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Western Clarion Mar 16, 1923

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 WESTERN
N
./
Official Organ of
THE SOCIALIST PARTY OF CANADA
HISTORY
ECONOMICS
PHILOSOPHY
No. 887.
NINETEENTH YEAR.      Twice a Month
VANCOUVER, B. C, MARCH 16, 1923.
FIVE CENTS
Nuts for the Cracking
ECONOMIC conferences, peace conferences and
war conferences-, armies of occupation and
armies of unemployment. Counter-revolutions
and near revolutions. Home Rule for Ireland and
the same rule for Europe. Budgets that do not
budge-yet. Debts that won't be paid and debts
that cannot be paid. Prosperity for the master and
misery for the slave.
The yellow press at the present time is giving
prominent display space to debts due one country
from another* every magazine you pick up has an
article dealing with it from various angles, and it is
the most important subject that the respective nations have to deal Avith at the present time. It
would take up too much space to give the figures of
the various countries that are in debt to one another, so we will take the largest creditor nation,
which is the United States of America, and show in
what proportion the various countries are indebted
to her, and also the foreign investments of the United States. The debts, according to the figures before us, are so colossal in comparison to the Avages
the worker gets, that it makes him gasp and sometimes forget what he owes to the grocer on the
corner. But seeing he does not settle up on the
Saturday he is rudely awakened on Monday by the
collector; then there is some tall figuring to be done
so that he can get past till next pay day.
Now if the average worker would try and draw
comparisons of how he gets his living, "that is the
Ai*age system." What he has to do to get wages,
what he does with them and the position he is in
before and after receiving them. Apply the same
method to the debts of the various countries and
you will find them in a similar position to that
which you have often been in yourself.
A lot of people are interested in those debts,
as they are the creditors, And a Avhole mob seems
to be interested in them, supposing that if
they Avere paid, the amounts would have
to be extracted from their bodies. You get 15,000
Germans demonstrating in New York city against
the French entering the Ruhr, and demonstrations
in the Rhur district itself against the imprisonment,
arrest or deportation of members of the master class
or their apologists. The Labor Party of England
are opposed to it, and all Britain's colonies, and
the Hearst papers in the U. S. A. Last hut not least
in opposition to present French policy you have the
artful hypocrite David Lloyd George. Well, I don't
blame him, but it is amusing to see the workers demonstrating in their choice of masters. The press
throughout thc country protests vigorously as to the
methods used by the French in collecting reparations, and the dear people of the U. S. A. are applauding it to the echo. It is a shame, they say,
to attack a crippled nation; Avhile at the same time
every city in the United States is getting its supply
of zear gas, also instructions how to use it, and
masks for self protection.
At the beginning of the Avorld war, every nation
engaged promised its last man and its last dollar.
By this time most of us are aware of the heavy casualties, and some even wondered hoAv the last man
proposition did not come true. But our object here
is to deal with the dollar, as it came last, and is first
and foremost in all matters so far as debts are concerned. America won the war, won the markets of
the world and Avon the hatred of every nation in
Europe, in spite of Hoover's political relief administration. If you can concentrate your mind for a
few minutes on the following figures re the investments of Americans abroad you Avill be subject to
shock. Europe and the contintental poAvers don't
know Avhere they are at. Foreign investments since
November 14th, 1918, classified according to countries, are here reproduced from "The Nation's Business," the off ical organ of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, published in Washington, D. C :—
Gold
Great Britain   $278,179,000
Canada    296,282,000
Australia       25,351,725
France     330,825,000
Italy     25,000,000
Belgium     107,500,000
Switzerland      67,000,000
Netherland   .-.    57,270,000
Germany    „       220,000
Norway    33,690,000
Sweden      25,000,000
Denmark     90,000,000
Czecho-Slovakia      21,500,000
Jugo-Slavla       25,000,000
China         5,500,000
Brazil     190,000,000
Argentina  ..'...li....™.'...   78,095,000
Chile 46,500,000
Bolivia       24,000,000
Uruguay      13,500,000
Dutch East Indies   100,000,000
Dominican Republic       6,700,000
Cuba         5,000,000
Philippine  Islands       12,035,000
Hawaii Islands     1,850,000
Total, Gold  $1,865,997,725
The foregoing list is not complete as the amount
to China should be eleven millions and Chile should
be sixty-four millions. But it is close enough for
any one to see the position of America to the other
countries even since the Avar was declared finished.
Noav let us glance back to that period when democracy Avas at stake in the year of our Lord 1914, and
vieAv the standing of the four greatest powers in
i elation to each other so far as investments are concerned. We find them occupying the following
position: Foreign investments, Great Britain 20 billions; France 8 billions; Germany 5 billions and America 3 billion; these are the approximate figures.
Noav at the present moment of writing America has
close on 9 billions invested abroad, and that amount
is* exclusive of the money loaned to the Allies during the period of the war. Germany's debts are
Aviped out; you may also say the same of France
as her foreign investments Avere principally confined to Russia, and those days are gone for ever
so far as Russia is concerned. Great Britain, according to Sir George Paish, Britain's leading economist, is still a creditor nation to the extent of
three billion dollars in foreign securities. So Ave
find a complete reversal so far as their former positions are concerned.
Next let us take into consideration the loans
granted by the American Government to the Allies
during the Avar, which, with defaulted interest now
reach the enormous figure of eleven billions of dollars. And the largest debtor nation on the list is
Great Britain with a sum of $4,760,000,000. And
of course, by the way, she is the only debtor nation
that is trying to arrange plans of how she can wipe
out the principal and interest on her war debt to
the United States. Leave it to John Bull; he sure
ean advertise and get it cheap. Arthur Brisbane
of the Hearst policy please note. Following is a
complete statement of the war debts owed to the
United States by the European and other continental nation's, showing the percentage of total
amounts per capita, and the yearly amount with interest that the different nations would have to pay
if worked out in twenty-five yearly instalments:
Debts to U. S. A. and % of If liquidated in 25 annul-
total debt, ties at 6 %
% of      per Amount
Owes to U. S. A.      total     capita yearly
1 2 3 4
Great Britain ....$4,675,492,101 12.3% $6.07 $280,500,000
France    3,716,514,527 7.2 6.71 223,000,000
Italy   1,850,313,782 10.1 3.02 111,000,000
Belgium ',     420,263,997 8.9 3.16 25,200,000
Russia      223,374,644 (♦) .10 13,400,000
Poland       146,362,161 (*) .37 8,800,000
Czech Slovakia....    100,988,919 1.1 .44 6,100,000
Lithuania         5,479,791 (•) .13 300,000
Jugo Slavla       56,593,367 8.0 .30 3,400,000
Rumania        40,186,175 (•) .13 2,400,000
Austria        25,499,052 (•) .24 1,500,000
Esthonla        15,388,814 (•) .50 900,000
Greece            15,000,000 1.8 .18 900,000
Armenia       13,039,178 (*) .11 800,000
Finland         8,880,266 2.3 .15 500,000
Cuba          8,575,000 9.8 .17 500,000
Latvia         5,519,250 (*) .20 300,000
Hungary         1,786,986 (*) .13 100,000
Liberia              28,219 1.8 — 1,000
Totals $11,328,774,229 $21.11   $679,601,000
(*) Less than one per cent, of the national debt.
Note.—Column (1( shows the actual debt, principal and
accrued interest, owing to the United States Treasury at
the first of January, 1922, as reported by the U. S. A.
Treasury.
2—Only Great Britain proper, not the British Empire,
is listed under Great Britain above.
3—All the foregoing figures are in U. S, gold currency.
Now we have all the latest figures that are published as regards debts, and there is no doubt that
they are increasing day by day, as the figures on exports and imports so far as the U. S. A. is concerned are all to her credit. So the gold is still
dribbling in to that sweet land of liberty. The main
part of the programme now is can those debtor
countries pay, and Avhat will be the method of paying? Economists of every hue and shade all the
Avorld over have put forward some very flimsy propositions, and they are at their wits end to find
some solution for the problem. Britain cannot really
pay her share in pound notes, nor can the other
countries pay theirs in marks, francs, lire or roubles.
The budding financiers who bought a few hundred
when they were "cheap" find they cannot even
trade them for relief purposes now. There is only
one Avay that they can wipe them out, and that is
Avith gold. That they cannot do as there is not
enough gold in existence to pay off the national
debt of Great Britain. The next method that is on
their minds is having a balance of exports over
their imports, and that is foolish so far as the large
debt is concerned. Of course there are other factors that enter into this scheme of things that
are Avorth going over. Could the debtor nation
get hold of American dollars through other channels, such as immigration remittances, that is, part
of wages received by the laborer in America and
shipped back to the debtor country. Then there are
gifts of money that often go to the debtor country,
(Continued on page 8) PAGE TWO
A      , n
WESTERN   CLARION
Historical Materialism
BY PROF. A. D. LINDSAY,     Chair of Moral Philosophy, Glasgow University.
R.|
EDITOR'S NOTE: The following is a report (from "The
Forward," Glasgow) of a lecture by Professor Lindsay delivered at the Metropole Theatre therey
Iwant to discuss tonight the doctrine of economic determinism. It is in itself a doctrine difficult
and abstract enough. And to save us from needless difficulties, let me begin by saying that I don't
want to discuss the general or metaphysical doctrine
of determination or freewill. That is a subject the
discussion of Avhich Milton assigns to ihe devil in
hell with eternity before them.
My subjct is simple, more concrete,and more
practical. It is the doctrine that there is a relentless necessity about the development of economic
conditions—that in economic history we see a development which the will of no one can effect, Avhich
comes about by the necessity working out of blind
laws, whieh we cannot alter or change but only
classify. It is sometimes called Economic Determinism, sometimes Historic Materialism.
The best statement of the doctrine is in the
preface to Marx's "Critique of Political Economy."
You will find it printed at the end of Engels' pamphlet on Historical Materialism, published by the
Socialist Labour Party.*
The doctrine as stated in that passage and in
Engels involves two assertions, 'connected but distinct. The first is that economic development proceeds according to inevitable, necessary and predictable laAvs. '' The material transformation of the
economic conditions of production can be determined with the precision of natural science," says
Marx. Engels and many of Marx's followers have
tried to show hoAv various stages in the development
of production and exchange have illustrated in their
evolution this necessary predictable laAV. According to them, if Ave had enough knowledge Ave could
in the light of this theory predict the future development of economic conditions Avith the same
certainty with which astronomers predict eclipses^
That is the first assertion, economic determinism in the strictest sense of the term. It is not a
view peculiar to Marx. The individualist economists of the early nineteenth century held it, talking
as they did of the iron laws of political economy.
The second, and perhaps more striking, assser-
tion is that this scientifically predictable economic
development is the only real factor in .social de-*,
velopment.
The ideals that men have—that they believe in
and work for; their moral notions, their political aspirations, have, according to this view, no independent reality, they are simply the reflexions of the
automatic reactions to the facts of economic necessity which determine our A\Thole existence.
We find statements in Marx that express Avith
uncompromising bareness this historical materialism
or Economic Determinism in its full sense. It is a
theory Avhich claims (1) that economic development
can be foretold with scientific accuracy, because it
is not the product of the living will. (2) That economic development determines all other forms of
social activity.
Now, here is a case of doctrines whose power
lies in union. "How happy could Ave be with either
were t'other dear charmer aAvay." For, say, only
the first doctrine were true—that economic developments Avorked by laws not to be modified by human
will. Well, we get on after all, very well with a
great many forces and activities, the laws of whose
nature is not to be modified by human will. We
cannot alter the habits and nature of electricity
by any known amount of human will or thought,
but we can control largely the part electricity is to
play in our social life. We can use it more or less;
•   See also ,'Capitai7rFirst Nine Chapters (Vancouver
Ave can introduce it here and exclude it there. Its
use to society in a sense depends on our being able
to count on the invariable laws of its nature. If,
then, we Avere faced merely with the inevitableness
of economic.development Ave should still feel masters of our fate, inasmuch as we might control our
social activities and control the amount and place
of economic activity in the social scheme;-use it as
Ave use electricity.
J.f again the second only Avere true—if economic
development controlled all other social activities,
but were itself controllable-by human will, we could
at least feel our problems simplified. Once Ave attended to the economic problem and set that right,
all else would be added to us, since that controls all
other social activities.
But if you must accept both doctrines unmodified, Avhat they come to is this :—
Will cannot determine or change economic development.
Economic development determines all the rest
of social life.
Therefore will determines, and can determine,
nothing in your life.
Socialist ideals and individualistic ideals alike
are ineffective—mere mirages—fallacious reflexions
of necessary economic changes!
I am not here tonight to attack or to defend
Marx. But let me say before passing on that though
there is a very striking statement of this theory in
Marx to which I referred, it is not at all certain
that the theory in its rigid form was permanently
held by him.
Engels said at a later date, that "when anyone
distorts our statement so as to read that the economic factor is the sole element, he converts the statement, into a meaningless, abstract, and absurd
phrase."
What Marx aa^is really after, can, I think, be
seen by his repeated contrast between scientific and
Utopian Socialism. He was insisting that ideals
must spring from actual facts and actual possibilities, that the source of all successful action is an unprejudiced survey of all possibilities of the situation, that if we would make society what it is capable of becoming, Ave must first learn to know it as
it is. That is a lesson that all idealists have to
learn, and a very important one. And the Socialism
of Marx's time was perhaps especially in need of it.
Action to make things what they might he, must be
preceded by knowledge of what they are.
I think myself that that is what Marx was really
after, but, as I say, I am not concerned with Marx
but with the theory.
Noav. notice in the first place what a depressing
and deadening theory it is, if you hold it consistently, if you really hold that our wills and purposes,
even our collective purposes, are nothing—are not a
real factor at all. Hoav ill that suits with the idealism nnd the mutual self-sacrifice Avhich is so evident in the Labour movement. Even if your economic determinism is optimistic, as the Marxian is,
even if it tells you that the mechanical processes of
economic chancre are bringing about a state of affairs Avhen all man's wants will be satisfied; do you
think man would reallv accent that at the price of
.bavins* to hold that his will is completely ineffective, that his purposes are not really his but. the
mere reflection of mechanical causes? I don't believe tbat for a moment. Determinism has sometimes been an inspiring creed when it has been
allied Avith religion. Our forefathers were inspired
to do great thiners by believing that they were the
instruments by AA'hich God worked out his purposes
in the world; but can anyone be inspired to action
bv believing tbat he is the passive instrument of
blind, purposeless, economic force?
But tbe fact tbat a theory is depressing and dead
ening doesn't prove that it is untrue. Let us begin
by noticing Iioav it has an obvious appearance of
truth at first sight.
You know the American story of Rip Van
Winkle, the young man who had a magical sleep in
a cave, and, after sleeping for 50 or 100 years—I
forget how long—woke up to find everything
changed and unfamiliar. Well, imagine a man to
have fallen into such a magical sleep in, say about
1770, and to ,have slept for 100 years—or, if you
like, longer—and to wake up either in 1870 or 1920.
He would be dumfounded at the change that had
come over the country. Imagine him put down in
an industrial district of Lancashire, and suppose
he felt he simply must find out Avhat had put it into
the heads of people to change tlie beautiful green
Lancashire he had known into that great sprawling
mass of drab, ugly brick; or suppose him to go into
a modern factory and contrast it Avith the kind of
handicraft he had known. Wouldn't he begin to
say: What has put it into people's heads to make
England like this? You can imagine him asking
men and Avomen he met if they liked the country to
be like that, or if they liked factory production, and
Le AA'ould mostly be told: No! they didn't. "Then
Avhy on earth have you made tbis change?" he
would say. But to that question he would get no
answer, and if he persisted and Avent from the common people to the people in power, he might find
some people more pleased with AAdiat had happened
than others, but he would never find the man who
had done it. They would all have to say: It has just
groAvn up, or steam power has done it. And if by
another miracle you could suppose him to go gradually back in time till he got to 1770 again, he would
never find anyone who had willed the state of affairs
that lias come into existence. He Avould find that
people had all sorts of purposes—good, bad, and indifferent—and had often achieved their purposes—
but for this whole transformation of England with
which Ave suppose him concerned, he would find no
author. J.f he met an economic historian, he would
perhaps be told that the Avhole thing began with the
discoveries made in the last quarter of the Eighteenth Century, with the inventions of Watt and
Arkwright, and Ave may imagine him saying: "Well,
I knew James Watt before I fell asleep in 1770, and
he was a decent fellow, but I am sure he had nothing like this in his head. He was -interested in improving machines, but no more." So long as he
asked the question, Why? he would get no answer
to any effect.
And so he would find most people agreeing that
this stupendous change had just happened: had been
willed and intended by nobody. So he could easily
come to think that these economic changes have
come about independently of will, and must be due
to some blind necessity outside of man altogether.
These are the facts that make men speak of1 economic determination. They find themselves part
of a great neAv system of industry over which, as
individuals, they have no control: Avhich seems to
have no author, Avhether hero or villian—which has
been Avished by none, and Avhich Aveighs Avith irresistible force upon their lives.
Now, notice this further curious fact. Our im>
aginary Rip Van Winkle might well say in reflecting
on all his experiences: '' The funny thing about this
period is that it has been one in which men have
laid enormous stress on the freedom of the individual. This tremendous change has been accompanied
by a gradual cutting away of all restrictions on
economic freedom. Men have insisted on making
themselves free, and they find themselves in chains
to an economic system." I think that the economic
historian Avould support this paradox and say that
the economic interpretation of history applies much
more forcibly to a time when economic relations are WESTERN   CLARION
PAGETHREl
uncontrolled, to a time of free economic competition, than it does to earlier periods of history Avhen
economic relations are closely controlled by custom
or tradition. This is the seeming paradox of modern
industrialism.
There are the facts we have to reckon with. The
question is as to their interpretation, and there are
tAvo methods of interpreting them: the one whicii
says that human will does nothing—that economic
forces are blind and uncontrollable, and the other
that the blindness of the result—which can't be de-
' nied—comes from the Avay in which people act—a
way which can be changed and corrected.
Noav, if you said to Rip Van Winkle that human
Avill does nothing, he would say, if he looked unpre-
judicely at the facts, "Oh, nonsense! In all this
period men have been setting purposes before themselves and have very often achieved them; couldn't
find anyone who Avilled the whole thing, but I can
find lots of smaller—more limited purposes—Avhich
men did set before themselves, Avhich they did
achieve. The whole thing has been willed by none;
but will has been operative all the time, and isn't it
possible that the Avhole result is the accumulative
effect of all these limited wills, and may it not be
corrected if Ave can somehoAv correct the accumulated results of our limited wills by combined action
in the light of a common purpose.
Let us take a simple example where you can see
Iioav a result Avhich none has Avilled comes about as
the result of limited wills and can be corrected. If
there is a fire in a theatre, men sometimes rush and
block the doorways and crush one another to death.
That is not a result which anyone has Avilled, yet it
is quite easy to see how it has come about, Each
man acts for himself regardless of what the others
are doing; but the fact that all are doing the same
thing is to produce the deplorable result which no
one has willed.
The remedy is simple. It is not merely that people should cease to think oi themselves, and should
only think of others. If people believed that the
one thing desirable was to be unselfish, and let other
people go first, then no one could ever get out of the
theatre. Mere unselfishness will not do. The remedy is organised combined action, in order to get
people out of the theatre as quickly as possible. That
needs some unselfishness, because people have t°
be got to agree to go out in the order that is best,
not for themselves individually, but for the whole
crowd. It needs, above all, this combined action in
the light of the Avhole situation. Economic conditions are the accumulated results of millions of individual actions Avith limited finite purposes. Individuals cannot control or change them by acting
individually, because they are caused by the combined results of individual Avills.
In so far as you substitute common action, inspired by some common purpose, and directed by
knowledge of the facts, you can cure the blind results in exactly the same way as you can cure the
blind results of the theatre panic.
What is Avanted is knoAvledge and combined
action.
And, uoav, if Rip Van Winkle will look back
again at the period he will see firstly that there is a
real relation between thc free unregulated character
of economic relations and the general blind result—
that the apparent paradox is really a case of causal
relation; and (2) that as men became aware of what
was happening, they began to take control—to take
common action—to regulate in all kinds of Avays the
blind results of economic forces. And isn't this
just what Socialism glands if or—knowledge and
common action?
We find some confirmation of this view in Marx
himself, for at the end of the very passage in the
"Critique of Political Economy," from which I have
quoted, he refers to the end of the class struggle as
the end of "the prehistoric period," seeming to
imply that once blind and unregulated conflict ceases, and the community as a Avhole takes control of
economic conditions, history will really begin, because then for the first time, by his view, man will
be the controller of his destiny.
THE DOUGLAS "SCHEME.'
C~> OMRADE Peter T. Leckie, having noticed
evidences of anxiety on the part of Com.
-^ McNey concerning Peter's present temperature, Avrites to say he has not reached the obituary
avenue yet and has no special prejudices in floAvers.
As a matter of fact the irrepressible Peter has been
recently engaged in tilting a lance (so to speak)
With the editor of "The Ottawa Citizen," the latter
being a disciple of Major Douglas. Here follow
some remarks addresed by P. T. L. to the editor of
'The OttaAva Citizen:"
THE  REMEDY  FOR   UNEMPLOYMENT
Editor, Citizen: Senator Robertson's statement.—in your
editorial of Tuesday re above, you set forth the following
remedy for unemployment, etc.
"Prices would be regulated as outlined in Major
C. H. Douglas' latest economic work, 'Credit-Power
and Democracy,' by the ratio of total national production to total national consumption.   In Canada,
the ministet of finance, or other responsible authority, would ascertain from the Dominion bureau of
statistics  that the value  of total national production last year amounted to 7,000 million dollars. In
the same period, total national consumption would
possibly amount to 3,500 million dollars.   This ratio
of 2 to 1 would determine prices.   The minister of
finance would issue an order to the retail merchants
that all Canadian-made goods should be sold to the
immediate consumer at half-cost.   The difference between price and cost would be made up to the merchant by an issue of treasury notes or bills from the
Dominion treasury."
Being interested in the social problem, 1 wduld ask a
few pertinent questions arising from the above paragraph,
if the consumer could buy all commodities when sold
at half price, which is the real wealth, what could the
merchants buy with the treasury notes or bills  issued
from the Dominion treasury, to make up the difference between price and cost?
Anyone who has studied the history of legislation endeavoring to fix prices knows it to be a history of failures.
Here is the dilemma, 1 find myself in on this subject:
If prices cannot be fixed as history proves, the merchants'
grant of treasury notes to make up the difference between price and cost will increase prices just as the treasury notes did during the war. On the other hand, concede that prices can be fixed and the consumer buy all the
commodities at half price, what is left for th^ merchant to
buy with their treasury notes granted by the government?
—PETER T. LECKIE, Bronson Ave., Ottawa.
To Avhich the editor of "The Citizen" replies:
Treasury notes at the present time are used for financial credit purposes. They would furnish new credit
facilities just as effectively under the scheme outlined by
Major C. H. Douglas. Does Mr. Leckie doubt the capacity
of modern industry to supply the increased demand for
goods when demand is stimulated by the new issue of
credit notes.
The Douglas scheme does not propose to fix prices.
There is a difference between fixing and regulating. Prices
would be regulated by supply and demand, automatically.
When total national consumption only amounted to half
of total national production in a given period, price would
be half of cost. When consumption tended to equal production, prices would rise in strict proportion. When
production increased, prices Avould fall likeAvise in strict
proportion
Comrade Leckie thinks this is not a very good
"showing" for a man who is an expert on the
Douglas "scheme," and he says:
"Mr. Leckie does not doubt the capacity of modern industry to produce goods to meet any demand made by
new issues of notes. But the rub is that if the cousun^rs
or workers were benefited by the reduction of juices to half
their cost as stated in your first paragraph, the real wealth
being all consumed, the treasury notes issued would have
a call on immediate production and we would be. in military language, 'as you were.'
"You say prices would be regulated by supply and demand, as if that law did not work now; and this very law
would most certainly raise prices with the issue of treasury notes to compensate the merchants for cutting prices
in half.
"The last part of the editor's note regarding rising and
falling of prices is just Avhat goes on under the present
system."
P. T. L. says thc Douglas "scheme" is gathering
adherents from the business element, not so much
on account of any soundness it possesses but because
they are carried away with the idea of freeing themselves from the financial interests Avho levy a heavy
toll in return for credit advanced. Comrade Leckie
seconds the recently expressed request of Com. D.
MacPherson that "Geordie" revieAV the Douglas
proposals and outline their worth or otherwise.
A PRACTICAL UNDERSTANDING FOR THE
WORKERS.
BY SID EARP.
IN attempting to interest the members of the
Avorking class in the only issue which requires
their serious attention, and that,—in the question of their release from the servitude imposed
upon them by the laAvs and usage of Modern Cap-
ilalism, it is somewhat of a puzzle as to.how best to
approach and convince them of the truths of scientific Socialism. One thing appears to be certain:
the mere presentation of a revolutionary creed, however lurid and forcefully Avorded it may be, meets
with little success; rather is it a dismal failure in
so far as results are considered. And that is the
method of practical men. According to their immediate economic condition, alloAving as well for
temperamental factors, so do men vieAv any neAV
idea that is presented to them.
Also, Avhen it is clearly understood that under
existing social conditions, the process of gaining a
livelihood is purely one of free competition, one with
another, the apparent failure of the revolutionary
movement to achieve any importance in the affairs
of mankind, will be realized. Viewing the simple
facts of working class life, Avhat is the popular desire? Employment: Avork of any kind, however degrading and useless it might be; failing which, the
cry for a pauper's dole. True it is, that in every
land there are small groups of Avorkers Avho realize
the hopelessness of gaining satisfaction in this way.
But it is little they can do in bringing to light or
understandng, the real and fundamental task before Avhich mankind must sooner or later sink his
incidental problems. The nature of mat task is the
establishment of social life upon a new basis of administration, w hereby the material requirements of
all those who partake in the needful Avork of the
world will have social assurance. This possible
form of administration, in which, if it is given some
consideration, can be perceived Avide scope for those
fettered constructive faculties within the human
mind, awaits one thing before it can become a reality. It is no less than the general and practical realization of the social nature of modern forces of production. By their failure to grasp the significance
of this item, Modern Society is Avrithing in torture,
mental and physical.
This of course, seems a weighty proposition to
talk about, and is so completely foreign to ordinary
Avorking class thought that small notice is taken of
it. Nevertheless, in those minds uncontaminated by
the revolutionary jargon which is usually accepted
as revolutionary thought, it does not go Avithout acceptance. And in this there comes to the revolutionary movement a mighty support.
The Socialist position is not popular among the
Avorkers, and the cause of this is not difficult to
find. It demands more than enthusiasm for a political programme. It requires a persistent study
into human relationships and a knowledge of those
social forces before which civilization must break
or bend to conformity. But the acquirement of an
understanding such as this docs not possess any
commercial value; and moreover, in that market
where the sale of human energy goes by the term,
employment, it is likely to prove a handicap. In
Capitalist Society, an admittance of the truth
"Knowledge is PoAver," carries with it much reservation ; it depends upon whose interests are to be
served. HoAvever, there is no occasion for glooming.
One by one the institutions set up to assist mankind
in his attempt to live by selling things, are falling
into disuse, and his gods are tumbling all around
him. In so far as the Avorking class are concerned,
their noses arc still very close to the grindstones of
industry; downward is their gaze. Later and
strangely, will the wheels surely slacken and cease
revolving. In that day perforce, their gaze will
shift, upward and around; and the pathway of
mankind will take a sharp and sudden turn. May
Ave be at the turning. -:---—.-
PAGE FOUR
WESTERN   CLARION
Western Clarion
A Journal ot History, Economics, Philosophy,
and Current Events.
Published twice a month by the Socialist Party ot
Canada, P. 0. Box 710, Vancouver, B. C.
Entered at G. P. O. as a newspaper.
Editor Ewen  MacLeod
SUBSCRIPTION:
Canada, 20 Issues     $1.00
Foreign, 16 issues     $1.00
Onn,f ****'*• numDer is on vour address la/bel your
flXK'iibscription expires with next issue.
wvwpromptly.
Renew
VANCOUVER, B. C, MARCH 16, 1923
A REVIVAL OF LEARNING?
AT the present time in socialist circles, and
especially socialist study circles, there is prevalent something of a tendency toward
reconsideration of the concept of social change
as agreed upon in the light of .socialist understanding, and it is the pleasant duty of the
Clarion to welcome the spirit of serious enquiry in
such matters. Events, as they have transpired in
the world at large in recent year3, have given impetus in the general mind toward broader enquiry
into social relationships, all of which, no doubt, has
a tendency toward a comprehension by society at
large of the nature of the troubles that beset it as
a social order. In this process of recurring events,
ideas change in unexpected places. If the events
are weighty enough to upset the smooth running of
the social machine, then the machine runs somewhat
out of gear and ideas are subject to change accordingly. If events move rapidly, ideas are the more
likely to come quickly under amendment, and this
applies to all who are affected—even to.the socialists.
There can be no doubt that the present world of
socialists has been provided with enough material,
since 1914 to date, to encourage unrest in all avenues
of settled opinion. This has been apparent enough,
as the present unsettled condition of the various
socialist schools of thought bears witness, to say
nothing of the dismemberment of the several sections of the movement in general. All parties are
or have been affected, including our own.
The past few years have occupied the socialist
movement—we are using the term broadly—in internal strife, mainly over policies and tactics to be
considered as means toward an end, and even there
almost all parties in dispute have betrayed sufficient inconsistency to encourage enquiry into
method, as method is applied in the socialist world
of thought. The Socialist mind has been seriously
disturbed into analysing its own aims and objects,
its manner of approach toward their attainment, its
immediate possibilities and limitations and the
weight and influence of the forces that bear upon
its progress. In all this there is a tendency to go
back to the books and see if there has been anything taken for granted over-hastily; to see if the
socialist case is sound or if it has been properly
considered and understood, or if its outline needs
extension.
Happily, the S. P. of C. mind is not immune from
disturbance. "We say this in full view of any who
may think us overly well satisfied with ourselves
or who are ill enough acquainted Avith us to think
we are devoted to constancy for its own sake, or as
an everlasting creed. We sense a sort of "revival
of learning" in our own ranks and we are glad to
see it. It appears in a questioning attitude, manifesting inquiry into the doctrine of thc class struggle, the limitations of the materialist interpretation
of history, the revolutionary conceptof sudden social
change, the socialist point of view, and so forth and
so on, all to be confirmed, amended or recast. All
well and good.
Now there should be usefulness in the serious
discussion of such matters and it is unlikely that
discussion is all confined to one area. If it is not
prevalent throughout the country then it should be
broadcasted through the Clarion columns so that
it may reach all corners. If it already prevails
throughout the country then the Clarion columns
should be the medium wherein the various points
of view are set forth to be exchanged all around.
So to begin Avith we ask for whatever may come
along of interest in these matters. It is to be supposed that from interesting discussion there should
come interesting manuscript. There will be those,
of course, Avho Avill excuse themselves under the
plea that they can't write or they can't spell. They
will be the critics. Let's have the argument, spelled
ill or well.
A Avord as to space. Space, we suppose, will, accord
with the readers' likelihood of sustaining interest in
the subjects discussed, or of our OAvn judgment under the circumstances. We are not disposed to welcome overlengthy manuscript. We trust to the Avriters' appreciation of our limited size, and of the fact
that in a bi-monthly journal interest on one topic under discussion is hard to sustain for very long. Our
remarks above, hastily recorded and in which Ave
have scarcely had time to dot the I's and cross the
T's need not at all serve as a pattern, either in subject matter or in presentation. It appears that there
is a tendency to reconsider everything, the S. P. of
C'.s viewpoint included. Very good. Write it doAArn.
COMMERCIAL "DEVELOPMENT."
SOME time ago I read in a commercial horticultural paper an article dealing with the enactment of laws for the protection of certain species of Polypodium and some climbing ferns, to prevent their eradication by commercialisation. Those
natural greens were valuable to the trade for us in
table and wedding decorations, as well as other
floral work, and therefore eagerly bought up Avhen
offered for sale. With a growing demand, prices
stiffened. Higher prices caused a more active search
for the plants. Nobody thought of replanting them.
They decreased in number. The supply fell off,
prices rose on account of this and at last those gems
of Nature were threatened with extinction. An
insignificant fact, you will say. It may be; but not
so if viewed from the vieAvpoint of the economist,
not to mention the lover of nature or the artist. It
shows too plainly the ultimate result of commercial
development of the natural resources. If there
would have been no profit in gathering those plants
they Avould have been left undisturbed, a source
of joy and pleasure to scientists, artists and lovers
of nature for generations to come. The loss of dollars and cents cannot express this; the damage done
is irreparable, a heavy price to pay for greed of
profit, for commercial "development."
Another instance: When I. worked in London,
a Hindoo Somewhere in the Himalayas discovered
a spot where Lypripedium Faivisanum grew plentifully. The plant was not one of the most beautiful
lady-slippers, but extremely rare and valuable for
breeding purposes, I mean the production of new
and improved varieties of Lypripedium. My employers paid a good price for them and got eventually more than they Avanted in this deal. The plants
had sold before discovery of this new habitat for
several guineas and could be bought, Avhen I worked
in Chelsea, for about 2s and 6d. If the Hindoo
would have sold them in the open market prices
Avould have droped to zero. So "our firm" had to
buy them to prevent this. Our friend in the Himalayas made good money out of this but in time he
Avas able to kill the goose, that laid the golden egg,—
to eradicate the plant. If there Avould have been
no profit in it, he Avould not have "developed" the
natural resources of the Himalayas, the Lypripedium Avould yet beautify the valley in which it was
found.
I promise not to make this entirely a lecture on
gardening, arts and similar matters of lofty ideals;
but before proceeding to more practical matters
1 Avould like to point out a few other facts that
have to deal with commercial "development" in
gardening. The rose was originally grown on account of its perfume. In fact most people associate roses with the sense of satisfaction to their
olfactory organs. But take the modern rose. Where
is its smell? We florists heve developed the form
and size of the rose and to that have sacrificed its
smell. Furthermore we have weakened its vitality.
We have developed it commercially with a view
to profit, to profit alone. Take fruit trees. We
have developed their bearing capacity to such an
extent that their vitality has been seriously weakened and they fall much easier victims to insect
pests and diseases than formerly—again commercial
development, production to sell, production for profit.
All this might appear far-fetched and trivial to
the casual observer, and for this reason I will come
closer home and illustrate commercial "development" with matters familiar to most Canadians. A
short time ago a howl of rage Avas going through
the press about the Avay the Avicked Jap was exploiting Cascara bark and eshausting local natural
supplies of it. He was only doing the same thing
our lumber barons are doing to the cedar forests,
the pulp trees and other timber limits. He was commercially "developing" the natural resources of the
country. He was exploiting them, without regard
to posterity, because it Avas profitable for him to
do so.
Of late the Avorld has been crazy Avith oil fever.
If one can believe the papers the countries with oil
deposits will be tremendously benefited by the commercial "development" of the natural resources.
Their "development" meant to Mexico only
political revolutions and civil strife. At last salvation seems to make its appearance there and with
the giving out of the oil, let us hope, Mexico—will
be left alone Avithout enjoying the blessings of
"commercial development" and civilization.
What commferciafc ("development" did to the
Buffalo is too Avell known to need special mention.
Within a very short time a valuable supply of
food, the chief sustenance of the Indian before the
advent of the white man, disappeared from this
continent. People are trying to replace them with
cattle, but it will be a long time before a strain of
cattle is raised that is so adapted to withstand the
rigors of the climate of the prairies, as the late
lamented Buffalo was. Only another victim of merciless exploitation for profit, or as our chambers of
Commerce and Boards of Trade like to call it, "commercial development of the fur and meat trade."
On the Pribiloff islands, off the coast of Alaska,
is the home of fur seals. They have been the
cause of considerable friction between Canada, England, Japan, NorAvay, the United States and other
nations, for capitalist groups in all of those countries wanted to "develop" the commercial assets
that those seals carried along with them. There was
just as intense rivalry between those groups of capitalists to get the hides of those animals as there is
about the energy contained in the hides of cheap
labour. Their commercial "development" meant
profits to the capitalist. It meant considerable discomfort and threatened ultimate destruction to the
seals.
Let me conclude with a few remarks concerning
the B. C. fisheries. When the Avhite man came to
this coast, salmon Avas plentiful in the streams and
rivers of this country.
At the bottom of the present "scarcity" lies
commercial exploitation, greed for profit or "commercial "development" of the natural resources, as
our merchant princes would say. The fisherman
is not to be blamed for the destruction wrought;
it is the damnable system of production for profit,
"commercial development" of natural resources.
From press reports it seems that my remarks regarding the salmon hold good for halibut too. Clam
beds have vanished through exploitation for profit
and crabs and lobsters will without doubt be eliminated on account of the same causes.
This destruction of the means of human subsistence will have to cease. Chambers of Commerce,
Boards of Trade and other agencies advocating this
"development of natural resources" will have to
be eliminated. It is up to the worker to do this, to
replace production for profit with production for
use, or he will be eliminated himself.
H. KERSTEN.
Note: In our last issue the article "Emigration,
from various angles," should have borne the name
of H. Kersten.—(Ed.) WESTERN   CLARION
PAGE FIVE
By the Way
THE eighteenth of March is the anniversary
of the Paris Commune of 1871. On
that date, in the year 71, governing elements
and administrative functionaries, the exploiters and
auxiliary parasites down to the last pimp and prostitute had fled the city of Paris upon which a part
of the everyAvhere victorious German army was
advancing. Though thus left without customary
authority and leadership, the masses of the people hi
Paris exhibited Avonderful initiative and resourcefulness. They immediately decided to defend the city
and elected new leaders and administrative bodies,
and declared a commune of the people. When official
and parasitical France and official and parasitical Germany heard of this they immediately dropped their mutual quarrel to join forces
in the face of what both instinctively knew was a
common enemy. The inarticulate masses, become
articulate with a new social idealism and displayiag
an unaccustomtd and portentous initiative, was a
menace to the common interests of the upper classes
and must be stamped out. Such malignants A\eros
everywhere and had better be taught a lesson; and
noAv—or perhaps never!
#   *   #
So, a few days of unequal and sanguinary struggle over the barricades and the Commune fell. Then
pitiless massacre, in which neither the appeal of
women, of infancy, or hoary age, of sickness or
Avounds, Avas respected, while tl."*se who escaped
found themselves in every land stik fugitives from
bourgeois hatred or the victims of bourgeois justice.
Much water has run under the bridge since then
and the working classes of all countries are learning, learning.The Avorld, that sees history not as
the record of a process but as a succession of isolated
events, says that the Communards failed. We
know the Communards failed—from that point of
view. Yet by their action, their ideals, hopes, aspirations for the Great Society were sent down the
years to us, in a tradition of heroic sacrifice, to
reinforce our own. Thus even the very grave of
such failures releases living forces for the final victory of the producing masses. After all, it is true
that the things of the spirit are the really durable
things of life. And on this anniversary, thinking
of the Communards of 71, we shall all be moved—
to honor our brave.
•   *   *
By association of ideas, I suppose the Russian
revolution was brought to mind when I Avrote the
notes above on the Communards of Paris. Brooding over the two events, I wondered, particularly
in the case of" Russia, hoAv much of divided councils,
endless argument, jealousy, disappointment, indecision and consequent loss of valuable time, when
crucial problems pressed to be dealth with, might
have been avoided if long before the revolution the
task ahead had been narrowed down, in the general
Socialist mind, into an aim, definite, limited and
planful, instead of as it Avas in most minds an ideal,
vast, vague, "dim as dreams": if the difference in
nature and function betAveen aims, and ideals had
been apprehended .
I shall get kicked out of the Party if I am not
careful on this subject of plans. But here goes! I
find great objection to the idea of setting definite
and planful aims for the future among Party members. It is a practice considered futile to the point
of viciousness. Much of the objection, I admit, it on
valid grounds, .but some of it I think is due to a prejudice which our school of social theory has inherited.
Historically, Marxian or Scientific Socialism, as
a"* body of scentific theory originated as a revolt
against the Utopian theories of such early Socialists
as Fourier and his Socialist or Communist colonies.
Nevertheless, there are plans and there are other
kinds of plans. Man is a planning animal anyway;
you can't stop him. When the Russian revolution
came it found everyone with a plan of reconstruction ready-made, so to speak, vague, no doubt, but
perhaps all the more pernicious for that. Communism they called the plan. When what actually resulted in Russia did not correspond to the plan
they soured on the revolution and all its Avorks,
and called them "the same old capitalism."
That plans fail to materialize, often in detail
and sometimes in general features, is no valid argu-
"ment, it seems to me, against planning, but rather
one for better planning on sounder grounds. Be
that as it may,, at least this much may be granted,
that general discussion of such t'?ns Avould eliminate the more absurd. How we may have to suffer
from such absurdities witness Russia under the Communist experiment.
• *   #
- 1 have in mind, not inaugurated policies, wise or
unAvise, but divided councils, obstruction, etc., because so many people were in the way with plans in
their head based only, or mainly, on mere certitude.
Even in its extremist phase the Russian experiment
fell far short of Avhat many ardent communists
would have instituted could they have SAVung the
policies of the Party in power.,Action, one Avay or
another, was the outcome of an internal struggle betAveen different elements within the Party.lt may be
said that subsequent events justified the policies
adopted. Which may or may not be true, though I
Avould like to point out that that may be only another way of saying that what has happened has
happened. You can justify anything that way. Just
so Hegel is accused, perhaps unjustly, of justifying
the German State: "All that is real is reasonable,
and all that is reasonable is real." The power knowledge gives us, however, is the choice of various alternatives for future action. So the proof of the
Avisdom of particular policies lies not altogether in
the fact that they are in force or that they are having a measure of success. A better knowledge
might have produced even better policies. We are
laid under no compulsions by our determinist theory to bow doAvn and worship what is,.merely because it exists—even under a Socialist regime.
• •   •
I am now approaching my point, if any. I think,
then, that Socialists are at fault when they make no
clear mental separation betAveen their ideal of a Cooperative Commonwealth and the definite, limited
aim of transferring control of economic powers
from private hands into the hands of society as a
whole.
The Co-operative Commonwealth, Communism, the
Creat Society or whatever you may name the ideal
is not something Ave can plan and therefore can not
make it an aim. In its nature the ideal is a matter
of emotional appreciation, an appreciation of life's
values. Broadly, the ideal society may be conceived of as one in Avhich human beings shall find
themselves free for continued growth, rising through
revaluations to new appreciation of life's possibilities. Wrought into the texture of our lives the ideal
is an inspiration, an emotional appreciation that can
not bc intellectualized, planned or aimed at. Therefore Ave should not allow the ideal to abstract us
from the practical affairs of life living in it, adopting it as a compensatory dream-AVorld for the evils
of the present. By understanding this nature and
function of the ideal Ave keep it in its place while
Ave aim at some point in space, a little island in an
infinite sea: aim at some obstruction to the realization of the ideal, Avhich will follow in the natural
course of events if the concrete definite aim is reached.
* •   •
To illustrate: When a man is hungry he sets
about procuring a meal and eats. What he is
really doing is removing an obstruction to continued
life activities. But the practical man takes no
thought of that, keepiag his attention on the immediate aim.
# *   *
Our attention, an Socialists, should be concentrated on the immediate aim of transferring control
of economic powers to the community, a limited, definite aim in which are all the elements of plan and
Avhieh is to act as the key to open the doors of opportunity in an ideal society not susceptible of being planned.   So I see it. C.
Clarion Mail Bag
BY SID EARP
IN our survey of world affairs during the past
feAV weeks, Ave feel that it is no exaggeration to
admit that the study has developed from ordinary interest to intense fascination. Evidence of a
distinct change in political thought in England is
noAv clearly apparent, which no doubt, in the very
near future will be productive of some remarkable
situations. Although the existing order of social
life is not seriously challenged, in so far as the private appropriation of wealth socially produced, is
concerned, there is certainly a healthy and rapidly
increasing demand for drastic reform measures. And
noAv the policy of those avIio go in the name of
Labor, is due to become popular and eminently respectable. So is it, that in silken hose and braided
coats, Avith cocked hats and smirking faces, the representatives of Labor are already dining with the
Royalty of England. For our part, we humbly confess to feelings of envy. Not so much do Ave crave
for Royal associations, although Ave imagine "the experience would be pleasing enough at that, At
least they would not bore us to death by talking
about Avork. But for once in our tortured life
should Ave get a whack at some real grub, and thus
are Ave envious and unashamed in the baseness of
our desire. It may not be recorded in history, but
assuredly it is our experience that all true and
worthy revolutionists are good eaters—also ambitious drinkers. For this much are we glad, and if
in due season Ave also get our legs under the royal
dining table, our royal appetite at least should command approval and kindly indulgence.
"Pass the pickles, Duke!"
ln the meantime, it is our pleasurable duty to
read the letters from the real men of the Avorking
class in our vast Dominion, and these are the avowed
revolutionists. FeAV are their friends, and many
their enemies, and our part is to give them, not
maudlin sympathy, but practical support. The
Avelfare of the common people in Canada, as in all
other countries, can only be advanced in accordance
to the degree of their knoAA'ledge of the Avorkings of
capitalism, as a social system. Let us then direct
our efforts to the building up of a movement with
a clear-cut revolutionary message to the Avorking
class.
Letters received since last issue are feAV in number, and do not require much in the way of comment.
Winnipeg is represented by a brief note conveying
good Avishes and some financial support for the Clarion.
Two short letters come from Fiske, Saskat-
chewan, one of which concerns the mailing of the
Clarion, and the other containing a dollar sub.
Three dollars for subs, also come from Sovereign,
Sask., Writing from Eyebrow, Sask., Com. T.
Foulston makes very favorable comment upon Geo.
Baton's recent article in the Clarion. He also sends
in a sub. and promises to get a few more.
J. W. Douglas Avrites a nice loiter from Anglia,
Sask., containing a sub. to the paper and a contribution towards its maintenance. He urges us to keep
on Avith our work, as the Clarion is the only source
of information they have in that district. Also
expresses much pleasure with thc articles dealing
with the farmers position, which have appeared
lately. An encouraging letter comes from B. E.
Polinkos, Seven Persons, Alberta, Local 108.
Comrade Polinkos says the Clarion is better than
ever, also that the farm slaves are more willing to
investigate our propaganda and listen to our speakers. He considers Lestor to be an excellent propagandist, and hopes for another visit in the near
future. Also states that they are trying to arrange
for a summer tour in that district if speakers are
available, and encloses nine dollars in subs, to the
(Continued on page 8) PAGE SIX
WESTERN   CLARION
Revolutions, Political and Social
ti
H
**'
I
II
till,
V
THIRD  ARTICLE.
IN the second article of this series the argument
came to an abrupt stop in the closing ten lines.
When we sent the manuscript to the Editor several pages were missing, hence the printer makes
us say: "In those countries Avhere Social development lingered the political forms had an opportunity,"—to develop and conform, etc. Instead of
making a correction avc will take up the story at
this point.
In the first place, Ihose countries Avhich Avere
destined for a late industrial development had been
overrun by France under Napoleon.   In attempting
to throw off this yoke the feudal lords had made
some   concessions   and   innumerable   promises,  to
arouse the only class capable of the task—the Avorkers.   When Napoleon Avas finally defeated, the promises were forgotten and many of the concessions
Avere cancelled.    That might have had small influence but for a neAv policy Avhich developed, particularly in Austria:— The policy of Metternich involved the suppression of every branch or item of human
knoAvledge  which  Avas  deemed  inimical  to  established authority.   Again the intellectuals and commercials were to feel the heavy hand of a feAV feeble
minded autocrats,  this time,  hoAvever,  all Europe
Avas affected: Professors, scientists, writers, were insulted and imprisoned, from the most harmless efforts to promote their professions.   In Austrian territory a press censor took his station with the customs, and every book and paper Avas scrutinised to
prevent any pregnant matter entering therein. Austria became a land as unknown as China.
The Metternich system, which reduced the newly
granted and fear-born constitutions to impotency,
Avas advanced on the pretext of defending the Christian religion and Ave are certain the Holy Alliance is
too Avell knoAvn to all our readers to further delay
us.
The first response to this treatment is seen in
Paris. The Bourbons, after the Restoration, like
the Stuarts in England, had learned nothing from
the revolution, and folloAving a series of heavy
levies to repay the nobility for the lands they had
lost, the constitution was practically annulled. Paris
sprang to arms. The King imposed upon the French
by foreign bayonets, was a fair sprinter, and carried his head to his grave. The revolution of 1830
Avas as bloodless as a Carlton Club soirie. The July
revolution, as it is called, caused quite a stir in
Europe, but the insurrections were all suppressed,
and Metternich Avas vindicated.
From the commencement of the century, France
and Belgium (which, by the way, in 1830 had successfully revolted against domination by Holland),
had been importing from England every kind of
machinery possible, and English mechanics were in
demand everywhere. One, William Cockerill by
name, had established a machine works at Liege,
which exists today under his name; in 1840 these
works had quite an output and were selling machines in Holland, Russia, France and Prussia. So
that the machine age could be said to be then fairly
on its feet. As an indication Ave offer the fact the
Le Creusot, the famous gunmakers of modern
France, Avere at this time employing 1200 men.
The story told of Stevenson's Rocket, when it
knocked down the toll gate, and the affrighted
toll-keeper stammered out "Nothing to pay," is emblematic of the historic career of steam. Turn from
Western Europe to Germany and Austria and Ave
find the old feudal restrictions almost everywhere.
75 per cent or over of the people on the land; almost requiring a dozen of their cities to equal Paris;
machines here and there, but no machine plants. A
recollection of the fact that when Charles Darwin
left the shores of England in the good ship
"Beagle," of blessed memory, the city of Berlin
had not more than 30 steam engines averaging 13
By J. HARRINGTON.
h.p. each, might enable our readers to estimate the
backward condition of eastern Europe.
The ironworkers of Germany anticipated Henry
Ford; Avhen they were not making iron they were
making hay, and their days before the puddling
furnace were not sufficiently long to make their
hands forget their cunning at the flail. The land
grubbers avIio Avorked occasionally in the mill Avere
shortly to be transformed into occasional workers
on the land, and but little later to have no more land
than Avould cover their bones Avhen dead.
In the meantime, while the machine was sloAvly
making its way into Eastern Europe, a furious nationalistic fervor had groAvn up. Italy under Garibaldi and Mazzini fought for national unity and
the overthroAv of Austran domination; Hungary
under Kossuth had a similar task in view; Poland
Avas also hopeful, Avhile Greece succeeded in throwing off the yoke of Turkey. Belgium we have already noticed, and the slaves Avere everywhere seeking freedom. The poetry and literature of this
jferiod abounds with panegyrics and apostrophies
to an hypothetical Liberty.
Byron had died in the struggle for Greek liberty (!) but his Avords: "Yet Liberty, yet thy banner
torn but flying streams like a thunder storm against
the breeze"—still thundered through Europe.
Shelley's SAveet voice Avas stilled, but his "Men of
England" roused many a dull spirit. Heine and
Freiligrath still spoke, and everyAvhere a desire to
break with the past prevailed.
The peasants Avere noAv feeling the competition
from the machine-made goods of the West Germany, a country of many frontiers, where goods
were held up and taxed, had in 1835 organized the
Customs Union, the Zollverein, so goods passed free-
iy and untaxed. The same year saw five miles of
railway laid in Bavaria, the first in Germany, despite the solemn warning of the College of Physicians that it would cause headaches to travellers
and spectators alike. Aches no doubt were experienced as a result, but the region in which they occurred was about eighteen inches lower, a small
matter after all and proof that physicians were not
always hidebound and purblind under new developments. This five miles of railroad had elongated to'
500 in 1844, and to 1500 in three more short years,
which brings us to another part of our story.
The King of Prussia died in 1840, the last of
the Holy Alliance; Germany, Marx tells us, had
aAvaited the event and expected from Frederick
William the IV. all that had been promised during the stormy days of 1793 to 1812. They were disappointed. Fred had all his father's vices and a
few more; he soon dissipated the Royal Exchequer,
and then demanded more funds. He sought to restore all the feudal pomp and customs. Pomp and
Customs of an age of bad roads and castles on the
hill, with a young giant growing daily, in the shape
of twin streaks of rust, and a few baby elephants
in the form of Mathias Stinnes' tugboats on the
Rhine. The Connecticut Yankee was no greater
anachorism at the Court of King Arthur.
In his attempts to obtain money he encountered
the laAv of 1820, which placed the power to grant
levies in the hands of a Representative Assembly.
The Assembly refused the money, and forthwith
commenced a struggle betAveen the old forms of
government and the new requirements of the machine age. Beside the poetic Liberty of song and story
a neAv intellectual monster had been born, Socialism. Saint Simon and Fourier had been translated into German and Weitling was native to the
soil. The erstwhile land grubber, now proletarian,
sought to prevent the lowering of his standard of
living; this took the form of riots, which were pitilessly suppressed. Then came the famine of 1847,
and here Ave have all the materials for a social conflagration.   Extensive propaganda, lack of common
necessities of life, a Government Avilling and ready
to exert "force, force, force, without stint," as President Wilson puts it, and as occasionally happens,
no means whereAvith to exert it.
Such Avas Germany in 1848; such Avas Austria,
with a less advanced industrial life. Such, too, Avas
France, Avith a much more, infinitely more, advanced
industrial life. And to France we must now turn.
But, as events of great magnitude were to happen
within a few months, Ave had better leave them all
sweltering in the ferment for a couple more weeks.
This, besides lessening the strain pn our readers'
minds will'add to The interest of the continuity of
our story, as the villian still persues her.
Note: In the last article of this series the word
*'towns" appears instead of "thrones:"->-"Napoleon peopled tbe thrones of Europe," etc.—(Ed.)
At the time of writing there is a doubt as to
Avhether the next Avar will break out in the Holy
Land or in the Rhineland, but General Sir Charles
Townshend, the hero of Kut, thinks the Holy Land
has it. He himself is prti-Turk, and tells the readers of the "Sunday Post" (4/2/23) that:
"Mosul is part of Anatolia, and has never formed part
of Mespot—or Irak, as the Turks call it.
Mosul—as I can personally bear witness—was in Turkish occupation at the time of the Armistice in 1918. We
occupied Mosul after the Armistice in the same way as we
occupied Constantinople, and we are still there.
I know Mosul, and have travelled over the surrounding district. I really cannot see the British Empire being
dragged into a world-wide war for that dirty little town—
oil or no oil interests.
By what right did the late Government calmly hand
over Mosul to his so-called Majesty, King Fiesul, who
could not remain five minutes at Baghdad after the British rearguard had left?"
Obviously a pro-Turk that fellow, a Saracen, a
defiler of the sacred places, and Avithout shares in
Anglo-Persian Oil!—"Forward."
Socialist Party of Canada
PROPAGANDA MEETINGS
STAR THEATRE, 300 Block, Main Street
March 18th, Speaker: C. LESTOR.
Subject: "THE PARIS COMMUNE."
March 25th, Speaker: W. A. PRITCHARD.
AT NEW WESTMINSTER.
March 25th, Speaker: C. LESTOR.
All meetings at 8 p.m.
MEETINGS EVERY SUNDAY.
Question*. Discussion,
ECONOMIC CAUSES
OF WAR
By PETER T. LECKIE.
NOW READY.
Preface hj tht author.
132 PAGES.
Per Copy, 25 Cents.
Ten oopies np, 20 oenta each.
Port Paid.
rl WESTERN  CLARION
PAGE SEVEN
Gn a Piece of Chalk
By THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY
All this is certain, because rocks of cretaceous,
or still later, date have shared in the elevatory movements vAvhieh gave rise to these mountain chains,
. and may be found perched up, in some cases, many
thousand feet high upon their flanks. And evidence of equal cogency demonstrates that, though
in Norfolk the forest-bed rests directly upon the
chalk, yet it does so, not because the period at
which the forest greAv immediately followed that at
which the chalk was formed, but because an immense
lapse of time, represented elseAvhere by thousands
of feet of rock, is not indicated at Cromer.
I must ask you to believe that there is no less
conclusive proof that a still more prolonged succession of similar changes occurred before the chalk
Avas deposited. Nor have Ave any reason to -think
that the first term in the series of these changes is
known. The oldest sea-beds preserved to us are
sands, and mud, and pebbles, the Avear and tear of
rocks Avhich were formed in still older oceans.
But great as is the magnitude of these physical
changes of the world, they have been accompanied
by a no less striking series of modifications in its
living inhabitants.
All the great classes of animals, beasts of the
field, fowls of the air, creeping things, and things
which dAvell in the waters, flourished upon the globe
long ages before tbe chalk Avas deposited. Very few,
however, if any, of these ancient forms of animal
life Avere identical Avith those Avhich now live. Certainly not one of the higher animals was of the
same species as any of those now in existence. The
beasts of the field, in the days before the chalk,
Avere not our beasts of the field, nor the fowls of
the air such at those Avhich the eye of man has seen
flying, unless his antiquity dates infinitely farther
back than Ave at present surmise. If we could he
carried back into those times, Ave should be as one
suddenly set down in Australia before it was colonized. We should see mammals, birds, reptiles,
fishes, insects, snails, and the like, clearly recognizable as such, and yet not one of them would be just
the same as those with which Ave are familiar, and
many would be extremely different.
From that time to the present the population of
the world has undergone sIoav and gradual, but incessant, changes. There has been no grand catastrophe—no destroyer has SAvept away the forms of
life of one period, and replaced them by a totally
new creation; but one species has vanished and another has taken its place; creatures of one type of
structure have diminished, those of another have
increased, "as time has passed on. And thus, while
the differences betAveen the living creatures of the
time before the chalk and those of the present day
appear startling, if placed side by side, we are led
from one to the other by the most gradual progress,
if we folloAV the course of Nature through the whole
series of those relics of her operations which she has
left behind.
And it is by the population of the chalk sea that
the ancient and the modern inhabitants of the world
are most completely connected. The groups which
are dying out flourish, side by side, with the groups
Avhich are uoav tbe dominant forms of life.
Thus tbe chalk contains remains of those strange
flying and SAvimming reptiles, the pterodactyl, the
ichthyosaurus, and the plesiosaurus, which are
found in no later deposits, but abounded in preceding ages. The chambered shells called ammonites
and belemnites, AA'hich are so characteristic of the
period preceding the cretaceous, in like manner die
Avith it.
But, amongst these fading remainders of a previous state of things are some very modern forms
of life, looking like Yankee pedlers among a tribe
of red Indians. Crocodiles of modern type appear;
bony fishes, many of them very similar to existing
species, almost supplant the forms of fish which predominate in more ancient seas; and many kinds of
living shellfish become^ known to us in the chalk.
The vegetation acquires a modern aspect. A few
living animals are not even distinguishable as species, from those which existed at that remote epoch.
The Glohigerina of the present day, for example, is
not different specially from that of the chalk; and
the same may be said of many other Foraminifera.
I think it probable that critical and unprejudiced
examination will shoAv that more than one species
of much higher animals have had a similar longevity; but the only example whieh I can at present
give confidently is the snake 's-head lamp-shell
(Terebratulina caput serpentis). Avhich lives in our
English seas and abounded (as Terebratulina striata
of authors) in the chalk.
The longest line of human ancestry must hide its
diminshed head before the pedigree of this insignificant shell-fish. We Englishmen are proud to have
an ancestor who was present at the battle of Hastings. The ancestors of Terehratulina caput serpentis may have been present at a battle of Ichthyosau-
ria in that part of the sea Avhich, when the chalk
Avas forming, floAved over the site of Hastings.
While all around has changed, this Terebratulina
has peacefully propagated its species from generation to generation, and stands to this day as a living testimony to the continuity of the present Avith
the past history of the globe.
Up to this moment I have stated, so far as I
know, nothing but Avell-authenticated facts, and the
immediate conclusions Avhich they force upon the
mind.
But the mind is so constituted that it does not
willingly rest in facts and immediate causes, but
seeks always after a knowledge of the remoter links
in the chain of causation.
Taking the many changes of any given spot of
the earth's surface, from sea to land and from land
to sea, as an established fact, we cannot refrain from
asking ourselves how these changes have occurred.
And when Ave have explained them—as they must
be explained—by the alternate sIoav movements of
elevation and depression Avhich have affected the
crust of the earth, Ave go still farther back and ask,
Why these movements?
I am not certain that any one can give you a
satisfactory answer to that question. Assuredly I
cannot. All that can be said, for certain, is, that
such movements are part of the ordinary course
of nature, inasmuch as they are going on at the
present time. Direct proof may be given that some
parts of the land of the northern hemisphere are
at this moment insensibly rising and others inst ntibly sinking; and there is indirect but perfectly
satisfactory proof that an enormous area now covered by the Pacific has been deepened thousands of
feet since the present inhabitants of that sea came
into existence.
Thus there is not a shadoAv of a reason for believing tbat the physical changes of the globe, in
past times, have been effected by other than natural
causes.
Is there any more reason for believing that the
concomitant modifications in the forms of the living inhabitants of the globe have been brought
about in other ways?
Before attempting to answer this question, let us
try to form a distinct mental picture of Avhat has
happened in some special ease.
Tbe crocodiles are animals which, as a group,
have a very vast antiquity. They abounded ages
before the chalk was deposited; they throng the
rivers in Avarm climates at the present day. There
is a difference in form of the joints of the backbone
and in some minor particulars betAveen the crocodiles of the present epoch and those Avhich lived
before the chalk; but, in the cretaceous epoch, as I
have already mentioned, thc crocodiles had assumed
the modern type of structure. Notwithstanding
this, the crocodiles of the chalk are not identically
tbe same as those which lived in the times called
"old tertiary," Avhich succeeded the cretaceous
epoch; and the crocodiles of the older tertiaries are
not identical with those of the newer tertiaries, nor
are these identical Avith existing forms. I leave
open the question whether particular species may
have lived on from epoch to epoch. But each epoch
has had its peculiar crocodiles; though all, since the
chalk, have belonged to the modern type, and differ
simply in their proportions, and in such structural
particulars as are discernible only to trained eyes.
Hoav is the existence of this long succession of
different species of crocodiles to be accounted for?
Only tAvo suppositions seem to be open to us—
cither each species of crocodile has been specially
created, or it has arisen out of some preexisting
form by tbe operation of natural causes.
Choose your hypothesis; I have chosen mine. I
can find no warranty for believing in the distinct
creatiou of a score of successive species of crocodiles
in the course, of countless ages of time. Science gives
no countenance to such a wild fancy; nor can even
the perverse ingenuity of a commentator pretend to
discover this sense in the simple words in Avhich the
writer of Genesis records the proceedings of the
fifth and sixth days of the Creation.
On tbe other hand, I see no good reason for
doubting the necessary alternative, that all these
varied species have been evolved from preexisting
crocodilian forms, by the operation of causes as
completely a part of tbe common order of nature
as those which have effected the changes of the inorganic world.
Fcav Avill venture to affirm that the reasoning
which applies to crocodiles loses its force among
other animals or among plants. If one series of
species has come into existence by the operation of
natural causes, it seems folly to deny that all may
have arisen in the same Avay.
A small beginning has led us to a great ending.
Tf I were to put the bit of chalk with Avhich we
started into the hot but obscure flame of burning
hydrogen, it would presently shine like the sun.
It seems to me that this physical metamorphosis Ls
no false image of what has been tbe result of our
subjecting it to a jet of fervent, though nowise brilliant, thought to-night. It has become luminous,
and its clear rays, penetrating the abyss of the remote past, have brought Avithin our ken some stages
of the evolution of the earth. And in the shifting
"without haste, but Avithout rest"0 of the land and
sea, as in the endless variation of the forms assumed
by living beings, Ave have observed nothing but the
natural product of the forces originally possessed
by the substance of the universe.
(Thc End.)
ANNIVERSARY OF THE PARIS COMMUNE.
AS' in former years, the members of Local No.
1, Avill pay a tribute to the memory of the
Avorking men and women of Paris, who in
the month of March 1871 came out ln open revolt
against the treachery of a corrupt administration.
By reason of adverse circumstances, it is fouud
that the celebration cannot be held until the last
Friday of the month, March 30th j but this should
not detract from the success of the affair. The
Committee in charge of arrangements can be relied upon to do all that is possible towards making
the evening bright and satisfying in every Avay.
An orchestra will render classical and popular musical airs, dancing, elocution, solo and chorus singing
will also be on the programme. Refreshments, suitable and in liberal quantity Avill be served. A limited number of tickets have been printed, and are
nOAV on sale. Party members are requested to hold
themselves in readiness for any light duties on the
evening of the celebration, also to assist in the sale
of tickets.
Mark the place and the date: Belvedere Hall,
corner of Tenth Avenue and Main Street, Friday
March 30th, 8 p.m. SID EARP.
Since the above was written, Comrade Harry Grand, secretary of Local (Vancouver) No. 1, has presented the committee with two magnificent art studies (floral) in oils, to
be disposed of at tho celebration gathering as the committee may decide, the proceeds to go to the Clarion Maintenance Fund. If "market value" may be estimated in relation to art products, its price form in this instance, we
.should judge, would not fall far short of $100.—(Ed.) 1
PAGE EIGHT
WESTERN   CLARION
NUTS FOR THE CRACKING
(Continued from page 1)
II M
fttft
such as relief funds and the expenditures of tourists
on their joy rides; also the buying of works of art:
a case in point lately where J. D. Rockefeller bought
valuable tapestries to the value of tAvo million dollars. Then there is the payment of labor by the
business interests of the creditor countries, Avhich
is given for services in the transaction of such Avork
as brokerage, freight insurance, and banking, advertising, and a lot of other necessary evils; "tips" and
graft, etc. Or the payment of principal or interest
on dollar loans and investments previously made by
the investor, Avhich take the form of a triangular
operation Avhereby the debtor can become the creditor of another creditor and receive dollar exchange
in return. But the opportunities of getting the
dollar are growing slimmer. The two main avenues Avhere tbe oportunity lies with the debtor nation are ahvays attacked by the creditor nation, and
that is in export and immigration remittances. Those
are thoroughly controlled by the creditor nation, as
i.s seen in the U. S'. A tariff and immigration laws.
All channels and methods are failures; it is impossible for the debtor nations to pay. Hoav will
America pay off her obligations to the Liberty loan
holders? There is the puzzle. France and Italy
have reached the peak. Great Britain is near the
top. Taxation is squeezing the middle and propertied classes in these countries, Avhere they even resort
to all kind? of tricks to evade taxation. The uneui
ployed are getting greater in numbers, the doles
increasing in proportion. In America today the
passAvord is property; there is no question that conditions are away above normal yet in this country.
Hoav long will it last, none can tell. They have
their optimists by the score, but even such reports
as the folloAving will not save them; this is an example:—John Smith, a prominent citizen, died today ; he had many friends Avho are greatly bereaved
by his loss, but it will in no way stop the revival of
business that is expected in the near future or the
demand for goods that is reported by the merchant.
Of course it does not state Avhether the buyer is
operating on the new refunding plan or not, but
this is regular American advertising.
Out of all the swill there are still left some competent surveyors and they are honest to the core.
As they say, there is only one cloud on the horizon
that endangers capitalism, and that is the collapse
of Europe. And collapse she will. The U. S. A. will
go down in the wreck along with the rest. The rotten supports are groAving weaker day by day. The
smash may come at any moment. Anarchy, chaos
and starvation may be our future, no one knows.
Production for profit has been an utter failure; history proves its inability to serve the people as a
Avhole. Still the future holds all that is noble and
grand; our salvation lies there, and the job is worth
Avhile. The emancipation of the proletariat is ahead;
there is no inside passage. Sentiment alone will get
us nowhere, there is Avork ahead (as Harrington so
often explains.) It is a hard task, but it must be
done. Our greatest obstacle is ignorance; let us
break down the Avail that obscures the mass from
the liberty that is theirs. The long hoped for day
may soon arrive; let us do what we can. Praying
for fish never caught them. The road ahead is
rough, and the Avorkers are divided among themselves. We must make Socialists; opportunists
only cloud the issue, and they have also to be exposed, no matter where the hammer drops. The
Avorker has nothing to lose, but all to gain. Let him
investigate, let him learn. Be you his teacher; explain the many contradictions iii capitalism to him
and Avhen the dawn of the new day breaks let us
stand solid as one class Avith our banner unfurled.
Equality for all!
Get interested in the Socialist movement, you
oavc it to yourself. There are stacks of books written on the various subjects dealing Avith Socialism;
understand them, and prepare yourself for the fight.
Knowledge is the fountain of life; possess it and
you will have done a part of the task.
R. SINCLAIR.
CLARION MAIL BEG
(Continued from page 5)
Clarion.      Good work,  boys, Ave like your style!
Write again!
Com. W. Robertson sends three dollars for the
Maintenance Fund from Haynes, Alta.
A fine letter comes from Com. G. Beagrie of
SAvahvell, Alberta, containing two subs. He speaks
Avell of Lestor's return meeting and enquires after
Frank Cassidy. Writing from Carmangay, Alta.,
Comrade J. A. Untinen encloses a sub. to the Clarion, and makes brief comment upon affairs in that
district. He says the workers shoAV signs of doubt
in their ordinary beliefs, and are becoming more
susceptible to our point of vieAv. He is trying to
introduce the Clarion wherever it is possible to do
Tavo subs, come from Empress, Alta., also one
from Cardston, and a dollar for the Maintenance
Fund. Com. Kolden sends a brief note from Swal-
Avell enclosing five dollars in Clarion subs. Fine
work! An order for literature comes from Botha,
and one sub. from Millet, Alberta.
Com, Geo. Donaldson of Stanmore, Local 110,
writes for ten copies of the pamphlet "The Present
Economic System.'' A weekly study class has been
formed and they have persuaded him to act as instructor. He sends kindest regards to Charlie Lestor.
An enquiry for literature comes from Oxville,
Alta., which will be dealt with by the Editor. Writing from Seal, Local 87, Com. Jorgenson sends in a
sub., and tAvo applications for membership. A nice
letter comes from Com. Orchard of Kamloops, who
sends in a sub. to the Clarion and comments upon
things in general.
From Northern B. C. Comrade Lindberg S3nds in
an order for literature. ReneAval of Clarion subs,
come from Sointula and Victoria, B. C, also a literature order from Ocean Falls.
Writing from Lund, B. C, F. W. Moore expresses much satisfaction with Leckie's pamphlet
"Economic .Causes of War," likeAvise the work
'Structure of Soviet Russia." He also asks for
Lissagary's "History of the Paris Commune."
Com, Frank Williams writes to inform us that
he is due to leave Des Moines, Iowa, in the near future. Efforts are being made to hold a large meeting in the Labor Temple, at which he is to be the
speaker. He hopes that his efforts will result in a
local being formed, and also the present study class
continuing. Com. Williams is bound for Calgary,
where we imagine a hearty welcome is awaiting him.
This finishes the "Mail Bag" up to the 10th March.
HERE AND NOW.
WE sometimes think it Avould be interesting
if some enterprising cuss were found, having a sufficiently sound acquaintance with
it and born in tbe duration of time to familiarly describe the comfortable features of the elusive dollar. In our halcyon days—thc days of our youth
needless to say—Ave used to venerate the pounds,
shillings and pence attainments of Tim Linkinwater,
counting-house factotum for the Dickensonian
Cheeryble Brothers,—deft, able and willing, and
constantly engaged in handling a plentiful supply
of all comers in currency,—£. s. d., Spanish doubloons and pieces of eight.
We had ambition in those days and we have
it yet, though noAv grossly adjusted and abridged.
Our present ambition is to quit competing Avith the
Salvation Army in the sing-song for another penny,
and Ave are not without hope.
Worse luck, hoAvever, Ave are Avithout the other
penny, and worse.luck again the penny is multiplied into dollars. We're like Dick SAviveller, who
Avas so sadly sunk in the straits of credit that he
had only one more thoroughfare left that he could
safely and comfortably traverse. That's us, or
Ave—if you are particular about the "case."
Our "case," however, although in the reader's
eye we hope it is an "objective case," is a serious
ease and not a grammatical case at all. All there is
to in that regard is a weak inflection.
Did it ever occur to the reader to look at the
number on the address label of the Clarion, sent hy
mail? If we had every dollar that is overdue we
wouldn't have to howl so much, and is costs two
cents to send a postcard of reproach. Look it up
and do your own reproaching. Our figures as per
the following are staggering. Staggering, we mean,
with weakness as they present themselves:
Following $1 each: J. W. Douglas, C. P. Orchard, H.
Lahti, E. W. Churcher, J. T. Stott, H. W. Speed, W. Wool-
ridge, H. Holt, C. E. Scharff, T. Foulston, A. Jorgenson, G.
R. Ronald, M. Goudie, G. *A. Brown, Walter Wilson, R.
0. Robson, John Marshall, T. B. Miles, H. Christians, T.
Regan, J. Eslinger, Edwin S. Robinson.
Following $2 each: H. Dorsch, G. Beagrie, Geo. Zimmer,
Fred Harman, F. Cusack, J. Emery, A. Woodhall.
H. M. Thomas, 50 cents; J. A. Untinen, $1.25; Fred
Kissack, $3; B. E. Polinkos, $9; C. J. Kolden, $5. Clarion
subs, from lst to 15th' March, inclusive—total, $54.75.
CLARION  MAINTENANCE  FUND
"C. S.," 53 cents; J. W. Douglas, 50 cents; R. O. Robson,
$2;   Wm.  Robertson,   $3;   St|  John   Comrades,   per  M.
Goudie, $9.
Following $1 each: Peter T. Leckie, E. W. Churcher, H.
Holt, T. B. Miles, A. Woodhall.   C. M. F. receipts from lst
to 15th March, inclusive—total $20.03.
Literature Price List
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Evolution of the Idea of God (Grant Alton $1.11
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Critique of Political Economy  $1.65
Revolution and Counter Revolution (Marx)  $1.16
History of Paris Commune (Lisaagaray)  $1.60
Ancient Society  $1.85
Philosophical Essays   $1.65
Theoretical System of Karl Marx  $1.M
Landmarks of Scientific Socialism  $1.65
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Capitalist Production (First Nine and 32nd Chapters
"Capital," vol. 1, (Marx)  $1.61
Vital Problems ln Social Evolution  80c
Science and Revolution 80«
The Militant Proletariat  80c
Evolution Social and Organic  80c
Puritanism  80c
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Germs of Mind ln Plants 80c
The Triumph of Life 80c
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Eighteenth Brumaire   80c
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Value, Price and Profit (Marx)  16o
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Causes of Belief in God ......25 copies $2.00
Value, Price and Profit 25 copie* $8.26
Economic Causes of War 10 copie* $2.00
Christianism and Communism   6 copies $1.00
Psychology of Marxian Socialism 10 copies $2.50
W. A. Pritchard's Address to the Jury (State Trials,
Winnipeg, Man., Fall Assizes 1919-20)....10 copie* $3.00
All prices include Postage.
Make all moneys payable to E. McLeod, P. O. Box
710, Vancouver, B. C.   Add discount on cheques.
All above literature can be obtained from J. M.
Sanderson, Box 2354, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
MANIFESTO
— of tht —
SOCIALIST PARTY OF CANADA
(Fifth Edition)
Per copj 10 orate
Per 25 copies —.... **.
Port Paid
-=———■»

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