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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL BOARD OF HEALTH INCLUDING SIXTH… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1918

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT
OP   THE
PROVINCIAL BOARD OF HEALTH
INCLUDING
SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT OP MEDICAL INSPECTION OP PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND
THE PORTY-PIPTH ANNUAL REPORT OP VITAL STATISTICS
DEPARTMENT POR THE YEAR ENDING
DECEMBER 31ST, 1917
AND
PROCEEDINGS OP THE SECOND MEETING OP MEDICAL OFFICERS OF HEALTH
OF BRITISH COLUMBIA HELD IN VANCOUVER, B.C.,
SEPTEMBER 12TH AND 13TH, 1917
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY  OF  THE   LEGISLATIVE   ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,   B.C.:
Printed by William H. Cbllin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
191S.  Provincial Board of Health,
Victoria, B.C., April 1st, 1918.
To His Honour Sir Frank Stillman Barnard, K.C.M.G.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to present the Twenty-first Annual Report of
the Department of Public Health for the year ended December 31st, 1917.
j. d. Maclean,
Provincial Secretary.  REPORT
OF THE
PROVINCIAL BOARD OF HEALTH.
Provincial Board of Health,
Victoria, B.C., February 12th, 1918.
Doctor the Honourable J. D. MacLean,
Provincial Secretary, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Twenty-first Annual Report of the Provincial Board
of Health being for the year 1917.
Before proceeding to lay the facts before you concerning the activities of the Board during
the past year I would respectfully request your consideration of a change of the time for the
presentation of the Annual Report. Under our present regulations we are obliged to present
the annual report at the meeting of the Legislature. In this Province the practice has been for
the Legislature to meet about the second week in January. "Under the circumstances it is difficult
for the Department to present a report in a way that would permit of analysis of the returns
received from the different sections of the Province. We have been obliged, as regards the Vital
Statistics Branch, to note annually that returns have not been received from certain outlying
districts; this not because of any fault on the part of the officials at these points, but owing
to distance and uncertainty of the mail service. If the year embraced in the report was made
to terminate the end of June, then our reports, particularly of the Vital Statistics Branch and
the Medical Inspection of Schools, could be dealt with much more fully, comparisons made with
the returns of the former year, and benefits noted. As it is, first, our returns are not complete,
and, second, sufficient time is not allowed for other work in connection with them than their
compilation for the report. The practice in the different States in the United States and in the
other Provinces of Canada is to allow sufficient time from the beginning of the year to permit
of a proper analysis of the facts submitted by the officials in the different departments.
I am very much pleased to say that reports of the health conditions during the year 1917
deal more with the work which has been done along educational lines rather than a report of a
series of epidemics. The health of the community has been exceptionally good. There have
been no alarming reports during the year, yet such conditions may not continue. It is consequently better to be always prepared to act promptly in the matter of preventive measures in
any emergency which may arise. Your Board recognizes the importance of this fact and are
devoting their efforts to the promotion of the interest of the public at large In health matters.
The time seems to be most opportune for stimulating the attention of the public to the teachings
of the Board of Health. The universal enforcement of health regulations by the military
authorities upon the troops in their charge and the beneficial results that have been obtained
has brought forcibly home to the people the fact that the health authorities are not faddists
when they say that disease can be prevented. Our troops have been living under conditions
which in normal times would not be tolerated in any community. They have been subjected to
intense physical strain, irregular hours, irregular meals, and insanitary conditions of living, yet
by the strict enforcement of sanitary measures and the insistence upon inoculation against disease
results have been brought about that have demonstrated conclusively the truth of the teachings
of the health authorities, and has done more to rivet the attention of the public in a short time
than could have been accomplished by another quarter of a century of patient teaching under
normal conditions. With these results before us we have been able to direct the attention of
the people to and to have awakened a lively interest in health questions. We were first shown
by the rejection of men presenting themselves for service that there was unfortunately a very
large percentage of men unfit for military service owing to physical defects. Secondly, we were
shown that the health of the men who were accepted was much better under the enforcement
of military health regulations, when the man was living under the highest pressure of effort,
both mental and physical, than it would have been under previous conditions in civil life. G 6 British Columbia 1918
Consideration of these aspects of health-work has naturally led the people to a serious
consideration of the influence of the individual as regards his relation to the community and
his environment, and as regards the efforts that he must make individually to help in prevention
of disease by attention to personal hygiene and education of himself and others in the idea of
prevention of disease as distinct from its cause. The Department has taken advantage of the
change in public opinion and is endeavouring in every way possible to provide information
through societies by way of distribution of pamphlets, the enforcement of recording of contagious
diseases, and by endeavouring to enlist the active interest of the medical profession in the health
propaganda. With this object in view a meeting was called of the Medical Health Officers for
the discussion of health subjects and to listen to papers read on pertinent subjects. The meeting
was held in Vancouver in September, 1917, the sessions lasting for two days, and the interest
manifested by those who attended was very gratifying. The Department feels under a very
great obligation to the members who presented their papers, and particularly to President
Wesbrook, of the University of British Columbia, for the great interest he took and the assistance
he gave towards making the meeting a success.
One of the first results that we have obtained from this meeting, which is particularly
gratifying to the Department, is the increased interest manifested by the members of the
profession in their work, and particularly so as regards the reports of the conditions in their
districts. The reports have been much fuller and the comments made more general, making
the reports differ very much from those that we previously received, which as a rule were more
of a record of cases that had occurred.    Causes are discussed and suggestions made.
I have also -to acknowledge, with appreciation, the increased interest which has been taken
in the question of health and the activities of the Board by the members of the Women's
Institutes. They have evinced a very serious and earnest desire to co-operate with the Board,
and I had the honour to meet and address the institute on three different occasions on health
matters. The members of the institute expressed a desire to keep in touch with the Board and
to further health interests in the localities by giving the matters their personal attention.
The health of the Province for the year has been very satisfactory; so much so as to cause
very favourable comments from those who are acquainted with the returns made by our Health
Officers.
Measles.
During last year I had to deal at some length with the history of an epidemic of measles
which occurred at the end of the year and was continued on into 1917. The greatest number
reported was from the City of Victoria—some 3,000 cases in the city and the districts around.
We cannot emphasize too strongly the fact that measles is the most prevalent and one of the
most infectious of diseases, and one, from a health point of view, that is the most difficult to
deal with. Unfortunately the public look upon measles as a very minor trouble, and their chief
concern seems to be, when an epidemic does come, for all their children to have it and get it
over with. This is very much to be regretted, and it is to be regretted that the general public,
and even physicians, discount the seriousness of the disease. The danger lies not so much in
the effect of the attack itself upon the child, but with the troubles that follow it, such as
bronchopneumonia, eye and ear affections, and deaf mutism.
Infantile Paralysis.
Some concern was felt during the latter part of the summer, when reports of cases of
infantile paralysis began to come in, in view of the great epidemic in the Eastern States in
1916. Fear was expressed that it had come to the West and that we would suffer proportionately
as they had done. Fortunately the number of cases reported did not exceed those we might
expect according to the number of population; in fact, thirty-seven cases in all were reported,
thirty of which were in and around Vancouver. Prompt measures were taken by Dr. Underbill,
Medical Health Officer in Vancouver, and with the knowledge we have of his efficient management no alarm was felt as to the outcome.
Smallpox.
During the past year there were a larger number of cases of smallpox reported as compared
with 1916. In 1916 there were seven cases, as against sixty in 1917. The increase was accounted
for by an epidemic at Grand Forks, forty-eight cases being reported. The cases were mild, with
no deaths.    It originated from one of the logging camps south of the border.    Grand Forks, as 8 Geo. 5 Provincial Board of Health. G 7
the gateway for the Boundary country, has always been susceptible to slight epidemics. There
were ten cases reported from the City of Vancouver; eight of these occurred during the early
part of the year amongst stevedores and was due to infection from a ship from the Orient.
These cases were severe, of the confluent type, and resulted in fatalities. Prompt measures were
taken by Dr. Underhill, Medical Health Officer of Vancouver City, and the disease was confined
to the eight cases. There was one case reported in North Vancouver and one in Victoria City.
The presence of smallpox led to some agitation on the question of vaccination, anti-vaccina-
tionists entering a protest as regards its enforcement. I would point out, however, that while
we have enjoyed particular immunity from smallpox, yet at the same time this immunity is
leading to carelessness in carrying on vaccination in the children, and when an epidemic does
arrive the results will be unfortunate. That such an epidemic is possible and liable to be of a
serious character is shown by the nature of the eight cases referred to above that were imported
from the Orient.
Tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis is not hereditary; not Incurable; it is contagious; it is preventable; and
under certain conditions curable. The recognition of these facts, for they are facts, has been
brought about by the careful study of the disease, by a careful study of the different methods
of treatment, and will form a basis for the work undertaken by the Provincial Board of Health
in its efforts to combat the disease. This question was discussed in our last Annual Report,
and I am pleased to say that, under the direction of the Honourable the Provincial Secretary,
Dr. MacLean, greater efforts are to be made for the future.
The sanatorium which was established at Tranquille has been doing splendid work, but this
work is handicapped by the fact that they have been overloaded with advanced cases, with a
result that accommodation is lacking for the early and curable cases. Dr. MacLean proposes
to use local hospitals throughout the Province as centres for the handling of the cases in their
immediate vicinity. The Government will increase the per capita grant to hospitals for these
cases to $1 per day. Hospitals will be required to provide one-tenth of their bed accommodation
for advanced cases. Tuberculosis is a reportable disease, and provision is to be made for the
reporting of all cases by the medical men, to whom a small fee will be allowed for the work.
A travelling Medical Officer of Health is to be employed for the work of supervision and to act
as a consultant for the local Medical Officers of Health. There is to be established, with the
co-operation of the Dominion Government, another sanatorium in the Province. This will be
primarily for the care of the returned soldiers suffering from tuberculosis, but will ultimately
revert to the Province. An effort will be made to stimulate public interest in the matter and
a general campaign of education carried on. The expectation is that the public will be fully
impressed with the fact that the disease is contagious, but more especially that it is preventable.
Doubtful cases will be noted and can be kept under observation, and the beds of the sanatorium
will be kept for cases in the early stages that, under sanatorium treatment, can be cured.
The danger of infection from tuberculosis is much greater during childhood, and I would
strongly recommend the advisability of concentrating as far as possible our efforts in guarding
our children and to assist the child-welfare movement which is being organized in British
Columbia. I would suggest that the School Boards of British Columbia, particularly in the
cities, establish open-air school-rooms for weakly and pre-tubercular children. The establishing
of such school-rooms is long past the experimental stage, and the results obtained from treatment
by this means of such children in the Eastern schools are such as to justify an immediate
adoption of the same plan in British Columbia.
Venereal Diseases.
The wastage of life in this war is rousing the public conscience in all nations to an extent
where a solution has to be found for many of the cases which have been productive of serious
loss of life and more particularly of efficiency in our population. Tuberculosis has been actively
discussed by the people, but a false sense of modesty, false inasmuch as the health of the people
is so fatally affected, has in the past prevented public attention being directed to the ravages
caused by venereal diseases. Those who have closely studied the spread of such diseases point
out that it is necessary, if widespread relief is to be obtained, for the public to be made to
apprehend the imminence of the danger. The Governments in the different countries are acting
in the matter, and while, as yet, there has not been arrived at a basis for conformity of action, G 8 British Columbia 1918
yet I would recommend to your serious consideration the conclusions arrived at by the Committee
on Public Health of the Conservation Commission of Canada, which committee is of the opinion
that legislation should be enacted providing for:—
(1.)  Registration of cases without name and address:
(2.)  Public registration and isolation of recalcitrants:
(3.) Free treatment for all who apply for it:
(4.)  Free bacteriological and blood tests:
(5.)  Supervision of mental defects:
(6.) The administration of the plan by a Dominion body through or in co-operation with
Provincial Boards of Health.
In the recommendation made by the Royal Commission appointed by the Government of
Great Britain I would especially recommend to your attention their recommendation for " The
necessity of educating the public to the gravity of the effect of the disease by securing the
constant assistance of voluntary agencies engaged in prevention and rescue work." Such work
has been begun in British Columbia, and I would especially mention and recommend the work
of the Life Conservation League of Victoria City. This League has evinced an active interest
in the matter, and through the press, the pulpit, and public meetings is endeavouring to arouse
public conscience to the gravity of the situation.
Water.
A very important question came before the Board during the past year affecting- the water-
supply of the City and District of North Vancouver and the City of Vancouver and adjoining
municipalities, which get their water from the same sources. In 1905 reservations were placed
upon the watersheds by the Government reserving all alienated lands within the bounds of the
watersheds. Unfortunately alienations had been made previous to this by lumber and mining
companies. Their holdings had lain dormant until the last year, when they began active
operations. As they were in possession of certain portions of the watersheds, the Board of
Health was asked to take such measures as would safeguard the water-supply. Conferences
were held with the Government and as a result arrangements were arrived at. Regulations
governing the companies working on the watersheds were issued, an Inspector was appointed,
and every effort was made to safeguard the health of the community. From the measures taken
there is no doubt that this will be done, but I beg leave to suggest that the whole question of
the watersheds for the Burrard Peninsula be dealt with as a whole; that a Water Board be
established along similar lines to the present Sewerage Board of Vancouver, having control of
the watershed, the supply and the distribution of the water.
During the year plans for the following were examined and approved :—
Sewerage plans:   Vancouver Trunk Sewer, Trail, and B.C. Sulphite Co., of Howe Sound.
Water-supplies:   Revelstoke and Trail.
Cemetery-sites:   Okanagan Mission, Squamish, Fort George, Duncan, and Mapes.
Three hundred and eighty-five doses of typhoid vaccine, 1,280 vaccine points for vaccination,
and 658,000 units of antitoxin were distributed.
Work for the Provincial Laboratory was done for us by the laboratory of the Vancouver
General Hospital, and I have to thank Dr. Mullin, who is in charge, for the very full reports
which we received of the work that he did for us. The Provincial Laboratory was not in use
owing to the fact that we had been unable to secure the services of a bacteriologist, and also to
the fact that the Honourable the Provincial Secretary had under consideration a rearrangement
of this work.
We append a table showing returns made by Medical Health Officers of cases of contagions
in the different parts of the Province. I am also incorporating reports from the Vital Statistics
Branch, Sanitary Inspection, Hospitals Inspection, and the School Report. The matters more
particularly in connection With these inspections are dealt with in the reports.
I would commend to your favourable notice the great interest which is taken iii the work of
the Department by all the members of the staff.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. E. YOUNG, M.D.,
Sccretarg, Provincial Board of Health. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 9
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H 8 Geo. o Provincial Board op Health, G 11
GENERAL   REPORTS.
SANITARY INSPECTION.
Victobia, B.C., February 1st, 191S.
II. E. Young, M.D.,
Secretary, Provincial Board of Health, Victoria, B.C.
Sie,—In presenting the Seventh Annual Report pertaining to the work of sanitary inspection
for the year ending, I beg to preface it by reminding you of the fact that this branch of the
public health service was the first to suffer in man-power through war conditions, and as each
member of the staff removes the vacancy still remains as such, in the hopes of an early termination of the great conflict, when it is presumed that the staff may regain its original strength.
Much extra time and labour has been pressed upon the remnant left to carry on the service: in
the meantime industrial development has made such strides, as predicted in my last report, that
to-day there are 100,000 people employed outside of the cities and in what has been fitly termed
the vast " outdoors " of British Columbia. The larger part of these new industries are located
near tide-water on islands or inlets, many of them off the regular traffic routes. For reasons
already given the sanitary welfare of these numerous industrial camps has not received the
desired attention during the past two years, although in the Interior sanitary-inspection work
has been attended to by the Provincial police, who are ex-officio Sanitary Inspectors. Complaints
have been numerous and reference made in the press, one editorial of a widely circulated " daily "
pointing out most emphatically that in view of the expansion taking place some more adequate
measure of sanitary welfare for logging and other camps is imperatively necessary. This is
undoubtedly true, and is further emphasized by the records of the large city hospitals, which
show that the majority of typhoid and other infections come from the outside districts, where
conditions are conducive to the spread of infection. Through the efforts of the Honourable the
Provincial Secretary means are being provided whereby a thorough and persistent campaign will
be taken up for enforcing the regulations dealing with such conditions.
Among the numerous new industrial enterprises under way and in contemplation, mention
should be made of what promises to be the largest pulp and paper mills in the world, located at
Port Alice, Quatsino Sound. Others have been brought into operation at Port Mellon, Swanson
Bay, and Ocean Falls. The Powell River plant is operated at capacity limit, and the B.C.
Sulphite Co., at Howe Sound, are enlarging to double present capacity. A large number of
copper and zinc properties are being developed at different points, whilst the logging industry
is only limited by labour procurable. Spruce and fir to the amount of $50,000,000 has been
contracted for by the Munitions Department, in addition to an increased commercial demand.
Space forbids enumerating to any extent the tremendous development going on, and I have
merely mentioned facts to show the necessity of providing means and waysi to protect and
promote health conditions at the points selected for the industrial camps in unorganized territory,
where no governmental supervision exists beyond the nearest Provincial constable or Government
Agency, sometimes one or two days' travel distant. However, the men behind these large enterprises are shrewd enough to recognize the fundamental value of selecting sanitary sites for the
housing of their employees. The Powell River Townsite is a good sample of such foresight.
The larger the enterprise the less trouble for our Inspectors in enforcing the Provincial regulations. With few exceptions, the small and medium-size camp operators, employing from 10 to
100 men, are the most difficult to convince of the necessity of observing sanitary regulations.
The greatest outstanding feature to the credit of all employers operating camps with kitchen
and bunk-houses is the fact that without exception the food provided is the best obtainable and
without stint. In the past we have not had occasion to give much credit for the manner of
housing and other comforts provided to employees in the small camps. In future a greater
consideration in that respect will be demanded. Another need for all camps is educational
pamphlets dealing with the increasing prevalence of syphilis, also the value of typhoid prophylactic inoculation, and for the rural settlements similar literature or posters for the attention
of parents, guardians, and school-teachers in reference to prevention of common ailments common G 12 British Columbia 1918
 s	
to children; and again I would respectfully suggest that an amendment be made to the " Land
Act," prohibiting the registration of any subdivision for townsite or residential purposes until
the approval of the Provincial Board of Health has been obtained. The lack of such is shown
in the almost insurmountable insanitary conditions of several of our newer towns established
during the late boom. Such an amendment would prevent " history repeating itself " in that
respect; furthermore, our sister Provinces and States have adopted such legislation. The State
of California provides that all land sold or subdivided for residential use must be provided with
pure water-supply, facilities for sewage-disposal, graded streets, lanes, and approved sidewalks.
During the early part of 1918 the service of this Department was invoked for the purpose of
protecting a community from the serious endangering of a water-supply through the inefficiency
of a supposedly well-designed and built septic system used for the drainage from a large institution. One fatal case of typhoid had already occurred. Upon investigation it was found, first,
that the septic action of the tanks had been nullified by the lack of grease-traps; second, no
provision had been made for rest and clean-outs; third and worst feature was the fact that
the outlet from tanks was straight to a fresh-water stream used by neighbours for domestic
purposes. The first and second defects were remedied in the usual manner, and a well-laid
sub-irrigation system adopted for the discharge, the old discharge-pipe being removed entirely.
The results have been very satisfactory.
At Vernon during the past few years the residents of a splendidly improved farming
community have been subject to a nuisance caused by the periodical removal of sludge from
the tanks of a sewage plant owned by the city. The Government was petitioned and the
matter was placed with this Department for attention. Arrangements were made with the
city authorities that I should be on hand during the next clearing operation. This was done,
with the results that by suggested minor changes in equipment and method the nuisance has
been eliminated 90 per cent, and the cost of operation likewise reduced, the results being much
appreciated. Details of this work are on file and would be good reading to any one interested
in the varied angles of sludge-removal.
During the early part of last summer the Municipalities of Armstrong and Spallumcheen
complained to the Board in regard to a very offensive odour arising from Otter Lake. The Water
Rights Branch were also appealed to. Mr. F. W. Groves, C.K., and the writer made a joint
survey of the lake and its sources. The nuisance or annoyance was found to be caused by
decaying algse known as Hydrus fwtitus, its presence causing a very offensive smell. The lake
is shallow and sluggish. As a remedy it was suggested that the outlet of the lake be cleared
to promote action and a small quantity of bluestone, 1 to 10,000 parts, be used in those portions
of the lake where the growth of alga? is noticeable.
During last September a serious outbreak of typhoid occurred in a logging camp in the
Crowsnest country; total number of cases, 20; fatal, 6. As soon as notified, this Department
inspected the camp and at once condemned the site as insanitary. Repeated visits have been
made by the Provincial police under instructions from the Provincial Board of Health to see
that the camp is not used again under -the old conditions. From investigation made it appears
that one of the employees had suffered from typhoid fever in an adjoining State a year ago.
The general conditions of the camp were insanitary, no fly-screens provided or any disinfecting
precaution being thought of, manure allowed to accumulate, and everything was favourable for
the propagation of the greatest typhoid-carrier, the fly. There were several sources of good
water available, but the poorest, was most convenient and that was the choice.
The question of the contamination of watersheds and sources of water-supply of the Cities
of Vancouver and North Vancouver has assumed an immediate importance owing to the fact
that timber limits lying in the watershed area are being worked and mines are to 'be developed.
The enforcement of regulations for the protection of the water-supply will throw an increased
responsibility on your staff.
In the fish- and food-canning supervision by this Department I regret to say that the recent
expected big year was to many canners a disappointment. The sanitary conditions of these establishments on the lower part of the Mainland Coast have been satisfactory except in an isolated
case.
The salmon-canneries located on the Nass and Skeena Rivers, Rivers Inlet, Smith Inlet,
and Johnstone Strait were visited during the early summer per regular steamer. The general
sanitary conditions were found to be good.    A few requests were made where needed regarding 8 Geo. 5 Provincial Board of Health. G 13
bunk-houses and conveniences. The regulations in reference to the disposal of fish-offal has not
so far been rigidly enforced owing to the fact that the majority of them are isolated, and also
the purchase of the necessary machinery to handle the offal is at this time impossible owing to
war conditions. There are two responsible companies contemplating the erection of fish guano
and oil plants to serve these northern canneries just as soon as conditions permit. In the
meantime we are demanding that many of the existing offal-chutes be extended in order to
prevent the accumulation of fish-offal upon the foreshore which may be exposed at very low
tides. There have been many complaints of abominable odours caused by the careless disposal
of offal at the northern canneries. There is no necessity for such, and we are endeavouring to
see this annoyance abated without hardship to the canners or fishermen. Were it not for
prevailing abnormal conditions in securing material and labour for such work, drastic action
would be taken.
On the Lower Fraser River inspection visits were made to the following canneries: Scottish
Canadian, Lighthouse Cannery, Gulf of Georgia, Steves-ton Cannery, Columbia Cod. Storage,
Imperial Cannery, Phoenix Cannery, Britannia Cannery, Gosse-Millard Cannery, Colonial
Cannery, Richmond Cannery, Great West Cannery, Vancouver Cannery, also Nanaimo Cannery
and Great Northern Cannery on Burrard Inlet. The strict enforcement of our regulations
governing canneries and the hearty co-operation given by the cannery-men has brought about
almost perfect methods in the handling of this important food staple, so much so as to elicit
most favourable comments from tourists and experts visiting these canneries.
The automatic handling of the fish by machinery is gradually bringing about an ideal
condition of sanitation as regards the preparation of the salmon for the market. The machines
Installed are most ingenious, almost human in their perfect work, cutting, washing, slicing, and
filling into solderless sanitary cans under the closest scrutiny of skilled artisans.
Colouring or chemical artifices* have never been introduced into the salmon-canneries of
British Columbia. In the past 'season our work in this direction was curtailed to some extent
owing to the launch acquired from the Forestry Department needing extensive repairs. Lack of
labour and material necessary for such work was not readily available owing to existing war
conditions. The difficulty is now being overcome, and through the agency of this long-needed
equipment the Department will be in an improved position to cope with the increasing demands
for sanitary supervision in cannery and other industrial camps and settlements scattered along
the 5,000 mile coast-line of this Province.
During August complaints were heard in reference to the insanitary conditions existing at
some of the fruit and vegetable canning and evaporating plants of the Okanagan Valley. In
many instances I found the complaints justified. Toilet and lavatory arrangements provided
for the employees were insanitary and inadequate. This was my first visit, and in justice to
the managers it is only fair to say tht my inspection was welcomed, and nearly every one
expressed a wish to carry out any official suggestions which would promote efficiency and
improve the comfort of the employees. Most of these plants are located within municipal
limits, but the local authorities are inclined to think the Provincial Board of Health should
exercise a supervising control in so far as sanitary conditions are concerned where food products
are prepared for Provincial and export consumption. I beg to suggest the formulating of suitable
regulations governing these establishments similar to those used for the salmon-canneries, which
have been found to work in a highly satisfactory manner.
Our flies show inspection reports and correspondence on the following establishments:
Graham Evaporating Co., Armstrong; Graham Evaporating Co., Vernon; Dominion Fruit Cannery, Vernon ; Western Canning Co., Kelowna; B.C. Evaporating Co., Kelowna; Independent
Fruit Cannery, Peachland;  Western Canners Co., Ltd., Penticton.
The total number of employees approximate some 800; 20 -per cent, women, 50 per cent,
boys and girls, 10 per cent, white skilled mechanics, and 10 per cent. Oriental. The past fruit
season has been very successful in the great Okanagan Valley for growers and canners alike.
Several large canning and preserving plants are expected to be built to take care of the increased
crop expected during the coming season.
During the early part of the past summer complaints were lodged with this Department
regarding insanitary and inadequate conveniences and lack of drinking-water for employees at
the Shaud Works, on James Island. Several special visits were made, and it was found that
the company had already recognized the needs and was taking practical steps to remedy the G 14 British Columbia 1918
grievance (since completed). This concern employs several hundred men and is gradually
building up a model town. A very competent first-aid man is continually on the works and
special facilities provided for quick medical attendance in case of accident.
Complaints have recently been lodged regarding water-pollution at several seaside summer
resorts well patronized by Vancouver and New Westminster citizens. These places will have
our attention before the coming season.
In reference to the requirement of provision of first-aid in industrial camps, I find that the
smaller camps are the principal offenders in their neglect of such provision. There is a great
improvement in this respect, however, since we have been able to avail ourselves of the services
of the Provincial police as Sanitary Inspectors in the outlying districts. A complete list of the
existing camps has been supplied by a careful canvass of the different police districts, and also
through the courtesy of the Forestry Department, who supplied us with a list of the logging
camps. Under the present system of reporting by the police we are able to keep in touch with
all new camps and to give immediate attention to complaints.
The operators have shown a great willingness to carry out all suggestions offered, and the
provisions of section 2 of " An Act for the Protection of Workmen engaged in Industrial
Operations " are being observed to a much greater extent than formerly. The section referred
to is as follows :—■
" 2. Every employer of labour directly or indirectly operating any mine, camp, construction-
work, or industry employing more than thirty persons, and being situated more than six miles
from the office of a medical practitioner, shall at all times maintain in or about such industry
or works at least one person possessing a certificate of competency to render first aid to the
injured, and shall also provide a good and sufficient ambulance box or boxes."
I would recommend that the above, in so far as requiring the provision of an ambulance-
box, should apply to railway-trains and also to steamers on inland waters. The importance of
antiseptic treatment of even slight wounds and of other first aid in cases of emergency is now
generally recognized. Many thousands of dollars compensation, the Workmen's Compensation
Board's statistics will show, might be saved by preventing blood-poisoning and other serious
consequences by the proper use of " first-aid services."
In conclusion, permit me to remind you that the office files will show that the work of this
branch of the Department has been carried on in a systematic manner and the varied conditions
dealt with as presented, and I am pleased to be able to say that without exception most courteous
treatment is accorded to our Inspectors wherever their duties call them.
I have, etc.,
Fbank DeGbey,
Chief Inspector.
HOSPITAL INSPECTION.
Victoria, B.C., February 1st, 191S.
H. E. Young, M.D.,
Secretary, Provincial Board of Health, Victoria, B.C.
Sib,—In submitting for your consideration the Fifth Annual Report on Hospital Inspection
in British Columbia, I am pleased to say that no serious event has occurred in hospital circles
here to mar the report of the capable management shown during the past year.
The following licensed private hospitals have 'been periodically inspected and any changes or
improvements suggested have been carried out:—
Arnold Maternity Home (Matron, Mrs. M. Arnold), 316 Robson Street, Nelson, B.C.
Bent Sanatorium (Matron, Mrs. E. Bent), 245 Fenwick Avenue, Cranbrook, B.C.
Britannia Hospital (Superintendent, Dr. Burke), Britannia Beach, Howe Sound, B.C.
Bass Maternity Home (Matron, Mrs. M. C. Bass), 2625 Prior Street, Victoria, B.C.
Bute   Hospital   (Superintendent,   Mrs.   M.   E.   Johnson),   Bute   and   Robson   Streets,
Vancouver, B.C.
Bell Nursing Home (Matron, Mrs. L. Bell), 756 Cloverdale Avenue, Victoria, B.C.
Convalescent Home (Matron, Miss E. O'Brien), 67 Wellington Avenue, Victoria, B.C.
Coquitlam Hospital (Superintendent, Dr. Sutherland), Port Coquitlam, B.C. 8 Geo. 5 Provincial Board of Health. G 15
Corbman Maternity Home   (Matron,  Mrs.  E.  Corbman),  S55  Eleventh Avenue East,
Vancouver, B.C.
Down Maternity Home (Matron, Miss Rose Down), Battle Street West, Kamloops, B.C.
East Kootenay Hospital (Superintendent, Dr. Garner), Jaffray Street, Fernie, B.C.
Grandview Hospital (Superintendent, Dr. E. Hall), 1090 Victoria Drive, Vancouver, B.C.
Handley Maternity Home (Matron, Mrs. J. Handley), 1218 Queen's Avenue, Victoria, B.C.
Harbour View Sanatorium (Matron, Miss E. M-cLeash), 370 Second Avenue East, North
Vancouver, B.C.
Impey Maternity Home  (Matron, Mrs. M. A. Impey), 243 Eighth Avenue West, Vancouver, B.C.
Kitsilano  Private  Hospital   (Superintendent,  Miss Annie  Scott),  2494  Third  Avenue
West, Vancouver, B.C.
Lonsdale Private Hospital (Matron, Mrs. M. D. Schultz), 1900 Lonsdale Avenue, North
Vancouver, B.C.
Moore Nursing Home  (Matron, Mrs. E. Moore), Baker and Falls Street, Nelson, B.C.
More Maternity Home (Matron, Mrs. C. More), 949 Fisgard Street, Victoria, B.C.
McGuffie Maternity Home  (Matron, Mrs. M. A. McGuffie), 628 Columbia Street, Kamloops, B.C.
McKenzie Nursing Home (Matron, Mrs. F. McKenzie), 1781 Second Street, Victoria, B.C.
Rutherford Maternity Home  (Matron, Mrs. E. Rutherford), 2321 Shakespeare Street,
Victoria, B.C.
Roadley Nursing Home (Matron, Mrs. L. Roadley), 360 Battle Street, Kamloops, B.C.
Roy-croft Private Hospital  (Matron, Miss Roycroft), 1036 Haro Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Ross Convalescent Home (Matron, Miss E. G. Ross), 1145 Faithful Street, Victoria, B.C.
Salmon Maternity Home (Matron, Mrs. A. Salmon), Garden Avenue, Cranbrook, B.C.
South Vancouver Private Hospital  (Superintendent, Mrs. Jane Webb), 129S Fifty-first
Avenue, South Vancouver, B.C.
Skelland Nursing Home (Matron, Mrs. E. Skelland), 2316 Lee Avenue, Victoria, B.C.
St. Luke's Home (Superintendent, Sister Francis), 309 Cordova Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sunnyview Sanatorium (Superintendent, Dr. Irving), Powers Addition, Kamloops, B.C.
Toniley Maternity Home  (Matron, Miss L. Tomley), 129 Twenty-second Avenue West,
South Vancouver, B.C.
Victoria   Private  Hospital   (Superintendent,   Miss   J.   B.   Archibald),   1116   Rockland
Avenue, Victoria, B.C.
West End Hospital   (Superintendent, Miss H. G. Tolmie),  1447 Barclay  Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Witt Maternity Home (Matron, Mrs. A. C. Witt), 1845 Forty-sixth Avenue East, South
Vancouver, B.C.
Winters Nursing Home  (Matron, Mrs. M. Winters), 1020 Harwood Street, Vancouver,
B.C.
Improved means of fire-escape and protection for every hospital and safer repositories for
medicines or drugs have 'been persistently advocated with gratifying results.    One sanatorium
(Neal Institute) has closed its doors through lack of patients, and one convalescent home has
closed for the same reason.    Four private maternity hospitals have voluntarily closed through
those in charge having tendered their services for hospital-work overseas.    Three new licences
have been granted and a number of applications considered, but not granted owing to lack of
necessary qualifications on the part of the applicant or to the premises not being suitable.    One
licence has been temporarily suspended.    A number of illegal so-called maternity or lying-in
homes have been suppressed in various parts of the Province, demonstrating the necessity of
constant vigilance in carrying out the provisions of the " Hospital Act Amendment Act."
The large public institutions, being under control of a Governing Board, with two of the
memibers representing the Government, are not subject to the same inspection visits except for
specific reason. A cordial co-operation exisits, however, and much valuable information furnished
for the purpose of tracing infection sources in the outlying districts.
The following Government-aided charitable and public institutions were visited:—•
St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, B.C.
Alexander Orphanage, Vancouver, B.C. G 16 British Columbia 1918
Children's Aid Society, Vancouver, B.C.
Monastery of Our Lady of Charity, Vancouver, B.C.
Salvation Army Maternity Home, Vancouver, B.C.
Providence Orphanage, New Westminster, B.C.
St. Mary's Hospital, New Westminster, B.C.
Orange Orphans' Home, New Westminster, B.C.
Quamichan Boys' Protectorate, Quamiehan, V.I., B.C.
St. Ann's Orphanage and School, Nanaimo, B.C.
St. Joseph's Hospital, Victoria, B.C.
The  existing war-time  conditions  have brought  to  these institutions  increased  burdens
without a corresponding increase in income.    Indeed, it is a marvel how exceedingly well these
homes are managed in the face of such depressing conditions which they have to meet, especially
in view of the extra calls upon the societies who volunteer their services in assisting such
charities.
I have, etc.,
Fbank DeGbey,
Chief Inspector.
MEDICAL  INSPECTION OF SCHOOLS.
Victoria, March 22nd, 1918.
Hon. J. D. MacLean,
Provincial Secretary, Victoria, B.C.
-Sik,—I beg leave to submit the Report of the Medical Inspection of Schools which has taken
place during the past six months. There has been a break in the continuity of the work of the
Department. In 1916 the matter was up before yourself as to the continuance of the inspection
of schools, and it was decided at the time not to proceed for the time being, pending Investigation.
In 1917, however, I was instructed to begin the inspection again, and the consequence is that
the report submitted is only for the latter part of the year 1917. The practice heretofore had
been for the examination to be made once during the scholastic year, and while the appointments
of the medical men were made in September it was not possible, owing to the lateness of the
season, in many of the outlying districts to have the inspection made. The consequence is that
only one-half of the schools have been reported, and the other half will be inspected during the
spring term. These reports will not be received until the midsummer. But when these reports
are received it will enable us to make a full report for the year September, 1917, to September,
1918, by embodying the reports already received with those which will be received within the
next few months.
I have, in my Report for the Board of Health, suggested to you the advisability of having
the annual report of this Department issue at midsummer on account of the difficulty of receiving
the returns at the beginning of the year in time for presentation in the House. Should this
suggestion be adopted it would not only benefit us in our report of the Vital Statistics Office, but
especially so in our report on schools.
I would beg leave to suggest that the Inspection of Schools Branch of the Department be
continued and a further effort be made to interest local associations in the work. 8 Geo. 5 Provincial Board of Health. G 17
It is the intention in Great Britain and in the United States to concert the attention of all
departments upon child-welfare and to reduce infant mortality, and this Department hopes that
by co-operating with the central portions of this country that we may take our part in this
nation-wide movement. To accomplish results, however, it will he absolutely necessary that all
local organizations, more especially Women's Institutes, will lend their efforts to the furthering
of the movement. It is the intention of the Department to make an especial appeal to the
medical men who are doing the work to endeavour to appreciate its importance, to advise with
the Department, and more particularly to work in conjunction with the parents in an endeavour
to render effective an educational campaign.
I would also suggest for your consideration a recommendation to the School Boards of the
establishment of open-air school-rooms for weakly and pre-tubercular children. The work already
done along these lines has been so satisfactory that I feel justified in urging the adoption of
similar methods in British Columbia.
I beg leave to submit a detailed report of the work done by the Department, and also copy
of a report from the Inspectors of the different schools.
I have, etc.,
H. E. Young,
Secretary, Provincial Board of Health.
SCHOOLS INSPECTED.
Rural and Assisted Schools.
Schools inspected:   1916, 331, at a cost of $5,653.82;   1917, 129, at a cost of §2,112.75.
Schools not inspected:   1936, 117;  1.917, 367.
Pupils inspected:   1916, 7,945;   1917, 3,518, a decrease of 4,427.
Cost of inspection per pupil:   1916, 71% cents;  1917, 60% cents.
Percentage of defects :   1916, 78.50;  1917, 75.64, less 2.86.
Medical Inspectors:   1916, 28 Medical Inspectors;   1917, 82 Medical Inspectors.
Medical Inspectors:   1916, S9 reports from the Medical Inspectors;   1917, 35 reports from
the Medical Inspectors.
Graded City Schools.
Cities, 35.    1916:   Reported, 27;   not reported, 6.    1917:   Reported, 14 ;   not reported, 21.
Pupils inspected:   1916, 25,254;   1917, 22,564, a decrease of 1,690.
High Schools.
High schools, 38.    1916:   Reported, 19;   increase of 181 pupils inspected.    3917:   Reported,
16;  increase of 54 pupils inspected.
Rubal Municipal Schools.
Municipalities:   1916,  2S;    reported,  22;   not  reported,   6.    1917,  27;    reported,   12;    not
reported, 3.5.
Pupils inspected:   1916, 10,469, a decrease of 1,093;   1937, 9,012, a decrease of 1,457. G 18
British Columbia
1918
HIGH
Name of School.
Medical Inspector.
School Nurse.
V
o
s
cu
'ft
fa's
d
.5
ci
<v
£
6
ft
.2
HJ
d
3
ID
o
Q
p
.2
>
o
OJ
Ol
Q
ei
0)
n
~h *>
d B
a '3
^ "rt
s> £
o
cu
P
*f
"o
B
CD
42
o
bo
No report 1917.
102
62
52
99
58
52
1
2
2
Cumberland	
No report 1917.
W. Truax	
1
3
1
1
7
1
Enderby	
Kamloops  	
M. G. Archibald	
No report 1917.
W. J. Knox	
1
4
1
4
14
12
1
1
8
1
l
8
1
4
4
30
74
91
120
296
110
28
50
56
22
2
3
8
2
7
No report 1917.
R. H. Post	
79
91
160
327
110
30
50
56
26
Mat.squi	
VV. F. Drysdale	
6
E. H. McEwen	
16
No report 1917.
c
Prince Rupert !	
J. C. Cade	
J. W. Coffin	
3
No report 1917.
3
Vancouver:
Girls               	
Belle H. Wilson	
387
750
297
290
203
223
170
287
1
6
22
16
8
14
8
12
3
10
4
1
4
2
2
13
13
/F. W. Brydone-Jack.         )
\ Mrs. M. P. Hogg- f
Pupils not examined.
L. 0. Griffin ..               	
3
H. Bone	
No report 1917.
GRADED CITY
370
425
358
375
4
3
1
6
4
5
8
24
22
2
2
2
18
6
17
13
2
8
14
20
24
1
2
6
1
1
5
1
1
8
17
7
8
20
10
38
5
21
7
15
71
62
21
7
16
16
29
Kamloops    	
M. G. Archibald	
67
W. J. Knox 	
17
G. H. Tuthill	
233
120
156
416
297
725
327
391
316
222
112
152
407
289
679
296
355
268
11
Nanaimo :
W. F. Drysdale	
20
Middle Ward
97
119
106
74
New Westminster:
E. H. McEwen	
16
4S
„             	
54 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 19
SCHOOLS.
a
cu
cu
Q
a)
o
ra
cs
3
TJ
cu
GO
,3
ta
H
1
io'
21
1
1
11
2
HH
'o
O
24
2
15
5
1
7
30
Other Conditions, specify
(Nervous,  Pulmonary,   Cardiac
Disease, etc.).
£
0)
1
3
6
ft
£
i
o
d
s
Acute Fevers which
have occurred
during the Past
Year.
Condition of
Building.    State
if crowded, poorly
ventilated,   poorly
heated, etc.
Closets.   State
if clean and
adequate.
Good	
Yes.
Very poorly ventilated and badly
heated ; entirely
inadequate to the
number of pupils
Well ventilated
and heated
Good	
2
Smallpox, 23	
6
inadequate for
the pupils.
3
Wood and cement.
Good... .y.   	
Fair	
All in good condition
Good	
Ventilation improved
Adequate    in    all
respects
Satisfactory	
Fairly good.   Ample room
12
Measles, 1	
Yes.
28
Good.
35
Yes.
90
39
1
47
44
Chicken-pox, 25; scarlet
fever 1 ; mumps, 46
31
23
1
1
Cardiac, 1; nervous, 1	
Boils, S	
*>
Good	
Good.
4
2
2 cement pit,
clean.
i
4
4
24
21
15
17
8"
84
42
65
Chicken-pox, 1; diphtheria, 1
Good.
SCHOOLS.
68
192
21
120
58
84
215
138
414
90
92
71
10
2
67
40
29
36
28
3
Yes.
Ample    air-space;
well    ventilated
and heated
Excellent, modern
Satisfactory	
Fair 	
Clean as plans
and construction of building allow
Yes.
Chronic  Bronchial catarrh, 7;
cardiac, 4
Cardiac lesions, 2 	
1
1
8
3
1
3
Chicken-pox, 35; whooping-cough, 2; measles,
86
Diphtheria, 3 ; chicken-
pox, 4
Diphtheria, 1; chicken-
pox, 1
Measles, 1 ; chicken-pox,
17; pertussis, 9
Chicken-pox, 3; pertussis, 4
Chicken-pox, 24; scarlet
fever, I
Chicken-pox, 25; scarlet
fever, 1; mumps, 46
Good in 1-6 div.
Poor  in 7-8   u
Good.
1
1
3
4
7
21
31
31
9
9
150
2
Good	
Heart   murmur,   7;     infantile
paralysis, 1; talipes, 2; chorea,
1
3
39
47
5
44
Yes. G 20
British Columbia
1918
GRADED CITY
Name of School.
New Westminster.•-Concluded:
Richard McBride	
Lord Lester	
Lord Kelvin.	
Queensboro	
Prince Rupert:
Borden Street	
King Edward.
Seal Cove.,
Revelstoke:
Central   .,
Selkirk .. .
Rossland:
Central	
Cook Ave 	
Sandon	
Vancouver:
Aberdeen	
Alexandra	
Bayview	
Beaconfield	
Cecil Rhodes	
Central	
Charles Dickens   	
Children's Aid	
Dawson	
Fairview	
Florence Nightingale .
Franklin	
General Gordon	
Grandview	
Hastings	
Henry Hudson	
Kitsilano	
Laura Secord	
Livingstone	
Macdonald	
Model	
Mount Pleasant	
Nelson	
Roberts	
Seymour	
Simon Fraser	
Stratheona 	
Medical Inspector.
E. H. McEwen.
J. C. Cade (acting).
J. H. Hamilton.
J. W. Coffin ..
W. E. Gomm .
School Nurse.
W. Brvdone-Jack )
H. Wilson )
W. Brydone-Jack.   ... I,
H. Wilson j"
W. Brydone-Jack I
P-Hogg    /
W. Brydone-Jack	
P.Hogg	
W. Brvdone-Jack ■>
p. Hogg r
W. Brydone-Jack \
H. Wilson    /
W. Brydone-Jack	
H. Wilson	
W. Brydone-Jack	
H. Wilson	
VV. Brydone-Jack |
H. Wilson /
W. Brvdone-Jack	
P. Hogg	
W. Brydone-Jack	
H. Wilson.	
W. Brvdone-Jack	
P. Hogg
W. Brydone-Jack.   .
P- Hogg	
W. Brydone-Jack,..
P- Hogg	
W. Brydone-Jack...
H. Wilson	
W. Brvdone-Jack...
P- Hogg	
W. Brydone-Jack...
P. Hogg	
W. Brydone-Jack...
H. Wilson	
W. Brydone-Jack...
H. Wilson	
W. Brydone-Jack.  .
H. Wilson	
W. Brvdone-Jack...
H. Wilson	
W. Brydone-Jack...
H. Wilson	
W. Brydone-Jack...
H. Wilson	
W. Brvdone-Jack...
H. Wilson	
W. Brvdone-Jack...
H. Wilson	
W. Brydone-Jack...
H. Wilson	
W. Brydone-Jack...
H  Wilson	
M. A. McLellan
A. Jeffers	
M. A. McLellan. j
A. Jeffers '
M. Cruickshanks i'
M. Ewart..
E. G. Breeze }
M. Ewart X
M. Cruickshanks /
A. Jeffers    I
E. G. Breeze /
M. A. McLellan.
M. A. McLellan. )
M. Ewart f
M. Ewart ]
A. Jeffers /
A. Jeffers |
M. Cruickshanks 1
M. A. McLellan. !
■}
A. Jeffers j-
A. Jeffers \
M. Cruickshanks (
M. A. McLellan. )
M. Ewart I
M. A. McLellan
A. Jeffers 1
M. Cruickshanks t
M. Ewart 1
M. Cruickshanks /
A. Jeffers )
M. Cruickshanks t
M. Ewart \
M. Ewart..
A. Jeffers .
E. G. Breeze...
M. A. McLellan
E. G. Breeze...
M. Ewart	
E. G. Breeze...
348
261
315
86
390
216
42
334
526
242
176
344
509
274
122
831
593
629
168
347
467
420
458
409
308
328
362
497
639
602
837
489
494
306
203
328
216
30
285
458
230
188
355
433
268
176
726
479
530
192
2S3
478
460
375
349
288
302
329
464
505
537
741
479
463
644
5
52
1
41
30
26
i
32
6
42
6
59
4
20
2
12
7
67
4
60
1
55
2
33
6
42
2
45
1
25
8
67
7
61
3
10
2
17
2
26
5
68
3
40
1
45
5
54
9
91
2
58
9
88 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 21
SCHOOLS.—Continued,
121
73
50
189
112
169
49
46
140
151
92
52
81
110
124
118
148
180
188
121
157
202
Other Conditions, specify
(Nervous,  Pulmonary,  Cardiac
Disease, etc.).
Nervous, 2 ; pulmonary, 2 ; cardiac, 1; anaemia, 1; otitis
media, 1
Nervous, 2 ; pulmonary, 2 ;
Brights, 1
Nervous, 1; ansemia, 1	
Absence left palate, 1	
Cleft palate, 1;   osteo-myelitis,
1; myocarditis, 1
Cardiac, 2	
Cardiac, 2	
Vaccinated,
2
Vaccinated,
1
Vaccinated,
Vaccinated,
1
Vaccinated,
2
Vaccinated,
lung, 1
Vaccinated,
1
\ accinated,
Vaccinated,
ung, 12
Vaccinated,
lung, 6
Vaccinated,
2
Vaccinated,
2
Vaccinated,
4
Vaccinated,
2
Vaccinated,
Vaccinated,
3
Vaccinated,
12
Vaccinated,
Vaccinated,
1
Vaccinated,
Vaccinated,
lung, 1
Vaccinated,
Vaccinated,
1
Vaccinated,
lung, 1
Vaccinated,
lung, 9
Vaccinated,
lung, 8
Vaccinated,
lung, 5
72; cardiac, 5; lung,
66; cardiac, 4 ; lung,
25 ; cardiac, 7	
30; cardiac, 6; lung,
63; cardiac, 7 ; lung,
115 ; cardiac, 8;
29; cardiac, 2; lung,
14; cardiac, 7	
168;   cardiac,   19;
94; cardiac, 10;
72; cardiac, 9; lung,
56; cardiac, 2 ; lung,
75 ; cardiac, 4 ; lung,
53; cardiac, 7; lung,
45 ; cardiac, S	
63; cardiac, 7; lung,
53; cardiac, 6 ; lung,
40; cardiac, 1	
66; cardiac, 5; lung,
50; cardiac, 3	
66;   cardiac,    13;
44; cardiac, 5	
49; cardiac, 8; lung,
193;   cardiac,  13;
84;   cardiac,   13;
41;   cardiac,   11;
135 ;    cardiac,   8 ;
Acute Fevers which
have occurred
during the Past
Year.
Scarlet-fever, 1; chicken-
pox, 1; tonsilitis, 1;
T. B. spine, 1
Tonsilitis, 1; chicken-po.x,
6 ; measles, 2 ; influenza, 1
Chicken-pox, 2	
Whooping-cough..
Whooping-cough..
Communicable diseases in children of
school age in Vancouver City:—
Chicken-pox  287
Diphtheria     21
Measles     67
Mumps   493
Scarlet fever     32
Whooping-congh   51
Infantile paralysis        3
Condition of
Building.    State
if crowded, poorly
ventilated, poorly
heated, etc.
Good	
Adequate, fairly
heated and ventilated
Adequate, well-
heated and ventilated
Adequate, well-
heated and ventilated
Good.	
Satisfactory	
Good [.'.['.
Closets.  State
if clean and
adequate.
Yes.
Good.
Yes. G 22
British Columbia
1918
GRADED CITY
■6
..
u
d
c
a
te,
Is
a
bib
s
-— ti
IT
rt =
Name of School.
Medical Inspector.
School Nurse.
Bj
g*
<u
3
a>
ciS
5
a
o
A
>
tc
^ rt
£
a
=jjjj
OJ
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o
o
p
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d
ft
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33
Q
Q
0
ft
a
Vancouver.—Concluded :
J F. W. Brydone-Jack	
( M. P. Hogg	
M. A. McLellan. \
M. Ewart /
524
397
S
18
13
17
2
60
j B. H, Wilson	
A. Jeffers V
E. G. Breeze /
43
35
21
11
8
1
Classes for Defects	
\M. P. Hogg	
1
Vancouver, North:
213
341
210
336
3
2
8
10
i
13
7
13
44
	
343
340
3
1
6
g
6
6
63
RURAL MUNICIPALITY
Burnaby:
Edmond Street	
Douglas Road	
Hamilton Street...
Kingsway, East	
Second Street	
Armstrong Avenue,
Chilliwack:
Rosedale	
Chilliwack, East...
Camp Slough	
Cheam.  	
Stratheona	
Fairfield Island....
Vedder 	
Yarrow   	
Promontory	
Sumas	
Atchelitz	
Parson's Hill	
Lotbiniere	
Sardis	
Delta ;
Annieville.	
Delta, East ...	
Inverholme	
Boundary Bay.....
Westham	
Canoe Pass	
Trenant	
Sunbury 	
Ladner 	
Langley:
Langley Fort	
Langley Prairie	
Springbrook. ......
Belmont, Superior.
Milner	
Glen Valley	
Langley, West	
Beaver	
Aldergrove	
Patricia	
Otter	
Lochiel	
Langley, East	
Glenw*ood	
Maple Ridge:
Whonnock	
Ruskin	
Alex. Robinson	
Albion	
Webster's Corners.
267
32
29
70
39
33
T. h. Elliott	
90
44
35
58
43
i
t
41
15
8
11
10
66
9
64
115
A. A. K
55
20
12
23
M
20
39
26
18
A. McBi
63
75
39
86
47
22
16
30
55
23
19
12
24
16
54
34
43
37
„
19
32
24
70
39
33
84
41
36
59
41
39
14
6
15
8
-67
9
60
103
16
11
20*
19
33
24
16
122
51
61
22
72
44
20
14
26
52
21
16
12
21
16
47
27
37
18
17
7
1
5
1
2
30
<>
1
8
1
1
2
1
7
5
2
1
2
2
1
i
i
3
2
1
2
5
3
3
5
8
2
5
3
4
5
2
5
4
4
1
7
6
4
8
10
1
1
"i
i
T
"i
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
8
7
7'
2
4
6
6
9
4
5
27
1
2
8
1
1
2
1
2
i
1
2
10
9
6
5
6
e
i
7
1
6
2
2
2
4
4
2
1
14
3
2
1
7
l
2
5
2
6
9
8
4
30
8
2
i
2
2
3
2
4
1
14
7
14
5
"l
1
2
2
i
3
1
1
2
2
1
3
2
6
2
1
1
1
4
1
1
li
15
5
3
2
5
2
9
3
1
1
S
3
i
2
2
	
5 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 23
SCHOOLS. —Concluded.
H3
CU
CU
H
I
o
CU
"cu
0
03
3
■a.
bo
il
13
63
20
2
1
1
4
'o
O
8
2
Other Conditions, specify
(Nervous,  Pulmonary,  Cardiac
Disease, etc.).
.9
3
O
6
cu
ft
£
K
O
&
bo
d
jg
1
1
Acute Fevers which
have occurred
during the Past
Year.
Condition of
Building.    State
if crowded, poorly
ventilated,  poorly
heated, etc.
Closets.   State
if clean and
adequate.
95
Vaccinated, 64; cardiac, 8; lung,
6
Measles and chicken-pox
Measles and chicken-pox
Measles and chicken-pox
Good	
14
2
V
Yes
80
"2'
76
4
1
SCHOOLS.
116     3
7    ....
7 ....
4    ....
4    ....
8 ....
2    ....
Eczema,  1;    uncleanliness, 7 ;
hronchitis, 2;   heart-trouble,
5 ; wax in ears, 4 ; rhinitis, 1;
thickened nasal septum, 3
2
2
Chicken-pox, 40; measles,
3 ; mumps, 1; diphtheria, 2
Good	
Yes.
12
8
Uncleanliness, 1; pulmonary, 1;
tuberculosis, 1;  wax in ears,
1 ; rhinitis 1
20
19
"
9
Scarlet fever ; mumps, 1
53
2       7
1 3
3
..      4
..      4
..      3
..      1
..      1
..      1
'.'.   "b
..    1
..    10
..    10
2 ....
3
4
29
4
Good.
18    ..
Good	
34    ..
5
6    ..
Yes.
10    ..
3    ..
3    ..
3    ..
.
9      .
21    ..
12    ..
9
2
3
2     . .
5
1    ....
2
5
13
1    ....
4
14    ..
4    ..
"      	
9    ..
3
10
50
8    ....
5
18
1 1
2 1
1    ....
22
Chicken-pox. 27	
Chicken-pox, 10 ; whooping-cough, 2
Chicken-pox, 15	
Good	
Yes.
12
24
2       1
1    ....
2
3
10
8
2    ....
6    ..
5    ..
2
1
2
2
Measles and chicken-pox
15    ..
..      1
Lame from infantile paralysis, 1
Yes.
2    ..
Good
6    ..
-      •
Yes.
5    ..
4
7   ..
..      1
7       1
2    ....
Cretin, 1	
4    ..
Bad	
Good..
28
3
9
23
7    ....
Whooping-cough, 5;
mumps, 1
Mumps, 1; chicken-pox, 2
3      ...
10
13
3*      ... G 24
British Columbia
1918
RURAL MUNICIPALITY
Name of School.
Maple Ridge.—Concluded
Haney	
Yennadon	
Haney, Superior....
Maple Ridge, Senior
Maple Ridge, Junior.
Hammond	
Matsqui:
Aberdeen 	
Bradner	
Clayburn 	
Dunach	
Glenmore	
Jubilee	
Mount Lehman	
Peardonville	
Poplar	
Ridgedale	
Oak Bay:
Monterey	
Willows  	
Pitt Meadows:
Pitt Meadows	
Richardson	
Point Grey:
Eburne	
Magee	
Lord Kitchener	
Shaughnessy	
Queen Mary.	
Kerrisdale	
Saanich:
Keating	
Mackenzie Avenue...
Royal Oak	
North Dairy	
Craigflower	
Cedar Hill	
Cadboro Bay	
Tillicum Road 	
Saanichton	
Prospect	
Saanich, West	
Gordon Head	
Strawberry Vale ....
Tolmie	
Vancouver, North:
Lynn Valley-	
Keith Lynn	
Capilano    .
North Star	
Vancouver, South:
Lord Selkirk	
Tecumseh	
Carleton	
Medical Inspector.
G. Morse .
R. H. Port.
F. T. Stainer..
G. Morse	
Andrew Lowrie .
C. D.  Holmes
E. A. Martin.
L. O. Griffin .
School Nurse.
64
17
27
25
61
32
61
57
17
23
7
46
27
19
45
278
147
40
16
248
122
224
157
187
52
119
75
123
72
14
26
33
17
55
37
167
34
35
85
460
54
15
17
25
57
29
57
62
12
13
38
24
11
245
139
31
12
243
96
221
154
181
45
80
16
49
30
43
343
167
34
35
85
525
458
1
5
11
104
67 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board op Health.
G
SCHOOLS.—Continued.
4  .
cu
CD
H
a)
o
CD
CD
0
■a
B
ci
3
CD
50
t.
.CS
*c
a
3
'o
0
Other Conditions specify*,
(Nervous, Pulmonary, Cardiac
Disease, etc.).
CJ
1
a
d
_bxi
ft
o
•50
a
3
Acute Fevers
which have occurred
during the Past
Year.
Condition of Building.   State if
crowded, poorly
ventilated,  poorly
heated, etc.
Closets.    State
if clean and
adequate.
33
Diphtheria, 2; mumps, 15
Good	
9
8
1
4
3
8
12
Diphtherial; mumps, 2;
whooping-cough, 7
14
4
1
1
2
i
3
9
Yes
3
Tubercular bone, 1; bronchitis, 1
2
1
2
Good	
3
1
Whooping-cough, 10	
1
4
3
1
Good	
2
3
7
136
24
11
1
4
1
2
3'
73
14
Whooping- cough,    10;
chicken-pox, 1
Good. ...
8
79
15
4
12
11
12
8
2
9
3
4
5
4
29
17
19
33
21
32
2
5
1
1
2
3
Nervous,  1;   cardiac,  4;   pulmonary,   1 ;   orthopaedic,   1;
skin, 1
Cardiac,  3;   nervous, 1 ;   pulmonary, 1 ;   skin, 1 ;   nephritis, 1
Nervous, 1 ; cai'diac, 3 ; skin, 1;
orthopaedic, 1
Nervous,  3;   cardiac,  4;   pulmonary, 2; orthopaedic, 4
Nervous, 1; cardiac, 2 ; skin, 1;
pulmonary, 2 ; orthopaedic, 4
Cardiac, 6 ;  pulmonary, 2 ; orthopaedic, 1; skin, 2
9
2
4
Chicken-pox, 6;  scarlet-
fever, 2
Scarlet fever, 4 ; measles,
3; chicken-pox, 1; influenza, 3
Scarlet fe\ er, 2 ;   tuberculosis, 1;   measles, 9,
typhoid 1; mumps, 3
Scarlet fever, 1; mumps,
24; chicken-pox, 2
Chicken-pox, 25; measles,
2 ; scarlet fe^er, 1
Chicken-pox, 23;   scarlet
fever, 25 ; measles, 6
16
36
4
Excellent, ventilation improved
Overcrowded in
Div. II.
Small building
overcrowded
Good except Div.
III. overcrowded
Good	
»
44
34
49
18
2
2
"
32
Measles	
Measles and chicken-pox
Measles	
Measles ; diphtheria, 1..
Measles	
Measles	
20
1
in order.
(W
»      	
29
21
Catarrh of throat, 1 ; eczema, 1
1
2
No water supply..
12
4
4
2
3
2
3
12
4
1
1
1
50
23
23
13
1
2
10
No water supplv..
Good	
No water supply..
14
Measles	
Measles	
Measles	
Measles;  chicken-pox;
mamps
Measles and chicken-pox
Measles and chicken-pox
Measles and chicken-pox
Measles and chicken-pox
Mumps, 33; chicken-pox,
24; wrhooping-cough, 2
Measles, 7;   mumps, 1;
chicken-pox, 1; whooping-cough, 1
Measles,  2 ;  mumps,  5 ;
chicken-pox, 6; scarlet
fever, 1
10
19
4
14
1
125
Infantile paralysis, 1;  acne, 3 ;
catarrh, 1; eczema, 11; otorr-
hcea, 1 ;  defective speech, 1;
stammering, 1
Yes.
55
IS
19-
"   	
21
382
339
282
4
16
7
Nervous, 1; pulmonary, 1; cardiac, 4; anaemia, 10; unclean, 1
Nervous, 2; pulmonary, 3; cardiac, 9 ; anaemia, 5 ; unclean,
4
Pulmonary,   2;    cardiac,   3;
anaemia, 1
6
13
9
3
8
9
13
3
Lighting fair   	
it             ....
Good,
n G 26
British Columbia
191S
1
RURAL MUNICIPALITY
Name of School.
Medical Inspector.
School Nurse.
<5
"3
u
c
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"ft
ft
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6
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1
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03
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•3
18
3
12
16
17
15
1
8
5
13
a
V
u
$>
Q
2
1
a
o
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a;
CJ
ty
Ol
18
12
11
20
6
15
7
1
2
13
6
ti
OS
CD
X
V
>
O
a>
CJ
ft
17
8
12
12
6
12
5
1
8
2
.-, ci
cS.5
£ H=
Bjj
CJ  CD
CD
CD
B
5
12
9
22
5
11
8
1
2
16
4
3
'o
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2
3
3
3
4
4
4
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Vancouver, South.--Contimied;
L. 0. Griffin	
H.   Bone	
491
243
232
494
255
381
120
24
50
201
112
435
235
223
471
253
364
118
21
37
201
111
56
50
28
53
29
60
25
8
11
35
22
RURAL AND
Albert Canyon .
Albert Head....
Annable	
Arrowhead	
Ashcroft	
Athalmer	
Barkerville....
Barnston Island  	
Barriere River	
Barriere Power-bouse.
Baynes Lake	
Beaton	
Begbie	
Berrydale	
Big Eddy-   	
Blueberry	
Boston Bar	
Bowie	
Bowser	
Brechin   	
Brisco	
Cache Creek	
Campbell River.  ..
Cartier	
Cawston	
Cedar, East	
Cedar, North	
Cedar, South	
Chase B.iver	
Chaumox	
Christina Lake	
Chu Chua	
Columbia Gardens.
Colwood	
Concord	
Craigellachie......
Crawford Creek ...
Cultus Lake  	
Departure Bay ....
Dew*dney	
Elko	
Erie	
Errington.
J. H. Hamilton .
C. P. Higgins...
John Nay	
J. H. Hamilton..
R. Wightman...
P. W. Tumor ..
M. Callanan   . ..
0. Morse .......
G. W. Irving.. *.
D. Black	
.1. H. Hamilton..
W. Truax	
.1. H. Hamilton.
J. Bain Thorn...
H. R. Eort	
J. H. Hamilton..
H. E. Langis	
T. J. MoPhee....
P. W. Turnor ...
R. Wightman...
W. F. Shaw	
J. H. Hamilton.
Robert Elliott..
T. J. McPhee....
No report for 1916-17.
W. Truax    	
H. H. Murphy	
J. Bain Thorn	
A. E. McMicking	
J. C. Elliott	
J. H. Hamilton	
J. C. Elliott ..
T. J. McPhee .
H. D. Leitch..
D. Black ...
John Nay ..
H. E. Langis
Mrs. Campbell.
Miss Hyde.
Miss C. Collishaw.
Miss C. Collishaw.
Mrs. Campbell.
MissC. Collishaw.
Mrs. Campbell.
14
16
14
20
57
10
12
10
13
6
45
11
21
7
31
8
9
14
6
95
14
12
60
32
71
14
15
26
12
14
8
11
19
32
29
15
20
13
13
14
18
55
9
12
6
40
11
14
*7
28
8
8
13
3
94
12
12
17
IS
21
8
55
32
62
6
10
14
13
11
12
5
9
19
29
14
18
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
1
2
"2'
5
5
1
1
5
5
1
"i
2
2
2
2
12
2
1
1
1
1
'3
1
4
l
2
1
1
3
1
"2'
3
1
2
'Y
i
1
1
4
1
3
1
"i
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
6
1
3
13
6
1
2
3
2
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
3
12
1
9
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
4
3
9,
1
2
1
3
1
1
T
3
2
4
1
•**
1
6
6
2
1
"2'
"i'
1
14
8
1 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 27
SCHOOLS. -^Concluded.
J3
CJ
H
CD
CJ
CD
a
to
*o
B
3
"3
Si
ft.
P
H
46
4
17
19
33
15
7
oi
'o
O
Other Conditions  specify
(Nervous, Pulmonary, Cardiac
Disease, etc.).
*H
CD
11
12
7
7
8
4
ta
CD
rt
O   '
CO
1
4
1
d
,bp
8
3
2
8
3
1
3
s
i.
o
1
g
4
1
1
2
1
Acute Fevers
which have occurred
during the Past
Year.
Condition of Building.    State if
crowded, poorly
ventilated,  poorly
heated, etc.
Closets.    State
if clean and
adequate.
324
159
10
8
12
9
6
Cardiac, 7; anaemia, 2 ; unclean,
Mumps, 109; chicken-pox,
20; whooping-cough, 1
Measles, 6 ;   mumps, 6 ;
chicken-pox, 1; whooping-cough, 1
Measles, 10 ; mumps, 5 ;
whooping-cough, 2
Measles, 34; mumps, 10 ;
chicken-pox, 5
Measles, 14 ;  mumps, 4 ;
chicken-pox,    22;
whooping-cough, 1
Measles, 19;  mumps, 8;
chicken-pox, 30
Good	
Good.
Trough system.
Good.
Trough system.
Good.
145
348
169
294
Pulmonary,   6;    cardiac,   5;
anaemia, 3
Lighting good	
Lighting fair	
Good	
82
18
32
6
25
9
3
2
Mumps, 15 ;   whooping-
ing-cough, 1
Chicken-pox, 20; scarlet
fever, 1
Measles, 6 ;   mumps, 5 ;
chicken-pox, 1; whooping-cough, 1
11      	
167
5
2
4
84
ASSISTED SCHOOLS.
6
1
Good	
2
Poorly lighted	
Good	
8
9
2
6
2
2
17
Whooping-cough	
9
4
1
2
Satisfactory	
2
2
22
1
1
6
Very good	
Good	
3
1
Rather poor bldg.
Good	
12
3
1
Poliomyelitis, 1	
6
2
1
5
3
Good....
13
31
2
1
i
1
4
4
1
Good	
10
3
Poor heating	
Good	
2
14
1
Good	
15
l
1
1
?,
6
i
6
1
8
3
4
1
1
Good..
1
5
3
Good..
13
7
1
6
Well ventilated
14
and heated
Very good	
Good :	
8
1
Cleft palate, 1 ;• club-foot, 1....
2
2
Ventilation poor..
Yes.
Good.
One,   another
recommended.
Satisfactory.
Clean.
Yes.
Fair.
Yes.
Good.
Yes.
Clean.
Divs. 1 and 2
good, and 3
crowded.
Fairly so.
Good.
Yes.
Bad.
Fair.
Good.
Fair.
Yes.
Clean.
Good.
Well ventilated.
and heated.
Clean.
Yes.
Clean. G 28
British Columbia
1918
RURAL AND ASSISTED
Name of School.
Medical Inspection.
School Nurse.
CD
O
a
ta
ft
D
ft
O
6
ft
5
1
e
m
ft
£
o
6
B
_o
"d
B
H**""i
*5
B
>
CD
a
B
CD
CJ
CD
o
1
bo
_c
'E
rt
CD
X
CO
CJ
CD
CJ
0
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rt E
Cj  fD
■i&
CD
CD
CJ
O
1
CO
*d
'0
B
cd
-d
<
1
0
H
*d
CD
bo
■a
92
15
20
25
49
18
41
11
12
8
10
112
21
15
279
8
8
23
52
8
9
43
13
20
38
35
14
103
22
20
28
24
11
33
39
9
11
76
23
66
14
20
15
9
41
59
40
13
25
35
150
103
23
39
13
42
33
8
8
18
42
12
67
70
89
13
18
23
44
15
40
9
8
7
9
113
19
11
260
8
8
13
50
7
8
41
13
20
37
32
11
100
18
18
26
23
9
22
38
9
10
72
22
66
11
18
15
9
38
55
39
12
22
33
150
100
17
36
9
41
22
8
6
17
38
12
60
66
47
Fife	
4
W. Truax	
"i"
1
1
1
3
T
1
3
2
1
i'
1
1
1
5
3
D. Black	
4
C. Ewart   	
9
1
Mrs. Campbell	
13
D. Black	
1
1
1
4
3
3
28
6
2
12
2
4
3
24'
9.
Happy Valley	
L. Broe 	
Miss McTaggart ..
27
3
2
"i"
1
13
9
4
T. J. McPhee	
Miss C. Collishaw7.
65
Hat Creek..
H. D. Leitch	
1
Heffley Creek	
H. H. Murphy	
Robert Elliott	
9
Hedley     . .   	
4
2
3
3
1
5
Hillier	
1
J. C. Elliott   	
3
1
1
2
1
3
5
4
4
P. W. Turner	
2
1
"i
i
2
5
D. Black	
14
No report 1916-17.
Robert Elliott	
3
1
2
1
4
6
9
D. McCaffrey	
1
1
6
2
1
2
2
'0
Langford	
5
5
4
1
5
3
"i"
3
2
9
2
3
2
m
H. R. Fort	
2
John Nay 	
Mrs. Campbell	
5i
3
i
1
2
2
11
D. Black 	
l
i
i
4
Nanaimo Bay	
T. J. McPhee	
"s
2
1
2
i
6
7
12
1
2
1
1
2
i
6
2
2
9
Robert Elliott	
2
2
2
Mrs. Campbell	
3
North Bend	
H. R. Fort	
4
5
10
1
3
1
1
i
i
10
1
2
1
8
Northfield	
T. J. McPhee	
4
6
Olalla	
Robert Elliott	
Otter Point	
W. D. Calvert	
2
3
1
6
2
3
10
20
50
D. McCaffrey     ....
20
2
3
2
1
2
G. R. Baker	
1
1
3
1
2
3
3
1
2
3
St. Elmo..
J. C. Elliott .             ....
3
1
3
3
1
1
3
3
Mrs. Campbell	
8
3
1
1
3
4
2
1
1
7 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 29
SCHOOLS.—Continued.
<v
H
OJ
Q
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c
5
■a
OJ
bo
_rt
*d
i
12'
"0
0
5
4
Other Conditions, specify
(Nervous, Pulmonary, Cardiac
Disease, etc.).
B
oi
6
6
_bp
01
ft
£
0
tH
o
bo
d
S
Acute Fevers which
have occurred
during the Past
Year.
Condition of
Building.    State
if crowded, poorly
ventilated, poorly
heated, etc.
Closets.    State
if clean and
adequate.
72
Chorea, 8	
Very good	
No	
Yes.
6
9
20
5
Typhoid, 2	
Good.
12
i'
"1
Yes.
1
3
Clean.
Yes.
62
21
11
Nervous, 2 ; heart, 2 ; scoliosis,
5 ; pigeon-breast, 1
Typhoid, 1; mumps, 24.
5
1
No	
Good 	
Well ventilated...
Heating    insufficient
Fair	
Good	
Rather poor ventilation
Good	
99
10
1
1
1
4
Whooping-cough	
2
Yes.
5
Scarlet fever, 3	
11
11
Good.
Yes.
Good.
26
1
2
5
3
2
2
13
6
13
24
10
4
9
31
Measles, 15	
Good.
1
Stove too small...
Good, fair ventilation
Yes.
17
14
16
7
7
5
3
Cardiac, 1; orthopaedic defects, 3
Mumps, 1	
Adequate but
not clean.
4
6
3
1
Good 	
26
Good.
6
Verv good	
Good.
paired.
19
2
1
Diphtheria, 3	
Good.
2
8
1
2
2
ii'
9
2
2
Senior   school
poorly ventilated
Good     ....
Yes.
3
9
Yes.
4
1
1
5
11
Cardiac, 2 ;  pulmonary, 1;  orthopaedic defects, 3
Fair	
New; efficient	
Good	
Adequate and
fairly clean.
Good.
7
5
1
1
3
Whooping-cough    and
chicken-pox
Yes.
4
4
Chicken-pox, 12; measles,
1; whooping-cough, 2
Yes.
Good.
IS
1
5
1
31
12
9
7
Measles, 4	
Ventilation and
heating fair
Good	
2
4
1
2
i
6
Yes.
3
1
Very good	
Fair	
Good	
Being renovated.
?,
10
15
1
Yes.
7
Good.
2
5
2
9
7
Cardiac, 6; tubercular hip, 1;
chronic bronchitis, 1
Yes. G 30
British Columbia
1918
RURAL AND ASSISTED
Name of School.
Medical Inspection.
School Nurse.
<u
0)
ft
o
6
ft
■T5
OJ
K
"3
d
ft
28
14
22
12
25
24
8
14
10
15
59
9
33
36
26
123
25
10
10
9
36
d
.2
s
Is
2
4
"rt
C
o
V
ft
1
2
0*
o
*
CJ
V
ft
2
1
1
7
be
<£
0
i
rt g
fc*8
CJ  »
•s«
CD
CD
CD
a
i
2
"o
c
CD
<
2
2
o
H
CD
bo
8
34
15
25
12
26
30
S
19
10
15
65
9
14
44
26
130
25
14
13
9
39
11
2
i
3
5
1
1
10
1
1
"i
i
3
1
2
1
7
Voigt Camp (Copper Mountain)
3
6
1
2
16
1
1
Wellington	
1
2
2
4
3
Wellington, South	
1
i
3
18
1
2
4
1
5
Ymir	
Mrs. Campbell	
1
1
5
12 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 31
SCHOOLS.—Concluded.
OJ
H
5
n
*d
3
a
3,
-d
CJ
bo
i
7
1
d
IH
'3
O
1
1
Other Conditions, specify
(Nervous, Pulmonary, Cardiac
Disease, etc.).
|
*
O
03
d
bo
£
O
bo
d
Acute Fevers which
have occurred
during the Past
Year.
Condition of
Building.    State
if crowded, poorly
ventilated, poorly
heated, etc.
Closets.    State
if clean and
adequate.
8
Excellent 	
Good.
5
Yes.
4
Chicken-pox, 12; measles,
1; whooping-cough, 2
New ; efficient....
Satisfactory	
Inadequate and
poorly heated
3
3
3
1
16
1
1
Not sanitary.
1
4
"3'
4
3
2
2
1
2
Good.
2
36
Influenza	
Very good	
Not    arranged
properly
6
Good.
2
5
3
31
4
1
16
Satisfactory	
Good	
1
6
3
1
21
Yes. G 32
British Columbia
1918
REGISTRAR'S REPORT UNDER THE VITAL 'STATISTICS ACT.
H. E.  Young, M.D.,
Victoria, B.C., February 10th, 1918.
Secretary, Provincial Board of Health, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith please find tabulated returns of Vital Statistics for the year 1917.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Yours obediently,
MUNROE MILLER,
Deputy Registrar of Births, Deaths, and Man
Following is the Forty-fifth Annual Report of Births, Deaths, and Marriages registered in
this Province from January 1st to December 31st, inclusive, 1917, in accordance with section 5
of the " Vital Statistics Act " :—
" The Registrar shall, as soon after the first day of January in each year as convenient,
cause to be printed for public information a full report of the registered births, deaths, and
marriages of the preceding year."
The section is quoted not only to show manner and authority for issuing an annual report,
but for the purpose of drawing attention to the difficulties attending same.
* As a preliminary the following list of offices of District Registrars of Births, Deaths, and
Marriages is inserted, showing the manner in which they are grouped for the convenience of
this office, and full returns, as far as received, from the various groups for 1917:—
Victoria Division—
Victoria City.
Cowichan.
Esquimalt.
Oak Bay.
Saanich.
New Westminster Division—
New Westminster City.
Burnaby.
Coquitlam.
Fraser Mills.
Ladner.
Langley.
Maple Ridge.
Mission.
Matsqui.
Port  Coquitlam.
Port Moody.
Pitt Meadows.
Sumas.
Surrey.
Outside.
Chilliwack City.
Chilliwack Township.
-Chilliwack, outside.
Nanaimo Mining Division—
Nanaimo Division.
Nanaimo, outside.
Alert Bay.
Comox-Cumberland.
Comox, outside.
Ladysmith.
Beaton, etc.—
Beaton.
Cranbrook.
Fernie.
Golden.
Kaslo.
Nakusp.
Nelson.
New Denver.
Revelstoke.
Rossland.
Slocan City.
Trail.
Wilmer.
Alberni, etc.—
Alberni.
Atlin.
Bella Coola.
Clayoquot.
Fort Fraser.
Hazelton.
Fort St. John.
Hudson Hope.
Pouce Coupe.
Porter's Landing.
Prince Rupert.
Quatsino.
Queen Charlotte.
Stewart.
Telegraph Creek.
Ashcroft, etc.—
Ashcroft. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 33
Ashcroft, etc.—Concluded.
Barkerville.
Fort George.
Tete Jaune Cache.
Clinton.
Lillooet.
Quesnel.
150-Mile House.
Yale.
Fairview, etc.—
Fairview.
Greenwood.
Grand Forks.
Fairview, etc.—Concluded.
Kamloops.
Nicola.
Princeton.
Vernon.
Vancouver Division—
Vancouver City.
South Vancouver.
Point Grey.
North Vancouver.
West Vancouver.
Unorganized.
Richmond.
Under proper headings, and in tables of the returns of births, deaths, and marriages, will
be found returns for each of the above places, but for expedition the gross for each division or
group is herewith appended for years 1916 and 1917. The loss or gain in each becomes quickly
apparent.
Births.
Deaths.
Marriages.
1916.
1917.
1916.
1917.
1916.
1917.
1,516
647
3,866
1,094
196
1,086
329
1,107
1,398
575
3,658
1,150
196
1,057
357
1,059
654
233
1,506
453
77
443
127
394
589
218
1,549
495
74
364
144
463
516
119
1,454
311
54
299
94
322
449
112
1,394
279
44
218
107
258
9,841
9,450
3,887
3,896
3,169
2,S61
After a careful study of the question of population of the Province, and a consultation
with the Inspector of Municipalities, it was determined to rely principally on his computation,
with the following result:—
Population of cities   227,675
Population of municipalities  126,575
Estimated population in unorganized territory      20,000
Natural increase, registered births over registered deaths         5,554
Total      379,804
Estimated, 1916     383,380
Estimated, 1917      379,804
Loss          3,576
Through lack of positive information in the above matter it is assumed that the figures are
correct, and calculation as to rates, comparisons, etc., will be made on the basis of a population
of 379,804.
Following are the registrations for:—
1915.
1916.
1917.
Births	
10,516
3,832
3,393
9,841
3,887
3,169
9,450
3,896
2,861
Totals	
17,741
16,897
16,207 G 34
British Columbia
1918
Following are the rates per thousand of population for births, deaths, and marriages for
the years 1916 and 1917. In considering the rates it must be remembered that the population
in the respective years was placed at 383,380 and 379,804.
Province—
1916. 1917.
Registered births    9,841 = 25.66 9,433 = 24.83*
Registered deaths     3.8S7 = 10.14 3,896 = 10.25
Registered deaths, less still-born  3,6S6 = 9.60 3,721 = 9.79
Registered marriages    3,169 =  S.27 2,861 =  7.53
Vancouver City—
Registered births   2,686 = 28.07 2,670 = 27.S1
Registered deaths     1,240 —12.96 1,307 = 13.61
Registered deaths, less still-born   1,125 = 11.65 1,223 =s 12.74
Registered marriages   1,152 = 13.08 1,191 = 12.40
Victoria City—
Registered births   1,106 — 30.29 995 = 26.97
Registered deaths        533 = 14.59 476 = 13.03
Registered deaths, less still-born       508 = 13.90 456 = 12.48
Registered marriages       420 = 12.09 382 == 10.46
South Vancouver—
Registered births      579 = 20.60 480 = 17.07
Registered deaths       112 =  3.98 88 =  3.13
Registered deaths, less still-born         97 =  3.45 76 =  2.70
Registered marriages :      110 = 3.91 97 =  3.09
Remainder of Province—
Registered births   5.470 == 24.47 5,288 == 24.12
Registered deaths  2,002 =  9.16 2,025 =  9.23
Registered deaths, less still-born    1,956 =  S.76 1,966 c=  8.96
Registered marriages   1,387 =  6.21 1,191 =  5.43
In arriving at the foregoing rates the population of the Province in 1916 was taken as
383,380; Vancouver City as 95,660; Victoria as 36,510; South Vancouver as 28,106; balance of
Province as 223,104.
For 1917 the population of the Province has been taken as 379,804; Vancouver City as
96,000;   Victoria as 36,510;   South Vancouver as 28,106  balance of Province as 219,188.
Following is a classified list of deaths occurring in British Columbia for the years 1913 to
1917, inclusive:—
10.
ll.
12.
13.
14.
General diseases	
Diseases  of   nervous  system  and  organs   of
special sense	
Diseases of the circulatory system 	
Diseases of the respiratory system	
Diseases of the digestive system	
Non-venereal   diseases  of  the genito-urinary
system and annexa	
The puerperal state	
Diseases of the skin and cellular tissue	
Diseases of the bones and organs of locomotion
Malformations    	
Diseases of early infancy	
Old age 	
Affections produced by external causes	
Ill-defined, including executions	
Totals	
1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
997
856
895
936
965
404
358
336.
389
380
501
403
479
456
540
458
345
340
494
439
300
329
260
224
268
238
297
163
206
204
53
65
50
50
59
12
13
7
15
23
1
3
3
9
42
51
55
51
765
579
526
438
405
68
66
70
80
54
717
642
583
473
455
97
72
71
68
3,887
50
3,896
4,619
3,977
3,832
Average.
929.8
373.4
475.8
415.2
276.2
203.6
55.4
14.0
1.4
41.6
542.6
67.6
574.0
71.6
4,042.2 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 35
The following tabulated statement of deaths from various diseases covering a period of
eighteen years is submitted for consideration, and it is hoped, after perusal of same by parties
peculiarly interested, that the word " pneumonia " will lose its popularity, and for the future in
returns of death the " prime cause, followed by pneumonia," will be substituted. If this course
can be adopted a far more reliable report re children's diseases can be prepared.
©
Oi
rH
79
6
7
2
1
a*>
l-H
35
ii
7
CM
8
32
6
31
7
6
o
35
24
12
21
17
1
22
2
16
11
lie
a
c:
42
3
16
8
1
2
48
4
19
6
104
IO
©
-.
34
4
10
4
1
48
4
16
7
100
<2
c
<5
39
4
15
6
2
1
45
6
11
2
110
|
63
26
21
4
10
53
9
22
26
217
00
8
72
9
29
5
6
1
33
11
19
5
162
33
44
41!)
Oh
09
55
18
14
16
1
69
12
30
10
168
46
36
450
o
5j
102
16
23
14
7
1
74
51
31
5
164
61
42
580
92
23
68
31
11
C-l
cs
99
15
36
12
13
CO
cc
85
27
35
18
11
H*
cr.
42
23
11
3
1
32
9
11
ii
c.
23
.37
18
1
12
C:
24
21
19
7
6
3
53
7
45
17
224
92
36
664
*c?
O
hi
974
258
386
162
104
8
1,040
234
430
211
2,952
763
671
8,193
54.11
Whooping-cough	
14.33
21.44
9.00
5.77
0.44
38
6
11
98
29
4
13
3
102
30
6
11
6
155
53
24
80
10
237
86
60
724
130
23
39
10
258
124
63
822
113
24
10
11
105
66
51
648
108
13
45
11
188
04
47
B61
72
14
34
IS
167
62
47
470
35
14
20
36
228
140
49
622
57.77
13.00
Purulent infection and septicaemia	
23.9
11.72
Pneumonia  	
164.00
76.30
22
274
26
280
22
812
19
260
24
277
16
243
20
261
47
408
37.28
* Bronchopneumonia does not appear to have been segregated until 1908 ; consequently the average is for 10 and not 18 years.
Re cancer:   The following statement is self-explanatory.   The total number of deaths, 24S,
is 6.36 of all deaths and 0.65 per thousand of population.
Victoria Division .. ..,	
New Westminster Division
Nanaimo Division	
Beatou Croup	
Alberni Group	
Ashcroft Group	
Fairview Group	
Vancouver Division	
Totals	
Male.
128
120
28
33
61
14
9
23
4
3
7
5
5
10
3
2
5
i3
'7
20
61
61
122
248
Re tuberculosis:   Deaths from tuberculosis, all forms, are shown below,
being 10.6 of all deaths and 1.08 per thousand of population.
Total deaths, 413,
Male.
Female.
Total.
39
27
10
19
5
5
38
111
18
17
7
9
4
3
31
70
57
44
17
28
9
8
69
181
Totals	
254
159
413
Reference to both tuberculosis and cancer is made elsewhere. G 36 British Columbia 1918
The following information is presented as a comparative statement re the ages of decedents
for the years 1916 and 1917 :—
1916. 1917.
Under 1 year    601 587
1 to   2 years   121 S2
2 to 5 years  108 107
5 to 10 years  70 76
10 to 20 years  104 154
20 to 30 years  29S 329
30 to 40 years  451 473
40 to 50 years  486 451
50 to 60 years  450 456
60 to 70 years   413 461
70 to 80 years  348 341
80 to 90 years  175 158
90 years and up     22 18
Age not given     37 28
Age and sex not given         2
Totals    3,686        3,721
In the above figures the still-born are not included with deaths under one year. There were
201 still-births reported in 1916 and 175 in 1917.
In connection with the above, it is worthy of note that, notwithstanding the heavy showing
of infant mortality in each year, if we take the columns of each year, from infancy to 39 years,
the totals are respectively 1,753 and 1,808, whilst the columns from 40 to final age returns stand
respectively 1,933 to 1,913. This shows a wonderful evenness and calls attention to the longevity
of the people of the Province.    From the age of 60 years up, we have 958 in 1916 and 978 in 1917.
In compiling this report we have, necessarily, been compelled to scan the annual reports of
this Department for several years back. Whilst so engaged we chanced upon a paragraph in the
report for 1914 : " Another piece of work undertaken and almost completed has been the arrangement and placing in alphabetical order of all the returns received by this office since 1872. The
documents from each district have been gathered together and bound, so that what belongs to
Victoria, or any other place, may be found by itself under its proper year and letter. The undertaking entailed no little labour, but the results certainly justify the course pursued." The staff
takes it for granted that all persons are entitled to rejoice when they have successfully accomplished an important undertaking. In this case the end of the task is so near that we announce
its completion, and hold all returns duly placed under their respective districts and arranged in
alphabetical order.
In the same report we find allusion to church registers. The different denominations have
generally responded cheerfully, and for their co-operation we take this occasion to thank them;
yet the greatest is still behind. Arrangements have finally been made whereby we have had
placed at our disposal the records of the Church of England antedating the Oregon award by
several years. With these documents duly classified and arranged, it is held that the Province
of British Columbia may with pride compare records with any Province in the Dominion of
Canada.
Re the matter of vital statistics of the Indians of British Columbia : Up to the year 1916
the registration of births, deaths, and marriages among Indians received no recognition at the
hands of this Department, section 3 of the " Vital Statistics Act" preventing such registration :—
" 3. The provisions of this Act shall apply to every person resident within this Province,
whether such residence be permanent or temporary, and shall apply to all races and nationalities
except persons who are Indians within the meaning of the Act of the Dominion Parliament
respecting Indians."
In 1914 the Department of Indian Affairs at Ottawa took the matter up with the Government
of this Province and urged amendment of our Act to the end that Indians should receive the same
recognition under the Act as that accorded all other peoples. After considerable correspondence,
which need not be introduced here, extending over a period of two years, a compromise was 8 Geo. 5 Provincial Board of Health. G 37
effected, and the following amendment to the Act was made in 1916 and became a part of the
laws of the land:—
" 2. Section 3 of the ' Vital Statistics Act,' being chapter 81 of the Statutes of 1913, is hereby
repealed, and the following is substituted therefor:—
"'3. (1.) The provisions of this Act shall apply to every person, of whatever race or
nationality, resident within this Province, but shall not, except as herein provided, apply to the
persons who are Indians within the meaning of the Act of the Dominion Parliament respecting
Indians.
"'(2.) For the purpose of compiling statistics of births, deaths, and marriages of such
Indians, the Registrar may accept returns to be made monthly by the respective Indian Agents
in the Province, and such returns shall be kept separate and apart from the other returns
authorized or required by this Act, and shall be made according to the forms specially prepared
by the Registrar.' "
From and after the passage of the amendment everything was done in regular order; the
first thing, naturally, was the appointment of the various Indian Agents as Registrars, etc., for
Indians only, as follows:—
" Provincial Secretary's Office,
October 26th, 1916.
" His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor in Council has been pleased to appoint the undermentioned Indian iVgents to be Registrars under the ' Marriage Act,' and District Registrars of
Vital Statistics, for Indians only :—
Name. Agency. Address.
AV. R. Robertson   Cowichan Duncan.
C. A. Cox   West Coast  Alberni.
R. E. Loring Babine   Hazelton.
Ivor Fougner   Bella Coola Bella Coola.
John F. Smith   Kamloops  Kamloops.
R. L. T. Galbraith   Kootenay  Fort Steele.
H. Graham  Lytton Lytton.
Chas. C. Perry  Nass    Prince Rupert.
Peter Byrne   New Westminster New Westminster.
J. R. Brown  Okanagan    Vernon.
Thos. Deasy   Queen Charlotte   Masset.
W.  S.  Simpson    Stikine  Telegraph Creek.
W. J. McAUan  Stuart Lake  Fort Fraser.
Isaac Ogden   Williams Lake Lac la Hache.
W. M. Halliday   *.. Kwawkewlth    Alert Bay."
Special forms were printed, all necessary books and other supplies furnished and forwarded
to the different agencies, in addition to which the Indian Department at Ottawa notified its
various agents by circular letter of the amendment to the Act, etc., closing the letter with the
following paragraph:—
" You will therefore receive instructions from the Registrar of Births, Deaths, and Marriages,
fully instructing you in your duties as Registrar, and I am to inform you that the Department
confirms your appointment as such and will be glad if you will endeavour to carry out any
instructions that may be sent you by the Provincial Registrar."
Whilst the foregoing work was under way, our " exchanges " were closely watched in the
hope that something bearing on Indian vital statistics might appear. The most pertinent coming
under observation contains the following:—
" It has been generally believed that the white man's civilization was inimical to the red
man. ... It seems now that these conclusions were without basis in fact, and that the
race is really Increasing nearly as fast as the white race."
If such a condition has been rendered possible on one side of a national 'boundary-line, there
is every reason to believe that it can be done on this side, and that the line itself will never
rise and say:  " Thus far shall civilization of the Indian come, and no farther." G 38 British Columbia 1918
In justification of the position assumed in the foregoing paragraph, we must be permitted
to quote from the Annual Report of the Department of Indian Affairs.    Therein is found that:—-
British Columbia has an Indian population of       25,399
British Columbia has land under crop, acres       11,603
British Columbia has produced grain, roots, bushels     567,528
British Columbia has produced hay, tons       24,847
Representing a total value of  $598,329
Ontario, the premier Province, has an Indian population of       26,162
Ontario has land under crop, acres         16,1S0
Ontario has produced grain, roots, bushels  -     495,767
Ontario has produced hay, tons       31,958
Representing a total value of  $506,648
British Columbia standing above her nearest competitor by $91,681. And her Indian
population is treated as a negligible quantity.
It may be urged that this trifling critique is out of place, but the facts tempted me and I
wandered.
The reports from the Indian Agents as a whole are not satisfactory. In some cases the
Agents have evidently taken considerable trouble, even gone out of their way, to comply With
the instructions issued from this office, whilst others (particularly Okanagan and Williams
Lake) have ignored the business entirely—no notice of any kind having been received for the
whole year. In other cases, instead of reporting monthly, as per their instructions, the Agents
apparently await the accumulation of a batch sufficiently large to fill an envelope before attempting to forward the documents to this office. However, this is only the first year, and hope
still lives.
The following is a brief summary of the returns as received:—
Births     144
Deaths      310
Marriages        67
/ 	
Total      521
Total registrations made for the year, 521 for a population of 25,399, the number given in
the Report of the Department of Indian Affairs for 1915. The deaths exceed the births by 160,
and we have record of only 67 marriages. Evidently there is a laxness somewhere which must
be overcome.
The cash receipts for the year amount to $1,430.15, being $225.65 in excess of 1916.
Certificates issued for military purposes, as nearly as can be arrived at, stand between
4,000 and 5,000. The number is assumed because the offices in Victoria and Vancouver together
have issued 3,455, to which must be added what was issued by the different District Registrars.
The above certificates are issued free of charge.
The various forms of tabulated statements used in last year's report have been retained and
some new ones introduced.
Letters received and dealt with in 1917, 4,590; notices received of marriage licences issued,
2,864; notices of births received from physicians (for Victoria Division only), 1,038. Whilst on
this topic it may not be out of place to point out that, in addition to the regular work, the staff
has in the last four years indexed, classified, and arranged in alphabetical order returns of births,
deaths, and marriages numbering 184.525 lines.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
M. MILLER,
Deputy Registrar, Births, Deaths, and Marriages. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 39
BIRTHS, 1917.
Mining Division.
Ainsworth—
Kaslo	
Arrow Lake—
Nakusp   ...
Atlin—
Atlin	
Ashcroft—
Ashcroft	
Alberni—
Alberni 	
Bella Coola—
Bella Coola	
Cariboo—
Barkerville	
Fort George	
Tete .laune Cache	
Clayoquot—
Clayoquot	
Clinton —
Clinton	
Fort Steele—
Cranbrook 	
Fernie	
Greenwood—
Greenwood	
Grand Forks—
Grand Forks	
Golden—
Golden	
Kamloops—
Kamloops	
Liard—
Porter's Landing ....
Lardeau—
Beaton	
Lillooet—
Lillooet	
Nicola—
Nicola	
Nelson—
Nelson  	
New Westminster—
New Westminster..  .
Burnaby 	
Chilliwack	
Outside	
Nanaimo—
Nanaimo	
Alert Bay	
Comox	
Ladysmith	
)yoos—
Fairview	
Omineca—
Hazelton	
Fort Fraser	
Portland Canal—
Stew-art	
Peace River—
Fort St. John	
Hudson Hope	
Pouce Coupe	
Quesnel—
Quesnel	
150-Mile House	
Quatsino—   %
Quatsino	
Queen Charlotte-
Queen Charlotte City
Revelstoke—
Revelstoke	
Similkameen—
Princeton..    	
Slocan—
New Denver...   	
Slocan City Division —
Slocan City	
Stikine—
Telegraph Creek	
Carried forward
Registrations in 1917.
3
18
21
5
21
8
1
9
69
98
*7
47
2
35
119
258
85
63
196
160
7
88
37
43
21
1
3
12
13
6
11
64
16
14
5
1
Female.
11
6
4
17
19
11
34
7
105
34
30
18
154
1
1
223
75
71
179
150
11
78
44
16
11
1
2
7
14
3
68
11
15
Sex not
given.
Total
Registrations.
1917.
24
14
7*
35
40
16
55
16
137
203
81
77
40
303
1*
3
5
70
226
481
160
134
375
310
18
166
81
37
17
2*
5*
19
27
9
4
19
122
27
29
7
3,501
26
25
2
16
34
15
2
79
13
3
18
161
243
97
81
41
326
9
8
55
235
438
210
143
303
205
61
60
12
31
9
7
12
129
11
25
3
2
1,581
Births in 1917.
13
3
2
7
15
4
iii
8
1
4
50
82
34
33
20
100
1
1
23
170
67
44
132
70
23
IS
3
1
1
10
9
51
14
8
6
1,287
Female.
Sex not
given.
7
4
4
8
12
9
3i
7
1
4
54
77
26
28
10
104
1
1
2
20
82
152
58
52
122
106
7
56
33
31
1
14
6
i
6
9
1
2
i
49
7
12
2
1
1,228
Total Births.
1917. 1916.
20
7
6*
15
27
13
50
15
104
159
60
61
30
204
1*
2
3
49
162
322
125
96
254
125
56
32
9
1*
2»
16
18
4
4
13
100
21
20
7
1*
2,516
21
19
2
12
26
12
2
70
11
3
13
118
198
74
63
35
249
304
141
99
224
261
24
168
49
40
10
7
26
5
5
11
105
9
19
2
2
2,722 G 40
British Columbia
1918
BIRTHS, 1917—iConcluded.
Mining Division.
Brought forward.
Skeena—
Prince Rupert	
Anyox	
Trail Creek—
Rossland	
Trail  	
Trout Lake—
Trout Lake	
Vernon—
Vernon	
Vancouver—
Vancouver City	
North Vancouver City	
North Vancouver District..
South Vancouver	
West Vancouver	
Point Grey	
Unorganized	
Richmond	
Victoria—
Victoria City	
Cowichan	
Esquimalt.."	
Oak Bay	
Saanich	
Windermere—
Wilmer.	
Yale-
Yale 	
Totals     4.
Registrations in 1917.
105
3
Female.
1,691
74
4
192
1,424
1,246
74
56
21
13
251
229
2
6
73
49
39
27
71
76
517
478
49
53
36
44
22
22
94
S3
7
15
19
16
4,479
Sex not
given.
Total
Registrations.
1917.
179
7
67
162
418
2,670
131
34
480
8
122
66
147
995
102
80
44
177
9,450
1916.
181
97
100
166
40
579
16
139
86
154
1,106
101
62
53
194
21
20
9,840
Births in 1917.
Male.
1,287
82
3
21
70
165
1,064
63
17
197
1
46
SO
62
381
37
*   29
18
56
Female.
62
4
18
64
944
42
10
193
5
38
21
62
35
32
15
60
12
11
Sex not
given.
Total Births.
1917.
2,516
144
7
39
134
2,008
1,992
106
136
27
34
390
421
6
11
84
116
51
72
124
131
744
836
72
86
61
50
S3
45
116
150
19
21
22
14
6,994
7,475
1916.
2,722
65
91
* December returns not received. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 41
DEATHS, 1917.
Mining Division.
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Ol
Ainsworth—
Arrow Lake—
Atlin—
Atlin	
1
Ashcroft—
3
3
1
1
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
4
1
2
4
1
1
1
2
3
2
1
1
1
Alberni—
1
2
Bella Coola—
Cariboo —
1
1
5
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
Clayoquot—
Clinton—
1
16
42
13
9
1
12
2
4
9
2
5
2
19
3
29
104
24
24
9
100
Fort Steele-
2
7
7
3
3
1
4
4
1
1
1
4
2-
1
4
5
22
2
1
2
22
5
22
1
2
2
31
5
14
2
4
1
15
5
9
4
2
3
1
1
4
5
4
1
Greenwood—
Grand Forks-
Golden—
Kamloops—
13
18
9
1
Liard—
Lardeau—
3
6
22
74
212
47
47
147
114
11
84
24
31
21
9
1
Lillooet—
1
1
1
9
15
3
8
12
1
12
3
2
1
1
1
5
7
30
5
23
11
4
16
2
3
T
3
14
38
1
3
18
15
1
14
2
7
1
2
1
4
13
20
*y
19
11
1
8
1
9
5
1
1
1
12
34
4
6
25
10
1
7
21
7
6
25
9
1
4
11
1
11
5
2
2
4
"i'
"i'
i
i
4
11
72
146
24
25
130
60
8
63
9
22
18
5
3
1
6
34
97
11
12
50
89
3
20
16
9
7
4
5
17
106
243
35
37
180
99
11
83
25
31
25
9
3
Nicola—
Nelson —
Nelson	
New Westminster—
New Westminster	
17
44
10
10
33
17
4
4
7
1
5
2
1
4
2
1
7
6
"i*
6
3
5
1
2
1
9
12
1
4
5
2
4
18
Outside	
Nanaimo—
Nanaimo	
"a
1
2
2
4
1
5
1
1
9
1
4
9
2
1
7
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
Osoyoos—
Omineca—
i
1
Portland Canal-
Peace River—
1
i
i
i
i
2
3
195
2
1
i
1
1
2
4
3
1
5
30
5
11
2
1032
1
2
1
10
7
9
2
485
3
4
5
2
5
40
12
13
4
1517
4
14
2
1
10
42
16
10
5
1425
Quesnel—
150-Mile House	
1
1
Quatsino—
1
1
3
4
1
146
Queen Charlotte-
Queen Charlotte City ..
Revelstoke— '
Revelstoke	
Similkameen—
1
14
1
1
1
284
1
3
1
1
2
2
1
59
6
1
3
1
183
l
4
1
3
1
3
1
2
1
l
Slocan—
36
1
1
52
22
Slocan City Division—
Carried forward...
164
171
127
49
4
21
44 G 42
British Columbia
1918
DEATHS, 1917— Concluded,
Mining Division.
•cl
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a .
— c
." *-■
ll
JH    ***
£ *=»
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0
1
CO
OI
o
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cc
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5
CJ
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rt
9
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1032
4
52
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^H
485
11
1
12
8
31
497
30
4
38
2
12
10
4
197
6
8
7
16
3
1382
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0
H
1517
4
63
1
31
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85
1307
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88
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29
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476
33
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15
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18
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cd
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HH
0
H
1425
2
52
45
40
146
1240
36
11
112
4
38
33
32
533
36
26
19
40
5
12
3887
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B
O
.c
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w
Brought forward ..
Stikine—
284
36
52
22
59
146
195
2
14
183
9
164
6
171
2
6
127
44
Skeena—
14
1
4
10
^
1
7
1
1
2
1
Trail Creek-
1
2
3
1
5
1
10
177
4
1
9
"i"
2
5
37
3
4
6
4
1
6
163
5
1
5
1
4
3
4
54
6
1
9
6
5
1
1
1
1
1
19
25
2
64
810
28
8
50
2
17
20
17
279
27
18
8
23
4
15
2514
1
Trail 	
Trout Lake—
2
1
2
Vernon—
12
273
13
2
27
1
8
3
3
89
3
1
3
9
3
24
1
5
3
28
1
2
3
28
4
4
6
49
5
1
5
8
100
3
2
2
1
10
157
9
3
3
1
7
2
3
61
4
11
160
6
jo
8
103
6
1
12
3
49
1
1
4
2
5
1
Vancouver-
North Vancouver	
North Vancouver Dist..
South Vancouver	
84
7
i2
1
4
5
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
8
1
4
12
1
1
12
4
2
11
2
4
3
3
40
i
1
Victoria-
56
5
3
8
1
461
56
5
5
2
9
35
3
2
2
3
4
"i
1
1
20
1
Windermere—
1
1
1
2
1
2
329
1
1
473
3
2
451
3
8
456
Yale-
Yale                    	
2
762
1
341
1
158
18
2
28
Totals	
82
107
76
154
175 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 43
MARRIAGES, 1917.
Groom and Bride same Denomination.
Denomination.
Adventist	
Agnostic	
Anglo-Catholic	
Atheist	
Baptist	
Brethern	
Buddhist	
Calvinist	
Cambellite	
Christian	
Christian Brethern	
Christian Baptist	
Christian Science	
Christadelphian	
Church of God 	
Church of England	
Confucian	
Congregational	
International Bible Student.
Jewish	
Carried forward...
Number of
Marriages.
4
1
2
1
45
9
2
1
1
7
6
1
4
1
1
1
11
Denomination.
Brought forward
Latter Day Saints	
Lutheran	
Mennonite	
Methodist	
None	
Not given	
Non-Sectarian	
Orthodox	
Orthodox (Greek)	
Penticostal tt...  .
Presbyterian	
Protestant	
Reformed Episcopal	
Roman Catholic	
Salvation Army	
Theist	
Universalist..	
Total	
Number of
Marriages.
1
89
]
209
3
6
1
1
8
1
366
28
2
368
8
1
1
1,591
Groom and Bride of different Denominations.
Groom.
Bride.
Number of
Marriages.
Groom.
Bride.
Number of
Marriages.
Church of England...
Baptist	
Bible Student	
30
1
2
1
8
1
2
11
68
1
1
2
1
112
5
45
      293
2
1
8
3
6
4
        24
3
2
4
1
        10
1
1
          2
2
3
2
1
          8
1
34
4
2
4
6
163
1
12
227     337
Brought forward
Presbyterian—Con. ..
227
49
1
1
3
33
1
1
7
1
5
1
5
1
4
6
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
22
1
1
1
12
19
3
13
2
38
7
2
61
2
1
1
2
7
123
337
Methodist  	
None	
Not given	
M
Greek Orthodox	
..
Roman Catholic	
Theosophist	
Baptist	
ii
Methodist  	
Prote
316
Not given	
I.
Church of England	
,
Methodist	
Not given	
Church of England	
Methodist	
Church of England	
Roman Catholic	
ii
Church of England	
Methodist	
Roman Catholic	
Church of England....
Presbyterian	
Roman Catholic :
Refoi
Spirit
Lutb
med Episcopal..
30
3
3
.
,,
Church of England ...
Disciples of Christ	
Dutch Reformed	
Latter Day Saints ....
Methodist	
,,
Roman Catholic	
Church of England	
Anglo-Catholic	
Baptist	
t|
ii
Meth
ii
c
	
xlist	
75
Baptist	
Church of England....
Evangelican	
,,
,,
Christian Science	
Church of England	
„
Latter Day Saints	
,,
Carried forward.
arried forward.
764 G 44
British Columbia
1918
Groom and Bride of different Denominations—Concluded.
Brought forward
Methodist—Con	
Baptist.
Buddhist.
Christian.
Christian Science .
Carried forward.
Bride.
Jew	
Not given	
Presbyterian	
Protestant	
Quaker	
Roman Catholic
Church of England.
Methodist	
Presbyterian	
Quaker	
Roman Catholic
Adventist	
Brethern	
Christian 	
Christian Science	
Church of England.
Congregational	
Lutheran	
Methodist ,
Presbyterian	
Protestant	
Roman Catholic
Salvation Army...   .
Christian	
Methodist	
Adventist	
Baptist	
Church of England.
Lutheran	
Methodist	
Presbyterian	
Reformed Episcopal
Roman Catholic
Spiritualist	
Universalist	
Baptist	
Church of England.
Congregational	
Methodist	
Number of
Marriages.
1
1
79
2
1
23
1
1
1
1
16
3
2
24
15
2
13
1
1
1
1,111
Groom.
Brought forward
Theosophist	
Unitarian.
Adventist	
American Epis. Ch...
Anglo-Catholic	
Brahmin	
Brethern..	
Catholic Apostolic...
Church of Ireland	
Confucian	
Dunker	
Epis. Ch. of Scotland.
Freethinker	
Liberal	
Materialist	
Mennonite	
Moriron	
Nondescript	
Orthodox	
Quaker	
Salvation Army	
Socialist	
Undenominational..,
Universalist	
Roman Catholic .
Bride.
Christian Spiritualist.,
Methodist	
Church of England	
Lutheran ,
Methodist	
Presbyterian	
Methodist	
Church of England..
Presbyterian	
Congregational	
Church of England..
Church of England..
Christadelphian	
Methodist	
Lutheran	
Presbyterian	
Christian Friends.. .
Presbyterian	
None	
Lutheran	
Presbyterian	
Presbyterian	
Christian	
Methodist	
Church of England..
Methodist	
Church of England.,
Methodist	
Adventist	
Baptist	
Christian	
Church of England...
Congregational	
German Evangelical..
Greek Catholic	
Inter. Bible Student.
Lutheran.  	
Methodist  	
None	
Presbyterian	
Protestant	
Quaker	
Number of
Marriages.
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
J
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
1
1
1
1
9
23
2
35
4
1
Total     1,270
Bridegroom and Bride same denomination   1,591
Grand total    2,861 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 45
PRELIMINARY TABLES SHOWING BIRTHS FOR DIVISIONS.
Ashcroft Group.
Ashcroft	
Barkerville	
Fort George	
Tete Jaune Cache	
Clinton	
Lillooet.	
Quesnel    	
150-Mile House	
Yale	
Totals	
Faii-view Group.
Fairview	
Greenwood	
Grand Forks 	
Kamloops	
Nicola	
Princeton	
Vernon	
Totals	
Beaton Group.
Beaton 	
Cranbrook 	
Fernie	
Golden ,	
Kaslo	
Nakusp	
Nelson	
New Denver	
Revelstoke	
Rossland	
Slocan	
Trail	
Trout Lake	
Wilmer	
Totals	
Victoria Division.
Victoria City	
Cowichan	
Esquimalt	
Oak Bay 	
Saanich	
Totals	
Nanaimo Division.
Nanaimo City	
Alert Bay	
Comox	
Ladysmith	
Totals	
New Westminster Division.
New Westminster City	
Burnaby	
Chilliwack	
Outside	
Totals	
Vancouver Division.
Vancouver City	
South Vancouver	
Point Grey	
North Vancouver City	
North Vancouver District	
West Vancouver	
Richmond	
Unorganized	
Totals	
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1
1
1
2
4
1
1
1
1
2
2
i
6
3
4
4
4
5
4
5
4
6
1
i
2
i
1
2
5
2
4
1
2
1
3
4
1
3
1
3
1
2
3
1
3
2
2
12
14
7
1
1
2
1
1
4
1
5
5
12
13
11
8
10
16
10
13
14
14
2
5
10
2
6
4
5
7
4
3
4
5
6
7
14
4
5
5
3
1
2
7
3
6
5
14
7
1
5
6
4
1
14
15
24
11
16
23
20
12
28
21
19
1
2
5
6
4
2
3
7
6
7
6
1
4
1
3
4
3
1
2
2
20
25
24
25
15
16
36
85
28
29
41
32
2
43
67
69
54
57
76
59
79
85
73
1
1
1
2
8
10
8
5
7
20
14
10
8
11
7
14
13
14
13
16
14
16
21
16
9
6
1
4
5
2
1
1
2
4
6
1
3
3
4
4
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
4
8
21
9
15
2*2
15
9
29
11
17
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
2
3
5
1
11
7
9
13
13
11
12
4
6
4
9
1
3
3
2
4
3
4
4
6
7
2
1
4
1
1
5
9
15
18
4
6
7
12
11
19
14
14
1
20
1
2
2
3
5
2
2
i
48
70
87
58
65
69
88
73
99
58
68
16
45
58
62
59
63
102
86
65
59
88
51
6
4
8
8
7
5
5
8
12
6
3
2
8
1
7
3
7
6
9
7
9
2
2
3
5
1
5
4
3
1
2
4
3
3
4
3
10
8
6
12
16
11
17
19
21
2
57
76
86
16
83
84
130
116
84
20
87
124
78
11
26
20
18
17
23
27
21
19
2
2
1
1
2
1
6
9
18
17
11
11
9
5
11
13
15
1
7
5
7
D
5
4
4
3
28
6
4
5
40
3
24
40
43
44
34
33
37
46
38
6
11
23
28
38
32
24
20
40
43
26
31
5
11
9
7
12
13
12
8
15
13
12
8
9
3
10
5
8
5
7
8
6
16
19
3
18
18
24
22
32
22
■ 24
20
83
20
29
22
14
49
53
69
77
85
63
59
82
83
80
44
92
148
146
178
200
185
164
149
294
205
203
8
26
36
29
42
38
43
30
30
45
38
25
1
9
5
9
9
9
10
6
8
8
10
1
3
13
10
6
12
11
12
5
14
7
12
5
2
2
1
4
2
3
1
1
2
4
2
2
2
11
8
11
19
10
9
9
11
9
14
13
1
3
9
8
2
8
7
5
3
5
252
65
133
231
219
250
282
268
233
204
381
278
Totals.
50
15.
8
3
18
4
22
61
204
49
21
291
749
2
104
159
30
20
7
162
20
100
39
7
134
744
72
61
220
9
125
322
125
96
254
797
2,003
390
84
106
27
6
124
51
2,796 G 46
British Columbia
1918
Preliminary Tables showing Births for Divisions—Concluded.
Alberni Group.
Alberni 	
Anyox	
*AtIin	
Bella Coola	
Clayoquot	
Fort Fraser	
Hazelton	
*Fort St. John....
*Hudson Hope , ..
Pouce Coupe	
^Porter's Landing.
Prince Rupert ..
Quatsino	
Queen Charlotte..
Stewart	
*Telegraph Creek.
Totals.
Grand totals.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
April.
May
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dee.
2
3
2
'l
4
4
1
1
2
i
3
2
2
1
5
2
4
2
'2
1
1
3
2
'2
3
4
1
2
2
2
u
4
3
2
i
3
3
2
5
1
4
4
1
2
2
2
2
6
15
1
1
14
9
14
i
7
3
2
27
i
36
11
14
io
'5
15
6
9
24
26
23
28
19
22
25
36
24
136
368
673
611
602
646
668
670
563
812
716
629
27
7
9
32
1
2
16
1
144
4
13
1
278
6,994
* No returns received for December. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 47
PRELIMINARY TABLES   SHOWING DEATHS  FOR DIVISIONS.
Jan.
Feb.
41
5
4
4
Mar.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
27
3
2
1
3
Nov.
Dec.
Totals.
Victoria Division.
44
1
3
3
2
53
2
2
1
61
31
4
1
1
2
40
3
3
5
37
3
2
3
28
2
4
6
41
5
2
3
45
1
'i
2
87
2
1
1
6
52
0
4
3
2
476
33
Oak Bay	
26
15
89
53
54
39
15
's
51
45
40
51
49
36
5
3
7
3
47
63
589
Nanaimo Division.
9
5
2
10
2
9
3
10
4
3
9
1
7
2
6
ii
2
9
4
7
2
9
7
2
6
4
2
4
9
1
1
5
3
99
11
83
25
16
24
17
23
19
19
22
18
12
18
14
16
111
11
1
6
1
5
4
139
' 218
Vancouver Division.
132
16
2
8
2
2
1
89
9
5
5
2
2
140
6
2
5
2
1
4
3
163
19
1
3
19
42
128
6
4
2
2
1
111
3
1
7
5
2
116
11
2
2
1
1
3
136
85
7
6
2
4
104
65
5
5
6
i
6
1
95
6
2
1
2
128
4
6
6
i
107
5
5
1
'2
1
1,307
88
29
58
12
4
30
21
Totals	
162
112
143
31
6
3
19
129
89
106
145
121
17
2
5
13
1,549
New Westminster Division.
25
5
3
18
16
2
4
8
15
4
5
11
20
4
2i
15
1
5
13
19
4
2
11
15
1
1
15
22
3
1
17
29
2
5
15
243
85
37
New Westminster (outside)	
180
Totals	
51
30
2
2
1
59
35
45
1
2
34
36
32
43
i
2
2
5
5
3
4
17
2
2
11
37
51
495
Ashcroft Group.
1
i
i
'2
1
9
i
1
2
i
2
i
i
i
2
3
2
'i
i
2
3
i
2
i
'2
4
i
2
1
i
1
1
4
i
11
2
16
10
3
5
4
150-Mile House	
5
Yale	
18
3
5
12
3
3
6
12
3
8
35
5
5
3
8
7
3
4
3
3
'4
5
1
3
io
2
1
5
22
9
7
74
Fairview Group.
2
1
2
29
1
7
42
5
3
6
14
6
1'
8
6
8
1
14
1
8
1
2
1
16
3
9
3
2
3
13
2
1
4
1
9
11
i
2
13
's
1
2
2
5
'2
4
32
32
155
17
85
43
3
2
i4
9
4
i
38
32
23
28
17
44
24
16
Beaton Group.
ii
2
7
1
10
3
3
3
1
5
i
ii
1
3
6
'5
3
'2
7
10
1
3
i3
3
4
3
'2
3
28
1
1
2
9
2
1
4
5
6
4
3
1
12
1
3
3
i
i
'2
6
1
5
2
i
3
2
1
23
3
11
'i
8
2
2
3
2
32
9
12
i
1
'4
6
11
i
io
1
4
3
6
6
10
2
8
7
1
1
4
15
j
2
6
1
3
5
1
10
106
31
Trail	
33
Totals	
60
33
34
46
61
40
32
42
39
41 G 48
British Columbia
1918
Preliminary Tables showing Deaths for Divisions—Concluded.
Alberni Group.
Alberni 	
*Atlin	
Bella Coola	
Clayoquot	
Fort Fraser	
Hazelton	
*Fort St. John 	
*Hudson Hope	
Pouce Coupe	
* Porter's Landing	
Prince Rupert	
Anyox 	
Quatsino	
Queen Charlotte	
Stewart.   ....
^Telegraph Creek   .
Totals	
Grand totals	
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
3
2
i
2
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
i
4
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
4
2
2
2
1
i
2
i
3
2
3
1
4
'5
'7
i
5
2
1
"i
7
'6
i
6
2
3
8
2
5
i
2
16
2
1
5
'2
13
14
12
8
12
11
16
9
16
4
13
390
315
376
361
334
322
275
259
274
349
295
346
Totals.
16
1
11
1
9
25
63
1
2
5
3
4
* No returns received for December. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 49
MARRIAGES, 1917.
Number of Marriages.
Victoria Division—
      382
         16
         19
         14
449
112
1,394
279
44
2,278
Fairview Group— Cone hided.
        41 2,278
        16
Alberni Group—
Atlin	
        66
         IS
         15
Nanaimo Division—
         63
           6
        74
      218
         28
         15
    1,191
          8
           5
           3
Vancouver Division—
Fort St. John	
           7
         97
         12
         58
         38
          3
           4
           3
           4
         61
           1
       164
           4
Beaton Group—
         34
20
           1
      107
Ashcroft Group—
         61
           8
           2
         16
           1
           2
           3
          6
           3
        32
         40
         10
           6
           5
         83
         7
150-Mile House	
Trail   ...
         30
17
Yale	
Fairview Group—
            3
         26
         15
         41
,           3
         23
Total	
           2
    2,861
Bridegroom and Bride born in same Country.
Austria  9
Canada  562
China .*  4
Denmark  1
England  238
Finland  12
France   2
Galicia  3
Germany  5
Greece     2
Holland  1
Hungary  1
Ireland  15
Italy  24
Japan :  11
Carried forward  890
Brought forward  890
Newfoundland  I
New Zealand  2
Norway  8
Poland  2
Roumania  l
Russia  6
Scotland        891
Servia  l
Sweden     25-
United States of America     296
Wales  l
Not given   2.
Total -  1,32* G 50
British Columbia
1918
MARRIAGES, 1917—Continued.
Bridegroom and Bride born in different Countries.
Place of Birth.
England.
Total
Australia	
British West Indies.
Barbadoes	
Ceylon	
Channel Islands .
East Indies	
Total.
Scotland.
Argentina	
Australia	
Bohemia	
Canada 	
Channel Islands	
China	
Denmark	
Egypt	
France	
Germany .,
Ireland	
Mexico	
Newfoundland	
Norway ,
Poland	
Portugal	
Russia	
Scotland	
South Africa	
Sweden ,
Switzerland	
Tasmania	
United States of America
Wales	
Not given	
Number of
Marriages.
Canada   	
England 	
United States of America
Canada 	
England	
Scotland	
Canada 	
United States of America
Alaska	
Australia	
Canada 	
Channel Islands	
England	
Ireland	
New Zealand	
South Africa	
Switzerland	
United States of America
Wales	
1
173
1
1
2
1
1
3
22
1
3
1
1
1
3
66
1
4
1
1
52
7
2
I
1
65
1
53
8
2
1
1
16
2
29
18
(t
1
6
1
..
United States of America
6
Total	
61
Place of Birth.
Gibraltar...
Isle of Man.
India	
Total.
England .
Canada .
United States of America
Number of
Marriages.
Canada.
Australia	
Austria	
Belgium	
Channel Islands	
China	
Denmark	
England     	
Finland	
France 	
Germany	
Iceland	
Ireland	
Italy	
Newfoundland	
New Zealand	
Norway 	
Russia	
Scotland	
South Africa 	
Sweden	
Syria ,	
United States of America
Wales	
Not given	
Total.
Austria	
Canada 	
Denmark	
United States of America
Wales	
United States of America
9
6
1
1
2
United States of America
3
Total	
22
Total
Australia
Canada 	
England	
Finland	
France	
Germany	
Iceland 	
Ireland 	
Italy	
Japan 	
Norway	
Poland	
Russia	
Scotland	
Servia	
South Africa .
Sweden	
Sweden..
Total.
Canada	
Denmark	
England	
Finland	
Holland	
Iceland    	
Ireland 	
Norway	
Russian Poland.   	
Scotland	
United States of America
2
1
1
1
2
126
1
2
16
1
2
1
1
2
76
1
5
1
152
8
1
3
198
68
1
4
2
6
3
1
1
3
1
3
19
1
1
11
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 51
MARRIAGES, 1917—Concluded.
Bridegroom and Bride born in different Countries—Concluded.
Place of Birth.
Number of
Marriages.
Place of Birth.
Groom.
Bride.
Groom.
Bride.
Marriages.
Canada 	
United States of America
Wales	
3
2
1
France 	
5
2
..
.
1
United States of America
Total	
6
.
2
Total	
England	
United States of America
4
2
2
Total	
8
Switzerland	
United States of America
1
,,
2
2
I
1
1
1
Total	
New Zealand	
United States of America
7
	
5
1
England	
1
Straits Settlements	
Italy	
1
Canada 	
England	
France	
Hungary	
United States of America
2
1
1
1
3
1
Austria	
Canada 	
England	
14
5
1
Scotland ■.	
United States of America
8
Total	
29
6
1
7
United States of America
14
Total	
9
1
4
1
1
1
1
England	
5
United States of America
8
Total	
7
40
Note.—Grand total, 2,861. G 52
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
6
S3
S
ca
CJ
6
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
S
it
■e
B
5
9
N
O
ea
m
o
HH
5 to 10 years.
l
VICTORIA DIVISION—VICTORIA CITY.
I.—General Diseases.
M.
ft
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
8
1
1
"%
9
1
10
14
2
1
18
20
28
1
1
1
28a
29
30
1
1
30A
34
34A
37
39a
39b
390
39d
40
41
42
43
44a
44b
45
45a
45b
46
1
47
48
60
1
50A
51
52
54a
1
56
61
II.—Diseases of the Nervous System.
1
1
6lA
1
61b
1
63
64
1
1
68
69
71
3
1
1
77
III.—Diseases op the Circulatory System.
77a
78
78a
1
79
1
79a
79b
....
79c
79d
80
81
82 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 53
DEATH, 1917.
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1
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1
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1
1
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1
1
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1
1
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1
1
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9
5
1
1
1
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1
1
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1
1
1
4
4
1
4
1
"i
1
14
2
23
7
1
1
1
1
4
1
3
3
1
11
6
1
1
1
1
3
6
1
2
2
1
3
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
6
2
1
1
1
1
1
"i"
3
i
3
3
"i'
2
2
13
1
8
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
4
2
1
6
1
1
4
5
2
1
1
1
1
3 G 54
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
d
.2
1
55
ca
D
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
ea
9
CJ
"0
B
P
I
CM
O
tH
ca
9
10
O
ea
5 to 10 years.
89
VICTORIA DIVISION—VICTORIA CITY.—Continued.
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
M.
F.
2
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
90
91
5
2
"2'
1
1
92
92a
92b
920
2
1
1
92d
1
92e
92p
92o
1
93
94
96
98A
102
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
103
103a
104
i
2
1
105
2
1
i
108
109
109a
1
111
116
117
117a
118
118a
118b
118c
1
1
1
1
119
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Gexito-urinary System and Annexa.
120
122
126
129
130
135
VII.—The Puerperal State.
137a
138
141A
141b
142
VIII.—Diseases of the Skin and of the Cellular Tissue.
146
IX.—Diseases of the Bones and Oroans of Locomotion.
X.—Malformations.
XI.—Diseases of Early Infancy.
8
5
1
1
12
7
1
4
4
1
151
1
8
4
163C 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 55
DEATH, 1917'—Continued.
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1
2
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1
1
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1
1
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1
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2
1
1
1
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1
1
1
1
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2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
16
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
4
1
4
2
1
3
1
i
1
1
1
5
3
1
1
20
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
5
1
9
5
1
1
12
7
1
i
1
4
4
13
1
1
8
4
2
20
11
1 G 56
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
o
to
a
.2
1
5
"ffi
B
O
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
s
3
s
rt
cu
CM
O
oj
ca
9
io
O
HH
©a
5 to 10 years.
154
VICTORIA DIVISION—VICTORIA CITY.—Concluded.
XII.—Old Age.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
155
XIII.—-Affections produced by External Causes.
157
167
1
169
172
173
174
1
175
1
187
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
187a
53
36
6
2
7
5
6
6
32a
40
41
42
45a
45 b
51
77a
79a
79b
81a
Purulent infection and septicaemia	
Tuberculosis of the lungs	
Tuberculosis of spine	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the stomach, liver	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the peritoneum, intestines, rectum .
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the female genital organs	
Cancer of prostate	
Cancer of bronchial glands	
Exophthalmic goitre	
113
151
152a
153a
VICTORIA DIVISION—COWICHAN.
I.—General Diseases.
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Cerebral hsem.orrh.age, apoplexy	
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Myocarditis 	
Mitral regurgitation	
Mitral regurgitation complicated hy nephritis.
Aneurism .  	
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Pneumonia.
Pleurisy	
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
Cirrhosis of the liver	
VI.—NON-VENEREAL  DISEASES OF GeNITO-URINARY SYSTEM  AND ANNEXA.
Uremia.
XI.—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Congenital debility, icterus, and sclerema.
Atelectasis	
Premature	
XII.—Old Age.
Senility . 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 57
DEATH, 1917— Continued.
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M.
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2
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2
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6
F.
1
M.
F.
2
M.
F.
M.
8
1
1
1
2
3
1
2
2
1
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1
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F.
5
1
13
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
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9
1
1
3
1
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1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
i
i
6
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
29
1
1
38
18
33
3
1
23
1
1
2
1
8
6
25
15
21
16
34
20
32
18
17
1
3
1
5
279
197
476
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
3
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
l
2
%
1
1
1
1
1
1 G 58
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
d
to
c
.2
It
a
<5
rt
O
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
h
rt
Oj
u
OJ
0
CM
O
o5
rt
OJ
Si
HO
c
CM
o
o
169
VICTORIA DIVISION—COWICHAN.—Concluded.
XIII.—Affections Produced by External Causes.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
172
3
1
14
28
34
40
77a
78a
79
80
81a
105
113
169
169
170
VICTORIA DIVISION—ESQUIMALT.
L—General Diseases.
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
1
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
VIII.—Diseases of the Skin and of the Cellular Tissue.
1
XII.—Old Age.
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
1
	
	
	
	
1
	
28
victoria division—oak bay.
I.—General Diseases.
»
42
44a
64
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
78
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
81A 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 59
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
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2
4
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4
1
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27
6
33
1
i_
i
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
i
1
2
1
18
1
1
1
2
1
2
4
4.
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
2
8
26
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 G 60
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
d
to
©
1
s
"So
a
3
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.
a
V
9
a
rt
CM
o
ei
•u
>>
in
o
CM
a
c
o
96
VICTORIA DIVISION—OAK BAY.— Concluded.
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
102
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
119
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
126
150
X. —Malformations.
1
1
1
153A
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Still-born	
154
XII.—Old Age.
2
1
24
39a
40
41
42
45
77A
79a
79b
80
84A
85
90
92
92a
104
113
115
120a
151
151b
153a
VICTORIA DIVISION—SAANICH.
I.—General Diseases.
Whooping-cough	
Tetanus, neonatorum	
Cancer of neck	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the stomach, liver	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the peritoneum, intestines, rectum	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the female genital organs	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of other organs, and of organs not specified.
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Cerebral haemorrhage, apoplexy	
Ill,—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Myocarditis ,
Chronic valvular disease
Mitral regurgitation	
Angina pectoris	
Hodgkin's disease	
Haemorrhage	
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Chronic bronchitis.
Pneumonia	
Lobar pneumonia..
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
Diarrhoea and enteritis (under 2 years)..
Cirrhosis of the liver	
Other diseases of the liver	
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
Uremia.
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Congenital debility, icterus, and sclerema..
Non-assimilation of food	
Premature	 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 61
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
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F.
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M.
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1
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
F.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
6
2
8
7
15
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
l
1
1
1
l
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
l
l
i
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1
1
1
1
2
2
2 G 62
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
6
&
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o
ea
"S
%
o
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
Under 1 year.
rt
£
CM
O
TO
ei
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©
CM
©
o
154
VICTORIA DIVISION—SAANICH- Concluded.
XII.—Old Age.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
169
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
189
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
4
5
1
1
....
1
NEW WESTMINSTER DIVISION—NEW WESTMINSTER CITY.
L—General Diseases.
9
1
20
2
20A
28
1
1
30
1
30a
34a
37
39a
40
41
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the peritoneum, intestines, rectum	
44
50A
63A
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
1
1
1
67
68A
1
1
71
1
77a
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
78
79
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
1
1
1
98a 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 63
DEATH,  1917—Continued.
i
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70 to 80 years.
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Total by Sexes.
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CO
£
ca
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1
O
H
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2
M.
1
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
3
1
F.
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
4
3
5
4
	
23
16
39
1
1
1
1
4
1
10
1
1
1
3
1
1
4
1
1
2
1
1
1
4
1
17
1
4
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
7
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
1
2
1
'"i"
1
1
1
i'
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
'"e"
9
8
2
2
4
3
l
1
1
2
6
7
8
1
1
1
6
1
3
2
1
1
3
"b
3
1
1
1
1
*k
2
12
16
1
3
1
2
2
3
1
1
1
1
"i
1
3
1
2
3
1
3
3
1
10
4
3
1
i
2
1
1
1
l
3
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
4
5
1
2
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
4
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
l
1
2
1
1
1
1
l
1
'"i"
1
1
1
1
1
" i'
l
1
l
1
i G 64
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
102
103
103a
105
108
108a
109
110a
110b
110c
113
117
118
119
120
120a
122
126
131a
132
137
137a
140
142
145
160
151
151B
153a
153b
153c
154
157
159
165
169
169a
170
174
185
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
NEW WESTMINSTER DIVISION—NEW WESTMINSTER CITY.—Concluded.
V.—Diseases of the Dioestive System.
Ulcer of the stomach 	
Other diseases of the stomach (cancer excepted)	
Hemorrhage of bow-els ".	
Diarrhoea and enteritis (2 years and over)	
Appendicitis and typhlitis	
Appendicitis (gangrenous)	
Hernias, intestinal obsti uctions   	
Ileocolitis	
Intussusception	
Abscess of the liver	
Cirrhosis of the liver	
Simple peritonitis (non-puerperal),	
Other diseases of the digestive system (cancer and tuberculosis excepted) .
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
Acute nephritis.
Bright's disease.
Uremia.
Other diseases of the kidneys and annexa	
Diseases of the prostate	
Pyonephrosis	
Salpingitis and other diseases of the female genital organs.
VII.—The Puerperal State.
Puerperal septicaemia	
Induced abortion   	
Following childbirth (not otherwise defined)..
VIII.—Diseases of the Skin and of the Cellular Tissue.
Gangrene	
Other diseases of the skin and annexa..
M.
IX.—Diseases of the Bones and Organs of Locomotion.
Toxic Absorption (osteomyelitis)	
X.—Malformations.
Congenital malformation (still-births not included)	
XI.—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Congenital debility, icterus, and sclerema..
Non-assimilation of food	
Still-born 	
Premature	
Haemophilia neonatorum	
XII.—Old Age.
Senility .
XIII.—Affections produced by External Caus
Suicide by hanging or strangulation	
Suicide by firearms	
Other acute poisonings	
Accidental drowning	
Traumatism in logging camp and sawmill.
Traumatism by firearms	
Traumatism by machines	
Fractures (causes not specified).  	
Other external violence	
F. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 65
- DEATH, 1917—Continued.
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5
3
5
B
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20 to 30 years.
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9
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£
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1
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9
"£c
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Total by Sexes.
J
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i
P
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M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
»1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
9,
1
1
5
1
1
7
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
7
4
1
1
2
11
3
6
18
7
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
5
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
22
8
10
5
16
14
21
17
15
5
12
13
8
8
3
2
-
~
777.
4
146
97
243 G 66
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
d
a
S
CAUSE OF DEATH.
$
3
QJ
rt
9
ei
9
en
ei
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
9
T3
CM
O
©
©
O
O
D
H
CM
m
NEW WESTMINSTER DIVISION—BURNABY,
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
I,—General Diseases.
5
27
32A
39a
42
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
64
71
1
1
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
77a
79a
79b
79c
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
91
1
92a
1
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
104
1
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
119
1
X.—Malformations.
150
2
XI.—Diseases of Early Infancy.
15lB
1
1
2
153 a
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
157
169
1
175
9
1
2
1
40
51
64
68
71
77a
78
79
NEW WESTMINSTER DIVISION—CHILLIWACK.
I.—General Diseases.
Leprosy 	
Tuberculosis of the lungs   	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the stomach, liver .
Exophthalmic goitre	
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Cerebral haemorrhage, apoplexy ..
Other forms of mental alienation .
Convulsions of infants	
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Myocarditis	
Acute endocarditis	
Organic diseases of the heart. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 67
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
10 to 20 years.
E
ci
CJ
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ci
9
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h*i
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00
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80 to 90 years.
90 and upwards.
B
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p
B
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be
<
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M.
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F.
1
M.
1
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
1
F.
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
3
1
3
3
2
1
1
3
4
3
1
24
11
35
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
5
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1 G 68
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
6
fe
d
.2
n
5
*
1-
O
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
u
ei
>*
0J
a
p
u5
rt
CM
O
rt
9
o
(M
5 to 10 years.
91
NEW WESTMINSTER DIVISION—CHILLIWACK.—Concluded.
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
M.
F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
92
97a
103a
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
1
105
1
120
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
150
X.—Malformations.
1
1
1
1
151
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
153a
1
154
XII.—Old Age.
Senility '.	
169
XI11.—Affections produced by External Causes.
170
175
175a
178a
5
5
1
NEW WESTMINSTER DIVISION—OUTSIDE.
I.—General Diseases.
1
10
20
1
28
1
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the peritoneum, intestines, rectum	
41
45A
46
61
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
64
67
68
69
1
71
1
1
1
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory Syste.m.
77a
1
78
1
79b
79c
85a 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 69
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
t»
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O
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9
£
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ca
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IO
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ci
CJ
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£
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£
cc
CJ
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00
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ca
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Total by Sexes.
c
CJ
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HH
P
G
X
CJ
CO
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J
HH
Ci
CJ
e
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F.
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F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
1
2
2
1
•9
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
1
1
3
5
2
2
3
1
1
3
25
12
37
1
2
1
3
10
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
3
2
2
1
1
2
1
4
14
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
1
3
4
3
1
1
1
4
1
3
2
1
15
3
4
2
1
1
4
5
2
4
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
3
1
4
1
2
1
9
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
1
2
1
1
1
5
9
1
1
2
1
1
5
2
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
i
1 G 70
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
91
92
92a
92b
92c
94
97a
103
104
105
106
108
109
110a
113
118
119
120
120A
126
137
139
151
151a
152a
153a
153b
159
167
169
169a
170
171a
174
175
185
186
187a
189
CAUSE OF DEATH.
{After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
NEW WESTMINSTER DIVISION—OUTSIDE. -Concluded.
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Acute bronchitis..	
Bronchopneumonia	
Pneumonia	
Lobar pneumonia	
Bronchopneumonia following whooping-cough .
Hypostatic pneumonia	
Pulmonary congestion, pulmonary apoplexy...
Pulmonary embolism	
OEdema of lungs	
Suppurative tonsilitis	
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
Other diseases of the stomach (cancer excepted)	
Diarrhoea and enteritis (under 2 years)	
Diarrhcea and enteritis (2 years and over)	
Ankylostomiasis  ....	
Appendicitis and typhlitis	
Hernias, intestinal obstructions	
Enterocolitis	
Cirrhosis of the liver	
Other diseases of the digestive system (cancer and tuberculosis excepted).
VL—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-Urinary Syste.m and Annexa.
Acute nephritis..
Bright's disease .
Uremia..
Diseases of the prostate.
V1L—The Puerperal State.
Puerperal septicaemia	
Puerperal phlegmasia alba dolens, embolus, sudden death...
X.—Malformations.
Congenital malformation (still-births not included)	
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Congenital debility, icterus,and sclerema.
Accident of labour	
Atelectasis '.
Still-born	
Premature	
XII.—Old Age.
Senility.
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
Suicide by firearms	
Burns (conflagration excepted)	
Accidental drowning	
Traumatism in logging camp and sawmill	
Traumatism by firearms	
Traumatism by falling tree	
Traumatism by machines   	
Traumatism by other crushing (railroad, landslides, vehicles, etc.).
Fractures (causes not specified)	
Other external violence	
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
Dropsy	
Cause of death not specified or ill-defined. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 71
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
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M.
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1
6
3
1
F.
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1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
11
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
"i"
1
1
1
2
i
1
1
1
1
1
2
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1
1
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
3
1
2
2
1
3
4
6
5
1
1
2
2
i
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
4
1.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
1
1
20
1
2
6
2
18
6
15
3
16
3
20
5
5
6
5
3
130
50
ISO G 72
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
p
is
1
a
CJ
3
B
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O
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
m
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9
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2 to 5 years.
oj
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1
NANAIMO DIVISION—NANAIMO CITY.
I.—General Diseases.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
8
1
1
1
1
9
28
39a
39b
40
42
47
1
50
50A
54a
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
61
1
61A
64
71
1
1
77a
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
78
79
79a
81a
81b
87
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
89
1
90
91
1
1
92
1
2
92A
98a
102
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
104
1
108
113
114
117
119
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
120A
137
VII.—The Puerperal State.
141A
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
151
2
1
3
1
152a
153a
1
154
XII.—Old Age.
159
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
169
175
182 a
186
1 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G Ti
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
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M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
F.
1
2
1
4
2
1
4
1
1
2
2
2
3
1
2
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
i
1
1
'i'
l
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
2
l
l
l
l
2
4
2
1
i
l
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
4
1
6
1
1
1
1
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
l
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
9
1
2
1
3
1
1
5
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
SI
1
1
2
1
1
1
2 G 74
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.
1
1
"Eo
I
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rt
9
9
•6
3
CM
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G-1
a;
9
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189
NANAIMO DIVISION—NANAIMO CITY.—Concluded.
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
10
7
6
1
28
NANAIMO DIVISION—ALERT BAY.
I.—General Diseases.
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
1
77a
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
1
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
1
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
1
2
2
NANAIMO DIVISION—COMOX.
L—General Diseases.
1
1
1
1
1
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
71
73
77a
78
78a
79
1
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
79b
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
1
91
92 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 75
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
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Total by Sexes.
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M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
1
6
6
7
4
8
7
7
4
10
6
=
2
2
60
39
99
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
8
3
11
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
T
1
1
2
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
3
3
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1 G 76
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
6
X
%
1
CJ
%
i
6
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
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1
s
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117
NANAIMO DIVISION—COMOX.— Concluded.
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
119
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
120 a
137a
VII.—The Puerperal State.
142
VIII.—Diseases of the Skin and of the Cellular Tissue.
153A
XI,—Diseases of Early Infancy.
1
154
XIL—Old Age.
160
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
165
168
169
169a
171a
173
175
181
182
185
189
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
2
2
1
2
1
9
NANAIMO DIVISION—LADYSMITH.
I.—General Diseases.
1
28
1
64
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
70
1
77a
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
89
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
91
1
2
2
1
92
93
108
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
1
119
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 77
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
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Total by Sexes.
Sex not given.
Total Deaths.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
:m.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F'
M.
F.
1
1
1
1
1
1
......  ..
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
i'
1
i
i
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
10
1
7
1
1
1
1
4
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
5
2
1
1
1
1
2
10
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
7
i
1
2
1
4
1
1
1
10
1
2
11
1
16
4
4
4
6
3
5
2
i
1
1
l
3
63
20
.   ,      83
1
1
1
1
3
2
2      ..
1
3
1
1
1
4
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 G 78
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
©
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.2
CJ
CAUSE OF DEATH.
ei
9
ei .
3
GJ
«
9
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
U
CM
m
rt
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
jo
O
o
©
6
P
*-"
(M
in
NANAIMO DIVISION—LADYSMITH.—'Concluded.
VII.—The Puerperal State. •
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
137
VIII.—Diseases of the Skin and of the Cellular Tissue.
145A
X.—Malformations.
1
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
153 a
1
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
169
1
1
6
1
1
2
2
-
~
1
20
28
30
41
64
68a
70
71
77a
78
79
81
1)1
92
104
108
109
118
150
153a
153b
153c
BEATON GROUP—CRANBROOK.
I.—General Diseases.
Typhoid fever	
Purulent infection and septicaemia	
Tuberculosis of the lungs	
Tubercular meningitis	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the peritoneum, intestines, rectum.
Other tumours (tumours of the female genital organs excepted)	
Addison's disease	
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sens:
Locomotor ataxia	
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy..
Paralysis from bite of wood tick..
Convulsions (non-puerperal)	
Convulsions of infants	
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Myocarditis	
Acute endocarditis	
Organic diseases of the heart .
Diseases of the arteries	
iv.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Bronchopneumonia..
Pneumonia	
Asthma	
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
Diarrhoea and enteritis (under 2 years)	
Appendicitis and typhlitis	
Hernias, intestinal obstructions	
Other diseases of the digestive system (cancer and tuberculosis excepted)..
X.—Malformations.
Congenital malformation (still-births not included)	
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Still-born 	
Premature	
Injury by forceps at birth. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 79
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
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1
M.
F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
	
1
9
16
25
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
"i'
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
•
1
2
1
1
1
3
3
4
1 G 80
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
p
§
I
1
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
Under 1 year.
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>>
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O
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m
3
0J
o
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169
BEATON GROUP— CRANBROOK.—Concluded.
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
173a
174
8
8
2
1
2
1
1
BEATON GROUP—FERNIE.
I.—General Diseases.
1
6
1
1
8
3
1
1
1
20
28
40
42
45
50
1
56a
56b
61
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
1
1
70
71
2
2
77a
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
78
78b
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
1
1
1
"i*
i
1
1
1
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
4
4
1
1
1
1
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
131
137
150
VII.—The Puerperal State.
X.—Malformations.
2 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 81
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
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ca
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Total by Sexes.
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9
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HH
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M.
P.
M.
1
F.
M.
1
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
1
1
F.
1
1
1
2
1
4
1
3
2
5
2
4
1
2
29
19
48
3
1
1
1
6
1
1
2
7
1
4
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
o
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
4
I
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
i
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
5
1
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
4
3
1
1
1
4
9
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2 G 82
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
©
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5
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
rt
9
<U
5
rt
9
CM
O
C
rt
9
IO
o
CM
9
O
O
lO
151
BEATON GROUP—FERNIE.—Concluded.
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
M.
1
F.
i
5
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
151B
153a
Still-born                                                                	
3
3
153b
159
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
167
1
169
1
173
175
186
24
18
3
4
2
1
1
79
BEATON GROUP—GOLDEN.
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
92 *.
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
97a
XL —Diseases of Early Infancy.
1
XIIL—Affections produced by External Causes.
1
BEATON   GROUP—KASLO.
L—General Diseases.
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
108
117
142
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
VIII.—Diseases of the Skin and of the Cellular Tissue. 8 Geo
. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 83
DEATH,  1917—Continued.
ci
CJ
o
Ol
p
©
oj
ca
©
p
©
CM
ci
CJ
©
P
o
el
CJ
©
io
P
©
©
©
©
o
m
ei
o
O
©
©
©
CO
©
©
ei
O
©
o
©
00
V
ft
£
ei
©
©
a
9
>
o
9
<
Total by Sexes.
p
CJ
'bo
p
P
CJ
CO
oj
jP
ei
a
*ei
p
H
1
1
8
3
1
9
3
32
1
1
1
140
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
F.
1
5
3
1
8
1
3
32
1
1
1
2
4
1
1
9
1
1
i
1
1
1
14
1
2
1
0
1
1
1
12
1
22
17
5
2
9
6
3
3
1
3
3
104
36
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
10
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
-
1
9
1
1
1
"T
i
1
1
1
1
4
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
i
1 1
G 84                                                    British Columbia                                                    191S
CAUSES OF
c?8i           g*                     Classification No.
CO                    J.
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
ei
9
0J
-g
c
p
BO
S-
ei
9
CM
O
i-
ri
9
LO
©
■M
5 to 10 years.
BEATON GROUP— KASLO.—Concluded.
XI.—Diseases of Early Infancy.
M.
F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Still-born                                                                       	
1
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
1
1
1
1
34a
44a
50a
64
79a
117
119
151B
BEATON GROUP—NAKUSP.
I.—General Diseases.
1
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Sfecial Sense.
<
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
VI.—Non-Venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
XI.—Diseases of Early Infancy.
1
1
1
—
7
8
24a
24b
28
30
40
46
50
5*2
54A
56a
61a
64
69
71
77a
78a
79
79a
79b
82
BEATON GROUP—NELSON.
I.—General Diseases.
2
1
1
1
1
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
1
1
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
1 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 85
DEATH,  1917—Continued.
i
«
9
©
0
©
ei
<U
>i
©
CO
o
©
CM
9
©
-*
O
©
CO
a
CJ
©
©
©
-*
ci
9
©
©
o
©
d
O
I*-
O
s
i
ei
©
00
O
O
ct
©
©
O
00
ei
ft
a
c
©
©
e
o
c
■bo
Total by Sexes.
c
CJ
'bb
p
p
CJ
CO
O
p
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1.
1
1
4
1
5
2
2
5
2
1
r
~
20
4
24
1
i
1
i
1
1
1
1
l
l
1
1
1
1
l
l
1
1
1
l
1
1
1
2
1
1
4
4
8
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
o
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
2
1
1
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
9
1
1
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
i
2
i
i
i
i
i ' •
1
G 86                                                 British Columbia                                                 1918
CAUSES OF
p
p
p
H
CJ
S
ei
0
89
91
92
94
97a
102
108
104
108
110a
113
120
120a
137a
140
150
151
153A
153B
154
160
167
169
173
175
178a
186
187a
189
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
ei
9
o>
ei
C-l
P
oj
j-
ca
s
ICC
p
CM
5 to 10 years.
BEATON GROUP—NELSON.- Concluded.
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
M.
2
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
1
1
1
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-Urinary System and Annexa.
1         •
VII—The Puerperal State.
1
X.—Malformations.
XI.—Diseases of Early Infancy.
1
1
3
1
1
1
Still-born	
j\II.—Old Age.
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
1
1
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
«9
8
1
4
2
3
1
28
29
6lA
79
79A
92
BEATON GROUP—NEW DENVER.
I.—General Diseases.
•
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
1
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 87
DEATH,  1917—Continued.
Sh
ca
CJ
j*.
©
CM
P
©
ea
CJ
>>
©
CO
p
©
c-l
in
ci
9
©
HH
P
©
ci
CJ
©
1C3
P
©
ci
9
©
©
p
5
0)
©
p
©
©
ci
OJ
£
p
©
ci
9
©
©
p
HH
©
OO
-P
ei
£.
B
■P
P
©
©
B
CJ
'ft
P
P
CJ
to
<
CJ
jc
CJ
cc
H=
*c?
P
H
c
CJ
•a
HH
P
X
CJ
CO
oj
HP
-in
<a
«
*ci
p
H
M.
F.
M.
P.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
2
2
4
1
1
2
1
F.
2
2
1
2
3
1
1
1
*
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
7
1
1
1
1
1
72
4
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
5
1
4
1
4
10
2
6
1
3
1
4
2
2
6
2
10
4
9
6
34
106
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
i
i
2
1
1
1 G 88
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
i
a
p
HH
ei
O
cause of DEATH.
ei
9
ei
tn
ei
9
en
ei
9
CO
ei
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
53
CM
o
©
©
o
O
P
n
CM
ir;
BEATON GROUP—NEW DENVER.— Concluded.
V.—DlSEALBS  OF THE DEGESTIVE SYSTEM.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
104
1
The Puerperal State.
137a
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
169
173
1
1
BEATON GROUP—REVELSTOKE.
	
—
I.—General Diseases.
1
20
28
45
50
54a
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
61a
66
71
2
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System,
77a
78
79
1
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
92
1
92a
1
92b
94
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
1
1
1
1
1
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
VII.—The Puerperal State.
137
VIII.—Diseases of the Skin and of the Cellular Tissue.
142
X.—Malformations.
1
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
2
2
1
1
153b 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 89
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
ei
OJ
©
CM
g
©
a
o
CO
o
©
CM
to
ei
©
©
©
i
©
©
go
rt
o
©
©
o
©
ei
V
©
o
©
©
en
C
«
©
00
o
©
ri
9
©
©
O
©
00
■-g
rt
is
-3
G
rt
O
©
CJ
'a
o
CJ
bo
<
Total by Sexes.
B
CJ
'bo
p
JC
CJ
CO
oi
.p
ea
CJ
a
p
H
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
F.
1
1
1
i'
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
3
2
1
3
11
13
,"i'
1
1
1
l
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
o
i
"i"
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
l
1
2
l
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1 G 90
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
6
fe
G
.2
1
5
3
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
ei
V
i-
9
a
p
3
OJ
CM
o
ei
KS
O
CM
ei
>>
©
o
lO
169
BEATON GROUP—REVELSTOKE—Concluded.
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.
F.
175
186
186a
11
3
1
2
1
20
28
30
61a
62
64
77a
78a
79a
78b
110a
117
151
153a
169
186
BEATON GROUP—ROSSLAND.
I.—General Diseases.
Purulent infection and septicaemia
Tuberculosis of the lungs	
Tuberculous meningitis	
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Cerebral tumor	
Locomotor ataxia	
Cerebral haemorrhage, apoplexv .
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Myocarditis	
Endocarditis following rheumatism
Mitral regurgitation.	
Dilatation of heart	
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Pneumonia	
Capillary bronchitis
Pleurisy     	
OSdema of lungs	
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
Enterocolitis ,   	
Simple peritonitis (non-puerperal) .	
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
Other diseases of the kidneys and annexa	
X.—Malformations.
Congenital malformation (still-births not included)	
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Congenital debilitv, icterus, and sclerema..
Still-born	
XII.—Old Age.
Senility.
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
Accidental drowning	
Other external violence .
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
Ill-defined organic disease . 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 91
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
9
©
CM
o
©
o5
rt
9
o
CO
o
o
(M
rt
9
©
o
©
CO
rt
©
o
©
9
©
©
O
©
iO
u5
9
©
©
©
©
ei
9
>>
©
O
©
ei
V
o
©
o
©
CO
ft
G
rt
S
"So
o
c
o
X
9
02
~ei
I
P
CJ
>
'bo
p
X
CJ
CO
oj
.C
CJ
a
*ce
p
H
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
0
6
3
1
2
1
1
1
30
10
40
"i"
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
"i"
1
4
2
1
1
I
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
" i'
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
5
1
5
4
3
1
1
1
1
19
12
31 G 92
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
o"
fe
G
.2
'■£
d
©
s
*3*j
s
5
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
9
9
TS
C
ei
o
u
ei
9
iO
o
■5-1
5 to 10 years.
64
BEATON GROUP—SLOCAN CITY.
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
91
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
1
120a
IV.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
153a
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
1
1
1
20
28
45
50
92
94
102
104
151b
153a
153b
153c
169
169a
173
181
BEATON GROUP—TRAIL.
I.—General Diseases.
Whooping-cough followed by nephritis and convulsions	
Purulent infection and septicaemia	
Tuberculosis of the lungs	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of other organs, and of organs not specified.
Diabetes	
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Convulsions of infants	
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Organic diseases of the heart .
Angina pectoris	
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Acute bronchitis	
Pneumonia	
Pulmonary congestion, pulmonarj apoplexy..
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
Ulcer of the stomach	
Diarrhcea and enteritis (under 2 years).
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
VIL—The Puerperal State.
Puerperal embolism.
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Non-assimilation of food.
Still-born	
Premature	
Difficult parturition	
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
Accidental drowning	
Traumatism in logging camp and saw-mill.
Traumatism in mines and quarries	
Electricity (lightning excepted)	
Other external violence	
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
Cause of death not specified or ill-defined	 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 9J
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
10 to 20 years.
CJ
©
CO
o
©
CJ
©
p
©
ecj
40 to 50 years.
15
a
9
©
©
p
©
irj
60 to 70 years.
ci
CJ
o
CO
P
©
9
©
©
p
©
00
*p
ei
P.
•3
B
ca
©
©
G
09
*s>
0
0
bo
<;
Total by Sexes.
B
CJ
"bo
"p
p
X
CO
HP
CJ
a
*rt
P
H
M.
F.
M.
F.J
M.
F.
M.
1
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
F.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
l
2
1
2
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
o
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
9
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
5
3
1
5
1
1
1
8
25
33 G 94
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
p
1
rt
(gj
*55
ci
a
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
Under 1 year.
1 to 2 years.
2 to 5 years.
3
9
O
o
IO
163
BEATON GROUP—TROUT LAKE.
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
189
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
64
BEATON GROUP—WILMER.
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
79
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
96
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
39a
50
79
79a
81
91
92
97a
98a
137
ALBERNT GROUP—ALBERNI.
L— General Diseases.
Diphtheria and croup.
Cancer of the bladder .
Diabetes 	
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Cerebral haemorrhage, apoplexy	
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Organic diseases of the heart.
Fatty degeneration of heart..
Diseases of the arteries	
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Bronchopneumonia	
Pneumonia    	
Pulmonary haemorrhage
OZdema of lungs	
VII.—Tub Puerperal State.
Puerperal septicemia	
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Non-assimilation of food	
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
Cause of death not specified or ill-defined	
ALBERNI GROUP—ATLIN.
I.—General Diseases.
Alcoholism, acute. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 95
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
ca
9
©
en
p
©
rH
p
ci
9
©
CO
p
©
30 to 40 years.
ci
CJ
©
io
p
©
50 to 60 years.
60 to 70 years.
ei
9
©
00
p
©
80 to 90 years.
90 and npwards.
ci
CJ
'bo
p
p
CJ
bo
<
Total by Sexes.
B
'bo
p
P
X
CO
a
■ci
p
H
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
•
.F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
1
F.
1
1
1
1
1
2
9
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
9
7
16
1
1
1
1 G 96
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
6
fe
g
.2
"rt
©
eg
M
s
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
ei
9
0)
•a
B
ei
9
CM
©
a
>o
©
CM
rt
09
©
©
IO
i
ALBERNI GROUP—BELLA COOLA.
I.—General Diseases.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
41
77a
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
109
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
120a
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
169
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
1
1
79
ALBERNI GROUP—CLAYOQUOT.
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
ALBERNI GROUP—FORT FRASER.
I.—General Diseases.
1
77
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
X. —Malformations.
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
1
1
175
178a
1
1
1
28
40
ALBERNI GROUP—HAZELTON.
I.—General Diseases.
Tuberculosis of the lungs	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the stomach, liver
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Oedema of brain	
Cerebral haemorrhage, apople.xy 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 97
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
9
O
CM
©
©
rt
O
O
o
CM
ei
9
O
*»#
O
o
g
QJ
O
IO
o
©
-C-H
oj
ci
CJ
©
©
p
©
ci
CJ
©
p
©
©
£
09
O
00
o
-w
o
ei
9
O
©
©
©
CO
■3
a
ft
G
a
rt
©
©
c
a;
'So
c
G
bo
•<
a)
m
2
o
H
a;
"So
o
G
X
tU
■£
ei
9
o
H
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M. .
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
1
F.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
9
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
10
1
11
i
1
l
1
l
1
1
1
1
l
1
1
1
4
9 G 98
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
d
fe
.2
CJ
m
5
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
ei
CU
•a
G
rt
cu
>.
CM
O
-4J
ei
9
iO
c
CM
9
©
O
lO
77a
ALBERNI GROUP—HAZELTON.—Concluded.
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
79
79a
79b
93
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
120a
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
126
142
VIII.—Diseases of the Skin and of the Cellular Tissue.
150
X.—Malformations.
1
1
1
152a
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
169
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
173
175
178a
186
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
1
4
1
1
ALBERNI GROUP—POUCE COUPE.
I.—General Diseases.
1
117
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
187
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
1
ALBERNI GROUP—PRINCE RUPERT.
I.—General Diseases.
45
Cancer and other malignant tumours of other organs, and of organs not specified .
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
66 S Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 99
DEATH,  1917—Continued.
3
©
CJJ
o
©
ca
CJ
o
CO
p
©
CJ]
3
©
HH
o
©
9
©
io
p
-in
©
hC
5
CJ
©
©
p
©
5
9
©
p
©
©
ca
CJ
©
CO
p
o
ci
CJ
©
©
p
o
CO
-p
c
ci
PH
P
-P
P
ci
©
©
'bo
p
B
CJ
bo
<
Total by Sexes.
B
CJ
'bo
o
M
CJ
CO
ci
CJ
a
la
p
H
Mi
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F'
M.
F.
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2 •
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
4
6
1
1
1
18
7
25
'
1
i
1
1
1
2
1
1
i
1
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
1
3
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
4
1
1
1
" i'
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
i
1 G 100
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
d
fe
3
ri
o
£
rt
5
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
a
C
P
5
CM
O
T-H
oj
s
>>
C
5 to 10 years.
79a
ALBERNI GROUP—PRINCE RUPERT.—Concluded.
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
79b
81
8lA
81B
1
91
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
1
92
1
93
97a
1
1
104
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
109
114
119
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
1
120a
145
VIII.—Diseases of the Skin and of the Cellular Tissue.
1
2
1
150
X.—Malformations.
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
1
151
151c
1
1
152 a
153a
1
1
1
153b
153c
153d
1
159
XIIL—Affections produced by External Causes.
169
169a
170
171a
173
175
180
189
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
10
4
1
1
1
ALBERNI GROUP—ANYOX.
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 101
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
rt
©
(M
O
©
a
9
©
CO
©
©
CM
s
9
©
O
o
CO
ei
9
>i
o
lO
o
©
P
c3
01
©
©
p
©
irj
ea
CJ
>i
©
p
o
©
C
ei
CO
©
X
P
o
CJ
©
©
o
©
CO
■§
ca
S
g.
ei
©
©
S
fe.
'B
p
p
CJ
bo
01
■Jl
>,
jp
j
p
r*
B
'&
P
P
0)
CO
oj
HP
HH
ca
o
a
*ci
p
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
1
1
1
2
1
F.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
l
1
1
1
1
1
l
i
l
2
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
2
1
5
2
1
1
l
7
l
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
13
1
1
1
2
8
1
3
1
3
1
1
5
1
1
1
2
52
11
1
l G 102
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
7
35
78 a
ALBERNI GROUP-QUEEN CHARLOTTE.
I.—General Diseases.
Scarlet fever	
Disseminated tuberculosis, specify organ	
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Endocarditis following rheumatism	
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Premature 	
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
Cause of death not specified or ill-defined	
6
fe
.2
ei
9
£
ei
o
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.
rt
o>
>>
s
p
a
CD
CM
O
ei
9
IO
O
5 to 10 years.
79
ALBERNI GROUP—QUATSINO.
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System,
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
169a
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
172
178A
ALBERNI GROUP—STEWART.
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
Traumatism by fall.
Exposure	
ALBERNI GROUP—TELEGRAPH CREEK.
I.—General Diseases.
Anaemia, pernicious	
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
Accidental drowning	
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
Cause of death not specified or ill-defined	
28
35a
52
ASHCROFT.
L—General Diseases.
Tuberculosis of the lungs .
Tuberculosis not specified..
Addison's disease	
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Convulsions of infants	 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 103
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
a
o
Ol
©
©
s-
«
9
O
CO
O
©
(M
09
©
o
©
CO
a
>>
©
>o
o
©
a
9
©
©
©
©
1
©
o
o
CD
a
09
©
CO
o
©
ei
9
©
©
O
o
CO
■-©
a
ei
©
©
a
'So
o
§0
■5
Total by Sexes.
bo
O
M
9
w
rt
OJ
Q
"rt
~o
H
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
777.7.
1
1
9
l
i
i
i
l
1
1
l
1
1
i
l
1
l
6
5
i
1
2
1
l
l
l
l
2
l
3
3
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 G 104
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
d
c
.2
§
S
a
O
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
s-
a
9
■73
5
a
9
>*->
CM
©
9
c
rt
©
o
lO
78b
ASHCROFT.—Concluded.
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
89
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
1
1
91
170
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
174
175
2
1
109
BARKERVILLE.
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
120 a
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
	
28
FORT GEORGE.
I.—General Diseases.
77a
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
91
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
1
92
92a
94
110
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
1
1
152a
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
169
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
170
187
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
1
189
1
1
4 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 105
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
a
9
©
©
■       ©
a
<u
©
CO
o
©
CM
a
cu
©
o
o
CO
9
©
IO
o
©
a
9
©
©
O
©
i-
a
9
©
1--
O
©
©
rt
35
©
CO
o
©
CO
a
9
©
©
©
©
CO
90 and upwards.
9
'to
©
cu
bo
<
•**** oj
X
J?
o
H
G*
9
"So
o
G
X
CU
■X)
co
.C
-P
rt
P
13
o
H
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
9
3
i
i
i
i
i
1
i
	
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
12
4 G 106
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
©'
fe
G
©
1
a
S
ei
s
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
ll
ci
CJ
■0
B
D
a
9
ea
o
ei
in
p
5 to 10 years.
151
TETE JAUNE.
-    XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
111.
1
1
1
F.
M.-
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
153a
153b
159
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
167
169
1
175
3
"
-
3
1
	
	
	
9
CLINTON.
I.—General Diseases.
1
113
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
176
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
1
•
LILLOOET.
I.—General Diseases.
50a
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
79b
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
1
1
28
quesnel.
I.—General Diseases.
Q6
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs op Special Sense.
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
XIII.—Affections froduced by External Causes. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 107
DEATH, mi—Continued.
a
9
©
CM
Q
©
rt
9
©
CO
©
©
(M
rt
9
©
-*
O
©
CO
a
9
©
O
■P
©
a
9
©
©
O
©
a
©
o
©
©
a
09
©
00
o
o
J7-
£2
a
tu
©
©
o
1
V
rt
ft
■73
G
rt
©
09
9
'So
o
G
to
<
Total by Sexes.
B
CJ
'bo
o
y.
CJ
CO
ei
cj
a
*rt
P
H
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
1
1
1
1
3
F.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
2
1
1
3
1
	
10
10
1
1
1
3
1
1 1
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
*	
1
1
1
	
4
1
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
4 G 108
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
p
%
o
1
£
18
o
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
9
h
tt)
T3
P
a
9
CM
rt
c
lO
o
(M
©
p
64
150-MILE HOUSE.
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
78b
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
154
XII.—Old Age.
172
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
178
77a
166
169
175
YALE.
I.—General Diseases.
Tuberculosis of. the lungs	
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Myocarditis	
XIL—Old Age.
Senility	
XIII. —Affections produced by External Causes.
Conflagration	
Accidental drowning	
Traumatism by other crushing (railroad, landslides, vehicles, etc.) .
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
Cause of death not specified or ill-defined	
28
42
43
64
66
78a
78b
79
79a
79b
92
96
FAIRVIEW.
I.—General Disea,ses.
Tuberculosis of the lungs	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the female genital organs .
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the breast	
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Cerebral haemorrhage, apoplexy.
Paralysis without specified cause.
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Endocarditis following rheumatism
Cardiac dropsy	
Organic diseases of the heart	
Chronic valvular disease   	
Mitral regurgitation	
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Pneumonia.
Asthma	 S Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 109
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
to
ea
9
©
©
o
CO
a
©
o
©
a
9
O
o
©
CO
CO
a
9
O
m
c
©
oj
ci
CJ
©
p
©
©
p
©
©
ei
CJ
©
CO
P
©
©
©
p
HH
©
CO
p
■d
©
©
0)
bo
c
bo
<
Total by Sexes.
B
'bo
p
S
CO
£
ei
CJ
a
■3
p
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
1
1
•
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
	
3
2
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
4
6
1
1
1
i
8
1
1
2
8
1
1
1
2
8
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
15
3
18
2
1
1
4
2
1
4
1
1
1
9
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
i'
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 G 110
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
d
fe
G
.2
9
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
1
H
ca
CJ
CM
P
2 to 5 years.
to
ei
©
©
lO
113
FAIRVIEW.— Concluded.
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
115
117
119
VI.—NON-VENEREAL   DISEASES  OF  GENITO-URINARY  SYSTEM   AND  ANNEXA.
137
VII.—The Puerperal State.
153a
XL--Diseases of Early Infancy.
1
159
XIIL—Affections produced by External Causes.
169
169 a
173
175
178 a
~
1
	
	
	
	
	
	
1
28
41
46
64
71
77a
79a
81
87
89
91
92
104
109
115
GREENWOOD.
I.—General Diseases.
Typhus fever	
Tuberculosis of tbe lungs	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the peritoneimi, intestines, rectum.
Other tumours (tumours of the female genital organs excepted)	
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Cerebral haemorrhage, apoplexy.
Convulsions of infants	
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Myocarditis	
Chronic valvular disease.
Diseases of the arteries..,
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Diseases of the larynx .
Acute bronchitis	
Bronchopneumonia....
Pneumonia	
Lobar pneumonia.   ...
-Diseases of the Digestive System.
Diarrbosa and enteritis (under 2 3_ears).
Hernias, intestinal obstructions	
Other ureases of the liver	
VI.—NON-VENEREAL   DISEASES  OF GENITO-URINARY  SYSTEM   AND  ANNEXA.
Acute nephritis	
X.—Malformations.
Congenital malformation (still-births not included)	 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 111
DEATH, 1917.
10 to 20 years.
a
9
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CO
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©
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©
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to
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oj
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CJ
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Total by Sexes.
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V
bo
p
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03
ei
CJ
a
p
H
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
F.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
4
3
7
2
4
2
1
1
22
9
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
9
1
1
4
1
2
1
4
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
"i'
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 G 112
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
6
fe
©
a
CJ
CAUSE OF DEATH.
09
a
1
9
a
9
rt
5
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
9
73
CM
O
©
CM
©
o
IO
GREENWOOD.—Concluded.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
152A
1
2
1
1
153a
153B
XI11.—Affections produced by External Causes.
169
1
173
1
28
40
54A
61a
64
78b
79a
92
92a
92b
104
109
110a
117
151
151b
153a
165
171a
GRAND FORKS.
I.—General Diseases.
Measles	
Tuberculosis of the lungs	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the stomach, liver .
Anaemia, pernicious	
Alcoholism, acute ,	
II.—Diseases of the Nervous System.
Meningitis, typhoidal	
Cerebral haemorrhage, apoplexy..
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Cardiac dropsy	
Chronic valvular disease..
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory Syste.m.
Bronchopneumonia	
Pneumonia	
Pneumonia following measles	
Pneumonia-hypostatic	
Pulmonary congestion, pulmonary apoplexy .
-Diseases of the Digestive System.
Diarrhoaa and enteritis (under 2 years).
Hernias, intestinal obstructions	
Enterocolitis	
Simple peritonitis (non-puerperal)	
VI. —Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
Nephritis following scarlet fever	
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Congenital debility, icterus, and sclerema..
Non-assimilation of food	
Still-born ."	
XIIL—Affections produced by External Causes.
Other acute poisonings	
Traumatism by falling tree. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 113
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
10 to 20 years.
20 to 30 years.
CJ
©
>*
p
s
40 to 50 years.
oj
ol
CJ
©
©
p
©
ice
3
s
©
JJ-
p
©
©
70 to 80 years.
CJ
©
p.
p
©
CO
90 and upwards.
'be
p
CJ
bo
<!
Total by Sexes.
p
CJ
'Si
p
p
W
CO
oj
£
"ei
a
P
n
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
2
1
1
1
F.
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
24
8
32
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1'
1
1
•
1
2
1
2
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
2
4
1
2
24
8
32 G 114
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
d
G
.2
rf
9
s
"to
a
O
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
a
<u
tt)
G
O
09
"O
D
a
9
!M
O
a
•o
©
(M
co
ei
0J
©
©
IO
1
KAMLOOPS.
L—General Diseases.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
8
1
11
20
1
28
29
30
37
39
39a
39b
40
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the stomach, liver	
41
42
43
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the breast	
46
54A
56
61
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
64
66
71
1
2
1
1
77a
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
78
78a
79
79a
80
81
iv.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
1
1
98a
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
1
1
Diarrhoea and enteritis (2 years and over) 	
108
119
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
VII. — The Puerperal State.
XI.—Diseases of Early Infancy.
2
1
1
1
1
154
XII.—Old Age. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 115
DEATH,  1911—Continued.
*a
o
©
p
©
5
i)
©
p
ci
CJ
©
p
©
DO
p
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p
P
X
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CO
a
o
CM
O
©
CJ
©
p
©
CJ
©
in
p
©
Hfl
*a
CJ
©
p
0
0
3
CJ
©
CO
O
©
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ci
ci
©
©
s
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B
CJ
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Total by Sexes.
£
ei
a
■^
p
M.
F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2
1
2
1
1
1
3
20
1
1
10
10
3
1
1
3
2
4
i
1
S
1
1
2
1
21
1
1
41
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
"i'
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
1
3
2
2
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
3
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
4
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
7
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
2
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
"2
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
2
i
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1 G 116
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
d
ft
a
.2
.1
co
ri
■5
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
rt
9
>i
9
5
a
QJ
(M
O
9
lO
O
(M
50
rt
9
©
O
lO
157
KAMLOOPS.—Concluded.
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
159
166
1
1
1
1
1
167
169
173
175
175a
186
186a
1
189
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
7
5
4
3
2
2
1
30
56
77a
79
81a
91
92a
170
172
173a
175
NICOLA.
I.—General Diseases.
Typhoid fever	
Tubercular meningitis..
Alcoholism, acute	
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Tumour of brain	
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System,
Myocarditis	
Acute endocarditis	
Organic diseases of the heart.
Aneurism	
Embolism and thrombosis....
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Bronchopneumonia .
Lobar pneumonia...
VI.— NON-VENEREAL   DISEASES  OF  GENITO-URINARY   SYSTEM   AND  ANNEXA
Acute nephritis	
XIIL—Affections produced by External Causes.
Traumatism by firearms	
Traumatism by fall	
Traumatism by railway construction	
Traumatism by other crushing (railroad, landslides, vehicles, etc.).
20
41
PRINCETON.
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Measles.	
Purulent infection and septicemia	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the peritoneum, intestines, rectum .
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Lobar pneumonia	
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
Diarrhoea and enteritis (2 years and over)	
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Non-assimilation of food	 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 117
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
CJ
>l
o
p
©
oj
ca
CJ
©
p
©
ci
©
*H
P
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CO
CJ
©
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ca
CJ
©
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p*
CJ
'be
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P
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be
<
Total by Sexes.*!
B
CJ
'bo
HH
P
a
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CO
£
ei
CJ
a
■Jd
p
Eh
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.
1
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
3
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
F.
1
1
1
1
2
5
1
1
2
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
3
9
13
18
13
12
'
16
3
9
4
14
7
2
1
1
100
55
155
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
1
1
11
6
17
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 G 118
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
d
fe
o
ei
ep
6
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, i909.)
CJ
-p
ei
CJ
CM
P
2 to 5 years.
5 to 10 years.
154
BEATON GROUP—REVELSTOKE—Concluded.
XII.—Old Age.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
169
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
1
	
	
	
	
	
	
1
VERNON.
I.—General Diseases.
1
10
20
28
Tubercularnieningitis	
30
34a
37
40
44a
"i
46
47
60
50a
53
54a
61
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
1
6lA
63
6SA
1
64
71
1
1
76
1
77a
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
78
78a
79
79a
88
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
1
1
92
1
1
92a
102
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
l
1
103
1
108
1
1
117
120
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
134
VII.—The Puerperal State.
137 8 Geo.
Provincial BOh^rd of Health.
G 119
DEATH, 1911—Continued.
■vj
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9
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M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.
1
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
F.
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
5
7
12
2
6
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
"i
i
i
i
i
i
2
3
1
13
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3 G 120
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
d
fe
a
.2
rt
o
S
Jj
Q
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
J-.
ei
CJ
CJ
-p
B
ei
V
P
HH
oj
ci
CJ
ira
P
ca
IH
ca
CJ
©
p
150
VERNON.—Concluded.
X.—Malformations.
M.
F.
1
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
151
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
1
1
1
251B
153a
154
XII.—Old Age.
159
XIII.— Affections produced by External Causes.
170
172
Traumatism by fall	
173
176
178a
6
6
2
1
3
3
1
VANCOUVER CITY.
I.—General Diseases.
5
6
1
1
1
1
7
1
"i
2
8
1
1
2
1
9
1
10
14
1
1
20
2
Tuberculosis of the lung's (Asiatic)	
2
28a
29
1
3
i
1
30
3
3
2
2
2
3
1
n
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the stomach, liver	
41
45
45B
46
47
1
50
51
52
i
1
54a
1
56
56a 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 121
DEATH, 1911—Continued.
a
9
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o
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9
O
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©
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a
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o
©
©
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a
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©
©
70 to 80 years.
ro
a
9
o
©
o
-1-3
©
00
73
a
a
©
c~.
OJ
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o
IU
be
<
Total hy Sexes.
a
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©
X
9
w
a
9
P
H
o
H
M.
F.
M.
F.'
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
7
1
3
2
2
3
4
4
3
3
3
7
3
5
6
7
1
1
1
3
54
31
85
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
i
1
i
1
1
3
5
9
i
3
1
1
1
1
9
33
"'3'
15
5
1
1
5
1
1-1
i
2
1
19
67
1
1
14
5
2
1
i
5
19
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
13
7
15
I
3
2
10
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
28
4
100
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
29
1
1
1
1
1
10
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
1
3
4
1
35
10
2
1
1
1
10
2
1
1
2
2
1
3
1
2
3
1
10
1
2
1
1
4
8
3
2
2
2
7
2
2
2
3
2
2
1
2
1
18
9
15
6
1
19
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
3
2
3
3
1
1
2
1
1
. 1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
,   1
1
2
3
3
3
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
21
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
7
1
1
1
3
1
2
U
3
2
1
1
6
1
1 <} 12
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
61
6lA
63A
63 b
63c
64
6Sb
69
71
77
77a
78
78a
78b
79
79a
79b
79c
79d
79e
79f
79g
80
81
SlA
81B
82
84A
84b
85
87
89
90
91
92
92a
92b
92c
92d
92e
93
97a
97b
97c
97d
102
103
103a
103b
104
105
108
109
110
110a
111
113
114
115
117
117b
118
118a
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
VANCOUVER CITY.—Continued.
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Meningitis (Asiatic)	
Cerebro-spinal meningitis	
Acute anterior poliomyelitis	
Oedema of brain	
Tumor of brain	
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy...
Paralysis without specified cause .
Cerebral thrombosis	
Cerebral abscess	
Epilepsy	
Convulsions of infants	
Otitis media	
Ill,—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Pericarditis	
Myocarditis	
Acute endocarditis	
Endocarditis, following rheumatism.,..
Cardiac dropsy    .,	
Organic diseases of the heart (Asiatic) .
Cardiac paralysis	
Chronic valvular disease	
Aortic insufficiency	
Fatty degeneration of heart	
Mitral regurgitation	
Cardiac dilation	
Cardiac embolism ,	
Angina pectoris	
Diseases of the arteries	
Aneurism	
Arterio sclerosis	
Embolism and thrombosis	
Lymphangitis	
Hodgkin's disease.	
Haemorrhage	
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Diseases of the larynx	
Acute bronchitis	
Chronic bronchitis	
Bronchopneumonia	
Pneumonia	
Lobar pneumonia	
Pneumonia hypostatic    	
Capillary bronchitis     	
Bronchopneumonia, following infected fracture of hip	
Pneumonia following measles.	
Pleurisy	
Pulmonary congestion, pulmonary apoplexy	
Asthma	
Pulmonary abscess	
Pulmonary hemorrhage	
Pulmonary embolus	
Septic pneumonia	
Other diseases of the respiratory system (tuberculosis excepted).
OEdema of lungs	
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
Ulcer of the stomach _.	
Other diseases of the stomach (cancer excepted)	
Hemorrhage from bowels	
Duodenal ulcer	
Diarrhoea and enteritis (under 2 years)	
Diarrhcea and enteritis (2 years and over)	
Appendicitis and typhlitis   	
Hernias, intestinal obsti uctions	
Other diseases of the intestines	
Enterocolitis	
Acute yellow atrophy of the liver	
Cirrhosis of the liver	
Biliary calculi	
Other diseases of the liver.	
Simple peritonitis (non-puerperal)	
Peritonitis, gastric ulcer perforated    	
Other diseases of the digestive system (cancer and tuberculosis excepted)..
Septic peritonitis	 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 123
DEATH,  1911—Continued.
ca
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ci
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10
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M.
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1
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1
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M.
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1
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1
3
7
36
2
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5
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1
2
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7
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1
8
1
17
3
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1
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2
2
32
5
5
2
8
2
3
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3
1
8
1
1
6
2
1
1
3
3
53
5
1
4
1
1
2
9
1
1
53
13
6
6
5
2
11
3
1
9
2
1
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2
1
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1
1
6
14
4
5
7
1
1
6
3
1
"i
i
4
3
2
4
2
1
6
3
3
85
2
18
1
11
1
4
1
1
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1
1
8
1
2
5
1
1
1
8
1
1
i
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
7
2
1
8
18
15
3
1
2
6
1
....
1
1
8
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
6
1
1
9
1
24
1
1
i
3
1
5
2
1
6
5
6
2
2
1
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
8
2
1
1
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
19
44
10
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
"'3'
ii
12
9
3
1
1
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3
1
"T
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3
1
i
1
4
i
1
6
2
1
1
1
5
4
2
3
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
S3
2
2'
2
1
2
...
5
1
1
2
2
11
3
1
1
2
56
25
7
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
2
11
8
2
1
1
11
1
7
9
1
1
1
5
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
4
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
3
2
17
11
2
1
1
1
4
1
15
1
2
1
1
1
i
2
3
2
1
2
3
2
7
3
1
14
2
1
1
12
1
2
1
1
1
3
"2'
1
5
2
1
2
2
1
i
1
3
1
4
2
2
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
5
1
1
2 G 124
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
fe
119
120
120a
122
124
126
130
181
133a
133b
135
137
137a
137b
138
139
140
141a
141b
141c
141d
141k
142
145
150
150a
151
151a
151B
152a
153a
153b
153c
153d
155
156
157
158
159
160
165
167
168
169
169a
170
172
174
175
182
VANCOUVER CITY.—Continued.
VI.—NON-VENEREAL   DISEASES  OF GENITO-URINARY  SYSTEM  AND  ANNEXA.
Acute nephritis (Asiatic)	
Bright's disease   	
Uremia	
Other diseases of the kidne}fs and annexa	
Diseases of the bladder     	
Diseases of the prostate	
Diseases of the uterus	
Cysts and other tumours of the ovary	
Parenchymatous nephritis	
Cholecystitis	
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
VII.—The Puerperal State.
Puerperal hemorrhage ;...
Puerperal septicaemia	
Puerperal infection following miscarriage	
Eclampsia	
Puerperal albuminuria and convulsions ,	
Puerperal phlegmasia alba dolens, embolus, sudden death..
Following childbirth (not otherwise defined)	
Pneumonia following childbirth	
Incomplete abortion	
Following Cesarotomy	
Ectopic pregnancy	
Puerperal fever	
VIII.—Diseases of the Skin and of the Cellular Tissue.
Gangrene	
Other diseases of the skin and anne.xa..
IX.—-Diseases of the Bones and Organs of Locomotion.
Diseases of the joints (tuberculosis and rheumatism excepted) 	
X.—Malformations.
Congenital malformation (still-births not included)	
Hemorrhage neonatorum	
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Congenital debility, icterus, and sclerema.
Accident of labour	
Non-assimilation of food	
Atelectasis	
Still-born  	
Premature    	
Umbilical hemorrhage	
Melena neonatorum	
XII.—Old Age.
Senility ,
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
Suicide by poison	
Suicide by asphyxia	
Suicide hy hanging or strangulation	
Suicide by drowning	
Suicide by firearms .   	
Suicide by cutting or piercing instruments	
Other acute poisonings	
Burns (conflagration excepted)	
Absorption of deleterious gases (conflagration excepted)	
Accidental drowning	
Traumatism in logging camp and sawmill   	
Traumatism by firearms	
Traumatism by fall	
Traumatism by machines	
Traumatism by other crushing (railroad, landslides, vehicles, etc.).,
Homicide by firearms	 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 12c
DEATH,  1911—Continued.
CJ
©
p
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60 to 70 years.
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2
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6
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5
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16
5
21
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5
3
8
3
1
21
8
2
29
3
l
1
1
i
1
2
2
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
5
1
3
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
4
1
2
1
4
2
1
1
1
3
5
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
5
6
9
6
2
4
2
4
1
43
19
......
11
2
12
1
5
5
41
22
1
16
9
84
1
6
1
1
1
3
1
4
2
5
2
1
3
1
3
2
2
2
1
6
6
6
8
2
18
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
i
l
'"2
1
1
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2
1
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l
1
4
3
1
1
1
1
3
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1
1
7
6
3
1
2
1
1
i
1
1
1
2
1
4
9
12
1
1
3
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
1
20
1 G 12G
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
p
*HH
a
_p
ci
CJ
eg
ci
Q
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
Under 1 year.
ca
CJ
CM
P
3
>.
ire
P
CM
ei
CJ
©
p
182a
VANCOUVER CITY.—Concluded.
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes—Concluded.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
K.
182b
186
1
1
1
186a
Shock        	
186b
1
187a
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
15
189
15
9
14
1
14
152
121
13
30
30a
32a
40
42
54A
62
63a
64
77
77a
78
79a
79b
79c
81
90
91
92
92A
92b
103
110a
120
120a
126
137
150
SOUTH VANCOUVER.
I.—General Diseases.
Typhoid fever	
Scarlet fever	
Tuberculosis of the lungs	
Acute miliary tuberculosis	
Tubercular meningitis	
Tubercular peritonitis	
Tuberculosis of spine	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the stomach, liver	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the female genital organs ,
Anemia, pernicious	
IL—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Locomotor ataxia	
Acute anterior poliomyelitis	
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy ..
Paralysis without specified cause .
Epilepsy.
Convulsions of infanta    	
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Pericarditis   ....
Myocarditis 	
Acute endocarditis 	
Chronic valvular disease	
Cardiac dilation	
Oardiao sclerosis with rupture.
Diseases of the arteries	
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Acute bronchitis	
Chronic bronchitis	
Bronchopneumonia	
Pneumonia	
Lobar pneumonia	
Hypostatic pneumonia.
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
Other diseases of the stomach (cancer excepted).,
Enterocolitis	
VI.—NON-VENEREAL  DISEASES  OF  GENITO-URINARY  SYSTEM   AND ANNEXA.
Bright's disease   	
Uremia.
Diseases of the prostate	
VII.—The Puerperal State.
Puerperal septicemia	
X.—Malformations.
Congenital malformation (still-births not included)	 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 12
DEATH,  1911—Continued.
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9
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H
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.
2
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
2
1
5
F.
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
112
1
45
3
16
49
51
105
72
109
44
109
51
68
35
26
23
3
2
1
33
810
497
1307
1
i
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
"T
i
i
2
1
1
1
1
i
2
1
3
5
1
1
7
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
i
1
2
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
9
i
i
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
I
.
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
3
1
i
1
1 G 128
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
p
to
B
_p
ei
CJ
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
3
—
-p
D
ei
CJ
CM
P
ci
CJ
IO
p
CM
CJ
©
o
152a
SOUTH VANCOUVER— Concluded.
i
XI.—Diseases of Early Infancy.
M.
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3
1
F.
1
3
2
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
153a
163b
153c
154
XII.—Old Age.
159
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
169
1
175
186
1
4
IS
9
1
1
1
2
2
40
41
42
63a
66
77A
79a
81
91
92
92a
92b
151
152a
153 a
153b
158
169
175
VANCOUVER DIVISION—POINT GREY.
L— General Diseases.
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the stomich, liver	
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the peritoneum, intestines, rectum.
Cancer and other malignant tumours of the female genital organs	
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Primary lateral sclerosis of spinal cord.
Paralysis without specified cause	
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Myocarditis     	
Cardiac rupture following ulceration..
Diseases of the arteries	
IV. —Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Acute bronchitis	
Bronchopneumonia	
Pneumonia	
Lobar pneumonia	
Hypostatic pneumonia.
-CEdema of lungs	
VI.—NON-VENEREAL  DISEASES   OF  GENITO-URINARY  SYSTEM   AND  ANNEXA.
Uremia.
X.—Malformations.
Congenital malformation (still-births not included)	
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Congenital debility, icterus, and sclerema..
Atelectasis	
Still-born	
Premature	
XIIL—Affections produced by External Causes.
Suicide by drowning	
Accidental drowning	
Traumatism by other crushing (railroad, landslides, vehicles, etc.).. 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 129
DEATH, 1917—Continued.
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55
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M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
3
2
1
9
3
1
1
12
5
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
6
3
4
1
1
2
5
5
7
5
8
1
2
50
38
88
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
1
1
1
1
2
' 1
1
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
2
5
2
2
2
1
1
1
17
12
29 G 130
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
i
a
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$
m
"55
OJ
ei
5
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
Under 1 year.
ei
CM
P
5
p
CM
ci
©
p
o
l
NORTH VANCOUVER CITY.
I.—General Diseases.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
7
1
1
1
28
1
1
30
1
30A
40
42
44A
50A
56
64
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
65
66
68
71
2
76a
77a
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
78a
79
79a
79b
91
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
1
92
92a
96
108
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System.
109
117
119
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
120
124
131
140
VII.—TnE Puerperal State.
1510
XI.—Diseases of Early Infancy.
1
153a
Still-born	
5
2
2
153b
154
XII.—Old Abe.
157
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
175
11
2
1
1
3
1 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 131
DEATH, 1911—Continued.
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9
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Total by Sexes.
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rt
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1
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M.
F.
M.
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F.
M.
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M.
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M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
1
1
3
F.
1
1
2
3
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
i
l
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
i
l
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
l
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l
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1
1
5
2
7
2
1
1
1
1
5
1
1
1
4
2
1
1
8
1
4
4
2
4
1
5
1
1
28
so
58 G 132
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
6
a
o
'a
o
5
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
a
9
m
a
9
<M
Q
a
OJ
in
c
a
9
©
o
in
2S
NORTH VANCOUVER DISTRICT.
I.—General Diseases.
M.
F.
Mi
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
39a
40
81A
III. —Diseases of the Circulatory System.
92
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
1
96
120
VI.—Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
153a
XL—Diseases, of Early Infancy.
1
154
XII.—Old Age.
169
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
169a
172
1
1
1*9
171A
WEST VANCOUVER.
I.—General Diseases.
Cancer and other malignant tumors of the skin	
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
Still-born	
XIII.— Affections produced hy External Causes.
Suicide by firearms	
Traumatism by falling tree.
78b
92
92a
93
VANCOUVER—OUTSIDE.
L—General Diseases.
Tuberculosis of the lungs	
II.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
Cerebral hemorrhage, apoplexy	
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
Cardiac dropsy	
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
Pneumonia	
Lobar pneumonia.
Pleurisv	 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 133
DEATH,  1911—Continued.
ci
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Total by Sexes.
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1
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1
1
1
1
1
- 1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
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1
1
8
4
12
1
1
1
1
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1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 G 134
British Columbia
1918
CAUSES OF
6
ft
a
.2
«
9
s
a
6
CAUSE OF DEATH.
(After the Bertillon Classification Causes of Death, Second International
Decennial Revision, Paris, 1909.)
B
a
9
o
a
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u
a
>>
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o
to
137a
Eclampsia
Atelectasi
Still-born
Burns (co
Accidenta
Traumati
Traumati
Traumati
Injuries b
Other ext
VANCOUVER—OUTSIDE.— Concluded.
VIL—The Puerperal State.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
152a
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
1
153a
1
y
167
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes.
169
169a
170
173
176
186
1
o
1
8
Whooping
Influenza
Tuberculc
Tubercula
II
Meningiti
RICHMOND.
L—General Diseases.
1
1
28
20
1
1
61
.—Diseases of Nervous System and Organs of Special Sense.
1
64
77a
Myocardi'
Endocard
Chronic v
Pne union
Hemorrha
Other diss
Simple pe
VI.-
Bright's d
III.—Diseases of the Circulatory System.
78a
92
IV.—Diseases of the Respiratory System.
V.—Diseases of the Digestive System,
1
1
117
120
-Non-venereal Diseases of Genito-urinary System and Annexa.
1
XL—Diseases of Early Infancy.
1
157
Suicide b
Accidenta
Other ext
Cause of c
XIII.—Affections produced by External Causes,
186
XIV.—Ill-defined Diseases.
1
2
1
3
1
1 8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 135
DEATH, 1917.
CO
S-
ei
CJ
©
P
©
20 to 30 years.
ci
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CJ
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rt
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:o
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tH
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90 and upwards.
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XI
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1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
3
1
1
1 1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
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1
4
3
1
1
2
1
4
1
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!>
17
4
21
2
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
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1
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1
1
2
1
1
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1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
9
1
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5
5
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
4
1
1
1
4
20
10
30  8 Geo. 5
Provincial Board of Health.
G 137
SECOND MEETING
OF
MEDICAL  HEALTH  OFFICERS  OF
BRITISH  COLUMBIA
HELD   at
LABOUR   TEMPLE, corner Homer and Dumsmuir Streets, Vancouver, B.C.
SEPTEMBER 12th and 13th,  1917.
Under the authority of Doctor the Hon. J. D. MacLean, Provincial Secretary.
MEDICAL OFFICERS OF HEALTH.
Present—■
Dr. J. E. H. Kelso   Edgewood.
Dr. Isabel Arthur Nelson.
Dr. Mi Callanan  Barkerville.
Dr. H. W. Keith  Enderby.
Dr. J. P. Cade Prince Rupert.
Dr. A. G. Price  Victoria.
Dr. F. Stainsby  Field.
Dr. H. C. Wrinch  Hazelton.
Dr. R. W. Large  Port Simpson.
Dr. J. H. Hamilton  Revelstoke.
Dr. S. Petersky  Lucerne.
Dr. G. H. Tutill  Merritt.
Dr. H. L. Turnbull South Vancouver.
Dr. O. G. Ingham  Nanaimo.
Dr. W. F. Drysdale Nanaimo.
Dr. G. deB. Watson Burnaby.
Dr. F. T. Underbill Vancouver.
Dr. S. O. McEwen   New Westminster.
Dr. W. E. Newcombe  North Vancouver.
F. F. WESBROOK, M.D, LL.D.,
President, of the University of British Columbia.
Secretary to the Meeting :
H. E. YOUNG, M.D.,
Secretary, Provincial Board of Health, Victoria, B.C.
Wednesday, September 12th, 1917
Morning Session,
The Convention was opened at 9.30 a.m., Dr. F. T. Underbill presiding.
The Chairman: Ladies and Gentlemen,—I think we may call this meeting open and
commence our programme. Personally, I would like to offer you all a very hearty welcome to
Vancouver; and while I am very glad to see you, I should have been still more pleased had
there been a fuller attendance. G 138 British Columbia 1918
There are one or two points which I would like to emphasize. The first is, that those who
rise to speak will kindly give their name and place of residence, so that the stenographer can
keep a proper record. Secondly, we desire to have a free and open discussion on all subjects
and any amount of criticism—hit as hard as you like—we want to learn, and we can do so at
a meeting of this kind.
You will probably have noticed that no provision is made for any entertainment. It was
thought that under the conditions in which we are now living such a proceeding might not be
quite in place. However, the freedom of Vancouver, in so far as we can give it-—outside of the
Police Court—is open to you. The hospitals will be glad to see you; also the Health Department ; for, while we are ashamed of our building, we have the material there if only we had
proper space for it.
Dr. Young has kindly organized this meeting, and I will therefore ask him to be good
enough to open it officially.
Dr. H. E. Young (Secretary, Provincial Board of Health) : Mr. Chairman, Ladies and
Gentlemen,—As you know, some two or three years ago we undertook a programme of holding
annual meetings of the Health Officers of the Province, and had, in 1914, a very successful
meeting, and it looked as if we were launched on a programme that would be of very material
benefit to the Medical Health Officers, and also to the public in general. The matters that we
wished to discuss were those, of course, which loomed very large in the Province, and in many
cases we had no precedents to guide tis. The conditions in the Province are such that these
matters have to be met just as circumstances warrant. Unfortunately, following that meeting,
war was declared, and, as a result, general disorganization of our staff in the Provincial Board
of Health. Our men left—there have been some 200 members of the medical profession who
have gone from British Columbia—and it was not thought advisable, under existing conditions,
that we should continue the meetings at the time. However, war seems to be a fixed condition,
and probably we might be pardoned now if we were to say, if there is anything in the expression,
that business should go on as usual; and taking everything into consideration, and also the fact
that in the near future, or we hope in the near future, there will be a cessation of the war and
other problems will arise, such as immigration to the Province—we may be disappointed, but I
feel that people in general are optimistic on this point, and in order that we may be able to
meet these conditions, we thought it advisable to resume these meetings, and I have asked
different members of the Medical Health Officers to give us papers.
The programmes which you have before you show that I have made a very good selection
in the choice of the men from whom we are to have papers. The intention of their papers is to
register their views and the results of their experience in the practice of the profession, but the
chief thing I wish to bring about is the promotion of a discussion of these papers; to get an
expression from those of you who are here to-day, coming from widely scattered points in the
Province and to whom at times important questions arise which you have to decide without the
possibility of your being able to get advice.
The Provincial Board of Health wishes the Medical Officers to feel that the Department is
back of them in enforcing the requirements and regulations. When we come down to ultimate
results, it is a matter of education—the people must be educated. It is difficult to enforce
regulations when the enforcement interferes with the daily habits of the people or their personal
liberty. They must be taught that they are individual members of a community, and that the
health of the community depends entirely upon concerted action, and that the point of infection
arising from one person neglecting to carry out regulations may result in serious epidemics and
disorganization of business and death among the people of the community as a whole.
I propose to continue to carry out as far as possible the distribution of literature along these
lines, and we hope that those who are reading their papers during the sessions will consider they
are contributing a great deal towards the publication of pamphlets which will go toward the
education of the people; and great benefits will be derived from active co-operation, and from
the knowledge of the individual that what we are asking them to do is for their own benefit.
I look forward with a great deal of pleasure to listening to these papers and to the discussion
of these questions.
I wish to thank Dr. Underbill for the splendid co-operation he has given me in the arrangements for this meeting, and also for kindly taking the chair. 8 Geo. 5 Provincial Board of Health. G 139
The Chairman : As Dr. Young has said, I hope there will be a free discussion of all these
papers. I would ask those who are reading to read as distinctly as possible, and also any one
speaking to a paper to speak slowly and distinctly, and not to be disconcerted if any one asks
them to speak up.    The idea is for every one to hear what is being said.
The first paper is on " Child-welfare," by Dr. Isabel Arthur, of Nelson, B.C.
CHILD-WELFARE.
By Isabel Arthur, M.D, Medical Health Officer, Nelson, B.C.
Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,—It is a great pleasure for me to be here this morning.
I was very much pleased to be asked to read a paper on this subject, but with the medical
inspection of schools taken up by Dr. Brydone-Jack, and the infectious diseases by some one else,
it left me another field entirely, not altogether medical, to go into, because I think " child-welfare "
includes a great deal that is not medical.
There is nothing else around which so much centres on or which so much depends as on
tbe child. It is the possibility of the nation, the hope of the future. It comes into the world
helpless, born in all kinds of places and in all kinds of conditions, without any choice as to
what these conditions are. One is born in poverty, another in luxury; one in the palace, another
in the slums; one in the home of luxury, refinement, and education, another in surroundings of
vulgarity and ignorance.
With life begun in such different circumstances it is hard to know just how far individual
responsibility extends, but we must have individual responsibility, for without it we can have no
law or order, and law and order are the essentials of civilization.
In order to try and equalize conditions and put all children in as good a position as possible
to begin life, much time has been spent, and never before has the welfare of the child been so
much before the mind of the State. This is in the right direction, but we are a long way from
having it before the mind of the State as it should be. The child is the asset of tbe State, and
all conditions should be arranged as far as possible to get the best results from that child. It is
a business transaction, and results are what we are looking for in all business transactions.
We do not want inferior products turned out that may answer the purpose, but as perfect a
thing as can be produced—something to be proud of; something with stability and quality, that
can be used for the purposes of development and advancement and for the protection, if need
be, of the State to which it belongs.
Child-welfare is such a complex subject and has so many phases that it is difficult to know
where to begin or where to end. The physical development of the child is so closely connected
with its mental and moral development that one cannot be separated from the other, and so in
discussing its welfare many things which do not seem to be physical must be taken into account.
A child whose mental and moral development is taking place in unhappy or uncongenial circumstances has not the same choice to develop physically as one whose surroundings are pleasant
and happy. Neither has a child who has a taste for certain lines of work and is forced into
another line which he dislikes as good a chance of physical development, as the mental is in
such close relationship to the physical that without harmony of the two the best results cannot
be obtained.
It would seem that there should be very close harmony between the education department
and the medical, for the real welfare of the child can hardly be considered from the physician's
point of view without taking into account its school-life, hours of study, hours of play, and many
other things that come directly under tbe education department. Hence this paper is not all
medical. We all realize that the physical well-being of. the child is of the utmost importance.
We must have the healthy child, and how to get that is our first thought, and we must begin at
the beginning.
In order to have the healthy child we must have healthy parents, so that the care of the
child is prenatal. Some one said, when asked the proper time to begin the education of her
child, " One hundred years before its birth." That has a great significance. " Do men gather
grapes from thorns or figs from thistles? " is a very pertinent question in this regard. Do we
get the fit from the unfit? This is the thought that should be before the mind of every one
interested in the welfare of the child. It does seem as if we begin at the wrong end in dealing
with many problems.   We allow things to occur and then try to treat results.   Now is the time G 140 British Columbia 1918
to get at the cause, and unhealthy parentage is the cause of many conditions found in the child.
We know that all kinds of tendencies are passed from parent to child, even unto the third and
fourth generation—tendencies to wrong habits of thought as well as to right habits of thought
and action. This is law—inexorable law; and although we may disregard it, it prevails just
the same.
When we want first-class wheat we plant first-class seed, and we get what we aim for.
This is true all through nature, and in developing the resources of nature the fact is often taken
Into account. Not so in the human family, though. I asked the Registrar the other day if there
were any restrictions on marriage. He turned up the book, and all the restrictions I could find
referred to age. Well, I find no fault with that—it is wise, perhaps; but is that all? What
about the man of mature age that is a drunkard or a drug-fiend, or an idiot or a degenerate of
any kind, or the man who has gone far into the country of tbe prodigal son, and who has wasted
his substance and his health in riotous living, or who has acquired disease in any way and is
devoured with it; can he get a marriage licence and no questions asked? Oh, yes! Why spoil
the romance of life for him? He has been sowing his wild oats, and now he must settle down
and become a respectable citizen. There is a lovely sweet girl with whom he is in love—why
interfere? Let all the earth keep silent! and let this dreadful tragedy be enacted; and all
through the years the tragedy, never ending, follows that innocent girl and her children. The
shame and injustice is appalling. "Honour thy father and thy mother," says the good Book;
but how can the child honour the parent who has bequeathed to it a heritage of ill-health or
evil tendencies? Too much silence has been our fault; mock modesty and a foolish idea that
certain things must not be spoken about have led to fearful results. The world has not always
been fair to the child. It has allowed it to start out with a handicap, and in our cart-before-
the-horse style we try to remedy the result. We will look after these children; we will see
that the schools have medical and dental inspection; we will improve sanitation and have good
water-supplies, and make everything tend towards health. What nonsense! Why ever allow
them to happen? If we can't prevent people from acquiring disease, we can at least prevent
them from passing it on to innocent children.
My first thought, then, in child-welfare would be restriction of marriage licences. Any one
contemplating entering into matrimony should be compelled to undergo a strict physical examiiia-
tion by a capable and conscientious physician, and be required to have a certificate of good health
from that physician before a licence could be issued. " Oh, yes! " some one says, " but money
will buy anything; it won't work." Quite true, it will not work if doctors are going to stoop
to a low enough plane to be bribed, but we like to think of doctors occupying a higher place;
and, besides, they know the result of marriages of the unfit and unclean, and if they cannot be
counted on to protect innocent women and children, God pity us all.
Now, as perhaps never before, we need healthy children to take the place of those fallen
in the war, and quality will count much more than numbers in this replacement, and careful
attention must be given along every line tending to the conservation and elevation of human life.
When the child comes into the world the problem of taking care of it begins, and was there ever
such ignorance in regard to any other subject? The delusion that maternity brings with it the
knowledge of how to do this is fast disappearing, and none too soon. The whole cry of to-day
Is for skilled workers, people trained to do their work. All trades and professions call for
training for and knowledge of the particular branch of work undertaken. But what about young
motherhood? The young girl marries and in the course of time finds herself a mother without
ever having had a word of instruction or how to perform the duties of motherhood, and to give
that child the attention and training it should have in order to make it into the best class of
citizen it is capable of being. All the girl has is her own intuition and love for her baby, and
she has to depend on getting advice from very incapable people in many cases, and the result
is that her whole care of the child is experimental. The pity of it is that it results in a terrible
wastage of human life, often of the best type, that might have been saved through the knowledge
of some of the ordinary rules for the care of the child. Not only must she know the way to
take care of it physically, but she must understand that that child is not all physical. She must
realize that it is not an absolutely new thing that she can train in any way she chooses; while
it is true that training does a great deal in the forming of the child's habits and preparation for
its life, it is also true that that child has a disposition and traits of character that no amount
of training can entirely overcome.    It has tendencies to good or bad habits, a predisposition to 8 Geo. 5 Provincial Board of Health. G 141
certain lines of conduct, tendencies to contract or resist disease, and a general make-up that is
entirely bis own; and surely it requires a great deal of knowledge, tact, and ability to mould
and form that little personality and direct it along right lines, with wisdom enough to know
when to develop and when to suppress. Truly some training is necessary for this great undertaking, for great it certainly is. But she gets none. She learns as she goes on and the child
is always there to practise on.
How many young mothers know how to feed a baby properly if the natural food for some
reason or other is lacking? The more the baby cries the more food it gets, and the more food
it is given the more the baby cries. And so it goes on from bad to worse, until both mother
and baby are physical wrecks. If by any good fortune the child survives, it often takes years
to recover, and in many cases it never recovers altogether. This lack of knowledge of the proper
way of feeding children does not end with babyhood. Indulgence is one of the crimes of our
day. It begins in babyhood and goes all through life. The child must not be denied anything.
It likes candy ; therefore it niust have candy, and plenty of it. Whatever the grown-up members
of the family eat the baby must eat too, and the result is that tbe child is taking food quite
unfitted for its digestion, and containing tbe wrong proportions of the different substances
contained in food. For instance, many mothers do not know that meat and milk should not
be given at the same time. Perhaps they have learned the fact, but if so they do not know
the reason why, and so do not act on it. The child gets all the meat at once; it usually wants
a good deal;  and, of course, nearly all children have plenty of milk.
There is also a great deal of irregularity in feeding the child. The pantry is open to it at
all times of the day, and the result is that when the regular meal-hour comes it is not hungry.
It should be taught that the time to eat is at the regular meal-hour, and that it must eat slowly
and masticate its food thoroughly in order to get a proper amount of saliva mixed in with the
food to help to digest the starch contained in that food. To do this it is necessary to have plenty
of time for meals. I don't know how a child can do this if the time allowed is only one- hour;
but of course it can't, and so we preach one thing and make conditions so that the child must do
tbe opposite. One hour and a half is the very shortest time that should he given at the noon
hour, for that is the principal meal of the large majority of children, and they should not have
to " bolt" it and run. It would seem as if it would be a very wise thing to have a course for
the " teen" age girl along lines that would train her for the duties and responsibilities of
motherhood, a course that would give her an idea" of the amount of food to be given to a Raby
and the proper length of time in between feedings, ahd the importance of regularity; tbe age
when the child might be given solid 'food, and so on; also some instructions on clothing, so that
they may know when a child has enough on and not too much. Too much clothing is a very
frequent mistake, even more common than not enough. They should also be taught about tbe
importance of sleep, fresh air, sunlight, and many more every-day facts.
The home-work problem, too, comes in when dealing with the welfare of the child. Play
is as necessary to its development as work, and if the hours after school are filled with work,
when can it get its play? Either play or sleep must be sacrificed and both are absolutely
essential. It seems as if for many years the child should be able to get all its instruction in
schools, and that the rest of the time should be spent in other ways. We should try to make
conditions so that this may be accomplished. Even in high schools it seems as if the amount of
home-work boys and girls are required to do is enormous. It is not the fault of the teacher;
it is our system that is at fault. I think we are trying to fit round pegs into square holes and
square pegs into round holes, trying to make the child develop along lines where it has no-
aptitude, instead of along the lines it likes. What we want to do is to fit the child for living,
so that it may do well its life-work, whatever it may be, and to give it a sound mind and a healthy
body, so that it can perform its tasks with ease and pleasure.
Sleep is a very essential thing for the child, and its importance should be kept constantly
before the minds of parents. Who has not seen little children from the ba'by-in-arms stage up
dragged out at night to all sorts of things—picture-shows, concerts, and even dances being well
patronized. There is no objection to these things in themselves, only the child should not be
there. It should be asleep, but the idea that the child must have the same as the grown-ups
is becoming far too prevalent. How can any one think that night is the proper time to take a
three- or four-year-old child to anything? By that time the child is ready for bed; development
goes on so fast in the little body and mind and so much waste material has been thrown off that G 142 British Columbia 1918
it is in no fit condition to have more heaped upon it; but the mother must be amused, the child
must be amused, and so out they go. Of course, this does not amuse the child; it only tends
to tire and weaken it, and helps to place it later amongst the physically unfit. The child is very
easily amused in reality, and if left to itself it shows this at every turn. Give it space and a
few simple toys that it can " do " things with, and then it will have real amusement and real
benefit. But the fault lies with the parents. The child is the toy of the household. We think
we are amusing it when we are gratifying our own selfish desires. We like to see the child
dressed up; we like to see it doing smart things; and so with wrong ideas of tbe whole child-
nature we bring it up with wrong ideas of living and of the world it lives in.
A child whose whole idea of amusement and whose whole thought is of self, nothing but
the material does it know anything about, and 'who is to blame? It has been brought up on
excitement and amusement; it began when it was a baby; never a quiet moment did it have.
When it was in its cradle it was rocked; when in its carriage it was shaken; if on any one's
knee it was jumped up and down, then tossed into the air to land no one knew where, and
thumped and patted, dandled till one became dizzy watching the performance. Tbe child is
formed the same as any grown-up person, and I don't believe we would enjoy all this diversion.
It may be pleasant to be tossed into the air, but none of us are anxious to try it. The child
should be kept quiet with as little. handling as possible. It should have the use of its arms
and legs and be allowed to use them freely, and should be allowed to develop itself. Gymnastic
exercises for it given by some one else are not required. Nature takes care of all that, and all
that is necessary is for it to be allowed to develop in nature's own way, but no such good luck!
As it grows older our modern civilization seems to demand still more excitement for it. When
Christinas or a birthday or any special occasion arrives, every one, father, mother, sisters,
brothers, friends, and relatives, all conspire to give it a good time. The good time usually
consists in working it up to the highest pitch of excitement; everything is piled on it; toys
of every description, and never-ending, are there for a surprise, until it is so tired and worn out
that there is no pleasure in anything for it. The day usually ends in its doing something very
naughty, and the parents cannot understand how it can act so when every one was so good to it.
One feels sorry for the child with too few toys and too little attention, but tbe child with too
many toys and too much attention is more to be pitied. Too few people understand the simplicity
and beauty of child-nature. The simplest thing amuses them; expense and costliness are quite
outsjde its grasp, and we only flatter our own vanity when we heap costly things on it. All this
is wrong, absolutely wrong. We must 'bri*ug up the child so it will develop into the capable man
or woman, strong in body and in mind. With so many of our best men gone we must have
healthy and capable men for the future, or what will be the result? The past we have nothing
to do with now, but we must strive to be the guardians for the health and welfare of the future.
The moving pictures figure so strongly now in the life of every child that it has become a
real factor in its welfare. I have no objections to moving pictures for the child, provided the
picture shown is of the proper kind and it is taken at the right time to see it. It is such a
splendid opportunity to put such wonderful things before the child's mind, that there seems no
reason why anything else should ever be allowed. I think all health authorities should take a
great interest in the moving pictures, with the idea of getting things put on that are of an
educative value, things that will not cause nerve-strain and mental exhaustion, and give the
child a wrong idea of life.
Not long ago I went to the moving-picture theatre to see Hall Caine's story " The Deemster "
put on. It is a tragedy from beginning to end; the place was filled with children; all ages
were there, from the baby in arms up. When a terrible quarrel occurred between two men, a
small child near me said: "What are they doing?" The answer was: "They are trying to
kill each other, dear." Yes, just tbe simple little thing of murder and tragedy. A most fitting
subject for the child to see! Is that the right thing to put before the child's mind? I do not
criticize the play, but I do criticize the fact that children were allowed to see such things. Not
only does it see tragedy, but even worse. It often has phases of life put before it that cannot
help putting into its mind ideas that lead later on to loose habits of thought and action, suggestive
things, that surely lower the standard of living; and lower standards of living tend to lower
the race in every way, physically, mentally, and morally.
The child suffers a great handicap from the suppression of its natural curiosity to know
things.   All life and its problems are before it, and these problems are before the child-mind very 8 Geo. 5 Provincial Board of Health. G 143
early. It seems to be a prevailing idea that a child's questions should be ignored or answered
wrongly. It is true that its questions cannot always be answered, but in cases like that the
reason for not answering them should be fully explained, and whenever possible the proper
answer should be given. What difference if it does take a little time; there is always time for
anything you want to do, and you never can spend time in a better way. The child with the
alert, active mind is the one we want to develop, and in order to get tbe best results we must
satisfy its desire to know the reason why. The whole child-life is "Why?" And when it is
brushed aside with a " Don't bother me," there is something suppressed in that child which is
invaluable. Then, too, it will often do a wrong thing because it does not understand, and very
often a good explanation of the reason why certain lines of conduct are wrong will do it more
good than a whipping. Not that I think whipping should be done away with altogether, but one
should be very sure who is to blame before it is given. The child never forgets an injustice,
and I think most of us carry in our inmost minds the remembrance of some perhaps very small
thing for which we were punished when we did not deserve it. It has left a scar and a feeling
of resentment. We must be just to the child, first and, foremost. By that, I do not mean
indulgent, for often the most unjust parents are the most indulgent.
So much harm could be prevented by frankness between the parent and child. The parent
should explain the dangers that may beset it and give it a chance to avoid them. The child does
not know much about the dreadful diseases in the world, so we should be fair and square enough
to warn it in time. Prevention is better than cure, even if a cure can be effected, which is not
always the case. The child who goes out into the world unwarned and ignorant, and, not
knowing, who is led astray, has the right to ask its parents " Why? " You have only to walk up
and down the streets in any city at night to see things that appal you. Young girls unescorted
and dressed in a style altogether beyond their years and means trying to make themselves look
attractive. Their mothers have never warned them; they have gone their own way from childhood, and many a girl that might have been innocent and healthy, a credit to society, is lost to
all good, simply because her mother was careless. If parents only recognized their responsibility
to the children and were frank and just enough to warn them, society would have fewer outcasts
and much less disease to deal with. Not only does the girl need a guiding hand, but the boy as
well. Many people forget that the boy has a hard row to hoe, perhaps even harder than the girl.
He is allowed liberty because he is a boy, simply because results can not occur the same as in a
girl. They forget that there can be awful results, far-reaching and degrading, resulting in loss
of health and things that make life worth living. We are allowing the children the liberty of
the adult without the knowledge of adult life to protect it. It is often blase when it is sixteen,
nothing left for it to know. Home-life is ceasing to be a factor in our civilization; too many
attractions outside. The home must come into its own again; it is essential for the bringing-up
of the child.
For the welfare of the child I would suggest singing. It is good for it, mentally, morally,
physically, and spiritually. I wonder if the statement that the Canadian child is lacking in
musical taste is true. If so, it is largely because it has been ignored as a national asset. Singing
should be national. Almost every one can sing if he or she gets the opportunity, and the opportunity should be given to every one. Not that every one should be trained especially to sing, but
music should have a very prominent place in every school and in every home. Singing makes
a better child. It develops its lungs and puts into that child a something that is indefinable, but
which we have all felt and which we all know. " The man that hath not music in himself, nor
is not moved with concord of sweet sound, is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils." Let us
try to put into every child's mind the memory of sweet song; let us have music as a necessary
part of tbe development and training. No crimes are committed with songs on the lips; song
is tbe accompaniment of joy and happiness, brave deeds, and noble impulses, and to me seems a
most necessary thing in the full development of the child nature, which we all know is very
complex, and which must be considered on all its sides; and, while not forgetting the physical,
we must remember that it depends to a very large extent on the development of its other nature,
mental, moral, spiritual, and testhetic. We are not developing merely the animal, but something
made in the image of God, and so this many-sided problem must be faced; and it is the study
of a lifetime how to make the world a good place for the child to live in; how to fit the child to
live as a child first, then as an adult capable of performing in the best way the various duties
of life.    We don't want the child just to be good;  we want it to be good for something. Too much cannot be said in favour of our public schools, and every advance made is of
incalculable value. Although children are born in all kinds of conditions, here at last they are
on an equal footing; here there are neither rich nor poor, high nor low, no class distinction.
They are all children together with the same instincts, tbe same love of play, the same everything.
Here is where the child gets his chance, rich and poor alike, and so everything tending towards
the betterment of the school is well worth while. It is coining about that the bodily development
is considered as important as mental development. We are realizing that the mind must exist
in a healthy body to give the best results. There is a great deal to be done yet, for we have not
yet reached the point where all may get attention free of charge if necessary. Many a child still
has to bear tbe hardships incident to defective teeth, enlarged tonsils, the existence of adenoids,
and many more diseases that react upon its mental improvement. Probably the greatest problem
that the Medical Inspectors of Schools in towns and outlying districts have to meet is the
impossibility of getting the teeth attended to. Dentistry is very expensive, and it is simply
impossible to have teeth attended to when there is a large family. It is not much use to send
the notice to the parents, " This child 4s in need of dental attention," when you know quite well
there is not money enough to buy food and clothing. It almost seems as if the old saying,
" Where ignorance is bliss, 'tis folly to be wise," would fit here. We are all looking forward
to the time when we will have dental inspection as a necessary part of our school-life. So many
ills are put down now to diseased teeth that one has to keep very sane in order not to become
quite panicky when yon see hundreds of children with diseased teeth, and you wonder if they
really are all going to the bad.
There is one thing in connection with teeth that I would like to say, and I will give an
example of what I mean. A boy aged about eight years was found to have no teeth, either above
or below, on either side, beyond the canine teeth. When asked what happened to bis teeth, he
said that a doctor in a certain Prairie town had pulled them. " They were aching," he said,
" and the doctor thought they might as well come out." " Was there not a dentist in the place? "'
was asked the boy. " Oh, yes," was the reply, " but the doctor always pulled our teeth." Yes,
he pulled them all right, six-year molars and everything else. He made a clean job of it, but if
be had seen the misshapen jaw I am sure he would not be very proud of his work. That child
did not get any teeth for years. It is true this was worse than is usually found, but too often
the six-year molars are pulled, and not often by dentists either, so I feel like criticizing the
medical profession on this point. The six-year molar is the most important tooth in the mouth;
it is the key of the arch, and should be saved whenever possible.
Goitre is one thing I see no hope for. It is very prevalent in Nelson; ISO cases were found
in our schools last year, and there are probably as many more in children under school age and.
adults. No bad results have occurred from it. It seems to be all of the simple kind, but it is
very disfiguring, to say the least, and any theories or knowledge of its cause would be very
welcome.
In concluding, let me thank you for the privilege accorded me of reading this paper and for*
your kind attention.
Discussion on Dr. Arthur's Paper.
Mr. Biker (Nelson) : I wish to congratulate Dr. Arthur on her very capable and very
broad view-point expressed in her paper. While I am only here as a layman, practically, among*
a crowd of doctors, I feel tempted to have nothing to say;   but I can give you my view-point..
I might say, with regard to the curriculum in our schools, I think this subject might be
included. Another salient point is that we have tbe future in our hands, and we ought to be-
able to handle that. How many of us as parents warn our children of the conditions they have-
to face?   This is rather an important point.
I would like to hear more with regard to the question of goitre. I believe we have an awful,
lot in our town; this disease is very prevalent in the higher altitudes, and I believe about
90 per cent, is found in the altitude between 10,000 and 15,000 feet. I would like to hear more
on that.
Dr. Petersky: First I want to congratulate Dr. Arthur on that paper. I think it is the-
most important paper on the programme. In my experience I have found that the ignorance*
of the people in this Province is appalling. To illustrate that: I had a little child in my care,,
the son of the Stipendiary Magistrate, who is supposed to be a man of judgment, and when food! 8 Geo. o Provincial Board of Health. G 145
was kept from this child for twenty-four hours, this man said he wasn't going to have that baby
starved.    After he saw the attack was cut short, he did have tbe grace to apologize.
With regard to the inspection of schools, I have inspected schools in a country district
principally around the Cariboo, and I find teachers as a rule—though some of them are polite
to us—they think we are a blamed nuisance coming and interfering with their work. That is
the way they look at it. The average teacher is just as ignorant as to why schools are inspected;
they didn't read the pamphlet sent out by the Government, and not a teacher was conversant with
it until I carried out the system adopted afterward, of giving them one week's notice, telling
them it was their duty to read it as a teacher, and they had certain duties to perform for the
School Inspectors, such as examining the youngsters' eyes, and they could find out certain things
which would come under their notice, such as a limp, or curvature of the spine, and it was their
duty to look after such things as well as the education of tbe child. They think they have only
to teach that two and two make four, etc. I think the Health Department ought to take that
up and make the teachers realize that this is a very important branch of their work, and they
may treat the School Inspector with a better spirit.
Then you take the average mother; that is a point to which I have given some thought, and
although the general public limit their powers by making the laws of health, etc, I think the
average mother should have a certificate that she has the education to fit her for her position.
For instance, she should know enough about cooking not to poison her husband, and she should
know enough about mixing various formula? of milk in case it is necessary, and also know what
disturbances may be caused in tbe stomach.
Personally, I haven't any children yet, but if I have I shall consider I have to put in my
time to look after them; and as to entertainments, one of the parents—fortunately there are
two—will have to stay home to look after the youngsters. I would not trust a child of mine
to any nurse. In some cases children are left in the charge of women who drink, and what can
be expected of the children if they have such a nurse for an example?
It in all very well for us to get together here and read papers as to what we ought to do,
but how are we going to get people to believe we are.not faddists and not carried away by our
impulses ?
Dr. Arthur suggested singing. I might carry that point a little further, and say any innocent
amusements that will occupy their time; and for the parents, I think it should be made compulsory in the high schools and Normal Schools particularly that teachers should be obliged to
take first aid and should be taught to respect the Medical School Inspector.
Dr. Vrooman (Medical Superintendent, Tranquille Sanatorium) : I think Dr. Arthur's paper
deserves much praise. I do not wish to take up much time on this question of " child-welfare,"
but there is one suggestion I should like to have taken into account—that is, the education of
the parent. The parent cannot be educated by the physician, except partly. A great deal has
been done in this city by the Child-welfare Committee, the Babies' Hospital, etc.; incalculable
good is being done. Why not extend that beyond the City of Vancouver? Why not extend it
into the rural districts by the appointment of nurses who will go to the rural districts and
educate the mothers? We are not educating the mothers by making laws; it is a woman's
influence with a woman that counts. A sympathetic nurse can do more than a medical man,
and I think one suggestion arising out of Dr. Arthur's paper is that nurses be appointed for the
rural districts in British Columbia.
Mrs. Clark: May I ask a question as to the point about goitre? It is a prevalent idea that
water has something to do with it. I had an examination made of Vancouver water, and a
physician said it would be advisable to give my children a small quantity of lime-water each
day, and I did so; but very few mothers know about that, and many have asked me if the lack
of lime did not cause goitre.
The Chairman:  I was going to ask Dr. Young to give statistics on goitre later on.
Dr. F. W. Brydone-Jack: I had great pleasure in listening to the paper this morning,
particularly the non-medical side of " child-welfare " ; and then again the practical application
with regard to dentistry, the prevalence of goitre, and the education of the parents.
In connection with the education of teachers, I think that could be arranged in Normal
Schools by having lectures given on " child-welfare " by some doctors at some time suitable to
the principals of the colleges.
10 G 146 British Columbia 1918
In connection with the child-welfare movement, when down East this summer I saw the
well-organized plan in Toronto. Whenever a child is born its birth is registered, and the Mayor
sends a card of congratulation, telling of its value to the State. This contains a pamphlet of
six pages describing methods of feeding, and illnesses, etc. It has twenty-eight child-welfare
clinics, and a staff of nurses doing prenatal work in these child-welfare classes, and then the
visiting of the school-children. In connection with births in -the public wards of tbe hospitals,
it is almost compulsory that these matters be attended to. Dr. Brown has charge of this work
for the City Health Department in Toronto, and also the present head of the work in the
Children's Hospital there. When a mother leaves the public ward she has to take the child to
the child-welfare clinic once a week for measurement, weighing, diet. etc. If the mother neglects
to do this—at the present time they can almost compel her to do it—they take the matter up in
the Courts as a mother being neglectful of the child. But the majority of women take the
children to the clinics without any trouble.
I think in New York there are about fifty-seven clinics, in Montreal twenty-eight, and they
are spreading all over the country here. In Toronto they call them infant-welfare clinics, but
they are child-welfare clinics because they look after children up to school age, and many
defects which are found usually in children after entering school are in this way remedied before
they come to school, because most of the defects found, as you know, in school-life should have
been remedied two or three years before the child came to school.
Dr. Stanier (Medical Inspector of Schools, Oak Bay) : I was much interested in Dr. Arthur's
paper, and I hope she will let me have a copy of it, as I would like to take it home. Of course,
by the very nature of that paper, it is sketchy. What I think would do a good deal of good would
be something along the line of fiction, giving more intimate details of the bringing-up of children.
There is no more popular book than " Helen's Babies " to show that a child should not bring
up its parents. I think many of the clever writers to-day would be able to write something that
would be humorous and well read by many mothers who are perfectly willing to know something
about children, but do not like to be educated in the strict child-welfare way; but ranch that
is informing could be introduced into a work of fiction, that perhaps would take up the first
year of a child's life, or perhaps up to two or three years of age, and, later on, the school-life.
Nine out of ten children born, I think, are born healthy, even if tbe parents are comparatively
unsound; if properly fed and looked after the first year, they will grow up strong and healthy
citizens and overcome tendencies to disease if properly handled during the first year or two.
What the last speaker said about clinics is important, but I would like to see something written
along the line of fiction, and I am sure it would be a book widely circulated and read.
I haven't time this morning to criticize much, and there is very little to criticize. With
regard to teeth, I have seen a number of young children with their milk-teeth practically gone.
There is a theory that the sticky white flour is responsible for it, or eating sugar at night. About
the only instructions I give to parents about these things is not to let a child eat sugar after
supper, or to thoroughly clean the teeth after doing so. I know the use of sticky, fine white flour
produces decay and tends to disease much more than we are aware.
Dr. A. G. Price (Medical Health Officer, Victoria) : I think we ought to be congratulated on
having the opportunity of listening to such a valuable paper on " child-welfare," so very full
from beginning to end. It is only twenty-four hours ago that I was attending a meeting at
Victoria, where we are starting late, but we are starting a child-welfare campaign. I only wish
this meeting had taken place a few days before or our meeting a few days after, so that I might
have had the advantage of this excellent paper. It is so very full that to touch on all the points
would be impossible in the time given, but one point I am rather interested in and would like to
touch on is the prenatal child. I do not think that enough importance is placed upon this point.
Only the other day I had a letter from Dr. Plastings, of Toronto, asking for information about
the child-welfare movement in Victoria. I gave bim the information, but finished up by saying,
" You have got hold of the wrong end of the stick—you must get at the prenatal end." If you
look through the statistics of the different cities—I know Victoria better than any other city—
you will find an enormous death-rate among children under one year old, due to still-births,
premature births, and malformations at birth. I can tell you, out of 101 or 105 of the infant
deaths under one year old in Victoria last year, I think seventy-five were from prenatal causes—
still-births, premature births, and malformations which we are in our present state of knowledge
not able to account for.  We know this; that maternal impressions are carried on to the offspring. 8 Geo. 5 Provincial Board of Health. G 147
For illustration: In one case where a baby was expected in about five months' time, the mother
was in a crowd, and a man came up and drove his elbow in her chest and made a dent and a red
mark. The baby was born with that dent and red mark. It is a deep dent which with a little
excitement gets red. Another case, just for illustration, is this: An expecting mother came to
me with a little boy who had been rolling a hoop and had fallen on the hoop and cut his lip.
She was in dreadful distress lest her baby should have a split lip. I laughed at her, to prevent
her having the impression, but when the child did arrive it had a split lip in the same place where
the older child had been cut by this hoop. I know of another case, where a butcher was lifting
a piece of meat from a hook, and the hook fell and tore his face in a horseshoe cut. His wife
at one time had broken her finger at the top joint. Three of their children had no top joint to
the finger, and two girls had a horseshoe mark on tbe face.
Mental defects are carried down in the same way, and it is most important, I think, when
infants are on the way, that expecting mothers should have some instructions. I would say
that girls before leaving school should be given some instruction on how to live at that time, both
mentally and physically. I come across many cases where the unfortunate mothers are out at
work—husbands are ne'er-do-wells and the women are working for their daily bread. What can
you expect to see in the offspring?    I think this question should be brought up very fully.
There is one book I advocate in Victoria; I got it from the Provincial Department; it is
published by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, and given away free, called " The Child."
It first gives the prenatal treatment; the mother, her treatment; and the treatment of the child
from tbe first, its feeding, etc. It is a very small book, but I have advocated that it be placed
in every public school in British Columbia, in Canada, and in the British Isles. It is a most
useful book, and unless you give the mother something to read she will forget what you tell her.
I wish to thank Dr. Arthur for her excellent paper.
A delegate: I think we should congratulate ourselves on having Dr. Arthur here, opening
up new phases of child-weifare. In our schools, if we were in touch with the boys and girls on
the fundamental principles of life, when they get out to work, they would have this knowledge
to guide them, and I think a great many of you will agree with me that if this were done a great
many diseases and imperfections in our children would be eradicated. The State would not be
called upon to keep these children and we would be a better nation. To my mind this is the
fundamental principle that we should carry out.
Mrs. Clark: I was convenor of the better-babies contest a few years ago, and we found a
great lack of little pamphlets to distribute to the mothers. We were absolutely dependent on
the Metropolitan Life for our literature, and we have thought since it would he an advantage
to have the Provincial Government publish some little pamphlets to be distributed at such a
time, when so many mothers and babies are congregated together.
Dr. Young: Our intention is to distribute as much literature as possible. The baby contest
in the Province was a new feature, and there is now a pamphlet pertaining particularly to these
points under publication which will be distributed very widely, especially through Women's
Institutes.
Now, in reference to goitre, I found when I went into this some two or three years ago, in
conversation with medical men, the question of goitre came up, and I took the matter up at the
time, and called it to the attention of the Medical Inspectors, asking them to pay particular
attention to it; and from their reports during the years 1915 and 1916—unfortunately our
inspection was not carried out during the past term—but up to the beginning of the last school
term there were 1,633 cases of goitre on the school reports. This is not by any means the number
of cases in British Columbia, but a report simply of the children of school age; and it was very
alarming. It was not confined to any one district in British Columbia ; I found it from the north
to the south and from the coast to the east border. Through the Okanagan the percentage of
cases was probably much higher than in the other districts of the Province. I took the matter
up with the medical profession in general, and asked the Victoria Medical Association and also
the Vancouver Medical Association to conduct some investigations along these lines; and the
Vancouver n^ssociation kindly took the matter up at my suggestion aud appointed a committee;
and I had an interim report from them, saying later in the season they expected to be able to
give further data with reference to the matter.
In the course of investigations I found not only humans affected, but animals, very much
affected.    I took it up with Dr. Haddon, of Agassiz, and he confirmed this;   and Dr. Tolmie, G 148 British Columbia 1918
Dominion Veterinary, asked me about it. and I gave him some figures I had. and he agreed that
it was very alarming. He informed me that the existence of goitre amongst animals was so
serious that it meant a very great economic loss, and he was asking the Department at Ottawa
for sufficient funds to conduct an investigation.
The percentage of cases among the population of our Province is probably not greater than
we should expect in a Province like British Columbia, where we have a shifting population.
Following the knowledge I obtained in the reports, I wrote the Medical Inspectors and asked for
their views, and they are agreed as to its prevalence; but unfortunately, owing to the carelessness of the profession, they did not pay any particular attention to the matter other than the
fact that they regretted the condition, but I got what information I could from them with regard
to their private practice.
There does not seem to be any consensus of opinion as regards its source or origin. The
theory of water-inspection was applied generally to the Province, as we are a mountainous
country and the source of our water is glacial, snow-water. Whether it is microbic or not, I
hope to be able to ascertain. It is a matter to which the profession should give particular
attention. It is alarming. There seems to he after puberty a decrease in the number of cases.
We are not peculiar in the existence of goitre here, but probably in its distribution. In other
countries and in the East they have these epidemics of goitre from time to time, and I wish tbe
medical profession would keep this in view and try to arrive at some solution and advise tbe
Department.
Mr. Biker: I believe we have localized within the District of Nelson over 400 cases in
adults and children. Here, in my opinion, is a specially localized field, and I think, when an
investigation is being made, we should have some investigation in.Nelson, as we have so many
cases.
Dr. Wrinch: I think we should be able to obtain some concrete results from this conference,
which should be made as valuable as possible. With regard to disseminating information to the
young, I have been pondering on that question for a moment after listening to this very full
paper, and I wondered if it was sufficient to instruct the high-school pupils on questions of sex,
maternity, etc.. also on diseases. Would it not be possible to use our present organization of
school examiners to speak upon these all-important matters to both sexes during adolescence
and early adult life? I fear it would not be sufficient to wait until the children are in high
school, because a great number do not attend high school—a large proportion do not; we must
reach them earlier. Could not some arrangement be made whereby children could be taken by
the Health Inspectors in the Senior and Junior Fourth classes before they scatter, taking the
boys and girls separately and lecturing to them as to the evils to which they are liable? It is
very important that they should be taken separately and that the instruction should be given
by medical teachers and not by school-teachers.
In order that the information should be along the right lines and as carefully condensed as
possible, perhaps the Department, by means of a little committee called together, could arrange
a pamphlet of instructions to be given to Health Inspectors, outlining a course, so as to make
the teaching uniform. These are just suggestions that have occurred to me as possible, whereby
practical results along these lines could be obtained.
Dr. Isabel Arthur (replies to discussion) : I think the greatest difficulty that I have found
is to get the people to hear any papers or lectures on this subject. Several times I have advertised that I would give a talk on certain matters. When the time came I would look at my
audience and I would not see a person there that I wanted to be there; that is, people who
should be there were not there, and the people who were there already knew. I think it would
be a very good idea if the Medical Health Officers were to publish in a weekly paper an article
on " Child-welfare." It would not be a* very hard matter to write a small article each week,
and in that way get a great deal of information before the public.
As to the question of teeth, I have found in examining the schools that the Chinese boys
and girls seem to have better teeth than our boys and girls, so I presume it has something to
do with the food; whether it is sugar or not I do not know, because I do not know whether
or not the Chinese are sugar-eaters.
About the difficulty between Medical Inspectors and teachers: I have not found any difficulty
along that line.    I think one has to give tbe teachers credit for being very reasonable and rational S Geo. 5 Provincial Board of Health. G 149
in their treatment of the Medical Inspectors. I have not found the teachers in the schools I have
had anything to do with anything but reasonable and rational, and they do everything I ask them
to do.
I think the suggestion that a pamphlet be prepared by the Government as to teaching in the
schools, public and high, is a very good one, and I think it would be a very good way to get the
knowledge before the children.
The Chairman: Ladies and Gentlemen.—I have received a communication which I will
read.    (Reads communication from Dr. McKay Jordan.)
Note.—It is moved and seconded that it be laid on the table.
Tbe Chairman: It has been moved and seconded that this be laid on the table. All those
in favour say " Aye."    Contrary, " No."    The motion is carried unanimously.
The Chairman:    I will now call on Dr. B. D. Gillies for his paper.
Dr. Gillies's Paper.
(The Provincial Board of Health regrets that they have been unable to get a copy of
Dr. Gillies's paper at the time of going to press. They have, however, included in this report
an account of the discussion on the subject-matter of "Mentally Defective Children.")
Dr. Margaret Pitcairn Hogg (of Victoria) : I have listened with a great' deal of pleasure
to Dr. Gillies's paper. This subject is of particular interest to me, and I think there is a crying
necessity in British Columbia that some institution should be formed for these people. I was
Resident Medical Officer in such an institution near London, which supplied the needs of all
tbe schools of the London County Council and several counties. We took these children from
the age of about four or five, before they reached the school age, and kept them until they were
sixteen, segregating boys and girls in different houses. They all attended school and each child
had individual training. I think some provision should be made to show that they should not
be allowed to go into the world to swell the army of unemployable. We have 2,000 acres entirely
run by the boys from our schools. In British Columbia, where there is so much waste land, i:
would be a splendid thing for these children and adults to 'be put on a large farm and properly
trained, as Dr. Gillies so aptly puts it, and keep them in proper associations as far as possible.
Dr. Turnbull (South Vancouver) : I wish to speak in appreciation of the paper by Dr.
Gillies, and to say that the points as uttered in his paper express my opinion very clearly in
almost everyparticular. During the last year I think I have had seven cases come to me, most
of them in families who have little of this world's goods, with some of the members of their
family mentally deficient. Three of these cases could only be sent to Westminster Asylum, and
that is not very satisfactory. Three were children; I scarcely think that is a proper environment for them. In two cases the mothers were dead and there were no friends to take them.
We tried sending one to the Salvation Army for a time, but it didn't work out very well. The
idea of a farm seems to me the proper idea. The Provincial Government, I believe, has had
this under consideration for some time. I myself have written them, but they said they were
unable to see their way now to do this, but I think they intend to take some steps in the
near future regarding this matter.
Dr. J. H. McDermot (Vancouver) : I just wanted to speak on one phase of the subject
that Dr. Gillies did not bring in in his paper. We have enjoyed the paper very much, I am
sure, and, as pointed out, there are a great many things we do not know; but there is one point
that I think has not been touched upon very-much, and that is the border-line cases as they
appear in our schools.
Some little time ago there was some question as to establishing classes for mental defectives,
and I tried to collect some data from tbe teachers, asking for the children in their classes. There
were quite a number of names handed in, and I took each one of these pupils and examined them.
We found there were more backward children than actually mentally defective children, and the
trouble was due in many cases to defective tonsils and adenoids, and when these cases were
properly treated a great many of these pupils came back to the class and kept up in the way
they should be going.
When these children were eliminated the number of mental defectives in our city was found
to be too small to institute a special class for them. Of those children who are left, they are
in some cases children of alcoholic parents and of people who should not be at large, as far as
we can make out;  at auy rate, they should not inflict such progeny on the community, and the G 150 British Columbia 1918
question is, how is this, thing to be controlled?    I would like to hear from Dr. Gillies something
along that line.
Mr. Biker: I wonder if there is anything in the view-point of the number of children in a
class in school? In some cases there are forty-five or fifty pupils in a class. How is it possible
for a teacher to attend to that number if 20 per cent, are backward children?
Dr. Stanier (Victoria) : Victoria City has a class supposed to take care of mentally defective
children, but there is no compulsion to take them out of a regular class and put them into this
class for instruction. No doubt the education is much better carried out along the kindergarten
lines than along ordinary rules,, and I think it would be well to establish a farm colony. I find
the trouble is the parents are often mentally defective also, and you have great difficulty in
convincing them that their offspring are not right. It is, upsetting the class, having such children
in it, and I think some compulsion should be brought about; it should not be optional with the
parents whether the child be sent to school or to the class for mentally defectives, or the farm
colony.
Dr. Fetersky: I am very glad the last paper has taken up that point. I think it is a most
important point. I think this is up to the Health Department. TTie teacher should be made to
report children who stay more than two terms in one class. There should be an investigation
by a medical man to find whether the child is mentally defective or not. If the child is mentally
defective, it should be removed to a special school or institution where the others are in the same
fix and the grades are standardized. In other words, it creates the environment Dr. Gillies
spoke of. There are some boys and girls who have a tendency to be mischievous, and if put
among thieves they become thieves. 1 think we should take this matter up; it seems to me
the Provincial Government are neglecting the Health Officers' Department shamefully in a way.
You cannot make the ordinary layman see that it is important.
Dr. F. W. Brydone-Jack: It gave me great pleasure to listen to Dr. Gillies's paper.
Personally, I want to see action on this sooner than on anything else that may be brought up
here. In Vancouver we have twenty-four children attending the mentally defective classes.
There are in addition about fifty in Vancouver who should be attending them. We cannot get
enough teachers to handle them; the School Board has not seen its way to appointing a sufficient
number to handle the whole feeble-minded proposition in Arancouver; but in regard to sending
children to the class, the Municipal Inspector has the power of defining the school which any
child shall attend, and if we report to him that a certain child in a certain school is mentally
defective be can tell the parents that he assigns the child to this class, and the law supports
him. We have only given that power in a few occasions, as we haven't enough teachers to look
after the number we have here.
I think the educational authorities can look after the education of the feeble-minded children
up to the age of twelve or thirteen years. After that they become a harder problem to deal with.
After girls get to that age, we from time to time have them in the Law Courts for having been
taken unfair advantage of by men; we had two or three cases last year, and a case the other
day, and it is up to us to look after these children. The only way to protect them is to put them
into an institution such as Dr. Gillies has suggested. We can teach them manual training and
domestic science and make them self-supporting, but they should have constant supervision. In
the Old Country they find turning them loose in the world is wrong, because they do not attempt
to remain employed and become criminals. We could keep them in a colony farm, where they
could be self-supporting. At the present time they are turned loose on to the community at
sixteen or seventeen and they become troublesome, and may later become criminals. A number of.
parents have approached me and asked if it could not be arranged to have the Government take
charge of their children; they know they cannot handle them, and want Government control,
as that is the only way of looking after them properly.
When in Toronto in July I had a talk with Dr. McMurchie, mentioned by Dr. Gillies,
regarding the farm-colony control of these children, and she suggested that m British Columbia
we should start in a small way, say in a good-sized house having eight or ten girls under a
suitable matron, and then, as the fund increased, more buildings, and then have the farm-colony
principle.
Mrs. Clark: Speaking for the Local Council of Women in Vancouver, this question has
been of vital interest to us for some years, particularly since the beginning of tbe war, and last
June we had a very able paper, and a resolution went forward asking that such an institute 8 Geo. 5 Provincial Board of Health. G 151
as mentioned be established in British Columbia, not for the Dominion, but one for our own
Province.
Dr. B. D. Gillies (replies to discussion) : I do not think we should leave these children or
throw them on the public at the age of sixteen. This is especially the time we want to have
hold of them. They are ready then to go out and propagate and everything else, and just carry
on what we are trying to control; and it is most essential that the Government should have
permanent control of these people. We make them self-supporting; they are self-supporting in
a proper environment, but they should be kept under control.
There are a lot of things that one could have touched on, but it was utterly impossible
for me to have prepared a paper of that character. I know it was deficient in many respects.
I cannot deal with the method of organization of caring for these cases, but if we have a place
where we can treat them, we will find out those deserving of such treatment.
I wish to thank you for the way in which you have received the paper.
Dr. Turnbull: I would like to make a resolution—that the Medical Health Officers and
Medical Inspectors draft out and present a resolution that the Government should take steps to
make some arrangement along this line.
The resolution was seconded and carried unanimously.
The Chairman:    I will now call upon Dr. Stanier for his paper.
VnVCCINATION.
By F. T. Stanier, M.D, CM, Medical Inspector of Schools, Oak Bay, B.C.
Mr. President and Gentlemen,—I believe I am called on to read a paper on that threadbare
subject, " Vaccination," because as Inspector of Schools in Oak Bay Municipality I was fortunate
enough to have a Board of School Trustees sufficiently enlightened to take my suggestion during
the recent outbreak of smallpox, and under the " Health Act," section 7, subsection (11), compel
every pupil attending either to be vaccinated or procure a certificate of exemption before they
could be admitted to the school.
The Victoria Medical Society had previously passed a resolution that the fee should be $1.
The children were told to apply to their own medical men and were given three weeks. Toward
the end of that time I attended at the schools and vaccinated a few who had no doctor who
brought their dollar with them, and a few more who wished to be vaccinated but had no dollar.
The conscientious objectors numbered more than I expected, noticeably among the poorer and
more ignorant parents, many of whom were worked up by the usual extravagant letters to the
papers by objectors who quoted horrible instances of infection; all of which occurred at remote
times and places, and were past disproof, but not without influence.
I found that the giving of certificates of successful vaccination was not being carried out,
and not to make too much fuss I examined many who had been vaccinated and had not got
certificates, and in doing so I was struck with the many different ways vaccination and the
after-treatment of the sores is done, and this paper is a plea for uniformity in this little operation.
One man makes four marks, another three, and another only one. One doctor puts on a
shield, another a great thick dressing of cotton wool, and a third neither washes the arm nor
puts on any covering. It is immaterial whether vaccination is done on the leg or the arm (one
pretty little maid showed me her thigh—"We put it here in France," she said), but four, or at
least three marks and an after-treatment that allows them to go unbroken through the vesicular
and pustular stage are essentials of successful vaccination.
To cut this paper short, I will tell you the method I employ and the reason. The subject
is then open for discussion.
The child is instructed to be clean and have clean underclothes. I wash the site chosen with
plain water and a piece of absorbent cotton and dry it with absorbent. This, of course, is no
more than burning a joss-stick to surgical cleanliness; but I ask you, if you took a thousand
healthy, clean children and pricked the three marks without vaccine, how many would become
infected? I next squeeze out the vaccine in three places, if the arm is fairly large, in a triangle,
two above the insertion of the deltoid and one below. On a thin arm three vertically in that
neighbourhood at least 1% inches apart. Then with a sharp-pointed needle that can be sterilized
in a spirit lamp flame make about eight or ten very superficial stab punctures on each mark
and lift the epidermis with each puncture.    It is quite painless, much quicker than scarifying, G 152 British Columbia . 1918
much surer to take, as no blood is drawn and very much less danger of immediate secondary
infection. There is no waiting until it dries. The clothes are pulled down and out goes tbe
patient.
I tell them it must he kept dry until the scab comes off. The only dressing allowable is a
piece of soft linen sewn inside the sleeve of the undershirt. Almost any dressing more than this
will cause the pustule to sweat, soften, and' break down into an open ulcer, with liability to
secondary infection; and, worst of all, the protective serum that is grown under that hard scab
with the intention that it should be absorbed into the system in sufficient quantity to give
protection (for that reason at least three marks) is discharged in the dressing, and though the
scars remain to show vaccination, that patient has very little more protection against smallpox
than the unvaccinated, and if an epidemic occurs goes to swell the statistics against the value
of vaccination.
The method described has been used for some time in the military camps in Toronto with
a more elaborate antiseptic preparation of the arm. I have no doubt many of you have tried
it and can endorse my claim that it is easy, quick, sure, and painless; and if no dressing is
permitted, the scabs allowed to harden, and the serum formed in the vesicles to be absorDed,
the protection afforded will-be much greater than obtains with the present haphazard methods.
This little operation and its results are seen by the public from start to finish, and when
you are asked, " Why does Dr. S. only make one mark and put a thick dressing on it?" it is not
going to add to the professional amenities or the public confidence to explain your theory. For
that reason, if this meeting sees fit to endorse this, or any better, method of vaccination, I should
like to move that a memorandum of some uniform procedure be seut to the medical societies for
discussion and adoption.
Discussion on De. Stanier's Paper.
Dr. A. G. Price (Victoria) : In opening the discussion on this vast subject, I feel like one
plunging into the ocean, rough on the surface and filled with submarines underneath, because it
has been a subject which for years has been under discussion by the general public—the subject
of vaccination. But I do not need to plunge into the ocean. I have to thank Dr. Stanier for
throwing out two lines—as I am in the sea—to rescue me from getting into the deep. These
are, first, the law in relation to compulsory vaccination; second, the methods of procedure in
vaccination;   and I will try to connect these two.
The section referred to is section 7, subsection (11) ; that section states that all children
attending public schools shall be vaccinated or shall give a certificate of exemption. This law,
unfortunately, is not enforced. Why is it not enforced? Because of the second part, as to
giving a certificate of exemption under the conscience clause, where the parent of a child may
come and say that he objects to vaccination under conscientious scruples. A man told me: " I
don't care a rap about my oath, but I am not going to have something injected into my child."
Now, that man was both ignorant and immoral—immoral because he did not care about his oath,
and ignorant because he did not take pains to find out just what it meant. About 80 per cent, of
the parents are anti-vaccinationists. It is either a case of ignorance or prejudice because they
are proud. They are ignorant in that they have not given any time to study the matter and
have heard the tittle-tattle of other people, and are carried away with the rubbish you see
issued by the anti-vaccinationists. They judge the case before they bear it. They have made
up their minds that so-and-so didn't get smallpox and were not vaccinated, and what is the
use? They are prejudiced and they are proud. Some people say: "We are Britons. We do
not submit to our liberty being taken." The word " compulsion " is much against the feelings of
a Briton. But in a case of this kind, if they can only be educated in this matter and can
understand more about the uses and the protective properties, they would waive their idea of
lost liberty and have their children vaccinated. With the conscience class that is in the Act
we will never be able to compel children to be vaccinated. The law should be passed that
they should be vaccinated or produce a certificate from the parents.
We now come to the method which Dr. Stanier mentions. I, am afraid it is due to wrong
methods that a great many anti-vaccinationists have some ground to stand on. I am afraid
there are a host of medical men—I do not say so in this country, but I am speaking now of
my own country, Ireland—I remember when we started vaccination as students a good many
years ago, we were shown  into  a  large  room  in the vaccination institution  of the  City  of 8 Geo. 5 Provincial Board of Health. G 153
Dublin, and we would have perhaps fifty children down one side of the room and an equivalent
number on the other. One lot of children had been vaccinated the week before; the others
were the "new children to be vaccinated. As you probably know, Dublin is a very poor city,
and the mothers would come out the same as though they were going to church to have their
children vaccinated; they would put on their best clothes or borrowed clothes, and no idea
of asepsis at all. All stood there together—children brought from anywhere. It is hardly an
exaggeration to say that in some cases we had to look for their arms under the dirt. I am
afraid in these cases it would not be simply a scratch on the arm without having some washing
or some antiseptic used first, but the worst of the performance was we would take the serum
from one arm, with no question as to health, and walk across the room and stick it into the
arm of a child on the other side. They would come back in a week's time, some with bad
arms, but we did not see them after a fortnight's time. This is an extremely bad method, and
the anti-vaccinationists had some grounds to stand on, because they would say: " We are
inoculated with impure vaccine and the children have bad arms." That is quite true, and the
mothers were not told how to treat the arms. .
In order to safeguard ourselves, I think we should be very very particular about the
asepsis of the arm. We should be particular also in telling the parent how to treat them
afterward. First of all, if you do not tell the parent how to treat it, and if you do not cover
it with something, they will look upon it as a mere scratch and continually look at it, finger it
with dirty fingers, and you have trouble before the week is up.
As far as antiseptics go, I never used antiseptics that will remain on the skin, but I always
swab the section with ether or alcohol. That completely evaporates and leaves no antiseptic
behind which may destroy the activity of the vaccine virus; but it is better to always use
thorough washing before scratching the skin.
Then, as to the number of marks you put on, I think there, again, circumstances alter the
cases. Efficient vaccination I think requires three marks, but you might come across a very
small child, with an arm so small that there is not room for three marks on the arm, unless
they are all in a line, and they would ta.ke up the whole length from the elbow to the shoulder
—very emaciated arms. I think, in a case like that, efficient vaccination with one or two marks
will continue for a year or two or three years, and after that they should be revaccinated when
coining to school age. If you can put on three, that is the English number—four are required
now—all the better; but I do not think it is wise to make four marks on a child whose arm is
so small.
As to the putting-on of cotton-wool, I always scorch a piece of cotton-wool, hold it to the
bre until is charred, and put it on with three pieces of sticking-plaster. I do not,put it on thick.
Sticking-plaster must not encircle the arm; but this impresses the mother that a surgical
operation has been performed, and also keeps it clean; it also protects it from being scratched
or knocked in any way while the child is about. You also tell the mother not to look at that
mark under three or four days. You also tell her under no circumstances to get it wet, for if
it is wet the wool, of course, turns to a poultice and softens the skin, and you have a much
worse arm. The heating of the wool can be obviated by not getting too much wool on and
telling the mother not to put heavy clothes on the child.
If there could be some uniform method of conducting the little operation it would be a very
advisable thing, because I am afraid there is a great deal of diversity in methods and other
neglect, sometimes for the asepsis, and we have inflamed arms, and the parents object very
much to vaccination, and they have a foundation to stand upon in that case, so that it helps
to swell the crowd of anti-vaccinationists.
Dr. Brydone-Jack: In our public schools not more than 10 per cent, have been vaccinated,
and I think it is getting worse every year. If smallpox should come along we would have a
bad time, the same as they did in Montreal, where they had many deaths when smallpox came
upon them. I think it would be well to make them produce a certificate of successful vaccination
or produce a certificate from a Magistrate under the protection clause.
Dr. Large (Port Simpson) : We have to consider that a great many people say of the
efficacy of vaccination as they say of the efficacy of many other things, " Well, we have been
free from epidemics in the past and do not think we will have them now." I have been here
for about twenty years in the medical profession and have vaccinated quite a number, but I
bave vet to treat a case of smallpox.    While we referred to the Montreal epidemic, there were G 154 British Columbia 1918
two things to be considered—lack of vaccination and proper precaution to isolate these cases.
A great many people firmly believe in vaccination, but say there is so little risk of smallpox
spreading under the stringent regulations at present that conditions have altered, and when it
comes to a question of putting three or four scars on the arm, they object very strongly to that,
under the present conditions.
Dr. Isabel Arthur: I think the only way is to have an epidemic and every one will be
vaccinated. In our town a few years ago we had an exndemie of chicken-pox, so it was reported,
and at last some one conceived the idea of smallpox. Children were in the schools—I found it
everywhere—they were not ill; but some symptoms appeared like smallpox in several cases—
many did not. In the whole course of the epidemic there was no case in which there was
secondary fever, aud there were no deaths. I vaccinated many children who had certificates
of conscientious scruples against it, and I would rather in that case have had the disease than
tbe vaccination and its attendant results. If that is smallpox it is changed materially, and we
ought to destroy all the information we have in the text-books on smallpox, because that wasn't
like anything I had heard of.
Dr. Petersky: I didn't intend speaking on this paper at all, but a few remarks of Dr.
Large brought me to my feet. Every one of us who believes in vaccination is, I take it,
vaccinated. Personally, as a Medical Health Officer, I believe in the various health laws I am
called upon to perform. I believe in the theory of vaccination; if I did not, I would not attempt
to carry out the Vaccination nlct. I believe in it so thoroughly that I have a feeling, if I heard
of any smallpox around in the community in which I am living, I would immediately be
vaccinated myself, as it gives me a feeling of tranquillity, and these little scars are nothing;
you might fall down and cut yourself aud have a scar for life, and look what the other scars
do. Any medical man who has followed the theories of bacteria and vaccination in general
cannot help but believe in the theory of immunity. I think this conscientious objection should
be entirely eliminated from the Act.
The Chairman: I would like to give you a warning. We are going to have an epidemic
of smallpox with 30 to 40 per cent, of deaths some day. I was brought up amongst smallpox.
We have had nine officially reported cases of Asiatic smallpox with three deaths this year in
the City of Vancouver; some of the patients said they bad been vaccinated, but they had no
scars or marks. The disease was brought in on a boat from the Orient. This is not the first
time we have had this form of smallpox in Vancouver. Where you have an organized .Health
Department you have some opportunity of dealing effectively with this or any other disease,
but where the Health Department is small and inefficient it is not so easy.
Some time we will have smallpox in this country if the people are not protected by
vaccination. We tried several years ago to carry out the Vaccination Act in this city, but owing
to the furor created by the anti-vaccinationists, and thanks to the conscience clause, the attempt
came to nothing. To prove that the Act was worthless, I opened vaccination stations in ten
public schools and only 200 children were vaccinated. I do believe, however, that if the
provisions of the conscience clause were enforced and a statement properly sworn before a
Notary required of the objectors, we should find very few conscientious objectors. Probably the
real objection to vaccination is that the parents do not like the trouble involved by the sore
arms consequent to the operation. I have never seen any of these certificates; the parents
usually send word to the school that they object. I want to see the certificate required by the
conscience clause insisted upon, and then we shall see almost universal vaccination.
Dr. Stanier (replies to discussion) : I thank you for supporting me in my opinion regarding
smallpox. I have not seen any, but I have only to read statistics of former epidemics. Sometimes you have a mild chicken-pox epidemic that doesn't mean much, but I am thoroughly
convinced if smallpox gets loose in unvaccinated communities you will have a serious state of
affairs.
Reads clause 15 of the Vaccination Act as follows: " It is now deemed necessary, and is
hereby ordered, that teachers in public schools and high schools or colleges shall require a
certificate of successful vaccination from each child attending at such school or college, or a
certificate that such child is at that present time insusceptible to vaccination. The certificates
shall be presented on demand to the teacher or other proper authority."
In enforcing that Act. or that clause, the school trustees or municipal authorities have
discussed it, and in some places they have been ignorant and thrown it down, but in Oak Bay they 8 Geo. 5 Provincial Board of Health. G 155
had their own children vaccinated and brought that clause in. I do not know that we are so
successful as we might have been.
Dr. Price, I think, has missed my point of view—he wants to leave it optional. I maintain,
without three marks, you will not have sufficient serum generated. If you can get it in one
mark, it has to be the size of a 50-cent piece, aud then you have a great, big, ugly scar. I have
not seen an arm so small that you could not put three marks on, 1% inches apart. That makes
an arm about 4 inches long from the upper to the lower part. I am firmly convinced that at
least three marks are necessary to manufacture that quantity of serum.
These children I vaccinated were clean and not slum children. There is no objection to
using an ordinary antiseptic to clean off the arm, but the point I wanted to make was that this
method of vaccination, which just lifts the epidermis with the point of a needle, was quite
effective, and while it might take a little longer to take, it has been found rapid and efficient
by the military authorities in Toronto, and it is painless. The children do not mind this form
of vaccination, as they do not realize about the af tertake.
I do not know that there is any other point worth mentioning. I think I have answered all
the questions that were asked.
The Chairman: That brings us to the conclusion of our morning session. We meet again
at 2.30 this afternoon. I have taken up the question of a committee on resolutions. You will
remember we had one four years ago to draft out various resolutions that were suggested, and
Dr. Young has asked that the following constitute such committee: Dr. Large, of Port Simpson;
Mr. Biker, of Nelson ; and Dr. Stanier, of Victoria.
The meeting then adjourned at 12.30 till 2.30 p.m.
Afternoon  Session.
The Convention resumed at 2.30 p.m., Dr. AVrinch presiding.
The Chairman: I shall have to ask your kind assistance in helping me to obtain order in
this very large -assembly. I know you will kindly overlook any irregularities or such matters
as might be expected in one who has been so long out of civilization as I have, and give me your
kindest assistance in carrying on the meeting.
I will now call upon Dr. Underbill—I do not suppose he would like me to call him the father
of the health of the Province, but one of the senior health-men of the Province—who is to give
us a paper on the " Control of Infectious Diseases."
CONTROL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES.
By F. T. Underhill, F.R.C.S, M.R.S.I, D.P.H, Medical Health Officer, Vancouver, B.C.
Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,—The subject upon which I have been asked to address
you—namely, the " Control of Infectious Diseases "—is one which opens up a vast field of thought
in which there are many diverse views and much room for controversy and speculation. It is
not, however, my intention to approach this subject from the academic point of view, but rather
as a Medical Health Officer who has to deal with it from the mere sordid and practical standpoint.
I may, perhaps, be pardoned if I cite the difficulties of my own city by way of illustration.
In the first place, there is the question of cases of an infectious nature in transients. These are
always an unknown quantity, and as they are usually to be found in hotels and rooming-houses,
their opportunities for spreading infection are greatly increased. Three or four years ago, when
immigration was at its height, this problem was not by any means an easy one to handle, and
frequently the accommodation at the Vancouver General Hospital was taxed to its limit. As
many of these cases developed a day or so after arrival in the city, it suggests that the patient—
if an immigrant—must have had the particular disease in its early stages at tbe time of his
examination by the Quarantine Officer prior to bis entry into Canada, and I am of the opinion
that the medical inspection of immigrants at the port of entry should be much more rigid and
thorough.
I feel very strongly that this inspection should be carried out during the voyage—not by
the physician employed by the transportation company, but by a Dominion Medical Inspector—
and that special attention should be paid to tuberculosis, mental deficiency, and specific diseases.
This is especially true with regard to tuberculosis, and it is brought home to us forcibly when
we are compelled to provide for persons who have been in the country possibly only a few months. G 156 British Columbia 1918
In preparing some data for Dr. Peter Bryce, who is giving a paper in Ottawa at tbe annual
meeting of the Canadian Public Health Association, I found that of 468 cases of tuberculosis
reported to my department during the years 1914 and 1915, forty-nine were immigrants, none of
whom had been in Canada more than two years and many only a few months. Under the
quarantine regulations these persons should have been returned to the country from whence they
came, but owing partly to the war and partly to the fact that there is no properly organized
system for handling these cases, nothing was done and they were allowed to remain—a menace
to our citizens and many of them becoming a charge on the community.
When the war is over this question of immigration will become a live one again, and it is
time for us to prepare for it, making our laws more stringent and by enforcing those we already
have, and not wait until we are compelled by pressure of circumstances to take action. We do
not want disease-ridden people from other countries, for it is unfortunately true that we have
more than sufficient of our own.
It seems to me that, looking at the question from a national standpoint, the foregoing is the
first essential in the control of infectious diseases, and granting it would be possible by these
means to prevent the entry of disease into the country, the question would then become one of
eradication rather than control. In this no real progress can be made until the problem is
approached in a much broader manner. At the present time every city and municipality makes
its own by-laws, and either does or does not enforce them, as the case may be. Of what avail
is it to have effective control of diseases in any city when they are allowed to rage unchecked
on its very borders?
I feel very strongly that the only proper way to handle this problem, and indeed all public-
health problems, is by centralizing tbe authority governing the question. I am of tbe opinion
that there should be a Federal Minister, or Deputy Minister of Public Health, in order to properly
govern immigr