedly undergo the same fluctuations in growth that those from the back do.*    The
From From
Year of Age. Circuli.        Winter-marks.
1  7.9 7.8
II  13.7 13.7
III  16.9 17.0
IV  18.9 18.8
V  20.0 20.0
This would indicate the fact that the two types of age indices are simultaneously formed and register
the same change in rate of growth.
fact that such a zone is not visible in all scales would not alter its meaning when perceptible,
for the distinctness of even the more sharply defined mark is subject to wide variation. It is
difficult to escape the conclusion, then, that there is present in all scales a zone, visible or not.
formed during a period of retarded growth, and that the well-defined winter-mark is not
representative of the whole period, but of a portion of it.
The indication of periods of reduced rate of growth by narrowed or approximated circuli
is widely spread among fishes and must be considered as evidence of a practically universal
seasonal fluctuation of growth of fishes. It has been shown by many writers, not only for the
salmons, but for flat fishes and others, in literature too voluminous to be cited in particular.
The winter-mark in the herring has been assigned to the same cause, although it is markedly
different in appearance. As has been shown above, it is possible to show that, even in the
herring, certain scales, especially from the region of the back, show the winter-zones by means
of approximated circuli.f (See Figs. 3, 5, and 7.) It is even true that on the same scales one
side may show winter-zones of approximated circuli, adjoining the simple winter-lines typical
of the herring on the other. (Figs. 3 and 7.) These facts would seem to be strong proof that
the winter-marks of the herring scale are seasonal in origin.
Under polarized light there are visible certain bands, made, according to recent workers,?:
by the outcropping of the laminae of the scale. These are narrow where they come to the surface
inside the winter-zones and wide where they form parts of the winter-zones, leaving the clear
lines which are supposed to be winter-marks thinner than the remainder. It was attempted to
utilize this method, but it was not possible to use it sufficiently to thoroughly test it.
Undecipherable Types of Scales.
A class not infrequently met with consists of scales without any apparent marks which
could be assigned to zones of decreased growth, while coming from fish of a size far too large
to be included in the first-year group. Of these, some show marks when viewed under other
conditions—as dry, in water or glycerine media, or by reflected light—however faint the zcones
may be. Occasionally the microscope may be focused on the scales in a very oblique position
and the marks made much clearer. But there remains, nevertheless, a small residue of
undecipherable scales of this nature.
The same indistinctness appears in certain zones of scales otherwise distinctly marked, and
also in some of the scales of a fish which has other scales showing clearly every winter-mark.
Even in the same scale it is frequently the case that a winter-mark will be plain on one side and
faint on the other.   This occurs more often with marks not formed in the season of retarded
* The calculated lengths at each year of the fish from which the scales shown in Figs. 5 and 6 were
taken were found from the two types of scales and are given in the following tables.
t It is unfortunate that it has been impossible to pursue the inspection of these scales far enough to
ascertain whether or not it is possible to rely on them alone for age-determination. Those examined, about
fifty in number, seem in a great many cases to have become indistinct after the first three years.
± For remarks on the scales with approximated circuli and on this method of reading the age, see Paget,
G W., and Savage, R. E. The Growth Rings on Herring Scales. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series
B, Vol. 89, No. B 615, page 258, July, 1916. 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
S 57
growth, but often enough in the latter to be disquieting. The difficulty in recognizing omissions
is great, and requires careful inspection in every case. By making sure that excessively wide
summer-zones are subjected to careful scrutiny before being accepted as authentic, it is probable
that the errors from this source may be made rather small in number, but there are no accurate
means of corroboration. If the scale-reader, for instance, were convinced that any one year
was characterized by an unusual growth, it is certain that he would be able to find more
specimens showing that character than were actually present. It has occasionally been the case
in reading the present series of herring-scales that one scale would seemingly lack one year-mark
which was present on another from the same fish. When the last of six or seven year-marks
is under consideration, in fish caught during the summer, the omission of the last winter-mark
would often not increase the width of the last annual zone to a great extent, and it is not at all
. outside the bounds of probability that small numbers of scales are misread on that account.
In addition to this type of scale with indistinct marking, there are others with " checks "
more or less numerous. Perhaps the simplest are those in which each winter is represented by
two checks, a number of small ones, or a zone of some width marked by minor checks. These
are readily solved as a rule, as it is not at all probable that any herring would alternate years
of fast and slow growth with any such regularity. The trouble arises in those cases in which
two checks are so far removed from each other as to occasionally lead to doubt as to whether
they are not real winter-marks, this being the more so when pairs of this nature are visible in
but few of the years. Doubtful cases of this kind are rare, and usually yield to analysis when
the existence of a winter-zone rather than a mark is borne in mind.
More puzzling are checks without any discoverable relation to each other. These are usually
to be distinguished by their imperfect or incomplete character, by their failure to run parallel
to the edge of the scale, etc. But, despite all care, it is obvious that there are cases in which
the distinction between these checks and the seasonal checks or marks is vague and unrecognized.
This is as would be expected, as it cannot be held that the interruptions of growth produced by
winter have been proved to be distinguishable from those produced by lack of food or injury,
save by their extent and position. That they may be a source of error cannot be denied by any
one at all experienced in reading these scales, especially when the interpretation of zones
produced later than the fourth year are in question.
It is the intention in making these statements to frankly admit that the evidence to oe
derived from the scales is far from perfect in its derivation, and that a careful determination
of the causes of the various scale-markings cannot be given. There is no correct method known
to the writer of tracing these to their origins, yet certain considerations lead him to trust that
in general the assigned ages are correct, or nearly so. It would be unjust to refuse them
consideration because of their minor imperfections.
By selecting scales about which there would appear to be no manner of doubt, the marks
being exceedingly clear and distinct, and comparing them with the remainder, it may be possible
to make some estimate as to the amount of error in the latter. Those about which there were
serious doubts were omitted from calculation altogether, as has been done throughout the paper.
As the distinction between the clearest marks and those more obscure was purely arbitrary,
enough fish were selected for the first class to make the results free from excessive individual
variation. The sample studied was from Departure Bay, near Nanaimo, taken in March, and
consisted of 182 specimens. The average length of the fish in the various year classes is shown
in the following table:—
Table 6.—Comparison of Rates of Growth of Fish with More and Less Distinctly Marked Scales*
hi.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
A™- tsizef of tSh{ Fettles
W!th distinct marks | Ayerage
With    less    distinct j^^
marks [Average
17.71 (15)
18.30 (7)
17.9
17.62 (14)
18.47 (16)
18.07
19.19 (13)
19.13 (9)
19.17
18.79 (15)
19.33 (26)
19.19
20.24 (15)
19.80 (9)
19.88
19.53 (17)
20.03 (12)
19.76
19.83 (3)
20.56 (4)
20.26
19.27 (3)
21.0 (4)
20.26
20.27 (3)
21.5 (3)
20.9
21.05 (4)
21.05
* Numbers in parentheses following the averages indicate the number of specimens employed. S 58 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
Attention might be called to the predominance of the males among the fish with distinctly
marked scales.
Considering the small number of specimens, the errors are not extensive, and the correspondence is fairly close when the averages are compared. There would seem to be no doubt
whatever that the scales marked in the plainest fashion and those less so indicate essentially
the same facts.
Use of Otoliths in Age-determination.
The establishment of the essential homology of the marks in the otolith and on the scales
would be an important step toward showing that the herring evidences in its scales a deeply
seated fluctuation in body-growth similar to that which is known to take place in other fishes.
It would also he of great value to be able to read the age of any fish from its otoliths as welL
as from its scales. With these things in view, the otoliths and scales of fifty herring from
Kildonan were obtained and examined, care being taken that the readings by each method were
not influenced by a knowledge of the results from the other. The otoliths were not sectioned,
being too small for successful handling in numbers in that way, but were viewed by reflected
or transmitted light.
The results with the otoliths were unsatisfactory in about 45 per cent, of the cases.* The
scales, on the other hand, were much more satisfactory, and but about 16 per cent, were left
with any question whatever, f The results are presented in Table 7. It will be seen that there-
is throughout an approximate agreement at least, and there is an exact agreement as to the-
position of the zones of growth in twenty-two out of the fifty cases. Unless the marks were
formed at the same periods in the life of the fish, it would be extremely unlikely that there would
be an exact correspondence in that many cases. Indeed, an occasional agreement would be
remarkable enough. The differences may be safely attributed to the difficulties of reading the
otoliths. By inspecting the table it will be seen that in the case of disagreement between readings
it is usually the otolith that lacks years or is questionable (in fifteen cases out of twenty), a
result due to the difficulty in detecting the marginal zones representing the later years. The
agreement between readings is markedly greater in the third-year classes (65 per cent.) than
in the fifth (about 50 per cent.) ; and in the sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-year classes there are
no agreements, the last years being invariably missed in the otoliths. It would seem safe, then,
to conclude that the scales are preferable to the otoliths for age-determinations, but that there
must be an essential homology in the earlier years at least between the year-marks of the two
objects. In other words, the presumption is that the marks are in both cases caused by
fundamental changes in the rate of growth of the fish.
* Compare Jenkins J. T. Altersbestimmung Durch Otolithen bei den Clupeiden. Wissenschaftliche
Meeresuntersuchungen von der Commission zur Wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung der Deutschen Meere in
Kiel und der Biologischen Anstalt auf Helgoland.    N.F. Bd. 6, Abt. Kiel, pages 81-122, 1 taf., 2 figg., 1902.
t By questionable is meant the possible presence of an error of a year, or more rarely two. It is not
meant that the whole reading was erroneous. 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
S 59
Table 7.—Ages as determined by Otoliths and Scales.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Sex.
Length.
Age.
Otolith.
Scale,
F.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
F.
Cm.
22.0
19.7
1S.3
19.5
20.8
19.6
18.8
21.4
19.9
22.8
17.2
19.3
19.4
17.6
20.2
18.2
19.8
1S.4
19.6
18.2
20.8
21.4
20.8
20.5
18.0
V.?
V..
IV.
V.
v.?
*)
V.
IV.?
VI.?
III.
IV.
V.
III.
IV.?
IV.
V.
v.?
IV.
III.
IV.?
V.
IV.?
IV.
V.
VI.
V.
IV.
V.
VI.
IV.
IV.
V.
IV.?
VIII.
IV.?
V.
III.
VI.
V.
V.
IV.
IV.
III.
V.
V.
IV.
V.
IV.
No.
Sex.
Length.
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47"
48
49
50
F.
M.
M.
M.
F.
F.
M.
M.
F.
F.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
F.
F.
M.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
Cm.
21.8
18.2
20.0
17.9
21.0
19.8
17.6
18.7
20.3
20.7
19.3
20.2
18.8
21.2
19.1
19.7
21.2
21.1
19.9
17.3
17.9
20.0
20.1
21.6
20.5
Age.
Otolith.
IV.??
IV.?
IV.orV
IV.?
IV.??
IV.
III.
IV.
•)
IV.
IV.
III.?
IV.
V.
IV.?
V.
V.
IV.?
III.
III.
IV.?
IV.?
IV.?
Scale.
VII.
III.
V.
III.
VIII.?
IV.
III.
III.
V.
V.
IV.
IV.?
IV.
IV.orV.
V.
IV.
V.
V.
VI.
III.
III.
VI.
•>
VI.
V.
* Lacking.
The average lengths determined in each case for the various year classes may be summarized
in the following table:—
Table 8.—Comparison of Results of Age-readings from Otoliths and Scales.
Length of
Fish i.\
-
Third
Year.
Fourth
Year.
Fifth
Year.
Sixth
Year.
Seventh
Year.
Eighth
Year.
Otoliths   	
17.68 (8)
17.9   (8)
19.82 (26)
19.25 (13)
20.09 (13)
20.16 (16)
20.75'(6)
21.5 (2)
21.9 (2)
This will illustrate the fact that there is at least an approximate agreement between the
readings, and not any differences of fundamental importance. The greatest error is undoubtedly
caused by the inclusion of the older herring in the younger classes by the use of the otoliths.
Calculation of Length of Herring at Various Ages.
It has been shown that it is possible to ascertain the length of a herring at any period of
its life from an examination of its scales.f The method by which this is done is well known
and needs but a brief recapitulation. The growth of the scale is through the addition of new
material to the old, the deposited portions being left intact, with their structure and markings
remaining as permanent records, indicating the size of the scale at the time of their formation.
There are as many scales in the young fish as in the old, and each must cover its share of the
length of the body. Therefore the length of each scale at every period of its formation is a
fixed proportion of the length of the fish, and its rate of growth is a faithful copy of that of the
body of the herring.   Thus the mid-length of the scale must represent the size of the scale when
t Lea, Einar.    On the Methods used in the Herring Investigations.    Conseil Permanent International
pour l'exploration de la mer.    Publications de Circonstance, Copenhague, No. 53, 1910, pages 7-174. S 60
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
the herring was half its length at the time the scale was obtained. Marks produced on a scale
indicate, then, the length of the scale at the time of their formation, and therefore the length
of the fish.
The normal manner of growth in length among fish is also well known from actual observation. The successive annual increments become steadily less, the first ones being much greater.
The lengths as calculated by the position of " winter-marks " on the herring-scales correspond to
this rule, indicating that these winter-marks are annual in appearance—or at least formed at
equally spaced intervals of time. There are, as far as is known, no regularly recurring crises in
the life of a fish save those which are seasonal, and the conclusion would seem near that the
marks called "winter-marks" are seasonal in origin. If it were possible to show that such
marks actually are seasonal in even the first year, by showing the correspondence of the length
attained in a year's growth and that calculated from the scale, the correctness of the methods
used would be strongly corroborated.
The use of the " winter-mark " in the calculation of size attained at the end of the several
years of the life of a fish is justified by the fact that it appears at the outer edge of the zone
of retarded growth. (See Figs. 3, 5, 6, or 7.) It does not represent the whole marine winter,
but rather the latter end of it, when the rate of growth would theoretically be expected to be
about to start its increase. It may possibly be connected with the spawning, which takes place
in March or April, or with the inshore habitat occupied at that period by mature and immature
alike.
In plotting the length of the fish at various ages, the scale was viewed through a camera
lucida, and the winter-marks of the image indicated on a paper directly below the camera-mirror,
along a line at right angles to the mirror-arm. A very finely divided rule was then laid along
these points, and the proportion of the length of the image to the length of the fish was established on a slide-rule. The length of the fish at each of the winter-checks was calculated on the
basis that the length of the scale at the time of the formation of the marks and at the time of
the capture of the fish was the same fixed proportion of the length of the fish at those times.
The use of the slide-rule greatly simplified matters, and was as accurate as methods of plotting
on paper.
The vertical length of the scale could not be used, the winter-marks being rarely distinct
along, it, and it was necessary to use a line at about 45 degrees to it, running through the angle
of the scale. In order that this manner of measuring the scales may be plain, Fig. 15 is
presented. The axis of measurement was invariably that shown as C or D. As the usual
axis of measurement used in this type of calculation is the one indicated by B, there might
be some question whether C or D grew at the same rate as B; in other words, whether there
might not be serious discrepancies between the results obtained from the three. In order to
throw light on this, a search was made through the samples from Kildonan for scales which
were so clearly marked in all their parts that there would arise no question as to the accuracy
of the measurements in any axis. It was found that such scales were exceedingly rare, and
lack of time prevented the collection of an adequate lot. Two such were carefully measured
along each of the axes shown in Fig. 9, and the length at each of the marks calculated by means
of the slide-rule and checked by means of Lea's method of plotting on paper. The results are
shown in the following table:—-
Table 9.—Calculated Lengths of Two Herring, al Various Ages, obtained by using Several Axes.
Year.
Calculated Lengths along Axis.
A-A'" '.
B-B"".
C-C"".
D-D " ".
325  -
296   ■
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
Cm.
9.73
15.1
18.95
21.15
22.4
8.17
14.3
18.25
20.3
Cm.
9.48
14.9
19.35
21.45
22.4
7.5
14.28
18.45
20.3
Cm.
9.87
15.5
19.4
21.55
22.4
7.08
13.97
18.2
20.3
Cm.
9.95
15.2
19.55
21.5
22.4
7.77
14.3
..-
1
18.48
20.3 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
S 61
Careful inspection of this table will show that there are certain discrepancies between the
readings from different axes, but that the errors are not in the same direction in both scales.
For instance, axis C-C"" gives in the second year the greatest value for Scale No. 325, but the
least for Scale No. 296. In this, then, must be expected considerable individual variation, and
for the accurate ascertainment of the value of the axes a considerable number of scales must be
measured to give average values. It is very probable that further research along these lines
would lead to greater knowledge of the accuracy of calculations concerning the rates of growth.
The lengths at each age were thus plotted for two samples of herring, one from Kildonan
numbering thirty-four, another from Point Grey of seventy-four specimens. In the following
table the results are listed according to the age in which the fish were when caught, as in the
third, fourth, or fifth years, the average length of the first and following years being calculated
for each of these. Since the fish were caught in October, the year's growth cannot be regarded
as complete, but the amount of growth completed for the final year does not appear to be lacking
much of what would be expected. This is shown in Table 12, where the average increment in
each year is given as calculated from Table 11.
The correspondence of the calculated length at the end of the first year with the average
length of the young herring found inshore seems close enough to indicate the essential correctness
of the scale-reading. Thus those taken during October at Pender Harbour (all below 10.5 cm.)
averaged 6.94 and 7.79 cm.; those from Secret Cove, 7.52 cm. By consulting Table 10 it may be
seen that the calculated first-year lengths for fish from Kildonan, on the western shore of
Vancouver Island, averaged 7.8 to 8.4 cm.; and that the same for those from Point Grey was
6.5 to 7.9 cm. Pender Harbour and Point Grey are not more than fifty miles apart, both on the
eastern side of the Gulf of Georgia, and well removed from Kildonan. There remains, of course,
a question as to how much of the growing season is left after October, but the fact that the
adult fish seemed to have nearly completed the expected amount of growth would lead to the
conclusion that the young had done likewise.
Table 10.—Calculated Lengths of Fish at each Year of their Age—Kildonan.
No. of
Specimens.
Calculated Length at End of
Year in which taken.
First
Year.
Second
Year.
Third
Year.
Fourth
Year.
Fifth
Year.
Ill	
IV	
v    	
11
12
11
Cm.
8.4
8.15
7.8
Cm.
15.4
14.5
13.8
Cm.
18.9*
17.7
16.7
Cm.
20.3*
19.5
Cm.
21.0*
* Length when caught in October.
Table 11.—Calculated Lengths of Fish at each Year of their Age—Point Grey.
Year in
which taken.
No. of
Specimens.
Calculated Length at End of
First
Year.
Second
Year.
Third
Year.
Fourth
Year.
Fifth
Year.
Sixth
Year.
Ill	
IV	
V	
VI	
5
13
31
25
Cm.
7.9
7.2
6.66
6.5
Cm.
15.0
13.1
12.3
12.1
Cm.
18.7*
17.0
16.2
15.7
Cm.
19.8*
18.94
18.1
Cm.
20.75*
20.0
Cm.
21,4*
* Length when caught in September. S 62
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
Table 12.—Average Increment per Year of Fish in Table 11.
Year in
which taken.
No. of
Specimens.
Average Increment in
First
Year.
Second
Year.
Third
Year.
Fourth
Year.
Fifth
Year.
Sixth
Year.
Cm.
Cm.
Cm.
Cm.
Cm.
Cm.
Ill	
5
7.9
7.1
3.7*
IV	
13
7.2
5.9
3.9
2.8*
V	
31
6.66
5.6
3.9
2.7
1.8*
VI	
25
6.5
5.6
3.6
2.4
1.9
1.4*
* Increment up to September, when captured.
In these tables of calculated lengths there appears a phenomenon which has also been found
in the work on the European herring.f This is the fact that in the older classes of fish the
indicated length at the end of the first year is much less than in the younger classes. This was
explained by Lea,t in the case of the European herring, as due to the manner in which the herring
join the spawning schools. He assumed that the larger individuals of fish of a given age joined
the spawning school first, the smaller or slower growing last; and as immaturity is present even
in the older year classes, this would mean that there would be a constant influx of fish, the
younger of which would be of rapid growth, the older of slower growth.
Tables 13 to 16 are given for the information of those seeking to compare conditions in the
European and Pacific Coast herrings. There is not as yet sufficient material at hand to justify
a study similar to that of Lea in 1913, in the paper cited above.
Table 13.—Increment per Year of Fast- and Slow-growing Fish—Point Grey.
Year in which
taken.
No. of
Specimens.
Increment during the
First
Year.
Second
Year.
Third
Year.
Fourth
Year.
Fifth
Year.
Sixth
Year.
Final
Length.
- {
V |
7 shorter
6 longer
15 shorter
15 longer
11 shorter
12 longer
Cm.
6.56
7.55
7.36
6.09
6.85
6.18
Cm.
5.85
6.04
5.05
6.12
4.93
6.09
Cm.
3.80
3.98
3.37
4J,0
3.29
4.05
Cm.
1.29*
2.79*
2.37
2.98
2.20
2.44
Cm.
1.65*
1.99*
1.69
2.04
Cm.
1.29*
1.48*
Cm.
17.5
20.76
19.8
- {
21.58
20.25
22.28
* Captured before completing year's growth.
f Lee, Rosa M. An Investigation into the Methods of Growth Determination in Fishes. Conseil
permanent international pour l'exploration de la mer. Publications de circonstance, No. 63, 1912 (36),
Copenhague.
% Lea, Einar. Further Studies concerning the Methods of calculating the Growth of Herrings. Conseil
permanent international pour l'exploration de la mer. Publications de circonstance, No. GQ, 1913 (36 pages),
Copenhague. 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
■S 63
Table 14-—Lengths at Various Ages of Fast- and Sloiv-grotving Fish—Point Grey.
Year in which taken.
No. of
Specimens.
Length at End of
First
Year.
Second
Year.
Third
Year.
Fourth
Year.
Fifth
Year.
Sixth
Year.
" \
* {
VI	
7 shorter
6 longer
15 shorter
15 longer
11 shorter
12 longer
Cm.
6.56
7.95
7.36
6.09
6.85
6.18
Cm.
12.41
13.99
12.41
12.21
11.78
12.27
Cm.
16.21
17.97
15.78
16.61
15.07
16.32
Cm.
17.5*
20.76*
18.15
19.59
17.27
18.76
Cm.
19.8*
21.58*
18.96
Cm.
20.25*
22.28*
* Captured before completing year's growth.
Table 15.—Increment per Year of Fast- and Slow-growing Fish—Kildonan.
Year in which taken.
No. of
Specimens.
Increment during
First
Year.
Second
Year.
Third
Year.
Fourth
Year.
Fifth
Year.
Final
Length.
Ill j
" \
V	
6 shorter
5 longer
7 shorter
5 longer
5 shorter
5 longer
Cm.
7.73
9.18
7.83
8.6
7.47
8.1
Cm.
6.97
7.0S
6.38
6.26
6.08
6.08
Cm.
3.53*
3.44*
3.19
3.60
3.90
Cm.
2.53*
2.66'*
1.83
1.98
Cm.
1.55*
1.54*
Cm.
18.23
19.7
19.93
20.84
20.53
21.6
: Captured before completing year's growth.
Table 16.—Length at Various Ages of Fast- and Slow-groicing Fish—Kildonan.
ich taken.
No.   of
Specimens.
Length
at End of
Year in wb
First
Year.
Second
Year.
Third
Year.
Fourth
Year.
Fifth
Year.
Cm.
Cm.
Cm.
Cm.
Cm.
Cm.
III	
 {
6 shorter
5 longer
7.73
9.18
14.7
16.26
18.23*
19.7*
IV	
    1
7 shorter
5 longer
7.83
8.6
14.21
14.86
17.4
18.18
19.93*
20.84*
V	
 !
5 shorter
5 longer
7.47
8.1
13.55
14.18
17.15
18.08
18.98
20.06
20.3*
21.6*
* Captured before completing year's growth.
Variations in Rates of Growth according to Locality and Sex.
The investigation of the rate of growth explains in part at least the actual differences in
average size of the samples obtained, as will be seen from the following table. (Table 17.)
The fish seined at Nanaimo are of slower growth and smaller average size than those from Point
Grey and Kildonan, but the growth relationship between the latter two is reversed from that of
the average sizes.    This is undoubtedly due to the fact thai those from Point Grey are gill-netted S 64
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
and those from Kildonan seined, the average size of the latter being less because of the inclusion
of a higher percentage of young in a seined sample.
Table 17.—Rates of Growth of Herring from Different Localities*
Length of Fish in Year.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
Cm.
Cm.
Cm.
18.9
19.7
19.6
19.3
19.9
20.8
19.18
19.8
20.25
19.6
20.9
21.5
20.2
21.1
22.0
19.96
21.04
21.76
19.1
20.6
21.7
20.7
20.7
21.1
19.8
20.67
21.41
VII.
[ Males   .
Nanaimo    -j Females
[ Average
f Males ..
Kildonan   -j Females
[ Average
f Males ..
Point Grey \ Females
[ Average
Cm.
17.7
18.3
17.99
18.5
18.6
18.55
(18.6)
(17.9)
18.45
Cm.
20.7
(21.5)
20.96
21.9
22.0
21.97
(20.9)
21.7
21.4
- Figures in parentheses derived from less than five specimens.
Table 18.—Percentage of Fish in each Year Class, by Locality.
III.
IV.
V.
VI. .
VII.
VIII.
IX.
No. of
Specimens.
Point Grey*  (October)   	
4.8
23.2
28.4
14.4
22.7
34.4
39.4
34.8
23.5
26.9
10.6
7.6
8.6
6.8
5.5
3.9
1.0
0.5
1.9
0.9
104
207
183
* Gill-netted. t Seined.
By examining the percentage of fish of each age present in these localities (see Table 18)
this is seen to be the case. Those from Nanaimo are predominantly younger than those from
Point Grey and Kildonan, but young fish are very scarce in those from Point Grey as compared
to either. The curve of size frequency in the samples from Pender Harbour obtained by gill-net
are essentially the same as that of the Point Grey samples, and there cannot be much doubt that
the same relative distribution of fish among the age classes would be found. The effect of
gill-netting is, then, to take a greater percentage of old fish than of young, in contrast to the
great numbers of young taken by the seine.
The difference between the samples from Nanaimo and Kildonan in regard to the distribution
of the fish among the year classes cannot be due to the method of capture, as seines are used at
both places. As will be noticed in Table 18, the predominant class at Kildonan was the fifth,
while that at Nanaimo was the fourth. It is perfectly possible that this is the result of the
intense fishery which has been carried on at Nanaimo. It is well known that such a fishery
effects a reduction in the number of older and larger herring present. The restriction of the
size range of the sample from Nanoose Bay, eight miles from Nanaimo, its position relative to
the Kildonan curve (Fig. 14), and its correspondence with the average size of the Nanaimo
sample would justify considering it the same type as that from Nanaimo, and it is undoubtedly
true that both of these localities have been the scene of long-continued fisheries. Differences
between Kildonan and the last two mentioned localities are, then, correlated with the fact that
the population at Kildonan has not been subject to the intense drain that has characterized the
history of the others. This, the first evidence obtainable which directly connects the commercial
fisheries with a modification of the biological appearance of the schools, is deserving of more
extended investigation, such as the number of fish in the different year classes at Nanoose and
other localities, and should be corroborated by investigations in other years. 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
S 65
The necessity of the latter arises from the probability that the abundance of fish in any
given year class will vary because of natural conditions. Hjort and Leaf have laid great
emphasis on the fluctuations in the relative numbers in different year classes, as indicative of
the success of the spawning season, and as affording a means of forecasting the success or failure
of the fishing seasons. Judging by the apparent selection of large fish by the gill-nets, such
investigations should be of seined fish. But there is also every probability that the varying
intensity of fishing plays a role which cannot be ignored in so far as the seined fish are concerned,
and the data would necessarily cover a number of years to be of significance.
In the above paragraphs it was stated that the rate of growth explained in part at least the
average sizes of the samples. In the absence of commercial fishing this should be true to a much
greater degree. Not only does the intensity of fishing reduce the average size, and the method
of fishing select certain sizes, but it is within the bounds of probability that the fast-growing fish
are caught at a different age than the slow, and hence alter the average size apparently reached
at different ages. The fact that the fish from Nanaimo seem to be of much slower growth than
those from Point Grey or Kildonan should be accepted cautiously, it is evident, and not as proof
of the isolation of the two localities until further corroboration is at hand.
In addition to giving the rate of growth of fish from different localities, Table 13 indicates
that the females are of faster growth than the males.! As has been shown in the curves of
length frequency (Figs. 9 to 13) and in Table 3, this sexual difference manifests itself in the
larger average size of the females in the schools. The average excess in size of the females
according to the averages for ages III., IV., V., and VI. in Table 17 (for the sample from
Kildonan) is 0.37 cm., and according to the average of samples as given in Table 3, 0.33 cm.
In considering the rates of growth and distribution among the age classes of the fish from
Point Grey, it should not be forgotten that the samples from that locality are not of assured
homogeneity. Tables 19 and 20 are constructed to contrast the two classes of fish designated
A and B, as explained on page 52. Class A consists of faster-growing fish belonging in general
to older age-groups. By comparing either class with the rates of growth and the distribution
in age-groups as given in Tables 13 and 18, it will be seen that Class B is not very sharply
distinguished, in so far as rate of growth is concerned, from the Nanaimo sample, while Class A
exceeds that from Kildonan. The percentage of fish in each year class is still widely different
from that of the other samples for both A and B.
Speculation as to the nature of the two classes (A and B) on the basis of these differences
would be precarious. In so far as the hypothesis that Class A is immature is concerned (see
page 52), it is true that it implies the selection of large immature herring by the gill-nets.
But the fact that these fish are of more rapid growth than the mature fish does not agree well
with Lea's assumption that the fish of such rapid growth join the spawning schools first. Even
though he was dealing with a different species, such facts might be expected to be of general
application, among closely allied forms at least. Further investigation of the status of these
Point Grey forms would seem of the greatest interest.
Table 19.—Rate of Growth of Mature (Class B) and Immature (Class A) Fish from
Point Grey (October).*
Class.
Year of Age in which captured.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.      i         IX.
.                                f Male   	
A {Female   ..
„                               f Male  	
a     { Female . .
(18.6)
(17.9)
(19.3)
20.72
19.07
(20.6)
21.3
21.4
19.96
20.03
21.98
22.36
21.04
19.7
(22.4)
(22.8)
(20.8)
20.97
(22.6)
(19.6)
(20.7)
(22.1)
(20.2)
* Figures in parentheses derived from less than four specimens,
table which were not in other tables derived from the same sample.
Certain specimens are included in this
f Conseil Permanent International pour l'exploration de la Mer. Publications de circonstance, Copenhague,  No.   53,  pages 7-174,  1910 ;  No.  61,  pages  8-34 ; etc.
t In connection with this difference in rate of growth of the sexes, it is of interest to remember the
difference in distinctness of the winter-marks. Do the males cease their growth for a longer time, or
more completely, thus leading to a lesser size and more  distinct winter-marks ? S 66
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
Table 20.—Percentage of Fish in each Year Class of Mature (Class B) and Immature (Class C)
Fish from Point Grey (October).
Class.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
A   ...
	
7.6
10.6
17.6
36.1
42.2
40.4
19.3
8.5
6.9
2.1
5.2
2.1
B
	
1.7
V. DIFFERENCES IN COUNTS AND MEASUREMENTS.
The methods used in making counts and measurements have been previously described.
They are substantially similar to those used in the Scottish investigations, but concern themselves with fewer characters. Due to the limitation as to available time, no great number was
examined. There were measured 209 fish from Nanaimo, 165 from Point Grey, and 84 from
California (San Francisco). In addition to these, 377 vertebral counts were made at Pender
Harbour and 305 at Kildonan, while 75 gill-raker counts were made at Pender Harbour. The
value of the results obtained must be dependent on corroboration by later work, which it is
earnestly urged should be undertaken.
In handling the measurements, the procedure adopted was to transmute them first to
percentages of the ascertained length of the fish. This is the same method used by Matthews*
and Heinckef, and allows of far more accurate and freer treatment than would otherwise be the
case.   These percentages were calculated with sufficient accuracy by means of a slide-rule.
It was attempted to examine the characters from the standpoint of age, size, and sex. That
the populations from different localities differ greatly in composition cannot be doubted, and
they must accordingly be considered in that light.
The primary purpose of the following presentation is not that of finally establishing the
limits and characters of different races, but is to show that there actually are between populations of localities differences which would be expected to disappear in case of any extensive
interchange between them, and incidentally to show that the further prosecution of the work
is full of promise for the distinction of local races. The fact should be perfectly clear that the
differences found have not been shown to be any more independent of environmental conditions
than is the rate of growth for instance, but the results may be of value in planning further
research.
In considering the material used, it should be borne in mind that the sample from Point
Grey is in all probability from a composite population, or from one in which the natural balance
has been disturbed. Since field-work had practically come to a stop by the time spawning
commenced, the sample taken at Nanaimo is the only one taken while actually spawning.
A description of the measurements and counts used is given on page 67.
(1.)  Vertebra.
It is believed that a difference is to be found in number of vertebra? between the herring
caught in San Francisco and those from British Columbia, the former having approximately
one less. This difference is so marked as to be unexplainable by any observed differences
between classes of the samples.
* Matthews, J. D. Report as to Variety among the Herrings of the Scottish Coasts. Part I., 4th
Annual Report of the Fisheries Board for Scotland, Scientific Investigations, page 61; Part II. in 5th,
page 295.
t Heincke, F. Naturgerchichte des Herrings. Teil. Abhandlungen der Deutschen. See flschet-ei vereins,
1898, Bd.  II. 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
S 67
Table 21.—Number of Vertebras in Herring from Various Localities.
Specimens.
Vertebra?.
160
96
281
305
206
81
5176
51 83
51.75
5182
51 80
50 68
In considering the differences between sexes in number of vertebra; it is unnecessary to
consider sizes.    In Table 22 are given the relative numbers in each sex.
Table 22.—Number of Vertebras according to Sex.
Male.
Female.
Point  Grey    ;     51.76 (83)
Nanaimo    !     51.84 (106)
San Francisco    I     50.55 (40)
51.76 (77)
51.76 (100)
50.5 (44)
The differences in number of vertebrae between localities might be tabled in another way.
Table 23.—Number of Specimens having each Number of Vertebra;, by Localities.
No. of Vertebra.
Pender,
Oct. 18.
Pender,
Oct. 16.
Kildonan.
Nanaimo.
Point Grey.
San Francisco.
45   	
i
7
89
150
32
2
"8
73
189
35
4
51
136
19
5
50
88
19
1
1
46   	
47   	
48	
49   	
50   	
51   	
52   	
2
23
60
11
3
3
29
39
10
53   	
54   	
Totals    	
96
281
305
210                 163
85
Average Number ....
51.83
51.75
51.82
51.80
51.76
50.68
In considering the effect of rate of growth on the number of vertebrae, or, to put it more
correctly, the correlation betwen rate of growth and vertebrae, the fish from Nanaimo in each
year class were divided into slow- and fast-growing lots. The result was Table 24. The number
of specimens is indicated in parentheses. The average size of the slow-growing fish was about
18.15 cm., and that of the fast about 19.7 cm.
Table 24.—Vertebral Counts of Slow- and Fast-growing Fish from Nanaimo.
Age.
Division
Size.
Slow.
Fast.
Average.
Ill	
Cm.
18
19
20
51.81 (21)
51.65 (23)
51.68(19)
51.82(23)
51.79(33)
51.81 (21)
51.82
IV	
51.73
Y	
51.75
51.71 (63)
51.81 (77) S 68
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
The difference of one-tenth of a vertebra in the average for slow- and fast-growing fish
might be of significance when corroborated by a greater number of counts. It is not of sufficient
scope to explain the differences between the San Francisco and British Columbian samples, which
are, moreover, at variance with the essential similarity of the large Point Grey and the small
Nanaimo fish. The average size of the fish from San Francisco is 18.18 cm., which compares
with the average size of the slow-growing group in Table 24.
Heincke found that slow-growing herring raised in warm brackish water were characterized
by a lesser number of vertebrae than were those large fish of colder, more saline seas. The
lessened number in the San Francisco Bay herring may well be of the same type, although the
examination of slow- and fast-growing herring from the same schools and localities would not
show that the rate of growth was in itself responsible for such a great difference. There does
not seem to be any marked difference between the herring from the west side of Vancouver
Island at Kildonan and those from the Gulf of Georgia.
(2.)   GlLL-RAKEKS.
i
The count of gill-rakers has been one of the most difficult characters to obtain with assurance
of correctness. Thus, among the specimens examined at Point .Grey, the average of the first
forty gill-rakers fell below the mean of the remainder, so that it was necessary to discard their
record.    This did not prove true of any of the subsequent counts, although all were tested for it.
It is believed that a difference has been shown between herring from California and those
from British Columbia, as indicated in the following table:—
Table 25.—Gill-raker Counts of Herring from Various Localities.
Specimens.
Gill-i-akei-s.
Nanaimo    	
Point Grey . ..
Pender Harbour
San Francisco   .
166
113
75
71
63.45
63.21
63.26
65.01
With regard to the difference shown between the three British Columbian localities, it is
interesting to observe that increased facility with practice may have led to a more complete
enumeration. The order in which the samples were examined was Point Grey first, Pender
Harbour, San Francisco, and lastly Nanaimo. As will be noticed, this is the order in which the
average counts of gill-rakers arrange themselves in so far as the samples from British Columbia
are concerned. The differences found between these northern localities must therefore be
assigned to errors until corroborative evidence is obtained.
Sex differences would seem to play no part when the two sexes are as evenly distributed
as is actually the case.    The following table presents what has been found:—
Table 26.—Gill-raker Counts according to Sex and Locality.
Locality.
Males.
Females.
Average.
Specimens.
Average.
Specimens.
|
63.17                83
63.73               83
65.23
63.13
34
59
64.94               37
63.09               53
Averages   .
63.84
63.92
.
Although it has occasionally been assumed by systematic workers that the gill-rakers became
more numerous with size and age, this is not the case to a very striking degree. 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
S 69
Table 27.—Gill-raker Counts according to Size and Locality.
Size. Specimens. Average.
San Francisco
Point Grey
Nanaimo
Cm.
16.1-18.0
18.1-19.5
19.6-21.5
19.4-21.5
21.6-22.5
22.6-24.7
16.6-18.5
18.6-20.0
20.1-22.0
25
28
16
34
38
38
43
76
41
64.68
65.71
64.6
63.32
62.76
63.61
63.12
63.54
63.76
Although no great difference seems to become evident with size, it is probable that there
is a slight increase in number, with increased rate of growth and greater age. The sample used
was from Nanaimo.
Table 28.—Gill-raker Counts according to Rate of Growth and Age—Nanaimo.
Slow-growing.
Rapid-gbowing.
Age.
No. of
Specimens.
Average.
No. of
Specimens.
Average.
Average.
Ill    	
18
18
12
62.45
63.50
63.42
18
29
18
64.11               63.28
IV	
v    	
63.52               63.51
64.28              63.93
63.09
63.89
Whether these differences are accidental or actual would require corroborative evidence to
decide, but a point to be emphasized is that the tendencies do not explain the differences between
the localities. At the same time, there may well be cases of near-by localities in which such
small differences must be considered. In the present case, Nanaimo, a locality with fish of slow
growth, has actually a greater number than the others, save those from San Francisco, a
condition contrary to what would apparently be the result of different rates of growth. It is
clearly evident that the San Francisco sample is characterized by a gill-raker count different
from any of those among the British Columbian samples.
Table 29.—Frequency of Gill-raker Counts according to Locality. S 70
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1911
(3.) Dorsal Rays.
In so far as the number of dorsal rays is concerned, the results seemed to show no decided
differences between herring from Nanaimo and San Francisco. Until further research is made
in corroboration, it is proposed to simply present the counts in the final tables. An examination
of the Nanaimo sample according to sex, age, size, and rapidity of growth failed to show any
tendency toward variation in any definite direction.
Table 30.—Number of Dorsal Rays according to Locality.
Locality.
Unbranched.
Branched.
Total.
3.76
3.92
3.85
14.17
14.41
14.57
17.93
18.33
18.42
(4.) Anal Rays.
As will be seen in the following table, there is a tendency toward the reduction of the
number of anal rays in the San Francisco sample, more especially in the branched rays. There
is remarkably little variation in anal-ray counts evident between Point Grey and Nanaimo fish.
This lack is also evident when sexes, sizes, ages, or rapid and slow growth fish in the Nanaimo
sample are examined.
Table 31.—Number of Anal Rays according to Locality.
Locality.
Unbranched.
Branched.
Total.
2.91
2.89
2.95
13.65
13.64
13.32
16.56
16.53
16.27
(5.) Length op Head.
The length of the head was measured in two ways, one by using the distance between the
tip of the lower jaw and the opercular flap, and the other by using that to the line of the occiput.
The first is designated simply the head-length, the second the length to the occiput.
If the average alone is considered, regardless of the size of the fish, the results obtained
Table 32.—Head-length according to Locality.
Locality.
No.  of
Specimens.
Average
Head-length.
Point Grey . .
San Francisco
Nanaimo   ....
167
85
209
21.86
22.66
23.65
This would seem to be a considerable range, with Point Grey and Nanaimo well separated.
On further consideration of head-lengths according to size a different relationship becomes
apparent. The average head-length for both sexes was determined for all the fish included under
each % cm., with the result shown in Table 33. By " smoothing " these figures and plotting them
as in Fig. 16 the relationship of the three localities is brought out more strongly. 7 Geo. 5
Life-histoby of Pacific Herring.
S 71
Table 33.—Head-lengths according to Size and Locality.
Size.
Point Grey.
San CFkancisco.
Nanaimo.
Mai
3.       Female.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
15.5-16.0  	
22.c
22.f
22.E
22.E
22.r
21.J
2i.e
21.r
21.r
21.E
21.4
23.4
23.7
22.9
22.8
22.9
22.6
22.7
22.5
22.1
22.5
22.4
21.3
22.8
22.6
22.5
22.6
23.1
21.9
22.8
22.5
22.9
21.9
22.1
24.5
24.1
24.0
24.0
23.8
23.7
23.6
23.5
23.6
23.6
23.3
16.1-16.5   	
16.6-17.0   	
17.1-17.5  	
23.8
17.6-18.0    	
23.9
18.1-18.5   	
23 5
18.6-19.0   	
23 8
19.1-19.5   	
21.9
!
!          22.0
> 22.1
»          22.2
r       21.8
!          21.4
> 21.6
21.5
21.3
20.8
t
21.4
23 6
19.6-20.0   	
23.4
20.6-21.0    ■	
23.2
22 9
21.1-21.5   	
23 0
21.6-22.0   	
23.0
22.1-22.5   	
22.6-23.0  	
23.1-23.5   	
23.6-24.0   	
24.1-24.5  	
24.6-25.0   	
25.1-26.0  	
21.9
3         21 63
52.83
22 49
93.7R
93 S3
* On the basis of the sums of individual measurements.
From the table and the plotted curves it will be seen that the samples from Point Grey and
San Francisco vary only as the size varies, the overlapping portions of the curves or sizes,
especially those of the males, being but slightly different. It is because of their smaller size that
the fish from San Francisco seem to have larger heads. If the length of the head is dependent
solely on the size attained, then the head-length in this case does not indicate a racial difference.
There is no evidence from the examination of the various classes of fish in the Nanaimo sample
(Tables 34 and 35) that the head-length is dependent on any thing other than size and sex.
With the exception of the fifth year, in which the deviation may be the result of error, it
increases normally with size in each of the year classes, showing that neither age as distinct
from size nor rate of growth affect the size of the head.
There is a constant difference in the size of the head of the sexes, which is evident in Table
35, also in Fig. 16. The male has the longer head, but this is not due to his smaller size, as
may be seen by comparing a series made up of pairs of males and females equal in length. The
average length of the male heads in such a series is 21.97 per cent, of the body-length; that of
the females, 21.76 per cent., a difference of 0.21 per cent.
Table 34-—Length of Head according to Age and Size,—Nanaimo.
Age.
15.1-16.0.
16.1-17.0.
17.1-18.0.
18.1-19.0.
10.1-20.0.
20.1-21.0.
21.1-22.0.
Ill	
IV	
Cm.
24.6 (4)
Cm.
24.15 (3)
Cm.
23.96(18)
24.05 (10)
Cm.
23.71(15)
23.85(14)
23.39 (7)
Cm.
23.49(9)
23.43(29)
23.36(11)
Cm.
23.22(4)
23.48(13)
Cm.
V	
23.1(8)
Table 35.—Length of Head according to Sex and Size—Nanaimo.
Sex.
17.1-18.0.
18.1-19.0.
19.1-20.0.
20.1-21.0.
21.1-22.0.
Cm.
24.0 (20)
23.91 (15)
Cm.
23.76 (23)
23.69 (22)
Cm.
23.61 (35)
23.56 (30)
Cm.
23.63(13)
23.10(16)
Cm.
23.23(8)
23.02 (13) S 72
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
The differences between the sexes irrespective of length is 0.30 per cent., somewhat greater
than when corrected for the difference in length. This is not a difference large enough to
influence the distinction between localities, particularly as the sexes are present in more or
less equal number. However, in case of the comparison of great numbers of fish from schools
spawning near each other, it would be imperative that such a sexual difference be borne in mind.
We must therefore conclude that the differences shown between the samples from Nanaimo
and those from Point Grey and San Francisco are " racial," providing that they are capable
of corroboration. Between San Francisco and Point Grey this is not true, unless the minor
differences present between fish of a size are indicative of a real difference and not of error.
There is, however, no specific reason to urge against the possibility that a very large series of
measurements would prove the existence of such differences.
(6.)  Occiput.
Consideration of the data relative to the length of the head measured to the occiput conveys
the same message as did that of the head-lengths, as measured to the opercular edge. In the
case of Point Grey and San Francisco the measurements average differently, but where the sizes
of the fish overlap there is apparent an essential similarity, perhaps well within the limit of
error. The case is different with the fish from Nanaimo, the occipital measurements being much
longer, as was true with that to the edge of the opercular flap, and the allowance for different
lengths was not sufficient to correct this difference.
A greater length to the occiput is also in evidence in the males. The correction for the
lesser length of the male, however, does not give as clear results. The difference in the actual
average for the sexes in the San Francisco sample was 0.19 per cent., when corrected for
the size of the male 0.17; in the Point Grey sample the uncorrected was 0.13, the corrected
0.17; in that from Nanaimo, the same are, when uncorrected, 0.08 in favour of the male, when
corrected 0.12 in favour of the female. The balance is still in favour, however, of the existence
of a sexual difference.
Since the measurements to the occipital line and to the opercular flap are both indicative of
the head-length, the similar results are corroborative in nature. They would indicate the
presence of a racial difference between the fishes from Point Grey and those from Nanaimo,
but not between the samples from San Francisco and Point Grey. In other words, a greater
difference is present between near-by localities than between others far distant, in so far as this
character is concerned. It is certainly highly desirable that a set of corroborative measurements
be taken to prove the difference between the two localities in the Gulf of Georgia.
Table 36.—Length of Head to Occipital Line according to Size and Locality.
Length   (Body).
Nanaimo.    < Point Grey.
San Francisco.
Cm.
15.5-16.0
16.1-16.5
16.6-17.0
17.1-17.5
17.6-18.0
18.1-18.5
18.6-19.0
19.1-19.5
19.6-20.0
20.1-20.5
20.0-21.0
21.1-21.5
21.6-22.0
22.1-22.5
22.6-23.0
23.1-23.5
23.0-24.0
24.1-24.5
Per Cent.
17.6
17.5
17.2
17.1
17.1
16.9
16.8
16.6
16.6
16.6
16.4
16.3
Per Cent.
15.7
15.6
15.6
15.2
14.9
14.9
14.9
14.5
14.7
14.7
Per Cent.
16.9
16.5
16.1
16.0
15.6
15.8
15.6
15.5
15.3
15.4
15.3 '
15.3 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
S 73
Table 37.—Length of Head to Occipital Line according to Sex and Locality.
Sex.
Nanaimo.
Point Grey.
San Francisco.
Male . .
16.90
16.82
15.10
14.97
15 91
15 72
0.08
0.13
0.19
(7.)  Dorsal Insertion.
The position of the dorsal insertion indicates an apparent difference between each locality,
with Point Grey and Nanaimo farthest removed from each other. There is not a decided
difference in the measurements of its distance from the tip of the snout for small and large
fish, as will be seen by the following comparison of the groups falling within the two largest
and the two smallest centimetres of the size range in each sample. The averages are in each case
derived from the sum of the individual measurements, not from other averages.
Table
-Dorsal Insertion in Small and Large Fish.
Locality.
Small.
Large.
Difference.
50.36
49.40
49.53
50.51
49.32
50.13
+ 0.15
—0 08
+ 0.60
As will be seen by an inspection of Table 3S, the available measurements for similar-sized
fish bear out the average differences irrespective of sex. This, the average distance to the
insertion of the dorsal without allowance for any factor, is given in Table 39.
Table 39.—Dorsal Insertion according to Locality alone.
Nanaimo      50.37
San Francisco    49.74
Point Grey    49.30
Unlike the difference in the position of the edge of the opercular flap, the consideration of
sizes does not obliterate the difference between San Francisco and Point Grey.
It will be noticed that the local forms or " races " with the longest head-measurements (for
instance, Nanaimo) have the dorsal inserted farthest posteriorly, and that this applies to the
differences between the large-headed males and small-headed females (Table 40) in the same
sample as well. The presumption that the insertion would be more posterior in larger individuals,
as indicated in Table 38, would run counter to this and to the observed condition in the large
fish from Point Grey (Table 40), which have small heads and more anterior insertion of the
dorsal.
Table J/0.—Distance to Dorsal Insertion according to Sex and Locality.
Nanaimo.
Point Gbey.
San Feancisco.
Male.
Female.
Male.      Female.
Male.
Female.
50.45
50.52
50.28
50.35
49.34
49.41
49.27
49.39
49.9
50.09
49.6
Averages corrected for size of sex	
49.80 S 74
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
(8.)  Ventral Insertion.
The variations in the position of the ventral and the errors in ascertaining the distance to
the ventral insertion from the tip of the snout are so great as to render the available number
of measurements inadequate. The comparison of the larger and smaller-sized fish in this
regard gives the following averages, based in each case on individual measurements.
Table 41.—Ventral Insertion according to Size and Locality.
Locality.
Small.
Large.
Total for
Whole Sample.
54.45
54.43
53.56
54.14
54.67
53.58
54.21
54 49
San Francisco  	
53.56
It is evident that Point Grey and Nanaimo do not differ greatly enough to render their
differences distinguishable from possible errors or size differences, but the case is different in
so far as San Francisco is concerned. It would seem that there is an actual difference to be
found between the Californian and British Columbian forms. Sexual variation is not great
enough to effect this.    (Table 42.)
Table
-Ventral Insertion according to Sex and Locality.
Locality.
Male.
Female.
54.29
54.45
53.87
54.12
54.51
53.27
im
(9.) Anal Insertion. ,
As with the ventral insertion, the variations in the anal insertion are great.    The observed
averages are:—
Table 43.—Anal Insertion according to Size, Sex, and Locality.
Locality.
Small.
Large.
Male.
Female.
Total.
75.73
75.08
75.17
75.70
75.87
76.08
75.69
75.49
75.45
75.71
75.46
75.57
75.69
75.47
75.51
There appears to be no decisive differences between the localities. Since the numbers of
measurements are not large enough to permit of more careful analysis, it would not be advisable
to rely on the differences shown.    Further research may bring some to light. 7 Geo. 5
Ltfe-history of Pacific Herring.
S 75
VI. TABLES OF COUNTS AND MEASUREMENTS.*
Table 1,4-—Point Grey.
ti
a
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W
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tr,
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ai
M
m
3
0
GQ
CJ
ci
3
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Dorsal Insert.
Ventral Insert.
0
ut
a
ri
a
<
14.1
M.
4 15
3
13
62
52
3.42
7.07
7.62
10.5
14.1
•>
3 15
3
14
53
3.5
2.37
6.95
7.73
10.47
18.7
M., B
3 15
3
13
59
52
4.3
3.1
9.0
10.1
16.15
19.4
F., A
4 13
3
13
63
52
4.4
3.1
9.65
10.4
14.4
19.4
F.. A
4 15
3
13
62
51
4.1
3.0
9.8
10.48
14.85
19.6
M., B
4 15
3
12
63
51
4.4
3.05
10.01
10.9
15.1
19.7
M., A
4 14
3
14
63
51
4.3
3.0
9.8
11.0
15.0
19.7
F., A
3
13
53
4.75
3.32
9.7
11.1
15.15
19.9
M., B
4 14
2
15
64
52
4.5
3.1
9.8
10.85
15.05
20.1
F., B
3 15
3
15
67
52
4.5
3.01
10.05
10.85
15.23
20.1
M., B
4 13
3
13
65
4.65
3.2
10.0
10.65
15.35
20.2
F., A
4 15
3
14
63
51
4.5
3.12
9.75
11.0
15.12
20.2
F.. A
4 15
61
52
4.2
2.95
9.8
10.8
15.35
20.3
M., B
4 14
2
14
63
53
4.48
3.2
10.2
11.1
15.4
20.3
M., B
4 15
3
15
66
52
4.5
3.2
10.0
11.3
15.3
20.3
F., B
4 14
3
14
51
4.73
3.35
10.2
11.0
15.15
20.45
M., B
4 14
3
14
63
52
4.35
3.12
10.2
11.0
15.4
20.45
M., A
4 15
3
13
52
4.5
3.1
10.0
11.1
15.23
20.4
F., A
4 14
3
13
65
52
4.3
3.2
10.1
11.7
15.9
20.5
M„ A
4 14
3
15
64
52
4.77
3.5
9.9
11.4
15.35
20.6
F., A
4 13
4
13
51
4.4
3.12
10.0
11.15
15.7
20.6
F., A
4 15
3
14
61
50
4.7
3.3
9.6
10.9
15.5
20.7
?
4 14
3
14
64
52
4.7
3.15
10.15
11.3
15.6
20.6
M., B
4 15
3
14
67
52
4.65
3.2
10.2
11.4
15.65
20.7
M., B
3 14
3
12
66
51
4.7
3.3
10.4
11.65
16.0
20.7
M., A
4 14
4
13
66
52
4.5
3.1
10.0
11.2
15.5
20.8
F., A
4 14
3
14
61
52
4.7
3.2
10.23
11.5
15.45
20.88
F., A
3 15
3
13
66
52
4.3
3.25
10.3
11.6
15.8
20.8
F., A
4 14
3
14
64
53
4.75
3.37
9.97
11.25
15.55
20.85
F„ A
4 12
62
52
4.62
3.38
10.2
11.3
15.65
20.9
M., A
4 15
3'
13
61
51
4.55
3.15
9.92
10.9
15.65
20.9
M., B
4 15?
3
13
64
51
4.7
3.3
10.5
11.6
16.0
20.9
F., A
4 15
3
13
63
52
4.4
3.1
10.2
10.9
15.7
20.88
F., A
3 15
3
13
66
52
4.3
3.25
10.3
11.6
15.8
21.0
F., A
4 14
3
13
60
52
4.58
3.27
10.4
11.65
15.9
21.0
F„ A
4 15
3
14
61
52
4.6
3.2
10.2
11.3 .
15.6
21.0
F., B
4 15
3
14
65
51
4.83
3.45
10.4
11.65
16.0
21.0
M., B
3 15
3
13
52
4.9
3.4
10.4
11.3
16.1
21.1
F., A
3 14
3
14
51
4.6
3.2
10.65
11.6
16.23
21.1
F., A
3
13
59
52
4.72
3.0
10.7
11.48
15.9
21.1
F., A
i    15
3
14
60
53
4.6
3.2
10.5
11.55
16.0
21.1 ,
M., A
3 15
3
13
63
52
4.65
3.3
10.3
11.2
15.8
21.15
M., B
3 15
2
13
62
52
4.95
3.4
10.65
11.7
16.3
21.2
M., A
4 14
3
15
51
4.7
3.1
10.5
11.52
15.93
21.2
F., A
3 14
3
13
62
51
4.7
3.2
10.65
11.2
16.2
21.3
M., A
4 14
2
13
61
52
4.57
3.02
10.6
11.48
16.0
21.3
M., B
4 14
3
14
55
53
5.0
3.4
10.3
11.45
15.9
21.4
F., A
4 15
4
13
64
52
4.7
3.08
10.5
11.4
16.3
21.4
F., A
4 15
3
15
61
52
4.8
3.1
10.4
11.8
16.2
21.4
M., B
4 14
2
14
52
4.8
3.5
10.75
11.75
16.3
21.5
•>
3 15
3
13
62
52
5.0
3.4
10.5
11.4
16.05
21.5
M., A
4 13
14
62
51
4.75
3.2
10.6
11.7
16.35
21.5
F., A
4 14
3
14
62
52
4.93
3.45
11.0
12.1
16.5
21.5
F., A
4 14
3
13
65
52
4.65
3.15
10.7
12.0
16.55
21.6
M., A
5 13
3
13
61
50
4.97
3.2
10.6
11.6
16.38
21.6
M., A
3 15
3
15
65
51
4.5
3.2
10.5
11.7
16.3
21.6
M., A
4 14
3
14
64
52
4.7
3.2
10.5
11.85
16.43
Measurements are given in centimetres as taken, not in per cent, of tlie bocly-length. g 76
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
Table 44-—Point Grey—Continued.
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21.6
F.,
A
4 13
2
14
62
51
4.6
3.2
10.85
11.5
16.4
21.6
F.,
A
4 14
3
14
63
51
4.77
3.3
10.45
12.0
16.4
21.6
F.,
A
4 14
3
14
62
52
4.6
3.15
10.6
11.5
16.5
21.7
M.,
A
4 14
3
14
60
52
4.9
3.35
10.62
11.7
16.27
21.7
M.,
A
4 15
3
13
66
51
4.65
3.32
10.55
11.88
16.4
21.7
F.,
A
4 14
3
14
61
51
4.6
3.00
10.4
11.4
16.2
21.8
M.,
A
4 14
3
14
62
50
4.75
3.3
11.1
12.05
16.6
21.8
M.,
A
3 15
3
14
61
52
4.7
3.25
10.8
11.75
16.5
21.8
M..
A
4 15
3
15
62
51
4.8
3.2
11.0
12.1
16.8
21.8
M.,
A
4 14
3
13
59
52
4.9
3.28
10.7
11.83
16.62
21.8
F.,
A
4 13
3
12
64
53
4.5
3.3
10.5
11.8
16.8
21.8
F.,
A
4 15
3
15
62
52
4.7
3.3
11.1
12.15
16.7
21.8
F.,
A
4 13
3
14
64
51
4.95
3.5
10.73
12.1
16.73
21.8
F.,
A
4 14
3
14
62
52
4.75
3.35
10.45
11.9
16.49
21.95
•>
4 15
3
14
63
52
4.62
3.15
10.8
11.75
16.45
21.9
M.,
A
4 14
3
14
61
53
4.65
3.3
10.65
11.8
16.6
21.97
M.,
A
4 15
3
14
62
51
4.88
3.21
10.95
11.5
16.15
21.9
F.,
A
4 14
2
14
62
53
4.9
3.55
10.9
12.0
16.4
22.0
M.,
A
4 15
3
15
60
4.8
3.3
10.7
11.9
16.5
22.0
M.,
A
3
13
65
51
4.65
3.2
10.6
11.9
16.8
22.0
F,
A
4"i2
3
13
63
53
4.83
3.02
10.7
11.5
16.2
22.0
F.,
A
3 15
2
16
61
51
4.8
3.2
10.75
12.2
16.7
22.0
F,
A
4 14
3
14
61
53
4.73
3.3
10.45
11.7
16.45
22.0
F,
B
4 15
4
12
63
53
4.85
3.3
11.0
11.8
16.9
22.05
F-,
A
5 14
3
13
62
52
4.9
3.25
11.1
11.93
16.82
22.1
M.,
A
4 14
3
13
62
52
4.9
3.52
10.87
12.02
16.52
22.1
M.,
A
4 14
3
14
66
52
4.9
3.25
11.05
11.45
16.65
22.1
F-,
A
4 14
3
15
66
52
4.62
3.1
11.0
11.85
16.75
22.1
F.,
A
4 15
3
13
63
52
4.8
3.2
10.68
12.03
16.7
22.2
M.,
B
5 14
3
12
63
52
5.0
3.25
11.0
12.2
17.1
22.2
M.,
A
4 14
2
13
63
52
4.8
3.4
10.85
11.9
16.9
22.2
M.,
A
4 15
3
14
62
51
4.67
3.25
10.95
11.95
16.75
22.2
M.,
A
3 15
2
14
64
52
4.9
3.33
10.9
12.1
16.6
22.2
M.,
A
3 14
2
14
64
51
4.9
3.3
11.0
12.0
16.9
22.2
F.,
A
4 14
2
13
62
53
4.8
3.27
11.0
12.33
17.1
22~2
F.,
A
4 14
3
13
64
52
4.88
3.25
10.95
11.89
16.9
22.3
M.,
A
4 14
2
14
62
53
4.8
3.31
11.1
12.2
17.1
22.3
• M.,
A
3 14
3
14
60
53
4.8
3.35
11.2
12.3
16.7
22.3
M.,
A
3 14
3
14
63
52
4.7
3.35
11.1
11.8
16.75
22.3
M.,
A
4 15
3
14
52
4.8
3.3
10.9
12.0
16.95
22.3
M.,
A
3 14
3
14
62
54
5.0
3.4
10.78
12.2
16.8
22.3
F.,
A
4 14
3
14
63
51
4.9
3.2
10.9
11.82
16.75
22.3
F.,
A
4 14
3
14
66
52
4.75
3.3
10.8
12.1
16.67
22.4
M.,
A
4 14
3
12
62
52
4.8
3.25
11.3
12.0
16.95
22.43
M.,
A
3
14
59
52
4.85
3.3
11.1
12.35
16.9
22.4
F-,
A
3 14
3
13
61
51
4.85
3.45
10.8
12.25
17.0
22.4
F.,
A
4 14
3
13
64
51
4.73
3.4
11.2
12.05
16.9
22.4
F.,
A
4 14
3
14
65
52
4.95
3.3
11.15
12.0
16.65
22.5
F.,
A
4 14
3
13
63
53
4.8
3.4
11.25
12.55
17.2
22.55
F.,
A
63
51
4.85
3.4
11.33
12.3
17.0
22.5
F.,
A
4' 14
3
14
57
52
4.7
3.32
11.0
12.05
16.9
22.65
M.
A
3 14
3
12
63
50
4.9
3.4
11.3
12.37
16.85
22.6
M.
A
4 13
3
15
63
52
4.67
3.35
10.8
12.05
16.77
22.6
M.
A
4 14
3
15
63
52
4.78
3.42
11.1
12.2
16.95
22.6
M.
B
4 13
4
13
64
53
5.15
3.45
11.6
12.55
17.3
22.6
M.
A
4 14
3
14
63
52
4.9
3.4
10.8
12.3
16.9
22.6
F.,
A
4 15
3
14
60
51
5.1
3.4
10.98
11.8
16.73
22.7
M.
A
4 14
3
13
62
52
4.8
3.22
11.1
12.5
17.4
22.7
M.
A
4 15
3
14
66
52
5.0
3.48
10.9
12.3
17.1
22.7
M.
A
4 15
3
14
61
5.1
3.62
10.9
12.25
17.0 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
S 77
Table .M.—Point Grey—Concluded.
Length.
ta
6
tip
ri
M
ri
rn
O
P
Anal Rays.
CJ
"ri
5
8J
jo
CJ
J
.
■a
s
CJ
o
CJ
a
ri
X
o
a
Ventral Insert.
CJ
f/J
a
"cc
3
-<
22.7
M.
A
4
14
3
13
64
51
4.63
3.3
li.i
12.05
17.3
22.7
M.
A
4
14
3
14
68
52
5.0
3.45
11.35
12.7
17.4
22.7
F.,
A
4
14
3
15
63,
53
4.8
3.3
11.05
11.75
17.1
22.7
M.
A
3
15
2
13
58
51
4.97
3.2
11.13
12.1
17.1
22.7
F.,
A
4
15
3
13
64
51
5.13
3.8
11.12
12.65
17.3
22.7
F.,
A
4
14
3
13
65
51
4.95
3.4
10.95
12.3
17.3
22.8
M.
A
4
14
3
13
65,
51
4.9
3.52
11.6
12.4
17.5
22.87
M.
B
3
15
3
13
63
53
4.85
3.5
11.3
12.5
17.43
22.8
F-,
B
3
15
3
15
54
4.73
3.18
11.0
12.1
17.2
22.9
M.
B
4
14
3
13
64
52
5.1
3.6
11.3
12.8
17.3
22.9
M.
A
4
14
2
13
66
52
5.1
3.4
11.4
12.7
17.6
22.9
M.
A
4
14
3
13
66
52
4.8
3.3
11.1
12.5
17.4
22.95
M.
A
3
15
3
14
64
52
4.87
3.45
11.4
12.8
17.87
22.9
F.,
A
4
15
3
14
65
52
4.95
3.35
11.2
14.3
17.42
22.9
F.,
A
4
14
3
14
52
4.73
3.4
11.45
12.4
17.45
23.0
M.
A
3
15
3
13
63
51
5.1
3.4
11.5
12.2
17.4
23.0
F.,
A
4
13
3
13
61
51
4.85
3.3
11.35
12.3
17.3
23.0
F.,
A
4
14
3
13
66
52
5.0
3.35
11.53
12.6
17.5
23.07
F.,
A
4
14
3
14
66
52
4.9
3.3
11.8
12.6
17.7
23.1
F.,
A
4
14
3
14
62
52
5.05
3.3
11.6
12.7
17.5
23.25
M.
A
4
14
3
14
65
52
5.0
3.33
11.5
12.7
17.4
23.2
M.
B
3
15
2
13
64
52
5.3
3.65
11.73
12.4
17.8
23.3
M.
A
4
14
3
14
61
52
5.05
3.4
11.2
12.4
17.25
23.3
F.i
A
3
15
3
13
63
5.0
3.25
11.3
12.5
17.5
23.3
F.i
A
4
13
3
13
63
52
4.95
3.29
11.75
12.82
17.9
23.4
M.
A
3
15
3
15
64
51
5.2
3.4
11.5
12.6
17.8
23.4
M.
A
3
15
3
15
59
52
4.8
3.3
11.7
12.8
17.45
23.5
F.,
A
3
15
2
15
59
52
5.2
3.65
11.8
12.9
17.6
23.5
F.,
A
4
14
3
13
50
4.9
3.3
11.35
13.0
18.0
23.6
F.,
A
4
13
3
13
62
51
4.9
3.47
11.8
12.8
17.9
23.7
M.
A
4
14
3
14
66
51
5.15
3.4
11.9
12.95
17.7
23.7
F.,
A
'-   4
13
3
13
63
51
5.12
3.55
11.9
13.0
17.85
23.8
M.,
A
4
14
3
14
64
52
5.05
3.55
11.8
13.0
17.92
23.S
M.,
A
3
14
3
14
59
52
5.15
3.5
11.7
12.9
17.75
23.-8
F.,
A
3
lo
3
15
68
52
5.2
3.3
11.85
12.75
17.85
23.9
F.,
A
4
14
3
15
51
5.3
3.6
12.0
13.2
17.95
24.0
F.,
A
4
14
3
14
64
52
5.12
3.47
11.95
13.1
18.2
24.0
M.,
A
3
14
2
13
64
51
5.4
3.6
11.7
12.8
18.35
24.0
F-,
A
3
14
3
14
63
52
4.95
3.45
11.67
12.85
17.98
24.0
F.,
A
4
14
3
14
52
5.1
3.6
11.6
13.0
18.0
24.1
M.,
A
3
14
3
15
62
52
5.2
3.7
11.9
13.4
18.4
24.1
F.,
A
4
14
3
13
66
51
5.1
3.3
12.15
13.2
18.2
24.3
F-i
A
4
14
3
12
64
51
5.0
3.5
12.0
13.0
18.4
24.3
M.,
A
5
14
2
14
63
52
5.25
3.55
11.9
13.2
18.5
24.4
M.,
A
4
14
3
14
63
51
5.3
3.7
12.15
13.27
18.65
24.47
M.,
A
4
13
4
13
62
51
5.47
3.52
11.82
14.97
18.2
24.4
M.,
A
5
14
3
13
62
52
5.49
3.7
12.3
13.43
18.55
24.7
M.,
A
4
14
3
12
63
52
5.3
3.73
12.2
13.18
18.9
25.6
F.,
A
3
15
2
16
62
51
5.5
3.8
12.7
14.15
19.4
25.7
F.,
A
4
15
3
14
62
52
5.48
3.9
12.6
15.98
19.1
Table 45.—Nanaimo (off Departure Bay).
18.9
F.
IV.
4
15
3
13
63
53
4.6
3.1
9.5
10.0
14.2
20.2
M.
V.
4
15
3
14
52
4.6
3.5
10.1
10.9
15.3
20.2
F.
VI.
4
14
3
14
59
52
4.6
3.5
10.3
11.2
15.3
17.8
M.
IV.
4
14
3
14
52
4.5
3.05
9.0
9.5
13.1
18.5
M.
IV.
4
14
3
13
64
51
4.4
3.3
9.2
10.0
13.S
18.3
M.
IV.
3
14
3
14
64
51
4.4
3.1
9.3
9.7
13.6
19.3
F.
V.
4
14
3
14
52
4.45
3.3
9.S
10.6
14.7 S 78
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
Table 45.—Nanaimo—Continued.
a
ti
a
Cj
M
H
CJ
w
<3
curt
ri
•JI
0
ri
«
ri
a
<
CO
CJ
ri
3
83
CO
CJ
ri
CJ
H
3
a
CJ
CJ
0
+j-
OJ
cc
a
ri
CO
0
0
w
>
4-J
CJ
a
ri
a
<
19.2
F.
in.
or IV.
4
15
3
14
65
52
4.55
3.2
9.5
10.1
14.3
19.7
M.
rt
4
15
3
15
65
52
4.6
3.4
9.8
10.S
14.9
19.6
F.
V.
4
14
3
14
63
52
4.7
3.3
9.7
10.9
14.9
17.9
M.
IV.
4
15
3
14
65
52
4.3
3.1
9.0
9.75
13.5
19.4
M.
III.
4
15
3
14
66
52
4.55
3.25
9.5
10.5
14.5
18.8
F.
IV.
4
15
4
13
68
51
4.6
3.1
9.5
10.1
14.3
20.3
M.
VIII.
4
14
3
14
52
4.8
3.35
10.3
11.25
15.7
17.7
M.
9
4
14
3
13
63
51
4.05
3.15
8.85
9.5
13.45
19.4
F
iv.
4
14
3
12
67
52
4.6
3.4
9.8
10.6
14.8
18.3
F.
in.
4
15
3
14
52
4.4
3.0
9.3
10.0
13.7
20.1
M.
V.
4
14
3
16
65
51
4.6
3.4
10.1
11.0
15.0
16.8
F.
III.
4
15
3
14
51
4.25
3.05
S.S
9.5
12.7
17.8
?
III.
4
14
3
13
53
4.3
3.1
9.1
9.75
13.4
19.8
M.
IV.
3
15
3
12
66
52
4.6
3.3
10.1
11.0
15.3
20.0
F.
IV.
4
14
3
13
51
4.5
3.3
10.3
10.85
35.2
15.8
F.
III.
4
14
3
13
60
51
3.8
2,85
7.85
8.65
11.9
18.2
M.
III.
4
15
3
13
53
4.3
3.2
9.1
10.0
13.7
21.3
F.
V.
4
14
3
13
63
51
4.95
3.5
10.8
11.7
16.2
17.5
M.
III.
4
15
3
14
51
4.2
2.92
8.7
9.6
13.0
19.3
M.
V.
4
13
3
13
51
4.6
3.15
9.7
10.5
14.65
19.5
M.
IV.
4
15
3
12
65
53
4.7
3.4
9.8
10.5
14.75
17.8
F.
IV.
4
14
3
15
61
51
4.35
3.05
9.15
o.s
13.4
18.5
F.
V.
4
14
3
13
52
4.2
3.0
9.35
10.0
14.05
17.S
M.
III.
4
14
2
13
58
52
4.3
2.95
9.05
9.65
13.3
19.4
M.
III.
4
14
3
14
63
52
4.4
3.17
9.4
10.6
14.65
17.8
M.
IV.
4
15
3
13
52
4.3
3.05
9.2
9.8
13.5
17.5
M.
IV.
or V.
IV.
4
14
3
13
60
51
4.28
2.93
8.75
9.6
13.1
19.3
F.
3
16
3
13
62
52
4.42
3.14
9.S
10.5
14.48
17.7
F.
III.
4
15
3
14
63
53
4.15
3.0
8.9
9.65
13.4
20.6
F.
VI.
4
13
3
13
67
51
4.7
3.35
10.3
11.2
15.4
21.3
F.
VIII.
4
15
3
14
67
52
4.95
3.42
11.05
11.9
16.1
19.3
F.
IV.
4
14
3
13
63
51
4.5
3.3
9.5
10.4
14.25
19.5
M.
IV.
4
14
3
13
65
52
4.62
3.38
10.12
10.4
14.9
20.2
F.
V.
4
13
3
13
65
52
4.8
3.3
10.1
10.85
15.05
17.2
M.
IV.
4
14
2
13
63
51
4.1
2.9
S.6
9.35
12.9
19.7
M.
IV.
4
14
4
14
52
4.6
3.25
9.9
10.7
14.7
16.3
M.
III.
4
15
3
15
64
52
4.0
2.82
8.18
8.77
12.05
19.9
F.
IV.
4
15
2
14
64
52
4.-65
X27
9.95
10.85
14.9
18.2
F.
III.
4
14
3
15
64
52
4.2
3.1
9.35
9.95
13.75
19.35
F.
IV.
4
14
2
14
61
52
4.62
3.25
9.8
10.4
14.6
17.9
M.
IV.
4
14
3
12
63
52
4.38
2.95
9.2
9.7
13.4
19.8
F.
IV.
4
14
3
13
64
51
4.55
3.32
9.75
10.7
15.1
18.7
F.
')
4
15
3
14
61
52
4.5
3.2
9.6
10.2
14.2
20.3
M.
V.
4
14
3
15
63
52
4.95
3.37
10.5
11.1
15.5
21.3
M.
VI.
4
15
3
15
64
53
4.9
3.57
10.65
11.4
16.07
19.2
F.
IV.
4
15
3
13
65
52
4.6
3.15
9.4
10.5
14.45
19.3
M.
IV.
4
15
3
15
62
52
4.55
3.25
9.7
10.6
14.4
18.0
F.
IV.
3
15
2
13
62
50
4.35
3.1
8.85
9.S7
13.55
21.2
M.
VII.?
3
15
3
12
61
51
5.0
3.4
10.8
11.5
16.1
19.8
M.
V.
4
14
2
14
64
52
4.55
3.2
10.0
10.9
14.S5
21.4
F.
VI.
4
15
3
14
63
52
4.8
3.48
10.7
11.7
16.4
19.1
F.
III.
3
14
3
14
69
52
4.55
3.25
10.0
10.6
14.7
17.2
F.
III.
4
14
3
14
52
4.12
3.1
8.6
9.4
12.9
19.65
M.
IV.
4
13
3
14
62
52
4.6
3.17
9.95
10.75
14.9
20.5
F.
VI.
4
14
64
52
4.7
3.4
10.32
11.3
15.5
21.5
M.
VII.
4
15
2
13
65
52
5.0
3.5
11.2
11.85
16.3
17.6
F.
IV.
4
15
3
14
52
4.15
3.05
8.55
9.55
13.1
18.7
F.
V.
4
14
2
13
60
52
4.4
3.2
9.45
10.23
14.27 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
S 79
Table 45.—Nanaimo—Continued.
ti
a
Cj
H
CJ
02
cj
be
<
>J
ri
M
CO
a
a
CO
>J
rt
«
ri
a
CO
CJ
iA
ri
3
S3
2
0
u
CJ
tr*
-d
ri
CJ
a.
'cj
CJ
0
OJ
CO
a
ri
CO
0
O
4J
aj
CO
a
ri
u
rt
OJ
CO
a
ri
a
<
22.4
F.
VII.
3
15
3
14
66
53
5.2
3.78
11.5
12.47
16.8
20.4
M.
VII.
4
15
2
13
53
4.9
3.48
10.5
11.4
15.55
21.4
F.
VII.
4
15
2
14
52
4.8
3.5
10.7
11.75
16.0
17.5
M.
III.
4
15
3
15
67
53
4.12
2.97
8.6
9.4
13.0
17.7
M.
III.
4
14
3
14
60
52
4.1
2.98
8.7
9.6
13.3
19.1
M.
IV.
4
14
3
14
64
51
4.7
3.12
9.92
10.62
14.5
18.6
F.
IV.
4
13
3
14
63
52
4.4
3.12
9.3
9.9
13.8
19.4
M.
V.
4
14
3
13
61
52
4.5
3.1
9.82
10.5
14.7
18.4
F.
III.
4
15
3
14
53
4.3
3.02
9.3
10.05
13.63
18.0
M.
III.
3
15
2
14
59
53
4.3
3.02
9.3
9.5
13.53
18.9
M.
III.
or IV.
3
15
2
14
62
52
4.52
3.15
9.7
10.15
14.23
20.6
M.
IV.
4
14
2
14
66
51
4.8
3.3
10.4
11.15
15.45
21.3
M.
IV.
4
15
3
15
59
51
5.05
3.3
10.75
11.38
16.25
20.5
F.
IV.
4
15
3
16
62
52
4.7
3.35
10.0
11.1
15.4
19.4
F.
IV.
4
14
3
14
64
51
4.55
3.25
9.85
10.5
14.65
17.5
M.
v.?
4
14
3
14
63
52
4.12
3.1
S.S
9.25
12.9
19.4
M.
IV.
3
15
3
13
63
52
4.5
3.15
9.65
10.05
14.5
19.4
M.
V.
4
15
3
15
61
51
4.7
3.28
9.7
10.5
14.5
19.S
F.
III.
or V.
III.
4
14
3
13
68
52
4.62
3.19
9.95
11.0
15.05
1S.6
M.
3
14
3
13
63
52
4.4
3.12
9.2
10.0
14.2
21.8 -
F.
IV.
3
14
2
14
63
51
5.1
3.54
10.9
12.05
16.8
21.0
F.
V.
4
14
3
14
65
52
5.0
3.6
10.65
31.65
16.4
20.0
F.
IV.
4
14
3
14
61
52
4.6
3.11
30.12
10.85
15.1
21.8
F.
VI.
4
14
3
13
65
52
5.0
3.52
11.0
11.8
16.4
18.1
M.
III.
3
13
65
52
4.3
3.08
9.37
9.9
13.9
1-8.1
M.
IV.
4'
13
3
13
52
4.4
3.1
9,1
9.8
13.5
17.7
M.
III.
4
15
3
13
52
4.15
2.98
8.65
9.9
13.4
20.3
F.
IV.
4
15
3
14
63
52
4.75
3.27
10.2
10.9
15.3
18,7
M.
III.
5
1.3
3
13
62
51
4.5
3.1
9.4
10.2
14.2
21.5
F.
V.
4
15
3
13
65
52
5.05
3.6
10.8
11.9
16.3
21.9
F.
V.
4
14
2
13
67
52
4.98
3.48
10.9
12.0
16.6
20.6
M.
V.
4
15
3
15
64
52
4.9
3.4
30.25
11.5
15.5
20.1
F.
V.
4
35
3
14 .
63
51
4.85
3.4
10.25
10.9
15.3
17.1
M.
III.
or IV.
4
16
3
14
52
4.08
2.-88
8.8
9.3
12.9
20.4
F.
III.
• 4
14
66
52
4.7
3.4
10.55
11.1
35.6
21.9
M.
VII.
3
15
2
14
52
4.9
3.62
10.9
11.95
16.5
20.9
F.
V.
O
14
3
13
65
52
4.88
3.49
10.4
11.65
15.95
18.7
M.
IV.
4
15
3
13
63
52
4.3
3.1
9.4
10.0
14.0
17.7
F.
IV.
4
14
63
51
4.15
S.S
9.7
13.3
16.5
M.
III.
4
15
3
15
51
4.18
2.9
8.3
9.0
12.3
18.6
F.
IV.
4
14
3
13
63
52
4.4
3.2
9.2
9.8
14.0
17.0
F.
V.
4
14
D
14
61
52
4.2
3.08
8.7
9.3
12.8
20.9
F.
X.
3
15
3
14
63
52
4.95
3.6
10.8
11.9
16.1
19.1
F.
III.
4
14
2
14
65
52
4.5
3.05
9.7
10.5
14.4
14.4
M.
III.
4
14
3
13
61
52
3.6
2.68
7.3
7.8
10.9
20.3
F.
V.
4
14
3
14
64
52
4.68
3.35
10.0
10.9
18.3
M.
IV.
5
14
3
13
65
52
4.3
3.12
9.0
9.8
13.8
16.8
M.
III.
4
15
3
14
60
51
4.05
2:88
S.52
8.9
12.5
18.6
M.
IV.
4
34
2
14
62
52
4.5
3.07
9.25
10.3
14.1
18.2
F.
III.
4
3.4
3
14
65
51
4.3
3.12
9.3
9.98
13.6
20.9
F.
V.
4
14
O
13
64
51
4.9
3.27
10.6
11.6
16.0
18.7
M.
v.?
4
14
13
51
4.33
3.12
9.3
10.2
13.9
18.4
M.
III.
4
15
3
34
64
52
4.4
3.05
9.15
10.5
13.9
19.0
M.
IV.
4
15
3
34
64
52
4.65
3.21
9.4
10.5
14.5
17.3
F.
III.
3
14
2
13
63
51
4.17
3.1
8.7
9.5
13.2
20.0
F.
IV.
4
14
2
15
65
52
4.7
3.3
10.0
10.8
15.2
1S.9
F.
IV.?
4
15
3
13
59
51
4.5
3.2
9.5
10.1
14.2 S 80
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
Table 45.—Nanaimo—Continued.
B
31-t.
ri
CC!
ri
S
CJ
83
CO
rt
a
a
co
a
M
fA
ri
■-,
,C2
a
„
"3
a
Cfl
a
M
CO
bjj-
3
CO
U
O
ri
O
CJ
CJ
•d
cd
CJ
a
'cj
CJ
rt
CO
o
GJ
ri
a
$
W
<
3
<
5
l>
S
O
O
f>
<
39.6
M.
IV.
4
14
3 13
52
4.85
3.3
10.0
10.8
15.0
15.0
M.
III.
4
14
2 15
52
3.7
2.78
7.65
8.2
11.35
18.0
F.
III.
4
15
3 15
64
51
4.2
2.9
8.9
9.5
13.1
18.7
F.
v.?
4
15
3 14
52
4.6
3.27
9.55
10.2
13.8
17.4
F.
III.
or IV.
4
14
52
4.05
2.95
8.6
9.7
12.9
19.2
M.
III.
4
14
4 13
61
52
4.4
3.15
9.7
10.4
14.S
19.5
F.
III.
4
14
3 14
52
4.8
3.15
9.7
10.8
14.6
18.6
M.
III.
4
14
3 13
51
4.42
3.08
9.5
10.3
14.1
17.9
F.
IV.
5
15
3 14
52
4.25
3.1
9.17
9.62
13.3
20.8
F.
VII.
4
15
62
51
4.9
3.6
10.6
11.1
15.7
17.0
M.
III.
4
14
3 14
58
52
4.15
3.0
8.42
9.2
12.6
21.0
M.
V.
O
15
3 13
52
4.85
3.38
10.8
11.6
15.9
17.7
F.
III.
4
14
3 14
63
52
4.25
3.15
8.8
9.8
13.2
17.8
F.
III.
or IV.
4
14
2 13
66
52
4.32
3.1
9.0
9.9
13.5
19.2
F.
•)
4
14
3 13
62
52
4.47
3.15
9.7
10.25
14.65
16.6
M.
V.
o
O
15
3 13
65
52
3.95
2.75
8.3
9.0
12.4
19.5
M.
1
4
15
3 14
65
51
4.55
3.25
9.85
10.55
14.6
14.8
M.
III.
5
14
3 13
62
52
3.67
2.62
7.4
S.05
11.2
17.6
F.
III.
4
13
3 14
51
4.1
2.95
8.88
9.5
13.1
17.7
F.
III.
4
14
3 13
65
51
4.37
3.1
8.9
9.6
13.4
17.3
M.
IV.
3
15
4 12
61
52
4.15
2.92
8.75
9.5
13.0
19.4
M.
V.
4
14
3 14
66
52
4.63
3.37
9.63
10.5
14.5
18.7
M.
IV.
4
15
3 14
65
52
4.46
3.15
9.45
10.15
14.1
19.2
F.
IV.
4
14
3 14
60
50
4.47
3.2
9.2
10.45
14.1
38.0
F.
V.
4
14
3 13
66
52
4.3
3.13
9.0 ,
9.85
13.6
19.4
F.
IV.
4
13
51
4.3S
3.13
9.75
10.7
14.6
19.0
F.
V.
4
15
2 13
52
4.4
3.2
9.6
30.75
14.15
19.0
F.
V.
4
14
63
52
4.5
3.2
9.45
10.35
14.4
18.6
F.
III.
4
14
3 13
65
52
4.4
3.12
9.2
10.0
14.0
19.5
F.
III.
4
14
52
4.5
3.25
9.75
10.5
14.6
21.2
M.
V.
4
14
3 13
66
52
5.0
3.5
10.S
11.38
15.9
19.6
F.
VI.
5
13
4 13
63
52
4.-85
3.47
10.4
11.0
35.0
23.5
M.
V.
5
14
3 14
64
52
4.98
3.63
10.8
11.55
16.25
23.5
F.
III.
4
15
4 13
62
52
5.07
3.8
33.1
12.1
16.6
19.4
F.
9
4
14
3 14
64
51
4.6
3.32
9.5
10.6
14.6
18.8
F.
iv.
3
15
3 13
6S
52
4.4
3.2'
9.5
10.1
14.3
19.3
F.
V.
5
14
4 14
63
52
4.48
3.15
9.55
10.3
14.4
17.2
M.
III.
4
14
3 12
65
52
4.3
3.05
8.9
9.4
13.1
18.7
M.
V.
4
15
4 13
65
52
4.5
3.27
9.6
10.3
14.3
21.2
M.
IV.
or V.
IV.
3
16
3 14
52
4.9
3.37
10.6
11.4
16.2
3.9.4
M.
4
16
3 13
63
52
4.43
3.35
9.65
10.5
14.75
17,8
M.
III.
4
15
3 14
64
52
4.38
3.13
9.15
9.3
13.2
21.1
F.
V.
4
14
3 14
65
52
4.65
3.53
10.7
11.65
16.0
19.1
M..
IV.
4
15
3 14
52
4.45
3.32
9.4
10.1
14.4
20.8
F.
VI.
4
15
3 14
62
52
4.85
3.53
10.62
11.3
16.1
19.1
F.
IV.
4
14
3 13
64
50
4.46
3.2
9.7
10.7
14.7
19.8
F.
IV.
4
14
3 13
69
52
4.6
3.35
9.65
10.6
15.0
17.9
M.
III.
4
13
3 13
62
52
4.25
3.2
9.1
9.85
13.0
20.7
M.
V.
4
14
3 13
63
52
4.97
3.6
10.55
11.5
15.8
19.5
M.
IV.
4
15
2 15
62
52
4.5
3.3
9.75
10.3
34.7
19.3
F.
IV.
4
15
3 14
62
52
4.65
3.2
9.8
10.6
14.5
18.5
F.
III.
4
15
3 14
65
52
4.4
3.3
9.3
10.1
14.0
19.3
M.
III.
4
34
2 13
01
52
4.55
3.2
9.75
10.6
14.55
19.7
M.
VI.
4
33
3 12
60
53
4.75
3.25
10.2
10.7
15.1
17.7
F.
III.
4
14
4 13
61
52
4.4
3.02
8.9
9.5
13.2
1S.7
M.
III.
4
14
3 14
64
52
4.4
3.0
9.2
10.3
13.S
19.2
F.
1   III.'
4
14
4 13
64
52
4.62
3.3
9.7
10.5
1 14.6 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
S 81
Table 45.—Nanaimo—Concluded.
A
ti
a
CO
M
CO
tjj
OJ
to
<
Dorsal Rays.
Anal Rays.
Gill-rakers.
S3
u
X!
CJ
+J
CJ
>
■d
ri
CJ
K
3
a
'cj
CJ
o
CJ
CO
a
ri
CO
o
Q
u
CJ
rt
ri
rt
CJ
>
CJ
CO
a
«
■3
19.1
M.
IV.
4
14
3
13
63
53
4.4
3.16
9.5
10.3
14.6
20.7
M.
VII.
5
15
3
14
62
52
4.95
3.5
10.75
11.55
15.95
19.4
M.
V.
4
14
3
13
64
51
4.6
3.28
9.7
10.6
14.7
18.8
M.
IV.
3
15
3
14
65
52
4.5
3.2
9.5
10.1
14.1
18.1
M.
III.
4
14
3
13
64
51
4.35
3.05
9.4
9.9
13.7
20.0
M.
V.
4
14
51
4.75
3.45
10.3
11.1
15.2
20.1
F.
IV.
4
15
9
14
61
53
4.7
3.33
9.7
10.9
15.3
1S.9
M.
VII.
4
15
2
14
63
52
4.55
3.38
9.5
10.4
14.2
20.0
M.
5
4
15
3
14
63
51
4.6
3.12
9.9S
10.8
15.0
21.3
F.
V.
4
15
3
14
52
5.05
3.58
10,8
11.4
16.0
16.1
M.
III.
4
14
3
14
63
51
3.82
2.88
8.1
9.0
32.3
18.5
F.
IV.
4
14
2
14
65
52
4.42
3.18
9.3
10.0
14.2
20.0
M.
V.
5
14
3
14
65
51
4.5
3.4
10.1
11.0
15.3
19.8
M.
IV.
4
15
3
14
64
53
4.82
3.4
10.1
10.7
15.1
20.4
M.
VI.
4
15
3
13
53
4.9
3.35
10.4
11.0
15.7
19.4
M.
V.
4
14
64
52
4.73
3.3
9.7
10.9
14.8
19.5
M.
VI.
4
14
3
14
60
52
4.5
3.22
9.7
30.6
14.6
19.5
M.
VI.
3
15
3
14
62
,53
4.62
3.42
10.0
30.6
14.S
20.3
M.
V.
4
14
3
14
62
52
4.75
3.33
10.2
11.2
15.4
18.8
M.
VI.
4
15
3
15
64
50
4.4
3.2
9.5
10.3
14.4
20.7
F.
V.
3
15
3
13
64
52
4.82
3.38
10.3
11.3
15.7
19.2
F.
V.
4
14
3
15
65
52
4.37
3.23
9.7
10.2
14.4
18.4
M.
IV.
4
14
3
13
65
51
4.33
3.2
9.2
9.9
14.1
18.2
F.
III.
3
16
3
14
62
52
4.3
3.17
9.83
13.7
19.2
M.
•)
3
15
3
13
60
51
4.6
3.2
9.6
30.6
14.5
18,8
F.
III.
or IV.
4
15
2
13
63
53
4.38
3.2
9.5
10.0
14.4
19.4
M.
VI.
4
14
3
13
63
52.
4.6
3.39
9.S
10.4
14.S
20.4
M.
VII.
4
15
3
14
66
53
4.9
3.39
10.7
11.1
15.6
18.0
M.
III.
4
14
3
15
65
52
4.32
3.0
9.0
9.8
13.4
18.5
F.
III.
4
15
3
13
63
51
4.4
3.25
10.3
14.2
21.4
F.
IV.
4
15
3
14
65
52
4.95
3.3S
10.5
11.5
15.9
Table 46.—San Francisco.
20.9
F.,
B
4
15
3
13
63
51
4.6
3.25
10.7
11.3
15.9
21.5
F.,
B
4
15
3
13
66
51
4.7
3.3
10.7
13.6
16.5
17.0
M..
B
4
15
3
13
64
50
3.8
2.75
8.4
8.9
12.8
16.7
M.,
B
3
16
3
12
62
50
3.7
4.55
8.2
9.0
12.6
19.6
F-.,
B
3
16
3
14
65
51
4.4
3.15
10.3
10.1
15.1
19.9
M.,
B
4
15
3
12
65
50
4.5
3.0
9.8
10.9
15.5
17.9
F.,
B
4
14
3
14
66
50
3.9
2.7
9.0
9.8
13.8
18.9
F.,
B
4
14
3
13
63
51
4.2
2.8
9.2
9.9
14.2
16.3
F.,
B
4
15
3
13
65
50
3.7
2.55
S.l
8.5
12.2
17.6
F..
B
4
14
3
14
65
51
4.0
2.6
8.6
9.4
13.4
18.2
M.,
B
4
15
3
14
3.9
2.8
9.0
9.7
13.8
16.6
F.,
B
4
14
3
13
61
52
3,8
2.65
8.5
8.8
12.5
18.5
M.,
B
. ,
4
16
3
12
66
52
4.2
2.8
9.15
10.0
14.1
17.8
M.,
B
4
15
3
13
66
51
4.0
2.7
8.7
9.4
13.5
21.6
M.,
B
4
15
3
15
62
52
4.6
3.3
10.7
11.4
16.3
16.6
M.,
B
4
15
3
13
66
50
3.9
2,7
8.2
9.0
12.6
16.9
F.,
B
4
15
3
13
63
50
3.7
2.65
S.2
8.7
12.8
18.8
F.,
B
4
15
3
14
51
4.05
2.82
9.2
10.1
14.1
17.0
M„
B
4
14
3
13
66
51
3.95
2.7
8.4
9.3
12.9
18.1
F,
B
4
15
3
13
65
51
4.2
2.8
9.0
9.85
14.0
20.9
M..
B
4
14
3
14
64
51
4.7
3.2
10.5
11.3
15.9
17.2
F.,
B
4
13
3
13
63
50
3.8
2.7
8.3
9.2
12.8
17.5
F.,
B
4
14
3
13
70
50
4.0
2.7
8.5
9.1
13.0
19.5
F..
B
4
16
3
13
67
50
4.4
2.9
9.6
10.35
14.8
17.0
M.,
B
4
14
3
13
66
50
3.9
2.7
8.3
9.45
12.7 S 82
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
Table 4>>.—San Francisco—Concluded.
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d
d
cc
ri
K
coCd
S3
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a
CJ
CO
a
ri
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CJ
CC
a
co
ri
^
CJ
id
a
ri
cc
£
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a
M*
cj
ri
ri
y
a
ri
CJ
CO
O
a
CJ
c
tj
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1-1
m
<
5
<
*
>
"
o
Q
r*
<
20.7
F.,
B
O
O
35
3 13
67
51
4.5
3.0
9.95
11.0
15.7
17.8
F-,
B
4
34
3 14
65
51
4.2
2.S5
S.S
9.4
13.5
20.3
M.,
B
4
34
3 14
64
51
4.5
3.2
10.3
11.2
15.6
18.4
F.,
B
5
15
3 14
65
50
4.2
2.9
8.9
10.0
14.1
20.5
F.,
B
O
15
3 12
50
4.7
3.1
10.4
11.0
15.6
17.5
M.,
B
4
14
3 14
67
49
4.0
2.8
8.7
9.7
13.2
17.0
M.,
B
3
15
3 13
64
51
3.9
2.75
8.2
8.9
12.75
18.3
F.,
B
3
34
3 14
64
51
4.05
2.75
9.1
9.65
13.8
19.9
F-,
B
4
35
3 12
64
52
4.5
3.0
9.87
10.45
14.9
21.2
M.,
B
4
14
3 12
65
50
4.7
3.15
10.4
11.65
16.1
17.1
F.,
B
4
15
3 14
65
52
3.8
2.62
8.5
9.25
12.8
20.3
M.,
B
4
14
2 14
67
50
4.4
3.1
9.9
11.0
15.5
18.5
M.,
B
4
15
3 13
67
52
4.4
2.93
9.4
10.2
14.0
18.3
F.,
B
4
15
2 14
64
51
4.3
3.0
9.35
10.1
13.9
17.3
F.,
B
4
14
3 14
58
51
3.S
2.7
8.5
9.15
12.9
17.4
F.,
B
3 13
64
50
4.0
2.85
8.6
9.2
13.3
18.0
M.,
B
4
14
3 13
63
51
4.2
2.S5
9.2
9.75
13.6
17.6
M.,
B
4
15
3 15
6S
51
4.0
2.8
8.5
9.4
13.3
17.S
F.,
B
4
14
3 12
69
51
4.1
2.S
8.S5
9.5
13.3
17.6
M.,
B
3
15
3 13
65
51
4.1
2.8
9.0
9.6
13.4
3S.4
F-,
B
3
15
3 13
66
52
4.2
2.S
9.0
9.4
13.8
17.5
F.,
B
4
14
3 13
51
3.9
2.9
8.85
9.5
13.4
16.4
' M.,
B
3
15
66
3.9
2.8
8.2
8.8
12.3
15.7
M.,
B
4
14
3 12
67
51
3.7
2,77
8.1
8.6
11.95
13.1?
F.,
B
4
15
3 13
63
51
4.0
2.92
8.95
9.2
13.6
20.6
F.,
B
4
15
3 13
50
4.5
3.3
9.9
11.0
15.4
16.8
M.,
B
3
14
3 13
65
51
3.S5
2.75
8.4
9.15
12.6
21.1
F.,
B
4
14
3 14
59
50
4.7
3.2
10.6
11.65
16.1
18.4
F.,
B
4
13
3 13
67
50
4.2
3.2
9.25
9.8
13.9
16.S
M.,
B
4
14
3 11
49
3.8
2.75
8.6
8.65
12.7
17.8
F.,
B
4
14
3 15
67
51
3.9
2.8
8.72
9.7
13.4
19.0
F.,
B
4
15
3 14
66
50
4.2
3.0
9.6
10.1
14.2
18.6
M.,
B
4
15
3 14
66
51
4.2
2.9
9.35
9.92
13.S
21.2
M„
B
4
14
3 13
63
52
4,8
3.3
10.7
11.2
16.0
17.5
F.,
B
3
15
3 12
62
50
4.0
2.85
S.7
9.35
13.3
20.0
M.,
B
4
14
2 14
67
51
4.5
3.0
10.1
31.0
16.5
1S.S
M.,
B
4
13
3 13
66
50
4.3
3.0
9.4
10.0
14.25
18.1
M.,
B
4
13
3 14
64
51
4.1
2.S
9.1
9.7
13.75
18.7
F.,
B
4
15
3 13
50
4.1
3.0
9.25
9,85
14.25
3.-8.75
M.,
B
3
16
3 13
65
51
4.2
2.95
9.1
9.9
14.0
16.9
M.,
B
4
14
4 13
51
3.95
2.7
S.2
9.05
12.6
18.5
M.,
B
4
14
3 15
68
51
4.15
2.9
9.35
9.95
13.S5
19.0
M.,
B
4
15
3 16
50
4.4
3.05
9.5
10.55
14.3
19.2
F..
B
4
14
3 12
67
50
4.5
3.05
9.9
30.3
14.6
17.0
F.,
B
4
15
2 14
65
50
3.8
2.7
8.45
9.2
13.0
16.8
F.,
B
3
16
2 13
52
3.85
2.75
8.15
8.8
12.5
20.1
M.
B
4
14
3 14
63
51
4.5
3.1
10.1
30.6
15.3
19.1
F-,
B
4
15
3 14
50
4.3
3.0
9.4
10.2
14.75
16.4
M.
B
4
13
3 13
66
50
3.8
2.7
8.2
9.0
12.5
20.9
F.,
B
4
16
3 14
64
52
4.65
3.2
10.1
11.4
15.75
17.2
M.
B
4
14
3 14
67
51
3.85
2.75
8.35
9.1
12.7
15.5
M.
B
3
15
3 14
64
51
3.6
2.5
7.5
S.05
11.6
18.4
F.,
B
4
15
3 14
66
50
4.5
3.05
9.3
9.9
14.25
17.3
M.
B
4
15
3 12
51
3.95
2.9
8.4
9.3
13.1
17.7
F.,
B
4
15
3 15
64
48
3.95
2.9
8.35
9.25
13.0
17.5
M.
B
4
14
3 13
51
3.95
2,85
8.6
9.55
13.1
16.5
M.
B
4
15
3 14
45
4.0
2.75
8.25
8.8
12.05
17.3
F.,
B
4
35
3 12
67
51
3.9
2.8
8.5
9.2
12.9
16.2
F.,
B
5
35
3 13
67
4S
3.7
2.7
8.0
8.8
12.0
16.1
F.,
B
4
14
3 14
64
48
3.7
2.6
8.2
S.83
11.9
17.0
M.
B
3
14
3 14
64
51
3.9
2.72
8.45
9.1
12.6 ■/■''&■''■?""'&
■ifJ'?; /"
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Fig. ."i. Herring-scale from a mature female in fifth year.    Length, 20 cm.     From
Winters shown by approximated circuli.     Scales from same fish as that in I
Kildonan.
'ig. 6.
.
:Ur\'
.-
.-
-.>-   ■—-■■■.■.   ■■.C:'>.-%-*!C'v:   .::     2   ,'
-'"■■'■. '■.'-■   -I ,-■■'.-.        ■
- ^'-^r-'-.':-" •..•'■';;:>':Xvr'-
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c
"- ccccc:'*.<: c:-: rec liC;c>
•-C---1T' ' ■-.   ': -.--si,- s '■■   , :"■■    ;/'--/':-   '-•,--,,.■   ;.-c.:^.;:c -c.::i i:'¥p;, •".»
-     .-   c:,;>vv    •■'■'..':■ •■    '•'■■ '.-A'" .
c     Ci :.'J ■   -■■'>■   -.     :C
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c "
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i*
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Fig. T. Herring-scale from a mature male in fifth year. Length, 19.7
cm. From Point Grey. Winters shown by approximated circuli and by
typical winter-marks. *4f
14*
a a
8 ?
3 fe
4*
■'* - 7 Geo. 5 Life-history of Pacific Herring. S 83
EXPLANATION OF CUTS.
Fig. 1. Herring-scale from  a  mature  male  in  fifth  year.    Length,  19.7  cm.    From  Point
Grey.    Showing typical distinct winter-marks with "winter-zones"   (w).
Fig. 2. From a mature female in fifth year.   Length, 20 cm.   From Kildonan.   With " check "
(c) in second year and without indications of winter-zones.
Fig. 3. From an immature male in fifth year.    Length, 21.7 cm.    From Point Grey.    Scale
from near mid-dorsal line of back showing typical winter-marks corresponding with zones
of approximated circuli (just to left of central axis).
Fig. 4. From a mature male in third year.    Length, 18.7 cm.    From Kildonan.    A " check "
(c) in second year where winter-zone should commence.
Fig. 5. From a mature female in fifth year.    Length, 20 cm.    From Kildonan.    Winters
shown by approximated circuli.    Scales from same fish as that in Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. From a mature female in fifth year.    Length, 20 cm.    From Kildonan.    Compare
winter-zones of Fig. 5.    (Marked in both cases with crosses.)
Fig. 7. From a mature male in fifth year.    Length, 19.7 cm.    From Point Grey.    Winters
shown by approximated circuli and by typical winter-marks.
Fig. 8. Diagram of measuring-machine, showing points to which measurements were taken.
O*—Occiput. D—'Insertion of dorsal.
H—Head-length. AA—Insertion of anal.
V—Insertion of ventral. L—Length of body.    Page 46.
Fig. 9. Size-frequency curves of herring from Kildonan, page 84.
Fig. 10. Size-frequency curves of herring from Nanoose, page 84.
Fig. 11. Size-frequency curves of herring from Pender Harbour, page S5.
Fig. 12. Size-frequenecy curves of herring taken oif Point Grey in September, page S5.
Fig. 13. Size-frequency curves of herring taken off Point Grey in October, page 86.
Fig. 14. Size-frequency curves of herring from Kildonan, Nanoose, and Pender, page 86.
Fig. 15. Diagram of scale, showing axes of measurement.    Drawn with aid of camera lucida,
page 87.
Fig. 16. Relationship of head-length and body-length in samples from three localities, page 87. S 84
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
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Fig.
9,  Size-frequency curves of herring from Kildona
Females .    Males  .
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Females - —.    Males  . 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
S 85
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Females .    Males  . S 86
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
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Pender Harbour 7 Geo. 5
Life-history of Pacific Herring.
S 87
Fig. 15. Diagram of scale showing axes of measurement.    Drawn with aid of camera lucicla.
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body-length in samples from three localities. S 88 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
THE NATIVE OYSTER OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(Ostrea lurida, Carpenter.)
By Joseph Stafford, M.A., Ph.D., Montbeal.
Cultube.
Culture, in reference to the oyster, lias to do with all that invention and application of
artificial methods can bring to bear upon natural processes, in preserving the life, increasing
the growth, and augmenting the numbers of existing oysters. Culture is not creative, in the
strict sense, but it can and does take hold of natural material and natural forces and causes to
come into existence millions of individuals where formerly there were but few, or, in fact, at
places where formerly there were none. Oyster-culture in this respect resembles fish-culture,
agriculture, and other well-known forms of culture, and can even be spoken of as oyster-farming.
Oyster-culture is therefore an industry to be classed with grain-growing, fruit-raising, stock-
farming, forestry, lumbering, ship-building, fishing, mining, hunting or raising fur animals,
application of power, manufacturing, transportation, and scores of other occupations. It supplies
work and means of living to thousands of people, adds to the wealth of individuals, and furnishes
food for the masses. Besides those immediately concerned in fishing, handling, selling, transporting, it affects others engaged in the manufacture of boats, machinery, apparatus; it is a
powerful factor in the distribution of labour and capital; it calls into use unoccupied areas,
supplies a revenue, and adds to the wealth and power of a nation.
Culture has two primary objects—the increase of production and the improvement of quality.
Productions are natural and artificial—the latter being the result of culture, which takes the
natural for its starting-point. The methods of culture may be reduced to two—the common,
historic, or old method and the scientific, modern, or new method. The first resulted from the
more accidental observations, and consists of commonplace operations. The second makes use
of what is valuable in the first, to which it adds all that renewed and thoughtfully directed
observation can contribute, together with the designed experiments and inventions of the modern
scientific period, with its greater powers of penetration and instruments of application.
The sources of information open to us are the observation of natural production and the
experiments of artificial production. The more important observations have reference to the
origin and growth to maturity (embryology), organization (anatomy), mode of living (physiology), and conditions of the surroundings (environment). The experiments may be on a small
scale as in a laboratory, or on a large scale as on the oyster-beds; the former seek to gain
information, the latter to apply it in the acquisition of wealth.
Practical application in culture may refer to the adaptation of the oyster to its environment,
or the adaptation of the environment to the oyster. There are limitations to the direct adaptation of the oyster, in that it is bound by heredity to a definite life-cycle; it is restricted by
organization to distinct modes of life; it is relegated by environment to certain places and
conditions. There would seem to be little chance of forcing it from its beaten path. In a similar
manner there are limitations to the direct adaptation of the environment. The structure of
matter and the nature of forces under ordinary conditions are permanent. Gravitation, weight,
heat, light, chemical affinity, the momentum of waves and currents appear to be invariable and
beyond the control of man. But the effects of portions of them -may be modified by deflection
from the natural direction, counteraction, and neutralization. It is here that man's power may
be brought into action. Artificial methods have such little direct effect upon the oyster itself
that they may be considered to be almost restricted to action through the environment.
Culture must be considered from different standpoints and in different senses. A fisherman's
view may be very different from that of a man of scientific training. Both may have been in
contact with the same phenomena and yet be impressed with very different opinions. One so-
called culturist obtains and plants adult oysters, which he soon afterwards sends to market.
This appears to be storage rather than culture. Another begins with younger oysters or with
spat. Others may conceivably start with captured larva?, reared larvae, or maybe with the
undeveloped egg.    Any one of these  methods, if carried on to the production of full-grown, 7 Geo. 5 Native Oyster of British Columbia. S 89
marketable oysters, may be considered as, in some sense, a form of culture, although only the
last one is culture in the broadest sense.
The general plan of the culturist is to obtain a knowledge of the requirements and to work
in the right direction; to observe the natural conditions, distinguish favourable from unfavourable; to increase and improve the former and decrease or remove the latter. He should
experiment to discover the closer relationships between oysters and their environment, and
then apply the knowledge acquired to the adaptation of the oyster or the adaptation of the
■environment.
Experiments.
Observations of natural occurrences have been dealt with in preceding reports of this series.
In the report for 1913 the development of the egg or embryology was taken up. In 1914 was
given the anatomy and physiology of the developed (and developing) oyster. In 1915 the report
treated of the environment. These cover the subject from the standpoint of observation of
natural occurrences. The present contribution has to deal with (artificial) experiments and
observations of the same, and their application to practical methods of oyster-culture.
Experiments can be applied systematically according to the order of development of the
various stages of the oyster or according to their relations to the climatic, physical, chemical,
•or biological conditions of the environment. The subjects of experiment offering the most useful
results are the oyster, the larva, the sperm, and fertilization. The media for experimentation
are the natural sea and fresh waters and artificially made-up salt solutions and sea-waters.
Other considerations of importance are the movements and aeration of the water and the effects
of heat and cold, light, food, and substratum. The oyster and the sea are almost inseparable
ein thought, and yet how few people there are who know whether fresh water would have a good
or bad effect upon it. The thought becomes a question, the question develops into a problem,
.and the problem demands plans and trials to find out.
Experiment 1.—An oyster is taken from a bay and placed in a pail of rain-water.
Observation:   After a period of a month it is found to have recently died and is decomposing.
Suggestion:   Would younger oysters, spat, larvre, do the same?
If left where it was the oyster might have continued to live for a long time, as it had lived
for a long time. When placed in rain-water its term of life was so shortened as to come within
the range of practical observation. It did not long withstand the new conditions. Of the two
media the original sea-water is the only natural and successful one. The time of living may,
and as we shall see does, depend to some extent upon other conditions than the kind of -water.
From the standpoint of experiment the adult oyster is too slow in responding to the effects
of different media and it is too difficult to determine the exact time at which the oyster dies.
Of the various stages in the life-history of the oyster the most easily accessible after the adult
■ oyster itself is the larva.
Experiment 2.—Some large active larvre from the branchial chamber of Ostrea lurida are
transferred to a watch-glass of rain-water.
Observation:  The larvae cease swimming on the instant and remain as if dead.
Suggestion:   Will other kinds of water have the same effect?
The larvae give much quicker and more definite results than the adult and are in consequence
more practicable. Their active nature and the exposed position of their swimming organs make
observation easy. Youthful and spat oysters approach the adult in characters and are, like it,
less satisfactory. Embryos and eggs, on the other hand, are too susceptible to injury or are too
•quiescent to be of as great value as the larva.
It will toe seen that observations and suggestions follow from each experiment, and that
to promote brevity of statement they do not need to be continually tabulated in full.
Experiment 3.—A drop of sperm from a male Ostrea virginiana was placed on a microscope-
slide, and near this drop were placed drops of sea-water and rain-water. Tinder a microscope
the drop of sperm was made to flow over to each of the other two drops by means of a dissecting-
needle. As could be seen at the point of contact, the spermatozoa continued active in the sea-
water but suddenly stopped movement in the rain-water.
Spermatozoa are a more delicate subject for experiment than either the adult oyster or the
larva.   During the. breeding season they may be easily procured. S 90 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
-A fertilization experiment—bringing together of ripe eggs and sperm of
0. virginiana—was tried in glasses of sea-water and rain-water. Development began in the
former but not in the latter.
Fertilization is the most exacting of any of the subjects of experiment. It is practicable in
the warm breeding season.
In the preceding experiments the oyster, larva, spermatozoa, and fertilization were made
subjects of observation and study. Sea-water and rain-water were employed as media to test
the ability of the subjects in resisting external influences. But the experiments are reversible;
i.e., are capable of being read, like an algebraic equation or chemical formula, either forwards
or backwards, and the sea and rain waters may just as well have been made the subject of study
while the oyster, larvae, sperm, or fertilization were being used as a test of its sufficiency.
Observations of the natural distribution of the oyster show that it is limited to an oceanic
or salt-water medium, but leave many things unexplained with regard to the degree of salinity,
the specific gravity, the other chemical constituents besides salt, their amounts and proportions,
their effects upon the oyster, as also the effects of change of water aeration, temperature, etc.
Natural geographical differences may be improvised on a small scale for the convenience of the
observer.
Experiment 5.—A watch-glass of sea-water had larvre from an O. lurida deposited in it and
they remained active.
The natural medium for the parent is the natural medium for the young. The larvre, when
they reach a certain size and development, pass from the brood-chambers of the parents out into
the surrounding sea, where they are no longer guarded and protected, but are exposed to every
fluctuation of movement, constituent, temperature, etc.
Experiment 6.—The sea-water of the preceding experiment was withdrawn, by means of a
pipette with a rubber bulb, and rain-water put in its place. The larvre immediately ceased
activity and remained as if dead.
Rain-water is an unnatural and highly injurious medium for oyster larvae. They are liable
to meet with it in more or less quantity and at times must suffer therefrom. The difference with
which the two naturally occurring waters—fresh water and sea-water—react upon the larvae is
clearly due to absence or presence of salt. Since salt constitutes the chief difference between
sea and fresh water, it is important to learn what effect salt solutions will have upon the oyster.
Experiment 7.—Salt solution—fresh wrater and common salt—of the specific gravity of the
saltiest sea-water had larvae put in it and they immediately became rigid as in rain-water.
This is an unnatural medium for the oyster, which is hardly likely to ever come in contact
with it in nature. Salt solution is not sea-water—neither can it be properly called an artificial
sea-water. Natural sea-water gives upon analysis many other substances besides common salt,
although in much reduced quantities.
Experiment 8.—Artificial sea-water—fresh water to which have been added the salts in kind
and proportions as given by analysis of sea-water—had larvae placed in it and they continued to
live and thrive as in the natural medium.
This is a remarkably interesting and important discovery. Long ago it may have occurred
to Sergius Orata (about 100 B.C.), or somebody else, that oysters might be raised elsewhere than
in the sea, but it is scarcely likely that any other means was thought of than the transport and
use of sea-water for the purpose. It now appears that it is not even necessary to resort to the
seaside to perform experiments upon the oyster. One can purchase living oysters from a local
market, make up a solution in which to keep them, and carry on experiments 1,000 miles inland.
In the two artificially constructed waters—salt solution and artificial sea-water—the
difference in the result must be due not only to the amount but to the kind or kinds of salt.
The foregoing are typical of a vast number of experiments suggested by the many problems
that arise in oyster-culture. It will be evident that experiments are often only conveniences in
making observations, and that experiment and observation may merge into one act, such as the
observation of a natural phenomenon—natural processes instead of artificial supplying the
experiment.
Oystees and theib Medium.
Oysters may be advantageously used for experiments on beds or other places in ocean-waters,,
but are not well adapted to experiments of the kind under review at the present time.   They are 7 Geo. o Native Oyster of British Columbia. S 91
too massive, too well protected by thick, hard, tightly fitting shells, are capable of withstanding
considerable changes in specific gravity, salinity, kinds of salt, heat, frost, pressure, friction, or
other forces. Their bodies are sufficiently large to guard vital organs below their surfaces or
resist the penetration of changing media. Their passive mode of life renders it difficult to
recognize signs of dislike towards this substance or that; they are too languid in responding to
external irritants. Oysters have been transferred from one part of a bay to another, from one
bay to another, even from one ocean to another, and continued to live for many years. It is
well known to shippers that oysters may be kept out of the sea for many days, weeks, even
months. They are sometimes stored in cool, damp cellars for the greater part of the winter.
The time during which they will continue to live depends especially upon the temperature, the
kind of medium, the state of health of the oyster.
Experiment 9.—On May 16th, 1913, one specimen of 0. lurida and one of O. virginiana were
placed in: (1) A gasolehe-can of sea-water; (2) same to be changed weekly; (3) air (sun)
beside former two; (4) can of rain-water; (5) same to be changed weekly; (6) air (shade)
beside former two.
Examined at the end of one month they showed: (1) Living—apparently healthy; (2) same;
(3) wanting—carried off by animals; (4) O. lurida recently dead, decomposing; O. virginiana
living; (5) same;  (6) 0. lurida wanting; 0. virginiana dead, not decomposed.
Comparing (1) and (4), it follows that sea-water supports life; rain-water is injurious.
Air is injurious (6), more injurious than rain-water (4) and (6). O. lurida is less resistant
than O. virginiana (4).
Experiment 10.—Oysters may be placed in a lagoon (salt-water pond), canal, cove, bay,
estuary (some fresh water), strait, ocean (very salt), or other body of salt water, and, as shown
by the length of life, these will be found to be natural media, although not of equal value. They
may be used in transplantation of oysters.
Experiment 11.—Similarly, oysters may be put in a barrel of rain-water, a spring, a well,
a pond, a river, a lake, a ditch, or other body of fresh water, and, as shown by the premature
death of the oysters, these will be found not to be natural media. Bodies of fresh water cannot
be used as places of transplantation of oysters, and fresh-water contributions to sea-water, if
carried beyond a limit, will be found to be injurious. Statements of oysters occurring in rivers,
etc., must be accepted cautiously as being loose and inaccurate. What may be meant in such
cases is an estuary or a tidal current resembling a river.
Larvae and Change of Media.
The discovery of the important place held by the larva in the life-history of the oyster led
to an extensive series of experiments to determine the effect upon it of possible changes of media.
Up to the present day the larva has been and still is unknown to the masses of men who have
busied themselves with the culture of the oyster. They have seen only oysters and are obliged
to content themselves with the idea that oysters simply come and go. From the smallest visible
oyster to the largest adult the only questions were of care and growth. The only importance
attached to the spat was that it could grow into an oyster. The origin of the spat was a matter
of course, unfathomable and of no special consideration. It is true eggs had been seen, but no
connection could be made between them and the young spat-oysters. Even segmenting eggs and
embryos could not bridge the gap. The mysterious connection between the embryo and the spat
remained an enigma until 1904, when the free larva of 0. virginiana was discovered by the
writer. Since that time the interest in oyster questions has been greatly increased and oyster-
culture has received a new impetus. The progress in the last decade has outstripped in scientific
importance and in potential applicability that of all preceding centuries. The discovery of the
larva of O. lurida in 1911, together with the working-out of the whole embryology, anatomy,
physiology, distribution, and environment of the same species, also fell to my lot and led to the
experiments already referred to.
Physical differences of environment as exhibited in different localities along our coast has
brought about very different varieties of the native British Columbian oyster, but the period
of operation has been too long to be fully grasped, and the transformation of individuals is too
slow to satisfy the observer. Moreover, among the multiplicity of operating forces it is impossible
to select that particular one which has been chiefly effective in producing a variation. In experiments it is possible to select such young, sensitive, and responsive stages that appreciable results S 92 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
may be produced before the eyes of the experimenter, and to so simplify matters by reducing the
number of active conditions that the relation between force and result becomes plain. This may
be illustrated.
Fbesh Water vs. Sea-water.
Experiment 12.—Some larvre of the western oyster, while actively swimming in a drop of
sea-water in a watch-glass, have a little rain-water gently run along the glass to the drop by
means of a pipette. Instantly, as if by magic, the larvae cease swimming and appear as if
petrified, leaving vela exposed and cilia still and rigid.
This experiment is a revelation. It points directly to action between the living organism
and its environment. It leaves no doubt but that the state of activity or of inaction on the part
of the larva is conditioned by the sea-water or by the rain-water. The inner life of the animal,
while unconsciously engaged in active pursuits, is immediately arrested by the simple change of
the external medium. Its body is not destroyed as by accident. The water shows no sign of
reaction. There is a change in the state of the organism sufficiently rapid to be observed by the
experimenter even before he has completed his operation. It is clearly brought about by the
exchange of one medium for another.
This much is plain and satisfactory, so far as the primary subject is concerned. But we are
set wondering, with the result that other questions arise as to the real change underlying the
apparent change in the animal, and the real difference between sea and fresh water—questions
that suggest other experiments. It may have been observed that an oyster when transferred
from sea-water to fresh water, or when transplanted from the sea to a pond, does not show any
difference for at least a considerable time, and yet the same changed conditions must be operative.
It can well be that on account of the much larger size of the oyster its more vital parts are not
soon reached by the fresh water, and this suggestion is supported by the fact that it is surface
organs (cilia, vela) that are suddenly affected in the larva.
The experiment has its counterpart in nature, in that rain, spring, and river water is
constantly flowing over the banks of bays into the sea or on to the mud-flats where oysters occur.
I have been often asked if rain has any effect on oysters. The experiment gives the answer.
The effect on oysters themselves, or the older stages of their young, is slow and, on account of
the early mixture or displacement by sea-water, is comparatively ineffectual. But in the cases
of young spat, larvae, eggs, and sperm, while exposed for several hours during low tide, there
can and must be great destruction.
Experiment 13.—The larvre of experiment 12 have the rain-water gently withdrawn, leaving
them in a bunch at the bottom of the watch-glass, and then a little sea-water is added. In a
few minutes they begin to move, their cilia twitch, odd ones rise, and soon they are all actively
swimming as if nothing had occurred. This shows that they had not been dead, but in a state
of torpor or suspended animation as if chloroformed. Besides, it verifies and adds to our
knowledge of the influence of surrounding conditions.
In application to actual occurrences on oyster-beds, the addition of the sea-water corresponds
to the rising tide over the flats exposed by the preceding period of low water.
Experiment 14.—The larvre of the preceding experiment are a second time placed in fresh
water, when they again become torpid, and are a second time replaced in sea-water, where they
again become active. Repetition of the change of conditions is followed by repetition of the
behaviour of the organisms.
Experiment 15.—Larvre are put in distilled water, which is found to act in the same way as
other forms of fresh water.   They return to activity in sea-water.
Experiment 16.—Three watch-glasses of sea-water containing larvre have the sea-water
displaced by fresh water for 1, 5, 10 minutes respectively. The larvre having become torpid, the
fresh water is removed and sea-water returned. In the first glass the larvre all revive, in the
second a few remain torpid, and in the third a greater number.
Experiment 17.—Four additional watch-glasses of fresh water and larvre are contributed,
with the time of action 15, 20, 25, 30 minutes respectively. These behave similarly to the former.
All recovered when given sufficient time in sea-water.
Experiment 18.—Larvre are put in fresh water and kept overnight. In the morning they
are torpid and look fuzzy and ragged as if about to go to pieces. Put in sea-water and kept till
next day they never recovered. 7 Geo. 5 Native Oyster of British Columbia. S 93
Experiment 19.—Larvre were left in fresh water 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 minutes and then
returned to sea-water. The 5-minute exposures began to wake up in 20 minutes, the 10-minute
exposures in 60 minutes. After 6 hours all of the first, some of the second, and none of the rest
had recovered.
Up to a limit, the longer the exposure in fresh water the longer it takes to revive in sea-
water.    Beyond a limit, they never recover and begin to disintegrate.
Experiment 20.—Sea-water % has fresh water y2 added; sea-water % has fresh-water %
added; sea-water % has fresh water % added;  and so on up to V20.
Larvre in first and second remained active; in third and fourth some died; in the rest all
died. Greater proportion of fresh water in this experiment does the same as greater length of
time in experiment 19.
Specific Gravity. ,
Experiment 21.—Larvre were kept in separate vessels of low-tide and high-tide water. After
7 days the first lot showed few dead, many alive at the bottom, and some still swimming; the
second lot were nearly all dead and none swimming.
Low-tide water is less saline than high-tide water. The oyster is an inshore animal and
not ordinarily adapted to the strong, salty water of the deep ocean. From this may be judged
the fate of larvae drifted out to sea and falling into deep water.
Experiment 22.—Larvre were kept in surface sea-water and in deep sea-water and lived
longer in the former. Surface sea-water is less salty than deep sea-water, although the difference
is not ordinarily great enough to effect any marked and sudden change.
Experiment 23.—From deep sea-water of specific gravity 1.024, grades 1.024, 1.022, 1.020,
1.018, 1.016, 1.014, 1.012 were made by diluting portions with rain-water. Larvre put in each and
kept 10 days showed in the first, few living; second, more; third and fourth, more still; fifth,
few living (green with algre) ;  sixth, dying or dead;  seventh, all dead.
Experiment 24-—Similarly, grades 1.024, 1.018, 1.012, 1.006 were prepared and stocked with
larvre. After 11 days larvre in 1.018 were still living, but had died off earlier in the others.
The order of longest life was 1.018, 1.024, 1.012, 1.006.
Experiment 25.—Grades 1.021, 1.018, 1.015 were tested, and after 9 days the order of
efficiency was 1.015, 1.018, 1.021, showing that 1.018 in experiments 23 and 24 was not the lowest
limit of efficiency.
Experiment 26.—Grades 1.022, 1.017, 1.012 were used, but 1.017 developed algre, and while it
kept some living larvre it was not as good as 1.022, or even 1.012.
Experiment 27.—Grades 1.022, 1.016, 1.010 were tried, and after 24 hours the larvre in the
first were asphyxiated, but revived in a few minutes in 1.016. Those in 1.016 were living and
slowly ciliating, while those of 1.010 were actively swimming.
Experiment 28.—An oyster larva (a salt-water animal) and an hydra (a fresh-water animal)
were placed together in a watch-glass of sea-water, and another pair of the same in a watch-glass
of fresh water. In the first case the larva lived, but the hydra died and went to pieces in
5 minutes.   In the second case the larva died, but the hydra lived.
The oyster larva and hydra may be considered as extremes of a series of animals as sea-
water and fresh water are extremes of a series of water media. The animal adapted to live in
one extreme medium cannot live in the other extreme medium, although it can live in some of
the intermediate grades next to the one to which it is adapted.
Hydra is the sole fresh-water representative of a large group of sea animals, and may have
slowly migrated from the sea up rivers to inland bodies of fresh water, becoming gradually
immune to the effects of the latter. Theoretically, it seems possible that oyster larvre might be
adapted to lower and lower grades of sea-water until they could live in fresh water, but the
shortness of their lives as larvre and the requirements of food interpose difficulties.
Since in the foregoing experiments larvre can live in sea-water of some considerable variation,
and since sea-water contains salt (NaCl) as its chief constituent, the question arises as to how
the larvre will behave in salt solutions.
Salt Solutions vs. Sea-water.
Experiment 29.—Salt solution, made by putting 3 handfuls of table-salt (NaCl) in a quart
preserve-jar of fresh water, had active oyster larvre put in it and they remained active—were
alive and active next day. S 94 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
Experiment 30.—Salt solution had torpid larvre from rain-water put in it and were restored,
but not so promptly as in sea-water.
Experiment 31.—Experiment 29 was repeated on another occasion (tested to a S.G. of 1.020)
along with a parallel guard experiment with sea-water of the same S.G. The larvre put in the
salt solution became quiet and gravitated to the bottom of the glass, but remained alive, and
afterwards some of them were seen to rise and swim about. I judged the salt was not good,
perhaps from impurities, such as traces of free chlorine.
Experiment 32.—Salt solution of S.G. 1.021 and sea-water of same S.G., also % salt solution
with % fresh water, and Va sea-water with % fresh water, had torpid larvre from fresh water
put in them. They did not revive in either of the salt solutions, but did revive in both of the
sea-waters. As in preceding experiment, I believed it was due to impure salt, and that I should
use refined salt and distilled water to make sure.
Experiment 33.—Salt solution of the S.G. of the saltest high-tide sea-water (1.0235) and salt
solution of the S.G. of about the average low-tide sea-water (1.0155) have active larvae put in
them. In first they became fixed—several living for 15 to 20 minutes, one or two for 30 minutes.
In second they remained active.
Experiment 34-—Salt solution of S.G. 1.0195 (just above amount of sodium chloride in high-
tide sea-water, viz., 0.0182), salt solution of S.G. 1.0175 (just below amount of sodium chloride
in high-tide sea-water, viz., 0.01S2), and salt solution of S.G. 1.0155 (same as in experiment 33)
have larvre put in them and they became fixed in all three cases.
Experiment 35.—Salt solution of S.G. 1.0155 (above amount of sodium chloride in average
low-tide sea-water, viz., 0.0120), salt solution of S.G. 1.010 (below amount of sodium chloride
in average low-tide sea-water, viz., 0.0120), and salt solution of S.G. 1.005 have larvre put in
them. In first they were fixed (unlike experiment 33, but like experiment 34). The solution,
perhaps contained insufficient sodium chloride to be constant in action. The larvre in second
remained active. Some in third remained alive, but few active. The solution was perhaps
deficient in sodium chloride to be constant in supporting activity, but not deficient enough to act
like fresh water in stopping activity.
Experiment 36.—Salt solutions of S.G. 1.015, 1.0125, 1.010, 1.0075 were used, and the larvre
in first next day were nearly all fixed; second, about the same; third, more living; and fourth,
still more. In a repetition of the experiment the last were all dead. Some can stand more
sodium chloride or less sodium chloride than others.
Experiment 37.—Salt solution of S.G. 1.0155 did not restore larvre rendered torpid in salt
solution of S.G. 1.0235 (although sea-water of S.G. 1.015 did).
Experiment 38.—Salt solution of S.G. 1.0155 has larvre transferred to it from (1) an oyster
where they had been kept % hour, (2) sea-water where they had been kept % hour. After
% hour both lots were alive and swimming—no difference being recognizable. In 2 hours the
larger larvre were not swimming, but slowly ciliating.
Experiment 39.—Salt solution of S.G. 1.0155 has larvre transferred to it from (1) an oyster,
(2) sea-water, and kept overnight.    The first died, the last lived.
Experiment 40.—Salt solution of S.G. 1.0155 has larvre transferred to it from (1) oyster,
(2) sea-water, (3) oyster-juice, (4) salt solution, where in each case they had been for % hour.
In 15 minutes there was scarcely any difference to be observed in the four cases—nearly all the
larvre were fixed, only one here and there still ciliating. In 3 hours there was perhaps more
activity in all cases, but most in (2).
Experiment 41-—Put larvae in: (1) Sea-water (S.W.) 1.015 and in (2) salt solution (S.S.)
1.015 to be kept for comparison; and then on others made 5-minute changes in: (3) S.W., S.S.;
(4) S.W., S.S., S.W.; (5) S.W., S.S., S.W., S.S.; (6) S.W., S.S., S.W., S.S., S.W.; (7) S.W., S.S.,
S.W., S.S., S.W., S.S.    Nothing remarkable observed.
Experiment 42.—In a single watch-glass of salt solution 1.015 were dropped concentrated
larvre and kept for % hour, when the fluid was drawn off and sea-water put in its place for
y2 hour. In like manner succeeded S.S. 1.015, S.W., S.S. 1.022, S.W., S.S. 1.0235, S.W. Nothing
remarkable.
Experiment 43.—Saturated salt solution (made up from sea-water) had active larvre transferred to it and they became torpid—first floating and afterwards sinking.
Experiment 44-—Torpid larvre of experiment 43 put in sea-water are restored. 7 Geo. 5 Native Oyster of British Columbia. S 95
Experiment 45.—Saturated salt solution and sea-water % and % make larvre torpid and
they recover in sea-water.
Experiment 46.—Saturated salt solution and sea-water In proportions of 1 to 2 still fix larvre,
but they recover more rapidly in sea-water.
Sea-water, being the natural medium for the oyster as well as for its spawned eggs, embryos,
larvae, or other developing stages, can fluctuate between certain extremes of concentration and
dilution without causing any immediate or serious injury. Concentration to or beyond the S.G.
of deep sea-water and dilutions to or near to fresh-water are unfavourable. Between these
extremes is still a considerable area for variations, of which the mean is apparently the most
favourable.
Fresh water, the lower of the two extremes, containing none of the salts of sea-water, is
immediately detrimental to tender developing stages of the oyster and is slowly injurious to
adults.
Salt solutions, made up from fresh water by adding sodium chloride (the chief constituent
of sea-water), resemble sea-water in supporting the life of the oyster and in presenting upper
and lower limits, but the area of variation is more restricted and the length of life sustained
is reduced.
The question now arises as to the effect of other salts, separately, or in combination with
common salt, or in combination with sea-water. Suggestions as to some of the substances to
test were obtained from observations of coloured water, or of afflorescences on beaches or banks
of lagoons or canals connected with the sea.
Other Salts. . ,
Experiment 47.—Brown sea-water from the mill-pond of a lumber-mill did not apparently
affect larvre.
Experiment 48.—Brown sea-water from the edge of a lagoon where, through evaporation,
there was a reddish-browri deposit on clay, sticks, shells, stones, grasses, etc., looking like an
oxide of iron and containing iron, had no apparent effect on larvre.
Experiment 49.—Strong solution in sea-water of a yellowish efflorescence on the banks of a
canal opening into the bay, and containing sulphur, soon stopped the activity of larvre.
Experiment 50.—Larvre were placed in watch-glasses of sea-water, to which were added
separately small grains (size of pin-head) of FeCl3 and NaOH respectively. In one day the
larvre were nearly all dead—the rest dying soon afterwards.
Experiment 51.—Larvre were placed in watch-glasses of NaCl 1.015, in which were placed
small grains of KC1, KBr, KI, LiCl, NH.Br, MgCL. Those in L1C1 and NH„Br were soon fixed,
but could be restored in sea-water.   The rest continued active.
The experiments show that there are naturally occurring salts in the land, and doubtless to
a more limited extent in the water washing the shores. Some of these salts are beneficial, tout
some are injurious to oysters. The oysters indigenous to a body of water have been developed
and reproduced there for generations upon generations, and are presumably adapted to the
conditions. To find what salts occur in the water, and their proportions, it is necessary to
carefully analyse typical sea-water, as has been already described in the section on environment.
Then solutions can be prepared, using preferably distilled water and accurately proportioned
quantities of the refined salts.    Such solutions are artificial sea-waters.
Artificial vs. Natural Sea-wateb.
Experiment 52.—Artificial sea-water (made up from fresh water and the salts of natural
sea-water in kinds and proportions as determined by analysis) has larvre placed in it and they
are found to live and continue activity as in natural sea-water. Torpid larvre put in artificial
sea-water are revived as in natural sea-water.
Experiment 53.—Artificial sea-water and sea-water have larvre put in them, and after 8 days
the larvre are nearly all alive and active in the former, but all dead in the latter. Artificial
sea-water can be made up that is better than the natural sea-water.
Experiment 54.—Artificial sea-water of S.G. 1.024, 1.018, 1.012, 1.006 had oosperms put in
them, and after 6 days the first were found arrested in the morula stage; the second were in
gastrula and trochophore stages; the third had been arrested in 2- to 4-celled stages ; the fourth
had not changed from the oosperm stage. S 96 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
A parallel series in sea-water of the same grades was almost identical, tout the best (viz.r
those in 1.018) was not so good as its mate in artificial sea-water and had no trochophores.
This confirms the statement succeeding the previous experiment. Other experiments will be
described that abundantly support it.
In the course of these experiments it has been many times observed that the larvae in some
receptacles did not live as long or do as well as those in others. In trying to account for the
difference, it was recalled that in some cases the water had been kept for a few days, while in
others it was freshly taken. It may be also stated that larvae while retained in the mantle-
cavity of the parent oyster have the water around them changed by the process of respiration of
the parent. Larvre in the sea, besides being exposed to a great volume of water, have the
advantage of the tidal or other movement.
Stagnant vs. Fresh Sea-wateb.
Experiment 55.—Larvre were put in sea-water that had been kept in a barrel for a couple
of weeks and in fresh sea-water that was changed now and again whenever it was thought of
and convenient. After 3 days there were many dead in the kept sea-water, while those in the
fresh sea-water were still active.
Since in the preceding experiment the difference is that of stagnant and changed water, it
should toe shown better if the water in the second case is kept running. It is easy to take up
water out of the sea and store it in vessels, but it is difficult to keep larvre in vessels in such a
way that fresh sea-water will flow among them without carrying them away. From open vessels
stood in the sea the larvre will, of course, swim out.
Experiment 56.—A broad-mouthed bottle of stagnant sea-water is supplied with larvre and
kept in the house. Another preparation of the same kind, with a piece of bolting-cloth tied over
the top of the bottle, is fastened below sea-water where it will be affected by the tidal currents.
There was little, if any, difference in result observable. The water did not interchange through
the bolting-cloth, but there may have been some diffusion.
Experiment 57.—The experiment was repeated, using a little bag of bolting-cloth instead of
the bottle with the closed mouth.    No better result.
Experiment 58.—The experiment was repeated, using a lamp-chimney with both ends closed
with bolting-cloth and the apparatus tied where tidal currents would have to strike on the ends.
No better result. The fresh sea-water of even the tidal current did not flow through, but parted
and flowed around the lamp-chimney.
The next step was to invent some kind of irrigation apparatus that could be constructed and
applied with the materials and conditions at hand. A broad-mouthed bottle was fitted with a
cork through which ran two glass tubes—the one for inlet reaching to the bottom of the bottle;
the other for outlet was a " thistle-tube," with the thistle inside, but at the top of the bottle,
and tied over with bolting-cloth. The inlet was connected by a rubber tube with the lower part
of a barrel standing on the edge of a flood-gate through which the tide rises and falls, and the
barrel could be easily filled at intervals. The full barrel acted as a head of water to force a
stream through the irrigator. Larvre put in the bottle would not swim up against the supply
current and could not be carried out because of the toolting-cloth screen across the thistle. The
bottle was fixed in a corner of the mason-work of the flood-gate, so as not to be carried away
by tidal currents or damaged by floating logs. When the barrel was full of water the pressure
would cause a flow even when the bottle was deep in the sea-water at high tide. This irrigation
apparatus was not very satisfactory, but with care and attention some results were obtained.
Sediment was carried in and deposited on the bottom of the bottle among the larvae. If a second
thistle-tube with toolting-cloth is used the pores of the bolting-cloth soon become clogged and stop
the flow. Even the strainer of the outlet becomes blocked with fluff. If the water in the barrel
is allowed to stand a time to permit the sediment to settle, so as not to stop irrigation, it can
hardly be called fresh sea-water. Better results might be obtained by filtering the sea-water
as it is put into the barrel, but this entails much time and work to keep the apparatus running.
With greater expense a gasolene or coal-oil pump could be set up on a scow at such a place in
the bay that no strong currents or sediment would be likely to interfere. Good filters could then
toe used and a larger and better irrigator constructed. Moreover, the flow could be regulated
and would not be interfered with by the rise and fall of the tide. 7 Geo. 5 Native Oyster of British Columbia. S 97
Experiment 59.—Eggs of O. lurida in the 2-celled stage were put in the irrigator and some
more of the same in a beaker of sea-water to be kept for comparison. After one day those in
the irrigator were slightly in advance of those in the beaker, but at the end of the second day
they seemed to be at a standstill—doubtless because the irrigator stopped action through the
night.
In changing sea-water, by whatever means, it is not reasonable to suppose that the whole
advantage accrues from the mere motion of the water. The latter is of value in some cases in
clearing away sediment, but in these experiments other considerations have greater weight—
viz., the diluting and dispersing of excreta, solid, liquid, or gaseous, from the animals themselves,
which, when aggregated, become poisonous to the animals, and the bringing-up of fresh sea-water,
serving for respiration or bearing food. In experiments extending over only a few days the
most important factor is respiration as viewed from the standpoint of the oyster or aeration in
relation to the water.
Aeration. ,
Experiment 60.—Larvre of O. lurida were put in a beaker of sea-water to stand untouched
for comparison, and in another beaker to be aerated; i.e., have air blown through the water at
short intervals. In 3 days there was a remarkable difference appreciable, and in 6 days some
of the larvre in the stagnant water were dying off, while all those of the aerated water were
alive and active. In 8 days the first were all dead and the second all alive, and many of them
continued to live for another day, when they began to suffer from hunger and were thrown away.
The first trials at aeration were performed by blowing air from the mouth through a glass
tube into the sea-water of a beaker containing larvre. This method was open to the objection
of uncertainty, because of the difficulty of being sure that none of the air came from the lungs
and contained carbon dioxide.
Another method is to shake up a small quantity of water in a beaker through the air above
it, but, of course, this cannot be done while there are specimens in it, because of the rough usage
to them.
A small bicycle-pump with a rubber and a glass tube attachment was then employed and
gave good results, but required frequent use. The next step was to obtain an apparatus that
would work automatically. This requirement was met by the use of an air-pump and a
compressed-air receiver. Air was pumped into the receiver until of considerable pressure, when
the stop-cock at the entrance was closed. From the stop-cock at the outlet a narrow wire tube
was carried and dipped to the bottom of the beaker of sea-water in which the larvre were kept,
and could be regulated so as to permit a constant stream of bubbles through the water.
In nature sea-water is aerated from the air standing above it—the surface water especially
in consequence of the mixture occasioned by winds and waves, the deep water through being
brought to the surface by tidal currents and by means of the oxygen liberated from plants.
Sperm and Media.
Of the reproductive cells, eggs are too inactive and too unresponsive to serve the purpose
of quick results. Sperm, from their small size and activity, are soon affected and show the
results readily. Ostrea lurida is likely to show eggs and sperm mixed in every mature individual;
as a consequence it is not so satisfactory for the experiments in hand as 0. virginiana, in which
at maturity eggs are found to be massed in one individual, sperm in another.
Experiment 61.—A drop of good lively sperm is put on a slide and near it drops of sea-water
and fresh water. Lnder the microscope the drop of sperm was made to drain over to the drop
of sea-water by means of a dissecting-needle, when the spermatozoa were seen to remain active.
In a similar manner the sperm were connected with fresh-water, but instantly ceased activity and
became torpid.
Experiment 62.—A similar trial was made with salt solution and with artificial sea-water.
In the first the spermatozoa at the point of contact ceased action, as if by shock, but soon
recovered;  in the second they remained active.
Experiment 63.—Put ripe sperm in watch-glasses of sperm fluid, low-tide sea-water, high-
tide sea-water, and artificial sea-water, and examined in % hour, 1 hour, etc. After 2 hours
I concluded that spermatozoa kept best in: (1) The natural oyster-fluid; (2) artificial sea-water;
(3) low-tide sea-water; (4) high-tide sea-water. In the sea-waters many appeared dead. After
7 S 98 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
24 hours there were living sperm in all fluids. After 48 hours there were still living sperm in
artificial sea-water.
Experiment 64-—A similar experiment with O. lurida showed living sperm in all preparations
after 4 hours. After 8 hours there were living sperm in low-tide sea-water and may have been
some in others.
Experiment 65.—Sperm of O. virginiana in deep watch-glasses of sea-water of S.G. 1.022,
1.017, 1.012, 1.007, 1.006, 1.003, 1.001, and left overnight; spermatozoa in first four still alive and
active; those in last three apparently dead. Late in afternoon still alive in first four—those in
1.012 and 1.007 most active.    Next morning (second day) all seemed to be dead.
Experiment 66.—Sperm in 1.020, 1.015, 1.010, 1.005, 1.004, 1.003, 1.002, 1.0O1; in 3 hours some
in 1.001 were motionless; in 5 hours 1.002 contained few living. In afternoon of second day all
in all grades appeared dead.
Experiment 67.—Sperm in sea-water 1.0225 and 1.014 and in artificial sea-water 1.024 and
1.012 after 3% hours are living and active, and again after 9 hours. In 24 hours they were
nearly all dead, but the artificial sea-water was best.
Experiment 68.—Sperm in sea-water 1.0225, 1.016 1.010, artificial sea-water 1.024, 1.012,
salt solution 1.0075; in the afternoon were alive in all (including salt solution), but in the
afternoon of the second day were all dead.
Fertilization.
Fertilization—union of ovum and spermatozoon—takes place after eggs and sperm have left
overy and spermary and passed out through oviduct and sperm-duct. In the case of O. lurida
it is in the mantle-cavity (respiratory chamber), which also serves as a brood-chamber, that
union occurs. In O. virginiana it may be later, when both ova and sperm have passed from
their respective parents into the surrounding sea-water, that the meeting takes place. In either
case both eggs and sperm, as soon as they leave the ducts, come into contact with sea-water,
and the length of time during which fertilization is possible depends upon the time that both
elements can withstand the action of the water and retain their full vigour. In the case of the
sperm, as far as can be judged from preceding experiments, their length of life is at best about
two days.
Experiment 69.—Ripe eggs are pressed from the oviduct of a female O. virginiana into a
beaker of fresh sea-water. Ripe sperm are pressed in a similar manner from the sperm-duct
of a male of the same species into the water containing the eggs, which is gently stirred for a
few minutes to facilitate distribution. A few eggs withdrawn by a pipette and viewed on a
slide under a microscope show spermatozoon clinging to their surfaces. After about 4 hours
the eggs are found to be segmenting (dividing into 2, 4, or more cells), showing that fertilization
has been effective.    The fertilized eggs go on changing and may keep alive for a week or more.
Experiment 70.—Eggs and sperm from 5 females and 4 males were mixed and put in high-
tide sea-water 1.020 and low-tide sea-water 1.013. In 3% hours there were some of the eggs
segmenting—more in the second than in the first.
Experiment 71.—Eggs and sperm were put in 1.021, 1.015, 1.009, and in 3% hours all were
in good morula stages. Next day all were good gastrula and trochophore stages. Following day
all dead.
Experiment 72.—Eggs and sperm in 1.022, 1.017, 1.012 showed in 3 hours 2- and 3-celled
stages in first;  few in second ;  none in third.    Next day all in morula stage.
Experiment 73.—Eggs and sperm in 1.020, 1.015, 1.010, 1.005 in 5 hours had in first few
segmenting;  second, one or two;   third and fourth, none.
Experiment 7.'/.—Eggs and sperm in 1.022, 1.017, 1.010, 1.005 showed in four hours development in first three, none in last.
Experiment 75.—Eggs and sperm in 1.022, 1.020, 1.018, 1.016, 1.014, 1.012 (made up from
deep sea-water 1.022 and estuary-water 1.012) left overnight. In 1.022, nearly all trochophores;
1.020, same; 1.01S, same; 1.016, many trochophores, gastrulre; 1.014, few trochophores, gastrulre,
blastulre; 1.012, blastulre. In 24 hours some of the last were passing to the trochophore stage,
and in 36 hours about half were swimming; at the same time those in the first were beginning
to die, some bursting. In 4,8 hours the results stood: 1.022, all dead and gone to pieces; 1.020,
dead and disintegrating; 1.018, many dead, few living; 1.016, more living (trochophores);
1.014, many living (trochophores) ; 1.012, by far best (trochophores), some of which lived until
fourth day. 7 Geo. 5 Native Oyster of British Columbia. S 99
From these experiments it appears that high salinity hastens development, but at the expense
of the vigour or length of life of the embryo. Lower salinity delays development, but permits
normal organization and longer life. The lowest grades of salinity are as detrimental as the
highest.    Medium salinity, of about that of average low-tide water, is best.
Experiment 76.—Eggs and sperm are transferred to a beaker of fresh water, and, of course,
there is no development. Prom the experiments on sperm it was learned that sperm become fixed
as soon as they touch fresh water.    Eggs are not so sensitive, but they are also soon affected.
Experiment 77.—Eggs and sperm were put in sea-water containing a little of a yellow
efflorescence from the side of a canal". There was no development. A guard experiment of the
same lot of eggs and sperm in sea-water gave good results.
Experiment 78.—Eggs and sperm in sea-water containing specks of FeCl3, NaOH, KI gave
no development in first and second, but good results in third.
Experiment 79.—Eggs and sperm in salt solution 1.020 and 1.013 gave no development,
although a guard experiment in sea-water was successful.
Experiment 80.—Eggs and sperm in salt solution 1.0075 with a speck of MgS04, CaS04,
K»S04, CaC03, FeCl3, KOH, NaOH in each case made no development.
Experiment 81..—Eggs and sperm in salt solution 1.0075 with specks of KC1, LiCl, MgCL,
KBr, Mt4Br, KI made no development.
Experiment 82.—Eggs and sperm in salt solution 1.0075 for 3 hours did not develop. Specks
of MgCL, KC1, LiCl, HBr, NH„Br, KI were added, but without resuscitation. Some of them were
then put in sea-water and showed many recoveries that developed as far as the morula stage.
Experiment 83.—Eggs and sperm in artificial sea-water overnight gave all stages to swimming trochophores.    Artificial sea-water does the same as natural sea-water in fertilization.
Experiment 84.—Stripped eggs and sperm from 4 females and 1 male were put in: (1) Sea-
water; (2) artificial sea-water compounded according to my formula by a druggist; (3) artificial
sea-water prepared by myself. In 21 hours, (1) had some eggs undeveloped, some in morulre,
some swimming trochophores; (2) many undeveloped, some morulre, few trochophores; (3) some
undeveloped, some morulre, many trochophores. In 36 hours the artificial sea-waters were
distinctly better than the natural sea-water. In 3 days the trochophores in (1) had died off,
but not in (2) and (3), and a few of (3) lived to be 4 days old.
Experiment 85.—Stripped eggs and sperm from 3 females and 1 male in: (1) Sea-water
1.020; (2) sea-water 1.0135; (3) artificial sea-water 1.0135. In 2 hours nearly all were in
3-celled stage. In 18 hours 1.020 was not so good as the others—no trochophores. In 29 hours
the artificial sea-water was clearly best. In 48 hours embryos of both sea-waters were dead,
while the artificial sea-water contained swimming trochophores.
Experiment 86.—Eggs and sperm in artificial sea-water 1.024 and 1.012 gave some development in first, while nearly all developed in second.
Experiment 87.—Eggs and sperm in: (1) Stagnant sea-water (had been kept 4 days);
(2) stagnant sea-water to be aerated; (3) fresh sea-water (of same S.G.) to stand; (4) fresh
sea-water (of same S.G.) to toe aerated; (5) fresh sea-water (of same S.G.) to be changed;
(6) fresh sea-water (of same S.G.) to be changed at high and low tides. In 2 hours all had
2- and 3-celled stages; in 3 hours, gastrulre; in 10 hours, some trochophores—a difference is
already noticeable. In 24 hours, (1) morulre, gastrulre, no trochophores; (2) gastrulre, many
swimming trochophores; (3) similar to (1) but slightly better; (4) similar to (2), but better;
(5) trochophores, clean and healthy; (6) same as (5). In 48 hours, (1) and (3) dead and
gone to pieces; (2) and (4) many swimming;  (5) and (6) some swimming.
Good Eggs and Sperm.
In the experiments it has been noted that there is a lack of uniformity in fertilization and
development both as to relative numbers and rate of progress, and this not only in media of
different contents but even in the same solutions under the same conditions. It must be recalled
that we have to do not only with things that belong to the environment, but with things that
belong to the oyster as well. The variableness may be due to different states of maturity or
ripeness of the reproductive cells. In order to determine at what stage eggs and sperm are most
effective it becomes necessary to resort to other experiments.
Experiment 88.—In fresh sea-water were mixed: (1) Good eggs and good active sperm;
(2) good eggs from the same and good sperm from a different oyster; (3) good eggs and fine- 8 100 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
grained quiescent sperm; (4) good eggs and coarse-grained quiescent sperm. In 1% hours
all had morulre. In (1) and (2) nearly all eggs were fertilized; in (3) and (4) there were
many unfertilized.
Experiment 89.— (1) Good eggs and good lively sperm in full beaker of sea-water; (2) good
eggs and small quantity good sperm in full beaker; (3) same as (2) in small quantity (% in.)
sea-water; (4) good eggs and stagnant sperm.    Examined in 2, 2%, 3 to 5 hours, 1 and 2 days,
(1) and (2) proved good, (3) not so good, (4) worse.
Experiment 90.—Selected from 18 oysters: (1) Good eggs and good sperm; (2) good eggs
and poor sperm; (3) poor eggs and good sperm; (4) poor eggs and poor sperm. In 3 hours all
had some morulre—the good eggs most. In 5 hours was a greater difference. The poor eggs
and sperm had enough ripe to give some results.
Ripe specimens are large, distended, creamy (females) or milky (males), with gonaducts
prominent and easily strip—the eggs or sperm separating readily. Unripe specimens are less
plump, lack rich colour, gonaducts not in evidence, do not easily strip—eggs and sperm coming
in bunches and clinging together. Spawned specimens are thin and dark and do not strip.
Partially spawned may be more or less spotted. Ripe eggs are large, bright, clean, generally
pear-shaped, separate or easily separable. Young (unripe) eggs are dark, cloudy, mixed with
granules and detritus, more inclined to be rounded and clinging together. Ripe sperm in mass
is grey and striate, in thin layers bright, clear, and all aquiver—the minute rounded heads of
the fully formed spermatozoa dancing about by flapping of the generally invisible tails. Young
sperm is in bunches of coarse or fine granules, without striation, with considerable detritus, and
with no or little movement. Old sperm is similar to ripe sperm, but comparatively or quite
inactive.
Experiment 91.—At 9 a.m. were prepared: (1) Ripe eggs and ripe sperm; (2) ripe eggs and
young sperm; (3) ripe eggs and old sperm; (4) young eggs and ripe sperm; (5) young eggs
and young sperm; (6) young eggs and old sperm. At 1.30 p.m. (l1/^ hours) : (1) Nearly all
in early morulre; (2) few developed—were enough ripe sperm among the unripe; (3) no development; (4) nearly half-developed—were many ripe eggs among the unripe; (5) few developed;
(6) no development.
Experiment 92.—Ripe eggs and ripe sperm kept in separate deep watch-glasses of sea-water
1.014 for 1 hour—I. Bodies of female and male from which above were taken kept for 1 hour—II.
(1.) Put ripe eggs and ripe sperm of I. together. Fully half-developed from the first; after
10 hours nearly all. (2.) Ripe eggs of I. and ripe sperm of II. nearly all developed. (3.) Ripe
eggs and ripe sperm of II. Very few developed. (4.) Ripe eggs of II. and ripe sperm of I. No
development. After 10 hours were a few. Eggs deteriorate more than sperm and more in the
body than in fresh sea-water.
Experiment 93.—Ripe eggs and sperm kept separate in sea-water 3 hours—I. Same kept
in oysters' todies—II. (1) Eggs and sperm of I. put together; (2) eggs and sperm of II. put
together.    In 2 hours  some in   (1)   dividing;   (2)   not.    In 3 hours   (1)   good and  advanced;
(2) few developing.    In 6 hours (1) good morulre;  (2) none.
Experiment 94-—(1) Good eggs and good sperm; (2) good eggs and poor sperm; (3) poor
eggs and good sperm; (4) poor eggs and poor sperm. After 3% hours were some segmenting;
after 41/> hours, more. At 6 hours: (1) Abundance in morulre; (2) very few developing—one
here and there; (3) few developing; (4) only 2 or 3 seen to be developing.
Experiment 95.—Eggs and sperm kept in sea-water 1.014 for 7 hours and then put together,
nearly all developed to morulre in 3 hours.
Experiment 96.—Selected from 14 specimens, 2 with ripe eggs and ripe sperm: (1) Ripe eggs
and ripe sperm; (2) ripe eggs of same females as (1), with its own sperm (alive but not robust).
In 12 hours (1) had swimming trochophores, proving that the eggs were good; (2) had no
development at all—eggs swollen (with large nuclei) or shrunken and dinged at one side. Self-
fertilization is not effective.
Experiment 97.—From 6 oysters—3 females, 2 males, 1 distinctly hermaphrodite—prepared
beakers of: (1) One female; (2) one female and one male; (3) all the females and all the males
in sea-water; (4) the hermaphrodite; (5) one female and the hermaphrodite; (6) one male and
the hermaphrodite;  (7) all females and all males in artificial sea-water.
After 12 hours: (1.) Undeveloped, except one or two in a microscopic preparation in early
trochophore stage gliding about.    Afterwards made a new preparation using a different pipette, 7 Geo. 5 Native Oyster of British Columbia. 8 101
and still another trial using a new pipette and taking every precaution. Same results. The few
odd developments must have been fertilized by sperm in the sea-water. (2.) Some undeveloped;
some segmenting—morulre, blastulre, gastrulre, odd trochophores. (3.) Same. (4.) No development. (5.) No development. (6.) Many of the eggs undeveloped; few in embryonic stages;
some swimming trochophores. The hermaphrodite had had some ripe eggs which had been
fertilized from the male, since its own sperm were ineffectual (compare (4)). (7.) Considerable
detritus;   some eggs undeveloped;  all stages up to swimming trochophores.
Experiment 98.—Of 24 0. lurida, one showed a few apparently young unfertilized eggs, which
were kept in a beaker of- sea-water several hours without developing. Eight more were then
opened in order to find ripe sperm to try to fertilize the former, when another in the same state
was come upon. Then both were fertilized separately. Next morning the eggs of one lot (most
likely the second) were in segmentation;  the others not.
The experiment shows that the eggs of our western oyster may be artificially fertilized
similarly to those of the eastern oyster. It is, however, much more difficult to find specimens
in the right state; the only practicable way is to find a case with eggs oozing from the oviducts
and to preserve them in fresh, clean sea-water. Then find ripe, active sperm in another individual
and stir them along with the eggs. It is not so difficult to find ripe sperm as ripe eggs. Eggs
taken from the abdominal mass of this oyster are rarely ripe; eggs that have already issued
from the oviduct are pretty sure to have met sperm.
Of the above two cases, the eggs of the first were not fertilized and did not become fertilized,
although they must have been in company with sperm from the same individual. In keeping they
perhaps lost ability to become fertilized by the time sperm from another oyster were added. Self-
fertilization, therefore, does not occur. In the second case the freshly exuded eggs were ripe for
union with fresh sperm from another oyster.    Cross-fertilization does take place.
Experiment 99.—Eggs of 0. virginiana and sperm of O. lurida put together in beaker of
sea-water gave no development. Fertilization between elements from two different species does
not occur.
Hitherto our experiments have been directed towards testing various stages and activities
of the oyster with a view to selecting the most instructive objects for study, and then using them
in testing various natural and artificial waters in order to discover the best medium for the life
of the oyster. The experiments on oyster, larva, sperm, and fertilization, and on sea-water, fresh
water, salt solutions, and artificial sea-water, together with their variations, have afforded an
insight into actual relations in the environment of the oyster hardly capable of being perceived
in any other way. There still remain a few conditions not properly considered as attributes of
the media themselves, but, as independent physical or biological necessities, of which the most
important is temperature.
Temperature.
Experiment 100.—Larvre in a watch-glass of sea-water were stood on a block of ice, and as
the water cooled down the larvre stopped swimming and then stopped ciliating, but began again
when the glass was removed from the ice.
Experiment 101.—With oyster-knife hollows were gouged out of a block of ice and fitted with
three watch-glasses, in which were put sea-water with: (1) Young larvre from an oyster;
(2) old larvre from an oyster; (3) older larvre from the plankton. All ceased swimming about
in 2 or 3 minutes—the younger with their cilia still, straight, and stiff; the older, while not
moving about, may still have cilia in motion. Removed from the ice, some begin to twitch in
a few seconds, and most start to glide about in a minute.    Temperature 3° C.
Experiment 102.—Scattered a little salt on the ice-bed and set a watch-glass containing some
of the oldest larvre and froze the water about them. Then took up, turned over, and watched
through a lens to see the larvre thaw out and commence to swim.
Experiment 103.—With oyster-knife bored holes into block of ice and put in phials containing
sea-water and larvre, corked to exclude melting ice and covered with sawdust, leaving 24 hours.
When examined the water was not frozen, the larvre were sunk and still as if dead. After
warming up a bit some revived, while others did not, and looked ragged and turbid.
Experiment 104.—Prepared similar experiment, but lined the holes in the ice with salt and
scattered salt over the top, covering all with sawdust. In 1 hour examined one phial—the water
was frozen, but not solid all the way through. Before they could be taken to the house to be
examined by a microscope some were thawed out and beginning to move.   In 3 hours examined 102 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
another phial—frozen harder than the first. In 15 minutes some were reviving. In 6 hours
examined the third—frozen through. Put in fresh sea-water it thawed out and a few larvre
revived in the course of an hour. Left overnight nearly all were dead—saw one swimming and
one or two others move.
Re-examining larvre I had transferred to sea-water from all the observations, those of
1 hour exposure were still healthy—they had not been frozen through. Those of 3, 6, 20 hours
were nearly all dead, although they had not been in solid ice full time.
Experiment 105.—Trochophores in beaker of sea-water stood on wet sawdust over ice in
cool ice-house at 10° C, and another preparation on sand in the sun. at 21° C. Next day first
unchanged, second advanced.
Experiment 106.— (1) Put larvre in wet, deep watch-glass and stood on wet sand in the
shade; (2) same in sun; (3) wet sand in watch-glass in shade; (4) sea-water in watch-glass in
shade.
After 2% hours: (1.) Dry. Put in sea-water none recovered. Some floated from containing
air. (2.) Very dry and parched. In sea-water one or two recovered, but some died. (3.) Dry
and glued to sand-grains. In sea-water none recovered. (4.) Not dried up. About half swimming and very active.
Experiment 107.—Eggs of 3 and sperm from 2 0. virginiana in high beaker half-full of
sea-w;ater; stood on ice with ice packed around sides: covered with sawdust, but leaving top
open. In 12 hours no development; surface 2° C, bottom 1° C. In 24 hours no development;
surface 3°, bottom 2°. Some transferred to fresh sea-water and kept in house overnight showed
few in embryonic to trochophore stages. Original stock in ice after 48 hours same as before.
After 96 hours same—no development;  water 2 to 3° C.
Experiment 108.—Prepared beakers of sea-water 1.020, to be stood on: (1) Ice in sawdust
in ice-house; (2) table in house; (3) sand outside (cloudy).    Stood % hour to fix temperatures.
At 10 a.m., put good eggs and sperm in each; temperatures 5, 15, 18.5° C. At 11 a.m.,
temperatures 2, 17.5 20° C. At 1 p.m.: (1) 2° C.—no development, eggs wrinkled, sperm alive
(when placed on slide to be examined) ; (2) 18° C.—few eggs in 3-celled stages; (3) 24° C.—not
half-developing, some in several-celled stages. At 3 p.m.: (1) no change, eggs shrunk, sperms
when warmed a bit very lively; (2) 18°, early morulre; (3) 24°, advanced morulre. At 5 p.m.:
(1) Same as before; (2) 20°, gastrulre, no trochophores; (3) 24°, swimming trochophores.
At 8 p.m., eggs taken from ice preparation at 5 p.m. and kept on table until now have some
eggs in 2 to 3 blastomeres. This shows that fertilization did not take place until 5 p.m., when
the eggs were brought into the warm room; for the time, 3 hours, is same as from 10 to 1, when
those on the table arrived at the same stage. Next day, 8 a.m.: (1) Same as before; (2) 16°—
no trochophores, most of earlier developments gone to pieces;   (3)  17°—some trochophores.
Experiment 109.—Good eggs and sperm in sea-water 1.019 at 10.40 a.m.—beakers standing:
(1) In wet sawdust near to ice 14°C.; (2) standing on wet sawdust 16° C.; (3) on table in
house 17.5° C.;  (4) on verandah 18° C.; (5) on sand.
At 11.30 temperatures were 12, 15, 18, 19, 21° C.   At 12.50 a.m.:  (1) 10°—no development;
(2) 15°—no development; (3) and (4) 18.5°—2- to 3-celled stages; (5) 25°—young gastrulre.
At 1.50 p.m.: (1)10°—no development; (2)16°—few in first division; (3) 1S.5°—early gastrula;
(4) 17.5°—early gastrula; (5) 25.5°—later gastrula. At 4 p.m.: (1) 10°—no development;
(2) 15°—2, 3, 4 blastomeres;  (3) 20°— gastrulre;   (4)  19°—gastrulre;   (5)  24°—gastrulre.
Experiment 110.—At 10 a.m., eggs in first polar body stage in fresh sea-water 1.019 in:.
(1) House; (2) shallow sea-water at flood-gate; (3) stood on sand. At 2.30 p.m.: (1) 19°—
few 2-celled stages; (2) 24°—slightly more advanced; (3) 2S°—some 4-celled. At 4.30 p.m.:
(1) 20°—few 4-celled; (2) 26°—slightly more advanced (the water had not been at constant
temperature) ; (3) 29°—irregular development, many freaks, bursts, bunches of little cells on
sides of big ones, etc.   The few that were regular were more advanced, morulre.
Fertilization at 2° C. is not effective. If the preparation is brought into a warmer temperature a few may begin to-develop, but are liable soon to go to pieces. If kept for longer time
at 2° C. before being brought into higher temperature they will not develop. At 10° C. they
do not develop, but when warmed to 15° begin. If kept at 10° for 24 hours and then brought
to warmer temperature few will begin development, but soon go to pieces. At 25° C. development is rapid, but few cases are regular and many are abnormalities.   Forced development does 7 Geo. 5 Native Oyster of British Columbia. S 103
not give proper time for regular and healthy growth.    At 15° C. it takes 5 hours to reach the
2- to 3-celled stage, whereas at 25° C. it only takes 2 hours.
It now becomes clear why breeding takes place in spring and summer, and why the speed
of development and the rate of growth vary at different times and at different places. It requires
a degree of warmth for the production, ripening, fertilization, and development of eggs, upon
which spawning, swarming, and spatting, as well as rate of development and growth, depend.
During the preceding four years observations of temperature in relation to breeding have
been made as early as the beginning of March and as late as the last of September. Spawning
did not begin the same time each year, for the same dates in successive years were not alike in
temperature. In 1913 the first spawn was observed on May 21st; in 1914, May 7th; in 1915,
May 10th; in 1916, May 22nd. The first spawn observed does not necessarily mean the first
spawn extruded into the water, but in all four years the above-mentioned dates were very near
to the first production, which in exceptionally warm springs may date back into the last days
of April.
In all four years at the dates above given the temperature of the surface high-tide water
over the oyster-beds was about 15° C. In deeper water it was still below, but in shallower water
slightly above this temperature. It is in shallow-water coves that the first scanty production
of spawn takes place.
These observations, spreading over several years of time and over considerable areas of
space, «are now verified and amplified by the preceding experiments, showing that spawning and
fertilization cannot take place until the temperature of the sea-water above oyster-beds rises
to about 15° C. The great masses of eggs are not spawned until the water is several degrees
warmer.
Boundary Bay- as a Centre for Oy'stee-culture.
Boundary Bay is situated on and above the boundary-line (49th parallel of latitude) between
the Province of British Columbia and the State of Washington, forming with Semiabmoo Bay
to the south-east a double extension from the Strait of Georgia into the mainland. It is eight
miles broad at the mouth (between Point Roberts to the west and North Bluff to the east) and
nearly five miles deep from the centre of a line drawn between these two points and the central
part of the northern shore. From Point Roberts to the mouth of the Serpentine River is fully
ten miles, this greatest extent of the bay lying in a.north-easterly direction. The upper or northeasterly end (called Mud Bay) receives two rivers, the Serpentine (Kwatisalie) to the north
and the Nicomekl to the south, about two miles apart. The greater portion of the bay (all
but that across the mouth) is shallow and at low tide exposes extensive sand or mud flats,
through which the water from the rivers has cut deep channels, and the drainage at other
parts has worn broad or narrow sloughs. The channels of the two rivers curve towards each
other and unite at the outer bounds of Mud Bay, and the combined channel broadens and deepens
in its direct course out of the bay. This lies near the eastern side and separates off a sand-flat
to the east from the much more extensive sand and mud flats to the west and north. The
eastern sand-flat is somewhat triangular, with one side along the shore, another abutting against
the channel, and the third turned outwards towards the mouth of the bay. The shore along the
upper end of its eastern side forms a projecting spit (Blackie Spit) pointing into Mud Bay, and
around which the channel of the Nicomekl has to curve. The middle portion of the eastern side
is what forms the bathing resort of Crescent Beach. The shore to the eastward of the point of
the spit, over towards the bridge of the Nicomekl, is occupied by the plant of the Crescent Oyster
Company. Across the channel of the Nicomekl, between this and the channel of the Serpentine,
there is a mud-flat forming about half of Mud Bay. The other half, north of the channel of the
Serpentine, with Colebrook situated on its northern bank, is separated from the extensive western
flats by a slough (Big Slough) emptying into the bend of the Serpentine channel and extending
across towards Oliver's. From the mouth of the big slough the channel of the Serpentine turns
southward to unite with that of the Nicomekl, at the confluence of which there are at low tide
disconnected portions of sand-flats. The great flats to the west of this are continuous towards
the northern shore-line, but are separated along their southern edges, next to the river-channel
and the deeper water of the bay, by four sloughs of consequence and several small ones apparently
in process of forming. The projection that ends in Point Roberts is high and precipitous and
the beach rocky, as is also the opposite shore from Crescent Beach outwards to North Bluff. S 104 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
The depth of the water increases rapidly from Point Roberts outwards into the Strait of
Georgia, where it soon reaches a depth of 50 fathoms. From Point Roberts eastward across the
mouth of Boundary Bay it is much shallower, not exceeding 10 or 12 fathoms. Where the
incurving deep portion of the bay meets with the outgoing channel from the rivers the depth
is about 6 fathoms. The channel of the Nicomekl where it curves round the point of the spit,
at the lowest tides, is only a couple of feet deep; that of the Serpentine between the eastern and
western flats is about 1% fathoms.
The larger sloughs when traced across the flats towards shore resemble river systems in
receiving tributaries that drain the water from every direction, the terminals of one system
coming within a short distance of those of another. At the lowest spring tides the sloughs can
generally be waded near their outlets (with long rubber boots), but at low neap tides one has
to follow them up some distance in order to get across. Where they are broad there is usually
a narrow, deeper part, like a channel, worn down the centre.
The rise and fall of the water at the highest spring tide is about 14 feet, at the lowest neap
tide only a few inches. The tide that rises 14 feet falls to the same extent. This immense
movement of water develops strong tidal currents that sweep up ooze, mud, sand, and even
remove gravel and shells. Banks are. worn away, broadening and deepening channels and
sloughs, and the loosened matter is carried to be deposited elsewhere. The whole bed of the
bay is not equally affected by the movement. At the beginning of the falling tide there is a
broad, massive flow, which is soon modified and directed towards the channels and sloughs by
the currents of the rivers and the slope of the bottom. At the beginning of the rising tide the
direction of the flow is controlled by the channels and sloughs from the first, and when once
established continues long in the rising water. The movement of the main currents creates a
draw from the sides, which carries away the lighter and softer material and begins secondary
channels. And so the process goes on until almost every part of the bed of the bay is reached.
The heavier and harder the material, or the more adapted it is to form a cement, the more it
resists the corrosion, and the more permanent is the bottom. The matter worn away is carried
suspended in the water or is rolled by the currents until it reaches some place where the force
is broken or spent. Here it is segregated and in part at least deposited, building up miniature
deltas of gravel or sand or forming aggregations of mud. There is scarcely any small area of
the bottom tout what is affected in some recognizable way by one or other of the opposite
processes of wear and deposit.
The specific gravity of the water varies from about 1.024 off the mouth of the bay down
to 1.000 at the entrance of the rivers. But under ordinary circumstances, for the greater part
of the year and the greater part of the bay, the S.G. lies between 1.021 and 1.011. The S.G,,
is maintained by the rising tides, which bring up salt water from the strait and ultimately from
the ocean. The reduction in S.G. is effected by the contributions of fresh water from the rivers,
rains, melting snow, and-the like, and occasionally by the drawing in, through tidal currents
associated with winds, of water debouched by the great Fraser River. The greatest amount of
fresh water is thrown into the bay in spring, when the rivers are high and ditches, cuts, and
ravines are flooded. On March 22nd, 1916, low tide at the Oyster Company's wharf, the S.G. was
1.001. In summer the river-water becomes greatly reduced in quantity, so that salt water of
high S.G. flows far up the estuaries. On July 12th, 1915, the S.G. below the dam at Elgin, three
miles up the Nicomekl River, was 1.0195 two hours before low tide, when the salt water of the
preceding tide should have been pretty well carried off and fresh water coming down the river
taken its place. Rising tides generally bring salt water of. or near to a S.G. 1.018 up to the
shores all around. Deep water is a little Salter than surface water, but the movement up the
slanting bed to the shallow water above the flats brings deep water to the surface and, together
with the currents, mixes deep with surface water.
The temperature is low at the beginning of spring, rises slowly and with many fluctuations
to the beginning of summer, during the last half of which it reaches its maximum, and then
begins to fall with the beginning of autumn.   An abbreviated abstract for 1916 stands thus :—
March 15 (western bed)     6.0° C.
April     1 (bridge)        8.5
15 „    11.5
May       1  (eastern bed)      14.5
15 „    15.0 7 Geo. 5 Native Oyster of British Columbia. S 105
June      1  (flood-gate)     17.0
15  (wharf)       20.0
July       1 ,   19.0
15 „    20.0
Aug.      1        ,   22.0
.-       15 ,   20.0 »
Sept.      1 „    19.0
15        „  '.  17.0
The four seasons during which readings of the temperature for this bay have been taken
agree in the above general statement, but differ in that there was a shifting forwards or back
of the temperatures to such an extent that two may be spoken of as late and the other two as
early seasons. The spring of 1913 was late; 1914 earlier; 1915 still earlier; 1916 late and
resembling 1913. Whether there is a repetition of such series forming cycles cannot be judged
from a single series.
The water off the mouth of the bay is in summer colder than that near shore. Deep water
is colder than surface water. Rising tides carry colder water up into the bay, over the flats,
along the channels, and even to the very margins of the land. On June 6th, 1916, in 45 fathoms
off Point Roberts, the deep water had a temperature of 10° C, while at low tide at the wharf
the water was at 19° C. On June 15th, 1915, in 20 fathoms off the mouth of the bay (on a line
between Point Roberts and Blaine), the bottom water was at 12.5° C. and 1.0235 S.G., and the
surface water of the same place at 17.5° C. and 1.020 S.G. In flowing upwards over the heated
flats on a sunny day the cold water from outside becomes more or less warmed, depending upon
the course taken, the extent of the land touched, or the amount of warmer water met with.
On June 29th, 1915, in the channel of the Serpentine where it crosses between the flats, the
water, both deep and surface, one hour after low tide, was 25° C. and 1.0165 S.G. Next day,
the edge of the rising tide, 45 minutes after low water in the outermost long slough, had a temperature of 29° C. and a S.G. of 1.018. A few days of cloudy weather or of rain may cause
considerable difference, more especially in the surface water.
Native oysters were originally sparsely scattered at spots in the mud-flats situated about
the edges of the sloughs. Gravelly beaches and sand-flats to the east of the main channel, the
greater part of the flats between the channels of the two rivers, and the higher and more sandy
parts of the great northern and western flats were completely devoid of oysters.
The other common bivalves found in the bay are the: Mussel (Mytilus edulis) ; cockle
(Cardium nuttalli) ; great clam (Tresus nuttalli) ; butter-clam (Saxidomus squalidus) ; small
clam (Tapes staminea) ; sand-clam (Macoma secta) ; mud-clam (Macoma nasufa) ; eastern
clam (Mya areuria). Occasionally shells of other species, from deeper water or from the
islands of the strait, are drifted ashore: Scallop (Pecten hastatus) ; silver-shell (Anomia
macroschisma) ; horse-mussel (Mytilus californianus) ; razor-shell (Solen sicarino) ; Quohog
(Venus kennerleyi).
The eastern clam (soft-shell clam) is believed to have been introduced about 1872 in shipments of eastern oysters to San Francisco Bay, and has spread so aggressively that in many
places it is by far the commonest shell on the coast. I have found it as far north as Safety
Cove (Calvert Island), but not between that and Prince Rupert. That it did not originally
occur here may be proved by its absence from the shell-heaps (kitchen-middens) of our Indians.
Such shell-heaps occur at Crescent in many places from the present beach back to the high
escarpment behind the railway-track, and are sometimes covered with a couple of feet of earth
and have great trees growing above them. In these heaps are to be found the shells of the
western oyster, cockle, great clam, butter-clam, small clam, mud-clam, as well as whelks, crabs'
claws, charcoal and burnt stones, but no shell of the eastern clam or the eastern oyster.
There is a crab-fishery of importance at the mouth of the bay. In the autumn there is a
fishery of cohoe and humpback salmon in the estuaries of the rivers; while off the mouth of
the bay in summer there is an extensive salmon-fishery by means of great traps. Herds of seal
frequent the higher banks of the sand-flats. All the great subkingdoms of animals are represented in the bay, although there is no great assemblage of species.
Crescent Oyster Company.
Mr. Lambert, manager for the Crescent Oyster Company, who first used the name Crescent
for this shore of the bay in distinction from the opposite shore, which was known as Boundary S- 106 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
Bay, first introduced eastern oysters into the bay in 1904. These consisted of 175 barrels from
New Brunswick and 20 barrels from Connecticut. Nearly all of the eastern oysters (subsequent
shipments coming from Connecticut) have been planted on that portion of the eastern flats
which is close to and partly encircled by the channel of the Serpentine where it curves round to
head across for union with the channel of the Nicomekl. This is what will be called the
" eastern bed," partly because it is eastward in the bay and partly because it is where the
eastern oysters were planted. The term " western bed " will be applied to that portion of the
flats to the westward of the channel of the Serpentine and Big Slough which was originally
very sparsely but now more thickly seeded with western oysters. For convenience to the men
when they are working on the beds, as well as for their safety in cases of storms or rising tides,
there are two double-roomed houses elevated on piles above the highest level of the water, one
on the eastern bed, the other on the western bed, one mile and an eighth apart.
Following the lead of other companies on the Pacific Coast, and presumably also because
of a demand for eastern oysters and the desire for quick returns, the first few years were almost
entirely devoted to the procuring and the raising-up of a stock of eastern 05-sters—some for early
market, others for succeeding years. As a rule, eastern oysters transplanted here grow rapidly
for at least the first summer, so that three-year-old plants give many marketable oysters after
one year of transplantation. Two-year-old and one-year-old seed furnish good-sized oysters for
the following two years' markets. Yearly shipments have to be brought from the East in order
to keep up the stock, because the spawn of the eastern oyster does not develop into grown oysters
in these waters. The expense of buying the seed in the East and the expense of transhipment,
which usually costs more than the seed, together with the necessary work and the loSs of oysters
from death, render the production of marketable eastern oysters in this country expensive. On
the other hand, in the West there has been a liberality in the use of money, the people became
accustomed to high prices, there was a demand for oysters, the price could be set to a paying
scale. Notwithstanding the expenses of construction-work, boats, scows, buildings, apparatus,
wages, shipping, and the like, the business has grown and has never been so prosperous as
during the last year—the second year of the war.
With regard to the western oyster, while the progress has been at least equally as satisfactory, the problems have been somewhat different. This oyster does not have to be brought
from distant places -and be planted out in these waters. It is native here and adapted to the
conditions, but it does not occur naturally in such numbers as to stand gathering, removal, and
marketing in paying quantities and at the same time be able to maintain a supply for coming
years. The first western oysters marketed by this company were twenty-five sacks in 190S. In
1016 the number of sacks disposed of was 900. There has been a steady advance in numbers
and some progress in size and quality. The western oyster in western waters is a better moneymaker than the eastern oyster, and chiefly for the reason that there is no initial cost in
procuring it. This is not to say that there is no expense in the cultivation of the western oyster.
What is meant is that it is already here, indigenous, adapted to the conditions, breeds naturally,
grows to maturity, and only requires intelligently directed work to facilitate and increase its
production in paying quantities.
Observations and Experiments in Boundary Bay.   •
In the preceding section we have gained some knowledge of the unmodified natural conditions
of the bay in which artificial experiments and cultural processes were to be applied. Before
planning artificial conditions it is important to grasp the significance of the natural. There are
natural bays in which oysters occur and there are equally natural bays in which there are no
oysters. Even in the same bay there are localities where oysters occur and those where there
are none. To appreciate these facts it becomes advisable to compare an oyster bay with an
oysterless bay, an oyster area in an oyster bay with an oysterless area in the same bay, to discover
in what the difference lies. Observations of actual occurrences are of value no matter where or
how obtained. It is not necessary to resort to experiment where natural phenomena are clearly
exposed in natural processes. Depending upon the nature of the problem, it is possible to find
it elucidated more clearly by searching among natural occurrences or by setting artificial experiments designed to expose it. In a similar manner, according to the kind of subject, experiments
upon it have to be performed in this, that, or the other manner.    As has been seen, many experi- 7 Geo. 5 Native Oyster of British Columbia. S 107
ments can be performed in glass tumblers of sea-water in the house or other convenient place.
In distinction from these there are others that can be made in-natural or artificial lagoons,
ponds, or other small offshoots of the bay. In contradistinction to both there are experiments
that can only be set in the open water of the bay itself. The experiments on fertilization could
hardly be performed out in the bay. The retention of such small objects as eggs and sperm in
a small confined quantity of sea-water, where they are comparatively safe, easily refound, and
can be frequently observed, is a distinct advantage. Artificial ponds may be regarded as somewhat larger vessels, possessing more natural conditions, capable of accommodating larger objects
and in greater numbers, and still under a degree of control as to quantity of water, salinity,
temperature, and other conditions. But the open bay is where the masses of oysters live, their
eggs deposited, and the young develop. It is here that conditions need to be especially studied
and every method applied in the gaining of information and in the verification of what has been
learned from other sources. Sea-water, salinity, and temperature will have essentially the same
effect here as in a beaker, but there are variations and other conditions that cannot be reproduced
in beakers or even ponds. The effect of winds, currents, depth, movement of sand, presence of
other organisms, and many other things that belong to great bodies of water may be mentioned.
These are characters of the sea and its larger offshoots, and are natural. Being natural to bays,
they must be dealt with there. They vary in constancy or intensity according to the location,
and their effect upon the oyster may, in the first instance, be surmised by a comparison of the
original distribution of the oyster with reference to them. In the second place, oysters may be
transferred from one place to another where the conditions are different, to see if it is an
improvement or a failure. Every such change introduced by man is artificial and of the nature
of an experiment. The transfer of oysters from where they are first found as natural occurrences
to a place where there are no oysters, with a view to seeing if they can live there, is an experiment. The spreading of gravel on a mud bottom to find if it improves the bed for oysters is an
experiment. The surrounding of an area on a mud-flat by a dyke to hold water during the time
of low tide and the comparison of the growth and mortality of oysters inside and outside of it is,
an experiment. The spreading of dead shells on an oyster area to see if they secure a set of spat,
the putting-out of shells in different places to discover which localities and what conditions are
best, the planting of shells in May and in July to find which is most successful, are all experiments. Every act of culture is in the first place an experiment. It is only after it is found to
be successful that it is incorporated into the routine of cultural processes. Oyster-culture was
itself at first a great experiment. For every new area it is still at first an experiment. Every
new variation in carrying it out is an experiment.
The distribution of the native oyster at the present time, after a few years' operation of
cultural processes, is not essentially different from what it was originally, except that the number
is greatly increased. It is still absent from gravel beaches and points where, through tide-action,
a kind of grinding movement is kept up. It is lacking from sandy beaches, points, low-tide islandlike exposures, and flats where deposit or removal is in progress. There are very few at the
mouths of the river-estuaries, and none farther up where the banks and bed of the low-tide
channels are of deep, soft mud. All of the sand-flats to the east of the main channel, the higher
parts of the flats between the two river-channels, the mud-flats to the north of the channel of
the Serpentine, the higher levels of the great western flats, many parts of the lower sandy levels,
and all of the regions about Point Roberts and North Bluff are devoid of oysters. To this must
be added the qualification that occasionally one may be surprised at finding single oysters or a
few individuals that have been carried by drifting ice and dropped in more or less unsuitable
places.
The western oyster occurs on area along the margins and even deeper parts of sloughs,
along a border for the most part fringing the low-tide level of the water, and here and there in
pools and sheets of low-tide water held back toy slightly raised rims or by mats of eel-grass.
The original areas may toe only moderately extended, but they have become much more thickly
seeded with oysters. The tidal movement which sweeps up and down the bay must carry eggs,
embryos, larvre, if not in some cases older stages, to all of the unseeded parts—the upper muddy
regions of the great flats as well as the lower gravelly and rocky regions of the enclosing
promontories of.the bay. On the first there are no, or very few, solid objects for attachment;
on the second there are plenty of such objects. Walking over the beaches at low tides and
examining the rocks, stones, shells, or other exposures at Point Roberts and North Bluff discover 8 108 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
no oysters, not even on the under-sides of flat or leaning stones. There are no dead oyster-shells
thrown up on the beach, indicating that there are no oysters living in deeper water off these
points.
Dredging by means of a small naturalist's dredge, dragged on the bottom by a rope from a
motor-boat, was made use of to make sure of the presence or absence of oysters at places never
uncovered by the water. Where the water was deep a greater length of rope (up to 120 fathoms)
was let out and the dredge was weighted to keep it on the bottom. Off Point Roberts, North
Bluff, and the mouth of the bay no oysters were obtained. Coming up into the mouth of the
channel there are plenty of empty clam-shells and one in a great number with a living native
oyster attached. In the channel of the Serpentine between western and eastern beds it is much
the same, but with more living oysters and some eastern oysters that have drifted off the planted
beds.
Besides taking into account the original and the present distribution of oysters in judging
of good and bad grounds, there are the observations upon the transplantings of the Oyster
Company. Where native oysters have become numerous and crowded they have been thinned
out by picking or by raking, leaving more room for those left, while the removed oysters
have been either marketed or put down again in other places. Of the places selected, some
were comparatively thinly seeded areas, or the extended edges of occupied areas, or similar
but unoccupied grounds. It was soon apparent that some places were better than others; that
the same place may not be uniformly successful from year to year; that one area may be best
for growth while another is best for fattening. One has to learn to know his ground by trial;
i.e., experiment. At one place the oysters may be drifted or rolled into windrows; at another
buried in sediment; at a third exposed by the killing-out of eel-grass. At such places the death-
rate becomes too high. In order to test different spots and keep accurate account of the oysters
transplanted to them, experiments may be started.
Experiment 114-—Three or four dozen oysters are enclosed in each of a number of wire-net
cases to be sure they will not get lost, and for ease in reflnding and recognition, and put out:
(1) In a slough; (2) on a high sand-bank; (3) on a soft mud bottom; (4) in a place exposed
at low tide; (5) in a place constantly covered with shallow water; (6) in deep water; (7) in
a high percentage of river-water; (8) in highly salty sea-water; (9) in somewhat stagnant
water;  (10) in running tide-water;  (11) among eel-grass;  (12) in a dyked enclosure.
The distribution of eggs of western oysters agrees with that of adults. Eggs are retained
for a time in the mantle-cavity of the parents, where they pass through segmentation and
embryonic into larval stages, and escape into the surrounding sea-water as free-swimming larvre.
A few may trickle out, while still in younger stages, during respiration and feeding of the
parent. As already shown, spawn (of which eggs are the youngest and earliest stages) has
been first observed for the last four years in the second and third weeks of May (May 7th to
22nd). Spawn occurs first in shallow-water flats, where the temperature first rises to the
required degree. The western end of the western bed is a little earlier than the eastern
although nearer to the deep sea. This is partly because the mass of the rising tide is directed
from the deep water up the channel to the east, while the water that flows over the western end
of the flats, as shown by its S.G., comes largely from the Fraser River and the sand-heads at its
mouth. Spawn occurs in small quantities and in few oysters late in the season—it has been
observed as late as October 5th. The question arises as to whether these are cases of late
spawners or are cases of oysters that spawn more than once in the same season.
Experiment 115.—May 23rd, 1915, with point of oyster-knife pressed slightly open shells
of 0. lurida to look inside for spawn or to allow spawn to trickle out. When one was found
containing spawn it was put in a wire pail hung in sea-water of the canal above the flood-gate
to be re-examined some .time later. Thinking that the strain of opening might injure the
adductor muscle or other parts of the oyster and interfere with the natural course of life of
both oyster and spawn, another method was then resorted to.
Experiment 116.—With point of oyster-knife bored a hole through right valve near the
edge, and with pipette drew out a little fluid to examine for spawn. When spawn was found
the hole was plugged with cork and the latter cut off even with the surface of the shell. Such
oysters were kept in a wire case above the flood-gate.
Experiment 117.—May 25th, 1916, gaping oysters containing spawn were picked from heaps
of oysters on the float, where men were sorting for market.   These were put in a wire pail and 7 Geo. 5 Native Oyster of British Columbia. S 109
tied above the flood-gate. To them were added coutributions until 12 dozen or more were
obtained.
On July 6th a few of these were examined and one was found in spawn—eggs, 2-celled
stages, trochophores, and young conchiferous stages. The oyster seemed to be spawned out,
but there were some sperm-balls.
On August 1st, of 36 more opened 9 were in spawn (mostly large).
On August 25th, of 48 more opened none contained spawn. It had recently been the warmest
part of the season and the oysters had all spawned out.
On September 15th, of 50 more none were in spawn—all thin and spawned out.
These observations seem to show that the same oyster does not extrude all its eggs at one
time, but ripens and extrudes some, and later on ripens and extrudes more. The presence of
different stages (as of July 6th) in the same oyster at the same time may mean that extrusion
of eggs from the ovary had taken place on successive days or in the course of a few days, or,
as the oysters had been kept close together, some of the spawn from other oysters had been
sucked into the mantle-cavity by the respiratory current of the one observed. Oysters from the
float, where a great many were kept together ready for market, showed the same phenomenon—■
viz., two (or more) different stages, younger and older, present in the same oyster. The oysters
whose shells had been bored and corked built a new layer of pearl over the inner ends of the
corks, such that, when a cork was withdrawn and the shell held up to the light, the fresh pearl
was transparent, resembling a minute window.
Experiment 118.—An oyster containing spawn was placed in a glass jar of sea-water tied
over with bolting-cloth and put in sea-water above the flood-gate. Examined next day it was
found that spawn had dribbled out of the oyster and was lying in the bottom of the jar.
A similar experiment, but making use of the irrigation apparatus of experiment 59, gave
similar results. Spawn is not expelled all at once, but dribbles out from time to time as the
oyster opens its shell. The position of the oyster has a good deal to do with the loss of the
spawn—whether it is lying on its left side or lying edge down, etc.
The distribution of larvce likewise is at first the same as that of the adults. This follows as
a result of their origin through eggs from adults. But as oysters are heavy and non-locomotory,
while larvre are relatively light and possess the power of swimming and creeping, their later
distribution does not necessarily or strictly correspond, although for the masses and in most
places the distribution of surviving larvre agrees in a broad sense with that of their parents.
The ability to creep is confined to the latter part, while the power of swimming is possessed
throughout the whole, of larval life. Creeping, although appearing under the microscope an
active process, does not, for the short intervals during which it is practised, succeed in carrying
the larvre over much ground. It is not so much a means of locomotion as a way of finding a
suitable place nearby for attachment. Swimming, although a more rapid means of movement
than creeping, yet, in the way it is made use of, is also not an effective mode of locomotion.
The larva rises at intervals and circles about or swims in more or less of a spiral, apparently
without any definite object, with the result that it does not change its location to any considerable extent. The advantages in distribution do not depend so much upon its own efforts to
change its locality as upon the chances of its being translated by tidal currents during suspension.
It would appear that, like creeping, the primary object of its development by nature was to
facilitate the finding of a suitable body for fixation. However this may be, the larvae from each
oyster do become scattered to greater or less distances from the parents, and it becomes a question
of how to find out what their distribution really is. .
The full-grown larva of the western oyster measures 0.25 mm. (=1/m inch) in greatest
length of the shell. Such small animals in an open bay are, of course, not conspicuous objects
and require special methods to find as well as to recognize, and to estimate in numbers as well
as to comprehend in distribution. But the difficulties are not so insurmountable as would at
first appear.    It only requires the adaptation of methods already in use for other purposes.
Some sea-water could be taken im and poured into a filter of white filter-paper and the
inside of the paper afterwards examined with a lens for larvre, which are, of course, too large
to filter through its fine pores. The deposit on the paper may consist of many things that are
not oyster larvre, but it is possible to obtain isolated individuals in this way. As filtering through
filter-paper is a slow process, a more porous material may be used—e.g., cheese-cloth, muslin,
bolting-cloth—and the water need not be dipped and poured through this as a filter, but the 8 110 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
filter may be made into a net and towed by a boat through the sea-water. A small conical net
supported on a circular iron ring a foot in diameter to keep the mouth open, and attached by
a bail of three equally spaced pieces of halibut-line to a - towing-rope, will serve the purpose.
The pressure of the water due to the motion of the boat will cause filtration of the water and
separation of whatever objects in the water are too large to pass through the pores of the net.
Such nets have been in use for a generation for obtaining samples of the small animals and
plants floating in the sea collectively known as " plankton." Adaptation of a plankton-net to
the requirements of the oyster investigator needs especially the selection of a material having
pores of a suitable size to permit free filtration of water, but small enough to keep back oyster
larvre. Samples of bolting-cloth may be put on the stage of a microscope and the pores measured
in the same way in which larvre are measured.
The amount of plankton collected depends on the amount in the water and the amount of
water filtered. The amount filtered depends on the net, the speed of the boat, and the time
towed. Any net offers resistance, and much of the water that enters the mouth is turned back
and overflows the edges. It is only the water that passes through that leaves a deposit of its
more solid contents. The net with the largest pores will strain the most water, but will also
let pass the most plankton—viz., the smaller objects. Of a given material, the net that has
the greatest surface will strain the most water. Broad-mouthed long nets are inconvenient, and
the same results may be reached by using small nets for longer time. A cylindrical net with a
broad end and straight sides will filter more than a conical net with the same diameter of mouth.
Two conical nets of which one has three times the length of the other, when towed side by side,
will collect about three times as much in the last as in the first. All kinds, sizes, and shapes
of nets that suggest themselves have been made and tried, but are of little consequence in this
connection, since a small, simply constructed, convenient net will serve all our purposes. A
conical net has the advantage that the catch may be washed down into the point and got into
smaller compass. The small end has to be turned inside-out and rinsed off into a vessel to give
up its catch. A net with an open narrow end, that can be tied over the neck of a broad-mouthed
bottle, is a convenience, as the catch may be washed directly into the bottle and corked up for
safer conveyance to the examination-room and microscope.
Examination with the unaided eye may suffice for recognition of some of the coarser contents
of the collection, such as bits of dead eel-grass, filamentous algre, medusae, copepods, and sand-
grains. Use of a lens will be of advantage in determining other objects, like the young of
starfish, worms, crabs, and snails. A microscope is needed to make out the special characters
of all these and for recognition of all the minuter forms of plants and animals, whether full-
grown adults or developing young, such as diatoms, desmids, spores or debris of larger plants,
protozoa, eggs and larvre of many sponges, jelly-fish, worms, bryozoa, tunicates, fishes, and other
animals. The contents of the catch will depend upon where taken, time of year, depth, salinity,
currents, and other conditions.
On March 15th, 1916, from the wharf out over the corner of the eastern bed, across the
channel, and to the house on the western bed, the water at 6.5° C. and 1.019 S.G. and coloured
brown by drainage from swamps and marshes, the plankton contained filamentous algae, wheellike diatoms, hydroid medusre, annelid larvre (both trochophores and vermiform young), copepods,
gastropod larvre, but no bivalve larvre (to which oyster larvae belong).
On March 25th, over the eastern bed, there were many copepods, some worm larvre, isolated
larvre of bivalves (a mussel, a clam, a scallop).
April 20th, in the channel between the beds, there were sand, debris, few mussel larvre. On
April 27th rotifers and appendicularire were added to the former types.
On May 4th there were larvae of crabs. On May 12th the surface water on the western bed
was at 16° C. and 1.020 S.G., and the mussel and clam larvre were becoming numerous—but still
no oyster larvre.    From this time onwards the collections showed a greater abundance of material.
On June 1st the plankton first showed a few oyster larvre. After this the number increased
and oyster larvre were present throughout June, July, August, but began to fall off in September,
and by the 18th (the last plankton taken) were reduced to very few again.
During the time of occurrence of oyster larvre in the bay their distribution has to be
determined by the plankton method. For four summers I have taken plankton every few days
at most, generally every second or third day, at times every day, and when following up certain
lines of observation even several times a day.   The method was first applied as an experiment, 7 Geo. 5 Native Oyster of British Columbia. S 111
but was found to be useful, and is, in fact, the only method by which it is possible to keep
informed of the progress of the larvae in their natural habitat, between the time they leave the
parent oyster and the time they appear on rocks and shells as minute spat-oysters.
Experiment 119.—A plankton-net was towed (June 6th, 1913, 16° C, 1.020 S.G.) at high
tide over the thickest aggregation of oysters on the western bed and the catch bottled up and
taken home for examination.    There were many larvre of the western oyster.
Experiment 120.—The net was then towed under the same circumstances as before and for
an equal length of time over a part of the eastern bed thickly planted with eastern oysters, but
very few western oysters. There were no eastern larvre and fewer western than in the preceding
experiment.
Experiment 121.—Plankton was collected on another occasion over the mud-flats north of
the channel of the Serpentine, where there are no oysters. Oyster larvre of the western oyster
were taken, although less plentifully than over the oyster-beds at the time.
Experiment 122.—The net was towed from Elgin, three miles up the Nicomekl River,
downwards a short distance, and took a good catch of oyster larvae. It must be noted this was
estuary, not river, water, for the S.G. at the time was 1.019.
Experiment 123.—A similar test was applied at the limit of navigation of the Serpentine
River, with like results.
Experiment 124-—Plankton was collected off the mouth of the bay (between the nearer and
more distant salmon-traps). There were no oyster larvre there, although good collections were
made both before and afterwards up in the bay.
Experiment 125.—Trial about one-third of way back from salmon-traps gave several oyster
larvre among many mussel and clam larvre.
Experiment 126.—At the entrance to the channel, off the outer beacon, plankton taken for
half an hour gave some oyster larvre.
Experiment 127.—Farther inwards along the channel plankton taken for half an hour
towards the western house, for comparison with the former, gave more oyster larvre, but not
twice as many.
Experiment 128.—In the channel between the two beds—many oyster larvre.
Experiment 129.—Over the western end of the western bed—abundant larvre.
Experiment 1.30.—Along outer edge of western bed with one net at surface and another deep
on a long rope.   The latter took most larvre.
A net on a long rope is liable to rise and fall or circle around. It can be made steadier by
attaching a weight to the rope in front of the net, and shortening the rope to suit the speed
of the boat and give the proper depth. But even this is not always satisfactory, as, in turning
the boat or running into currents where the speed is interfered with, the net may dip and take
up mud or sand and spoil the catch. This is liable to happen in shallow water over the flats.
To overcome this difficulty a sort of wire cage was made around the net, such that the cage
could run on the bottom and hold the net a few inches above the bottom. To avoid catching
mud stirred up toy the cage, the net was placed anterior to the point of contact with the bottom,
in a projecting conical part of the cage. The body of the cage was cylindrical, its longitudinal
wires held in place by circular wires.
Experiment 131.—June 15th, 1915, took surface and bottom plankton at the same time along
the edge of the Serpentine, on the eastern bed. Many mussels and clams, some oysters; the
catch in the cage-net at the bottom was best.
Experiment 132.—June 21st, surface and bottom plankton between outer beacon and Point
Roberts; upper in small quantity with about ten oyster larvre, lower much more with many
oysters.
Experiment 133.—June 18th, half-way between first and second line of salmon-traps.
Surface plankton little, pale, few bivalves, no oysters. Deep plankton more, brownish, about
six times as may bivalves, one oyster larva.
From these experiments it follows that the distribution of oyster larvre is, in a broad sense,
similar to that of the oysters from which they originated, but overflows to a distance on all
sides, although not to any great distance. The number of larvre is greatest close to the oysters
and becomes fewer in proportion to the distance from that centre, whether in the horizontal or
in the vertical direction. B 112 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
Plankton can only be taken above the beds at high tide or some time before or after high
tide—not at low tide or some time before or after low tide. At low tide plankton can only be
taken in the channels, rivers, mouths of sloughs, and the mouth of the bay.
Experiment 134-—June 25th, 1913, at the channel pile between eastern and western houses,
2 p.m., 20.5° C, 1.0175 S.G., plankton 2 to 2.40 p.m. from this pile to another about half a mile
farther on; 3 p.m., 22.5° C, 1.0155 S.G.; 3.30 p.m. (low neap tide), 21.5° C, 1.015 S.G.; 4 p.m.,
22° C, 1.0155 S.G., plankton 4 to 4.25 p.m. back to former post; 4.30 p.m., 21° C, 1.017 S.G.;
5 p.m., 21° C, 1.0175 S.G. The two collections showed no marked difference; both contained
oyster larvre, copepods, sand.
Experiment 135.—July 21st, 1915, along edge of eastern bed next to Serpentine at half rising
tide—oysters, bivalves, sand.
In the channels, at and for a time before and after low tide, suspended sand and mud in the
water are taken in and retained by the net and mix with the plankton, interfering with a proper
estimation of its character. High tide and a period before and after high tide give the cleanest
and best samples.
Experiment 136.—August 21st, 1914, western bed, high tide, regular net on surface, larger-
meshed net in cage at bottom—mussels, clams, oysters. Surface catch by far best; bottom catch
had been largely lost through the large pores of the net, but had retained the larger objects.
Experiment 137?—July 19th, 1915, channel between beds, half falling tide, short cylindrical
net and short conical net side by side—first taking nearly twice as much as latter, many oysters
and other bivalves, some sand.
Experiment 138.—July 9th, 1915, channel between beds, 1 hour before low tide, short conical
and long conical (three times length of short) nets side by side. Long net took more than
twice as much as short—oysters, bivalves, sand. Again at half rising tide following, when long
net took nearly three times as much as short one—oysters, bivalves, and other organisms more
abundant, sand less than before.
Plankton is best taken with a motor-boat, as it is possible to keep a steady tension at a
regular speed that will not burst the net and will retain the catch. But it can be taken by
means of a steamboat, motor-boat, sailboat, rowboat, or even in some places without a boat.
When I had no boat to hand, or when attending to other work, I have been accustomed to tie
a net in the flood-gate of the canal leading to the artificial ponds, in either the rising or the
falling tide. In a similar manner I have often tied a net to a pile, dolphin, beacon, or other
marker or object in a channel. The best adaptation for this purpose is the wire cage and
contained net, with a piece of plank placed under the upper wires to keep it afloat. There
must be a current, otherwise no water will pass through the net.
Experiment 139.—August Sth, 1913, plankton-net tied to pile at edge of channel between two
beds 2 hours before high tide. High-tide water at 18° G, 1.0195 S.G.—oysters, clams, mussels,
diatoms. Again for 5 hours falling tide. Low-tide water at 21° C, 1.018 S.G.—little more than
first catch. Again for 2 hours rising tide. At end of period water at 20° C, 1.0195 S.G.—best
catch of the three.
Experiment 140.—Plankton is taken at midnight—oyster larvre present as in daylight.
Experiment 141.—Surface and bottom nets are used in a rough sea—fewer taken on the
surface than below.
Experiment 142.—Repeated in a rain—few on surface.
A great deal may be learned about the life and habits of the larva by observing larvre taken
from the branchial chamber of a mother oyster containing dark spawn and placed in a glass of
sea-water.
Experiment 143.—Dark spawn is poured into a beaker of fresh sea-water. A good many
remain suspended in the water, swimming about, while the masses drop to the bottom. They
may be kept for several days and present the same general appearance, although it is not always
the same larvre that are swimming above—some are rising, some falling all the time.
If the beaker is taken up, they are sensible of the motion, and begin to drop in clouds
towards the bottom. If a current of air, as from a bicycle-pump, is directed on to the water,
so as to simulate wind, waves, storm, heavy sea, many of the larvre nearest the surface will
drop to the bottom. If fresh water is dropped on to the surface, like rain, many of the larvre
will drop towards the bottom. If they are put into a tall cylinder-graduate, they will maintain
a dense mass at the bottom and become reduced in density towards the surface.    If a layer of 7 Geo. 5 Native Oyster of British Columbia. S 113
fresh water is carefully added to the surface, the larvae will not enter, or, if they do, they will
not remain in it, but settle into the salt water underneath. This is what happens if rain or
river water spreads out over heavier sea-water. After being kept some time (especially without
change of water) the larvre become less active, until they all, or nearly all, settle to the bottom.
If now the clear water above is carefully siphoned off so as not to disturb the larvre, and fresh
sea-water gently poured down the inner side of the glass, the larvre will soon become active
again.    This is what happens in the rising tide—the fresh, cool salt water is invigorating.
It has often seemed to me that larvre in a beaker know for some time the course of the tides,
and to some extent settle at the time of falling tide and rise again for high tide. As the water
drains off at falling tide there must be great numbers of larvre left in the pools and sheets of
water remaining in hollows, low areas, and sloughs of the flats. In like manner there must be
myriads left stranded on the mud, sand, and gravel of the flats and beaches.
Experiment 144-—July 22nd, 1913, 1 p.m., western bed, low tide of a neap tide, dipped up
120 dips of a 3-quart pail and poured through a piece of plankton-netting and then took it home,
rinsed it, and examined the sediment. There were very few oyster larvre, and these of the
straight-hinge stage.
Experiment 145.—A piece of bolting-cloth was stretched and made fast between two small
wooden hoops (such as women use to support fancy-work), forming a sort of shallow tambourine.
About 50 quarts of sea-water, taken from a body of water held back on the eastern bed, was
strained through it, and then the surface of the bolting-cloth was examined with a lens, but no
oyster larvre could be seen. After being taken home, some of the dry deposit was scraped from
its surface and examined under a microscope—sand, algre, diatoms, copepods, no oyster larvae
or other bivalves.   They must generally settle on to the bottom at low tide.
Experiment 146.—Examined water held in valves of shells on the flats—no larvre. Gathered
some of the surface sand and mud off the flats and examined with lens and with microscope—no
larvre. Spread out some of the mud in a pan and roasted over a fire; then scattered on to water
in a beaker to see if any shells of larvre floated. Saw none. This last operation was suggested
by finding at times numbers of empty shells of bivalve larvre floating on the water in a plankton-
bottle. These had doubtless been stranded on the sand, killed and dried out in the sun, and,
when the tide rose again, floated because of contained air. Notwithstanding negative results
in this and the preceding experiment, I believe oyster larvre and shells can be found by these
methods, if tried at different places and sufficient quantity examined.
The first larvre found in the plankton during the four summers of my acquaintance with
this region occurred in the month between May 10th and June 6th. The last plankton taken
was on September ISth, when there were still a few oyster larvre present. At the first of this
period of four months the larvre began with few individuals, soon rose to a maximum, then
fluctuated in numbers until towards the end of the period,, when they gradually fell off to very
few again. The fluctuations sank to small numbers and rose to abundance. When any adverse
conditions interfered with the spawn the stock of free larvre soon diminished. When the free
larvre were exposed to unfavourable conditions they became reduced in numbers. A few days of
cold or of rain, even of fog or cloudy weather, made an appreciable difference. The suspension
of the swimming larvae, combined with the rise and fall of the tides and the development of
currents, serve to scatter larvre all over the bay—up into rivers and down into deep water.
Fresh water will kill them at once; the saltest sea-water will kill them in time. The falling
tide leaves a small water area in the bay and a large area of exposure in beaches and flats.
In the water (even shallow water) the larvre are comparatively safe; but on the beaches and
flats they are subject to crushing and smothering in the gravel, sand, or mud, or to drying up
by the sun, or to killing by rain or cold. At times there is such a quantity of fresh water
brought into the bay by the Fraser River as to reduce the salinity below the average. Spawn
is devoured by the multitudes of small animals that abound. The older larvre are always being
reduced by becoming converted into spat, or perishing for lack of cultch.
The distribution of spat depends upon that of larvre. Spat like larvre, but to a less degree,
may at first have a broad distribution, but many are likely to fall in unfavourable places and
soon die, so that the later distribution comes to be more like that of adult oysters into which
they grow.
A spat is the young fixed-stage of the oyster (Figs. 16-18). There is a clear demarcation
between the larva and the spat in the fact that the larva is free to swim or creep, but the spat S 114 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
is fixed to some solid object and cannot change its place. At the time of fixation the youngest
spat agrees in size and organization with the oldest larva. There is no definite point in age,
size, structure, or habit when the spat ceases to be a spat and comes to be an oyster. The spat
grows into an oyster as a boy grows into a man.
Spat are obtained by searching over the surfaces of shells, stones, or other solid objects on
the bottom of the bay—much of which is accessible at low tide. Young spat have to be searched
for with a lens; older ones are large enough to be seen by the unaided eye. When the time for
spat to appear has nearly arrived, the capture and discovery of them may be facilitated by
putting out on the oyster-beds or flats clean, white, dry shells that have been spread out to the
sun in a field or on boards.
In the last four years the first spat have been taken between May 26th and July 3rd;
i.e., were almost confined to the month of June, but overlapped a little at tooth ends. As spat
depend on larvre, there are likely to be fresh spat as long as there are larvre in the water; as
larvre depend on eggs, they are likely to occur as long as there are eggs spawned. Eggs, larvre,
and spat all depend upon spawning oysters. The three summer months are the months for
spatting, but it is possible for individuals to occur a little before and a little after this period.
Observations of naturally occurring spat are best carried out where oysters are most
plentiful along sloughs. The surfaces of living or dead oyster-shells, clams, cockles, mussels,
and whelks, sometimes stones and gravel, show smaller or larger spat. The larger are more
easily seen; the smaller may require the use of a lens to be recognized, and, besides, are more
likely to be covered or partly covered with sediment, mud, organic growth, or other matter that
usually clings to the surfaces of objects lying in the water.
Besides the greater abundance of shells, there is another reason for spat being more plentiful
along the sloughs—viz., the short period of exposure at low tide. Spat cannot stand the heat
of the sun or even the drying of the air for any considerable period. Old oysters may withstand
these for the longest tidal periods, but young, spat cannot. To satisfy oneself on this point needs
only the examination and comparison of shells from a slough and shells from a higher level on
the flats. In the latter case there may be no spat to toe found, but, if a few are discovered, the
chances are they will prove to be only empty shells. On still higher levels, as on the sand-flats
and sand-bars, there are no, or very few, shells or other objects to which spat can become attached.
But one can generally find a few valves of dead clams that have worked up out of the bed or
been floated from elsewhere, or the shell of a cockle or of a whelk that has crept from some
other place. On these no spat will be found. But even on sandy areas, where there is a
depression that retains water and develops eel-grass, there are sure to be clam-shells and may
toe oyster-spat. A pile, a stake, a water-soaked log, a tin can, or other object that has resisted
the tidal flow and caused a whirl of the current may hollow out a puddle to hold water, shells,
and perhaps spat. The deeper parts of sloughs and the shallower parts of channels, to which
have drifted beds of shells, unless other causes interfere, capture and retain myriads of spat.
From the bed of the channel up to the edge of the flats there are many scattered shells that can
also entrap and develop oyster-spat. As in the cases of adults, eggs, and larvre, so in the case
of spat, the observations of natural occurrences are not so sharp and decisive as are the results
of artificially planned experiments.
Experiment 147.—July 9th, 1913, prepared a closed wire tray with a lid that could be
fastened down, put in about 50 clean, dry, white oyster and clam shells, and placed above the
flood-gate in 2 feet of water  (low tide).
Experiment 148.—For comparison with this, planted a crock in the bed of the canal above
the flood-gate, and in the crock stood strips of glass held apart by a wire rack.
Experiment 149.—For further comparison, drove two stakes at the sides of the canal and
stretched a rope across, suspended just below the surface of the water, and on this strung shells
with holes punched through by nail and hammer.
Experiment 150.—Placed a tray of shells below the flood-gate in a shallow stream trickling
through the gateway.
Experiment 151.—July 23rd, 1913, planted two crocks of glasses on the western bed near
the western house—one in a shallow slough and one on bottom exposed at low tide. Also placed
a wire case of shells in a washed-out puddle at the base of one of the posts supporting the house.
Experiment 152.—July 29th, 1913, put down two crocks of glasses and a tray of shells at 7 Geo. 5 Native Oyster of British Columbia. S 115
different places near the eastern house and two crocks of glasses on the edge of the eastern bed
next to the channel of the Serpentine where it runs between eastern and western beds.
Experiment 153.—July 17th, 1913, manager of Oyster Company put out a scow-load of shells
(about 15 tons) at western end of western bed. July 18th, another scow-load in a different
place.   July 29th, another scow-load in a third place.
All of these experiments and plantings were successful, but they were not equally successful.
Those of July 9th at the flood-gate were examined on the 15th and 18th without success, and
their surfaces rubbed off clean again each time. In the intervals, old naturally occurring shells
at various places on the beds and in the ponds were examined and isolated spat were found.
Some of the shells of the scow-loads put out on the 17th and 18th were dredged up at high water
on the 28th and examined. On a half-shell were found 18 young spat of only 1 or 2 days'
standing. On August 2nd were found 7 spat on shells in the wire case below the flood-gate.
On August 12th there were 1 to 6 or more on almost every shell in the wire case at the western
house. On August 14th the glasses on the eastern bed had spat—1 on. a glass on the western
edge of the bed, 6 on one, 3 on another, and 2 on a third of those near the eastern house. There
was now no difficulty in finding spat.    Even the shells suspended on the rope had them.
Experiment 154-—May 28th, 1914, put out wire case of shells above and three at intervals
below flood-gate.
Experiment 155.—May 29th, put out one tray of shells under western house, a wire pail,
with tiers of shells held apart by wire netting, in a slough some distance west of western house
(on the line between Crescent Hotel and north end of high ridge from Point Roberts, and
between Lummi Island and second high mountain from the west beyond Vancouver), and a
tray of shells still farther west (between hotel and inner end of Point Roberts, and between
Lummi Island and outer mountain beyond Vancouver.
On June 17th examined those about the flood-gate. The first shell taken up had at least SO
spat, and some had so many it was quite impossible to count them all. There were 26 half-shells
with many spat on each, and only 12 with few. Most of the spat were on the under, cleaner
sides of the shells, the upper being mostly covered with young barnacles. The shells put out on
the western bed also had numerous spat that were useful in comparing localities and in the study
of growth.
Experiment 156.—May 15th, 1915, put out tray of shells above flood-gate. Examined May
20th—no spat. The first spat of this year was found May 26th, when 11 were taken, all of such
recent attachment that there had been no, or very little, subsequent growth.
Experiment 157.—May 20th, put out fresh shells above flood-gate at 2 p.m., and next morning
at 9.30 found a spat of same size as full-grown larva. Eye-spot and foot still present. Put out
fresh shells again and next day had same result. Spat now became more plentiful. On 2Sth
took 4; on 31st, 11; on June 3rd, 22 shells caught spat—one shell as many as 8.
Experiment 158.—May 27th, had put out two crocks containing strips of glass and examined
every day, rubbing off clean after each examination. On June Sth got a spat, which, being on
glass, could be accurately measured under the miscroscope. It measured 42 units greatest length.
The largest free larva I have ever taken went 44, but in nearly every case they measure 37.
Experiment 159.—June 12th, of glass strips put out for a single tide, one caught a spat—
measuring 37.
Experiment 160.—June 12th, put out one wire case of shells to catch the rising tide and
another for the falling tide.    The former took spat on 5 shells, the latter 1 spat on a shell.
Experiments were set and took spat throughout June, July, and August, but at the end of
this time the number of catches had greatly fallen off. Of shells put out on September 1st, 50
examined on September Sth had taken only 1 spat.
Experiment 161.—June 20th, 1916, few oyster larvae in the plankton, measuring 33 and 35—
one 37. Put out wire case of shells. Corresponding tide next day found 1 spat. On June 24th
the manager of the Oyster Company put out three scow-loads of clam-shells. On August 9th
some of these were examined and showed a fairly good catch. On June 30th were planted three
more scow-loads of shells (oyster-shells). In the course of the summer some 150 tons of shells
were planted as cultch.
Experiment 162.—Shells put in two dyked enclosures—one on the corner of the eastern bed
next to the confluence of the two rivers, and the other at the centre of the area encircled by the
channel of the Serpentine, on a line between the two houses—caught and preserved spat in a
similar manner to the more submerged parts of sloughs. S-116 Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries. 1917
At the heads of shallow bays there are often marshes containing natural ponds or lagoons
or may be easily reconstructed into enclosures for storing or cultivating oysters. Before the
beginning of my research-work at Crescent the manager of the company had, by means of dykes
and gateways, arranged several such ponds with a view to storing for convenience in bad weather,
or growing under more favourable conditions of warmth and quiet water, or perhaps for obtaining
spat or some other purpose.
One of these ponds, which I shall designate A, stands nearest in relation to the conditions
on the floats, and is connected to the bay by means of two gateways, a and b, through which the
tides rise and fall. The oysters were supported in large wooden trays having wire-net bottoms,
the trays being placed in rows between scantlings held in place by stakes. There was a considerable variation of specific gravity and temperature—the first because of relation to the river-water,
to drainage-water, and to natural springs; the latter because of the great amount of sand and
mud over which the rising tide-water has to flow. At low tide the water was fresher and warmer;
at high tide Salter and colder.
Experiment 163.—Old eastern oysters that had been kept since the first shipments, fresh
full-grown eastern oysters, and eastern seed, as well as western oysters and western spat, were
placed in different trays and kept all summer for comparison with similar groups in the other
ponds and with the masses on the beds in the bay. They did not do so well as those in the bay.
At rising and falling tides there were strong currents and considerable movements of sand
and mud.
Another pond, B, receives sea-water during the latter part of the rising tide, through a
gateway, 6', from the canal that opens by b from the bay. The flood-gate, b, is automatic, being
opened by the rising and closed by the falling tide, the depth of water retained being regulated
by putting on or taking off an extra plank from the lifting-gate. The depth of water retained
may also be regulated by an extra plank across the opening at 6'. Inside the pond (Plate II.,
Fig. 3) are rows of scantlings supported on stakes, and in turn supporting a floor of wire
netting through which sediment can drop, there being a foot or more of water beneath. A
truck can toe run along the scantlings in bringing or removing oysters. The specific gravity
of the water was generally high, as might be expected from the high-tide contributions of sea-
water. The temperature was moderately high—partly due to the tidal water rising over sandy
and muddy banks and partly due to reception of the sun's rays by the shallow water and its
bed during low tide.
Experiment 164.—Similar dispositions of oysters were placed here as in pond A. The
oysters, seed, or spat did not do as well or grow as fast as on the beds. There was considerable
mortality. A coating of oysters, wood, and wire with green algre was noticeable. Oysters and
empty shells caught spat of the western oyster and the under-sides of the lumber became coated
with them.    There were no eastern oyster spat.
Another pond, C, was at the time in communication with pond B and received the same
water. But this pond was higher in level and shallower, with a greater amount of sand and
mud exposed to the sun. The specific gravity was similar to pond B, but the temperature
higher.
Experiment 165.—Oysters in this pond were spread out on a flooring of narrow strips
(batting). There developed a thick mat of algre over the oysters, which did not grow as well as
in the other places and suffered greater mortality—so much, in fact, that the oysters were
removed before the summer was over.
The foregoing observations and experiments, exposing original conditions and determining
limits of possible variations, form a solid basis of facts upon which to construct methods of
culture.
Description of Plates.
Plate I.
Fig.
1.
Spat on a cockle-shell, natural size, three months old.
Fig.
o_
Spat on an oyster-shell, natural size, three months old.
Plate II.
Fig.
1.
Spat of western oyster on a plank from pond " B."
Fig.
2.
Transplanting eastern oysters at low tide.
Fig.
3.
Wire-net supports in pond " B " at low tide. PLATE I.
c
/ c
■-./ *
V
Fig-  1.
Fig.  2. PLATE  II.
■r*
* %
^.
.
hSe^Si
4 s?' £
.,, ^>
cjt*»
'■**«. ^
"*.
Fig. 1.  Spat of the western oyster on a plant from pond " B."
<♦
-
HH^M^^'A-
Fig. 2. Transplanting eastern oysters at low tide.
■mum
iiF1
rrfA
■■..:... W
. ■'
V
m m
•.,..--'••
Fig. 3.  Wire-net supports in pond " B " at low tide. 7 Geo. 5
Pack of British Columbia Salmon.
B 117
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON,  SEASON  1916.
Compiled from Figures furnished the Department by the B.C. Salmon Canners' Association.
Names.
Sockeyes.
Red
Springs.
White
Springs.
Chums.
Pinks.
Cohoes.
Steel-
heads.
Grand
Totals
(Cases).
Eraser River District—
B.C. Packers' Association	
Anglo B.C. Packing Co., Ltd
3. H. Todd & Sons	
11,717
2,481
1,029
4,752
1,300
940
1,186
1,023
3,140
742
940
1,167
983
178
216
362
32,146
2,432
470
452
6,677
1,231
665
630
619
795
53
49
1,268
1,200
511
821
2,761
668
1,100
2,213
"'47
556
1,875
"i72
955
818
265
3,936
72
2,834
740
325
923
1,487
1,427
9,483
2,320
170
4,310
350
2,547
30,924
48
"i35
"372
285
5,505
476
2,499
6,750
608
500
3,121
1,184
4,745
60
159
465
1,675
613
1,972
99S
1,265
LJ861
3
27,664
4,167
7,914
J. H. Todd & Sons (Esquimalt)
21,032
3,464
Glen Rose Canning Co., Ltd	
Great West Packing Co., Ltd	
Gosse-Millerd Packing Co., Ltd.   , .
Steveston Canning Co., Ltd	
2,975
6,980
4,253
20,173
855
3,640
Jervis Inlet Canning Co., Ltd	
St. Mungo Canning Co., Ltd	
Eagle Harbour Canning Co., Ltd....
Liverpool Canning Co., Ltd	
J. W. Windsor	
3,070
9,123
4,703
5,824
1,635
Totals      ... .
17,673
11,430
418
729
143
187
407
349
328
2,561
840
18,984
9,673
5,464
4,460
6,311
4,391
6,802
10,582
2,047
4,315
73,029
1,274
407
875
193
267
491
3,567
8,508
20,428
11,460
19,197
31,330
3,129
127,472
Skeena River District—
13,337
8,931
5,344
5,428
5.379
3,527
6,108
9,006
1,802
2,061
3,850
2,855
532
1,125
1,722
1,339
1,370
1,013
1,662
2,904
5,783
3,817
658
2,033
1,066
676
1,597
626
566
299
17,121
10,707
4,910
10,584
3,327
1,986
2,429
1,470
1,969
9,082
945
47,409
2,268
"757
426
292
55,347
Anglo B.C. Packing Co., Ltd	
J. H. Todd & Sons	
30,915
22,725
17,317
B.C. Canning Co., Ltd	
17,297
12,654
17,696
23,196
Gosse-Millerd Packing Co., Ltd	
Canadian Fish & Cold Stor. Co., Ltd.
15,487
10,524
60,923
18,372
439
242
148
204
3,743
223,158
Rivers Inlet District—
B.C. Packers' Association	
Anglo B.C. Packing Co., Ltd	
J. II. Todd& Sons	
15,839
5,430
5,692
7,191
5,610
5,174
44,936
"389
8,315
10,886
685
"230
28
3,940
5,665
2,463
3,246
29,807
22,837
9,715
7,626
9,501
5,897
Totals	
1,033
984
598
875
604
389
20,144
15,314
352
1,044
102
85,383
Nass River District—
6,715
13,523
7,402
3,711
188
596
784
"36
45
"42
1,074
2,635
3,858
3,633
11,200
3,060
3,748
6,394
5,937
Anglo B.C. Packing Co., Ltd	
41,528
31,093
33,184
31,411
1,385
494
269
3,368
1,546
2,101
60
3,061
59,593
71
20,382
1,350
9,595
2,430
1,166
19,139
1,498
126,686
Vancouver Island District—
3,731
105
145
15
153
458
118
16,127
5,210
15,420
947
4,445
4,698
325
47,178
1,653
7,379
7,590
3,520
6,067
660
1,620
28,489
22,967
Quathiaski Canning Co., Ltd	
Nanaimo Canners & Packers, Ltd...
Goletas Fish Co., Ltd	
Preston Packing Co., Ltd	
Clayoquot Sound Canning Co., Ltd.
Gulf Islands Fishing Co., Ltd	
33,606
24,825
17,445
13,095
7,362
5,371
60
Totals	
9,223
4,725
3,211
"l84
174
15
412
1,700
665
123
34,993
24,147
8,956
5,749
23,735
3,301
1,260
16,834
24,640
108,622
124,731
Outlying Districts—
11,647
261
982
5,540
1,512
2,078
14,130
36,150
'"27
"ll3
68
208
5,302
11,203
4,992
28,214
31,304
1,601
18,987
11,971
15,940
3,167
2,653
8,940
6,330
2,123
244
2,545
"336
376
712
60,247
23,587
14,896
67,006
Gosse-Millerd Packing Co., Ltd	
42,462
7,647
37,839
53,951
6,367
113,634
41,942
307,635
214,780
51,231
15,435
240,201
230,644
183,623
9,082
995,035 S 118
Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries.
1917
Tacked by Districts in Previous Years.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
1911.
1910.
1909.
1908.
1907.
1906.
1905.
1904.
Fraser River...
Skeena River..
Nass River ....
Rivers Inlet...
Outlying	
289,199
279,161
146,838
104,289
313,894
328,390
237,634
94,890
109,052
341,073
1,111,039
732,059
164,055
68,096
53,423
336,268
1,353,901
173,921
254,258
137,697
71,162
359,538
301,344
254,410
65,648
101,066
226,461
228,148
222,035
39,720
129,398
147,900
567,203
140,739
40,990
91,014
127,974
89,184
209,177
46,908
75,090
122,380
163,116
159,255
31,832
94,064
99,192
240,486
162,420
32,534
122,878
71,142
629,460
877,130
114,085
32,725
83,122
60,392
128,903
154,809
19,085
94,295
68,745
Totals
1,133,381
996,576
948,965
762,201
967,920
542,689
547,459
1,167,460
465,894
PACK OF PUGET SOUND SALMON, SEASON 1916.
Furnished the Department by Kelley-Clahke Co., Seattle.
Grades.
Tails.
Flats.
Halves.
(8 doz. to case.)
Total Cases.
105
11,779
63,946
1,909
403,721
15,442
248
26,799
252
S.395
62,929
21,206
70,577
1,712
21,298
78,476
33,233
101,322
3,621
433,414
Totals	
481,460
51,136
177,722
710,31S
Puget Sound Pinks run biennially.   Due agiau in 1917.    Values based on opening prices.
Approximate value 1916 Puget Sound pack, ^3,675,561.20.
Comparative Packs of Puget Sound.
Gra
Sockeyes	
Red Tyees	
Cohoes	
Puget Sound Pinks
Chums	
Totals	
78,476
33,233
161,322
3,621
433,414
710,318
64,483
22,982
180,799
589,780
410,687
1,268,731
336,242
21,132
151,135
909
280,070
1,664,837
891
49,150
7S8.789
50,176
2,553,843
1911.
1910.
1909.
1908.
126,950
13,579
244,208
1,038,136
111,143
227,133
7,304
154,077
148, S10
992,235
12,885
139,297
365,156
52,251
1,561,824
155,218
7,010
95,863
51,186
1,534,016
537,324
309,277
90,631
6,343
111,611
448,730
51,840
709,155 7 Geo. 5
Salmon-pack of Province.
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