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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS FOR THE YEAR ENDING… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1917

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT
or
THE FOKEST BEANCH
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
HON. T. D. PATTULLO, Minister
M. A. GRAINGER, Chief Forester
FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31ST
1916
THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY   OF   THE   LEGISLATIVE   ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by William H. Ctjllin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1917.  Victoria. B.C., March, 1917.
To His Honour Frank Stillman Barnard,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Beport of the Forest Branch
of my Department for the year 1916.
T. D. PATTULLO,
Minister of Lands.  REPORT OF THE FOREST BRANCH,
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TBADH EXTENSION.
Eastern Canadian Market.
A preliminary investigation into the Eastern Canadian lumber market having revealed an
opportunity for British Columbia to increase greatly her lumber shipments, it was decided to
conduct an energetic campaign in Eastern Canada. A Lumber Commissioner was appointed, and
his headquarters on the ground floor of the Excelsior Life Building, Toronto, were furnished
entirely in British Columbia woods. An exhibit was installed showing the various forms of
manufacture and their application (with different finishes and treatments) to the every-day
requirements of the building trade.
In attacking a comparatively new market, it was quickly realized that the main effort should
be directed at Eastern architects, engineers, and users of wood rather than to the lumber trade.
The retail lumber trade in the East had strong connections with the southern pine manufacturers,
developed through a number of years of steadily increasing trade. As against this there Was the
fact that it pays any retailer of lumber to carry the particular material most in demand. The
immediate object was therefore to create a demand which would compel firms in the East of
Canada to carry stocks of British Columbia lumber. The ultimate object was to educate the
engineering professions and the consumers of wood to the qualities and uses of British Columbia
wood, which they hitherto hardly knew was in existence.
The following shows briefly the various lines on which the year's work has been run:—
(1.) The Lumber Commissioner has by personal contact with the leading architects and
engineers given these professions a better understanding of British Columbia woods. A very
large proportion of the building-work in Eastern Canada is done under the direction and supervision of architects and engineers who specify the kinds of material to be employed. As far as
lumber was concerned, it was found that British Columbia woods were specified very rarely, the
call being for native eastern woods when suitable or for the imported southern yellow pine,
the latter being usually the wood specified for ordinary and better-class work. After being
shown facts and figures proving the qualities and records of British Columbia wood, architects
and engineers were, generally speaking, ready to substitute Douglas fir for southern pine, the
only great difficulty in the way being that of quick delivery. Many specifications were referred
to our Commissioner for his criticism, and many were changed in order that British Columbia
timber should give better satisfaction. This part of the work has been slowly developing into
a sort of a consulting business. Large concerns about to erect new buildings invite the Commissioner to discuss with their architects and engineers the best methods of construction, the
most economical sizes for specifications, and other engineering points in connection with lumber.
(2.) It was found that city by-laws, where they existed, uniformly gave preference to
southern pine. For instance, Toronto allowed a fibre stress for Douglas fir of only 1,200 lb.
per square inch, as against 1,600 lb. for southern pine, which meant that the southern pine had
a 25-per-cent. advantage over Douglas fir. After repeated and persistent endeavour Toronto now
admits Douglas fir and southern pine on an even basis. This is particularly important, because
in Ontario the standard for Toronto is usually followed by other cities and municipalities.
(3.) Advertising was carried on throughout the year in trade papers. Here, again, the idea
was to impress upon architects, contractors, aud builders the merits of British Columbia woods.
(4.) A daily report service was received in the Toronto office which gave all new contracts
let throughout the East, progress reports on contracts in operation, the amount of money involved
in the erection of new buildings, the name of the architect, and the name of the contractors.
This enabled the Commissioner to keep in touch with the architects and contractors who had in
hand large building operations.
(5.) During the year exhibits of British Colmbia forest products were shown in the Builders'
Exchange, London; Board of Trade, Hamilton; Board of Trade and Builders' Exchange, Montreal, in addition to the main exhibit in the Commissioner's office in Toronto. The display at
the Canadian National Exhibition was carefully prepared, gave British Columbia lumber exten- sive publicity, and was awarded a gold medal by the exhibition authorities. Many different
trade inquiries resulted, and there was distributed a great deal of general information about
British Columbia woods.
(6.) To bring the publicity campaign forcibly to the attention of Eastern retailers, circulars
were sent out asking those who stocked British Columbia woods to say what stocks they carried,
in order that this information could be compiled and printed in a directory. This directory has
served the double purpose of keeping the retailer aware of the opportunity of advertisement he
would miss if he did not stock British Columbia wood, and of helping the user of wood who
did not always know where British Columbia woods could be obtained. Ten thousand of these
directories have been mailed to architects, engineers, contractors, and carpenters throughout
Eastern Canada.
(7.) The Dominion Government, Harbour Commissions, School Boards, Power Commissions,
etc., had all been accustomed to use southern pine. With large users such as these, British
Columbia timber is now superseding the imported article.
(8.) Manufacturers of products in which wood is used have been shown where they could
obtain Canadian material. This class of business is highly desirable, inasmuch as it does not
vary from time to time to the same extent as the retail lumber trade. It demands a special
product and is willing to pay good prices. For instance, several wagon-manufacturers who had
hitherto used southern pine have secured their 1917 supplies from British Columbia.
(9.) The Lumber Commissioner is a member of the lumber section of the Toronto Board of
Trade, and as such keeps in weekly contact with the prominent lumbermen of Toronto.
Such publicity-work would, of course, be valueless if it were not followed up energetically
by the mills of this Province. The fact that shipments to the East have doubled during the
past year is concrete evidence of the fact that British Columbia lumbermen are paying marked
attention to the Eastern market. It is to be confidently expected that British Columbia's trade
in lumber with Eastern Canada will continue to increase at a rapid rate. The market there is
large and steady and will help to stabilize our British Columbia industry.
Prairie M.ihket.
On the Prairie the main object was to increase the use of wood on the farm. A series of
building pamphlets was issued in co-operation with the Prairie agricultural authorities.
In the distribution of these bulletins the method was adopted of requiring a written request
from a farmer and then mailing the pamphlets direct. In this way there was no overlapping
and no unnecessary waste of copies by broadcast distribution.
In 1910, 212,000 farm bulletins have been distributed as follows:—■
Combination or General Purpose Barns     25,000
Implement Sheds and Granaries      25,000
Piggeries and Smoke Houses     24,000
Poultry Houses      24,000
Farm Houses     22,000
Beef Cattle Barns       20,000
Horse Barns     20,000
Sheep Barns       19,000
Dairy Barns        18,000
Silos and Boot Cellars      15,000
Total    212,000
The trade and farm journals of-Western Canada have printed extensive extracts from these
bulletins, and they have been supplied with the necessary cuts for illustration free of charge.
These pamphlets were also carried and explained on the " better-farming " trains, and used in
the instruction of agricultural classes. In addition, lantern-slides have been supplied showing
plans and details of construction. By such means a great deal of publicity has been secured.
Advertising in trade papers and many farm journals has been with the same object of
showing the farmer that it would pay him to possess more buildings and better buildings.
Exhibits were also shown at a number of the Prairie fairs, and the interest displayed would
indicate that this work should be done to a larger extent. 7 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. N 7
Off-shore Makkets.
Correspondence has been maintained with the main oversea markets, but on account of the
tonnage situation prevailing throughout the year work has necessarily been confined to preparing
the way for future business. There have been a few orders for boxes and veneer from importers
in South Africa and Australia who had hitherto secured their supplies from the States and the
Baltic.
War Office business has been limited almost entirely to boxes. There was shipped in 1916
875,000 boxes, and there is an additional 500,000 now on order, with prospect of an order for
another 500,000 being placed immediately.
Since the war has created such a tremendous demand for tonnage the normal shipments of
lumber have been greatly curtailed. The quantity and destination of shipments made in 1915
and 1916 are given in the following table:—
Water-borne Export of Lumber from British Columbia.
1915. 1916.
Australia       5,913,020 2,152,657
Mew Zealand        640,577 286,421
West Coast of South America         301,449 627,418
China        3,425,953 3,055,045
Japan        1,583,437 3,042,690
South Sea Islands       1,395,058 991,308
United Kingdom and Continent   38,112,299 19,801,629
Africa      5,329,042 10,114,885
Alaska  3,564,654
Russia  39,816
California        1,373,938 .   . . ."J.
• '
Totals    58,074,773 43,676,523
It will be noticed that the shipment to the United Kingdom and Continent was only half
in 1916 of the figures for 1915. This is to a large degree explained by the scarcity of tonnage,
which forced the securing of lumber requirements of the Entente Allies from a source of supply
nearer at home. This does not, however, satisfactorily explain the continued purchases made
on the Pacific Coast of the United States. Another notable feature is the large increase in the
South African shipments. This represents 88 per cent, of the total import from the North Pacific,
only 12 per cent, being supplied by the United States. This may be directly attributed to the
preference which South Africa gives to Canadian timber.
On the other hand, the shipments to Australia were greatly reduced, and only amounted to
2 per cent, of the North Pacific export to Australia, the balance of 98 per cent, being supplied
by the United States. Even in the last normal year, 1913, British Columbia only supplied 5 per
cent., as against 95 per cent, from the United States. When it is remembered that Australia
normally takes over 75 per cent, of the total export of lumber from the North Pacific, the
importance and value of this market becomes apparent.
Analysing further the year's off-shore shipments and comparing our shipments to various
markets with those of our competitors—Washington and Oregon—we find that we have done only
a very small part of the off-shore business. The diagrams will show at a glance our position,
the black portion in every case representing British Columbia's share.
Placed as she is, British Columbia should do a large export trade. But for this she must
develop markets which will take the low grades which are always produced when high grade is
sawn. China, Japan, the West Coast of South America, and India present the best possibilities
from a low-grade standpoint. British Columbia has a large and important market in Canada,
but she cannot allow the lumber trade of the Pacific to remain a monopoly of the Pacific States.
Nothing is more needed in the lumber industry to-day than the stabilizing influence of widespread
and varied markets. With these, crop-failures on the Prairie could never again have such
distressing effects on British Columbia. Lumbermen, stumpage-owners, and loggers have learned
from the experiences of the last three years that before the lumber industry can be put on a sound
footing ready to withstand further waves of depression adequate markets must be secured and
held. N 8
Department op Lands.
1917
OFFSHORE   LUMBER   SHIPMENTS
NORTH  PACIFIC
1016
WASHINGTON   &    OREGON   &   B . C.
B C  SHARE   SHEWN BLACK.   .
BRITISH EMPIRE
UNITED KINGDOM
AUSTRALIA
WEST   COAST
SOUTH AMERICA
AFRICA
Note Resuir
of
Preference.
k
CHINA
'JAPAN
NEW
S SEA
ZEALAND |SLANDS     INDIA
□    ED
The diagrams above show clearly where our natural oversea market lies and the way it can
be effectively secured and held. Before 1904 British Columbia had about 30 per cent, of the
South African lumber business. A preference was-given Canadian lumber, and within two years
British Columbia was supplying half South Africa's lumber requirements, and it has steadily 7 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
N 9
grown until this year British Columbia supplied 88 per cent. If this preference was made general
between all parts of the British Empire the future of British Columbia's timber industry would
be assured. Australia has repeatedly stated her willingness to conclude a reciprocal arrangement
with Canada covering raw products, such as lumber, pulp, fish, and fruit. Canada has already
granted a preference to New Zealand's raw products, which are the same as Australia's. Canada
now imports all of the pastoral products she requires from New Zealand, and the extending of
the same preference to Australia would merely draw these products from two sources instead of
one. Such an arrangement would be of mutual benefit and directly in line with the sentiment
existing in both countries favouring interimperial trade.
Lumber shipped to overseas markets should be plainly marked to show Canadian origin,
and this would be equivalent to a preferential tariff in every Empire market. Under present
conditions the foreign buyer cannot possibly separate Douglas fir coming from Washington from
that coming from British Columbia. If our marked British Columbia lumber could be picked
out in any yard or when delivered to any building, whether it be in London, England, Cape Town,
Sydney, Auckland, or Calcutta, it would have an immediate effect on the demand for British
Columbia lumber.
THE TIMBER INDUSTRY.
The final figures for the cut of the Province for 1915, compiled from returns supplied to the
Forest Branch by the industry, are as follows:—
Feet B.M.
Lumber    669,816,000
Shingles, 1,894,652 M   189,464,200
Poles, 5,000,000 lineal feet       25,000,000
Piles, 9,000,000      45,000,000
Hewn ties,  1,000,000        30,000,000
Fence-posts, 35,000       17,500,000
Mining-props, 30,000       15,000,000
Total      991,780,200
This shows a slight falling-off in production from the previous year, which was to be
expected under existing war conditions. The lumber industry in the Province has not received
any direct war prosperity as have other producers nearer the scene of hostilities. The only
direct demand for war purposes was for aeroplane spruce (which is found at its best in British
Columbia)  and for shell-boxes.    The following comparison is therefore fairly satisfactory:—
Ft. B.M.
Total production reported, 1914    1,151,903,000
Total production reported, 1915       991,780,200
Estimate of Value of Production, 1910.
The products of the forest may be roughly divided into the classes indicated in the following
table; the value of each product includes any transportation charge within the Province. This
table also gives for convenience of comparison the figures for four consecutive years.
Lumber, Coast ...
Lumber, Interior.
Pulp	
Shingles	
Boxes	
Piles and poles	
Mining-props and posts	
Miscellaneous (cut by railroads, mines, settlers, cordwood, etc.).
Additional value contributed by industries, etc	
Product of Dominion lands	
Lath	
Totals   $33,660,000
$20,400,000
6,400,000
3,000,000
S50,000t
400,000
250,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
450,000
200,000
$15,500.
3,750.
2,730.
650,
90O
300.
1,200.
1,900.
1,600.
150.
ooo-
000
000
ooot
000
000
000
000
000
000
$28,680,000
$15,500,000
3,200,000
3,500,000
750,000
1,200,000
400,000
900,000
1,750,000
1,800,000
150,000
$21,075,000
520,000
500,000
833,000
650,000
000,000
150,000
650,000
+
15*0,000
$35,528,000
* Includes shingles cut from logs.
t Includes shingles cut from bolts only.
J Included in other items. N 10 Department of Lands. 1917
It will be noticed that the increase of 1916 over 1913 is mainly attributable to an increased
production of shingles and boxes. The manufacture of boxes was given an impetus by the
placing of contracts in British Columbia by the British War Office. On the other hand, the two
excellent crops of the Prairies of 1915 and 1916 created a good demand for lumber and shingles
which increased production and bettered prices. This is to a large extent the cause of the
increase in value over 1915 of over $6,000,000.
Timber scaled, 1916.
The three subjoined tables show the generally increased activity in the lumber industry
in 1916. The tables show, first, the amount scaled in each district by months and classes of
material; second, the legal classification of the land from which the timber was cut; and, third,
the proportion of each species.
The most noteworthy feature is that the total scale of 1,280,000,000 feet B.M. is over 25 per
cent, greater than the 1915 total, most of this gain taking place in the last six months of the
year. Moreover, the increase was general, as every district reflected the better conditions in
an increased cut. No other resource is so generously distributed over the entire Province and
wields such a tremendous influence on the every-day economic life of its people. Slightly better
conditions in the lumber industry immediately shows itself in greater activity in practically all
the communities throughout the Province.
The table showing the source of timber brings out the fact that very old Crown grants supply
the largest amount of saw-logs, with timber licences a very close second, followed by later Crown
grants, timber leases, and timber sales. Practically no timber was used in railway-construction,
so the classification " Railway Permits " used in previous years has been omitted.
Of the species of lumber cut, Douglas fir and cedar of course predominate. Together they
constitute nearly three-quarters of the cut. This table is approximate only, but serves as a guide
to the proportion of the different species making up the year's cut. 7 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
N 11
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Forest Branch.
N 13
Species cut, 1916.
Forest
District.
Cranbrook	
Fort George....
Hazelton	
Kamloops	
Lillooet	
Nelson	
Vernon	
Prince Rupert..
Island	
Vancouver	
Totals	
Totals, 1915.
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101,315
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385,096
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426,232
354,702
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79,392
1,260
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i
M
.B.M.
i
2
38,706
1,944
11
3
38,597
1,045
Alder.
12
i,oi7,e
Railway Permits.
The cutting of timber for the construction of railways was confined entirely during the year
1916 to the Pacific Great Eastern lines. While fifty-three permits covering 63,000 acres were
issued during the year, very little cutting was done. In all, only 225,000 feet B.M. were cut and
removed.    The location of the permits and their areas are given in the attached table.
Forest District.
Railway.
Jfo. of
Permits.
Area under
Permit.
Approximate Amount
cut and removed.
P.G.E.
P.G.E.
22
31
Acres.
40,602
22,687
Ft. B.M.
205,910
18,851
Totals	
53
63,289
224,761
Timber-sales.
There was a marked increase in the timber-sale business in 1916 over the previous year.
One hundred and thirty-three sales were awarded, which will return an estimated revenue to
the Province of nearly $260,000, whereas the 1915 timber-sales amounted only to §152,000. This
increase is partially explained by the increase of 16 cents per 1,000 obtained over the average
price of SO cents per 1,000 for 1915, but is mostly due to the greater quantity of timber sold.
A total of 136,354,000 feet B.M. of saw-timber was sold, which is nearly a 50-per-cent. increase
over the quantity sold in 1915. The average area of sales was 175 acres, which shows that the
great bulk of the timber sold was in small fractions adjoining existing operations and could be
logged to the best advantage at the same time.
War demands for spruce may again be noticed in the fact that in 1916 nearly three times
the amount of spruce was sold as in 1915. Cedar w7as also in strong demand throughout the
year, 8,000,000 feet more cedar being sold than Douglas fir, and for 16 cents per 1,000 more.
The value of sales remained almost the same in the Vancouver District for the two years,
the greatest increase coming in the Cranbrook District, where the value of the sales jumped
from $3,500 in 1915 to $47,600 in 1916. Prince Rupert, Vernon, and Nelson Districts also made
large gains.
As in previous years, it was the aim to inspect every timber-sale operation once every month.
With the reduced staff, however, it would found impossible in most cases to make inspections
as frequently as called for. In only four districts was the inspection on a monthly basis. Over
60 per cent, of the sales were inspected only once in two months, and in some cases even only
once in four months. Then, again, the Rangers in many cases, when making these inspections,
found themselves so pressed with work that they could not devote the time necessary to give the N 14
Department of Lands.
1917
operation a thorough inspection. Timber-sales contracts set forth various conditions that the
purchaser agrees to comply with, such as log-marking, stump-height, utilization of all merchantable material, and slash-disposal, etc. It has been found that where inspection is not thorough
and frequent when the sale is completed the area has not been logged as well as it should have
been under the terms of the contract. This, however, should have been pointed out and explained
to the operator when the operation was in progress, so that the details could be thoroughly gone
into with satisfaction to both parties. Better field inspection of timber-sales is an urgent
necessity.
The total area logged on timber-sales in 1916 was 5,320 acres. Approximately 1,600 acres
of slash was disposed of during the year by burning. Some areas (like on the very wet northern
Coast) were not burned as the fire hazard was very small. In other cases it was impossible to
burn the slash until the operation was completed. It is worth noting that the area of slash on
timber-sales disposed of in 1916 is nearly double that disposed of in 1915, although the area
logged over is only 25 per cent, greater.
Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1916.
No. of Sales.
Acres in Area.
Estimated Quantity.
Forest District.
Saw-timber
(Ft. B.M.).
Poles and
Piles
(Lineal Feet).
Shingle-bolts
and Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway
Ties.
Estimate
of Revenue.
11
9
1
1
3
2
12
19
1
65
9
3,289
485
50
120
970
200
3,262
1,499
303
11,791
1,349
12,715,000
1,777,000
42,000
88,000
650,000
410,000
5,696,000
14,548,000
3,089,000
91,835,000
5,604,000
136,354,000
14,500
9,750
219,000
149,000
43,560
9,983
862
2,750
12,784
288
86,000
6,000
$ 47,618 33
Fort George	
3,138 70
50 08
Island	
93 00
965 50
816 30
12,767 69
Prince Rupert	
17,035 58
4,809 92
Vancouver	
158,644 69
13,836 33
Totals	
133
23,318
435,810
26,667
92,000
$259,765 12
Average Sale Price by Species, 1916.
Douglas fir	
Cedar 	
Spruce    	
Hemlock	
Balsam fir ,
White pine	
Western soft pine.
Tamarack	
Other species	
Totals....
Board-feet.
Price per M.
36,261,000
SI 00
44,016,000
1 16
11,741,000
72
24,174,000
45
8,037,000
39
2,459,000
1 69
4,074,000
1 74
2,705,000
1 75
2,287,000
1 95
136,354,000
SO 96
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1916.
Forest District.
Feet B.M.
Lineal Feet.
Cords.
2,627,888
262,673
857,703
4,037,445
780,498
54,367,128
43,767
88,000
10,824
96,869
7,875
96,835
13,396
225,799
171.00
201.50
583.25
159.50
304.25
6,939.50
66.80
63,055,102
8.425.80 7 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
N 15
Sawmills.
In spite of the fact that a large number of mills have been shut down during the year, a
number of new mills have been built. Others have been moved and capacity increased. The
total sawing capacity of the Province has not changed perceptibly in the year. It is expected
that with a good lumber market in 1917 much of the sawing capacity now idle will commence
to operate.
The following table shows the distribution of the saw and shingle mills by forest districts:—
Saw and Shingle Mills of Province.
District.
Up to 15 M.
Feet Daily
Capacity.
15 M. to 40 M.
Feet Daily
Capacity.
Over 40 M.
Feet Daily
Capacity.
Shingle-
mills.
Total.
7
7
2
20
10
1
9
6
10
1
3
7
1
12
16
1
"•4
"9
1
4
1
i
1
ii
30
16
Hazelton   	
9
10
20
37
3
25
Totals,
61
40
35
14
150
22
36
3
13
35
5
53
14
32
1
12
06
1
79
01
169
10
61
47
240
Totals
122
93
82
93
390
Logging Inspection.
The number of logging operations in the Province increased from 957 in 1915 to 1,144 in 1916.
The largest single increase is the jump in the Prince Rupert District from S5 hand-logger operations in 1915 to 200 in 1916. This is directly attributable to the commencing of pulp operations
by two companies in the north.
Inspections of operations were made as often as possible with the field staff available. A
total of 1,648 inspections were made. At this rate each operation would be inspected on an
average of once in nine months. To be effective, an inspection should be made of each operation
at least once every three months, and in the case of timber-sales once every month. It is expected
that there will be increased logging activity all over the Province in the coming year, and in
order to prevent trespass and to acquaint new operators with the provisions of the " Forest Act"
regarding fire-protection closer inspection is urgently needed. The following table divides the
logging operations into three classes, and shows their distribution by forest districts, together
with the number of inspections in each district:—
Logging Inspection.
Forest District.
Timber Sales.
Hand-loggers'
Licences.
Leases, Licences,
Crown Grants, and
Pre-emptions.
Total
Operations.
Number of
Inspections.
10
10
i'
18
14
17
93
45
83
4
40
13
23
91
30
281
73
55
93
4
40
14
41
105
247
465
80
110
20(
9
)
1
52
Vancouver	
4
45
15
33
156
389
756
88
Totals	
170
29
I
683
1,144
1,648 N 16
Department op Lands.
1917
Timber Trespass.
There were seventy-two cases of timber trespass during the year, of which thirty-three were
in the Vancouver District, where the great bulk of the logging takes place. Although the total
quantity cut in trespass expressed in board measure is 5,500,000 feet, this is only 4/10 of 1 per
cent, of the total cut. Relatively speaking, therefore, the trespass is in no way serious, as the
great proportion is accounted for by ignorance of boundaries and regulations—i.e., innocent
trespass.
The following table shows the extent of trespass cutting in the various forest districts:—
Trespass, 1916.
Forest District.
Cranbrook	
Kamloops	
Lillooet	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert	
Fort George	
Vancouver 	
Vernon	
Totals for 1916.
Totals for 1915.
No. of
Area
cut
7
120
2
50
3
20
6
166
6
37
8
133
33
175
7
345
72
1,046
971
74
Quantity cut.
Feet B.M.      Lineal Feet.   Cords.
70,624
87,042
1,200
3,189,240
284,000
4,472,106
3,735,226
20,250
2,738
10,208
10,090
14,581
1,356
10,650
144,910
120
i3
888
100
100
176
1,320
16
10
Amount
realized.
!  6 00
2i6 30
415 89
171 19
232 36
!,643 58
133 00
83,821 32
$2,632 06
LAND CLASSIFICATION.
Land-classification work has been carried on only to a limited extent during the past year.
Only those areas that had to be examined in order to facilitate administrative action were dealt
with, as the field staff (owing to the serious depletion through enlistments) was able to undertake only the absolute minimum of work. Only 144 examinations were made, less than a third
of the number last year.   Three of the areas were large, aggregating over 235,000 acres.
The information required covering these lots did not necessitate as detailed an examination
as in the other cases, and this large area was therefore examined in a comparatively short time.
The area examined for timber quantities applied for as pre-emption and application to purchase
was much smaller than in 1915. The two subjoined tables show the distribution of areas
examined and status of same, also the acreage and amount of timber involved.
Status of Areas examined, 1916.
Forest District.
Cranbrook
Fort George...
Hazelton	
Island	
Kamloops	
Lillooet	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver
Vernon	
Totals.
Lots.
Expired Timber
Licences.
Pre-emption
Records.
Application to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
No.
Acres.
No.
4
Acres.
1,920
No.
Acres.
No.
Acres.
No.
1
Acres.
6,586
i5
4,766
6
851
2
300
1
160
20
3,397
2
15
581
8,111
4
2
'945
344
4
6,608
1
76
2
120,480
8
4,894
1
"46
1
■2
SO
106
3
1,322
4
2,456
19
2,226
1
160
1
115,060
2
1,200
6
1,120
16
6,163
i
11,472
43
245,325
35
19,162
39
5,691
24
13,117
3
18,134 7 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
N 17
Classification of Areas examined, 1916.
Forest District.
Cranbrook
Fort George...
Hazelton	
Island	
Kamloops	
Lillooet	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert
Tete Jaune...
Vancouver
Vernon	
Totals
Total Area.
8,506
5,617
460
10,662
9,056
344
125,464
151
' (3,164
135,015
301,429
Agricultural
Land.
320
4,872
320
7,028
1,792
184
3,530
45
' 2,010
17,607
37,708
Area
recommended
for Reserve. *
1,600
2,391
300
367
8,236
48,155
2,354
117,380
180,773
Estimate of
Timber on
Total Area.
Ft. B.M.
8,340,630
20,066,400
1,000,000
173,203,100
28,094,000
130,000
45,961,200
575,000
20,143,000
154,245,010
451,758,340
* Includes absolute forest land of value for timber production ; also land which is statutory timber land.
PULP AND PAPER.
Marked activity has been evident during the whole year in this industry. The rise in prices
due to the war has had the result of directing attention to Canada's pulp resources as never
before. Eastern Canada has not received all this attention, for British Columbia's pulp resources
are beginning to be realized. The plants in operation in the Province have run continuously
throughout the year, the output for 1916 being as follows:—
Paper manufactured    65,229 tons.
Sulphite wood-pulp     14,389    „
Commencement was made on new operations by three companies—one at Swanson Bay,
which started operations early in 1917; another at Ocean Falls, where a large amount of
development-work had already been done, and which will commence producing paper some time
in 1917; and the third at Quatsino Sound, where building operations have been in progress for
some months and will likely continue during the coming year.
These developments are all on the Coast, but there are large areas of pulp timber in the
Interior which have not yet been touched. The development of these areas will no doubt be
undertaken in the not-far-distant future.
TIMBER EXPORTS, 1916.
Only half of the quantity of logs were exported in 1916 than there were in 1915. This is
the result of a better log market in British Columbia, which increased in strength during the
last half of the year. The quantity exported ungraded dropped from 19,000,000 in 1915 to
2,000,000. The following tables give the details of export of logs, and also of other products,
such as piles, poles, props, posts, etc.:—
Export of Logs, 1916  (scaled fob Export).
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Total of Logs.
3,613,346
1,041,571
154,640
25,289,392
5,254,945
505,509
8,605
12,434,078
1,651,943
194,228
3,624
263,530
8,334
157', 280
536,325
1,067,035
41,600,346
7,948,459
12,229
Larch 	
Hemlock	
157,280
536,326
1,067,035
Total feet B.M., 1916	
4,S09,557
31,058,451
14,283,873
2,032,504
52,184,385
Totals for 1915	
10,110,681
48,033,651
29,284,854
19,445,749
106,874,935 N 18
Department of Lands.
1917
Export of Poles, Piles, Posts, Ties, and Wood, 1916.
Forest District.
Cranbrook—
Posts	
Props	
Hewn ties	
Poles	
Piles	
Wood	
Nelson—
Posts	
Shingle-bolts..
Hewn-ties	
Poles and piles
Fort George—
Excelsior bolts
Island—
Poles and piles
Vancouver—
Poles and piles
Shingle-bolts..
Vernon—
Hewn ties	
Total	
Quantity
exported.
Cords,
Cords,
Pieces,
Lin. ft.,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Cords,
Cords,
Pieces,
Lin. ft., 1
Cords,
Lin. ft.,
Cords,
Pieces,
18,639
9,276
462,427
123,026
134,482
1,743
5,766
64
2,315
,693,786
55
148,571
623,905
973
6,853
Approximate
Value F.O.B.
$102,616 00
41,742 00
147,489 00
9,842 00
9,413 00
5,229 00
23,635 00
384 00
695 00
93,243 00
37,434 00
5,838 00
Whkre marketed.
United States.
743
i,870
2,316
64
2,315
1,083,778
623,905
973
6,853
Canada/
18,639
9,276
461,684
120,156
134,482
1,743
3,449
610,008
55
* Chiefly the Prairie Provinces, though poles are also shipped to Ontario.
FOREST RECONNAISSANCE.
Owing to the war it was found impossible to carry on any reconnaissance-work whatever.
This tabulation, discovery, and stock-taking of the forest resources is of fundamental importance.
A thorough knowledge of existing timber quantities aud conditions is essential to the formulation
of forest policy. The reconnaissance carried on during the last three years has brought to light
many large bodies of Crown timber which, while not marketable to-day on account of lack of
transportation facilities, nevertheless constitute a great asset, increasing in value from year to
year, provided it is protected from fire.
FOREST RECORDS.
Forest Revenue.
The total revenue from the forest collected In 1916 was $2,005,940.76, being an increase over
1915 of $83,382.36.    The depression continued from 1915 into 1916, but conditions began to show
a marked improvement toward the latter end of the year.    The following table gives the revenue
in detail for the past four years:—
Statement of Forest Revenue.
12 Months to
December, 1916.
12 Months to
December, 1915.
12 Months to
December, 1914.
12 Months to
December, 1913.
$1,138,879 22
456,863 29
893 39
77,040 59
32,590 20
3,158 71
1,364 84
28,524 00
68,779 87
3,670 00
7,100 00
100 09
5,235 35
1,148 74
391 89
225 00
401 80
45 22
$1,140,656 53
351,310 13
3,520 54
120,132 35
27,893 16
2,564 71
85 71
16,692 69
67,250 42
4,400 00
5,560 00
1,117 81
137 00
3,830 89
2,183 42
532 71
60 00
128 00
17 33
$1,555,980 28
391,118 36
7,170 95
88,792 08
30,472 32
1,805 82
270 90
25,335 00
36,545 33
7,085 00
5,200 00
115 13
508 50
3,477 87
1,550 83
534 05
425 00
569 67
61 96
$2,112,876 18
482,707 05
9,016 95
119,291 44
23,978 99
1,759 41
24,291 00
18,719 92
10,385 00
5,025 00
17,208 84
924 50
2,597 95
1,140 40
691 40
585 00
119 95
1,409 73
$1,826,412 20
179,528 56
$1,748,063 40       ,
174,495 00
,   $2,157,018 95
185,661 00
$2,832,788 71
166,540 00
Total revenue from forest sources	
$2,005,940 76
$1,922,558 40
$2,342,679 95
$2,999,328 71 7 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
N 19
There was an increase of nearly $100,000 in revenue from logging operations. Nearly all of
this was made up by royalty and tax directly due to increased general cut. The only decrease
to speak of was stumpage in the Vancouver District, which amounted to $12,000. This was due
to smaller cut from timber-sales and to the fact that the average stumpage price per M. on the
sales operated was slightly less than on the sales operated in the previous jTear.
Revenue from Logging Operations, 1916.
Amount charged.
Royalty
and Tax.
Scaling
Fees.
Trespass
Penalties.
Seizure
Expenses.
Scaling
Expenses.
Stumpage.
Totals.
$ 25,323 90
14,268 46
558 71
17,686 01
954 19
3,003 68
287 33
71,778 16
341,898 23
24,816 09
$500,574 76
$401,383 84
$   "81 85
90
' 48 83
31,828 99
4,379 99
$36,340 56
$   451 79
205 50
151 88
210 97
'l77 62
142 80
31 00
342 29
$       7 60
24 75
"s 00
"34 06
14 25
133 00
748 20
$   966 86
$ '"7 50
2,965 37
449 37
$     923 51
210 17
2,550 53
79i 58
301 30
2,484 61
55,724 86
44 00
$ 26,706 80
14,708 88
792 44
Prince Rupert	
20,452 51
954 19
4,007 84
753 18
Cranbrook	
74,476 60
433,507 94
29,689 45
Totals 	
$1,713 85
$3,422 24
$63,030 56
$S0,042 30
$606,048 83
Totals, 1915 operations..
$30,836 03
$2,313 15
$1,796 23
$3,210 62
$519,6S2 17
Forest Expenditure.
The diagram shown 011 page 22 shows the comparison of the  revenues  of the different
Provinces of the Dominion for the year 1914.    The Dominion Government controls the forest
resources of the three Prairie Provinces, so the figures for these three Provinces are necessarily
combined.
The sums voted for forest-work for the fiscal year 1916-17 were as follows:—
Vote   11—Salaries    $162,726 00
,,    295—Determination of lumber values (" Royalty Act ")            5,000 00
.,    296—Encouraging lumber industry        50,000 00
„    297—Forest products investigations        10,000 00
„    299—Miscellaneous       90,000 00
„    300—Timber-testing and investigation of wood products       20,000 00
Total      $337,726 00
In addition to this total, $150,000 was voted as the Government's contribution to the Forest
Protection Fund.
General Administrative Expenditure.
(For Ten Mouths, April, 1916, to January, 1917, inclusive.)
Forest District.
Vote 11:
Salaries.
Vote 299:
Miscellaneous.
Total.
$ 46,451 83
4,606 61
3,280 11
2,110 71
2,973 32
4,017 55
2,496 64
3,549 38
3,172 31
26,929 51
2,596 21
$ 7,548 34
2,579 83
2,854 30
874 69
3,422 22
1,778 43
904 32
1,004 08
5,687 05
20,505 74
1,489 67
$ 54,000 17
7,186 44
6,134 41
2,985 40
6,395 54
5,795 98
3,400 96
4,553 46
8,859 36
47,435 25
4,085 88
Totals                	
$102,184 18
$48,648 67
$150,832 85
The above figures, it will be noted, are actual expenditure for the ten months ending January
31st, 1917. If the expenditure for the two months of February and March is at the same rate,
the total for the fiscal year will be about $166,000, which will be a saving of about $80,000 over
the previous year. N 20
Department of Lands.
1911
Hundreds oF Thousands
i>,
Z5
'RI
SH ^O
LUMBIA ?fc_2,3-4c>67'S
Qucbe
c
,736,605
Ontario
67-4, 8<37
\lew
v1an
Eirun
Sask
5WICK
&
A
.i"/, .fr
309,
7'0,-4<3<3
OiO 7 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. N 21
Forest Protection Fund.
The Forest Protection Fund was brought into force for the first time in 1912. In accordance
with the provisions of the " Forest Act," the timber-owners contribute on the basis of 1% cents
per acre and the Government contributes dollar for dollar. For the first two years the fund thus
created met all demands, but the extremely bad fire season of 1914 necessitated the advancing
of $143,000 by the Provincial Treasury. Economies effected in 1915 and 1916, however, have
resulted in the fund being able to repay the Treasury the loan advanced in 1914. In order to
show clearly the standing of the fund from the beginning to the present time the following
statement is given :—
Forest Protection Fund Statement.
Fiscal year 1912-13—
Collections      $105,259 42
Government contribution      105,259 42   $210,51S 84
Expenditure    $207,624 99
Less refunds           3,454 93    204,170 06
Balance to credit of fund  $    6,348 78
Fiscal year 1913-14—
Brought, forward from 1912-13   $   6,348 78
Collections        165,018 33
Government's contribution     165,018 33   $336,385 44
Expenditure     $342,361 64
Less refunds         21,549 31     320,S12 33
Balance to credit of fund   15,573 11
Fiscal year 1914-15—
Brought forward from 1913-14   $ 15,573 11
Collections        122,341 27
Government's contribution     $122,341 27
Loan by Government, $100,000; over-
contributed on estimates, $43,658.73   143,658 73   266,000 00   $403,914 38
Expenditure    $403,140 93
Less refunds           16,785 89     386,355 04
Balance to credit of fund  17,559 34
Fiscal year 1915-16—
Brought forward from 1914-15    $ 17,559 34
Collections        114,784 55
Government's contribution     114,784 55   $247,12S 44
Expenditure     $185,538 46
Less refunds           1,394 30    184,144 16
Balance to credit of fund   62,9S4 28
Fiscal year 1916-17 (April 1st, 1916, to January 31st, 1917)— '
Brought forward from 1915-16   $ 62,984 28
Collections (ten months)        103,579 57
Government's contribution  (ten months)       103,579 57  $270,143 42
Expenditure  (ten months)      $156,205 37
Less refunds           1,433 04     154,772 33
Balance to credit of fund  115,371 09 N 22
Department of Lands.
1917
It is expected that the balance to the credit of the fund at March 31st, 1917, will be sufficient
to wipe off the $100,000 loan and over-contribution of $43,658.73 of the Government in fiscal year
1914-15.
According to the figures on page 23 with reference to the number of timber licences in
arrears, which are reinstatable under the " Forest Act Relief Act," it will be noted that—
228 licences are in arrears   4 years.
2,106       „ „   3     „
2,445        „ „    2      „
1,049       ,, ,, under   1 year.
Fifty per cent, would be a most conservative estimate of the number of the above licences
wmich will be reinstated upon the expiration of the " Relief Act"; and consequently there is a
liability to the Forest Protection Fund by these licensees of approximately $60,000, and therefore
a corresponding liability from the Province of the same amount, wThich would increase the fund
by $120,000.
The expenditure from the fund for 1916 compares with that of previous years as follows:—■
Forest Protection Expenditure.
Fiscal Years.
1913-14.
1914-15.
1915-16.
1916-17.
Patrol	
$217,093
104,000
9,600
$228,352
31,385
143,461
$157,432
5,151
19,449
$143,202 75
4,227 65
8,774 97
$330,693
$403,198
$182,032
$156,205 37
Although the following tables are for ten months only ending January 31st, 1917, still, as
this includes the whole of the field season, practically the whole of the expenditure is thus shown.
Expenditure by Districts for Ten Months ending January Slst, 1917.
Headquarters .
Cranbrook ....
Fort George...
Hazelton	
Island.   	
Kamloops	
Lillooet	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert.
Vancouver ....
Vernon	
Forest District.
Totals     $143,202 75
Patrol.
S 2,042 18
12,785 42
24,348 28
9,777 81
11,201 10
11,961 68
6,416 91
16,339 IS
7,796 60
31,813 73
8,719 86
Improvements.
Fires.
$754 28
$   225 25
822 73
3,406 80
408 87
432 93
33 00
341 05
30 47
39 35
70 40
4 65
214 82
149 50
454 19
1,455 45
3,472 35
437 63
248 90
$4,227 65
$8,774 97
Monthly Patrol Expenditure, 1916.
Total.
$ 2,042 18
13,764 95
28,577 81
10,619 61
11,575 15
12,031 50
6,491 96
16,703 50
8,250 79
36,741 53
9,406 39
•
April.
May.
June.
July.
August.
September.
Oct.-Jan. (incl.)
Fort George	
Island	
$ 11 44
447 54
815 30
353 32
485 24
508 12
450 73
609 91
531 69
3,202 71
353 91
$   137 03
1,737 33
4,128 66
1,502 25
1,879 96
2,209 67
1,147 39
3,055 64
1,142 21
4,873 39
1,543 83
$ 54 47
2,547 21
5,391 06
2,085 19
2,270 03
2,766 79
1,267 75
3,215 82
1,654 79
' 6,207 27
1,888 20
$1,692 01
3,089 54
5,129 87
2,131 57
2,231 35
2,652 37
1,383 54
3,643 91
1,640 03
5,850 90
1,878 75
$   113 59
3,343 79
4,587 80
2,126 33
2,349 12
2,495 55
1,414 01
3,671 81
1,747 90
6,708 04
1,828 01
$   16 99
1,618 60
2,836 02
1,180 26
1,683 47
1,269 03
706 39
2,125 09
1,078 23
4,878 22
1,198 10
$   16 65
1 41
1,459 57
398 89
301 93
60 15
57 10
Nelson	
Prince Rupert	
17 00
.    1 75
93 20
29 06
Totals	
$7,769 91
$23,357 36
.$29,358 58
$31,323 84
$30,385 95
$18,590 40
$2,436 71 Geo.
Forest Branch.
N 23
Co-operation with British War Office.
Continuing the work started in 1915, the Branch acted as fiscal agents for the British War
Office for their lumber purchases in this Province.    The only orders placed were for ammunition-
boxes, as shown by the following table:—
Order No.
No. of Cars shipped.
No. of Boxes shipped.
Value.
13.
15.
18
59
20
112
191
312,900
106,690
398,200
$ 60,412 70
32,007 00
179,190 00
817,790
$271,616 70
Special Licences.
The total number of timber licences in good standing on December 31st, 1916, was 8,129,
while the number reinstatable was 5,828.    This makes a total of all licences of 13,957.
The rate of expiry of licences greatly increased after the beginning of the war and under
the provisions of the " Forest Act Belief Act." The year 1916-17 shows a marked lessening
of the rate, which is no doubt due to the general improvement in financial conditions. The
following figures clearly show this:—
Annual Licence Expiries.
1908-09      232 licences.
1909-10        253
1910-11   	
1911-12  	
1912-13   	
1913-14] f	
1914-15 I (reinstatable under " Relief Act ") j	
1915-16J      ■ [	
1916-17      1,049
The 1,049 expiring in 1916-17 are reinstatable under the regular provisions of the " Forest
Act," which give a period of grace of one year.
312
147
164
228
2.106
2,445
Crown-grant Timber Lands.
Area of Private    Average Value
Timber Lands. per Acre.
1911         824,814 $8 72
1912       874,715 8 60
1913         922,948 9 02
1914         960.464 9 66
1915         913,245 9 55
1916        922,206 9 73
The extent and value of timber land in the various assessment districts are shown by the
following table:—
Forest District.
Acreage,
1916.
Increase or
Decrease in
Acreage over
1915.
Average
Value per
Acre.
Change in
Value per
Acre since
1915.
16,942
87,077
44,368
78,244
217,625
24,478
5,094
44,423
7,428
177,096
6,422
77,910
48,439
86,660
- 592
- 496
- 350
+   160
+   286
+     40
- 765
-2,879
- 58
+7,075
No change
No change
No change
+6,540
$13 30
14 88
18 31
12 83
13 99
4 03
3 00
5 29
15 73
3 85
4 99
3 87
11 55
6 41
-0.10
+0 14
Kettle River	
-0.08
+2.64
+0.10
No change
No change
+0.01
+0.13
-0.02
No change
0.04
Fort Steele	
-0.02
-0.10
922,206
+8,961
$9 73 Timber-marks.
The general increase in logging operations shown by the increased cut resulted in a
corresponding increase in the number of log-marks issued. Under the regulations all logs
floated within the Province must be plainly marked with a registered log-mark, so as to show
ownership and the amount of royalty or stumpage due to the Crown.
A timber-mark book giving full lists of marks under various classifications is issued and is
in general use throughout the Forest Service. There are over 2,100 marks now on the list, which
is issued monthly, and records all changes, new marks, cancellations, and extensions.
The following table gives the marks issued, classified by the status of land covered:—
1915. 1916.
On old Crown grants      46 45
On Crown grants, 1887-1906 (exportable)        59 47
On Crown grants, 1906-1914 (non-exportable)        43 29
On timber under the " Royalty Act, 1914 "     154 115
On timber leases        8 69
On sinKteen-year timber licences    1
On timber-sales       7S 100
On Dominion lands      21 51
On rights-of-way        1
Totals  514 563
Forest Atlas.
The work of completing the transfer of the atlas to a more simple form started in 1915 was
completed in 1916. The atlas serves as a record for the results of all field examinations and
information relative to timber quantities. By means of a comprehensive legend a broad range
of information is recorded.
Correspondence.
1916.
Daily
Average.
Incoming mail   34,000 111 Increase over 1915, 17 per cent.
Outgoing mail   66,000 214 Decrease over 1915,   4
FOREST BRANCH ORGANIZATION.
Enlistments and the pressing need for retrenchment led to further decreases in the Forest
Branch staff during 1916. The temporary staff of Forest Guards aud patrolmen numbered 200,
as against 218 in 1915 and 391 in 1914. The large number in 1914 was due to the very serious
fire season.    The permanent force consisted of 136, as compared with 160 in 1915 and 167 in 1914.
The Forest Branch reports with deep regret the death on active service during the past
year of Deputy District Forester J. B. Mitchell, Forest Assistants J. R. Chamberlain and H. A.
Rees, and the severe wounding of Forest Assistant E. G. MacDougall, Ranger Edwards, and
Clerk J. R. Eddie.
The following table shows the details of the permanent and temporary staffs. It should be
noted that the Tete Jaune Forest District has been taken into the Fort George and Kamloops
Districts for the period of the war. 7 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
N 25
Distribution of Total Force, British Columbia Forest Branch, 1916.
Permanent.
Temporary.
*$
OJ
lg
Z
oj CJ
Forest District.
ca
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ffice Clerks
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28
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1
1
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14
1
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2
i
16
2
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1
1
2
14
1
1
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.      *2
1
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l
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177
190
23
25
112
1
7
12
5       2
1       2
5      49
2
1
23
4
5
"
336
1915 totals	
37S
1914 totals	
558
■ Cost refunded by railway company.
Areas of Administrative and Protective Units, 1916.
Forest District.
Cranbrook,	
Fort George	
Hazelton	
Island	
Kamloops	
Lillooet   .
Nelson	
Prince Rupert....
Vancouver..	
Vernon	
Totals....
1915 totals
1914 totals
Total
Land Area.
Acres.
7,560,000
39,375,000
23,100,000
6,390,000
9,470,000
12,670,000
7,950,000
21,880,1100
15,770,000
5,835,000
150,000,000
150,000,000
150,000,000
No. of
Ranger
Districts.
31
36
35
No. of
Average
Area, Ranger
Regular
Districts.
Districts.
Acres.
2,520,000
15
9,843,750
28
7,700,000
14
3,195,000
16
4,735,000
14
6,335,000
8
1,987,500
22
7,293,000
8
2,628,000
27
2,917,500
11
4,838,700
163
4,166,600
177
4,285,714
191
Maximum
No.
Average
Guards
Area, Guard
and
Districts.
Patrolmen
during
Season.
Acres.
504,000
20
1,406,325
31
1,650,000
14
399,375
18
676,428
15
1,583,750
8
361,364
23
2,735,000
8
584,074
37
530,500
12
920,245
186
847,450
202
789,473
302
Average
Minimum
Area, Guard
and
Patrolmen
Districts.
Acres.
378,000
1,270,000
1,650,000
355,000
631,000
1,583,750
345,650
2,735,000
426,210
486,500
806,450
742,550
499,000
FlHE-PROTECTION   FORCE.
Financial conditions forced a further reduction in the expenditure for fire-protection, and
this was effected by decreasing the staff of regular Guards and by shortening the period of
employment for Guards in districts where there were but few permits to grant. These reductions
brought the patrol staff to a number below safety, very large areas of Crown timber being left
entirely without protection, but fortunately the season was a favourable one from the standpoint
of hazard, and no harm resulted.
The number of regular Guards employed was 163, whose average period of employment was
124 days. These figures for 1915 were 177 and 127 respectively. Patrolmen employed during
short periods of dry, hot weather numbered 25, the same number as in the previous year. N 26
Department of Lands.
1917
FOREST PROTECTION.
The fire season of 1916 saw the usual high spring hazard in the Fort George and Hazelton
Districts, and a large number of serious fires occurred there. Elsewhere the spring weather was
normal and there were very few fires.
The summer weather on the Coast was unique, in that while July was wet, no rain fell in
August, September, and nearly the whole of October, and during these months the hazard was
serious. There was, howTever, an almost entire absence of strong winds, and while many fires
started they were easily confined to the slash areas.
In the interior the weather was variable, there being frequent rains in the Vernon and
Nelson Districts, but insufficient precipitation in the Cranbrook and Kamloops Districts. In the
Lillooet, Fort George, and Hazelton Districts sufficient rain fell to permit all fires to be controlled.
The same absence of strong winds noted on the Coast characterized the weather east of the
mountains and. accounts for the absence of bad fires.
Generally speaking, the year could be called a normal one, little trouble being experienced
by the regular force in taking care of the situation at any time.
Co-operation.
Timber-owners, telephone, railway, and mining companies, settlers, and other citizens gave
very valuable assistance to the fire-protection force. In fact, without the co-operation received
from the public, the fire-protection force would find it impossible to cope with the situation in
dry periods.
The following statement gives the names of the private timber-owners and others who employ
patrolmen to guard their timber:—
Co-operative arrangements in force in previous years with the Dominion Forestry Branch.
United States Forest Service, Dominion Meteorological Service, Provincial Department of Public
Works, and various municipalities were continued with mutual benefit.
Education of the Public
The general public continues to give hearty support and assistance to the fire-protection work.
For reasons of economy the amount of work of an educational nature was reduced in 1916, the
work done being confined to the posting of fire notices, road and trail signs with appropriate
texcts, personal letters to settlers, articles for newspapers, and other means to keep the need of
fire-protection before the public.
Fire Damage.
The fire damage for 1916 was the least since 1913, a wet year of almost no fire hazard.
The greatest loss, as usual, occurred in the Fort George and Hazelton Districts, where the
patrols are fewest per unit of area and the fire hazard greatest. In these two districts the area
burned over reached 135,000 acres, or 80 per cent, of the total for the whole Province. While a
large portion of the area burned was without present commercial value, much valuable second
growth was destroyed and forest regeneration set back at least a decade on the whole area.
The following tables present a comparison of the fire damage for each of the last six years,
besides the usual data for each district:— 7 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
N 27
6
=5
Pi
5-i
CD iO 00 O
■ d d d si
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a. P
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;i-Jo**0
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sis
46,882
458
465
21
CD iO CM O CO
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IO
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oo" o'
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£ a
Ch    <U
0.6
65.0
19.0
3.2
1.2
0.9
5.6
3.5
1.0
o
8 :
><
1,020
104,991
30,683
5,135
1,869
157
1,312
8,936
5,672
1,513
O
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8,031
7,763
114
100
140
414
5,807
■ X
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1,011.00
71,606.75
22,870.50
4,932.00
1,765.63
16.50
789-85
2,446.00
5,450.00
157.13
CO
CO
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200
640
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44,782.50
229.00
290.00
21.00
1.00
405.00
242.00
1,630.00
53.00
8
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Department of Lands.
1917
Table B.—Damage to Property other than Forests.
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
Per Cent.
$ 350
34
.  i',527
iso
"910
9
$7,1.82
3,740
800
"404
3,630
2,640
$'l66
542
1,500
1,600
$i55
980
"75
45
303
'l50
70
$   350
7,537
5,262
3,827
75
45
857
3,630
5,300
79
1.3
27.9
19.5
14.2
0.3
0.2
3.2
13.5
19.6
0.3
$2,980
11.0
$18,396
68.2
$3,808
14.2
$1,778
6.6
$26,962
100.00
100.00
$10,546
18.2
$29,740
51.5
$12,825
22.2
$4,663
8.1
$57,774
100.00
1914 totals	
$201,733
55.3
$137,595
37.7
$11,070
3.0
$14,077
4.0
$364,475
100.00
The damage to the property other than forests was less than half that of the preceding year.
The heaviest sufferers were the settlers in the Fort George and Hazelton Districts, their loss
heing destruction of houses and farm property amounting to over $10,000.
Table 0.—A Comparison of the Damage caused by Forest Fires in Last Six Years.
Total number of fires	
Area burned over (acres). _	
Standing- timber destroj'ed or damag'ed (M.B.M.).
Amount salvable (M.B.M.)	
Damage to forests	
Daniag-e to other forms of property	
Total damage	
1916.
1915.
1914.
864
1,031
1,832
161,288
244,189
355,124
50,415
187,250
102,804
2,757
43.030
Not given.
$48,913
$108,873
$ 72,057
26,962
57,774
364,475
75,875
166,647
436,532
578
10,270
3.845
Not given.
$ 4,387
13,967
18,354
1912.
1911.
347
331
160,000
Not given.
200,000
3,570
Not given.
Not given.
$200,000
Not given.
113,273
$47,000
313,273 7 Geo. o
Forest Branch.
N 29
Cost of Fire-fighting.
The number of " cost fires" in 1916 was less than in any preceding year, being only 171.
The average cost of each cost fire was likewise small, $32, against $61 in 1915.
The record of location of fires again shows that the greatest hazard exists on the occupied
lands, three-quarters of the cost fires occurring on ranches and other occupied lands. The disproportionate hazard on such lands demonstrates the importance of the permit system.   ■
The total cost of fire-fighting was only $5,585, the smallest on record.
Fires, 1916, classified by Place of Origin and Cost of Fire-fighting.
£
o
H
GO
a
a
«J A H
t>   'J)s~-
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o
«£
-£&H
c3 w
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O  +H
r-   O
a c
-*3 aj
g-c   .
.Sex
Mg
o
No.
Extinguished
without Cost.
Cost Money to
extinguish.
Total Cost of
Firk-figiiting.
Average
Cost per
Cost Fire.
Forest District.
No.
o"EC
BS
oS
HJ    S
fl'CCC
r"cc 3
Oh
3S
O'S
H S
■4-5   C
ii
OlH
Oh
No.
3 2
o'h
BS
o3
s'CCC
£ S3
LJ   Sh
Oh
V
H £
oOh
^ a
c'w
o|
a.
Dollars.
si g
58*
t- S-c
QJ   *J'r
Oh
Dollars.
No.
No.
36
288
114
74
36
19
129
19
82
67
3
73
"a
20
10
45
7
35
7
33
215
114
65
16
9
84
12
47
60
30
237
102
60
28
18
US
14
26
60
83
82
89
81
78
95
91
74
32
89
4
26
12
7
3
2
14
2
3
7
6
61
12
14
8
1
11
5
56
7
17
18
11
19
22
5
9
26
68
11
1
6
1
2
1
1
1
1
23
2,353
433
307
57
5
686
385
1,196
240
'42
8
6
1
ii
7
21
4
4
47
36
22
7
5
53
77
22
34
Totals	
864
100.0
1,031
100.0
209
24.2
655
75.8
693
80.2
714
69.3
—
80
171
19.8
20
5,585
100
32
1915 totals	
341
33.1
690
66.9
69.3
317
30.7
639
34.9
30.7
19,449
143,461
100
61
1,832
599
32.7
1,233
67.3
1,193
65.1
224
Fires, 1916, classified by Size.
Total
Fires.
Under \ Acre.
1 Acre to 10 Acres.
Over 10 Acres in Extent.
Forest District.
No.
'ShJ
0.2
•Sg
c.5
Q  m
0J C
Oh*
"(8  °C
f J
HO
°f
"l.S
p'jg
CD   r
pu'S
No.
If
4H   UJ
°.a
= s
QJ CCC
D 8
-- h
QJ r~
Oh"
-Jh °C
S  UJ
HO
■g.|
1.5
?8
OJ.r
0.13.
No.
3w
11
og
c.5
§1
"3 cc
Cg.2
HD
*S-|
S.S
»8
S3 A
Oi ft,
So
r O
OJ r-t
$£&
C  OJ
a
o
11
bjjrl
a o
a
5l
No.
Per
Cent.
No.
No.
No.
Cranbrook	
Fort George	
36
288
114
74
36
19
129
19
82
67
4.2
33.3
13.2
8.7
4.2
2.2
14.9
2.2
9.4
7.7
19
40
23
16
16
13
73
2
18
10
52.8
13.9
20.2
21.6
44.4
68.4
56.6
10.5
22.0
14.9
8.3
17.4
10.0
6.9
6.9
5.7
31.7
0.9
7.8
4.4
14
105
44
36
16
5
41
7
28
40
38.8
36.5
38.6
48.6
44.4
26.3
31.8
36.9
34.1
59.7
4.2
31.2
13.1
10.7
4.7
1.5
12.2
2.1
8.3
12.0
3
143
47
22
4
1
15
10
36
17
8.4
49.6
41.2
29.8
11.2
5.3
11.6
52.6
43.9
25.4
1.0
47.9
15.8
7.4
1.4
0.3
5.0
3.3
12.1
5.8
'io
8
6
5
6
28
5
10
20
2
13
11
4
4
3
10
3
"9
"2
1
3
Totals 	
864
100.0
230
26.6
100.0
336
38.9
100.0
298
34.5
100.0
127
50
15
Per cent, of totals....
1915 totals	
1,031
100.0
231
22.4
100.0
371
36.0
100.0
429
41.6
569
31.0
100.0
288
117
24
1914 totals	
1,832
657
35.9
606
33.1
428
109
32 N 30
Department of Lands.
1917
Causes of Forest Fires, 1916.
The figures on causes of forest fires for 1916 do not greatly differ from those of the previous
year. For some unexplained reason, however, the proportionate number due to railways and to
logging operations is somewhat higher than in 1915.
Table A.—'Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1916.
a)
(2.)
(3.)
(4.)
(5.)
U
(6.)
(7.)
(8.)
(9.)
(10.)
Totals.
Forest District.
■Saj
"*   00
~
R
^™
B >
%   OJ
o »
S  cS
u
.Co
,  3
S3 C
d!3
«l
No.
Per
Cent.
Ih
.5,3
s-  i-S
SjM
1
|
S o
a P.
a
O
o
0
O
a
ca
76
H
3
«
rH
0,
4
121
8
53
20
1
i
7
3
5
'l7
8
36
288
4.2
33.3
Hazelton	
54
18
4
30
7
1
114
13.2
23
21
2
10
3
16
75
8.7
8
8
19
1
36
4.2
7
6
7
19
19
6
12
2
16
4
46
30
i
54
4
4
7
5
11
4
148
172
i
2
4
2
2
30
1
2
1
1
1
i
"2
19
129
19
81
67
864
2.2
14.9
.2.2
9.4
7.7
Totals	
268
31.0
148
17.1
121
14.0
67
7.7
19
2.2
69
6.8
22
2.6
12
1.4
100.0
Table B.—Number and Causes of Forest Fires for Last Six Years.
Causes.
Ca'mpers and travellers	
Unknown    	
Operation of railways (common carriers only).
Lightning	
Bush-burning- to clear farm land, etc	
Railway-construction	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Industrial operations (logging, etc.)	
Incendiary	
Public road-construction	
Totals	
1916.
1915.
1914.
1913.
1912.
268
305
487
195
51
148
160
367
104
149
121
82
361
110
34
67
100
169
34
23
148
267
164
26
47
17
98
62
11
19
24
83
7
6
59
28
60
24
17
22
28
42
7
12
20
11
9
9
864
1,031
1,832
578
331
126
126
31
1
14
8
Burning Permits.
Owing undoubtedly to the absence of many pre-emptors and farmers on military duty, there
was decidedly less activity in clearing land in 1916 than in previous years.
A total of 7,256 permits were granted to burn 20,344 acres of clearing slash, 2,332 acres of
logging-slash, 2,157 acres of railway right-of-way, and 161 acres of public roads, a total of 24.833
acres.    In 1915, 9,515 permits covering 52,475 acres were granted.
The unusual continuation of the fire season into October led to some requests for the
extension of the period during which permits must be obtained, but no change is recommended
until the present season is given further trial. 7 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
N 31
eq
d <
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8 £
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O
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fc      	
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rH      ■      • O      -          CO
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O-l
■S'}iuiJ9<j ^noqiiM $88 saajjj
6
fc
rH
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i-H ITS
"loj^uoo p9dtiDS9 saaiji
6
fc
Mf
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U9A0 patunq uajy
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O Oj Oj O Ol rH O
tJ. r-H       r~ -*       O
o
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as   ■
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O-l     -
rH rH
"Ioj^uoq pgduosg saaiji
i-H 00
M
fc      	
■J9A0 patunq i39.iy
Acres.
113
15
'is
702
651
833
CO     -
CO OS
r-i as
OS     -
Ol CO
■tf Cs
c
OO N 32
Department of Lands.
1917
Prosecution fob Fike Trespass, 1916.
■6
"3
p
o
d
a
o
Character of Offences.
Results
01
Cases.
Forest District.
3
O
rC
a S
c3^
ca
3
•a
o
a
S-bc
S p
O £
h5
03
S
P
C
03 r-I
02  o
rr*   d
OJ W
Fines paid.
13
6
fc
a
o
Sentence
Cases dism
A
"i*
"l
3           	
4
4
1
3           	
6
6
5
$250
1           	
Slash-disposal.
While the majority of the logging operators on the Coast are convinced of the value as
a safety measure of burning over logging-slash annually, very few of them have adopted any
systematic plan, and the work is too often neglected. In 1916 the area burned was the smallest
for several years, and there are now many tracts which need attention.
Efforts to induce operators to burn slash every year will be continued, and it is hoped that
with the better financial conditions now existing a substantial advance in this essential work
can be made.
Forset-protection Costs.
The cost of various items for protection was less in every case than in 1915, the figures for
patrol being $143,660 in 1916, $157,720 in 1915; for fire-fighting, $8,450 in 1916, $22,685 in 1915;
for improvements. $4,450 in 1916, $3,738 in 1915. The total cost for 1916 amounted to $156,760,
against $184,143 for 1915.
PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS.
The continued necessity for retrenchment limited the project improvement-work in 1916 to
a few very badly needed trails and cabins, the total expenditure only reaching $4,450.
The absence of serious fire hazard in many districts again permitted the Guards and Rangers
to accomplish a large amount of maintenance and repair work, as well as considerable new work.
In all, 43 miles of new trails were constructed, 13 cabins erected, 85 miles of trail were
cleared, and 231 miles of telephone-line repaired.
Summary op New Improvement-work, 1916.
Kind of Work.
Horse-trails	
Foot-trails	
Telephone-lines.	
Cabins ,	
Boat-houses and caches	
Launches, boats, and canoes bought and built
Fencing Hanger-station pastures	
Total	
No.
Miles.
42
253.25
2
2.5
13
5
3
9
...
13,587 97
24 00
1,488 66
235 29
645 48
779 84
§6,764 57*
Cost per
Mile or Unit.
$ 14 15
960
114 50
47 00
215 16
86 65 7 Geo. 5
Forest Branch.
N 33
Maintenance-work done on Permanent Improvements, 1916.
Kinds of Work.
Horse-trails....
Telephone-lines
Total..
85
9
1,018
231
$2,532 00
1,995 00
$4,527 00*
Cost per
Mile.
$2 48
* Includes Guard and Ranger labour.
List of Improvements in each District.
Cranbrook Forest District.
New work— Miles.
Yahk River Trail      40
Hartley Creek Trail      15
Ooal Creek-Flathead Trail        7
White River Trail        10
Canal Flats-Sheep Creek Trail       12
Goat Mountain Cabin, 12 x 18 feel.
Baker Mountain Cabin, 10 x 14 feet.
Premier Lake Cabin, 12 x 14 feel.
Fort George Forest District.
New work— Miles.
Boulder Creek Trail        1
Nazko Valley Road       2
Euchiniko-Pelican Wagon-road        3
Cluculz Pake Trail         1
Pelican Lake Ranger Station, Hay Road        1
Six-mile Timber Limit Trail         4
Nukko Lake Trail        3
Granite Mountain Look-out Trail         7
Round Mountain Look-out Trail        1
Nation River Ranger Station site.
Finlay Junction Ranger Station site.
Finlay Junction Cache, 6x8 feet.
iSucker- Creek Cabin, 12 feet 3 inches x 12 feet 3 inches.
Bowron Lake Cabin, 14 x 18 feet.
McGregor Ranger Station, fencing, clearing, and horse-shelter.
Nazko Valley Ranger Station fence.
Pelican Ranger Station Horse-corral, 200 x 7 feet.
Pelican Ranger Station Horse-stable, 16 x 24 feet.
Pelican Ranger Station Horse-shelter, 20 x 40 feet.
Pelican Ranger Station Cabin, 14 x 18 feet.
Blackwater Ranger Station Cabin, 14 x 32 feet.
Blackwater Ranger Station, fencing.
Stuart Lake Boat-house, 18 x 24 feet.
Hazelton Forest District.
New work—
Burns Lake Boat-house, 14 x 21.
Mud Lake Ranger Station, fencing pasture, 500 feet.
Island Forest District.
New work—
Shawnigan Lake Boat.
3 N 34 Department oe Lands. 1917
Kamloops Forest District.
New work—      _ Miles.
Seymour-Humamilt Cut-off        4
Barriere-Adams Lake Trail      4%
Mount Olie Look-out Trail      iy2
Little Clearwater Ranger Station, 14 x 16 feet.
Depot Ranger Station Tool-cache, 8 x 12 feet.
Kinbasket Lake Launch, 22 x 7 feet.
Lillooet Forest District. 's
New work— Miles.
Watch Lake-Horse Lake Trail       \y2
Horse Lake Wagon-road-Huckleberry Hill       y2
Fish Lake Road up Bonaparte River     5%
Alkali Lake-Long Lake Trail       5
Meadow Lake-83-Mile House Trail       8
Jack's Landing and Hell Creek Slide        %
Red Rock Ranger Station, fencing 40 acres.
Huckleberry Hill Look-out, height 30 feet.
Spring Bank Ranger Station, fencing.
Prince Rupert Forest District.
New work—■
Rowboat for Upper Bella Coola.
Vernon Forest District.
New work— Miles.
Park Mountain Trail  ".     8
Trinity Valley-Mabel Lake Trail      2
Joe Rich Canyon Trail   ,     0
Sowsap Creek Trail      4
Penticton-Ellis Creek Trail       4y2
Terrace Mountain-Bear Creek Trail     3
Jack's Peak Trail      iy2
Eneas Lake Trail      4%
Nine-miie-Granite Trail    15
Coldwater-Ashnola Trail   10
Twelve-mile Creek Trail        6
Summers Creek-One-mile Creek Trail     8
Brookmere Trail       S
Mill Creek-Reys Lake Trail       5
Whiteman's Lake Trail (blazed)      12
Mabel Lake Boat-house (chute for boat).
Ellis Creek Cabin, 15 x 20 feet.
Nelson Forest District.
New work— Miles.
Evans Creek Trail    3
South Fork Salmon River Trail      6
North Fork Duncan River Trail      1
Grey Creek Trail       4
Upper Duncan River Trail    30
Crawford Bay, telephone connection        %
Arrow Park, telephone connection     2
Bowser Lake Cabin, 14 x 16 feet. 7 Geo. 5 Forest Branch. N 35
DOMINION RAILWAYS.
The co-operative agreement between the Chief Fire Inspector of the Dominion Board of
Railway Commissioners and the Forest Branch, by which the officers of the Branch act as
Inspectors, continued in force in 1916 with mutual advantage. The fire-protection regulations
of the Board have proven in the five years they have been in force of the very highest value
to the Province and to the railways as well, the officials of whom have worked in full accord
with the members of the Forest Branch.
On March 1st, 1917, the Canadian Northern Pacific Railway, with 517 miles of line in
British Columbia, was by Order in Council brought under the jurisdiction of the Dominion
" Railways Act," and all fire-protection matters concerning it will hereafter be handled by the
Board of Railway Commissioners.
PROVINCIAL RAILWAYS.
Under Provincial charter a total mileage of 969 miles of railway in operation or in process
of construction were under the jurisdiction of the Forest Branch in 1916, so far as fire-protection
was concerned. Steel on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway has been extended to the 159-Mile
House, and the line is in operation to Clinton. On the remainder of the line no work was done
and no special patrol was required.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by William H. Cl-llin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty,
1917.

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