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The Western Call Nov 12, 1915

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 i*M5fc  C$&  552  ���������553  j  ������Q^  ���������' "I  ^  ^   *4    t        rf  Published In the Interests of Greater Vancouver aad the Western People  T. J       K������arn y  . J M. Mdxtyr*  FnMrml DlMetW'~  T. J. KtarMy _. Ct.  roan   DtoMMai "  ;(nA BnbabMm  At your service day and  * "-   ���������>   night  - Uwtorat*.ehMV*i.  808 Broadway Was*  Pbone: Pair. 10M  '                                      .              I     ������   "  fr'--     L  ^X1..       '   <          "  .4-^.   --   v           ,   -i  '��������� '-X-"���������4  5  VOLUME VII.  VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA^- FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 12, 1915  PHE WATER POWERS  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  THE WATER POWER BRANCH of the  [Department of the Interior is to be congratulated  upon its enterprise in bringing 'before the public a fuller knowledge of the vast water power  [possibilities of Canada. To stimulate interest  the branch arranged an excellent exhibit of  models and photographs of water power plants  in the Canadian Pavilion at the Panama-iPacific  Exposition, and it has since supplemented ,this  work by a series of excellent monographs upon  Canadian water powers for distribution at the  autumn congress in San Francisco of the International Engineering Societies.  ' Developments in Coast Province v  The monograph under review which is~ -a very -  comprehensive record of. practically all the existing water power plants at present developed  in British Columbia, is by Mr. G. R. G. Conway, M. Inst. C.E., M. Can. Soc. C.E. M. Am.  Soc. C.E. It will be a surprise to many to read  how much has already been accomplished in the  development of the water powers of_the coast  province. The author, who, as chief engineer  and consulting engineer,, has been identified with  the construction of several of the largest plants  in British Columbia, has fortunately in the preparation of his book received the hearty co-operation of the engineers and managers of the various power companies, and has therefore been  able to give a very complete description of the  many interesting works that have been carried  out during the^ last seventeen years, lie has compiled'a volume that will be a permanent record  of what has been accomplished up to the present  time.  Mr. Conway Jias prepared a very interesting  table showing that already, the, installed capacity  of turbines and impulse wheels amounts to> 230,-  000 horse power, of which amount oyer one half  has been installed, during the past five years���������a  period tbat has seen such great expansion' in  British Columbia., . . ,.  ' ~ Conservative estimates have been made which,  place the total amount of water power that it  is ~ economically possible to , develop in British  Columbia at three million horse power. So far,  therefore,' not more than e.ight per cent, of this  vast total has been utilized.  It is. interesting to note how favorably the  three largest cities in the province, namely, Vancouver, Victoria and New Westminster, are situated for hydro-electric' power. These cities are  at present supplied with water power plants  having machinery installed amounting to 13.5,000  horse power, equivalent to about one horse  power for every two persons forming those communities and the surrounding -municipalities.  In addition to this large amount of hydro-ejec-  tric power, steam-electric _.'au3aHa'ry plants have  beeirinstailed-amouhtii^  'Mr. Conway also estimates that within easy  transmissjion distance of those cities 750,000  horse power can be economically developed���������a  fact that should have an enormous influence  upon the building up of many new industries  depending upon cheap electrical energy for their  growth and expansion.  The development of hydroelectric power  began in the coast province in 1897 when the  Bonnington Falls plant of the Kootenay Light  and Power Company,..which is situated on the  Kootenay river near one of the great mining  and smelting centres of British Columbia, was  under construction, simultaneously with the construction of the Coldstream plant of the British  Columbia Electric Railway Company, seventeen  miles west of Victoria. The Bonnington Falls  plant, constructed originally for supplying electrical energy to a small smelter in operation at  Trail and tor mining work at Ressland, was  placed in operation early in the year 1898,  while the Coldstream plant for supplying electrical energy to the City of Victoria was first  placed in operation in September of the same  year. It was not until December, 1903, that the  Lake Buntzen plant of the Vancouver,; Power  Company was placed in operation and Vancouver-received for the first time hydro-electric  power, although for? several years prior to this  date'a small steam electric plant had been in  service  to   supply the  citizens  with light  and  power. XX ���������''���������-.������������������"'  Big Storage Dams  In the construction of many of the hydroelectric plants interesting engineering problems  had often to be solved,' particularly in tunnelling and dam construction. For example, British  Columbia has several of the most notable dams  for storage purposes in Canada, among them  (Continued   on   Page   4)  r-������  5 Cents Per Copy.  ,,,Nq:27.��������� ���������  CHURCHILL RESIGNS  V  IT IS OFFICIALLY ANNOUNCED tha#>Mr._  Winston Spencer Churchill,. Chancellor of- the  Duchy of Lancaster, has resigned"irom the cabinet and will join the army in France.   J       ' ^  Mr. Churchill, in his letter of resignation,  explains that he agrees in the formation of a  small war council, and appreciates the intention  which Premier Asquith expressed to include him  among its members. He foresaw the difficulties  that the premier would have to face in its composition, he states, and he makes no complaint  because the scheme was changed, but with the  change his work in the government naturally  closed. He says he could not accept a position of  general responsibility < for a war policy without  any effective share in its guidance and control,  and did not feel able in times like these to remain in well paid inactivity. Rt. Hon. Winston is an officer in the military, and as such has,  placed his services at the disposal of the-authorities for duty in France;  THE CITY COUNCIL  i  ESTIMATES OF  FRUIT CROP  THE ESTIMATE of the 1915 fruit crop made  by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture shows a slight increase over the 1914 total production.1 iThis is particularly the case in  peaches and small fruits. The figures for 1915  and 1914 are:  1914 1915  Apples, boxes 684.840       613,000  Pvears, boxes ...... X.     28,000        35,000  PVlums and Prunes, crates    200,300       200,000  Peaches, crates  113,000       115,000  - Apricots, crates *   41.000 50,000  Cherries, crates  ;    33,400 35,000  ���������Small Fruits, crates 145,000  .   165,000  The crop reports from the Northwestern states  show a crop about 60 per cent, of last year's  production. In the Eastern states and Ontario,  similar decreases are reported.'while Nova Scotia's crop will exceed that o������ 1914 by 25" per  cent. - .  ���������  '  GJJJUKANY OANT WIN  THAT GERMANY cannot "win the war" iri  the Balkans is demonstrated by Hillaire Belloc  in "Land and Water."   He writes:  "There is no decision possible upon this new  front. The matter is so plain, it is so clearly  a thing of the map and of simple calculation  that a neglect of it is inexcusable.  It is capable of positive proof.  For, let us suppose an extreme case. Let  us suppose that before December the enemy were  to destroy the Serbian army. Let us suppose  that he were,to hold within that time securely,  the line to Constantinople, and let us suppose  that hewere shortly after the expiration of that  time to be able to munition the existing Turkish  forcesXmlTl*o^ large"  Turkish reserves of men.Wbat then?   Would he  have won the war?  He would not be within a thousand miles of  'winning it. ' ?  He would have produced a very great political effect, and political effect is here his chief_  object.. He would have put allied pressure"  upon the Balkans out of the question and the  allies' objective of opening the Black Sea equally out of the iquestipn. He would have made it  theoretically possible, in the course of many more  .months, to lay the foundations for a tardy, or  ultimately momentous, campaign through the  northeast- parts of. Asia. He might ultimately  (in theory ) threaten Egypt!  But, meanwhile, what will be happening elsewhere ?  Can any sane calculation regard tlie remaining- enemy forces as free to achieve a laborious  and tardy success over the mule paths of Asia  Minor and Syrian tracks, and the Desert of Sinai, while their effectives on the two European  fronts decline at the rate of 100,000 a week, while  the persistent hammering and persistent erack-  ing oi the all-important defensive line in France  and Flanders (even as I write, comes news of  a������ whole corps out of action' on the Lens-La  Bassee..-front alone���������8,000 dead) is continuing  and while the Russian reserves, though requiring months for the task, are being armed for an  offensive, which only time delays and which is  mathematically certain to appear in its turn���������a  balance is already achieved.  The conception is an impossible one. It is  not a military conception at all. Such bold  Strokes have been attempted by military nations  at the inception or in the midst of their effort  with full reserves of men behind them. They  would have no meaning in a situation like that  now imposed upon the enemy."  THE CITY COUNCIL has passed' an ill-digested by-law reducing the number of the Board  of. aldermen to"eight. We'say "ill-digested"  advisedly, for the very next day after passing the  law they began puzzling over the system of control to be adopted under the new regime, all  of which should have been considered before  passing  the law.  The ublic seems to have been inoculated  with an "experimenting" microbe, ai\d the council has caught' the disease. Every system is  deemed better than that in vogue.  -This "civic folly" movement has been raging all over the continent and has been quite  prevalent in Vancouver, ifrith the result above  noted. It would be hard to discover a more futile reform than the above. Had the' council  extended the term to two years, or devised  some scheme of continuity, it might have served  some useful purpose, but & .council of eight  elected each year is a joke.  PROHIBITION  GENE-Ritf, BOTHA ON        X   '   7������ **���������  GOVERNMENT POLICY  FROM THE TONE of the. reply given by  Sir Richard McBride it would appear that he has  no adequate idea of the significance of this movement. It is not disappointing so much because  he fails to see eye to eye with the prohibition  convention, but rather because he Jias failed to  give a clear, definite pronouncement on the  mattej.  It is difficult' to understand .just what Sir  Richard is trying to get at���������he agrees, that the  public should decide, but hints at "alternative"  schemes. One'would think it was abundantly  J clear that "the people," whose opinion he values  an highly were demanding "Prohibition," and  it only remains to test this "apparent" demand,  and,if ratified by* popular vote, ,then. enact a -.  law accordingly. i. '>  -       XX.  ^|-So_for.this Question has been well-kept" "trot'  of politics, but-Sir Richard is certainly, by his  delay, inviting his opponents to seek office over  this plank.  We hope that there will yet be found a solution, thus avoiding the need of making of it a  political football.    -  SPEAKING AT CAPE TOWN recently at  the opening of the South African Party Congress  Gen. Botha said he trembled to think what might  have happened at the outbreak of war and the  insurrection if the Union had not been an ae-  complished fact. Men ahd officers behaved  magnificently in the crisis, and the attitude of  the colored population had been most praise-'  worthy, both in the rebellion and in the campaign. The Union had been put to the severest test, but had stood it magnificently. Having given figures proving how enormously the  country had developed, in spite of difficulties,  Gen. Botha said they must concentrate on the  absolute necessity of bringing the war to a successful conclusion. -��������� The steps already taken by  the government in that direction were not only  in the interest of the British Empire, but also  in the interest bf the future permanent peace of  South Africa. The position with regard to  'land settlement had been, changed by the occupation of German South-West Africa, which was >  most suitable for agricultural and stock purposes. Thousands of citizens would be given  the opportunity of settling there and, as a result, healthy conditions would be created in the  Union, and south-west Africa would become a  source of strength.  -f ;  <  A CALL TO ARMS  y.  ? v-  4    ���������  ---ex  "I tt.   ,  By  Rev.   Dr.   Ohown, Superintended   of   the  Methodist Church in Canada  ������'   ������  A BEMARKAELE PROPWCY  MANY PEOPLE with a gift for looking  ahead foresaw the present European war. It  didn't require extraordinary acumen to predict  the great crash after-the rise* of the Triple Entente as a counterweight to the Triple Alliance.,  But a" remarkable capacity for divination must -  be conceded to the prophet who away back in  1882 could set " 1910 or thereabout 'X as the  date for a clash between .Great Britain and Germany oh the issue of world supremacy.  It was an extraordinary man who made this  extraordinary prediction-���������Charles George Gordon ("Chinese .Gordon"), an undoubted genius  and one of ~the most picturesque and heroic figures in British military history. A letter by  Gordon to Mr. James R. Purdy, dated 1882, has  recently been published in The-Morning Post, of.  London, from which the following is an extract:  " Every Briton should think of the future of his  country and cause each one to insist on the government passing a measure for compulsory universal military training! So far as England  is concerned, she need not, for.the next quarter  of a century, be under any apprehension of serious difficulties arising with any of her European  neighbors, but in 1910 or thereabout there will.  have arisen a naval power which may prove  mightier than she, and should she (Germany)  gain the supremacy, England -will become extinct, both as a sea and a land power, and all  her dependencies, including India, will fall into  Germany's clutches. You may live to see this.  I shall not;'but when that time comes, remember my words."  In 1882 Germany was not a sea power, had no  colonies and- had not been bitten by imperialistic  ambitions. Bismarck was encouraging France to  occupy more African territory and to dispute  priority in that region with Great Britain. But  Gordon looked far beyond the superficial friction of the hour between Great Britain and  France, and had a true vision of Germany's role  as the ultimate challenger of Britain's sea power  and oversea pretensions. Gordon Avas part soldier, part statesman, part mystic. It has been  granted to few humans to have his immense  range of. experience or to read the future as  clearly as he did.  *" THE YOUNG MEN of Canada should wake   -  up to the great fact that we Britishers are living  on the highest mountain peak of duty and op-  portunity tfiat the World has ever known.   The   \\  . glowing light of this day will never fade from ������x  the vision ofr future generations.   The magnificent demonstration of the unshakable .a������d{e������-x  thusiastic wjity of the far-flung ^rtiowfor^ ;  British Empire, whieh "tfcfi ���������*������ rkaa freyealed.  and wbich is being cemented with the mingled  blood of many races falling together on the field  of honor, should stir the heart of every Britisher  to fling himself at once into this, conflict.  An iron bridge is strongest' the day it is  complete. A cement bridge gains increasing  power of endurance with the passing of the  years. The German Empire is the iron bridge.  Its maximum strength is gone. It is being rusted  by the blood of. many millions of its fallen soldiers. The British Empire, on the other hand,*  will prove to be a cement bridge, if the Overseass  Dominions continue to respond to the call of  duty. Canada, India, Australia, New Zealand,  .South Africa, Fiji. Newfoundland, are being  cemented together by a sense pi duty, liberty,  sympathy, and all those no^  make men an4 constitute^ *^e jsoiil of heroic nations.' We fear not that in their unity with the  Motherland they will.���������������������������prove invincible.:: The  soul of eyery good cititen in the Empire is just  now haunted by an intense desire to do his utmost to end this war victoriously, that the great  principles for which we fight may prevail and  bless the whole world.  And so it comes to pass that every man of  ��������� military age with sound mental and physical  health, in this supreme hour must give account of  himself to his country and to his God, as to  why he is found in civilian clothing und not in  khaki.  Young men, enlist at once in gratitude for the  liberty, which has cost the blood of your fathers, lt has come to us slo>yly, creeping on  from point to point, and broadening down from  precedent to precedent at immense cost of life  and treasure!/ But it, can be destroyed with one  fell stroke of German victory, and the work of  our noble  fathers lost for centuries.  Then the bare possibility of Great Britain  being ravaged as Belgium was, and even Canadian women, being outraged as the women of  that noble little country were, should stiffen  every muscle and strengthen every will to make  the last supreme sacrifice of life itself,, if need  be, and count that nothing to avoid such.a fate.  If Canadians grasped the appalling tragedy  that will take place if our utmost be riot done,  they would multiply many times the number of  soldiers already sent forth. ,   c  Young men, do not stand on the order of your  going. Do not wait for commissions. Enlist as  privates, and be  thankful for that honor.  Go to the front bravely  and participate in  the proud glory that Canada has already achieved, and blazon the name of your country higher-  still in the annals .of the world.  XX *  iy*\ ������> *-~4-.l Friday, November 12, 1915.  If  Is Canada paying the price for  forest fires?  Read the statements in the following article "In 30 years,"  says a forest expert, after recently examining a certain area  of Northern Canada, "the Dominion has lost through fires about  16,000,000,000 feet, board measure, of merchantable spruce and  pine, wliich at 50 cents per 1000  feet would represent the enormous  sum  of  $8,000,000."  Place against that dead loss the  cost of a fire patrol system and  who would hesitate to decide  which of the two pays?  Many citizens when  they begin to take an interest in forest  conservation   for the first   time  are eager  to  stir up some  one  to start planting or seeding. They  are rather impatient with the emphasis which administrators  and  lumbermen lay on the need for  protecting existing forests. They  want to see something done toward growing new forests. But  the more one studies the forest  situation in Canada the more one  is impressed with the fact that  the first need is fire protection.  We   still   have   immense forests  ready for the axe. We have forests   half   grown   and    quarter  grown and   for   this, generation  and the next it is of the utmost  importance that these > forests be  saved. In saving the mature or  half-grown forest the still younger growth is   necessarily   being  saved too. And,   besides, a   moment's   reflection   will convince  any  one  that   it   is, useless  to  spend millions or even thousands  of dollars in seeding or planting  , up areas of timber until the pub  lie has been so aroused that there  is    reasonable    assurance    that  that these  costly areas will be  o protected   from fire   and allow  ed to mature. If we will not pro-;  tect what we have and what is  now immediately valuable what  is the use of planting more forests   only   to   be fuel   for new  flames?  Forest .Anon  ������ It is for this reason that fire  protection systems are organized.  It is for this reason that men are  fined for carelessness with fire.  It is for this that settlers who  have let clearing fires run contrary to law have been sent to  jail. Nobody wants an active settler in jail when he ought to be  on his land working to support  his family, but until, the public  comes to think of arson in the  forest as serious a crime as arson in the city then our forests  will  burn. ,  We are coming to realize that  you cannot destroy the natural  resources of one part of the country without injuring every individual in the country. The most  careless settler and the most  wasteful lumberman gets something out of the forest and passes on something to others but by  far the greatest loss to Canada's  timber wealth has occurred in a  way that absolutely benefitted no  one.  ���������'��������� ���������- X,      ��������� ^  The Prospector's Guilt  Take the Klondike rush of six  or seven years ago, that part of  the rush that occurred in the  rvalley of the Mackenzie river in  what is now northern Alberta.  Many of. these would-be miners  were careful of their camp fires  and put them out, but the majority cared not a fig for the future, or even for the present so  long as it did not inconvenience  them, and let their fire run without let or hindrance. There  were other prospectors besides  the Klondikers and there were  careless trappers and travellers  generally, The result is that  miles and miles of that country  covered with fine timber have  been ' burned to a desert. The  game and fur-bearing animals  have been killed or driven away  and the Indians impoverished  Now settlers qre coming in to  the Peace River valley and they  are in danger of facing a shortage in some sections of timber  for building and fuel. The trails  have been overthrown and oblit  erated in many places by burn  ed timber. All dead loss and all  the result of criminal carelessness.  One of the officers of the For  estry Branch of the Department  of the Interior in reporting on an  area of about nine thousand sq.  miles speaks of it in the words  given below. In itself 9,000 sq.  miles is a large area but it takes  "PUNCH" ANP  PERSUASION  Putting the "punch" into an argument is a fine art; but  putting persuasion into it is a finer one.  Tbe "punch" is epigrammatic, militant, moving���������but is  likely to be crude, angular, ungraceful.  Persuasion, while not so dramatic by half, is smoothly,  logically convincing���������and permanent.  We prefer to persuade people of the merits of our service.  Conviction through persuasion discounts future misunderstandings.  Hastings and Carrall Sts.  Phone Sey. 5000  * Pride of the West"  BRAND  OVERALLS, SHIRTS, PANTS and MACKINAW  CLOTHING  MANUFACTURED IN VANCOUVER  x     -      ..���������**���������//���������.<'-.  MACKAY SMITH, BLAIR & CO., LTD.  "Buy Goods Made at Home, and get both the  Goods and the Money."  up a very small part (of. the map  of Canada. And Canada is suffering a like loss in area after area  all over the north country from  Ungava to British Columbia.  This officer reports:  Fires in the North  "The results of repeated fires  have been appalling. However,  the comparative figures and  other considerations given below  are as nothing compared with the  impression the eye-witness receives. |-  "Over an area of about 8,000  square miles, excluding the prairie land from the total area examined, only 648 square miles  or about 8 per cent, have been  found bearing a forest cover of  100 years old and over. These  are the only portions which can  be regarded as having a virgin  cover.: Besides this only a little  over 8.5 per cent, of the area surveyed, or approximately 700 sq.  mile's has been found with a cover from 50 to 100 years old but  not averaging above 70 years.  "The total area reported as  bearing a small pole-timber, a  forest which hardly averages 25  years old, would represent a little less than 14 per cent, of the  territory, or an area in round  figures of 1,150 sq. miles.  "The area represented as covered with your production, 1,-  550 square miles, is certainly^  large area, but yet less than 20  per cent, of the whole. The  growth covering this area would  probably not average more than  20 years old.  '"As contrasted with the above  areas 4,050 sduare miles reported  as bearing a forest cover of all  ages, there is the brule with an  area of 3,690 square miles. This  area has been mostly swept by  fires during the last thirty years.  It represents 46 per cent, of the  forest territory examined. These  figures are far from being exaggerated. Taking in the yqung  reproduction area the percentage  of the territory swept by fires  during the ;last 50 years is  brought up to about 65 per cent."  This is only a poor illustration  of the conditions prevailing as  the immediate result of these fires.  In some places the soil cover  has been entirely removed and  it will take a long time before  another forest can take root; in  some others the heavy slash endangers the young growth and  what, little is left of the old forest.: :v  A Record of Thirty Years  "A very rough but'conservative  (WCTagex^^  tion of the forest patches as existing, shows that during the last  30 years, ������������ver the territory examined, the Dominion of Canada has lost through fires about  16,000,000,000 feet, board measure, of merchantable spruce and  pine timber, which at 50 cents  per 1,000 feet would represent  the enormous sum of $8,000,000.  Besides what about the prospects  for the future throughout the  same territory? These figures are  not given as absolutely exact,  they are as near as possible to  the truth, and although very  conservative, they have the advantage of showing effectively  and correctly the results of unchecked fires, and the destruction and waste which are the lot  of our unprotected forests."    '  The moral, of course, is that Ave  should get V in and protect our  forest areas nT advance of the  prospector and pioneer, so that  when the settler arrives there will  be timber for his buildings, ties  for the new railways and fuel for  all.  LT.-COL.  W.  J. B. TUBNEE  SALVATION ARMY  PACIFIC CONGRESS  November 12th to 17th  Arrangements are now complete for the Salvation Army's  annual congress which opens on  Friday evening at the No. 1 citadel, 301 Hastings street.  v Commissioner and, Mrs. Sowton will conduct the congress, assisted by Colonel and Mrs. Turner. Officer delegates from all  parts of B. C. will attend these  gatherings.  MBS. (COMM.) SOWTON  The programme includes the  following special  features:  Friday, Nov. 12���������Welcome to  visiting delegates, 8. p.m.  Saturday, Soldiers' Council, 8  p. m. *  Sunday, special services at  every corps in the city conducted  by visiting officers.  At 3 p.m. Commissioner Sowton will lecture at the No. 1 Citadel on the following subject,  "India Under Two Flags.X  Monday, two sessions of officers councils and a musical festival given- hy-No^Vl^SilycrVBand  and Mt. Pleasant Silver Band, 8  p. m....  Tuesday, two sessions of officers  councils and a young people's de  monstration at 8 p.m.  "Wednesday, farewell to visiting  delegates and close of congress  ENGLISH BAY NOT  A   HARBOR  The Supreme Court of Canada  has handed down its finding in  the famous action arising over  the claim of the Dominion gov  eminent to control over the Span  ish Banks, in English Bay. By  this finding the decision given by  Mr. Justice Macdonald, holding  that English Bay is not a harbor and therefore not under the  Phone Seymour 8171  STOREY & CAMPBELL  518-520 BEATTY ST.  VANCOUVER, B.C.  MANUFACTURERS OF  Light and Heavy Harness, Mexican  Saddles, Closed Uppers, Leggings, etc.  A large stock of Trunks and Valises always  on hand.   .  BUGGIES, WAGONS, Etc.  Leather ot all kinds.    Horse Clothing.  We are the largest manufacturers and  importers of Leather Goads in B. C.  WHOLESALE AND RETAIL.  BUTTER NUT  ich as  Butter-  BREAD  Sweet as  A Nut-  5c  FUIl  POUND  LOAF  Bread That Builds Bodies  must be made from absolutely PUBE IN-  GBEDIENTS���������not " near-pure' ' but ABSOLUTELY pure. It should be made CLEAN  and baked   properly.  BUTTER-NUT BREAD  is a favorite , in Vancouver homes for this  reason. It is Clean, Tasty, VWholesome and  Healthy. Comes wrapped,���������costs but 5c.  Phone Fairmont 44 and have this bread delivered dfcily, or INSIST on BUTTER-NUT  from your store. _V  Shelly Bros. Bake Ovens  ���������Bakers of popular 4X Bread.' Phone Fairmont  44.; ���������  control of the Dominion authorities, hut under the control of  the Provincial authorities, is upheld.  The action was brought by the  Dominion government when dispute arose between the Ritchie  Contracting Company and the  Silica Sand and Gravel Company,  a company given an exclusive  lease of the hanks by the Dominion authorities. The rich deposits of sand on the banks were  being taken advantage of by  many local building firms, but to  bring matters tQ a head and determine the,right to possession,  the pominion authorities brought  the action against the Ritchie  Contracting Company. The Attorney-General of the province came  to the assistance of the Ritchie  Contracting Company and the #c-  tionu was - f ought'out at ^length^  evidence being submitted in voluminous manner by both sides.  Mr. Justice Macdonald, however,  held that the bay could not be  classified as a harbor, but,a road-  sted and gave judgment ibr the  defendants. This judgment was  taken to the Court of Appeal and  from there to the Supreme Court  of Canada.  The question raised at the trial  before Mr. Justice Macdonald was  whether at the time British Columbia entered confederation in  1871, English Bay was regarded  and used as a harbor. If so the  Dominion had control, but on the  other hand, if not, the provincial  authorities were in control.  The provincial government  called, among other witnesses, a  large number of tugboat and dee]  water captains, who testified thai  the bay was not a safe anchorage  from westerly winds, 'and was to]  be classified as a  roadstead instead of a harbor. This view wasl  upheld in an exhaustive judgment!  by Mr. Justice Macdonald.  THE POO WITHOUT FRIENDS!  Have you  feasted  today,  old  fellow f]  Had a  sniff   of   some  meat   or   aj  bone?  Were you  gen'rously fed  upon  gravy|  and bread  By   some; one   who   called you   hisj  own? J'-JJ ������������������ '  Your   ribs,  sir, how plainly   they're]  stiowing-  Your legs seem uncertain and weak]  Have ypu   searched   every   street   for |  a  morsel to  eat? ���������   -   ."  "  Are    you   just   a    town    dog,   sir?]  ' '.  Speak!  Has"-any "������6n������"psttea ry6ur"KadrTs>P j  Or noticed your great  sunken  eyet'  Have  your  unkempt    ears    heard;   a  ..'  kind,   gentle   word        r  From,   some  human   friend   passing |  X: by? X x ���������,.���������:���������.    ���������. ���������  ..;. '*X;  Or have xthey all   kicked   you   aside,  sir?      X:X-    '   ''XX -A, ���������  .   Why, you're trembling now,,'where!  you   stand!  Have  they struck you so much that  you quake at my touch  And cower at sight of my hand?  It's a pretty hard world, old fellow!  A struggle   for bread   or   a   bone,  And  some of us know  how you  foej  when you go  To your bed in the alley alone!  Were   you sleek   and   well   cared for  and handsome,  They    would   feed   you    and  love  you   on   sight;  But'   it's different,-  Bir,   with   a poor,  luckless    cur���������  A dog without friends���������there, good  JJ.--..   ,night., X "  The Nobel prize in medicine for  1914 is awarded to Dr. Robert  Barany, 'of Vienna University, for  his work in the physiology and  pathology of the ear..  Emperor William has awarded  the' Iron Cross of the first class  to Crown Prince George of Saxony, on the recommendation of  the commander-in-chief in recognition of the services he rendered in the latest battles.  I. >---'-m  Russell-Knight Eed Cros*Ambulance in the Firing Line  A   Side, and   Bear   View -*,-  A   "' x    XX  .    <. -r  Friday, November 12, 1915.  THE RETURNING SOLDIERS  Series of Proposals for Employment of Returning Soldiers to  Canadar���������Presented, to Senator  Lougheed, President Military  Hospitals Commission.  The following proposals will be  [found interesting to our readers,  I inasmuch as they deal with the  vexed question of employment for  | returning soldiers.  "With regard to the disabled,  their care is an obligation which  should fall primarily on the  State, and this liability can not  be considered as being extinguished by .the award of a  pension from public f.unds. Very  valuable assistance may be rendered voluntarily by persons and  associations Vho take an interest  in the welfare of our men, and  this assistance should, as far as  possible, be secured.  All those who return will be  found in one of the following  classes:  1. Able-bodied men for whom  the situations and positions they  left have been kept open, by patriotic employers. X  : 2. Able-bodied men who .were  out of work at the time of enlistment or who have-been super-1  seded in their absence; and invalided and wounded men similarly situated who will become  able-bodied after a period of  rest in a Convalescent Home.  3. Invalided and wounded: men  who are unable to follow their  previous occupation by reason of  their disability, but who will be  capable, after proper training,  to take up other work.  4. Men who are permanently  disabled, and will be unable to  earn their own living under any  circumstances.  Class 1���������It would appear that  no responsibility will rest upon  the people of Canada with respect  to this class. There may, however,  be cases where the men on re-  | turn are unfitted for their previous work, either through changed conditions here or through the  effect of their long absence. In  such cases these men would come  under Class 2.  Class 2���������Steps should be taken, well in advance to provide  employment as soon after their  return as possible for this, class.  Definite machinery should be installed whereby situations may  be found for all able-bodied men  at a remuneration as near tto that  they  were   previously   receiving  as possible. This matter, however,  can   hardly be   handled   by the  Dominion government^ directly, as  to undertake it would create a  very difficult and unworkable situation. It can be. handled by the  Dominion     government,     acting  through  the   Military   Hospitals  commission, in definite co-opera  tion with the provincial govern  ments.   To   this   end   I   suggest  that the prime ministers  of  the  provinces   be   immediately   communicated with so that in  each  province  a  commission  may  be  appointed to take charge of the  questions of employment and vo  cational education. This commis  sion should consist of not more  than six members of whom   one  should be a member of the pro  vincial government, one a manu  facturer,  one a commercial man,  one  a  representative  of labour,  one an expert agriculturalist and  one an expert in technical training. I suggest that the^following  procedure be adopted:; V  (a) That the provincial com  missions undertake the immediate  appointment of a local committee  in each centre responsible to them  which may or may not be under  civic control, which would ar  range for openings in the dis-.  tricts from which the men were  recruited. This committee may be  entitled "The Returned Soldiers  Employment Bureau������������������-���������-���������-*-���������  Branch." While the administration of this bureau would be  voluntarily, the clerical work  might have to' be paid.  (b) That in order to systematize its- work each local Employment Bureau take the following steps:  1. Compile a register containing full information regarding  each returned soldier seeking  employment. Early information  of approaching discharge from  convalescent homes should be se  cured and arrangements made fbr  the registration of every disabled  man who is capable of work.  2. Prepare a classified list of  employers in the district and circularize them on behalf of the  men.  3. Arrange with the daily papers to give free space for advertising the trades and capabilities  of returned soldiers, also to give  publicity and support to a propaganda advocating preferential  treatment for these men.  l������  Po You Want to Rent Your Home?  We are having numerous inquiries for houses, both furnished and  unfurnished, in all parts of the City. Expert service offered to  owners; Exclusive listings solicited. Consult W. C. Findlay, Manager Rental Dept.  North West Trust Company, limited  E. B. MORGAN, PRESIDENT  609  RICHARDS  STREET.  PHONE, 8EY.  7467  at  Sovereign Radiators  Artistic in design.  Perfect in finish.  Made in Canada.  Taylor-Eorbes Co.  :;,V;V*V-      LIMITED" ���������  Vancouver, B. C.  Vancouver Engineering Works, Ltd.  ENGINEERS,   MACHINISTS  IRON & STEEL FOUNDERS  519 Sixth Ave, West.  Vancouver, B. C.  3  ' 4. Endeavor by pergonal solicitation to secure openings for the  men.  (c) That the" Canadian Manufacturers' Association be asked  to organize its members and to  undertake the following:  1. To provide situations for returning soldiers in classes 2 and  3 on a percentage basis. This  would mean that individual manufacturers would increase the  number of their , employees by  five, ten, fifteen or, twenty per  cent. In this way provision  would b"e made for a large number.  2. To co-operate with the provincial commissions in giving  training to men in Class 3. In  some cases tfiis would take the  form of apprenticeships, in others it would entail the placing  of workshops during the day or  the evening, at the disposal of  technical experts who would undertake the training of men  along special lines, or the undertaking of this work by foremen and others as a service to  their country.  (d) That the Department of  the Interior and the provincial  governments be asked to arrange for land to be. placed a.t  the disposal of the commission in  order that those who would like  to do so may become farmers." It  would be well to devise a plan  of community farming under the  direction of an expert agriculturalist. The assistance of. the Canadian VPacific Railway and other  organizations which have made a  special study of the system of  ready-made farms, might profitably be secured.  (e) That the Provincial governments be asked to arrange for  a credit system which will enable  men without capital who desire to  go, on the land, to" take up free  grants and to develop the same,  or, in those provinces in which  no free land is available; to acquire it at a reasonable price.  Class 3���������Those who by reason  of physical disability are unable  to follow their previous occupations should be the wards of the  country until such time a������-they  are able to earn sufficient to keep  them, in other words, they should  be given an opportunity to learn  new trade's and their pensions  should be supplemented by the  Disablement Fund in order that  their dependents may not suffer,  It will be necessary  I: To ascertain exactly the capacity of the disabled ^man for  productive work of some special  kind.  =^2. =To__trainJhim_in._the_,short���������  est possible time to a reasonable  standard of productive efficiency.  : 3. To place him in some industrial plant at labor which is stable and healthful.  I suggest the following procedure:  (a) That the provincial commissions be asked to organize,  through the Provincial Educational Departments, trained professional and voluntary workers  in each centre from which men  have been recruited, capable of  giving instruction to those who  may need it. This instruction to  embrace such trades and occupations as shoemaking, garment  making, printing, book-binding,  painting, carpentering, stenography, typewriting, book-keeping,  etc.  ' (b) That the commission secure the services of experts in the  training of disabled men and  place their services at the disposal of the provincial commissions.  (c) That institutions such as  those for the training of the  blind be utilized, and any men  who may require training placed  in these institutions until such  time as they are able to earn  their OAvn living.  (d) That the Provincial Commissions use the machinery of. the  Educational Departments to arrange for special tuitiorl for those  Ml  1 f  i.  A BED CROSS MOTOR AMBULANCE  who require it in the various technical school's and state universi-  4<  ties under their jurisdiction. All  the provinces have colleges and  there are' technical schools in  Montreal, Quebec and Shawnigan  Falls. P.Q.; in Toronto, Hamilton, London and other cities and  towns in Ontario, in Halifax, Sydney and a number of other places  in Nova Scotia; in Winnipeg,  Calgary land Vancouver.  '(e) That in the larger cities if  adequate facilities do not exist in  the technical schools, court-house,  or municipal building be secured  in which model work-shops can  be operated under the direction of  experts appointed by the provincial commissions, in which training may be given to those who  need it. -While this suggestion is  set down for consideration, it  must be remembered that the  cost of equipment and maintenance would be heavy. An alternative would be to utilize the  workshops of manufacturers as  set forth in clause (c) of "Class  2. It would be necessary tp operate a dining-room in or adjacent to all buildings, where men  are receiving������ training, where  free meals would be provided.  (f) That the provincial governments be. asked to give free  tuition in the various agricultural  colleges to those who may subsequently be capable of working on  the land as farmers, fruit-grow  ers, ar market gardeners. In  this case the full fees to be remitted and the men's board paid out  of the Disablement Fund. On the  completion of their course," these  men would have to be located,  but this,can be done by the Employment bureau referred to in  sections (a) and -(b) of Class I.  (g) That the Bankers? Association be asked to employ men  who have lost an arm or a leg,  or who are otherwise partially  incapacitated, as messengers, elevator attendants or caretakers.  (h) That railway companies  and hotel and retail store and  theatre managers be asked to  einpl^^wtially^sabledmeTpTas  porters and in all situations where  their disability will not interfere  with their efficiency.  (i) That the manufacturers  of Canada be urged, through the  Canadian Manufacturers' Association, to undertake the production of some of the numerous articles previously imported from  enemy countries, with the especial object of providing employment for partially disabled men.  (j) That all Dominion and provincial government and municipal positions, as they fall vacant,  be filled only by partially disabled men if they are capable of  doing the work required.  Class 4���������It is probable that a  number of those who return will  be permanently ��������� incapacitated  from earning their own living.  At the same time many of them  ma7, be able to do a little work.  These men should be given an op-  pirtiinity of going to a permanent soldiers' home where light  occupations may be provided.  Such homes" should have a considerable acreage so that the  meat, vegetables and fruit consumed in the home might be raised on the premises, the work being done as far as possible by the  inmates/ As all inmates would be  in receipt of first or second degree pensions, it would be unnecessary to pay thenumore than  nominal wages, and the only ex  pense would be their maintenance  and the general upkeep of the  Home. It may be necessary to establish more than one of those  permanent homes.  Disablement Fond  t In view of the fact that the  pensions granted by the government, though they have been arranged on as generous a scale as  possible, will be insufficient in  many cases, a Fund has been established largely through your  activities in this direction, to be  known as the Military Hospitals  Commission Disablement Fund.  This Fund will be administered  by the commission, and its principal objects will be somewhat  along, the following lines:  1. To supplement the pension  or compensation granted by the  government in cases where this is  insufficient for the support of dependents.  2. To educate and train those  who are unable to follow their  previous occupations in other  lines of industry and to supplement their earnings during the  period of training.  3. To assist those totally incapacitated, either by the erection and' maintenance of permanent soldiers' homes, or aa may  be hereafter determined.  '��������� 4. Generally to take such steps  as may be deemed nceessary or  desirable to carry out the duty  of the Canadian people to the  men who have suffered in the de  fence of our national liberties.  X recommend that the local administration of the Disablement  Fund be placed in the hands of  the Provincial Commissions.  Several members of the Com  mission with whom I have discussed the matter have suggested  that a conference between the  commission, representing the  Dominion government, and the  premiers and ministers pf educa-  tion of the provinces might be  called by the prime minister at  an early date. Such a conference  could only be productive of good.  It ^should be succeeded immediately by a provincial conference  in each capital to which mayors,  presidents of boards of trade, representatives of the Canadian  Manufacturers Ass'n, Technical  experts, agriculturists, and representatives of. labour should be invited. Each- provincial conference  should be presided over by a  member of the provincial government, and should be preceded by  an invitation through the press  to all who are- interested in this  subject to submit suggestions.  Those suggestions which would  appear to be of value could be  tabulated, and submitted to the  conference. The decisions arrived  at should be sent to the secretary  of the military hospitals commission.  In the case of those suffering  from, physical disability which  would render them incapable of  following their previous occupations it is very desirable, if not  essential, that the nature of the  employment, for which a parti-,  cular man was to be -trained,  should be determined by some responsible authority before the  commencement of the course, and  that the prospect of a vacancy  being available upon the completion of the training, should be  carefully examined beforehand*  Soldiers' Clubs should be established in all the principal centres  and in some of the smaller ones.  These clubs would not,- iwdy be  places of recreation and educa  tion, but would enable .inen who  have      grievances      to   discuss *  them with others, and to submit  them to the proper authorities.  It would be necessary to prepare  a model   constitution for V these  clubs, which should, be subsidized  by the commission in proportion  to their membership.  /   ������������������  I   T  4 i  ' 1  ,       X u  Get Action  -TELEPHONE  To write or talk, that's the question!  Three minutes of quick, decisive telephoning, or three days of indecisive corresponding*?  Settle the matter now by a telephone  call! Costs much less than dictation, typing, stationery, stamp, and the time lost!  Much Less!  Take a trip by telephone.  British Columbia Telephone  Company, Limited THE WESTERN  CALL  Friday,-November 12, 1915.  i hi; western call  H.  H.  STEVENS,  M. P.  PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY     .  BY THE  TERMINAL CITY PRESS, LIMITED  HEAD OFFICE:  203 KINGSWAY, VANCOUVER, B. C.  Telephone: Fairmont 1140.  SUBSCRIPTION:  One Dollar a Year in Advance.  $1.50 Outside Canada.  ALLIES' PLEDGE   REMAINS SAME  Reaffirmation of. Premier Asquith's historic  pledge regarding the Entente Allies' terms of  peace delivered at the Lord Mayor's banquet  November 9, 1914, was made by Sir Edward  Grey, today in* a written answer to a question  put by Sir Arthur Markham, Liberal member of  parliament for the Mansfield Division of Nottinghamshire.        %/  After stating that Great Britain's position  in the war is fixed by her alliances with Japan,  France and Russia, the Foreign Secretary proceeded:   ���������'������������������������������������;'-,." :......'. -.'���������-,  "In our view the. conditions^ of peace must  fulfil thoiie laid down by the Prime Minister on  ^November 9,Vl914. It is very desirable that it  should be understood for once and for all that  this is the determination of the government, collectively and individually, and of the nation."  At the Lord Mayor's banquet, Nov. 9, 1914,  Premier Asquith in outlining the war situation,  said:  "This is going to be a long war, but there  is nothing in a long struggle to depress us or. in  what has happened. Our enemy has .tried three  objectives���������Paris, Warsaw and Calais���������and has  been baffled in. all."     '  "That is not enough. We shall not sheath the  sword, which we haye not lightly drawn, until  Belgium has recovered more than she has sacrificed; until' France , 4s adequately tsepured,  against menace; until the rights of the smaller  nationalities have been^ placed upon an unassailable foundation, and until the military dominions of Prussia is finally" destroyed."  /  TOT VALUE OF SINCERITY  *; THERE IS A,VAST multitude of men and  women in thi8 world who fail to realize the  value of sincerity asa factor for success..TJiey  are guided by What they call policy rather than  by their consciences. Whatever their convictions  may be, they hesitate to make them public when  by doing so tbey arei likely to sustain loss of,  money, social position' or poiiticaV prestige.  Nothing is more destructive of character than  the, suppression of conviction.     A .man jwhb. is',.  afraid to speak out his own mind is net likelyv  to developv���������the, courage necessary^ to succeed _ in_  any of the higher branches of human activity.  The suppression of one's convictions produces  cowardice jifct as the open declaration of one's  convictions develops courage.  It is inevitable that in giving expression to  views which one holds conscientiously we shall  encounter opposition; and perhaps make enemies.  In that process, however, a man makes as many,  or more, friends. When one is honest with oneself, and speaks out "the utmost syllable of his  confession," as Emerson puts it, he finds that  there are a thousand around him who share his  beliefs, but to some extent lack his courage to  publicly proclaim them. Thus he becomes a  leader, and enters into the joys of helping  those who are weaker in their moral fibre, and  who need leadership.  4 The most obtrusive thing in a man's character  is his sincerity. It wins admiration even from  those who disagree with him. They realize that  while they. hold different views, the one with  whom they disagree is staking his all upon the  things in which he does believe. Men forget  that it is as difficult to hide insincerity as it is  unnecessary to find a covering for the sincere  man.      -   ��������������������������� ��������� X   -''"  There is no greater luxury in life for any  man to enjoy than to follow his own lights, serving his own conscience. There may be a penalty to pay for it. Usually there is. But it is  worth the price, and yields a greater dividend,  of satisfaction in the end than all thaYis to be  attained by other means. Cultivate sincerity  and it will grow to be the choicest flower in the  garden of your life.  REV.  DR. W.  J. SIPPRELL  The Popular and Energetic Pastor of the Mount Pleasant  Methodist Congregation  SIX INTELLECTUAL EVENINGS  Australia was slower than Canada to respond  at the first call for volunteers, but "now she has  beaten this country by a good margin,in the number of men sent to the front in proportion to  population.  A BOOK of forty pages and cover was recently published by the board of the Mount'  Pleasant Methodist church, in connection with  a series of winter entertainments, in the form  of lectures on live questions of the day. The  book is a splendid tribute to the. enterprise and  initiative of the Board of this church, and will,  without doubt, be a strong factor in co-ordinat-  fng the different organizations of the church into  one strong working Christian institution. '' Six  Intellectual Evenings" is the title of the publication, and it advertises six evenings of intellectual feasts during  the  winter.  Mount Pleasant is one of the oldest pf the  Methodist churches, of. Vancouver. It came into  being by the aetion'of the British Columbia conference of 1889, when the late Rev. J. F. Betts  was placed in charge of a circuit which included  Vancouver East and Mount Pleasant, In 1890 a  church was built, and in 1891 Mount Pleasant  was created a mission by itself under the pastorate of the late Bev. Joseph Hall, and was  located on the corner of what is now known as  Main street and Broadway. ,   f;  This location was retained until a new church  was erected on the present site, corner of Tenth  avenue and, Ontario street, with a seating capacity of 1,150. Puring the continuance of the  work on the first-mentioned location the pastors have been as follows:  Bev. Joseph Hall, 1891-1892; Bee. S. J.Thompson, 1892-1895; Bev. B. B. Maitland, 1895-1896;  Bey. J. H. White, P.P., 1896-1897; Bev. A. E.  Green, 1897-1900; Bev. C. H- M. Sutherland, 1900-  .1904X' ;;���������= Xv Xx/Xxv'^  The present structure was erected during the  pastorate ,of the Bev. A. E.VHetheririgton, B'.D.,;  who has been succeeded by Bev. J P. West-  man, 1907-1910; Bev. W. L. Hall, B. p., 1910-  1913; Bev. W; J. Sipprell, P.P., 1913.  The present pastor is Bev. W.J/ Sipprell,  B.A., P.P. He was born in Oxford County, Ont.,  4866,^and=received^his-early-educatioh^in=the  Bichwood Public School and Brantford Collegiate  Institute. After spending several years in  teaching and on probation work in the old Niagara conference, he entered Victoria University, from which institution he graduated with  honors in 1895y tis "Bachelor of Arts," with a .  silver medal in philosophy. The following year,  completing his divinity -work, he secured the  degree of "Bachelor of Pivinity," arid won  the Sandford Gold Medal in theology. In 1898  he was appointed principal of the Columbian  college in New Westminster.  Pr. Sipprell has been elected delegate to all  the general conferences since coming west, and  in 1904 was honored with the presidency of the  British Columbia conference. In 1905 his Alma  Mater conferred upon him the degree of "Poctor  of Pivinity.'' In 1911 Pr. Sipprell resigned  his position in the Columbian college and spent  the following two years studying abroad in Oxford, Glasgow, Cambridge, Berlin, Lipsic, Marburg, Heidelberg and Haele. In the year 1913  he accepted an invitation to Mount Pleasant..  church, and has labored there with conspicuous  success since then. Pr. Sipprell is one of the  best preachers in the ,city, arid is fearless and \  frank in his views on questions,of the day.  The "sisr intellectual evenings" opened on  November 2nd with an illustrated lecture entitled "Masters and Masterpieces in the World  of Art," by the pastor. This lecture was a  treat indeed for those who heard it, and. was a  most auspicious opening for the winter's work.  The other evenings are r^JDeeember 14th, Rev.  W. L. Armstrong, B.A., P.P., of McPougal Methodist Church, Edmonton, on "Making Good, or  . the Philosophy of Success "; January ,17th, 1916,  Mrs. Nelli,e L. McClung, who will give an evening  with her words. MrsI McClung is noted for her  two books, "Sowing Seeds in Panny, "and "The  Second Chance." - On  February 18,  1916.  Rev.  G. W. Kerby, B.A., P.P., principal Mount Royal  College, Calgary, will lecture on "A Canadian"  National Ideal.'' On November 30th, 1915, the  "Queen Esther" Cantata will be presented and  on Tuesday, March 21st, 1916, a grand concert  of local talent. Taken all jn all the ���������program:  as aranged is a most-attarctiveone,/arid it is  fitting to; remark that the usual success which  follows the efforts of the board of this church  will no doubt be manifested during the coming  "winter.  ,.-'... _���������X'  .RECESSIONAL  God pf our fathers, known of old,        \    ���������  Lord of dur far-flung battle-line,  Beneath whose awful hand we hold  Pominion over palm and pine���������  Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,  Lest we forget���������lest we forget!  The tumult and the shouting dies;  The captains and the kings depart;  Still stands Thine ancient sacrifice,  An humble and a contrite heart,  Lord God of Hosts, be^With us yet,  Lest we forget-^-lest we forget!  1    x ,  Far called, our navies melt, away;  On dune and headland sinks the' fire;  Lo, all our pomp of yesterday  Is one with Ninevah and Tyije!  . Judge of the Nations, spare us yet,  Lest we, forget���������lest we forget!  If, drunk with sight of power, we loose  Wild tongues that have not Thee in awe,  Such boastings as the Gentiles use,  Or lesser breeds without the Law-  Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,  Lest, we forget���������lest we forget!  For heathen heart that puts her trust  In reeking tube and iron shard,  All Valiant dust that builds on dust,  And guarding, calls riot Thee to guard.  i?or���������frantie^boast^ahd^6^1^  ��������� Thy Mercy on^Che People, Lord.  TOT TWU Of TESTING  __������__.-  THE BOTTEBPAM COUBANT states that  the acknowledged losses of the Prussian army  in action up to the 20th of October total 2,-  021,078.   The losses of the Bavarian, Saxon, ahd i  Wurtemberg troops  and  of the  Imperial  Ger-|  man navy are not included in this total,  nor'  are those of the Germans serving with the Turkish army.   The   Courant  states that  the   total!  /losses of the  Germanic  armies  have been  five  million men.   If this is approximately correct, *  not less than a" million and a half of Germans  and Austrians have been killed in action' or have  died of wounds, for the ratio of those who are  killed outright or die of-wounds is found to "be  almost one in three of all casualties.  The time 'of testing approaches. Mr. Hil-  laire Belloc, discussing the attempt to link up  Constantinople with the central Empires, says:  "It is the last effort of the Austro-Germans to  create a diversion before their effectives 'begin  to faiL That they can keep these at full  strength six weeks more is doubtful. That they  can keep them two months more is improbable,  that they can! keep them three months more is  mathematically iiripossible."  The Balkan campaign 'may be an apparent  success for the Germanic arms, bn\ in reality  it will prove as costly a failure as the campaign on the Yser, the capture of Warsaw, or  the battles along the Pvina. It inevitably means  the loss; of tens of thousands of men by Serbian bullets, Whose lives should be safeguarded  for the defence of Germany and Austria against  thei coming attacks of France, Britain and, Rus-  ��������� Vsia.   Mr.  Belloc  has beenX^ery  careful in  his  computations as Vto the relative strength of the  ��������� Germanic armies and those of the allies at any  given'period. '������������������".He has demonstrated over and  over again that up to early autumn of the present year the Germanic effectives were fully equal  in strength to those of the Allies. Now he declares that Germany and Austria can no longer  add to their strength in the field, and that very  soon the total number available will begin to  lessen. How quickly the wastage will destroy  the Germanic armies becomes evident from thev  report that the Prussian losses from October  11 tp October 20 were 57,424. The war has  become a struggle in which the exhaustion of one  or the other of the groups of combatants will be  followed by collapse. The allies have still enormous reserves of men.. That means victory . It  would mean victory were the Germanic armies  winning victories every day, so long as their  losses prove to be as great as those of the armies defeated by them.  THE WATEB POWERS  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  / (Continued from Page One)  .being the Coquitlam dam, constructed by the  hydraulic fill process; the Ambursen dam at Jordan River, which is the highest reinforced con?  crete dam in the British Empire; and the concrete dam at Stave Falls���������all of which, with  many othets, are very fully illustrated in the  monograph. x ;  Another notable feature of many of the  British Columbia plants is the high head that  has Seen utilized. At the Britannia mines, Howe  Sound, this amounts to 1,915 feet, and at the  Jordan lliver plant "to 1,145 feet. At the latter  plant in addition to smaller units, a Peltpn-  Poble impulse wheel ,has beeri installed of 1^,-  000 horse power-capacity. THs vis^one^oft^thel  largest units of its type that has so far been,  built. At the hew power house at Lake Buntzen  three 13,500 horse power Pelton-Poble wheels  have been installed pider a head of 400 feet,  while at Stave Falls,' turbines of the Francis  type, each of 13,000 horse power, are operating  under a head of 100 feet.���������Industrial Progress  arid Commercial Record.  ".'���������v.  V  MOUNT  PLEASANT   METHODIST    CHURCH  V il ii������X:  i.yv'iv.fj^fti  vGALL  XV  XX*?*x  H!r-.>  ?������SMg  'TIS WHAT'S IN THE  BLOOD THAT TELLS  MR. EMERSON ABERNETHY  Who Will Appear in Song Recital at Hotel Vancouver on Wednesday Evening Next  V- ' (By Estelle Worfolk)  Pat   and Mike "were proudly  stalking,  Down   a   crowded. thoroughfare.  Dressed in khaki, bold and handsome,  Was this loyal honest pair.  Pat, said Mike, now will ye tell me,  Why those- shirkejrs* idly stand',  Doing nothing, babbling freely^  In. the. parks or on the Strand?  '���������'   .    *   . - -' -   \  -jListen, Mike, and I.will tell ye;  it'Vtheir coward's,heart that quells;  In life's great moments, mark ye,  'Tis what's in tlie blood that tells.  t  Now. those dressed-up dude^a'hint ye,  An' those loaders on the bench,  Ain't had no Irish,mother  Nor  a father who was  Freneh,  Neither Englishman nor Scotchman,  .Nor a good Canadian true  Jr, a-hanging round in mufti,  But is dressed like me and you.  Take our dusky boys from India,  ,Or  Australians at the   'Nelles;  In  life's mighty moments,  mark ye  'Tis what's in the blood that tells.  See King Albert with a shovel  Digging "in  tne. miry clay;  Or our   General   in   a   hovel  Sleeping oh a bed of hay,  Blistered hands and backs a-aching,  Did ye hear them murmur! >Nay!  Cheerful, brave, they fight unflinching.  Till the Allies win the day,  So at Mons and at Givenchy,  'Neath a rain of shot and shells;  In life's great moments, mark ye,  'Tis what's in the blood that tells.  v?m.  ,������*;  49fm  _faj__  *taM>  I  TAKES CLEAN FLOUR  TO MAKE CLEAN BREAD  Bread made from ROYAL STANDARD  FLOUR beside being CLEANER will keep sweet-  tasting and fresher longer than bread made from  flour which contains dirt, fluff, or lint.  ROYAL STANDARD FLOUR  is milled by the most MOPERN PROCESSES  which absolutely prevent dirt or other foreign  substances from entering. From the sunny  wheat fields" to your home BOYAL STANPARP  is watched over by expert inspectors and master  bakers to absolutely insure CLEANLINESS,  PURITY, UNIFORMITY. Made in B. C. When  you order INSIST on getting ROYAL STANPARP.  Vancouver Milling & Grain Co., Ltd.  Vancouver, New Westminster, Nanaimo, Victoria  BONO RECITAL  ��������� A song recital will be given in  the concert hall of the Vancouver  hotel on Wednesday evening, November 24th inst., at 8.30 o 'clock,  by Mr. Emerson Abernethy,.baritone. Mr. Abernethy has recently returned from Europe,  where for several years he has  studied with some of the. leading  teachers of London, \ Paris, Italy  and Germany.. Latterly he: has  been engaged in the teaching profession abroad; and has also appeared in .many concert programmes and in opera work in  some of the leading cities on the  -continent. Mr. Abernethy,.in addition to being an accomplished  singer of note, has made a special study of European languages  and; is an accomplished linguist.  For his recital he has provided a  very attractive programme . of  French,     Italian    and    English  sons seected _ from operas and  other standard works. Few  siners have appearegd here  with    such    a)ti    extensive   ' re  pertoire, and he will be-. heard  with a great deal of interest in  this his initial concert. He will be  ably, assisted by Miss Elsie Alexr  ander, who is a pianist of some  note, and well known in Vancouver.  RELICS OF A LOST RACE  Articles That Were Used hy the  Arawak Indians of Jamaica  When-in 1494, on his second  voyage, Columbus discovered the  island of Jamaica, it was populated by the Arawak Indians, who,  although at first hostile to him,  became friendly on his giving  them clothing and other articles  before unknown to them.  When later the Spaniards set-  y  gating laetween  i^i_j_oi>:  Meals is  Healthy, Active  Cbfldren  -Give Tbera Good,  Energy-Rflstoppg  FQQPI  tied the island they forced the  Indians not only to do agricultural work, but to work in the  gold mines of Haiti. So hard ^ere  the Spanish taskmasters that by  1558 the whole Arawak nation  was exterminated.  Puring    recent   years    G. C.  Longley. of   Pelham Manor  has  been seeking to recover all possible traces of the lost race. To  that end he spend much time on  ihe island in exploring-the  old  kitchen middens or refuse heaps,  of the Arawaks, in which he h&s,  found, besides shells and pottery  and fish, turtle and cony bones,  many celts or rude chisels, grinding stones, stone pendants    and  axes���������1,500 objects in all.  The whole collection he has  given to the American Museum  of Natural History in New York  city.  The   most   interesting   objects  are the cylindrical stone pendants  which were fashioned with sand  and  stone   by   endless   rubbing  Pendants of exactly the same sort If you have no other reason,  are worn, today as insignia of 6f-   Though at war your heart repells, .  flee    by   chiefs   or  head  men  of   Show those murder hounds the Germans  tribes in northern South Amer-  Sure, there's Corporal   O'LeaTy,  Who hails from the Emerald Isle,  He's  got all those  Germans  scary  In  a way   'twould make ye smile. ^  For their hosts had far  out-numbered  All our brave young Irish boys;  But O'Leary stuck and conquered  Now, just listen to the  noise!  Of the people shouting wlecome,  And the ringing of the bells;  In life's mighty moments, mark ye  'Tis what's in the blood that tells.  Heard the tales of the-Canadians  In the fight at Pestubertl  Held the trepcheB  'gainst the legions  With  their  deadly  liquid air.  Held them safe till re-inforcements  In great numbers came along;  Never wavering, never failing,  Greet their comrades' with a song.  So you'll see the boys in khaki  From the,hills  and from the  dells,  In  life's great moments,  mark  ye  'Tis what's in the blood that tells.  There's courageous Edith Cavell,  Murdered by   a   German   hound,  In. the annals of all history  Such a crime cannot be found.  Laid her life clown for her country,  More, than that no man can do,  Death she faced without a murmur,  SHIRKEBS, I   appeal to   you.  Viljamur Stefansson has started from Bank's Island on a northward trip, with fully-equipped  expedition and supplies for two  years. '  The Chinese government has rejected the proposals of Japan,  Great Britain and Russia for postponement of the decision whether a monarchial form of government is to be re-established. '  Premier  Pancake  Flour  "Both inspection and report  lead me to believe that Stratford  is the % best city of its size in  North America as tomoral,clean-  liness," is the declaration made  |hy Bev, B. B. St. ������lair, of Toronto', secretary of the' Canadian  Vigilance Association. X  Something's iii YOUR blood that tells.  ica.  -������������������"           ' Sir Sam Hughes   has   notified  Instead of marrying a man to recruiting  centres   that  no   sol-  reform him, the average woman dier   will be   billeted   in   estab-  marries him to inform him ..'.'���������   '������������������ lishments where liquor issold.  Boumania has decided to double the price of cereals for export. This is a serious blow to the  German and Austrian public, as  >the Central powers have been depending largely on the Rouman-  ian crop to ������make up the deficiency' of their own cereal production this season.  Earl Kitchener has .gone to the  eastern war zone. Rumor says he  has resigned from, the war office. Whether that be true or not  the presence of Kitchener on the  battle field will be of sufficient  importance to cause the Germans  .much-anxiety.��������� =TheEeJs^no^bet_-l  ter soldier in the Empire today  than Kitchener of Khartoum, and  we may expect some real and lasting development from the near  east almost immediately.  GOING TO CHINA  The BETTaVR Breads  ARE JUST SUCH FOODS  Made ol Canada's most tmuitious flour and pare  water in British Cofambia'B most sanitary, clean,  modern  5  FULL   16  OUNCE  LOAF  Every one "sealed *zt the oven"  /-'���������������������������'"���������     :������������������"; ���������"-''��������� '''��������� .     .-.:  ������       / ��������������������������� -   . ������������������ ���������'.'���������_  HAMPTON-PINGHIN  Bakers  of BETTER  Bread  After a stay of over three years  in the city of Vancouver, Mr. and  Mrs. W. A. Ellis are returning to  the Orient on December 14th.  Mr. Ellis is well known to the  readers of this journal* being for  a long time a regular contributor  to these columns. He was employed by the assessor's department  of the provincial government  during the years 1913-14-15, and  worked-'among the Chinese and  Japanese. He was an active mem:  ber of the Orange and Conservative Associations, and one of the  founders of the Unionist Clubs of  Ireland, B. C. Branch.  At the outbreak of the war Mr.  Ellis, who is an old naval man,  proceeded to Esquimalt, where he  acted as 1st lieutenant to Capt.  Eustace Maude, R.N., commanding the R.C.N.V. Returning to  Vancouver he enlisted over 100  ex-royal naval men who were accepted by Lord Fisher for service  with the home fleet. His patriotic  publications and his readiness to  serve in any cause for the good  of the Empire gained him many  friends who will heartily with  Mrs. Ellis and himself, good luck  and God-speed.  Made from CHOICEST  of Wket* .Product*.  AGREEABLE to any  ' -SENSE.- '"x-,"  The ONIY PawcaVt  Flour WAPE in VANCOUVER  *������ *i       ���������*  ASK YOUR GROCfcfl  _     14^-j^l.l  X**X$a  ^ry^^ew:^m*%*4m9s  PHONE SEYMOUR 9080  A Savings Account  produces character, contentment  and power. Moreover, one never  regrets the money being so utilized.  We Pay 4 Per Cent. Interest  on Deposits, subject to cheque,  credited monthly.  Dow, Fraser Trust Co.  122 Hastings St. West  McKay Statien, Burnaby  W.   A.  ELLIS  Ottawa, Canada  PRINGLE  &   GUTHRIE  Banisters and Solicitors  Clive Pringle. N. G. Gathrie.  Parliamentary Solicitors, Departmental  Agents, Board of Railway Commissioners  Mr. Clive Pringle is a member of the  Bar of British  Columbia.  A  Citizen Building, Ottawa, 6  Friday, November 12, 1915.  A function of. the meals at home is to give color to all the home life. The daily menu  published this week, and which may be continued, is by one bf the best known and valued  editors of this department, of several leading dailies in the United States. We feel fortunate  in being able to offer to the ladies of this city that which is purchased at a high price by such  dailies there.   These Cards have been especially written for this paper.  TRAINS ON NOVEMBER 22  Saturday, November 13  Said the little brown leaf as it hung in the air,  To the little brown leaf below,  "What a summer we've had'  To rejoice and be glad  But to-day there's a feeling of snow."  ���������Margaret  E.   Sangster.  Breakfast���������Cereal with Raisins and Cream.  Broiled Honeycomb Tripe. Potato Pancakes.  Rolls. Coffee.  Dinner���������Julienne Soup. Baked Sausages.  Mashed Potatoes. Brussels Sprouts. Cabbage and  Celery Salad. Apple Indian Pudding. Coffee.  Supper���������Cheese Custard. Nut Bread. Orange  Marmalade. Cocoanut Cakes. Tea.  Cheese Custard  Cut one half pound of cheese into thin slices.  Remove the crust from half a loaf of stale bread  and cut the soft portion into half inch cubes. Butter a baking dish, fill with alternate layers of  bread and cheese arid sprinkle each layer of  cheese with salt and paprika. Beat two eggs,  add one pint of milk, pour the liquid into the  dish and bake in a moderate oven.  Sunday, November 14  We thank Thee, O Father, for all that is bright���������  The gleam, of the day and the stars of the night,  The flowers of our youth and the fruits of our prime,  And the blessings that march down the pathway of time.  ���������Will   Carleton.    -  Breakfast���������Grapefruit, Crisped Bacon. Puff  Omelet. Whole Wheat. Muffins. Coffee.  Dinner���������Cream of Corn Soup. Broiled Sirloin  Steak. French Fried Potatoes. Stewed Okra and  Pepper. Lettuce and Roquefort. Salad. Maple  Ice Cream. Wafers.  Coffee.  Lunch���������Apple   and   Date   Salad.   Cinnamon  Buns. White Cake. Chocolate.  White Cake  Cream one-half cupful of butter, gradually  beat in one and one-half cupfuls of sugar and  add the beaten yolks of four eggs. Mix and sift  together one and one-half cupfuls of flour, one-  half cupful of cornstarch and four teaspoonfuls  of baking powder and add to the creamed mixture alternately with one-half cupful of cold  water. Flavour with two teaspoonfuls of vanilla  and one-half teaspoonful of lemon, fold in the  beaten whites of the eggs and bake in a square  pan. Cover with boiled icing when cool.     i;  Monday, November 16 '  This old, old world is a dreary place  > For the man whose pass is a frowning face; 4  Who looks for the "shadows instead of the light;'  'For tbe sordid and dull instead of the bright;  Wbo sees but tbe worry and labor and strife  Instead of tbe glory and sunshine of life.  ���������E. C. Aurin.  Breakfast���������Bananas. Cereal with Cream.  Fried Smoked Salmon. Buttered Toast. Coffee.  Dinner���������Clear Soup. Roast Pork., Apple  Sauce. Mashed Potatoes. Squash. Creamed Onions. Coffee Jelly. Wafers. Coffee.  Suppor���������Baked I4ma Beans, Qlives. Potato  Croquettes. Raised Biscuits. Cake. Tea.  Fried Smoked Salmon  - Wash and parboil the salmon, drain, wipe, dip  in beaten egg, then in fine crumbs and fry on  hoth sides until brown. Serve with a garnish of  cut lemon and parsley.  Baked I4ma Beans  Prain the liquor from a can of lima beans  and add them to a rich white sauce. Butter a  baking _dish, Jill _ with_the_be������.ns, _ sprinkle with  grated cheese and seasoned crumbs, dot with  bits of butter and bake in a quick oven until  brown.  Tuesday, November 16  '' The fields were bare  and brown,  From the still trees the dead leaves fluttered down;  There were no birds to sing,  Or cleave the air on swift, rejoicing wing."  Breakfast���������Oranges. Cereal with Cream. Liver and Bacon. Corn Bread. Coffee.  Dinner���������Tomato Soup. Curried Roast Pork.  Boiled Rice. Stewed Carrots. Spinach. Apple Pie.  Cheese. Coffee.  Supper���������Creamed Oysters in Green Peppers.  Celery. Oatmeal Bread. Jam Tarts. Tea.  ���������     " *   '   ' -   ' ' 1  Creamed Oysters in Green'Peppers  Wash one quart of oysters, shake them over  the fire until their edges begin to ruffle, then  drain. Cook four tablespoonfuls of flour in an  equal quantity of butter, add slowly one and  one-half cupfuls of milk, season with pepper  and salt, stir until smooth, add the oysters and  remove at once from the fire. Cover six greeny  peppers with boiling water, add one-quarter of a  teaspoonful of soda and let simmer ten minutes.  Drain, cut in halves lengthwise, remove the  seeds and tough fibre, fill with the creamed oysters, sprinkle with browned crumbs and place  in the oven to heat thoroughly before serving.  Wednesday, November 17    ,  There was no bud, no bloom upon the bowers;  The spiders wove their thin shrouds night by night,   ���������'  Tho thistle-down, the only ghost of flowers,  Sailed slowly by,  passed  noiseless out  of sight.  ���������Thomas Buchanan Read.  Breakfast���������Malaga Grapes. Parsley Omelet.  Popovers. Crumb Griddle Cakes. Coffee.  Dinner���������Cream of Carrots.. Beef Loaf. Olive,  Sauce". Sweet Potatoes. Baked Onions. Rice Pudding. Coffee.  Supper���������Browned Hash. Piccalilli. Cauliflower Fritters. Bread and  Butter.  Molasses Cook-  ' ies. Tea.   , .��������� ,. . ' ';  Cauliflower Fritters  Sift one cupful of flour with two teaspoonfuls of baking powder and onevthird of a teaspoonful of salt; add two eggs beaten until  light and diluted with quarter of a cupful of  milk, beat until very smooth and let stand from  five to six hours. When ready to use, stir in one  tablespoonful of lemon juice, dip small branches  of cooked cauliflower, in the batter, fry in deep  hot fat and drain on soft paper before serving. s  Thursday, November 18  The   marsh   grass thin  Shivers in fear, .  From the thistle' sere, .  And shadows race o'er the levels drear..  ���������Thomas Gold Appleton.  'Breakfast���������Jellied Oatmeal. French Toast,  with Marmalade. Doughnuts. Coffee.  Dinner���������Sweet Potato Soup. Lamb Chops.'  Baked Macaroni. Peas. Orange andl Mint Salad.  Trifle. Coffee.  Supper���������Cold Beef Loaf. Scalloped Potatoes.;  Baking Powder Biscuits. Honeyr Tea.  Sweat Potato Soup  Cook one tablespoonful of flour in an equal  quantity of, butter, add slowly one pint of milk,  cook and stir until smooth then add one pint  "of white stock, one cupful of mashed siyeet potato, a half inch stick of cinnamon, one-half  teaspoonful of onion juice and pepper and salt to  taste. Let simmer ten minutes, strain and serve  with a little chopped parsley sprinkled over the  top.  Friday, November 19  Where every bird wbich charmed the vernal feast  Shook tbe sweet slumbers from its. wings at morn,  To warn the reaper of the' rosy east-  All now was songless, empty and forlorn.  ���������Thomas Buchanan Read.  Breakfast���������Baked Apples. Bacon. Fried Cereal. Warmed Biscuits. Coffee.  Dinner���������-Black Bean Soup. Croutons. Baked  Filletsof Fish.-Potato Balls ^writh Parsley, Stewed Tomatoes. Graham Pudding. Hard Saiice.  Coffee.  Supper���������Baked Creamed Scallops. Cabbage  Salad. Tea Rolls. Stewed Figs. Lemon Cake. Tea.  Baked Creamed Scallops  Pdt one quart of scallops in a stew pan, add  one small onion, cover with boiling salted water,  let simmer twenty minutes, then remove the  onion, drain, cut the scallops into small pieces  and place in a buttered baking dish. Cook three  tablespoonfuls of flour in three tablespoonfuls  of butter, add gradually one pint of milk, stir;  until thick and smooth, season with pepper and  salt and pour the sauce over the fish. Cover with'  crumbs moistened with melted butter and bake  until brown.     ��������� \ v  JINGLE POT  U  n  Let us put in your winter's supply.  Lump ...... . ....$6.50  Nut  5.50  Lower Than Ever Before  McNeill, Welch & Wilson, Ltd.  (Formerly Vancouver Coal Company)  Sey. 5408-5409  Sucking Fish  A curious looking object is the  sucking fish, whiah has a peculiar  disk fitted to the crown of its  head. By means of this it attaches itself to any fish it chooses���������a shark or a whale, for inV  stance, or turtles and even ships  ���������and so it is carried about without any trouble. When once attached they stick like glue, and  they are occasionally used for purposes of fishing. A line is fixed  to the fish's tail, which is then  set,free. As soon as it discovers  a fish or a turtle it takes a firm  hold. In the simplest form of fishing the line is dragged in and  the sucking fish hauled up, together with its captive. In the case  of a turtle the fishermen dives  after the line and so secures the  victim.  In expectation of the opening  of. a tri-weekly passenger schedule between Edmonton and Vancouver' over the rails of the C. N1.  R., that company has opened  downtown offices at 605 Hastings street west. It is expected that the C. N. R. and G. N.  will come to terms over the use  of the latter's tracks from Port  Mann into Vancouver, and that  the opening of the new transcontinental schedule will be November 22nd.  MILITARY OPERATIONS  IN BELGIUM  Tbe War of 1914���������Report Compiled by the Commander-in-  Chief of the Belgian Army.  m  This work is of intense interest  and of the greatest importance at  the present time. Hitherto the doings of the Belgian Army during j  the .momentous early days of the  war have been overshadowed by  later events, but in this report,  issued direct from the ���������Commander-in-Chief of the Belgian Army,  we are made familiar with the  actual military operations and the  main ideas which inspired them.  On reading this report, sober  -in;.-tone;'and'' strictly confined to  fact, it is apparent that from the  first day the Belgian Military  Authorities had conceived a-plan  of defence strictly appropriate to  the conditions of the threatened  conflict, and never ceased to carry its realisation into effect with  firmness and unity of action.  In view of the -vastly superior  forces of. the enemy this plan  was devised to hold the greatest  possible part of Belgium against  invasion and to establish the  army. on. such lines of defence that  resistance under favourable conditions might be made in con  cert with the forces of Powers  guaranteeing neutrality, and~ at  the same time it avoided expos  ure of the army, the safeguard  of the nation, to risk of disas  ter 'should junction with those  forces not be effected before the  arrival of the enemy's armies.  When the junction had taken  place on the Yser, the Belgian  Army, which then consisted of  82,000 men, was able, with the  aid of a French brigade, rein-  iorced later by a division, to  break the violent attacks of an  army of 150,000 men over a front,  which, since this heroic resistance,  has remained inviolate.  ' The report goes further than  this, howeveri and establishes the  teLthajLthe-Plan^of^Operations  has held strictly to the appeal  made by Belgium to the Protecting Powers on the 4th August,  1914, namely, to organize together with the forces of the latter  "a concerted and common action which should guarantee the  independence and integrity of the  country."  With regard to the facts revealed by the Report, one of the most  characteristic is the following:  Belgium kept her army distributed over the territory in accordance with the military requirements made necessary by the  neutrality of the country, viz.,  one division faced England, and  owing to the long French frontier  two divisions faced France, but  ONTE ONLY faced Germany. This  position was maintained until the  last moment, when it became certain that Belgium's frontiers  were about to be violated by the  German armies, namely, up to the,  night of the 3rd-4th of AugustJ  that is, Twenty-Four Hours after  Germany's ultimatum had been  handed in. X  . ;������������������ ,The report concludes thus:  "Whatever may be the aspect in  which one regards the operations of the Belgian Army, it  can without doubt be asserted  that Belgium has as scrupulously  fulfilled the obligations of her  neutrality since its violation, as  she has observed them under the  guarantee of the Treaties."  Now is the Time  To Buy Your  Printing Supplies  The time to put your  best foot forward is  your competitors are showing signs  of weakness.  Strong impressive  printing is more valuable to-day than ever,  because business men  are on the alert to detect the slightest indication of unfavorable  conditions, and for  this very reason every  suggestion of strength  Mid progress is doubly effective.  Your Printing should  bring this to your customers' attention not  only in connection  with your office sta-  ���������)  tionery, but with all  printed matter and  advertising.  WE PRINT   CATALOGUES  BOOKLETS  FOLPERS  COMMERCIAL  STATIONERY  Terminal City Press  Limited  PHONE FAIR. 1140        203 KINGSWAY ., 4     \      ^  '     f  X,   X^</XX'r-  '-,-.'', ������������������- V-   .Tr.  < it-     l.<      ,m  i   ,    .   ���������     ..- j*   ������.._,    ,,. r  ���������   '"' i       ' ' ->   ,     '- ! |  *<��������� . 4 4 - .      4-     '  I;  Friday, November 12, 1915.  XX-  7x'   - ,v  SPORTING COMMENT  The Hookey War  It is difficult to see at the present time what will Be the ultimate result of the hockey war  now going on. Despatches from  'the east state that the N. H. A.  moguls propose fighting the coast  hockey men, and the easterners  have made offers to a number, of  the coast stars. President Patrick  has retaliated, and is in possession of wires of acceptance of his  terms by the entire Toronto team.  This in itself is a signal victory for the coast league, but the  end of the fight is by no means  in sight. Already one of the  players said to have been signed  by the coast league is reported to  have jumped back to the N. H.  A. Other such acts are likely to  follow until the whole matter resolves itself into a win for the  players, and financial loss for the  promoters. And all on account  o������ what? Dishonest practices by  men who have been placed in positions of trust by the respective  teams. The dishonesty most as  suredly has found a home in the  east. The coast magnates, as  far as we know, have played the  game fair in all .matters, and the  failure of the easterners to make  their word their bond is the cause  of this trouble. Such men as  Kennedy and Quinn are no credit  to any league, if their actions in  the present case is a criterion of  their character. We -have said  many times before, and hasten to  \ reiterate, that the sooner the sport  * promotors of Canada learn the  lesson of playing fair and square  the sodher sport will take on a  |J different aspect from coast to  coast. There are many, young  players of real merit who are an-  , xious to play professional hockey,  but on account of the looseness of  the laws   will   not   attach   their  signature to any contract.  ������������������   #   * _  McCullough, a youngster,, of  Regina, who made his name with  the Allan cup holders a season  or so ago, is on his way west to  play goal for Victoria. Lindsay,  who has been net guardian for  the Aristocrats for several seasons, has been given his release,  and will probably catch on with  some eastern team. McCullough  is said to be a dandy, and he will  have plenty of opportunity to  show his class in the coast league.  ��������� ���������   ������  Dunderdale has not signed up  for-the Rosebuds as yet. It is an  old dodge of Tommy's to hold out  as long as possible. It is not any  wonder that he is slow to come  to terms this year. Probably he  is dickering with the eastern  magnates. In our opinion it  would be no great loss to- the  Rosebuds if he went east. Tommy is so deucedly conceited that  it spoils his playing sometimes.  * ���������   *  Frank Patrick figures on getting all his new blood from the  prairies hereafter. And he is  right. Some of the best stars iny  the N. H. A. are products of the  prairie leagues, the place where  the youngsters get between four  and five months of hockey each  year. Is it any wonder tjiat the  lads develop into stars? What  we want in the coast league is  not a bunch of has-beens from  the east, but the fast youngsters  from the middle west, who can  give and" take and play the game  Such men as Mackay and Cook  and several' others are the class  the coast league needs, and President Patrick knows where to get  them: ' '���������*  ' -  Portland players will report  for practice early next week, and  the new lineup of. the Rosebuds  will be announced. Manager Savage promises some surprises for  the coast league fans this year.  ��������� #   ���������  Ottawa is after Frank Nighbor,.  of Vancouver. Before coming to  the coast the star wing man of  the champions played in Toronto.  His home town is Pembroke, Ont.,  but since coming to Vancouver  he has developed wonderfully.'  ��������� *   ���������  The new Seattle arena is to be  opened for skating this week. The  hockey players who are to represent the Metropolitans in the  league this year will leave the  east in a couple of weeks. The  entire Toronto team has been  contracted for, and will be along  in spite of the threats of the N.  H. A! moguls.  ��������� *   ���������  Final word to hand is to the  effect that Fred Taylor will be  with the Vancouver champions  again this year. There is no better and cleaner player in the  Dominion than Fred Taylor, and  his very presence on any team  adds much to the reputation of  of that team. Vancouverites especially will be glad to know  that he is to be in the lineup for  another year.  ��������� *   ���������  Eastern reports say that President Patrick has been bidding  for the ^services of Pitre and Lav-  iolette, and Vezina, of the Canadian team of Montreal. Pitre  ���������he will not get, as the latter has  signed up with his old team for  another year. Laviolette and the  little eagle-eyed goal-keeper of.  the Frenchmen, are dickering  with Patrick and may be seen in  the, P.C.H.A. this winter.  ��������� ���������   ���������  BOP .AND GUN  WHAT DO WE PLANT?  (By Henry Abbey).  What do we plant when we plant  a tree ?  We plant a ship which will cross  the 'sea,'  We plant ,a mast to carry the sails  We plant the beams to withstand  the gales���������  A keel, a keelson, and prow and  knee;  We plant a ship when we plant a  tree.  What do we plant when we plant  a tree?  We plant the houses for you and  me, <  We plant the  pillars, the shin  gles, the floors,  We plant the studding, the laths,  the doors,  The  rafters and roof, all  parts  that be:  We plant a home when .we plant  a tree.  What do we plant when we plant  a tree ?  A thousand boons.that we daily  see:  We plant  a spire to  out-climb  the crag,  We plant a staff for our country's  flag.  We   plant   a   shade,   from   the  fierce sun free;  We   plant all   wealth   when we  plant a tree!  HANBURVS  For  l_UMBER~SASH-POORS  WOOPv&COAt  .phone: Bayview 1075  Phones: North Van. 323 and 103.  ___ Seymour 2182.   WALLACE SHIPYARDS, UP.  ENGINEERS and SmPBUILPEES  Steel aid Wooden Vessels Built, Docked, Painted  ���������; . ' ..   V ���������; ���������������������������-.'.  and Bepaired,  North Vancouver, B. 0.  A meeting under the auspices  of the Canadian Defence League,  October 28, called on the government to raise the Canadian force  to 300,000 men.  IN HONOR OF BELGIUM  A glance at the list of contents of the November issue of  Rod and Gun in Canada magazine  indicates that this number is- of  general interest to the outdoor  lover and sportsman, while a  reading of the number justifies  the first impression. "Big Alec  and the Portage of Death" is a  Hudson Bay story by R. J. Fraser of pathetic interest, concerning a veritable 'portage of death'  which was negotiated by an unfortunate band of Indians, the  victims of a factor's cruelty.  "Martin and the Mortgage" is  another of H. C. Haddon's stories and has to do with the capture, of a den" of black "fox puppies. "How Sounders caught the  Game Hog" is a story of deer  hunting by camera vs. deer hunting by gun, written and illustrated by F. V. Williams. There  are other stories that make a  like appeal to the readers of a  sportsman's magazine as well as  the usual special departments devoted to guns and ammunition,  fishing, etc. W. J. Taylor, Limited, Woodstock, Ont., are the publishers.  The British National Commit  tee for relief in Belgium has sent  the following appeal, signed- by  the Lord Mayor of London, to  all the High Commissioners and  Agents-General of the Overseas  Dominions. It has been transmitted by fSir' George Perley and is  as follows:  , "'Fete Day heroic King Belgians falls on Monday, fifteenth  -November, and as chairman National Committee relief Belgium  I appeal British Empire celebrate  event in manner that will afford  King Albert greatest satisfaction,  namely, By subscribing money  enough feed whole of three million destitute Belgians in Belgium on their beloved monarch's  Fete Day. Sixpence will keep one  Belgium alive for one day, therefore I appeal for three million  sixpences enable us to keep alive  on King's Fete Day every one of  his subjects who are without food.  Canada has responded , nobly to  cry of starving Belgians and I  feel certain this special appeal  for sixpence per head will meet  with ready response. Ends.'  The appeal is for a most worthy object,, and it is commended  to your best consideration and to  such action as you may think desirable. The messages having been  transmitted tome as Premier of  Canada, I feel it my duty to commend it to you.  PARCEL POST RATES  FOR THE TROOPS  The following parcel post rates,  routes and regulations for parcels  going Jo troops at the front have  been issued by the post office department.  Every parcel must have attached to it a customs declaration,  forms for which - can be obtained from postmasters. There is no  fractional rate; a parcel over one  pound must be paid at the two  pound rate, a parcel over two  pounds at the three pound rate  and so on.  The rates for Great Britain and  for France are respectively as  follows: 1-lb., 12c and 32c; 2 lbs.,  24c and 40c; 3 lbs., 36c and 48c;  4 lbs., 48c and 64c; 5 lbs.,  60c and 72c; 6 lbs., 72c and 80c;  7 lbs., 84c and 88c; 8 lbs., 96c  and $1.02; 9 lbs., $1.08 and $1.10;  10 lbs., $1.20 and $1.18; 11 lbs.,  $1.32 and $1.26  Rates for other countries can  be obtained from postmasters.  The direct parcel post service  between Canada and France (by  which the rate is slightly lower  than given above) is not available for parcels addressed to the"  troops, all of which must bear,  as part of -the address, the words  "Army Post Office, London";  but every parcel should be addressed to the destination known  to the sender.  It has been decided, until further .notice, to allow parcels addressed to His Majesty's ships or  to British and Canadian troops  on active service in Canada or  elsewhere, to be re-directed free  of any re-direction charge. This  refers to re-direction only. At  the time when parcels for    the  TO STAY IN VANCOUVER  At the meeting of the Presbytery of Westminster held in St.  John's Presbyterian church on  Tuesday, the call to Rev. E. L.  Pidgeon, pastor of St. John's,'to  become the pastor of St. Angus-  tines church, Winnipeg, was refused. Strong representations  from Winnipeg were on hand, including Rev. Dr. John Hogg, of  the prairie city. Rev. E. A.  Henry, 'of Chalmers' church, supported the translation on behalf  of the Winnipeg congregation,'  but after the call was put into',  the hands of Mr. Pidgeon, he decided to remain in Vancouver.  Rev. Mr.' Pidgeon has been a  great strength to the ministreial  ranks of this city, and his decision, made after strong representations had been made by his  own congregation, is accepted  as an incentive to further good  work in Vancouver.  When the best things are not  possible, the best may be made  of those that are possible.  T  m*l  SYNOPSIS   OF   COAL  MINXKa  REGULATIONS  Goal mining rights of the Domin-  on, in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and  Alberta, the Yukon Territory, the.  North-west Territories and in a portion of the province of British Columbia, may be leased for a term of  twenty-one years at an annual rental  of $1 an aere. Not more than 2,500  acres will be leased to one applicant.  Application for a lease must be  made by the applicant in person to  the Agent or Sub-Agent of the district in which the rights applied for  are' situated.  In surveyed territory the land must  A BEAUTIFUL WALK IN STANLEY PABK  trops, are originally posted, they SJR^ J*J^^%"*t!  must, of course, be prepaid at the I surveyed territory the tract applied  regular parcel post rate to the | ������������t8&h,2^.8taked ** by ** ���������**UO  Bach application must be aeebmpanl-  ed, by a fee of $5 whieh will be refunded if the ^ rights applied for are  not available, but not otherwise. A'  royalty 'shall be paid oa the merchantable, output of the mine tit the  rate of Ave cents per ton.  The person operating the mine sh������D  furnish the Agent with sworn returns  accounti&g for the' full quantity of  merchantable eoal mined and pay the  royalty thereon. If the coal mining  rights are not being operated, such returns should be furnished at least  once a year.  The lease will include the ceal mining rights only, but the lessee nu^y be  permitted to purchase whatever available surface rights may be considered  necessary for the working of the mine  at the rate of $10.00 an acre.  For full information application  should be made to the Secretary, Ot-  the Department of the Interior. Ottawa, or to any Agent or Sub-Agent  of Dominion Lands.  W. W. CORY,  place of destination.  In order to ensure delivery in  time for Christmas parcels for  France should be posted-before 9  a.m. on November 13, and parcels for Great Britain before 9 a.  m. on November 27. Postage need  not be paid on letters or parcels  addressed to prisoners of war in  Germany.  No letter should be enclosed in  a parcel, and newspapers must  not on any account be sent. So  far as is known there is no restriction on the contents of parcels; tobacco may be sent and  will be admitted free of duty, but  food stuffs of a perishable character should not be sent. The limit of weight is eleven (11) lbs.  Letters (letters should be left  open), postcards and postal-parcels should be addressed as follows; 1, rank; 2, regiment or  other unit; 3, British (or Canadian, French, Belgian or Russian);  4, place of interment; 5, Germany. Place of interment should  be stated always if possible and  parcels cannot be accepted unless  place of interment is stated. All  addresses must be in ink'.  Deputy Minister of the Interior.  N.B.���������Unauthorized   publication    of  this advertisement will not be paid for*  ���������58782.  Major General Sir Sam Hughes  has announced that he will leave  for the front shortly to lead the  Canadian forces in the drive on  German soil.  LAND ACT  Vancouver. Land District, District of  Coast, Baage %.  TAKE NOTICE that Agnes L.  Clark, of Vancouver, occupation,  housekeeper, intends to apply for permission to purchase the following described lands:  Commencing at a post planted sixty  chains north of Northwest corner of  Indian Reserve No. 3, Blunden Harbour, thence 80 chains west, thence  south about 80 chains to shore line,  thenee easterly along shoreline to Indian Reserve, thenee north 80 chains  to point of commencement.  Dated July 24th, 1915.  c    AGNES  L.  CLARK,  R. O. Clark, Agent.  LEGAL  ADVERTISING  Get our Rates for Advertising Legal Notices, Land Notices, Etc.,  which are required by law to appear but once a week. We can  advertise your requirements at a  satisfactory price.  THE WESTERN CALL  '   '   XVi-l  * 1 .'���������>.  i -X   ^  X   ' /*    si THE WESTERN  CALL  \  i  a  81        i  ������.  'i!  i  w  i'  LOCAL ITEMS OF INTEREST  At the bi-minthly meeting of  the Irish Asociation an interesting address was delivered by Victor Waren, son of the late Colonel  "Warren, in which he spoke on  the subject "back to the land."  Rumor has it that Alderman  C. E. Mahon, of Ward Five, will  be a candidate for the mayor's  chair for 1916.  The annual meeting of the exhibition association will be held  tonight and the election of officers  will  take  place.  Vancouver experienced her first  winter weather last night. Several degrees of frost nipped many  house plants which were left unguarded.  L. Watts Doney has been appointed police magistrate for the  city of North Vancouver.  Rev. A. E. Mitchell will preach  anniversary service in Robson  Memorial church, Grandview, on  Sunday morning.'  The J. Leckie Company, of  Vancouver, have received another  large , order for army boots. The  latest order is for 20,000 pairs,  and it is of sufficient importance  to^ keep the plant working overtime for some time to come.  For the benefit of those sending parcels overseas the postal  authorities have expressed the  opinion that to be sure of safe  arrival in France by Christmas  boxes should* be posted from here  not later than the 13th inst.  CHURCH UNION  The vote in connection with  church union- is being taken in  the various Presbyterian churches throughout the city at the present lime. Report has it that in  St. John's church the vote is opposed to union at the present time,  while in Chalmers church the  ���������vote is overwhelmingly for union.  The vote in Mt. Pleasant Presbyterian church will be completed  on Sunday.  Saturday is tag day for the  help of the homeless jews now  in Russia. It is said that many  thousand Russian Jews have been  deprived of their home and all  that life meant to them since the  great war, and for the first time  in history the Jewish people are  appealing to the world for help  in this  their hour  of suffering.  COMMISSIONER    OHAS.    SOWTON  Who Will Tke Part in. the Salvation  Army Congrees Here Next Week  CHURCH SERVICES  Sergt. Jerry Paul, a former  fireman of. No. 6 Fire Hall, who  was. one of the first Vancouver-  ites to enlist for active service  on the outbreak of war, returned  to the city today after having  been wounded in action and discharged. Sergt. Paul is an old  soldier, having spent' two and a  half years in South Africa, where  he did valiant service asi- a despatch rider. When the Boer war  broke out he was in New Zealand and went to the front from  there.  The Canadian Salvation t Army  has presented five motor ambulances to the Russian war office.  ESTABLISHED 1886  Ceperley, Rouwefell & Co. Limited  INVESTMENTS:������nd INSURANCE  Government, Municipal and Corporation Bonds (Canadian),  yielding from 15 per  cent,  to- 7 per cent.  Bents and Mortgage Interests collected.  Investments made on First Mortgage and Estates managed under personal supervision.  i        Insurance���������Fire, Life, Accident,' Marine,' Automobile, Employers'   Liability.  'a B������* Bpfldtag. 643 BMttafi ft Wm  ARMSTRONG, MORRISON & CO.  '   UHOTSP  Public Works Contractors   Beat} Office, 810-15 Bower Building  Seymour 1836  VANCOUVER CANADA  Dominion Coal Co.  SOUTH WBUJNOTON OOAl '  DOMINION WOOD YARD  All Kinds of Wood Phone: Fair. 1554  4- y f  ���������l������*?f*       v /      -r      ***     t*.  _, ?���������     f\*   *,/* r^*f*./t +       f ,^/a  Try* t t fS , vv ' "   "%  C3&AA'       X 'ix/^^V4^TX^M_ii*fe4,   v '1>X /> 1  ^AmXvCVM/wV r.  -A>  Mount Pleasant Livery  TRANSFER  Furniture and Piano Moving  Baggage, Express and Dray.    Hacks and Carriages  atall hours?  Phone Fairmont 84-8  Corner Broadway and Main A. F. McTavish, Prop.  Mt. Pleasant Presbyterian ���������  Rev. A. B. Mitchell, pastor. In  the morning Rev. R. G. McBeth  will preach on the subject "The  Unshaken Faith.'' At the evening service the honor roll of the  boys who have gone to the front  will be unveiled! Special music  will be rendered, and the pastor  will preach on "The Need of the  Heroic in Women who Suffer and  Boys Who Fight."  Mt. Pleasant Methodist ��������� Rev.  Dr. Sipprell will preach morning  and evening. Morning subject:  "The Simplicity of Faith"; evening subject, "The Heroes Who  Have Fallen." After the evening service Dr. Ernest Hall will  give an address on Prohibition.  Mt. Pleasant Baptist���������Rev. Isaac Page, a returned missionary  from the Inland Mission Fied of  China will speak .In the evening the pastor will speak on tlie  '' Power of. the Holy Spirit.'' On  Tuesday evening the choir, under  the direction of Miss Stovel, will  render a miscellaneous program,  ta which the public Is invited. ^  Salvation Army Citadel, 7th &  Quebec.���������Special    congress    services conducted by'Colonel and  Mrs. Turner,   assisted by   Stfiff  Captain and Mrs. Smith. 10.15 a  m., Open-air sevicre,' cor. of 5th  avenue and   Scotia; 11.00   a.m.,  holiness service  at citadel; 2.00  p.m., open-air "service at B.C.E.R.  Depot, Carroll   St.;   6.45   p.rau,  open-air service, 8th avenue and  St. George; 7.30 p.m., Salvation  service at   citadel.     Mt.   Pleasant S. A.  silver band will attend all these services and a welcome is extended to all to attend.  Friday, November 12, 1915.  DELEGATION MEETS  PREMIER McBRIDE  Chairman Jonathan Rogers, of  the People's Prohibition Movement, headed a delegation composed of representatives of that  movement from Vancouver, New  Westminster and Victoria, which  waited on Sir Richard McBride  in Victoria on Thursday in connection with his recent letter to  the Prohibition people regarding  the government's attitude towards the requests of the Prohibition Convention held in Vancouver in August.  Some plain facts were "told the  Premier regarding the intentions  and' attitude of the Prohibition  people, and some "rather sharp  criticism indulged in. The Premier replied that he- would write  the prohibition people .again, setting out the views of. his government in the matter, in time for  the mass meeting here early in  December.  Meantime the prohibition work  is, progressing most favorably all  over the province, and party politics and all other lines of sectionalism are entirely lost sight of  iu the endeavor to rid British  Columbia of its greatest curse.  The Greek cabinet has resigned  and there will be a general election shortly. This will probably  be the turning point of Greek  neutrality in the war, and, will  put the quietus on their pro-Ger\  man monarch.  It has been announced that the  steamers which have arrived at  the entrance of the Panama Canal and which have been obliged  to take other routes on account  of the blockade will hive the  item of tolls refunded1 them.  Disabled soldiers returning  from the front, according to the  plans of the hospital commission,  will not be permitted immediate  ly to go home, but will be placed  in the convalescent institutions  provided for the purpose.  Italy has decided to send forces  to assist in the Balkan tangle.  With French and British troops  in large numbers landing in the  eastern war zone, it looks as if  the Teutonic allies will have more  than they can handle there in the  course of a short time.  The -steamship Minnesota, the  largest vessel plying on the Pacific, set sailc from Seattle this  week with a capacity cargo for  Great Britain. The Minnesota  after unloading in tbe United  Kingdom, will be sold and will  not be seen on the Pacific again.  This is the direct result of the  legislation passed recently by the  Jnited States congress which .compels companies operating on the  Pacific to employ only white men  in the crew. The Japanese have  now practically captured the entire trade of the Pacific. X ___ _   ,  ARE YOU MOVING INTO A FLAT  If so, numerous household articles will not be required. Don't store theft  valuable articles any old place, but obtain storage in our new " Security Firl  proof Warehouse,"' absolutely the finest in Canada. Rates no higher than yd  would pay elsewhere -without the same high-grade service and protection. ^W_  also do expert packing, shipping at cut freight rates, and removals in moderl  "Car  vans."   See   Us. ���������  (1 ������������WE KNOW HOW"  0^mpbelLStorace.Q>mpany  Oldest amp largest in West ERr^ an ad a  Thau: Seymour 7360 Office 857 Beatty_ .Street!  J. Dixon  House Phone: Bay. 886  Office Phone:  6. Murray  House Phone: Bay. 1137L  ���������Seymour 8765-8766  DIXON & MURRAY  Office and Store Fixture Hanufacturers  Jobbing Carpenters  Painting, Paperhanging and Kalsomining  Shop: 1066 Dunsmuir St. Vanoouv*-. B.C.  \  VERNON FEED CO.  255   BROADWAY EAST  Best  Store for POULTRY  Supplies  Hay, Grain, Flour and Feed  Branches at 49th and Fraser; 270 Joyce, Rd., Collingwood  % Panes':   Fair.   186-878   and   Fraser    175  We-carry everything you need for successful Poultry Raising.  Our Standard is "Quality, Service and Low Prices."  PHONES: Fur. 186-878 & Fraser 175  Bttftfbr    '  Vfear.Styb,  & Comfort  Premier Botha's majority over  his opponent in the South African election was 663.*  Shoes  Brtttob CoMbta  What Do You Expect  of Your Footwear?  Don't you want a shoe that stays  with you through thick and thin,���������  that simply-WON'TXwfear out,/ihat  retains it/a appearance and FITS  YOUR FEET. ���������  VBCIOB BOOTS ANP SHOES  are   what   you want.   Made   from  HONEST QUALITY LEATHER by1  EXPERT    WORKMEN,    they  are  bound    to    give    you  satisfaction.  Look for the name Leckie stamped '  on   each  pair.  u  w  St. Louis wants mail delivery by  aeroplane.  Argentine has 29,500,000 cattle and  9,700,000 horses.  Alaska is more than twice as large  as   the German  Empire. x  The sardine catch has been small  off the Atlantic coasts this season.  It is estimated that $1,500,000 will  be raised in Ontario for the British  Red Cross.  Trail  Italians    are   giving   Sunday  evening dances in aid of the Red Gross  Society.  St. Catherines raised $130,000 for  the patriotic fund setting a new record per  capita.  Bonar Law declares there has been  no political warfare in Great Britain  for-four months.       ��������� ���������  Louis Verhoeven, brother-in-law of  General Lehman, the famous defender  of Liege, has joined the new 90th  regiment of Winnipeg.  \ ^ -  "71���������  '������������������  -  4  ~             C  r     *-     -  ���������-            ^Ji  f   -."  *       <     '          -������  ���������  f  v           j  ������J  - j  *-  x    X" ii  v  y|������0  GRANVILLE STREET PAVED WITH "BITULITHIC'

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