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Western Clarion Aug 16, 1921

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 ■',    ' rVH*
m joornslof
lo. 149
Official Organ of
Twice s Month
The Russian Famine
); i;p.-\TCHES >«* Ine press   paint   horrible
■ ,.f famine conditions   in Russia. It
..,! doubl that sections of that coun-
adly affected by the drought which
t, | other sectiona of Europe, thus en-
.  ,.-. nop   failures      But experience of
information on   conditions in   Soviei
,shed by the capitalist press in the past.
...   -pt with wariness the particularized
. famine reported in despatches from
• hostility to the present regime in
, Warsaw, Halsing'fors, etc    Expcr-
n us that Moscow is a much more
Urc<   of factual information, good <>r bsd,
ll an any from those haunts of    "our
correspondent"   to the meantime, we
letails from where  our confidence  rests.
a recent despatch from there Tchich-
• Minister oi Poreign Affairs, stresses
. of fsmine conditions and appeals for
i denies   the truth of the   stories of
irbances and atrocities.   He promises
possible, full and   detailed information
litions and needs of the   population in
• stricken areas.
.   the despatches relating to thc Russian
editorial comments    thereon, cast re-
•    ■       tht Sdfiet administration as being the
Of the calamity.    This is untrue and
t an ungenerous and base turning of the,
ireamstances, unprevcntable. and    thus
n misfortunes of the Russian people, into
advantage.   There are, of courss,*reas6ns
tion Of Ihe agents of the press.      A few
these reasons, as well as a brief review
rcumstances With which the    workers' re
I Russia has had to contend during t\ve petr-
ita existence since 1917, will not be amiss
ilation of the world is. perforce, depend-
il on the capitalist news collecting   agencies and
dical press for the collection and distribu-
ns of  affairs and  events.    The different
thai   press organisation  represent capital
' '   ents, often huge   ones, and arc thus profit
institutions.   The profits of publication of
lical depend on its success as a vehicle for
and trade adverlisetnents. which   success
determined by the   extent of ita   circuls-
• .■ the people. Returns from sales and sub-
f-Ptions   are now  a matter of   wholly secondarv
luence.      Besides being a vehicle for adverts the function of the press, ia supposedly
'convey information   and news of  facts.    When
'" ""' ider that a newspaper or I magazine repre-
ph* n capital investment dependent for its source
ts on tne goodwill of its advertising clientele
m<*"*K the business elements, it is easy to imagine,
.pahla of proof by a study of the methods of
lu Press, that   facts and information   adverse   to
'art-cular business interests, or to   the profit sys-
,nn ;i^ a whole, undergo a radical   change by the
?m« Ihcy reach   the   public, after being   strained
hr°URli  the line   mesh of censorship   voluntarily
tstablUhed by the press itself.    Not alone does the
tnis named public press resolve itself into a partisan
"■gan for the suppression and   distortion of    facts
11,1 '-leas adverse to the established order, but it w
ls" •'< vast far-sounding megaphone propagandiz-
nH as occasion demands for some one or other par-
u,1,;" capitalist interest, or group of interests, and
•lways without ceasing, for the interest of the es-
''''"'■"■d order as a whole.    Whenever and  what-
V(' ■••** own   occasions, or the   occasions of   Ins
group interests demand, when NorthcUffe roars, all
his thousand editors and press agents throughout
the world roar tn unison, purveying not facts, not
information, but ideas, opinion. In the morning
and in the evening, the world has ready-made opinion served up to it in the items of news of passing
■ '-< nt-. in comments, admonition-, and in the snobbish gossip concerning thc activities of the parasitic
group calling itself "society." It is opinion into
which is wrought traditional sentiments, prejudices ati'i habits of belief; consequently, it is opinion
as easily assimilated as the mush at breakfast or
the kipper at supper time.
The attitude of the capitalist press towards Russian conditions in the recent past has been charc-
terized by an unscrupulous and partizan use of actual though largely unavoidable, evils, and an unscrupulous invention of    imaginary   ones, not    in
otd.-r to enlist sympathy for the masses in Russia,
but to discredit the Soviet regime in that country-
N'•• editorial heartstrings were wrung when the entire population of Russia was segregated, cut off
•!• m tin* resources of civilizaion  by thc economic
blockade declared    by the Allied    powers,    which
blockade, super-imposed upon that one which was a
natural outcome of  war conditions commencing in
I'M4. has isolated Russia for nigh on seven years
from a civilization, one of whose chief characteris-
tics is the    technological one of   specialization of
function in productive activities among nations as
well as individuals.    Thus the exisence of any people is absolutely dependent on  intercourse and exchange   of products with   the rest of the   world.
Coldly, calculatingly, our most noble and Christian
editors speculated and prophesied as to how long a
people could stand the strain of want imposed by
the policies   oi   the leading powers    (leading    to
where?) of civilization.     The Russia   of   pre-war
davs under the    reactionary   rule of    bureaucratic
Czarism, it is well known, was a backward corruptly  managed and  desperately   poverty-stricken nation.   To this politically and economically diseased
inheritance out of the past, add the disastrous effect of the war in completely wrecking such economic organization as there had been.    Add also thc
counter-revolutionary activities, both internal and
external, iocs within    and foes  without   invading
over aver)  frontier, aided and abetted by thc great
nations   with   left-over munitions    from the great
war, with   military forces, with finances, together
with that barbarous economic blockade which denied
the Russians even medical supplies, that last    poor
boon ui diseased  and wound shattered    humanity.
\7\ertheless. hostile prophesies and the more tangible, hostile efforts to overthrow the Workers' Soviet
Republic have failed dismally.    And now comes this
last nature borne calamity of drought and failure of
crops.    The editors and correspondents are    again
hopeful of counter-revolution.     They suggest that
the Soviet administration is at fault.    They suggest
that it has not organizing ability even to distribute
• .  :.. ->w*m.    iv, which, the
'Z I hey co»•<• <*«<•••' ,hcm'   To which- l"C
ffig oO* «« onr -aW-IM  P*-***"
during this last few years gives the he.
Have <>'•' «d«°f9 "° ttn!0,V"d Pr '"    .
,nv; ,„un,ru., „o skeleton in .he closet, a mcchtv
.      ■        wlm.„   .hould shatter   complacency and
, X for ,.lf-tb«emen1 and   fcllow-fechng to .he
,'m ian peopta deeply in   trouble      That b oody
'« in Europe, In which ******* «£«
,,„„„„,„„,. were swept on. of ex.stcnccITKg"
a facts now com*. W light, drives towards a general
concensus of opinion of a common responsibility for
that unredeeming catastrophe, and that the myth of
a guilty nation no longer suffices as an explanation!
And since: What of the social situation for the working masses in your own countries where capital
reigns dominant and the class you speak for has all
power, either for good or ill, boasting claimants of
a monopoly of organizing intelligence, preachers of
homilies to Soviet Russia? Is there here an abundant
and even distribution of social wellbeing? The facts
of the situation say otherwise!
At the height of the busy season of the year in the
United States there are now over four million wage
earners out of work, many with dependents. The
conditions in Canada are proportionately the same
or. as this country • is an economic annex of the
States they are probably worse. Materially, for
masses of the people, their position is a desperate
one, and morally, despicable and debauching.for they
are rapidly becoming habituated to pauperism
through a system of doles, as were the discharged
slaves and workless proletarians of Ancient Rome.
Yet here in north America, nature is not niggardly
but bounteous.   The climate conditions have been
normal, even better than that, taking the country as
a whole.    Here are not invading armies, or contending forces of warring domestic factions to disturb
the peaceful carrying on of industrial activities. Even
the late war. remote from us, fostered and developed
our industrial organization instead of destroying it,
as it did in Russia and some other countries within
the war zone.   Here is no declared economic blockade. To this North American community the avenues to all the resources of modern   civilization are
free and open. Here is no inheritance out of the past
of abnormally regarded economic development,  or
of crippled economic powers.   Instead, it is universally recognized that this community stands at the
peak of human endeavor in productive power. Here
there is abundance of modern material equipment for
productive purposes, much of it standing idle; Russia is almost without it.   Here there is an industrial
population, skilled in the arts of modern production.
Russia's population is largely untrained   and    unskilled in modem ways of production. Russia suffers
from a shortage of things for reasons herein stated.
With us there is an abundance of things, of skill and
knowledge, of   material means of   production   and
natural resources, yet there is also   suffering here.
Great numbers of the people are approaching destitution and desperation, and the outlook for next win
ter is i black one for thc North American community.   With like conditions present in every capitalist
country in the world, (two and a half millions out
of work in England) yet possessing such   superior
advantages over thc people of Russia, how can our
editors boast of our accomplishments and sneer at
Russia's in the face of the manifest failure of our
own industrial system as a going concern, to supply
a better standard of well-being than it does to the
community as a whole! Is their capitalist mentality
logic-tight, impervious to the bombardment of facts
in their own social situation which are a reproach to
the age we live in?   Belief in their sincerity we extent to the   misinformed, uncritical   readers of the
press who still see the social situation through the
glamour of traditional preconceptions.    But not to
the editors: they handle the facts, and by the legerdemain of their craft, turn them into unrealities.
Russia had its famines prior to a working class administration gaining power in that country. Another article in this issue, "Russia's Famine," furnishes evidence of that. O S. PAGE TWO
ACK to normalcy'' has captivated us. ganized and concentrated, i.e.. COXporately capital-
Like its predecessor, "tbe long way to i/,.,1. French and British industry, to meet the
Tipperary." it has a pleasing jingle—and crUshing weight of reparations, and maintain their
thc same quality of meaning. Therefore is it ot --conmK,rcja* vlclory*' mm\ follow the same way,
much acceptance amongst us. for it is always easier ^ ^ Emo^ fall in with the methods of the strong
to chase awav care with a song than with logical de- #' ... -       ,
*,        . ,    ,    , , Crtu-/* nrnbh-ms    arm. The ambitious Stinnes, thc progressive Louch-
duction.    Still, catch words do nut soht problems.
any more than reforms  can abolish slavery.     The    eur.,  the consolidation ot iron and coal, the recent
remedy for both is knowledge.    And through bitter    mercer-- in Hritish industry and   finance, all    point
disillusionment knowledge is slowly   thrust    upon    (!u. moraj D,- t}le u*c.
us. r        Hut this process reacti on the strong "creditor*'
"More production" is yet a common cry.     "We    nat[on.    T|]cV camii f v, j?, , M.  inm> ^^ .^
must work harded and live harder' WietheMtres* ^ destitution
"We must throw oft our coats and work,    sav the •
__  _     „ j JKV cannoi afford to quarrel
"We must throw oft our coats and WOT*,    sav mi -
lords temporal while the lords spiritual,   in their   &* greater profits.    I my cannot afford to qua
wanton beefiness. translate thc order into the slave    With  market conditions     '1 hey must produce c.
petitivcly on the terms offered by the world market
—or lose their placet 10 the sun They too, must
key their'industries to the power-shaft <*f new necessity. And yiit of this new need conies the higher
industry and the new menace.    For this new indus-
ethic of '•grace." "patience," "humility," and "regeneration." More production! Yes, But how?
Every individual seems as eager to ward it off as
Britain is to avert the "dumping" of the indemnity.
Brieflv stated, readjustment means markets. It
means the conversion of industry from the necessit- ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
ies of war to thc necessities of peace; thc substitu- try will be individualistic competitive industry, but
tion of the market of construction for the greatly interlocking, international groups organized co-
diminished market of destruction. How-is that to operative!)', collectively directed, and control:
come to pass? production to the effective market: Cok**SStJ monopo-
Since everything is produced for profit, obviously lies, with their inevitable supremacy of power, inji
nothing will be produced which does not furnish death grapple for permanence and privilege. And
profit." lndivinual industries, looking tt market because this control of production tad CXthtngC
conditions and finding them unstable and uncertain, cannot possibly satisfy the needs of society, wc of
slow down on operation which, in turn, increases un- the laboring class may find ourselves in the grip of
employment, diminishes purchasing power, limits ■ tyranny unequalled, of a misery unmeasured, of a
reinvestments and augments the condition of in- slavery unfathomed ami spirit breaking. ,
stability. More production thus appears as thc nee- True, there is the possibility of rcohition But,
essity of capitalist society, while its opposite ties the today, the proletariat seems to be in no hurry to .inactivities of separate operators. There is the irre- *ezt itself It still retains faith in the prosperity ol
concilablc*contradiction, founded on private prop- ?«-morrow, and consorts with thc most grotesque re-
ery and resulting in the antagonism of class. Yet, forms. It is capitalist minded, riven with dttteth
patently, all production cannot stop—or society tion, divided in policy, international only in name,
must perish. As patently, production cannot be pitifully shackled by love anil want to the whir?
carried on under the old conditions of anarchic com- wheel- of gain. What the psychological factors in
petition. And what then? *hc situation may be we cannot ^uu^. nor thrsr in-
War time activities have carried thc modern ma- fluence. Bui we do know that eodety is indomit-
chine industry to an unequalled pitch of excellence, tbltj in its endurance of misery. Certainly, the con
Its efficiency is greater; its co-ordination more har- ditions for revolution arc rosy ripe, but who dare sty
monious; its organization more perfect; its direction that thc powers to effect it are as mature"' And if
and control more complete. As a corrollary there is not, thc mighty struggle for markets must go oft, and
less necessary labor required, less duplication of ef- with that struggle, concurrently, the greater sub-
fort, less waste of competition, and the decay,—in jugation of the mass, thc wider spreading misery,
ever-growing degree—of individual power, and with the snapping tensity of class conflict, the fiery fur-
it individual safety.   , ntcc of new war.
But here advanced production is barred by re- Before Socialism can bc. the mediocre, reactionary
tarded distribution. Thc new methods of the form- middle classes must cease to be. Then the indufl-
er arc at variance with the old means of the latter tnal overlotd and the industrial slave will face each
The traffic in war commodities has resulted in the (,tncr in tllp kg clear issue of the class struggle.
most abnormal exchange conditions—conditions ■ nat ma.v -u 'the final achievement of capital And
whose results cannot be offset by any financial wiz- 'l is fcoing to its task splendidly. The "Manehe-
ardy. Cancellation of war debts would but prccipit- u"r Guardian ' Bays editorially (substantially) that
ate the social climax. And how could an increase -! *s really alarming, the way in which the pteroga-
in the volume of commerce change the situation if tlvcs °» parliament are passing over into Cabinet di-
the profits and accumulation arc to remain with the taction and control. No doubt. And if the "Man-
creditors? Countries of low exchange are prevented cheater (iuardian" would look at that, and kindred
from buying, i.e., importing. They must, therefore, phenomena iq the unflickering light of fact, and not
to the uttermost, develop their native resources. But through the chromatic lensc of idealist prcconcep-
they can sell on the world market at less price than tiont, it would easily recognize that those changes
can their competitors with high exchange, because lfl governmental procedure were the indisputable
they can produce for less. Ilenccthe involution of evidences of changes in economic power, and that
exchange conditions, to that extent, threatens thc Cabinet control was but the political reflex of the
power of "creditor" nations. True, such conditions modern colossus of monopoly. And the "alarming''
cannot obtainindefinitely, since<ill countries are in- clement in it is that it sounds the knell of the petit
tcrdependent on each others commerce, but they can bourgeoisie, its Liberal perversions, its reactionary
—and probably will—obtain long enough to usher individualism and obsolete competition. But to us,
in a new menace and a higher level of industry. the toilers and wealth producers, it is a call for fur-
Society cannot be rescued from its present ccon- ther "preparedness/' for it marks a step forward to-
omic sfough by any haphazard methods, or tentative wards the final reckoning, -and emancipation.     R.
experiments.   Financial exigencies have already de-  :o:	
termined that.   Production, in   nations   of low ex- RUSSIAN STUDENTS IN ENGLAND
change, is forced by the exchange situation itself to
greater economies and cheap production.   That is •
to say, more efficient industrial organizations,-or K-Ra-According to reports of Moscow   papers
in other words, greater and more powerful combin-| ,nc Btffrl'th government has given   permission for
ations of capital.   The industries of   the   Central -K|0 Russian students to attend universities of l-.ng
Powers, caught between the indemnity and the nee- land and Scotland.—"Rosta Wein."
essity of domestic exploitation, must be highly or-       * . ;o-	
The S. P. of C. and
the 3rd International
It is with painful m:-:       that 11      ■   :Q  ■
Pritchards contribntion  to 1
"Western Clarion" re th.   1 '    ,;
artk les have appeared, pro and
case* good trgumej        • ai
and it re-t- with those v.:
to dei i de which of the
h, sr reasons, i ■-, the inn si   i
have shewn the most Ctj il
1low have the mighty fa!' ■
Rat boh and atwer-pipt
• * Id* (looks like stolen from
a pOOf argument, tnd pU
the t hiss as those he . In*-*-J
brief for the artich i tha! wei
nut tec of the Third Internal
he forgotten thai in   Russia .
to tht revolution, education on M •■- nc
coodtti ted in ao-ctUed rat-i
catn.n has borjtc splendid fm I
So% iet Government to •
..r doc - he think thai Lenin ai
■' ■•••-   an solel) respon
< >ne chief trgumenl against T ■*:
International ia that Canada r-fo
tionall) for a revolts!
sta'        • • itbstanding the
tiretd)        ■ red to, tlie p< • a
p!c having a proper ue
societ)  wa        ill,   yet t   i
acttcpily climb
dUtribution     Why then did
• ' •-.. •      which had ai
unbearable Stage, due to the
iety vh Russia, forced (I      ■  -
then being a c<rtAin pen
-k,-,-., ,,*!)-s- she propei Imoi
take the hel
1 maintain thtt what i
a I v.* bttpHl m other   COUl
necessity will oblige th*  t
a i hangt   in apite oi the ;
aa to tbe ttiw < ,»?:*■ i <>i their i ■'■''•***'
fort a world-wide organization i
kvorking i lata is necessary to assi
struggle for mattery   that m., :'
far eariur that   some of H
dxwv to ,i minimum the I'"--
must entttc, ..
I will not enter into the di
ofthe Third International.    Of ol
vinced; nothing is static and
it ia found that the  conditio!
function property thej wdl !-
our comrade, accm to think. I   I
i '
supposed understanding ol thc a
n..t applv to the Third Internal!"'
Kautskvs have developed in the I
every country among the Sen ialista,
, .     . -\ that t**t
ing so they <lifI s^ood work, more 19
have ceased to continu*
Lenin slated KtUttky wrote well eightetB J
ago.    N'uf said.
i I,
• *i
.'.. intentioi
^Moscow.   /'Gudole" writes over m« .
tHl American gt.vetnuient  to purcha •
for the erection of a naval base. „
I    .   r the sea o
of the Azores ensures tho control ov<
to India as well as to China tnd I':"1  '•       ^
the Sett! "anal.    As the  Kuropcau   CftP-ta»
not  hurrying with the payment ol '  ''
v************\****************************************************************\m iiiiv i' |
and the  Anglo Japanese ; Miam-e is a
to America ll.e latter   iccks i'n this *
•..e,(;sio,i of the    key 0r the sea   ront<
that in case of conflict it can cut bngl
ita allies."    Toata Wein."
The Famines of Russia
Al fl |< il'GH as a general thing a non-partisan
Providence makes the rain to fall alike upon
just and unjust, an exception must be
I ... .v, case oi Russia, where the Bolsheviki
mt( ,.v to blame when the   ground-hog sees
ihatlow, or the   seed-corn   rots in the   ground.
j.   I        .. rate, is the impression   created by thc
. editorial practice oi holding thc Bolsheviki
■   whenever the peasants fail for any rea-
• it.  food enough f«>r theni-eh BS, or to dc-
irplus to the towns.    Naturally this inter-
|. the new • is put in jeopardy by any ad-
. '  the misbehaviour of the elements may
I,  . . oil! of the Bolshiviki, for such an ad-
...  .-.*■. gest the advisability of a search for
lit ions affecting the production anddistrib-
I. od/which ;.re not directly attributable to
j .   tivity or entirely subject to   Boshevik
\l       reports of drought and famine in Russia
■ ",- in the mood for such an inquiry, which
begin, wc think, with an examination
- in the good old days v.hen thc   Bol-
I a> little power in Russia as the   Corn-
art) has now in the United Stab -    V erj
nth our tory friends tak   • to '-mind
the   pre-revotutionary era of pea.-.-   and
. .\.;- a (jfratn-exporting countrj ; which
■ ■■  thc truth, but  not the whole truth. At
Mr, li  \\ Bnailsford believes that it is not tl
■'   for in lus recently published   volume
. - an Workers' Republic" he states that the
.   .ou fof export
ie solely from the Ukraine, the Voigo \ al*
thc Caucasus, and Siberia.    Central and
northern Russia were never at the l^st of times
• porting, and it i-- only over   these re-
which have always had a food deficit,
that IWlshivtk rule   has been   uninterrupted.
ii problem v>.j- to feed a country   which
never in Tsarist days had come near to feeding
■ .ii.
itatevnettt is doubtless capable of sti-tistjcal
and yet our case does not *> st upon the estab-
t ol this proof.    Whatever may have   been
of thc several regions of Russia, each consider-
M  ■ Unit, it is quite certain  that a huge pTCfpor-
'        thc peasants themselves were unable to mam-
tain their own lives by agriculture alone.     At the
the emancipation, in Lcfel- the peasants had
expropriated from t part of the land they had
! a> sen's, and excessive   redemption   dues
n imposed upon the lands allotted to  them
•'*-•:< dinen.    Heavily handicapped al the outset by
conditions, the muzhiks were quite unable to
• their biddings in proportion to the increase
'n their numbers, and at the end of half a century of
"freedom," the average si/.e ol the plots occupied by
ut families was only a little   more than  half
it had been at tbe time of the   emancipation
1,1 "The Russian Peasant and the Revolution." Mr.
Hindus saya that in |90S
v in  forty-seven   provinces of European Russia.
nnt   of  the   11,956376  peasant   households,
twenty--three percent, had less than live dessia-
lines (13.5 acrea) per household, and seventy
percent, had less than ten dessiatincs (twenty-
seven acres) per household, whereas according
to the computation of Government experts the
average family required at least 12.5 dessiatines
(33.75 acre*) to provide it with adequate sustenance.
Writing in vm, Mr. Geoffrey   Drags said that
on-y 8.S per cent, of the peasantry could Spare any
'" their agricultural products for sale, while 70.7 per
ln". could not produce enough, food to meet their
"vv'i needs.    Such being the case, it is obvious that
s,'»ie ofthe food which the peasants themselves consumed, as well as a considerable proportion of the
surplus exported to the towns and abroad, was pro-
^uced on the estates which remained in the hands of
,l"> landlords.
1 '"•' their insufficient    allotments, thc   peasants
Were obliged to pay an extortionate price.Onc authority estimates that at the prevailing market-price,
the redeemed lands were worth 689 millions of
roubles. Thc valuations actually fixed for redemption-purposes came to 923 millions, and by reason of
the illations of interest, fines for delayed pay-
•    and other like charges, the peasants had already paid down a total of 1,390 millions of roubles
when further payments were cancelled at the time
of the i..solution in 1905:     In its capacity as real
Ut for the nobles who had formerly held
tie to ihe redeemed lands, the Government had thus
ollected from the peasants a sum in excess of the
uc of these lands which was in effect a personal
With allotments which would not yield
I food to keep body and soul together, much
produce a surplus to cover the redemption dues
and the indirect taxes which replaced them in 1905,
many of thc peasants were driven to domestic com-
tition with new factory-industries, and masses of
l were dumped wholesale into the labor-market
an industrially  backward country,   where their
part-time work on the landlords' estate and in the
tries kept wages close to the level of starvation.
peasants'expedient of dividing their time
..    m rk and the cultivation of their own
land   did not save them from periodic disaster; thus
in 1' 11 a crop-failure brought   on famine,   and the
central an! local authorities extended relief to eight
million people.
i o our way of thinking, ii was primarily the near-
starvation of the peasant food-producers of Russia
that turned the respectable revolution of the Cadets
into an economic earthquake. The Provisional Government had hardly come to power when the peas-
ants began a jacquerie which was to continue in-
.e,v. without regard to the ineffectual opposition of the pre-Bolshiviki, or the superfluous ap-
roval of the bolsheviki themselves.
\\ bether the Government condemned or subscribed to the seizure of the landlords' estates, the peas-
am uprising was preparing the way for a civil war
in which the muzhiks would belong to one party,
and the dispossessed landlords to the other; nor was
it to be expected that industry and transportation
could escape the ruinous effects of this civil war,
whatever might bc the disposition of the industrial
workers and the Government. If the pre-war mis-
ery of thc peasants was inevitable, then the agrarian
devolution was inevitable: the shortage of imported
and. domestic manufactures to be offered in exchange
for farm-produce was inevitable; and neither requisite in nor 'free trade" could forestall the famine in the
tow«S, winch was likewise inevitable.
By their direct attack upon the old land-system,-
the peasant- themselves have cleared away the chief
obstacle to their own well-being. As a class, they
are now able to produce on their own lands all the
| od which they formerly produced, plus the surplus
which thev were obliged to purchase from the landlords. Many observers have reported that they have
taken advantage of their new opportunities to such
an extent that the) are now better fed than they
ever were in pre revolutionary times. The pinch
comes when drought or flood destroys the crops in
a particular district, and forces the peasants to depend, as the towns must always depend, upon sources of'supply over which they have no direct control.
It is then, and then only, that thc peasant as a food-
consumct feels the effects of conditions in industry
and transport which he himself, as a food-producer,
has done so much to create.
Iu all this, there is very little that has to do with
bolshcvism. U the Bolshiviki could have prevented the starvation of the peasantry—in this grain-
exporting country—in the days of the good Tsar
Nicholas, they might have prevented the economic
revolution and the subsequent starvation of many
Russian townsmen, and of those peasants whom Providence occasionally tosses into the same dependent
class with the dwellers in the towns. As things
.land today, not what the Bolsheviki hope to do, but
what the peasants have done is the chief factor in
the Russian situation. If the opposition of the peasants to the Bolshevik regime has been by no means
so fierce as their opposition to the ex-landlords, it is
because the Bolshiviki have acquired in the work
that the peasants themselves have done to relieve
the starvation of their own class, the hundred and
twenty million food-producers of the Old Empire
—'The "Freemati," (New York).
TRADE will revive, sing the "wise birds" of thc
press, and thc approach of winter will see the
world passing ilirough the most acute form of
economic depression into the bright lights of prosperity. *
Staid, conservative bank presidents, presidents of
railroads, members of Rotary clubs,'in soft, lilting
tones join in this light-hearted melody—"Trade will
Whence springs the inspiration for the song; have
the boundary lines and territory which once separated the countries of Europe, been restored to their
1V14 settings; are the debts and deeds of war forgiven and forgotten, that the joyful notes gather
strength from day to day!
No; crop reports from Europe and Great Britain
announce drought, the worst in generations threatens those countries with famine; and bankers, jobbers, and the motley crew that make up the "rif-raf"
of capitalist society, see in the sorry plight of Europe
payments from farmers in this country for those outstanding debts contracted for binder-twine, binders,
gas, worn-out parts of Fords, food, clothing and shelter for themselves and stock, all of which are but
little necessities, though hard to obtain, required for
the greater development of the land-
Farmers and the unemployed in Canada will receive help from financiers in Great Britain; these latter fry will open the money-bags containing the
wages for the harvesting of Canada's crop which,
when it snugly reposes beside the greater part of last
year's in the elevators of the country will prove a
more potent force for winning concessions from Russia, and a more powerful weapon of coercion than
the forces of the State, for reconciling the conflicting
interests in Upper Silesia and the Rhur Valley. A
monopoly on the lives of the people of Europe is
what this control over the wheat supply of Canada
amounts to.      *
The devitalizing effects of starvation for seven
years on the population of Central Europe, the disease and pestilence arising out of this condition, the
crimes and vice whieh multiply as these conditions
become worse, threatens the very props of civilization and the entire fabric of capitalist society, even
to sounding the death-knell of the race.
Such a condition can not go on unchecked: no
slaves, no profits; but not until natural forces supported the more powerful of economic forces was it
possible; so long as there was a show of foodstuffs in
those countries it was possible to keep up the conflict in each others interest. 4
A common foe faces each European country today, famine, and circumstances favor British and
American capitalists to establish reconciliation in
their interests- The proofs of this are not to hand
yet; but the speculations in this direction become
more logical and sound. Hence thc song—"Trade
will revive."
To what extent will trade revive; or it is too problematical to write about?   These are the facts:
Conferences are already taking place in Berlin.
Paris. London and Xew York, representatives of
banking institutions are discussing with the foremost representatives of the financial world the problem of credit aud the best methods for dealing with
the economy of Europe.
To start industry again in a number of European
countries is a task that will require years and enor-
(Continued on page 4) PAGE FOUR
Western Clarion
A -Touraal or Hurtory, loonoml**-*, T*\ilom**ky,
and Currant Events.
Publukftd twice * month by the Soeialiit Party of
Oaiioda 401 Pender Street Eaet, Vancouver, B. 0.
Phone HifhUnd 1581
Entered at G. P. O. M a newepayw.
    — Ewen MtcLtod
~"~ lubteriptioo:
Canada, 20 iaautt ..  -H-00
Foreign, 16 iaauea - .... - $1-00
If thia number U on jeor eddreie label jotu
•ubteription expirei with neit iwoe. Beaew
Economic Councils are being formed all over the
country, composed of representatives of individual
business houses, bankers' associations, employers'
associations, ex-soldiers' organizations, universities,
the armed forces, the federal, provincial and municipal governing bodies, ministerial associations tnd
pure and simple labor bodies.
If the operative causes are not understood, the
effects of the capitalist mode of wealth production
and appropriation are at least begining to be recognized, even anticipated, for present distress among
the working masses throughout Canada is almost
forgotten in anticipation of the sure and certain miser} of the coming winter. It is not necessary that
these worried gentlemen should understand the
workings of the system of things; their ignorance of
the economics of this system of wealth production
may be colossal, but they have a faint understanding
that the life of capitalism lies in the exploitation of
human labor, and that its watchword is profit
An idle working class means starvation and misery for that class, and for the employing class it
means the profitless anxiety of dull trade, idle capital
and a reduced rate of interest. Thc worker's problem of existence confronts him as one who posses--
es nothing but the capacity to produce, and his master's problem is to devise ways and means to ex'
ploit that capacity and to continue the process. But
the development of the process itself creates a surplus population of wage laborers which, in turn,
squeezes wages to a low level and stretches the
working day where employment may be had, thus
tending to readjust in a small measure the falling
rate of profit prevalent in times like these.
Therefore, in times like these the employing class
takes upon itself the task of preparation, in common
council, tor relief measures to ease thc wrath and
hunger of the unemployed in the unprofitable season
With rill their dull stupidity, falling trade balances and sickly finances prompt them to a state of
panic in face of a growling working class, whose
producing capacity must lie idle while there is no
market for thc goods on hand. Recognition of thc
workers' distress, through their own present hunger
for profit prompts them to speak "in the community
spirit"' for the "common welfare." Wc are pleased
to sec their anxiety,—astonishment would overwhelm us if they were lacking in effort to conceal
it behind a mask of hypocrisy.
Conspicuous headlines in the   Rochester, N. Y.,
press announce that   "Charles McNamara O'Brien,
leader of the Proletarian Party" will soon be brought
'to trial
O'Brien was arrested on December 28, 1919, when
the famous (or infamous)) Lusk Committee raided
the Labor Lyceum, 580 St. Paul St., Rochester, N.
Y. Later, he was indicted by the Grand Jury on a
charge of "Criminal Anarchy." Since then he was
again arrested by the federal authorities and thc
charge ha:: been continuously hanging over his head,
no doubt to be pressed by tht State authorities at
what they in their wisdom consider to bc the opportune moment. These recent advices indicate that
he is now to be tried on the indictment rendered
nearly two years ago.
The press articles referred to seem calculated to
help create appropriate prejudice in the community
from Which the jury is likely to be selected, no. only
against O'Brien but also against the 1 rolctarian
Party, *l*ich i*- strivm-- to obtain signatures from
1 500eiectors -«> as to be on the official ballot at elec*
tion time < >ur correspondent, Sol. Horrowitt, irom
whose It far these remarks are constructed says;—
"Proseeution and persecution of working class organizations bv the partv in power was encouraged
ami practised more bv the Wilson administration
than bv any other in the history of this country.
Read Report upon the illegal ['radices of the tinted
States Department of Justice,' published May. 1920,
and signed b\ twelve prominent Itwyert residing In
different parts of th.- U S V The ■fticlet in the
local presa tbout O'Brittl, tot-ether with what had
happened and is happening in other pan- of ihe country indicate that extreme violation til the con*-t!ltl-
tional and personal liberties of the most progressive
and aggressive members of the labor movement i*
.-.!-.. tin  policy of the present administration."
Charlie ' 1'Briens case has been -frequently referred t«. in these columns since Januat v, 1920,      Con
tribdtions for defense will Ik- forwarded   from this
office, or 'hey may be sent to Louis Stark. .*sSO Si
Paul St.  Rochester, N. Y.
• •   •
Corrcct;on. In ihe article in OUT last issue. "A
Review of Capitalism iu 1*01." by K K . figures
French naval expenditures for this vear read 11.416.
000,000 francs.    This should read  1,416,000,000.
• e    •
Local (Vancouver) \".». 1 of the S. I* of C. wish
to call attention to the state of the local's finances.
The propaganda meetings are in danger of being cut
off or interrupted through lack of funds Literature
sales are WW and returns from collections are insufficient   to meet expenses.      All   comrades who are
able to meet back dues are   requested to do so at
once. Harry Grand, secretary, has been succc-vsful
through individual letter writing in gathering in a
few dollars, and these remarks are inserted here in
order that he may be helped to gather in a few
more. ' Hher locals are meeting similar difficulties,
and where possible, dues payments now tn arrears
should be made at once.
*     a     •
Comrade J A. McDonald writes to say he has arrived in Sydney. \*. S. VV. He reports considerable
activity in the movement there the usual 57 varieties . and has already started to contribute his \har--
to its learning, He spoke on the "Domain" )u\v
2nd in tin: afternoon and Indoors in the evening llis
reputation as a speaker and Socialist educator has
preceded his arrival, the first question being, as soon
as the) knew he came from 'Frisco; "Do you know
Jack McDonald?*1
* •   •
The 'Clarion" scribes continue to spread their
ideas over all the earth. "The Socialist" (Glasgow}
reproduce* Peter T. Lcckie'a contribution on "The
Industrial Revolution." 'from his series "Materialist Conception of History", "Thc Workers' Dreadnought'' (London, England) reproduces "Lessons of
the Miners' Strike" by "H," with this editorial introduction: "The following article appeared in the
'Western Clarion.' the oficial organ of the Socialist
Party of Canada We reproduce it because we think
it will prove interesting to the miners of this country to know how our 'cousins' regard their tactics."
"The Confederate" (Brandon) reprints three articles
from our columns, tmong them Harrington's article
MOttrse!ve*i and Parliament," which is calmly inserted as an editorial without acknowledgment to its
author >r to the "Clarion.'' That is bad enough to
go on -villi but our main kick is that the article is
cut and trimmed, no doubt to suit "Confederate"
* *    •
Now, all these references to thc widely accepted
wisdom of the Clarion "staff" of writers arc not intended for glorification, .We just with to gently
suggest -he wisdom of general attention to the following paragraph as of practical moment and well
worth reading:
Thereupon follows, of course, "direct action!"
* *    *
Following One Dollar each:A, Shulman, A. Mog-
ridge, J. Luft, A. R. Sinclair, O. kavner. R. O. kob-
son, Wm. Braes, W. II. Camlleld, I) Oliva, F 11
James, HII. Hanson, 1) J. Sullivan, W. S Matthews'
jl. Olson;'J. W. Dargie, C. M. I'.aretl, Jake Klein, j'
Lysnes, M. Wallerstein, F. Mavnard, Win. .1, Kennedy, J- Mtildoon, S. Gelfan.
Fllowing Two Dollars each: S. R. Keeling, C W
Sies, H. (). Mills, F. J. Cbnnctt, D. Stewart', R. C
McCutcheanJ'". P. Solomon, H. J. Jl. Harper
Sid Earp, $150; M. C. Robson, 50cj Win. Glenn
$3; Alex. Shepherd, $3.50.
Total subscriptions received I
August, inclusive   $47.50 '-'"'.nolo
Our persistent habit of directin
need for subscription- mus| continu
tn danger of
attention to g
get oi reverting tot moi , ,.M
*■• with better financial ."**«•
..nil..,.i,.     .     . ' C' KQb-r
not nu
that conditions now prevalent
proletarian prosperity, but this not* ,,:
be sounded now or it ma) be -,
during the pasi few months i
to inert printing cost-, and ace
ingly hard to collect.
Now   that the hai ves( prosi
failure thi re will be mam
tnd roast who will provide g
created propagandt effort
tor ipetrictrt from a** far... •
considering ways tad mean- .
for widening the propaganda ?!<
be dom    are don't exact)*- kno
' nducive i.
■••* ji
afni Q*s
tl    - :
'■'•"■ '**
■ *****
tone met   but il will be done    .. .,....
a better opportunity for propa-
io take advantage of it.   We can ;
>uits ii all hands will bend to i
hard tunes for financing, but
nipt propagandt work.
' \.»wi \ | Put" reports : Thr
si.nis m   J;.»ku and GfOSn) |)
practical manner    Phe C«        ;
oi Soviet Russia and of tht   ' km-
beidchan adopt the tame po
the Soviet   republic*    ate nOl
More ihe oil fields .-1 the two
efforts *rt a short lime      \s fa
it so •;•-..;t the) cannot   affoi
have restored the   cconomi     I
lands   They intend to *rjvc .
lo foreign firms under the i
. igmrrs shad elcctrif) their «•■■■
alto those of th- Soi iet repti
veeks their    have been a    '■■
workers in both districts tnd
omic  ttgnificancc of the  -
plained lo them.
(Continued f;
mows capital to complete     Bi
every individual member oi tht m
contciout ol the fact tbat until
these countries is again normaUu :j*-""'
economic depression, will contii
nuts;,!,- ,,,  iMirtljH*.     Thus, th,- v.   •
need not expect to ever again sec
-.lbs were plentiful.   It ii true
hshment of an extensive credit •*•
«»! trade will be noticeable;  conjj
lieved in warehoutes, stores, an ! •
a certain number of workers will
fill them up once more.
In countries like Great Britain,
•  -
: *
■   .
n   wm
.    *****>
be if
i     :        •'
ket for supplies of essential matei
production, and most of hti export
here the workers need onl) CXpi   ' ■• ^,
large Kate unemployment     And in countf
thi United States, whose chief markcl is on t * ^
er aide of the Pacific, and in the countries
hei•; here the workers can !<*<>k i"1 -,;!
ing flow of emigrant! and more inten
,: iii>f"
f'-r jobs, with tn ever h.weiim; *•*•'•■      ! "' j
while the bttrdtn of    taxation upon tin    I    •
class will become greater as the years i'"1 ""^ ,;i
These are but some of the possrbilit-"       ' ^
well within the known facts  Bui who i   l°- ^
Ihe industrial .-retivity oi Burope can eve ^
stirred under e;ipitalisin, with economic to .
iu those countries eating tl the verj u'  *.    ^cof
ism and the not unlikelv natural forces ac    -
junction with these for vears yet
drought btJ
lunciion witti these t<»r years >«> |Hlll-f
followed drought for vears iu this "l'1 vv0  '   |   ,.,-
tnd played at limes a notable pari in "" j-,, j-,
ation   »f lOCitty, WESTERN      CLARION
Concerning Value
■The Merchant and Commerce.      Profit Accruing
From Exchange.   Independent Development of
Labor" and "Supply and Demand" Theories.
The Pic-capitalist Era.    Identity of "Labor Cost,"
Cost of Production," "Value" and "Price."
,n| ii- matmbOUUf <«i*i'al    ttuafotta tht   mtzehmagi
,-,v.,m uii«i-*vt-ioj».-«i Boettl—i •! pro■•
,,— in,. Um *"i»»i»- of OtttS*u*s**i    i •>:.   ■  amt
taa  u*K«'ly   t***m*  UMM n*<-*t-<-<Ji-     l^-avin*- a*-. :■■
...      • ,• ispkrttj Um .nrr.Tpn.«- iti ih« pi   at or pro
■ •   ,   \..*>".is cuintrlr-i   |«».!  It.  0.1*   *■•-•!" ■'   II   <•  .
• v   t   <• valu-n  of c(*imtv>*lltl<vti.  t ■■'•■'■ !...>.!.--. of pfo-
,    ||  n'.'.'it  O.ttt   it*.-:.-V.;uit*' QftptUl  *U**»TOprla*lM  :•■
•»mn1nlintna portion --f tt-t wrpln^-proeoct, cdtlier
,    :•.    M  n   mt<ll*ti>r  1-,-twr-rn  MOtotlW,   «•;!:.  ..re  U
.  -p*ast la u>*» fotmtian .-i bm ral      tad cor
rt  w,. , ..r-tst-iMtl'-i.   UM *»!«• of U>*U   portion   • (  Iti
. :  |g tn»t»i«f-*rr-'<i lo Ito -:*•--:.'•>*.■■•--. or an* tmit   I
K-   t!.,ir vain*. 1* of minor  tattporUl bMOOM
formor moSm <'f prodocttoo, u-<* prtactp*] ovnera
, .-. M ;.r<*iluf-l. with whom  tho ncrcboal baa t,. deal,
%n r;.. -»!**-«- holil-»r.  the foudiU   lan-Jlor.l. tho tUU«  (for
.. OrttnUU  ft—pot). «»*1   ■■•<->   :«•.--•   I   I   •• ■■- - '
*    ,'. UtO m«-rrh«iu tri-i- *•> trap
, aof>tt*U ta n* mopta**o***t •oarytiiari Manda tor
■ robbory, an«l it* t\**t^jampmmnt, ta ■■■ .  ■  ■  Ira
j.  m   f old aat *-'*« tUaoo, i» aiino-- eooaoeti I <*
r-   **aato*htiia c4 ■tavap. ooooooot <-i ooionioj
Hi., p I
i | so  far.  attempted  to connect  the labor
ry ol value with the conditions prevailing in the
l |  stage of industry.      This was a Step in
111 Production was for use—for a livelihood
The tools of   production nvert f< •••   •
pic and were owned by the individual pro-
. era
3) The -.kill and training   required  in the
. rioua crafts was fairly uniform.
4) The raw materials ■.*■*. r* such as lay close
to hand.
I;  The processes of production and the nec-
.»r\ labor-expenditure required for each pr
I were common knowli dgi
It seems reasonable to   assume that, in   such a
-:;. the exchange of local products would   take
plact on the basts of labor-cost, that "costof produc-
ti ■   and '\alue" would be identical, and   that the
• of labor  (labor-power.) and the   product   of
or would alto be identical.
.We may also say the .same of "price" seeing that
thc money-commodity would be, in early   times at
• a '.oval product and would fall under the tame
conditions. Kvcn if the money -commodity were not
a local product this would not affect thc relations
obtaining between the local products.
Value, cost of production,    labor-cost and price,
which wc now know as distinct categories, could not.
therefore, at that time bc separated in thought seeing that thty were identical in fact.
< 'ii this point Marx says:
"In order that the prices at which commodities are exchanged with one another may correspond approximately to then values, no other
conditions are required but the following:
111 The exchange of tht various commodities
must no longer bt accidental or occasional.
(2) So far as the direct exchange oi commodities is concerned, these commodities must be
produced on both sides in sufficient quantities
to meet mutual requirements, a thing easily
learned by*experience in trading, and therefore
a natural outgrowth of continued trading.
(3) So far as selling is concerned, there must
hs no accidental or artificial monopoly winch
may enable cither ol the contracting sides to
sell commodities above their value or compel
others to sell below value." -"Capital." vol.
HI., p. 209.
'We* may assume that, in the absence of anv u\w
or ;iH of these conditions, there would tend to be a
divergence of price from value as determined by
ktw-cost, This fact soon became recognised and
Pe°ple tried to take advantage of it and to profit by
ma-*ipulatmg the market. This tendency was met by
Penalizing the "trade offences" of "engrossing and
"forestalling" or "regrating/'
1,1 'engross" anv commodity mean! to buy up the
Whole, or the greater part, of any article appearing
on the market- The "engrosser" might use his advantage to increase the price, or on the other hand.
he might, by dealing wholesale, sell cheaper and do
:'! ^'r busin,--,-. Either of these courses was a
trade offence.
"Forestalling" meant buying up goods before
they rt ached the market, and was probably much the
-am. thing as "regrating*' which has been defined as
"buying and selling again any goods or victuals in
■ same market or within five miles thereof with
a cicw to a prolit, of course.    All of these practices
were, at the time we are   speaking of,   considered
■  fenct    and were, no doubt, engaged in by people
\h<.. in whole or in part, hoped to make a living by
mcrce, rather than in production.
- brings US to a consideration of the merchant
mmerce.   As we have seen, commerce is very
much older than industry—in the modern sense of
- word. As Prof. Jenks put it, "exchange precedes production in the order of ideas."
The barter winch took place on the fringes of the
self-sustaining communities of primitive times grew
into an extensive trade in the classical and feudal
periods and was carried on by trading nations who,
i aving a natural or acquired aptitude for trading or
--< jsing advantageous locations, acted as   inter-
tiaries in commerce and as carriers.     Such nations were the Cntans and Phoenicians in ancient
and the Italian republics   and the Hanse   towns in
latt r times.
\'ow, we observe: (1) that thc merchant was not
a producer but made his profit in the act of exchange: (2) that the goods were, for the most part,
cither surplus products or the products of subject
..r slave labor; [3) that they were the products of
relatively distant countries and that the conditions
of production were unknown to the parties to the
• change; (4) the conditions of exchange were
largely in control of the merchant who was thus
able to dictate terms. The trader was thus enabled
to exploit both parties to the exchange as sellers as
well as buyers, and reaped enormous profits in the
ti ansaction. (-i course, he did not always get away
with it. Iu early days travel by sea or land was
slow, laborious and dangerous, and, in addition there
were Barbary Corsairs and robber barons. The mer-
cl ant ol former times was therefore very aptly called an "adventurer" and while his gains were large
wlun his "ship came home" it ve*ry often did not.
Commerce, however, continued to develop. The
progress of industry; the increase of commodities;
the use of the great European States and consequent suppression of piracy; thc improvements in
navigation and increased facilities for travel bring
about a condition of affairs in which commerce, instead of being "accidental and occasional" became
an essential part of social life. This line of development leads us to the point at which the transition
from feudal to capitalist production takes place, and
that is another question which I hope to take up in
the next article. What 1 wish to point out just now
is that among people who made their living in the
way 1 have just described a theory of value based
on labor-cost could not possibly arise. Industry and
the tacts of production were foreign to them, and
their wealth, so far as they were concerned, was
made in exchange rather than in production. Instead, there emerged a series of concepts of quite a
different order. For instance, the conception that
money or bullion was the only real wealth, which
was the chief dogma of the Mercantile school; the
idea that profit was somehow generated in thc processes of exchange and those concepts concerning
value whicii were later formulated as the law of supply and demand. This economic law was stated in
the year 1804 by Lord Lauderdale in the following
"With respect to the variations in value, of
which everything valuable is susceptible, if we
could suppose for a moment that any substance
possessed intrinsic and fixed value so as to render an assumed quantity of it constantly, un
der all circumstances, of equal value, then the
degree of all things, ascertained by such a fixed
standard, would vary according to the proportion betwixt the quantity of them and the demand, and every commodity would of course
be subject to a variation from four different
"1. It would be subject to an increase of its
value from a diminution of its quantity.
"2. To a diminution of its value from an augmentation of its quantity.
"3. It might suffer an augmentation in its
value from the circumstance of an increased
"4 Its value might be diminished by a failure
of demand.
"As it will, however, clearly appear that no
commodity can possess fixed and intrinsic value
so as to qualify it for a measure of value of
other commodities, mankind are induced to select as a practical measure of value that whicii
appears to be least liable to any of these four
sources of variation which are the sole causes
of alteration of value.
' When in common language, therefore, we
express the value of any commodity, it may
vary at one period from what it is at another,
in consequence of eight different contingencies:
"1. From the four circumstances above-stated, in relation to the commodity of which we
mean lo express the value.
"2- From the same four circumstances in relation to the commodity we have adopted as a
measure of value."
The above statement by no means represents the
final form of this law. but is   here given as   being
more or le>s identified in thought with the period I
have been speaking of—the pre-capitalist era.     In
any case I expect to have considerable to say on the
subject before I get through.
So far, it has been my purpose to show that the
labor and the supply and demand theories developed more or less independently of each other. We
have next to consider a period in which they came in
conflict and the concepts which arose as a result of
their fusion.
In the matter of making the punishment fit the
crime they seem to be ordering things well in Russia. Thus it is pleasant to hear that a young lady
of Moscow who was found guilty by the "People's
Court" of conducting anti-Semitic propaganda was
sentenced to attend a course of study in political
science at the I'niversity until she-should have passed the final examination. Another instance is recorded of certain counter-revolutionaries who, having attacked the Soviet C-overnment's treatment of
the intellectuals, were sentenced to prepare a report
on the subject giving an exact statement of the facts.
This seems to be an excellent way of turning courts,
of law into courts of justice, and it is to be hoped
that Senator France will find time during his trip
with a view to enlightening our own Department of
fustics  thereon.—"The Freeman."
De Trey and Company, who manufacture and
deal in artificial teeth, &c, report that their business
in the tirst six months of 1920 exceeded that of any
previous half year. Then there set in that shrinkage of trade which still persists, and the effects of
which have been intensified by labor troubles, adverse movements in rates of exchange, and other
causes. The result was a considerable reduction in
the second half of the year in the demand for the
company's products, and at the close of the year,
instead of exceeding that of the previous year the
net profit was pearly £40.000 smaller.
This report appeared in the "Manchester (iuard-
W K S TERS    C L AR I 0 N
The Saracenic Contribution to Learning
THE trend eastward among the Mohammedan
peoples of the proletarian revolution awakens
a desire to know more of these potential allies
of ours than the average historian, with his religious prejudices reveals.
Religions being an expression of the central life of
a group, i.e.. Matriarchal relations, suggest female
deities; animism yields to antropomorphistn. Feudal religions emphasize authority, etc. Therefore,
in dealing with the Saracenic contributions to his-
tory it is incumbent on u> to investigate the conditions under which it arose-
Saraeenie (from the Arabic word Sarquin—to rise |
was various!) employed by mediaeval writers to de-
. ignatethc Mohammedans of Syria and Palestine and
.the Arabs generally or the A rah-Per hers of northern Africa who conquered Spain, Italy. Sicily and
invaded France. At a later date it was employed as
a synonym for infidel nations against whdm crusades were preached and was thus applied to the Sel-
juks of Iconia. Turks and others. The work appears
as early as the first century of the Christian era.
when it was applied by the Greek writers to sonic
Arab tribes of the Syrian desert of Tib.
The rise and spread of Mohammedism has many
parallel's to the rise and spread of Christianity some
six centuries previous. Both founders claimed a
common ancestor in Abraham the founder of Judaism, a monotheistic faith. Both claimed divine in-
antration from the same God. Both arose and developed in conformity to the economic conditions of
time and place.
Although Christ, from whom Christianity derives
its name, was supposed to have lived in Judea- the
religion arose and flourished in certain parts of Europe peculiarly fitted for its growth and development.
Judea was entirely untouched and Christianity left
no impression upon its historians. It was as though
Christ had never lived.
Tlys was because the Jewish religion was sufficient to the Jews; a national Cod, a God of war to
Whom they could look for deliverance from the oppressor, as in the days of Moses. Joshua, etc. The
pacific Christ did not, and could not find a place in
their hearts. Put in Rome and Greece the Christians made marvellous headway, first among the
slaves, later among the citizens. It suited their
needs. Judea was a province of the Roman Empire
and the Jewish race had been a subject race many
centuries in turn to Assyria, Persia, Greece and
Mohammed was a merchant prince, owner of great
caravan*; plying*) lucrative tradtover territory which
had not been subject to any other nation, having
maintained their independence by force of arms,
aided by geographical juxtaposition^ to the great
Arabian desert- The people were largely traders
earning between east and west, a sturdy, independent lot.    No slave religion for them.
In the hundred years following thc Hegira (622
A.D.) a Saracenic empire was established which extended from Turkestan to the shores of the Atlantic.
Mohammed made himself master of Mecca from
whicii flowed the trade routes of the east in 629. By
7(f) the Saracens had extended their sway over
northern Africa to beyond the Strait of Gibraltar
and had subjugated almost the whole of Spain by
711. Prom Spain they passed to Gaul, where their
progress was arrested by Charles Marttl near Poitiers in 732- Sicily was conquered in 827-878, and
early in the tenth century their incursions extended
into the Purgundian territories.
The disruption of this great Saracenic realm began about the eighth century when the western por-
ion broke away from the rest and became a separate
State with Cordovo as its capital. Thc social forces
underlying thc rise, spread and decay of the empire
were many and varied, but as this article started
out to deal with the contribution to learning of this
particular period, it would be impossible to dwell
on any particular phase except to say that slave pro-
du-ction prevailed having lingered on in the east after
feudalism had obtained in western Europe. Volumes have been written on the religious and   mili
tary aspects of Mohamniedism. but of the cultural-
far less.
However, in Amer Ali's Short ili*-t..r> of the Saracens'" we Snd this; "No countr) in tbt world enjoyed a higher degree of agriculture than Spain under
the Arabs. Tiny raised agriculture to a fciencc.
Every kind of soil was appropriated to thai specie of
culture for which it was best adapted. The Spaniards are indented to the -Uraba ior the introduction
of rice, sugar-cane, the cotton tret, saffron, spinach
and that infinite variety of fine fruits which hate
now become tlmont   indigenous to the   peninsula
from which the use and culture of them have gradually been introduced into various parts ol Europe
Vast groves of palms and olivet were left by iheni
in Spam."
The luxury of their palaces rivalled those o( Rome
herself. The fine arts also flourished as is tttCSl
ed by the arabesques, paintings and mosaics finished with care and accuracy, harmonious m color and
design: the graceful columns and brass work gnl-
hngs gave evidence of a high degree of skill in the
more artistic handicrafts.
The sovereigns <>f Granada rivalled the Caliphs <>:
Cordova in their patronage of   learning ,w\d   art
Under their liberal and enlightened government*
Granada became the home and birthpia il nin-
ent scholars, distinguished poets and accomplished
soldiers. It was not polite literature alone which
was fostered by the Arab rulers oi Granada. II:-*
tory, philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, tht natural and exact sciences tn general, medicine and
music were cultivated with equal cag* rr.
The government of each academy was entrusted
to a rector who was chosen from the most enlight
ened scholars. So religions distinction was made
in these apt-omnium*., and learned Jews and
Christians were often appointed to the *»ost* of rector.    Real learning, in the estimation of the Arabs.
was of greater value than the religions Opinion
the literate." The age of ehivalrv had 00 greater
devotee than tlie Arab cavalier. Women and «lean-
lines* held high place in the estimate of thc Arab,
contrary to the generally accepted idea. The latter
probably being a compliment to the former, The
knowledge of political science was also well advanced in conformance with their methods of production. In fact we gather that the Saracenic in
vasion of Kurope, carrying with it as it did the
inowlcdge o' the arts, science and literature, was a
great factor in the recovery oi Europe from the anarchy and chaos following the downfall of Rome.
The architecture of the Mohammedans was filled
with rich and varied styles- based principally on
Byzantium and Persians models adapted lo new
ptif-potet and different ideals. The tnotqtttt,
mausoleums, minarets, knaus, hospital;, bazaars.
palaces, oratories and fountains form a varied group
of buildings. The Moorish school of Spam (Cordova and Granada) and the Kgypto Axabic school
of Cairo are the best known, but tht Syrian and
Palestinian centred in Damascus, and the Persian
centred at Bagdad and Lspchay, tlie hitler sending
offshoots as far as India and Asia Minor. The de
velopment of the dome; the stilted, horseshoe and
pointed arches, stalactite vaulting, geometrical decorations are the chief characteristics of the Moh.tin.
medan schools. The latest addition to the artistic
heritage was through the Turkish conquest of Con
stantinople in the 15th century which" led to a return in greater force of the influence of the llyzan-
It will be remembered that it was at the seige of
Constantinople that the greatest contribution to
military science was demonstrated -the first successful gunpowder.
Under handicrafts—rugs, tapestries, and cerc-
maics -were widely known products, while the far-
famed Damascus steel had a prominent place in the
romantic literature of the Victorian period, the
knowledge and technique of which were preserved
and introduced into Europe largely by the returned
< Oriental rugs are always woven ia
one pi*   ■..
sit is the home oi the ( Mental rug.   T
the world, both in past centuries and today
from Persia, and while ver) lit! , 7 . c"~"
; .i r ''   '-
ol the   rug-making  ot   tin   ,       •    .,
was introduced into Europe by tht \!
]ui\.x>^ and mosques were tdorm I •.
The)   were introduced in • I ui
in ihe latter part of the 13th Cenl
I , - I 111
ed i. rtrsaders, who also brought hack with tht
knowledge of tin- technique of m
ether Oriental luxuries, two of w  .
and ceremaics. which laid thi
Ttp ■ ■■  tin- for. rui
I of whtch   was   embroidery jrorl    being tk
han bwork large!) of lh
bines ui ihe harems    i >n some   pieces a  uj-M
Hie lime was  >{*-ent       The   .-.
portunitj  to tec in an exhibit"' n ■ ■: .
es tnd $.-----stri. s | rug which
tlie throne room of the Shah
one hundred women ten years to I
I the foundation ol thi
especially attaining r« fori    fart-
flm V all neicflnes
I the 16th   cei ui
- tut)  of the weaving* ;■•
j-vrnvd to <*e termed tin   <. •
Qei      'i; |, the art of th.* potti >       :
of which Morgan uses to •
barbarism   ts of course lbs ■
<■ the development ol thru in
•ton would  !w a   mot
- • •      .■•. • contributed their quota to tm
went of tht* art, but it remain
to preserve and disseminate the I
technical processes as tt did t\
handicrafts which ittriHved th*
While  Christian:'
became t   itultif) in
..-r. hid twaj in the bote
little knowledge, mostly of j
tl  •   it   possessed, ol   thi
Mohammedism preserved and  ipi ;
scientific knowledge oi tht  a  fl
to  which those ancient civilize!
The discovery of steam    tnd p ■
whieh, gave smha tremendoui
in western Kurope. and the con
tion o» the cheaper manufactured art
the handicraft products oi the M
tries tt t great disadvantage for
In summing up. the hittorical fur
aceni   i •   «" to have been that ol
between   the   ancient  and  modern
view of the tventt developing in
to ponder if ha bridge mtking !■
she  continue to function iu thtt  I
tin  present and   ittture aoctetn I
.HI. KAT1IER    '••^"1
Moscow.       According    to    a     ">"
Commissariat     for     Posts   •""1    ''
stieet ,m i
is to be reported recently in  '
...       .      iA/;tft German)1
hei n
posttl connection with abroad     VViti
provisional   convention   which   has
enaurea the trtntmltsion of mail* ov< ^
and Lettlaml.    A convention   had been jjj,
with England tt well as with the I'""^ii' from
'iVlegrapb Company who forwarded rcl'° '     fl,e
Pekin, Kitchtt, Nagasaki, and Vltdivo* ^ ^
conventions with Poland and Turkcj a taja-*d
be signe.!.     Tbe proposed international i ^
** i      ' I  ■ i t J * "*i       I
telegraph convention with the Baltic s ^.
i. adv.   This convention shall be   ex    ' ^   |.i.r.
elude Finland, Denmark, Sweden,
man\, and I lotltnd, • WESTERN      CLARION
Materialist Conception of History
Lesson 18—Continued
R mbUcan party of the Stat, s upholds fed-
1It,l protection} it it composed ofthe man-
interests, and <•'<* **« ***** P*r*y ,s
I oi Itndownert. They are purely econ,
, ,i,, chanse whenever their economic in-
lDgc, Thus in 1852 the northern capitalist,
MO the Republican party, passed  over to
I of the Democratic party with little ado,
,   p.-ins tlttv had mad.* to the Southern
prs gave tliemtV^cep interest in the land-
rt>   0| ,he south.    An analogous position
.* ■„ wi, when an increase on the dut-
.    .   w00l injured ihe WOOllen manufacturers
,;   them to go   pver to the   Democratic
\, the tone of the Presidential election oi
'%*' large numbers of RepuMicant   went over to
. ratlc party, because they had taken up
in the   west, and a   Republican   victory
continuance of protective duties cspec-
. ,,.-. to the farming class  and enriching
-   turing class.   The same condition exists
adajthc manufacturing class favors tar-
the farmers are free traders.
ntsottt v.bere land rents prev.nl ui Italy,
ret provinces demand   import duties on
province where manufacturing prevails
■ riffs on importt ol manufactured g Is.
condition existed in the other European
prevkwt to the war.     Ii wc follow the
,- the Free Trade party of Britain wc find
bo, legislation due to the Tory party which
..,■ the landed interest, e-g- factory, mines
gationlaws.     Tbe landed gentry domm-
, ,„, n fins tune and levied protective
grain to enable them to    receive ^higher
the tanner.    The rising    capitalists to
, incrcatM of wages necessary to buy dear-
-    A employed women and children, and extend-
;    oflabor.   When the industnal wort-
..   an to revolt thev   were told their   misery
,, oi the   Corn Laws.   To offset   this
--the Ton party1>Umed the exploitation ol
ustrial system   and lent their   support w
hours,   every year a manufacturer named
pleaded for the abolition of the Corn W
r,l   Ashley  pleaded  for  factory legislatmn.
,„ ihc industrial lords did   get    control    they
d quite a lot oi land   privileges, so ii we
:  - did gain any advantage it was only moo
the cltSS Struggle between the tWO Cltt^
whose revenue came from land or capita .
. ..,-ition of the corn duty and tall in prices ot
Istuffs wages (ell 12 per cent. While mostl
all labor laws restricting female and child laoor
were passed by Tory (rovernmentt, none ol them
,,mi child or female labor in agriculture because this cheap labor was beiielicial to the landeu
class m obtaining higher rents.
' he  NKK.nlcy tariff of America wat the retu
o'l a lb pubhean victory composed oi large cap* a -
itt> and manufacturers.    In   Belg^m, whCr6 "^
ufacturing interests dominate political power, SOC
legislation is practically unknown.    All social    eg-
islation has   been the result of the struggle ol  wo
classes of revenue, and not from any consideration
"<  the workers.    When   those interests enter OOa
■lions all social legislation is checked.
\dam Smith quotes where the landed gentry consented to the prohibition oi wind exports to thc e -
elusive advantage of the manufacturers, tn oraei
lo "Main in return the hitter's adherence to a bounty Of live shillings on the exportation ot com.
fore this the commercial classes had the advantage
"• the enforcement of the Navigation Act.
One   point we must have   impressed on    every
worker that, although social legislation    proceeas
•"■"i proprietary  classed, it can never go as tat
■" endanger the  essential rights of property.
Erection has been entirely different wcordingw
What revenue class predominated   political!1-.      ,s
social legislation is of no interest to thc worker, but
is a mere patch on the system.   Reformers are tol-
t rated and   supported   by thc ruling class so long
as the reforms advocated are not injurious to the
essential rights of property.     The   moment a re-
i<>n ui  is intoxicated with success and    attempts
any measures which threaten property, his glory
soon   fades away like Robert Owen's,  who at first
was hailed as a great benefactor by thc ruling class
o( Europe.   Thc    capitalist   social    legislation in
England has been   a series of English and    Irish
land acts restricting the power of landed property,
and to landed political power we have  seen is ex-
pressed \hv mos" of thc factory and mines and oth-
XV «• find anv advantages obtained to the workers
in all countries have been incidental in this striur-
gle between land and capital. The towns in Italy
obtained their earlier advantages because of the
struggle between the Pope and the landowners, but
in every country whether under feudalism or capitalism, when the productive workers begin to be
• wtlt ss and --how any taint of rebelling against
their conditions, wc see the owning classes closing
their ranks in alliances.
You ftnd the   church allied   with the   nobility,
dimes the capitalist   and sometimes with the
king, according to the dictates of   their economic
ests.    Lpria -ays the massacre of St.   Barth-
olomew wa< simply thc result of the Catholic bour-
-  insurrection   against   Hugenot  nobility, and
the revocation of the Edict of Nantes was likewise
instigated by the Catholic    townsmen of    France,
who, finding themselves   overwhelmed by the industrial competition of the   Protestants of Nimes
apd other flourishing cities .insisted upon the  ex-
pulsion of the Hugenots.
Thc adulteration <>f the coinage was thc trick of
the landed nobility and the laws against usury we
noticed in a previous lesson were instigated by land-
. d property burdened with debt-
We as workers need not trouble over tariffs; we
do not pay thc taxes. It just appears on the sur-
face that wc do. People used to believe the sun
rose, and our language is so impoverished that we
have not been able to express the discovery, and we
still talk of the sun rising. When the capitalists
of England were rejoicing over the fall in wages the
income tax was introduced. When the wages rose
thc income tax was abolished, and when wages fell
to the minimum of existence the income tax law
was definitely re-established. 1842-
lu Germany the introduction of thc income tax,
Mav, 1851, corresponded with the reduction ot" wages to a minimum.     The milling tax in Italy was
abolished when agricultural wages fell to the minimum.    The single taxer has pointed out that all
the   increase   Henry  Ford's    employees    received
when thev got five   dollars a day went   to pay increased rents and land values.    Capitalism exerts
such influence on finance that when war breaks out
which  makes   increased public expenditure necessary, did you  ever notice that no attempt is made
to meet this increased expenditure with increased
taxes   but that    resort  is made   to loans; by  this
means thev benefit unproductive   capital and shift
the burden on to the wage slave to work and produce; produce more is their slogan.
Loria tells us that Xecker was forced to raise a
loan on the eve of the Revolution in Italy because
the rich would not listen to taxes. Pitt was forced
to resort to a loan in the war with France, although
the expenses could have been borne by taxation,
but thc propertv owners put up an energetic opposition to increased taxes. Xot content with this
success the Bank of England favored the institution of a sinking fund which resulted in immediate-
lv increasing the debt of England. Since then the
invariable police of all Chancellors of the Exchequer, no matter what party was in power, has employed the surplus of the, Budget to the reduction of
taxes rather  than paying off the debt, because thc
debt is too dear to our  patriotic ruling class.    If**
Gladstone's provisions had been followed, the expenses of  the Crimean W'ar could have been met
out of current revenue, but his   successor had recourse    three times  to loans, not because  of unavoidable necessity, but rather a product of the self-
interest of the capitalist class, and opening wider
a field for unproductive capital.     Do you wonder
why they have shouted produce more, because all
rent, interest and profit conies from unpaid labor?
There is only one source of wealth in any state
and that is the labor of the peoples applied to natur
al resources.    Remembering this  fact thc true nature of the war  debt can be analysed.     In peace
time, thc wealthy live upon the unpaid labor of thc
workers, as wc are employed only on the condition
we can produce a profit.   When war breaks out on
a large scale millions of  workers   are taken away
from productive labor and cease to earn profits for
their master. The ruling classes must receive some
compensation for the loss of this power to exploit
labor, and this situation is met by the war loan by
means of which,   banks, insurance companies and
capitalists, lend their credit to the State- The State
undertakes to pay interest on this credit, which is
treated as if  it was real capital, repayable out of
the produce of peaceful industry.   This payment of
interest compensates the wealthy    for the loss of
profitable workers     during their    period  in    the
trenchesv     Thc war loan   substitutes the   loss of
profit when the worker is in the trenches.and enables the wealthy to retain the unearned incomes,
and the cry to produce more was based on the fact
that the returned men were expected to pay the interest and capital of this debt accumulated  in his
absence, plus the standard of profit extracted from
his  labor in peace   times.
Our'next lesson will deal with thc Revolution in
Canada. 1837—1838.
The folowing contributions were received by the
Soviet Russia Medical Relief   .Committee for   the
fund to purchase relief supplies tor thc cargo of ss.
Storaker, due to sail from Brooklyn. New York, direct   to Petrograd about the end of this month:—
Howard Richards, jr.. New York. $0; Walter J. Con-
arty.  Hammond,   Ind.. $1.00;    Julius    Kolm,    Mil
waukec. Wis., $2; Fred Holm. Milwaukee. Wis.. $3;
A young friend, through Prof. E. H..   $100; Jacob
Berger, Madison. Wis. (collection"). $$7\   Mrs. M.
Krev, New York. $1; W. Bennett. Yancouver, B. C*
(collection). $17.50; Mrs. T. M. Xaglc, Wesley ville.
PA.. $5; Ladies Auxiliary.    Winnipeg   Committee,
S1^.**; Daily Star   Friendship    Fund.    Minneapolis,
Minn..  $52.92* Buffalo Local    Committee, $101.05;
E. L. Lcapner. San Francisco, Calif., 30c; Jos. Yoltz,
Hoboken. X. 1   (collection), $68.50;    Tos.    Lencer,
Phila.. Pa.. $12—Total to Mate, $1,426.27.
The Soviet Rusia Medical Relief Committee has
placed already SI.500 order for 3.750 lbs. of dry
milk. This order can be easily increased through
further donations.
In addition to that the Committee has received a
donation of 500 lbs. of drv milk from the "Drvco"
Co.. 15 Park Row, X. Y. City.
The steamer will carry to Petrograd also over 300
cases of clothing made by sewing circles ("Satur-
daying" groups) formed by the members of Workmen's Circle Branch of San Diego, Calif.
Petrograd—the cradle of the Russian revolution—
has been during the last seven years many times
the goal of invasions from all sides. The population there had to defend their liberty against severe
attacks and to undergo the hardest sufferings.
Let thc s.s. Storaker bring over to the people of
Petrograd from here this time instead of means of
destruction plenty of relief supplies for their sick
and children.
Address all the contributions to the Soviet Russia
Medical Relief Committee, 110 Wtcs 40th St., Xew
York City. !\\GE EIGHT
The Effort Towards Convalescence
EVER since the severe collapse ol last AugUSl
'he financiers have been making fitful and
spasmodic efforts to revive thc functioning of
thc disorganized economic organs and to   turn thc
tide of the chronic malady that brings capitalism t"
death's door once in every few years.    The capitalists are buoyant with hope of a recovery of their enfeebled system    from the grip of   the dread   crisis
Some an- hopeful of a very speedy recovery, while
others, more conservative of mind, look for a more
or less protracted duration ol the hated    industrial
depression.    This stage in the life cycle of an industrial period i-- hated   hocause it is fraught    with -
many uncertainties to the individual establishment
It is the stage during which industry creeps along at
a snail's pace, being rendered   sluggish by the plethora of goods on thc   market; trade is   uniformly
dull and investors are    universally   extremely cautious-
The present aim of the masters of    industry and
finance is very modest.    It is to bring the    system
back to normal conditions, that is. to conditions as
they were in the good old days before the war. or as
near a- it i> possible to bring it to those conditions.
It is hurried on by the gradual    liquidation of concerns thai are bankrupt or near bankrupt    The liabilities of such concerns are scored    against    their
assets, paper promises to pay are consigned to the
waste basket, and a sound financial footing is usually given to such concerns by their being handed over
to large corj-orations, whose financial strength has
( nabfed them to withstand the crisis.    Liquidation
thus favor- concentration in  industry.    It puts the
control of industry more thoroughly into the hands
of the large financial corporations.   The backward
movement is also helped along by the fall in price of
commodities-    This fall is a very hopeful sign to the
capitalists that  business will s-*»n revive, and that
C '-nomic organs will begin to function    somewhat
normally.    Thc state oi prices has been a bugbear
to business ever since last August.    The high prices
have been he'd responsible for the industrial collapse
by undiscriminating middle class critics. It has been
charged that the prices of all commodities have been
so high that people have refused to buy.   The recalcitrant middle   class   protectant,   going about thc
street in his old   shoddy clothing in   preference to
buying high priced new ones, has been a prominent
figure in newspaper lore for the last twelve months.
P.ut prices have begun to drop now—prices not only
of sugar and beans, but also of labor-power.      The
fall in the price of the latter is thc hopeful sign, to
the capitalist, of thc return to the glorious normal
conditions.   The lowering of wages is the medicine
that puts new life into capitalism. One trade paj-er
remarks that there can be no permanent advance in
industrial activity until wages and labor disputes arc
settled-    So long as wages remain at a "high" level
and so long as laboring   men persist in   disturbing
the industrial machine by strikes, so long the present
uncertain conditions will continue.    For in such an
unsettled atmosphere investors will    remain timid,
securities will not have a solid foundation and the
price of bonds will not advance.    And in as much
as timidity of investors and insecurity of investments
prevent the steady flow of financial aid to industry,
thc wheels of   industry cannot turn   smoothly and
continuously; besides, strikes cat into   profits, and
that is the most disturbing factor of all.
The capitalist, accordingly, blames the stagnant
condition of industry to thc hard-hcadedncss of the
worker. For if he would only quietly consent to a
cut in wages to a level which thc capitalist considers would make business investments safe, and if he
woulr only throw all his cares on the capitalist
and rest confident that the latter would soon bring
about the rosy dawn of normal conditions, the white
streaks of which arc already seen in thc eastern sky,
industry would again be on a normal footing in a
short time- In such a temper capitalists consider a
demand for higher wages with cynical refusal. Why
should the commodity that the worker sells rise in
price when that of all other commodities is falling.
In keeping   with this   position the   owners of thc
Canadian Pulp Mills find it more profitable to close
down their plants than lo grant a 15 per cent, increase iu wages; Thcj argue thai wage redaction
is tin- order of the day. tin steel mill workers having
already consented to a 20percenl cut. and the Anicr-
i an Railway Board has decreed a reduction in the
wages of railway  employees.    The labor organi/a-
}-. in spite of their   boasted skill and jxover  in
marketing the commodity in which they deal, stand
•led m the face of the operation of a simple ccon-
v- law.
But though the capitalists clamor, lor the time be
ing. io; sharp wage reduction, such re.luctt.ms arc
not going to relieve the tie up iu the industrial sys-
lem to any considerable extent After every crisis
radical adjustments are necessary before the industrial machine will work again. The first, ami probably the most important of these ts to get nd of the
surplus goods that have accumulated on the market,
< specially as it is this surplus that originally brought
on the cnsi>. A reduction in wages will retard rather
than facilitate the consumption of these goods. It
lessens the rate at which thc working class can con-
sunn* these goods. Bui unless the worker can
work and drain wages he cannot consume at all, and
yet b\ "he act of producing g.-*»ds he   increases the
plethora of commodities on the market, thus tending
to lower their prices Still further as the -uj>*d\ iti-
creascs Under ibis circumstance the first alien-
tion of the industrial capitalist is towards lowering
the cat! of production, more especially that part of
the cost of production that is represented by wag«*s.
Put to stop all industrial operations would be to
strengthen tin- arm of the enemy by increasing the
number ami the *w*wer of the army ot unemployed.
The closing oi the factory doors would mean the
opening of the doors ot the >»Kial revolution. Caught
on the horn- of this dilemma thc capitalist chooses
to Cttf wages, ihe course that Stems the most prom-
ising and to labor through the ensuing industrial tie
pres-i..n amidst hardships and difficulties so exacting to his "patience and thrift."
Recent conflicts about wage reductions have been
to decide which is to have the larger share of the
fruits ol industry- the capitalist or the laborer. A
reduction in wages mr-aiis that thc profits to the capitalist class will remain approximately at their old
level; a non reduction that these profits would be re
dared- For lite time being thc former has won out.
Thc latter has not yet gained sufficient knowledge
to resist the encroachment! of the master class on
the fruits of his toil. He is still willing to deny his
own welfare, to submit to exploitaion. to yield to the
demands of tin- master class. Still, his yielding
brings very plainly lo light the fact that the effort
to rise to health of capitalism can only take place at
the expense of the living comforts of the    working
C. M. C.
Lettish Lo<;,i (Winnipeg), per F VV. K.. $15;
John A. -Mitchell, $2.50; Wm. Churchill. $2; <;.' M.
P.arrett, $1; M. Goudie, $10; 11. L. J., $2; Wm. J.
Kennedy, SI.
Above, total C. M. F. contributions from 28th
July to 10th August, inclusive-$3.1.50.
 ;0 j	
— of tht —
(Fifth Edition)
•?•* copy 10 cents
Per 25 copiet   $2
Post Paid
Socialist Party of
wv   um -*.Ki-»n-it forty <>- • •*--*,). .-, .
mmtm u>. ami »Upjx»rt Of   ih«» -.-1*      , - ,, ,
tor* ot th* tttm]
■ '•) *'CU it
«tf«l •fa
il   l»i«* t r vol-it ><.•••--r)-   tn-rfcis,.-- r'ttft
l*b»r, -.j.piir.i la tt-itur»i   rmmaittoaa,   nrtuu.
*--*J«*v      Th* pro**>ni mmm******t*k ,   ■-.       .' Ii4.^     *"
♦ •|-lUll«t -MTMIStiS ot Mat *■•<■•-   I Of pi .   pj**
•. tatty, an <**-- *m**mmx\M tt i**-.- m       •   . .       '
ut ->**•»     ft* *a-p#Mftrt  i.   i / ti,
-». rkrf ii, »l»v«. '
Hi* !»•*•-- •* ftat **a***ta**-lla* tat*** r
of i*« rotti* o( *p***aa*ama**** *i\ %,„
will bo -I***! t-. j r«tf. t »r<i'ilef «•-'.
I* o mt+r>* of "***-*.lo» [ir-.4ueO«*a a
■•M«'--r*  ot juiwr
bt  •*•*"-***■ i*t   »■"•*«•**> -*!*■-» •■■ ,. M __
• mpU'.riR  -rtf-Ntm «-f py****t*M, ajmi  to t   g ■   j*uti M ntf
ir.rr-*-ft*>I**g m-*****-**-* ot i-*-i»**r*f •■ t   .>*-■ .*»•
Tho ti-i«*c<*'«" ot t?s* WSrtSSe •*•** Oat      Mil   t ■„•
ti<« ff*c-ra NMrtttlSM «-«->li''l«t'.-*-' !<>*.- '. ,
-*-«,«•> ft-f«*-Mtt, uMar -****-'<-*! **•:-■ «•«; lo Iftl    .    it tk* {*<*(
Ct-f   -,-,«!•.-:■ ut»fl.   !■• «-!rt-»k---4.    To * | **M*iaS>
a la*  |J»»    t*NM**p-fM"MSi*M  of   rAi.-*{» 1*1 - ..,
**jtm*at .-f tvesltt* BfstSMttN ****** *■**■'■■ m **-..
Btolc ton m
■■-:.,■!<■»*■.'■■: f t  : I . *   '   ttmramt batmatm tmtam>
ttaltati  or.t  5.' • Wttfmmt rvr--**»ii*r.:>   '- ■    I . ' mi
*n*Xt*t*fit   f<-r  pottUSSl  MBtSSMSI »  I I     **t
%**m***0***% mm c»n ■pai at ******amtt it erc*u-*-M 'ot*t
lh-» t-*r.n«-r ot lh# **'-«***• l;»t  1 »f •     ' -    -mfc U*
n-aj*-**i]l »\f ****0**n*-**rtsa Sts ****tUi*J*l .   mart ' - tka ***>
-w.«* nt m«-tttt't  u^ MMl     *m*tma*******t  '   • *       "•■'   V**-
■mws* '•' U ■ w*fSSj*e r!***. mm t     *»•
I— T*s» trmr&totvmiiinn.  *•  • ■ .,-.,,•,
«>f   r>;-il*>:M   ptrvfort* ■   -•     - -*•   cr
woo.ih prwHetton (aSteml tarn* .-:■*, tattmf.
iiirtx. mill*, trnttrmmmt   tmt m :*
tnoAti* ot ptrmtuclUrti.
I    ttat ****mm\**000t* SSt ********}    l       '   ■'->":
hy O--* *'-*-r-ktt-.4i <•'.*•»
j    Tier p***0a*m\\****amU ** *****     '' x! "" '      '
pratactlM f *r •"•* hmusS   t\       I - '■ *
Analysed and   eootrasted irom tha M»">-»
and Darwinian t»oi.it- oi view, '
Mcmtgotnerv Brown, DJ) Thewni i
oi the Bpiscooal Church, snr.tr, aw*
ism in reti-non and capiulism in ; '  \
CommcnU: '<>ne of themosi • *»
And annihilating books 1 btvt '     '
win shake the ontJittry.*    I call it « y«s*
';b, testtsastoumhtn;    Banish i :- ,
the sky and capitalism irom th<
I one like a meteor    tCTOSI I dtrk sky *»& J
lublmrtiuht."   "Biahop Browrlit ]    -:'^
nation oi Thomas   Paine tnd hit      « !; '
modern Age ol Rtaton.M   "Il will do a "tea
derful work in this the -jreatett ensu in
t(.ry."   -A remarkable book by i n -nartaw
man oi intense interest to tu. .
Publi.hed in October, 1920 r ih tW
tand now itady, 23$ pages, 25 ceni y >
let $1; postpaid (Canada ; copies f« i
Send M O. (United States rtte).
The Bradford-Brown Bdncationtl c . ^
Publishers, 102 South   Union   Street, Gals*.
Ohio <t from
401 Pender Street E.. Vancouver, tt •*
Prefect by tht tuthor.
132 PAGES.
Ptr Copy, 25 Centi.
Ten copiet np, 20 cents each
Pott Paid.


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