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Western Clarion Feb 15, 1921

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Array 1 —:
137
Twice a Month
CLARION
Official Organ of
THE SOCIALIST PARTY OF CANADA
VANCOUVER, B. C, FEBRUARY 15, 1921
V
"Charity"
FIVE CENTS
III- was a most charming lady. Only a hardened cynic could resist thc appeal oi so*wiu-
some a personality. And there are not many
},,,;, 1 cynics.   And that   is why this pretty
maid collected a dollar each from the 'help"'
|)led at their noon meal.
[> for Mich a worthy cause." she explained,
lis appeal for the orphan children in the In-
Ll Home's annual drive  for  funds, coupled
the compelling smile, and thc sweet perfume
ing from her gracious presence, got the money.
epi from the "cynic," the "crass materialist."
really quite sentimental, when fairly started
[discourse on humanity's sufferings.    Hut he
point blank to part with a dollar.
tile could budge him, nor pooling lips, and
fly led bun to the loudly voiced disapproval of
r>rk mates.
•mciul. 1 call it," sniffed the impish waitress,
tended movies regularly, and as regularly rc-
rii emotion  in  pantomime   all  through  her
}g day.
way to treat » lady," said another.
Ln't even part with a dollar for thc poor kids."
It came a fusiladc of hostile comment, on his
nv.
sinner -at unmoved, rolled a- pilL lit up. halt hr smoke,  and as he blew out the cloud,
1: "Hell.   You make me tired."
said thc foreman; T don't blame them:
kid surely nave chipped in, and never missed
in, anl at thc same time kept in with the
Itc '.." came back the cynic.   "Just thc same,
collector hadn't been a swell looking dame,
>u!iin'• have got half what she did, lots of you
didn't want to part with thc money, but just
j't turn down thc lady."
fral guilty blushes among thc young fellows,
to bear him out.
1 there was Jack," (indicating a man who
lent our, "he came through, and he's a mar-
|m with two kids, and a sick woman, but ho
Wean big enough for the others too."
Ii- from the housekeeper).
cynic smiled. "I don't want to bc hard on
l)u' it is a fact that jobs are scarce, and as you
^■re are three links on his chain.'
1111!" 1 said nothing of thc kind.   ThjB idea'
*W to a man's family as his chain.   Shame
ii ».
right. Call it a family if you want to. A
mils the same bv anv name, and a man can bc
F8* by chains of duty, as well as chains of
f« or steel,"
w- s<!« here," went on thc speaker, warming
iliubject, "let us look at this business closer.'
JPowng a hold-up man came in with a gun
nn,'l up on us, leaving most here without car-
nu>- Don't you think it would bc right and
that he should pass thc hat round among us,
;,nv spire dimes he missed, could bc donated
0I»e lacking carfare?"
S()f arnMement, and ironic laughter greeted
, Jftu8h. Very good, but what difference is
r'lwccn such a performance and the one wc
f0* part in?"
I"11H
|t
"Why! a whole lot. You don't mean to say, the
lady ever held ut up, do you?" came thc demand.
"Not individually; she is but one of a gang," was
the answer. "Kvery one of us in this room, belongs
to one particular class in ^society; the working class,
do we not?"
"Yes. but what's that got to do with it?"
"Wait a bit, and you'll sec. Do we, any of us own
our job?" was the next query.
"We do not," he went on, "so we find tw# facts
there to start on. We are members of a working
class, and that class does not own the job they aovk
on. nor further, the tools or machines they work
with.'
This brings us to the question: 'Who docs own
these so necessary things?' "
"And that beings us to the lady. She is known
as a society lady - none of you ever knew her or her
kind to work for a living, nor yet their men folk.
Yet they arc human*;. like you and me. Equally with
us. they need the trinity of food, clothing and shelter.
And 1 leave it to you. if they are not well fed, well
clothed. an<l well sheltered? I'll say they*are. Not
only that, but while we bump along in street cars,
on our way to cheap movies ,thcy roll by on smooth
concrete roads, in beautiful cars on their way to ex-
pensivc shows. They can and do get thc best music,
they, at least, have also far better opportunities to
improve their minds by contact with the best authors, scientific thinkers, though I will claim they
make but poor use of that opportunity."
All that did not proceed so smoothly as written.
Interruptions were frequent; sneering remarks, and
cheap ridicule, came plentifully. But no one could
reply, when challenged, to refute these* plainly seen
facts.
«£o now." he went on, "we have a third fact to
add tt> the first two. namely, that we have a working
class job less and tool-less, and on thc other hand
a leisure or idle class, tbat wotks not at all, and yet
never  seems to have   such a terrible task 'getting
by * "
"You never see their children in thc 'homes' they
collect   for.    And 1 as"k you. what do you deduce
from these  tacts?    Is it not plain, that if this idle
class lives so well, and lounges around so luxurious-
lv. yet   never works, that some one must support
them?"
Without labor, the machines could not run. With
no machines running, no food, clothes, or shelter
would be secure for long.
And who furnishes the labor? If one class monopolizes leisure and luxury, which come from labor
tpplitd to the machines, does not the other class,
our class, the wage workers, you and I in this room
being a portion of it. monopolize the labor?
We do; and there you are.
Can you explain this riddle?
Are you beginning to see the likeness to the holdup man?
If the job-less workers wish to exist, they must
ask the job-owning idlers for permission to work at
their machine. That is what they do, but you've
never noticed any of us well-worked and poorly
cared for workers accumulate a fortune. Some
few of us, who were cool enough to see the situ
ation, stayed single, and by stea
ing have risen a yard or so out ot
the bulk of us have slaved all our live
away most of our energy, added to oi*(
way of a family, consequently have deiu „,.ls oi- maik
work for besides ourselves.
Wc submit to our conditions, and work, for thc
most part, on our master's terms."
"That'* so." "It's true," came the remarks now.
"It's not right, nor just, the way we are treated."
"Why not?" shot back thc speaker instantly.
"What, you mean to say that this other kind of
people have a right to do this to us? Is it just and
moral for them to take what we make?**
"Decidedly it is; they take the wealth you make
and give back as little as fliey can get away with.
If you die, and your children are thrown on charity,
they place them in a home ,and pass the hat around
among your mates, and ask you to be generous,
for humanity's sake, and the most of you dig up and
damn fellows like me who see through the sham.
They have a legal right to do what they do. The
Supreme Court of the U. S. upholds the right of thc
employer to Impose conditions upon thote who seek
employment.'
They have a moral right, because every authority
on these matters, including the holy men of the
churches, uphold them in the ownership of the
means of life.
They are justified by law and church, and lastly,
and most clinchingly; what more justification is
needed, when we see our fellow workers vigorously
uphold the right of individuals to own what is commonly needed, and make profit thereby?
We confine our squabbling to disputing with the
other class, and our fellow slaves as to how much
food, clothing and shelter we shall be allowed.
We are more intent on pinching our wages (the
equivalent for our needs) to get savings, so as to
get on the land, individually, and escape from our
position (for none of us like it).   •
Those who get on the land, clamor for relief, and
form leagues,—to get the idlers off society's backf
Oh, no. To get a larger share* of the wealth, to
have less taxes on their farms, in short, they want
a better chance to become idlers themselves. Then
again, some workers' organiations may have cloudy
phrases about production of wealth for the benefit
Of all. but we workers have got to realize that while
the ownership of all wealth is in the hands of the
idle capitalists, sanctioned by us, mark you, so long
as we leave it there, unchallenged, just so long will
.it be thc gun at our heads, because owning nothing,
and still having all the human wants and desires,
we are at their mercy, and we deserve to be.
The foreman had gone out, and now returned with
the boss.   The latter spoke up at once.
"That's enough there, you Bill. There's too
much of this Bolshevik talk going around, and I
want it to stop. We have freedom and liberty in
this country, and there's no need for any of you
foreigners coming here, and shooting off like you do.
So that's all there is to it.
Either cut it out, or get ybur time."
And it was so. He got it, and lived happa ever
after." F. S. r PAGE TWO
WESTERN     CLARION
The S. P. of C. and the Third Internationa]
T
**
' .V    >    \
S tUI
■      R   I '
I
mom  a a   I at
•   CjBJ|  •
e\
e*- t r»
■
calle '        .;* of.
agenda, to
trolled   the
Was hir>d-»*a^a^aW
.      -   , .1 ••  ,.,,l th.- renosjtorv of the  Party's existence to date  it rk.,   ,,-,
FOR AFFILIATION . race as t.,c «»ll of th- arth.       '        rq . ^ . .   .; „^
HE question of tatrff* *-i affiliation has       Thc ^^^^X^** -< - *** — *-«*, ".- "°i
never heretofore  mrf       >othered the   S. P. then  wtsttom-desp-t.   ... »t. k.»   > Objection has ben  r.Ue.1 .,,:„„., _
r       <>y *«"«n'd ,0 tha| °'nc"al ani <** ••'M"U; ""'> JJ *' ~£J 552 .1"- term, of affiliation be...,    I %?**
the teaching of study   and understanding oi the woraera   pnn ••><• terms ,<
- the teacntng o .       M,rvUm    Thev ire not "long haired men to conditions not yet developed in thwectatr.
class struggle.     \\ t ophy of Marxism,   1 hey arei not     ug It s|mu|<| |m, o!)VU>us ^ *■*
 .: i„»l..  ^ cU^r*  l,.,i.-...    vvntm-n     Ol  liail UrailHll   Hiiiti*",'", .
of C., oar work. I.-
„;;7cle;7p:rtk«Iarlv    and'shor, hair,,! women" of l.a'i. brained Pi,i!o<o;,hy.       I. should I !,*,,„. th.. , -,„. |aiJ ,,„»„„
. .      .         l._        L_*     _1 .     .J   ...,.'..n.     -m,1    inli-tUl    »'»    UO    !*•«.'.        ..v-»
wj have been able to make bring about Socialism and intend to do to.    N'or
J countries. are they ignorant of condition, in other countiic,
,A affiliation with thc Com- as most of them have spent many year, of tibehrhvet
And   I   submit,  comrades, in exile in various parts of thc woi-d.    Moreover,
■ very  different from those whatever the basis of representation on the Corn-
refused international affilia- munist Executive Committee may bc today, «t Will
snail vote for unconditional ad- doubtless shortly contain members from most COUn-
voscow Communist program,-not tries whose movements affiliate.   "Dictation from
Treasons   I hasten to add. lest some Moscow" is a straw man. a bogey man.
Z72 proceed to read me out of The question nam ,wt do* n to this - Shall we seek
00cT   After  following as closely as affiliation  with  tbe   Third  International or  go it
on*.*--* .... .        •    T- .       ...:,.i..   ....'.,-,-   iiitl.
according to  the different
T
i
mmam' I P
J country, but arc tpjia
^^^^^^^^^^^Jt-' •••'•'■•   conditieat
CltUSt   17 mentions Uu* qualificati
exception is taken t<> clause 2 i
wordt i
"Here
(in.
1,1 tht iolk-ti
8 we c.-mc into -:      : i mflicj -^
former policy.    Apart from its ultimate tat
which is donbtful, >nch activity would is
lately involve us in a aerie*! of hitter
that would ham--cr and in the end nofij
educational work
*trs0
li
the c<
"once.    Alter  ioiiowih*-; «9 *•""••:  —     -
'ossible under existing conditions /he work of thc    alone!   True we might a
possible unaer cxi." s   R   hut that would scar
tt'iliate with the S\ P. of
I consider this position to 'majnj
possible unaere»Su..K-..".»«"^r-m — WoUld"SCarc,ly be international alffl- Am to the furthering of I        . ;  -          I
Bolshev.k,,nit**,«*1*9 Wt™ ™«J Mm    Mor„ovcr   lh, g, p, ,„■ G, ,, b <„„,,„, „, wc are ,n j ********}    ■         '  -wd
eiples of the Th.rd *™,0nai.hIe;m^7hc onlv 1ikc tbc ScoU.h,„an „f „,, .tor, *0 when a former v, ..,,.„,- -W u ., ,
endorse them  onreservedh       I tw>' ™             ' ^ d y       to (U.vv.,opn„.nls „ ,|,o old kirk.       PrM-al economic and                   «.*-!
body of workers today who *™*^^£L rep icd nVecl broth-r, « s«- .here', no sac many -Ml reeen. even., in local!,
na.ional-.he °%£™^«Z* "X" t n^X ...v,,-, and b-oth.- D»pM, and need o. obu,,.,.,,- a ,- .1             « ■• ^
who are conscously and "*"*£?** rm ao W*. -ore o' brother UnglW. crttodo**-." ««W
the class struggle.   That s whatcounty We staved out of .be Second bccauM of Ut i*        ',> leave Ubof  Uruoos and Xfu.,,n-al C^
I take it there » no smgle "^"^f^ clusion j so nlanv fn,lk moVcn,c„..   Now there -n -he ,,„ohalh-n,ed ,o,,r,
of C. who ha' »^.^..fr;™^o Lw con- is an orCaniZ.-.io„ n.orc .rulv in.cma.lonal than any of the art -dayed by ,h,
*8^*«»-*^n^^^hcTrg^^ that has been known in the hiMorynf.be workers- n.c.s of I reel ,,,v,           ■     natteaj
stitute the *^.Int*^t^,1^gt"   as a ,n organi-.ation .ha, ha. shown i.seF able and will- 'he "crvday ttrogglaof .1                ■»«
whose sloppy, pat.onab*..c FW*«  ^ .      £          ^ „,„ in,rrnat;,.,,,, apiulW cl„, the ,,„  of „-,., l„-n « , c-han,^,
ourseivcs oi »ici                r doubt.     Our place is on the inside .
S. D. P'-crs, Cottomtes, etc.
rb!K^'-c'«-aBBaaHBB^BBBBBaaaBaaBBB^BaBBaaaBBBBBB>       -^
The struggle for the conti      I the SowO'
tt a I       t H! ,    ?S 1
ration it Marxist; ot that there ran        U the theories  m tdvam BtiMj
Our place is on the inside of that     rect and a- toch fit tht facts ■«
o. j^.-.  *-•-» -. . ,, . „„,,,-,„. the ttrogglea «be more mil      -   u?en<-nti
A.tetho*-*^^^^*^^ ^Xsian co,n,,dc, haw s,ar,cd .be bal,  They    the ennce--.* -****.*. f
ago, at Berne, «"*!"**^ •»«  « J^Sa for are fighting that other „..crn.-,,onal. .be  .Ut. u,    have evcrxb.n, ... pin r,        fkaj ■* »•
meamng comrades included   but **™£ 1o ,„„auonal of world in.pcriab.n,.   The C munU,    every phM. ol the el	
nought.   It was an aggregau«    I ^'^ b lcadcrs of K,,™ and oi.be Third In,, rna.ional a.e       The obje, , .0 dan*  - u
old men-men whose men al.ty 1^' b«" '  JJ   y n„ RnMiu ^        , „, ,     ,„ M llrl„, ,„,.,„,>  intend, I
th. condmons under ^^J^^^, cidc„. of birth.   Thev arc Ighting as i,,c,na.,o,,    fJoad arb.tra,,...,. or the I ' ^
ll^^ll^n^ol^ZA^ a,is.s. no, as Ku.ian,   Thev are w„rkinK ,„r ,hc    cob.n.a, „bera,,on n.oven,, ■ « ---]
^ose who come to these problems of the present world revolution.   Ruasil was for ...any reason, the
dav without the peculiar quirks nnd follies inl.er- easiest country to prcc.pi.a.c into Ihe itrnggle s.nce
ited from other nnd very different conditions. These she emerg* as the firs, working c!a« rcpubl
men.   Ledebour, Adler,   l^>nguet,   etc.,   have un- take ,. that the S. 	
rbtedly served   *o**a*^ %~ PP* ^^J^J^^C^ZZ   a^=£; E U of -He R^
flS^l't&^TcA.t^ r»dcsa„d,„cCom,nl,„is,.d,bew,1„darec M        To   cntc.npla.c „,   p; i*J-
lost toucn »»n d   -„ ,   our MI|l|,ort    j, j, our (!utv as Soe-jjjrt, ,m, ,,,.   revoloUoo ... a colon-  g
rnToub^; liZbu, that is tZZ^Zn for Cut- ita**. ol ,v,np.„hy (!) w,.h Russia. ,,.„ for onr „w»   S.a.e. w,„  firs, our,.., '  ■
l»«»nt uriili Hpad men's bones. safety and because we ourselves want and must have    it Utopian. ■;, F-nt
The reToccsHs arIk in our own Party, the revolution.      However little   moral affect our        The rev.,, now in ,--;   ■ I-Oflj
Where are those who ten years ago were doing good afttfiatton may have, it should,   whether much or
work in the "Clarion" and on our platforms? With little, be extended freely simply as a Step tOWtfdl
a few exceptions we hear of them no more-others our own emancipation.
have   taken  their places—younger men as a rule,       True, it may mean reprcss.on.    But without aftil-
and we older ones have dropped out.   It is in ac- iation with Moscow wc have felt something of that.
cordance with the law of development. And don't forget our master class can get us at any     -,  ~-
The meetings of the 4th, as reported in the New time they please, affiliation or not.    As toon a*, they    |W»da faf nfoletanan con roi
York "Call" by Gollomb, the U. S- representative, begin to feel the effect of our work we will get ours        Kvery success
.   .   .  t-_* ~t *u^ «..u-cn*i«T talk dur- ETOod and nlentv.    Law
easiest country to precipitate into the Struggle since        me struggle »w »•
she emerges as  the first working class republic. I Had on by tbe Bolsheviki '        '-;
take  it that thc S. P. of C. endorses that stru^-*le ember of the aanK  jrea«
unreservedly-that we agree with die program of cd C/arhm was ne, e<.*.u:, «*_
•i.n d...,:,..  r* „,...,;.,„     *r*t at. . r> :,..   kMvttnn m*anif**>al to the m-v- *'.*
Ireland take the form oi civil ''^
pics of thote countries tnd »
In e.v.l  war Btutrtlity   '^  '   '^-Voo
Commttnlatt in tnch < '     '.'th(
They art compelled to beco      JV   f
forces, whilst at the same tune carrynRi
of    .1    "
lect ot our work we will £et ours        Iwery  success oi  .i  ■•
reminded me somewnat oi lire ,«;«^«-.~* ~      -- i),Pntv    !'aw an'1 COrurtitotional guaian-    Imparialial State Urtakan
inc the Peace (?)   Conference,   when for months    tees count for notlr-    -'  **        «     '     •       eaaaaaaaaaaaaau,, laaaaaai . n,
• ..... «-.•»!    t i i c-A.rro nnrl Pipm-     make and break .-ill
York    can,   oy w»wwi ■■»*- —• •-■ --r -
reminded me somewhat of the newspaper talk dur-    good ami
_ n     t      ...i.,...   tr.r   mr\r\t\\o     tees   eoiin
ting colony
tower oi tl*
we were told that Wilson, Lloyd George and C'cm
enceau were "seeking a formula" that would rccon
* J     a.1      £ A      .
n^nnnnnnnannnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn^l^l^l^l^l^H        - mi-itc lo a 1***
ing with them, for do they not    A -WCtkened State is a prcrc<j •
^^ -*••■      -*.»»-%-»•-■(     *\'t      \m* *      t tt*   m      lli/t ■  *•       -.----.----j
an<l break either at will?   And why shouldn't revolution. r rt,,olution**5
they since they have thc power?   Anyhow, events        While tbe State remains    r",u:
*****
tV
enceau were "seeking a tormuia   mw ^v-*--  ,  - ,  •-• [Knvcr?   Anyhow, events       W bile the Maiemn... <je{ejit,at«]
cile thc existing antagonisms.   And they found a will soon bring on further repressive measures un-    possible,    A Stat.- weakeiu•'•   '-^^_ ();j,rs*<
"formula," but the   antagonisms still   antagonize, less the signs of the times deceive me mightily  So    from disaffection in its artne« ^  r
words, words, words, and yet more words!.   And let's get into the world movement, and bc counted    iesl task to a revolutionary  P
a continuous howl against "Dictation from Moscow" on the side of the intelligent «
because that dictation is allegedly Russian.     Now the world struggle that is coming.
I submit, comrades, that this is the old nationalist th
ie intelligent section of our class in    rebellious tend in this direction
bey ••"*,'
in
1 suhmit, comraue*., uwi l"<=» >* ■•»■-- *-     ■   p^^
howl all over again—you can't get away from it    International
when dealing with the Socialist ?) politician, whether of the Right or Centre.
Personally, I don't care a damn who or what controls the Third International provided it is really
...... t       rrv _».i£-a-M   «*-iit  Ka   mn.l/»    nn
e question of affiliation with the Third Communist    countries
dnrnntionil
ROSCOE A FILLMORE.
Vote "YeT'oa   part of the task of Communi-itJ irfi
KAVAS«
1.
FOE AFFILIATION
AOAINST AFFIUAT|0NS
. l.i w-r ii|1
p. at*
This discussion as to •aI"""'*
win
«-vs*»    nrriiainiiuil 1 HIS   QIBCUMHUii   «•*   •                    uillltilf
In dealing with thc question of affiliation to the should, or should not, tmhate     _, ^
&ociansi Co«»u..    ■... -—,          hird -n^rnational, it is well that we should not tematioual. will have bcnel ''*   ^uitj
of Russian Jews, Turks or Hottentots so far as I    be  disturbed by thoughts of the "Dictatorship of what the verdict may be » ls       .1(i ptK
-    - ' «■«*--*-*«—    Moscow," nor  yet because we should be e            ■ •              ------ *••"'•"' ',"n   '    ■'-■
al- I  r ..     ..
BXptCted    tO clear up certain  VtgUC
tions.    We are told thai th
no timf
hair
tc
01  J-vUSSian jewa,   *».«*.   —   »*	
am concerned.   The basis of the fear of "Dictation M ._,_.__
from Moscow" is nationalist and racial, and eman- to enlarge thc sphere of our activities. tions.    We are tow i"»' . ()lir nw *
atcs from representatives of those nations or races       While the interpretation of Marxism as expound- hairs."    Very good!    I^ "' -'   ^*\t, 1^1
who  though they may call themselves Socialist, are ed by the Party,   and its activities in connection down the middle, and never ap'     ^||CB*jW*
really full of a camouflaged belief in their particular therewith, may have been correct during the *  "        ' '""*" Snt°
years   as much "mora "■ ..'**."
WESTERN     CLARION
PAGE THREE
it
While we must never forget that the class
rale is a straggle of the working class against
capitalist class for control of thc political pow-
I siai-. we must also remember that the greatest
ny 0f the working class in this struggle is the
,rance of the   working class itself.   That the
tes- obstacles to the progress of the revolution
working cla*-s movement arc the ignoramuses
traitors in our own ranks.   And they are not
0 be found in tbe Y'llo.w Socialist Parties.
.• Us consider some of the conditions that must
accepted by any organization wishing to aftil-
with tbe Third International.    There must be
one such party in each country, and that party
, call itscll the Communist   Tarty, etc.   Tht
on for this, we are told, is that the "rank and
{workers should be able to distinguish clearl\ the
►rence between the Communist Parties, and thc
official "Social Democratic" or "Socialist" part-
irvhich have betrayed the cause of the working
,."   it the only thing by whicii the "rank and
vnrkt!'" can distinguish between the Communist
., and the "old official 'Social Democratic' or
ialtst' parties, which have betrayed the cause of
working class." is the name of the organization,
.. all the gods have mercy on the Third In-
t tonal.
\\:\ Bill Shakespeare is  reported to have once
I the question: "What't in a name?" And to
answered it by the statement: 'That whicii we
i   rose by any   other   name   would   tmel! as
We might paraphaae that statement by
.: thai American Left Wing  Communism by
•••- name would smell just as rotten, and b*
correct, and according to l.enin  himself,
Left Wing Communism is very little bet-
It  the "old official  'Social   Democratic' or
ilist' parties" have betrayed thc cause of thc
[    lass, and disgraced the name of Socialism.
anarchistic propaganda, and tactics, of ccr-
groups connected with American  Left   Wing
ism, has made thc very name of Comniun-
us examine the formula for building up thc
tl International.   Take all the freak  organiz-
i* in any given country that call   themselves
nists, and that claim to repudiate the "old
Social   Democratic' or 'Socialist'  parties."
amalgamate them, have the conglomeration
articles of faith, and call itself a Communist
y. affiliiate the result with the Third Interna-
and there you are.
•es any scientific Socialist imagine that a new
national can be built up by any such methods.
will b< in any way superior to the old Second
^national?   Why, even thc Russian Comriun-
thcmsclvet, admit the possibility that the Third
rnational may be swamped by the freak organiz-
wishing to affiliiate with it.    lt is not a ;os-
■ il is a certainty.    But let  me make myself
with regard to thc Bolsheviki, or the Com-
isl Party of Russia.    We are willing to grant
•ink and file members of tht Communist
J of Russia are, ou thc average, as well ground-
undamental principles of scientific Social-*
ther party or group of scientific Social-
in tin- world.    We arc willing to grant that
have applied those principles, nnder all Circulates to the best of their ability, and to the ex-
that conditions would permit.   But they are
infallible.   They arc as liable to make a mis- •
once in a while as thc rest of us, and this at-
)l to build up a new international on the ruins
e old ont, by thc simple method of having thc
Wing groups of thc old freak .Socialist Parties
articles of faith, and call themselves Commun-
artit s, is one of their mistakes.
,s true that Karl  Marx said: "Workers of the
d unite.'"    It is also true that the workers of the
II ">ust unite before they can'accomplish their
N-ipation;    But there is only one way by which
can be united, and that is by sound scientific
*|ist education. Herding them into freak orations, and giving them revolutionary names.
no1 unite them. That method lias failed in thc
• il VNill fail in thc future. "Moral effect" and
•iMisii, wju  not unite the,,,      There was an
(1;nui of that in the Second International, and
Prganizationi it represented, but at thc first shot
in thi
•i- anv i»
in the great war "to make the world *afe for democracy," the Second International burst like a bubble,
as all scientific Socialists knew it would.
The Second International was a joke to all well
informed members of thc S. P. of C. twelve years
ago. but the Left Wing Communist Parties '.hat
are now clamoring for affiliation with the Third
International, never knew there was anything the
matter with the Second International, until Lenin
pointed it out in the last two or three years, and
they prove by their propaganda and tactics that they
do not know yet what the trouble was. It is easy
to learn to repeat everything Lenin says, just as a
parrot learns to say "Polly wants a cracker," but the
majority of those who do so, do not know what he
means, and even if they did, Lenin is not a god, he
is not even a Pope, any more than Karl Marx was,
and he has no desire to be considered as such. L'min
!*- one of the best exponents of Marxian Socialism
in the world today, but there are others. If all the
hero*-WOrshipping organizations affiliated with, or
about to be affilriated with the Third International,
were on the same plane of intelligence as the Com-
munist Party of Russia, then the S. P. of C. might
approve affiliation, but they are not, and it is not
likely that thev will be for some tim^ to come. Or
again, it thc affiliation of the S. P. of C. with the
Third International could in any way strengthen, or
;.**-ivt, tin- Proletarian Dictatorship of Russia to
maintain its position, then there would be some justification for the move. But it could not. Anything that the S. P. of C. can do to assist the workers of Russia can be done just as well, or better,
without affiliation, and the greatest assistance that
tl <• S. P. of C. can give to Russia at the present
time, is to educate the workers to make Socialists.
With regard to the Socialist Parties "which have
betrayed the cause of the working Cass," we might
ask. has the S. P. of C. ever betrayed the cause of
the workers?    It has not.
Has the S. P. of C. or its individual members ever
failed or refused to propagate scientific Socialism
at all times, and under all circumstances, to the best
of their ability?   They  have not!
Did the S P. of C ever fail to exoose the sloppy
propaganda and the compromising tacticcs of the
Second International, or the organizations it represented' It did not' And for that reason, the
members of the S. P. of C have always been considered as cranks by thc more "practical" and "tolerant" Socialist Parties.
Is there any doubt tbat the position taken by the
S, P. of C. regarding no compromise, and no a'fil-
iation, with freak labor organization.;, has been correct in the past ? There is not! Very well, the policy that has proved to be correct in the past must
be adhered to in the future, until a change is warranted by an increase in the intelligence of other
working class organizations. And if there is any-
thin- in a name, and the S. P. of C. wishes to be distinguished from freak parties, it will keep the name
it lias got.
There are two or three other points open to criticism, in the Conditions, particularly the "demands"
in section eight, also thc fact that no clear stand has
been taken" with regard to anarcho-syndicalist organizations, and that the necessity for working class
education, is not sufficiently emphasized, but wc
will leave these for someone else to deal with.
Now just a few words with regard to Comrade
Kaplans article. It is the privilege of any member
of the S. P. Of C. to advocate affiliation, if, in his
opinion, it would be beneficial to the revolutionary
working class movement, and he is perfectly justified in using anv logical argument to convince others., but no number is justified in descending to
false hood and intimidation to gain his end. When
did the S P. of C over hide its principles? The
principles of the S. P. of C. as stated in its platform,
in its manifesto, and in all its literature, are open
to the world, and always have been. The views of
its members find expression in its official organ,
the "Western Clarion," in a way that has no superior in the world, aud very few equals.
With regard to the charge of cowardice, wc wish
to point out that tha greatest coward in the world,
with one exception, is a person who is afraid oi
being called a coward. The one exception, the chief
of all cowards, is a person who tries to intimidate
others into making fools of themselves by acting
contrary to the dictates of their own intelligence
and judgment, by calling them cowards. We have
had numerous examples of this in recent years. For
instance, did We refuse to endorse sabotage, we were
called cowards, did we refuse to grab a musket and
rush over tu Eurape at the first call to arms, to help
to "make the world safe for democracy,'' we were
called coward:-^ud^\forth. No, this method of argument might wot-j \& some organizations, but
'    " \|c with the S. P. of C.
V'*-" short on "moral
we do not think it \ri[
.Now this effort m,n.
effect" and enthusias a
four cents to anyone \
views," or "split hairs,"
er.
-VelvV
a.
n
i
IN WHAT MANNER i-u
TION OP COMMOL
ITSELF   IN   i
RELATIC
IU
he
".he
Historical materialism starts fr«
i.
that the method of obtaining tbe nec*:
—food, clothing and shelter—determii        , .
., .Ol la*"— t-  »■,
the political, religious, and ethical rations of mat.
kind.
Self-preservation and race-preservation are the
two basic laws of all life; they must be satisfied before any time can be given to thoughtsof a hereafter,
or of thc arts.
Political relations will therefore be of a nature to
guarantee the procuring and enjoyment of life's
necessities, to those owning the means of wealth
production. The particular form which these political relations take is determined by the methods of
satisfying the needs of life. History shows continually changing methods and alongside of this, many
changes in the political superstructure. We will
now look at the methods used in the production and
distribution of commodities and what are its most
characteristic political expressions. It will be necessary to take a brief look at the preceding form
of wealth production—feudalism.
Feudal society is a system based upon land ownership and military might; production is carried on
by serfs; workers bound to a particular plot of land
^>n which they live, producing food, etc., for themselves and for the owner of the soil—a feudal lord—
and his band of retainers, domestic servitors, etc.
Production is for use, that is to say, to serve the
needs of a feudal nobility and clergy. Any surplus
that may arise is held for future needs, or in a limited measure, exchanged for other requirements,
produced in other parts. This necessitates the
chaining of the serfs to the soil from generation to generation, and preserving to the nobility
perpetual hereditary rights to ownership.
Political institutions must express the need of
maintaining the status quo, a settled working population on the land, the continued enioyment of
feudal ownership by the nobility.
In the course of social development, more and
more surplus is produced, and a class of trades arises
to carry on the exchange of goods. At first, these
merchants serve merely the requirements of feudal
society, but in time amass wealth and become important ; so important that the restrictions in the
way of taxes and duties, monopolies and guild privileges, become irksome to them and thev demand
O " m*
changes in the political superstructure built up to
serve feudalism.
A clash takes place, more or less protracted in
different countries, but finally resulting in the accession to political power of the merchant class.
What then becomes the manner of production and
what changes are made in the political relations?
Society is radically altered. Commodity production becomes its basis.
A commodity is something produced for sale, for
the realization of profit, and under such a system
it is necessary to have a large army of cheap and
mobile workers. No longer must the producer be
chained to the soil. He must be freed from his serf
condition, free to move from place to place as the
needs of industry demand. He must also be devoid
of all property, denied access to the sources of
(Continued on page 7)
in  .
aay
•is- PAGE FOUR
WESTERN     CLARION
i
*****w
II
Western Clarion
PubliaW twiea a moat* by Jaa Socialist Party of
Ctudi 401 Peatlcr Strtat last, Taaeeares-, B. C.
Wf\%o4S»
 Ewtn MacLeod
Editor
bioa:
Panad* -~~
 $1.00
.... $1.00
oa year addroos laboi your
as  wtth  aoat  issue.   Bonsw
C, FEBRUARY 15, 1921
lORS OP WAR
. worried wise men of the entente
^s arc adding up the columns of Ger-
ny's war reparations indebtedness,   and
and quite safely extending the time of
lull paymw. of 55 billion dollars over a period of
40 years, with an  additional charge imposed upon
German exports in the meantime amounting to 12'. j)
per cent., thc economie undercurrent in the affairs
of nations is carrying them on one and all to a swift
settlement whether they will it or not.
So constantly has the Socialist educator laid dow u
the economic factor as 'he basic foundation by
which thc actions of men are regulated, so persistent has been his "materialistic" propaganda in his
explanations of world events that, following upon
the recent world war there has been produced such
a collection of writings, essays, books and pamphlets showing thc economic causes of war that
people are now beginning to see thc true guiding
principle of their own actions past and present.
It is not disputed nowadays that economic rivalry
between Britain and Germany was thc undercurrent
of the great war. Economic rivalry is the forerunner of military rivalry and already, after the grea:
conflict has been fought which had been heralded as
the last possible war, there is widely advertised an
international competition for naval supremacy
among the nations. If other signs were wanting,
this is a sure indication that the economic supremacy or expansion of one nation or group is threatened by another.
While these wax clouds threaten the peace of thc
capitalist nations, and while they are reckoning
their mutual worries in terms of cash, the workers of
tbe several capitalist countries are in a state of
starvation. Already since the armistice they have
produced a superabundance of commodities, and
while their masters haggle over their accounting(
the workers hungrily await their pleasure.
Already the workers of Russia have thrown down
the challenge to the world of capitalism. The attention of the world's workers is rivetted upon that
country. It has resisted the combined might of
' capital to crush its existence as a worker-** republic.
The confidence of the workers in capitalism has
gone. Their present circumstances, brought on so
soon, after "the war to end war," and their experiences during the past several years .should help
them to realize that if war is the only way out of
present trouble, which is their masters', their interests lie with one another against the interests of
their masters; their interests are class interests. Thc
dividing line showing the economic antagonism that
separates them from their enemy is that between
themselves as producers and the capitalist class as
owners. .
Their war is the class war.
-o:-
SECRETARIAL NOTES
On January 3rd, Calgary Local came to life again.
Before its resuscitation, educational classes had
been in progress and the result is reorganization and
redoubled efforts. Calgary comrades will do well
ta note the dates of classes and business meetings
as shewn in another column in this issue. Join in
and help to develop interest in thc spread of education among your fellows. So too with Fort William,
Ontario. That district is in need of help from comrades who are able and willing to help in educational work.   Cla^ess there have not long since been
formed, and thc helpers arc few,    Go to the meeting place and lend your support.    It is needed.
° *    a    a
Some aatonishment has been expressed by 'Liberator- subscribers. Thc January issue of thai
journal contained advertisements of three books:
"The State and Revolution' (Lenin;, "The Proletarian Revolution' (Lenin), and 'Memoirs ot ai
Anarchist' (Alexander Berkman). The advertisements were stamped Ottt under an inky black
smudge. The I'. S. censor is still a busy man. We
are aide to state that the United States authorities
will not allow these books to bc advertized for sale.
♦ ♦     a
Alberta and Saskatchewan comrades should take
note that the secretary of the P. B. C is Comrade
A, B. Shaaf. 10016—-9J St., Edmonton* Alberta. All
communications relating to the formation of locds
should be addressed there.
• a    a     a
'   Comrade Frank Cassidy is somewhere in Alberta.
.Communication**  tor bun  should  be addressed  CJO
A. B. Shaaf. address ta above.
tat
Writing from Sheffield. England. Comrade Chas.
Lestor reports his intention to return to Canada in
the spring. No date is certain, but it is hoped t:;at
he will be able to address meetings on hit way from
coast to coast Already, arrangements arc under
way to this end. commencing at New Brunswick,
where he will address a series oi meetings covering
Maritime {>omts.
• a     *
Reports are to the effect that the discussion Q n-
ccrning Third International aiidiation is proceed ng
and arousing considerable interest and serious a*-
tention in the various locals. We publish thic?
articles in this issue, two for affiliation and one
against, indications are that other manuscripts
are in course of preparation or consideration. We
hope to receive as man\ articles as pOtsiblt on this
question, and each issue of the paper need not l>c
confined to the publication of but one article. Thc
discussion of the question goes to show thc possibilities of this matter as a means to thc outlining
of Party purposes, principles and tactics, and has already demonstrated the wisdom shewn in the policy
pursued in calling for discussion previous to rctci-
endum.
taa
We publish in this issue correspondence between
the Soviet Russia Medical Relief Committee and
L. C A. Martens, representative of the Soviet Republic in the l. S A., recently deported. The correspondence summarizes the amounts received in
New York up to January 22nd, 1921, which total in
cash approximately $58j00Q, Total shipments oi
medical supphesalready consigned to Soviet Kus>u
approximate 5/4.000, leaving a balance still to he
collected of $22,000. This explains the statement
made by Isaac McBride here to thc effect that sup-
jdies to tht value of the amount collected during his
, tour in Canada had already been despatched, pa d
for by the moneys collected in Canada through his
tour. Evidently the supplies had already been sent.
We have lent our consistent sup|>ort to efforts of
the Soviet Russia Medical Relief Committee sit.ee
they first communicated v ith us. and in our o vn
quiet way we have sent through the S. P. of C. tonic
foor or five hundred dollars, collected at various
times, for medical relied supplies to be sent to Russia. In our efforts at helping the committee we
have from time to time offered suggestions, and
also criticism to the Interment of their organisation. Some time ago w<- made some comment ut>o-i
the appointment of Chas. L. Drake in charge of tbe
Chicago office of the committee \\'e learn row
that Mr. Drake is no longer an official of the eon
mittee, but that he is acting, under an organization
of his own construction, presumably for purposes of
contributing and gathering funds'for Soviet medical relief, but without official recognition from the
committee and against its wishes.
Our particular desire is to see earnest effort in
this worthy cause fostered and encouraged. The support given to it up to date has been almost entirely
-working-class support. We know that there is always present a dangca that a worthy cause, provided it shows thc possibility of exploiting the warm
sympathies of the workers, wd! be used as something
in the nature of an industry for private purposes, to
the ultimate harm and discredit of the cause itself.
We are sure the workers of Canada will continue
*heir support of this worthy cause. They have always demonstrated their willingness to help their
fellows when called upon. Already they have contributed one-fifth of the total moneys received by
the committee, from a population of a relative pro
portion to the U. S. A. of one-twelfth. Wc shall bc
gltftl to forward moneys that may bc sent to us.
It is noteworthy   that in Vancouver, while the
soldiers'    organizations    manifested    indignation
against the measures of proposed relief for thc peo
pie of China in view of their own impoverished circumstances, not a word of protest has been hca d
from them against medical relief ( t-
We arc of the opinion that thev , i ^
thc circumstances concernin*r V*I2? **
China, not to manifest hostilityv!?*4 **
** **•  ""*   •*-*»  ■•••■•■■eM   Hostility Air-, la«5
,m :,»*sh2a
ingly to bear on the
quite   successful.   Tin
_^_^_^_^_ only   hostili*
against measures of medical Klief'L
have been manifested bv the local -/     tt
concerning recent meetings held h     -n!ts
|K)SC. CfC *t tl
al
*•      *»
A Local of the S p of c has mb^(
Prince  Ru-vort.  B. C . tecretary wSJ?
frkU.    Comrades in and around ftuicetaS
communicate tnd help tn Ir,,k-- o,hf*,!i?,
tional efforts in the northern district
•    •   t
The number of this issue is 837   if $u
on your address label is 838. your sut*T
pires with next issue.    We carry no adve
and depend upon subs, for conunuan-e.
that subs, are renewed and new ntfe c,y
NOTICE TO ORGANIZATIONS
• New Vorlt,
Ji-itury £
By action of the Centra! Soviet Rots*
Relief Committee in New York City tie I
District    office   of   this   committee ♦♦
Van liuren St.. Chicago, Ui., w*!h Ur. Chi
Drake as director, was closed on JaatarrlSi
Mr Charles I. Drake it no longer   ttstettil
cajacity whatever with thc Soviet Kushi
Relief  Committee.
The Central Russia Medical Relief C
desires to establish *lo*er contact vital!
committees in the Western States,toataii
•xmim* of the now abolished intern £tn/|
District office, and to put the Soviet Kuisa
Relief work oi a more efficient basis thai
co-operation of the local ::-*«.
The committee de-ires til ita *;;;;* nmiaS
pallu/cr* ti» understand that i! ha* M
whatever   with   the vocal"! "AmericaI
League." organized by Charles L Drak*
ers     It emphasizes this because the bestial
this League will probably b*   located a:'it
address where the YVe-.tr-    District   8fc*j
Soviet Russia Medical Reli     C     " "« ■»
iously  house*!.
The name of the "Red Star L**tgee" Btj
•M.me of our -.upponers  to thc ad.antart
League's enterprise  which i* r:•:.;:■■ • : ~~
and to the Soviet Russia Medical K/.iW «*i
The attention of our committee h« ***
to the   fact   that rumor- arc beiag $rae|
Western States and Canada, tboot th* fcjj
ation of thc Soviet Russia Medial ReW*
tee's work, and about the wbstitttUttafjj
by that of some other prgaW»tioa,
formed   that   Charles   I.    Drake il
League,  presumably  as an orgtnia   «
or  recommended  by  the  recently OtptW
tentative of Soviet Russia, I. Marten
This iH*a plain misrepresenlatioo
Russia Medical Relief Committee i» theoJJ
i/ation which has the endorsement of W
Russia official representative. Mr ••■
renewed  this  endorsement   in  <--t- m')A
tsfmi on tho eve of his departure from j ■s
the local committees ttlJJ
tf« «1
n* -i
We urge all
Kcltf! or
ganizations interested in the McdlCI
let Russia to conlinut their work,an   °
icatc with, and send all contributions o^rea|
Soviet Russia Medical Relief ComiW«e«.
110 West 40th Street. New Yory Ctt> .
Soviet Russia Medical Re'1"
CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN THE
RUSSIA   ICEDICAL  RELIEF CO"
AND L.C. A. K. MARTENS. R^HE
SOVIET REPRESENTATIVE in
u. s.
Soviet Russia Medical Relief Con*»
New V <>rk>     „
Tanuary -
, tivo of theR"
L. C. A. K. Martens. Repretentativ* ,
■ States, ^
Siviet Republic in the I m>'('
City.
Dear Comrade,—Before your
foi
reed W .
/
WESTERN     CLARION
PAOIFIV1
from the United States for Soviet Russia, the Soviet Russia Medical Relief Committee submits to you
herewith the following report:
The Soviet Russia Medical Relief Committee was
organized as a volunteer organization in April,, 1920,
with headquarters in New York City. Local committees grew up gradually in other cities, and up to
the present moment there arc about 115 local committees throughout the United States and Canada.
The aim of this organization has been and is to
collect medical supplies, and money for the purchase of medical supplies and surgical instruments,
also medical literature for Soviet Russia. With
this end in view, 130 public meetings have been held
in various cities throughout the United States and
Canada, at which meetings moneys were collected
for the above purpose. Also subscription lists were
circulated, and individual donations were solicited,
both from organizations and individuals sympathetic to the above cause.
Up to date, the Treasurer of the Central Committee in New York has received $58,199.39. ( Hit
of this sum $$1*663,34 has been paid towards shipments for medical supplies .shipped to Soviet Russia,
and $5,014.82 was paid for organization expenses,
printing of pamphlets, post cards, etc., leaving a
balance on hand in the treasury January 21st, of
$1,521-23. The total value of shipments consigned
to Siviet Russia is $74.283.06; which means that
the balance payable on these shipments is $22,619.72.
In addition to the above shipments purchased
from funds collected, drugs, instruments and other
medical suplies were collected, to tin* value of over
$3,000.00, and likewise shipped to Siviet Russia.
Several hundred valuable text books and other
publications on medicine have been collected, and
sent to the Commissariat of Public Health of Soviet
Russia
Doubtless you arc aware. l>oth from the Russian
official publications and from other sources that the
bulk of these shipments have already been receive I
by the public health authorities of Soviet Russia,
and put to immediate use.
Most of the local Soviet Russia Medical Relief
Committees have been organized only recently, and
some of them are still in the process of organization. Among the tasks on which they are working
one -lands paramount in their minds, and that is
the organization of medical councils, composed of
physicians only, who arc willing to collect for Sov
iel Mussia medical literature, and all necessary information for the combating of diseases, and to acquaint Soviet Rus ia with the latest discoveries and
achievements in medical science, and with the hospital care of infectious and other diseases. They
desire ultimately to organize medical units of expert* for service in Soviet Russia, when communication between this country and Russia shall have been
thrown open. Through these councils we have
secured the co-operation of medical men of not-J,
who have expressed their desire to acquaint Ru -
nan physicians with the achievements of the medical and sanitary sciences VP 'he United States during thc seven year- of bloi -.ade of Soviet Russia
Some of them have travelled to Europe to familiarise themselves with the present status of medical
science in the Western European countries.
The lack of nurtCt and ether hospital attendants
seems to be a great handicap to Soviet Russia at the
present time, according to reports which have reached us. Therefore thc above medical councils are
drawing within their sphere of influence nurses and
other hospital personnel, who are willing to go to
Russia to help alleviate the suffering ofthe victim*
of the war and the blockade. Serious consideration
ls Riven to the medical education of Russian enu-
grees desiring to return to Soviet Russia, especially
to the unskilled labor, who would be of great help
■'• 'he hospital service in Soviet Russia.
With reference to the Western District Committee, the Central Committee has found it necessary to
suspend thc Western District office, and request
Charles L. Drake to transfer in detail all the records
concerning the work done in thc Western District
iu the past. A local committee was organized in
Chicago to go on with the work there, and thc Cent
tI;'l Committee is now in direct communication with
all the sub-committees, trying to co-ordinate their
efforts for thc sake of greater efficiency.
The work in Canada, under the supervision of thc
Central Committee, is making very good progress.
The comrades in charge of the work there have proven to be exceedingly worthy by virtue of their accomplishments.
The general conditions of the country, with the
enormous unemployment prevailing, do not promise
a very bright outlook for collections in the near
future. Our collections at present are almost exclusively from labor organizations. Notwithstanding these difficulties, the committee will continue t«j
endeavor to unite and co-ordinate the work throughout the country so as to produce the best results.
For the purpose of acquainting the people of the
United States with conditions in Soviet Russia our
committe has published and distributed up to the
present time about thirty thousand pamphlets, ant)
in addition to these has issued an enormous number
of leaflets, letters and statements to the press.
Certain difficulties were encountered by the Soviet
Russia Medical Relief Committee, due to the activities of the "presumable friends" and open enemies
of Soviet Russia, who insisted that their hobbies ami
their*p'--i0cs be dragged into this work, which was,
from the very beginning, carried on and maintained
as a non-partisan affair. Only on this basis has it
been possible to maintain the organization, and make
the work as successful as it has been under the circumstances. Regardless of the opposition and animosity, the Medical Relief Committee in New York,
as the authorized mouthpiece of this work, is outlining various plans to perfect an efficient organization in order to carry out the work successfully.
The Soviet Russia Medical Relief Committee owes
its existence and the success of its work up to this
time chiefly, if not solely, to the earnest support
and endorsement given to it by your Bureau and
yourself. It is essential that you give us, as a parting word, a definite expression as to the future pos
sible usefulness of our committee, and your suggestions to aid us in our activities.
With cordial and comradely greetings to yourself
and the comrades over there,
Fraternally yours,
m Soviet Russia Medical  Relief Committee
((Signed) Joseph Michael, Secretary
I hope that your work will meet with the heartiest
approval of *« Soviet Goverament, and of thc peasants and workers of Soviet Itnssia.
Again I wish to thank your committee and thc
men and women of the United States whose sympathy for the people of Soviet Russia has contrib-
ut^'d'to the success of your work! I most heartily
endorse the'f-fforts of yow committee, and urge you
to go on witb^rWir tasks, as heretofore, regardless
of carping crit caft» an4 slanderous attacks, either
through miscor-* an fcfn of your work or deliberate
malicious intenti, ia A
I remai
ipit;
-livid
THE LES-rmd a
development. "c6ri!-?
gUtsst* has
,'iMi-mation. so that
ijiven
the
social; v. *•    am-
tj to pro-
RUSSIAN SOCIALIST FEDERAL SOVIET
REPUBLIC
Bureau of the Representative in the United States
of America
New York,
January 22,  1921.
Soviet Russia Medical Relief Committee, New York
City. N. Y.
Dear Friends,—Before leaving the L'nited States
of America, it is my pleasant duty to thank you
most sincerely on behalf of the people and the government of Soviet Russia for your earnest and successful efforts to bring medical relief to the men,
women and children of Soviet Russia, who are suffering because of the dreadful war and inhuman
blockade.
It is my profound wish that my absence from this
country should not deter you for a moment from
the continuation of your highly useful and commendable work. On the contrary, my forced departure
from this country should spur on the Soviet Russia Medical Relief Committee and al! its supporters
and sympathizers, to redouble their efforts to wipe
out the apparent unfriendliness of America towards
Soviet Russia, as exhibited by the deportation decree of the Secretary of Labor. I still refuse to believe that the American people share his sentiments.
The vast number of assurances of sympathy and regret received by me during the last week of my stay-
in this country have convinced me more than ever
that the American people, whether of the working
class or of the general-public, bear no enmity toward the hard-tried people of Soviet Russia. I
appreciate most deeply not only the physical relief
offered through the medicines shipped by your com
mittee to Soviet Russia, but also thc feeling of sympathy and friendly understanding created through
the efforts of your committee.
It will be one of my first tasks upon my arrival
at Moscow to lay your report before the Commissariat of Health, and I shall urge that your recommendations be acted upon as quickly as possible.
•I the i     ins of life.
THiE dark and diss been
preceded the hu'c in •
again seen in the c '
creeping up, threatening sV L
all its horrors.   Soup kitcht
lines, starvation and sukidt>cia'*
a glutted market.   In the ear1    <
development, when the product^riaoor r^' *
in advance of thc consuming power of wages in  .
given nation, a way Out of the difficulty: was easy
obtainable.   Far off lands could be discovered, missionaries could be equipped with capital and sent out
to civilize the heachen and educate them to thc use
of European customs.
When the Wild men learned the use of overalls,
and how to snave, wear white shirts, and attend
mass, the rest of the road was simple. Mines would
bc opened up, oil wells sunk, railways built, and
other indnustries developed, establishing a new market for John Bull's surplus wealth. The bonds ami
securities secured in exchange for John's surpius
spurred him on to higher efficiency in production.
Industrial activity and expansion of capital in John
Bull's new hemisphere soon erected a warehouse
wherein food, white shirts and overalls were stored,
when the civilized heathen had to go naked and
hungry. John Bull, Kaiser Bill, the wee French
Lairdie, and the little Father, also American, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand, Spain, Japan, Denmark, Sweden, and even China, were ready, to finance
new lands and civilize their peoples if it was possible.
The leading nations of the world, faced by an in
dustrial collapse for the lack of a market, and a huge
army of unemployed, were compelled by  force of
circumstances to move on the world's chess board.
The Glasgow "Forward," dated April 7th, 1917,
reports a half-yearly meeting of the British company owning the Ottoman railway from Smyrna to
Aden. France at the same time operated the Smyrc-
Cassabaet prolongement, and Germany the Anatolian and Bagdad railway, all in Turkey.
On pge 41, chap. 4, Liebknecht's "Crisis in the
German Social-Democracy," the Deutsche Bank-
irrigated the Koma plain. The monies to be collecN
Pasha. She also drained the sea of Karavirn and
irigated the Koma plain. The monies to be collected on foreign advances beggared the Turkish population, and later ruined the resources from whicii
levies could be secured.
This tendency favoured Germany by the grant of
Turkish concessions to build a net work of railways
reaching out in many directions with the view to
capturing the eastern market.
The possible invasion by Germany of Egypt, India. China, and other parts, threatening the very life
of other European capitalist nations. This world
being limited, Turkey and the East is the last thea
tre to be exploited by capitalism. So eager are
the various exploiting groups that the "Montreal
Star" of the 15th March, 1916, says that Sir John
Jackson, eminent engineer, advises the Allies, when
the war is over and Germany out of control of Turkey, to rush thc Bagdad railway across the Taurus
mountains to Bagdad, thence to Basra, the Persian
Gulf and the East. This would open up huge trade
for the conquerors. Lord Rathmore, when addressing a meeting of shareholders, was instructed to
write the Foreign Office complaining of the loss of
(Continued on page 7) '.' ', i|i**l"«l**.- taw-****
PAGE SIX
WESTERN     CLARION
Materialist Conception of History
FOR   BEGINNERS
V
■
NATURAL ENVIRON!!
Leaaon/
• HE ancient civilizatJ
tility of thc soil^i**^
T (Continued)
fer*
Tim ancient civilizatf        osc  where the
tility of thc sc^jb^ an abundant return
",,K ,;v'      r re its priority to the
■> less liable to bc dis-
^mplicatcd.
the soil as a result  of
abled an accumulation of
first civilization to be re-
xist from five to ten thou-
othcr people made a lh ing
flooded thc country and !eft
k which needed no other bbor
.a on  the surface.    No changes of
be feared; nothing but sunsrrne;
....u fcgypt is dfe land of sunshine.   Their firs* inventions were a system of dykes and canals to regulate the water and store it for dryer years.     They
were also impressed   by the   fact that   the rising
waters coincided with certain aspects of the stars.
This led to the study of astronomy and the discovery of the solar system.   Because of the changes
of the surface of the land after thc"flood. demanouvg
a redistribution of the land, surveying became an
economic necessity.      The division of the so:,  in
rectangular plots, originated   geometry,  and t--xes
were reduced according to the amount of land wished away.    Here  we  find geometry developing  in
the concrete.     The Greeks developed geometry in
the abstract, the object of which was to establish
precise relations between parts of a figure.   Thales
was the Greek who measured the height of the Pyramids by placing a staff at the extremity of the
shadow, which the pyramid casts, forming two triangles by the contact of the sunbeams, and showed
the height of the pyramid was to the length of the
staff in the same ratio as their respective shadows.
Egyptians must have been acquainted with mechanical  powers.   The largest obelisk in Egypt is calculated to weigh 297 tons, 70 feet in height, and to
have been carried 138 miles from the quarry.   The
later civilizations were affected more by the European climatic conditions, which, as Buckle po nts
out. caused a more successful and continued labor,
and which have been more favorable to his .ultimate
progress than the agency of the soi'.
Buckle again is near discovering the economic
factor. Buckle also points out that the civilizations
of Mexico and Peru were a result of the fertility of
the soil. He says: "The position oi Mexico, bring
near the Equator, the shape of thc land gave it
humidity, and this being the only part of North
America in which these two conditions were united
(heat and humidity), it was likewise the only part
which was at all civilized.'* He points out that in
North America, also South America, all the large
rivers flow into the Atlantic, with the soil better
irrigated in the East as a consequence, while the
heat in is the West. He claims, in consequence of
the two great conditions of fertility not being united in the American continent north of Mexico, the
accumulation of wealth was thus impeded, and the
progress of society stopped until thc 16th century,
when the knowledge of Europe was brought to bear
upon Amerca.
He points out that the great rivers of South America and the climate of the equator makes the soil
remarkable for its exuberance not only in the tropics, but beyond it to the south of Brazil, possessing
a fertility not to be found in any -part of North
America under a corresponding latitude. Wc would
expect this part, being endowed by nature with
great fertility, a civilization would have been found
which in other pafrts of the globe, similar conditions produced. Buckle explains why there was
not a civilization found here because of the prolific
prodigality of the soil. He says: "Thc trade wind
blows during the whole year either from the north-
cast or the south-cast. The causes of their regular
ity are understood and are known to depend, partly,
on the displacement of thc air at the equator, and
parti} i^n the motion of the earth, for the cold air
lrr-m the north is constant!} flowing towards tat
C-juatcr, and thu> producing northern winds in the
northern hemisphere and -outhern winds in the
southen hemisphere. These winds are deflected
in lr their natural course by the movement of the
earth as it revolves on its .-\.> iron: west to east.
'lie rotation of the ear:!-, .* more rapid at the
equator, the speed of which OUtstri] s the movement
of the atmosphere from the poles, forcing them into
eastern!)- currents, called trade wind-- These wind-*
blowing from the east across the Atlantic reach the
land surcharged with vapours accumulated in pas-
page. These vapours, on touching the shore, are.
at periodical intervals condensed into rain, and a*,
their progress westward is checked by the mountain
range of the Andes, which they arc unable to pas*,
pour their moisture on Brazil, which is often deluged with destructive torrents. This, along wfch
the vast waterway* of the eastern part of America,
has stimulated the soil into an activity unequalled
in any other part oi the world.
Nature seems to riot in its very wantonness «■>"
power. Brazil ha* den-e and tangled forests, whose
trees are elegant, throwing out their produce in
endless prodigality On 'heir summits perch birds
with gorgeous plumage; below on tbe ground the
trunks are crowded with brushwood, creeping
plants, innumerable parasites all swarming with
life. There arc myriad* of has* * rt tiles of strange
and singular form, serpents ami lizards spotted with
deadly beauty. All find means of existence in tht-*
vast workshop and repository ot nature. Nothing
is wanting: the forests are skirled with enormous
meadows which, reeking with heat and moisture*,
supply nourishment to countless ber-!* of wild cattle that browse and fatten on the herbage, while the
adjoining plains are the choten abode of all kinds
of ferocious animal, which prey on each other But
amid all this pomp and splendour no place is left
for man. He is reduced to insignificance by the
majesty of Nature. The forces that oppose him are
formidable, thus he has never been able to make any
headway, and with all these natural advantages of
fertility, the natives had remained uncivilized. Its
inhabitants were wandering savages and were incompetent to resist those obstacles thc very bounty
of Nature had put in their way. Tbe natives, like
every people in the infancy of society, are adverse
to enterprise and never grapple with tbe difficulties
that stop their progress. Any civilization in Brazil
has Wen introduced from Europe. The physical
laws are so active. The mountains too high to
scale, the rivers too wide to bridge The mind
of these primitive people, cowed by this unequal
struggle, was unable to advance. The prodigality
of tbe soil had made the people batbaroiis in their
struggle against wild animals and deadly reptiles.
But immediately opposite Brazil is Peru, where was
found a civilization lying under the same latitude,
but subjected to different physical conditions. While
the fertility of Brazil was carried beyond Ihe point
where the imperfect knowledge of uncivilized man
is unable to, cope with it, in Peru and Mexico, thc
fertility was confined within manageable limits, and
instead of hindering social progress, favored it. by-
encouraging that accumulation of wealth without
which progress is impossible.
In Mexico and Peru they could obtain sustenance
with very little energy, which gave them leisure to
improve their knowledge, and had not a fertility
great enough to produce- wild animals, reptiles and
deadly insects to hinder them in their progress'
"These physical conditions had an effect on man's
mind by exciting imagination."
Allison, in his history, describing thc Hindustan
mountain says: "The depth of the valley below and
the splendour of thc suroundings formed so grand
a picture that the mind was impressed with a sensation of dread instead of pleasure." In such cases,
man contrasting himself with this majesty of nature
is appalled with his inirriori!-..  which lead •
plaining  all   phenomena as   th-    ,,.,-, 0j    **
natural agency. On the other band nrheretb    4
of nature are small ami feeble, m *°£
ence. rel.es more on hit OWrj p .„-,.,.<
inquisitive mind to discover the  i °,ai
phenomena,       lor   intUnce,  cart        ..... v      ''
came  eruptions and deadly discs
m the countries that were the tir .    .    ' "
erewtth its constant danger to I ftcre*tte4ft
tCtifit) of his imagination, creati        ron**-f-afc.
SCntiment where the dangers w< r, .       ,. -.   J ^
natural interference.    This imaginai    .,:     ^
their understanding, and even to
norant more prone to sash aid : m ^
wl-<ri s,„ue of our pious friends ..- •      .    £
Of  heli  and  damnation  into the* Ka  • bjJ*-
tetnpest, burrkanc and ptstilenci I •   wr
to impair the intellectual powers and     reasej r*
tivity Of the imagination, which
in   the   su|*crnatural.       Human ;■---.•;, -.
grasp the phenomena there  gy< *        • . y.
awe and  hejnlessnest without .-.
cannot exist     Trot   I.oria. in hit   I ]  .-;.
ation of Society," says   "Religious   ideas kmrte
elaborate and complex, are ail ■<
igntal  lechng of impotence, thai ..;. \ajat
experiences before the fore*-, tbtstaj
persuasion ol the ruling class ire re-J-vd
themselves to fear, religion ar I -
Buckles  illustrates   that    cart -  *  ami nf-
canot are more frequent in Itaij *
tugal than in any other p..r: oi : "."'•.■• a
find superstition more nfc ami * > dasfl
more powerful    Those ar-- tfe ■ >   '   *;
clergy first gained their aothorit en wpa
stKkm has retained its Brmeal
McAulay.   Historical Ks*.» po«er*1
iu! organization of the K<>; nan <'■■■■
Italy was the necessary result
to overcome the resistance ot     . ' -
ern countries, ami of the C H ' *****
ity of the  southerners' feeling*        mpoteacs m
subjection to occult and invim reel
tine arts are addressed to th-   in **
ence to the intellect,    Now it rka r;
greatest painters and sculptor, dern Easy
have been produced in the [taliat        Spath
insula*.    In regard to  edcnc* ••• ;•' '""■'
several men of conspicuous tbil        ■>'■ ;-f;r0    \
betl are small when compared w -i""'1.
DdW
*hi«
artists and jK»ets.    The lit-rratun Sntins
tugal is eminently j>oetic  and tl ; ■'•;'
prodoced some of the best paintir '   1 y
I) reasoning faculties have been : '     ';'''" .
do  not produce from the etl
anv man of merit in natural *^ i
,   ..'•'•-
elements of these countries arc thi / ,
raai
to m*
ledge, and ascribe all the sen. u
natural interference, arousing B n       ,u4,|CD.,.m|
b«i
life and cncouragt superstition
sen.-a
ing ;» : :'>
If we take the literature of India, during >;^
period, imagination runs riot. 1 - ^fifi
of their kings and saints reigned ( i'( " • ^
These Asiatic civilizations were inti 'f^f? jj*-
naturtl phenomenon. The dangers »nc ■
tropical climates, mountains which ' ^
the sky,  from which   might\  rivers po
>r bridge io >i
blc forests, deserts without water.:
their t<»irents, too wi
Ii   migmy "-" ■      .   ^
[to for bridge to tpta, »Tj
ajflW
ri
„ ttm
by Jempettt  far more destructive tna      ^0
without a suitable harbor, all tca<    «fi m    . ^
feebleness and inability to cope with na l
This also tended to create the idea »i *    ^$
which their idols represent.    ( hi lh   °n    0i*&
('.recce, which forms a peninsula lh«' '-1,u       ^
thing su
i,inar is sm>   .
and terrible, while in Greece even i »"«     a]j|dt|
is entirely different.    In India cverytl
11 *"* i
i > ot a
feeble, sttuate<l on a narrow set .   .
|Vlll*»H'
far less numerous than iu tropical
mate more healthy, earthquakes
freqte
nt. * ~~^ma\****amm
V
[canes less disastrous, wild animals less abundant.
(,tliet aspects of nature the highest mountain is
ess than one-third thc Himalayas. No great riv-
,r$ and the rivers so small they can be forded, so
lc tendency of man in India, surrounded by the
ibstacies of nature, inspired fear, while in Greece
, eave man confidence. In India man was intimid-
,t,,l in Greece man was encouraged. Nowhere is
l,;s better illustrated than in their gods. Thc In-
lians havs gods of terror. The Hindu god 'Siva''
« represented to the Indian mind as a hideous be-
no with snakes encircling him, three eyes, a human
Icull in hi* hand and wearing a necklace of human
„„•,.* llis ferocity of temper is marked by being
,! m a tiger's skin. The wife of this god is
e ghastly. Other Indian gods were more bid-
0USl with flvt heads and four bands. But in
Jreecc, even in the infancy of their religion, not thc
faintest trace of a hideous god. aproaching to the
Indian gods can be found.
The causes of fear being less we find the gods of
Greece represented in forms mostly human. Rven
Ihcif heaven had its human courts, palaces, trades
gnd professions, marriages, intrigue i and divorces,
o that the Greek god had not only human form but
human pursuits and human tastes. In Asia nature
was ,t source of awe. They never dared to as*im-
ilatc "hen own actions with the actions of their
trod*] The asjK-cts of nature in Greece tended to
cxall the dignity of man. while in India everything
I to depress it. The Creeks therefore had
more respect for human jxnver; the Indians for
■• ■ • rhuman.
Greece is described in the "History of the Universe' thus: "Greece occupies an   unique position.
Il is nearer than the other lands of Europe to those
•Tie* where civilizations first arose.    Its coasts
prreatly indented, and it possesses many hos-
liirbors    The Aegean Sea is like   a like.
Hom< r *ays: "The color of violets, the climate clear
ami I eautiful.*    The mountains disposed in a peculiar manner so as to enclose fertile spots, completely
cut off from one another.    In each of these fertile
tins there grew up a community with its own trans and customs. Commerce brought them together into a confederation. A cenfial place was
i n for a market place, made for common protection and made the sanctuar" of their dod Appolo,
sun god. At this place the jK-op'e nut for the purpose of trade and performed religious rights, held
festivals which expanded into the Olympic games."
the same conditions* prevailed in Mexico and
Peru .is in India, ami this again was reflected in the
architecture of their temples. Then temples were
large buildings showing an evident wish to impress
the mind with fear ami offering a striking contrast
to Greece with her smaller structures for religious
purposi s. Hence the tendency in Europe was to
subordinate nature to man; out of Europe to subordinate man to nature. Therefore we see the prtat
influence the natural environment has played in
man s progress towards civilization.
Scotland has been a very superstitious land owing lo its geographical |K>sition and the barren lands.
'he lowlands were thc only fertile parts, but with
'■•' invasions of England, Ireland. Danes. Nore eg-
■*ns, etc., the inhabitants never had an opportunity
i.. settle, to produce that surplus of wealth necessary for intellectual development. The executive
government with rare exceptions was weak, and the
people were never burdened with feelings of loyalty.
Hie little respect paid to royalty is conspicuous in
every page of Scotch history. The Scotch made
w" on most of their kings.    They murdered James
and James HI., rebelled against James II. and.
James VIII., they placed James V. in confinement.
James VI. they led a captive through the country,
and tluv captured Charles I. and sold him to thc
English because, being poor, they needed tbe money.
• 'ary they locked up and disposed of. yet strange to
*;lv tncse same people trembled before thc clergy.
m* was the result of taking to the mountains dur-
,nR invasions and being devoured with wolves when
"•,> barrenness of the soil made these animals fer-
"C|<MIS The scenery of Scotland, with its moun-
ains ■■••nging with mists, with thc sky darkened and
' "' "'under rolling, its echoes from mountain to
"•ountain, was to ignorant people a mystery. There
K'nv Up that superstition which created an ideal
•ronment   for the clergy to grow in authority.
WESTERN     CLARION
V\ ben the country was suffering from those invasions the church controlled more than half of the
wealth, and the clergy told the people their sufferings were a visitation of God because of their sins.
In the middle of the 18th century the country west
of Edinburgh was so unhealthy the farmers and
their servants were seized every spring with fever.
As long as the causes were unknown, they were attributed to the visitation of God for their sins, but
after a time, when thc land was drained the epidemic ceased and the inhabitants discovered the interference was not by the deity but irom a natural
cause.
Even today, there is more superstition, where
people are in contact with phenomena that have not
been explained by natural laws. For instance,
sailors are more superstitious than soldiers. The
winds and tbe storms ofthe sea expose them to more
danger than soldiers living on the land, who have
fewer inducements to appeal to supernatural interference. You will find this difference between the
city dwelk-r and the farmer. To the farmer, weather conditions, may defeat all his efforts and during
dry weather be is unable to bring the rain, therefore they attend church to offer prayers for it. In
this incidence they appear just as childish as our
ancestors, who were afraid of a comet or ecl:pse.
This uncertainty in procuring his living reflects a
superstitious and religious tendency. The city
workers and manufacturers are employed at work,
the success of which is to be obtained from man's
own know ledge. Whether it be fair or wet weather
be pursues his employment. If it turns dark he
switches on the electric light. If the machine fails
to work, he searches to find what is cut of gear and
does not pray himself out of the difficulty. The
cities therefore have been one of the main causes of
tbe decline of ecclesiastical power, and economic
causes developed the cities.
Tbe fact tbat Scotland had nothing worthy of being called a city until the 18th century is one of the
main causes of. or circumstances which explain, the
prevalence of Scotch superstition. The shock of
earthquake was the sign of displeasure; the comet
tbe sign of coming tribulation; and when an eclipse
appeared, tbe panic was so great and universal, that
tlu- people of all ranks hastened to the church to depreciate his wrath: therefore the clergy had great
power, Another reason'Vhe clergy bad great power in Europe was because they doled out charity.
The church owning the land and drawing tithes,
rent and laxes, the greater part of which was paid
in kind. corn. wine, cattle, poultry, etc., the quantity exceeded greatly what they themselves could
consume, and there were neither arts nor manufacture (or which to exchange this surplus wealth. The
clergy could derive advantage in no other way tuan
doling it oul in charity. The charity of the clergy
gave them great temporal force and increased the
weight of their spiritual weapons. They procured
respect from the poor, of whom many were constant-
Iv and almost all occasionally fed by them.
We have wage slaves today who hold thc capitalist with the same respect because he gives them a
job.
This ends tbe talk on natural environment, which
has played a great part in man's development, bu*
we have to recognize that thc economic factor is thc
main factor.
Next lesson will deal with Slavery and Feudalism,
leading to English history. P. T. LECKIE.
 :o:	
IN WHAT MANNER DOES THE, etc.
(Continued from page 3)
wealth, so that be is forced to sell his labor-power,
his energy, from day to day.
This is reflected in the laws freeing the serf, and
in the Enclosure Acts which were put in use all over
Europe on the breakdown of feudalism. These Acts
took away tbe common lands upon which the peasant had a right to pasturage. Another great political change is tbe abolition of privileged "estates,"
and thc placing oi everyone on an "equality before
tbe law." In the case of France and the U. S. the
abolition of all feudal titles and privileges, in Kng-
land. Germany, etc . their strong  curtailment.
Commodity production brings about a struggle
to gel one's goods on the market quickly. It means
keen competition, "beating the other fellow to it,"
hence all is in a condition of flux, at one time one
person is affluent, a pillar of society; presently, an-
ation. so that a
ins of life,   to the
social; vast num-
to pro-
other rises to this position while the first sinks out
of sight, perhaps into the ranks of the wage-workers.
No longer is social prestige judged by one's ability to trace thitir lineage to distinguished plunderers and freebooters of bye-gone centuries. It is
sufficient today that one possesses wealth in abundance, can "swing a sharp deal, is a skillful "money-
grabber." With cash as the expression of social
standing, feudal privileges are not a suitable political expression of capitalism. Foreign politics also
change and became an ei^eavor to get concessions-
spheres of influence, -in s.1 frt, markets for commodities. * „-
In the course of capit;. \ development, com
petition between individ^.     jjitattsts has given
way to concentration and arr-*-^mal  ,n   "*•'■ t,iat a
very small group control the .
same time, production has been
hers of workers co-operate in i
duce the   needs of society.    A
ductive forces have come into c
itical relations. i    .
Social production demands social
our political superstructure is built '-*f v---,r
ual or class ownership; it guarantees the ri^...
private property.
Political parties of the ruling class today are mainly concerned with method* *-o keep private property
in existence, bona-fide workers' parties are concerned with changing it to social ownership, t
W. H. C.
THE LESSON OP THE CRISIS
(Continued from page 5)
£1,00,000 by the seizure of the Ottoman railway by
Turkey in 1914, at the same time asking the claims
office to hand over thc control of the German railway to his company, as compensation for\their loss.
Thc geographical position of Japan with her activity in capitalist accumulation drove her into the
scramble for territory. At the opportune moment
she seized the Marshal Islands on the Pacific, and
within a week Japanese.ships were rushed, with
officials on board, to investigate the trade and commerce of the islands. She also dispatched one
thousand men to work the phosphate ndnes.
Speeches were delived in the British House of
Commons on the 20th February, 1917, in the peace
by negotiation debate. Mr. Lambert, Liberal M.P.*
showed that Great Britain in her struggle for capitalist expansion had fastened on one-fifth of the whole
surface of the earth. Russia, previous to the war,
had succeeded in appropriating half of Asia and
more than half of Europe. France bad also acquired four and one half million square miles of
territory in Asia and Africa. Italy in the feverish
heat of expansion seized 591,COO square miles of new-
lands.
Britain has 22 per cent, of the surface of the
globe and 26 per cent, population. Russia had 15
per cent, of the earth's surface, and 10 per cent, population. France has 9 per cent, surface and 5 per
cent, population.
The historic struggle in the early stages of capitalist nations for colon'al territory went on with-
a
out much interruption, but now that the world has
yielded up almost its maximum exploitation possibilities, the question arises, can the markets recently captured absorb the great mass of surplus wealth
produced by the working class?
The stage of capitalism has presented the drama
of industrial crises and unemployment at various
intervals, the most serious being that of 1913 and
1914. During the late war the machines of production were improved, and the lives of millions of consumers were snuffed out. The outlet of Asiatic
Turkey will be meagre when we consider the obstacles standing in the way of rapid development.
Tbe financial conditions of the war ridden nations
have been twisted and distorted beyond repair. Now
wc are faced with the crisis that may perpetuate
itself, drowning millions in the sea of impoverishment. The captalist owns the machine, and can only
operate and employ when the product can be sold.
Warehouses are crammed, means of production rust
ing, elevators overflowing, and men and women
starving. Socialism explains the remely. A knowledge of the question must be acquired by the workers in order to control production and distribution
GEO. PATON.
A '    V
I   1
II I
•
J!
PAGE BIGHT
WK8TERN     CLARIOK
Literature Price List
Communist afanifeato. Single eor-iee. 10c; 26
eopiea, 12.00.
Wage-Labor and Capital Single eopiea. 10c; 26
eopiea, $2.00.
The Present Economic Syatens. (Prof. W. A.
Bonger).   Single eopiet, 10c; 25 eopiea, #1.50.
Capitaliat Production. (Pint Nint aad 32nd
Chaptera, "Capital," Vol. V'Marr). Singlt copies
(cloth bound), $1.00; 5 cop* - $3.75.
Socialiam, Utopian.**'
15eT25 eopiea, $3.25.
Slave of the Farm/
$1.50. \
Manifteto, a P. of
Copiet —^
Bed Eujjr*^
ntific   8inglt eopiea,
gt  eopiea, 10c; 25 eopiea,
angle copy, 10 eenta; 26
t«>naai»>aa-'»aaa»«a«aaa-n«>«-ii-»«'i>«>a*'a«*tya9avV
jurtey, M.P.).   Single eopiea,
30e each.
(Prof.   Bolache).    Single
«, $3.75.
"n*t of Sabotage (Prof. T. Vtb-
4>rta 6 eenta, 25 eopiea $1.
..minal Court Judge, tnd The Odd Trick
x <#. B. Baa).   Single eopiea, 5 centt; ptr 25 eopiea,
7-ic.
Ancient Society (Louis H Morgan), $2 15
Value, Price and Profit (tonrx) —Singlt copiet, 15c;
25 copies, $3.25.
Introdoction   to   Sociology   (Arthur   M.   Lewit),
$1.75.
Civil Wtr in France (Mara)  .....35c
Life and Death (Dr. B. Teichmann)  90e
History of the Paris Commune (Liasagaray) ....$1.50
Cltsa Struggle (Kautsky), eloth, 90 eenta; ptptr,
35 eenta.
Puritanism (Meily), cloth, 90 eenta.
Origin of Species (Darwin), eloth, $1.
Information Respecting the Russian Soviet System
and ita alleged Propaganda in North America
(Martens), per copy, 10 eenta .
The Protection of Labor in Soviet Ruana (Ktplun),
ptr copy, 15 centt.
Stvtge Survivals (Moore), cloth, $1.
Law of Biogenesis (Moore), eloth, 90 eenta.
Social Studies (Lafargue), 90 eenta.
The State and Revolution (Lenin)  25c
Gennt of Mind in Plants (R. H. France)  90c
Economic Causes of War (Leckie), single eopiea, 25c;
10 copies or more, 20c each.
Labor Laws of Soviet Russia.   Revised and enlarged  30c
A. B. C. of Evolution (McCabe) $1.15
Conditions of the Working Class in England in
1844 (Bngels) $1.75
Evolution of the Idea of God (Grant Allen 55c
Make all moneys ptytblt to E. MacLeod, 401
Pender Street East, Varcouver, B. C. Add discount
on cheque*.
(All above pott free).
All above literature can be obtained at the same
prices, post paid, from—J. Sanderson, Box 1762,
Winnipeg, Man.
-:o:
SUBSCRIPTION FORM.
WESTERN CLARION
A Journal of History, Economics, Philosophy and
Current Events.
Official Organ of tha Socialist Parly of Canada.
Issued twice-a-month, at 401 Pender Street East,
Vancouver, B. C.   Phone: High. 2583.
Rita: 20 Issues for One Dollar (Foreign, 16 issues).
Make all moneyt ptytblt to E. MacLeod.
For. - ~ • enelosed herewith
tend...
Name
 issues to:—
Addraat
:o :-
CLARION MAINTENANCE FUND.
W. R. Miller, 25c; J. W. Dargie, $1; Geo. R. Ronald, 50c; S. Arrowsmith, $1; Knoft (per Joe Johnson), $1.
Above, C. M. F. contributions received from 27th
January to 9th February, inclusive—total, $3.75.
 ;o:	
SOVIET RUSSIA MEDICAL RELIEF
COMMITTEE
A contribution amounting to $152 has been handed to thc "Western Clarion" to be sent to the Soviet
Russia Medical Relief Committee. This sum has
been collected by the Russian colony.
ECONOMIC CAUSES
OF WAR
By PETER T. LECKIE.
NOW READY.
Preface by the author.
132 PAGES.
Per Copy, 25 Centt.
Ten copiet up, 20 centt each.
Pott Paid.
ECONOMIC CAUSES OF WAR BY PETER T.
LECKIE.
(The folowing item is taken from the "Ottawa
Citizen.'*)
This pamphlet, written by an Ottawa citizen, a
professed Socialist and trade unionist, doe-* credit
both to his intellect and his heart. It is not treatise
on Socialism but a thesis to be proved and the writer
marshals his facts and conducts his arguments to
that end. llis facts he set over against their authorities, assumes nothing, and borrows nothing
from imagination, analyses with subtlety but develops no casuistry in argument, sidetracks nothing,
and arrives at his conclusions by careful processes of
reasoning. His aim is truth and without perhaps
turning it he has followed tbe rule of writing his-
tory laid down by Leo XIII. via.: Cod has not nerd
of lies; or to put it in the word*, ol Innocent HI
"Falsehood must not be tolerated under cover of
sanctity." It was Lord Acton who wrote. "Vy
theory is that thc historian hai to disapppcar and
leave the facts and ideas objectively to produce their
own effects.' This is largely what Mr. Leckie has
done. He has given us from authentic sources the
current history of diplomacy and aliow-d*it to tC'l its
own tale. He has pulled off the mask from imperialism and shown thc workers that war ii an inevitable result of such a policy and not an economic
necessity in any other sense than as a prop for I
tumbling-down capitalism. Without in any way
attempting to challenge us with the dogma of ''economic determination." he ha-, wis-dy «-aid »hat "Social-
ism is nothing but a reflex in thought of the conflicts in fact which exi-t under capitalism."
There can bc no such thing as a permanent
league of nations functioning for the welfare of thc
world under thc capitalist system existing as it is
today npon wage slavery. Ml our wis-: men who
are not Socialists are continually telling us that applied Christianity is thc only sure remedy for prevalent social evils arising universally undrr thc
capitalist system. Hardly any Christian, and certainly not ail Socialists will attempt to deny this,
but they fail to sec what machinery church or state
possesses for enforcing obedience to the doctrines
of Christ. The suffering world is growing weary of
Christian platitudes and of your philosophy of altruism. If the coal of the world were calculated to
last but another century how many people would
voluntarily burn a scuttleful less per day in order
to prolong the comfort of mankind? And yet, as
I'.urke said: "The happiness or misery of multitudes
can never be a thing indifferent."
Mr. Leckie would probably agree with Kingsley,
who. in 1848. said to the Chartists: "You mistake
legislative reform for social reform, you think men's
hearts can be changed by act of parliament." Hut
whether he would or not, when he takes a survey of
the world as it is today. I venture to think he does
not see many si^ns of the realization of Gladstone's
golden dream: "The greatest triumph of our time
will be the enthronement of thc idea of public right
as the governing idea of Kuropean politics," under
the social system under which wc live in a battlefield where mine and thine arc inscribed respectively
on thc flags of two mighty contending hosts.
 -:o:	
HERE AND NOW.
Following $1 each—K. F. Falk. C. F. Gale. A.
Shepherd, \V. Mitchell, IT. Mclbo. J. E. McGregor
M. Lutsky, S. Lowcry, A. M. Davis, C. W. Blair.
W. Kcllgrew, A. Harnes, R. Andre. V. Wood. \V.
J. Kennedy, J. \\\ Smith. H. Montrel, L Eslingcr,
VV. Service, G. W. Laird, J. D. Clarke."
Following $2 cach—W. R. Miller, S. N. Johnson,
V T. Sorensen. VV. S. Matthews, Sid Earp, J. K.
Taimei7 J. R. Wilkinson. O. Lyon, W. Livingstone,
L. C. Egge.
*V.,C,-;;mer18' •*« VV- «wy«on, $3; J. H. Greaves,
$3; T. Iwelvctrce. $4; Wm. Clarkson, $1.50; N. H.
Tallentire $5; C. McNab, $1.20; A. A. McNeill, $5;
I*. E. Bishop, 50c.
Above "Western Clarion" subscriptions received
•ySX*      January l°9th February, inclusive-total,
■OCULIST HBTY or 0JUUd4
LOCAL <CALOAWWATIONAJ.
Headquarters at 134a 9th Avenue W'a-t
linens Meetings every 2nd and  4th Monl
onday
Business
each month.   8 p.m.
Economic Claas every Thursday. 8 p.m.
History Class every Sunday. 8 p.m.
Speaker's Class every Tuesday. 8 p.-,-.,
Text book?* used in studies arc '■><,curiitSI IK
ian and Scientific" (History Cleat), Value "
and Profit." and first nine chapters "Capital" flS
oinic Claaa). All workers arc welcomed tothckS
quaitert at any time. fa<J
•Oj).
FORT WILLIAN AND  PORT ARTHiib
DISTRICT UK
Study Class J Marxism >. every Sunday at 8 r>
at the Labor Temple. Pinlaytou Street, Fort Wi
bam. Ontario. This class is developing an<] j,
Itkelj to evolve into the educational centre inn
the worken of this district. Those wh-- arc ir,;'?.
rated in the study of history and co-n<>:*ncs front
Marxian viewpoint, ami those who arc acauairjM
with the subjects, and who apprcct.-,*-' •':. r,*V' •
the tpread oi knowledge among the workers, »**
earnest!) invited to step in and he';
LOCAL -VANCOUVER) No l
EDUCATIONAL CLASSES
POLITICAL ECONOMY: Every Sunday afternoon,
from 3 to 6.
HISTORY: Every Thursday tver-ioj, from 8 to 10
Classes meet at 401 Pender Street Beat No ft*
are asked aad no collection is mid? All teat a
required it tn earnest interest in the tabjttt Uta
up. All points raised and ail question! uked art
fully discuaatd. Membership iu the BeeJtlial Pa*?
of Canada it aot t condition of membership of that
elaaaea.
You are earnestly invited to attend
LOCAL  (WDntTFBO)  No. S-1DUCAT.0KAL
CLASSES
ECONOMIC CLASS: Every Friday at I pa
SPEAKERS' CLASS: Hvery Sunday at 11 air,
HISTORY CLASS:  Monday   Kv-n»n*r.  8  o'el-xa.
Friday Afternoon. 3 o'rb-rk
Theae elaaaea are already well tttaft-ded, tad tfe*
number of members is increaainf. The -la**** swat 530 Main Street. Winnipeg, and all worken ut
requested to attend.
THE "WESTERN CLARION" ON SALE AT_
CALGARY,  Alta     Alexander   Newj   Stan* «
Eighth Avenue   \Vc**t
Labor News Stand. 814a 2nd Si   East
MmNTKI- \l. -Frierman and  Bartnow ki. 1- <>
tario St Kant. /* i
Popular Book and Stationery Store, loStunr
erines St. West ,*,-■«■
EDMONTON—Labor News Stand, 10228  KH«J
,\KW \\ ESTMINSTER -Newt Stand. B C&*
SEATTLE   Raymer's ()id Book Store 1 WO In A«j
\-<>irr Airniru -\ik.ng Book Sta   W !lav,s
Toronto   I) Goodman, Blind NewtAgeat,<*
QttCtn and Chestnut Sts ,   ,,-
The American Htffi Agem v. 81 o-*n M-»v
The Theatrical Book Store,cor Bt) ■■V'i<'rn'  i
The Utder Lane l.ook Store. Leader LtW"
King St. B., (near King Edward Hc-teJJ.
VANCQUVEK - Columbia Newt Stand, cot**
Hastings and Columbia Sts.
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BUFFALO, N. Y,—Onward Boot Stor<
ccy Street
CHICAGO—Walden Hook  Shop.  30?
Court
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ROCHESTER/ N, Y.—Proletarian Party,
Paul Streel p ,'tt
TACOMA -Raymer's Old Hook Store, 1311 m
Avenue
P. I< Heifer, 1151* Broadway. . ,de.
DETROIT Knrc'ATioNAL SOCIETY  »
laide St. Beat, Detroit, Mich.
1 louse of Masses. Gratiot and St AubW-     ^
PORT WILLIAM —   Stewart's  Book Store
Victoria Ave. »n*M*
Pred K Moore, 224 E. Mary St. (All tl3
literature on sale at Moore's), .^
SAN'  FRANCISCO    Marxian   Educational
566 Fulton Street.
14 Chaun-
I'lyinotith
580 St

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