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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA THIRTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR ENDING… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1919

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 PEOVINCE OF BHITISH COLUMBIA
THIRTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF   THE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR 1918
PRINTED by
AUTHORITY   OF   THE   LEGISLATIVE   ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by William H. Ctjllin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty,
1019.  To His Honour Sir Frank Stillman Barnard, K.C.M.G.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I have the honour to submit for your consideration herewith the Annual Eeport
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1918.
E. D. BABKOW,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., March 26th, 1919.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Report of the Acting Deputy Minister of Agriculture—W. T. McDonald— Page.
Agricultural Conditions  1
Agricultural Journal  3
Horticulture     3
Increased Production   1
Land Settlement    1
Live Stock  1
Statistics   3
Veterinary Inspection     2
Report of Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests—M. S. Middleton—
Activities  4
Codling-moth Situation     4
Competitions    5
Packing-schools     5
Pear-blight  5
Pruning-schools     5
Report of Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, Okanagan, Similkameen,
Boundary,   Salmon  Arm,   and  Canadian   Pacific   Railway   Main  Line  Districts—
B. Hoy-
Aphis Experiments  6
Apple-scab   6
Cover-crops     6
Experimental and Demonstration work   6
Fall Fairs    6
Field-crop Competitions  6
Lectures     6
Lime  7
Packing-schools     6
Peach-worm   6
Inspection-work—
Car and Nursery Inspection  7
Codling-moth' Control in Vernon District   9
Codling-moth Inspection    ,  -7
Exported Fruit and Vegetables   8
Fire-blight Inspection     8
Grasshoppers  8
Onion-thrip and Onion-maggot    S
Peach and Apricot Inspection   7
Pea-weevil  8
San Jose Scale   S
Wireworms  S
Woolly Aphis  8
Report of Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, Vancouver island and Lower
Mainland Districts—E. W. White—
Chilliwack Small-fruit Plot  i  10
Competitions    11
Experimental Spraying    11
Fall Fairs  11
Fruit and Vegetable Production   12
Insect Pests and Diseases  12
Nursery Inspection  12
Orchard-renovation in Fraser Valley    0
Pear-thrips     10 vi. Contents.
Report of Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests, East and West Kootenays—
E. C. Hunt— Page.
Competitions      14
Cover-crops     15
Diseases and Insect Pests   16
Experimental Spraying   14
Report.of District Field Inspector, Lower Mainland District—K. W. Munson—
Demonstrations  IS
General Work ,  19
Flea-beetle Experiments  IS
Grafting  18
Pruning    '.  17
Report of Prairie Markets Commissioner—J. A. Grant—■
Advertising     27
Apples  '."  23 .
Apricots and Peaches   23
Blackberries, Loganberries, etc  22
Cantaloupes   24
Celery  24
Cherries     22
Citron, Squash, etc  24
Crop Estimates  25
Cucumbers   25
Distribution    '.  26
Eastern Markets  27
Hothouse Tomatoes     22
Less than Car-load Shipments    20
Market Organization    20
Pears     23
Prairie Markets Bulletin    21
Potatoes  24
Prunes and Plums     23
Raspberries  22
Refrigerator-cars  20
Rhubarb    21
Strawberries  22
Report of Coast Markets Commissioner and Inspector in Charge of Exports—R. C. Abbott—.
Local Markets     30
Office Activities  28
Adjustment of Disputes    29
Loss in Transit    29
Fruit Inspection     30
Weekly Market Letters  28
Report of Provincial Pathologist—J. W. Eastham—
Apple Anthracnose    33
Apple-scab    ".  33
Experimental Spraying    33
New Diseases    32
Leaf-roll of Potatoes   32
White-pine blister-rust  33
Potato-diseases  34
Weather Conditions and Diseases   35
Vernon Laboratory    36
Report of Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock—W. H. Lyne—
Australian Wheat   3S
Cold-storage Experiments   39
Fumigation by Steam  39- Contents. vii.
Report of Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock—Concluded. Page.
Nursery Stock condemned    40
Products fumigated  40
Staff     36
Superheating   39
Vancouver Fumigation Station  37
Victoria Fumigation Station    37
Report of Dairy Instructor and Inspector—T. A. F. Wiancko—
British Columbia Dairymen's Association   44
Canadian National Record of Performance  44
Cheese-making     43
City Dairies  43
Cow-testing     43
Creameries   42
" Dairies Regulation Act"  44
Dominion Dairy Conference  45
General Condition   41
Official Testers   44
Prices  41
Report of Soil and Crop Division—E. W. Hogan—
Clover and Bean Thresher   4S
Co-operative Variety Testing   48
Demonstration Stations   45
Experimental Work re Potatoes   49
Field-crop Competitions  4S
Seed Competitions  4S
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector—Dr. A. Knight—
Cattle, Entozoa in   50
Goitre  51
Hacmorrhagic Septicemia    51
Horses, Influenza among  49
Plant-poisoning   50
Sheep, Internal Parasites among  50
Stables and Dairies    51
Tuberculosis  51
Report of District Agriculturist, Kamloops—Geo. C. Hay—
Boys' and Girls' Clubs     52
Canadian Co-operative Wool Growers, Limited   52
105-Mile Dry Farm Station   54
105-Mile Dry Farm Station (Report by J. W. McKinley, Manager)     55
Quilchena Dry Farm Station   53
Stock-sales  53
Report of Silo Demonstrator—R. J. Ferris—
Increased Number of Silos in Province  56
Silos for Central British Columbia and South-East Kootenays  56
Report of Publications Branch—R. J. Ferris—
Agricultural Journal  57
Report of Secretary of the Department—Wm. J. Bonavia—
Agricultural Fairs     g5
Bee-inspection Work     62
British Columbia Students   62
Correspondence .. +               _ 60
Farmers' Institutes   63
Advisory Board   63
Financial     61
" Agricultural Instruction Act, 1918-19 "  62
" Seed-grain Act, 1918 "   62 viii. Contents.
Report of Secretary of the Department—Concluded. Page.
Horticultural Bonds and Licences   Go
Publications  . ■ • • 60
Temporary Appointments    59
.Women's Institutes   64
Conferences    64
Competitions   65
Report of Statistics Branch—A. B. Tweddle—
Crop  Correspondents     67
Food Production, City and Suburban   67
Postal Census, 1918  67
Production, Cost of   67
Report of Apiary Inspection and Instruction, Kootenays and Boundary—W. J. Sheppard ... 6S
Report of Soldiers of the Soil Movement—Jas. H. Beatty   69
Report of Chief Poultry Instructor—J. R. Terry—
Boys' and Girls' Competitions   72
British Columbia Poultry Association  71
Egg-laying Contest    71
" Eggs Marks Act" Inspection   72
Fall Fairs    71
General Conditions   '.  70
Lectures and Demonstrations  '.  71
Poultry-diseases  72
Rabbit-breeding  70
Appendices.
Appendix No.—
1. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., inspected at Vancouver, 1917-18   74
2. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at Vancouver, 1917-18   75
3. Imported Fruit, Potatoes,  Corn,  etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry in British
Columbia, 1917-18  _.  75
4. Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which no Certificates were issued, 1918  76
5. Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at Ports of Entry,, 1917-1S    77
0. Imported Rice, Beans, etc., inspected at Vancouver and Victoria, 1917-18  7S
7. Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Vancouver, 1917-18   79
S. Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver, 1917-18  80
9. British Columbia Dairymen's Association, Butter Competition, 191S  81
10. List of Active Creameries in British Columbia :  82
11. Summary of Creamery Report, 191S  82
12. List of Prize-winners, Cow-testing Associations, 1918  83
13. Milk-testers licensed under " Dairies Regulation Act," 191S   84
14. Creamery or Dairy Licences issued in 191S  So
15. Tuberculin Tests  S6
15a. Brands  87
16. Quilchena Dry Farm, Stock and Equipment, December 31st, 1918   SS
17. 105-Mile Dry Farm, Stock and Equipment, November 25th, 1918  90
IS. Total Correspondence, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, Years ending December
31st, 1917 and 1918  02
19. Provincial Estimates, Department of Agriculture, Years ending March 31st, 1917,
1918,  and 1919   .'  93
20. Farmers' Institutes, Expenditure, Years ending December 31st, 1917 and 1918  94
21. Women's Institutes, Expenditure, Years ending December 31st, MJ17 and 1918  94
22. Grant to Agricultural Associations re Fall Fairs  94
23. British Columbia Poultry-show Groups    95
24. Summary of Results, Egg-laying Contest, Period ending October, 1918   96 BRITISH  COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
BRANCHES AND CHIEF STAFF MEMBERS, YEAR 1918.
Minister of Agriculture: m
Hon. John Oliveb.
Hon. E. D. Baheow.
Deputy Minister:
Wm. E. Scott.
W. T. McDonald, Acting.
Secretary:
Wm. J. Bonavia.
Statistician:
A. B. Tweddi.e.
Secretary to Minister:
E. J. Rossiteis.
F. W. Laing.
Horticultural Branch:
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
B. Hoy, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of .Fruit Pests.
E. W. White, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
P. E. French, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
E. C. Hunt, B.S., Acting Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests   (on
active service).
W. T. Hunter. B.S.A., Assistant District Fruit Pest Inspector.
J. Tait, Assistant District Fruit Pest Inspector. ■
H. H. Evans, Assistant District Fruit Pest Inspector.
C. R. Barlow, District Fruit Inspector.
H. Gutteridge, Assistant Potato Inspector and Investigator of Potato-diseases.
R. C. Abbott, Coast Markets Commissioner and Inspector In Charge of Exports.
J. A. Grant, Prairie Fruit Markets Commissioner, succeeding W. E. McTaggart.
J. L. Hilbobn, in charge, Fruit and Vegetable Experimental Station, Summerland.
E. W. Buckell, Inspector on Codling-moth.
Imported Fruit Inspection Branch:
W. H. Lyne, Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Rice, ete.
D. Gavet, Assistant Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Rice, etc.
W. J. Graham, Assistant Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, Rice, etc.
H. F. Olds, Assistant Inspector of Imported Fruit, Vegetables, Rice, etc.
Plant Pathology and Entomology Branch:
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist.
M. H. Ruhmann, Assistant Plant Pathologist.
Live Slock Branch:
W. T. McDonald, M.S.A., Live Stock Commissioner.
H. Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Instructor and Inspector (on active service).
T. A. F. Wiancico, Dairy Instructor and Inspector.
J. R. Tebbt, Instructor in Poultry-raising. Branches and Staff Members.
Live Stock Brandt—Concluded.
H. E. L'pton, Assistant Instructor in Poultry-raising.
H". O. English, B.A., B.S.A., Soil and Crop Instructor.
E. W. Hogan, B.S.A., Soil and Crop Instructor.
W. Newton, Soil and Crop Instructor (on active service).
G. C. Hay, B.S.A., Agriculturist.
Dr. A. Knight, V.S., Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. S. A. K. White, V.S., Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. W. W. Alton, VS., Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
Dr. B. R. Ilsley, V.S., Assistant Veterinary Inspector.
E. Rive, Official Milk-tester.
G. H. Thornbeby, Cow-tester.
J. W. Candy, Cow-tester.
A. Lewarne, Cow-tester.
E. F. Weetman, Cow-tester.
J. B. Watson, Official Milk-tester.
R. J. Ferris, Silo Demonstrator.
W. H. Steoyan, Poultry Caretaker.
R. Cahilty, Brands Inspector.
J. AV. McKinley, Foreman, Quilchena Experimental Station.
E. Beookland, Foreman, 105-Mile Experimental Station.
Foul-brood Inspectors:
F. D. Todd, Victoria. W. J. Sheppard, Nelson.
L. Harris, Vernon.
Women's Institutes:
Mrs. A. Blackwood-Wileman, Chairman, Advisory Board, Duncan.
Mrs. A. L. Trask, Oyaina (member).
Mrs. F. B. Fadden, Huntingdon (member).
Mrs. J. S. Chalmers, Thrums (member).
Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan, Secretary, Advisory Board, R.F.D. No. 3, Victoria.
Accountant:
W. T. Andrews.
Clerical:
G. B. Martin. E. T. Williams.
G. L. Foulkes (on active service). V. F. Babington.
C. P. L. Pearson. M. M. Patchett.
Geo. Pilmer. P. Warren.
R. E. Mitchell. A. E. Hill.
J. H. Buckett. A. V. Evans.
G. H. Stewart (on active service). D. Macklin.
G. Hawes. M. G. Bubnyeat.
General:
A. H. Shotbolt, General Assistant.
D. E.Mackebeth, Carpenter.
Publications Branch:
M. A. Stuabt, Agriculturist and Acting-Editor. REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
REPORT OF THE ACTING DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE.
W. T. McDonald, M.S.A.
Hon. E. D. Barrow,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report for the Department of Agriculture
for the year 1918.
I was appointed Acting Deputy Minister of Agriculture on April 10th, 101S, owing to the
serious illness of W. E. Scott, who resigned as Deputy Minister of Agriculture on August 31st,
1918.
Ageiculttjbal Conditions.
The winter of 1917-18 wTas fairly severe and was followed by a late spring. There was a
very limited rainfall during the early part of the summer over Vancouver Island and adjacent
islands, the Lower Mainland, and the Southern Interior, which was responsible for low yields
of fall crops over the areas mentioned. In the range districts the conditions appeared very
unfavourable for a time owing to the shortage of hay and pasture, but rains in the latter part
of summer helped out the fall grazing, while a mild fall and more or less open weather till the
end of the year have greatly improved the outlook. In the Central Interior portion of the
Province traversed by the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway there was a liberal rainfall, with an
abundance of rough feed. Much of the hay produced in this area was more or less injured by
rain during the haying season, but, while rendered unsuitable for marketing purposes, an indirect
benefit has resulted therefrom owing to the fact that it has encouraged the purchase of cattle,
to which it is being fed on the farms. In this section of the Province the winter was extremely
late, with the result that some of the grain-crops were more or less injured by early frosts.
As the war progressed the labour problem became more and-more acute. This problem was
met in the fruit districts by the introduction of girls as pickers, who deserve great credit for the
loyal manner in which they did their part to support the efforts made along the lines of increased
production.
Campaign fob Increased Peoduction.
In the 1918 session of the Legislature an Act was placed on the Statutes which provided for
the setting-aside of $50,000 to be used in the purchase of seed-grain, which might be sold on time
to farmers where there was difficulty in securing seed-grain locally. In this manner, much land
was seeded to crop, which otherwise would have lain idle.
During the spring and early summer the services of G. S. Harris and H. C. Helgesen were
secured in connection with the hog-production campaign, and incidentally to encourage dairy
production as well. Both of these men have been successful hog-raisers, and their advice proved
of great value in the districts which they visited. In this connection the Department decided
that, instead of urging farmers indiscriminately to raise more hogs, it would he wise to urge
the growing of pasture and other feed for hogs, and thus lower the cost of production. Where
conditions appeared to be decidedly unfavourable for hog production, people were advised not
to undertake the enterprise. As a result of this kind of a campaign we are satisfied that adequate
results were secured without endangering the industry to a reaction which we felt would follow
an indiscriminate campaign.
At this time I desire to place on record the patriotic co-operation of the farmers of the
Province, who on every occasion nobly responded to the call for increased production.
Land Settlement.
There has been a considerable influx of settlers along the line of the Grand Trunk Pacific
Railway in Central British Columbia, and with the cessation of the war we anticipate a rapid
development of this portion of the Province. The Peace River District is also attracting settlers,
and it is hoped that in the near future this important section of the Province will have railway
facilities. W 2 Department of Agriculture. 1919
Live Stock.
Horses.—The horse-breeding industry has been at a low ebb in the Province, and owing to
the extremely high price of feed during the present winter all surplus horses that could be
disposed of were sold in the fall. The result is that the number of horses in the Province now
appears to have reached the minimum, and even with the encroaching competition of the tractor
we anticipate that towards spring we will see the beginning of a good demand for draught horses
of size and quality.
Beef Cattle.—There has beeii a tendency on the part of some of the largest operators in
cattle-ranching*to reduce their herds owing to the limited amount of range, but it is confidently
expected that, under the new plan of administering the public ranges now being outlined by the
Government, a much larger number of cattle can be carried than heretofore. A goodly number
of beef cattle have been, imported along the Grand Trunk Pacific from Alberta.
Dairying.—Owing to the high price of hay and grain there has been a tendency during the
past fall ou the part of some dairymen to reduce their herds, and in a few cases herds have
been entirely dispersed. Taking the Province as a whole, however, there has been a marked
increase in dairying during the year 191S.
Cow-testing Associations are proving an important factor in stimulating a keener interest
in the care and management of the dairy herd, and as the work extends the results obtained will
demonstrate the advantage to be gained by the dairy-farmers in availing themselves of this
opportunity to secure assistance in placing their operations on an up-to-date business basis?
Dairy production has been greatly stimulated as the result of the campaign carried on by
the Department for an increased number of silos, and at the present time Ontario is the only
Province in Canada that has a greater proportion of silos than British Columbia, and it is
expected that within a year or two this .Province will stand first.
Hogs.—As the result of the patriotic appeal made at the early part of the year to farmers
to raise more hogs there has been a marked increase in the production over that of last year.
When the appeal was made the farmers responded in a whole-hearted manner, and on every
hand there was evidenced a keen desire to assist in increasing the food-supply along this line.
Sheep.—During the year 191S there has been an increased interest in sheep production owing
to the high prices of wool and mutton that have prevailed. The number of sheep in the Province
has shown an increase over the previous year, and this would have been much greater but for
the difficulty in securing breeding stock and the high prices prevailing for the same. A large
part of the wool produced in the Province is now marketed co-operatively, and the prices on
the whole have been extremely gratifying to the grower. The proposed new grazing regulations
will undoubtedly stimulate a much greater production of sheep in the Interior of the Province.
Coats.—The year 1918 has marked an Important step in the development of this comparatively new industry in our Province. Through the activity of some of our British Columbia
breeders a Canadian Goat Society has been organized,- and herd-book registration has been
established under the supervision of the National Live Stock Records Board. A number of
high-priced animals have been imported into the Province from Great Britain and the United
States, and doubtless the industry will assume considerable importance in the near future.
Poultry.—The poultry industry has shown no increase during the past year, but this was
to be expected owing to the high price of feed that prevailed. Poultrymen who were so situated
that it was necessary for them to purchase all of the feed required were particularly affected,
but, notwithstanding, many have been able to show very satisfactory results at the end of the
season. The situation that has prevailed has had a tendency to induce culling, with the result
that the standard of excellence for the Province has been raised by a considerable degree.
Vetebinary Inspection.
During the year 15,705 head of cattle were tuberculin-tested, and 568 reactors were found.
An effort was made to follow systematic testing of the herds not tested in the year 1917, but
owing to the large number of requests for the testing of other herds it was found difficult to
carry on the work in a systematic manner with the number of Inspectors oh the staff.
There is a continued improvement in the sanitary conditions of the stables and dairies, with
a marked tendency to replace old buildings with more modern structures. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 3
Horticulture.
Owing to the good prices prevailing for nearly all classes of fruit, fruit-growers on the whole
have had a very satisfactory year. The yield of strawberries was greatly reduced by extremely
dry weather at the time the crop was maturing. For the year 1917 the estimated value of
the fruit-crop was $2,SS4,954, while for the past year it reached $4,415,160. The value of the
vegetable-crop was almost double that of the previous year.
Statistics gathered relative to the production on city lots, show that the following was
produced:—
Vegetables    .'   $   869.240
Poultry  (dressed)        256,666
Eggs :.       595,448
Rabbits  75,000
Goats     700
Pigs     88,680
Dairy products        314.925
Veal    6,324
Honey     15,529
Total   $2,222,512
The Prairie and Coast Markets Commissioners have been of great .assistance to fruit and
vegetable growers, as well as to others in the Province, by keeping them in touch with market
conditions and giving them information relative to the best methods of marketing their produce.
Agricultural Statistics.
Our Statistician of the Department has had the co-operation of the Dominion Statistician
in collecting agricultural statistics of the Province. These statistics show an increase in nearly
all lines of agricultural production, and while there is an increase of 10 per cent, in the value
of our imports of agricultural products over the previous year, this difference is much more than
offset by the increased prices that have prevailed.
Agricultural Journal.
The Agricultural Journal has been iii circulation for nearly three years, and during the past
year its circulation has increased from 2,500 to 6,000. The effectiveness of this publication in
spreading information to farmers throughout the Province has more than justified the undertaking, and is extremely gratifying to the Department.   -
Correspondence.
The correspondence during the past year has shown a very marked increase, aud is proof
of the increasing use that is being made of the information furnished by the Department. This
increase is particularly marked in the case of the Live Stock Branch, where it Is approximately
30 per cent, over that of the previous year.
Reports of Staff Officials.
Appended hereto are the reports of various members of the staff of the Department, which
furnish detailed information regarding the activities carried on by these officials.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
W. T. McDonalu,
Acting Deputy Minister. W 4 Department of Agriculture. 1919
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL HORTICULTURIST AND INSPECTOR OF FRUIT PESTS.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Acting Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to report on the work of the Horticultural Branch for the period
from January 1st, 1918, to November 15th, 1918.
Officials.
The staff has been well maintained considering present existing conditions. P. E. French,
B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist in the Vernon section, resigned on June 15th of this year, after
seven years of faithful and valuable service. B. tloy, Assistant Horticulturist at Kelowna, took
over the Vernon territory in addition to his own. Several men have been employed temporarily
during the year, mainly on special work in horticulture.
Activities.
The work of the Branch has been carried on along the most economical and efficient manner
possible. Orchard visits and inspections have been made as far as time and men would permit;
orchard records made and reported on current year slips, and this data recorded on our
five-year forms; this work was Ti follow-up on the records gathered during 1916. Many meetings
were held and field demonstrations given in different fruit sections of the country. Judging of
fruit and vegetables at fall fairs was carried out by our officials in nearly every instance;
packing-schools, pruning-schools, and horticultural competitions were arranged and judged;
demonstration spraying for the control of apple-scab, apple-tree anthracnose, peach-worm, etc.,
in co-operation with our Plant Pathologist, the Dominion Entomologist, and University Officials.
Assistance was also given to other branches of the Department wherever possible in helping
them carry out their work most effectively; inspection for codling-moth in area infested, banding
and spraying for its control and eradication; inspection of foreign cars at points of assembly
for codling-moth; inspection of and reporting on fruit for export; inspection of potatoes for
outside points, and assistance to potato-shippers in proper loading of cars for shipment, etc.;
inspection of nurseries; the collecting of fruit and vegetable crop estimates and figures in
co-operation with the Statistics Branch of this Department; market-extension work, reporting
on condition of markets and fruits and vegetables on arrival; the publishing of a weekly market
bulletin at Vancouver and Calgary, giving wholesale and retail prices as well as f.o.b. prices
from the main shipping centres, has also been a valuable feature in the work of this Branch.
Visits were made to the principal fruit centres in Washington and Oregon by your Horticulturist
and the Prairie Markets Commissioner. The Western Washington horticultural meeting at
Seattle in February was attended by myself. E. W. White, W. T. Hunter, and myself attended
the Western horticulturists' meeting at Corvallis, Oregon, in August, where an opportunity was
afforded us of meeting the leading horticultural men from all the Western United States, and
great benefits were derived from the splendid addresses there delivered.
CODLING-MOTH   SITUATION.
Work has been carried on as usual in the control, and with hopes of eradication, of codling-
moth at Westbank and Okanagan Landing as in past years. At Westbank spraying was continued
this year in connection with banding the trees, and so far no worms have been found, which is
very encouraging indeed.
The work should be continued next year in case of an oversight in inspection and the
possibility of re-establishment. At Okanagan Landing the situation last year led us to believe
that we had the infestation corralled in two orchards, and, following a very reasonable offer
on the part of the owners of these two infested orchards, it was decided to buy the crop and
pick and destroy same, to starve the worms if any were found. The banding of the trees
was continued and several inspections made, during the season, with clean results to report.
Unfortunately, fresh infestations were discovered in some of the town-lot trees in Vernon shortly
after our other work had commenced. Since theu other infestations have been found in lots
between Vernon and the Landing. A quarantine has been placed on all the adjoining orchards
and the trees banded, and the fruit thoroughly inspected for worms.    Owing to the limited area 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 5
infected the work of control and hopes of eradication are quite feasible, and this work must
go on even though we have failed in our first attempt at its total eradication. The endeavour
to keep this serious fruit pest out of our Province is of vital importance when we realize its
ravages and enormous additional spraying costs to the growers where it has gained an entrance.
It is estimated that it would cost our growers $5 for spraying per acre, and that at least three
sprays would have to be applied in order to keep the worm under control. This would mean the
great sum of $600,000 for spraying, basing our fruit acreage at 40,000 acres, besides the very
considerable loss in fruit and the lowering of grades. It might be mentioned that the losses
from the codling-worm in some of our leading fruit sections in the Western States to the south
of us suffered losses this year up to 25 per cent, of their crop.
It is felt that the growers in the infested sections should be made to bear more of the
expense and to realize the seriousness of the pest and work the Government is doing to help
them. Strict supervision and consistent methods and endeavours must be continued if we hope
to stamp it out of the Province.
Pear-blight.
The prevalence of this pest is greater in some sections this year than usual,'and every effort
will have to be made to compel, as usual, growers to thoroughly cut it out during the winter.
Much educational work has been carried on by the Branch in past years, so that in the majority
of the sections the growers are fairly familiar with the control methods and proper treatment.
Packing-schools.
Forty-four schools were held this year with a total attendance of 656 pupils, 2S7 of whom
were junior class pupils. Many of these schools were held in the larger centres, where additional
help in packing and harvesting was expected to come from. A great many of these pupils were
women organized under the Y.W.C.A. Many of these pupils went into the fruit sections during
the picking and packing season and did excellent work.
Pruning-sch ools.
There were only four of these schools held this year owing to the lack of suitable pupils, all
the young men having left for the Front. These schools are very useful and will prove more
popular—a great benefit in the districts in which they are held.
Hoeticultural Competitions.
Eight farm garden, four city garden, one strawberry, one tomato, and one onion competition
were arranged for and judged by the officials of the Branch. These competitions proved very
useful and instructive where a good keen competition was worked up. This work has been
carried on for four years in many sections and still good interest is being exhibited. This
feature of our activities worked well along with the increased-production work in the different
cities and districts.
Publications.
It was realized that there was a great demand for a concise, brief, and practical circular
dealing with horticultural subjects under British Columbia conditions, and a start has been made
on a list of some fifty different subjects in a new horticultural series. Twenty of these have been
issued so far.
Conclusion.
My report would be lacking were I not to mention the cheerful assistance rendered at all
times by the officials of this Branch in carrying ont the work of the Department to the best
interests of all during the time your Horticulturist has been in charge, and the hearty co-operation
and good-fellowship at all times exhibited by officials in other branches of the Department.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
M. S. Middleton,
Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests. W 6 Department of Agriculture. 1919
REPORT  OF  ASSISTANT  HORTICULTURIST  AND  INSPECTOR  OF  FRUIT  PESTS,
OKANAGAN,   SIMILKAMEEN,  BOUNDARY,   SALMON  ARM,  AND   CANADIAN
PACIFIC   RAILWAY   MAIN   LINE  DISTRICTS.
B. Hoy, B.S.A.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Acting Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Below is a report of the work done by the Horticultural Branch in the Okanagan,
Similkameen, Boundary, Salmon Arm, and Canadian Pacific Railway Main Line Districts for
the year 1918.
Changes in Staff.
Last spring M. H. Chesbro, District Field Inspector for the Kelowna District, resigned and
no new appointment was made. P. E. French, Assistant Horticulturist in charge of the North
Okanagan and Salmon Arm District, resigned in April and this district was placed under the
supervision of the writer in July.
Lectubes and Fall Faibs.
Lectures on horticultural subjects were given at Rutland, Glenmore, British Columbia Fruitgrower's Association annual convention at Victoria, Keremeos, Summerland, and renticton.
Fall fairs were attended in the capacity of judge of fruit and vegetables at Armstrong, Summer-
land, Kelowna, and Rock Creek. Separate reports of these fairs have been mailed to the
Department.
The District Field Inspectors assisted the Department with fall fairs and with institutes
throughout the district.
Field-ceop Competitions.
The following crop competitions were judged by members of the Horticultural Branch:
Potato competitions.at Grand Forks, Rock Creek, and Bridesville were judged by Mr. Hunter;
farm-garden competitions at Enderby, Grindrod, and Mara and juvenile war-gardens competition
at Oyama were judged by Mr. Evans; corn, onion, bean, and tomato competitions at Kelowna
were judged by the writer.
Packing-schools.
The policy of holding packing-schools was again continued, and much time was spent by
the members of the staff in arranging and organizing these schools in the various districts.
The reports of these schools were sent in to the Department at Victoria by the various Instructors
at the close of each school.
EXPEBIMENTAL  AND  DeMONSTEATION.
Apple-scab.—The experiments on apple-scab were conducted on similar lines as the two
previous years, with the exception that in the " materials" test at Salmon Arm " Sherwin
Williams Dry Lime Sulphur " was added to the list of materials being tested. The results of
these experiments have been very good and have demonstrated most emphatically that apple-scab
cam he successfully controlled at a very reasonable cost per acre. A separate report of detailed
results has been mailed to the Department.
Aphis Experiments.—Experiments were conducted for the second time at Vernon on the
control of green aphis. This work was started with the idea of finding a cheaper efficient spray.
Black Leaf 40, 1 to 2,000 with 2 lb. of lime added to every 100 gallons of the mixture, is a much
cheaper spray than those in general use, and in the tests made where this spray was used there
was 90 per cent, mortality in the aphis.
Peach-worm.—The results of this experiment showed lime-sulphur at a strength of 1-7
applied when the peach-blossoms show pink in colour to be very effective in controlling this
pest. The chief thing about this spray is to get it on at the time stated and do a thorough
job, driving the spray into all the crotches.
Cover-crops.—Owing to the demand for information on fertilizing of orchards, cover-crop
experiments were begun this year at Salmon Arm, Vernon, and Penticton. A small amount of
seed of hairy vetch and sweet clover was bought and placed in the hands of some of the most
reliable growers by the District Field Inspectors, who supervised the preparation of the ground 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 7
and planting. The Inspectors will advise the growers as to the proper methods of handling these
cover-crops and keep a record of the results of the work. The time is not far distant when
fruit-growers will need the best advice there is in this important phase of orcharding.
Lime Experiment.—To test out the value of lime in the Salmon Arm District on some of the
acid soils, six plots were chosen of % acre in size on the different soil types. The lime has been
applied to three of these and will be applied to the other three in the spring. This work is
being done under the supervision of Mr. Barlow, District Inspector at Salmon Arm.
INSPECTION-WOBK.
Car Inspection.—All foreign refrigerator-cars coming into the valley were inspected at
Okanagan Lauding for codling-moth. All sweepings from these cars were destroyed by burning.
The same sort of inspection took place at Keremeos. One hundred and twenty-two cars were
inspected at these two points and twenty larvse were captured. This work is very important in
keeping the country free of codling-moth, as this pest could be easily introduced from this source.
Nursery Inspection.—The Riverside Nursery at Grand Forks, the Kaleden Nursery at
Kaleden, Stewart's Nursery at Kelowna, and Smith & Gorham's Nursery at Hullcar were
inspected during the summer and the fall. Further inspection will be necessary during the
shipping season in the spring at those nurseries where the trees are not taken up until spring.
Peach and Apricot Inspection.—A campaign against the peach-twig borer was started this
spring in Summerland, Peachland, Penticton, and Kaleden. Spraying with lime-sulphur when
the blossom-buds showed pink was insisted upon by your Inspectors in all peach and apricot
orchards. Practically all growers gave their hearty support to this work, and only in the case
of absentee ownership did. we meet any obstacles. In these instances the orchards were either
cut down or sprayed by the Department.
During the shipping season shipments of peaches and apricots were inspected so far as time
would permit, with the result that the number of wormy peaches leaving the district was greatly
minimized.
The results of the effort and time given to this work was very satisfactory. The good
results from systematic spraying was very pronounced.
Codling-moth.—At Walhachin, Vernon, and Westbank the Department has orchards under
quarantine for codling-moth. The same policy that was adopted in 1916 was carried through
this year in the Westbank work. Two sprays of arsenate of lead were applied, the calyx spray
commencing May 20th and the second spray commencing June 20th. Twelve thousand trees
were banded and the bands inspected five times during the season. On the third inspection,
which commenced on August 6th, three worms were found. Two more Inspections followed
this, but no signs of the pest were found. Sixteen thousand boxes of apples and 1,200 boxes
.of pears were shipped from this district ami no worms were found in the fruit. The results
of the year's work at Westbank is very gratifying, as the following figures show : In 1916, 340
worms ' were found; in 1917, 58; and in 1918, 3. While no worms were found in the last
two band inspections, it is hardly safe to assume that the pest is entirely eradicated, and it
would be well to continue the work another season.
The same policy as previously followed by P. E. French was followed through the season
at Walhachin. The results here are such that warrant us to assume that codling-moth has
been eradicated from this area.    No worms wTere found in either the fruit or bands.
At Vernon the policy adopted in 1916 was, on the recommendation of P. E. French and
R. C. Treherne, Dominion Entomologist for British Columbia, changed this spring, and instead
of spraying and banding the area under quarantine the apples of about 50 acres were purchased by
the Government and picked before maturity and destroyed. Band inspections continued throughout the summer, and in the last three band inspections no worms were found, which warrants us
in assuming this area to be free of the pest. W,hile this portion is apparently free of wTorms,
infection has been found in neighbouring orchards. In October worms were found in four
properties about one mile north of the quarantined area. These four places aggregate about
15 acres.    Quarantine measures were immediately adopted on all of theses places.
A new outbreak was discovered in the town of Vernon this spring and three places were
quarantined.    Thirteen worms were taken from this area during the summer.
Codling-moth is still a great menace to the orchards in the Vernon District, and stringent
quarantine and control-work will be necessary this coining season to prevent this pest from
making further headway. W 8 Department of Agriculture. 1919
Fire-blight.—A very great deal of your Inspector's time is takeii up in the control of this
disease. This year no great amount of damage was done, except in the Kelowna District, where
the disease was more prevalent than in any previous year. Your Inspectors have pointed out
to all growers the very serious nature of this disease and the urgent need of cutting it out
thoroughly. Tbey have also endeavoured to locate all infected orchards. As the control of
this disease is a community problem and depends entirely on each man thoroughly cutting out
the diseased portions of his trees, all Inspectors are instructed to keep in touch with the work
being done in blight-infected orchards, and where necessary to take effective steps to see that
the work is done.
San Jose Scale.—The controbwork done on this pest at Spences Bridge has apparently
eradicated it from the orchards, but the scale was found on wild growth near the orchards
this spring. This growth was grubbed out and burned, with the result that no traces of the
insect were found this fall. It is not safe to assume from this that the scale is eradicated, so
this work will be followed up closely by close inspection and thorough spraying by the growers.
Woolly, Aphis.—This pest is on the increase and is difficult to combat. In 1917 a small
experiment was conducted at Kelowna with various sprays to combat this pest. This year a
more extensive experiment was carried out under the supervision of R. C. Treherne to find out
the best means of combating this pest.
Wire-worms.—These worms were very much in evidence this year and did considerable
damage in onion and potato fields. Extensive study of the habits of this pest and means of
control was carried on by Mr. Treherne during the summer.
Grasshoppers.—Grasshoppers were not as plentiful this year as in 1917. As a result of
the demonstration in the control of this pest conducted by the Department in 1917 nearly all
growers were prepared to combat this pest.
Onion-thrip.—Many crops of onions were materially reduced by the ravages of this insect.
A few growers attempted spraying, but it was only done in a very crude way and the results
were not very satisfactory. Preparations are being made now by some of the growers to combat
this pest in a thorough manner next year.
Onion-maggot.—More onion-fields were attacked by this pest than in any previous year.
Some demonstration-work on methods of control was carried on by the Entomological Branch,
but was not started early enough to get the desired results.
Pea-weevil.—This year pea-wTeevil was found in Kelowna and Summerland. This pest has
apparently gained entrance to the valley by growers bringing in small amounts of seed from the
Prairie.   All infected material found has been treated in such a manner as to kill all insects.
Export Fruit and Vegetables.—The shipments of fruit and vegetables was not, owing to the
embargo put into effect in Great Britain and Australia in the early part of the season, as large
as in some previous years. Considerable attention during the shipping season is given to the
inspection and issuiug of certificates for this fruit. Practically no potatoes were exported from
this district this year. A few hundred pounds were sent to China and one car to the United
States.
Statistical Woek.
Crop estimates were made in the spring by your Inspectors and mailed to the Department.
Figures on the tonnage of fruit and vegetables shipped out and handled by the canneries and
evaporators have been collected and forwarded to the Department.
Genebal Woek of Branch.
The same general policy as followed in previous years was carried out this year. Your
Inspectors have at all times been at the service of the growers, and a very large portion of their
time has been devoted to helping them solve various problems confronting them. This work is
done by consultation in the office, by telephone, mail, and by personal visits, where things are
talked over in the field. This kind of work, though absorbing a great deal of time, is very much
appreciated.
During the shipping season the Inspectors are called upon by the shippers and growers to
advise re shipments and various diseases and pests.
Respectfully submitted.
Ben Hoy",
Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests: 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 9
CODLING-MOTH CONTROL IN VERNON AND OKANAGAN LANDING DISTRICTS,  1918.
Dates and Material taken on Fbuit- and Band-inspection Wobk in Vaeious Oechaeds.
G. Mickleborough, about 35 Acres.—Band inspections: First, July 15th to 22nd, 4 larvse,
5 pupffi; second, July 27th to August Srd, 1 larva, no pupae; third, August 14th to 18, no larvse,
2 pupffi; 4th, August 2Sth to September 4th, none; fifth, September 27th to October 3rd, none;
sixth, November 13th to 16th, none.   Totals, 5 larvse, 7 pupae.
J. Mutrie, about 15 Acres.—Captured in apples between June 22nd and August 9th, 90 larvse;
over-wintering material captured May 10th to 21st, 2 larvse, 6 pupa?.    Totals, 92 larvse, 6 pups'.
The above are records on the area on which fruit was bought and destroyed before maturity.
J. Mutrie, about 25 Acres.—Band inspections: First, August 15th to 20th, none; second,
September 10th to 15th, none; third, November Sth to 13th, 4 larvse. Captured in apples between
October 24th and 29th, 3 larvse. Total, 7 larvse. Nothing was found in the above during 1917 or
previous to October 19th, 191S.
J. Wylie, about 15 Acres.—Band inspections: First, August 15th to 20th, none; second,
September 10th to 15th, none; third, October 19th to November 12th, 34 larvse. Captured in
apples between October 30th and November 5th, 5 larvse, Total, 39 larvse. Nothing was found
in the above during 1917 or previous to October 19th, 1918.
In the Vernon Town outbreak, comprising about 2 acres on four different properties, 3 band
and fruit inspections resulted in the capture of 7 larvte and 6 pupffi. Lot-owners: J. Blunden,
L. O. Bunville, Mrs. Wright, and Mr. Boyd.
A new infestation was located on October 11th, 1918, at Okanagan Landing on an area
totalling about 17 acres on four different properties. No banding was done, but all shipping
fruit was inspected, all worm-marked apples and windfalls being destroyed. Owing to shortage
of labour and pressure of work at this time, it was not possible to make actual count of captures,
but it can be safely assumed that all of 200 worms were destroyed. Owners of the above lots
are:  Mrs. C. O'Keefe, 6 acres; R. Swift, 6 acres; T. Flemming, 2 acres; T. S. McClennan, 3 acres.
REPORT  OF  ASSISTANT  HORTICULTURIST AND INSPECTOR  OF  FRUIT  PESTS,
VANCOUVER  ISLAND  AND  LOWER  MAINLAND  DISTRICTS.
E. W. White, B.S.A.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Acting Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Owing to the fact that at the present time there is no Provincial Horticulturist,
I beg to submit herewith to you my annual report as Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector
of Fruit Pests for Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland for the year 191S.
Orchaed-benovation Wobk in the Fbasee Valley.
During the last days of 1917 a most severe ice-storm visited the Fraser Valley and caused
a great deal of damage to orchards, small-fruit plantations, native and ornamental trees,
telephone, telegraph, and electrical wires. The area affected extended roughly from Langley
Prairie to Rosedale on the south side of the Fraser River and from Agassiz to Ruskin on the
north side of the river.
Peculiar atmospheric conditions were responsible for the storm. On December 24th and
25th the weather was bright and clear and somewhat frosty. On December 26th rain began
to fall into a ground temperature of 4 to S degrees of frost, which of necessity caused the rain
to freeze where it fell. Ordinarily this precipitation should have fallen as snow, but owing to
a very strong Chinook west wind that was blowing in the upper atmospheric regions it was not
congealed and consequently fell as rain. As evidence that this Chinook wind was blowing, it
may be stated that before the storm the mountains in the Chilliwack District, from Mount Cheam
west, were all covered with their winter fall of snow, and after the storm subsided there was
practically no snow to be seen on the mountains surrounding the valley. The rain continued
to fall and freeze for three days, and when the storm subsided on December 30th it was estimated
that there was practically S inches of solid ice on the ground. W 10 Department of Agriculture. 1919
Your assistant paid a visit to the Chilliwack District on January Srd, going in on one of the
first Canadian Northern Railway trains to get through. A preliminary survey was made of the
damage done and a report submitted on January 15th.
During the first week of February another visit was paid to the district in company with
M. S. Middleton, Provincial Horticulturist, and a decision was reached as to the manner in
which the Government, through its Horticultural Branch, could be of the greatest assistance to
the owners of orchards. It was decided that a force of expert' primers under the direction of
your assistant should be employed, who would visit each individual grower and advise him as to
which course was the wisest for him to pursue.
The weather was so unsettled during the early part of the year that it was impossible to
start work until the first week in March. The following men were then employed: C. R. Barlow,
District Fruit Inspector for the Salmon Arm District, was loaned for the work from March 4th
to March 19th; K. W. Munson, of Vancouver, and late of the Rogue River Valley, Oregon, a
practical horticulturist, was engaged on March 6th and continued throughout the spring, and
later carried out the duties of District Field Inspector for the Fraser Valley; A. Smith, of New
Westminster, a practical horticulturist, was employed from March 18th to March 30th. These
men were employed chiefly in the Chilliwack section. T. H. Bain, of Vancouver, at various times
attached to the Provincial Department of Agriculture and the Dominion Fruit Inspector's office,
was employed in the Mission-Hatzic District from March 21st to May 23rd. The work that these
men w-ere able to accomplish was greatly appreciated by all those concerned, and consisted chiefly
of a personal visit to each grower, enough time being given to actually advise him which trees
could be repaired and which should be removed; methods of pruning, wiring, and bolting split
trees; methods of top-working and grafting and the best varieties to use. These men did not
simply look on and give advice, but actually got in and did the work themselves, a condition
being, however, that the grower himself had to be on the spot to help and give all assistance
possible.
Demonstrations in grafting were held later in the spring, and the work accomplished wras
very successful. In one orchard in Chilliwack Mr. Muiison set over 2,500 grafts, all of which
took, with the exception of about fifty.
Small-fruit Plot, Chilliwack.
This demonstration small-fruit plot was planted out under the supervision of the Horticultural Branch in 1912, and remained under its control until April, 1917, when the lease expired.
In 1917 it was managed by the owner, A. Johnson. In 1918 K. W. Munson, who was employed
by the day by the Horticultural Branch as District Field Inspector, was given permission to rent
this plot and to handle it for his own benefit, taking such time off, without remuneration, as
was necessary for the proper management of the undertaking. For this privilege Mr. Muiison
agreed to furnish the Horticultural Branch with a complete report at the conclusion of the year.
This report was furnished and appeared in full in the December issue of the Agricultural Journal.
While the venture proved a financial success to Mr. Munson, still it was really a patriotic
impulse and a desire to prove his unbounded faith in the suitability of the district for the
production of small fruits that prompted Mr. Munson to undertake the management of the plot.
Despite the fact that the very high rental of $112.50 per acre was paid, 2 acres of Evergreen
blackberries returned $1,323.15 net, lA acre of loganberries returned $100.74 net, % acre of raspberries returned $191.45 net, and V-< acre of Snyder blackberries showed a loss of $1.27 net. This
should demonstrate conclusively that the right varieties of small fruits, planted in the proper
location, will prove very profitable under proper management.
Conclusion of the Peae-thrips Work in Saanich.
This work, which was instituted in 1916, following the severe outbreak of pear-thrips in
1915, and which was continued in 1917, was practically completed in 1918.
In the spring of 1918 a complete bulletin on the subject, prepared by R. C. Treherne and
Dr. A. E. Cameron, Field Officers of the Dominion Entomological Branch, was published by the
Dominion Department of Agriculture. During the spring and summer further notes on the life-
history were kept by W. Downes, assistant to Mr. Treherne in this district.
The operations of the Horticultural Branch were limited. Of the three power-sprayers in
use in 1916 and 1917, the one located at Royal Oak was sold to T. A. Brydon & Sons, who undertook all their own spraying.    The Gordon Head sprayer was moved to town and completely 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 11
overhauled, and later removed to Keating, where it was placed at the disposal of a number of
the growers. This movement was necessary because the Keating machine broke down and it
was necessary to bring it to Victoria for overhauling, after which it was stored in anticipation
of any -emergency.
The pear-thrips, while they appeared in very considerable numbers, were not as serious as
in 1915-16-17, and were held in check where the recommended sprays were used.
Meetings, Press Aeticles, and Depaetment Publications.
During the spring several meetings were addressed, principally oil the subject of gardening.
Various articles were prepared during the year for the agricultural press and the Department's
Agricultural Journal. In April Circular Bulletin No. 6, " Gardening on a City Lot," was revised
and issued as Circular No. 43, " Gardening on a City Lot.'' of the new horticultural series.
Circulars on the various small fruits are in course of preparation at the present time.
Hoeticultubal Competitions.
During the summer your assistant was called upon to judge all the competitions held in this
district. Keen interest was displayed in all the competitions, and it is believed that they do a
great deal towards stimulating greater activity in the lines for which they are held.
The following is a list of the competitions judged by your assistant and the number of
entries in each :—
Place.
Competition.
No. of
Entries.
Victoria    .-       Home garden   (Class A)     23
„              Vacant-lot garden  (Class B)    i 30
, ;    Professional garden  (Class C)     11
 I   Children's garden (Class D)     3
Ward IV.. Saanich   ; :   Cottage garden   23
Ward VIL. Saanich   !               ..                 15
Meteliosin   I   Farm garden  10
Gordon Head         Strawberry     10
Coquitlam    1   Farm garden     10
Fall Fairs.
The following fall fairs were attended by your assistant in the capacity of judge of fruit
and vegetables. At some of the fairs K. W. Munson assisted with the judging. The fairs
attended were as follows : Central Park, Mission City, Agassiz, Maple Ridge. Langley, Aldergrove,
Coquitlam, Burquitlam, Surrey, and Matsqui.
R. C. Abbott and K. W. Munson judged the Chilliwack Fair, and Mr. Abbott also judged
the fruit at Aldergrove.
At the Vancouver Fair the Horticultural Branch conducted demonstrations in grafting and
budding in connection with the Department's information booth. Specimens were shown illustrating the results of our work in the Fraser Valley last spring following the severe ice-storm.
K. W. Munson conducted the majority of the demonstrations, which were largely attended.
At the Chilliwack Fair Mr. Munson put on a practical demonstration in box-inakiug and
fruit-packing, which was much appreciated by the fruit-growers who attended, and much valuable
information was disseminated..
At the Home Products Fair in Victoria Mr. Munson again demonstrated grafting and budding
at the Department's information booth, and a large number of city people were keenly interested.
Your assistant also attended the North and South Saanich Fairs, and assisted Professor
F. M. Clement with the judging of the district exhibits. A complete report on the fairs has been
submitted.
EXPERIMENTAL   SPRAYING.
'(!.) Keating.—Re control of black-spot canker or anthraciiose. The two applications of
Bordeaux mixture were again applied to the experimental block at Keating. This completes
the third year's spraying, and as soon as the counts are made in the spring of 1919 by J. W.
Eastham, Plant Pathologist, a complete report on the three years' work will be available. W 12 Department of Agriculture. 1919
It has been demonstrated, however, that an early application in September of a weak
Bordeaux mixture (3-4-40) to late varieties of apples while the fruit is still on the tree is
feasible, and that it will control black-spot canker almost completely. A late spray of (6-6-40)
Bordeaux applied to the same varieties after the fruit is picked and after the fall rains have
commenced is almost useless.
(2.) Chilliwack.—Re control of the flea-beetle on turnips. In the early summer of 191S
a very severe infestation of flea-beetle occurred on turnips in the Chilliwack District. The
Horticultural Branch enlisted the co-operation of the Soil and Crop Division, in that one of the
recently purchased potato-sprayers was loaned, and K. W. Munson conducted some experiments
in an endeavour to control the flea-beetle. However, by the time the sprayer was available two
early plantings of turnips had been destroyed. The experiments were not altogether satisfactory
owing to the late date and the extremely dry weather. The third planting of seed took from two
to three weeks to germinate, and the plants were weak when they appeared above ground. Five
plots were sprayed once, two plots twice, and one three times.
From the results that were evident, Mr. Munson is confident that the spray formula used—
namely, Bordeaux mixture (4-5-40) plus arsenate of lead 6 lb. to. 100 gallons—will control the
flea-beetle if the turnips are planted early and kept covered with the spray during the first part
of the season.
Inspection of Nurseries.
This work was carried out according to the regulations in so far as it was possible.
Inspections were made at all the principal nurseries at digging-time and again at shipping-time.
There are only two main producing nurseries in operation at the present time—namely,- the
Layritz Nurseries, Victoria, and the British Columbia Nurseries at Sardis.
There has been a greatly increased demand for nursery stock during 191S, and the probabilities are that the stocks on hand will be completely sold out by the spring of 1919.
Insect Pests and Diseases.
In many ways the season has been very favourable as regards fruit pests. The strawberry-
root weevil has agaiii caused very considerable loss to the strawberry-growers of Gordon Head
and Keating. W. Downes, of the Dominion Entomological Branch, stationed in Victoria, has
continued his studies on the life-history of the insect and has obtained some valuable information.
We feel confident that if the growers will adopt our recommendations they will be able to hold
the weevil in check, so that profitable crops may be produced.
No work was undertaken in regard to the black-currant bud-mite infection in the Duncan
District, nor the codling-moth infection in the Victoria District, both infections having been
practically eradicated.
Tent-caterpillars were a very serious pest in uncared-for orchards and in waste places. This
pest can be easily controlled if proper preventive measures are used. Other common insects
were of about the same severity and did not cause undue damage.
Late blight was again serious on the Lower Mainland, and spraying for this disease became
general. An incentive to this work was given this year by the Soil and Crop Division, who
operated several potato-plots.   The results from spraying were very marked.
Apple-scab was less prevalent this year than for a number of years, it being a very favourable
year for the production of clean fruit. The dry weather during April, May, and June was
unfavourable for the development of scab.
Other diseases were of about normal severity and did not cause undue damage where proper
remedial measures were adopted.
Fruit and Vegetable Production.
Climatic conditions w-ere again more or less unusual and were not conducive to maximum
crops. April was characterized by having more than normal sunshine, frequent cold nights,
average temperature, drying winds, and unusually light rainfalls. The precipitation was the
lightest for a number of years. The month of May was cold and windy, with a notable deficiency
in both sunshine and rainfall. As a consequence of the cold nights, lack of adequate sunshine
and moisture, the growth of all vegetation was slow and unsatisfactory. June wTas very hot
and dry, with practically no precipitation. The growth of all crops was retarded by the lack
of moisture and the dry, hot winds. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W IS
These three unusual months were extremely trying on the strawberry-crop in Gordon Head
and Keating, and resulted in a somewhat reduced crop. The shipments for 191S were fifteen
cars or approximately 12,000 crates, while nearly 200 tons of berries were disposed of to the
jam-factories. Prices were extremely good, and prospects are that they will be very much better
in 1919.
Tree-fruits were an average crop, some varieties being off-bearing. Olivet cherries were
an excellent crop and again brought good prices. Vegetable-crops looked poor during the summer,
but picked up remarkably well during the fall months.
On the Lower Mainland the raspberry-growers had a very successful season and prices were
good. Practically the total shipments to the Prairies were made L.C.L. A portion of the crop
was lost, due to wet weather and the ravages of the mosquito pest. Blackberries were a poor
crop in the Mission-Hatzic District, but at Chilliwack they did exceptionally well.
Apples were light owing to the damage done by the ice-storm, but the quality and cleanliness
were much superior to former years. Pears and cherries, however, were extremely heavy, but
prunes were almost a total failure. While the year was unfavourable, vegetable production
showed an increase over the previous jrear.
Fruit and Vegetable Crop Statistics.
A god deal of time is required in the fall months to gather the fruit and vegetable statistics
for A. B. Tweddle, Statistician. Reports on manufactured products are also secured from all
the canneries, jam-factories, and evaporators.
Demonsteations and Genebal Wobk.
A large number of demonstrations in the various branches of horticultural science have
again been given in all parts of the district this year. As a matter of fact, a number of personal
calls have had to be omitted owing to the lack of time. This line of work takes up an increasing
amount of time, but is very valuable and much appreciated by the growers.
Visits to Washington and Obegon.
During the first week of July your assistant had very great pleasure in accompanying
M. S. Middleton, Provincial Horticulturist, on a trip of inspection to the commercial raspberry
and blackberry sections of Puyallup and Sumner, Washington. The Western Washington
Experimental Station at Puyallup was also visited. A great deal of valuable information
regarding small fruits was secured, which was of great assistance in meeting the problems of
our own small-fruit growers. •   -
During the first two weeks of August your assistant again accompanied Mr. Middleton to
Corvallis, Oregon, where the first annual meeting of Western horticulturists was held at the
Oregon Agricultural College. Representatives were present from the Western States of Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Montana, and from the Province of British Columbia. An
exceedingly valuable three-day convention was held, as practically all the leaders of Western
horticulture were present.
The great loganberry district of Salem, Oregon, was also visited. On the return trip occasion
was taken to visit the cranberry-bogs of Long Beach and Ilwaco, Washington. A great deal of
valuable information wras secured on this trip to Washington and Oregon.
Coebespondence and Office-wobk.
This work has taken up an increasing amount of time, especially since November 16th, when
M. S. Middleton resigned his position as Provincial Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
No appointment being made to fill the position, the work of the office has of necessity fallen upon
your assistant.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
E. W. White,
Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests. W 14
Department of Agriculture.
1919
REPORT  OF  ASSISTANT  HORTICULTURIST  AND  INSPECTOR  OF  FRUIT  PESTS,
EAST AND WEST KOOTENAY DISTRICTS.
E. C. Hunt, B.S.
IF. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Acting Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sie,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector
of Fruit Pests on the work in the above districts for the year 1918.
Packing and Pruning Schools.
During the early part of the year fruit-packing and pruning schools were organized.
Packing-schools were held at the following places: One each at Nelson, Harrop. Creston, and
Kaslo, and two at Nakusp. Four of these schools were held for the boys and girls attending
the public and high schools.
The demand for pruning-schools was not so great this year as in the past, on account of
so many of the fruit-growers and orchard-helpers of the district having now been pupils of these •
schools.    However, three schools were conducted—one each at Creston, Wynndel, and Robson—
for the boys and girls of the high schools.
As a whole, all the schools were well attended and a great deal of interest shown by the
pupils taking part. A full report on each school was sent in to the Department at the time the
schools were held.
HOBTICULTUBAL   COMPETITIONS.
Iii 1918 there were held in this district by the Department'six horticultural competitions
of various kinds. These competitions were judged from two to three times during the season.
The greater portion of the time during July and August was spent on this work. The details
of the scores in connection with these competitions have been submitted. Keen interest was
taken in all the competitions, and some of the gardens were a credit to any district and showed
that great pains had been taken in their preparation and care.
The following is a iist of the competitions judged and the number of entries in each:—
Kind of Competition.
Number of
Entries.
18
s
Natal    '.	
29
Shirley	
Farm garden  	
11
13
10
12
Other competitions judged during the year were the potato and mangel competitions
conducted in this district by the Soil and Crop Division. These were held by the Farmers'
Institutes at the following places: Cranbrook. Newgate. Crawford Bay, Edgewood, and Tbrums-
Shoreacres.    Scores and report of each have been submitted.
Experimental Work.
The experimental work conducted this year included principally spraying experiments for
the control of apple-scab. These experiments were duplicates of those carried on in 1916 and
1917 at Nelson. Creston. and Edgewood. the third and last year of the three-year test-plots for
scab-control with the different strengths of lime-sulphur. The results obtained this year were,
on the whole, very successful, as may be seen from the following summary of the experiments :—
Experiments conducted on the same plots and trees as in 1916 and 1917. All trees of full
bearing age.    Variety, Mcintosh Red. 9 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 15
Table of Plots and Sprays   (L.S. = Lime-sulphur).
Time  of   Spray.
Plot 1.    ]    Plot 2.
Plot 3.
Plot 4.
Plot  5.
Plot 6.
Plot T.
LjS. 1-25   L.S. 1-25
Check.
Pink"	
L.S. 1-30
L.S. 1-30
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-30
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-30
LjS. 1-35
L.S. 1-30
L.iS. 1-35
L.S.' 1-35
Calyx   	
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
L.S. 1-35
14 days later	
"
The following table gives the results of the fruit-counts made on the Mcintosh Red at Xelson,
Creston. and Edgewood. In making the counts, all apples on one uniform tree in each plot
were-carefully examined and notes taken on the scab.
Plot.
No. of Apples
counted.
Fruit free
from Scab.
Scabby Fruit.
Culls ou Account of Scab.
Total Marketable Fruit.
Nelson
1   	
2
(J     	
4 	
5 	
6 	
7, check
Creston—
]	
2
3   	
4   	
5   	
6   	
7. check
Edgewood-
1   	
2 .
3 .....
4 	
5 	
6 	
7, cheek
106
100
137
106
117
123
136
552
1,021
1.45S
1.831
1.55S
983
1,037
1,267
476
224
934
737
401
210
Per Cent.
93.4
35.0
54.7
52.5
17.0
64.3
None
99.S
99.0
99.9
89.4
99.3
99.5
70.3
94.0
99.5
96.8
88.0
39.6
81.3
7.6
Per Cent.
6.6
65.0
45.3
47.5
S3.0
35.7
100.0
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.6
0.7
0.5
29.7
6.0
0.5
3.2
12.0
60.4
18.7
92.4
Per Cent.
None
2.5
None
47.5
None
12,0
0.2
'.one
0.5
0.8
0.8
17.6
Per Cent.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.5
100.0
52.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
88.0
99.8
100.0
100.0
99.5
99.2
99.2
S2.4
From these results it can be easily seen that fruit cau be produced commercially free from
scab, even the most susceptible varieties, by the application of lime-sulphur at the above
strengths. The number of sprays to be applied will depend a great deal on the season. Prom
the above results it would seem that three sprayings—pink, calyx, and one later—thoroughly
applied would control scab in any normal season. A full report, giving in detail the work done
and results obtained from the experiments, has been submitted to J. W. Eastham, Provincial
Plant Pathologist.
Dust-spraying with sulphur for the control of apple-scab was carried on at Willow Point
for the first time this year; this experiment being in charge of Professor F. M. Clement, of the
University of British Columbia. Four applications of the sulphur were applied to the trees
during the scab-infection season; assistance being rendered to Mr. Clement from time to time
with this work.
Demonstration of Cover-chops.
With the view of keeping up and improving the fertility of orchard soils, a few demonstrations of cover-crops were started this fall. These demonstrations are being carried on at
Sunshine Bay, Willow Point, and Birchbank. Spring (common) vetch aud fall rye are fhe
cover-crops that are now being tried out. A mixture of vetch and rye was sown at Birchbank
and Willow Point, while at Sunshine Bay vetch alone was sown.    These crops have done as W 1G Department of Agriculture. 1919
well as could be expected. Data is being kept on their adaptability, cost, and their qualities
as a soil-builder. Winter-vetch seed could not be secured or some demonstration of cover-crops
with it would have been started also.
Demonstration and Experimental Orchards.
A certain amount of supervision to the orchards at Birehlands, Waldo, Wardner, and Rossland was continued in 191S. These orchards were pruned in the spring and a considerable
replanting was done in the Waldo and Wardner orchards; all the injured trees were replaced
by the Department with suitable hardier varieties, and the orchards turned over to the owner
in as good a state as possible; the five-year agreement between the owner and the Government
having now terminated. The replaced trees ordered for the Rossland orchard did not arrive
last spring, so it will be necessary to make the replacements in the spring of 1919 before this
orchard is turned over to the owner.
Fall Fairs.
In September and October fall fairs were attended in the capacity of judge of fruit and
vegetables at the following places: Fruitvale, Trail, Nelson, Natal, Creston, and Cranbrook.
A separate report on each fair with a marked prize-list has been submitted.
Survey-work.
During the winter months and at times when the weather was unfavourable for field-work,
your assistant was compiling data from the orchard-survey reports that were collected in 1916.
This work will be completed by the end of this year, and from these records considerable useful
information can be had on the different orchards in the district.
Diseases and Insect Pests.
Apple-scab.—This disease was not so prevalent in 1918 as in previous years. A very late
scab-infection, however, occurred this yTear on some of the most susceptible varieties. This was
due to the wet and muggy weather in August, which is unusual for this district. The results
that have been obtained from the scab experiments conducted in the district for the past two
years have convinced many growers who had become discouraged that scab was a controllable
disease. As a consequence, where grow-ers have adopted proper spray measures in the control
of scab (which is now quite general throughout the district) a high percentage of clean fruit
has been produced.
Fire-blight.—This very serious disease was found in only one place in the Kootenay District
in 191S; it showing up in six different orchard lots in the City of Nelson. All the infections
were confined to pear-trees—about twenty trees in all affected. The different infections are well
under control and located, so that the hold-over cankers can be easily cleaned up during the
dormant season.
Oyster-shell Scale.—This insect is found to be quite bad in some of the old and neglected
orchards at different points within the district. The insect has not become a serious pest in
the well-managed orchards and can quite easily be controlled by spray measures recommended
by the Department.
Cutworms.—Cutworms have been a very serious pest in most all sections of the district.
They occurred in great numbers, causing a great deal of trouble and damage to the growers
of garden-truck and field-crops.
Potato-diseases.—Potato-diseases are on the increase, the most common ones being common
scab, late blight, Rhisoctonia, and Fusarium wilt. These will require careful attention in the
future in the way of longer rotations of crops, the planting of better seed, and the adopting of
seed-treatment and seed-selection methods that have been recommended by the Department.
Other Insect Pests and Diseases.—The following other insects and diseases that caused more
or less trouble and in some cases considerable damage to the fruit and vegetable crops might
be mentioned: Green aphis, cabbage and onion maggots, cabbage-worms, pear-leaf blister-mite,
peach-leaf curl, apple anthracnose, and many other minor ones.
All of the above insect pests and diseases were attended to as far as possible by making
personal calls on growers and giving advice' and information on the methods of control and
eradication. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 17
Orchard Visits and Demonstrations.
Personal visits to many different orchards of the district were made during the year; many
requests coming in from growers for demonstrations and advice on various horticultural subjects.
This line of work takes up a great deal of time and is much appreciated by the growers.
Crop Reports.
Crop estimates and reports are furnished from time to time during the growing season, and
at the end of the year a detailed report is made of the total production of all fruits and vegetables
in the district. Information and data is also collected in a similar way frpin the jam-factories
of the district.
Office-work.
Office duties, although on the increase, were much the same as in previous years.    The
necessary correspondence and other duties were attended to.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
E.C. Hunt,
Assistant Horticulturist and Inspector of Fruit Pests.
REPORT  OF  DISTRICT FIELD INSPECTOR,  LOWER  MAINLAND  DISTRICT.
K. W. Munson.
E. W. White, Esq.,
Assistant Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Field Inspector for the Lower
Mainland District for the year 1918.
Pruning.
The severe ice-storm in the Chilliwack District in the month of January, 1918, was unprecedented in the history of that section. Cottonwood, fir, and cedar trees were nearly stripped of
limbs, leaving only rugged appearing spars throughout the valley and foot-hill area. Fruit-trees
were bent and broken to the ground by tons of ice. Trees of the open-centred (vase-shaped) type
were in most cases split through the trunks to the ground. Those of the modified-leader and
central-leader type, however, were not severely damaged.
About March 1st the Horticultural Department thought it necessary to assist the fruitinen
and owners of family orchards in this section in reclaiming the trees, which many owners were
inclined to take out by the roots. Mr. Barlow, of Salmon Arm, A. Smith, of New Westminster,
and your Field Inspector were employed to assist with the work under your supervision.
On March 6th to 9th a general survey was taken of conditions and a plan outlined of the
work to be done. From March 9th to April 4th this crew of men visited the majority of fruitgrowers and farmers of this section. An hour or two was spent with some, and as much as
three days of practical pruning and instruction given to others. The time spent in this practical
and instructive work was determined by the number of trees owned by the individual. The
commercial-fruit men were given more assistance in order to encourage the continuation of the
industry. Each benefactor was told of the pruning, spraying, and thinning methods in vogue
in the large commercial-fruit districts. A spirit of friendliness was shown us, with very few
exceptions, and our instruction accepted with welcome.
A. Arnold, Sardis; P. W. Cronkshaw, Sardis; J. Higginson, Sardis; J. Orr, Chilliwack;
W. Hodgins, Chilliwack; and many others were the fruit-growers given from ten to fifty priming-
hours each.    Several hundred farmers with family orchards were also benefited.
The crew of four pruners at times worked together, and at times separately in different
sections. The. grower in either case was always asked to be on the job to hear the Whys and'
hows of the demonstration.
Hundreds of seemingly impossible trees to save were brought back into -shape with block
and tackle, bolted and cross-bolted through the trunk, double cross-wired across the top, using
telephone-wire and screw-eyes, and severely primed back to eliminate side sway and saved to
make sturdy trees. W 18 Department of Agriculture. 1919
The work of the ice-storm and crew of primers did unlimited good in showing the farmer
and fruit-grower the advantage of keeping the trees well open to sunlight to make clean, profitable
fruit.
Grafting.
Many undesirable varieties of apple and pear trees were sold into this district untrue to
name previous to the " Bonding of Nurserymen Act."
The ice-storm having reduced the fruit-bearing capacity of many fine trees down to nothing,
made the spring of 1918 an ideal time to top-graft these undesirable varieties fo apples
commercially adapted to this district.
A notice was placed in the local Chilliwack paper offering assistance and instruction.
Practically the same territory was covered, demonstrating grafting as in pruning. Mr. Stringer's
5-acre orchard of some 300 trees (apple and pear) were top-worked to Yellow Transparent,
Devonshire Quarrenden, York Imperial, and Bartlett pears.
About 2,500 scions were set in this block alone, with a loss of less than 2 per cent. The
grafts in this block made au average growth of 40 inches during the past growing season. Three
seasons more and the trees will be as large as before wrecked by the storm.
Intermingled with the grafting-work, and following it, assistance and instruction was given
in the three sprays for apple-scab.
Crop Report.
To acquire a complete crop report it w^is necessary to canvass the entire district, visiting
not only the fruit-growers, but farmers with gardens and family orchards. An estimate as
near as was possible was made of the individual production for 1917, as well as 191S, as well
as the number and kinds of fruit-trees planted.
Flea-beetle Experiments.
In the summer of 1918 a large percentage of the field turnips were destroyed by the flea-
beetle. Very late in the spring of 1918, after two early plantings of turnips had been destroyed
by the flea-beetle, we started a series of experiments. Owing to the late date and the extremely-
dry weather throughout the summer the experiments were not entirely satisfactory. The turnip-
seed took two to three weeks to germinate, and after seed-leaves broke through the ground the
plant had no vitality to resist even a small percentage of damage by the flea. Five plots were
sprayed once, two plots twice, and one plot three times.
From results that were evident, the spray formula, Bordeaux 4-5-40 plus arsenate of lead
6-10O, the writer thinks will give satisfactory results if the turnips are planted early.
The first spray should be applied with good pressure when the seed-leaves are breaking
through the ground, eight to ten days intervening between each of the second and third sprays.
Practical Demonstrations.
The writer made practical demonstrations in budding arid grafting at the Vancouver Fair,
August 22nd, 23rd, and 24th, and at the A'ictoria Industrial Fair, October 4th and Sth. The
interest shown by the public gave ample proof that practical demonstrations in all the industrial
agricultural branches should tie carried on by the Department each year at all the larger fairs
in city or community.
A fruit-handling demonstration was held in a large tent at the Chilliwack Fair, September
18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st. Practical modern methods of packing, box-making, picking, etc.,
were shown to the keen interest of the public.
Judging Fairs.
Judging of fruits and vegetables was carried on at ten of the Lower Mainland agricultural
fairs. The exhibits at these fairs were good, but from an educational standpoint there is room
for betterment; also lack of co-operation between smaller districts was evident. In many sections
small, out-of-class fairs could be combined with a neighbouring community, and one good, well-
attended fair could be a success educationally, industrially, and financially.
The exhibits of commercial packed fruits, especially apples, were small in number and poorly
packed. With few exceptions the antiquated square pack was used. It is advisable that not
only exhibitors of packed apples and pears for next year's fairs, but also commercial growers
write the Department of Agriculture for pamphlet on " How to pack Apples and Pears." 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 19
General Work.
A number of individual demonstrations; personal calls given to persons inquiring for
information; general boosting and assistance given in plotting and planting vine-berries;
inspection of nursery stock; acquiring greenhouse reports for the Lower Mainland; and getting
crop reports for Lower Mainland District outside of Chilliwack section, details some of the work
which was done in addition to headings throughout this report.
Conclusion.
The commercial production of small fruits should be boosted and encouraged to 500 acres in
the Chilliwack-Sardis District.
The Lower Mainland fruit-packs (of small fruits in particular), to par with those of the
United States for Prairie markets, must contain fruit picked uniformly on the green side;
uniformly graded to United States standards; well filled and the minimum weight stamped
on each package.
The Department of Agriculture should purchase at least six 30 x 40 tents for Provincial
demonstrations and exhibits at the larger district fairs, wherein butter-making from the Dairy
Branch, fruit-handling for the Horticultural Branch, seed-selection for the field crops, etc., could
be brought directly to the taxpayers, a small percentage of whom know little of the actual work
of the Department.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
K. W. Munson,
District Field Inspector.
REPORT OF PRAIRIE  MARKETS  COMMISSIONER.
J. A. Grant.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Acting Deputy, Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report as Prairie Markets Commissioner for the year 1918.
The work of the year 191S commenced with the fixing of the price for small fruits required
for jam-making by the factories. The Island associations closed for strawberries at 9 cents;
Mainland associations got as high as 10 cents. These prices advanced to 12 cents when first
contracts were filled. Demand was many times greater than the supply, and already at
Christmas-time, 1918, contracts are made for 1919 crop at 16 cents per pound, which beats
all records in price by a considerable margin.
Berry-growers throughout the Province met together and agreed on this price. Formerly
they acted individually or by associations. Your Markets Commissioner has advised them as to
the prices obtained as soon as contracts are signed, and this get-together co-ordination will become
an annual event. The demand for small fruits for jam, etc., by factories, especially strawberries,
raspberries, blackberries, and loganberries, is worth at least passing reference. It is not confined
to British Columbia factories, but Eastern Canadian as well, as the Eastern stuff is frozen and
shipped when ready in this state. Some of the Eastern houses find that manufacturing in
British Columbia for their Western trade would be advantageous, and at least two large concerns
will move part of their plant West when a supply of fruit can be assured.
Already Vancouver Island strawberries and Lower Mainland raspberries and blackbejries
are famous throughout Canada, and many other districts are suited to their growth, some of
which, like Salmon Arm and Creston, are already large shippers. Here is one line that can be
greatly developed before the demand is supplied.
Visit to United States Competitive Points.
Two visits were made to- United States points; one in January, -in connection with prices
obtained for jam-berries and prices of crates, and investigating methods of regulating growers'
supplies in relation to proposition of jam and market supply. The other visit was made to investigate crop conditions and market prospects generally. Every point in marketing was discussed
freely with our Southern neighbours and very cordial relations established. The need for a
mutual understanding was generally recognized, as our interests in fostering production is
common. W 20 Department of Agriculture. 1919
Market Organization.
Early in February the work of organizing the export shipping districts was undertaken.
The main effort wras made in the Okanagan Valley. While there in connection with organization-
work estimates were made of the quantity of onions in storage in British Columbia, and also
a report made in the matter of marketing butter by the Armstrong and Kamloops creameries.
Kootenay District was also visited and also points on the main line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway. Much interest was manifest at the meetings addressed and large audiences attended.
The result of this direct personal contact was reflected in the co-operation shown during the
season, especially in getting together in quotations from different points for the same produce
at an even date.
This work continues to grow, and when better developed the real work of dealing with
administrative bodies with a view to tackling the problem of better distribution to Prairie points
will be in order. Reference will be made under "Distribution" heading to the possibilities for
economy when this question can be adjusted.
Study of Transportation Problems.
After reopening the Calgary office and the introduction of a stenographer there, your Markets
Commissioner was able to devote much time to correcting transportation conditions.    During the
entire shipping season close watch was kept on arriving trains, and through the co-operation of
officials of the Dominion Express Company much waste caused by rough handling was averted.
Less than Car-load Lots Shipments.
Shipments by L.C.L. increased greatly last year, owing chiefly to the fact that shippers will
not risk shipping in the present type of refrigerator-cars as used by the Dominion Express
Company. This has resulted in considerable loss in transit through rough handling at Calgary
and other junctional points where diversion takes place. The Dominion Express Company
officials worked incessantly to prevent this, but at rush times it got out of control. The chief
factors causing this loss were green men, scarcity of labour, and not sufficient attention given
by messengers in providing ventilation, as well as unnecessary unloading and reloading. The
main difficulty, however, lay in trying to do a superhuman task in the allotted time. , A great
improvement was noticed as the season advanced, however.
Arrangements are contemplated to test out several cars now in use, giving particular attention to ventilation in each case. This will be under the supervision of officials of the Express
and Railway Company, the Dominion Fruit Commissioner, and your Markets Commissioner.
The cars to be tested will be the present line car, which carries all fruit from Calgary East
L.C.L.; the cowl car that carries berries, etc., from British Columbia points to Calgary; and
the Niagara Peninsula fruit-car. The latter gives splendid satisfaction in the East and looks
veryT promising for our needs. One feature of air-circulation versus refrigeration in raspberry-
carrying was that berries arrived in better condition by the former method, which shows that
the refrigerator-car now in use is more a danger than a help for this purpose.
Refrigerator-cars.
During the entire fruit-shipping season your Markets Commissioner made a careful study
of the condition of arrival of British Columbia fruits and. vegetables in refrigerator-cars, both
in the iced-bunker car and the brine-tank car. The condition of fruit and vegetables arriving
from south of the line was also noted. The condition of arrivals in brine-tank cars was usually
unsatisfactory: First, because of their being overloaded; and, second, because air-circulation
is not provided for.
The iced-bunker cars were satisfactory in carrying strawberries, and ventilation en route
wras attended to. One brine-tank was experimented with strawberries and it was a failure.
The United States refrigerator-cars, being specially built fruit-cars and ventilated, arrived in
a uniform satisfactory condition. These consisted of precooled berries from Puyallup and
berries from Olalla which were not precooled, as far as we know.
An experiment was made in a mixed shipment, mostly peaches from Washington to Winnipeg,
in brine-tank car not precooled. This proved unsatisfactory. There is little or no fruit moved
from United States points in brine-tank cars because they have been found unsatisfactory there.
The Canadian Pacific Railway has nearly 2,000 brine-tank cars and about S00 iced-bunker cars,
none of which are fitted for fruit-carrying. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 21
Two ears of raspberries were loaded in perfect condition at Hatzic, the first of an order for
ten cars to Winnipeg. These were shipped in iced-bunker cars and both arrived in a wasting
condition, caused by blue mould.   The balance of the cars on order were immediately cancelled.
It is vitally important to the upbuilding of the small-fruit industry in British Columbia that
satisfactory refrigerator-cars be provided. Its survival depends on this point, as we have already
gone beyond our L.C.L. limit. About forty cars of raspberries were shipped to Winnipeg from
Puyallup, and arrived in good order, over a greater rail distance than the Hatzic cars. These
berries replaced the British Columbia berries on the Prairie market, and unless Immediate steps
are taken to furnish suitable fruit refrigerator-cars the small-fruit trade will be lost to British
Columbia east of Regina. We are pleased to say that the matter is well advanced, and the
Canadian Pacific Railway officials, with whom the matter has been discussed at Calgary,
Winnipeg, and Montreal, are giving the question serious consideration.
Early Visit to Prairies.
A committee of three, one representing berry-growers, another the brokers, and your Markets
Commissioner, was asked to investigate alleged overcharging for strawberries at Prairie points
in 1917. Every point was visited and a close scrutiny of sales made, but in no case was any
undue profit traced. This visit also served the purpose of apprising jobbers of the prospective
crop in British Columbia and the prices likely to rule, and generally putting us in touch with the
trade changes since closing the Calgary office in December, 1917, until the reopening in May, 191S.
Calgary Office.
The office in Calgary reopened in May, and during the season until December we kept in
constant touch with all matters affecting British Columbia produce and marketing. On account
of receiving permission to employ a stenographer at Calgary, we gave a decidedly improved
service in replying to telegrams and letters, as during the absence of the Markets Commissioner
the stenographer looked after many of them and was able to reach him by wire on important
matters. This service was discontinued in December, when the Calgary office was closed for
the season.
We would recommend that, in view of the increasing winter shipments to Prairie points,
this office be kept open during the winter, with the stenographer in charge, who could at all
times keep the Commissioner informed on the state of arrivals of produce and the trade prospect.
We notice every time that the office is closed the connection with the trade is broken. This
takes time to catch up, and as our produce will soon be rolling to the Prairies during the entire
twelve months this matter should receive favourable consideration.
Prairie Markets Bulletin.
Our first issue this year opened with a circulation of S00, which increased to 1,500 before the
close of the season. Applications for the bulletin have been received from many jobbers as well
as growers, and during the 1919 season it may be sent to jobbers in all parts of Canada.
The bulletin will be "sent free on application to growers of fruit and produce as well as to
wholesale dealers in same, and to the press of British Columbia. Members of the British
Columbia Fruit-growers' Association receive the bulletin without application by arrangement
with the Secretary of that institution.
Next year f.o.b. shipping-point prices will be an outstanding feature, as this year's experience
shows that these are more appreciated by growers than wholesale or retail prices.
We take every care to see that our quotations are correct, and will find a market for
producers at quoted prices for those who are unable to do so. Our staff correspondents are
leaders in the produce business life on the Prairies, and every subject concerning marketing
is discussed both from a grower's and buyer's view-point. We are convinced that it is this
medium that is responsible for the get-together movement amongst growers and shippers, and
its circulation should be increased until it reaches every grower's hands that makes produce-
growing a business. It is compiled, printed, and posted every Saturday, and during 1918 we
never missed the Saturday mail.
Rhubarb.
Want of organization was evident in handling British Columbia rhubarb. This allowed the
f.o.b. buyer to knock the independent grower's house of cards down with arguments relating
to offerings he had from other independent growers, and, whether real or imaginary, the result W 22 Department of Agriculture. 1919
was that the organized growers got more money for their rhubarb than the unorganized growers;
besides, the one sold in car-lots and the other sold in quantities.
It was British Columbia rhubarb that was the best offered on the Prairies, but owing to
manipulation on the part of some brokers it did not sell as high as Walla Walla rhubarb. We
need a rhubarb-box with less timber and more air-space, as it was rightly claimed that the
better-aerated rhubarb kept fresh longest, besides the trade demands to deal with a reliable
organization that is large enough to ensure a regular supply.
Districts like Hatzic, which specialize in rhubarb, should grow early potatoes, beets, carrots,
etc., to help make up a mixed car-lot. This admits of bringing in fresh rhubarb to small towns,
as a full car-lot is more than they can absorb, and keeping of rhubarb too long causes loss in
shrinkage and appearance.
Hothouse Tomatoes.
Nearly every hothouse in British Columbia is now shipping tomatoes to the Prairies. The
stuff is excellent, aud the demand good up to the date when Missouri tomatoes come iu car-lots.
This industry can be extended and regulated when the greenhouse-men come together for this
purpose. Under the present method of shipment there is danger of prices being cut without
warrant owing to several wholesalers 111 one city ordering too heavily.
Hothouse Cucumbers.
There is a rapid market for hothouse cukes at prices that should encourage the industry,
which is another reason for hothouse-men getting together.
Strawberries.
Shipments on consignment to the retail trade were not done to any extent this year by white
growers. Japanese from the Eraser Valley shipped as usual to any one that wTould handle their
berries. Their pack in the early part of the season was slack and very poor fruit, but improved
greatly as the season advanced. The trade complained against Marshall strawberries being
shipped to arrive on Saturday. They had to sacrifice them that day, as before Monday they
would be almost black in colour. This greatly unbalanced the market. We know a buyer that
paid Sf3 f.o.b. shipping-point for Marshalls, which arrived in Calgary on Saturday and were jobbed
at $1 per crate. The season was a great Improvement over 1917, both in pack and marketing
methods. Lack of organization in some places wras the only disturbing factor. The crop was
short and demand exceeded the supply. Car-lot shipments in iced-bunker refrigerator-cars
arrived iii splendid condition, the only exception being the brine-tank refrigerator-car, which
was tried out as an experiment.    This car arrived showing considerable wastage.
Raspberries.
Car-lot shipments from British Columbia were in demand in Winnipeg, ten cars being on
order at a good price. The first two iced-bunker refrigerator-cars shipped out arrived in a
wasting condition, due to blue mould, and the balance were immediately cancelled. Raspberries
shipped from Puyallup, Washington, which arrived in good condition, took their place, and- many
more cars were added to the order. This left the shippers the onljT alternative of using ventilated
and line cars, and the whole of their crop was moved out in L.C.L. shipments. If matters are
not improved the raspberry-supply of Eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba will be lost to British
Columbia.
Blackberries, Loganberries, Currants, and Gooseberries.
The above fruits were in increased demand and prices received were satisfactory. The best
package for gooseberries is the Ontario 6-quart crate-basket. These baskets prevent the berries
from falling out, as is often noticeable in the crate, if the lids are properly fastened on.
Growers should not increase their acreage for black currants or gooseberries, as the demand
is limited and present shipment seems ample to supply present demands.
Cherries.
Cherries were a bumper crop.    Early Richmoiids and Governor Woods come in competition
with Washington Bings and Lamberts.    The contrast was reflected in the prices obtained.    The
supply exceeded the demand at one time, due to the jobbers misjudging the size of the British
Columbia crop and importing too heavily from Washington.    When the  error  was corrected 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 23
British Columbia Bings and Lamberts were in demand, and sold for a good price when the
quality was good. The loss on Lamberts and Bings, that fell so heavily on some shippers, was
due to splitting, mould, and rot, which causes them to leak badly, smearing the crates, thereby
giving them an unattractive appearance. Steps should be takeii to get close estimates of th*
crop in advance of its ripening season.
Apricots and Peaches.
Early estimates of the crop of these fruits in British Columbia were low, and before the
real situation was made known jobbers on the Prairies had protected their trade by buying
heavily in Washington. Our apricots and peaches were of good size and quality and the prices
secured were good. Considerable loss was taken by overloading in transit and by careless mixing
in cars containing vegetables, and in some cases due to holding too long at shipping-point. The
pack was good.
Prunes and Plums.
The opening of the season for prunes and plums boded well for British Columbia supplies.
The American embargo on prunes looked like a monopoly of this market for British Columbia.
Sugar restrictions on both sides of the line seriously interfered with their going into consumption.
For this reason Washington prices enticed jobbers here to bring many car-lots hi at a shade
under our prices, aud, coupled with our bumper crop and bare sugar-supply, shot this market
to bits. Splitting and plum-rot caused by the heavy rains in British Columbia brought them on
this market in similar condition as explained in the cherries. The appearance of the crates
smeared with juice looked worse than the actual state of the fruit.
Pears.
The market for pears was unusually good and prices were high for good stock. There is
a growing market for our pears, and if the varieties are grown that the market demands pear-
growing should be profitable. Benrre d'Anjou is the variety mostly favoured and it commands
the top price. The favourite fall pear from California is the Marceau. It holds up well, and
if it can be successfully grown in British Columbia it should be tried out. Its season is after
the Anjou, to December and January. Bartletts and Flemish Beautys that came on the market
earlier sold well.    The demand for pears of good quality exceeded the supply.
Apples.
This king of our export fruit has been before the public a long time, and many improvements
have been made in grade and pack. The trade has little now to suggest in improving the package,
as the box now standardized gives satisfaction.
Several popular fall and winter varieties have advanced in price when offered with less
popular varieties. The No. Ia so-called class commands from 50 cents to $1 per case more than
No. 1b class. No. Ia Spys, New towns, Spitz, Winesaps, Kings, Baldwins, and Jonathans lead this
class* and if scarce may find themselves ranged in No. Ia.
Prairie and Eastern dealers find that British Columbia shippers scarcely measure up to the
American pack and colour. In order to base prices on a level with United States competition
we must equal their average pack. It is essential that our No. 1 export stuff should be raised
and at least 40 per cent, not included placed in No. 2 and No. 3 grades. No. 2 should then be
better and the No. 3 also raised so that it will class with American C grade. Crated stock can
take care of the doubtful balance.
There is a small first-class trade on the Prairies wmich demands the best we have. There
is an immense trade there for a semi-perfect apple, such as the No. 2 would then be, and outlet
for all our No. 3 and crated stuff for some time to come. Prices between No. 1 fancy and No. 2
are now far too close, and No. 3 is too close to No. 2. This year the Eastern trade absorbed a
lot of our No. 1 fancy, and this allows the fancy trade to have the choice apples at a choice
price. This fancy stuff should furnish the main profit of the apple-crop and allow the balance
of the crop to be sold more reasonably.
The limit of price for Prairie general trade has been passed, and in order to encourage
greater consumption prices for domestic stuff must be placed within the reach of the masses
of the people.
3 W 24 Department of Agriculture. 1919
The marketing methods hi British Columbia improved greatly in 1918. Many objectional
features of selling were overcome, or at least greatly reduced.
Potatoes.
British Columbia shipments were heavier than usual this year. The quality and grade was
unsatisfactory, showing carelessness at shipping-point. Prices were good. Immature potatoes
were too much in evidence, some showing from 20 to 40 per cent, shrinkage. Forcing too many
in this state on the Prairie market in the season, in an effort to partake of the cream of prices,
was practised long after your Markets Commissioner called attention to the danger. This
resulted in breaking the price, and it is known that the lowest price for potatoes this year was
at the time .when new potatoes were little over half-grown. Potatoes from British Columbia
are unexcelled in quality and the price obtained is from $5 to $20 a ton more than Alberta-grown
potatoes. For this reason greater care in sorting interprovincial shipments should be compulsory.
Potatoes from marble size to turnip size in the same sack and too small and too large potatoes
all classed No. 1 will not tend to place our potatoes in a favourable light for Prairie buyers.
Many refusals of shipments for this reason were recorded, and your Markets Commissioner
was constantly being called in to examine and adjust such shipment.
Sweet Potatoes.
So far we have not seen any British Columbia sweet potatoes on the Prairie markets. The
Prairies use many car-loads of sweet potatoes annually, and many of the Prairie jobbers are
of the opinion that certain localities in British Columbia are suited to growing them, especially
that district from Penticton to Keremeos. I am also Informed that experiments have been made
at Summerland with some success, but the soil there was a little too stiff. This is a promising
enterprise, and an assured market awaits successful growers.
Field Tomatoes.
British Columbia field-grown tomatoes were shipped in greatly increased lots, both green
and ripe. They gave general satisfaction in quality and weight and good prices were obtained.
More care is needed in grading, also in placing ripe, semi-ripe,.and green in different packages.
Walhachin and Keremeos had a shade over other districts in the quality and pack. Bright,
lithographs should be used on the tomato-crates and wrapping should be dispensed with.
Celery.
Armstrong celery was much in evidence on all Prairie markets. The early celery was the
cause of grief, because it was shipped immature and in mixed cars, both potatoes and celery-
arrived showing great wastage. The later celery came on the market in prime condition and
was in great demand.
With care in preparing and shipping, there is no reason why Canada, from east to west,
should not buy Armstrong celery, as it is freely admitted to be the best on the market.
Citron, Squash, and Pumpkin.
The amount of citron grown in British Columbia is increasing, and if much greater increase
takes place it is the intention of the Markets Commissioner to take up the matter of using the
citron for candied purposes with British Columbia and Eastern preserving-factories. British
Columbia is well adapted to citron-growing, and in order to extend this enterprise a factory
outlet is needed, as the citron is capable of producing a great tonnage per acre.
Pumpkin-growers should grow sugar-pumpkin for culinary use. It is uniform, small, good
col our,, and an excellent shipper, and in crates they are very popular. The " Connecticut field"
now principally grown is too large and irregular in size, and dealers prefer the smaller and
superior-flavoured pumpkin.
Hubbard squash is in good demand on the Prairie market, but too many unripe specimens
were shipped last season. If grading and ripening were properly done, the trade would venture
on car-lots of these commodities instead of the L.C.L. lots not purchased.
Cantaloupes.
The growing of cantaloupes in Okanagan Valley for Prairie shipment can be greatly
increased. The last year's shipments were generally kept too long before being shipped,
arriving overripe and mouldy. Prices for hard, ripe cantaloupes ruled high and graded stock
was favoured. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 25
Cucumbers, Field and Picklers.
Field-grown cucumbers arrived in great volume, but as a rule of poor variety. Better
grading is greatly needed and the variety of sorts is too numerous.
Grading as' to size and shipping only green specimens should be the motto. Pickling and
irregular stuff should be kept out and overripes should never be shipped. There is need for the
selection of a special shipping variety. Some growers have them and ship just at the right time,
but the bulk of the 191S shipments seemed to include everything on the vine.
Cukes do not tavel well in iced cars, and they should be shipped by L.C.L. express when
intended for table use. During the peak of the season it will not pay to ship everything that
grows on the vine. Green, well-grown specimens of uniform size only should be shipped. There
is a great demand for picklers at British Columbia preserving-factories at fair prices.
Notes and Impressions.
Shipment on consignment to retail trade was greatly demanded. The demand for strawberries and raspberries greatly exceeded the supply.
The British Columbia pack of small fruits, with few exceptions, was a great improvement
over the previous year. Most of the losses suffered were apparently in transit, as few Indications
of carelessness on shippers' part was noticed. The exception to this was shipments made after
rains.
The Magoon strawberry is the best shipper next to the Clark's Seedling, and that the
Cuthbert raspberry is easily the best all-round berry.
That the British Columbia rhubarb-box is too closely built, too heavy, and needs more
air-space. That British Columbia rhubarb is better in colour, crisper, and of better flavour
than any other on the Prairie market.
That Walla Walla rhubarb holds up better owing to the greater chance for air-circulation
in the box iii which it is packed.
That early potatoes and vegetables should be grown to mix in the car-load of rhubarb.
Wynndel strawberry-crates with attractive lithographed ends are more attractive than the
printed ends.
Crop Estimates.
Early estimates of the British Columbia fruit-crop, especially those made of the Okanagan
crop after a severe frost last season, were entirely at sea. Especially was this noted in cherries
and apricots, but plums, prunes, and peaches were greatly underestimated. British Columbia
shippers know that Prairie jobbers and brokers seek to ensure a supply for their needs in various
lines in advance of ripening season. If British Columbia fruitmen cannot furnish enough, the
balance is secured in the United States, even at an advance over our quotations. As produce
from the South arrives on the market ahead of ours, the mischief in underestimation of our crop
is done before the British Columbia crop commences to roll, and even when it is rolling. This
resulted in bringing to the Prairie market much fruit that overlapped ours and thereby unbalanced
the market. The difference between early estimates and the actual crop should be checked up
several times and corrected, so that the discrepancy will be slight.
Bearish Outlook.
The shippers and jobbers of British Columbia and Prairies have takeii considerable loss in
last year's business. They were compelled to buy on a high market, and owing to the crop-
failure in Alberta under sugar-supply and food-control the market remained dull and lifeless,
and a tendency was ever present for prices to fall instead of to rise. This, with loss in transit,
shipping immature stuff, and heating due to overloading, made the way of the wholesaler hard.
Untimely and misunderstood sugar restriction and poor distribution threatened the loss of
hundreds of ears of fruit.
Your Markets Commissioner took up this matter in an urgent manner, both with Ottawa and
Vancouver, and succeeded, with their help, in relieving the situation.
The general loss sustained throughout the 1918 season will ultimately reflect on the British
Columbia growers of produce. There will be more buying from hand to mouth and less storage
oil the Prairies than, formerly.    This condition is not what growers want, but storage facilities W 26 Department of Agriculture. 1919
at shipping-point are imperative if prices are to be maintained and regulated by the producers
on the basis of supply and demand. The wholesalers have takeii losses in storage for some
years. Much of their shrinkage has been due to Jonathan scald and bitter-pit developing in
storage, and in all fairness this should be partially borne by the growers. It is not a hopeful
outlook when dealers are losing money, and while in the past the growers have suffered unfairly,
still we must place our wares In the hands of the wholesalers in such condition as will enable
them to handle profitably.    In other words, we must stand behind honest dealers.
Growers of fruit and produce must be on their guard against the bearish tendency, as it will
surely be carried too far if some effort is not made to counteract it.
The strongest market will be found where growers are in control of their brokers and have
their own selling agencies. This point cannot be too much emphasized, as the experience of
the past, wherein the price of production was not obtained by growers, was largely the result
of jobbers and brokers being in control of the market.
Distribution.
On a widely separated market, such as obtains on the Prairies, distribution becomes one of
our greatest problems. Our present method is a marked improvement on past efforts, but much
can be done to economize in freight, secure adequate supply, and prevent undersupply at different
points. The Okanagan United Growers and Okanagan houses supply the bulk of the produce
shipped in. The unity of purpose amongst these shippers should he an instrument to greatly
overcome the distributing difficulty.
If it were possible to establish a Shipping Union Distributing Depot at Calgary, many of
the cars now broken up there and distributed throughout the Prairies as piecemeal could be
diverted to points en bloc. This system is practised by the British Columbia Sugar Refinery
in distributing their sugar.    Perishable produce would better lend itself to this method.
When British Columbia shippers unite for this purpose the cost to the consumer can be
greatly reduced, and the growing shortage of cars would be relieved. The logical distributing-
point for the Prairies and Eastern Canada at the present time is Calgary.
Place ot Shipment. First Assembly
Point.
Creston and Kootenay, through the Crow  Calgary.
Grand Forks, via Penticton and Sicamous          „
Lytton, Walhachin, Kamloops, and Salmon Arm, via main line  ,-,
Arrow Lakes, via Revelstoke, main line         „
Athalmer, Windermere, via Golden, main line	
Island and Lower Mainland, via main line ,
Okanagan, Keremeos, via main line	
Calgary as a distributing-point would allow the whole Province to distribute from one depot.
This can be worked out in detail as associations grow sufficiently, but the immediate effort should
be directed to one central point instead of many expensive offices scattered through the small
shipping centres of British Columbia.
United States Shipments.
Considerable fruit shipments were made from British Columbia to points in the United
States, chiefly to Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Duluth. An experiment with shipping prunes to
St. Paul was only a partial success.    This was largely due to the soft condition ou arrival.
British Embargo.
The British embargo on apples was removed in November, just too late to be of much benefit,
as at that date the shippers had placed almost all their stock.
The restrictions now imposed by the British Food Control Board favour the importation of
poor-grade apples, but these restrictions are only temporary. The prohibitive freight rates from
Halifax to Liverpool will also soon adjust themselves to normal conditions. Taking it into
review that we were able to expand our interprovincial trade during the embargo period, its
removal brightens the outlook. Prospect for the extension of our export trade is very bright,
and full advantage should be taken of the time of market reorganization in Britain to get into
touch with British dealers before they get satisfaction from foreign sources. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 27
LOSS  CAUSED BY UNUSUAL CONDITIONS  IN  191S.
During 1918 we have had many unforeseen conditions to combat, some of the elements
which threw in unusual climatic conditions, with their attending evils, bringing heavy losses
in their wake. We need not enumerate them as they are unlikely to return for years, but here
we will mention that the loss from wastage in cherries, plums, and prunes was due in a large
measure to these causes.
Emergency Advertising.
The season of 191S provided few emergencies where supply exceeded demand. The markets
were well supplied, but seldom oversupplied. The exception to this came in cherries, plums,
prunes, tomatoes, and cucumbers. Emergency advertising was resorted to, and several leading
articles were written with the authority of the Markets Commissioner, calling the attention of
housewives to the passing of the season.    This had usually the desired result.
The other matter of urgency was the advertising of how to preserve with minimum of
sugar and assuring housewives that for making crab-apple jelly abundant sugar could be
purchased with the approval of the Canada Food Board.
British Columbia fruit-growers should have a reserve fund for emergency purposes, as
without it many thousands of dollars may be lost. Last season the situation was bridged by
the wholesale trade doing the advertising, supplemented by the British Columbia Fruit-growers'
Association.
There is a great scarcity of home-preserved fruits, due to fruit and sugar shortage, which
promises well for good prices during the season 1919.
Visit to Eastern Markets.
After the last issue of the Prairie Market Bulletin your Markets Commissioner visited
Toronto, Ottawa, and Montreal with a view to market extension. The brokers and jobbers in
these cities were called on and some of the leading retail merchants interviewed.
Our apples are in good repute and boxed apples from British Columbia are increasing in
demand very fast. It is admitted there that the fruit from the Western States is the only
competition we have to count upon. While our produce is popular, it is quoted as high as
Washington and Montana stuff. It is claimed rightly that our grade and colour is less carefully
put up, and that our boxed apples for this reason should be quoted from 10 to 25 cents a box
delivered less than similar varieties from the United States. Eastern buyers would prefer an
equal pack at an equal price, as colour and uniform size is more important than price.
There is a demand for our Bing and Lambert cherries in 10-lb. flat or 24 deep pint crates
by the car-lot in Montreal and Ottawa, and for our Italian prunes in all three cities. These
cities are the distributing-point for all Eastern Canadian points that are interested in British
Columbia fruit or vegetables.
Our trade east of Winnipeg in 1918 was more than double 1917, and this market should be
supplied with only choice produce, for the reason that their own produce of similar kind to
what we ship in is of very good quality, and it is only the superior grades that interest them.
For this reason a careful inspection should precede shipments east of Port Arthur to ensure
a high quality only being shipped to Eastern points. Our aim should be to equal the produce
shipped by our Southern competitors.
The Eastern Canada market for British Columbia apples, cherries, and plums has been
further developed this year, and our east of Winnipeg sales this year have doubled last year's
output.
Ontario and Quebec had a fair crop of clean fruit, and notwithstanding this fact the fancy
trade prefers the box British Columbia fruit to the Eastern barrelled stuff. The increase of our
shipments means the displacement of North-western States importations.
The uncertainty of fruit rates on British Columbia apples to Montreal was the means of a
loss of many ears of fruit this year. This matter should be settled beyond doubt this year long
before the apples are ready to ship.
The Eastern trade can be doubled several times if the British Columbia shippers would
enforce a discipline amongst their growers of a rigid kind. It should be borne in mind that only
fancy stuff of highest grade is needed in Ontario and Quebec. W 28 Department of Agriculture. 1919
Conclusion.
This report would be incomplete without reference to the splendid co-operative spirit and.
willingness to exchange marketing information between our office and managers of competitive
concerns in the North-western States. Expressions of a hope that British Columbia concerns
would join with them in equalizing express freight rates and in all other things that point to
their mutual interests. We tender these officials a furtherance of our sincere thanks for much
valuable information supplied, and include the United States Market Bureau of Washington, D.C,
and the Spokane branch of same.
We also want to commend the cordial co-operation of the Dominion Inspectors under C. W.
Baxter in helping to raise the standard of our pack without undue injury to the producer who is
entering the shipping business, and also appreciate the splendid offer of the Chief Dominion
Fruit Commissioner to co-operate to the limit of his power with all Provincial efforts towards
the betterment of marketing Canadian fruit. Also the prompt and reliable service rendered by
Assistant Horticulturists and fieldmen of the British Columbia Horticultural staff, and the
British Columbia Coast Markets Commissioner for assistance in organizing growers in British
Columbia for Prairie trade shipment, and also for timely help in relieving the sugar shortage
on Prairies and adjusting the potato glut in the early season at Calgary.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
J. A. Grant,
Prairie Markets Commissioner.
REPORT   OF   COAST   MARKETS   COMMISSIONER   AND   INSPECTOR   IN   CHARGE   OF
EXPORTS.
R. C. Abbott.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Acting Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my fourth annual report on marketing conditions
in the Coast section of the Province of British Columbia; also report on the inspection-work
under my charge during the year 191S.
Weekly' Market Letters.
As in former years, weekly market letters have been issued from this office to farmers,
transportation company officials, shipping and wholesale firms; also to a large number of newspaper concerns, who desired the same for publication. These reports were mailed to any
interested party upon request. At the end of the year our mailing-list contained some 1,185
names.
We have experienced a great deal of difficulty in issuing these reports this year. During
the first part of the season we could not obtain the proper brand of ink, and after installing
a new machine we were confronted with the fact that the entire supply of paper used in this
work was exhausted and we were compelled to use a very inferior substitute. Both these
factors were uncontrollable.
In these letters we confined ourselves as much as possible to market problems affecting the
individual producer and Farmers' Co-operative Associations. Market questions of immediate
issue were discussed iii these letters, and many letters of appreciation have been received from
farmers who take an interest in the marketing problems of the day.
A large number of individual inquiries from producers have been answered by letter,
telephone, and telegraph.
Activities of the Office.
During the spring of 191S this office gave assistance to growers of Burnaby in the line of
organization. A number of meetings were held-and two co-operative organizations were formed—•
namely, the Burnaby Lake Fruit-growers' Association and the Burnaby Producers' Co-operative
Association. Owing to the geographical construction of Burnaby District it was thought best
to form two organizations—one to look after the interests of the growers on the Burnaby Lake
line of the British Columbia Electric Railway, and the other to operate on the Central Park line
or West Burnaby. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 29
After organization assistance was given these associations by arranging contracts for their
fruits. These contracts were made with one wholesale firm at a fixed price at the farms of the
growers lor the entire crop of strawberries and raspberries. The contract price was $2.50 for
No. 1 strawberries and $2.10 for No. 1 raspberries.
The Burnaby Lake Association handled lime and boxes, etc., for their members, and reported
a very successful season.
Every encouragement was given these organizations in the use of the two-fifth shipping-crate
for raspberries in preference to the two-fifth local, as used in former years. The former association used the two-fifth shipping-crate entirely, while the latter shipped in the two-fifth local
crate.    Hence the discouraging results obtained by the latter association.
During the berry season a number of fruit picking and packing demonstrations were held in
these two districts.    These were very well attended and the results obtained were good.
Assistance was also given the North Vancouver Producers' Association in the organization of
their association for the handling of eggs, poultry-feed, and supplies.
Adjustment of Disputes between Consignee and Consignor.—Many shipments of fruit and
farm produce are received by buyers here which do not come up to the standards or which may
be spoiled in transit. In such cases, upon request of either party, this office made inspection
and issued an unbiased report of the actual conditions of the shipment. In some instances,
where farmers living at a distance were unable to come to the city and make their own adjustments, this office made the required adjustment. In no instance does this office accept any
remittance for the producer, but always insists on cheques being made out direct to the shipper
and mailed in our presence when possible.
Overcharges in Freight and Express.—We also made adjustments of overcharges in freight
and express for growers who were not in a position t'o do so themselves.
Storage Investigations.—Investigations into the methods of storing potatoes have been carried
oil during the last three years, and from the information obtained much timely advice was given
out this season during the storing period.
Loss in Transit from Improper Loading.—Investigations made by this office in regard to loss
in transit show that a very large percentage of this loss, as well as a great deal of the disagreements and disputes between the shipper and the buyer, is caused by improper loading. Every
season there are heavy losses in tomatoes, peaches, and apricots, caused from being loaded
without making provision for proper circulation of air and lack of icing cars.
The losses in potatoes have been heavy. It was found, on investigation, that potatoes grown
in the districts of Lillooet and Ashcroft showed the heaviest shlnkage within a period of sixty
days after digging. Our investigations in 1917 brought out the facts that potatoes in these
districts, when dug, had a temperature of from 70 to 83° Fahr. These, when dug, sacked, and
loaded tightly in cars without any ventilation, went through a severe process of sweating. The
high temperature aud the moisture brought out or developed Fusarium diseases, such as jelly
end-rot and black-rot (Western field-rot). Black-heart was also developed, which is caused by
poor storage such as we find in tightly closed cars.
During the fall of 1918 Mr. Gntteridge, Assistant Potato Inspector, was stationed at Lillooet
and gave the growers of that district much useful information in the proper loading of cars.
As to the results of his work in that district, I have only to state that all cars were checked at
this end and those loaded according to instructions arrived here In the best of condition, while
at least 90 per cent, of those shipped under the usual method of loading showed shrinkage.
In this connection I cite one case of where a dispute arose between the shipper and the
buyer over the condition of three car-loads of potatoes. In order to test out the necessity of
absolute protection for the producer and the feasibility of handling such cases, this office undertook the supervision of picking over and regrading the three cars, with the result that 14 tons
2 cwt. of potatoes were saved and sold for $27.50 per ton; whereas under ordinary methods of
resorting in the wholesale houses these would have been an absolute loss and charged back to
the grower. The results obtained in the above instance were so encouraging that the work was
continued throughout the shipping season, and the work of resorting some forty-eight cars, over
There is much work to be carried on in this line, and it is the aim of this office to continue
which disputes between grower and buyer arose, was carried on under the supervision of this office,
these investigations, with the hope of educating the shippers to the great necessity of proper
loading of produce to ensure safe transportation. TV 30 Department of Agriculture. 1919
The heavy minimum insisted on hy the railroads has, in my opinion, been more of a detriment
than a benefit and has caused a wanton wastage in foodstuffs, which eventually terminated in
high prices to the consumer.
Advice to Shippers.—In all cases where we find shipments arriving in poor condition we
immediately write the shipper and draw his attention to the fact; also giving him advice on
how to grade and pack and the best methods to use when putting his produce on the market
to obtain the best results.
Fruit Inspection.—During the caterpillar epidemic in Vancouver City, South Vancouver,
and Point Grey the inspection-work was carried on by this office; 3,110 inspections were made
and forty-one quarantine notices issued.
This inspection is a very hard one to handle owing to the fact that there are only one or
two trees in each back yard. Very few of the owners of the property have spray-pumps. We
found in the majority of cases that the owners or tenants of the property were not willing to
invest in spray-pumps, but were willing to pay for having their trees sprayed. The inspection
took in an area running from Cedar Cove to Central Park in a line with Cedar Cottage on the
east, and extended west to Arbutus Street and in southerly line to Eburne and south-east to
Central Park.
There is every indication of a severe outbreak in 1919 In this same district. While experts
claim that this year will see the last of the worst of this epidemic, we might say that in our
work of 1918 we saw very little evidence of parasitizing.
Egg Inspection.—No Chinese eggs have been marketed here this year. Imports from Eastern
Canadian points and the Prairie Provinces composed the greater part of our outside supply, a
very small quantity coming in from the United States as compared with other years.
Potato Inspection.—This work not only covered all export shipments from west of Yale, but
also inspection on local shipments.
General Inspection.—General inspection was given on all lines of produce, including poultry
and dressed meats, shipped by producers. When these were not up to the standard, letters
were written to the producers advising them of the best methods to put same up for the market.
Local Markets.
During the whole year of 1918 our local markets were well supplied with British Columbia
fruit and produce.
Strawberries.—The price of strawberries remained high throughout the season. The main
supply came from Vancouver Island and Burnaby. Haney and Burnaby Districts were under
contract with wholesale houses here. The quality in general was only fair as compared with
other seasons.
Ever-bearing varieties were on the market almost continually up to December 1st. These
berries sold wholesale at an average price of $4.50 per pint crate. The demand will take a
considerable quantity of these, and it will no doubt be several years before there is any overproduction of this fruit, as their carrying qualities appear to be conducive to long-distant
shipping.
Even though the prices for the main crop of strawberries were out of the reach of the
ordinary householder for canning purposes, the supply was below the demand.
Raspberries.—The raspberry business was pretty well in the hands of three wholesalers.
The season was bad and difficulty was experienced hi getting berrie.s in shape to stand up for
long shipments.
Close investigations have led us to believe that the Antwerp variety should not be grown
here for shipping purposes. After a careful study we believe the time is near when Herberts
and Cuthherts will demand a premium over Antwerps even on the local market. Although the
production of raspberries is gradually increasing, the demand is increasing more rapidly.
Blackberries.—There were very few of these on the Coast markets this season. .The demand
is not great, but it is encouraging to note the increased demand from the middle Provinces for
the Evergreen variety. The acreage in these is very small, and While from some quarters an
increased production is encouraged, we believe this can easily be overcome unless some assurance
of the demand comes from the cannerymen.
Note.—Several car-loads of strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries were frozen and
shipped to Ontario for canning purposes. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 31
Loganberries.—The supply was far short of the demand. Prices were good. In our opinion
the demand for these berries will increase each year and increased production can safely be
encouraged. This berry is fast becoming a favourite on all markets and is a profitable one
from both the producer's and the consumer's standpoint.
Gooseberries.—The greater portion of the gooseberries shipped here during 191S were shipped
in bulk and sold by the, pound.    The demand was not strong owing to the sugar situation.
Currants.—The demand for reds was good and Is gradually increasing. Blacks were short
on supply.
Cherries.—Sour cherries were a drug on the market. Sweets of the Bing and Lambert
varieties were in good demand.    British Columbia supplied the bulk of the supply this season.
Plums and Prunes.—In previous years the Lower Mainland shipped these in in quantities far
in excess of the demand, but owing to the ice-storm in the early spring of 1918 many trees were
broken down and thus the supply was cut down.    Very little wastage was reported this season.
Apricots, Peaches, and Pears.—Very few apricots came in from British Columbia points.
The supply of British Columbia peaches was much greater than in former years and found a
ready market.
Pears from local points were marketed loose in orchard-boxes and a large quantity was
moved. Bartietts and Clarigeaus from the Island found a ready demand. The Coast markets
are always good for good pears.
Apples.—British Columbia apples are to be found in every wholesale fruit and produce house
on the Coast. Foreign apples were only imported early in the spring when British Columbia
apples could not be supplied. Apples of all varieties appeared to fall down quickly this season
and we heard the same complaint from every quarter.
The crowding of winter varieties on fall varieties has caused considerable loss. As soon as
long-keeping varieties are on the market retailers will take these every time in preference to
fall varieties. This leaves the fall varieties on the wholesalers' hands and they are ultimately
" slumped " or lost.
Potatoes.—During the early part of this year this office experienced much difficulty in the
marketing of potatoes owing to the various conflicting reports published by members of the
Canada Food Board Committee and speculators. Shipments to the Prairie Provinces commenced
oil January 17th and continued up to May 23rd. The total shipments in this period amounted
to 245 cars of an average of 22% tons per car. These shipments were all inspected and certificates
issued.
New Potato Shipments.—New potato shipments from East Delta commenced on July 2nd
and continued to August 23rd. These amounted to thirty-eight cars, thirty-five going to the
Middle West and three to the United States.
Mixed Vegetables.—The quantities of parsnips, beets, and turnips shipped export far exceeded
previous years. Shimpents of new cabbage during July amounted to 50 tons. These were of
excellent quality and of good size. The total shipments of mixed cars of vegetables for the year
from the district west of Yale amounted to twenty-two cars. This and the new potato shipments
is all new business and proves beyond a doubt that these shipments can be greatly increased.
Dry Beans.—During the early part of 191S beans went as high as 13% cents a pound to
the grower and speculators bought up the whole crop. This high price encouraged growers to
grow larger quantities in the season of 191S, which is practically all in the hands of the growers
at the present time. The high prices of the 1917 crop retarded consumption and many car-loads
of the 1917 crop are still in the hands of the buyers. In spite of the fact that we have a large
supply in British Columbia, shipments of Oriental beans continue to arrive.
It might be well to mention here that Pintos and coloured beans are gaining favour on the
markets and are now commanding almost as high a price as the white Navy bean.
Onions.—The quality of British Columbia onions this season in general was good, although
the size was much below what was required by the market. Heavy loading in the cars without
decks was the cause of much waste.
Tomatoes.—Hothouse tomatoes were in good supply and the prices held high throughout the
season. A very large increase in the Eastern shipments was recorded. Field tomatoes came in
early from Departure Bay. These were of good quality and exceptionally well graded and packed.
Car-load lots from the Interior of British Columbia came in in lug-boxes, crates, and tomato-
boxes.    The lug-boxes met to some extent the cheaper demand for home canning. W 32 Department of Agriculture. 1919
Miscellaneous Fruits and Vegetables.—British Columbia sweet chestnuts, walnuts, and
filberts were on the market in small quantities. The chestnuts and walnuts were of excellent
quality. The filberts were picked too green and in our opinion placed on the market at least
one month too soon.
Vancouver City takes approximately 50,000 lb. of sweet chestnuts, besides several cars of
walnuts and filberts. All three of these grow and bear well in the Lower Fraser Valley and we
believe the planting of these nuts should be encouraged.
Considerable quantities of home-grown Jerusalem artichokes were marketed during the
fall. In one enterprising garden at Kerrisdale, Globe artichokes were grown very successfully,
and it would appear from this year's success that it will be quite possible to grow these on a
commercial scale.
Head-lettuce is always in great demand in the Coast cities and 1918 was really the first year
any great quantities were grown iii British Columbia. The Chinese gardeners were able to
grow this very successfully aud several acres were marketed in the City of Vancouver.
Cucumbers, for both pickling and market sale, were grown very extensively and successfully
on the Lower Mainland.
Eggs and Poultry.—Eggs reached the highest price in November, 1918, that has been recorded
in British Columbia for over thirty years; eggs reached retail at as high as $1.20 a dozen;
while poultry, milk-fed, retailed at 70 cents and turkeys at 75 cents a pound.
Large quantities of turkeys reached this market from Alberta during the month of December.
These were laid down in Vancouver at 42 cents per pound and retailed at 55 and 60 cents per
pound. There was a very large increase in local turkeys this year. This was fine stock and
in some instances the farmers were paid 62 cents per pound dressed.
Hay and Grain.—Hay prices have held high, with the exception of alfalfa. This dropped
early in December owing to the heavy importations from the State of Washington. Local oats
cleaned up early.
Hogs and Dressed Pork.—Live hogs held up well until December, when there was a sudden
drop in prices of 4 cents a pound to the farmer. Retail prices held even. Young pigs, although
scarce in the spring and prices became exorbitant, met with a severe " slump " early in the fall,
when the market became so overcrowded with small pigs that some lots had to be returned to
the shipper unsold.
Summary.
In looking back over the year we find little complaint can be made from the producer's
standpoint. It might be stated here that our investigations disclosed the fact that, due to the
high prices, many farmers and shippers took a chance on the markets with inferior stuff and
eventually lost out, as the markets will only stand a limited quantity and dealers will only
tolerate this kind of business to a very small degree.
Respectfully submitted.
R. C. Abbott,
Coast Markets Commissioner and Inspector in Charge of Exports.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL PLANT PATHOLOGIST.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Acting Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report for the year 1918.
New Diseases.
Leaf-roll of Potatoes.—This disease has for some time been receiving serious consideration
in the East, being regarded as one of the chief causes of poor yields. It is not, so far as caii be
discovered, due to any parasite, but to some degenerative change in the constitution of the plant.
It is transmitted by the use of tubers from diseased plants for seed, plants from such seed usually
showing the disease in an increased degree. Badly affected plants are readily recognized by
the rolling-up of the leaves from the margin and by the often numerous small tubers set close
to the base of the stem.   The disease has not been noticed in British Columbia previous to this 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 33
year, when a very well-marked case was found in the vicinity of Vancouver, a large proportion
of the plants of several varieties being so badly affected as to be worthless. Since the disease
is not of parasitic origin, special measures such as spraying are of no value, the only means of
preventing its increase being to select for seed only tubers from healthy plants. This means
the use of a seed-plot with careful " roguing-out" of diseased plants or selection of seed from
sound and prolific plants only from the general crop.
White-pine Blister-rust.—This disease appears to have its origin in Russia and Siberia and
was probably introduced into the Eastern part of this continent about ten years ago in importations of white-pine seedlings from Europe. About three years ago it was found to be established
in a number of the States and Provinces beyond hope of eradication. Like many other rust
fungi, the parasite has two alternate host-plants; in this case five-leaved pines being one host
and species of Ribes (gooseberries and currants, including wild forms) the other. The disease
may be carried on either of these, types of plant, although it is destructive chiefly to pines.
There is some reason to believe that the western white pine (Pinus monticola) is more susceptible
than the eastern species (Pinus strobus), and therefore that the disease would be more severe
in the West than in the East should it become established.
During the past season I have made numerous examinations of currants and gooseberries
for the stage of the rust occurring on them, with negative results. The stands of white pine,
however, are somewhat remote from the centres of cultivation and no attempt has been made
to make an adequate inspection of the pine districts. In the Kootenays, and particularly in the
vicinity of Kaslo, however, a large number of pines were examined and no rust found. Importation of five-leaved pines have been prohibited since 1917, but the files of the office of the Inspector
of Imported Stock have been gone over for the preceding five years in an effort to trace shipments
of these. This has not proved very satisfactory, since many such pines might be included under
the invoice titles "evergreens," " ornamentals," etc., but a number of importations have been
followed up and the plants inspected. In this case also no disease has been found. There is
reason for hoping, therefore, that the Province is at present free from the disease and may be
kept or if adequate measures are taken to exclude possible carriers of the disease.
Experimental Spraying.
Apple Anthracnose.—This work was continued at Keating, V.I., in co-operation with E. W.
White, the same plots being used. The early spray, with 3-4-40 Bordeaux mixture, was given
on September 1st, 1917, and the late one, with 6-6-40 strength, on October 30th. The cankers were
counted on May 14th, 1918. The difference in the appearance of the trees as compared with their
condition two years ago when first sprayed was very marked. The new growth having been
preserved for two years, it was not possible to count all the twigs and the cankers on each as
was previously done. Alternate trees in each row were closely examined for new cankers. Six
trees, sprayed with the early spray only, showed thirteen new cankers, an average of a little
over two per tree. On five trees which received both sprayings seven new cankers could be found.
Five trees, which received the late spraying only, had an aggregate of fifty-two new cankers, or
an average of 10.4 per tree. The evidence in favour of early spraying, even with Bordeaux
mixture of half the strength used later, was again convincing. An unsprayed tree similar in
every respect to those in the sprayed plot and adjoining them showed fifty-three new cankers,
only a portion of the tree being examined. As in the previous year, the apples, when packed
early in January, required no special treatment, and therefore no cost was incurred over and
above that of the actual spraying, which amounted to about 15% cents per tree for the first
application and 24 cents for the second. Since the first spraying was almost as effective as both
combined, the cost of protection is comparatively slight. The effects of the previous year's
spraying were already of practical value, the grower stating his 1917 harvest to be the best
he had had for many years from these trees.
Apple-scab.
The work on apple-scab control was again carried out in co-operation with the staff of the
Horticultural Branch on the same plots at Salmon Arm, Vernon, Forslunds (on the Arrow Lakes),
Nelson, and Creston. This is the third year that this work has been carried on. Certain
problems remain for further investigation, but the three-year tests have given us the necessary
data for recommendations for scab-control, in an ordinary year, in any of the above localities. W 34 Department of Agriculture. 1919
The rains in mid-August introduced a new factor this year and the late spray which in previous
years had appeared to be money thrown away proved valuable. A detailed analysis of results
is not given here, as it is proposed to publish them in bulletin form.
Potato-diseases.
Early in the year, at a conference between the Plant Pathologist and the staff of the
Soil and Crop Division, it was decided to inaugurate some work, partly experimental, partly
demonstrative, to improve the yield of potatoes in the Lower Fraser Valley. This work was to
include the selection of seed from the owner's stock when this was reasonably satisfactory in
quality, disinfection of the same with formaldehyde, and the spraying of the growing plants
as a protection against late blight. The work was carried out by E. Hogan, A. P. W. Auketell-
Jones, and myself, the last-named being responsible for the direction and checking-up of the
■disease-control work, with which aspect alone this report deals.
In order to arouse interest in the work and to secure suitable plots for it, a series of meetings
were held and addresses given by the three representatives of the Department above-mentioned,
in which the alms of the work were stated, the improvement of the crop by selection and methods
of cultivation discussed, and the chief potato-diseases illustrated by specimens and the measures
for their control outlined. These meetings were held at Chilliwack, East Chilliwack, Atchelitz,
Rosedale, Cloverdale, and Ladner. Offers of the required plots for carrying on the work were
made and accepted at Chilliwack. Sardis. South Sumas, Surrey Centre, Kensington Prairie, and
Sullivan. Later it was found necessary to discard the plots at Sullivan for spraying-work. The
chief object from the standpoint of disease-control was to determine the best methods of preventing late blight. This disease almost every year causes great loss in the moist climate of the
Lower Mainland, whilst spraying for its control has never been done. Under Eastern conditions,
when the potato-bug, or Colorado beetle, begins to strip the plants when a few inches high,
spraying has to be done early in the season for this pest, and the Bordeaux mixture to control
blight can be combined with it at little extra cost. Under our conditions it was thought likely
that spraying could be postponed satisfactorily until early in August. All the plots were carefully examined on July 16th and 17th and no trace of late blight was discovered. A little was
found on July 29th at Chilliwack. and following the cold wet weather of August 14th, 15th,
. and 16th late blight developed rapidly. The following are the records for the individual plots.
Figures as to comparative yields and keeping qualities of the sprayed and unsprayed plots are
not yet available.
Surrey Centre.—The soil here was very light and peaty. The plants suffered a good deal
from sun-scorch, and by August 7th, when the first spraying was made, early blight had proved
unexpectedly severe. No late blight developed. Spraying had some effect in keeping the foliage
green, but when the plot was last visited on September 27th practically everything w-as dead
and the yield very light.
Kensington Prairie.—Early blight did not do anything like so much damage in this case as
in the last owing to difference of location and better soil conditions. The crop was vigorous, there
being a marked difference between the plots from selected and treated seed and adjoining plots
which received no special care in this respect. Yerj>- little late blight developed, however, so
that when last examined on September 27th there was little difference noticeable between the
plot sprayed once and that sprayed twice. All sprayed plots contained fewer dead plants on
this date than the unsprayed.
South Sumas.—A little late blight showed in a low spot in the field on July 29th. Plots
were sprayed on August 2nd; examination on August 13th showed no spread on the sprayed
plots, but a little on the. unsprayed. On August 17th two of the three plots were sprayed again.
On August 28th the sprayed plots were still in good condition, little difference being observed
between that sprayed once and those sprayed twice; but there was a marked increase of late
blight ou the unsprayed portion, two spots being killed out.    (See photograph.)
Sardis.—The ground here appeared to be in good condition and well drained, but was very
much infested with horsetail, indicating the presence of a wet substratum. This horsetail helped
to hold moisture that assisted the spread of blight, which was much more marked on these plots
than on any other of the experimental ones. There were plenty of fields in the Chilliwack
Valley, however, quite as bad as the unsprayed plot here. On July 29th there was little early
blight or tip-burn and no late blight visible.    On July 30th three plots were sprayed with 4-4-40 «*-;£-♦»!.>    "... .^
Showing the spot where blight started in the unsprayed plot at South Sumas.
Note the dead stalks of the blighted plants.
View ot the unsprayed plot at Sardis.    All the plants are dead.    The plots
on each side of it received one spraying.  9 Geo. 5        ' British Columbia. W
Bordeaux mixture. On August 13th the sprayed plots appeared in good condition, only a little
late blight being found on close examination. On the unsprayed plot late blight was quite
noticeable. On August 19th two plots were sprayed as before. On August 28th the plants on
the unsprayed plot had turned completely black and many of the tubers were diseased. On one
plant examined eight out of thirteen tubers were diseased. Tubers on all plants examined on
sprayed plots were sound. One plot was sprayed again on this date. A final examination was
made on September 6th. It was possible at this date to pick out clearly with the eye the line
of demarcation between the four plots sprayed respectively three times, twice, once, and not at
all, by the increasing amount of blight on them. The photograph shows the contrast between the
plot sprayed once and that unsprayed. A measured rod on an average row of the unsprayed plot
yielded 14 blighted tubers and 100 sound ones, 62 of marketable size and weighing 20 lb. A
similar rod from the plot sprayed once yielded 06 tubers all sound, and the 70 marketable ones
weighed 27 lb.
Chilliwack.—This plot was well in the open, not shaded by trees, and late blight only
developed to a slight extent even on the unsprayed plots. In this field varietal differences were
apparent, the unsprayed plot of Scottish Champion showing less blight than a plot of Dakota Red
sprayed once.
While the work of the past season has been more or less of a preliminary nature, the
following results have been gained :—
(1.) That late blight did not appear until August, and even one spraying gave a considerable
degree of protection against it.
(2.) That dates of spraying cannot be determined with reference to late blight only, since
early blight may be very destructive in seasons like the past. This could probably have been
controlled in a good measure by earlier spraying.
(3.) The necessity of testing and comparing different types of sprayers, the mechanical
aspect of spraying-work being the most unsatisfactory. The type of machine used, whilst fairly
satisfactory for small areas, say up to 5 acres, would be too slow for a large acreage.
Weather Conditions and Disease.
In addition to the effects noted above ou potato-diseases, the weather conditions during the
past season were important in other directions. A good deal of this is due to the heavy rains
which were pretty general over the Province about the middle of August following a hot, dry
season. This resulted in a great deal of apple-scab, fruit-pit, and a very general condition of
premature breaking-down of the tissue of apples. Some peculiar cases of rotting of apples in
storage were called to my attention. These apples were of the variety Delicious, grown in the
Vernon and Oyama Districts. Ordinarily, the climate at these points is too dry to permit of
the development of apple-scab, except during the early part of the season. The moisture from
the heavy August rains, however, had been able to collect and remain long enough in the stem
end of the apples to bring about a general infection with scab in the cavity. The scab-spots
varied from five to over twelve in each cavity and were very small and inconspicuous. Since
the rest of the apple was free of scab, the fruit was very naturally packed as No. 1. Unfortunately,
rot-fungi gained access through these scab-spots, with the result that a large percentage of the
apples rotted hi storage. Whilst the conditions which resulted thus might not occur again for
some years, it emphasizes the value of spraying against scab. Technically, the case is of interest
in that the rotting was not due to the usual causal fungus, but to another one which is being
investigated further.
Codling-moth.
A number of supposed cases of codling-moth infestation having been reported during the
last two years from New Westminster, considerable time was spent this fall in following them
up.    In all cases, however, the pest proved to be lesser apple-worm.
Field-work, etc.
A considerable amount of time has been spent, as usual, in the field with the different
Horticulturists and Inspectors, inquiring into and advising regarding local disease problems.
In addition to the routine work aud correspondence of the laboratory, special attention has been
given to the local movement of greater production. I gave two addresses on plant-diseases at
the University in connection with the " Fight or Farm " course on garden farming, and have W 30 Department of Agriculture. 1919
paid over 200 visits in the vicinity of Vancouver, mostly in response to requests, to advise on
pests and disease. Some work has also been done in getting data for the War Emergency Board
of American Plant Pathologists.
Exhibitions.
Aii exhibit of plant-diseases under the personal charge of the Plant Pathologist was shown
at the Vancouver and Chilliwack Exhibitions.
Circulars.
The following circulars were prepared and issued during the year: Spray Calendar for
1918; Diseases of Stone-fruits in British Columbia; Apple and Pear Scab; Potato-diseases;
Apple-tree Anthracnose.
Vernon Office.
During the past year R. 0. Treherne, Field Officer of the Dominion Entomological Branch,
has made his headquarters at the Vernon Laboratory. The services of M. II. Ruhmann, assistant
to the Plant Pathologist, previously in charge of the Vernon Laboratory, have been placed,
without reservation, at the disposal of Mr. Treherne for entomological work. The technical
results of the work carried on will be published elsewhere, but a brief statement of the work
done by Mr. Ruhmann is given herewith.
Observations were made and some experimental work done on codling-moth, onion-maggot,
and climbing cutworms. Some very satisfactory results were obtained with the last-named pest.
In one case 80 acres of land planted to tomatoes had suffered so badly that replanting was
necessary. The area was treated with poisoned bait with such good results that upon replanting
not a single plant on the whole 80 acres was lost.
Much of Mr. Ruhmann's time has been given to the work of improving the technical
equipment of the laboratory. A large insectary has been erected on the Court-house grounds,
the material for its construction having been furnished by the Dominion Entomological Branch.
A first-class photographic enlarging-lantern has been purchased, which necessitated the rewiring
of the laboratory. A large vertical camera-stand has been made. Many photographs have been
takeii of insect-injuries and life-histories. It is intended to use these instead of Hiker mounts
for exhibition purposes. The remainder of Mr. Ruhmann's time was given to supervising the
breeding-cages in the insectary, collecting and caring for material.
In addition, exhibits were prepared and shown at the fall fairs at Kelowna, Armstrong,
and Summerland, Mr. Ruhmann being in attendance to answer inquiries.
Respectfully submitted.
J. W. Eastham,
Provincial Plant Pathologist.
REPORT   OF   INSPECTOR  OF  IMPORTED   FRUIT  AND  NURSERY   STOCK.
W. II. Lyne.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Acting Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report of the work carried out by the
Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock, etc., and his staff of assistants during the
year 191S.
Staff.
The personnel of this Branch of the Department of Agriculture consists of your Inspector,
three Assistant Inspectors, and clerk-stenographer stationed at Vancouver; also a Quarantine
Officer at each of the following points of entry into the Province: Victoria, Nanaimo, Prince
Rupert, Abbotsford, Pluntingdon, Similkameen, Osoyoos, Bridesville, Midway, Grand Forks, Rossland, Waneta, Cascade, Kingsgate, Newgate, Cranbrook, Fernie, and Revelstoke. At Victoria
the Quarantine Officer occasionally employs an assistant.
Customs Officers at Penticton, Osoyoos, Rykert, and Pacific Highway look out for any
infested fruit or vegetables that may be brought across the boundary by way of wagon-road,
only small quantities sufficient to accommodate the travellers on their journey being allowed.
Larger quantities and consignments are admitted only at points of entry where regular Quarantine
Officers are stationed. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 37
It is the duty of the Quarantine Officer to inspect fruit, vegetables, rice, corn, peas, and
beans coming into the Province, issue certificates, and collect inspection fees, which are paid
into the general revenue fund of the Province.
Condemnation of Fruit, etc
Imported fruit, vegetables, etc., found to be infested with any insect pest, or infested with
any disease of sufficient importance to bar their entry into the Province, are shipped out by the
most direct route or destroyed. The most important insect pests and diseases to which such
radical treatment applies are: Codling-moth, San Jose scale, Mediterranean fruit-fly, potato-
tuber moth, peach-worm, potato-canker or wart-disease, powdery scab, pea and bean weevil, and
citrus brown-rot.
Cereal and Stored Products.
Imported rice, corn, peas, beans, ete,, when infested with moth beetles or weevil, are either
rejected, fumigated, or isolated, according to the extent or nature of the infestation. Special
accommodation for fumigating such products is provided at Vancouver and Victoria.
New Quarantine Officer appointed.
In order to accommodate fruit entering the Province in commercial quantity by way of
Osoyoos, Dr. G. S. Jermyn, Customs Officer, who had previously acted as temporary Quarantine
Officer, was regularly appointed by your Inspector in November.
Work at Vancouver.
All nursery stock, trees, and shrubs coming into British Columbia, or entering Canada by
way of British Columbia, have to come to Vancouver for inspection and fumigation. This work
is carried out by the officers stationed at Vancouver, who are also responsible for the inspection
of all other importations of horticultural or field products already referred to.
Vancouver Fumigating Station.
The building provided for the fumigation and inspection of imported nursery stock, trees,
shrubs, and plants is also used to fumigate imported rice, corn, beans, peas, and many other
consignments that are infested with objectionable insect pests from abroad. In addition to the
regular officers stationed at Vancouver, a foreman and two or three men are employed at the
fumigating station by the'day whenever there is sufficient work to warrant extra help. These
men are expert packers of nursery stock as the result of their having been engaged at that
particular work when required during the last several years, and it is very fortunate for the
Department that their other occupations permit them to come at short notice. Mr. Lane, the
foreman, is almost regularly employed owing to the steady use of the buildings for fumigating
imported cereals when the nursery stock season is closed, which is from May 1st to Oetober 1st.
The only repairs during the year were renewing the wagon-road and repairing roof of lean-to.
Victoria Fumigating Station.
As all the fumigation of imported nursery stock takes place at Vancouver, the accommodation
at Victoria is only for the fumigation of imported cereals or stored products that may require
such treatment at that port. On several occasions during recent years the one small building
of 16 by 20 feet was not large enough to accommodate the demand, in spite of the fact that the
Mount Royal Milling Company have a chamber on their own premises for fumigating the rice
they import. There was considerable complaint from some of the importers last summer owing
to this lack of accommodation, and your inspector was requested by the Hon. the Minister of
Agriculture to make what arrangements might be necessary under the circumstances.
With a view to the best economy, it was decided to utilize a chamber, known as the hide-
room, within a building at the Outer Wharf owned by R. P. Rithet & Co. The cost of preparing
the chamber for efficient work was $550, the rent to be $150 per year, thus providing for an
extra 100 tons capacity. Had the original plan of erecting a new building been carried out,
the cost would have been $3,000, with a ground-rent of $100 per year.
The Mount Royal Milling Company increased their accommodation for fumigating imported
rice by providing an extra chamber of 75 tons capacity in addition to the 100-ton capacity
chamber they had already in use, thus proving their desire to keep their mill and premises
free from infestation. W 38 Department of Agriculture. 1919
Importers request Fumigation.
One particular feature in connection with the large importation of rice, beans, peanuts, etc.,
from the Orient wyas the evident desire of several importers to have their consignments fumigated
before placing in storage or forwarding to consignees who might object to the product being
infested with weevil or moth. These men are beginning to realize'the tremendous waste and
individual loss resulting from insect pests in stored products.
Australian Wheat.
The importation of wheat from Australia was an event of considerable interest, and also a
demand on oui' ready recourse to deal with weevil with which it was infested. Previous to its
arrival your inspector was notified that the Dominion Department of Agriculture requested a
report of facilities at the Government elevator, Vancouver, for fumigating, superheating, or
otherwise disinfecting wheat infested with,.weevil, in anticipation of the wheat coming from
Australia being infested- Investigation proved that no special facilites for superheating or
fumigation existed at the elevator or Government dock, other thaii that it. was possible to
fumigate wheat in the bins, with carbon bisulphide, but just how large a quantity could be
successfully treated in each bin was doubtful. Besides, sufficient carbon bisulphide could not
be obtained on short notice. The Provincial Government fumigating chambers, already busy
with other importations, could not handle such large shipments of wheat as were on the way
within reasonable time to meet commercial requirements.
The first shipment of Australian wheat arrived from Sydney on August 21st ex the ship
" Geraldene Wolvin," carrying a cargo of 1,562% long tons in 22,000 sacks. This was landed
at the Government dock and proved to be badly infested with weevil, quite a sprinkling of
Plodia moth and Tribolium beetle, these insects being accompanied by several parasitic flies
of the chalcid species.
As the whole consignment was en route to England, and the time for dealing with the
infestation somewhat limited, it was decided to run the wheat through the famiing-machine into
the Government elevator-bins, and from there load it in bulk into the S.S. " War Camp"
conveying it to England. By this process practically all the adult weevil and other inse'cts
were separated from the wheat and carried with the screenings into a separate bin, where they
were ultimately fumigated with carbon bisulphide. There were 36,730 lb. of screenings from
the 1,562% tons of wheat. They were a living mass of weevil, but the carbon-bisulphide treatment
very successfully disposed of them all.
Sample of wheat takeii September 18th after combing over the screens of the faiining-machine
did not develop any new weevil until four weeks later, when a very small number of the adults
began to appear, and continued to increase until December 31st, when they recorded 588 to 1 lb.
of wheat. Most of the badly excavated grains of wheat were blown over the screens into the
tailings, which process would no doubt dispose of many eggs and larva? of the weevil. All the
empty sacks, many of them swarming with weevil, were fumigated with carbon bisulphide at
the Provincial Government Fumigating Station.
Between August 21st and December 17th there arrived at Vancouver from Sydney, Australia,
two ship-loads of wheat in 48,109 sacks, weight 3,440 long tons; from Melbourne, Australia,
three ship-loads in 106,543 sacks, weight 8,244 tons. One thousand eight hundred and seventy-
eight tons from the Sydney shipment was divided between the Vancouver Milling & Grain Company and the Distillery at Sapperton, New Westminster. The balance of the Sydney and
Melbourne shipments has gone to England in S.S. " War Camp " and S.S. " War Storm," with
the exception of 4,SS1 tons that arrived at Vancouver on December 17th in the S.S. " Yankalilla"
and is awaiting consignment.
Sydney Wheat infested.
All the wheat from Sydney, Australia, was considerably infested with weevil and treated
similarly to the first shipment already described. This gave the Vancouver Milling Company
the opportunity of grinding their wheat before the next batch of weevil had time to hatch out,
which would be one month after the wheat went through the fanniiig-machine at the Government
elevator.
Melbourne Wheat fairly clean.
The wheat from Melbourne, Australia, was comparatively free from weevil-infestation, and
apparently a very fair sample. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 39
Cold-storage Experiments.
-Several experiments have been made during the last few years to determine the best methods
of dealing with infested stored products. One of our recent tests was commercial cold storage
of imported rice infested with weevil, moth, and beetle. The result obtained was that the
insects in the sacks of rice, piled so that the air could circulate among them, and exposed to
10 degrees below freezing, were killed after fourteen days' exposure to that temperature.
Superheating.
Exposure to 130° Fahr. resulted in death of all insects after three hours. This latter test,
however, was made with small quantities only, and It is doubtful just how long an exposure
would be necessary in connection with large amounts in bulk or sacks. Many rice-millers claim
that heating rice spoils it for milling because the heat cracks the enamel of the grain, but they
do not object to the cold storage.
Carbon Bisulphide.
Fumigating with carbon bisulphide, with a thirty-six-hour exposure, has proved to be the
most effective and satisfactory method, provided the consignments were only a few hundred tons
in weight and could be conveniently hauled to an air-tight chamber suitable for the operation.
Fumigation by Steam.
High-pressure steam gives excellent results as a means of disinfecting empty ship's holds
or chambers that have recently contained badly infested stored products, and can be easily and
safely applied.
Large Importations.
During the last year the exceptionally heavy consignments of rice, peanuts, etc., from the
Orient have given us considerable trouble owing to a large proportion of them being infested
with insect pests. Consignments very badly infested were fumigated with carbon bisulphide
at the Government fumigating chambers. Other consignments only slightly infested, and too
large to handle at the Government chambers within a reasonable time, were either placed in
cold storage or isolated in cool warehouses that would become cold as the season advanced.
This method avoided the infested product from coming In contact with the clean product and
prevented further infestation.
Importation of Nursery Stock.
The tabulated list of imported nursery stock attached to this report gives the amount of
stock imported in 1918 as compared to that of 1917. A glance at the respective figures shows very
little variation with regard to the number of standard fruit-trees one year with the other, only
amounting to 1,892 trees in favour of the year 1917, the same year also having an extra 752
nut-trees to its credit. Fruit seedlings and scions for 1918 were considerably in excess of the
previous year, our British Columbia nurserymen preferring to propagate them instead of importing
standard trees.
Embargo on Currant and Gooseberry Stock.
Small-fruit stock was well patronized, there being 10,000 more blackberry-bushes imported
than the year before.    In all probability currant and gooseberry stock would have shown quite
■ an increase had it not been for the embargo prohibiting their entry into Canada.
The embargo which had been in force since July, 1917, was amended by Dominion Order in
Council of June 6th, 1918, permitting the importation of gooseberry and currant stock from that
part of the United States west of the line and excluding the States of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri,
Arkansas, and Louisiana.
Provincial Regulations.
Following a recommendation from the Dominion authorities and the approval of our Provincial Agricultural and Forestry Departments, the embargo on all five-leaved pine, gooseberry,
and currant stock will in future include all such stock grown east of the Ontario western
boundary. This will be a continuation of the line of demarcation running directly north and
south through the United States, and is considered to be the western boundary of areas in
4 W 40 Department of Agriculture. 1919
which the white-pine blister-rust is prevalent. The gooseberry and currant stock is associated
with the white-pine blister-rust by acting as host-plant in the propagation of the spores of the
disease.
Ornamental Stock.
There was a marked increase in the importation of all ornamental trees, shrubs, and plants
—a good indication that financial conditions are improving in British Columbia.
Nursery Stock condemned.
The percentage of standard fruit-trees condemned would average only about 3% per cent.,
ranging from a fraction of 1 to 5 per cent. Small fruit and ornamental stock, with the exception
of grape and gooseberry, did not run more than 3 per cent, for any one variety, and much lower
on the average. The condemnation of grape stock amounted to about 17 per cent, owing to
Phylloxera infestation, and gooseberry 9% per cent, owing mostly to the embargo. Very little
San Jose scale was in evidence as compared with many other years. Woolly aphis on apple-roots
accounted for many of the trees being condemned.
Crown-borer, root-gall, anthracnose, sour sap, and Lecauium, Aulacaspis, Diaspis, Chionaspis,
and Ostrwformis scale-insects infecting and infesting the other varieties of stock resulted in their
condemnation also.
A comparatively new insect during the last few years is a species of the woolly aphis
attacking the roots of young pear-trees. It is presumed by some entomologists to be a European
pear-aphis (Eriosoma pyri), and is even more destructive than the woolly apple-tree aphis. It
often kills young pear-trees in a single season by consuming the tender fibre of the root-feeders.
Quite a little of this aphis was found on pear-trees imported from Oregon, U.S.A., and the trees
were condemned accordingly.
Imported Fruit and Vegetables.
Another tabulated list accompanying this report gives the number and varieties of fruit,
vegetables, etc., inspected at the several ports of entry into the Province, as compared to the
previous year. This shows an increase in the number of apples, apricots, Japanese oranges,
and grapefruit imported during the year 1918. California oranges were less than half the
quantity of the previous year. There was a very large increase in the number of potatoes
imported. These were practically all for the evaporators at New Westminster, Vancouver,
Kelowna, Vernon, Sardis, and Chilliwack. New Westminster was by far the heaviest importer.
Only 132 tons of potatoes from the United States and S2 crates from the Orient were for British
Columbia consumption or open market.
Fruit, etc., condemned.
The condemnation of apples and pears was more extensive than the previous year, for which
codling-moth was mostly responsible. There were very few peaches or apricots condemned for
their old enemy, the peach-worm. Japanese oranges were remarkably free from scale-insects,
resulting in very few being condemned.
Products fumigated.
Several cases of nutmegs from Singapore were simply alive with weevil, and after being
fumigated were refused entry owing to the nuts being so badly excavated and filled with the
castings of the insects as to render them totally undesirable for grinding and afterwards being
used as spice to sprinkle on all kinds of puddings or custards.
This particular weevil infesting the nutmeg is of considerable economic interest owing to
its being apparently a member of the Bruchus family and related to the pea and bean weevils,
and deserves very close attention.
All peas and beans are very closely inspected upon their arrival from points outside the
Province, and if infested with weevil (Bruchus pisorum or fabce) are thoroughly fumigated with
carbon bisulphide. Many tons from the Orient and some from the United States have been thus
treated.
Other products fumigated were Oriental rice infested with rice-weevil, Plodia worm, and
other larva?, and beetle; peanuts mostly infested with Plodia worm. Several bales of rabbit-
skins from Australia infested with Larder beetle were fumigated by request before going into
bonded warehouse, where they were to be held for New York consignee. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 41
Vancouver Office.
The Vancouver office, the headquarters of your Inspector, is situated in the Court-house.
Reports from all outside Quarantine Officers are first forwarded to this office, where they are
recorded and filed. The Form J, with duplicate certificates and individual compensation vouchers,
are then sent on to Victoria to be audited and filed. All other details referring to the work of
inspecting the several horticultural and field products imported into the Province are recorded
in their proper order.
Specimens of insects and plant-diseases are received for identification and information given
regarding them.    Information on horticultural subjects is given by letter and interview.
Over 1,000 bulletins on miscellaneous subjects were given out on application during the year.
All applications for information regarding the several subjects, including importation of fruit,
nursery stock, and other horticultural and field products, receive prompt and courteous attention.
For the year 1918 there were 613 letters received and 737 sent out.
J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, shares the office with your Inspector and
Vancouver staff, part of the office being equipped as a laboratory for his use.
All my assistants performed their work conscientiously and thoroughly, and I am proud to
be the head of such a trustworthy staff.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Lyne,
Inspector of Imported Fruit and Nursery Stock.
REPORT OF DAIRY INSTRUCTOR AND INSPECTOR.
T. A. F. Wiancko.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my report as Dairy Instructor and Inspector for the year 1918.
General.
A reasonably healthy condition has prevailed in the dairy industry of the Province during
the past year, and it is confidently expected that when full reports are to hand a small increase
in total dairy production will be noted. Weather conditions during the winter were favourable
for milk production. The spring was, however, very cold and backward, making necessary the
feeding of the cows in the stable much longer than is usual owing to lack of early pasture. This
was almost immediately followed by a prolonged period of drought during the summer months,
which seriously curtailed the summer milk production. Hay and fodder crops were seriously
shortened, and at this time it seemed that there would be a great shortage of winter feed.
Farmers in some districts sold off many of their dairy cattle or went out of the business
altogether, thinking that it would be more profitable to sell their crops at high prices than to
feed them for milk production. August rains, however, improved growth to such an extent that
second crops were secured in many eases. Pastures improved greatly and corn and root-crops
resulted in abundant yields. A fine, mild autumn further helped to relieve the feed situation,
and as a result dairy cattle are going into the present winter with a reasonable supply of the
rougher dairy feeds. Mill-feeds, owing to war conditions, are still very scarce and high-priced,
and until this phase of the feed problem becomes normal, feeding for heaviest milk production
will not be followed.
The labour problem has continued to be a serious one for the dairy-farmer, and early in
the year, owing to conscription, many young men were called from the dairy-farms and could not
be replaced by competent hands at any reasonable wage. This condition made it extremely
difficult for the farmer to carry on as he knew he should do in order to increase production for
war needs. Too much praise, however, cannot be given these dairymen, who in the face of such
heavy odds, and in spite of small profits, kept our great dairy industry from going behind.
Prices for Dairy Products.
Butter prices during 191S throughout the Province have ranged about 10 per cent, higher
than during the previous year, and have resulted in returns to the producer of cream more W 42 Department of Agriculture. 1919
reasonably commensurate with the higher prices of feed and labour. Cheese prices ranging from
25 to 27 cents wholesale have made it possible to produce a quantity of cheese in competition
with cream for butter-making.
Milk prices for city consumption have also ranged somewhat higher than in the previous
year, and on the Lower Mainland owing to curtailment of the output of the milk-condenseries,
a great deal of milk that previously went into evaporated-milk manufacture was converted into
butter and cheese. For this reason, also, it will be found, when returns are complete, that the
output of butter and cheese has largely Increased, but at the expense of the output of the
evaporated product.
Creameries.
The regular inspection of creameries has secured as much attention as time would allow, and
the majority of them were visited at least twice during the year.
No new creameries have been established during the year. The Cranbrook Creamery was
closed owing chiefly to the lack of cream for butter-making. It is hoped, however, that it will
be reopened in the near future with renewed vigour and with a greater chance for permanent
success.
A further number of the existing creameries have installed improved pasteurizing apparatus
and other needed equipment. Sanitary conditions at the creameries and condenseries were found
to be quite satisfactory.
Continued improvement in the quality of British Columbia creamery butter has been noted,
and it is a source of great satisfaction to note that at some of the most important dairy exhibitions, both in British Columbia and Alberta, our butter-makers have won some of the best prizes.
Butter-makers have continued to evince a keener interest in their work and have shown a
greater desire to improve. A system of cream-grading with payments according to quality is
being followed with very beneficial results in a number of nur best creameries, and it is safe to
say that such a system will soon become general.
In order to render assistance in the improvement in quality, flavour, and workmanship in
British Columbia creamery butter, the British Columbia Dairymen's Association, of which your
Dairy Instructor is Secretary-Treasurer, arranged for a season's butter competition which would
extend over a period of five months. The competition was open to all British Columbia creameries,
and entries consisted of one 14-lb. box of butter, solid packed, salted, to be made between the
1st and 15th of each month and sent to cold storage as directed by the Secretary, not later than
the 20th of the month, to be held there until judged at the end of the season. The object of
extending the competition over a number of months was to ascertain the relative keeping qualities
of the butter put up during the different months of the season and in the different creameries.
Detailed records of each churning of butter from which the exhibits of butter were made were
kept for the purpose of reference and comparison, and these in themselves are of considerable
educational value to the creamery-men, in that it affords an opportunity to study the methods
of the successful competitors.
Altogether eleven creameries participated in the competition, and in order to make it interesting a generous prize-list was arranged. Generous aid in this connection was given the association
by members of the wholesale produce trade and dairy-supply houses in the way of cash and
special prizes. The association undertook to meet all expenses of the competition, as well as
provide championship prizes for the competitors who would make the highest average scores
for the whole season.
A butter-judging competition, to be participated in by the several competitors, was also
arranged to take place at the close of the competition, and a generous prize-list for this was also
arranged. This competition was of great educational value, in that It granted the competitors
an opportunity of comparing their skill as butter-judges with that of the official judge. A competition of this kind tends to fix uniform grade standards for butter according to present-day market
requirements in British Columbia.
C. Marker, Dairy Commissioner of Alberta, who is considered one of the best butter-judges
in Canada, placed the awards and was present to answer questions and give advice. The quality
of the butter, he said, was a credit to the makers, and a good deal of it was good enough to win
honours in any of the largest exhibitions or competitions in Canada. He was very pleased to
note a very great improvement in the quality of British Columbia creamery butter, more par- 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia, W 43
Ocularly during the past two years. This was brought about largely by improved methods of
pasteurization and more careful cream-selection. Cream must be pasteurized to a temperature
of at least 170° Fahr., and held for at least ten minutes at that temperature before cooling, in
order to ensure keeping quality in the butter. By this method it is possible to make butter
which will conform to a uniform standard at all times, regardless of the period of the year.
A list of the prize-winners in the season's competition and butter-judging competition is given
in Appendix No. 9.
A large number of inquiries have, as in former years, been received regarding the establishing
of new creameries in new districts. This would indicate that the number of dairy cows are
increasing in certain districts to the point where the manufacture and sale of dairy butter is
becoming an increasingly difficult problem. This is particularly true in several districts along
the Grand Trunk Pacific and Pacific Great Eastern Railroads, and it is hoped that very soon
creameries will be established in these sections, either by private enterprise or by co-operation
with Government assistance.
A list of the active creameries, condenseries, and cheese-factories of the Province is given
in Appendix No. 10;   also a. summary of creamery report for the year 191S in Appendix No. 11.
Cheese-making.
During the year the Ferrara Cheese Company, Limited, Chilliwack, continued the manufacture of fancy cheese of several varieties with an increased output. The Revelstoke Creamery
continued the manufacture of cheese in sufficient quantity to supply the local demand.
In the early spring the Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association found themselves with a
considerable quantity of surplus milk on hand owing to the decrease in the demand for evaporated
milk. The old Eden Bank Creamery at Sardis was fitted up as a cheese-factory, and a Cheddar
cheese of excellent quality was made during the summer season. The season's output amounted
to 212,000 lb.
City Dairies.
Milk-distributing plants, particularly in the larger towns and cities, are in a good sanitary
condition, and continue to show improvement in the way of new and up-to-date equipment and
facilities for the rapid handling of milk.
Much discussion and controversy has takeii place in the City of Vancouver in the past year
or two regarding the feasibility of amalgamating the present distributing dairies into one large
organization for the whole eity, in order to eliminate the waste due to duplication and multiplication of milk routes, and the consequent excessive overhead charges connected with the present
system. That some such scheme will shortly be successfully worked out is evident by the earnest
manner in which both the producers and city people are at present considering the whole matter.
The result should mean a reduction in the price of milk to the consumer, as well as allowing a
greater margin of profit to the producer.
Cow-testing Associations.
The work of the Cow-testing Associations at Comox, Langley-Surrey, and Ladner has been
carried on with very gratifying results during the past year. At Chilliwack the work has suffered
somewhat owing to the difficulty experienced in securing a permanent and efficient tester in
piace of one who resigned to engage in other work. During the last half of the year, however,
the work has proceeded with much of its former enthusiasm..
The Test Supervisors of the several associations are giving their best efforts to the work, and
■ as time goes on the members of the testing associations are realizing to a greater extent the value
and benefit of dairy records. The dairy--farmer is coining to a realization of the fact that with
abnormally high prices for all dairy feeds, and with high labour costs, it becomes more and more
necessary that only the best cows are kept in the herd, and that progeny from the best cows only
be raised for future breeding.
As in former years, cash prizes were awarded by the British Columbia Dairymen's Association
for the three cows in each class producing the highest amounts of butter-fat in each of the
several Cow-testing Associations. Appendix No. 12 gives a list of the. winners for 1918, and
shows a very gratifying Increase in average fat production over the former year. W 44 Department of Agriculture. 1919
Official Tests.
As in previous years, testers are being supplied for Holstein-Friesian Record of Merit tests,
and during the year such tests have been carried on at Colony Farm, Essondale; Experimental
Farm, Agassiz;  and at the farm of J. M. Steves, Steveston.
A new official record of 21,161.8 lb. milk and 704.652 lb. butter-fat for yearly production in
the junior two-year-old class was completed during the year by the remarkable heifer, " Colony
Aaggie Pietertje," owned by the Colony Farm.
The following table shows her monthly production throughout the year:—
" Colony Aaggie Pietertje," No. 3S77-'/, C.H.F.II.B.
Milk, Lb. Fat, Lb.
October 21st, 1917, to November 19th   1,800.8 59.165
November 20th to December' 19th   1,953.5 62.674
December 20th to January 18th, 191S   2,127.S 73.205
January 19th to February 17th     2,001.8 70.121
February 18th to March 19th    1,888.7 62.635
March 20th to April 18th   1,787.0 55.787
April 19th to May 18th   1,641.6 55.708
May 19th to June 17th   1,718.6 56.955
June 18th to July 17th    1,674.4 55.343
July 18th to August 16th    1,466.6 50.570
August 15th to September 15th   1,407.8 46.712
September 16th to October 15th   1,429.4 47.446     .
October 16th to October 20th (5 days)           263.S 9.331
Total, 365 days   21,161.8 704.652
This record entitles "Colony Aaggie Pietertje" to be placed as: '(1) The only two-year-old
heifer in Canada with a strictly official yearly record above 20,000 lb. milk and 700 lb. butter-fat;
<2) the Canadian champion junior two-year-old for the production of either milk or butter-fat
in one year; (3) the world's champion junior two-year-old official test for one year.
Canadian National Record of Performance.
Testing under the supervision of the Dominion Live Stock Branch in the Canadian National
Record of Performance has received hearty support by British Columbia breeders of pure-bred
dairy cattle during the past year, and many noteworthy .records have been made by British
Columbia cows. Lack of space forbids mention of them at this time. A total of sixty-two dairymen have had cows entered during 1918, as against fifty-six and forty-four in the years 1917
and 1918 respectively.
" Dairies Regulation Act."
Testers' Licences.—The licensing of milk-testers under the " Dairies Regulation Act " has
been continued under the supervision of the Dairy Division. During the year twenty-two
candidates came forward for examination and have qualified for licences. A list of testers
licensed during 1918 is given in Appendix No. 13.
Dairy and Creamery Licences.—Dairy and creamery licences were issued to forty-four
persons and firms buying milk and cream from the farmers in the Province on the basis of
the butter-fat contained therein. A list of dairies and creameries licensed under the Act in
191S is given in Appendix No. 14.
Official Milk-testers.
J. B. Watson, Sardis, and E. Rive, Vancouver, official milk-testers appointed under the
provision of the " Dairies Regulation Act," have continued to render efficient services during
the year in determining butter-fat tests of milk and cream, checking up weights and tests, etc.,
for both producers and purchasers.
British Columbia Dairymen's Association.
The British Columbia Dairymen's Association has enjoyed a very successful year during
1918. The membership roll now stands at 353, representing an increase of eighty members over
the previous year. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 45
The annual convention was held in Chilliwack on February 6th and 7th, and was one of the
most largely attended ever held by the association.
The twelfth annual report of the association was prepared and published. This includes a
full statement of the affairs and finances of, the association and is supplied to all the members.
Fall Fairs.
During the season of fall fairs assistance was given at the following fairs in judging dairy
products or dairy cattle:   Vancouver, Chilliwack, Cowichan, Kelowna, Comox, and Saanich.
' Dominion Dairy Conference.
On the invitation of the Hon. T. A. Crerar, Dominion Minister of Agriculture, your Dairy
Instructor attended the Dominion Dairy Conference at Ottawa, November 25th to 28th, inclusive.
This Conference was of national scope, since it was made up of delegates representing all branches
of the dairy industry in all the Provinces, including the producers. Some fifty-odd delegates in
all were present.
Some of the outstanding accomplishments of the Conference may be briefly summarized as
follows:—
(1.) A number of important changes were suggested in the legal standards for dairy products
as used by the Department of Inland Revenue. These apply to milk, cream, homogenized milk,
homogenized cream, condensed and evaporated milk, sterilized milk, butter, and cheese.
(2.) Scales of points were adopted for scoring cheese and butter, which it is proposed shall
be used throughout Canada.    Grade standards and grade descriptions of cream were also adopted.
(3.) The pasteurization of milk or cream in the manufacture of all butter made in Canada
was recommended.
(4.) As a means of helping to prevent the rapid spread of tuberculosis among swine, the
Dominion Government will be requested to make it compulsory to pasteurize all dairy-factory
by-products.
(5.) A Dominion-wide organization, embracing all interests of the dairy industry, and to be
known as the National Dairy Council, was formed, and for which officers were duly elected and
preliminary expenses provided for.
Office-work.
There has been a largely increased amount of correspondence during the year. A large
number of inquiries were received and answered on matters connected with dairying in the
Province in general, and the administration of the "Dairies Regulation Act" has added a
considerable amount of office-work.
Respectfully submitted.
T.   A.   F.   WlANCKO,
Provincial Dairy Instructor and Inspector.
REPORT OF  SOIL AND  CROP DIVISION.
E. W. Hooan, B.S.A.
TV. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner and Acting Deputy Minister,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report of the Soil and Crop Division
for the year ending December 31st, 1918.
Demonstration Stations.
As announced in the annual report for 1917, the only demonstration station operated under
the direction of this Division is that located at Pitt Meadows. Work on those situated at
Armstrong, Chilliwack, Edgewood, Grand Forks, Rock Creek, Rose Hill, and Errington was
terminated at the end of last season.
The demonstration farm at Pitt Meadows is located on the farm of F. V. Harris. The
surface soil is of vegetative origin, partly decayed, and averages in depth about 18 inches; the
subsoil is a silty clay. It is representative of a block of land, about 13,000 acres in area, lying
between the Pitt and Fraser Rivers.    All this area was at one time flooded by the high water W 46
Department of Agriculture.
1919
from these rivers; but about the year 1894 dykes were built around the rivers, dredge-cuts put
through the district, and pumpiiig-stations to lift the water, conducted by the dredge-cuts to the
dykes, over the dykes into the river. However, even with this safeguard, development has been
very slow.    All the land needs drainage before successful results can be obtained from it.
In the season of 1916 the plot of 10 acres was taken over on the Harris Farm, a system of
tile drains installed, and work carried on as described in last year's report. In January and
February of 1918 all the plot was flooded for weeks by thaws, bringing water down from the
mountains behind the Meadows. Large fence-posts were floating over the field; yet within a
few weeks of the flood receding the land was ploughed, showing the efficiency of the tile drains
in removing excess wrater. It should be pointed out that the outlet of the tiles is into the
dredge-cut; when the latter is running full, drainage of the land automatically ceases. Therefore,
to have complete drainage of this area, the pumps emptying the dredge-cuts must be capable and
made to keep the dredge-cuts no more than one-third full. Also, more dredge-cuts are necessary
to supply outlets for all the area affected. There is not an acre of this area that will not amply
repay expense of reclamation.
In the season of 1918 the Vvork conducted on this plot was less of an experimental nature
than in 1917. The crops grown were such as would be needed by a farmer running a full complement of farm animals. Satisfactory results were obtained along this line. In conjunction
with this, fertilization of a nature within the reach of any real farmer was practised. Barnyard
manure at the rate of 20 tons per acre was applied to those portions that were not manured in
1917. Lime was applied, 1% tons per acre, to areas not receiving any in previous season. The
applications were put on in such a way that information was obtained as to the effect of each
of those fertilizers in the season applied versus effects carried into following season. No
commercial fertilizer was used as the extensive tests of 1917 showed negative results.
The following charts show the way the 10 acres was divided, fertilized, and cropped in the
seasons of 1917 and 1918 :—
s£>rec*oe Cvf
/ion acre />/ofs :-  Yonous   eomA/nof/ona of fert/Zigers
OA
BAr^/HTr
vz
■ w
V£TJ\Z#£S
/=£ 4S
/*?/,&   i   £T
«r>
rs
SVAA'C&^S
CAfi -fers
ro'Mv/A's
for. to£:s
iX
•*r
0
M-
t
1
£ 3 <Z
Crop and fertilizer plan, 1917
S 9 Geo.
British Columbia.
W 47
/-.O^cc/yc Cc/r
A>ota
CO.
i
CAfi/^ors
V£7~C#£. 5$OATS
kj  A>£AS
J aAALSY
WHEAT
OATS
OATS
ro£T9
SVA, SCt V-g
;i; OATS
I
—e= ^_
SIAftQU/S
CAHTO/V
'&AAM£fl
5
g-   7~£-V HV/Z'S
3
"5"
M>
i
Crop and fertilizer plan, 1018.
The following table gives the results obtained in 1918 with the various crops:—
Table 1.—Treatment, 1911 and 1918, and Crop Results in 1918.
£.'-.»■
id
'«
<r
Crop.
Peas and oats for hay
Vetches and oats for hay
Garton oats	
Banner oats	
Wheat, Marquis	
Barley .....   	
Corn	
Carrots	
Mangels	
Turnips	
Potatoes.	
A.
Lime,
\\ tons;
Manur<
, 20 tons,
Spring of 1817.
Yield per Acre.
Tons
lb.
4
1,650
4
393
0
1,804
0
1,481
0
1.336
0
1,518
12
829
Lime, 14- tons,
Spring  of  1917
Yield per Acre.
lb.
3 0
3 0
1 247
0 1,663
0 1,588
0 1,210
7 810
c.
Check.    No
Lime or Manure.
Yield per Acre.
Tons       lb.
2        251
2       142
1        122
0    1
633
3    1
405
Manure, 20 tons,
in Spring of
1917.
Yield per Acre.
lb.
1,265
720
9
1,720
705
415
1,424
Fertilizerin Spring of
1917, No Results.
Lime, 1^ tons;
Manure, 20 tons, in
Spring of 1918.
Yield per Acre.
Tons
5
4
1
1
0
0
6
lb.
900
1,156
258.
133
1,284
733
1,068
^Notk.—Yield so small they were threshed together.    On Plot A lodging of the oats caused a decreased yield.
With hardly an exception, the results all show that barnyard manure gives better results
than lime or fertilizer, but applications of lime also bring profitable returns. It is satisfactory
to know the treatment most beneficial is one within the reach of every farmer. Manure being
needed does not mean, in this case, that the soil is a poor one. The reverse is true, but the
soil is a dormant one. Being flooded for perhaps ages, organisms causing decay and nutrification
are not present, or at least not in sufficient quantities, and the only practicable means of seeding
the soil with these organisms is by applying manure. It seeds the soil with the bacteria necessary
to unlock the store of plant-food and renders it available for use of growing crops.
Two seasons is too short a time in experimental work to base conclusions on, but results
have been such as to justify the following deductions:—
(1.)  Drainage is absolutely essential.
(2.)  That applications of barnyard manure, coupled with good tillage, is the best treatment that can be given.    Lime can profitably be applied.
(3.)  Forage, silage-crops, and grain-crops under the above treatment can be grown quite
successfully. W 48 Department op Agriculture. 1919
(4.) This points out that for ultimate success as large a part of the crops grown as
possible must be returned to the land in the form of manure. This again means
keeping of cattle and swine and selling little or no unfinished products.
Department Clover and Bean Thresher.
The clover and alfalfa huller owned by the Department was operated in the Armstrong
District. After threshing what clover and alfalfa crops had been grown for seed it was fitted
with attachments for threshing beans. It gave fair satisfaction at this work and threshed a
large acreage of beans in the Vernon, Oyama, and Kelowna Districts.
Field-crop Competitions.
In the bulletin, published in April, 1918, giving the results of the field-crop competitions for
1917 one change was made in the regulations for 191S competitions. The number of entries
necessary for a competition was increased from eight to ten. This had the effect of decreasing
the number of competitions.
Competitions were conducted by thirty institutes, with forty-eight competitions and 510
entries.    The crops used were as follows :—
Ktad °f C™P- Com^ions.
Potatoes     27
Oats      7
Wheat     6
Grain-hay       4
Mangels        1
Carrots     1
Corn     1
Beans        1
It seems as if this line of work was not bringing about the improvement of seed that might
be expected. In too many cases the competitors enter the competition as a matter of course,
or to oblige the Secretary of the institute. There are many exceptions to this, and some men
could be mentioned who through this work have become consistently careful seed-growers. In
every case the crops on their farms give striking evidence of what may be done by selection of
seed and use of a seed-plot.
Officials of the Horticultural Division assisted the members of the Soil and Crop Division
in the judging of the competitions, and through their aid no extra judges were employed.
Provincial Seed Competitions.
During the season of 1918 competitions in seed-growing, in which any member of a Farmers'
Institute without action of his institute -could compete, were carried on. The classes included
crops not listed in the field-crop competitions—i.e., mangel-seed, carrot-seed, and like crops. As
root- and vegetable-seed growing^ is yet only carried on in a small way, the classes were not very
well filled. Some excellent entries of different crops were scored, and it seems reasonable to
believe competitions in small-seed crops can be made a useful way for information to be carried
to the individual grower by the men doing the judging.
Seed Fairs. ;
The seed fairs, usually held in December, had to be postponed until January, 1919, on
account of the Spanish influenza epidemic.
Co-operative Variety  Testing.
This work was continued in the present season, but in different lines. Very little seed was
sent out by this Division, but the men who received seed in the spring of 1917 and had good
results were asked to supply neighbours with small samples of the varieties they had. In this
way the number of co-operators' was increased with very little cost. The reports on results
obtained are not all received yet, and, as the work of compiling these is considerable, it will be
impossible to give a synopsis of results in this report. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 49
Experimental Work in Control of Late Blight on Potatoes.
Late blight of potatoes is present every season in the Lower Fraser Valley, and in many
seasons causes great loss to growers of this crop. In the season of 1917 it was very prevalent,
and the loss by rot, due to the fungus of this disease, was in many cases over 50 per cent, of
the stored tubers.   This was hi addition to the loss in the fields before harvesting.
For the purpose of demonstrating to the growers that this disease could be controlled by
spraying the growing plants with Bordeaux mixture, a series of experiments were undertaken
by this Division, advised and assisted by J. W. Eastham, Plant Pathologist. Plots were selected
at Chilliwack, Sardis, and Atchelitz, as representative of the district lying east of the Vedder
Mountain. Four plots were selected in the Cloverdale and Surrey Centre Districts, representative
of a large district where blight is usually prevalent.
The results obtained were variable. On some plots no late blight appeared, and therefore
the results were negative. In general, spraying was not started early enough in the season.
On the plots in the Chilliwack District conclusive evidence was obtained that spraying is effective
in combating the disease. Potatoes in the sprayed portions of the plots were green and vigorous
when the unsprayed plants were blackened and killed by the blight. A detailed account of these
experiments will be found in the report of the Plant Pathologist.
It is hoped that, with one season's experience as a guide, much better results will be obtained
in the seasons to come. This season's work has brought out evidence that will be of great value
in future experiments.
Meetings and other Work.
A series of meetings were held in the Fraser Valley and addressed by officials of this Division.
The subjects were " Potato-growing " and " Control of Potato-diseases." Other meetings were
addressed in different parts of the Province in response to invitations from institutes. At thirteen
of the fall fairs members of this Division acted as judges and rendered what assistance they
could to the management.
A very important feature of the work of this Division is one that no estimate in figures or
of results obtained can be given—namely, farm visits. During spring and summer months and in
all parts of the Province many farmers are visited, local and personal problems discussed, and,
it is believed, only in this way can much assistance be rendered.
Respectfully submitted.
Everett Hogan,
Soil and Crop Instructor.
REPORT OF  CHIEF VETERINARY INSPECTOR.
Dr. A. Knight, V.S.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Acting Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the report of the Veterinary Division for the year from January 1st
to December 31st, 1918.
During the year, besides attending to contagious diseases among domestic live stock, some
little time has been devoted to examination and prescribing for stock-owners^ in the outlying
districts where it was impossible to obtain a veterinarian. The owners of stock appreciated this
movement on the part of the Department.
Influenza.
This disease has been prevalent among horses, more especially on the Mainland. A number
of the Provincial Inspectors were requested to demonstrate the application of the serum treatment as a preventive measure. I am not in a position to say to what extent this treatment has
been beneficial in preventing the spread of this trouble. Some report good results; others again,
thought it was of little avail. Only by keeping such animals that have been treated under
observation can one demonstrate the effectiveness of this treatment. W 50 Department of Agriculture. 1919
This disease was not in such a severe form as last year, and very few fatalities, the after
effects of this disease causing most of the deaths. Some disease affecting horses was reported
from the Alberni District. Upon investigation the trouble was found to be primarily due to
coarse and indigestible fodder, which the animals were obliged to subsist on, causing digestive
troubles. The ground where the animals were obliged to pasture was very low. By the removal
of horses from such conditions no further trouble was reported.
Internal Parasites among Sheep.
During the year several cases of losses among sheep were reported. Upon investigation
stomach-wTorm (Hwm-onchus contortus) was found to be the cause. In infested animals these
worms are found in the fourth stomach. The parasites are from % to 1% inches in length.
Sheep, goats, cattle, and other ruminants are found infested with it. Stock grazing on pastures
over which infested animals have run usually become affected. Moisture favours the development
of the embryos.
Low ground should be drained if used for pasture. Burning over the pasture will destroy
most of the young worms on the ground and grass. Animals should be changed to fresh
pasture as often as possible, and a plentiful supply of salt should be kept for the flock at all
times. The administration of copper sulphate is found to be effective. By taking 2 oz. and
dissolving this in a gallon of water, lambs six months to one year are given 2 oz. of solution;
mature sheep, 2% to 4 oz. of solution.
Rabbits.
Several reports were received regarding fatalities among rabbits. Severe losses occurred
among several breeders. On post-mortem the intestinal tract showed bacterial infection. Treatment was advised and a thorough disinfecting of hutches and premises. This checked the
trouble and the losses have been greatly reduced. This infectious disease gave every indication
of causing heavy losses amongst those engaged in raising fancy stock, and, If not dealt with
promptly, no doubt would have entailed heavy financial loss among those engaged in the industry.
Entozoa in Cattle.
Cattle pastured ou low or swampy ground are more liable to become infested with various
forms of internal parasites, such as worms in the lungs or bronchi and producing verminous
bronchitis. Young stock are more usually affected; also cattle on such lands are more liable
to intestinal parasites. A number of these cases have been dealt with during the year. Preventive measures were advised and treatment given. By adopting prompt measures very few
fatalities occurred, yet considerable financial loss is incurred through loss of flesh and rendering
the animals unfit for beef, also greatly diminishing the milk-supply of dairy cattle and impairing
the growth of young stock.
Tapeworm was also found. I may mention one herd which had been a financial loss to the
owner for a number of years. One of the younger animals was destroyed, and on post-mortem
tapeworm was found in the intestinal tract. All the animals in the herd exhibited the same
symptoms in some degree. After adopting treatment as advised the herd is now on a profit-
producing basis and the owner appreciates the assistance rendered by the Department.
Plant-poisoning.
From time to time cases of poisoning are reported, evidently from plants. The most common
is due, no doubt, to water-hemlock. Samples of the supposed source of poisonings have been sent
to the Department and identified as such. As the poison in this plant is very active, medical
remedies are of little avail, except when administered immediately the animal has eaten of the
plant. The general advice is to keep stock off the ground where these plants are prevalent;
plants can be dug up or fenced off, as the area where these plants grow is usually localized.
Although we have other poisonous plants in British Columbia, these are apparently causing very
little loss of stock. A number of farmers have reported losses of pigs which were apparently
caused through feeds that were purchased. In two cases the feed appeared to contain large
quantities of mustard-seed. No doubt the screenings from mills ground up and mixed with other
refuse. Mustard-seeds contain active poisons, and these probably account for the losses among
swine. The moral would .point to avoid purchasing cheap feeds without first knowing the
ingredients. ■•. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 51
Goitre.
Goitre among swine and other domestic stock has proved a handicap to stock-raising in
some parts of the Province. The iodine treatment, I believe, is proving effective in relieving
this condition. If the dam is fed with this drug during her gestation period the offspring are
born in most cases normal and thrive after birth. So far the iodine treatment has been tried
almost exclusively on sows. I would recommend that an opportunity be offered to extend the
experiment to breeding mares, usually in those sections where we have such large losses among
new-born foals.
Hemorrhagic Septicemia.
Although several outbreaks of this fatal malady were experienced in 1917, only one outbreak
of this trouble was found during the past year and confined to one animal. As is usually the
case with this disease, this animal was found on low-lying pasture. As reported last year,
preventive measures can only be adopted by keeping animals off these infested spots.
Actinomycosis.
Only two cases were reported during the past year, and these were disposed of by consent
of the owners, as the cases were beyond treatment.
Tuberculosis.
During the year 1,907 premises were visited and 15,705 head of cattle were tuberculin-tested;
56S reactors were found, the Inspectors covering ground that was not tested over in 1917. Considerable time is taken and expense incurred in testing for parties with one or two cows. Very
little, if any, milk is sold by these parties. A good deal of this testing in small herds is carried
out at the request of the city health authorities, and also by written or verbal requests from the
owners themselves. Reported cases of tuberculosis have also beeii received from settlers in
isolated districts. Much time is takeii up with this work and an outlay of expense incurred out
of proportion to our regular testing operations.
On Vancouver Island there have been 514 premises visited; 4,314 head of cattle tested;
1S4 reactors. On the Lower Mainland or Fraser Valley, 1,157 premises visited; 9,683 head of
cattle tested; 350 reactors. In the Upper Country, including the Okanagan, Kootenay District,
and Columbia Valley, 4S2 premises visited;  1,762 head of cattle tested;  32 reactors.
In the Lower Fraser Vailey the testing for tuberculosis was confined there largely to those
herds where tuberculosis had been found in previous years, the owners and the Department
wishing to clean up these herds. In certain sections in this district the percentage of reactors
in some herds was found in 1914 to run about 51 per cent. The percentage of reactors in these
same sections has now been reduced to about 5 per cent., and in a number of herds where the
disease was so prevalent they can now show a clean bill of health. The Okanagan Valley is
now practically free from this disease. Covering 161 premises visited, 657 cattle tested, only
four reactors were found.
Sanitation of Stables and Dairies.
The Inspectors report a steady improvement in the sanitary conditions of the stables and
dairies. The utensils used in connection with the dairy have been found, on the whole, in good
condition. The older dairies where milk has been stored are being gradually replaced by more
sanitary and up-to-date buildings.
The same might be said of the stables, and I trust in a few years that the stables that were
put up by the pioneers will gradually give place to more modern and sanitary buildings.
We have only received two complaints from the City Health Officers in regard to the
unsanitary production of milk. These places were promptly attended to and have been greatly
improved, no further complaints being forthcoming. (For list of the districts and premises
visited, with the number of cattle tested and reactors in each district, see Appendix No. 15.)
Respectfully submitted.
A. Knight,
Chief Veterinary Inspector. W 52
Department op Agriculture.
1919
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST, KAMLOOPS.
Geo. C. Hay, B.S.A.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Acting Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report as District Agriculturist for the year 191S.
The Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers, Limited.
To learn the feeling of the sheepmen in the Province of British Columbia with respect to
forming a Dominion-wide Co-operative Wool-growers' Association necessitated a personal interview with as many of the sheepmen as possible. Much of your Agriculturist's time was taken
up with this work during the early winter, and later in February he was delegate to a convention
of Canadian wool-growers held in Toronto for the purpose of discussing the co-operative marketing
of Canadian wool. The result of the convention was the formation of the Canadian Co-operative
Wool-growers, Limited, which is a joint-stock company, amalgamating the different Provincial
associations into a Dominion-wide organization, with, head office at Toronto. At this convention
your Agriculturist was appointed director of the company for the Province of British Columbia.
Since returning from the East, and more particularly during the spring months when the
wool-clip was being marketed, I was busily engaged in the interests of the wool-growers of
British Columbia and the Canadian Co-operative Wool-growers, Limited.
Institute Meetings.
During the past year various institute meetings were arranged, and on eighteen different
occasions addresses were given on agricultural topics. A series of meetings were held early in
June in the Okanagan, Similkameen, and Nicola Districts, and later meetings were held at points
along the Cariboo Road to Quesnel. These meetings, generally speaking, were fairly well attended
and good interest was shown.
Fall Fairs. !
The fairs visited during the past season were: Knutsford, Vancouver, Quesnel, Duncan,
Saanichton, Kelowna, and Surrey. At each of these fairs, with the exception of Vancouver, your
Agriculturist judged live stock or field products, or both.
Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
A very successful pig-raising competition was carried on with a number of boys in the
vicinity of Kamloops. D. W. Strachan, of Tranquille, furnished pigs to the boys, who paid for
same at the time of marketing.
A very keen interest was taken by the boys, and the following results will demonstrate their
success:—
Name and Address of Boys who received Pigs.
B. E. Connor,   Sullivan Valley
W. Pike, Kamloops	
A. Colquhotm, Kamloops	
M. Sault, Kamloops	
B. Church, Kamloops	
L. Inskip, Kamloops	
J. Wight, Knutsford	
H. Emmerick Kamloops  	
G. Brown Kamloops	
A. Sieble, Kamloops	
Weight of
Pig when
received.
lb.
28i
25i*
25 t
24
22 t
22 §
21
20
18
17
Summer
Score,
July, 30th.
93
95
88
88
94
Finished
Score,
Nov. 7th.
91
81
96
82
76
65
Average
Summer
and Finished
Score.
91.5
87
95.5
85
84
78.5
WTeight of
Pig, Nov. 7th.
11).
176
142i
182i
148i
1351
117
t Died. X Accidentally killed. § Accidentally choked to death.
;irls' competitions judged were:   The boys' and girls' pig-raising
* Sold on account of changing house.
The Provincial boys' and
competition at Nakusp, Needles, Grand Forks, and Martins Prairie; and the calf-raising competition at Tappen. At each of these places favourable expressions of opinion were heard with
respect to the good work of the Department of Agriculture with the boys and girls in the different
localities throughout the Province. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 52
Sales.
The holding of periodical agricultural sales in Kamloops was started by the Central Farmers'
Institute and conducted by the Markets Committee, of which your Agriculturist is a member.
Several more or less successful local sales were held before it was deemed advisable to endeavour
to make the sales of Provincial importance. Recently the British Columbia Live Stock Show
and Sales Association has been formed, and your Agriculturist has been appointed Secretary.
The aim of this association is to encourage the better breeding of live stock in the Province, by
holding periodical shows and sales, and by protecting the British Columbia breeders of live stock
in every way possible.
Office.
The above lines of work, together with the supervision of the dry-farming stations at
Quilchena and the 105-Mile House, and the frequent inquiries for information at the office in
Kamloops, has kept your Agriculturist especially busy during the past year. The local farmers
and those interested in the work of the Department of Agriculture have been patronizing the
Agricultural Office, with an increasing interest in the work; and the furthering of the agricultural interests in this district by the Department of Agriculture is greatly appreciated by all
concerned.
Quilchena Dry-farming Station.
General.—Another very dry season similar to that of last year has been .experienced at the
Quilchena Dry Farm. The spring opened fairly early, but was followed by a cold dry spell which
retarded growth very much. Later, during the midsummer, a prolonged spell of dry weather
occurred, which was so effective that practically all the grain had to be cut for grain-hay.
Following the harvest season was a spell of wet weather which started a second growth, and
practically all the grain-fields were cut for hay a second time. The hot, dry midsummer very
severely burned the ranges, but at all times there was ample feed for the stock.
Live Stock.—A flock of seventy-nine head of grade Shropshire sheep were wintered last
winter, which consisted of the following: Fifty mature ewes, twenty ewe lambs, seven wether
lambs, and two pure-bred rams. From this flock fifty-four lambs were raised this season.
During the summer 151 head were purchased at a cost of $2,207. Later in the fall, from the
flock of 284, 142 head of the poorest ewes and butcher animals were sold for $2,304.44. There is
now on the farm a flock of 138 ewes and four pure-bred rams, which is valued at $2,831. A
detailed statement of the sheep follows herewith :—
Sheep Statement, December 31st, 1918.
Cost.
79 head on farm December 31st, 1917  $1,049 50
50 head purchased from R. Ferguson    750 00
64 head purchased from 105-Mile Dry Farm   S96 00
36 head purchased from 105-Mile House   486 00
1 ram lamb purchased from Western Stock Ranches   75 00
54 lambs from above ewes    540 00
$3,796 50
Sheep and Wool sold since December 31st, 1917.
Returns.
46 ewes sold at Kamloops sheep-sale   $  791 94
76 head sold to H. S. Cleasby (butcher)     1,170 50
4 rams sold to R. L. Clarke   125 00
1 ram sold to J. A. Guichon   25 00
2 ewes sold to Wm. Foster   _   32 00
1 lamb sold to Clinton Hotel    '   10 00
12 head sold to H. S. Cleasby (undelivered yet)           150 00
650 lb. wool         390 15
$2,694 59 W 54
Department of Agriculture.
1919
Sheep on Farm December 31st, 1.918.
Value.
4 pure-bred rams at $50     $   200 00
100 ewes at $20       2,000 00
25 ewes at $19          475 00
13 ewes at $12        156 00
$2,831 00
Horses and other Live Stock.—No horses have been sold during the past year, and in addition
to the six that were wintered last- winter there are two mare colts raised last summer. The
other live stock on the farm consists of a cow and yearling heifer, a couple of spring pigs, and
a number of hens.
Field Crops.—Thirty-five acres of land were seeded to different varieties of grain last spring,
but unfortunately the weather prevented it from maturing, so it was all cut for grain-hay. About
an acre was seeded to kitchen-garden stuff and different roots, and these did remarkably well,
as they were in a hollow where they had plenty of moisture. About 10 tons of turnips, carrots,
sugar-beets, and potatoes were harvested from less than half an acre. In the spring of 1917
10 acres were seeded to a mixture of timothy, orchard-grass, and red-top seeds. These grasses
came along very nicely the first summer, but last season did not grow sufficiently to make it
worth while cutting.
During the summer 30 acres were summer-fallowed, and this fall 10 acres were seeded to
fall wheat and rye. These crops went into the winter looking exceptionally well. They are well
covered with snow and a good crop is expected for next year. Fall grain as a rule does better
than spring grain on this farm.
Also during the summer 20 acres of new land were stoned, broken, and put in shape to be
cropped next spring. Quite an area of good land might be very easily brought under cultivation
on this farm, and it is the intention to break up a little each year.
Potato Experiment.—An interesting experiment with different varieties of potatoes was
carried on, and the results obtained follow herewith:—
Potato Experiment conducted at Quilchena Dry Farm, 1918.
Variety.
Measurement of
Land occupied
by Potatoes.
Date of
Planting.
Date of
Digging.
Total
Weight of
Crop.
Per Cent.
Marketable
Potatoes.
Yield per
Acre.
Remarks.
Lb.
Per Cent.
Tons.
Early Surprise.
18 hills 2 feet
apart
May 15..
Oct.  1st.
65
84.6
13.108
Good ;size ; no scabs ; fair
crop.
New Queen . . .
•23 hills 2 feet
apart
tt
"
98
86.7
15.466
Ditto.
Table Talk....
18 hills 2 feet
apart
tt
//
95
85.2
19.15
"
Money Maker..
24 hills 2 feet
apart
"
"
120
85.8 -
18.15
Extra good size ; no scabs ;
the best crop.
Drought Proof.
14 hills 2 feet
apart
H
it
45
77.7
11.667
Very good, but very few;
no scabs ; fair crop.
Gold Coin
26 hills 2 feet
apait
II
21
76.1
2.931
Small size ; no scabs. Gold
Coin potatoes usually
grew successfully here.
This sample an exception.
Million Dollar.
16 hills 2 feet
apart
II
it
52
86.5
11.797
Large size ; no scabs ; good
variety, but few.
105-Mile Dry-farming Station.
General.—The 105-Mile Dry Farm has been under the managership of J. W. McKinley during
the past year, and his report, which follows these general remarks, shows the work done on this
farm for the year 1918.
This farm also had the experience of another dry season, and in addition had a very severe
hail-storm on August 10th, which damaged the grain-crops considerably. Besides, the farm had
the misfortune to lose an exceptionally good brood mare at foaling-time, and the majority of the
lamb-crop, mainly by coyotes.
A flock of fifty-nine sheep were wintered last winter, which was made up of the following:
Forty mature ewes, two yearling wethers, sixteen lambs, and one pure-bred ram.    On September 9 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 55
10th this flock was moved from the 105 Station to Quilchena Station, and then numbered sixty-
four head. No sheep were sold from the farm, and the increase of five on the above flock was
decidedly disappointing.
The results of the grain-crops are included in the manager's report, which follows herewith :—
" Manager's Report of 105-Mile Dry-farming Station.
(Copy from J. W. McKinley's Report.)
" During the past year I cut sufficient wood to last two-years. Cut and peeled many fir fence-
posts to replace the pine and poplar posts rotted off; quite a number of these have been used.
Balance of them are ou hand.
" Built two much-needed corrals, one stable, one implement-shed, chicken-house, wood-shed,
stock-shed; remodelled old stable by putting in new mangers, stalls, and floor, all made of hewed
timber; cut 2,530 pickets and wove them into the woven-wire fence 2 feet apart. This kept
the sheep off crops and has greatly improved the appearance of the farm. Built verandah
across front of house and made and hung nine substantial gates. Built new stockyard containing
11,025 square feet.    No stock reached any of the stacks this season.
" Summer-fallowed 30' acres stubble land; cleared and summer-fallowed 0 acres new land,
grubbing small and medium-sized trees and cutting large trees so low that implements pass over
them; took off all large rocks and did not require blasting; picked loose rocks before and after
ploughing; removed all straggling trees in old fields that were formerly ploughed around; put
out manure from barnyard, also old stack-bottoms, for the first time In the history of this farm.
" All the fields are in much better shape for cultivation than ever before; 30 acres ready for
crop, 2S acres for summer fallow next season, and about 10 acres seed to grass.
" Fall wheat and rye were medium, barley light, tame hay a failure. All other grains extra
good until struck by that awful hail-storm of August 10th. The report on yields is a farce, as
it does not represent the amount that grew; oats would have yielded 50 to 55 bushels per acre
and spring wheat 20 to 35 bushels. You will note that seed raised on this farm gave best yields.
Barley-seed had beards on and could not pass through drill as well as threshed grain would.
Therefore there was no chance for a good yield.
" Grain threshed on 105-Mile Experimental, Farm, Season of 1.918.        Lb
Fall wheat        720
Fall rye  1.152
Marquis wheat     2,612
Prelude wheat    1,166
Huron wheat    1,462
New Market oats        714
California barley        356
Chiv barley      3S6
Mensury barley       19S
Variety.
Fall wheat	
Fall rye	
Marquis wheat	
Prelude wheat  	
Huron wheat	
Marquis wheat	
Huron wheat    	
Prelude wheat	
New Market oats	
Marquis wheat (seed from Saskatchewan)
Marquis wheat (seed from Kamloops)
California barley	
Chiv barley	
Mensury barley	
Rate per
Yield
per
Date
acre.
acre.
Maturing.
Bu.
lb.
Aug.
18..
6 pecks.
14
0
359
tr
18..
5   „
18
16
359
April
13..
5    ,-,
14
0
139
n
22,.
5    /,
10
0
133
„
22..
4    ,i
9
0
133
n
20..
4    i,
11
0
133
tr
24..
4    „
7
41
132
it
25..
5    /,
9
26
131
May
1..
9    t,
7
0
127
,;
4..
80 lb.
6
20
125
it
4..
80    „
5
16
125
„
8..
64   „
7
20
121
il
8..
64    „
16
4
121
It
8..
64    „
8
12
121"
Respectfully submitted.
Geo. C. Hay,
District Agriculturist. W 56 Department op Agriculture. 1919
REPORT OF SILO DEMONSTRATOR.
R. J. Ferris.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith my annual report for the year 191S.
During the past year the work of this branch was carried in some cases into districts which
were difficult to reach through lack of transportation facilities. Two silos were built in the
Cariboo country, more than 180 miles north of Ashcroft. The men who built these silos have
erected modern dairy-barns, purchased pure-bred dairy stock, and hope to be the means of the
farmers in this part of the Province adopting up-to-date methods, so that it will be possible to
have a co-operatively owned creamery established at Quesnel.
The Salmon River Valley stretches into the mountains away from the railroad for thirty-
eight miles west of Armstrong. A silo was built at Falkland, about half-way up the valley, and
the filling demonstration was well attended. Many of the farmers in this district are including
a silo in their programme for increased development during 1919. Altogether eleven silos were
erected and seven filled during the past season. Silos were built at Gordon Head, Alexandria,
near Quesnel, Strawberry Vale, Procter, Hillbank, Ducks, Chemainus, Malakwa, Wilkinson Road,
and Albert Head; filling demonstrations being held at Keremeos, Kamloops, Albert Head, Falkland, Procter, Summerland, and Lytton.
There are two districts in British Columbia where the farmers have not yet realized the
advantage of using silage to feed their live stock. I refer to the large tract of land which is
being developed adjoining the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, and also the district around the
east end of the Kootenay Lake, Creston, and Cranbrook. There is a very large growth of forage
in the north, due to a plentiful rain-supply, and when the grains fall to mature, or rain interferes
with the haymaking, the silo would take care of the crops. In the southern district they have
a warm, dry climate during the growing season and such crops as corn and alfalfa produce
heavily. Summer silage could be fed in this district to advantage; in fact, it would be necessary
from an economic standpoint to use silage in many cases throughout the year. Educational work
is being carried on in these districts, and at present three applications have been received for
silos in 1919.
Greater interest is being shown by the farmers in the feeding of silage to beef stock. Silos
have been built this year in several places to provide succulent feed for cattle that, as a rule,
have been fed principally on dry hay during the winter. Several of the larger stock-ranchers
are at present considering the advisability of using silage when wintering their stock. Steers
wintered on alfalfa silage in the Vernon District brought a good market price in the early part
of last year. Silos would be useful to those ranchers who are directly interested in the development of the Bulkley Valley and Nechako Districts as a stock-raising country.
One of the strong arguments advanced against building a silo is the expense of machinery
for filling. In 1917 a silo was built and filled under the supervision of the Department's
representative at Willow Point, near Nelson. Last year five more silos were built by farmers
in this locality, the largest being 9 x 27 feet. These were all filled with corn "by a machine
which was co-operatively owned by farmers in this district. Interchange of labour saved cash
expenditure for help. These men, who are each keeping a few head of dairy stock as a side-line
on their fruit-farms, have proved that by co-operation it is profitable to build a silo 8 x 20 feet.
In 1915 Frank Tarry assisted the Department representative to fill the first silo in the
Arrow Lake District, erected at Thrums, near the south end of the Arrow Lakes. This year he
purchased a first-class filling outfit and fitted fifteen silos in the district. By using a large-sized
machine the silos were quickly filled, thereby keeping down the expense. The presence of a large
number of silos in this locality is due in a great measure to the missionary work of Mr. Tarry.
Many of our farming communities are so placed in the Interior that a community silo-filling
outfit would be a good solution to the expensive machinery problem. The machine is only to be
used once or twice in the year and by working together an improved co-operative spirit should
grow among the farmers.
There has been a large increase during the last year in the number of silos in the Province.
The system which has been followed during the last four seasons by the Live Stock Branch
of the Department of Agriculture, of assisting in the building and filling of silos in new districts, 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 57
has introduced them into the majority of our farming communities. Up to the present ten silos
have been built and eleven filling demonstrations held in farming districts near the main line
of the Canadian Pacific Railway. From Enderby south to Penticton, including the Okanagan,
nine silos have been erected and the filling demonstrations have been well attended. From
Revelstoke south six have been built in the Arrow Lakes District, and other farmers have built
and are contemplating building silos this year. Three have been placed at different points in
the Columbia Valley and six in the Fraser Valley. Many of the other valleys on the Mainland
have been visited and a silo has been built and filled in order to leave a practical lesson of the
benefits to be obtained by feeding silage. Fifteen silos have been erected on Vancouver and
adjacent islands and a large number of fining demonstrations held. We have up to the present
time built sixty-three silos and also held fifty-one filling demonstrations. Ontario is the only
Province in Canada that has more silos per capita than British Columbia. By maintaining the
present rate of progress this honour will be annexed by this Province in the near future.
Those farmers who have had their silo or silos to assist them through the winter of 1918-19
have been able to meet the extraordinary demands which have been made upon their finances
when purchasing other live-stock feeds, especially for dairy herds.
A circular bulletin entitled " Silage aids Production " was published during the year. This
contains a lot of information with reference to silos and silage which has been gathered during
the time the Department of Agriculture has been endeavouring to increase the popularity of the
silo in British Columbia.    More than 2,000 copies have been distributed.
Besides circular letters, more than 300 letters have been received and 400 dispatched.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
R. J. Ferris,
Silo Demonstrator.
REPORT OF PUBLICATIONS BRANCH.
R. J. Ferris.
W. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Live Stock Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the following annual report for 1918:—
On the departure of M. A. Stuart from the position of Editor and Chief of Publications
Branch on April 30th, 1918, at your request I took charge of this division" of the work of the
Department of Agriculture.
The Agricultural Journal has been in circulation nearly three years and is becoming a
familiar publication to the farmers in the various rural communities in British Columbia.
Copies are also forwarded to Colleges of Agriculture, Provincial Departments of Agriculture,
and the State Libraries in Canada and the United States. In addition to numerous individual
subscribers in British Columbia, there are a number of subscribers from the Prairie and Eastern
Provinces. By the use of its pages the officials of the Agricultural staff have been able to place
educational material on thousands of farms each month. Considering the huge size of this
Province, and how the farming community is scattered along the banks of rivers, lakes, and
in the many valleys among the mountains, without the use of this Journal only a small percentage
of the farming community could be approached by the officials at stated times. During the past
year the circulation of this publication has increased from 2,500 to 6,000 monthly.
The staff of the Department has supplied the majority of the educational articles which have
been used in this publication. We are also indebted to members of the staff of the Dominion
Department of Agriculture located in British Columbia, from whom many instructive articles
dealing with agricultural development have been received. Numbers of the farmers have forwarded material to be used In the Journal. They have placed at our disposal a lot of intelligent
information which has been of great assistance to our many readers. The public-spirited action
of these men in spending their time in endeavouring to improve agricultural conditions is a cause
for satisfaction.    We hope to be able to enlist their further co-operation.    Increased interest is W 58 Department op Agriculture. 1919
manifested by the articles which are being received from members of the Women's Institutes;
these are coming principally from the Interior points. They deal as a rule with problems which
are facing the rural communities and also the Province. Often after giving a clear statement of
conditions in their own section, or as they affect the Province, remedies are suggested which are
well worth consideration. There is an earnest desire evidenced in their correspondence to do
some real work. One lady, when sending an article, stated: " If you think this article will do
any good, use it, for my heart is in the work."
A keen interest in this publication is being taken by the members of the Farmers' Institutes.
It is hoped that by an intelligent use of the Journal it may be the means of drawing the institutes
into closer co-operation with one another. This organization, with its 152 societies and a membership of more than 6,000, wants to find in the Journal a means of keeping in touch with the
business condition of the farmers in British Columbia. At the present time the institutes are
reorganizing along more efficient, fines. With the Influx of numerous soldier-farmers wbo are
returning from the battle-fields of Europe, the institutes hope to be the leading factor in the
advancement of rural conditions in our Province. Special attention will be given during the
coming year to reports which are forwarded to the Department of Agriculture by the Secretaries
of the Farmers' Institutes. These will be carefully read and whenever possible extracts will
be published in the Journal. There are many ways by which a journal devoted to the farming
interests alone can further schemes for the improvement of agriculture in British Columbia.
There have been numerous requests from different Colleges of Agriculture, libraries, and
individual subscribers for printed indexes to' Volumes I. and II. These have "been prepared and
are being forwarded to those who need them, upon request.
A new list of the various publications which are issued by the Department of Agriculture
was arranged and published in the early part of the year.
At the request of Captain Oliver, who represented the Khaki University, London, a large
supply of bulletins and circulars were forwarded to Europe, to assist in the education of the
soldiers in agriculture. They 'were to be used by the many branches which have, been established
by the University in England, France, Belgium, and within the borders of Germany. Nearly
3 tons of literature were dispatched. It was also arranged that, if circumstances did not allow
for the using of all this material for that purpose, the balance was to be forwarded to the Agent-
General for British Columbia at his London office.
There have been numerous requests for bulletins; these have been forwarded. Four
hundred and seventy-five letters have been received and 375 mailed.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
R. J. Ferris,
Acting-Editor and Chief of Publications.
REPORT OF SECRETARY FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
Wm. J. Bonavia.
TV. T. McDonald, Esq., ,
Acting Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report on the general work of the Department for the year ending December 31st, 1918.
Staff.
The Estimates for the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1919, provided for forty-eight permanent
officials of all ranks, being an increase of four over those for the preceding year. The year has
again been marked by a large number of resignations. On the death of the Hon. H. C. Brewster,
Premier of this Province, the Hon. John Oliver resigned his position as Minister of Agriculture
and was succeeded by the Hon. E. D. Barrow on April 25th. Wm. E. Scott, Deputy Minister
and Superintendent of Institutes for many years, was also obliged to resign his appointment
owing to ill-health on August 31st. 9 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 59
Resignations.
Jan.
April
May
June
July
Aug.
Oct.
Nov.
G. S. Rothwell	
M. A. Stewart	
G. B. Martin	
J. H. Bttckett	
P. E. French	
Miss M. M. Patchett.
A. LeWarne	
E. Brookland	
E. J. Rossiter	
Mrs. E. Williams	
Wm. E. Scott	
H. O. English	
M. S. Middleton	
Miss. A. V. Evans. ..
Clerk	
Editor (Publications Branch)	
Clerk	
Junior Clerk	
Assistant Horticulturist (Vernon)	
Stenographer      ....
Cow-tester    	
Foreman (Dry Farm, Quilchena)   	
Private  Secretary   (Minister of Agriculture)
Stenographer :	
Deputy Minister	
Soil and Crop Division	
Provincial Horticulturist	
Stenographer	
Overseas service.
Farming.
Superannuated.
Overseas service.
Farming.
Farming.
Superannuated.
Farming.
Appointments.—The following staff appointments were also sanctioned during the year, the
majority of them being replacements of officials who had resigned, etc., with the exception
of Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan, who was appointed Secretary of the Advisory Board of Women's
Institutes:—
Jan.
1
it
7
tt
22
Feb.
22
March  7
April
1
1
May
July
It
1
1
3
Aug.
15
fl
29
Name.
Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan
W. T. Andrews	
Miss A. V. Evans	
Miss G. Bttrnyeat	
Mrs. C. J. Clark	
Miss G. H. Hawes	
Miss N. Evans	
A. LeWarne	
J. A.  Munn	
A. J. Hourston	
F. W. Laing	
Miss. M. V. Hamelin ...
Rank.
Secretary Advertising Board of Women's Institutes.
Accountant.
Stenographer.
Vancouver.
Cow-tester.
Clerk.
Private Secretary, Minister of Agriculture.
Stenographer.
Officials Overseas.—Occasional reports from departmental officials overseas indicate that,
whilst actively employed, no serious casualties have occurred. A report at the end of December,
however, was received with regard to W. H. Robertson, Assistant Horticulturist, to the effect
that he had been severely injured by a shell and that he was slowly recovering in hospital.
Temporary Appointments.—A total of seventy-five temporary appointments were made during
the year, as against 1.09 in 1917;   twenty-one of these being carried by the " Agricultural Instruction Act," as per attached statement.
Provincial Estimates—
Inspector, Brands       1
Inspectors, Imported Fruit    17
„ Nursery Stock at Vancouver      5
District Field      8
Judges. Fall Fair Associations    IS
Stenographers     3
Soldiers of the Soil, Stenographers
" Agricultural Instruction Act "—
Assistant Horticulturist  1
Caretaker, Demonstration Plots   1
„ Egg-laying Contest   1
Clerical   1
Carried forward W 60
Department op Agriculture.
1919
Brought forward     4
"Agricultural Instruction Act"—Concluded.
Cow-testers     4
District Agriculturist  i  1
Field Officer, Assistant Entomological Branch   1
Foremen at Dry Farm  2
Inspector, District Field   1
Inspectors, Foul-brood   3
Plant Pathologist (Assistant)    ,  1
Publications Branch, Editor and Silo Demonstrator  1
Soil and Crop Instructor  1
Stenographers   2
— 21
Grand total    75
Correspondence.
A total of S,390 letters were received in the Deputy Minister's office and 9,207 sent out during
the year, as against 8,404 and 11,345 the previous year.    The attached table shows the total
correspondence for the Department at Victoria.
Appendix No. 18 shows full details of the correspondence for the Department at Victoria.
Circular Letters.—The total number of circular  letters sent out was 21,010, grouped as
follows:—■
Agricultural Associations        395
Dairy Division       2.6S5
Fruit-growers   '.        100
Farmers' Institutes       5,050
Goat-breeders' Association        340
Horticultural Branch     1,060
Miscellaneous letters      1,295
Poultry Branch      1,545
Publications Branch          415
Soil and Crop Division      2,680
Stock-breeders' Association        360
Statistics Branch      2,385
Women's Institutes     2,700
Total     21,010
Publications.
The number of new publications issued during the year has been less than usual, owing
partly to the fact that the Agricultural Journal, issued monthly, contains a number of articles
by experts In the Department that would have, in the past, been issued as circular bulletins or
departmental circulars. A total of 71,000 copies of the Agricultural Journal wTere issued during
the year, giving an average monthly circulation of 5,916 copies. Special large editions comprising
6,500 copies were published in April and August.   The other new publications were as follows:—
Date
1918
Jan.
ii
Feb.
5
March 4
a
13
„
18
May
2
,,
28
July
5
a
29
Circular No. 19	
Report of Department of Agriculture
Ci rcular	
Circular Bulletin No. 22  	
Circulars    	
Bulletin No. 30 (Second Edition)	
Leaflets	
Bulletin No.'80.'..'.".	
Description.
Honey Production in B.C	
For year 1917	
He Boy -labour, S.O.S	
Medical Inspection of Schools	
Re Seed-grain Distribution	
Guide to Bee-keeping	
To School Principals re Production
Re Farmers' Labour Bureau	
Market Rabbits	
2,000
1,500
2,000
2,000
1,000
3,000
700
6,000
5,000 9 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 61
Horticultural Circulars issued in 1918.
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
Spray Calanders	
Peach-twig Borer	
The Cabbage-root Maggot	
The Strawberry-root Weevil	
The Woolley Aphid of the Apple	
Currant Gall-mite	
The Onion-thrips    	
The Imported Cabbage-worm	
Codling-moth    	
Apple-aphides .     	
Soap Solution for Spraying	
The Oyster-shell Scale 	
Top-working of Fruit-trees and Propagation
Gardening on a City Lot	
Apple-scab	
Anthracnose	
Egg-plant and Pepper Growing	
Cucumber and Cantaloupe Growing in B.C..
Forcing Houses and Frames	
Tomato-growing in B.C. Dry Belt	
Potito-diseases	
Orchard Cover-crops	
Diseases of Stone-fruits in B.C	
3,000
2,000
10,000
4,000
5,000
1,000
2,000
5,000
3,000
5,000
5,000
5,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
5,000
5,000
5,000
10,000
5,000
10,000
5,000
Bulletins and Circulars dispatched during the Year.—A total of approximately 50,000
bulletins, circular bulletins, and departmental circulars were mailed during the year, being
a slight increase on the numbers mailed in 1917. The reissue of the circulars by the Horticultural Branch under the joint supervision of M. S. Middleton, R. C. Treherne, E. W. White, and
J. L. Hilborne proved their popularity.
In addition to the above issue, seven large packing-cases weighing almost 3 tons, being a
selection of all departmental publications, were sent by special request to the Khaki University,
England, to be used as text-books by instructors in connection with soldiers who were taking
agricultural courses prior to returning from overseas.
Financial.
The financial appropriation amounted to $219,684, as against $208,002 for the previous year.
Special warrants were also obtained during the year for $4,500 in connection with the Coast
Markets Commissioner's Office, and other special warrants, as follows:—
Coast Markets Commissioner's Office   $ 4,500 00
Travelling expenses, Hon. E. D. Barrow        1,000 00
Compensation for bee-keepers    3S6 10
Office supplies        1,750 00
Travelling expenses, Horticultural and Live Stock Branch     5,250 00
Agricultural Associations         1,000 00
Departmental exhibits   750 00
Compensation for codling-moth destruction        1,500 00
Grand total for fiscal year ■  $16,136 10
Supplementary votes—•
Frondeg Farm expenditures   $ 4,000 00
Purchase of fish fertilizer       3,500 00
 7,500 00
$23,636 10
(See Appendix No. 19.)
The gross receipts of the Department of Agriculture amounted to the sum of $113,549.36, of
which the sum of $53,171.34 was revenue.    Of this sum, $21,981.14 was horticultural inspection W 62 Department of Agriculture. 1919
fees and licences, the balance being composed of seed-grain refunds, brand registry fees, and
miscellaneous.
" Agricultural Instruction Act, 1918-19."—The following payments were received during the
year from Ottawa :—
April 6th, second half of grant, 1917-18   $29,349 53
May 1st        1,343 33
August 22nd, advance on account first half of 1918-19 grant     10,000 00
December 11th, „ „ „ „       5,000 00
December 30th, balance of first half of 1918-19 grant     19,599 53
Total  $65,292 39
The number of cheques drawn on the special account of the Department in the Canadian
Bank of Commerce during the year was 2,029. The total expenditures under the various sections
of the " Agricultural Instruction Act " wTere as follows :—
March quarter   $13,850 05
June quarter     2S.S05 00
September quarter      12.035 75
December quarter     12,958 82
Total   $6S,549 62
The bank balance on December 31st being $15,233.39.
There has been a very notable increase in the number of vouchers issued both for Provincial
and Federal payments. This has been due partly to. the more detailed system of accounting
required by the Comptroller-General.
" Seed-grain- Act, 1.918."—This Act, being chapter 75 of the Statutes of 1918, provided a sum
not exceeding $50,000 to be advanced to the Minister of Agriculture during the year for the
purchase and distribution of seed-grain as might be required and necessary to enable occupiers
and owners of land to seed their land. This Act was in accordance with the Dominion-wide
campaign to increase food production owing to the shortage of food-supplies throughout the world.
The following amounts were received as seed-grain refunds during the year:—
1915. distribution    $   202 62
1917, „      4.707 82
191S, „.       S,4.-,(5 92
At the close of the year payments for the 1918 distribution were coming in fairly well, but
a large sum is still outstanding on the 1915 distribution.
Increased Food Production, 1918.—The Dominion Department of Agriculture, as a further
war measure to increase food production throughout Canada, allotted grants to each Province
to be spent for the above purpose on condition that the Provinces themselves put up a similar
amount. The grant for British Columbia amounted to $15,000, of which $7,500 was paid during
the year. The grant has been used chiefly in carrying expenses in connection with the Soldiers
of the Soil movement.
British Columbia Students.
Owing to the war very few British Columbia students were enrolled at any of the Agricultural Colleges during the year.    The following were the students to whom grants were paid:—
Miss F. L. Fullerton, Home Economics Course, University of Toronto.
Miss F. E. McEwen, Home Economics Course, University of Toronto.
E. C. Hassel, Agricultural Course, Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, Ont.
Miss G. Hallwright, Home Economics Course, Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, Ont.
Bee-inspection Work.
F. D. Todd, of Victoria; L. Harris, of A'eruon; and W. J. Shepherd, of Nelson, were again
appointed Inspectors under the " Foul Brood Bees Act " for the Lower Mainland, Okanagan, and
Kootenay Districts respectively. The production of honey during the year was a record one;
the Inspectors estimate that over 200 tons had been produced during the season, whilst the total
number of bee-keepers recorded by the Department had risen to 1,611. In the Cloverdale District,
near Vancouver, there was a serious epidemic of European foul-brood which required the attention
of two Inspectors.    The Okanagan and Kootenay Districts were practically exempt from this 9 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 63
disease. Expenses of administering the Act were carried on a section of the " Agricultural
Instruction Act" and totalled $3,365.32, and as the total grant for the year was only $2,500 the
next year's operations will have to be financed to a certain extent by the Province. A total of
$3S6.10 was paid in compensation to bee-keepers whose hives had been destroyed on account of
this disease.
Farmers' Institutes.
A total of 154 Farmers' Institutes were recorded at the close of the year, being an increase of
seven since the close of 1917.    The new incorporations were:—
(1.)  Mount Ida    February 19th, 191S.
(2.)   South Bulkley   April 23rd,
(3.)  North Fraser  	
(4.)  Lardeau-Duncan   June 20th, „
(5.)  Big Eddy    July 11th,
(6.)  Forest Grove   October 28th,
(7.)   Creston     November 29th,    ..
Owing to the continued absence of many members overseas a large number of institutes
were reported as temporarily closed down, the total number being twenty-two. The total membership recorded for the year was 6,072, as against 6,194 at the close of 1917. The institutes with
the largest membership were as follows:—
Spallumcheen    -  198
Creston     177
Cowichan    145
Delta      136
Kelowna   110
Islands      101
Martin's  Prairie    100
Chilliwack        85
Comox       85
Metchosin     85
Victoria     85
Advisory Board.—During the year a scheme outlined by the late Deputy Minister for
grouping institutes into nine districts was brought to a successful conclusion, as follows:—
District.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands	
Bella Coola, Bnlkley Valley, Skeena and Nass Valleys	
Prince George, including district from Endako to McBride
Kamloops, North Thompson Valley, Nicola Valley, and
district between St. Elmo and Revelstoke	
Langley and all institutes on south and north sides of
Fraser to Chilliwack and Howe Sound	
Grand Forks, Arrow and Slocan Lakes and Boundary Districts     	
Kelowna, including Okanagan Valley from Mara to Kate-
den, also Salmon River Valley  	
Robson, Kootenay Lake, and Kootenay River Institutes...
Cranbrook, South-east Kootenay, and Columbia Valley	
Member.
C.  E. Whitney Griffiths, Metchosin.
H. Silverthorne, Telkwa.
J. S. Ross, Fort Fraser.
Wm. Harrison, Martin's Prairie.
Jas. Bailey, Chilliwack.
C. C. Heaven, Grand Forks.
L. E. Taylor, Kelowna,
R. Staples, Creston.
A. B. Smith, Cranbrook.
A meeting of the Advisory Board was called in November and held at Victoria, when a large
number of resolutions were dealt with and submitted for the consideration of the Hon. the
Minister. A notable feature of the year has been the increased co-operative work carried on
by institutes. The annual reports received indicate great activity in all parts of the Province;
large purchases of feed and flour and other supplies in car-load lots for members have been
successfully undertaken, and at the time of making up this report there is evidence that the
movement is branching out into wider schemes, to include the organization of district co-operative
societies to undertake buying and selling under the authority of the " Agricultural Act, 1915,"
and amendments. W 64 Department op Agriculture. 1919
The total expenditure of Farmers' Institutes for the calendar year amounted to $9,30S.10,
or an average of $60.83 per institute.    (For full details .see Appendix No. 20.)
A large proportion of institutes have now raised their fee to $1 per annum in order to obtain
the similar grant allowed by the Department.
Gopher-poison amounting to the sum of $454.56 was purchased and distributed at cost price
to the institutes in the Kootenays and other districts where this pest is a serious one.
The total amount of. stumping-powder supplied to Farmers' Institutes during the year was
valued at $23,340.25. During the year the cost per case reached the record figure of $10.25, but
owing to the release of raw material hitherto required by munition-factories the price showed
a tendency to drop round Christmas, and considerable reduction is anticipated by the spring of
next year.
Short Courses and Lectures.—Owing to the depleted staff of the Department no arrangements
for this work were made.
Fairs held by Farmer's Institutes.—The following fairs were organized by institutes during
the year: Terrace, September 16th; Denman Island, September 21st; Rock Creek, October 11th;
Peace River, September. Judges were supplied hy the Department in the cases of Denman Island,
Terrace, and Rock Creek, who reported exhibits of agricultural produce to be of a high order.
Women's Institutes.
During 1918 two new institutes were organized, as follows: South Saanich, February 11th;
Salmon River Valley, July 11th'; making a total incorporated of sixty-two; the total membership for the year being 2,428, as against 2,754 in 1917. The ten institutes with the largest
membership during the year were as follows:—
Cowichan  125
Cranbrook   123
Penticton      119
Kelowna      S9
Kaslo         82
Vernon        74
Tillicum        72
Shawnigan      71
Creston      66
Nelson      63
The total expenditure on Women's Institutes for the calendar year was $4,826.75, or an
average of $77.85 per institute; this being a very considerable decrease on the cost of administering these institutes in the previous year, when the total amount expended was $8,742.03.
(See Appendix No. 21 for full details.)
Conferences.—Conferences were held as follows during the year: Kelowna, October Sth to
10th; Kaslo, October 15th and 16th. Owing to the Spanish Influenza epidemic the conferences
for the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island institutes were postponed until the next year.
A number of interesting resolutions dealing with the " welfare of women and children " were
submitted and carried. A new feature of the conferences was the election of members for the
Advisory Board in accordance with the provisions of the " Agricultural Act" and amendments;
Mrs. J. S. Chalmers, of Thrums, replacing Mrs. Jas. Johnstone, of Nelson, as member for the
Kootenay District, and Mrs. A. L. Trask, of Oyania, being re-elected for the Kootenay and
Boundary District.
Lectures and Demonstrations.—Owing to the continued activity of institutes along Red Cross
and patriotic lines the Department did not arrange for any lectures during the year. Owing,
however, to numerous requests having been received in the Department in the fall of the year
it is recognized that this work must be taken up again in a systematic manner.
Flower-shows.—Thirty-one institutes held flower-shows during the year, as against forty-one
in 1917. The Department supplied the usual book prizes and the grant of 25 cents per capita.
Reports show that these events were conducted in a very satisfactory manner, both from a social
and financial side. At many points these flower-shows have broadened out so as to include
exhibitions of women's work and increased food production. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 65
Competitions, Year 1911.—Owing to the difficulty of obtaining judges these competitions
were not finally decided until late in 1918.   The winners were as follows :—
(a.) Best Average Attendance at Meetings based on June Membership.—First, Hazelmere,
91 per cent.; second, Gordon Head, 88 per cent. Next in order of merit: Atchelitz, 86 per cent.;
Langford, 82 per cent.;  Colwood, 75 per cent.;  Crawford Bay, 70 per cent.
. (&.) Programme Competition.—The programmes were judged by Mrs. J. D. Gordon and
Mrs. Graves, of Victoria, who expressed extreme interest at the many admirable programmes
submitted for this competition. The awards were given as follows: First prize, Salmon River
Valley, now Silver Creek Women's Instiute. The decision was made on the originality and
excellent appearance of the programme, combined with general neatness. Choice of subjects
was also carefully made, and the programmes, being hand-made, were especially commended for
economy in production and for attractive appearance. Second prize, Metchosin Women's Institute. The subject-matter was excellent and the general artistic appearance in the hand-painted
programmes caused favourable comment. Third prize, Tappen Women's Institute. The subject-
matter of this institute was exceedingly well got up, and although the paper and type was of a
less expensive nature than certain other competing programmes, the judges had no hesitation
in giving this third place.
(c.) Essay Competition.—First prize, "Meaning of Democracy," Mrs. O. H. Carle, Similkameen Women's Institute; second prize, " Some of our Problems when Peace Comes," Mrs. Sidney
File, Nakusp Women's Institute, Nakusp; third prize, " Domestic Science and Household
Economics," Mrs. J. R. Tweedale, Salmon River Valley Women's Institute, Salmon Arm; fourth
prize, " Maintaining the Health and Happiness of the Household," Mrs. E. N. Applewhaite,
Willow Point Women's Institute, R.R. No. 1, Nelson.
(d.)  Competition for Junior Members.—No prizes awarded.
Horticultural Bonds and Licences.
During the year a total of twenty-eight licences were issued, as against thirty-nine in 1917.
These were made up as follows: Principals, foreign and British Columbia nurserymen, 12;
agents for foreign and British Columbia nurserymen, 16. The continued drop in the issue of
these licences is noticeable, the business being largely concentrated in the hands of two or three
firms.
During the year an important amendment to the " Agricultural Act" of 1915 affecting
nurserymen wras passed. Section 7 of the Amendment Act provides that a bond might be
dispensed with upon any nurseryman obtaining a certificate of inspection showing that his
nursery was free from all insect pests and contagious diseases injurious to fruit-trees, plants,
or nursery stock. Whilst considerable correspondence has ensued, no licences have been issued
by the Department under this amendment during the year, but it is anticipated that the
concession will be takeii advantage of next year to a considerable extent.
Agricultural Fairs.
During the past season forty-one agricultural fairs were arranged for by the Department,
judges being supplied to all points as in previous years. Of the above number of fairs, five were
organized by Farmers' Institutes where there were no incorporated Fair Associations.
Speaking generally, these fairs have been unusually successful, exhibits being of a higher
class than usual, and owing to the warm, dry season all horticultural products were well
developed and of a high colour; the educational work carried out by the Department also
during the past few years was evidenced in the arrangement and better selection of entries.
Both at Duncan and Saanichton, on Vancouver Island, the fiftieth anniversary of the local
association was celebrated, and a splendid display of agricultural products of all kinds gave
striking testimony to the strength and popularity of these associations. Owing to reasons of
economy judging was almost entirely undertaken by the officials of this Department, with the
exception of the following experts, whose services were requisitioned for live stock:—
Dr. S. F. Tolmie, M.P   Light horses.
Geo. Shannon, Cloverdale   Heavy horses.
Prof. L. Stevenson, Saanichton    Dairy cattle.
P. Moore, Colony Farm  „
Sam Shannon , ,  „ W 66 Department of Agriculture. 1919
S. II. Hopkins, Duncan   Dairy cattle.
John A. Turner, Victoria    Beef cattle and sheep.
Bryce Wright, Victoria    All classes of stock.
H. W. Hicks, Experimental Farm, Agassiz   Sheep.
W. Mclntyre, Chilliwack     Horses.
E. H. Barton, Chilliwack    Pigs.
Joe Bulman, Grande Prairie    Sheep.
H. E. Waby, Enderby    Dairy cattle and poultry.
A. B. Smith, Cranbrook   ,,
F. Fleetham, Revelstoke  ,. „
Prof. H. Barton   Dairy cattle.
Dr. H. D. Parker, Wash   Goats.
H. D. Reid, Victoria   Poultry.
E. A. Orr, Chilliwack  	
W. Walker, Chilliwack 	
W. N. Scott, Trail	
W. J. McKim. Nelson   Horticultural products.
S. LeC. Grant, Bella Coola	
J. B. Partington, Victoria  „ „
Grants.—A -total sum of $10,850 was paid by the Department in grants in aid of prize-lists
to those associations holding fairs, the amount being $2,000 less than the total for 1917. (See
Appendix No. 22 for full details.)
General.
For financial reasons no convention was held during the year, the arrangements for dates,
judges, etc., being by correspondence with the Department. This system, although having the
advantage of economy, makes the finat arrangements long drawn out, and In many cases it has
been difficult to prevent overlapping of dates; whereas, on the other hand, minor differences
could easily be adjusted by delegates talking matters over at a central meeting. Owing to the
continued decision of the directors of the Royal and Industrial Association at New Westminster
not to hold a fair, the position of the Vancouver Exhibition Association has been materially
strengthened during the war period, and the 1918 fair was undoubtedly one of the most successful
this association has ever held, both from the number and quality of exhibits, as well as from the
point of attendance, general management, and financial results. Live-stock features of the exhibition were very prominent, a total of 281 head being shown; breeders from Vancouver Island
and other Interior districts sending entries.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. J. Bon A vi a,
Secretary.
REPORT OF STATISTICS BRANCH.
A.   B.   TWEDDLE.
If. T. McDonald, Esq..
Acting Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Statistics Branch for the year 1918.
Scope.
The duties of this Branch during the year consisted of the collection of data relating to
agricultural production, imports, exports, and cost of production.
In 1917; in co-operation with the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, figures relating to crop
areas and numbers of live stock were collected conjointly by means of a postal census; card
schedules being distributed to all farmers whose names appeared as such on the latest Provincial
voters' lists. The results were considered so satisfactory that the same plan was continued
in 191S.
Data relating to imports from other Provinces in Canada are now being collected by means
of returns from as large a number as possible of the chief distributers of agricultural food
products in the Province. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 67
With this method results depend entirely upon the goodwill of such establishments, there
being no inquisitory power existing within this Province. Various appeals have been made to
the transportation companies for such data, but these have so far been unsuccessful.
Data showing " foreign imports " are obtained from the Dominion Department of Customs,
and include quantities and values for the calendar year.
1918 Postal Census.
The total number of card schedules dispatched from this office was 21,400, and the total
number of returns received and compiled 6,534, or 42.5 per cent, of the estimated number of
farmers in the Province—viz., 15,360.
In determining totals, 57.5 per cent, of the total number .of farmers was added to the results
of the returns compiled in the case-of crop areas, sheep, swine, and poultry. Results regarding
the number of horses and cattle indicated that there had been gross concealment of facts, since
these showed a falling-off of 62 per cent, in horses and 32 per cent, in cattle, which was plainly
untrue. These results were therefore discarded and results from the crop correspondents accepted
instead, totals being based upon those of 1917.
The percentage of total returns in 1918 was 3.5 per cent, less than in 1917, notwithstanding
a more thorough campaign toward increased results. This may well be attributed in part to the
shortage of farm-labour, resulting in operators being extremely busy during the mouth of June,
when the census was taken. Increased fear of further taxation may have also contributed to
this cause.
Crop Correspondents.
The voluntary services of ninety-six crop correspondents in the various sections of the
Province were enlisted by this office in April, 1918, who were asked to report to the Statistics
Branch, Victoria, on crop conditions each month except November. Of the total enlisted fifty-
nine reported during three or more months from May to October, inclusive (December reports
still outstanding).
In addition to these correspondents, ninety-three were appointed by, and asked to report to,
the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa. By mutual agreement the two offices exchanged
results and agreed upon an average for publication. By this arrangement the result in former
years of conflicting figures by the two officers was eliminated.
City and Suburban Food Production.
At the request of the Canada Food Board for data relating to city and suburban food
production in this Province during 1918, a postal census was taken under the.joint supervision
of J. W. Gibson, Director of Agricultural Education, and this office. Card schedules were distributed to all small-lot producers possible, in both city and suburban districts of the Province,
through the medium of the public schools.
The total number of cards distributed was 31,393, and the total returns received and compiled
by this office was 9,770, or 31.1 per cent.
Cost of Production.
This work, which in 1917 was conducted by the Soil and Crop Division in so far as it related
to certain field crops only, was at the beginning of the current year undertaken by your Statistician in order that all crops and branches of farming might be included to better advantage.
Accordingly the necessary forms were prepared, and whilst the aim was to secure 400 farmers
who would undertake the work, only eighty-three finally consented to do so. The actual recording
began on March 1st, 1918, to be continued for one year, so that results cannot be submitted at the
time of this report.
During this particularly busy time it is difficult to get farmers to undertake this work. Such
work possesses invaluable possibilities in educating farmers toward better business principles
and management, and no effort will be spared to make it as universal as possible.
Publications.
Owing to pressure of work the data for the 1917 Statistics Bulletin could not be prepared
until too late to make It economically wise to print. The 1918 bulletin will, however, be prepared
early in 1919 aud will include the 1918 data. W 68 Department op Agriculture. 1919
The results of the monthly crop returns from correspondents were published each month
in the Department Agricultural Journal. One circular, " Instructions for keeping Records
relating to Cost of producing Farm Products " (No. 20), was issued and published.
Office.
Attention to the details in connection with the rural and city and suburban censuses, as
already outlined, and the compilation of results of these and monthly crop returns occupied almost
the entire time of your Statistician and that of an assistant for a period of six months.
Respectfully submitted.
A. B. Tweddle,
Statistician.
REPORT OF APIARY INSPECTION AND INSTRUCTION, KOOTENAYS AND BOUNDARY.
W. J. Sheppard,
Hon. E. D. Barrow,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit my annual report on the above work for the year 1918.
The season just passed has not been quite so good for honey production as Jast in this
territory owing to dry spells that somewhat curtailed the blossoming period of the clovers and
other nectar-yielding plants. The honey has all been of good quality, as is usual, and apparently
there has not been any honey-dew or fruit-juice stored by the bees this fall, so that winter losses
should be few, and, in any case, will not be attributable to this cause, as in some past years.
Bee-keeping is going ahead in this section of the Province, two large apiaries having been
installed during the past season in one of the best locations by progressive bee-keepers, who will
no doubt make a success of them.
Honey is in increasing demand in the Kootenays and not nearly enough is yet produced
locally to keep the home market supplied. The wholesale price at present stands at 35 cents
per pound for extracted honey, and at this figure this industry is a good paying investment on
the small amount of capital required. There has been a great demand for bees here, and several
persons desiring to start bee-keeping have been unable to do so through being unable to obtain
them. Bees have been practically unobtainable in pound packages this year from the United
States, owing, it is stated, to the transportation companies declining to undertake to deliver
them by the shortest and quickest routes. By a new postal order in the United States bees in
pound packages can now be shipped through the mails, and if this was extended to Canada this
difficulty would be overcome and the present shortage of bees supplied.
A demonstration on bee-keeping was given to the members of the Women's Institute at
Harrop on May Sth. Educational exhibits of honey, etc., produced in the Kootenays were made
at the Nelson Rose Show held during the Western Irrigation Congress on July 24th, at the
Trail Fruit Fair on September 17th and 18th, and at the Nelson Fruit Fair on September 25th
and 26th. Great interest has been taken in these exhibits and applications have been received
for them at other places.
Experiments have been carried out during the season at the writer's apiary in Nelson with
different queen-excluders in connection with swarm-control, the production of sections, etc., and
valuable data obtained.
There is very little disease in the Kootenays, only six cases of American foul-brood having
been found in three apiaries during the past season. One colony was destroyed and the others
have been treated by shaking.
Your Inspector was summoned to Vancouver about the middle of June to assist with
inspection-work owing to the serious outbreak of European foul-brood on the Lower Mainland,
and was engaged thereon for about a month in the Cloverdale District. A separate report on
this work was made and sent in at the time. Owing to this absence some of the bee-keepers in
outlying districts in the Kootenays have not been visited this season.
Respectfully submitted.
W. J. Sheppard,
Foul-brood Inspector. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 69
REPORT OF SOLDIERS OF THE SOIL MOVEMENT.
Jas. H. Beatty.
TV. T. McDonald, Esq.,
Acting Deputy Minister and Live Stock Commissioner,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the report of the Soldiers of the Soil Movement for the
year 1918.
Enlistments.
The movement encouraged the enlistment of all boys between the ages of fifteen and nineteen
years of age, and recognized, but not accepting any responsibility for, boys between the ages
of thirteen and fifteen. Boys who came within the above ages and whose school principal
recommended them for passing were, upon having completed two months' satisfactory service
as Soldiers of the Soil, given their promotion iii school without further examination.
Eighteen hundred boys enlisted and sent in their forms. This number includes boys who
were working but who had not previously enlisted. These were later registered and were given
the same consideration as others who had enlisted previous to being employed.
Placements.
The boys working on farms totalled 1,137. A number of these were, of course, working on
their parents' farms, but they received the same consideration from the " S.O.S." movement as
did boys who were working on strangers' farms. The farmers' applications came in very slowly
at first, and a number of the boys had secured other employment before they were called up.
Before the season ended, however, it was difficult to get boys to supply the demand of the farmers.
Over a hundred British Columbia boys were sent to the Prairie to do farm-Work. The
railway companies gave a reduced rate going, but charged them full fare on their return.
It would be difficult to encourage boys from this Province to go to the Prairie without giving
some special transportation rate both ways.
Wages.
The wages for boys ranged all the way from $5 to $75 monthly and board, depending on
the boy, nature of the work, and part of the country. Boys whom we sent to the Prairie were
generally paid considerably better than those who stayed in British Columbia.
Supervision.
For the purpose of supervising the living and working conditions the Province was divided
into seven zones, over each of which was placed a superintendent. Under the superintendent
were ranged local committees, and also a local man called a local supervisor, whose duty it was
to call on the boy and farmer at frequent Intervals, and to straighten whatever difficulties might
arise and to make recommendations to the zone superintendent in case any difficulties arose.
Medals.
Public meetings were held at a number of points all over the Province, until such were
cancelled by the ban which was placed on public gatherings on account of the influenza epidemic,
where '-' S.O.S." badges were presented to the worthy boys. These boys have shown a great deal
of pride in this medal, as it is a recognition of their pari: in war service.
Conclusion.
The " S.O.S." work in British Columbia was entirely voluntary on the part of our superintendents, local committees, and supervisors, and was therefore subject to the same failings of
all voluntary work. The Associate Provincial Superintendent feels, however, that, considering
everything, excellent results have been achieved. Over 1,100 boys working on the farms did,
without doubt, assist materially in increasing food production, and thereby contribute to winning
the war, as requested by the Federal Government. W 70
Department op Agriculture.
1919
The Superintendent is very grateful to the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture, the Hou. the
Minister of Education,  and  their  assistants,  for the valuable co-operation  and assistance  in
carrying out the " S.O.S."  programme.    Never was anything asked for from either  of these
Departments that was not given, and given cheerfully.
Respectfully submitted.
Jas. H. Beatty,
Associate Provincial Superintendent, " S.O.S."
REPORT OF CHIEF POULTRY INSTRUCTOR.
J. R. Terby.
W. T. McDonald. Esq.,
Acting Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith our report for the year 1918.
General Conditions.
Despite the restrictions placed on poultry-feeds by the Food Controller, the poultry industry
was able at the end of the year to show a production but a very small percentage less than the
previous year. The average price of feedstuff's was higher than during 1917. The matter of
rising feed prices is of long standing, however, as evidenced by the following table:—
Price of Feeds.
1013.
1014.
1015.
Wheat and corn. 100 lb.   . .
Dry mash,  100 lb	
Wet mash,  100 lb	
Grit and clam-shell,  100 lb.
Beef-scraps,  100 lb	
Mangels,   ton   	
Straw,   bale   	
75
95
02
12
70
95
97
93
08
50
12 00
65
$2 20
2 80
2 80
1 10
4 50
63
1016.
$2 15
2 10
2 10
1 12
4 50
50
ion
1018.
25
33
33
30
50
12 00
65
$3 80
3 00
3 00
1 25
6 10
70
During the spring months weather conditions were on the whole much better than those
which prevailed during the same period of 1917. During the hatching period, March and April,
the climatic conditions were more favourable than for some years past. There was a long
spell of bright, sunny days. Favourable weather during the first two weeks of a chick's life
is essential. In practically all parts of the Province the spring and early summer months were
very hot and dry, this greatly facilitating the growth and development of the young stock.
Owing to the high price of eggs in the spring, very few people packed or preserved as many
eggs as they did the year previous, when the prices were much lower.
The number of chicks hatched and reared during the past year would approximate about
one-fifth short of the total of 1917.
The eonimercial man, especially those who culled their flocks very closely, appear to have
been a little more satisfied with their year's work than at any time during the war.
Trade with the Prairie Provinces for eggs, day-old chicks, and breeding stock continued to
increase.
The egg records made during the winter months at our Egg-laying Contest are beginning to
bear fruit. In addition to exporting stock and eggs to the East, stock was also shipped to the
Pacific Coast States and to Japan, China, and Hawaii.
During the past year the farmers' markets held periodically in most of the cities throughout
the Province have maintained their usefulness, even though in some cases prices charged are no
cheaper than those asked at retail stores.
Rabbit-breeding .
During the yrear the boom in rabbit-breeding still continued. Despite the fact that towards
the fall a percentage of the beginners desiring to get out of the business somewhat lowered the
price of breeding stock, those continuing report an excellent year's business. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 71
During the year the Provincial Association of Rabbit-breeders was formed, and also local
associations covering Vancouver and District and Victoria and District. The exhibits of rabbits
at Vancouver Exhibition, the Victoria Poultry Show, and the Provincial Show held at Vancouver
were by far the largest and best held in any Province west of Ontario.
Fall Fairs.
With the aid of competent Provincial judges, the members of this Division judged the poultry
exhibits at the fall fairs and exhibitions. Compared with 1917, most of the shows had a larger
number of exhibits, which also excelled the previous year in quality as well. Considerable
progress has to be recorded in the matter of improved conditions in connection with the poultry
exhibits at the fall fairs. Nearly all of the shows now give classes for single specimens as
advised by this Division and the Provincial Poultry Association for years past. As in previous
years, the popular breeds were the most numerous shown. It is pleasing also to record the fact
that the classes for utility breeders are being well patronized.
Lectures and Demonstrations.
The usual lectures and demonstrations were given to the members of the local Poultry
Association, Farmers' and Women's Institutes throughout the Province, as desired.
Provincial Poultry Association.
During the past year the association, despite the continuance of the war and the drain on
the manhood of the country, managed to hold its own as regards membership. Three new
associations were affiliated and one dropped out. The new associations were Corbin, East
Kootenay, Salmon Arm, and Clayburn.    The association becoming defunct was Ashcroft.
A big percentage of the local associations continued the co-operative buying of feedstuff's,
thereby giving valuable assistance to its members.
The association published its Directory of Breeders as usual, and by advertising through
the medium of a number of Provincial papers, and also the farm papers on the Prairies, more
copies were sent out than during any other period.
The grouping of district shows was continued, and now that the Provincial Show has been
permanently settled in Vancouver, it should be assured of financial success.
The annual convention was again held at the same time and place as the show. Twenty-five
associations were represented out of the total of thirty-one. The Provincial Show was the largest
held in the Province since it was held in 1911 at Vancouver. The Provincial Association again
distributed cash prizes of $5 each to its members competing in the Egg-laying Contest whose pens
laid the required number of eggs. Handsomely printed diplomas and fine silk ribbons were also
awarded monthly to all competitors qualifying for same. The association presented its members
with journal and account books in an endeavour to encourage them to keep closer track of their
expenditure and income. Members of the association again did well in the Egg-laying Contests
held in various parts of the United States. The writer was, as per constitution, appointed
Secretary-Treasurer and Mr. Upton Assistant Secretary.
Egg-laying Contest.
The Seventh Egg-laying Contest ended September 25th, 1918, being of eleven months'
duration.    The classes were as follows:   Class 1, 21 pens; Class 2, 19 pens.
For the first time since the inauguration of the contest seven years ago, the first prize in
Class 1 was won by a pen other than White Leghorns. A pen of Mottled Anconas bred and
raised in the Province headed the list. All the birds constituting this pen have since been sold
to an Ontario breeder for the sum of $300. The first-prize winner in Class 2 was the same breeder
that won the Fifth and Sixth Contests. This incident proves more than anything else the
importance of both strain and breed.
The usual silver and bronze medals were thoughtfully provided by friends of the contest.
The climatic conditions obtaining throughout the contest were an improvement on the year
previous. The majority of the fowls, not being needed by their owners, were sold by public '
auction at the conclusion of the contest. There were five- pen entries from the United States-
one pen from New Jersey and the others from Oregon and Washington. With the exception of
a pen of Leghorns from Ontario, the rest of the entries were British Columbia birds. The report
of the contest, together with summary of same, is shown in Appendix No. 24.
6 W 72 Department op Agriculture. 1919
Boys' and Girls' Competitions.
This, the third season in which the competitions have been held, proved as successful as
last year, there being no fewer than twenty-six clubs competing—a total of 257 competitors.
Owing to a better season than last, the flocks raised by the competitors were better on the
average than in previous years. The usual depredations by birds of prey, coyotes, cats, dogs,
rats, minks, etc., were again recorded. The competitors continued to make profitable sales of
breeding stock to farmers in their particular vicinity, and the improvement is again noticed in
the general flocks kept on the farms. Owing to the influenza epidemic only one visit was made
to each club.
The following are the names of clubs organized: Chilliwack No. 1; Chilliwack No. 2;
Chilliwack (East); Chilliwack (Lotbiniere); Chilliwack (Central); Comox.Bay; Creston;
Denman Island; Fort George; Fruitvale; Kamloops ; Malakwa ; Martin's Prairie; Mission ;
Needles; Point Grey; Point Grey (Amateur); Tappen; Vancouver (Barred Rocks) ; Vancouver
(Reds) ;   Vancouver (Buffs) ;   Vancouver (Whites) ;   Vancouver  (Leghorns) ;   Westbank.
" Eggs Marks Act."
During the year the members of this Division have made the usual inspections, a number
of these being city markets throughout the Province, with the exception of New Westminster
and Vancouver, which come under the jurisdiction of the Coast Markets Commissioner. There
appears to be further evidence of the co-operation of the wholesalers and producers in an
endeavour to carry out the requirements of the Act.
Owing to the egg shortage elsewhere and the extremely high freight rates, very few importations were made into the Province as compared with other years. With a view to making the
Act more effective, quite a number of amendments are being proposed. It is hoped that these
will become law at an early date.
Publications.
The demand for bulletins, especially in the early part of the season, was much greater than
usual. Owing to the growing importance of the rabbit industry a bulletin and Breeders' Directory was published early in the year. As an evidence of its popularity it might be mentioned
that copies have been asked for from all sections of the North American Continent. Particularly
numerous were the inquiries from the Provinces of Nova Scotia and Quebec.
The usual monthly reports of the Egg-laying Contest were sent out; articles on poultry
subjects were supplied to the newspapers of the Province and the poultry journals of Canada;
and special articles were also written for the Agricultural Journal.
Inspection and Instruction Work.
As often as possible members of this Division have visited poultry-ranchers and city-lot
poultry-keepers needing instruction and advice. Mr. Upton, taking advantage of his motor-car,
was enabled to make an extremely large number of calls for the year.
Poultry-diseases.
The mildest spring and early summer were not so favourable to the spread of colds and
other diseases prevalent the previous year. It is again a pleasure to record the fact that the
number of cases of tuberculosis amongst poultry is gradually dwindling. A valuable preventive
work has been done by the Department in enforcing the tubercular test for cattle. Practically
all cases of this disease amongst fowls can be traced to bovine tubercle bacilli.
The spread of entero-hepatitis (black-head) amongst turkeys is increasing. There are very
few flocks in the Province, or for that matter in the Dominion of Canada, that are not affected
with this trouble. The members of this Division, wherever possible, advised against the keeping
of turkeys on farms of small acreage. Not only is there a great danger of infection amongst the
owners' flocks of common fowls, but also amongst the flocks of others situate at a distance.
Coccidiosis is also making its appearance amongst the commercial flocks of the Province.
This disease appears more frequently among flocks that are crowded and kept upon soil more or
less continuously without giving the land a chance to sweeten up by periodic ploughing and
cropping. More attention to sanitation and hygiene should be of valuable assistance in checking
this dangerous disease. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 73
Office-work.
This phase of the work has again increased, more especially during the period covered by
the announcement of the armistice to the end of the year. The number of returned soldiers
calling for advice is becoming very great, and the work developing out of the Secretaryship of
the Poultry Association also shows no sign of diminishing. The clerical work incidental to the
duties of the members of this Division has also shown an increase.
In conclusion, allow me to again testify to the able assistance of H. E. Upton in the work
of the Division, and also to acknowledge the services of W. H. Stroyan, the poultryman in charge
of the Egg-laying Contest.
Respectfully submitted.
J. R. Terry,
Chief Poultry Instructor. W 74 Department op Agriculture. 1919
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX No. 1.
Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc, inspected at Vancouver, 1917 and 1918.
1917. 1918.
Apples  (boxes)       67,723 79,243
(% boxes)..            19 342
(bbls.)      2 	
Crab-apples   (boxes)                 9 25
(%  boxes)     142 	
Pears   (boxes)        13,459 16,153
„     (% boxes)               2 1S5
Plums (boxes)        11,200 8,853
Prunes   (boxes)               87 1
Peaches   (boxes)    ,. ..    56,153 42,006
Apricots (boxes.)           6,350 26,770
Nectarines (boxes)     5 	
Quince  (boxes)    ... . 6S 	
Cherries   (boxes)          6,883 5,431
California oranges  (boxes)     103,877 47,914
Japanese oranges  (boxes)        66,813 202,162
,',               (shipped out)   (boxes)     117,495
Chinese oranges (boxes)            119 169
Tangerines   (boxes)     10
„ (%  boxes)     5 	
Lemons   (boxes)        14,500 14,527
Grapefruit (boxes)         4,252 7,496
Limes (boxes)     4 	
Pineapples (boxes)             189 165
Pomeloes (boxes)            254 5
Persimmons  (boxes)    ISO 	
Pomegranates  (boxes)            201 25
Peppers   (boxes)          2,228 168
Egg-plants (boxes)             265 12
Tomatoes  (% boxes)          2,950 2,011
Potatoes   (crates)   .       9,912 S2
„        (bulk and sacks)   (tons)          1,530 7,942
Sweet potatoes  (crates)          3,093 2,703
Yams  (crates)             120 407
Taro  (crates)    812 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 75
APPENDIX No. 2.
Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc, condemned at Vancouver, 1917 and 1918.
Apples (boxes) 	
„      (%  boxes)   	
(bbl.)    	
Crab-apples  (boxes)  	
Pears   (boxes)   	
Plums (boxes)   	
Peaches  (boxes)   	
Cherries (boxes)  	
Tangerines  (Vi box)   ......
Japanese oranges  (boxes) ..
California oranges  (boxes)
Grapefruit  (boxes)  	
Potatoes (pkg.)  	
(sacks)   	
„       (crates)    	
„       (tons)    	
Sweet potatoes  (box)   	
Yams (boxes)  	
Nutmegs  (cases)   	
(200-lb. sacks)   ...
1917.
1918.
5,242
S,362
1
25
1
6
24
632
6,833
145
70
40
23
1
2,060
6
94
12
1
12
9,764
174
1
20
18
191
12
APPENDIX No. 3.
Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc., inspected at all Ports of Entry in British Columbia,
1917 and 1918.
1917. 1918.
Apples  (boxes)    92.28S 100,213
(i/2  boxes)     140 407
(bbls.)     •  2 2
Crab-apples (boxes)     08 39
(>/2 boxes)     142               	
Pears  (boxes)    18,091 18,007
(%   boxes)      17 229
Plums (boxes)    15,846 11,099
Prunes   (boxes)     2,427 515
Peaches   (boxes)     76,594 55,665
Apricots  (boxes)  7,981 29,296
Nectarines   (boxes)     25               	
Quince   (boxes)     76 1
Cherries (boxes)     8,940 6,621
California oranges  (boxes)     144,962 65,234
Japanese oranges  (boxes)  80,931 99,364
Chinese oranges (boxes)    199 169
Tangerines  (boxes)  30 65
(1/2 boxes)    5               	
Lemons   (boxes)  20,291 19,719
Grapefruit (boxes)    6,302 10,052
Limes  (boxes)     S 2
Pineapples (boxes)  ■      234 247
Pomeloes  (boxes)     408 20
Persimmons   (boxes)     210               	
Pomegranates  (boxes)     226 25
Tomatoes (boxes)     5,847 3,630 W 76 Department op Agriculture. 1919
APPENDIX No. 3—Concluded.
Imported Fruit, Potatoes, Corn, etc, inspected at all Ports of Entry—Concluded.
1917. 1918.
Peppers  (boxes)         3,333 241
Egg-plants  (boxes)             330 15
Sweet potatoes (boxes)         4,023 3,503
Yams (baskets)             120 548
Taro (baskets)    969
Potatoes, U.S.A.  (sacks)        16,931 274
(tons)              684 8,067
Orient   (crates)       9,912 S2
(baskets)     94 	
Vetch  (lb.)     100
Rye   (bushels)     9
Rice (tons)            42,630
Corn   (tons)     4,415
Beans   (tons)  3,249
Peas  (tons)    1,737
Australian wheat (long tons)     11,684
APPENDIX No. 4.
Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts, etc., for which no Certificates were issued, 1918.
Crates, etc.
Artichokes  . ..  S3
Asparagus     2,057
Beans  (green)     60
Beets  19S
Cabbage -.  5,568
Cantaloupes      8,554
Carrots    2,002
Casabas    '  366
Cauliflower     3,903
Celery  2,259
Corn  121
Cress     2
Cucumbers   676
Garlic     6
Ginger    1
Horse-radish     4
Lettuce    8,223
Melons  6,949
Mint and watercress (mixed)  1
Onions         12,566
Parsley    52
Parsley, peas, beans, and sprouts  (mixed)     22
Peas   (green)     240
Peas and beans  (mixed)     13
Peas, beans, and sprouts  (mixed)     26
Radish     103
Radish and parsley (mixed)    1
Rhubarb     2,864
Spinach     153
Sprouts    2S 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 77
APPENDIX No. 4— Concluded.
Vegetables, Fruits, Nuts, etc, for which  no Certificates were issued—Concluded.
Crates, etc.
Squash     300
Turnips   4S2
Bananas   (bunches)     29,672
Gooseberries     31
Grapes     20,510
Cranberries  147
Loganberries  6
Raspberries  68
Strawberries  5,483
Almonds   420
Chestnuts   2
Nuts (mixed)    2
Peanuts  (lb.)     3,070,900
Walnuts  900
APPENDIX No. 5.
Imported Fruit, Potatoes, etc., condemned at all Ports of Entry in British Columbia,
1917 and 1918.
1917. 1918.
Apples  (boxes)    6,894 10,512
(V-2  boxes)    '  1 25
„      (bbl.)  l               	
Crab-apples (boxes)     6 24
Pears   (boxes)     717 7,173
Plums  (boxes)     145              	
Peaches  (boxes)     79 42
Apricots (boxes)     3 •       5
Cherries    27 5
California oranges (boxes)   94               	
Japanese oranges  2,060 6
Tangerines (% box)    1               	
Grapefruit  (boxes)     21
Tomatoes   (boxes)      61 12
Yams  (crates)  20
Sweet potatoes  (crates)     3 1
Potatoes  (pkg.)     1
„        (sacks)     12
„        Australian   (crates)     9,764
„                 „          (shrinkage from decay)   (tons)   .... 174               	
Nutmegs (cases)     18 191
(200-lb. sacks)     12 W 78
Department of Agriculture.
1919
APPENDIX No. 6.
Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, Corn, etc., inspected at Vancouver, 1917 and 1918.
r-
227,617    50-lb. sacks rice
157,252 100-lb.
50 110-lb.
17,596 112-lb.
19,771 200-lb.
3,680 220-lb.
153,370 224-lb.
134 240-lb.
185 250-lb.
71,195    50-lb.
1,432   50-lb. sacks beans
62,671 100-lb.
3 130-lb.
40 150-lb.
278 185-lb.
15,164 100-lb.
558 ISO-lb.
9,027 200-lb.
4 100-lb.
2    50-lb.
1,700 100-lb.
2 150-lb.
6,484,370 lb. bulk corn
77 100-lb. sacks popcorn
The following were fumigated:—
8,372    50-lb. sacks rice]
2,721 100-lb. „ (■-•
sacks peas
pkgs. peas
sacks corn
1917.
Tons.
21,090
2,984
1,224
1.S3S
256
178
226
152
1918.
Tons.
35,919
3,198
1,711
3,331
345
59
45
613
(165 bundles empty 10O-lb. rice-sacks.)
22    50-lb. sacks  beans]
1,181 100-lb. „ (	
910 100-lb. sacks peas	
Corn   	
1,719 100-lb. bags peanuts]
5,210 100-lb. „ j,  5
5,339 100-lb.
36,730 lb. Australian wheat tailings.
15,000 empty wheat-sacks.
Australian wheat tailings ex S.S. " Jean Steadman."
13,159 empty Australian wheat-sacks ex S.S. " Marie Barnard."
39,710 lb. Australian wheat screenings ex S.S. " Marie Barnard.
102 bundles mats ex S.S. " Protesilaus."
12 140-lb. barrels coriander-seed.
165 bales rabbit-skins (18 tons).
Imported Rice, Beans, Peas, etc, inspected at Victoria, 1917 and 1918.
Rice (Vi tons)	
Corn   (tons)   	
Beans  (% tons) 	
Peas   (tons)   	
The following were fumigated:
Rice  (V2 tons)   	
Peanuts  (tons)  	
1917.
1918.
8,760
6,711
523
1,0S3
105
50
85
25
1,259
1,232
S4 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 79
APPENDIX No. 7.
Imported Nursery Stock inspected at Vancouver, 1917 and 1918.
Standard fruit-trees—                                                                             1917. 1918.
Apple      37,665 33,642
Crab             693 1,042
Pear        6,032 6,347
Cherry    ".       4,798 7,922
Plum          2,783 4,011
Prune       3,797 2,420
Peach          3,204 2,498
Quince           182 227
Nectarine            196 73
Apricot       6,022 5,311
Fig              78 31
Mulberry               S9 123
Nut-trees—
Walnut            896 451
Filbert          276 100
Chestnut            186 75
Almond            33 13
Ornamental and fruit   '   169,456 	
     21,418 	
Seedlings and scions—-
Fruit seedlings  223,566
Fruit scions  41,116
Small-fruit bushes and plants—
Grape-vines         3,063 3,581
Currant-bushes         4,820 1,247
Gooseberry-bushes         5,580 4,416
Raspberry-bushes      10,010 3,293
Blackberry-bushes       9,411 19,796
Strawberry-plants      122,212 56,674
Miscellaneous—
Ornamental trees, etc     21,944 97.8S7
Ornamental seedlings  33,550
Ornamental scions  126,400
Rose-bushes      26,215 44,332
Plants       17,45S 64.404
Bulbs and roots   386,394 507,936
Totals      864,911 1,292,484 W 80 Department op Agriculture. 1919
APPENDIX No. 8.
Imported Nursery Stock condemned at Vancouver, 1917 and 1918.
Apple-trees   	
Crab-trees   	
Pear-trees   	
Cherry-trees   	
Plum-trees  	
Prune-trees   	
Peach-trees   	
Quince-trees	
Nectarine-tree	
Mulberry-trees   	
Apricot-trees  	
Walnut-trees	
Filbert-trees   	
Chestnut-trees   	
Fruit seedlings 	
Ornamental and fruit  	
Grafts 	
Grape-vines    '.	
Currant-bushes  	
Gooseberry-bushes  	
Raspberry-bushes 	
Blackberry-bushes   -.	
Ornamental trees, shrubs	
Ornamental seedlings 	
Rose-bushes  (1,110 dead)   	
Plants	
Bulbs and roots   7 ....
Totat condemned     9,964 5,145
1917.
1918.
1,691
1,739
100
100
692
238
35 ■
56
40
25
IS
37
49
7
13
5
1
7
19
723
21
4
1
2
75
1
131
2,505
600
352
614
47
36
175
421
2,175
33
262
231
211
104
100
44
1,223
138
1 9 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 81
APPENDIX No. 9.
British Columbia Dairymen's Association, Season's Butter Competition, 1918.
Class 1.—Best Box of June Butter.
Prize.    Amount.
Donated by
Won  by
Score.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Vancouver 	
A. P. Shade & Co., Vancouver	
A. P. Slade & Co., Vancouver	
F. L. Wheeler, Saltspring Island
J. M. Livingstone, Vancouver ..
D. A. James, Vancouver	
96.5
96.0
95.5
Class 2.—Best Box of July Butter.
W. H. Malkin Co., Ltd., Vancouver
Vancouver Creamery, Ltd., Vancouver
J. M. Livingstone, Vancouver
D. A. James, Vancouver	
S. J. Thomas, Kelowna	
96.25
96.0
95.0
Class 3.—Best Box of August Butter.
F. R. Stewart & Co., Victoria	
McQueen Produce Co., Ltd., Vanc'r.
D. A. James, Vancouver	
J. M. Livingstone, Vancouver
Hollis Newton, Vancouver . ..
96.75
96.50
96.25
Class 4.—Best Box of September Butter.
Canadian Produce Co., Vancouver. .
Standard Milk Co., Ltd., Vancouver
J. M. Livingstone, Vancouver . .
F. L. Wheeler, Saltspring Island
S. J. Thomas, Kelowna	
97.0
96.5
96.25
Class 5.—Best Box of October Butter.
1st
2nd
3rd
P. Burns & Co., Ltd., Vancouver . .
The DeLaval Dairy Co., Vancouver
J. M. Livingstone, Vancouver
D. A. James, Vancouver	
Hollis Newton, Vancouver  . . .
97.5
97.25
96.5
" Wyandotte Special," Best Average Score, June to August.
Gold watch and chain . ..
J. B.Ford Co., Wyandotte, Mich.
J. M. Livingstone, Vancouver
96.25
' Season's Championship," Best Average Score, June to October.
Gold medal or gold watch
B.C. Dairymen's
Association..
J. M. Livingstone, Vancouver . .
D. A. James, Vancouver	
F. L. Wheeler, Saltspring Island
96.65
96.30
96.01
Butter-judging Competition.
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
Davis-Watkins   Manufacturing   Co.,
Denver,  Col	
Alberta Dairy Supplies, Ltd., Edm't'n.
M. R. Silver, Vancouver	
D. A. James, Vancouver  	
F. L. Wheeler, Saltspring.Island
H. S. Batey, Armstrong	 W 82
Department op Agriculture.
1919
APPENDIX No. 10.
List or Creameries in British Columbia.
Name.
Secretary or Manager.
Address.
Burns. P., & Co., Ltd	
M. R.  Silver  	
W. K. MacLeod  . . .
R.  U.  Hurford	
W.  Paterson   	
Geo. W. Smith	
Cooper &  Seldon   . .
W. Van der Wall . .
W. G. Benson
A. P. Slade  	
Norton & Snelling..
A.  E.  Sage   	
J. Burmeister  	
D. E. Mackenzie . ..
E. G. Sherwood  . ..
C. W. McAllister ..
A. A. Young	
F. L. Wheeler
W. S. Smith  	
E. W. Clark  	
F. Turner 	
Woodland Drive, Vancouver.
Chilliwack.
Courtenay.
Duncan.
Nelson.
Grand Forks.
Kamloops District Creamery Association
Clayburn.
Heffley Creek.
Kamloops.
Kelowna.
North Okanagan  Creamery  Association
Oxford Dairy Co., Ltd	
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Ass'n. . .
Nanaimo.
Victoria.
Armstrong.
New Westminster. .
Revelstoke.
1327 Standard Bank Building, Vanc'r.
Douglas Street, Victoria.
1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
Saltspring Island Creamery Association
Salmon Arm Creamery Association  ...
Standard Milk Co , Ltd	
Ganges Harbour, S.S.I.
Salmon Arm.
Vancouver.
405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Seventeenth Ave. and Ontario St., Van.
15 Alexander Street, Vancouver.
Condensers.
Courtenay Milk Condensing Co., Ltd...
Pacific Milk Co., Ltd	
L.  Chevalley  	
E. G. Emerv   ,
B.  W.  Keating  ....
Sardis.
Courtenay.
Ladner.
Cheese-factories.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Ass'n...
Revelstoke Creamery Co., Ltd	
Ferrera Cheese Manufacturing Co	
E.  Haggerty   	
J.  E.  Carmen   	
A. G. Ferrera	
Sardis.
Revelstoke.
Chilliwack.
APPENDIX No. 11.
Summary of Creamery Report, 1918.
Number of creameries    26
Number of patrons    1,946
Number of visits to creameries   55
Number of creameries using pasteurizer   14
Average per cent, of fat in cream  27-30
Average per cent, of moisture in butter   15-15%
Average amount of salt per pound of butter   % oz.
Number of creameries using Babcock test   26
Number of creameries using cream-scales (metric)     26
Number of creameries testing each delivery of cream separately  10
Number of creameries using composite samples   16
Number of creameries having mechanical refrigeration   9
Average temperature of storages   45° Fahr.
Number of creameries having poor water-supply   2
Expenditure, new equipment and general improvements   .$1S,44S 9 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 83
APPENDIX No. 12.
List of Prize-winners, Cow-testing Associations, 191S.
Comox Valley Cow-testing Association.
Rank.
Name of Cow and Breed.
Two Years old.
Nora of Avelreagh, Jersey
Leoni of Avelreagh, Jersey	
Mabel, Jer. Gr	
Tliree Years old and over.
Dell 2nd of Blue Ribbon, Jersey
Italia of Blue Ribbon, Jersey .
Roxy of Maplehurst, Jersey
Owner.
Address.
G. Hornby . ..
T. D. Smith . .
R. U. Hurford
T. D. Smith
W. T. Wain
T. D. Smith
Sandwich
Courtenay
Sandwick
Courtenay
Sandwick
Milk.
Lb.
7,945
6,620
7,671
9,362
9.535
7,781
Butter-fat.
Lb.
414.9
388.6
387.4
600.7
503.5
495.8
Delta Cow-testing Association.
Two Years old.
Delta Pietje, Holstein  	
Paleface. Hoi.  Gr	
Daisy, Hoi. Gr	
Three Years old and over.
Belle, Hoi. Gr	
Hoi.  Gr	
Alex. Davie
Heard Bros.
H. Burr ....
Alex. Davie
Ladner
11,245
7,577
7,699
15,980
21,989
15,792
378.6
318.9
317.1
605.2
604.0
561.2
Chilliwack Cow-testing Association.
Two Years old.
Flossie,  Guernsey       C. Hawthorne
Favourite, Holstein    \'S.  Mercer
Molly,  Jer.  Gr.        E. D. Barrow
Three Years old and over.
Nancy Srd, Ayrshire       J.  S. Higginson.
John H.. Guernsey        C.  Hawthorne  .
Flossie, Jer. Gr. ."     S. W. Keith . . .
Chilliwack
Rosedale .
Chilliwack
Sardis . ..
Chilliwack
8.807
11,802
5,721
10,813
10,374
11.258
497.2
421.4
297.7
474.7
470.7
467.3
Langley-Surrey Cow-testing Association.
Two Years old.
Nellie, Reg. Ayr	
Alma Mater's Dewdrop, Hoi. Reg.. .
Queenie, Hoi. Gr	
Three Years old and over.
Grandview Rose, Ayr. Reg	
Princess Tulip, Hoi. Reg.   	
" No. 5," Hoi. Reg	
Shannon Bros.
F. V. Worrell
H. Buseman  .
Shannon Bros. . .
F. V. Worrell . .
L. H. Delesalle..
Cloverdale
Milner   . . .
Murrayville
Cloverdale
Milner
Matsqui   . .
10,252
0,642
6,096
22.228
16.448
15,468
378.5
363.5
814.7
896.2
545.6
471.3 W 84 Department op Agriculture. 1919
APPENDIX No. 13.
Milk-testers licensed under " Dairies Regulation Act," 1918.
Name. Address.
Barker, P. S  507 Twenty-ninth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Batey, Herbert S  Armstrong.
Boughtwood, Geo  Valley Dairy, Vancouver.
Bubar, D. T  Courtenay.
Bunting, Thos.  Heffley Creek.
Burmeister, J  Oxford Dairy, New Westminster.
Campbell, A. M  Eraser Valley Dairy, Vancouver.
Carman, J. E  Revelstoke.
Carradice, F. W  1754 Fifth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Carroll, W. J   Courtenay.
Carter, J. N  Turner's Dairy, Vancouver.
Chevalley, Frank  Sardis.
Craig, John  Cowichan Creamery, Victoria.
Cranswick, P. .   Royal Dairy, Vancouver.
Clarke, F. J  S50 Fourteenth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Dudman, Alfred   Meadowbrook Creamery, Vancouver.
Dunn, J. S '.  Nanaimo.
Emery, E. G  Courtenay.
Fish, Amos  ■ • • • 131 Fifteenth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Fish, James   • • ■ • East End Dairy, Vancouver.
George, H. H. S    Kamloops.
Gillman, R. H ■ • • • Northwest Creamery, Victoria.
Hall, F. D. B ■   Chilliwack.
Hanson, H. M   Matsqui.
Iwanami, J  . City Dairy, Victoria.
James, David A ..•••• Standard Milk Co., Vancouver.
Jenne, R. Everett    Grand Forks.
Johnson, Alfred   Salmon Arm.
Karnagel, R • • • • „
Kell, George  , .. - . New Westminster.
Lewarne, A. E   City Dairy, Vancouver.
Livingstone, J. M  Vancouver Creamery, Vancouver.
McAllister, W. C   Royal Dairy, Victoria.
MacKenzie, H. H • • ■ • New Westminster.
MacLeod, W. K   Chilliwack.
Magar, J. A   Kamloops.
Matheson, W. D  Spencer's Creamery, Vancouver.
Metcalfe, John F   3436 Oak Street, Vancouver.
Nelson, C. E   2144 .twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Norton, F. H. A  Northwestern Creamery, Victoria.
Rive, Chas   2226 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Rive, Elias   • ■ ■ • „ „ „
Russell, Geo. F  Courtenay.
Sejrup, V. M  Duncan.
Sellers, Jas. H  City Dairy, Vancouver.
Sherwood, E. G  1327 Standard Bank Building, Vancouver.
Silver, M. R.   care P. Burns & Co., Ltd., Vancouver.
Smith, Geo. W   Nelson.
Smith, W. S  Spencer's Creamery, Vancouver.
Thomas, S. J  Kelowna.
Thornbery, G. H  Courtenay.
Turner, L. H  Turner's Dairy, Ltd., Vancouver.
Van der Wall, W  Kamloops. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 85
APPENDIX No. 13—Concluded.
Milk-testers licensed under " Dairies Regulation Act "—Concluded.
Name. Address.
Washington, P. J   1170 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Watson, J. B   Sardis.
Wells, Bruce   Ladner.
Wheeler, F. L  Ganges.
APPENDIX No. 14.
Creamery or Dairy Licences under " Dairies Regulation  Act,"  Chapter 16, 1916,
for the Year 1918.
Name. Address.
Beaconsfield  Dairy      905 Twenty-fourth xlvenue East, Vancouver.
B.C. Milk Condensing Co., Ltd   Sardis.
Burns & Co., Ltd., P   Woodland Drive, Vancouver.
Chilliwack Creamery Association     Chilliwack.
City Dairy & Produce Co., Ltd.  414 Pender Street East, Vancouver.
Comox Creamery Association    Courtenay.
Courtenay Condensed Milk Co., Ltd.  „
Clayburn Creamery     Clayburn.
Cowichan Creamery Association   Duncan.
Curlew Creamery Co   Grand Forks.
,, „    Nelson.
East End Dairy    2469 Oxford Street, Vancouver.
Fraser Valley Dairy   1170 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association   1327 Standard Bank Building, Vancouver.
Grandview Dairy     1170 Semlin Drive, Vancouver.
Hefliey Creamery   Heffley Creek.
Hillcrest Dairy   131 Fifteenth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Independent Farmers' Dairy   1754 Fifth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Kamloops District Creamery Association   Kamloops.
Kelowna Creamery Co., Ltd   Kelowna.
Mainland Dairy  .  971-977 Nineteenth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Meadowbrook Creamery   199 Water Street, Vancouver.
Nanaimo Creamery Association  .  Nanaimo.
New Westminster Creamery Society • •  New Westminster.
Northwestern Creamery, Ltd   Victoria.
Northern Okanagan Creamery Association   Armstrong.
North Vancouver Dairy   168 Fourth Street East, North Vancouver.
Oxford Dairy, Ltd    Sixth Avenue and Sixth  Street, New West-
Pacific Milk Co., Ltd   332 Drake Street, Vancouver. [minster.
Pioneer Dairy   1270 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Revelstoke Creamery Co., Ltd  .  Revelstoke.
Royal Dairy Co   1001 Pender Street West, Vancouver.
   Douglas  Street, Victoria.
Salmon Arm Creamery Association   Salmon Arm.
Saltspring Island Creamery Association   Ganges Harbour, Saltspring Island.
Standard Milk Co., Ltd   405 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Spencer, Ltd., David    Vancouver.
South Vancouver Milk Co    537 Twenty-ninth Avenue East, Vancouver.
Steves' Dairy, J. M  2144 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver.
Turner's Dairy, Ltd   Seventeenth Ave. and Ontario St., Vancouver.
Vancouver Creamery Co., Ltd   23 Alexander Street, Vancouver.
Victoria City Dairy Co   Fort Street, Victoria.
Valley Dairy, Ltd   1569 Sixth Avenue West, Vancouver.
White Lunch, Ltd   124 Hastings Street West, Vancouver. W 86
Department op Agriculture.
1919
APPENDIX No. 15.
Tuberculin Tests.
Name of Place.
Armstrong	
Nob Hill	
Kamloops	
Kelowna	
Okanagan Landing
Shuswap	
Rutland	
Columbia Gardens.
Eburne	
Natal	
Nelson	
Revelstoke	
Pritchard	
Notch Hill	
Edgewood	
Kootenay Bay	
Salmon Arm	
Phoenix	
Greenwood	
Creston	
Vernon	
Galena	
Parson	
Nicholson	
Rossland	
Penticton	
Castledale	
Brisco	
Invermere	
Wilmer	
Athalmer	
Windermere	
Enderby	
New Westminster.
Chase	
Larkin ..   	
Nakusp	
Trail	
Field	
Keremeos  	
Princeton-	
Hedley	
Midway	
Naramata	
Ducks	
Celista	
Hornby Island ..   .
Denman Island....
Cumberland	
Duncan	
Ladysmith	
Brentons 	
Yellow Point	
Nanaimo River....
Nanaimo	
South Wellington ,
Hilliers	
Westholme	
Chemainus	
Comox	
Cobble Hill	
Saanich '..
Victoria	
Pender Island	
Moresby Island . ..
Premises.
No.
Tested.
55
233
2
6
3
76 -
64
256
2
12
2
31
25
80
1
3
1
22
26
36
3
8
25
191
4
2
2
7
1
6
1
5
56
270
12
51
6
57
3
7
2
4
4
12
9
22
12
58
32
141
22
2
14
42
8
14
8
26
3
4
6
19
3
9
11
50
15
15
1
1
3
2
2
3
2
5
3
1
1
18
121
3
37
2
10
21
230
80
482
6
15
o
12
42
306
107
670
5
41
1
6
25
269
10
64
38
601
6
132
H7
744
38
285
3
40
1
3
0
No. of
Reactors.
10
4
1
1
12
10
18
1
12
48
1
65
12 9 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 87
APPENDIX No. 15—Concluded.
Tuberculin Tests—Concluded.
Name of Place.
Essondale	
Chilliwack	
Cloverdale	
Colebrook	
Langley	
Matscpii	
Agassiz	
Aldergrove ....
Abbotsford ....
Silverdale	
Dewdney	
Vancouver	
Ladner	
Westminster...
Steveston	
Point Grey ....
Queensborough.
Eburne	
Pitt Meadows. .
Mount Lehman
Glen Valley. ...
Barnston Island
Clayburn 	
Newton	
North Bend. ...
Bowen Island. .
Premises.
No.
Tested.
1
231
517
6,122
21
359
'  9
126
29
'386
3
16
3
66
5
66
2
22
3
41
3
89
125
316
58
593
43
705
12 -
150
9
68
3
25
33
'  191
1
23
1
11
2
20
8
106
1
o
1
7
6
24
1
2
No. of
Reactors.
5
152
13
3
21
1
24
20
35
10
7
5
18
APPENDIX No. 15a.
Brands.
B brands issued     594
A brands issued     3S4
Brands cancelled   3
Brands transferred   25 W 88 Department op Agriculture. 1919
APPENDIX No. 16.
Stock and Equipment on Quilchena Dry-farming Station, December 31st, 191S.
Estimated
Horses— Value.
1 aged  mare   $   150 00
2 mares, 9 years old, $150 each    300 00
1 mare, 4 years old  200 00
1 gelding, 1 year old   75 00
1 gelding, 3 years old   200 00
2 mare colts, $75 each   150 CO
1 cow   100 00
1 heifer    50 00
2 hogs, $15 each  ,,--  30 00
4 rams, $50 each   ..'. 200 00
100 ewes, $20 each  2,000 00
25 ewes, $19 each    475 00
13 ewes, $12 each    156 00
Harness—
2 sets heavy harness   90 00
Implements—
1 heavy wagon, 4-inch tire and box  100 00
1 set bob-sleighs   30 00
1 6-foot Massey-Harris binder    165 00
1 I.H.C. land-packer, 2,000 lb  125 00
1 Massey-Harris 11-shoe drill  50 00
1 disk harrow    25 00
1 set drag-harrows, 3-section lever   25 00
1 Verity combination plough    28 00
1 Planet horse-hoe   10 00
1 Oliver plough     10 00
1 grinding-stone     5 00
1 No. 25 Planet garden-seeder   10 00
1 Chatham fanning-mill   40 00
1 set farm scales, capacity 2,000 lb  35 00
1 new mower, Emerson    80 00
2 4-inch by 6-foot hotbed-sashes   5 00
1 chop-mill     40 00
Blacksmith's outfit—
1 Chicago portable forge   10 00
1 anvil    5 00
1 hammer    ■  1 00
1 pair tongs   1 00
Horse-shoeing outfit—
1 hammer     1 00
2 pairs pincers    1 00
1 paring-knife
2,
1 rasp     25
Hand-tools—
1 scoop shovel   50
2 long-handled shovels   1 00
1 short-handled shovel    75
1 spade    50
2 stable-forks    2 00
3 hay-forks   2 00
1 pinch-bar     1 25
1 bar-stud    2 00 9 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 89
APPENDIX No. 16—Continued.
Stock and Equipment on Quilchena Dry-farming  Station—Continued.
Estimated
Hand-tools—Concluded. Value.
1 pick     $ 2 00
1 steel hammer   75
1 splitting-maul   1 00
3 wedges  :.. 75
2 axes     3 00
1 5-foot lance-toothed saw   2 00
1 fence-wire stretcher   10 00
1 logging-chain     3 00
Carpenter's Tools—
1 hand-saw    1 00
1 steel square    1 00
1 set brace and bits    2 00
1 hammer   1 00
2 chisels    '■ .  1 00
Buildings—
1 granary, 14 x 26 feet x S-foot wall  150 00
1 stable, 20 x 40 feet x 7-foot wall   200 00
1 bunk-house, 12 x 12 feet x 8-foot wall   70 00
1 cabin (2 rooms), 12 x 10 feet and 10 x 12 feet x 6-foot wall  125 00
1 tent, 12 x 16 feet    10 00
1 tent, 14 x 10, with' flies  25 00
1 sheep-shed, 20 x 40 x 7 feet  100 00
Household effects—
1 Atlin stove  15 00
1 three-quarter bed, springs and mattress   11 00
2 camp-cots  2 00
4 pairs blankets    5 00
2 pillows .-  1 00
Pots, pans, etc  2 00
Miscellaneous—
1 10-foot pump    9 00
1 barrel    1 00
2 water-tubs    50
Fencing—
Fences erected, 580 rods    300 00
Fence-wire, 900 rods  (woven)     400 00
400    „     (barbed)     160 00
79     „     (woven)     65 00
1 extra wire put on 2-mile fence  S6 00
Hay and feed— Tong
1 stack green hay  . .^  5
7           „         „         ..*  3
4 % acres fall wheat (good).
5 % acres fall rye (good).
300 bushels oats.
1 stack oat-sheaves  5
2 loads unthreshed peas.
Roots—
Turnips     4%
Carrots     1%
- Sugar-beets  2
Potatoes  2%
3 acres rape pasture. W 90 Department of Agriculture. 1919
APPENDIX No. 16—Concluded.
Stock and Equipment on Quilchena Dry-farming Station—Concluded.
Weather-observation instruments—
1 wet- and dry-bulb thermometer.
1 minimum thermometer.
1 maximum thermometer.
1 rain-gauge.
1 screen.
1 Carbine camera and tripods.    Returned, property of Water Rights Branch.
APPENDIX No. 17.
Stock and Equipment, 105-Mile Dry-farming Station, November 25th, 1918.
Buildings—
1 horse-barn, 18 x 36 feet.
1 lean-to barn, 18 x 13 feet.
1 cottage, 20 x 24 feet.
1 granary, 20 x 24 feet.
2 lumber granaries, 10 x 8 feet.
1 root-house.
1 chicken-house, 11 x 14 feet.
1 wood-shed, 12 x 15 feet.
1 stock-shed, 16 x 32 feet.
1 implement-shed, 15 x 50 feet.
1 stock-yard, 8,400 square feet.
2 corrals.
1 stockyard, 11,025 square feet.
Live stock—■
2 grade mares, 4 and 10 years old.
1 grade gelding, 8 years old.
1 colt, 7 months old.
Implements—
1 6-foot binder with truck and transport truck.
1 grain-cradle.
1 5-foot mower.
1 9-foot rake.
1 single-disk drill.
1 packer.
1 3-section lever harrow with two drawbars.
1 harrow-cart.
1 disk harrow with truck.
1 Oliver sulky plough, with 2 bottoms and 3.shares.
1 Planet, Jr. cultivator.
1 „ „ and seeder  (garden).
1 hand-cultivator.
1 Cyclone cultivator.
1 wagon.
1 set sleighs.
Tools—
1 hoe.
1 garden-spade
1 wheelbarrow. 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 91
APPENDIX No. 17—Continued.
Stock and Equipment, 105-Mile Dry-farming Station—Continued.
Tools—Concluded.
6 forks (5 hay and 1 manure).
1 watering-can.
1 set brace and bits.
2 augers.
1 5-foot saw.
2 hand-saws (rip and crosscut).
1 draw-knife.
4 axes (1 bench and 3 double-bit).
1 D.P. shovel.
1 long-handled shovel.
2 hammers.
1 wire-stretcher and 30 feet rope.
100 feet %-inch rope.
4 wrenches.
2 pairs pliers.
1 hay-rack.
1 crowbar.
1 pick.
1 log-chain.
2 files.
1 rasp.
1 comb and brush (stable).
1 scythe.
2 blast-lanterns.
2 sets harness.
7 halters.
1 pump.
1 branding-iron.
1 tape measure.
1 steel square.
1 set scales.
1 S-lb. sledge-hammer.
1 wedge and pair iron dogs.
1 grindstone and fixtures.
360 yards stake and rider fence.
1,706 yards barb-wire fence, 4 wires high, posts 20 feet apart.
816 „ „ 5 „ „ IS
726 „ „ 4 „ „ 20
1,550 „ „ 3 „ „ 20
1,320 yards woven-wire fence, 3 barb wires on top, posts 18 feet apart.
2S0 „ „ 3 „ „ „     20
390 „ „ 1 „ „ „    20
260 „ „ 1 between and 1 on top, posts 20 feet apart.
2,530 yards pickets woven into woven-wire fences, 2 feet apart.
400 yards woven wire, IS feet apart.
1 pair 6-foot w-ood-frame woven-wire gates (lawn)..
3 14-foot woven-wire gates with fixtures.
1 4-foot woven-wire gate with fixtures.
9 hand-made gates with automatic fasteners.
1 thermometer-screen.
1 thermometer (maximum).
1 „ (minimum).
1 „ (maximum and minimum). W 92
Department op Agriculture.
1919
APPENDIX No. 17—Concluded.
Stock and Equipment, 105-Mile Dry-farming Station—Concluded.
1 hygrometer with glass and measuring-glass.
1 rain-gauge.
Furniture—
1 cook-stove.
1 heater.
1 iron bed with springs and mattress.
2 camp-beds.
APPENDIX No. IS.
Total Correspondence received and dispatched by the Department of Agriculture for the
Years ending December 31st, 1917 and 191S.
Office of Deputy Minister—
General  	
Farmers' Institutes	
Women's Institutes	
Agricultural Associations   	
Statistics Branch	
Advisory Board of Women's Institutes	
Horticultural Branch—
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association
Horticulture    	
Inspection of Fruit Branch	
Live Stock Branch—
General    	
Soil and Crop Division	
Dairy	
Silo and Publications Branch	
Poultry Division : ..
Total  	
5,408
1,582
992
408
1,955
613
5,659
2,053
1,000
1,005
2,333
23,008
4,434
1,829
1,397
744
694
1,604
660
4,548
1,869
923
1,292
1,436
21,430
6,302
1,451
920
534
1,976
733
5,509
2,197
1,300
768
2,804
24,494
7,781
1,606
1,140
818
731
1,603
862
4,788
2,562
1,303
536
1,222
24,952 9 Geo. 5
British Columbia.
W 93
APPENDIX No. 19.
Summary' of Appropriations, Department of Agriculture.
General—
Salaries of staff officials	
Administration, General Department vote,  travelling
expenses of officers on duty, and miscellaneous ...
Agricultural Associations—
Agricultural Associations, including grants in aid of
prize-lists, specific grants for buildings, and judges'
expenses	
Exhibition—
Exhibition and publicity work	
Institutes—
Farmers' and Women's Institutes	
Horticulture—
Board of Horticulture, experimental orchards, demonstration spraying, preoooling and cold storage, and
British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association	
Inspection of fruit, fumigation of nursery stock, etc. .
Fruit-packing schools	
Live stock-
Various associations	
Compensation for cattle slaughtered	
Suppression of noxious weeds	
Totals.
1916-17.
§73,496 00
45,000 00
30,000 00
Nil.
27,500 00
9,750 00
35,000 00
1,500 00
7,750 00
12,000 00
10,000 00
$251,996 00
1917-18.
$65,752 00
38,000 00
20,000 00
Nil.
2,500 00
34,250 00
27,500 00
$208,002 00
1918-19.
178,184 00
70,000 00
16,000 00
500 00
16.000 00
3,750 00
9,500 00
5,750 00
20,000 00
$219,684 00
APPENDIX No. 20.
Expenditure in Aid of Farmers' Institutes,  Years ending December 31st, 1917 and 191S.
Membership allowances	
Grants to Secretaries	
Competitions—
Field-crop	
Seed production	
Pure-bred stock supplied	
Manure-hopper at Prince Rupert.
Gopher campaign—
Supplies	
Grants for competitions	
Grants in aid of fairs	
Postage, printing, and advertising
Expenses of Advisory Board	
Miscellaneous	
Total	
Year 1917.
$4,022 35
3,493 70
830 00
1,539 61
160 00
122 75
"200 66
1,606 15
339 50
318 96
12,633 02
Average
Cost for 14S
Institutes.
$27 17
23 60
5 61
i6'40
0 83
i 35
10 86
2 29
2 16
S85 36
Year 1918.
Total.
$4,356 00
1,312 24
140 00
1,590 08
70 91
454 36
80 00
200 00
894 45
66 90
143 16
19,308 10
Average
Cost for 153
Institutes.
$28 40
8 57
0 91
10 39
2 96
0 52
1 35
5 84
0 43
0 93
$60 83 W 91
Department op Agriculture.
1919
APPENDIX No. 21.
Expenditure in aid of Women's Institutes, Years ending December 31st, 1917 and 191S.
Grant to Secretaries	
Membership allowances	
Lecturers' expenses	
Advisory Board—
(a.)    Secretary's salary and expenses
(6.)    Expenses of members	
Flower-shows—
(a.)    Grants	
(b.)    Prizes	
Conferences	
Printing, advertising, etc	
Purchase of motion-picture films	
Miscellaneous, including postage, etc. ...
Total	
Year, 191V.
Total.
fl,475 00
1,566 75
1,349 03
480 00
1,055 86
483 00
233 12
341 60
1,257 94
499 73
8,742 03
Average
Cost for 61
Institutes.
$25 00
26 56
22 86
8 14
17 90
8 18
3 95
5 79
21 32
"'847
$148 17
Year, 1918.
mi.
,276 50
426 70
665 55
630 07
337 75
130 76
508 15
490 35
251 76
109 16
$4,826 75
Average
Cost for 62
Institutes.
$20 59
6 88
10 73
10 16
5 44
2 10
8 20
7 90
4 06
1 76
$77 85
APPENDIX No. 22.
Grants to Agricultural Associations holding Fairs, Year ending December 31st, 191S.
Agassiz Agricultural and Horticultural Association   $    250 00
Aldergrove Agricultural Association    100 00
Armstrong Spallumcheen Agricultural Society   1,000 00
Arrow Lakes Agricultural and Industrial Association  250 00
Bella Coola Fair and Agricultural Association  100 00
Burquitlam Agricultural Association   150 00
Cariboo Agricultural and Horticultural Association   250 00
Central Park Agricultural Association and Farmers' Institute  150 00
Chilliwack Agricultural Association   600 00
Comox Agricultural and Industrial Association   300 00
Coquitlam Agricultural Society   150 00
Cowichan Agricultural Association   750 00
Cranbrook Agricultural Society   750 00
Creston Valley Agricultural Association   250 00
Elk Valley and Natal Agricultural Association  100 00
Fruitvale Agricultural Association   100 00
Islands Agricultural and Fruit-growers' Association  250 00
Kamloops District Stock-breeders' Association  :  400 00
Kelowna Agricultural and Horticultural Association  600 00
Ladysmith Agricultural Society  300 00
Langley Agricultural Association   200 00
Lasqueti Island Agricultural Association   100 00
Maple Ridge Agricultural Association   200 00
Matsqui Agricultural and Horticultural Association  200 00
Mission Agricultural Association   200 00
Nanaimo Agricultural -and Horticultural Association  350 00
Carried forward   $ 8,050 00 9 Geo. 5 British Columbia. W 95
APPENDIX No. 22—Concluded.
Grants to Agricultural Associations holding Fairs—Concluded.
Brought forward  $ 8,050 00
Nanoose Agricultural Association   100 CO
Nelson Agricultural and Industrial Association   500 00
North and South Saanich Agricultural Society   400 00
Northern British Columbia Agricultural and Industrial Association 500 00
Slocan Lake Agricultural Association   150 00
Summerland Agricultural Association   350 00
District of Surrey   -  250 00
Trail Fruit Fair Association -.. 250 00
Windermere District Agricultural Society   300 00
Total     $10,850 00
Total, year 1917   $12,850 00
APPENDIX No. 23.
British Columbia Show Groups, Year 1918.
District No. 1.—Vancouver   Island,   from   Duncan   north   and   including   Duncan,   Comox,
Parksville, and Nanaimo.
District No. 2.—Vancouver Island, from Duncan south and including Victoria, Saltspring
Island, Sooke, Langford, and Cobble Hill.
District No. 3.—Includes the territory west of the eastern boundary of Burnaby;   includes
North Vancouver, Central Park, and Point. Grey.
District No. 3a.—Provincial Show.
District No. 4.—From North Bend south and west to the eastern boundary of Burnaby,
including Maple Ridge, Mission, and Chilliwack.
District No. 5.—From North Bend north and east to Sicamous Junction, including Ashcroft,
Kamloops, and Salmon Arm.
District No. 6.—From Sicamous Junction south through the Okanagan Valley to Vernon,
including North Okanagan.
District No. 6a.—Kelowna, south to International Boundary, including Kelowna, Summer-
land, and Penticton.
District No. 7.—From Sicamous Junction east to Alberta on the main line of the C.P.R. and
south from Revelstoke to Slocan, including Revelstoke, Golden, Arrow-head, and Nakusp.
District No. S.—From Kootenay Lake west to Okanagan Valley, excepting that part included
in District 7, including Nelson, Trail, Grand Forks, and Greenwood.
District No. 9.—Crowsnest Valley, from Kootenay Lake east to Alberta, south of the main
line of the C.P.R., Including Fernie and Cranbrook. W 96 Department op Agriculture. 1919
APPENDIX No. 24.
Summary of Results, Seventh International Egg-laying Contest, Victoria, B.C.
Duration of contest (months)     11
Number of pens  40
Number of birds   239
Number of eggs laid  36,996
Value of eggs laid  $1,541.50
Average monthly revenue   SM0.13
Average monthly feed cost   SCS.70
Cost of feeding  $755.70
Profit over cost of feeding   $785.80
Average price of eggs per dozen   .50
Highest price received per dozen (November 22nd)     .70
Lowest price received per dozen (March 30th)    .40
Average cost to produce dozen eggs   .24.5
Average number of eggs laid per pen   924.9
Average number of eggs laid per bird  154.7
Average cost of feed per pen (siix birds)    $18.S9
Average cost of feed per bird  $3.10
Profit over cost of feed per pen   $19.64
Profit over cost of feed per bird  $3.2S
Eggs laid by winning pen, Class 1  1,077
Average per bird winning pen, Class 1   179.5
Eggs laid by winning pen, Class 2   1,070
Average per bird winning pen, Class 2   17S.3
Comparison between Fifth Contest (11 Months), 1915-16, and Seventh (11 Months), 1917-18.
Fifth Contest.      Seventh Contest.
Number of eggs laid      36,382 36,996
Cost of feed    $436.45 $755.70
Profit over cost of feed     $594.43 $7S5.S0
Average price of eggs             .34 .50
Cost to produce dozen eggs             .14.3 .24.5
Number of fowls to contest            240 239
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by William: H. Cullik, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty,
1919.

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