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The Tribune Oct 27, 1894

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 ^�����^*,rta*_Lfc__!WYT^"__*&L" 9h_r"V^w_3__7__^/^,,tS_% K_!ft3_K,&,'tt,1%t"*%___k^^ *VrA��ft*q*l_yh��fr*_--?_^**''��__ff *__*"'���''**" "Biff y H0** ^���lC__"*"_fti _5t��_r *_sfi_v_-_l-t*111^'",,^.!.*____i_5S*CriTJStT^Vf-iJ_ft&yjj_l^3^_i_&-r_H___fr ���4^i*i_K*,!___l'i',_,,=  KOOTENAY  Presents ah Unequalled Field for the Developer  of   Mineral   Claims   showing   Gold,   Silver,  Copper, Lead, and Zinc, as Well as for  the Investor in Producing Mines.  ORIA, B<3^'  Already Completed or Under Construction and  Steamboat   Lines   in   Operation   Make  the  Mining   Camps  and  Towns   in   Kootenay   Accessible  the  Year   Round.  SECOND  YEAR.-NO. 41).  NELSON, BRITISH  COLUMBIA, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 27,  1894.  TWO DOLLARS A YEAR.  PRESENTED   IN   AN   ATTRACTIVE   WAY.  Gold and Silver as Money as Understood by  a Bl-metallist.  So much uncertainty prevails about the  .many facts connected witli the monetary  question, that few are able to intelligently  understand the subject. Hard times are  with us; very few things are marketable  at a price above the cost of production;  thousands are out of employment. It is  a time for wise men to look iiito the causes  that produce these effects. Coin, a'.-'Chicago paper, has established a school of  finance to instruct those who attend. The  following are extracts from the lectures  delivered:  TUN''MONBY  UNIT.  In money there must be a unit. In  arithmetic, as you are aware, you are  taught what a unit is. All countings  are sums or multiples of that unit. A  unit, therefore, in "mathematics, "was a  necessity as a basis to start from. In  making money it was equally as necessary  to establish a unit. The constitution gave  the power to congress to coin money and  '.regulate the value thereof. Congress  adopted silver anil gold as money. It  then proceeded to fix the unit.  That is, it(/then fixed what should constitute one dollar, the same thing that the  .'mathematician did when he fixed one  figure from which all others should be  counted. Congress fixed the monetary  unit to consistof 371] grains of pure silver,  and provided for a certain amount of alloy  (baser metals) to mix with it to give it  greater hardness and durability. This was  in 1702. That much silver was a dollar, and  each dollar was a unit. They then provided  for all money, to be counted from this unit  of a silyer dollar.' Hence, dimes, quarters,  and half-dollars were exact fractional  parts of the dollar so fixed.  Gold was mademoney, but its value  was counted from these silver units or  dollars. The ratio between silyer and  gold was fixed at 15 to 1, and afterwards  at 1(5 to 1.. ..'So that'in making gold coins  their relative weight was regulated by  th is.ratio. .  This continued to be the law up to 1873.  During this long period the unit of values  never changed and always contained 371 j  grains of pure silver. While that was  the law it would have been absurd to say  that the silver dollar, was only worth-17  cents, or any other number of cents less  than 100 cents or a dollar. Por it was  itself the unit'of values. While that was  the law it.would have been as impossible  to say that the silver in a dollar was only  worth 47 cents, as it would be to say. the  figure 1 is only forty-seven one hundredths of 1.  When the ratio was changed from 15 to  1 to 1(5 to .1 the silver dollar or unit was  left the.,same size and the gold dollar was  made smaller. The latter was changed  irom 24.7 grai'us to 23.2 grains pure gold,  thus making it smaller. This occurred in  .1834. The silver dollar still remained the  unit and continued so until 1873.  Both were legal tender in the payment  of all debts, and the mints were open to  the coinage of all that came. So thatjpp  to 1873 we were on what was known as ti  bi-metallic basis, but what was in fact a  silver basis, with gold as a companion  metal enjoying the same privileges as  silver,,(except that silver fixed tlie unit  . and the value of gold was regulated by it.  This was bimetallism.  Our forefathers showed much wisdom  in selecting silver, of the two metals, out  of which to make the unit. Much defended on this decision. For the one selected to represent the unit would be  thereafter unchangeable in value. That  is, the metal in it could never be worth  less than a dollar, for it would be the unit  of value itself. The demand for silver in  the arts or for money by other nations  might make the quantity of silver in a  silver dollar less for more than a dollar,  but could never be worth less than a dollar.  Less than itself.  In considering which of these two  metals they would thus favor by making  it the,unit, they were led to adopt silver  because it wtis the most reliable. It was  the most favored as money by the people.  It was scattered among all the people.  Men having a design to injure business by  making money scarce, could not so easily  get hold of all the silver and hide it away  'as they could gold. This was the principal reason .that led them to the conclusion  to select silver, the more stable of the two  metals upon which to fix the unit. It  was so much handled by tho people and  preferred by them that it was called the  people's money.  HOW SILVKU  WAS ASSASSINATKI).  England demonetized silver in 181(5, but,  as Germany, France, and the Latin Union, and the United States, had their  tnints open to the free coinage of gold and  silver, the demand thus created was sufficient to maintain the parity (equal value)  of the two metals, and the action of England had no effect on the price of silver.  No one in England would part with his  silver for less than an equal value in gold,  when he could cross the channel, into  France, and get an even exchange���so the  price of silver, as measured in gold, was,  during all the years prior to 1873, substantially par iu England and the world over.  The United States closed its mints to  silver aud made gold the sole measurement of values in February, 1873. At that  time silver, as measured in gold, was  worth $1.02, or at a premium of 2 percent  over gold.  Germany followed, and passed the same  law iu .July, 1873. The action of these two  large nations caused a drop in tlie commercial value of silver, as measured in  gold, of 2 .per cent, by the end of that  year.  France and the Latin Union closed their  mints to the free coihage of silver in January, 1.874, and, by the end of that year,  silver,'as measured in gold, had declined  4 per cent.  Then came the gradual breaking down  of the commercial, priceof silver, as ���measured in the new standard���gold���-and acts  were passed by the congress of the United  States tending to this end. Among them  were the acts of 1S70, stopping the coinage  of the'trade...dollars,.by which we were  supplying Chinaand the Orient with coin,  and the law, in 1878. authorizing and  sanctioning notes, bonds and mortgages,  to be taken payable in gold only. It discriminates against all our other forms of  money, and allows the creditor to dictate  that liia credits shall be payable in gold.  These acts have been followed up. by  the declared policy of the government to  redeem all other money, including silver,  in gold.  The same class of legislation was simultaneously in progresin Europe, so that by  the summer of 1893 silver had declined 35  percent. Then came the closing, of the  mints of India to silver, and the decline  increased to 50 per cent.  {JOMMKR.C[AL'VALU|-!S COMTARI.I).'  Comparing the prices of the relative  commercial values of the two metals for  the whole world, Mr. Sauerbeck, an English statistician, has prepared a table  showing the value of silver, as measured  in gold, for 10 years before and .1!) years  subsequent to 1873. The table expresses  it in index numbers. It is London quotations:  187.'!.  1S7'2 .  1871.  1870.  181!!) ���  ISliS  1S117 .  18(ill.  18(>o.  1S(S1  L8i;:'  isi;_.  ism.  i8t;o.  lSoll  1858  1857.  1851!.  1855  ISol  .. !)7.4  97.i...  .. !)!).2  95.s;...  .   9.1.7  !��.;)...  .. !!!).(>  80.7  ..  ...!'!).(*  90.2...  .. 'KM'  8li,I...  .. <)!)."  SI.-...  ..100.5  85!) ..  ..loo.;-  S5.0...  ..100.9  81!)...  ..100.1 1 &U...  .. 100.!) | 83.3 ...  .. ilil.O  79.9...  ..101.1  71.0...  ..102.0  7'i'-...  ..Ull.O  70.1  ..  .101.5  70.2...  ..101.0  78,1 ...  ..100.7  71.1...  ..101.1  (ii').-!...  .....1873   1871  .....1875  .....187(1  .....1877   1S78  .....187!)   1880   1S81   1S82  .....1883   1881   1S85   18815  .....1887   1S88   1889   18110   18:11   1S92  It will be seen by the above table that  during the 19 years prior to 1873, while  free coinage was the law in the nations,  the commercial value of silver in the Loudon .market���in gold-standard England-  did not vary either way more than 2 per  cent, and the average for 19 years shows a  premium on silver over gold.  IMOIiATlVli  QUANTITIES   COML'AItKI).  Nor did the varying quantities of silver  and gold in the world, during the period  from 185*1 to 1872, have the least effect on  tlie relative commercial value of the two  metals.  Mr. Mulhall, the London statistician,  has compiled statistics showing the relative quantity of silver and gold in the  world at different periods, and his figures  are substantiated, by the ollicial reports  of the governments of the world from  which they were taken. He gives the  relative quantity iu 1818, 18S0, nnd 1890,  but does not give,it at any other date between these periods. But taking the  dates he does give, we find that iu 1848  there were 31 tons of silver to I ton of  gold in the world. In 1880, IS tons of silver to 1 ton of gold. In 1890, 18 tons of  silver to one ton of gold.  And yet we find that there were 31 tons  of silver in 1848 to 1. ton of gold���a large  over-production of silver, as compared  with gold. Using the official figures given  by Mr. Mulhall, and estimating from them  the proportion in 1872 was J9 tons of silver  to 1 of gold. The production of silver had  become materially less, as compared with  gold, and yet through all these years,  from 1848 to 1872, there was no difference  in the commercial values of the two  metals that would not be accounted for  by the cost of exchanging the two metals.  During the period between 1849 aud 1854  the gold minesof California added largely  to the world's stock of gold. So much so  that a propaganda for the demonetization  of gold was started. And yet, with all  that gold output, we lind that it had no  effect on the relative commercial values  of lhe two metals. The reason why it  could have had no effect wtis because the  demand for silver was unlimited. Both  enjoyed the same advantage in that respect. The attempt that was then made  to demonetize gold had not gone far when,  to the surprise of those that had been engaged in it, gold maintained its commercial value. They realized then by the  practical workings of free coinage of the  two metals the'r error, and abandoned  the effort.  Had specie payments been iu operation  in the United States in 1873. no doubt  silver would never have been demonetized. Nearly every one would have been  alive to the interest of our metallic money,  and it would have been daily asserting  its own importance, a.s in 1850 and 1854.  It was during a period of suspension of  specie payments in England following the  French war that parliament demonetized  silver, iu 181(5, in much the same manner  that it was accomplished in the United  States.  Before demonetization both metals constituted the redemption money of the  world; and as both metals existed in  about the same quantities, it gave us  twice as much money of redemption as  gold alone will now furnish us. There is  in tho world now, according to the report  of the director of our mint, $3,727,018,808  in gold and $3,820,571,31(5 in silver.  The dislocation of the purity of the two  met ills by the demonetization of silver,  and the attempt to maintain oureredit iu  gold, litis reduced the redemption money  of the world from .f>7,517,51)0,215 to $3,727,-  018,809, or a little less than half the original amount. ���������'''  SILVJ.ll AND GOJJ) AS MONKV.  After using many perishable commodities experience and wisdom brought the  people of the world to the use of silver and  gold. If experience would suggest a commodity better adapted for money than  metallic money made from silvertind gold  it should be adopted. The merit of the  twonietals is that neither will rust'or corrode and both are odorless. As compared  with other property both are durable.  Abrasion causes more loss to gold thtui to  silver,' and the latter! may be carried in  the pocket and subjected to great use with  but iittle loss. One was the money of the  people���the other of the rich. As two legs  are .necessary; to walk and two eyes to see,;  so were these two monies necessary to the  prosperity of the people.  As a rule, bankers are a very busy set of  menand"they allow a few men like the  .Rothschilds to do their thinking for them  on ail questions of finance. The Rothschilds are specialists, and as specialists'  they favor what will tend to promote  their own business though it may injure'  the business of others. A statesman must  be"broad." He must have a comprehensive  appreciation of the interests of all the  people���especially the poorer classes. If  helms been a rail splitter at one time, so  much the better. The men who produce  the property of the world are the meii  whose happiness' should be consulted.  The men who handle this property.after  it is produced, have little regard for the  interests of the producers. Their selfishness and greed blind them. Their minds  .are. running .in a grove, and they cannot  see the rights others.  Hence, the bankers are apt to quote' the  stock fallacy of the gold monometallists,  and one of the fallacies they quote is:  "How-can you have, at any fixed ratio,  the same commercial value ou two separate metals, that are from time to time  varying iu the quantity of each produced?"  All the commercial values are regulated  by supply and demand. The commercial  value of any commodity depends on supply and demand. If ,the demand for a  particular commodity is continuously rising and the supply does not iucrease.the.  commercial value will continuously rise;'  When the mints of the world are thrown  open and the governments say,7"We will  take all the silver and gold that comes,"  an unlimited demand is established. The.  supply is limited. Now, with an un-'1  iiinited demand and a limited >supply,  there is nothing to stop the two.metals  going up in the market, except the governments' saying, "Hold on���these metals'  are for money, we fix the value at which  they circulate. This unlimited demand,  is i'or silver at $1 for 371] grains, and $1  for 23 2-10 grains of gold���we stamp those  into dollars, respectively, in those quantities.  While an unlimited demand has been  established, the point at which the supply  can take advantage of that demand is  fixed. And the demand pulls them both  plumb up to that point. At 1(5 to I and  371] grains of silver as a unit, the commercial value of 371] grains of pure silver is a  dollar, and an ounce of silver i.s worth  $1.2929-100, and 23.2 grains of gold is worth  a dollar, and au ounce of gold would be  worth $20.08 04-100.  THE   ARIZONA  KICKER.  A   FREE   TRADE   PHILLIPPIC.  The Editor Liked Enthusiastic Audiences but  There Was a Limit.  Two weeks ago we received an invitation from representative citizens of Pine  Hill to come over on Wednesday night of  last week and deliver our great speech on  Arizona as she is and her claims to be admitted to statehood. The invitation was  accepted and the event advertised, and  we were on hand at the appointed hour.  While it was plainly advertised that we  were to speak in the interests of the ter-  ritoiy and present facts and figures to  prove that congress should grant her petition for admission, a large number of  persons attending tiie meeting under a  misapprehension. Some of these expected  to hear a comic lecture, and others looked  for ti religious exhortation. They wore  disappointed, of course, and of course  they raised a row about it. We had just  got flown to the figures showing the  wonderful fertility of the soil of Arizona  when we were interrupted by a long-  wtiisted heathen who had been waiting'  for something to laugh tit. We blandly  explained our mission tit Pino Hill, but  tlie majority wouldn't have it, and a  riot broke loose. We estimate the number of men who were shooting with a gun  in either hand at forty. The number who  were trying to shoot our necktie and vest  buttons* oil' was twenty-five. The other  fifteen were popping at the lamps and the  coattails of the committee of tliree, who  had seats on the platform. Our name  wtis shouted from every part of the hall  in chorus and with much feeling, but we  didn't step forward and bow our thanks  and acknowledge the enthusiasm. On  tho contrary, we made for an open window  iu rear of'the stage and dropped to J he  ground, and we no sooner felt tin; lirm  earth under our feet than we made for  tlie post where our mule wtis hitched and  sped away into the darkness. Several  citizens of1 Pine Hill came over here next  day to deplore the event and request us  to'make another trial, but we llatly refused. We know when we have had  enough. We like an enthusiastic audience, but when that enthusiasm passes a  certain limit we are going to cut oil' short  and get outdoors by the easiest route.  Wo propose to keep right on in lhe  glorious cause of making a glorious territory, but if Arizona can be admitted and  Pine Hill left out in the cold we shall feel  highly grafilicd.  Considered an Unanswerable  Argument by a  Kootenay Free Trader.  One of the'most enlightened freetraders  in Kootenay handed the following to The  Trijjuni., and in doing so said:   "There  is the best article that I have yet seen in  any paper in British Columbia; read it,  and be convinced that you are wrong in  sticking to your protectionist views." The  article is from The Province of Victoria  'and appears below.   The answer to it is:  If free-trade Great Britain is such a good  market for the farmer, why is it that the  fanners of that country are fast becoming  impoverished, and why is it that the 'farmers ���of Canada who ship their product  there cannot get for it a price, that will  cover the cost of production?   Wheat i.s  selling for a cent a pound in Liverpool, a  price that will  not pay for tlie cost of  production in -Manitoba.; The Scotsman-.  of Edinb'urg says  the present ��� price is.  4ower than at aiiy time in 300 years, the  official price for homegrown wheat being  returned at 19s 8d per quarter, or less than  ��1 for 480 pounds, and this based on sales  of over fifty thousand quarters.  Blind Men.  One of the least attractive, or most re-  pellant, whichever you like, features of  the protectionist press in this country is  the way it gloats over the misfortunes of  any class, in any country, not protectionist, which may be sounfortunate asto be  in difficulties, whether temporary or long  standing. This desire to batten on the  afflictions of others is only equalled by  the anxiety to conceal the results of their  political fallacies in countries which arc  protectionist, or desire to gloss over or account for them by reasons which are  plainly inapplicable and absurd.  . Possibly.-no .better example of this evil  propensity could be. found than in a  recent article in a morning protectionist  contemporary, which seizing upon some  expressions in the Daily Telegraph of  London relative to the condition of English farmers, states that the remedy for  their condition is protection. To begin  with, the article in the Daily 'Telegraph is  plainly a sensational one, to make political capital embodying an attack on the  government, anil containing such hysterical utterances as "the Home Rulers would  not care if all England starved tomorrow.-'  Not much reliance can be placed on effusions of this sort. But the funny part of  the whole thing is that our contemporary  is condemned by its own witness. Does  the Telegraph advocate protection as the  farmer's salvation? Quite the reverse.  It says, "Have we then some remedy  ready which will cure this perpetual sinking in the price of wheat? Frankly,  none." No one but a protectionist wouid  propose saving the farmer by handing  him over to the tender mercies of the  implement agent or delivering him upas  a captive to the trusts and combines.  The old catch-penny or rather catch-  voter argument about the advantages of  retaining money in the country, is drawn  on again in daring disregtird of the fact  that it is not the actual possession of gold  which promotes general prosperity, but  the rapid ^ind unhampered exchange of  commodities. Do the Daily Telegraph  and city protectionist-supporter still cling  to the fallacy long since exploded that exports or imports are paid for in hard cash;  or do they wilfully mislead their readers  by putting forward in true sophistical  style the worse rather than the bettei  reason? The condition of the English  farmer is greatly to be deplored; but the  relief which would be afforded him by  protection is merely charity disguised in  political form, and iu the long run the  remedy wouid prove infinitely worse than  the disease.  While no one expects consistent argument from the protectionist press, it may  be expected to give some evidences of  that faculty known tis "horse" sense.  One would think that it would hesitate  about referring to the condition of the  farmers in England when it might, by  ctisling its eyes towards tho great agricultural distiicts of Northwest Canada, see  what disasters that policy has brought  upon the farming community. Where  are the eight hundred million bushels of  wheat that brazen-lunged advocates of  the Unnatural Policy claimed would be  drawn within a lew years by long trains  of ctirs out of the fertile regions of the  West? lit the clouds. The whole province of,Manitoba last year only produced  some fifteen million bushels of wheat, and  the wail of the farmer rising loudly from  every district proclaims that he is unable  to live, because the profits of his labor  have gone Lo pay blood-money to Lhe  manufacturer a.s a recompense for contributions to election funds. Protectionists  struggle frantically to convince the farmer  that their policy is a living savior: but  he, looking at I he high exemption acts he  has had to place on the statute book to  protect his family, ami consulting the  long list of exactions and chattel mortgages in the sheriffs'and bailiffs'olliees iu  favor of the manufacturers, realizes that  it i.s a political corpse.  hinted by some of the newspapers that he  i.s guilty of the terrible crime of being a  Roman Catholic as well, a combination  that anyone can see holds within itself  awful ..possibilities: and so it was discovered that "a clerical error" had been  committed, with the result that Mr. Carle-  ton is not allowed the privilegeof writing  Q. C. after his name, not having been  gazetted. That gentleman continues to  be the peer in every respect of the majority of those who were honored and is in  receipt off a' capital advertisement, which  no doubt be will turn to advantage. And  such is politics, says the Winnipeg Free  Press.  ',-..-' :���   .  AN   EXCITING   EPISODE,       '  EXPERIENCED   PROSPECTORS  Such Is Politics.  A rather amusing transaction is reported from St. John, New Brunswick.  Recently a batch of queen's counsel came  into being, and among those created, so  the Telegraph said, was John L. Ctirlcl.on,  ti bright, young lawyer of the city, who  was a candidate at the last general election for the assembly in the Liberal interest. Evidently the fact that his political  convictions were opposed to those of the  powers that be wtis overlooked, but   it is  *Which Resulted in Giving a Name to a City  in Manitoba.  The city of Brandon was so named to  ..commemorate an exciting episode in Manitoba's early history.   Where now stands  handsome  buildings   forty -years' ago a  band of hostile savages were encamped.  These savages were  very ferocious and  cruel and the traders always gave them a  wide berth.   In the fall of'.1858, however,  one   trader  more   venturesome and unscrupulous than  the others, decided   to  take all risks and visit the encampment.  His mission  wtis to swap" them  whisky  and rum for Buffalo hides and other furs.  He took a.big supply of liquor with him,  and as soon as he arrived courteously invited all the painted reds to take something with him.   They readily complied  and were soon feeling quite merry.   The  fire-water acted differently on them, however, than Alkali Jim, as the trader was  known, had anticipated.   Instead of becoming a good  fellow among them, the  vile booze Jim furnished aroused the worst  passions of the savages.   They made up  their untutored minds to have some fun  with the trader.   So they tied him fast to  ti poplar tree and   then danced around  hini, each in turn giving Jim a playful  poke in the ribs with red hot fire brands.  When  they tired of-.this,'they agreed-to.  leave the white man tied to the tree until  morning when they proposed to roast him  over   a   slow   fire.     During  the  night,  however, the warriors of the band drank  so much  whisky   and   rum  that   before  dawn every one of them  was laid  out  stiff and unconscious.   Then Jim's turn  came.   He succeeded in releasing himself  by cutting asunder tlie straps that bound  him with the sharp pointed buckle of his  patent leather shoes. Then he very coolly  set to  work to tear buffalo  hides   into  strips and with these he securely bound  the drunken braves.    By sunrise he had  kindled a fire and heated-a big branding  iron used by him to brand cattle.    With  the iron tit a white hen t he began to brand  the naked savages.    One touch of the iron  was   enough  to sober  up  the   warriors.  They yelled and  shrieked in agony and  rage, but Jim  never rested till  he had  branded  everyone of  them  in  different  parts of their   bodies.    About   noon   he  finished hi.s task and then loaded all their  furs on  hi.s wagon and   taking with  him  also several of  their  best ponies, killing  the remaining ones to make sure that if  the reds released themselves they could  not follow on his trail he set out for home,  reaching there safely.    When he told hi.s  story   the   Indian   encampment   became  famous throughout the whole country tis  Jim's branding  place.   The traders used  to call it "Branding" for short, and this  was the name it bore when the white settlers came and built houses there.   These  pioneers were not well educated people,  and in the course of time the spelling got  mixed up and finally the name came to be  written as Brandon, which name wtis accepted by the government when a town  was organized.  A Bit of History.  Last fall Harold Selous, with the assistance of Gilbert Malcolm Sproat, prepared  and circulated a petition to the provincial  government, asking it to retain the bond  of $2"),000 put up by the Nelson ic Fort  Sheppard Railway Company until its road  wtis built to the water front within  the townsite of Nelson, Mr. Sproat having  rendered tin opinion that Five-mile point  was not "on the outlotat or near Nelson."  The petition was handed the editor of  Till-: TiMUrxi-: by Mr. Selous iu the post-  office. After reading it the editor of Till-:  Ti-iurxK remarked to Mr. Selous that he  did not think it good policy I'or the business men of Nelson to sign such a petition,  tis it would antagonize the railway people,  tmd at that tin.t! Nelson was not in a position to begin that kind of work. Mr.  Selous remarked that it was only to give  tin; government notice that the railway  was not completed to t he point designated  in the charter, and that it could do no  harm. The editor of Till-: TmurNK signed  it, more in a spirit of ueighborliness than  anything else, just tis lit; had signed other  petitions got ten up by Mr. Selous. notably  one praying the pioneer family of Nelson to remove a bell from one of (heir  cows that had a habit of wandering of a  night in the neighborhood of .Mr. Soloiis's  cabin, the tinkling of the bell keeping  him awake. I'or signing the In.st-mcntioucd  petition we got, pretty near.as much abuse  from the owners of the cow as we have  got from The Minor for signing the first-  mentioned one. As a mutter fact, the  petition litis cut no figure whatever in the  construction of the five miles of road between Five-mile point and Xelson. for if  if,   had   its   originators   and   Tin;   Miner  " * * Till.;  Mr.  Have   Made  Some  Good Finds in the Slocan  in the Last Two Years.  The past season's development, work in  different parts of the Slocan country has  demonstrated what many old and experi-  euced   prospectors   predicted- over  two  years ago, that is, that the mines had not  all been found after the first rush, when  only the surface had been looked over.  The  most  of  the  early-day discoveries  were made   where  snowslides  or  other  causes had eroded and scored away the  surface,   leaving  chutes   of  mineral exposed,  so that the merest novice in the  industry of prospecting could not avoid  finding a ledge if he once crossed over it.  It remained for the man of more experience, the one who could judge from the  croppiugs and other earmarks or indications, to prove that valuable deposits of  ore might lie at greater or less depth in a  vein and not show on the surface.   In  other words,  muscle aided by steel and  powder should penetrate the barren.rock  and expose the pay streak  where snow-  slides or other natural agencies had performed this work in the other instances.  On this basis quite a number have worked  the past  two  seasons,  and  many have  been rewarded for their faith and efforts.  Quite a number of blind leads have been  found  during   the  past  summer,   many  struck by the merest accident, and in not  a few instances they have developed into  paying mines.  it is not reasonable to suppose that  every streak which crosses a country or  every gash in. the earth's crust which  nature has filled with the most available  material will develop into a valuable  mine because paying, mines are'in that  vicinity or because they, may be in line  with a mineral belt; but the experienced  man and the one who studies his calling  can, to a reasonable certainty, tell after  a study of the local cbnditions whether it  is worth while to spend time or money on  such a proposition or hot. One of the  oldest and best posted .'prospectors'and  miners in the northwest has a saying that  " whales.always, come up to spout," which  means that if a vein carries a large body  of rich ore it is bound to show somewhere  on the surface. However, the West Kootenay searcher after the hidden riches concealed in mother earth has got beyond  the stage of looking for mineral only in  snowslides or about the roots of an overturned tree and seeks for it where it  should be, deep"down in the ground.  A Surprising Change.  F. W. Jordan, a merchant doing business at Nakusp, recently made a trip to  Fire Valley, on the west side of Lower  Arrow lake, and on his return he was interviewed   by the  Nukusp  Ledge.    He  spoke enthusiastically of the valley, the  change   wrought   in   two   years   having  been surprising.   At that time the first  settlers took up hind and  their example  was speedily followed by others, the present population being about thirty. Almost  all the available.land has been preempted,  and several acres in each  instance have  been cleared and seeded down.   Two avenues of communication are available, the  one in from Vernon and the other from  the Lower Arrow hike.   The latter is the  principal one used.   A wharf had been  built by the government for the convenience of the settlers, as also a wagon road,  but the spring freshets damaged  both.  Work  in  the  valley  is done ou the cooperative system.   Mv. Jordan, who is interested in a ranch with two of his brothers, is getting in. a stump-puller, to  be  used by all, while a hay press is talked of.  The hay is of lirst quality and next year  enough can be grown there there to supply the demand tit this place.    Nearly all  the settlers have put in fall wheat, some  more and   others less,  according to ��� the  amount of ground cleared.    Messrs. Vilii  and   Bangs grew spring  wheat this year  with success.   The heads were long, well  filled, and   ripened,  capable   of   making  capital   flour.   The yield also was abundant.  A Hour mill is one of the necessities  for the  near  future.   Other cereals and  roots were grown   with  satisfactory  results.   J. Kobinson has the honor of being  the lirst exporter from the valley, he hitv-  ing forwarded over four tons of potatoes  to Mr. Jordan   for sale.   They tire large,  sound, and  good keepers.    When boded  theyare dry ami   mealy.    Others would  ship, but  tlie  trails til   present  will   not  permit of heavy traffic.   The cine thing  needed   is a  supply of good   milk cows,  other slock  being on hand.   The settlers  tire industrious tmd contented with their  lot.   They live on the best and are self-  supporting,   which,  as a   result   of   two  years' labor, is a good showing.  As was expected. The Miner  would not be as venomous against  Tl'iMWT* and its editor as- they are.  Selous and Mr. Sproat- and The Miner are  welcome to all the credit that attaches to  the petition referred to. No one else in  Nelson envies them, and we doubt much  whether anyone ol*e in Nelson would sign  the petition were it presented today for  signal ures.  We tiro so Sorry.  comes to  the defence of the duke of York. It.says  the article that appeared in TliKTltlltrNK  regarding the duke's morganatic marriage  is full of palpable errors. Well, we are  not as well acquainted with the members  ofthe royal family a.-- our cotemporury,  not having lived near neighbors to them;  but judging from the gossip that litis  crossed tho Atlantic, to say nothing of  llie proceedings in divorce oases in which  the duke's father has boon co-respondent,  tho male members of the family tire not  Josephs. But if the editor of The Miner  says lhe duke of York was not married to  Miss Tyron at Malta, the marriage could  not have taken place, and we are so sorry  that the article referred to appeared in  Tiik Timhi'.vk, for it has ever been outturn to say nothing that would hurt the  feelings of The Miuornnd its royal friends.  fJK_i  F_  & THE  TRIBUNE:   NELSON, B. C, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 27,  1894.  ___*  ���_ f.^n-  IP  PUBLISHERS1 NOTICE.  THE TRIBUNE is published on Saturdays, by John  Houston & Co., and will bo mailed to subscribers  on payment of Two Doluus n year. No subscription  taken" for less than a year.  ,-tKGULAU ADVERTISKMKNTS printed at the following rates: One inch, S'tfi a year: two inches,'  $G0 a year; three inches SSI a year; four inches,  ��96 a year; live inches, ��10.'> a year; six inches and  over, at the rate of-$1.50 an inch por month.  TRANSIENT AUVEKTISKM KN.TS '10 cents a line for  first insertion and 10 cents a lino for each additional  insertion.    Mirth,marriage, and death notices free.  LOCAL OR RKADINU MATTKR NOTICES,25 cents a  lino each insertion. ''������'".,  JOB PRINTING at fair rates. All accounts for job  printing and .advertising: payable on the lirst of  every month; subscription, in advance.  ADDRESS all communications to  THE TRIBUNE, Nelson, II. C.  PROFESSIONAL   CARDS.  DLaBAU, iH.I).���Physician and Surgeon.  ���   and 4 Houston block, Nelson.   Telephone 12,  T   R-  J-J.    ai  Rooms 3  ... HARRISON, B. A.���Barrister at Law, Conveyancer, Notary Public, Commissioner for taking A111-  duvits for use in the Courts of British Columbia, etc.  Ofllccs���Ward St., between Iiakcr and Vernon, Nelson.  ��Ju> ��rUmiu\  SATURDAY MORNING...  ..OCTOBER .7. 18111  ARE   THEY  WORTHY   OP   SUPPORT?  The opposition press claim that G. B.  Martin, in  order   to be returned  unopposed, had to tfive a written pledge that  lie would not as a member of the government countenance or support any legislation pledging the credit of the province to  aid the building of the British Pacilic railway.   If the opposition leaders exacted  that pledge, they are not likely in the  near future to be other than -what they  are now���leaders of a small minority ot'  the members of the legislative assembly.  If Mr. Martin made such a pledge he is unworthy  a   seat  in   even   a   government  headed by Theodore Davie.   If the opposition party is not making a light on well-  defined t,principles, it has no right to ask  for support from the people.   If it is making a fight for well-defined principles, it  has no right to compound with the enemy,  ���the party against wliom-.it is fighting.  In order to obtain the position which he  coveted and to which he was appointed,  Mr. Martin had to get the endorsement of  his constituency.   It was the duty of the  opposition leaders to prevent his obtaining that endorsement if they could.   It  was their duty to  show the people'of  North Yale that the government of which  Mr. Martin was to be a part was unworthy  of trust; that it was pledged to a scheme  that if carried out would bankrupt the  province.   If the people of  North  Tale  then endorsed Mr.  Martin at  the polls  they would  have no one to blame but  themselves  if the  province were  bankrupted through lending its credit to railway promoters.   But instead of opposing  Mr. Martin the leaders of the opposition  exact a pledge from him that he will not  favor the British Pacific scheme; exact a  pledge from a government that they have,  time and time again, declared to be unworthy of belief.   Verily, the opposition  leaders are men born to lead���a retreat.  It is not much wonder   that  Theodore  Davie retains his seat in the saddle.  him. If lie has not a mine, the newspaper cannot make it one; if he has not  capital, the newspaper is not likely to  furnish it. if lie has both the mine and  the, capital, he has no use for a newspaper  ���unless he is vain and.'wishes to see his  doings chronicled weekly.  But it is different with the prospector.  He has something that he wants to sell,  and is without the means to travel and  hunt up > purcluiser. This the newspaper furnishes him, by weekly printing  reports of the actual'operations'in his  district. If he uncovers a foot of pay ore,  the 'newspaper makes it known; likewise  if a discovery is made'on another claim in  the same district. The publication.of: this  news attracts the attention of mining  men; they come and take a look at the  claims of the prospectors: and sales often  result at good figures. But the agency  that brought about the sale seldom gets  its commission; seldom even gets a yearly  subscription. This statement is not made  in an unkind spirit. But it is true. The  writer lias had six years experience in  the newspaper business in Kootenay, and  during that time no prospector or claim  owner, except-John li. Cook, now of Trail  Creek district, ever acknowledged by  deed that he was in any way indebted  to newspapers in making a sale.  Probably it is as well that it should be  as it is. for no newspapers have been  freer than those of Kootenay from  " boosts" of worthless claims; and we believe no newspaper in Kootenay has accepted pay for a line of mining news appearing in its columns. But, at the same  time, it must be said that our prospectors  are just a trifle "close" after making a  sale.   When a country newspaper is compelled  by lack of patronage to substitute boilerplates for type, its owners are simply  wasting their time by continuing its publication. The Revelstoke Mail was a creditable newspaper���but it was a brevier  paper In ti long primer town.  THE   ENGLISH   OP   THE   FUTURE.  A   TOO   COMMON   PRACTICE,  IS   IN   A   PECK   OP   TROUBLE.  Premier Davie, if rumor is correct, is  having a hard time of it in keeping his  forces together and dispensing patronage.  Humor has it that lie did not want Mr.  Martin in the government: that he preferred Mr.  Vernon, because Mr. Vernon  would do as he was told, and'Mr. Martin  won't.   He wants Mr. justice Drake appointed to the vacant chief justiceship,  but sir John Thompson wants to appoint  Mr. justice  Crease to the position.    He  wants to keep cajitain Fitzstubbs in West  Kootenay, but to do so will be breaking  pledges he made to his supporters during  the late election campaign.    He favors  the British Pacific scheme, but he knows  that if he attempts to carry the scheme  through the house he will be defeated by  liia Canadian Pacific allies. The Canadian  Pacilic has no use for any public man that  opposes its interests, and the building of  the British Pacific would  be against its  interests.   Theodore i.s now off on a flying  trip to Ottawa, in order to better convince  sir John   that the mantle of the late sir  Matthew Baillie iiegbie would appear to  better advantage on the shoulders of Mr.  justice Drake than on  the shoulders of  Mr. justice Crease, tind, incidentally, to  square   himself   with   sir   William   Van  Home on that Cariboo railway deal which  has been hanging lire I'or a year or more.  ARE   JUST   A   TRIPLE   "CLOSE."  The Revelstoke Mail says: "Mine owners  " do not sufficiently recogni/.e the import. -  " ant service rendered them by the local  " newspaper, and the prospector who.soils  " a claim seldom gives a thought to the  " medium which brought it to the notice  " of the buyer."  The newspaper is of no particular bene-  li t to the mine owner, and its only claim  to support from him is the one of merit.  If the local newspaper has merit, the  mine owner will probablesubscribe for it;  i f it has no particular merit, he will no  more buy it than any other publication  which is not interesting. As a rule, the  mine owner is not tt resident of the district in which he operates, and the success  or non-success of his venture depends altogether on whether or not he has a mine  pr wliethei' or not he has capital behind  Some of the Slang of Every Period Gets Into  the Dictionary.  A professor of language in one of the  foremost of our universities tells us that  the slang of one generation becomes the  idiom of the next, and that our children  will use English in the following century  that only other people's children now use.  This is a saddening reflection at the moment, yet when we consider how largely  our own rich and flexible speech may be  compounded of the vulgarities of our  grandfathers, it gives us pause. Were a  cultivated person, to describe the wonders  of a. journey to Alaska or Europe it would  hopelessly mortify us, in our present condition of non-advancement, were the infant terrible of the family to exclaim,  "Come off the perch!" yet that infant,  full grown may use just that term to his  equals in birth and age, and the adjuration nitiy be received with only the same  mild objection with which we greet the  remark. " Vou don't say so!" an injurious  expression when you come to think of it,  because it seems to imply that one has  been making statements he would be unwilling to stand by in court.  Students of language tell us that the  purest-writers of English are mines of  slang. That siting is good enough now to  use in the -pulpit,'at the bar, and on the  lecture platform, and no one is the wiser  or the worse. The phrase "not in it," is  held to be only a revival of an Elizabethan  expression. It means nothing, if we take  it literally, because there is no specification as to the value and significance of the  word "it." As to the conjuration, so  often used by Shakespeare. "Go to," we  have the same in use, only we complete  the sentence by adding Canarsie. It is  one of those inconclusive pieces of siting,  in its Shakespearean form, that seems as  objectionable as "not iu it."  The spread of daily papers in which the  language of the streets tmd political meetings is of necessity repeated litis unified  tind greatly enriched our tongue. Some  of the enrichments come from the stage,  which has a pattern of its own, tmd some  come from accidents in speech of celebrities. The Sew Y'ork alderman who revealed the secrets of tt ring of spoilers iu  the city council called the clique a combine. It wtis wrong, for it is a substitution of a verb I'or a noun; but see how far  it has passed into common speech, at lirst  mockingly, then apologetically, then unconsciously. Perhaps it will be with bold  authority in ti few years. One morning  not, long since a paper that a decade ago  would not have thought of using such a  term, came out with a display head to  this effect: "New York Takes the Cake."  The innocent tourist from beyond the sea,  owning no such phrase in his own vocabulary, wonders who has been offering  cake to New Y'ork, and if one cake is supposed to supply a couple of million people,  and how or why it got the cake, tmd if it  could tis easily have bought the cake as to  have taken it. lint wait a bit and Swinburne will be addressing poems to the  prince of Wales in assurance to that impending monarch that he take.i the cake  or that he takes the rag off from everything.    Men Are What Women Make Them.  It would seem ti very simple thing, but  the grace tind politeness and gentleness  of speech which distinguish the woman  of the chivalric age are now almost wholly  unknown. When women talk of the decay of chivalry in man they forget that  men are what, women make thoni. Men  are the exact reduction of their mothers  aud sisters and wives. Through the history of men of the past we have accurate  knowledge of the character of the women  of that time. ( A.s it i.s impossible for the  fountain to rise higher than its source, so  it i.s impossible for men to rise higher  than their mothers, wives, mid sisters.  That of Sending Away for Goods that Can  be Purchased at Home.  No town can be built up if its people  are unwilling to assist each other. If the  merchant-.has a residence or a warehouse  to build, it does not benefit the town to  the full extent to give the contract for  the work to non-resident mechanics. So  with mechanics. When they are in need  of clothing or other merchandise it does  not benefit the town in which they live  to send to distant cities for the goods.  The merchant can not. make improvements  that tend to increase real estate values  unless he sells goods, and the mechanic  cannot get steady work unless such improvements are made. Without the assistance of the people among whom he  lives, neither.the laborer, mechanic, professional man, merchant, nor manufacturer can thrive; and unless he can thrive  he either loses ambition to take rank in  his occupation or move's to a town whose  people are willing to live and let live.  The man who sends away for everything  he eats and wears and the one who brings  from a distance everyone whom he temporarily employs may-save a few dollars  directly, but indirectly they lose. It is  the business system followed by the  Chinese���and the Chinese have not helped,  upbuild any, town or city in America.  The manager of one of the largest industrial enterprises in Kootenay���a man  who has. been for years a large employer  of labor���recently brought one of his foremen up with a "sharp turn" because he  was quietly " letting out" residents and  putting iu their places non-residents ; discharging men who had by the expenditure  of their time and money helped make the  country what it is and employing in their  stead men who would leave the country  as soon as the job was finished. Kootenay should have more such men iu'charge  of its enterprises. It has too many who  are too willing to substitute men from distant places or countries for those who  have pioneered the district and the province.  A recent number of The Commercial  of Winnipeg aptly describes the commercial, or business man's, side of the  question, as follows:  "It is a common practice, with many  people in Manitoba to send east for goods.  This is done to a great extent not only in  the smaller country towns, but also in  Winnipeg, even to a far greater extent  than would seem to be warranted by the  difference in'prices. Competition in ordinary store business in Manitoba is as keen  as in any part of Canada, and the margin  of profit to dealers as a rule is not excessive. In most lines of goods the difference  between Manitoba and eastern prices' is  not as great as people seem to imagine. A  few years ago the margin of profit allowed  by merchants here was much greater than  it is now. Business was done very largely  on a credit basis in the country towns,  and competition was notas keen as it now  is. Conditions have changed very much  during recent years, however. There has  been keen competition and prices have  been steadily reduced until now the margin of profit is small tis a rule. The effort  to reduce business more to a cash basis,  during the last two or tliree years, has  materially assisted in the tendency to reduce the margin of profit, and as matters  stand now there is very little reason for  sending east for goods. Those who have  cash to pay for their purchases, as a rule  can probably spend their money to just  as good advantage at home as by sending  it east.  "At any rate, the custom of sending  away for goods is not the way to build up  the country, tmd even where a trifling  gain can be made by sending away for  goods, the advantage gained may not be  permanent. We have to rely very much  one upon another, and where the business  of a town is injured by sending away for  goods, the entire community must suffer.  Thus the bad effect of the custom conies  back upon those who encourage and follow it. The country storekeeper is a necessity to the community; it is tin accommodation to the public to be able, to procure their requirements from stores close  tit hand. The storekeeper handles the  product of the farmers, and is also a consumer of these products. The towns tmd  villages all over the country form important consuming markets for the farmers.  The building ti]) of the towns will iuereti.se  the local demand for products of the  farm. The farmers tire therefore interested iu the prosperity of the towns tind  villages.  "The encouragement o  iu every way possible is  build  up a community,  vanceinent made by Japan during recent  years has been one of the wonders of the  age.   The country  has  made wonderful  strides, particularly in  industrial development. How litis this been accomplished?  Mainly by the patriotic course followed  by the Japanese in giving the preference  I'or home goods.   This people, from patriotic motives, and with ti view to encouraging home manufactures and advancing  tlieir country, have steadily and systematically followed the policy of purchasing  home goods whenever possible.   The result i.s that the country has made such  wonderful advancement  as   to  surprise  the civilized  world.   This policy of her  people has enabled Japan to easily gain  the   victory  over  her   neighbor   China.  China i.s withoutrtiilways, and with till  her  vast  population,  greatly   exceeding  that of her enemy, she is unable to transport her troops to desired points.   Japan  has a railway and transportation system  which has enabled her to quickly mobilize  antl  concentrate her troops.    China has  made no industral progress, and with her  population  numbering hundreds of millions, she i.s helpless to resist, the invasion  of a small Japanese army, because she has  no means of equipping her men,   A little  local interests  a good way to  The great ud-  of the Japanese patriotism exerted in the  direction of encouraging home industrial  development, would have kept that country from occupying the lni mil kiting position she is found in today and which is  'mainly attributable to the backward  state of the country, commercially and  industrially.  "Canada   also   requires  something  of  this disposition   among her people. ''.Instead of favoring home goods,  there is  quite a large section of the people who  take directly the opposite course.   They  buy things because theyare foreign made,  or'alleged to be of foreign make.   This  unpatriotic custom is followed to such an  extent that tlie progress of the country is  greatly   retarded.    In   some   classes  of  goods, in which the homo makes are quite  as good and generally cheaper in price  than tlie imported, there is still a large  sale of foreign made articles.   If our people had a little of the Japanese spirit in  the matter in giving preference to home  goods, it would do a great deal more for  the country than any national policy or  other legislation to encourage home industries.   And   in   so  doing   the  people  would be adding to their own prosperity.  "Whether in a national or tt local sense,  we can help ourselves by giving tt reasonable preference to home goods.   As the  false fashion of foreign goods injures tlie  industral development of the country at  large, so also the custom which prevails  in Manitoba, of sending east for goods retards our progress locally.   The Glenboro  Gazette, in an article published elsewhere  in The Commercial, says that  from the  little village of Holland, in this province,  from two to three thousand dollars have  been sent to a Toronto dry goods house  alone for goods.   Supposing that this is  going on all over the country, it would  take a large sum in the aggregate out of  the province every year.   This amount of  money spent at home would go a great  way toward making, the country prosperous, in which prosperity the very persons  who send away their cash would share.  It may also  be presumed that some of  those who send away cash for goods, are  not always punctual in paying their debts  at home.    It has often been found that  those who have cash to send away, want  long terms of credit for what they buy  from tlieir local dealers.   Antl then they  will compare the cash price of what they  have purchased away with a six to twelve  months' credit price of an article bought  at home.   If these people  would spend  their cash with tlieir local dealers, they  would encourage cash business on smaller  margins of profit, and besides would assist  in the prosperity of the conun unity, which  means their own-prosperity."  Incident of a Wedding Trip.  The wife of a well-known mining man  now operating in Kootenay tells an incident of her wedding trip as illustrating  the forgetfulness of a man who has only  recently abandoned selfish bachelorship.  They had only just begun  their bridal  journey.   On that afternoon the train left  the track and began to bump along the  ���ties.   It happened at that moment that  the newly made   husband  was walking  down the aisle of the car, away from the  seat were the bride sat.   He knew that  part of the road very well, and he was  terrified at  having the train  leave the  track there, for it was at a steep embankment.    With a thought of nothing but the  peril that threatened the train, he dashed  for the door.   He was on the platform,  the car was careening and wavering, ami  in an instant he would have leaped, when  unconsciously looking back at the danger  he was leaving he saw his wife.   Instantly  he turned and dashed back into the car.  He was just iu the nick of time to reach  his wife, for already the car was tottering.  "Hold on for your life!" he cried to her,  "we are going headlong over the embankment."   He had fallen in the aisle at her  side, and clinging to the seat he held her.  And the car did roll over several times,  and although the bridal couple were terribly cut  and   bruised   they were more  fortunate than many others, for the death  list  after  that   wreck was a long one.  "But my husband," she said iu telling the  story, "could not seem to forgive himself  for having   forgotten nie  for a second,  while I could understand it perfectly.   He  wasn't used to looking after a wife, and if  you want to know the truth, I was glad  that it till happened as it did, for I don't  believe that any man who was caught in  danger would desert his wife, but it takes  a brave man who has got out of danger to  go deliberately back into it.   He knew  that danger better than any one else in  the car, I suppose, and he must have felt  that we were both   lost.   Vet he came  back to me. and that was how I learned  on  my wedding day that  my  husband  was brave, even if he was forgetful."  Drowned in the  Columbia.  Revelstoke .Mail, 20th :   "A sad drowning accident, by which Andrew McPherson  lost his life, occurred about 7 o'clock last  Wednesday morning in the canyon a bout-  seven miles up the river.   McPherson and  his two companions, Hennessy aud Fisher,  were freighting a couple of tons of supplies by boat to the Mig Bond. They were  lining up, and deceased was on the bank  hauling the rope, the other men being in  the boat.   At a critical point the bow of  the botit fell across a swift current, which  caused  her to pull heavily on the rope,  instead of letting go, McPherson held on,  and was pulled into the water.   He kept  afloat for some time, but the eddies gradually bore him further out from shore,  and his companions could do nothing to  help him, as the boat was drifting down  stream.    Finally the weight of his heavy  boots and clothing, and strength of the  under-current and the icy coldness of .the  water proved  too much for McPherson's  strength and he stmk from view.    He was  not seen again, and it is the general belief  that the body will not be found until it  reaches the Arrow lake.   This was to have  been deceased's last trip this season.    It  is said lie leaves ti wife and two children  in Seattle."  and  A large and  complete stock of  the leading'  lines of  Drugs,  Chemicals,  Patent Medicines,  Perfumes,  Soaps,  Brushes,  And  Toilet Articles of  Every Description.  Cor, Baker and  Josephine  Streets,  Nelson, B. 0.  Central Office  of the  Kootenay Lake  Telephone.  Columliia & Kootenay Steam Navigation Company, Limited.  o  fi  ft  ffl  <  _>  o  31  c  a  ���t.  H  %  3  re  H  �����*  ">  *  ��.  !>  P  ���v  >  H  tR  %  c  ,7.  0  Kaslo Route���Steamer Nelson.  Connecting on Saturdays and Wednesdays witli Nelson  & Fort Sliepiiiird Railway for Kaslo and lake points.  heaves Xelson��� Loaves Kaslo for Nelson���  Mondays at I p. in. Sundays al, 8 a. in.  Wednesdays at f>:lll p. in.      Tuesdays at If a. in.  Thursdays at-.-I p. m TliiirsdaysatSa.nl.  Saturdays ul, n:U) p. ni. Fridays at,.'' a. in.  Connecting on Tuesdays and Fridays with Nelson & Fort  .Sheppard railway for Spokane.  Bonner's Ferry Route���Steamer Nelson.  Connecting with Great Northern railway for all points  castand west.  Leaves Kaslo Tuesdays and Fridays at X a. in.  Leaves Nelson Tuesdays and Fridays nt 7 a. in.  IjOtivcs Iloiinor's Ferry for Nelson and Kaslo at 2 a. in. on  Wednesdays and Saturdays.  Revelstoke Route���Steatner Lytton.  Coiineetin;   wit    the Canadian Pacilic "Railway, (main  line)   or all points east and west.  Leaves Rev'. lsuke on Tuesdays and Fridays at 4 n. in.  Leaves Kobson on Wednesdays and Sundays at, (i p. in.  Northport Route���Steamer Lytton.  Connecting at Northport for points north and south on  the Spokane Falls & Northern Railway.  Leaves Itobson Saturdays at, I a. in.  Leaves Northport Saturdays ai 1:30 p. in.  The company reserves the right to change this schedule  at any time without notice,  For full'information, as to tickets, rates, etc., apply tit  the company's ollice. Nelson, 11. C.  T. ALLAN, Secretary.      J. W. TROUP, Manager.  ETT  (Notary  Public)  Victoria Street, Nelson, B. C.  Mining and Real Estate Broker  Commission and Insurance  Agent  The Confederation  KlCritKSKXTI.VB  Life Association,  The Plioinix Fire  Insurance Company. The Dominion Kuilriing & Loan  Association of Toronto, Hie.  MINES INSPECTED   AND  REPORTED  UPON.  Several good lots in govorninenttowiisilosof New Denver and Nelson to be sold cheap.  Stores and olliees to rent at Nelson.  Tenant wanted for ranch on Columbia river near Robson, or will sell.   Good opportunity.  Spokane Falls & Northern Bailway, ������  Nelson & Fort Sheppard Railway.  All Rail to Spokane, Washington.  [joave /  A.M.  ..NKLSON.  ...Arrive 5:40 P.M.  On Tuesdays and Fridays trains will run through  to Spokane, arriving thereat fr.'.V) P.M. same day. Returning will leave Spokane at 7 A.M. on Wednesdays  and Saturdays, arriving at Nelson at fctO P. M., making  close connections with steamer Nelson for all Koolenay  lake points.  Passengers for Keltic River and Houndary Creek connect at Marcus with stage on Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays.  To Hunting, Survey and Prospecting* Parties,  and Others.  The new fast Steam Launch  r.Q  JD '   I    iIjEv; _-L  .'an be chartered by the day or week on reasonable terms.  DD  LOTS  IN   ADDITION  to sell on easy terms.  ((  A  Apply at once to  W. A. J0WETT, Victoria St., Nelson, B.C.  LUMBER YARD,  Foot of Hendryx Street, Nelson.  A full stock of lumber rough and dressed. Shingles,  laths, sash, doors, mouldings, ele. Three carloads dry,  clear llr Mooring and ceiling I'or sale at lowest rates.  G. 0. BUCHANAN, Proprietor.  HENRY DAWES, Affent.  GOLD  AND   SILVEB_ EXTRACTION.  The Cassel Cold Kxtraeliiig Co., Ltd., of Glasgow.  (Tin- Miii-Artliiii'-l-'iii'M'ftl Cyjini.If I'jihtm.I  Is prepared to ne/,'oi,'ato with mine owners mul others  for the extraction of llie above inctiils from the most refractory ores, and lo treat and report, ou samples iiji to  one ton in weight, sent lo its. experimental works, \ nii-  couver.   All communications lo be addressed to  W. I'KLLF.W-IIAHVKV. F.C.S..  Assay antl Mining Olliees. Vancouver, 1>. C.  All kinds of assay milling and analytical work undertaken  NOTICES.  Wo are closing oul our business, and all accounts du<)  the (Inn -must be settled by ca.-h or note before the I/ith  of October nexl, fit the olilee of Fred Irvine & Co., Vernon street, after (hat dale till accounts will be placed with  our solicitor for collet-lion.      .1. FRKD II I'M K & CO.  Xelson, H.C., September .Till. 1K1M.  ASSAY OUTFIT  FOR SALE.  Large and complete assay plant, I'm-sale, Including balances, furnace, and chemicals. If not sold by private  bargain on or before September l/ilh, It will bo sold by  aucllon at Nelson. For furl her piii-lieuliirs apply lo 1���  A p|iltiwal(.e, corner Victoria mid Kooleniiy st reels, Nelson,  I have sold the grocery, hardware, crockery, aud glassware business of ,1. Fred Hume & Co. lo John A. Turner  and John A. Kirkpnlriek, who will continue lhe business  at the old stand, from lhe 1st of Oclober, under the  llrm name of Turner & Kirkpatrick.  .1 FRKD IIUMK.  Nelson, II. (.!., .September -it li, l.Sill.  I have sold fhe dry doods business nf ,1, Fred Hume &  Co. to Fred Irvine ic Co., who will continue the business  at the old stand from the 1st of October.  J. FRKD IIUMK.  Nelson, It. ('., September 171b, ISlll.  Notice of Application for Certificate of Improvements.  "iSVMHKU ONK" MINKKAL CUI.M.  Take notice thai, I, as ngclil for William Moore, free  miner's cerlilicale No. V.h'iH'i, intend, sixty days from fhe  dale hereof, lo apply lo I lie gold commissioner for n ccr-  tlllciileof improvements, for lhe purpose of obtaining a  crown grant of the above claim. And furl her take nol ice  Ilml,adverse claims must be sent to the mining recorder,  and action cniniiionced before the issuance of said cerlilicale of improvements.    CIIARLI-.S WFSTLV HUSK.  Dated this /ilh day of Oclober, IHiU,  Orders sent through the pursers of the steamboats Nelson and Ainsworth, witli whom all arrangements can bo  made, will receive prompt attention. Arrangements can  also be made through John Houston & Co.. Tlie Tribune  ollice, Nelson.   Address, by mail or telegraph,  August 2Htli. 181)1. C. W. RUSK, Halfour, B. C.  ADMINISTRATOR'S NOTICE.  In the county court of Kootenay, Iioldeh at the last crossing of the Columbia river, in the matter of John Jtu-  chaiian. deceased, and iu the matter of the Ollicial Administrator's Act, dated the Thirteenth day of August,  A.D.. 18!)l. '  Upon reading the allidavils of Edward C. Arthur and  Maggie Connor it is ordered that, Arthur Patrick Cummins, ollicial adminstrator for the county court, district  of Kootenay, shall be administrator of all nnd singular  the goods, chatties, and credits of John Huehamui, deceased, and that this order be publisnod in the Nelson  Tribune newspaper for the period of sixty days.  (Signed) WILLIAM WARD SPINKS.  The creditors of John Huchanan, late of Nelson, iu the  district of Kootenay. miner, are requested within sixty  (lit)l davs of this date to send tome by 1-egisfercd letter  addressed tome at Donald, in the district, of Kooteuuy,  j full and verilied particulars of their claims with dates  I ami items.   Upon the expiration of the said period of  I sixtv days I shall proceed with tlie distribution of ,tlie  said' estate, "laving regard only as to such claims lis I  shall receive notice of as aforesaid.  Dated at Donald, in the district of Kootenay. this2!)t,h  day of August. ISlll.  A. P. CUMMINS, Ollicial Adminstrator.  CERTIFICATE OF IMPROVEMENT.  "UUCK IlKAIt" MINI'.IUI. CLAIM, SITUATKI) WKST OK AND  Ali.lOINI.N'd Till-: "I.I-: H��l" MINKKAL VI,AIM, IN TIIK  'I-KAII. fltlCICIC MINIMI CAMP, WliHT ICOOTKNAV, ItUITISIt  COI.l'.MIIIA.  Take notice that we, the LeRoi Mining & Smelting  Company (free miners' eertillcate number 50ll!!l), intend  sixty days from the date hereof to apply to the gold commissioner for u certificate of improvements for the purpose of obtaining a crown grant of the above claim, and,  further, lake notice that, adverse claims must be sent fo  tlie mining recorder and action commenced before the  issuance of such certilicatc of improvements.  TIIK l,K ROI MININC & SMKLTINO COMPANV,  Gkohok M, Fosiku, President.  Dated the 25th day of June, 18IM  Notice of Application for Certificate of Improvements.  "(iOMiKN  1)1(11'" MINKItAI,  CLAIM, TItAIL CKKKIC MI.NINO  DIVISION.  Take notice that, we, Thekhi M. Dormitzer, free miner's  ,cerlilicale No. MMlati. and Joseph Ronnitzor, free miner's  ecrtilicato No. ijliliTi", intend, sixty days from the dato  hereof, to apply to the gold commissioner for a certificate  of improvements for the purpose of obtaining a crown  grant of llie above claim. And further lake notice, that  adverse claims must be sent to lhe mining recorder and  action commenced before the issuance of such ecrtilicato  of improvements.  Dated this nth day of September, 18i)l.  Notice of Application for Certificate of Improvements.  O,  K. MINKKAL CLAIM,   THAU,  CKKKIC   MININfl   DIVISION.  Take nol ice that we, John V. Cole, free miner's certlfl-  eato No. atilid!), I). J. Hughes, free miner's certificate No.  iM'i'lH, and Maurice Oudln, free miner's certificate No, All.1)!),  intend, sixty days from the dale hereof, to apply to the  gold conimis-'ifiiier for a cerlilicale of improvements, for  the liiirposoof obtaliiingiu-rown grant of the above claim.  And further lake nol ice I hat ml verse claims must be  sent to the miiiiiig recorder mid aetloireoniineiieed o  fore the issuance of such certificate of improvements.  Daletl tills :��lllulny of August, IKHI.  V  ���I^M  i��r  t ������--������ THE TRIBUTE:■■■NELSON,-'B.C., SATURDAY, OCTOBER 2),  1894.
-,, - .-in
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"<_.
_____■_____■_. .■ vr-j—-^t^-^fK^-^T,
Capital,
Best,
all paid
up,     -
$12,000,000
6,000,000
Sir DONALD A. SMITH,  President
Hon. GEO. A. DRUMMOND  Vice-President
K. S. CLOUSTON.  .General Manager
_sr_uLSo_sr _3_s_ft__srci_:
N. W. Cor. Baker and Stanley Streets.
     MUNCHES IN	
LONDON  (England)/ NEW YORK,   CHICAGO,
and iu the principal cities in Canada,.
Buy and sell Sterling IOxchaiigo and Cable Transfers.
GKANT COMM'KKCIAL AND THAVEIJ.KItS' CREDITS,
.available in any part of tlie world.
PKAKTS'l_SU„l>; COLLECTIONS MADE;  ETC.
SAVINGS BANK BRANCH.
RATK OF INTKRKST (at present) .'fj Hor Cent.
RADICAL   ECONOMY   THE   REMEDY.
A   Continued   Popular  Demand   for   Cheaper
.,  .    ■    ■ Eallway Transportation. '
No single result of recent discussions of
the various ■..topics collectively termed-tlie
"railway problem" is more apparent than
the disappearance of the purely superficial notion of a continuous combat be-,
tween a small body of railway proprietors,
on the one hand, and,,'on the other, the
general public, whose interests were considered to require the very lowest rates.
A clearer insight into the relations between railroads and their patrons has
demonstrated a surprising identity of interest which requires harmonious sentiment'arid action-in order to promote the
prosperity of all.
According to the latest information furnished by the Interstate Commerce Coin-
mission of the United States, the number
of employees iu the railway service on
June SOt-li, 1X03, was 873,(502, from which it
may safely be estimated that not less than
3,500,000. persons are "directly'supported
from the proceeds'of railway transportation. When the number of producers ami
others required to supply railway operatives and their families with the necessaries of life is considered, it becomes apparent that a very large body of our citizens is dependent for-.'prosperity almost
wholly.upon that of the railways.
A'brief examination of the present financial condition of the railway system is
sufficient to .show that the charges for railway transportation now in force do not
produce excessive revenue, and that any
changes toward lower charges, which are
unaccompanied by measures of radical
economy in operation, will render the
business unnroli able and consequently be
detrimental to the public interest.
During thedecade from the beginningof
J88. to the end of 1803, 01,3-18 miles of railway, Operated by 311 independent corporations, aud capitalized at $3,8")3,37l,000,
ptissed from the control of stockholders
into that of receivers appointed by the
courts, on account of the failure of the
rates obtained' by transportation to provide sufficient revenue to meet the expenses of operation, taxes, and interest. Of
this total, 2!),170 miles (40 percent of the
mileage), capitalized at .$l,7f>8,8o(i.000 (-1(5
per cent of capital), was placed in charge
of receivers during the year ending December -31st, 1803. The entire railway
mileage operated by receivers on that
cjate was -10,27!), and the par Value of its
•stocks and bonds $2,2]7,050,000, constituting 23 per cent tuifl 21 per cent respectively
of the total railway mileage and capital in
the United States.
During 1803, twenty-live railways, operating 1013 miles of road, tind represented
by $70,924,000 of capital stocks antl bonds,
were sold under foreclosure, while the
number thus sold during eighteen years
from 187(5 to 1803 inclusive was 551, their
aggregate length 57.283 miles ttnd their
capitalization $3,20!), 12(5,000. The crop of
foreclosures that must'inevitably follow
the enormous number of receiverships
created during 1893 is not yet ready for
harvest. -When its data become available
they will afford an appalling presentation
of the linancial condition of a large portion of our railway system.
According to the latest data furnished
by the statistician of the Interstate Commerce Commission; during the year ending June 3()tli. 1893. railway stocks having
a par value of $2,859,331,572, or 01.2-1 pur
cent of the total stock capital, received no
dividends; and no interest wtis paid on
mortgage bonds amounting to$102,270,9!)!),
or, 10.93 per cent of the total, nor upon
$201,801,209 of income bonds, being 82.50
lier cent of the total.
The average rales of dividend and interest during 1893 are not yet known, but
during 1892 they were as follows: Dividends.on preferred stock, 2.73 per cent;
oil common stock, 2 percent; average oil
all stock, 2.11 percent; interest on funded
debt, 4.75 percent; interest on unfunded
debt, 1.-17 per cent; average rate of return
to capital of all classes, 3.38 per cent.
The ratio of return to invested capital
iu the form of dividends.on capital stock
litis declined with great rapidity during
the last twenty years. In 1871, with II,(ill
miles of railway, the dividends paid averaged $12(55 per'mile of line; in 1882, with
107,108 miles, dividends were only $952 per
mile; while in 1893, with 17(5,1(51 miles, dividends had declined to an average of $572
per mile. Comparing the years 1883 aud
1892, ib is found that the, mileage of the
latter year was 55 percent greater than
that of the former, the gross earnings 15
per cent greater, and the net earnings 20
percent greater; but the aggregate sum
paid in dividends had actually declined
more than 20 pir cent. The decline in the
average amount of dividends per mile of
line equalled -I.S per cent of the average of
J 883.
The rates charged for railway transpor
tation have shown a constant downward
tendency so extensive as to afford considerable evidence in support of the contention-that they are regulated by forces
beyond the control of managers and owners. During the six years covered by the
reports of tlie. bureau of statistics of the
Interstate Commerce Commission, the average rate per ton per mile charged for the
transportation of freight declined from.
1.001. cents to'.878 cent, and that per passenger per mile from 2.319 cents to 2.108
cents. Inconsiderable as these reductions
appear, when stated in this form, they,
amount to a, saving to the public upon the
traffic carried during the year ending
June 30th, 1893, of $115,113,377 on freight
and $31,292,131 on passenger traffic; or a
total of $149,405,511 in one year, —an
■amount..exceeding by 48 per cent the aggregate of all dividends paid during that
year. ■•■■'■■ '■      ,
'-. An.investigation of.the; charges' exacted
for the 'transportation of freight by rail
during the period .from 1852 to 1892 inclusive was recently made by the auditor
of the Interstate Commerce Commission,
'an acknowledged authority'upon the subject of railway rates. The results of his
work were published as tt senate document
in connection with the.finance committee's
Report on Prices and Wages, and show a
decline which has been constant and considerable and has included all sections of
the country and all articles of commerce
'commonly offered for shipment by rail.
Notwithstanding.these extensive reductions and the unfortunate"linancial condition of so many railways, there is a continuous popular demand for still cheaper
transportation. It is on account of this
demand that many states have resorted
to legislation prescribing maximum rales,
and other even less defensible measures
which tire believed by many to be unfavorable tilike to the railways and the public. This, too, is to be 'assigned!'as the
chief reason for the existence of numerous
state railway commissions clothed with
authority,; more-or less .'effective, to require reductions in rates within the boundaries of individual states, tmd of the Interstate Commerce Commission with similar
power in regard to rates upon traffic between states.
• The public desire for cheaper transportation is both reasonable and natural.
The carrier of goods is a middleman between producer and consumer, and consequently obnoxious to both. While it is
to nobody's interest that the business of
transportation should become unprofitable, its charges are a principal part of
the friction incident to the processes
of exchange and 'distribution; and tlie
best interests of all, therefore, require
their reduction to the lowest practicable
minimum. Consequently the public will
be served if, from a critical observation of
current railway .methods, there shall be
discovered important particulars in which
they can. be so reformed a.s to til low radical
economies in operation, as by that means
alone can the reduction in rates which
have so far characterized the development of the railway system be continued
without reducing all companies to the
condition of bankruptcy already confronting a large number.
The expenses incident to the struggle
for traffic between competing lines could
undoubtedly be reduced, if not entirely
eliminated, by better methods of conducting transportation. Prominent among
these is the outlay incident to the system
of paying commissions to influence the
routing of traffic in favor of particular
lines. Authentic statistics concerning the
amounts thus expended are exceedingly
difficult to obtain, tis the efficiency of such
practices ot" securing business obviously
depends largely upon the degree of secrecy attained, as, if the rate of commission allowed becomes known, it will generally be met by competing lines, and
agents will have no longer any reason to
favor ti particular route. Prom an investigation made by the Interstate Commerce
Commission several years ago, it appeared
that during.-the year ending June 30th,
1889, 108 companies paid commissions
amounting in the aggregate to $1,729,402,
of which $1,097,130 was paid by nine roads.
As high as $20.70 is alleged to have been
paid for the sale of a single second-class
ticket from Chicago to San Francisco.
Annual, leargely-attended conventions of
ticket-scalpers from all parts ot the country tt (ford evidence that these expenses
are sufficient to support a considerable
army of parasites.
Another extravagance resulting from
the struggle for traffic is that required to
maintain the multitude of outside agencies and traveling agents, whose sole occupation is to secure the routing of passengers and freight by their respective lines.
So important are the expenditures resulting from these causes, even during seasons
of comparative harmony between rival
lines, that the number of such agencies
is frequently restricted by contract. In
one of our principal Atlantic seaboard
cities, at which nine railways compete for
westbound passenger traffic, a contract is
known to have been in force limiting to
seven the number of agencies each should
bo allowed to maintain. Obviously a system of joint agencies would have accorded
the public equal if not superior service at
tin enormous saving iu expense. During
those too-frequent periods of fierce and
unbridled competition popularly denominated '"rate-wars," each participating
road litis its freight and passenger agents
in every important city in the country, at
ii total expense for tents, clerk hire, advertising, etc., which can scarcely be estimated. During a single year, when rates
were fairly maintained, four roads operating westward from Chicago paid $1,283,-
5S5 for maintaining outside agencies and
advertising, and one road from New York
expended $871.2!)! for similar purposes.
Much economic waste arises from the
competition of long and circuitous routes
I'or traffic which would naturally go by
more direct and shorter lines. As an example of this class of competition, that
for freight traffic between Sew York and
Sew Orleans may be cited. This traffic is
actively soughtby various linesoperating
in whole or in part by water, and in consequence the rates obtainable^ are extremely low; yet in spite of this fact 91
all-rail routes ate known fo seek actively
to secure if. Of these the shortest and
most direct is by way of Philadelphia,
Baltimoi'e, Washington. Lynchburg, Bristol, tind Chattanooga, the entii-e distance
being 1340 miles.   Iu contrast to this, the
longest route, involving a total  haul of
2051 niiles, is   by way of 'Buffalo, New
Haven, Indiana, St.,Louis,andTexarkaiia.
Estimating lhe-cost of carrying _a minimum carload of 24,000 pounds-at the basis
per ton per mile furnished by the Statistician of the 'Interstate Commerce Commission for the year ending June 30th,
1893, the  cost for  the ■■shorter route is
$77.18; for the longer, $118.14—or an excess over the1'minimum of necessary expenditure for each carload carried by the
longer route of $40.9(5, or 53 per cent. This
illustration is typical of the entire transportation -system, and many equally startling instances could be shown.   Between
Omaha and St.-"Paul, with ashort-line distance of 373 miles, traffic is.carried by a
competing line whose distance is 734 miles.
Between Chicago and New York there are
21 routes ranging from 1)12 to 137(5miles;
from.Chicago to Montreal, 10 routes ranging fro ni 837 to .1400 miles; from Omaha to
San Francisco, 5 routes'varying, from 1805
to 2724 miles; and from Chicago to Jacksonville, .Florida, 03 routes ranging from
1097"to 1044 miles in length.   These are not
merely possible routes, but are all actually
competing for traffic: between the points
named., A case recently decided by the
Interstate  Commerce   Commission   illustrates this practice in one of its many
phases.   Aishipper located at llitzville,
Washington,' offered a carload of wheat
for shipment to Portland, Oregon, which '
the   railroad   declined    to   accept,   ex-'
cept  upon   the   understanding   that   it
should be carried on its own line over
the Cascade mountains, through a  long
tunnel to Tacoma, and thence to ■destination, a total distance of 480 miles, over au
expensive and   circuitous i'oute   having
many costly grades, although;in connection with another -'rail way. there  was a
shorter route of only 311 miles,  mostly
along the Columbia river, with few and
light   grades.'   The   commission,   in  an
opinion rendered by chairman Morrison,
sustained the contention of the complainants that it is the right of every shipper
to demand that his goods be carried over
the least expensive route.   While it•■'may
be true that the shortest is. not necessarily
the  cheapest   route,   yet it  cannot-,be
doubted that a considerable saving, would
result from forwarding: all traffic  over
whatever route's should be found by careful experiment to be cheapest.
Railway revenues are constantly wasted
in order to maintain competitive train
service, both passenger and .freight, which
"is. wholly unnecessary for the'accommodation of the ptibjic or the .demands of
traffic. Between Chicago,and. Omaha, 22
.passenger trains, or.11 each way, are run
on every day except Sunday, and 10 run
seven times a week. As there are only
about 200 passengers per day in each direction, it is evident-that half us many
trains would afford ample accommodation
with sufficient margin for local'-'-.- traffic.
Upon the basis'of the estimated cost per
mile for running passenger trains, furnished by the Interstate Commerce Commission, the cost of .running a passenger
train from' Omaha .to Chicago is $400, and
the solving resulting from reducing the
number of trains one-half would -amount
to $1,539,200 peryeai'.. Similar duplication
of service exists between Chicago and
Kansas City, Chicago and St. Paul, St.
*
and will soon be in
the valleys; so do
not delay in getting-
one of Squire's
overcoats and be
prepared for it.
Y
fifteen days.
Squire offers fancy
worsted suiting's at
greatly reduced rates.
Call and examine
before they all go.
be ordered now.
Squire's selection of
worsteds, serges,
Scotch and English
suitings and trousering's
is very complete.
Louis aud Kansas City, and in many other
localities. Similar data are. not available
regarding freight service, but it is certain
that while an ordinary locomotive will
readily haul from twenty-five to thirty
loaded cars upon a level road, the actual
average train load of about 182 tons is fat-
too low. The statement that the most
economical use of railway facilities would
require that every locomotiveshould haul
a full train of completely loaded cars, and
that great savings can be effected by
measures tending to secure that result,
does not need further amplification...
Large sums are also expended annually
in maintaining separate and duplicate
organizations with the requisite official
machinery, for each. Though reform in
this direction may'seem less practicable,
there is no doubt that, could ft be'effected,
large savings would result.
It will be observed that all the wasteful
expenditures enumerated are in some way
connected with competition between carriers for traffic, and it will not be surprising, therefore, that its elimination in a
greater or less degree is suggested its the
means through which the radical economies which are a necessary preliminary
to further reductions in rates are to be
effected.
The measures which have been suggested to attain this end are railway associations, pooling, consolidation. These
will be found to be satisfactory in exact
proportion to the degree in wliich they
are successful in suppressing competition.
Railway associations not founded upon
the principle of division of traffic or earnings have proved ineffectual because they
do not sufficiently protect the traffic or
revenues of the weaker lines, Pooling,
when permitted, was charged with responsibility for the construction of unnecessary lines which could serve no useful
end, but were built upon the purely speculative anticipation of being able, by
piratical methods, to obtain a share of
the pooled traffic. Consolidation, if carried lar enough, would render unnecessary
tlie payment of commissions to secure
traffic and the maintenance ol' expensive
agencies; would cause all traffic to be forwarded by the cheapest routes; would do
away with unnecessary train service iind
empty trains; would wipe out duplicate
organizations--in short, would abolish all
competition. It might also render inipor-
ativeudeeision upon thetpiestion whether
the government shall own the railways.
II. T. Newcomb in The Forum for October.
Rage for Foreign Names.
Anyone who has traveled through the
principal cities and towns of Canada.must
be struck with the efforts put forth by
business houses to ■ prove tlieir .foreign
character. One would iniagino that Canadians were actually ashamed of their
nationality. .Just take a stroll through
the streets of any Canadian city, from
Victoria in Hritish Columbia to Halifax
iu Nova Scotia, and observe tho signs put
out to the public view: "Kngiish Breakfast. Macon," iniitleout/of gootl honest Canadian hogs which never saw Kngland;
"Kngiish Chop House" and "Kngiish Kil-
Cornep Baker and Ward Streets, Nelson,
You will only be disappointed if you rely on getting a good     "': '
fit from the outside traveling tailors.   Fully 50 per cent of the suits made
by them require altering before they can be worn.    Then why send
away for suits, when you can get as fine goods and better fits at home?
I have received my fall and winter stock of woolens,
comprising suitings, coatings, trouserings, and overcoatings, in the latest patterns.
My prices will be as low as those of outside tailors.
TAILOR, BAM STBBET,
Flour, $1.15 a sack.
Potatoes1, $1.25 a hundred lbs.
Cabbage, $2.25 a hundred lbs.
Onions, $2.50 a hundred lbs.
SPECIAL RATES
ON
CARLOAD LOTS
Hay, $16, $18, and $20 a ton.
Oats, $32 a ton.
Shorts and Bran, $20 a ton.
Chickens, Turkeys, and Hogs.
e
JULIUS EHRLICH, Manager.      Barrett Block, NELSON, and Rickey Block, COLVILLE.
TO THE FRONT IN   FALL AND WINTER GOODS.
Consisting of Dress Goods, Ladies' Jackets, Capes, etc., Blankets, Comforters, Pillows,
Floor and Table Oil Cloths, Ready-made Clothing, Gents' Furnishings,
Boots and Shoes, Rubbers, etc.
ALL ARE   INVITED  TO CALL
CHEAP FOR CASH.
AND   SEE   THE  NEW GOODS,
WHICH  WE ARE SELLING VERY
A. D. A., Manager.
ehen," "Kngiish Home Made Mread."
".Scotch Maker," "Irish Draper," " Krench
Laundry," "New York Tailor," and so ou
through the whole line of business names.
If ti man desires to advertise to secure a
position he hastens to call hiniself a London accountant, with long experience in
foreign commerce, etc. Now, why not
come out like men and stick to your own
nationality: be Canadians tind he proud
of the privilege of showing respect to the
country that gave you birth. We hoar a
great deal of talk about " loyalty," but the
best kind of loyalty is that of nativity
tmd the best way lo show it is to practice
it iu your business. It is high time for
Canadians to let the world know that they
are the equals of tiny people on the face of
the earth, and that they are as capable
of lilling posts of trust as Kngiish, French,
Scotch, or Irish.
The Foreigner in Japan.
There tire sixteen nations having treaties with Japan, and they present, in the
foreign concessions, the singular spectacle
of sixteen little governments all independent of each other, dispensing justice and
administering as many different forms of
law within the same territory. Kadi foreigner i.s registered in the consulate of his
country. All legal processes and suits
against him, brought by other foreigners
or by Japanese, tiro entered with and
fried' before his consul, except in_ the
cast; of Croat Britain, which maintains a
court separate from its consulate. If the
alien commits an offense against Japanese
lawor regulation outside the treaty limits,
he can bo arrested by the native police,
but he  must be fried   and  punished, if
guilty, by his consul, the Japanese govern men t prosecuting the case, anrl it i.s
also bound, on the request of a consul, to
arrest deserters and fugitives from justice
who have lied outside treaty limits. Certain customs fees and regulations tire provided for, but failure to pay the former (tinny dispute about the latter can only be
settled by a consul. On the other hand,
the hind iu the foreign concessions is the
property of the Japanese government,
and is leased in perpetuity to tlie foreigner
tit a rate per tsubo (six feet square) which
varies according to the local ion of the
bind, is payable annually, and i.s the only
tax levied. The lease may he bought and
sold, but always subject to the ground
rent. In the cencno (the ollice of the
municipal authorities), is vested till police
and sanitary control, tind the care of all
streets tind roads, but the police cannot
enter the premises of a foreigner without
the writ-ten permission of his consul. In
Kobe, the foreign settlement of lliogo,
the residents own the laud they occupy.
Tallest Man on Earth.
Hassan Ali, who litis the honor of being
the tallest man on earth, has just begun
bis lour of I he world at Casian's I'tinopti-
Icmi), iu Merlin, Ceriiiniiy, A spectator
who was present on the opening night
described him by saying that ho looked
like a walking tree as he came forward
ou llio platform and extended a hand
which measures thirteen inches from
wrist to linger tips. Tho feet of the giant
are an inch longer than his hands, tind
the head is twelve inches long. Hassan
Ali, though nothing more than a youth of
sixteen  years,  measures in height eight
feet. As he is likely to grow up to his
twentieth year there is no telling whore
he will stop. Ilassitn is tin Arabian by
birth tind wtis discovered in Kgypt. He
litis coarse but not unpleasant features
iind is a very harmless looking subject.
Tho shape of ids head is very peculiar. It
grows narrow toward the top and is
unusually strongly developed at the base.
The proportion of the length of the legs
to the upper part of the hotly is quite irregular, and his nether limbs tire at least
twice tis long tis those of ordinary people.
A Plucky Fltfht Ag-ainst Fearful Odds.
The Loudon Daily News recently asked
its readers "I low can we stive?" tind in
reply "A Young Wife" shows her personal system, and lolls of a light carried
on with astounding pluck against fearful
odds. It appears that she and her husband have boon striving with small success to keep body and soul together on
llio miserable pittance of !•?■_( MM) a year.
Despite the most heroic economies, this
cheerful pair of lunatics outran the
banker to the tune of !>J, l."iS.('0 during the
lirst your of matrimonial bliss. "A Young
Wife" gives figures to prove her self-
denials an; not mere assertions. Thus
both she and her husband contrived to
dress on the sum of JjH'd I..">(); they only
spent, $l_.1() on books, and only subscribed
.Sl!)-T» lo charities; ■>,_'>7.."i(l was spent in
dining tit restaurants, to save expense in
the kitchen at homo; and during this
year of misery and privation they only
allowed themselves medical attendance to
the extent of $!().."»()! It is the talc of a
noble struggle against remorseless fate,
and shows anew the danger of marrying
ou inadequate means.
Im
l'.
'*.u
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WJIMWUffillnM THE TRIBUNE:   NELSON, B. C, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 27,  1894/  A full Rang-e of Woolen Shirts and Underwear to suit everyone's taste and  poeket.  A very complete stock of Boots and Shoes at hard-time prices.   Suits,  '��� ���*���, ���-.,.  Coats, and Pants, Rivetted Overalls, Blanket-lined Clothing", Mitts and Gloves,  German Socks, Mackinaw Suits, Melissa Waterproof Coats, Gum Boots, Lum-  bermen's Rubbers, Snow Excluders and Overshoes.   Call and inspect the stock.  Baker  Street,   Nelson.      Telephone  30.  ORE SHIPMENTS FROM SOUTH KOOTENAY.  FOK WEEK  ENDING  OCTOHEK LVl'II.       "_ ,  ���  October 21st.���I.e Hoi mine, Trail Creek district,  via Northport to East Helena, Montana.  (10 ton*  From Kaslo, via Nelson & Fort sheppard railway to Omaha .'.'..��������� ��� .. 13    "  October 25th.���From Ainsworth.  via Nelson &  Fort Sheppard railway to Tacoma   Total.....   A-TItOXlMATE VALUE.  Trail Creek district ore (gold):......  ......  Kaslo and Ainsworth ore (silver and lead),  Total........ ........... .............  10  8.'( tons  .S 3.000  .    .,300  . $5,300  LOCAL   NEWS   AND   GOSSIP.  "Billy" Perdue brought in two carloads  of cattle from Kamloops this -week. One carload'wus  sent to Three Forks via the Nakusp & Slocan railway  and the other was brought to Nelfon. He says that  Kamloops lias the appearance of being a live town, and  that over a hundred thousand dollars will be spent in  new buildings there during the year.  J. Pred Hume returned this week t'rotn  a trip through Slocan district, lie took a look at the  Fisher Maiden, Slocan Star, YV'ondoriul, Idaho, St. John,  Cumberland, the Wills group, and a number of other  producing claims. Mr. 'Hume is now posted a.s to the  needs of that section, and if the government does not. go  broke in booming the liritish Pacific and other rail way  schemes, lie will endeavor to get enough money appro-'  ��� priated to build roads that will allow minoowners to get  the output of their mines to points where it can be hauled  by rail or steamboat.  George J. Goodhue, manager of the company that holds a lease on miles of ground on Fend  d'Oreille river, was in Nelson this week. It is given out  that he will soon begin the work of installing a pumping  plant that will hoist 1000 inches of water high enough to  give sufficient head to work some of the banks and bars  that are known to contain gold in paying quantities.  A. B. Heiidryx, manager of the smelter  at Pilot Bay, was in' Nelson today. He says the work of  getting everything in readiness to smelt ore is progressing  steadily and smoothly, and that the works arc likely to  be in operation within six weeks. Three carloads of machinery for the smelter are now at Nelson awaiting  transfer to Pilot Bay.  The owners of the  Standard,, a gold  claim three miles from Nelson on the Xelson & Fort  Streppard railway, have shipped samples to the Pilot Bay  smelter and to W. Fellow Harvey at Vancouver, iu order  to find out whether the ore will pay to work.  J. A. Mara, president of the C. <fc K. S.  N. Co., was in Nelson the fore part of the week on company business.  The Flail Mines. Limited, will ship fifty  tons of unsortcd ore from the Silver King mine, and  when returns tire received the management will then  know the best method to handle the mine's output.  A sermon to young men will be preached  by the pastor at the Methodist services iu Hume's hall,  Sunday evening at 7:30 o'clock; subject of sermon,  ���'Manly Men." Services also at 11 A. M.; subject of sermon, "A Wonderful Cure."  Fresh oysters, twice a week.   C. Ivautl'man.  Fat turkeys, ducks, and  chickens always on hand.  International Commission Company, Nelson.  Choice apples and pears, by the box, a specialty.   C.  Kauffman.  Fresh pork, veal, and poultry; German and bologna  sausage; Frankfurt sausage: veal and ham and pork  Sies.   Will open a branch shop at Kaslo on or about  ovember 1st.   John Oates, Pork and Poultry Market,  Nelson.  Try a pound of N. W. T. butter, 25 cents. C. Kaulfnian  A Bull-Headed Official.  It is strange that postoffice inspector  Fletcher will not do as the people want  him. Either he is as stubborn as a mule  or the people are all blanked fools. Over  in the Kettle Iliver^country the people  prefer to pay for their mail service than  to accept the service offered them by Mr.  Fletcher. The following is from The Advance of Midway: "As will be seen in  another column, Mr. Fletcher, postol'lice  inspector, has at last called for tenders for  the conveyance of mail from l'etiticton to  Grand Forks via Camp McKinncy, either  once or twice a week. Mr. Fletcher is  lamentably ignorant about the Kettle  River country, though scarcely more  so than the average inhabitant of  the future terminus of the British  Pacific. We may, therefore, state  for his benefit and for that of the  postoffice department, that it would be  just as well to leave the mail service as at  present (villainous as it is) tis to contemplate a weekly_service by another route.  If the Dominion government ever intended to receive any revenue from the  Kettle River mail service, they will have  to furnish something better than, or, tit  least, as good a.s, the present subscription  service to Marcus. Otherwise Kettle  River people will continue to use the  latter iu preference to the former. If  private subscription ctin furnish two mails  a week to Marcus, the Dominion government can surely give the district a semi-  weekly service to I'enticton. If they can  not do so they can look forward to very  few Canadian postage stamps being sold  in this section of British Columbia."  assist hi the election of any candidate op:  posed by the association shall be liable  to expulsion. The pledge'members must  take reads: "I, John Doe, a member of  the South Kootenay Progressive Association of the south riding of West Kootenay,  do hereby declare that I am in sympathy  with the present executive of the province of British Columbia. I intend to  support the said party and shall submit  to the legally expressed action of this  association so long a.s I remain a member  of it." The association seems to have no  local habitation, and probably lias few  members.   .'���'������  Four Honeymoons With One Bride.  Philip Stutz, a farmer who lives in one  of the southern counties in the state of  Indiana, and his wife Mary have had a  remarkable matrimonial career. Being  lovers in childhood they were early married, but, failing to agree, were divorced.  After a few years they came together and  were remarried. Again were they divorced and remarried, and even again  did they secure a divorce, and the fore  part of this month-were remarried at New  Albany, thus being tliree times divorced  and remarried. Mr. Stutz is well to do,  and, as evidence that his wife can maintain herself iu single blessedness, she was,  when last married, the owner of a large  millinery store in New Albany. They  declare tlieir intention of separating no  more.   Only Pap Suckers Ask for Aid.  There i.s tin element in Kootenay that is  continually whinning for help from either  the Dominion or provincial governments;  but it is not the element that is developing the latent resources of the district.  Instead, it is the element that is unable to  make a living unless fed pap from a government spoon. The people of Kootenay  ueed no aid from either the Dominion or  provincial governments; all they ask, and  all they are entitled to, is good mail facilities, aud good roads, and competent  officials.   Time Will Bring: About a Change.  A well-known business man who recently made a trip through Slocan district  is reported as saying, if the mines neat-  Nelson had fallen into the hands of men  like those operating'in Slocan district,  Nelson would today be the best town in  the province, and cited as an instance the  work done on the Slocan Star as compared with the work done on the Silver  King. Although the former has been  worked but two years, it is a better de-  MEAT MARKETS.  veloped mine than the latter, which has  been worked six years. That business  man is about right, but time brings about  changes, and it will bring about a change  in mine management in "Nelson district,  perhaps.        .    ���      ' ; .  Are Not British. ,  The Miner says it has had to chastise  The TRII3UNI. for its cowardly habit of  jumping a man when he was down. Will  The Miner kindly give names and particulars'? The Miner under its present man-'  agement has not made much of a record  for aught else than attempts to belittle  people over other people's shoulders,  which is a cowardly habit no true Briton  would be guilty of. But, then, the present royal family, of Great Britain, to  which The Miner management is so closely  related, has not a drop of British blood  in their veins.  HOUSE  At Corner Baker and "Ward Streets,  NELSON, B. C.  THOMAS MADDEN, Prop.  THE MADDEN is Centrally Located, With a  Frontage Towards Kootenay River and  is Newly Furnished Throughout.  THE TABLE is Supplied with Everything, in  the Market, the Kitchen Being Under  the Immediate Supervision of a Caterer  of Large Experience.  THE BAR  IS SUPPLIED AVITH THE BKST BRANDS OF ALL  KINDS OF WINKS, LIQUORS, AND CIGARS.  Special Attention to Miners.  locan Hotel  "KASLO,   23. O.  The South Kootenay Progressive Association.  A copy of the constitution and by-laws  of "The South Kootenay Progressive Association" i.s to hand. The objects of the  association are the advancement of the  mining, commercial, and political interests of the south riding of West Koolenay.  Judging from the constitution, it, is more  of a political organization than one to advance the commercial and mining interests  of South Kooten/iy, for one section says  that any member who may in any way  SON ��� PER  Baker Street,   Nelson.  Front Street, Kaslo.  Slocan  Street, Three  Forks.  an: pi_piir.il to supply every town, mining camp, mul  mini: in South Kouti.'imy wilh hoof, million, veiil, pork,  mid siitisiiKi!-; iilso, with side anil hreakfnst Imcon ami  siiL'iir ('iircil mul smoked hums. Orders hy mail eare-  fully filled mul promptly forwarded.  Sawmill for Sale.  A complete sawmill, liussell make, with two D'sston  saws (.'id ami ;i,S inch), iron-lop saw frame, carriiiKe and  truck, patent, don on hcad-hlueks, roiie feed works, side  edger. ijutnir saw riiwur. 1'lneiiix under and engine,!) hy  V2 cylinders, Iln-hnrse power hoiler. Price on hoard ears  nl, Hnckevi! station on Spokane & Northern Uailway,  811X10. Address Julius Khrlich, N'elsou, 11.('., or Thomas  Holland, Clayton, Washiiinlon.  Application for Liquor License.  Notice Is herehy tfiven that I intend within thirty days  to apply to the stipendiary miik'Nti'iite of West Kootenay  district at. Nelson for a license to sell Hipier al retail at  my hotel at Frederic!on iu said district.  DAVID T. MOIUC'K.  Dated Oeloher 2'lrd, IH!H.  The Slocan is the only first-  class hotel in Kaslo, and its  managers have an eye sing-ly  to  the comfort of its guests.  iv_:_^_.isr___Gi-__i_E.s.  ILVER KING  HOTEL  Extensive improvements now completed makes  the ahove hotel one of llio hest in the eity hoth  for transient, guests and day hoarders.  FINEST WINES,  LIQUORS, AND CIGARS IN  THE MARKET SOLD AT THE BAR.  Application i'or Liquor License.  Not ice is herehy ki ven I hat we, the undersigned, intend  to apply lo the hoard of license commissioners of the corporal ion of the City of Kaslo at, their next meetiiiK. for a  transfer of our liipior license from lots ���Joaiid 'Hi, hlock ,S,  to cnalilc us to continue our hiisiness in our new hiilldiiie;  on lots -_':i and .1, block X, at the southeast corner of  Fourth and Front streets, in the City of Kaslo, the premises for which the original license was granted previous  to the lire on February iUh, IKill.  A. & J. KU.TCin.K.  Dated at, Kaslo, D. (!.. October ilml, 1801.  Notice of Application for Certificate of Improvements.  "II.WN.MI" .MINKHAI, CI.AI.M, NITIMTK IN TIIK NKI.SON  .MI.SJNi; DIVISION OK WKKT KOOTKNAV, I.IK.'ATKD ON  TOAD  .MOI'NTAIN.  Take nnllir Unit Frank Flclchcr, ���h agent Tor William  Hlriichaii, free miner's cerfillciilc No. i"i(i.VIK. intends sixty  days from llui dali! hereof lo apply to the gold commissioner for n cert lllniiu of improvements for lhe purpose  of obtaining ii crown grant lo llu; above claim, and further lake notice that adverse claims must he sent to Ihe  gold commissioner and action eoiniiienced before the issuance of such ccrtilicnte of iinproveiiiuiilH,  Dated October lllh, Ittll,  JOHN JOHNSON, Proprietor.  ,tanley House  BAR.  Corner Stanley and Silica streets, Nelson. We are now  running tlie .Stanley house bar. and will be glud to have  our friends aud ac(|uuintances give us a call.  DAWSON & OUADDOCIC.  he Tremont.  East Baker St., Nelson.  Is one of the best hotels in Toad Mountain district,, and  is the headquarters for prospector*) and  working miners.  MALONE   &   TREGILLUS,   Props.  NELS0N_STABLES.  WILSON  & SEALE,  TEAMSTERS.  Contracts for hauling ore anil merchandise made with  ling attended to.  '& Klrkpalrick's.  IK'         inlno owners and merchants.   Job learning attended to.  Stable on Vonionstrflct. opposite Tiirnei  AND AMONG OUR SEASONABLE GOODS JUST ARRIVED  IS A CARLOAD  toves, Box Stoves, Parlor Heaters,  Stove Boards, Drums Pipes, Etc.  THE ABOVE CAN BE HAD IN ALL SIZES FOR COAL OR WOOD.  If You Want a Stove Call and Inspect Our Stoek. and fret Our Prices.  Vernon Street, Nelson.  Telephone 27.  a����  BAKER   STREET,   NELSON.  and  from  this time  on, or until further notice, we will:, sell Gro-  ���   �� ceries,   Crockeryware,   Glassware,    Dry   Goods,   Clothing,   Hats,  Boots, Shoes, Furnishing Goods, etc., at a fair  profit,  for Cash.  Liquors and Cigars, at wholesale only.  in need of Tableware should call on  Jacob Dover, Jeweler, Nelson, before  placing* their orders. His stock of silver-plated knives, forks, spoons, casters,  butter dishes, pickle dishes, and silverware is complete and his prices as low  as anywhere west of Winnipeg-. Mail  your orders and they will be attended  to.   Store, Houston block, Baker Street.  The best Piano or Organ ?  The best Sewing Machine?  The best in the stationery line?  The best in the music line?  The best prices consistent with quality?  I_T"  SO  0-__-I_:__ AT  OTHERS, Houston Block, Nelson.  Good assortment of Newspapers, Magazines, Candies, and Children's Toys always on hand.  _2*4ea  ��� r   ��_i_���  '_$_._?  p'��_*_��_-���__. _  ���l|l|qjll        Mm  - !'���  -trr  Mr*^"Jipn^n|inrm  '���"fl'-^iri-iF-i pwiw1. ��� n-  \   ,.,' J  ���i.  .*   ...  -if*���"  trf'i, .  '��.i".?t:i}  _v'"W..Hr �����*  iBfefW tve  Ktys- �����.'   /���"-���.������?��� si,  1 r Tii ttSBB

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