BC Historical Newspapers

BC Historical Newspapers Logo

BC Historical Newspapers

Western Clarion Nov 16, 1921

Item Metadata


JSON: wclarion-1.0318972.json
JSON-LD: wclarion-1.0318972-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): wclarion-1.0318972-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: wclarion-1.0318972-rdf.json
Turtle: wclarion-1.0318972-turtle.txt
N-Triples: wclarion-1.0318972-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: wclarion-1.0318972-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

Official Organ of
No. 8''
Twice a Month
-. __i..'~
The Farmers' Policy
CRBSAR, apokesman  for the  Farm,its'
|    ,.'etiient, like Mr. King, leader of the Liberal I'arty, ia attempting lo turn U> the ad-
taatSIE        MS m   venient the general discOOtenl pre-
,    .... :. i enacts by directing u into a channel   I
■j-jam iti sgainst the party now in powsr 8l OttSWS.
r. ,ij ths present Mote of Ignorance ef these
; esuses, and not tha error*, ef govern-
h lie at the root of present d i ootent,
■■•• little other ptrospoets than thai w< sem
-nti> Hteod the efforts of the two lenders at the song ftleelion.   Not th«t the present ada i *
■• • :   i worth piueei *>■•$. fa** m woririog ehna
•     All that Mr. Crerar'or Mr  King SS) m
a of its tyranny i* true, and more, for,
r they nor their party followers bate exper-
.liiieal terrorism such a- has been eel in
that idminiairation against the sdvsneed
Kt* th« working slaai m..\.m**nt.
fa •. helther o( the gentlemen ar. free fro
ti* charge of siding and abetting that terr r - As
lathe •-Imioistration'a subserviency to the "big
brterrsts, and the general vDeneas chenred sgainst
it. vjffi*. it io <*y as explanation thst it is a hour*
r* i Distrstion of the eosrse and ebsmelem
" \*ti«n<*-*n type."
ai fot il • Liberals, the Una they *•«* on thsl icon
• • better ia *tUm of their own putrid record when
is powet    The Liberal Tarty exists no longer
aay .    •    ! reality.   It i* a political parasite, ; re)
ire aa si trdelueiaa BenUment la Quehee and Ontar-
is, and elsewhere exists merely as the "ins   and
"ests" el office,   Hut for thc politicsl baehwsrd
Best   f lot lahor movement in Canada it would long
iw bare I «en retefated tf. a ueli deserted obliri
To tbe utunishmsat and even Bonsternstion 11
may ■ • | le, the Farmers' movement in Csnsds has
■;'•••■ n ently developed remarkable itrength. rhis
rapid development i* eloquent testimony of thepre*-
*"ro of eeonomie condition*, when n notably indrt
-dualist' and conservative <la«** i* fereed into organ
had activity in furtheranee of eeonomie and politicsl
mpbationi reputed to be radical lo their oatore
•i tho rsdicalism goca thai ru*opoees lo leave intsci
•he institutions of the preaenl erd< r Bat ■'s' s
•so sre expecting much be disappointed, it ,! •■.'
atU to point out that acranan movements ar.' old
pheaomtna in Kurope. being a« a role notably rese-
Rosary and "wife." In fort, during Ihe critical pef
ir,,l in Germany and France, following the cessation
nf of Ihe war, it whs the agrarian* who saved th"
toy for the old order, Oenerelly, beesuse of h«
haWta of life, the agrarian's politieal ami BOcisl out
,00« U mirrow. conservative, and Belf-centred,
tovertbclets, there sre features in the Bgrsrian nt-
°*tton on the North American continent which make
!f n«««88ary that the movement here be estimated on
«i own merit*., than ah no startling departures front
fo« normal of oapitallsi orthodoxy me to be expect-
Jj HOI for some time st any rate; nor does Mr
Crerar voice any Indications of such departure to &"
loan ""peeehes,
If ■* true that the language la of a bigh Idealistic
'm^y in whieh Mr. Crerar. BBeahing for the rnnn
or»' movement, voices ita complaint** Sgainst the e*
"***  admint*tratian-thc   corruption",   lvrnnn.es.
*»<■ Hi «i.h,crvienei**-, to the big Interests thst move
**»*m\y in the background of the market and o
governmental policies   It is language fervently ad-
dressing its-it to purity in political life in the behalf
of public interest: "but so are they all. all honorable
0      in th.- public forum.
Il high lounding phrases and sentimental appeals
were alone sufficient to s<<h* community problems
lei   s| italtstn, even though uttered by good men
.    I true, social life would not now be running in
thi  perilous, ami for the underlying populations,
• '    iful i • •:ir■-»•.- it is today.
in the Greet Britain of thc latter half of the 19th
century wc find a forerunner of the movement for
free trede, which Mr. Crerar is heading, in the free
tra l< movement of the manufacturing '-lass of capita ista. That movement agitated for the abolition
of • i lawi on imported eorn, a tax which existed
foi the special benefit of the privileged landed class,
it •:• .  ■ y . -.-..-. il was said, of all other sections of
• . British community. Reading Mr. Crerar"s speech.
n those who ar.- acquainted with the arguments of
great proh gonists of the British movement will
M    •   || | obdeti  John Bright and other spokesmen
, f that movement were his intellectual and political
f. rehears, though bis voice is but a faint echo of the
■ i. r of their polemics.
In Cobden or Bright we can more than match Mr.
Crerar'a eloquen -e. his logic, or the high sentimental
. .\ in behalf i t public interests-yet what has
!t -Jl availed-  the eloquent and the political and
,-, -tory, the tree trade policy inaugurated
.,, ..,v ,,„ imported foodstuffs Btruek off the
^ . .. -,.., im?   U the principle landlordism any the
[ftm aecurel    U   i*^ true the landed interest is no
.,.,-   politically dominant  in the State, having,
however  ,;;-v given place in that respect to other
,x,n m rt  powerful propertied interests, hut secur-
•   0f privste holdings in land, to which the community must hsve sc. in order to live, has suffered no
Blatament. ^at of the toiling masses, after all
,bwe vears of trial and errort Millions existing on
rtolee snd audi doles, that from one end of the conn-
tn ,„ tbe other thev riotously and. in the main,
]V nrotest Sgsinst their miseries!
,  i, nilt here argued on behalf of protectionism.
,.      tbt1 conditions in Britain are the
^f^,butiti-< tended that that
VV\ .noTre^ntstiveoif-mch conditions, Such
'""'■   ' f nnd  t0  prevail  in every country
 "I,!"r    i   i      dist system of production for
;ll,k:"h":; " ts.-eountnes protectionist or
profit prevsiis, m f
f^te ^ and protectionism are fiscal poK
hU      \,*   afl  ( ;,mou   warrants,  to  aid  rival
km f 3 propertied interests in the competitive
***** V umiUlism, and the benefits neither one
S,n'":^; , tnic to the working masses. The
":,y°r,' inlistcoH.itryinthew-orldaret.be
^'"Z: I of interests in the full sense of
peoploe e07J;{ ^^ in spite of denial, there
!he *m'.       ^,,„i\ on conflicting economic intrr-
wl,Th        Janvthst the Farmers'movement is a
Cnt9X ^ \n the grounds that because it is ths
•,lnS" "Tt'rv in rani that therefore those nol-
"1:iof " Mlenlsted to benefit, that industry
,,i,,n1 TSU7to the benefit of the community as a
,nU^ Tft, as it may, thr fact remains, he is at
wh°l6' ?** i stiiMM economic group within tbe
^ heaL° ,!J have marched on to the field as a
munity. who have
unit. It is charged against the protectionist policy
that it puts all barriers against the free flow of commodities into tbe local market, thus preventing the
low prices which arise from an abundance on the
market. Thus it i.s claimed that protectionism is in
the nature of a sabotage on the community for the
benefit of protected interests. That is true enough,
in theory, but what avails low prices to a working
class whose wages are based on the cost of living
and vary with the fluctuations of supply and demand on the labor market?
Significant of the generally overstocked state of
the labor market, and hence, as would naturally follow, a decline in the standards of living, is the report of a long and exhaustive enquiry into the American standard of living, published in the September
number of the "American Economic Review."
(See the "Pointer for Pre-election Audiences," in
last issue of "Clarion.")
The report shows that at the high point in the
early part of 1920. wsges had hardly returned to
better than three-quarters of the 1896 level. Since
1896 much water has run under the bridge. Our
productive capacity, through new inventions and
improved methods has increased enormously, but it
ia evident the increased capacity is not benefiting
the working class—as it would if our communities
were really based upon a community of interest.
"What has the Farmers' movement to say to the
wage-working class as to its falling standard of living, through the economic and political ideals of Mr
Crerar! The truth is, no more than can be expected
from any other capitalist party!
Every last one of his proposed reforms shows that
the present system of production for profit is expected to last for ever. Only, surplus profits of the
farming industry, now going into the pockets of
large scale financial and manufacturing indus'ria"
interests, must be recovered for the farme-*. Tho**
parasite interest? are looked upon, and eorre"*1v a«
a charge upon the surplus values produced in the
farming industry. The economic ideals of the
Farmers' movement, as voiced by Mr Crerar, are capitalist ideals of profit making; nnd between the profit maker and wage-labor there is no community of
interest other than the one that obtains in all exploiting systems-that thc exploiter and the exploited are the two ends of mutually antagonistic
poles. As a figure of prominence on the political
field, if Mr. Crerar is not on-the side of the working
class seeking emancipation from their exploitation,
whieh is carried on by means of wacre labor, then he
is against them and on the side of the exploiter.
The farming class, according to all accounts, have
failed to prosper. Mr. Crerar says that "agriculture
was never in so difficult or precarious a position as
today." Other accounts of that industry in the
United States, to go no further, show that the Canadian farmer is not alone in his failure,
At present, thc Farmers' movement seems largely
animated by the idea that the schemes and machinations of what are called the "big business interests" are responsible for the condition of the fanning industry. The trouble; however, lies deeper in
the structure of the present economic system. The
independent farmer, who did what he liked with his
own, is of the past. Ths modern farmer is caught
in the system of crsdit snd ths world market, and
the system ssts for him what he can do with his farm
(Continued on Page 8) PAGE TWO
War In the Pacific--What For?
In Two Parts,  Parti.
IT IS a fact that the development of armaments
synchronizes with industrial expansion in all
countries. Had not British pirates combined
to sweep from the seas the pirates of Spain a rising
merchant class in Britain would never have pease*
fully penetrated a European market.
Had not the forces of Clive rolled back the forces
under India's rulers the UessuiOS of the East would
never have been spilled in Britain's lap. Had not
America's "teapot" boiled over in Boston harbor
American independence would still be in the making.
Had not the "mailed fist" of Frederick and Bismarck welded the separate German States into a
homogeneous mass there would have been no German Empire.
Had not France. Great Britain, the United States
and Japan woke China from ita sleep of centuries by
war after war eapitalism would never have raised
its u"gly head in the exotic East.
All discussion, then, upon limitation of armament
is futile until bourgeois society-learns to co-operate
in the exploitation* of the earth's resources and divide the spoils in proportion to the amount of labor
each country contributes.
But the predatory propensities of bourgeois society, as virile now as in the earliest stages of Barbarism, are opposed to any such scheme and its
happy solution.
Besides, being purblind, they are already premeditating war which, very r-adily, may prove the most
sanguinary struegle of the Ages and bring about
the very thing they seek to avoid.
If the foremost powers are not COUtemplsting war
why are they rushing to completion the greatest aggregation of fighting ships ever assembled on the
If, formerly, Britain's main fleet was to protect
her merchant ships in European waters—why has it
been transferred to the Pacific with its base at Singapore ?
"Why has the Australian government suddenly
discarded a programme for the building of more
naval ships in keeping with it* magnitude of export
trade for one of doek-building and port improvements on an extensive seale, while preparing plans
for the conversion of Port Darwin into a naval
base, which would bring Singapore in China within
1.000 miles of Australia ?
One might very pertinently enquire the reason
for the Japanese Cabinet making unusually large
appropriations for the army and navy at a time
when the finaneial Rtress of all Bountrtes is palpably
evident (776,000.000 yen out of a total budget of
The insular mind of the press cannot answer these
questions and governments fear to do so; therefore,
we must undertake the task ourselves.
The "Morning Post," a lusty advocate of the political charlatan, Mr. Lloyd George, tells us in a series of articles, "that there are 10,000,000 of a surplus population in the British Isles."
That is to say, there are nearly 3,000,000 workers,
with their dependents, for whom there are no jobs
and no visible means in the country—under eapitalism—for supplying them with one.
That this is so the British Government further confirms in voting £1,000,000 to assist unemployed workers to overseas colonies and dominions; in appropriations amounting to £40.000,000 for loans to these
same bodies, for schemes which will provide work
to ssttlers: in financing propaganda which will
attract this surplus to Canada, Australia and New
Unemployment in Great Britain is of no transient
character; it grows constantly and becomes more
acute withe tbe industrial development of all other
Its chief industries, coal, textiles snd shipping are
not only affected by the eeonomie consequences of
war in Kurope but by the industrial expansion of
America, Bgyp! snd India; of CJhina and Japan.
These countries have taken the raw jwiteriaU
needful to the prodoction of cotton goods, materials whieh formerly they supplied this department
of the textile industry af Greet Britain with.-aud
are producing these goods and sell them in » market formerly dominated by Britain.
Moreover, the Doited States, enriched by war. .titers the woo! market of Australia as a rival buyer.
adds this Stock of raw mat. rial to thst gathered
(Tom their own lands and romp. t. s as a woollen producer against Great Britain in 8 world market.
While cheap a*. British eosl owners ean -ditain
coal it is a physical Impossibility f<>r them tO compete against Germany, Frame and Poland and Btfll
make profits
The free tonnage in ships and eoal fPOB <"*nnaiiy,
the immense quantities of eosl frees the Briey and
S-ar Basins, from AJssi e and Lorraiu enables France
to s'-ll coal in a European msrfcet cheeper than it
can Im- sob? at an English pit-head
While Poland adds to tin- congestion with anal
ami minerals from I'pper Silesia 1*888 industrial than
agricultural she can BBVi r consume, a* Germany
does, this material in 8 further reproductive stage Of
There is also the competition from the United
States and Japan f*>r the BeshOfltS trad.- <'f th**
world. Which in turn ia affected by the use of oil
as fuel.
Od daaplaees labor, is more eombustihle than eoal;
0C* upiee less space, aud enables the big shipping
combines to pay their sto. kho'd-rs the average rate
of interest, seen in these times- by the savings thus
Affected fes they are by resent world-wide develop.
inents. these three industries, supplying, as they did,
the means to an existence f"r a great majority of
British workers, and tlie chief aouree of income f<>r
8 propertied 8*888, STS the ♦ onomie CBUSMS of unem-
pb ynient and the rising tide of emigration in Gr<*at
Knowing that British industry must eontinue to
suffer  further restrictions in output,  the  financial
capitalists of the country are sacking frenh fields for
exploitation. They are more sueeeaaful in this re-
sped than are the workers in seeking new fields to
be exploited in.
Our Peter T I.e-kie quot"n the "Sunday Chronic!.-" as follows : —
"American oil men aas IBs danter ahead;- they are
therefore BOBSrtBf the worW lor n«*w cHft**Ids; only to
And that BriUrih enterprise has nearly everywhere been
ahead of them an.! thst ihe <ontrol of almost all the most
promising pcvpsfties Is In flritlsh hands
Tsl pa»t of th< oil ind-jj-'ry l>el<«iR-*d to America; its
ppn^nt la pre-k.mi- mtly under her oi/nlrol; hut Ita future.
If we. play <Mir ran!)* well, should he, and will \,t>. Hritish
"America Ik no? rolnir to no*. h«-r old supremacy In thiol! world pass without a StfBBglS' that thr* will OKht hard
and Ion/ to pn-veni the Ilritlah concessions In Mexico.
Central and Booth AJBSrtes from remaining In our hands;
nnd this -juesMon of oil J* going to prove one of the most
con***<ntlotis that ha* "v< r arisen betWfSB thl two countries."
Besides ail there is Asia to be exploited. And
China just breaking through the chrysalis of feudalism to capitalism is the "last great market" to be
fought for.
Britain, France, the United States and Japun are
all contenders for this market.
"Up to the outbreak of war between China and Japan
the Interest of the American people In the politics of the
Far Fast had" Ven languid. Now It herame keener and
tt was quickly Htlmulatcd by the acquisition of the Philippines and hy the Independent revival of American trade.
"The United States had never ceased to make large
purchase* from China, and In 1880 its Imports from that
country amounted to $2J>.000,000. but its exports to her
were barely over £1,000,000. In 1890 export-* began to catch
up with importi, -md In 1900 when the import! bad
risen to £27.000,000 exports had grown to $15,260,000. Then
in 1902 export* at last exceeded Imports.
"This rapdd increase in the sale of American goods , . .
made it loeaaibstt on me -ft-*.H ,u fo,*,,w Wi,;
tentlen wha! wss icoinr on in the Far Q " ll
"And ahofe all to d, tcrmitte *•}■.,- ,
rcferem-e lo the tm-ak u(   ot tho run, ,.   [,:,,.T'„ " ^, 7
then ssssasd hamlneat.  Bwwral of u. i
•osassel bsot on ihe parUttoa ol I bass, sad ******* q
Ilrltsln and Japan, whe **. r- v**,tm»f*t • , , ,.."
*■<** t«* **rs t**t,****
to mirk off a tpr-trm of inttrc.t for them te !„«*-, m tr*Z
that »f the v.orst should befall, they m-gt-t **** C0Wf JT
•rnnty hsnded.
Inahh- tn prev.m «r«d utiwlil nr lo   a. limit
ision of th»» -*ort. th. DaJtsS States t-■■
dpjsj   of   th.-   -OBSB   door     The   m*C**t    i
< """altos' snui.-% a* a Wori'i Power,
With a BOpolstion of more than -KW-OOOjOOO by.
ing OB an area leOS than '-jOOOjOOO sq
sensing » Utile Betf a\000 nOes ef rsilr    -
ei*al. iron, and oil in greater al a.lv
other ronntry in the world, Chins   k -       for aa
nil itation
But big as China is mueh a* it lscki
Vivilixatiott. r/reat as tta ronsmnpttOj ■    ***,*
be it is not large enough to alloa  fort
abaorplJoa  ol  esnital  and  . • -^
roady tor shipment from Britain.  ' r
sad Japan.
It is this fn* i ihat Beaonnts f«>r •
t- r»**ts betwasn the Unhed > I -
the latter country -jtne.  tre* S
il**r nation with an immense r •
She looks anon Chins a* the -   •
inatcrji.1 srhieh will sllOW her t" rets
snttfltg na'i«>n« atni the leld whie*
Wt*tt inereisini; \oluioe of rardtsl
To iniur*   thi« <*!n   has d« . Is %*    r     i»
trine, a priority of Interest In ' bin •
\-aift generally.     T*> maintain this i
UtiH up nn arm-, and BBVJ 'hat i* : ' '
I nited   Sfstes and   co      res  vei
itrength, with thai of Greal Brits
While thc United Sia?-* looks
b.gicai market which can eotmuasi  thi :'is
ing surplus of com mo dtfJOS wl    h '
and south «-f them arc nol '
And t«» inmure aujeeeasfBl jieaetrstioi
snd   he dereioneaant of Chins sloi
Ilsitu   ban  been   fortrfv*d.  (JlW*H   fal
for a deep anehnrage, and then supci
mmed to eotapletion which, wttl
h idy on the sea*. Miil ad ! for •  '    '
Il* re are :**.o policies whicii
door" and a priority of interests  ben
for.i which must elsah   Bnl whj w ■'
ed With d»[«an    Krauee. Ie>s < briousl'    *
ited Slates"
The ruling elasa of Britain  Ihe
i.*.s and the greater indnstr'al groiti    '
Great Britain > bo longer the "workshoi oft
world*'; dependent npon thi  real ef the world wr
nearly 86 per eeut, of th  f M"'f* wM j  "
eo.intn-. laehing in natural icsonrcei ol wee
fee! the physieal iucspscity of the eoontrj te i
erease its industrial developmmit,
But the i»rotiis from it* presenl itatus of development keep coming In and, further sugmented bj o-
eign Investments, ths British eapitalisl elst* m
have an extensi\e field f«r n investmenl of "-!S
creasing surplus. . .
By lending aid to Japan, for the purpose o
ing the "open door" in China, a fii Id for Britishes
it;.l to he exploited in i-* given in return.   If   • ' ■
the other band, has ''property rights" in China,
Japanese imperialism >s bo goarsntee    is
'rigbtH' are perfectly safe. )V
jPVaneh espitalists have acquired a ui''""•*'   _
and navy, and considerabb- political nowe'" m
rope; all these arc for sale to t|ie l•i^!',•N,   '" '
Who could pay mors than iii«' United Statr"
The activities of Fram-c iu Kurope since tho en   ^
the !a»t war (activities which ns "Clarion   r      ^
knew have affected Britain's Bufopean markei ,
(Continued on Page Hv
'I I'll!!
Concerning Value
Selling Pnce and Value—Divergences in Prices of
.  .    course of thin discusaion ii hss been, so far,
•   • •!..- "'eosl pi lee b! .* commodity is equsl
"t   ,,    .,,:,•• .>i" the rommodities consumed in ik
aad that, therefore, thc priee al pro-
, -Mine! le Ihe valae u> Ihs rase «>! eoi
.,      ,, jui • .1 o\ the eo : loymenl of espitali ef
.  ntion.   This •** not strietlj true   It
ut on this point to qOote thii itate
lisra ■
• .  pries of proelaetlon 0 a oeruUi     nroodlty
. (tries ior the buyer, •*»**. tht* j**i<. n   • paei late
,. . •..   sod bsoanm *a steas at*        r pri •
j., ! ,,, ,.; .  oi pfotfactieh «>•*> van from Um rah*   ■'.
.■ re-newscast th   eost prla of i    •■   .'wilt)
. -.--. <- trt produ      ■- m.t> ai*-*. •.*:.-.'. shove
. .-iion of US lo«»l value vBiah •* fefwad b)
,- •**-  ni«Min* of prt***u. ten ««.-••♦-.• • Ii"
"Capital," *ol in p 1 ■•!.
■ ..- let n**. assume thm lh faciuri
i)0.lu v  etiiplo) i s   .«,
, ..-.itton    f| ■* eosl -prii •   ■
reduction, of tl "- rommoditj  will in-
i ..( a ciT'        too ml .'if rs        ter-
-> and of maehinery.   Some or «ii
•   .     . ,  be the products of • - having ■■
lower or higher than Ihe st snd
r. be b 'Ufhl   ' .      i or shove
;I - d screpan .* r into thi
i   uto the price of produrtion of th. finis"*
irttb the result that the pri f produ
be lower or higher thsn the rslm   ■•■•;
i eommoditj which hi the product of
■ average composition
• i lo notlee soother liltla      iter ol
teres! ia this eonnection.
el  ..r merehsota' ■
-    -     .  • • and. by \irin. of tl       ir ol thi sver-
is« rstf ol profit, thia profit un-br competitive eon>
■' - will be, on the average, the same si thsl
rielded by industrial  eapital     Merchsnta' rspitsl
si pro rata, according lo it- proportional mag
!"lude' uP°n ,,1"'"'-*1 ttmdkt surplus value. This
« does in ipite of the fact that it produces neither
vain., nor Burplua«value, being merely concerned
with the circulation of iioinnioditiea and the reali-
mUon   of   the   values produced in the industrial
re. All this, of course, merely refers to its func
'■"" of buying and Belling,   8o far as commercial
Lai ii employed in storm).', transporting, sorting
snd packing eommodities il is engaged in productive
;•'■-••* in which both value and surplus-value are
crested through the exploitation of labor. (See Capi-
•    vol. III. chap. 18.
Sow, thi   rale of profit  on any given eapital is
calculated over a certain period, generally one year.
On tt;- other band, certain capitals, by reason ofthe
ire or mode of production of the commodities
in, can only i„. turned over once in a year.
rher- in others which may be turned over many
I i i ■ -.
ttft M.-irx.   .• certain merchants' capita] is turn-
• 'v.- times psr >- ur, II win add to a commodity-
' Ks i tra valae bol 0W >:f-h of the profit, which
' mer hant'i - ipttel of in.- same vaiu?, which ia
'urn- -.■'.. ..  rear, ■*:!! add to a i nuu Htyeai'i-
•:-•■ Mat** rahte    .       .   Th.- same percentage of
tht conuaerclal pro-ftl In different line* <r, industry, accord-
;-.. '.. -h- propoii   ins i ' their times of tarn-over, increases
"  •   •'     at pri •- ol  i --i.m-<!'U--s !<;.  dif*er--nt, percentages
il rt< d oo Iheii raloes "
'"Capital" vol, iii. page 368.
To illustrate tl - point: In the examples already
i*en it i as been assumed that tbe average rait- of
■ • ■•■*. was 20 per cent    A merchant employs a cer-
..: itiii in a business in which it ran only be
ed over once in a year,   For commodities which
ost !.!•;■ 100 dollars be will charge 1 *J«> dollars. This
will t»'i\.' him 20 per cent, per annum on the capital
investi I    Another merchant invests a similar capi-
-,,i ui a I i* nesa in which, on the average, his capi-
- turned over five times in a year.   This msr-
chsnl can only charge, for commodities whieh cost
him I'-*1 dollars, a price of 104 dollara.   This will
aire him also a profit of 20 per eent per annum. The
bearing of all this on the present discussion is that
there is here ■ circumstance which may have the
,--■. |   •• still further accentuating a divergence be
tween selling price and value.
We have so far been dealing with the competitive
stage of capitalism. We shall now have to consider
the more recent phase in which competition has been
largely superseded by monopoly. Before doing so
however, it will he well to point out the bearing of
the law of value on the foregoing, that is, in what
way value governs the price of production and, consequently, selling prices. This is a very simple matter.
In any given period of time there, is produced a
given quantity of commodities; these have absorbed
a given quantity of labor and, consequently have
a certain total value. The values of these commodities
are expressed in gold prices. The total (gold) prices
must, of necessity, equal the total value. Now, according to the productivity of labor and the intensity of exploitation a certain proportion of the total
value will consist of surplus-value. The proportion—
which the total surplus value bears to the total capital employed gives the rate of profit. The surplus-
value i.s distributed pro rata among the various capitals employed, forming a given percentage called
the average rate of profit. The total profit must,
therefore, equal the total surplus value. ^Tow, the
price of production is formed by the cost price plus
the average profit. Rnt the rate of profit is a "function" of value. Therefore the law of value governs
prices of production which, in turn, determines sell-
in l* juices.
"No matter what may be the way in which prices are
reculated. the result always is the following:
(11 The law of value dominates the movements of
prices, since a reduction or increase of the labor-time required for production causes the prices of production to fall
or to rise.    ... r**
(2) The average profit which determines the prices
of producticn must always be approximately equal to that
quantity of surplus value which falls to the share of a certain individual capital in its capacity as an aliquot part
of the total social capital. . . Now, since the total value
of tbe commodities regulates the total surplus-value, and
thus the level of the average profit and the average rate
of profit—always understanding this as a general law, as
a principle resrulatine the fluctuations—it follows that the
law of value regulates the prices of production,"
"Capital," vol. iii page 211.
fttUar*a Neie.-Thic arti«v <.•••-*-••,-•<■' a leaflet Issued
'   t*ae*l (Ottawa) No k of the B t 0 <    *»•'■ ^,'^',* '
**•   r,> taues to ihi* worker* o4 Ottawa to »inot\ causes
'•*- Hfcworj ib4 tim-araiii* s   Cameos sre held st N Wei
**t*m Mr,,-,  -v-ar  Tout   DtttcS   OttSWS     ThS <••»*"■ ******
hi ctiira.'-. petoi t  LsekSs.
To solve the ttnemploymenl question is the greet
,v' ir ■■■ Ii ra eon front ins society today,   Vour poll-
** •*** are ignoring the question In their elecuou aa-
Pwmier Meighen led you to believe when he re
''"""••'I from the Imperial Conference at Ijondon,
''"" thii country was more fortunate than any other
"(',Ul,|'.v v.-t „t that time, the iineiiipl-ye.1 "•' M,,n'
***** had little short of a not to obtain sdmittancc
'" *• Railway Oftles Agnting srith one another to
,,,,t»l" employment haaauas ol more men than j,,,,s
Canada's onemployed is estimated st 60^°
ui,h >•''.' of trade-union memhera Britain*e 2,000,-
m uoemptoyad in the aggreirste, looka worse but
(',l,»"l«'« percentage would reach 3,000,000 with ■
•^Nation as large Us Britain.
The polltieiana are playing with the Tariff ques-
,"u     Thr  tnit.il  States  STS  their  example  as  to
***•**», yet 6,000^)00 are anemploycd In the countrj
1,11!"' south of u«. The question is world wide. Bel-
({,,"» baa 22% of n membership of 821,000 trade-
******* unemployed. Denmark has 23* unem-
*******   Sweden 1ms 20<1  uuc.ii.loye.l.   Prauoe has
I ^ooo unemployed. Poland has 88,000 unemploy-
No matter what form of tarifta eadat, or whether
|( ll(. free-trade Britain, the problem is universal.
-Therefore, there must be e universal cause.
\\Y have marketa slutted with the good things
,f life, and starvation amidat this plenty.
W, |1;1v,. idle men and idle machinery.
Vre are told to work harder to aolve the question,
When millions csnnot even get a job.
WORKERS!    what  is your position in society!
Vou are dependenl upon an employing class for
iliTeUh0od. According to the political economists,
r.r.Kour applied to the natural resources, produces
.i't;i!hM Thc wage given you ia leas than he
"Lthvounrorfuce.   The workers who compose the
gr*l tic wealth produced, therefore, the markets
tZ I-.o-l. -Il -iti- - longer profitable to
,,"1 ZZ workers are thrown into theuespainng
emp,oy.y27nemploved, You are given the free-
^.STSi-P^    That is all liberty
*"T il'IamUlism VOU arc jUSt as much a slave as
^f ',„,,•   You are merely bought for a
',,;,li:i;:;,- hour, instead of a lifetime.    As
week'    '    , j,;,,,,,*- turns you loose, yon go begging
!°°      f The black slave never had to do this.
foranotxier.   >'"
The Capitalist Class owns you because they own
the means whereby you live: The land, mines, factories, natural resouces, and all the machinery of
production, Hence, your labour is sold like every
other commodity on the market to the highest bidder, yet your politicians would have you believe
the clause in the labour part of the Peace Treaty—
"that labour was no longer to be looked upon solely
as a commodity." Today, we are told, the next
commodity that must come down is LABOUR. The
capital class are continually conspiring to keep
you down and buy you cheap upon the labour market.
To understand your position more thoroughly,
Thc Socialist Party is opening an Economic and
History class, on Tuesday, Nov. lst, 8 p.m. and every
Tuesday all winter, to teach history as a worker
should look at it, and economics from the workers'
viewpoint. The subject of history will be dealt with
from the Economic Interpretation of History of the
Karl Marx School.
Economies, like history, will be dealt with from
an evolutionary basis:—
Wage—Labour and Capital.
Values—exehange and use.
Money; '
Prices, profits, etc. PAGE FOUR
Western Clarion
Paalkae-I twice a ■•■tk by taa Socialist Party tf
Oaaada 881 Pcs-dttr Stress Bast, Vsb-m*stsx, B. a
PImm HifSUad  8888
at O. P. O. as a news-paper.
Ewaa MaeLsod
Fsrsiga, 1C issass
gomg.lt Skis ausber is ea yew address label year
RfjRtastMriptisA  eipir-M   with
...VANCOUVER, B. C,  NOVEMBER  16.  1921.
THE D. E. C. of the S. P. of C. have issued a
call for the Party vote on the question of affi-
ation with the Third International.
Party members should be well enough informed
on the question at issue.   The matter has been thoroughly discussed in open meetings in the various
locals and in the Clarion columns.  No diserimiu-
ation has been shown in the matter of printing the
various  viewpoints  presented,  and   no  complaints
have reached us on account of bias or personal prejudice in the handling of any article, for or against
affiliation in these columns.
The vote will be taken on unconditional affiliation, based upon the twenty-one conditions laid
down by the second congress of the Third International, Moscow, August 1020. These conditions of
affiliation remain unaltered after the sitting of the
third congress 1921, which re-affirmed them. The
question is simply for or against affiliation on those
In issuing the call for the referendum the D. E.
C. have no recommendations to make to the Party
membership. The vote will be taken by each Local
nnder i*9 own supervision and returns made to the
D. E. C. secretary. Locals should see to it that all
members are given a fair opportunity to record
their votes, for or against. There may be some members who will be unable to attend on the meeting
night when tbe vote is called for. Provision should
be made for them.
When all returns are in the particulars will be
published in these columns.
Local (Vancouver) No. 1. We are requested by
the Secretary of Local No. 1 to state that now that
the D E. C. have called for the vote on the matter of
affiliation with the Third International, Local No 1
will take a roll-call vote on the 13th December. Meetings and organizational work in connection with the
elections will prevent Local Vancouver voting on
the question before that date. Members unable to
attend will have their votes recorded if sent in
writing to H. Grand, secretary, Local No. 1, 401 Pender street, east, Vancouver, B. C, on or before 13th
December. Just state simply, "For affiliation" or
"against affiliation." Unconditional affiliation on
the basis of the 21 points will govern the referendum.
•     •     •     •     •
Comrade J. A. McDonald writes from Australia
to say that he is now journeyiug to New Zealand.
His note of activities in Australia will appear in
nest issue. The following from the "International
Communist," will prove interesting to classes elsewhere.
We are pleased to report thst tho Materialist Conee*---
tloa of History Class, which began on last Thursday, was
a -treat success, having an attendance of over 70. Monday night's class was Increased to over 80 students, so we
feel confident now that auccess Is assured. Com. McDonald ts certainly the most capable teacher that has ever
struck Australia, aad we can easily understand his reputation la tho States.
Other activities are progressing much aa usual. On
Sunday. Domain doings were especially good, tha weather
having toe-come a little milder. Paper sellers were mustered
te great force. Papers were completely sold out, and Ut-
stature sales'were brisk.
Com. McDonald made his debut on the Domain platform, and bad gathered round him a huge and Interested
audience. Other speakers aasistad te bringing the meet-
teg to a successful conclusion.
We are moM enthusiast** regarding our elaaaea. be-
car.<*o WS know that "knowlsdfs Is tadsed puwer." aixl II
Is something to be proud of that the Sydney Breach ot the
U ******* * an, aas asea ssocasswl ia orgaaJatog tho
latest  classes  on  scientific  SShjectl  SVet   been  held   la
Australia.   Next Sunday. Com. ShiDosahl l«-lures on "The
Hich l\>st of Living."   Do not nntt it'
Speaking of New Zealand-that country, among
others, has bean mads quite safe for democracy. We
have always had difficulty in .securing delivery of
anv literature we scut there and now the "Clarion
is under the official ban. Now and then single copies
manage to squatSC their way through, but bundles
never reach their destination Clarion writers will
understand why Clarion articles reproduced in N.
Z. papers are unacknowl- d^ed.
a       a       •       •       •
Comrade p. T Leckie ha-* been having a rough
time iu Ottawa talking t" the people OU the street
corner. Throughout the summer, srith ths help al
a few comrades, he has been trying to hold m« clings
on thc street corners. Sueb is ths general attitudc
to working class efforts towards education in Ottawa that he and the few comrades with him have
to-en constantly hindered, though not stopped, by
the rowdy and respectable elements of that city
whose function it in to charge his soap box and disrupt the meeting I'e'cr says frcaspesch and a frev»
fight go together. Now the winter clasps are commencing and it is to be hop..! that next summer's
open air meetings will benefit from the help of a few
Speaking of education, a writer in The }i. C,
Veteran's Weekly" says:
The AaU-Wasfe Committee in the Old Cmastri bate d«*»
cided that education costs too much, ao they hmra «le-
nounee-d it at ail their BMSttagl Their argument 1* that
the modern child is no? real!-. k--*-n on edunaticaa; a poor
argument, for wha^ healthy ehUd realty Is until It I*
taught to be so Therefore the oxtemtre education of the
present day is unneee-uar}* am! an,*■*.*> ihe world cannot
afford lt.
"Thi-i argument 1* asriSSM •■nourh had it •ome from the
unintelle-rtual. but when su- h a i.rilllant thinker as Doctor
Inge, the celebrated Dsaa of SI Paul's. Is on the side of
the snti-educationlsts, it becoiuc* a »*nous matter. aspBS-
ially a« Dr. Inge treats the SribJseJ soRiewfmt mppantiy
when he says that like liquor in AJBStSBS education should
belong  to the prtvijej-ed  cUmte-i"
Th.- article Bays further that it is held by some
folk that "too much  knowledge only leads fo di*
• ontent.''
This must b« Dean Inge "at hi* worst," to quote
0. It. Shaw. The "celebrated Dean" doesn't take
working-class education very kindly. Working
clasa education by working-class educator* means
the elimination of the Dean and his kind That's
why it's "too expensive."
a       a       a       a       a
dust to remind you: A Clarion sub. 808(8 only one
dollar for 20 COUSequetie issues by mail to your address or to the address of anybody you know who
needs introduction to the paths of Working class education.
Comrade W. hew-in, secretary Calgary Local re
ports that Frank»Williams will' hi- a candidate for
the S. P. of ('.. probably in Calgary Fast in the Dominion Election. Subscription li*.t* are Issued by
Local Calgary No. 86 tO raise funds to meet the deposit fee 1*200 and the geutral expenses ineiden
tal in a constituency covering a wide area. A note
"To all Comrade*." at the head of tin- subscription
list says: "It is precisely when the system hurts us
most that the fight against it must be carried on
most vigorously. We ask all comrades to place their
donation* on this list to the end that the opposition
of the working class to the subjection Imposed on
it by modem society be unflinchingly maintained iu
the coming contest, and the socialist position be explained as widely god fully 0% possible."
Donations should be sent to the secretary of the
Campaign Committer Wm. K. Lewin. 134 a Uth Ave.
West, Calgary, Alta.
Dr.  Nausea's  Appeal  for  Russia—Food  Rotting
Whils Millions Starrs.
    -»uvua   BMUVC,
)-. Nuuan, -p-ald-if ai Iftn-ieatar, <),.,  70.
m* wB-w-rt-J th. *(„„,«„ -.„■„, ,h„ ■ •  ■*■
..ii a »-.  '""•"'■»  ■-■--■in-- me irreai
problem of I,„rope ami th, world for the time beL
from   he reports he received there were beTvvee, 20
Th)JwlSTf °1 p<'0',," ttt *»"• "»«»«nt hungry
There were at least ten million lives at stake aodan
American Comm ssion which had been i„ I[„«£
considered that the deaths of between two and th™
■% W-« «■ -inter could Z ba^tfE
The need of the district affected was for the r ro
vision of something Ifcs fonr millidn to^s 'Cl
supplies, eWefly cereals. The Russian 0 vernmen
he said prov.de* they were able to collect thMaies
they would be able to gather about half the requiro
ments of the famine area, or about two million i
of cereals, and he really thought the 8oviet (;.'•*
erumant were doing ail they could to help the rieonl
They    were    carrying rood from  Western K^,!.'
where the famine existed.   That wan the iii „,!■„„ }'
'-.us* is.   On the other iide. m Canada, there wss i
crop of six and a half million tons, nearly mx mil
lions of whieh  was for export, or three times u
much as was needed to save the wbnie famine ttricx
en districts of Hussia    in the United Btatea fsrmen
had their crop* lying dsoomposing in their acres
because they could not get nd of them, and m the
Argentine   there   were   large   qnsntitii       |   v-h..v
which BOttid not be *»»K1 because the exehange *u
unfavorable.     In   lhai   BOUBtry   mai/r  *.■,>,      .   ,*
being burned a« fin I for laoomotivea    Vet hen taer
»aaw fleets of rssBsls lying Idle !•-• mm   .  . \*aA
nothing to carry.
s     a     s    a    e
Comntittefs are bus} ia Canada collecting
for the purshase ot food supplies   >■
tions to Miss a. Sehults, -    etsrj K. -      |
Relief Fund. r. 0. Baa 839], Su.ri.-t H   .,
Man., or to the Clan, n 001 "f, The fi Uos ing
have been reeeivetl al the Clarion "'v
chnling 10th \ov. 1921     Further conti >,•..,
be acknowledged
a    a    a    a    e
C. Martin *-'». M. W, Smith **'•. W'u   i larkson !-*>
T. H. Miles 13; H II Haaaofl   collect* I   »:i  Ksts-
enne Smith *'»   C H, B. *1 j Abe Karate i\   H H
Hanson   (aecoud aoBttibution, eollect       M     l»r
lUgiiS,    collected    t&l Total |13i
Contrasted  with  ths allied w«r budgets
and preo-nt      ..r the sStTOB .
nc«|uaintane»hip l-twcen mlnhiters uf ,:
ountry an«l another, those Sgurea ben
ill nourished   but to us they iodi si •• •
normal > "   t-nd'-ncy in t larton (lasnei i »:S
to the gooda
A little more cheerful growling will  I   ti
and our daspar toaai are hereby keyi I to
with those daUnojuents whose subs ar.      ■     iptr-
ed list.    If you ran find that dolisr send Wa
know we'll ?»et H iii time, but if yoa I ■■:■   • set
nOW     now u the time We need it.        i'
for a pathetic appeal for one.
Eater, th** Bgurea since la*! (asm     I  '
bops Slsa that they do not weaken in in       •
Following. #1 aaah: Goo, Jsaiieson II v - '
Donner. A. .T  Hell. B  I? S*-*-mu<*  D  A A   **
Matthews. .? sfcKinley, 0 Mengel. A MK
Ii-rrv H Meibo, I* T 1.-* IrJe, -i Kin I'■**"**•
S. Robinson. Wm  Murrav. J   W   Qesl       P. J. HttSl
.1. F Wolotdtyn, J. Halle. S Webster 0   \
U tioddard. I*. Oarrie, J. Johnston, P. W Psrmrn
W. Miller, c. Luff. Q  Andrews, W. R W       '■'
Allen. D Loo-s. s  Lowsry, H  Arnold. B Hslh -
0. Darts, T. Tidiiiuton
Following oil each) T. rjohill, 0 Oliver J Hsr-
rington, C  Martin. F. U   Hallam. W  Orr  E   Ut
juntte,  L.  it.   LaMarehe    \|ex. Shcji,- r :    R   -
wrigfat, Wm. CMssb.
Siii Barp H.W; dim Lott *.:. -J Doen *    i  0
Fuster *r»; Frank Cassidv $-I ■ J   F   Kirk M""'   B
Campbell ♦2 2"., J. Knight. (Frisco Msrxisn C
*T2o, if r;. ifingo tl.iO.
Above. Clarion soba received from 28th Oct te
K»th Nov . inclusive, total 190.50.
OaltTary: Frank Willisma
Nanaimo: W. A. I-Yitchard.
Vancouver (3 scats)
Burrard: J. D. Harrington.
Centre: T. O'Connor.
South: J. Kavanagh.
Winnipeg Centre: H. M. Bartholomew.
Winnipeg North: R. B. Russell.
Osmps.-rn funds sre urgently required.   Send
contributions for Alberta, B. 0. or Manitoba to:
W. R. Lewin, 134 a 9th Ave. Wast,
Calgary, Alberta.
E. McLood, 401 Pander St E.,
Vancouver, B. 0.
H. M. Bartholomew, Box 1762
Winnipeg, Man. WESTERN     CLARION
3ook Review
t      M-]iS is rouTUS-Hy winiam trvtaa   m<
•'       '.      atswart, Toronto.   ("kxh.   2,r>3 pan***.
t it>!..ir.«i
Sj-sHlS       * *** *** I'ui,,ts °f int'-H-Hl to Can-
j   |duUlS( which fortunately are met with m the
J, ...- .even page*   It is printed in Cansds
; n- Blsn I "• the forsword talis us that be ques-
I ,     ... eonstructivo and distinctively Csaa-
tj-jbutioo lias yet been thrown into th. dia
ir national problem*."
I -   .    re grest snd fundamental truths end, if
I       j0 anuounce them to a world thirsty :'
I       p        t.ook ih worth while.   Th.  everuge
1      might object to reading over oa-s-third of its
1 . testing with more than a casual men-
I ,r:!ur"   the   book   Is   written   shout
1      .  ;„ finally encounter the farmer in po!
I .   to become even *n<*r*- censorious,
I | he has parted with eash and ia iech<
L . At that the title might be S   ••   -
I . . ..,. ■ dosen others would better describe
I tartly a 'preutioe effort, and itsri
I .ch. though Bomewhat clogged with
|     . tsphor; but we soon stub th.- toes of
I.      -• ng upon metaphysical bricks  hid-
Ic-t i   ■ *' • •''*'' *tid seientilk phrases, -      ••*•
I; -fined as gold  by fire, will Mand
Iri-r '. -'
I we discover much tO our concern tl
I   . • • at Bsnal b<- fixed whan it stsrts 11
If • the farmer may not benefit '
litir.se*;.        •   Ihe price of  ma< hmerv  :•<•   -
|: •„-  ng is 1 led only when it start*, to go down
thsl the farmer may not benefit by the
d*-T«5*        Emphasis in the original
I  Vol fanner gets riled
re further ta  understand  that   religion  is
I . ■ r ior prograss- not iu Its theol -
I -      but as "a new social appeal whiel
rpretstioo of that deeper spirit
'     I *       ' religion stands."   No! the religi
h'   -■■- ill no doubt refloated iadividos
sssrfly so. not the religion of "other
Eteriea        il ths "social sppfieatioc <*f Christian
IfriB     -        There is a new note sounding from
Quite a lot of this 00 pp. 51-55,
r       ' <nng our author is a parson, w.  may
I*'1* ritbout too dsap scrutiny.   We  knoa   that
|»ae parvtnH ar-* saying daring thing* lo their eon-
r - •'        Bal we would to 0©d these persons
I     ■ "tad the souross of their "Christisn Princi-
tf«." and understand  that   any  variation  to the
'' " " - rsetiee of yesterday is away from them snd
"■'■' towsrd them.
Mr. Irvine remarks how easy il i> lo worship God
j       '    "Bal it is not so easy to worship '""I >M
I"' ' '  w on a lnnel> homestead.'    Bstween this
j        "Other, nnd the bankruplcy of Christianity,
''*• might be some connection.   Because Chris-
Uri'.v was ,„_ ftn,j 0V(T ^i^u *„  in ,--„,,.„--,.. a slave -
pal    Anyone who seeks to effect the betterment
'N*\rS musl do so outside the principles of Chris
: :"' And further, anyone found worshipping
(,('1 in a factory would soon be looking for i new
***«•. if not for a new God.
taking the nwt |mrt> wj-joh deals with "The
*s,i'"'l Order in lVrspective." and winch fOTO*
Rilm*« half of the book- it is readable snd eon
l,k',c'1' when dealing in a narrative fsshion with
pfjll,,,«l happenings and graft, but Immediately say
*'!",',"l'' -• made to deal with the "New Social <-<*
J*  wa atruggls and toil through involved n'*'1-
****, pertly digested aud often wholly erroneous
JJHM* findings, An excursion is made into psy-
■*!* to ahew that people are either conservative
Jr Progressive; "Both types are Indispensable to
**"*    The two aw inseparable. With*
r«« conservative element, we would not onlv be
"^ger of goto, w.u  but w, Would never de-
J "I* ■ttfflcirmtly by practice to be prepared for the
****i WhUe without  the progressives, society
n* bwo*« Itatle and  decadent."    P- 60    M
what is meant we
arc unable* to grasp.   Tho argu-
""t»s concerned with the party system of politics,
0* tbe dominant political parties are concerned, thev
bsre no definite reason for their alignment; the prin".
«psl detemiaing factor being birth and association
I'.ey follow the lead Of the wealthy sections of society, who determine the poUey of the party. We
Ihould, then, abjure the party system, and develop
the group system, Now we are introduced to Her-
li"' Spencer who. in ins "First Principles" traces
the evolutionary principle from the simple to the
complex "with a thoroughness whieh carries eon-
' i tion      .Mr. trwin asys: "This evolutionary prin-
■•••• operates in the politicsl realm just us it does
in tbe physical, snd thst man is blind who cannot
v" ■*-* • failure to recognise tbis has brought
both Canada snd Greal Britain to the verge of
bloody revolution." We admit being blind, stone
blind in this matter, because Spencer gives the evolutional*? principle s* a dissipstion of motion and a
concomitant integration of matter, and that gener-
slly, though not always, the direction is from the
simple to tbe complex or, as he prefers to express it.
from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous. We
might ss wi II say thst failure to recognize this prin-
• le has forced the snake to crawl on his belly and
• an ' wslk on his legs. But can Mr. Irvine or any
other «elf-styled Spencerian connote the change
from Czarist bureaucracy to workers' Soviet as heel age from the Bimple to the complex 1—to
■ -. I il v' latest ao i.d development And in
wl tl * -■ • is I snsda on the verge of a bloody revolution! In the light of the trials at Winnipeg,
thei  ■•  rl ag-clasa matters, such stupidity, if
• •    ituj dit)    snnol be too severely condemned.
Let us j.-i-s.- over the various groupings of parlia-
• ti r> parti - in various countries to another
-  i ntific principle
f :: .-•:-. -i1 !'..*> .( anytlnn-: that exists is an ack-
BO«rle*Jged tact 4 pOvslcsJ seJeoce What -xiseed for de-
-•- . -in »: h !h. h-j;«t'i. ial wi'.t.ess. however, is but the
.•hsnunc of !< rm. 01 Ibi pssslac from on-* state of exist-
.. , • ■..;,.: I i!i:.i:.-;-..r. that toll principle of inde-
»-- . ••. i, oa |->ss tnw rtiea applied to thought or to
Hi, -,••.-. <rf so :.-ty. than it is in physios, and that. If
Ith ••••!<- foiiy walked, "uvernments would no longer
■"tempi to ntppresaioa -atA perseootioa to destroy new
.   ,..:* and n- w lystems; wither would radicals act as
• .h aid sritemi ihoaki tie destroyed in order to make
»av fioc a ae*
It certainly ia li» • uraginfeT, as Mr. Irvine goes on
to trll us. "that human history has failed to teach
this lesson more widely especisliy as it is written on
,,,.rv pgge, Thia is a comfortable doctrine, and
ii carried slong on aueh illuminating maxims as
••(ruth cannot hi destroyed." "Every reformer
sl,,:|d abolish the t. rm 'destruction* from his vocab-
.., ■• ''Thej "ho come to destroy come to do
the impossible,'   etc, etc
;- i, discouraging thsl tins great lesson of bis-
*ory has not been properly taught. How different.
-•„', would have been the sentiment of the Amah-
kites   "he. suhjected to the tender mercies oi the
.i.s, n i" '!'•'• ": Cad.
11,.w would the Carthagen-
i , others hav. whispered to their starving babes
. ..,, ,.0!!iiill, could not -destroy" them but .mere-
I, change them from Isughing, crowing infants, into
W0lf meet. How joyfully would ths aalbegencians
weived the spears, battlesxes and arrows of
p,  Montforts Christisn warriors, or Torquemado s
-i-Umsbl I thst humsn tiger as he transformed
Mlind! s,„c heretics to hung   drawn.
I    ^burucd, bleeding, broken and converted cn*a
„,    The pr,,sn;Ult negro mother disembowelled
cat.   The pre
, an i";
of famin
i;;,,;;^;,,; Vhr.stian-nob; the doomed workers
. Btricken Russia   but why contmue-was
, .  entific rorniula used to smh „» idiotic pur-
<yerr;Z xhZvy of con^rvation of energy and
P°SeJ   ,i„nt indestructibiUty of matter applied to
U" '';:,'  and underst 1 to bo so applied.
■™Z\   rR Proper understanding of the umverne.
,S ,.   , to human affairs, cither social or in-
'"-«   0 «PP > " l   '   U1d unschooled in science. IV
**«*?< >h°2™ bVttaft Wasting, brutal
•"""■■I"." "'      -.rltt^.   Spencer's "First Prin-
of thing*   "
0t of matter.   >|
very subject
s an illuminating chapter on  this
senouslv any analogy
, , take too seriously any auai
vine is gailty of doing frequently, but in justice let
us grant that in some instances the lapse is but temporary, as per p. 141 :—
"Strange as lt may seem, competition itself is the father
of co-operation, for competition when carried to a certain
point becomes so destructive as to leave cooperation th'
only alternative to annihilation."
Or again, (p. 143) :—
"The deitructivenest of modern warfare is aueh that
even the victor loses."     (Emphasis ours).
History fares no better than science. We are
told to observe 'the farmer, like Cincinnatus leav-
ing his plough for the legislative hall." Now that
which made Cincinnatus famous was just the reverse. He quit the Dietatorship of Rome at a time
when it was particularly dangerous to do so, and re-
tnrned to the simple life on his Sabine farm.
But we must hurry to the Farmer in Politics. On
page 105, under heading of ''Economic Necessity"
our author asks us a number of questions, all about
the farmers' organization ; questions which we could
well expect him to answer, but which he declines on
the ground that to do so would necessitate his writing a book. This we are willing to accept as a proper, valid, and ever-to-be-lauded excuse; so he refers us to Mr. Hopkins Moorhouse's no.vel ''Deep
Furroughs." for the information we might with
justice expect to find in his own book. However,
instead, w^ are treated to a disquisition on the manner in which Canada should have been settled. Coming from an advocate of social laws and their necessary operation, we conceive our author is not consistent. Well then, railroads were built into far
off territory while Ontario could very well accommodate the population, to the end that (p. 113)
"the farmer lost the price of freight on the selling
price of his wheat, and had to pay the freight on all
machinery and other commodities necessary to his
life on the farm." Ain't that a shame! But on
page 112 we find still further trouble, ''all he" (the
farmer) "could do was to pay what was asked and
take what was given." and again (page 145) "He"
(again, the farmer1; "had to pay what was asked and
take what was offered." This book is peculiar like
that* you go reading along, and suddenly you find
the same words which assailed your eyes some chapters or pages back,—you fancy you have turned
ba**k instead of forward.
But no. dear reader, should you ever read the
book be assured you arc proceeding ever forward
though apparently going backward.
Leaving the farmer, then, paying the freight both
ways, let us hurry along. Economic necessity is the
subject of discussion, so listen;
"People do not respond to a bread and butter appeal unless starvation stares them ln the face. In the absence ot
bread and butter, bread and butter, of course, is the ideal.
Necessities, however, once secured, i-t then becomes true
that man does not live by bread alone; but not until then.
It is chiefly for this reason that Marxian Socialism as
frequently misrepresented, has met with small success."
Mr. Irvine evidently has small acquaintance "with
Marx, and struggles manfully with this weighty subject, but in vain. Economic necessity, whatever it
may mean, finally turns to a discussion of home life
on the farm ; not a happy subject, it is true, albeit one
which is better suited to our author's limited knowledge. We arc told that man in his earliest life
engaged in a Hobbesian war, each against each;
later, reason dawned, and the tribe resulted, because reason suggested co-operation- competition
then arose between tribes, these in turn became a
people, and the people grew into the nation. Nations in competition again forced man to still further co-operate and, "The League of Nations is the
birth of the idea in its national aspect." (pp. 142-
In this development which, up to a point, is "little
better than a mob/' "The strongest or the most
cunning of the herd became the ruler." This ruler
was the only individual left, all others disappeared
in the mob; then the mob revolted, the individual
was lost entirely,
"And so mob rule, or what is commonly called democracy, emerged. The mob still required rulers, of course
—and so elected them. The principle difference between
the first and second cases was that in the first, the ruler
ruled without votes, by his own strength or cunning; while
In the second the people voted for and ohose their ruler.
whose rule thereafter reposed on popular, or "mob" con-
(Continued on Page 7) PAGE SIX
M aterialist Conception of H istory
Lesson 23: Africa (Continusd)
GREAT interest was aroused in European
coiuitries by the entrance of Germany into
South West Africa. Great Hritain, being occupied in Rgypt, was hardly in a position to oppose
successfully other nations' enterprises.
The Alliance, of Austria and Italy—1881 and
82—gave Germany courage for colonial expansion,
but being the last in the field of world policy she
could not acquire territory or a coaling station without alarming everybody. The great industrial expansion and overseas trade, the increased need of
raw material and food stuffs from abroad, the new
hunger of colonies, was a perfect natural process of
capitalism with its increased facilities of communication, the steamship, the cable, and wireless installations all tending to annihilate distance.
The Germans, however, had missionaries at work
in Southwest Africa as far back as 1842, and several*
missions were destroyed in the civil war of the natives in 1863.   Ilereros and Hottentots).
In 1868 the Prussian Government petitioned the
British Government for protection for these missionaries, asking that a Ilritish Protectorate be established, particularly over Walfish Bay. This the
British Foreign office refused to do, but in 1877 the
Governor of Cape Colony persuaded the British Gov.
ernment to annex Namaqualand and take possession
of Walfish Bay, but would not extend a protectorate
over the whole country as they had too much trouble
on their hands in Bechuanafand, a rebellion in Bas-
ntoland an** several other parts of Africa with thc
In February. 1883. Bismarck asked protection for
a Bremen merchant. This merchant had bought
ISO square miles from a tribal chief in the neighbon-
hood of Anqra Pequena, for 20U rifles and 100 dollars. Britain took a long time to answer Bismsrck's
The British traders having stations on thia coast
and leases of islands protested to the British Government. One of Her Majesty's ships waa sent to
the Bay to protect the traders in case of conflict but
Germany managed to gel possession. The Cape government rushed a bill through parliament to annex
this territory.-but the home government announced
it would not contest the German claims to a protectorate, and before the British authoritiea had
time to occupy the coast north of Anqra Pequena
Bay where their claims were weak, the German warship took possession of the whole region, England
still holding Walfish Bay and thc Islands at Germany's assent. The eastern boundary was fixed in
1890 when England gave Germany Heligoland, and
Britain established herself in Nyassaland and Som-
aliland, while Germany did likewise in East and
South West Africa. t
The Historian says German South West Africa
waa a white elephant, yet he adds "one doubts if it
will ever be a paying proposition to the Mother
Country but from a commercial point of view, however this proctectorate is a source of considerable
wealth and profit to the merchants of Germany.
The sum total of imports and exports of $2,000,000
in 1899 reached over $18,000,000 in 1911. Britain
agreed to Germany having this to buy off her opposition to her occupation of Egypt."
This Bremen merchant tried the same method to
obtain territory in East Africa, but failed, owing
to the alertness of the British Government.
This South West Africa incident was preceded in
•tune 1890 hy the acceptance of British Protection
by Use Sultan of Zanzibar, and this protection was
recognised by France in return for a British recognition of a French protectorate over Madagascar.
All through the nineties, France and Britain were st
loggerheads over the stealing of territory in the
Soudsn, and Lower Niger districts.     After three
years of exchsnging note-* they agreed \\\\ 1898) to
a general "divide up" of the different parts of Africa; this agreement was slasost upset during the
Fashoda incident ot 1898. When the French attempted to unit*- their Congo possessions with their
Niger Sudan territories, the claims of Germany and
Britain in these territories brought forth ■ <mplsint*
whicii prevented France from accomplishing nny-
thing of importance up tB 1892.
In 1893 France Buoceeded in gaining a liule more
territory and in the same year the last portion of the
frontier was worked out by G-'rmany and England
to Lake Chad.
England received Vols and Germany -\dninani.
The French objected bitterly, vigorously rei'usi-tg to
recognise the treaty until lor claims to Kaghirmi
with 8CC08B to I a!te Chad from the South was raoog-
nixed officially in the German French treay, March
15th 18-M.
There wa* great rivalry Ul Nigeria between
Britain, Franc- and Germany in 1881 fur territory
and trading stations. Greal Hritain, at length forced, under the pressure of France aud Germany'«
activities, formula!**! a definite policy of expansion
in West Africa and a British Protectorate wa* pro
claimed over the coast region in 15*06 the Native
Revenue Proclamation was issued and the Chief* ap.
pointed to eoUerf taxes. The wild payaoa were aa-
sensed a small sum to accustom them to annual payments, while the more advanced payans paid ae.
cording to their wealth and asAessahdity in return
fot the- protection nnd security of cmliration Thr
disooveiy (It gold and diamond*, which brought an
inHux of f'.rilish and other settlers transformed the>
BoeJsJ md eeenoaass siatu* af the outlying provisoes*
of South Africa, ga\*- Britain a desire to expand
further in South Africa. The district of Grigualand.
irHudin'/ the chief diamond minis, the ownership of
whieh was in dispute between thi* Cape and Trans-
vaal authorities was awarded to Britain by the decision of the Lieutenant Governor of Natal and
annexed. Then we had the move to unite all South
Africa which led to Majnba Hill ami the Boer Independence, but Britain maintained supervision
ov-r the Boer foreign relations.
The discovery of gold and the increase of trade
saw the building of a railway in 1891, completed
with outside assistance, from Dunbar to the Transvaal frontier. The caps Railroad, a sharp competitor, pushed its line to Ihe edge of the Transvaal, by
May 22nd. with the aa-sistaucc of the government
and the Orange Free State. Meanwhile the Nether
lards South African Company started a railroad
from Lourenco Marque* on Portuguese territory,
whicii wan brought into the Hand in 1H94. The
Transvaal government whieh owned a material interest in thin line attempted to turn all traffic to this
shorter road to the coast, and it was tin- interference
of the British home government that sueceeded and
secured for thc Cape and Natal railways an entrance
to the Transvaal on anything like an equal rommerc
ial basis Cecil ShodeS thought Mstabeleland and
Mashonaland would In* a paying venture, because
of the mineral and agricultural wealth of that region. He thought it out of the question to persuade
the home government to undertake such an extensive policy of expansion. He decided to work out
this enterprise by forming a commercial company.
A British South African Company was formed;
among the original directors were the Duke of Fife,
Lord Gifford, Cecil Rhodes and other prominent
British financiers. They asked for imperial recognition and protection. The British government issued them a-charter (1889) incorporating the com-
pany and endowing it with politieal aa well aa commercial powers. Again we had native wars and
rebellions, and our fellow workers going to wsr for
these commercial interests. This is how the territory of Rhodesia up to Lake Tanganyika was acquired.   The output of gold was £83,000 from 1890
to 1898, and by 1912 it  ««^-^,^(%
pany paying a dividend of :;<i p,.r ,.rn-_
Tobacco growing and airri.-ulture »*, -,,.„.. _,
able, but the historian says H is not i poorara*!
country, as only BCttlsrs who have I 1,500 lolUr, t*
$5,000 are encnurag-d
There are large eattle ranch* and the chief wort
af development has b., n ifl the ksnds of lsi*f, «*
posatkma. Copper, lead, eoal and BBsestoj m
sbusdaat This ia called South Rhodesii •. ******
Zambesi river North Rhodesis sb . ■ . Z*tMh*i
riser has great mineral wealth whieh detivet*liooo
tons of copper annually !,. Europe prevkKa •
Great War
Th»* "Finaneirtl News.'   "»'|  Pi ,   1'>J- had«
paragraph shoot the land dispute, whether tlte ss
alienated lands of Southern Rhodes i belongid -rt
the native-, the Crown, or the British Sooth kh W
Company.   The natives were asserting tsetr dsia
A despatch from |,-.i*tl-,n. -ful)   -'" \ told a
the decision of th-* Privy Council thai the denial
tion of MUOOOyOOO seres of lam!   !: S i%
rsjs remains tn the Oown, hut Un   British S  •
African Company will continue I (minister th
land and may b«- rrimbujssd m loan is! ■ istttn
The "Manchester Guardian'' printed a i*-f•■*  111
dune. Iflf, Cross John II  rtarra ot the A     . tt
dealing with ths claim lodged '• *    H   " •;.''..*
He aaya:
"**SUtrOv-» fBSfS **o. Ihe «ur- mr«i*r>'h 1'tu.oiUati
*»n1 IBS son t^>*>--0"iulsi m<**t and f•»?•)••<; » enci fr-oHhr
»lth ih- tAttim*.* n*ti*M*.*"niar** |»r Mf>*J;i* KV-rtrSlB imn
I*ter th«* buy I-r-*->-*-r«-uU l-wamc kir.i ->' :t>- Htik'.+i*
att'i believln** ai! *-**»*** mrtt *»or-> ** ..'.,* ■•rA*roti**i **
Motlat. garo a .MBSBBSSa »hi*h lllllWl"lj CSaJtt 00*0*
toaatoo ot t>--*l  Kho-'e-i an !  «•■<■   R :      - ■• '<■'  0tt
Jamt+otHi Thrao two thr**-.-or*. with *Jr**tt foAl******** **t
Iho iSjBftasad I SSSP*0) »*»er1»--d tor «<-.• t N rem IBS
lb-* rrnr<»*tk>fi granted t,% LetMSSJBlS »** S i*o*i SSSI
»lon. «l*ln« to thoit sBjBfSa* > ISTS, 'h<* tat* * *• "*,r-*>*
ship ot •*r*-*n foot of Und In Bothers R *  *iir*-t
the kraals. s-ard«**j* »n<l ttrarliui STBSBSS. Md ****> tat
sr-.tr**jar's of the pox*oio Thr**«jsh th-- mt***T*******»m*\ d
Ijdt-S Msreoatt, tl»* claim *** BSSastttetl In 1*H to '.tt
Judirhsl rommiftrv ot ihe PrlT-. OommA «"k> BBSf SSI
-»«»rs have al»en |a8jgSsSal UBSl 'ho*'1 -*•'"'• '•!'*R* ,0 tk'
I'rttl-ih rrown *, • y,'*■■***wor of fh^ dmoi*."-*! 1'tt****t'■ » *-'
that the CsSBtaaay had the rlirht IB tool IB IBB SUSI «»-
Ip-hwi of v-.'-.tir-fiar-*-! larvl »«> r*-*imlMjra.- th*m for SSS
n**< ta*ary snd  proprr -utminlsiratton «!'*
John Harris *n>* further m opposition to "08*
pmsation bStBg paid the Chartered CoBlpsaJ"-
oo* ensrlsl BpsssttOs ertsse saws tss Ma!*'»**i', *nd
Maahnon wars ot  ls*3 BSJ   Ittl     TOBSS *»•'* BIS 90
known   io hsv*.   l-««-n  unn***esssrj.  sad  <*nnot th*>rHor
propfrrly  berorne a rharicr. ui**»n  Ihe  Imi-rUl Bl h«ju«
Thrt*«-  factors  now   sstBMlBtUWt.   "how   SO**   '*>" '•»^fU^
ao-rernment was mi»U«l af ihe tJstS    FUsI U»d H-P,in *>
the   Imperial   io-->mm«iii,  so  Isle  o*  :(,'h  aafSSt.
rahleil    i ihiHiio «*<»ri*ltil)   pBOBSsai sr»  BB>aa1fS ssWB
menl  in the  interest--  ol  the  lestfe   s\lrs«aa IWBSSBJ
TsTf-lvwIays farller. Jamie-inn luid siKn-1 » 9* '*■ *rr^
m-<nt (now ssallsMs) to ln*A«l-   lUUSbeleland aad *v'
his fioo laitaw inv-Mn.es uqnalisiBtlfini r*o<«usl!j sst****
Ins CS.rioo.000. loeludln-r land. poM, snd half **• 1""( *T
only bad  he done  this  bat  a  month  earlier hi *•*
llheraur-ly <»ld*-al the eapliat BllSfStfOB t),ut IMS M»u"'|
had flr«*d on tb.. white man—an BhOfStlBB 00*0 l*,,r '
have ba-4.fi withcait a shs-Jow 0 iniih    Ths cost 0. '!>>•
vm.lon and  Um affermaih  wos sboOi   *1», > 8S8JM
hardly Ih* regarded as a necessary r»n<l propsf sdSUBS
five eharxc."
Harris goes on to illuslrate the expe0*8 ,>f    *
Oil W
Jsmieaon Raid aiul all trouble dur to il Sl " '
£2,500,000 and how the Chartered Compsnyi p
whieh, by artielo 10 r,f the Charter were to be re-
tained in Rhodesia for niaintcnanee of order,
Jr *      i lit'
being assembled   far  south   of   Rhodesis  n''"
Transvaal border.   How the High Coiumi^i'.iicr W"
quired if it was true and Rhodes repHsd '""*
misstatement, "For the purposes of economj en
protect the railway.M   He also wind Jsmiesofli
make the same statenient.   Two days later that
vading police were at war with the Trsnsvssl.
is tbe history of the eoinpensatioii which the
Council says should be reimbursed, i .hlnauls  tliscovered  how  he  had been
\Vh''H   '        oa}***
ua he wrote to l-Mieeti Victoria.   The Secret-
istate answered in the Qosas'a name that the
' i,.s I obciigula to uiidei-stand that English-
...rll «lsl" .. .11        a. i.
ho luiv* gone to Matabeleland to ask leave to
rQrftooM have HOI gone with the Queen's auth-
j(| 'bt! be should not believe any statement*
to that effect,  l/obengula eontinued  protest-
.i, r-eeaietenee of ths white man as having
fit'1" I
. rjlei to tSSC advantage of what was a fraud
the untutored African. The Charter went
i ,-ch snd the Queen's advisor told Lobengols
\ [ii ss« impossible to exctnde the white man. .md
LQl-fea had made enquiries as to the p--r*t..tiM eon
-ftrdsad *-<•■*■ ssUsflsd that they might be trusted
,..   ,, •   •!,,•   working  of  goM  in  the  chief's
mstrt without raolesting Inn people- or ia saywsy
-tfrferisg with his kraals, gardens or cattle, and
Ity |o ha* interests to make arrang- incuts with an
-prered body. ***** ***•    Lobengula. by the terms
J ,h* iloeimielit   he  -t-goed.  received  *J10U  a  tOOOih
Lj }■■,rooean prodnata, in ths ehapc of rifle* and
i  «rtridgea   When we lo«*k over the personell <»f
gh*C«irtered Coapany we realise why the Queen's
I. ., ice of Mtisfsction, Here were soase of them.
|-r_. f v * "it*, onetime Lord of ths bedchamber
I, ... ;>. . f Wales. Uoke of Fife. son4o*law <>f
j:* lati K :••■ Rdwsrd Cecil Rhodes, member of the
BnestJve ol thi Hon-., «f Assembly of Gape Colon)
II, .-• H:;r- OeOfgS Grey, sfterwards Hurl I'rey.
ludiJev-ni' r General of Canada. Lord Qriffoa, OOC
M;,. i Beeretary of Western Aostrslis and
The BStive chief waa not long  in learning bos
lb'*'.'..•. snd people w*oold !**• protected Jsmieeon
»••■>:    ■ Coauaitlai u-**-- every trooper B aulas
i*    -•• i«tton to -.take 'Jo gold claims and the rota
[ r     inst   provided  that   the loot   h*   divided half
• Brits Roots Afnra Company and the rwssinder
ud&cfr* ?.'- \ men m e-pial shares.
Thr natives not anli tost lautl and cattle. Tlo-
sjasl report ot Su Biehard Martin records that
A     i bory labor did exist in Mstabele-
had if ho! in Uashoaaland.
B   That labor waa procured by ihe vsrioos
lane <*ommi*.*if*tH-r* for the VSriOUS ITqoirBfflCnts
a the gBTerumeots, mining companies an.l private
C That the native eonimi**i«Hi-n* in the DTSt
ajtwr- sndeavouretl to obtain labor through the
MOsbat failing this they procured il by force.''
No neb Abominable scandal" Morel says in his
wsdi Mans Burden/' "a* tins story reveals, has
"■BBSs" British Colonial records pines Burfce than
*-'*'! iltamst the nmfennce of the Bast India Com
•SW. Heeomjneiidalions as to the future of North
*m Rhrxj^f!- ,,rc up now before the Privy Council
*-l-i further rdsims of the British South African
Ihapssy, The question arose from 8 petition of the
skits settlers to have a Khan* ia the Government,
territory rovers nearly 800-000 equare st-Bes,
i'* sdaersl wsalth is its greatest asset Gen-
** Sm„tH ih dsairoua of ihe early sdmiaBioa b!
0*t*OMO into the Cnion. He says "Her large sres
*r,i"bll ondeveloped state would make it necessary
"Parnate and aeeeUrnte her poonomie snd sgri
Mil development as much as possible.
far that purpose it would be 0808888*] 81 OBCB to
*ftn on behalf of ths state the ehief mesne ef
development, and to acquire the land and rail
**' rights of the Chartered Company.     The Union
'n>nitii.al would make the necessary hnsneisl pro-
I'at,<i«» dipt Tow„ Sent 2nd. 19M.
^ ,0" never see any struggle over desert lends,
J* "-H chartered eompanies start out with the pre*
?*«l "PHftitig the nalives.    "The New State*
J! .0l"J',h spl)l- IW8 I""* ii very plainly when it
;;;:; !a1n,, h:avi"r ■■««*■ ** *• ^^, * order
»* I- natives may be forced to work for a wage
8 14.1. a week 0» land which once belonged to him,
hot Which has been taken from him without compel
•ation and banded over to his white employer »
This has been the method all over Africa i„ the
French Congo and other European colonies but before leavmg Africa I will deal with South Africa
am! the Boer War in our next lesson
'Continued from Tag,. .*>,
Then we plunge ■ -■-„ an analysis of democracy,
whieh deserves to be ranked with Pearson'i analysis
of space or Ifars on value We need only qnotethe
'■ ^ginning1
• DaMeeraey at it hi ma* be deflned today as B general
BUCVBBO I     ! use utleran«es as expressive of thought, word
or de-si -
"i esurse any on* sequsinted with the develop
men? of man knows thai the tribal chief was elec
"■■"   »»»"»    >ii"«ii   nun   \MIS  elec-
live, and that increasing complexity of the social relations crested hereditary rulers.    Mr. Irvine migi;
have discovered thst in Spencers   * First Princi
I : Thirty years ai/u there was not » *v,1,,,' ****'
^ or» white man in British Kaj-I Africa, and ♦In*
. ?ei aad full rights over the land; today not >*
j™ nativ,. h„s ail} 1(,Kni riRht to ,1I1V land.  The
»H it  l|ovtrnm«»t has removed the Msssi from
1,2 *■•?■! l«nd (e.g. the K.ft Valley, in order
1 *t «t low prices to the \Vhite sctllcis. 8
•^tlers are now pressing for un-rc cxpiopiia-
.,._, ..... j-..,»...   .     . . t     , ,,-      -en  i(i|    i
created hereditary rulers. Mr.-Irvine might
Itscovered that in Spencer's "First Prim.
pies," or as minister oi the Lord God, lie might have
observed the principle in operation during the development of the Israelitish tribes, from nomadic
tt'irri-.rs to a settled nation.
Tlo- analysis of demo* racy proceeds on ths same
profound basis a* is exemplified in the definition.
Bis "reasons" arc like Gratiano's, two grains of
wheat hid in iv«, busbela of chaff, yon may seek all
dv. ere. rou find them. ;<nd when you find them, thev-
• • * m
are not worth the Bean h.
We sre off intc biologj now .
Th•■ human organ!s*s has developed froin a simple
v'ot'h of protopiasm.*'
Kos we donl iik.- thst "splotch,' hut aueh gross
mslspropism is genfrsl throughout the book, ao we
mil proceed, it sppcars that "society is like the
itiiman body." it hsd it- social plasm, the simple
* r i winch gren into grrfups. And, arguing for the
group aystem in polities, Mr. Irvine says we cannot
\,r\ well return to the two party system, any more
than wi can resolve mankind .baek to the jelly-fish.
Of conrae not Unt sixiety is not sn organism, although many analogies hsve been drawn to that end.
However, it remained for Veblen to furnish this
social srgsnism with ■ function hitherto lacking-
that organ which expela Ihe waste matter. This he
aaaigns to the church. Accordingly, when society
hta chewed and digested any great discovery, that
whieh remains, being useless, passes off—through
the pulpit: and everj time »ce bear s parson discussing matter- of scientific import we are eonvinced of
,!„. -ustice of tius analogy, ii we may judge from
the condition Ot the matter-after its passage
Let ns taki one more auhjeet and close.
[n discussing the "croup sste,,r (a vile and in-
•ppropriate term in sre invited ... review Syndi*>
ahs„, and Bolshevism. Syndicalism, it appears, is
,„ organization wh„h is comprised of industrial
groups    It sims to Bverthrow the 8Ute; each group
-rtunds alone    "Its logi-al outcome would be an-
||rh, •• w, hav. not apace to quote all, but »1 is
parc balderdash. In contrast to this la "the Bol-
Lviki with their Soviets." Industries and profes-
.jo-aform the bs«s of the Soviet system, but the
losie of the gronp system is Uckmg here. The
£*» arrive at rigid State control. With taQ
step« it takes from the industrial group, leads for.
beVfromthe] Pb«. toward autocracy, until it en-
LTna^inadistatorship.   This becomes ss   mtol-
( !'ThO-ol-hevlk. in fOllBWlmi th. tcachi,^ of Marx are
T , Aching nn industrial  bureaucracy and a
in  *****      .   \1  while Ihe Syndicalists, in adhering
»tiv* ?iMf« ***** —",9 —*•
,0,;med)ess. beyond pointing out that it
(omT Mr Inine snd his ilk to throw
is inenmbent upon Mr. u
»r, i',M1 gnd  tlu)(  olnss  government
of rl8SS, onanbe abolished"femphasiatheorlginal).
Between   sbon wng arp un_
^--'n0,,,t"o ahvady mentioned his
able to gTMP' bnt v
inconsistency in this respect; the group system will
accomplish the abolition of class government without abolishing classes; in fact, through the continued
maintenance of classes. Ere we close let us take
up this question. On p. 230 we read:
'it is false to hold to a two class theory of society oo
an economic basis. I maintain this even though Karl
Marx denies it. The two classes are supposed to be the
haves and the have-nots. . . . "
Society, he tells us, can be divided otherwise:
"The foolish and the wise, the sick and the healthy, the
living and the dead."
Oh, sapient creature, of course it can.
"But health, wisdom and life are not to be gained by
overthrowing those possessing them."
Of course not. What an epoch-making discovery.
I'ut when you come to think of it, the "have-nots."
by overthrowing the "haves," can have. A logical
conclusion of no little merit in the premises. But
Mr. Irvine tells us:
"The fact is that there are a great many economic
classes in society. Let us suppose that capital and labor
have had their final struggle, and labor has been victor-
toufi. What then? There will still be farmers, miners,
transportation workers, and a great number of other
skilled and unskilled classes in competition with each
other over the spoils of capitalism."
Now* Mr. Irvine is firmly convinced that these
various "classes'" could meet, along with the capitalists, in a group system of parliament and settle
all things amicably, and with justice to everyone.
But abolish the capitalist and nothing could come of
it but strife. "The fight, therefore, after the overthrow of capital exploitation would go merrily on
even as before."
So here we have discovered a new use for the capitalist ; by keeping us fighting him, he prevents us
fighting each other.
"We will require time to absorb this. Meanwhile
as space demands, we must close, regretting extremely tbat our author did not at least attempt to inform us bow the farmers expect, by group, or any
other system, to plant wheat at the cost of one dollar
and a half a .bushel yieffi basis, pay the freight both
ways on everything: pay all the taxes; reaping,
threshing, and storage dues, and sell it at one great
big iron dollar per bushel.
Mr. Irvine threatens another book wherein he will
deal more thoroughly with the "new form of government."' Lei us express the hope that he will
cither undertake a serious study of Marx and of the
Russian situation or, in the name of common decency, say nothing about them.
Editor's Note—It is a fact probably unknown to our reviewer that beside* being a parson and an author, Mr.
Irvine is a politician in "his Own right." Whatever may
he the measure of his sins as an author and parson, as a
politician he measures up to the requirements. At Wim-
borne. Alberta, October 28th, --.peaking on his own behalf
as Farmer-l^ahor candidate he made a public statement
thai the Socialist candidate was backed by the Liberal
Tarty Thc implication was evidently tn connection wtth
finance. Challenge-J by some of his audience at a second
meeting to substantiate such a statement, Mr. Irvine, of
course, failed to do so. It is a plain, ordinary lie, and
lies are useful to politicians. Mr. Irvine stands as "The
Foe of Privilege, En*?my of Corruption; Champion of Justice" It so happens* that Frank Williams, of Local C-al-
gary of the B. P. of C. is the working-class candidate in
th** same federal riding (Kast Calgary)—that is he will be
if enough money can be raised to pay the deposit and pay
for hall? for meetings. This will come ia nicklea and
dimes from working class pockets, if it comes at all, and
from no other source. It has never been offered from any
other source and, needless to say, it would be rtfuaed if
it had. Mr. Irvine had belter keep himself in order and
try to tell the truth. This he may manage to do yet in
spite of his various professions.
The case of the B. 0. Federationist and of
A. S. Wells its manager has been committed to
the Assize (ourtjor trial.   Moneys are urgently required for defence.   Donations will be acknowledged in the "Fed" if sent to:
A. S. Wells,
*  342 Pender St. West,
Vancouver, B. C. ?AG1 EIGHT
Analyzed and contrasted from the Marxian aad
Darwinian points of view. By Bishop William Montgomery Brown. D.D. Ita l*old recommendations:
Banish the Gods from the Skies and Capitalists from
the Earth and make the World safe for Industrial
Seventy-fifth thousand now ready. Pp. 224.
Cloth edition. De Luxe. $1.00.   This whole edition of
2,000 copies is a Christmas gift to the sufferers by
famine in Russia.   Every copy Bold means a whole
dollar to them and much education to the buyer.
New  paper edition. 25,000  copies, artistic  design.
Publishers, 102 South Union Street, Gallon, Ohio.
Or from
401 Pender Street E., Vancouver, B. C.
vary beautiful, one copy 25 cents, six, $1.00.
"It will do a wonderful work in this the greatest
crisis tn all history."-—Truth.
Socialist Party of
Wa, tha Socialist Party ot- Canada affirm our all*c-
lanes to. sad support of  th* principle* sad proaTsnun*
ef Sh* rsrolutionary working els**.
Labor, applied to natural resources, produces all
wealth. Tb* present •cono-rrHc ay at am 1* BBBSi
capitalist ownership of th* msans of production,
qusotly. all th* products of labor belong to tba capitalist oiass. __ Th* capitalist Is. therefore, master; th*
worker a Slav*
So long as the capitalist clsss remains la possession
of th* rstas of government all the powers of th* Stat*
will be ussd to protect snd'defend Its property rights la
ths means of wealth production and Rs control of th*
product ot lahor.
Tha capitalist system give* to th* capitalist aa svsr-
•welllng stream of profits, and to tb* worker, aa *rer-
Inerssstng measure of misery and degradation.
Th* Interest of th* working class He* In setting itself
fre* from capitalist ss-ploHatton hy th* abolition of tb*
wag* system, under which this exploitation, at th* point
ef production, is cloaked. To accomplish this nsessstt-
stcs ths Umasformatlon of capitalist property la th*
means of wealth production into socially controlled sssa
©role fore**.
Th* irrepressible conflict of Interest between th* oap-
Itallst and ths worker necessarily exprssses Itself as a
struggle for political supremacy. This Is ths Class
Therefor* w* call upon all workers to organic* uadsr
th* banner of th* Socialist Party of Canada, with th*
object of conquering- the political powers for th* purpose of setting up and enforcing tbe eeonomie programme of tb* working class, as follows:
1—Th* transformation, as rapidly as possible,
of capitalist property la tb* means of
wealth production (natural reeouroes, factor-
tories, mills, railroads, S**>, lata collective
means of production.
1—The organisation and management of Industry
by ths working clsss.
I—The estsbHshmsnt, as spssdUy ss possible, of
production for us* Instead of production for
Frsfaos by ths aithor.
182 PAOBS.
Ptr Copy, 15 Osnts.
eopiss np, SO osnts
Post Pi-id.
(Continued from Pago 2^
economic antagonisms between ('real Hritain and
the United States prevent an Entente with these
countries from growing. Then again, Japan can
not outbid the United States for France's aid. She
can afford to giVB n slice of the Chinese melon to
Britain, hut two aliccs—No!
This war in thc Pacific is the second act in tin- dying days of Capitalism, »nd powerful America has
the stage for a moment in the role of s world conqueror.
"If the United States s.ttles the problem of he
future hi the same way thai Kurope tried to settle
its problem between 1914 and 1918, the United Stat.-*
may emerge from a world struggle, but it will be
alone in a world of desd nation-*; the industrial and
eommerciiil capacities of men will haw been destroyed, and for want of "foreign'' victims to de-
vour—the victor will dsvoor himself.''
Following, $1 each: August  Raahe  \i,.l d
guignon. Hy. Higham. Q, \)nru, John \,\J„  ,J|
l\T.Liekie*2;.?obiiHallc-fj:,n    H ,'•
Edwin S, Hoi.iu.Hon fOgden) 76 cuts
Above total C. If. K. ootttribntions tsoohtA4
28th Oot. to loth Nov. Inclusive, total ttST
(Continued from Page 1>
and equipment Invested wealth in large holdings
control the world's industrial system, directly by
ownership of plant as in the mechanical industries,
or, indirectly through the market as in farming.
There lies a natural eeonomii «uiperiority in large
holdings of invested wealth in a system Of produc-
tion for sale, for profit. The farmers are a class of
comparatively small holders ef invested wealth, and
consequently are at an onsvotdsbls economic dis
advantage. They arc CBOght bet wen the big interests who sell dear, and the big interests who buy
cheap. Impressed by tin- superficial aspects of his
situation, the farmer is susceptible to reform. Propaganda, but a mere extended Study of the deeper
facts of his situation thi»n is posdhls here, will prove
that "so long as the capitalist system lasts, by virtue of the eeonomie laws governing that system, the
farmer has nothing to hope for in the WSJ of a substantial improvement in his condition."
At present, the farmers' programme and Mr.
Crerar g speeches express the point of view of property owners inten! on the acquisition of profits.
We can be assured, that so long as the Farmers'
movement is motivated bj that capitalistic aim. the
very lack of success of the industry will tend to
drive thc.farmers into b« ing more caper advocates of
a flooded labor market than the more successful tap.
italista of other industries. The absence from Mr.
Crerars speeches of any catering to the wagp.work-
ing class is significant. Mr. Crerar. the farmer leader, like the Liberal lender, and the Conservative
leader, or their respective party programmes has
no ineasage to the workers of deliverance from the
institutional slat? of things under which their only
means of existence, tli« ir power to labor in, like a
chattel, bought ami sold under the eonditions of
supply and demand just like any other commodity.
No, the farmers must first be moved by other prepossessions than those of a property owning business
Despite the bourgeoisie progratnms of the fanners, and the eminently "sale'* and orthodox speeches of Mr. Crerar however,, the fanners have given
striking evidence of antipathy to the business and
the "kept" classes generally. That feeling, which
they share with other classes of producers, is a
straw showing which way the wind Mows, The
prepossessions of a producing class, under the disciplinary influence of the mechanical processes of
modern machine production, tend to rate men and
institutions in terms of tangible performance.
With the hard lessons of more experience of the
economic and political futilities of capitalism, with
the spreading of a scientific point of view and of
knowledge/with the growth of the materialistic hah-
its of thought of a producing elaas, there will develop a movement among the farmers that will rate
capitalism for what it is worth from a community
standpoint--a movement co-operating with the wage-
workers for the inauguration of a social system of
production for use instead of for profit.
Literature Price Li<
Cloth Bound
rositlva Ouleoms of Philosophy  (l)|f-tn-,.n
Worasn InoVr BortalUm (H«-l-*l)
Pnd of th* World 'McCsbs)
Conditions of the* Working Class la Kin-Un-l :n 1M(
A. D  C of Brotutlon (Herat*)
Bronomle   Determinism   CPSSBB)
So- laliam snd Sfodsra aVtenc* (FVrrii
rh;<slfat Hast* of Mind snd Morala (filch)
landmarks of SeisntlBc So-rlalUm (Bsask)
Industrial Illstcry of Kn-rland <ti   inn'it-Mr-n
Th* Siiidt-pt't  Mar*  (Avsling)
Kvr-lution of th* Idas of God (OfSal AUm
Darainiam sod Its*** Pro****** (Hay-raft«
Evolution of Prop**Tty (t,afargxi<>>
tVitiqus of Politic*! Kro.omr (Man)
Revolution snd « ountar Rsrolution    v-.--
Phlln-sophlral  *•:*»*»•   il>i«*tn--»n>
illttory of Pur's « ommun* (LUta--ar*r;
An**|*n' Boeletf (I.  It   Morgan)
Introduction to H/vlotosr (Arthur M   l**i»i
Ptr Q
« spltaliat Produc tit-:* (First Nine and Had   htpttn
"Capital." vol   i. (Man) t;i
Saras* Hurvtrala (Moor*) . Hi
VHa! ProMema in Sorial ProluUr-n (Las-U) j
Hrt-sn**** snd Revolution (t'nf*rman> J
Th* Militant Proletariat (Ijumit) ...__  |
Evolution. Social snd Organk (Lswts) I
Ths 8or»st R« volution (Kautakr) 1
nana Strustl* (Ksuukr)   I
PurUartam (Msllr) J
Th* Worlda Rsvolutloa*  (Cntermar.i I
Kthlcs tnd Htfiorv (KauUkjr) 4
Ufs snd Death (Dr   E   T«-khmann) I
Ijiw of Rlogen-w-la (Moots) 1
Sons) Stud!** itAtarmo) \
Germ* of Mind la Plants (R  II  rr*o-*a> 1
Pspme Covers P#r r*t
Tsro Easat* on Malory «    Jatft>h<rn-K.r! an-! <", Dari!!*)  j
m   tX-nray)    ti
rotnmnniat  Man!f#st«
Wa-r^taKrr aad rafdlal  	
The Preai»nt Kr<momr«* Bysism Trof W
Hoetal«»m   Ctoptan md t-tHi-ntinc
f*\*** ot ths Fsrtn
Manlfrslo. fl   P  of r -
Kroliitloo of Man (fTof  Rol«rb#l
f*ai;a-»« of TU>tlr>t !a 0«d (t-sfartHa*!
Th* fftn-r'ur** of Port** Ruatla fffamSfcrlM
Shop Tslka oa Kronotnl<*a fMar<**)
Vain-*, PrP** sod ProBt (Man*
Kr-ooetmU* Cmtimma of War (t>N-k!e)
The Prot»«tton of \*bor In So*l«*i Ru»il« flU*iaaJ
rtvii Wsr In •"ni-**-* (Msn)
Klrht#-»fth Brumslr* (Msn)
r*hrist«snlam snd *"oinmun»sm (R'ahnp w M aSWBS
Ptvrhok>*y of Man lan JBMaSMiBI
Ousr-tltv f»st*s aa f*ap*r Covs-sd m*o******    J
Two Ksmts on Hlttorr /   2   nJ
fommnnlst ManPssto ? !2S H
to   U0PM-S tarn
to latptaS *• J
**, coOlmt I'**
**   rcpM  I' "'
to r*as*ss ***,
-»<• coaxal its
J*, rODhM B-J
»t, ro*>tf* a* *
]ii ,-a.rifri US
(i QontSf ***
1-1 ,.--1ll-« l-1'^
Wag-* !aȴ>r snd r* pits I
Prw*a»nt Eronomlr Svslsm
f*torla\l*m. Pfonlsn snd rV)enlin<*
Sls»s of ths Psrm
Msnifrsto of R P of C      .
Rvoliilloa of Msn
fau*o* of n*ll*f In Hod
Vslti*, Pri*** snd Pro^t
l*>onom|r r**tta-a of Wsr
'hrittlsnlam ard ('ommtrnl-.m
Ptyrholoay of Minimi Socialism
All Peicma liwluds Postao* .„
Maks sll monsva nsrsM* to I   lioUod, m njjj
Htrest. Eaat. Vanrotiv-.r. R C Add «awoo«l "JJJg
All ahovs lltsnturs ran bs nMaln-»d tl lh* •»«"'•
poat paid, from S   R. Davy. R«»« 17*2. Wtnni;**-
(This is as handv a wsy as any to asnd your «<"■
Wsstsrn CTuirion, 401 Pender Steret I**
VsnootiveT, B. 0.
Official organ of thc 8. P. of 0.   PoMi***- ***
a month.
fiuhscriptiom: Cansda, 20 isain*H, Hi ,',n1^
16 issues $1.
Enelosed find
8end "Western Clarion' 'to


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items