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Hot Springs News Sep 28, 1892

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 .  HOT SPRINGS I  V^I  AINSWORTH,  BRITISH   COLUMBIA, WEDNESDAY,  SEPTEMBER  28,  1892.  NUMBER 55.  TEN OENTS  BEAKS.  While bears are pretty well distributed over  the world, North America has a fair quota of  the species and is the home at least of the 2  largest and fiercest. South America has only  one, the spectacled bear; Australia Hone, and  Africa not more than one, if any, Europe and  Asia have .several kinds. Strictly, perhaps, we  have but 4 species of the genus Ursus, but the  common black bear has at least 3 varieties that  in location, color and other peculiarities are  distinct in the mind of the hunter and woodsman, if not in that of the naturalist. In the  South it has a yellowish color that has given it  the name of the "yellow bear of the Carolinas,"  and in the Rocky mountains a twany brown  marks it as the "cinnamon bear." The former  of these is smaller and the latter larger than the  typical black bear (U. Americanus) that once  roamed our country over in all wooded districts,  east of the plains. Today it is found only in  such retired districts as the Adirondacks, portions of the Appalachian range, the Dismal  swamp of Virginia, and the swamps of Louisiana, Arkansas and other Southern states. The  barren ground bear of the waste, open places of  the extreme north was for a long time considered likewise a variety of the black bear, but  it has recently, been established as a distinct  species (U. Riehardsonii.) It is found plentifully in Alaska. The polar bear (U. Mamti-  nvns) often during extreme cold strays within  our limits. When Lewis and Clarke made their  memorable trip to the west they came in contact with that most remarkable of'all bears, the  grizzly, which they very appropriately named  U. ferox, but which has more recently, but  not less fitly, styled U. horribilis. Its range is  from the eastern slope of the Rocky mountains  to the Pacific, with a greater tendency to be  found on the western side of the divide. When  we think of the gray color and ferocious disposition of this most terrible of all the cerniyora  we are not surprised that in its literature we  find the name spelled sometimes grizzly (gray)  and sometimes grisly (horrible), words primarily of different significance. The animal is very  variable in color, often, in young especially,  being quite black, so that to call it the gray  bear may not always, be correct; but the other  designation will never be amiss. Seated here  ���������now,'hundreds-of miles from a specimen, I am  inclined to join the majority and spell it with a  double z, but I have seen times when, alone in  the deep tangles of a mountain stream, and  armed only with a slender trout pole, the hieroglyphics of certain plantigrade tracks spelt  out "grizzly" in large caps and several Latin  synonyms of "ferox" and "horribilis" besides.  Perhaps with the exception of the peccary of  Central and South America, there is no animal  known whicli, when its 'anger is once aroused,  is so destitute of fear as the grizzly bear of the  Rocky mountains. All the bears stand it a  good second, with the polar bear close by.  The lions, tigers and various c;us attempt escape when overwhelmed by numbers or- otherwise worsted, but the grizzly fights it out to the  death. It is perhaps the only bear :hat deliberately attacks man as its legitimate prey, for all  the  others,   unless wounded, or defending  the  young, usually escape at his approach. Sometimes, when one has come far away from its  haunts to capture the ranchman's stock, it attempts, when discovered, to escape to its jungle  but here it sets a "a thus far" to pursuit, without a consequence. All the other bears are om-  niverous, feeding on berries, roots, honey and  various vegetable substances, along with an occasional pig, etc. Even the polar bear leaves its  usual fare of fish and seal for a relish of greens  and fruit, when it can be had, but the grisly  (yes grisly here), is almost exclusively carniver-  ous, with a wonderful penchant for the hunter.  While the cinnamon bear is much milder in his  disposition, he is by no means a spring day; and  the hunter in the western mountains is apt to  think cayenne pepper bear would have been  equally as appropriate even as a color designation, and much more expressive of some other  traits of the animal. He may be a variety of  the eastern bear, but like many other things, he  acquires a vigor in the stimulating climate of  these high ranges that very much increase his  size and ferocity. It is this, along with a tendency to magnify everything in the region,  which causes the westerner to style the common  panther (felis concoior) #'a mountain lion." I  think the impression generally prevails that  bears charge their enemies on their hind feet,  but this is a mistake. It is true that when attacked this is often the .'animal's position of defence (though not necessarily always so), because it leaves full swing to the powerful fore-  paws; but if you meet a bear and he rises on his  hind feet it is often done for the purpose of better herring and observation, as in the hares,  marmots, etc., and if you are in uo condition to  fight it out you may likely steal out of his sight  (while he is in this position) without being  molested. I know of a tenderfoot who came  out to Estes Park, Colorado, "to kill a bear."  He went armed with a rifle and 2 revolvers, and  alone tracked up a huge cinnamon, which he  found sitting up suddenly before him in the  turn of the path. The hunter took a tree and  the bear took a walk. Again the hunter.descended, swore at the lack of nerve, suddenly  found bruin again on his hind feet around a  point of rocks, when the amateur again took a  tree. As before, while he scrambled up, the  bear ambled off. This was repeated 4 or 5 times,  when the hunter grew disgusted with himself,  came home, and made the further mistake of  telling, in confidence, one of his friends. In the  mating season all bears are irritable and a  mother bear in defence of her cubs is the type  of the greatest fury. All bears do not hibernate. .Old. males and barren females seldom do,  except in the extreme northern latitudes. Even  the polar bear is often found abroad all winter.  It has been asserted that no bear will go into  hibernation unless it is extremely fat, and contrary to the usual conception, this fat is not used  up during the semi-torpid state, for the animal  awakes in the spring as fat as when it went in.  The young of many of the species are born at  the close of the hibernating period and the fat  of the mother is rapidly used up in nourishing  them. Otherwise immediately after the sleeping bear comes forth the surplus is rapidly consumed before sufficient food can be found, and  this seems to be largely its purpose.    The hiber  nation of the bear is not complete torpor, as in  many other animals and reptiles. At any time  the bear can be aroused. The secretions and  excretions cease, but respiration goes on at a  low rate, and the heart beats correspondingly  in keeping with its demands. The small steaming hole through the snow at times locates the  animal's position, for in the extreme north the  bear instinctively (I am not yet afraid of that  old word) knows the approach of a permanent  snow fall, and makes a slight excavation beside  a fallen tree and is covered for the winter by a  drift. Further south a hollow log or tree is  used. Sometimes a cave. Our black bear is the  most hibernating, the polar bear the least.  Cubs of all bears are born blind and not larger  than kittens. This large proportion between  young and adult argues long life, which experience finds true, for bears have been known to  live for 40 years and, like hogs, grow as long as  they live. Like hqgs, they are fond of plastering their bodies in summer with mud. It is  said a grizzy will not climb a tree���������but he is a  good stayer at its foot.  The Nitrate Fields of Chile.  The caliche, or raw nitrate of soda, is not  equally distributed over the pampas of Chile.  The most abunda-ht deposits are situated on the  slopes of the hills, which probably formed the  shores of the old lagoons. An expert can tell  from the external appearance of the. ground  where the richest deposits arelikely to be found.  The caliche itself is not found on the surface of  the plain, but is covered up by 2 layers. The  uppermost, known technically as chuca, is of a  friable nature, and consists of a sand and gypsum, while the lower���������the costra���������is a rocky  conglomerate of clay, gravel and fragments of  feldspar. The caliche varies in thickness from  a few inches to 10 or 12 feet, and rests on a soft  stratum of earth called cova. The m_K_e in  which the caliche is excavated is as follows: A  hole is bored through the chuca, costra and caliche layers till the cova or soft earth is reached  below. It is then enlarged until it is wide  enough to admit of a small boy being let down  who scrapes away the earth below the caliche so  as to form a little hollow cup; Into this a  charge of gunpowder is introduced and subsequently exploded. The caliche is then separated  by means of picks from the overlying costra  and carried to the refinery. Both in appearance  and composition it varies very much. In color  it may be snow white, sulphur, lemon, orange,  violet,  blue and sometimes  brown,   like raw  sugar ���������  From flic /^rgoiitliie Republic.  The outlook in tV/e labor market of the Argentine republic is not particularly encouraging.  During the year 1891, 73,597 immigrants arrived  in the Argentine republic as compared with  210,498 in 1890. Immigration during the last  months of the year 1891 increased more than  was expected, and the emigration dimished  considerably. Business has revived somewhat  during the past few months and work is not so  scarce as i; was, but it will be some time before  all those out of employment find work. With  regard to railroads matters are in a much better  condition During 1890,1328 miles were opened,  and in  i891, 722 miles   were   constructed.  -r-_S.  P ,  "'/.���������$  *_i  \ -<��������� _ *.  " ������v__ ������  _      *.    _J*1- V__^  -     '���������$&&  ..,3  _i  _-v*.  -'      _J  / .   ��������� __P  ���������  v/f,  __������j%o^i_a HOT SPBfflGS HEWS:  AINSWORTH,  B. 0., SEPTEMBER 28, 1892.  BEATS   HAIR   SPLITTIXli.  It is a delicate operation to split a bank note  edgewise, but there are rogues who do it as  easily as they could slice a cheese. It has been  practiced in France and South American states  several years, and the men who do this sort of  work in the United States are half again as  skillful as the foreigners from whom they first  learned the trick. Officers of the bank of England had always held that no one was skillful  j. nough to split one of their bank notes. American currency splitters can divide a British bank  note as easily and as equally as they can lay  open one of this country's issue.  These clever rascals commonly use five dollar  and fifty dollar bills, which are split edgewise.  Then they manipulate them in this way.   The  front of the five dollar bill is deftly fastened to  the back of the fifty dollar bill, and the back of  the note of the smaller denomination to the  face of the larger one.    When that is accomplished the maker has 2 fifty dollar bills that  \Vill pass current almost anywhere.    In  working off these split notes the shover forces the  fifty dollar face of each trick note on the victim, who rarely think it necessary to examine  the other side.    He scans the side exposed to  him by the trickster, and of course accepts it as  genuine., J.y  this device the splitter clears a  profit of forty-five dollars on every 2 bank notes  he works off.    The work of splitting is done  with a machine, which is .manufactured in England.    It consists of a burnished solid steel roller, 2 inches in cJUuneter, hanging over a smooth  plate of the same metal.    The roller's ends rest  in  slotted uprights,  and  it" may  be  raised or  lowered  infinitesimally by means of screws as  fine as those of the finest watch. A main ���������'screw,',  as finely t breaded as t he others, is turned automat ically by clockwork,   which stands at  the  right entl of the steel barrel."   Over the plate,  and with the edge under the roller,   is firmly  fixed a knife.    Its ends are locked in grooves in  flanges on  either side  of the steel   bed.   The  knives are imported from Sheffield,  England.  The blade is a third of an inch wide, 3 long in  the clear and thinner than a hair's breadth.   No  lancet has half so keen an'edge.    Before a bank  bill is put into the jaws of the  machine it is  made limp by water and every taint of dirt is.  removed.    Then it is dried between pads of lint,  after which  it  is placed between deep piles of  the finest calendered paper and left pinned in a  screw press from 21 to 36 hours.  When it comes  out it looks as bright, clean and fresh as a new  banknote,   and what is of more importance to  the operator, it is almost as stiff as cardboard.  Then it is ready for splitting.    One of its ends  is.inserted under the roller on the side farthest  from the knife.   Tlvn the weights of the clock  are set going, and the bright metal roller turns  so slowly that its' motion is scarcely perceptible.  As the bank note is worked through its end it is  met   bv   the  knife edge.    The  knife  is set   so  delicately   that   it  passes' exactly   through the  width  of the  bill.    One-half  of the bank  note  passes-   above   the   knife   and   the   other   part  moves under the blade.    The blade   is  so  delicately  set   above  the  plate-that   there is  just  space  enough  to  let  the  half of the  bill pass  !,hrough.    The  neatness  of   the  fit   keeps   the  bank note taut to the last.    An hour is required  to run a single bank note through the splitter.  After being halved the parts are given a gentle  steaming to raise the fiber on the cut sides, in  order   that   when   forced   together   with   2500  pounds pressure the threads will knit into a perfect facsimile of a genuine bank note.    Then it  is ready for the sucker market.  BRITISH   COLUMBIA  IRON  WORKS,  General  Founders,   Engineers,   Boiler  Makers,   and  Manufacturers  of All  Classes of Machinery.    Sawmill and Marine Work a Specialty.  SOLE   MANUFACTURERS   OF   THE  Kendall Band Mill, B. 0. Shingle Machines, Steam  Log Hauling Mad_ni.es.  We keep in stock a full supply of Engineer and Mill Supplies, such as Pipe and Fittings, Brass Goods, Sheet and other  Packing Rubber Valves, Rubber and Leather Belting, Oils, and Lubricants, etc.  HOISTING ENGINES AND SINIONC.  PUMPS FOB MINES.  Corner Alexander Street and We_4__ai_ister Ave., TAUOOU ViiE, B. 0.  D.   CARTMEL, J. W. CAMPION, d_"E. W. MACFARLANE,  Agent West Kootenay. Secretaxy-Treafltirer. Manager.  Furniture and Pianos!  Jas. McDonald & Co.  Ncl_oit and Revelstoke,  carry full lines of all kinds of furniture for residences,  hotels, and offices.   Mattresses made to order, and  at prices lower than eastern and coast.  They are also agents for  Evans Pianos and Doherty Organs.  NELSON  STORE:  No. 4 Houston ������& Ink It uilcltiig, Josephine Street*  ~~~ FRED J. SQUIRE,  .  Josephine street, Nelson, B.C.  HAS ON DISPLAY A FULL RANGE OF  Plain and Fancy Worsted Snitings and Scotch and  Irish Tweeds and Serges.  Spring goods now on hand.  pkices to sxjio? a?_=_:_s times  W. J. WILSON.  W. PERDUE.  WILSON & PERDUE.  PROPRIETORS OF  MEAT  MARKETS  SELSOH AMD AINSWORTH.  Will contract to supply mining companies and steamboats  with fresh meats, and deliver same at any mine or  landing in the Kootenay Lake country.  Kelson   Office   and   Market,   11  East   Baker  Street.  Atiis worth  Market,  Spragne  Street.  C. E. Perry, M. S. Davys,  Mem. Inst. C.E., P.L.S.        M.E.  J. H. Gray,  C.__., P.__._>.  PERRY, CRAY & DAVYS  CIVIL AND  MINING  ENGINEERS.  PROVINCIAL LAND SURVEYORS,  NOTARY PUBLIC, CONVEYANCING.  R. H. CAV1LL,  Late of Swansea.  ASSAT     0__r__TIC_������l_  Mining properties reported on.  Mines bonded and developed.  OFFICES:   Room 4, Spencer's Arcade, Government  street, Victoria. Opposite Hotel Phair, Nelson.  B.1H._EE&CO.  Eeal Estate and Mining Brokers,  ancers.  AGREEMENTS OF ALL  KINDS DRAWN UP.  i. o.  KASLO LOTS FOR SALE  AND WANTED.  Agent for the Nelson Sawirull Company.  B. H. LEE,  Notary Public.  0HT0E  Near Steamboat Landing.  BREMNER & WATSON,  AINSWORTH, B. C.  PACK AND SADDLE HORSES  FOR  HIRE.  Contracts taken for hauling supplies, machinery, ore, etc.,  to and from mines in Hot Springs district.  ALL  TEAMING   WORK   UNDERTAKEN.  Telephone 96.  EW  Slocan Lake at mouth of Carpe__������__,-  ��������� Creek.   . V- ���������  ''"  HUNTER & McKD. N0N  DEALERS IN  GENERAL   MERCHANDISE  AND   MINERS'  SUPPLIES.  There is no need of prospectors or others bound for the  Slocan district bringing in supplies. Our stock is complete and wiU be sold at reasonable prices. Eldorado City  is not a boom townsite, but is situate within 5 to 9 miles of  all the mines so far discovered in Slocan district, and is  easily accessible from Nelson either summer or wmter,  being distant but 60 miles.  KOOTENAY  LODGE,  No. 16,  I. 0. 0. F.  Meets every Monday night at 8 o'clock in Hume s Hall,  Vernon St. visiting members cordially invited to attend.  G. W. Aidous, N. G., Wm. Hodson, Recording feecretary.  1| >!   I  r ,1;  _B  j?V \  *& l  _? ������  " i.  - .���������_  *    __-"  *, ^r* r i____*  ���������S.;^_H  ' "*'Mft|  ?'.._?:  < -*M  s������<u$_  J.     _-A__jfe  ^  _=  _$  ' '0--i  .   : ,��������� HOT  SPEINGS NEWS:   ADJBWOBTH, B. C, SEPTEMBEE 28, 1892.  THE HOT SPRINGS NEWS IS PUBLISHED ON WED-  nesdays, and will be mailed to subscribers at the foll(nuing  rates* payable in advance: One year #/, six months $2.50%  three months $1.50. Advertising rates given on application.  No communication or letter over an anonymous signature  will be printed.        BOGLE & WHALLEY, Proprietors.  !:.<  r..  1 .  1  m*  _.  . -  m  _?������������������_  ._  '>'.--;- .  ^,:,:-  _. W  ������K  te':_.  hfr..'_ ; ���������..;, ���������,.   ���������  Ifr  ���������yfifii'w'n ���������'...  _....';���������  1  ,  !  ���������d.  ;������������  ./-  VERAX.  An anonymous correspondent of the Koot  enay Star, a newspaper published, in., what its  editor designates 'theobscure country village'  of Revelstoke, runs foul of Jhe News for suggesting that so long as mr. Kellie remains member for West Kootenay the only means' of approaching the government is by means of petitions. We say this of mr. Kellie, and Verax retorts that we are not a newspaper. This is one  of those neat, obvious, arid most applicable retorts which are the inspirations.,'���������'of gen.lis at  rare moments.  Mr. Eellie will be in Nelson next week to give  an aecount of his stewardship. Out of h is own  lips, if we mistake not, will our words be justified. We do not accuse mr. Kellie of any but  the best intentions;'he is auiuiated by the sincere desire to represent West Kootenay. But,  unfortunately, he cannot make West Kootenay's wishes intelligible at Victoria. And anything lie has tried to do has only resulted in a  feeble irritating and futile opposition which has  efieeted nothing either for mr. Kellie or his constituents. We give hirn no credit for good in-  tentions; for our part-"lie .'''may make paving  stones of them and tread the? causeway whither  he pleases, if he cannot carry'.' them out.  MINING   LAW   REFORM.  It appears that in the Slocan the jumper of  claims is already rampant. We hear that stakes  have been moved and burnt out and notices  obliterated. We do not know to what extent  this has been going on; it is enough for us that  it is possible. And still no one seems to take to  heart the very serious state of confusion that is  imminent there. It is not too much to say that  the whole mining law offers so many opportunities for fraud and rascality that no man is safe  in the possession ojc a claim until he has the  crown grant in his (pocket. And it is questionable if he is safe even then. Many of the  notices of application for certificates of improvements omit to call on adverse claimants to  bring forward their claims, In the section of  the Mineral act, 1891, giving the essentials of  such a notice, a clause calling for adverse claims  is not mentioned, but in the schedule to the  act, which gives a form of notice, this clause is  inserted. How many notices published are in  accordance with this schedule?   All ought to be.  THE   NAKUSP    WAGON   ROAD.  We understand that because certain parties  received information  from C.   P.   II.   officials  about the middle of August, that the Nakusp  wagon road would he pushed through at once,  captain Fitzstubbs has got the credit of having  delayed the road for a month,  and of having  used his influence against its construction.    Mr.  Fitzstubbs may have used his influence against  the Nakusp wagon road.    As to that we know  nothing.    If he did, he acted mistakenly in the  interests of the country.    But we do not believe  that he did.    And certainly he carried out his  instructions with regard to it with the utmost  promptitude.    Mr. Fitzstubbs was first asked to  furnish   certain   information about the road,  which he did. He was then asked to call for  tenders and did so at once; afterwards extending the time 4 days in response to representations from would-be tenderers. The tenders  were received at Nakusp instead of Nelson, in  order to save time, and sent to Victoria at once.  The officials are now awaiting instructions.  Whatever delay there has been, has taken place  at Victoria and not at Nelson.  A. H. HOLDSGH  & CO.  (Of Swansea and .Vigan.)  Analytical Chemists and Assayers,  REVELSTOKE.  Mr. P. G.  ST0ESS, Nelson, will receive samples "ron:  Kootenay Lake District.  J. MINSON WILLS, M.E., FOS.  Member of the Institution of Minlncf an . . 'etaliur^y* Kng. and of the  American Institute of Mining Kngineef_, &c.  < 206 AUteri S������_.,<>!!_..- a.)  Seports on Mines and Mineral Properties.  TIME  CARD   FOR  TRAVELERS.  The Golumbia & Eootenay  Steam Navigation Co. Ld.  Operating the fast and elegant steamers  COLUMBIA, NELSON, LYTTON & KOOTENAI  KEVELST4.KE   KOIITE:  One of the above steamers will leave REYRLSTOKE  for Nakusp and Robson at _ a.m. on MONDAYS and  THURSDAYS, arriving at. Robson' at II p.m., where connection is made with the C.������������������'& K. Railway tor Nelson and  ���������all Kootenav Lake points. RETURNING, leaves ROBSON for Nakusp and Revelstoke at 9 p.m. on TUESDAYS  ��������� and FRIDAYS, arriving..'at Revelstoke at 3 p.m. on  Wednesdays and Saturdays, where connection is made  with the C*. P. K. for all points.  <\ LITTLE   DALLES    KOITE:  The same steamer-will leave ROBSON for Trail Creek  and Little Dalles at 5 a.m. on TUESDAYS and FRIDAYS,  arriving at Little Dalles at 9 a.m., where, close connection  is made with the S. F. &.N. 'Railway for Spokane. RETURNING, leaves LITTLE DALLES same day, on arrival of S. F. & N. Railway Company's train at 12:30 p.m.,  for Trail Creek and Robson, arriving, at Robson at G:_0  p.m., where close connection is made with the (_.'&. K.  ���������Railway for Nelson and lake points; and continues on to  Revelstoke as per above schedule.  KOOTENAI' 'LAKE A*.I.    HOSIER'S .rERRY   ItOLTE:  STEAMER NELSON leaves NELSON for Pilot  Bay, Ainsworth, and Kaslo at 8 a.m. on TUESDAYS and  FRIDAY'S, returning via these ports same day; leaves  Nelson for Pilot Bay, Ainsworth, Kaslo, and BONNER'S  FERRY at 3 a.m. on SUNDAYS and WEDNESDAYS.  RETURNING, leaves BONNER'S FERRY for Pilot Bay,  Ainsworth and Nelson at 3 a.m. on MONDAYS and  THURSDAYS.  Regular Passenger Service has been inaugurated on the  Great Northern Railway, and in order to make close connection with trains the above card has been adopted. Passengers for all Kootenay points leave Spokane at 7:30 p.m.  on Sundays and Wednesdays.  ~^fJ/E\LlRl^0s7~  Opposite Hotel Phair, Nelson, B.C.,  Have   opened   out  a select stock  of   Stationery,  Books,  Bibles, Sheet Music, Small Inslrumenls, Sewing  Machine'Needles, Oil, etc., etc., etc  BELL  AND   NORDHEIMER   PIANOS,   BELL  ORGANS  SINGER  SEWING   MACHINES  Tuning and P.epairing promptly attended to.   Prices Reasonable.  J  14  s_r_  Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians of London ;  Member of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.  Corner Silica and Ward Streets, Nelson. Telephone 40.  JOS. PARKIN  NELSON, B.C. ._/  Plasterer,  Bricklayer and Stone-Mason  Contracts  taken  for work  at  all   points   in  West Kootenay.  R. 0. Campbell-Johnston  {of Swansea, India, and tlie United _.lul__..)  METALLURGIST,   ASSAYER,  AND   MINIK3.  ENGINEER.  Properties reported on. All assays undertaken. Furnaces and run.-...ruling plants planned and ������*..<"-..1.  Treatment for ores given. Ores bought and sold. Pox  731,'Vancouver, H. C.   Terms cash.  H0EACE W.  LAW   AND   CONVEYANCING  OUIce near        v~/1   l   l^1-.-  Steamboat LmulinK- KASLO,   B.C.  'o.-.w'-  _3t_js___:3  A . soc. M. Inst. C. K., M. (.an, Soc. U. K.  PROVINCIAL -!- LAND -?- SURVEYOR,  Telephone Connection.  I).   13.  lJOOM-V  Notarv Public.  K. P. \\'h__],ij;v,  Notary Public  BOG-LE & WHALLEl'  .  CO. VEIMCEES  __SU___.CE- AGENTS  All. forms of Agreements- Drawn iip.  lv_I_M___i   BLOCK:,   ______:__ E,  ST.  ___._li__a.ist   i___]___.isr  Plasterer and Bricklayer  Will contract for all kind., of work.    . Iaterials furnished  and estimates ^i\ en for work in any town in  Kootenay Lake Country."  MME   F������.R_    S.ILi:  At   Nelson  and   Pilot Pay o'r delivered at any pohit on  the lake in any quantity.-   Address P.O. box 17, Nelson.  The Balfour Trading. Co.  i;a__kortt.    .s.*v  Merchants, Mining and  Seal  Estate  Agents.  A  complete Stock of Merchandise  and   .liners' Supplies  .Constantly .on��������� Hand.    We  make a  Specially of  English   Clouds of   dine!   imperial ion.  We have several  very desirable lots in  .Halfour for sale  JOHN FIELDING  )  CIVIL ENGINEER, PRO /7.\ CD,._   /.AN/) SURVEYOR.  KASLO and  TIM.' MINKR   O.TICK,   NPLSON,   H.   C.  a     %������  I  i_Lrt  ASSAYER and CHEMIST,  A INS WORTH, P. C.  is prepared to a^say ai! kimls of ere.    Copper assay, by electrolysis.    All orders will receive prompt attention.  Next, door to Ainsworth hotel.  ���������J.   A.  KIRK  .1.   !���������'.  It ITCH IK  KIRK & RITCHIE,  Dominion    and    Provincial    Land  Scrvkvors.  Office   over   Bank    of   British   Columbia.,    Nelson,   J..C.  * _-$  M  "ft_  v.* HOT SPBEJGS NEWS:   AEJSWOETH,  B. C, SEPTEMBEE 28, 1892.  SALE   OF   TOWN   LOTS!  Columbia and Kootenay Railway Nav. Co.  z____-isr-D   x)____p___._Ei._r_i__E__]__TT^   zestEXiSOisr-  This Company now Offers for Sale a Number of Choice Business or Eesidential  Lots on Easy Terms.   Rebate Given for Good Buildings on  BUSINESS     PROPERTY.  FOR PABTIOULAES APPLY   -    -    F.   FLETCHER,  LAND C0MMISSI0NEE, NELSON, B. C.  CO.VSt HEK.S*   WATER   WORKS.  It is time the attention of citizens of Nelson  was drawn to section 44 of the^act incorporating  the kelson Waterworks Co. That section]reads  as follows:���������-  **44.   The Company shall Regulate the distribution and use of the water on all places and for  all purposes, and shall from time to time fix the  rent or price which any owner or occupant of  any house or building who shall use such  water  shall pay for the use thereof; but in nojcase shall  the said Company fix a greater rent than one  dollar a thousand gallows of water, or one dollar  and fifty cents a month from the owner or occupant of any honse or building wherein the number of persons does not exceed four,  and forty  cents per n_ on th per capita for each  and every  additional occupant: Provided, always, the Company shally upon the application of any person  or persons, furnish a sxipply of water within a  reasonable time from the date of such applio  cation, provided always, that the applicant or  applicants deposit with the Company  a sum  sufficient to pay for the actual cost of laying  the necessary service pipe.    If,  after t he said  service pipe is laid, the applicant or applicants  shall pay to the company for water supplied  through such a pipe a sum amounting to double  the cost of laying such pipe, then the said deposit shall be returned by the company to the  said applicant or applicants, otherwise the same  shall be forfeited to the company.   The said  service pipe shall in all cases become and be the  ^property of the .company."  From this it appears that the company is at  present collecting from nearly every consumer  more than double the rent to which it is entitled. Probably it is not doing this knowingly.  Before the company got a charter the rates  were fixed according to the area of floor space  in the houses of -consumers, and the present  scale was adopted. The charter calls for a different .'method of computing the charges, but no  alteration has been made in the scale to meet its  requirements. Hotel-keepers and others in  Nelson can have no difficulty in reckoning up  for themselves the 'maximum rent for which  they are liable, and they can be trusted to refuse to pay any more. Nearly all the present  charges to householders of $3.50 a month must  he reduced to $1.50. And it is to be hoped the  company will take the initiative and present the  citizens with bills which they are legally entitled  to collect. For it need scarcely be pointed out  that the company lays itself open to an action  for damages if it takes any steps to force householders to submit to illegal exactions.  Rich Strike fit'the O. It. Mine.  News was received yesterday that the O. K.  gold mine, owned by C. P. Otidin  of Spokane,  has made a big strike, uncovering the largest  and richest body of free gold ore yet found  in  the Trail creek district.  w. A. JOWETT  I  (Notary Public.)  Mining and Real Estate  BROKER,  Auctioneer and Commission Agent,  IIEPRE8KNTIXO  The Confederation  Lire Association,  the Phoenix Fire  ]��������� Insurance Compaiiy, and the  Provident Fund Accident  t-oeiety ; also the Sandy Craft Foundry Company,  near  Chester, England, makers of ail  kind,   of .mining' ma-'  c hiuery, air compressors, rock breakers, stamps, etc."  THE   ONLY   DAK!>A'XEJ__LES.  The man who has tried it  All his friends tells,  That the best place to sleep  Is at ���������" The Dardanelles. "  No.   1, JOSEPHINE STEEET,   NELSON, B. 0.  Lots for Sale in  "A  n  At Kaslo.  If you wish a sweet sleep, free from the usual bar-room  noise, on a nice clean bed that will make you think of  your home and mother, go to "The Dardanelles."  When weary with a hard day's toil,  And longing for a peaceful night  Which neither noise norVlirfc shall spoil,  " The Dardanelles " will set you right.    At Kaslo.  Nice, now, neat, nobby "Dardanelles."  Adjoining the governfnent townsite of Nelson  AT $125 AND UPWAEDS  With a rebate for buildings erected.   The best residential  property  in  Nelson,  values sure to  increase.    Apply  W. A.  Jowett,  agent   for Nelson and district,  or I lines & Richards, Vancouver, B.C.  W.  A.  JOWETT,  Mining & Real Estate Brokers, Auctioneers & Commission Agents.  JOSKPHINE STKK.KTS, NELSON, H.C.  _*  iist zelsojst :M_______r ___:_^___e?,_s:__ct.  ���������..  ���������:_.:  FLOUR, FEED, and HAT.   GROCERIES OF ALL KINDS.   HAMS and BACON.  DKY GOODS, BEADY-MADE CLOTHING, BOOTS, SHOES, HATS, and CAPS.  _?iss:ixg"c3-  _r____.c_E__:x__B _A_isrx.   fancy goods.  M  m  M  I.  >i_  ������������������_  I  ���������. 4V_M__JIPI  HOT  NEWS.  AINSWOETH, BEITISH  COLUMBIA, WEDNESDAY,  SEPTEMBEK  28,  1892.  NUMBER 55.  TE_  CENTS  While bears iiro pretty well distributed over  the world. North America, has a. fair quota of  the species and is the home at least of tlie 2  largest mid fiercest. South America has only  one, the spectacled bene; Australia none, and  Africa not more than one, if any. Europe and  Asia have several kinds. Strictly, perhaps, we  have but -1 species of the genus Ijrsus, but the  common black bear has at least 3 varieties that  in location, color and other peculiarities are  distinct in the mind of the hunter and woodsman, if not in that of the naturalist. In the  South it has a yellowish color that has given it  the name of the "yellow bear of the Carolinas,"  and in the Rocky mountains a twany brown  marks it as the "cinnamon, hear." The former  of these is smaller and the latter larger than the  typical black bear (U. Atuericamis) that once  roamed our country over in ail wooded districts  east of the plains. Today it is foilud only in  such retired districts as the Adirondack., portions of the Appalachian range, the Dismal  swamp of Virginia, and the swamps of Louisiana, Arkansas and other Southern states. The  barren ground bear of the waste, open places of  the extreme north was for a long time considered likewise a variety of the black bear, but  it has recently been established as a distinct  species (U. Itichardsonii.) It is found plentifully in Alaska. The polar bear (U. Marriti-  mus) often during extreme cold strays within  our limits. When Lewis and Clarke made their  memorable trip to the west they came in contact with that most remarkable of all hears, the  grizzly, which they very appropriately named  U. ferox, but which has more recently, but  not less fitly, styled U. horribilis. Its range is  from the eastern slope of the Rocky momitaius  to the Pacific, with a greater tendency to be  found on the western side of the divide. When  we think of the gray color ami ferocious disposition of this most terrible of all the. cernivora  we are not. surprised that in its literature we  find the name spelled sometimes grizzly (gray)  and sometimes grisly (horrible), words primarily of different significance. The animal is very  variable in color, often, in young especially,  being tpiite black, so thai lo call it. the gray  bear may not always be correct; but I lie other  designation will never be amiss. Routed here  now, hundreds of miles from a specimen, I am  inclined to join the majority and spell il with a  double z, but 1 have seen times when, alone in  the deep tangles of a .mountain si ream, and  tinned only with a slender trout pole, tlie hieroglyphics of certain plantigrade tracks spelt  out "grizzly" in large cups and several Latin  synonyms of "ferox" lilid "horribilis" besides.  Perhaps with Hie exception of the peccary of  Central and South America, there is no animal  known which, when its anger is once aroused,  is so destitute of fear as the grizzly hear of the  lincky mountains. All the bears stand it a  good second, with the polar hear close hy.  The lions, tigers ami various eats attempt escape when overwhelmed by numbers or otherwise worsted, but the grizzly lights it out to the  death. It is perhaps the only bear that deliberately attacks man i_ lis legitimate prey, for all  the, others, unless wounded, or defending the  young, usually escape at his approach. Sometimes, when one ha. come far away from its  haunts to capture the ranchman's stock, it attempts, when discovered, to escape to its jungle  but here it sets a "a thus far" to pursuit, without a consequence. All the other bears are pm-  niverous, feeding on berries, roots, honey and  various vegetable substances, along with an occasional pig, etc. Even the polar bear leaves its  usual fare of fish and seal for a relish of greens  and fruit, when it can be. had, but the grisly  (yes grisly here), is almost exclusively carniver-  ous, with a wonderful penchant for the hunter.  While the cinnamon bear is much milder in his  disposition, he is by no means a spring day, and!  the hunter in the western mountains is apt to  think cayenne pepper bear would have been  equally as appropriate even as a color designation, and much more expressive of some other  traits of the animal. He may be a variety of  the eastern' bear, but like many other things, he  acquires a vigor in the stimulating climate of  these high ranges that very much increase his  size and ferocity. It is this, along with a tendency to magnify everything in the region,  which causes the westerner to style the common  panther (felis concolor) "a mountain lion." I  think the impression., generally prevails that  hears charge their enemies, on.their hind feet,  but this is a mistake. It is true that when attacked this is often the animal's position of defence (though not necessarily always so), because it leaves full swing to the powerful fore-  paws; but if you meet a hear and he rises on his  hind feet it is often done for the purpose of better herring and observation, as in the hares,  marmots, etc., and if yon are in no condition to  fight it out you may likely steal out of his sight  (while he is in ihis position) without being  molested. I know of a tenderfoot who came  out to Estes Park, Colorado, "to kill a bear."  He went armed with a rifle and 2 revolvers, and  alone tracked up a huge cinnamon, which he  found sitting up suddenly before him iu the  turn of the path. The hunter took a tree and  the bear took a walk. Again the hunter descended, swore at the lack of nerve, suddenly  found bruin again on his hind feet around a  point of rocks, when the amateur again took a  tree. As before, while he scrambled up, the  bear ambled nil. This was repented . or 8 times,  when the hunter grew disgusted with himself,  came home, and made the further mistake of  telling, in confidence, one of his friends, In the  mat ing season all hears are irritable and a  mother hear in defence of her cubs is the type  of the greatest fury. All hears do not hibernate. Old males ami barren females seldom do,  except in the extreme northern latitudes. Even  the point- hear Is often found abroad all winter.  It hiw been asserted that no bear will go into  hibernation unless it is extremely fat, and contrary to the usual conception, this fat is not used  up during the semi-torpid state, for the animal  awakes in the spring as fat as when it went in.  The young of many of the species are born at  the close of the hibernating period and the fat  of the mother is rapidly used up in nourishing  them. Otherwise Immediately after the sleeping hear cum. fortli the surplus is rapidly con-  Hivim-d before sufficient food can be found, and  this seems to be largely Us purpose.   The hiber  nation of the bear is not complete torpor, as in  many other animals and reptiles. At any time  the bear can bo aroused. The secretions and  excretions cease, but respiration goes on at a  low rate, and the heart beats correspondingly  in keeping with its demands. The small steaming hole through the snow at times locates the  animal's position, for in the extreme north the  bear instinctively (I am not yet afraid of that  old word) knows the approach of a permanent  snow fall, arid makes a slight excavation beside  a fallen tree and is covered for the winter by a  drift. Further south a hollow log or tree is  used. Sometimes a, cave. Our black bear is the  most hibernating, the polar bear the least.  Cubs of all bears are born blind and not larger  than kittens. This large proportion between  young and adult argues long life, which experience finds true, for bears have been known to  live for 40 years and, like hogs, grow as long as  they live. Like hq^s, they are fond of plastering their bodies in summer with mud. Ibis  said a grizzy will not cliui b a tree���������but he is a  good stayer at Its foot. ���������'  The Kltrate Fields of Chile.  The caliche, or raw nitrate of soda, is not  equally distributed over the pampas of Chile.  The most abundant deposits are situated on the  slopes of the hills, which probably formed the  shores of the old lagoons. An expert can tell  from the external appearance of the ground  where the richest deposits are likely to be found.  The caliche itself is not found on the surface of  the plain, but is covered up by 2 layers. The  uppermost, known technically as chuca, is of a  friable nature, and consists of a sand and gypsum, while the lower���������the costra���������is a rocky  conglomerate of clay, gravel and fragments of  feldspar. The caliche, varies in thickness from  a few inches to 10 or 12 feet, and rests on a soft  stratum of earth called cova. The mode in  which the caliche is excavated is as follows; A  hole is bored through the chuca, costra and caliche layers till the cova or soft earth is reached  below. It is then enlarged until it is wide  enough to admit of a small boy being let down  who scrapes away the earth below the ealieheBO  as to form a little hollow cup. Into this a  ehorge of gunpowder is introduced and subsequently exploded. The caliche Is thon separated  hy means of. picks from the overlying oostm  and carried to the refinery. Both in appearance  and composition it varies very muoh. In oolor  tt.miiy be snow white, sulphur, lemon, orange,  violet, blue a_d sometimes  brown,  like tow  sugar  :   . . .;..   From Hi- AriR-nUue HeeuliUo.  The outlook in the labor market nf the Argentine republic Is not particularly encouraging.  During the year 1801, 78,507 immigrants arrived  in the Argentine repnhlie fis compared with  210,108 in ISO). Immigration during the Itisb  ��������� months of the year 1801 increased more than  was expected, and the emigration dimlshed  considerably. Business has revived somewhat  during the past few months and work Is not so  scarce as !���������'��������� was, but it will be some time before  all those out of employment find work. With  regard to railroads matters are in a muoh bettor  condition During 1890,1328 miles wore opened,  and In 1891,728 miles were  constructed.

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