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Western Clarion Jan 2, 1922

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 ESTERN CLARION
A Journal of
(HJRMWT
KVSMtl
%       Official Organ of
THE SOCIALIST PARTY OF CANADA
PHILOtOPHT
858.
Twice a Month
VANCOUVER, B. C, JANUARY 2, 1922.
FIVE CENTS
War in the Pacific—What For?
i''
i
pitta.
BT ROBERT EIRE.
(Part 1 appeared in "Clarion" Nov. 16.)
0 doubt some reader will be influenced by the
press accounts of progress made at Washington towards s favorable basis for tbe redne-
i a of armament.
Take for example, France, the most brazenly imperialist country in Europe today and watch the
moves made by the Government and the declarations
made by its representatives at Washington while
discussing reduction of armament.
Replying to Secretary Hughes' outline of a basis
for naval reduction, Briand had this to say:—
"You have shown ue the way; you have shown* us that
It is no longer a question of groping In the dark for a way
He may conclude thia to be a sincere attempt on   out of *• ******V» **- have struck out boldly the oppor-
llio part of the ruling clasa to give tbe world a respite from war.
Alas, such is not the esse, but is instead the out-
rard show to appease the pacifists upon whose
ihoulders full most hesvily the burden of taxes for
the upkeep of the Stste forces.
These tsxes roust bc paid by bourgeois society
[for industrial expansion.
In support of this, let me rite for a moment a
similar condition which developed in 1910. when tbe
war clouds were gathering over the Atlantic, and
thc race for naval construction became most frenzied.
At that time Great Britain decided to lay down
two keels for each one laid down in Germany.
~ l^eenm^v^Srafter1 the "great "Peace'*
conference at the Hague in 190t*. when the Agenda
on armaments was precisely the same as that drawn
np at Washington, November 1921.
In an "open letter/' addressed to an F.nglisb
contemporary, Prof. Hana Delbrurk of Oermany had
this to aay concerning the cause of armament :—
"t\tl\ of alarm concerning 0*e new arisen maritime
po**r Ens-land Baa thereupon enormously streagthened her
owa arrnrunants. snd from sll side* are now heard com-
painis of the tntolc-rafti-t* burdens which are laid upon ttu-
jwoples.
H taa. treat aaaanaratlou to attribute these armaments
tunity for us by setting the example.   I aay, Mr. Secretary,
that we are back of you."
ilow far the French overnment was willing to go,
in support of Hughes' basis of reduction ia shown in
the press despatch here quoted from the daily press
December 7th, but a few days previous to Briand's
reply :—
"The Chamber of Deputies (Paris) yesterday adopted
provisionally the naval budget of 044,000,000 francs which
covers the commencement of, and progress on three light
cruiser*, six torpedo boat destroyers, twelve torpedo boats,
twelve submarines and on* airplane carrier in addition
to three cruisers and twenty-four submarines."
Tbis weighty contribution to the future peace of
the world will be further increased if thc following
report from Waahiuffton. DaeaBsber 16th, is comet:
"The British delegation learned that the French plan
pro-rid*** tor ten 35,000-toa super-dreadnoughts in the ten
years subsequeat to 1925.
These vessels of a type similar to tbe American battle-
•hip Maryland, would gire France a capital ship tonnage
ot 160,000, aa against 315.000 for Japan and a preponder-
aac* of new "post Jutland" type of craft over all nations."
While i'..e bands ot America, Britain aud Prance
are raised high in amazement at the perfidy of
France, tbe sheet is still wet where the signatures of
Balfour, Hughe? and Kato are appended to a naval
agreement between them to discard the oldest and
im-st obsolete craft and retain those which arc most
•imply and solely to tbe <*rman-Eugll*b opposition; there   fftjvicnt 0f pre-war days and those that embody the
nit experiences of thc war.
Ship? like tbe Colorado, the Hood, and the Mutsu,
whose displacement is greater than any other fighting ships afloat or is intended by the naval programme of other nations; ships whose gun batteries
are the highest calibre, and whose speed ia that of
express trains.
Fleets made up of craft like these and of ves-
are many other States aad parts of tbe world In whieh obtrusive rivalries call forth armament-., hut assuredly oae
of the moat important elements of all Is the tension mhicta
I have lust described between Germany and England
"This tension cannot be got rid of Tbe flerraana
wqt insist for Bit time neon the pwiaeaaloa of a timet
"bleb eessfeta tin respect of even England; and we shall
th* more certainly do thto since our transoceanic trade
snd msesaiitlls Iteat are rapidly improving and •xtsnd-
i-»q w..._ (f tmphaals mine.)
That is a frank admission thst srmaraent is not   tt]* of immediate pre-war days can afford to be
the cause of war but instesd, ia simplv the effect of   teas, numerically, than was the case in former days.
the wsy in whieh trade is carried on. They displace, too, a considerable amount of ma*
It is rermhing compared with the nauseating   power, as every known device for consemng this is
panegyric, appearing in the press today. embodied m them. ^
Moreover, the best of living writers having claims So governments may be able to show jhej*£
npon the title of thinker, will admit that the war payer, that they have consid^<^ »<"<**
of 191448 waa the outcome of trade rivalry: tbe reducing active workers aboard these ships to the
very term, of BetUement made that clear. naval reserves, thus MWP by reduc-
A lenient whieh made the Hall of Mirrors rt    ing pay (render, let . have a dnnkl).
Veraamea look like a acene from Ali Baba. Naval engagements in the near future will be of
■"Va-hats Instead of settling the elalros ot oppressed sm,h a cimraeter that an enUre fleet will be wiped
Peoples they each submitted programs of territorial aa- ^ ^ a few hours. A big reserve then is newssary
*»i*dltemsn-t aad seooomlc advantages, while at the same ^^ ^ coum 0* construction, and in
thus thsy (tha Allied ****^*^^'^^ZZ   ease of such a disaster.
rJSS* W?VT °f L^JuZa? FronTall of the foregoing one may deduce the
tbo .iarsgaia wealth of the enemy counts * ram J. ^ ^ ^ ^^ in
Diaamament conferences have Mowed eBoh   f. t tha * ^   ^ ^
other In a steady stream since ^ ^"^ «™ tmdisturbed by thoughts of war,-no more so
of Russia propoaed that the nations of th . erorw   pea ^ ^
***M ooooo to develop their armies and navies bc-   than Far        ^ ^ _
yond their (then) ^**™«\Vpteti,* con!er.        What bourgeois aociety has failed to take cog-
And each In turn, like W „*•"."£   nizance of j. that capitalism is ortranised for war
***** has failed miaerably to establish a basis upon   um e ^ ^
*h\o\*t they can all agres.
Under capitalism industrial activity can only
proceed in spasms; yet ao prolific ia machine production, the output of labor can Only be consumed
in war.
On the other hand, so great ia the cost of war, the
levies made on industry, industrial stagnation soon
follows and the workers for the major part of peace
time are casually employed. It ia then that com- /
petition becomes keener between the sellers* and
whenever trade can be carried ort friction is gener-*
ated.
So back we come again to the only potential market for the surplus of sellers and sellers of surplus.
"Writing in the November issue of "Current History"* (New York) Stephen Bonsai haa thiB to say
about this market:—
"When I say tbat China was our great market I merely
state what most people will admit; but when I add that
China, far away and disturbed, today the Cinderella el
world politics is a market of almost limitless possibilities
I shall be thought to indulge In a figure of speech or st beat
to be merely expressing a pious wish. Nevertheless, tt Is
a fact that cannot be successfully controverted,
"For proof of my assertion let us look at the oarefnuy
compiled figures of our export trad* tor the nm six months
ot the earrsnt JT9BC..as ^turitf-lhse*>t the t-rtttrtrf-tacV   ~
statisticians of the department of Commsrea.
"These figure* reveal that Russia is off the commercial
map aad that our German trade, naturally enough, hi
greatly reduced.
In fact, in every column radical reduction* are repealed, not merely tram the figures 0 boom yearn, but also by
comparison wtth what were our exports hi normal times.
It is only when we come to China, In plat famine stricken
and with her trade and transportation disturbed aad even
crippled by unfavorable internal and external problems,
that anything like a basis for optimism is noticeable.
"Now, these figure* show that, in spite of all these unfavorable conditions and heavy handicap* that await adjustment at the Pacific conference, our exports to China
for the first six months of 1931 have increased 11 per cant!
"This tact la intrinsically important, but tt also possesses a psychological value of great importance, for it give,
the first indication of a favorable change tn the commercial chart of our world trade, upon tha maintenance and
growth ot which depends, among other things- tho high
living standard (!) of American labor.   ... ..
"Here plainly, then* across tha Pacific, with ita hundreds of millions to be clothed and ted, ia the cure for
present unemployment and an available and moat oppor*
tune substitute, for European markets, which will be disturbed and may prove unprofitable for years, long lean
year* to come.H
Here, too, are attracted the seller, from other
nations; sellers whose profits from industry are also
affected by conditions in Europe, and with interests
in China which cannot fuse.
For instance, the United States will trade machinery with China and receive in exchange raw silk
snd silk substitutes. These materials will be transformed in American factories, and the products will
place still further in the background of a world market the textiles of Great Britain.
The machine in China as elsewhere in the world
will supersede handicraft prodnetion and reduce the
value of output as well as increase quantity. Hence,
given unretarded, development nnder the tuition of
America, China will supply the world with silk to
the same degree at least, that Britain supplied it,
formerly, with linen and cotton goods.
But the establishment of the machine means also
the development of power. And this development
eslla for the release of capital for exploitive purposes, in extracting *rom nature coal for fuel, which
has scarcely been touched in China Again comes a
(Continued on page 5)
■ PAGE TWO
VVE STERN     CLARION
The Collapse of the South Wales
Coal Trade
(Continued from last edition)
BY J. T. WALTON NEWBOLD
~^so wonder Sir Charles Green way, Chairman of
the Anglo-Persian Oil Co., Ltd.. whose 52 oil tanks
at Skewen are as obvious as a blow between the eyes
to the South Wales miner, ean say -—
"In the shipping industry it is already clear
tbat the oil-driven vessel is rapidly forcing the
coal-burning one from tbe seas." (Compendium,
June, 1921.1
That spells FINIS to the bunker trade of South
Wales.   It also marks the beginning—or the middle
—of the end of the notion that membership of the
South Wales Miners' Federation—or the M.F.G.B.—
with complete organisation at the point of production, is in any conceivable way adequate to the needs
of the present and the future.
The Owners Face the Future
The coal-owrners of South Wales have realised,
for some considerable time, that the era of inordinate
prosperity which they have experienced and which
has raised them to such giddy eminence of wealth
and power waa not destined to continue indefinitely.
They have been made aware of the progress of thia
displeasing revolution brought about by the adop*-
tion of oil fuel for merchant and warships. Changes
of this sort are always sensed in advance by those
who are in daily touch with the rise and fall of
prices, either of commodities or of stocks as quoted
on the many markets of capitalism. The owners
have known that the time was rapidly approaching
when they would require to find other markets for
their coal, or other enterprises in which to invest
their capital, if they were to continue to receive pro-
tits thereon at an equivalent rate of intereat to those
they had been receiving in the past.
Such knowledge has, undoubtedly, acted as an
added incentive to their endeavours more thoroughly
and more scientifically to organise, not merely the
productive side of their business, but also thc several stages of marketing the product and of shsring
amongst these agencies the profits in the trade iu
such a way aa to make the various branches of thc
coal trade one continuous system of collecting tribute.
During the last ten years there has gone, steadily
forward in South Wales a process of absorption of
independent coal producing companies by their more
powerful competitors, of amalgamationa of great
colliery undertakings, of inter-ehange of shareholdings or of directors, which has resulted in the grouping of the chief firms in the industry and the area
around such giants as:— ' ■„
The Consolidated Cambrian, Ltd.
The Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Co. Ltd.
The Ebbw Vale Steel, Iron and Coal Co., Ltd.
The Tredegar Iron and Coal Co., Ltd.
Cory Brothers, Ltd.
Baldwins, "Ltd.
At the head of the group of interests arranged
about the Consolidated Cambrian, Ltd., and which
now includes the huge business of Guest, Keen and
Nettlefolds,  are four leading personalities—Lady
Rhondda, Seymour Berry, D. B. Llewellyn, and Sir
Archibald Mitchelson.   There are about twenty-aix
colliery companies in which one or more of theae individuals is a director, whilst the manner and varying intensity and complexity of their financial relations'is too bewildering in their thoroughness to
touch npon here.   There is no man in British capitalism who is a director of more companies than Sey.
mour Berry.  He is a veritable Stinnes.  The normal
production of hie collieries is well over 12,000,000
tone a year. .
Around the mighty Powell-Duffryn, of Bargoed
and Aberauman, joined to it either by extensive
shareholdings of themselves or their chief directors,
are the Ocean Coal Co., Ltd.. tbe Lewis Meithyr
Consolidated Collieries, Ltd.. and tbe Khyiniiey Iron
Co.. Ltd.. whilst it has been rumoured that the oeto-
pus of the Bhonddaand Risee, the United National
Collieries, Ltd.. is being absorbed by "P.O." I). It.
Llewellyn and directors of Baldwins. Ltd., and the
Cardiff Collieries Ltd.. are also entrenched in the
share list.
The Ebbw Vale Sled. Iron ami Coal Co., Ltd..
whieh has affiliation with the Consolidated Cambrian,
tltroutrb joint holdings of th,- Beynone, and of the
latter in the Fernhill Collieries, Ltd.. baa practically
monopolised the Western Valleys, ami duff itself
well into the Eastern Valleys also.
The Tredegar Iron and Coal Co. Ltd., and its
subsidiaries, have fourteen wpiare miles of -laud,
about half a dozen up-to-date collieries of the largest
size, and the practical monopoly of the Sirhowy
Valley. They have, also, a link through Colonel
Wyllie, with the United National Collieries. Ltd.
Con* Brothers. Ltd.. are established, directly* or
indirectly, in the Aberdare. ithomlda. Ogmore and
Neath Vallej*.
Baldwins. Ltd.. though chiefly in steel, have bv
terests in some half dozen collieries in tbe  Avon
Valley and in South and West Glamorgan.
"A Purely Academic Discussion"
In coming together in theae great amalgamations
and alliances, the coal-owners have n<.*t only brought
competition within manageable proportion*, but
they have also gained control over reserve funds and
current revenue accounts adequate to finance big extensions, economies and improvement*. They have
made it good business to invest heavily in constant
eapital by way of larirer pits, conveyor installations,
coke oveus, tiy-pro-liict plants, electric generating
stations, and engineering shops. They have been
able to effect the many economies only practicable
in large scale production and, wilh added resources,
to develop such aide lines as patent foci ninnnfn- tore
and to cultivate new markets.
Gradually, during the last thirty years, the coal
owners of South Wales have trenched upon the interests of the railway companies and broken down
the power of the landlords, making themselves, |o a
great extent, masters of the former, and, frequently,
buying out the latter. Today, iu ownership as well
as in function, the railways of South Wales have be-
come elongated colliery sidings consenting the pithead with another part of the owner's property, the
docks and the ships in which the eoal is carried away
to home and foreign ports of*discharge.
At every staj?e of prodnetion and delivery tbe
coal passes, as it were, along a continuous band, an
endless chain of agendas, each of which takes a
modicum of anrplua-value and transfers it to the
common fund, the ultimate and aggregate profit of
the syndicate with many tentacles.
Besides tbose who actually handle tbe eoal are
others who, perhaps never seeing it. yet pass it by
repeated book-entries and transfers from colliery
company to broker, from broker to merchant or ex*
porter, and from exporter to foreign buyer.
Thc colliery proprietors of South Wales have so
utilised their enormous profits and the ease with
which they have trot bonk credits or investment
capital through A. Mitchelson and Co., us to establish
themselves along this chain also as brokera, merchants', exporters snd foreign buying agencies. They
have bought up shipping companies and repair
yards in which to refit their vessels. Furthermore,
they have become their own underwriters and insurance brokera, and, with the totality of these scp-
srate parte of the trading profit, have set up their
Atlantic and Status Investment Trusts and gone into
Amalgamated Industrials, Amalgamated Cotton,
Jute Industries, Associated Furnishers, manure man-
ufaeture. newspaper am) publishing business, *t\\.m*
operation, and a hundred and one other aeUritia
characteristic of finance capitalism.
The end of the steam eoal "boom." a-,,j th, <•„•,,.
nieneeineiit of the slump in tin- export trade. (b*h
the coal owner* of South Wales able either
iii    to secure almost the entirety of neb profiti
at there may be left m the coal tra I    or
ir    to buy and sell coal, at bom. ,,r on -),.. < 0R.
tuient, or in South America, regardli»-. of ■• |..-j;.
er it is raised in South Wale* or in West fain
or the Snar or Ihe Pas de Calais <.r eavwaenj
c!«e on the planet, or
iiiii    to  withdraw   their  capital   from  coUierid
•    and the eoal trade, and to reinvest i! anywhere
else in the capitalist system.
Moreover, they have contrived a Byphon-systeaef
commercial and finaneial connections of aueh a -bar
aeter that,  within the company and eommofl law.
they can. if they no desire, run the -.--• j- entirely
out of tbe eoal production side of their business ist*
broking, shipping, importing, carriage, insurance,
ami what they choose.
No wonder that the miners are k< intr to be a!
lowed to etamiiie the book* of the eOfflpanics under
the*** conditions, ami with every snperfb appear-
aaee *»f equity, have ibeir wag*** rBgttlsted io a
wilh the HiB and fall of the earnings ot th** colliery
companies! It would Been tbat. after all, the a!u<iy
of the finaneial .ugnm-miion of th- South Wales eat]
trade may result in something BBorj informative aad
more urgent than what a bright, young ofieal of
the M.K.G.B.anlescribed as "a purely attdCBsfc di*-
eussmii"!
The Export Trade.
During the last twenty year-* the eeal^WBBfSaf
South Wales have •sJahtislMd a valuable eoancefiea
not only with Frame and Mediterranean ports, bai
also with consumer* in Spain. Portugal, sod slOBg
the sea-board ami the settled *-art** of Brasu, I re-
u'uay and Argentina. The BeUvitiea of I-"-*-! 8t
Deride nml his brother. Sir Oeren Philippe, in Oe-
velopiiik' the railway facilities and abippng*bttttflesi
of South America ami the harmonious r latiottl thef
seem to hav,. maintained with the colliery prepn-
etors, who*-* business they have not invaded, except
for a few yean and on a small scale, bave resulted
in tbe opening up of Important Biarketa for hunker
ami railway fuel from South Wales These OUtletl
ars, however, threatened today with aeriottS com-
petition from the United States, whose capitalista
have very considerably increased tin ir ittterestl i"
South American concern* as a result of the Orel
War, ami tbe transfer of Britiah foreign investment"
10 American purchaser**. Capital in railways BBC
other public utilities tends to give prefer."*" to eOS
from its own country of origin.
Again, sim-e the Entente Cordiale of 1904, Uw
considerable eoal trade which for many yeBrt BM
existed between South Wnles and Prance baa, BOW
recently, assumed greater and greater proportlO
The connection established from Paris 1ms become,
with the expansion of South  Wales capitalism. a
connection to Paris.  The undertakings found ed*?
the Guereta and the Pliesona have become auxilier
of the Cousodidnlcd Cumbrian and.its eubsidane*
Aceording to a recent authority: .
'"France is short of coal.   She is still shorter o,
•coal that makes good coke; and the foiW
eoal that lies nearest to ber eastern meta    ■
gieal districts -that of the Snar basin   \* not
good coking coal either."
Now,
"Whether coke moves to ore or ore to c0*e'
any iron industry, is a matter of relative < < ■•
In the conditions existing an between nor
(Continued on page 8) WESTERN    CLARION
Dialectics
PAGE THR"ftB
By P. J. McNey
At the present time when the revolutionary move-
meat thc world over ia iy b somewhat chaotic con-
(lll!0I), when the prineiplea, policy, und tactics, of
,j] Socialist parties, are being called in question, it
mieb1 not be out of the way to say a few words concerning dialectics, thc method of reasoning so much
talked of by Socialists, nnd apparently so little understood.
Some of the more   enthusiastic    revolutionists
-roald linve us believe that the progress of social
evolution hi *o swift, that it is useless for a nodal'
\s\ psrty to commence to write out a *0)ltform, or
deelarstiou of principles, as it i* sure to be obsolete
before it is finished. They also bold tha*. all things
in the universe are so closely connected, and interrelated, that it is useless to try to define, or classify.
anything. If tbis is a correct interpretation of dia
leeties, and dialectic* is a correct method ->f reason
in;. W« may as well all sit down and do nothing, ;*-.
sceording to this nothing can be done.
However, it is well to remember that although
even thing is changing, and that nothing within the
Bahrerse, that ia. no part of thc universe, endures
forever, in the same form, nevertheless, there are
none things that endure for a considerable length of
time, and in seme ease* change very slowly. aOCial
-jstcms, espeeially, endure for hundreds or thou
lands af years. Therefore, it is quite poanble for us,
if we i.urry a little, to analyse * system of society be-
tore it Ret* pa*t us. and to formulate a few general
prineiplea that wilt be applicable as long as the system exists.   Thc conflict of classes, for instance.
lt i« true that all things in the universe ar-- eon-
netted, and related, as parts of one whole, bnt that
is no reason why we should not define and classify
them. It U just ss important from a dialectical
standpoint to reeognixc the difference, as tbe Bke-
BBIB, between things. It is by observation, experiment, nnd comparison, that we arrive at all our
knowledge. And it is only by comparison of things,
one with another, that wc get to know their relative
quantity, quality, or attribute*,-end if there was no
differ, nee, there could be no comparison We can-
aot aay that a thing is large unless we have compared it with something of a similar character, that
ii smaller. Note, tbat there must be both a difference, and a resemblance, between things, before they
fan bc compared. Now it would be nonsense to go
to all tbis trouble of analyzing, and comparing things
and ideas, unless we make Rome record of the differ-
«ce, and resemblance we find between them. That
••*. we must give them names to distinguish them
from each other, and explain what the names mean.
we must also divide them into groups, varieties, and
■tpecli-a, etc., according to greater or leas resem-
blanee, in order tbat we mny better understand
Inem. Thus we see that it is necessarj to define, and
elasslfy, both things, aud ideas. But as everything
** in motion, and the character., and relative poat-
tion, of things, are continually changing, these de-
finWona, and classifications, must of necessity, be
more or less temporary, and general And when I
»*»>• temporary, I do not mean that they stand good
°nly for a week or two, I mean that they do not
s,«»<! good for all time.
flic dialectical method of reasoning starts from
•■•'' proposition that there is nothing constant, except
the law of change. That there is no thing in itself.
but everything ia a part of something else, and all
thinR« are parts of the universe. That, a thing is,
vv,,,,t >t is. only at a certain time, in a certain pUe«j»
to<tor certain conditious, and in ita'relation with
oth<$r things. This appliea to ideas (the mental re-
•^xes of things' theories, customs, ami morals, etc*
,,H well aa material objects. Such terme as rightl
•nd wrong, good and bad, virtue and vice truth and
nr»*- Urge and amall, are merely relative terms,
tho meaning of which vary in accordance with
ch»o*e of time,'circumstances, or point of view. It
Wo^ he ridiculous to apply any of these terms to
the universe as a whole, which is all existence, because th« universe contains all there is of everything,
end is therefore absolute, and not comparable to
anything. On the other hand, everything that exists
within the universe, that is, all parts of the universe,
are relative, and Sn B continual condition of change.
Everything that has a beginning must ako have an
end. Birth, growth, decay, and death, are merely
changing forms of matter within the universe. When
we apeak of ascertain thing, an act, or object, being
good, \\o mean that it serves our purpose for the
time being letter than aomethittg else would do, that
it is more in harmony with our wishes, and interests, than something else would be. At another
time, in | different place, or under different circumstances, the same act or object may be considered
bad, and so forth
The dialectic method is not by any means new,
although il is the highest form of reasoning. Fred-
••rick Bngels, 'els us that "The old Greek philosophers \\er». all horn natural dialecticians, and Aristotle, the most encyclopaedic* intellect of them, had
already analysed tbe most essential form of dialectic
thought."' However, the Greek philosophers could
nol develop the dialectical method of reasoning to
ita highest form owing to the fact tbat they did not
Have at their disposal the necessary knowledge of
scientific and historical facta, lt remained for the^
German philosopher Hegel to apply the dialectic
method to history. Again to quote Engels: "Hegel
had freed history from metaphysics—he had made it
dialectic; bnt bis conception of history was essentially idealistic. But now idealism was driven from
ita last refuge, the philosophy of history; now a materialistic treatment of history was propounded, and
a method found of explaining man's 'knowing' by
bis 'being' instead of, :<s heretofore, bis 'being' by
hts 'knowing.
It was Mar\ and Bngels that made this improvement on the Hegelian system, and placed the dialectical method of reasoning on a materialistic basis.
1'ut ind. pendent of Marx and Engels a German
tamer. Joseph Dietzgen, worked the dialectic method out for himself, and brought it to its highest
form, in bis '".ok entitled. "Tbe Positive Outcome of
Philosophy.'1 Also, from time to time, some of the
bourgeois scientists have applied-certain phases of
the dialectic method- to certain branches of modern
u< i< nee, but none of them have applied it in its en-*
tircty to history, or to human society as a whole.
For instance, Engels tela us that, "Nature is the
proof of dialectics, and it must bc said for modern
science that il has furnished this proof with veay rich
inateriala increasing daily, and thus has shown that,
in the last peeort, nature works dialectically and not
metaphysically; tbat she docs not move in the eternal
oneness ot*B perpetually recurring circle, but* goes
through a real niatorical evolution. In this connection Darwin mua! be named before all others. He
dealt the metaphysical conception of nature the
heaviest blow by bis proof that all organic beings,
plants, animals, and man himself, arc the products
0( ., process of evolution going on through millions
of years."
But Darwin onlv applied certain forms of the
dialectic method, to one particular branch of science,
biologg. However, the point is, tbat tbe dialectical
process going on in nature is so obvious, that some
scientists, and philosophers, are forced to notice it,
and record it to some extent, even against their will.
And not only scientists, and philosophers, but some
Of the poets, have occasionally stumbled on to some
phase of the dialectic without knowing what they
had stumbled unto, or even knowing that they had
discovered anything in particular. It is the peculiar
faculty of a poet, very often, to be able to say as
much "in a few lines of a poem as would cause a
scientist or 8 philosopher, to write a book, for the*
simple reason that a poet is never called upon to
proVfl anything be may say in a poem. He is writing
poetry and if he sees fit to introduce a little phil
osophy at times, that is his privilege. If the idea
comes into his head he writes it down, even if he
does contradict himself in the next verse, and we
may take it or leave it. Thus, Shakespeare stumbles
unto one phase of the dialectic method in the following lines:
"O, mlckle is the powerful grace that lie*
In herbs, plants, stones, and their true qualities;
For nought so vile that on the earth doth live,
Cut to the earth some special good doth give;
Nor aught so good, but, strained from that fair use,
Revolts from true birth, stumbling on abuse.
Virtue itself turns vice, being misapplied,       *   *
And vice sometimes* by action dignified."
Compare these lines from Shakespeare with a
passage from Dietzgen. "No absolute morality, no
duty, no categorical imperative, no idea of the good,
• an teach man what is good, bad, right, or wrong.
That is good which coresponds to our needs, that is
bad which is contrary to them. But is there anything which is absolutely good! Everything and
nothing. Jt is not the straight timber which is good,
nor the crooked. Neither is good, or either is good,
according to whether I need it or not. And since we
need all things, we can see some good in all of them.
We are not limited to any#one thing. We are unlimited, universal, and need everything. Our interests are therefore innumerable, inexpressible
great, and therefore every law is adequate, because
it always considers only some special welfare*, some
special interest."
We see in the above quotations that Shakespeare
anticipated Dietzgen, at least to some extent, in this
one particular phase of dialectics. That is, in* the
form dealing with man's relation to, or his use of,
the material objects he finds himself surrounded
with. Shekespeare noticed that a thing which at one
time is a nuisance, or a menace, and therefore bad,
may, with a change of time, place, or circumstance.*,
become useful, or beneficial, and therefore good.
That the most deadly poison, is, not only useful for
many other purposes, but may, under certain circumstances, if properly used for medical purposes,
heal wounds, relieve pain, and actually help to pro-
"png life. Reasoning from this premise, he arrived
at the conclusion, that the human conduct, or qualities, generally defined, and classified, under the
terms virtue, and vice, were also relative, and variable, when considered in connection with ji change
of time, place, circumstances, or personal opinion,
etc.
(To bc continued.)
■i%   i
TERMS FOR THE STARVING
Millions may die in Russia so far as the "International Famine Relief Commission," which sat last
week in Brussels, is concerned. While sympathizing with the human efforts to relieve the famine, the
Commission decided that no credits could be granted. The sins of the old Tsar's government have
been visited upon the Russian babies. The "existing debts and other obligations," say the Govern-
menta, "must be first recognized by Soviet Russia.
"v\*/thout such recognition, it is declared, there could
be no security against the next Russian Government
repudiating the present Russian Government's debts,
or against any other European Government repudiating its war debt to 'ourselves. There seems now
to ,be nothing left for decent people throughout
Western Europe to do but to attempt, in whatever
piecemeal fashion they privately can, the discbarge
of the elementary duty which their Governments
have repudiated as completely as Soviet Russia has
repudiated Imperial Russia's foreign debts.—"Manchester Guardian."
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WBST1IN     CLARION
Western Clarion
A 9i
*i*aa*mAt*\ twits a aaaU by tka SatJalist Party **f
Canada, P. O. Box 710, Vancouver, B. C.
at Q. P. O. aa a
Editor
Ewan MacLeod
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VANCOUVER, a C, JANUARY 2, 1922.
ENTER—THE WORKERS' PARTY
NEW working class parties are interesting to
us, not when the self appointed prophets,
well anointed with their own past errors and
self-sufficient in their shallow conceit are busily engaged in a sort of literary shadow-boxing with an
imaginary snd worthless enemy, but when they lsy
down to the scrutiny of our wondering gate the
actual basis of their performances, done or to be
done. The business of pining to be "taken on" by
somebody is regularly accompanied by a process of
beating the air in an effort to attract attention, with
the well rehearsed tricks practised to seduce the interest of the inexperienced, by thc common tout at
a penny fsir.
"The bearings of this observation lies in the
application on it." (Dickens)
Thus in the past year we hsd a storm-in-s-tea-cup
sort of occurrence in eastern Canada. Our friends
the Communists discovered us to bc worthless and of
no earthly use to the working class, and they decided, after sundry individual issues of several papers, (vol. 1. No. 1. being then the hall mark of up-to-
date opinion) that the time for action was here, so
they held a convention. Nothing that existed in the
way of a working class political party was sny good,
and therefore a smart stepping and well ordered
party was on thc agenda for immediate formation.
What happened t We 11 judge by results—it a an
unkind way to judge, sure enough—and aay: Nothing. In saying this we're not forgetting the poor
devil who sat up nights and pored over countless
clauses of a Constitution thst was, for the new party
to have proven an invincible rock npon which to
build. Genius unrewarded. Toilsome nights over a
scrap of paper 1
Aa for us—we had our time of chastisement. We
couldn't quite gather the drift of the matter in looking for the logic in it, but we gathered the idea that
all that was necessary to the success of the Communists was the death of the S. P. of C. Bnt somehow or other we kept on breathing, even though
every breath drawn waa to have been onr last, and
we're still alive to bear the hymn of hate or the song
of praise, and to criticise the music.
It having been found to be a grievous error that
a corner in wisdom could be maintained intact, our.
friends discovered themselves to be unpopular. A
new organisation and a popular one* became, in
course of time, the order on the dispatch sheet. Some
tbingmust be done. What must be donef Why I
Hold a convention!  Of course.
Thus comes into being the Workers' Party of
Canada, born, Toronto, December 11th 1921. Now
for "the application on it" Theae were the organi-
aationa represented, as given in the official minutes
of the proceedings.
The Ukranian Labor Temple, Winnipeg.    One
Big Union, (Timmins) Ontario).   Workers' Alliance, Winnipeg.   Russian Progressive Library, Toronto.    Ontario Labor College, Toronto,   Jewish
Workers   Educational   League.   Guelph Working-
men's Club.   International Workers' and Soldiers'
Association, Hamilton. Lithunanian Educate Circle.
Mclland Lodge 131,1. A. of M. Fabian Society, Ham-
ilton.   Tht Young Peoples' Jewish Socialist Educational Club, Toruto. Finnish Socialist Organisation
of Canada. Bulgarian Socialist Society, Toronto.
Progressive btuuy Ciud, fcudoury. t\ Hi U. X, I Toronto). Montreal Labor College. Workera' Educational League, Toronto. Kitchner Labor Club. W omens League lor Peace and Freedom, Workers League
Montreal, Jewish Proletarian Culture League, Workers' Educational Club, Ottawa.
The chairman was J. Macdonald, Toronto, lately
of the 1. L. P. The chiel business ol the convention
seemed to bc to read the now lamiliar standard
lunei al oration over the 8. P. of C, judging by the
reporta ot speeches made. Special space m this connection is given to one Popovitch, oi Y*> innipeg. Ut
must have been judged to have been good at it. We
don't know whether Popovitich is really a well
trained liar or just a fool, but he haa managed to
invent a membership that we '' once had'' of 3,000.
lie must have mistaken our past reporta for the figures of the national debt. Hut we ha\e a notion
that it pays to give attention to anyone who represents, or claims to represent a large number of foreign born men. They're recognised as "good pay."
The next item of busiueas on the agenda, in order of importance, was tbe election of nine delegates
to form a Provisional Executive Committee to carry
on until—take it easily, dear reader-—the next convention, which is to be convened three mouths after
date.   That's action!
The only disappointment wc hsve to register is
that three more mouths must go by before we shall
see the fruits. But we have a promise, this time
from the U. S. A. Strange as it may seem, our industrial life ia managed from the U. S. A. So too,
it appears, our working clasa efforts are to bc managed from there also, or it may be that eopied ia thc
proper word. Anyway, a Communist Party there
means a Communist Party here. The death of a
Communist Party there means the death of the Communist Party here. An effort to produce a "popular" party there means an effort to produce a "popular" party here. The abandonment of thc underground route there means its abandonment here.
Tbe convention -program there meana a convention
program here. An attitude assumed there mesns
an attitude assumed here. Here follows a pronouncement issued by the American Labor Alliance:
"The Workers' Party is a conscious effort of
.Labor to again take up the aiegc against ita ancient enemy. Prom this beginning of revolutionary
consciousness will grow the psrty of sction thst will
unite the workera and strike off the shaklcs of slav.,
cry. It will enter into*their every struggle, it will
defend them and lead them to battle. It will or-
ganire them in the shops and mills, in the minea and
fields. No element of Americsn Isbor will be exempt from its pehetrsting and life-giving force. Ii
will lead the workera to unity and thru unity to
victory.
Out of thc Pit, Labor is springing to battle!
United, the victory is ours!"
Such nice words have come our way for many
years. They make continuoua and pleasant evading.
Our interest lies in "thc spplication on it."
Aa fcr ns, we're past being astonished at anything in the way of new programmes. Not even if
we were to receive thc stamp of approvsl ourselves
would it astonish us. Fset is, wc have a hunch wc
command rapt attention, for there seem* to prevail
a notion that if only the S. P. of C. would change
its shirt the whole world would change with it. There
lies a further field for education.
But Chriatinaa,-bcing a quarter dav am! ..
fore a rent d«y-ia thus heavily hand el ***
the diecerning, and .ny B«^^ ^
carafe that may appear to bc the favon.t t
inte may be taken U> drown the memory of "J?
lord a aorrowful countenance as well as to celebZ
the joy there is in eluding him.
Anybody can easily finder adopt an cxenm for
anything, and to those who won't have BQefa\ ,
sa is here offered, the Winter Solstiee will smsZ
must pernickety-the rejoicing that comes with t
warmth of the returning sun, as the books hsve it
Ko be it thst our readers are as other men faad
women) arc, for thc time being in good homor Z
fell deaign may have its way and We mav v,-n!urMrt
mt-oduee a New Year effrontery from a i>cnBBaes
no leas important than the Postmaster. 11, ,; ,aki.
fast Office, Vsncouvtr  B  C
Notice to Publlahar, '** ^'^ m
N.waosMr rate of --<**•• m 0*0 after th. M j,fltary>
tn aceordsnee wtth tht amendment to the Pert Offlct
Art passed durlaa tha 1«» motto* of Parhamen*, „w
papon and s-ariodlcals printed and published la Cm*
Balljr. three times a weak, twica a week, -a-aa-kly, farMe***-,
or monthly, atwl from tha ottxe of p*.bl»tati©« to reo-ji,,
tuUcrlbtra and to iwmsdoalara resident elsewhere than ,n
tha placo af publicatkm will, tm and after the (at January
Ita. be a-jbjtct to B-oataat at the rata of one ar,<J one-half
eanta par peamd.
frmncl* E. Marritoa,
PoatmarUr.
That rate is exactly double the present r- TV
high coat of spreading ideas! We can't hope for
credit at thc P. O. (With all their faults Utey'it.
wiser thsn that). So we fstl ha«-k anon onr hist n ~
this time upon thc history of a month, mated in
terms of cash received and too easily counted
We record here a solemn warning to the pa'icnt
ones who read theae notes that we nr< bordering <»n
the <terious and arc near to invoicing their Intersil
for what it will bring in cash
Thia time well let thc figures pipe np their weak>
voiced financial chorus. It's really onlv a whisner
for a month.
Following ft. eseh M Daae. A. Korm. P. A
Askew, .1. Wright, Ii C. Johnston. V K Howdea, W.
n. Mclsasc, Geo. Aspden. C. W. Hlair, P L Hillsnd,
Geo. Schmidt, W. 0. Hoare. .1. Lsalie, B Siaclsir, P.
Mollenberg, A. Taylor. Ed. King. J. King?,'. Prtsja),
C F. Scbrocder, I oral Kdmonton. K. II. ui. J.
ChryirtAll, J. N*. 8mith. J. A. t'ntincn. J! Taylor, I
Olson. W. Van Mecr, I). 8rigley, R. Ham T Baeaon,
st. Stark, E. Chamber**, j. Peacock, 0. Finuetig, J.
Piggott. J. Donovan, .lohn A Wtchell, Wa K
Kampe, O. Ocrrard, T. Moore, A. Bobertson, (i F
Ritchie, *W*. McQuoid, 0. Larsen, at CBaein- G, Lbs.
A. V. Unrence, A. Leopold, P. Brendb-r, F Krikvn.
J. V. Hull. A. Woodall, N. Larkmsnre.
Following *& each: C. Anderson, J. & IMhucmcr,
0. A. MacArthur, A. 8. Wells, If. Hilliken, M
Ooudie. J. Kavanagh, S Karp. M. S Orott, N. P.
Dugan, H. E. Mills.
Following. %.\ each: S. R. Davy, Geo. Bcbott, E
Ross, F. Casaidy, N. 8achle.
Wm. Erwin *5; W. Ayres |1<UB; T. Robley U;
It. E. Polinkos $-4 - E. Rhodes 50 cent*.
Above Clarion subscriptions received froa W
to 2<>th December, Jf)21 inclusive, total $113.72.
SUBSOMPTION FORM.
HEEE AND NOW
At this seaaon of the year, when, in spite of appearances eontrariwise, most men consent to be regarded aa human and are sometimes even caught
yielding their features to a smile, it seems a callous
and matter-of-fact business to introduce to the festive atmosphere aueh a aordid matter aa pence.
It ia worthy of note that Christmas in Protestant
times, haa never aucceeded to a place among Caledonian holidaya. Merely to state that fact is not to
explain it, but we cheerfully and hereby surrender
any and all righta in the exactitude of historical
lore to4he care of those who venture to lay claim
to it.
(This ia aa handy a way as any to aend your subs.'
Western Clarion, P. 0. Box, 710.
Vancouver, B. 0.
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8end "Western Clarion' 'to . * ESTBRN     CLARION
PAOt FIVE
Geographical Footnotes to Current
History
The Case of Albania.
Prior to the Great War the working** of Economic
-jerialisa could best bc traced in areas outside of
Europe--ir Asia and Africa especially. But one
at-ublc effect of the War has been the reduction of
tree areas of Kurope itself to Uie status of colonies,
•"■'■iphcr-s of interest"—with de jure independence,
Ltde facto dependence on one or other of the big
orviving Powers. The tendency towards the formation of "econoBale world groups," bo attractively
-BBtribed by Nnumann in hia Hittel Europe, waa
■reaeodously accelerated, and has now completely
Wlerated the onetime distinetion between Euro-
an and non Kuropean peoples and*territories,
An interesting example of the eosptineei of poli-
bed ''indirpendenee*' is afforded by the case of Al-
ftnia Down to a month or two igo no one knew
pxtetly what had happened to thai unhappy bud.
prae, ita came Mill appeared on tbe map, But wh it
pieoBBtry status was, and where preeesely its fron-
jtkrt run. were dark mysteries—almost as dark as
hit altiaste fate of M* m<l, and the territory ad*
■real thereto, handed over by the Treaty of Ver-
■Bjksta the "Allied snd Associated Powers," and
PKensed as a French and British base in the Baltic.
Thea, in September last, aottebody discovered
fast Albsnis bad been ''admitted to the League of
moons1' last year. A British repreeentstivc at tb**
G«?va Conference announced ''definitely and with-
but reserve" that tbe British Qovernmcnt reeog-
mud the toveretgnty snd Independence of Albania.
And the LeagttB issued a vague statement about a
rfartaeoming" decision on the Albanian frontiers
^iir.ultaneouslv, it was announced that the Italian
Government waa worrying about "additional guar-
atlt""s f"r the integrity and independence of Albania; and the British Government intimated its
"cordial desire to achieve this end, and thereby pro-
niote the Interests of—Italy!" At that date Jugoslav forces were occupying Northern Albania, doubt-
less with the altruistic aim of saving the League of
Nations any trouble in the matter of deciding on
frontiers; and more recently these forces have advanced westward and southward. Some 12.000 Greek
troops are at the same time concentrated on Albania's louthern frontier-—only waiting, of course, for
League's decision before piling their arms and
returning home. And tie League has convened a
i] cial meeting to at e what ean be done about it all.
A happy situation for a free and independent
Stat-. \Y1;: I is al the back of all this tangle of rival
"interests and hostile armies 1 The map explains
a great deal. Albania has some 200 miles of sea-
board on the Adriatic. Jugo-Slavia wants more
• at tine. She wants Duraszo, as a port for her
southern territory—whose '"natural*' outlet. Salonika, is now Greek, Italy needa, directly or indirectly,
to control the port of Valona. commanding the entrance to the Adriatic; for Italy's eastern coast line
is useless unless she dominates that sea. And Italian
capitalists are ready if duty calls, to do their bit
for civilisation by "opening-up" Albania. For the
\ ,:! iai -. a primitive people still in the stase of
patriarchal clan organisation, inhabit a land believed
to be rich in "entirely unexplored and unexploited
mineral wealth"—a land, therefore, which, though
European, is a fit area for ''Colonial expansion."
And so thev arc having a taste of the blessings of
civilisation. —.T. F. Horrabin, "The Plebs"
The "Broken Hill" Man
Described by Joseph McCsbe.
Wl have jntt discovered tbe most interesting
Basso bonea that have seen the light since science
W began to talk about the antiquity oi man. writes
Jovph McCabe in the London Chronicle in an article
ksWBBnng the recent rind of a prehistoric skull in
Bosta Africa. They are at least half a million years
•W. They bring man nearer to bis poor relations.
***t »pcs. than he ever was before. And they throwing important new light upon the fascinating story
°f onr evolution.
The hone* were found in a cave iu Rhodesia, It
M long been known for the weird and beautiful
"tapes ol its stalactites—oozing of lime, like giant
1<,|CK from ns roof—but of late years it, has had B
""Oft' solid attraction. A vast bed of annual bon< a,
|N*d in phosphates of Bine and bad. waa discover.
M m it. The cave became the Broken Hill Mine.
"ow, sixty ftet below the lurface, nnder a vast
r*m* ]'ome of dead elephants, lions, and other
Writ, we have found the skull and some other bom I
*** most primitive man known to OS
In thia case we need not'wait for geologists to
•J«-rrcl with each other about tlie age. The okull ia
""'of the moat perfectly preserved that we have.
»n« the brutality of tha brain that once lodged in
that
■av.
•^•■"ly cranium leaps to the eye, as the French
plaice down from the top of my library the whit
*C(1 Bkull of a low type of Australian, and compare
et*v0. The Auatralian ia a gentleman, an academ'
Jn beside thia.   I run over the photographs of all
'Primitive human skulls we have, and this old-
°r'(' Af>*»can ia nearer to the ape than any.
Th<- "kull found at Piltdown a few years ago,
ou*-- four hundred thousand years old. is too re-
J"W*le to brook comparison.   Only the akulUap
n*i 5« kn0wil all ovcr the wor)ll M the ape*mao
of .Ia\j comes near it; and the new skull is decidedly
inferior.
\\ e can with great confidence visualise this semi-
human being who thus breaks upou us out of the
mists of antiquity, so carefully bus the skull been
staled in its aiding place until science was born.
The -yes glower from beneath heavy and very
bread bony ridges whieh would almost serve to ram
a fellow human. The forehead snipes backward at a
depth tha. Would disgust a Bushman. The huge
bulging upper jaw and massive back of the head
need no clairvoyant to read this niau's story.
He waslm eating and breeding and fighting creature; a heavy, powerful slow-moving savage, with
long and fearfully strong arms, with curved thighs
which made him stoop, his only clothing a thick
i oat of hair.
How did he get into Rhodesia? Here is a large
j,,,,.- (,f the interest of—let us say it frankly—the
•„.,„.,„ beast. Tlie nearest skull to this was found
ui .lava; the ne\! nearest in Sussex.
Picture that great triangle in your mind, and
von gel a good idea of the cradle of the human race
jjost of us have long held that it was on land which
is now below the waves of the Indian Ocean .(as we
know), a loal bit of Africa which once connected it
with India.
The new discovery strongly confirms this, and it
will not be pleasant reading for the Americans who
have .inst gone to look for the remains of primitive
man in Central Asia.
Lemuria, the lost continent to the east of Africa,
was probably the region where some accident of
time broughl man's ancestor down from-tbe nut-
lad0ii tm% and bade him "work for a living."
From the centre he would pass easily to Asia and
\friea- nnd ha would reach Kurope by the routes
which bring the Babylonian merchants ages afterwards. —
The Broken Hill man is a specimen of one of the
early waves of human distribution. He had travelled far, you may suspiciously say—to Sussex and
Rhodesia—for so beetle-browed a creature. That ia
precisely what the general public finds it so difficult
to grasp.
However long a time it is since this primeval
savage trod the soil of Africa—and it will assuredly
prove to be more than half a million years—he was
already more than a million years old! If Baron
Rayleigh and some of our greatest physicians are
right about the age of the earth, this figure will have
to be multiplied by more than twenty.
I. doubt it. The problem of" man's slowness in developing « bad enough already. It is certain t-haf
this poor stunted creature represents more than a
million years of development.
It is the greatest find yet. A real missing link
has been recovered And. if you look at it right, it
is a link with the future.* If a Shakespeare was evolved from this kind of thing, what can be evolved
from us?   lt is worth trying.
WAR IN THE PACIFIC—WHAT FOR?
(Continued from page 1)
clash between groups of capitalists and the wreckage
of such international institutions as Chinese Consortiums.
Remember also how dependent Great Britain is
upon the rest of the world for raw materials, her
own resources extremely limited, and now strained
under quantity production, and you will readily understand the reason for a foreign policy which retards whenever possible the development of countries under her imperial wings.
This has been the case with India asad Egypt and
it is so with Northern China, where Great Britain
together with .Japan fosters the monarchal designs
of a more or less feudal aristocracy.
On the other hand, one can readily understand
why the United States, more fortunate in the possession of greater resources, can afford to pursue a
policy towards southern China which is more liberal
in character.
This,too, throws still more light upon the policy
of the "open door," a policy winch on the surface
appears as a free-for-all chance to other countries to
get into China and exploit it.
Further, it gives one a better perspective of
Japan's policy of a "priority of rights" and why
Great Britain is attached to the latter country.
Japan's intention towards China for the present is
to keep her as the supply house of raw materials
(Japan, like Great Britain being in possession of an
extremely limited supply) while she becomes the
skilled artisan, transforming these raw materials into commodities.
Two policies of an aggressive character which accounts for much of the civil strife in China, the success of either involving, as they do, the control to a
large extent of the political machinery of the country.
* It is in China we must look for the overt act that
will precipitate another social catastrophe rather
than in America throusrh any anti-Asiatic movement.
And the active ageneies in China supplied with
funds from outside powers,- to further their individual, national interests, must soon commit that
act.
CI-ARION MAINTENANCE FUND
J. Leslie $1 j H. G. ftinjro $1.50: O. Larsen $1;
E. Rhodes 50 cents; VV. Clarkson $1.88; "B. L. J."
$'2; J. A. Mire-hell $1: T. Moore $1; A. V. Laurence
80 cents.
Avove. C M. P. contributions, from lst to 29th,
December, 1921. inclusive, total $10.68.
 :o: —
SOVIET RUSSIA FAMINE RELIEF FUND
Already acknowledged  $136.00
II. H. Hansen (collected)  25.00^.
Geo. Asnden  1.00
W. Clarkson      3.00
Wells Rockwell   2.00
Parrv and Sim  3.00
S. Holt (collected)   3.35
Total . $173.35
I.;  i
I:  <
B    *f
B
1   I
j**?
k •**■'
m i
n
1 PAGE SIX
WE StKfcrJ    CLARION
.****
Materialist Conception of History
FOR   BEGINNERS
BY PETER T. I-ECKIE
I have endeavoured to follow the development of
society from primitive times, from the scientific
Socialist standpoint. Our opponents have accused
us of ignoring other factors and putting too much
stress on the eeonomie factor. We have not neglected the various other factors, such as the fertility of
the soil, the abundance of fish and game in the early
period of human society.
Marx points out in "Capital." Vol. I. p. 199-, that
the earth is the original larder ami also the original
tool house, supplying primitive man with food and
stones for throwing, grinding, pressing or cutting,
etc.
In another part of .Marx's work lie says: "Aside
from the more or less developed conditions of social
production! the productivity of labor depends on
natural conditions. They are all reducible to the
nature of man himself smb. as race etc.. his natural
surroundings. The outward natural conditions ean
be divided economically into two great classes: natural wealth in the means of subsistence, such as
the richness of the soil, fish, abounding waters, etc.
and natural wealth in the means of production, such
as useable waterfalls, navigable rivers, woods, metal,
coal, etc. In a primitive community the tirst is of
paramount importance, on a higher plane of civilization the secoad is most important." x-
We have seen how the invention of bow and ar-
" row as a means of increasing mans food supply, was
a great step forward, whieh was followed by the domestication of animals and agriculture. This greater means of life, allowing man to stretch over a larger surface of the earth, not. only enlarged his environment but broadened his mentality.
"We studied the effects of natural environment in
lesson 8, showing the earlier civilizations arising
where the fertility of the soil was greatest, e.g., Peru.
Mexico, Egypt, India, etc.
We discovered that the laws, morals, ideaa, in
all tbese stape? of development, were theldeas of the
ruling class. Not however, had we a ruling clasa
until man could produce more than his own keep.
The agricultural stage brought about the private
ownership of land, while the pastoral stage brought
about the private ownership of the herd, and ever
since the inauguration of private property in the
means whereby people live history has been a history of class struggles.
Iii these various stages of development wc also
find that the medium of exehange, or what we call
money, is also a reflection of the economic conditions such as the following:
Cattle, during domestication.
Grains and tobaeco/TTtiring agriculture.
Skins, during the bunting stage.
Metal, because of the cumbersoihcness of the
above money in the increased and more highly developed means of production.
We also find the religion of the people was a reflex of their economic eonditions. I-ecky says, in his
"'History of European Morals":
"St. Appollonius explains Egyptian idolatry with
the most intelligent rationalism. The ox, he thought,
waa in thc first instance worshipped for its domestic
uses. The Nile because it was the chief cause of the
fertility of the soil." • *
Ed. Clodd speaks of moon worship, in "Animism,"   having   nourished   before   the agricultural
stage; a connection is traced between tbe Lunar
phenomena and the food supply.
-*.     "The approach and duration of the periods of
supplies of uncultivated foods is measured by tha
successive re-appearances and gradual /changes of
the moon, to which the savage attributed his food
supply.   He regarded the moon as the source of
moisture, which is greater at night than in the day
time; without which vegetation would periah.   In
thia way the moon was regarded as thc efficient cause
ot the growth ot animals ami plants.
"In the argi< ultnral stage that impetus was giv-
en to the Sun ami Earth worship when the more
potent, influences of the Sun became recognised."
Our Monday and Sunday are the offspring of tbe
Cod* of the Druids of Kngland before the introduction of Christianity, named after tbe Moon and Sun
Gods.
Even Christmas is the reife of the pagan praise
Of the turn of the year from short day light Ui long
er daylight.
The ancient people of Kngland began their year
on.the 85th Deeenber and called it mother night, in
1644 Puritan England passed an Aet of Parliament
forbidding any religious service* or merrimeui on
Christmas day, on the ground that it was a heathen
festival.
Charles II. revived the Christmas celebration, but
in Scotland, where Puritanism and Protestantism
wa.. more firmly established. We find Christmas is not
a holiday even now. outside of Bank holidav. All i
"business as usunl." with the exception of Hank employees.
The Ancient Peruviana looked upon the ocean
as oue of their power god**, calling it Mother Sea of
Gods, because it yielded the fish which they largely
depended on for food To tbe Red Indians, heaven
is a happy hunting ground which reflects their manner of getting a living.    Our good and holy people
reflect theirs as a place paved with gold and running
with milk and honey, therefor if tbat does not, reflect our methods of living, where them- thing* satisfy
our material desires, what other relation can it have
to man.
Tlie idea of good and bad, with other fnoral*. are
relationships between individuals, trib** and classes,
and vary as these relationship change, as a result of
the clanged methods of production. Prof. Selig-
man, in his "Eeonomie Interpretation of History"
(wherein he quotes various writer who called attention to economic influencesli, points out that i*>or-
iginiality ean be properly claimed by those writers
and thinkers who not only formnlate a doctrine bnt
first reeongnise its importance and its implications
so that it thereby becomes a constituent element in
their whole scientific system, there is no question
that Marx must be recognised in thc truest sense
as the originator oi the economic interpretation of
history.
0 a
Seliginan says.- A thing was originally good in
the material sense in whieh we speak of goods and
commodities. We speak ol a nail being jio good
without desiring to pass any moral judgment on it.
Tlie original meaning of dear was not ethical but
economic. A commodity can still be dear although
we do not love it."
•Lecky says- "Good and Evil.is nothing leas than
pleasure arid pain. Man has no natural benevolent
feelings. He is first governed solely by his interests."
The killing of the aged in tribal times did not be.
come immoral until they could produce a surplus to
feed them. Murder of parent-* was regarded aa an
act of mercy when primitive man could only produce
his own maintenance. Darwin, when dealing with
unconscious BVlcction of Barbarians of their domes!i- *
cnted animals points out that thc animal particularly
useful to them was preserved during famines, while
they killed aud devoured their old people (and he
quotes the instance of thc Barbarians of Ticrra del
Fuego) as having leas vslue than their dogs.
In England in 1030, during the great famine,
human fieah was cooked and sold.
It was put to me once that there waa no instance
in history where the people ate their own kind, unless it was their rotten dead which they dug up during a famine; embalming in Egypt ia believed to be
connected with thia food supply.
Morgan, in "Ancient Society," telle us of a My.
Kisou who wrote and told him of the oati?«ofA
trnlin when first discovered ; hook- ofthe tribes Tb
Wide #ay Tribe", "ate not only their eneadesiifi
in bailie but also their friends who hsd bees lulled
and e\V» those who died a natural death, it -|,»
were m good condition. Before eating ihey skin.
tied them ami preserved the shins by rubbing tW
with mingled fat and tdiarcoal These *!-,,,„ LVt
praised highly as having great medicinal tata
We Und in the "good book" during tin- f„tlw
in Samaria | II Kings ti eh -j- to K) . u* iaeifat
relating to this human flesh eating prsef • Tai
King said unto her "what ailetfl the* aad the****
wared: 'Thai woman said unto me Give ibym
that WC may eat him today, und We will eat m sob
tomorrow. So \s,- boiled my son and d
ami I said unto lor on the neat da) give thy m,
tbat we may eat him ami she has hid her Ma.'
Wc have illustration* of caul,   worship in    -
"good book,   where Jeroboam the rebel afra I Um
people would go up to Jerusalem to worthi*    Took
council nnd made two ealvea of nol   .   i n | .:•
them. ■ I* »s tooiniteb for you to go up '  Jetnaal
behold thy gods. 0 Israel, whieh •    ■■••,
OUI of the land of Egypt.*
We srtw  that   when  women  were I
dominant claw* tin* children were named af'er lst
wemeu, with the female iiilont«
| believe this is tbe reason that ti.-* so talk
natural power took OU the nam'- •■! '« dd ■
We find that the wine Km« Sol fefedtai
c«*l of Israel, not baeanee be practised polygtaj
with 7(*» wives ami 300 eoncubines, but   < .. >- hf
forgot bis god and worshipped thi  G        -    •
wives. 11. Kings. <*ll. V. .V
Tbe material law has been denied by rlenr >
indent,     Bebel. in hi* 'Woman and Bo  ihsa,
points out thai  iu  Number*. 13, 41,     bur had »
father of ih** tribe of Juda. bnt hi*
from thc tribe of ifiBIBBlh, and Jail    * W| ■ ■' ■■
called ih-* son of lantBBflh and • •
tribe."   Again he saj'a-(Kehemish 3 I r
the children of a priest who married
daughters «f Branillai, a Jewish •
children of Brasilia!   They are a
railed bv *be father's mitio- but  by  ihcil  »"■'•••• 4
»am«\
HerodOtttB,  the great (Jr. ek historian.
H-b.-
ltd'    whose monumental work earned ' ' ■ ■■■** th'
title of the 'Father of History.' tella IW ©J thl •■'
•inns who recognised maternal leu
"Their custom* are partly Cretan and \'iV'1-^
•an.    But they have one custom that dtrtingBiOW
then from all other nations in the *   !,i      y
ask a l-yeaii, who he is. be will tell nil name, 0
mother's tome, and so on in the line of f"""."^
sent.     Moreover, when a free woman marries
-.lave, their children are free eitisens, bill i
marries a foreign woman or B concubine,   lj»
dren are deprived of all civic rights- evett-Uttesa
he be the most smitten! man In the State.       (|v
Livingstone found this form of matrimon) »
Zambesi. Africa, in a tribe called Balonda, *h0
man went to the village of his wife when
Br. Henry Wcistoeky, who for man.* yea*
among the (lyptsic* of Transylvania, and Hmii .  ^
adopted into one of the tribes, reports thai  *  ^
or thc four trib*** in whose midst he lived, tie     ^
nv'1 the Ishiih, observed maternal few. ^
gratory Oyptay marries he enter* the elan o ^
and to her belongs all the funu*ahingB olint ,lI1(i
hold; whatever wealth she has belongs 0 * ^
her clan; the man i* a stranger. In aeeon an ^
maternal law the children also remain In Wi • ^
er'* elan. Similar condition* UrerB *■»»■■ "j |', i|ir„
men Cameroon*, that i*, next the F*™e ,^ A
whioh haa been Uken from Oermany nt > *™Am9t
Herman naval Burgeon found that only e hflf|
the same mother recognized theiiiHelvcs a" 1 I
WESTERN.CLARION
PAGE SEVEN
, The Chief of Way tribe told him that
Lis heir was tha son of hi* sister.   Be did not know
Li.it father meant when asked if he bad no children
. 11(i bursting out into laughter said that with them
i« women and »"t nieu had children.
loii'.' . ,
Theae  conditional   with   little   variation,   were
[found ill the Sandwich Islands, in South America,
[VeBCwIa and Brazil, when they were first discov-
ittvd.
Win ii liu-u with the adoption of better tools could
produc«• more than his own maintenance, captives be.
*giae alsves. This was impossible among people Bv.
,,   by the ehtao in ****** l*unting ■tage or in the paa-
. ; itage, becauae in thi* Isolated labor the slave
,v, ;,< consume as much n* he produced, ami l*.-
trtuid uot he held in captivity, l pointed this out as
iwith thc Mai tribe ol Africa, living iu tin- pastoral
• ..... but "hat the tribe next to them, in tin- stage
10f -duration, made their eapttvca slave* upon the
had   There i*. however, no demarcation line be
• ,-,.   the various stages, a* some of the old customs
. -, ■. ■ • changed methods of production, although
modified.   The Paternal lager wa*. existing,
[* recorded in Numbers. I7--28, yet we find a trace
[then of maternal law.
Zehmhehad died without  leaving sons,    hue two
: • rs complained bitterly because they were to
fe-exeladcd from their father* inheritance,   ifeeea
led in tins eajBj the inheritance was to g<» to tin-
• rs, but when the daughters decided to choose
1 bu-ibaii !** from another tribe, according to an old
.  tribl of Joseph complained of losing an
Bsritsgi     Therefore Moses decided that  the heir
..  .      j choose fieefy bnt must make their choice
:'•     imong men of their father's tribe.
w*e taa how women were degraded and became
'-Ss   f the inab-s when thev lost their economic
*
Also, the double standard of morality
.- * etween the sexes. Tbe women folks, having
'--sn the drudge of man. earrying the luirdens of the
tr.be ami doing all the degraded labor of the tribe
*r<- eominf fe.rth once again as men's equal, beeaose
UVy km.- taken their place alongside man in the
I i "t wealth production «s competitors, forcing
nselves to be recognised. ju*t a* tin- American
ri leration of Labor has been forced to recognise the
"wire, because he entered the industries of th Unit" I Bt itc* during the war,.ami if not BCOCpted by
V K of I., will be used as a tool to break strikes
• 'he employing class. The negro.- papers recog
sittd thia when they said it wns 'not because of any
Christian spirit of brotherhood tbat our people are
kins* recognised, bgt beeau*e of an eeonomie neeCS-
Rty, Therefore, women today are not accepting
Chriatum Paul when he i* quoted. "Wives, submit
n>anelrea to your husbands," and many other quotations, which reflect the Homan eonditions at that
penod.   The wifo in Rome wa* looked UpOU as the
sead f. male slave.
we find thi* dnidgery work referred to above
Ptffformed by the Kaffir women of South Africa and
ittneg the Kskimos,
W« 'ind the growth of the human race and BOCie-
■} has been from the family of the clan, the clan into
'eommunity, or tribe, or settlement, into a town .- the
"'vii to h city: tlnj cily to a nation, and ultimately
" 'i«ve every ronfi0|l to believe that tin- nations will
'''•'•'   le a commonwealth of nations.
W« find the home of the tfibe Was the stockaded
*JJ*»fe, developing to \\w joint tenement houses «>f
wobe brieka ami atone in the nature of fortresses.
" ''•'**"■ Wrrounded  with  ring embankments with
****** large enough for a considerable population
***** defensive walls of stone, towers, parapets and
■***0 dango****] to protect all alike ami defended by
***mon "tr-mgth,     This implied "the exiatenee of
Jjw agriculture, like the feudal sy.stcn.. with the
J""""*- caatlea with the demands of the en of gov-
r***** magistrates, military and other offices of
authority.
r,,t' moral* chaiigc as a result of the ehanged
elboda of production, because the coming to gather
' JJJple into tribes, ohms, nations, etc..-transfer and
°*V their soxjial relationship*.   While our oppon
ent*
put
lv Htroug emphasis on the groat moral laws,
£**& that after man reached the middle iktul of
"•^Wlim, civiiizHtion bung in the balance while
'•'•"••'"'•"ns were experimenting with the native met-
01* towu-ds the process 0f smelting iron ore. Until
iron and its naes were known, civilization was impossible. If it was possible to destroy the great iron
numbinery of today we would no doubt fall back into
barbarism.
Bating human flesh did not become immoral until
msn could produce more than his individual subsist-
ence and it became again moral under famine condition* At first the range of duty was Ihe family,
then the tribe, the state: within these limits every
man feels himself under moral obligations to those
about him but regards the outer world as we regard
wild animals, aa being upon whom he may justifiably
prey.
The ethics of the savages is, almost without exception, purely tribal in extent. A marked distinction is everywhere made by primitive peoples between injuries to persons inside the tribe and in-
jliriea outside the tribe. Crimes which arc looked
upon as felonious when committed by the savage in-
sid.- the bribe msj be regarded as harmless, or even
highly commendable, when perpetrated on those outside the tribe. Acts are not judged by their intrinsic n..inre or results, but wholly as to whether they
ari performed on those outside of the tribe.
The BaJantea (Africa) punish With death a theft
committed on a fellow tribesman, but encourage and
award thriving from other tribes. This condition is
found in several parts of the globe.
B Belfort Baa, "Problems of Men. Mind and
Moral--," aayai "In prehistoric society the principle
of contradiction, and hence of antagonism, lay outride the ?o--ial group. . . It Was opposed as a
whole to similar sneial wholes, to similar kinships
outside of itself. This external opposition or con-
tradiction was at this stage the only opposition that
it knew.n
Bach stage in social development has its own
methods of production, has its own code of morals
which reflects social conditions. Morals are determined by custom and custom corresponds to the
social necessities of any given period.
-Joseph McCabe, in "The existence of Gods,"
says: "All that we need to observe is, that morality
arose as the formulation of social rules of conduct."
Under feudalism, when money was in its in-
faney as a medium of exchange, and production was
for a local market, usury was a sin. In Deuteronomy
e 2-*. v. 1940: "Thou shall not lend upon usury to
thy brother." bnt, "unto a stranger thou mayest."
Deuteronomy 14 21 "Ye shall not eat of anything
that dieth of itself." but. "Thou shalt give it to a
stranger or may sell it to an alien." I think it is
reasonable to think that the pious Israelite with an
economic turn of mind hated to lose the profit and
claimed divine authority to sell to an alien.
We know the church wns opposed to usury, but
T.eekv says: "when man eame to understand that
money is a productive thing and the sum lent enables the borrower to create sources of wealth that
will continue when the loan is returned they perceived there was no natural injustice in exacting
payment for tins exchange and usury ceased to be
assailed.
Fitch, "Basis of Minds and Morals" "The moral
,ode never interfered with the prerogatives of rulers
nnd priests. When the moral code said: "Thou shalt
not kill." it did not mean that kings could not kill
their subjects or slaves, nor the church should not
-„,t to death those who disbelieved. When it said
•Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor." it did not prevent rulers from misrepresenting
to their subjects and making war by deceit upon
neighboring nations.
Tn other words, the moral code is made for the
subjects not for the rulers. "What sustnins an existing order is moral: what threatens destruction to
existing tilings is immoral."
This was clearly stated in Paris 1830 by Raumer:
•\H theai  men (Liberals) regard as revolutionary
tll(, ai>0lition Of evils, whereas the counter revolu-
tion they understand as the restoration of these and
other abuses, ...
"Their adversaries, on the other hand understand by revolution the aggregate of all the follies,
iint| crimes, that hove, been committed, whereas by
counter revolution they mean the re-establishment
*p *
of order, of authority, o%eligion and so on.'' Therefore, it rs unscientific to associate the terms of revolution and counter revolution with morals.
At the end of the 30 years war in Germany, the
population had been reduced from one-quarter to
one-tenth in some districts. On February 1650 the
Franconian district council of Xuremburg permitted
every man to wed two wives, but he should be freely
exhorted from the pulpit to avoid ill feeling between them by using discretion and good judgment.
During the late war illegitmate children became
war babies and not only separate allowance wTas
made but unemployed benefits are being paid for illegitimate children in Britain.
In Ontario the illegitimate child has now by law
a lien on the property of its father at his death although he may have other children. He must also
bear a share of its upkeep until 16 years of age.
We have noticed that crime also bears a close
relationship to the methods of production, from the
injury to animals under the pastoral stage, to water
rights of agriculturists, and the severely punished
crimes of forgery and the issuing of false money under capitalism.
(Summaryjfto be continued.)
HOOVERS UNEMPLOYED CONFERENCE.
The "Communist Manifesto" of 1848 defines the
modem state as the managing committee for-the af-
fairs of the bourgeoisie.
To manage the affairs of the bourgeoisie, that is,
to solve the problems confronting capitalism today,
is becoming less and less of a possibility for the capitalist representatives.
Herbert Hoover's "hand-picked ' unemployment
conference has probably recognized this truth.
For. in the very beginning it was debarred from
considering any practical (basic) measures for the
"starvation" army. They were warned at the very
outset not to delve into the causes of unemployment
for fear they might arrive at a radical's conclusion.
Xor were they allowed to unearth statistics regard- ,
ing thc conditions of the employed and unemployed
wage-slaves of America. All kinds of estimates were
made as to the number of unemployed. WThile before them lay the report of the Bureau of Labor
statistics that about six million people are out of
work the conference spoke of a million and a half
unemployed.
The conference adjourned with recommendations for public construction, but with no power to
execute them.
The real issue before present-day capitalism is to
reduce taxes and to keep mum about the starvation
conditions. As a measure to reduce taxes, the idea
of public construction must be set aside. Especially
so, if four billion dollars each year or about 85 per
cent, of the taxes is to go for war purposes. "Lower taxes," is the chorus cry of the capitalist class.
The repeal of the Excess Profits Tax law is a practical demonstration of lessening the burdens upon
eapital.
Two governmental publications are threatened
with suspension, one of them, "The Monthly Labor
Review," published by the Bureau of Labor statis-
tit-s—this bureau furnished the statistics regarding
tbe number of unemployed in the United States.
"The Labor Market Bulletin" of New York State
will also bc discontinued. These two publications
have furnished invaluable information for propai-
ganda amongst the workers.
"Our" government evidently has recognized this;
and as a measure to minimize government expenses,
these two publications—and eventually also the Bureaus—will be removed. They have succeeded too
well in digging Up the unpleasant facts of life in
statistical form, and the apoligists of the system
cannot face them.   So they must be suspended.
S. Horowitz.
NOTE CHANGE OF AJ>DRESS
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WKSTBRN     CLARION
Communism
and
Christianism
Analyzed and oontrasted from the Marxian and
Darwinian points of view. By Bishop William Montgomery Brown. D.D. Its bold recommendations:
Banish the Gods from the Skies snd Capitalists from
the Earth and make the World safe for Industrial
Communism.
Seventy-fifth thousand now ready. Pp. 224.
Cloth edition, De Luxe, $1.00.   This whole edition of
2,000 copies is a Christmas gift to the sufferers by
famine in Russia.   Every copy sold means a whole
dollar to them and much education to the buyer.
New paper  edition.  25,000  eopies.  artistic  design.
THE BRADFORD-BROWN EDUCATIONAL CO., Inc.
Publishers, 102 South Union Street, Gallon, Ohio.
Or from
SOCIALIST PalRTY OP CANADA
P. 0. Box 710, Vancouver, B. 0.
^yery beautiful, one copy 25 cents, sis, $1.00.
"It will do a wonderful work in this the greatest
crisis tn all history."—Truth.
/
PLATFORM
Socialiat Party of
Canada
Wa, ths Socialist Party ot OaaaSa arflras ear aUa-f-
laaee to. aad support of the principles aad ptsajramsas
ef lbs revolutionary working olaaa.
Labor, applied te natural rseourcea, preduess an
waaJth. Tba present •cono-mic system Is BassS
capitalist ownership of the nteaas ef prodaetlos.
queatly, all tha products of labor belong to tbe capital-
let otase. The capitaliat la, theraaTorc,
worker a star*
Bc long as the capitaliat class rssaslac ta
«rf the rdaa of gorarnartent( all ths powere ef ths State
wtll be used to protect and'defend Its property rights hi
the means of wealth production sad Ms oosftrol ef the
product of labor.
Tho capitalist system gtres to thc capitalist as* ever-
ewelMng stream of profits, and to thc worker, aa erer*
lawnrsaslng measure of misery and degradation.
The Interest of ths working class ties tn setting Itself
free from capitaliat exploitation by the abolition of the
mage system, under which this exploitation, at the point
of production, Is cloaked. To accomplish thle aeoe-aelt-
atee the traasformaUon of capitalist property la the
means of wealth production Into socially ooatrcilcd eeesv-
emie forces.
The Irrepressible conflict of laterest between ths osav
ttallst and the worker necessarily expresses Itaelf as a
struggle for politieal supremacy. Thla la
Struggle
Therefore we catt upoa all workera te
the banner of tba Socialist Party of Canada, with the
object of conquering tbe political powere for the purpose of sotting up and enforcing tbe atonorma pro
Era aims of the working class, aa fotlowe:
1—-The transformation, mm rapidly aa poeelMs.
of capital!** property la tbe mesas ef
wealth production (natural resouraes. factor-
toriee, mille. railroads, sts.)> bits eotleetlee
meana of production.
I—The organisation and rnaaagemeat sf tadastry
by the working class.
B—Tbe eetabMshmont. es speedily as possible, sf
production for use instead of production for
proAtv
ECONOMIC CAUSES
OF WAR
Bj PBTBB T. LB0KB.
VOW 1EADY.
Prafaos by tha author.
132 PAGES.
Par Copy, 15 Oenta,
Tba Bopias up, SO oenta
Peat Paid.
THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOUTH WAXES COAL
TRADE.
(Continued from rape 2)
eastern France ami (ierinany, it waa easiest
for ore to go to coke. It went in enormous
quantities after l'H>t. Iii that Year France
raised 7,000,000 tons of ore* l» WM the nia>
ed 2*\000t000 tons. • • Of thia output, much
more than that of ths United Kingdom, she exported no Leas than 10,000,000 tons. She had
become the greatest exporter in the world."—
(Eeonomie Ikvelo* un nt of France and G«*r
ntanv, p. *39.)
The cost of eofce vraa Wf* \h\%**tt to a Preneh
than to a German or Britiah steel producer. Con-
seouentlv, Prance produced only fi,000,000 tons of
steel in 1313 aeainst L7,000,000 in Germany and 7,-
500,009 u* Great Britain.
The eoal-mnst-rs of South Wales were in many
instances, great iron -master-* and steel manufacturers who were dependent Ol important ores. The
eo-il-exporters were, at any rate, interested in britijr-
inf back a eargo of ore in plane of the cargo of eoal
they bad taken over to France.
Oermany whs rapidly outpacing Britain in the
production of steel and, also, ef metallurgical e<*ke
and coking eoal. Britain was short of ore. Franco
had more than she row\d me. The coal master* of
South Wales, therefore, viewed with eminent satisfaction the prospect of France recovering the ore-
fields of Lorraine, an.l were not unduly perturbed
by her occupation of the Saar Valley coalfield. *»tit
they felt th?it she oufhl to leave the eoking coal of
the Ruhr Valley, aecordinf to the sacred principle
of nationality, in the possession of Oermany. Also
they approved the transfer of German merchant
shipping to their own Government, not merely he-
cause that conformed with .lustier and might roiult
in them acquiring the vBOBeis Very ehesply, but be-
csnse, assured of her shipping, they could control
the export of Germany's eoal. Thc eoal ovrnc*s of
the Coalition hnew xvhat they were about in supporting Gould, S*atrar. Cory. Haslnm and M<*nd for
Cardiff, Newport, and Swansea. They anticipated
that, having recovered Lorraine. France would require not 21.000,000 tons of eoal as in 1918, but about
41,000,000 tons, or require t«» trade her ore for their
coal and coke in an ex<-hange that would run. not between Westphalia and France, but between Wales
snd France. They had lent their money and advanced their credit, i.e.. eoal and freights, to Prance,
and now they would receive interest and principal in
iron-ore. Thus, in part, would they be compensated
for thc loss of the steam-coal trade. It was very
clever. It wa*. indeed, too clever.
(To lie Continued.)
 :0:	
THE CLASS ALIGNMENT IN THE BU88IAN
REVOLUTION.
In "Pravda" of November 6th and 7th Larin
writes over the class groupings in the Russian revolution.
On October 1st 1021 thc total number of inhabitants of the Soviet republics (not in eluding Khiva
and Bokhara i was l.*;i million. Of these 21.5 millions live in towns and citi-** and 109.5 million* in
the villages. Assuminir one dependent for each
worker or ebrk we get the followig picture of the
class composition in the towns: Workers 4,800,000;
Clerks 4,600,000, other t*U*m*0 of thc population 12,-
000,000. Rural population: workers 4,400,000,
clerks 900,000 and other classes of the population
104,200,000.
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