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Western Clarion Jan 16, 1921

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Array >*-**-
A*y
ESTERN CLARION
A Journal of
CURRENT
EVENTS
Official Organ of
THE SOCIALIST PARTY OF CANADA
HISTORY
ECONOMICS
PHILOSOPHY
ma835
Twice a Month
VANCOUVER, B. C, JANUARY  16th, 1921.
FIVE CENTS
Great Britain and United States
-
Economic Basis of Naval Programmes
•\
Fiiil-d'-   MOTS— The   following   article   iottoWl   upon  the
fir»i on   The Coming War »iih America." pobHshtd l>> ns
Decerobei  16, 1*>20
SINCE 1 wrote the above article the war clouds
stout to darken. Secretary Colby, of the In-
ited States Government, has taken issue with
Qrttl Britain on the mandatory powers of Britain
,i! Mesopotamia. The United States note takes
issue with the British position thai mandate agreements ami treaties arc to he considered only hy
States that are BttSlbefl of !he League of Nations.
The note consider* that the States as a jmrtiripant
ami contributor to the successful conclusion of the
war cannot he deharred from this discussion. Colby
leeepfs the statement of the British Government
that it has refrained from the exploitation of the
petroleum resources of the mandated territories in
question, ami welcomes the pledges that it is far
tr*Mu the intention of the British Government to
''establish any kind of a monopoly or preferred
potttioa in its own intertnrt.'"
Mr Colhy continues: ' l need hardly refer agirfh
in the ftel thai the government of the United States
insistently urged that it is of the utmost impor t
to the future peace of the world that alien tor*
r ry transferred «s a result of the war with the
I'eDtrnl Powers should he held and administered
hi rach a way as to assure equal treatment to the
commerce and to the citixens of all nations.' lie
goes on to say that the statement of Britain with
reference to the mandate with a view to seeurinu
ei|iinl treatment for the commerce of all nations in
'he LeagUS of Nations, does not indicate a Bttppos-
ition on the part of Britain that the United States
;'ii be excluded from the benefits of equality of
treatment.
Colby requests that the mandate he presented or
communicated to tin- United States before their submission 'o the council of the League of Nation*:, be
Cease tht I'.S.A. is Undoubtedly One of the Powers
direetlj interested in its terms. Mr. Colhy continues:
The fact cannot he ignored that the reported re
■ources of Mesopotamia have interested public opm
"" tf Great Britain, U. S   A., and other countries
;,s > potential suhject  of economic strife Because
'" 'I"' fnet that they become the outstanding illustrations of the kind of economic question with re
ference to which the mandate principle was espec
Wll.V designed, ami indeed a peculiarly critical test
°« »be good faith of nations which have given adher
1'"''" to the principle.    This principle was accepted
1,1 *be hope of obviating in tht future these international differencet that grow out of a desire for
the exclusive control of the resources and markets
°f annexed territory."
Kr. Colby also says that the U. S. A. Government
l,l,,,s difficulty in reconciling the special arrange
""'"' s,vf forth iu the so-called Sun Rcmo petroleum
'''"'"'""'■it between Great Britain and France, wreh
'' British stateiiient  that the petroleum resources
"! Mesopotamia and freedom of action in regard
therCtO, will he secured to the future Artb State as
J'el unorganized. Colby criticises tin- BritNh Gov
,'nn,1,,||t   severely  ou   its  oil  dealings   '"   fvtesopot-
"""" ,m<1 the Sn„ Rcmo agreement, being based on
lho l'r-..elplet that tho concession granted by tin'
'"""'•i' Turkish Covernnient before the war must be
""""''',|. Mttl the U. S. A. is reluctant to assume that
"k ^iijcsty's Covernnient has already undertaken
] lss judgment upon the validity of concessionary
<■><>. " "'       (\i1bv   SflVS !   "In
this connection I might observe that such .information as this government has received indicated that,
prior to the war, the Turkish Petroleum Co., to
V
great powers, and much more therelfne the power
hehind the American government, the sum of the
premises can be easily calculated; it st the begin
claims In -i,,.
make specific reference, possessed in Mesopotamia ning of war...How soon the war commercially de-
no rights to petroleum, concessions or the exploit- elared may take to materialisejin a mere familiar
ation of oil, and in view of your assurance that it is form we are not prepared to pu&lish; bu^short of
not the intention of the mandatory power to estah- miracles, the time cannot be loaf." After asking
lish on its own behalf any kind of monopoly, I am what the pacifists think about it the "New Age"
at a loss to understand how to construe the provis- says: "Our pacifists must love war in their hearts
ion of the San Renio agreement that any private to he indifferent to the signs of its approach; is it
petroleum company which may develop Mesopot- because it gives them an unaccustomed thrill of
amiai. oilfields shall he under British control." Galilean martyrdom; with prospects at the same
Ixml ..othermere's "Sunday Pictorial." 13/6/20, time of personal immunity from harm?   And those
pointed out Britain was spending £50,000,000 a year millions who believe that a war between England
in  Mesopotamia  and Persia, looking after some- and America about oil is impossible, unthinkable,
body's oil wells there.   Therefore the U. S. A. must merely because they are too idle or cowardly to
he dubious.   Thc*Turkish Petroleum Co. mentioned think of what is not only possible but probable, are
was founded March, 1914. On the 24th June, 1914, they too subconsciously waiting fur the next thrill?
the   British   ambassador   at   Constantinople,   Sir        AVhatever the explanation, Sir Basil Zaharoff is
Lucas Malet, secured from the Sultan of Turkey a not the man to fail to look facts in the face.   The
uonee»»i#n in. iavor of a gtt*g -of BSuijsji finanpiers,^ need for oil is likely to be imperative, and either
who called themselves thcTurkish Petroleum Co., the European group or the AmeirTclEn*^
to own and  work all the oil in the villayets of have it, even if the white world should have to fight
Mosul ami Bagdad.   Twenty-five per cent, of the to the death about it."
capital subscribed went to Germany; the remaining Since the "New Age" wrote this a new Presi-
7o per cent, remained in British hands. The war dent has been elected in the States, and the Amer-
• auie. Germany defeated, the British financiers ican plan to burst up organized labor looks as if it
intended to appropriate the 25 per cent. German was the beginning to break any chance of the work-
capital, but by some error Mosul was handed to ers of Canada and the States making a united Stand
France by the react Treaty, and in December, against such a war. 1 have said that this Sir Basil
1918, Lloyd George politely told Clemenceau that Zaharoff is a Greek, naturalized in France and re-
the British company held the shares, and therefore siding in England. I also find he was granted, a
the /.one of Mosul should be transferred to an "Arab few weeks ago. the degree of D. C. L. at Oxford
/one under English influence." ("Morning Post.'* University, and created an oil syndicate with s
12 6 20), Tin French agreed, hut stipulated that capital of 100.000,000 francs. He is said to have
they get this 2r> per cent. German capital as their subscribed to the purchase of coalition newspapers
share of the war swag. An agreement was an-' and the election fund of Lloyd George in 1918. What
limine,d. between Walter Long and M. Henri Ber- the answer of Britain to the Colhy note will he 1
sngtr, of France, whereby French capitalists were do not pretend to know, but America is making a
'to net 25 per tan! and British capitalists 7."> per demand for a share in the swag, and oil being the
e. ut of the output of oil. Mr. Lloyd George, the key product in industry today, America's claim,
greatest mob trickster on the politieal stage, told which may he justified from her support in winning
the house that the Arab State is to get the o'l, but the war, will be enforced on the grounds of econ-
qualifies himself. "The whole of that will belong to omir necessity, and America is determined to have
the Arab State, subject to any arrangements made as much oil as the other powers, cost what it may.
before the war with Turkey." That means 2"> per The merchant marine and foreign trade of America
cent French and "."» per eent. British output. How .is being pushed for the disposal of t»he surplus
much do you think the Arabs get? The London wealth, which is the only alternative the capitalists
"Times,'' "JOtli May. 1980, said: "The whole atmot* have to stave off unemployment, and yet it fails.
oh, re of our proceedings in Mesopotamia and Persia The trustification of the world's industry proceeds
appears to savour more of syndicates than sense." apace.   It was announced from Paris that an ar-
Tlie "New Age" (London)', tells us the question rangement  has been arrived at between German,
of oil was dealt with at Spa. last  April, and that French and American interests having for its object
one named Zakaroff, a Greek, naturalised in France the exclusion of British industry from the recon-
jiml residenl in England, has an entente with thj struction  of   Europe.   The  parties concerned  are
\iurlo.Persian Oil Company, in which the disposal Sehneider-Civusot interests in France, and the Steel
of the oil 1 have already mentioned was agreed upon, the Stinnes and the Tyssens group in Oermany, the
Tlie "New Age" mentions the 'Times" as Baying Corporation and National Bank in the United States.
tin* "will  provide competition  ha  an  industry  in Both  these  are linked up Avith  the Standard  Oil
whieh it is badly needed."   The "New Age" then Company.    It is also stated that since the armistice,
savs- "When we recall the facts that the American! French steel interests have invested heavily iu (bu
Standard Oil Company has hitherto had a virtual iaiUil iron nnd *n**el enterprises and acquired contid-
monopoly of th*? world's oil supply, that it recently erable Spanish and Italian interests during the war.
opened s branch "in Francf* in anticipation of the a new balance of power is being formed tn Europe.
present  'entente,'  that  some of its directors have '|-|u, Sl.->nq military agreement between France and
been  complaining  thai   their government  was not Belgium has eliminated a neutral Belgium, so the
backing them  up as the European governments scrap of paper no longer exists.   She is bound hand
Bicking up the European capitalists, that s and foot to BVance's military machine, and Antwerp,
new pr<  idenl and policy were due in America, that the  dagger  pointed  at  the  heart of England,
the Standard <>i! Company is one of the world's- (Continued on Page 8)
.■Hi
is PAGE TWO
WESTERN      CLARION.
THREE MONTHS PROPAGATING-.SOCIALISM.
WE often hear the phrase from those somewhat pessimistic members of our class,
that: *'The workers are not ready for
.Socialism/' Whilst this is quite true, as evidenced
by the fact that capitalism still exists, and that (as
shown by recent elections returns) the working
class still votes for exploitation, yet. throe months
amongst the miners of B. C. and the farmers of Alberta, have convinced me that then- never was a
time when they were so ready and eager to listen to
Socialist propaganda. ?
Compared to the hardships eiidur-d by former
propagandists over the same territory, my four was
a 'bed of ro-.es." At no time did I find myself
under the necessity of having to sleep under a
blanket of "Western Clarions" with the solar sy
tern for a roof 'as happened once to one of our poor
itinerant organizersV Nor did I at any time have
to travel 40 odd/ n*les, over the prairie with thl
temperature at/jfc* below, as did Charlie O'Brien
and Wilfred </ibble.
All  along \h$ route  between  Calgary  and  Edmonton, I ^vtis  being constantly asked  tt to  the
whereabout* and well-being of the above mention
ed comrades, as also Tom O'Connor.    It speaks well
for the pioneer vttbrk of these comrades, that  the
present attitude *of these Alberta farmers, the extent of their acquaintance with the Socialist philosophy  (which  amased me),  is almost   wholly  Jit
tributablc to their efforts.    In the farming distrieis
I was able, due to the wonderful system of coop
eration prevalent amongst the farming comrades, to
have a meeting almost every nipht in the week.  I
sold out my stock of literature, which weighed tbou!
75 lbs., in four meetings around Stettler and Bad
Willow.
Literature sabs were good all alonar. but particularly s« amongst the farmers. Only onee did I
come near to martyrdom. I was informed before
starting the meeting that a custodian of morals and
property was to be in attendance to mak- sure thai
I. Bolshevik propagandist, should sa.v no word derogatory to the character of him who is. by the
grace of God, Emperor of India and Ireland. I lap
pening (as is always the case with red propagandists' that i was dealing with important matters,
the emperor did not come into my line of attack, i
was told afterwards that the guardian who stood
at the rear, of tin- hall, had a warrant for my arrest
on his person, but when we take into consideration
the fact that these people are selected as horse-
are, by avoirdupois, and except in rare cases, arc
quite mentally unfit for the simplest tasks in life,
BOW was the poor fellow to know whan I was castiu^'
an aspersion on the sacred personages or institutions of capitalist society? In Calgary. I met tin-
funniest person that ever was. He was the report
er for the "Calgary Herald." At my meeting, he
was quite exasperated at my having, amongst Other
frightful historical disclosures, referred to the first
Earl of Shaftsbury as a hypocrite. This poor little
pen-pusher got blue in the face fiver it. • I thought
for a moment that he was going to burst a blood
vessel. He wrote a letter to the "Herald," about
me, and he used the awfullest lanjniage, just -made
me tremble all over, so it did. He finished up by
challenging me to go over to London and give! my
speech there in the east end, where Earl Shafts
bury had established a "ragged school" (how nice
of the old boy) ! Of course, I can't go to London,
even did I have the desire, so I had to pass up the
"challenge.'' However, 1 challenged tin 1 il * pen
prostitute to a Oonneybrook, but there now. tha*
wasn't fair.
Another incident in Calgary, which still further
convinced me that my humble efforts were meetin'-
with success, was the furore caused by certain parts
of my lalk, in the ranks of the "Irish Self-Deter
initiation League." the president of which denounced nie in vigorous language, for having referred
to De Valera as a bourgeois shyster and a few other
things. Americans at the meeting were shocked a!
the description I gave (from American historians)
of the lives of the fathers of that democracy. So
I had representedves*»of patriotism from the leading
capitalist   countries   aligned   against me,« and   to
headquarters 1 sent a report of progress.    The "Her
aid" was displeased with the audience at the meet
ing, which showed  itself, with  the few exceptions
mentioned, to be overwhelmingly red in sympathy,
This was particularly evident on the following
Sunday, when an international parali/er from the
A. F. of L. held down the platform of the forum,
and he was swept off hit feet by tn avalanche of
(pies! ions, and was clearly shown that the workers
in Calgary had Listened long enough to capitalist ,-
spokesmen.    The   only  defenders   this  person   bad
were those who on the preceding Sunday had tried
to oppose me
I expect to be in Ctlgtry again early in January,
and  would  he  glad  to have  representatives  of the
Self-Determination League of Ireland, the "Suns
of the Fathers of American Independence," "Tn
Boys of the Chelsea School." with a couple of pa-
son.s or priests thrown in, all ready like Crusaders,
for an attack upon a beardless Boishtvik.
PRANK CASSIDY
Editors Kotc- Comrade Cassidj will be in Alberta igatn
p**obsbtj   before  tlir*<.- column*, .ur  r,.,,i    CewnnMinksiioni
.<mf enejiyrica shook] be directed to turn c o  \   H   SI a
secretary, Alberta P. 1   C, [00016  93 st, Edaxmtect,
o:
NOTES ON THE NORTHLAND
AI'AKT from the fishing, metal mining, lumber
and pulp industries, which are situated OH
the coast, the northern portion of B C, wfll
nol affect, to any appreciable extent, the Struggle
between the worker-*, and their masters for postcs
lion of the reins of power.
Th,- country between  Prince  Rupert  and  Prince
George it populated to a large extent by workers
who are endeavoring to escape from the thrall o!
catpit&litm by going on the land    That it it mi
possible to do to, is slowly, but surely, becoming ap
parent to many of them.
Farming on t small scale, eked ont bj occasional
j,.h*. in the tie camps, constitute the meant of pro
earing i living for the majority  of the tettl*
therein.
in  places such as Smither*.. and other divisions]
points, there arc rai'wty workers. whf> cau'Le count
ed a* part of the steady population    Not  forget
ting several specimens of that  ubiquitous parasite
the real • state a {rent
Different  members of thia species, vvh-» are. of
eourse  patriots,  attempted   .'•»  disturb  some  of  the
meetings held tt small towns along the line, but
. it bout  success. •
In addition to these, there is a large body of trail
sien! workers, employed in the tie camps and sutai!
mining camp** in the district.   Tin- (;. T |* railway
from ffasp* r to Prince Rupert, is gradually being
turned infra a branch line of the Canadian National
so low is the government estimate of this district
tt a wealth-producing area.    This will undoubtedly
reset on the mentality of the farming community,
who,   at   this   time,  cannot   see   beyond   roads  tftd
bridges, promised hut never built
If the settlers were the only ones t-> be reached, »<
WOttld not repay tin   energy expended iu Spreading
propaganda tmongat them, a*- they do not affect
th,- food supply of tin country. The transient population, loggers and miners, do. however, make the
spreading of Working class knowledge worth whi'c
as they can disseminate the same as they move
around.
If is rather difficult to get speakers into these
places, as the outside districts do not seem a hi-
to deVdop speakers of their own. In order to cany
on propaganda in that country it will bt BtOtttary
to establish a circuit through the ('rows Nest Bass,
up to F.dmonfon, and along the O. T. P. as far as
Prince Rupert If only carried on at intervals of
three months such tours would repay iu time the
* cost involved.
There can be no doubt as to the interest tnkei
explanations of present world affairs from .flu
Marxian Standpoint The meetings held in the
Prince Kupcrt district on behalf of the Socialist
candidate drew fhe largest audiences. They came
to these meetings each week, although the propa
gar-da was no! at all of an electioneering charact< r,
but purely educational.
We are short  of speakers and  need  fo develop
n in
 :o
some At the same tiu.e it would be veil't
points attempted^ to. produce tl,,,,- „v "***
Local No. 1 it neither the birthplace oTih^
race, nor yet the fount of wisdom " h,llnn
I    •'   KAVANA«lH.
PRINCE RUPERT ELECTION
Statement of Finances.
Ken ij>t*
■    !. C. 0 B U Collectioo I:   ,
Prince  Rupert
Met < i... i.   V
(.!..•      i .    !■'.
Hsssmood, \\   S-
•dkm,  a.
Shj«,   I-'
Deny, VV- H
I'iIIokI. \\. A
Sndimao, V
M*>rn«,   \S .
I tagBCi  /   P
Upton,  A>   l.
(.41,411.    )
lobnsoci) C
Morrison-  M
Habirdj   Logsa
Crocker, i»
CbsrcSj  T.
jofcsssss,  v
Tsfort, 1   t»-
Harrington* 1
Cans* j »
T.r  I    1.   P
1     • •     lingi
1 »;* ■ ■■
..r;i*»
Locks and lu> *
Printing il-zi'*!
Stan..,-., (Wrath till)
piitn   ,   | Pranks I
i*t< I  \ '    t&sthj •''- **•v
J Ada. (Earn
\.|«.  H   (     I    !• ij'j    »«t
\..«rr.'   Let.   I   •ttSN
,r»f   Heater
|   H   fittrrnngsi
BascnMi   to   Easing!
I rpctamtt to Terrsc*
i .jx-.i^ <• to Oceas f ■»*!*
Haiti  4ii<f   \,J., Terrtet
<       .      BSMi t«"4l he,
|     tV,   I    I   , OSfSSftt) J*r.  ftbectt   4''i  ;••■•
•* m< :,,!   I U , it*>u«   An
ToUt
?> >:
■ I
1MB
it
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i
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I'm
;>-. r
ZU
eg
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..,
m
i
i
i
!    *
■v
-a
I *
T<>t4l   Eapemci
I    ;»h    "I!    )«4(ld
T<>t4i   rrceipti
.
.•■
• i
I
,*•
I
• •
Kent   Ainr iIh Borowtu h--*l ail c
*-u«i n-ai rotrd t„ the $odafi»l Part) of Caw
********** 	
.. i ....      .!. BSVpO a\;*7i to Hm■* ,t,u..- I
it  l . Prince Rupert; and m -v^ssisdei      v
,l< r*«l lo UI in tni*t pending tin   !<>tm.«:
s-«i.ihr Pattj <'i Canaan n> Prines R
lii< TORAL ki Tl RK&
Rmtrroagfa (8oc ). 61b; Poonby, 562; Newt
1101
, .        -o.
HERE AND NW ^
PoHoaing $i each   II T. Swsasoo,  \ '       >'
mo, l>. UcPhcrt**m, l. «, Atk.ns I  R  i • '• »•   \ ,,,
Klhv.i,, w. UcQuoia, 0. Unon, V. Pr< ■'■       r,', ,
thews.   U.   Z,miitr.i.i;.n,  < •   H-   I*k(.   I    '
Wjgbt, I). A. Hb<k. If  Nomao, Ceo, Pawn, R«  •    M',„
N. Taylor, J. LgrMtes, J   Praaer, A- ^ !h     '    '
mm, T Shaw, W. M<»ni,p 11. ArnoW, I  v^"
A. Sprfcc, k. Besssati I- A. htcD., D Kletnpn*-1
Pohowhtt U carle  S   Oliver,   f    I    MacO '   '.'^
Bert Smith, It MlUiken, K K Cole, \ P »d •■»"
M. IhkIis. , ;..
Pottowitaj $> ra.li   M GowRc, J. Sandei      !
W. Cmig, sv. A. Brown, .1  Wstsoa <;.
I  Bwart, .v.) ceata* T. Hanwclli 50 centi   < ^
T. Twclvetree, »5; W. Ds SrVssrd, WiO; I   "*•'"*
tl
AIm.vc.   "Western   ('larion' '    suhseiipl'.'"
i- •■ <
!\(>l
0*9
•Xtl» Decembst i« 11tt. Jsnntry, Inclonw
m —». ;o:
Ss
i ;o WE 3T BRN     CLARION
PAGE THREE
THE PASSING SHOW.
-it] \T  cieat   gifted   man, das. .1.   Hill,  whose
thrifty tnd frugal habits of lift were the
_    w.onder of that city of virtue, St-. Louis, and
, aWesome emulation of his fellow u class-men,*'
,,,n| on one oVcasion that it  was no!  the high
. 0|  jiving which afflieted society, so much as
I   c08i of (ugh living.    Perhaps das. is right'Any
way, "
rim
tnuch
j.j,en ;i,,v might to he concentrtting on the duties.
Lluously tppointed t<» them, hy tht ehoten stew-
:„ ,,•   po session    Mich  as spilling  water  into  ;i
,iler 11 bonrt or so a day, or exercising them-
.,., pleasantly and profitably stevedoring, or re-
ing their tendencies to obesity, with a pick tl
iink of liardpan, or perhaps, l*|*st of all. engag-
Q« iii ihe  healthy  and lucrative "profession" of
wheat raising in the rich lands of Dakota,—under a
orttage, just for a thrill of adventure.
I s;,u "be the papers," as Mr. Dooley puts it.
me of these wasteful workers, between times
|.ii,i   mi   ii •*. a*- ■ ■»—-——«
)t y apparent from this brilliant quip, thai the
loerata over i" "god't country'' squander over-
in    the    gratification    of    sclf-indulgciiccs.
Jtii.it  o
.,' luxuriating indolence, had engaged, for t short
, aa B nvetter.    It waa stated that he derived
, dderablfl enjoyment  from  his unwonted experience, snd, as the "protit" accruing to the transaction \\.t> tempting, the hope was entertained in some
ea,  thai   be   would  continue  in   his  melodious
■   rettiona
1 have myself often remarked those shameless fallows calmly reposing on t railroad tic. contemplating tht serenity of nature, utterly oblivious \o
the mellow sounds of nearby industry, reminding
then of their social obligations* while yet other*,
I hav- noticed. y» t more depraved (were that pussi-
I■.- aound asleep on the sunny warmth of a wild
strawberry hank. And who has not obterved thote
ereaf. strong, hulking idle ne'er dowecls, hearing
cuts tnd M-nrs'" of their repulsive and besotted
debaucheries, hanging around the corners of cab*
srets and denatured Stloottt, prefering rather to
suffer the pangs of enervating waste, then do any
weful ItbOrl <>r lingering leisurely in the rammer
•unshine, outside the doort of benevolent employ*
■•'.' bureaux, but never venturing in lest they be
entangled in the snares of money making employment!   Stopping their cars, like Christian, and flce-
ag front the doomed city, agtinti tht pleading and
pntreaty and cajolery of the great  captains of i"
iluftry, that  they  come  to  their assistance. whilst
•"here the "Lumper" crops wasted in the fields.
' ■ greal ship* rotted at the wharves, ami factories
Sail kinds stood idle for lock of lahor. lahor that
wsa spending it* strength and substance wantonly
snd in riotous excess'
Hos   fetblt  is  the  intelligence  of  those  people!
iVv gorge themselves, like tavtgas,wproducing all
manner of physical disorders. Their wantonness
-''ii rat, s disease that baffles the skill of the great
•si physicians. They drink themselves stupid
'irius until their appointed protectors are obliged
'" dose the doors of the "sanetiiHry" hostel against
'liem. leat they destroy themselves utterly. The)
flsuu! around in public pltees, garbed in tht mosl
SUtastie ami costly raiment    In  their ennui tnd
shsudonmeni they praeUtt the most horrible vices.
wekiug out all diversity Of sensation to whip up for
v*l ii little longer, their flagging nud jaded appetites.
»ml their private lives, from the accounts of tmin*
'"' '"id charitably minded people, who have heen
 'palled,  from  humanitarian  impulses  to  render
""'"i tatistante, are tOO unspeakably dreadful, even
lo hint at.
"hat mighty engine of truth and democracy, the
';il",;,llst press, has informed us that the English
l,p°ple were never hea'thier than during the period
01 '""d rationing. An infallible sign of the degen*
''lilr.v of the "common people" in normal times of
1"<>-s|MMity.    And it is so easy for anyone to refrain
"Mn over-eating except, apparently, those mis-
""•evous iiialeoutcnts.
I,M' "Christian Science" Monitor." which spells
PHnciplo'* with a capital 1\ and appears to he
wirout of a great vxteution of democrttio form-
"i,s' ^ong  the  traditional   lines  of  constitutional
."w'v"ineut.   orders-in-council,   emergciiey   legisla
""• PrOcltraations and  censorships    draws  at ten
tion to an exceeding simple expedient, whereby we
can eliminate all food profiteering, viz., to avoid the
purchase of those things in which the profiteer deals.
How sublimely simple is truth! How infragably
divine: How god like is genius, that', like a lightning flash, in a word shatters, the obfuteationt of
wrong thinking. And so Cheaply, withal—in the
daily press. If only we would pay less attention
to "treacherous agitators," "German agencies,"
"ignorant demagogues," and other ''blather-
skitet," as the late benefactor of society,
Van Home, described them, in the witty and elegant
language of culture,—culture—how bounteously endowed we might he, with the priceless blessings of
peace, prosperity and contentment. Hut, alas: we
are "joined to our idols,' and. like the kine in the
stockyards, await stupidly, in the seething tragedy
around us, our certain destruction.
This mot d'esprit of the "('. S. M." has awakened
some ideas of my own, whereby wc might not on\v
avoid the profiteer, hut with care, become one of the
thrifty, rich.   Suppose that a city, i.e., Montreal, of
tbou! one million inhabitants! should effect a saving ou something, of one cent, each per day,—and
surely  anyone, even  the poorest,  could  save  that
amount*—-that would he over   three and a half million., annually.   From one city alone.   And a saving of two centt—-why god o' mercy, we might soon
own our private railroad.    And think of the immense
saving in apparel, if we would hut apply a few hot-
ties of Thnnderbuek'a hair restorer to our persons
and cuUivtte a downy fleece like Esau.    We might
easily economise further in the matter of, shelter by
adopting the happy device of the Australian aborigine, viz.. propping up a piece of hark against a
tree and sitting down comfortably behind it.    In
our equable climate, with a plentiful supply of durable cedar bark for nothing, wc have every opportunity of advancing our social condition hy a little
forethought  and enterprise.      It is a .self-evident
thesis that  what  one man can  do, another may.
And the economy which could he effected in leather
is enormous, if we would simply carve'some ivory
off our heads and stick it on our feet.    We would be
permanently shod.      As a • substitute . for glue,—
thereby avoiding another profiteer—we could make
t mixture of our own blood and sweat, and slime, obtainable from the bottom of any swamp, and all free.
1 offer those hints to my brother wastrels gratis,
lt is these little touches of ''fellow feeling which
make it wondrous kind." The above-mentioned remarks of .1 iin and Van ought to be hailed with delight as a gratifying illustration of the generous
charity and sympathetic understanding existing between capital and labor, hnd the spirit of loving
kindness inherent in the gentle cooing of the dove
of conciliation. K.
:o:-
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 to:	
SOCIALIST PARTY OF CANADA
ECONOMIC CAUSES
OF WAR'
By PETER T. LECKIE.
NOW READY.
Preface by the author.
182 PAGES.
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LOCAL (VANCOUVER) No. 1
EDUCATIONAL CLASSES
POLITICAL ECONOMY: Every Sunday afternoon,
from 3 to 5.
HISTORY: Every Thursday evening, from 8 to 10.
Classes meet at 401 Pender Street East. No fees
are asked nnd no collection is made. All that is
required is an earnest interest in the subject taken
up. All points raised and all questions asked are
fully discussed. Membership in the Socialist Party
of Canada is not*a condition of membership of these
classes.
You are earnestly invited to attend.
 :0:	
LOCAL  (WINNIPEG)  No. 3—EDUCATIONAL
CLASSES.
ECONOMIC CLASS: Every Friday at 8 p.m.
SPEAKERS' CLASS: Every Sunday at 11 a.m.
HISTORY CLASS:  Monday   Evening,   8   o'clock.
Friday Afternoon. 3 o'clock.
These classes are already well attended, and the
number of members is increasing. The classes meet
at 630 Main Street, Winnipeg, and all workers are
requested to attend. PAGE FOUR
W B 8T B R N     CLARION
Western Clarion
A Journal of History,  Economics. Philosophy,
and Cunent Events.
Published  twice  a  month   ly   the  Socialist  Party   of
Canada 401 Pender Street East, Vancouver, P. C.
Phone   Highland  2583
Editor lywen Mae Lend
"Subscription:
Canada, 20 issues   $100
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836
If thia number If on root address label your
subscription expires with r.ext isstfi. BeoeSP
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VANCCCVKK.  H.  (.. .LVNTAltV   16th,   192L
SECRETARIAL NOTES
Comrade Frank Cas-udy is on his way to Alberta
at this moment of jw/iting. He has an ambition to
grow fat, so he jtvi.H stay around a farm area and
recuperate for a i&onth or so, aud incidentally talk
here and thecf in the neighboring tchoolhoutea
His address for the time being will he co A. B.,
Shaaf.  1001 b—93rd Street. Kdmonton.  Alberta.
• *    *
Comrade J. F. Maguire has retired as Secretary
Alberta Provincial Executive Committee, and A. B.
Shaaf. address as above, has been elected as .secretary. .Alberta comrades will please note. Com
rade Maguire is entangled in some tin vehicular
property rights, otherwise his projected visit to the
eastern state*: would have commenced  before thi**
date.
• *    #
The cu*e of Comrade C. Ii. O'Brien has n<>t ye!
been heard on the Federal charges under the C. S.
Criminal Anarchy Law, but it is expected that the
case will he heard within a month. The expectation expressed by our correspondent 1*. that the
charges will h< dropped. While we hope our correspondent may win fame as a prophet, tht C. AL
O'Brien Defence Fund is still open. See moneys
received, in another column in this issue.    Further
sums will be acknowledged.
• *   *
We are asked to state that the rpt'l'ng address
of V. R. Hidgiey, Secretary of O. R. I . has been
changed from Vancouver to P.O. Box 1556, Winnipeg, Man.
• •    •
Our Literature Price List in iast issue snnonnced
the price of "The State and Rerolation" Lenin,
00   being   1">  cents  per  copy.    This  is  a   printer's
error.    The {•rice is 25 cents per copy, post paid.
• •    •
The question as to our affiliation with the Third
International is under way now, and is treating
much interest. This discus.sion should prow of
• benefit to the Party membership, tad we hope the
Tarty membership will see to it that the points are
presented for publication, for and against This
question was discussed hy Local Winnipeg before
the request for a referendum was made. Xo doubt
it in now being discussed again. Local Vancouver
have had several sessions in discussion of the terms
of affiliation, and interest in the matter is increasing. The "Clarion" should he provided with some
interesting material 'for publication. Comrade
Kaplan fires the first shot in this issue.
sot
Take a look at the Here and Now item. Smaller
than last issue had to acknowledge. All subscrip-
ers whose subscription expires are notified, and
they should renew or they will be dropped from the
list. The P.O. regulations are rigid these days,
and we are required to furnish a copy of our list
on request. Subscriptions expired held on the list
are anathema to the postmaster, ami no one need
he surprised at not receiving the "Clarion" after
he has had a notice to aay his subscription has expired.    We have to do it.    Renew promptly.
•    •    •
Comrade Browett ha* been ordered deported by
the Canadian Immigration authorities at Vancoti
ver. His case is in the hands of I. Kubinowitz, who
has entered an appeal to the Department at Ottawa
against the deportation. No statement can be
made aa to whether the order is on England or
the D; S. A., as the authorities are not communicative as to their intentions. Having had a hearing,
Comrade Browett is on bail, provided by the Workers' Defence Committee.
i •   •   •
The ''B.C. Federationist" was unable to appear
on its issue date of the 7th January, and events
may prove that it will be impossible for it to appear on the 14th. The reason is that there exists
tn Vancouver a lock-out of job printers The firm
of Cowan and Brookhouse, who print the "Fed."
are members of the Masters' Association, and their
affiliation prevents the "Fed/' from being printed
Many enquiries have been made as to Why tne
paper has not reached its subscribers, many 01
whom are not aware of these strike conditions, tt
the ease of the "Clarion ' the printers are working
under union agreement as to retroactive pay in the
event of a decision being arrived at tor an increased rate. *
• •    •
The 1). K. C. Kep«»rt for the si* montht ending
31st December, 1920, we hope to hav*. in <lu' htndt
of focal secretaries next week.
• •   •
Cltsses now being held on History and Economies throughout the country would Ao well to encourage then- members, now thai they have had
three months' consecutive study, to write essays on
the subject taken up. The elsss itself could make
i selection from the essays and scud th.m in for
publication.
• •    •
Controversial matters have taken lip much tpaet
in the past two or three issues, tnd in this issue
some nutter held over from last issue i> presented
that would really have been more timely had art
been able to   presenl    it   then      These   arc   the
contributions from Comrades Cassidy and Kavanagh. We present in thlt Wtttt a length] artich-
from Comrade Leckie whieh should prOYt interesting to all who read the presx these da.vs, and
we have left over his article <»n the "Materialist
Interpretation of History," to bt continued in our
next Comrade Bartholomew* articles "Concern
ing Value" have suffered through our lack ot
space in recent issues, and through the fact tito
that «c have had some correspondence tn cruiciMo
Of his article N<>. 4 winch his letter a* under will
clear up.
Two  Creeks.   Man.
hear ('omrade IftcLeod :
I am m receipt of your communication   rt    tn}
series.   The statement r     copying Hyndman" in
certain paragraphs is hard to understand    1 have
no nop) of llyndroen's book.  The quotations mad*
from  his MBeonomicsM wen   taken therefrom  I
me several years ago when I received s top) fro
a  friend.    I  have  no!   'end  Hyndtnan  since, tun
have not consulted his book, except tht metes tettei
therefrom bj ?n<-.
!»•• the carelessnesw in the employment of
"Labor1 and ,4Labor«power.'1 I have just read
tht artnics concerned and must plead guilt*) I
have been somewhat careless in this matter. I must
confess,   and   should   be   glad   if  you   will   be   k>
enough to "edit   ail future articles in the strictest
possible manner      I  tifl overloaded   with  Work, and
for some time I  have not "proofed*'    anv     of    th'
stuff.
Re the objection to the statements in article \ ■
4 as follows:—
"if the cost  of production  of gold  rises, the ex
change-value of gold increases in relation to other
Commodities, tnd  there  is a general  rise  in prices
all round.    But. if. as happened in 1849, the cost of
production of gold decreases, then it follows tht!
then- is a fall in prices all round
This   in  of  course   wrong    completely   and   in< \
ratably wrong,     It is not in toeordanee with the
facts, and is certainly not correct from the stand
point of logical reasoning I know not not hav-
ig any carbon copies by me whether this is a *iip
on my part, or whether it is an error at your tnd.
But it is a slip of the most confusing kind, and I
am grateful to those comrades who have written
pointing this oui. I meant the exact reverse of
that which was printed. When the cost of pro
duetion of gold, as measured by tht quantum ol
socially  necessary  labor power*  essential     for     its
production rises, there is a fall in prices; and. eon
Sanely, when there is a  fall iu the cost of production of gold, there is a rise in prices
If the fault of this mis-statement is due to me
and  I am inclined to think that it  is    then  | runs!
express my  best apologies.    There is far too much
confusion re economics prevalent without addition
made to the confusion  by such  rank carelessness.
I shall be glad if you will give this prominence in
the   "Clarion."       A   statement   of  theory  such   as
made by myself in thia particular case merits sharp
rebuke, and will serve to place a brake of extreme
utility upon Ihe stream of my words.
Hoping this will clear up the misconception,
I am, your  fraternally,
H. M. BARTHOLOMEW
•Editor's Notts—Thit should read "labor," no!
"labor power."
GEOGRAPHICAL FOOTNOTES TO
HI8T0RY-I.
It \i>u hatft ss atlas .»• baud, |   ;
n mtcti dts* asjacd in thi*. afttch
THOSE "Plebs" readers who ;.,,
to study the "generous'   Ali<\ •
like" terms of the recent I:     ,
with the Egyptian nationalist*
c^Kirt
aad
"J.
s.lves (being instinctive!) suspicious
tng*eltea tctivitiet arc under considers!
trouble
I
■' •'■-?.
'' Ii**
-■''TV
101        '       .V
cover  wha'   factors  made >ur-h  .,   ..••        ,.
tieal potitica   in Egypt, while the, in ,.r
parallel  ease of  Ireland continued I
a verv  different ipiril    It is t ,
short  tott to indicate one or IW■ >   ■     ■
which have i bearing on this p    •
The  Britiah Government a prima       •   ..
Kgyp!   was   tht  existence   of   the   8*M1  i ..   .      .
writer in the "Manchester Quard \ : .   .
putt  the  position  pointedly and  ;
"Few i mttU .* ., •
beta**. o EUtrope ^n.l Kum mxm
the   Ba k   lata   wh;.!,   \'*U -s, ..
Then -.ver.- tv,.> route*   one up ■ vl**bo*d
thrcottb  Patotiot   tOsr  rotttc   i *   . ,
ami Oh  Crusaders '. ■ tbeii  nn
UM  t*ihpui**'.«  Sacs snd thftxt* ,
a%«   she   tnort   Important,  hrrai   r I                   .,.,.
■ ! MOCC  WCBf*       So loot K» it 1 ' ".ii
c>>*  tajatdal!)  mtcre**t  Ki.
We did O"! traffic with  N*'j  ■  it     ' '    - 4e
• nasi «..* *hii» it becsste of      I
It  crmsltd a short  sea-road    I    *.
,.t.   ihrt!   ullf
*-t Imtefa «hr ..'iu and m< ! .-
i'..-*.t rofuroited t!>f  &
itmottntrationi « ...
l<4.,        '•■»-. mkmt loot v.   •
t o i>t ***» the bss*
< mat   it had lutlr <••
atsaU >i-u f<-»i* in rtw i
'    ;  ( outttrii •
Whv .   then,   have   WC   in   effect
•-•        Because we have tttablishtd oarSthnta
the o*her bank of the Canal
power    n   Palestine P., .
■  .is the hul ■ i
i "«.!(i*.sos is to I ihe weight
Ihe oil
\\ to-n the liritish .** ■■ v '-
l>,-s,■-- fmm Kantara, it lefi I ***
aid   gauge   lad   tracks,   all   th-    h.
Aeross the >»fd deaeii route wl
ed since tht days "when th*  Bpl
and which s* t«...k Ifoses tad   '
\cnrs to traverae,    Rgyptitn, L I N   «   !*•>
W . and  Plait-Co Belgian lac ■
smudges of   Welth (,oal  sio<>k<
from Kantara to Haifa in six 01 eight
To quote the "Guardian" writer sgs
(Continued on P"^ *
SOMETHING WRONG IN THI
(Bj  i   >  I bii    I         •   ■ j,
I hsd j ruriom dream ihii weel
..(,.   fot   ill«■■mm   Hsswn    M" .   .
vjw.ll. >\    I      \       J »» k >     sWl-.J.;- ,     up.
opened ti><  <!:»-r sad eyed I   V
> OS ?'
Tm .,  BHtiavti  iobhcvih '
"No kdmi n !<>r \<nt b* n
"I 'm   l-!.tfiki !>   will   . omilil    i'    •■
■
■
■
■
"I btjH v• itir pardon   yon << not
" Nn n VI!   I '"ii i Ik  too -w   i •
fetch tli' gaffer, I 'll eh* n ih*  lai «ritt*
"But,"   ;o«l Pi ter, "mj  nnutet ii '-
* ■ t    '
"I don i pvc * damn aho be i-
(in   m<|. itrokei, "fetch him- '
Peter burst ool langhingi ^"<l ia ■ '
.ml   "lint I advise yon t" <<> swaj
good feilon . haven I you hesrd that t**
"Whst! M.c.1''   *.o.l Jick
" Mwohiti K  balmy! " answered  l'< t<;
make   '< ui     He   *JH-tnl»   .tit  In*  lone  RW
the marble liall* with i wnn n,i!>o rlani
iiik i coefcsded bushes, idmlrlnt h
trying to eultivste .< lisp wht n i«.   »p
Winston ChorchUL*'
EDITOR WANTED
Applications are called fov the ""''
Kditor   "Maoriland   Worker,
New Zealand.
AppiiriintM must forwarU testimo"      r ,
to the .Manager, .Maoriland W
\o(Ht, Wellington. New Zetlan
than 22nd Pebruarv. 1921.
raoas
,  M !l   ■-■>»
'."■
•
At
'
.|Hll
dowt
1
'
ind
;
'
Wcllingtlr9!
file..
II"
l.ltiT WESTERN      CLARION
PAGE FIVE
Craft Guilds and Trade Unions
I
,„.,.„ the contention of some writers that    tinnous ev'ctcnce. but in all cases the "Batchelors'    journeyman   would  possess  the  same  prospect  of
P|    modern  trade  union  had ita prototype  in    Company"   presumed   to   be  a journeymen's  frat-    economic advancement that hindered the growth of
. aft guildt of tbe Middle A-gct. ernitv.  formed   a  subordinate  department  of'the    stable  c(orahinations  in  the  ordinary handicrafts,
.    ,rnio„   is   a   continuous  association   of masters' guild, by the rulers of which it was gov-    and in this fact may lie the explanation of theit
A  '^  era   for  tht  purpose  of  maintaining  or erned.    It will be fgbvious that associations in which    ing absence of any evidence of trade unionis
""'     " the conditions of their employment. This the employers dispensed the funds and appointed    the building trade right down to the end oi
elation has existed in England for up Ihe officers call hear do analogy to mod< m trades, eighteenth century.   When, however, the contn
"   two hundred years, and of eourse did nol unions.                                                                    ,'^a» t0 supercede the master masons, plsetc
: ni * ' rm  • 11       ... 1    •   .    t 1 .i. ,.»•    ...ii       itr-    ;in<l this . Uwk of Htnall entreoeneurs (or e
two hundred years, and of course did not
full fledged into existence.   The-verious in
N previout lo tht beginning of tht eigu*
century, sonletimet described at the fore
r Trade Unionism, do no! come within the
maaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaW
,  •  ol   th«
We
ei-iily,   formed   a  subordinate   department   of  thv ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
and in this fact may lie the explanation of the strik-
itm in
f  the
actor ,
uiron.v   ^^^^^^^^^H^^^H^^^^^^^^^b    began to supercede the masons, plasterers,
Hie explanation of tardy growth of .stable com- etc., and this class of small entjrepeneurs (or enter-
I 'ion* among hired journeymen might be found prisers) had again to give place to a hierarchy'of
in the prospects of economic advancement which hired workers, trsde unionism in the modern sense
skilled craftsmen still possessed, tha! whilst indns-    began to arise.
trial oppression belongs to all ages, it ig not until Strangely  enough   it   js not  to  these  ephemeral
(be changing condition of industry had reduced to    associations of wage-earmfn and journeymen frat-
tn   infinitesmtl  chance  the journeyman's  prospect    ernitiea  that   the origin   of trade   unionism   has
definition,    we must  exclude any a<--
,.,,„„• of the many cases in which the manual work
formed   eph< metal   combinations   against    ______________________	
Id as history itself     of becoming himself a master, that we find the pas- usually been sought, but to r\**fojf8sociations of the
ssgt of ephemeral combinations into trade societies, employers, i.e.. to the craft gur^fc.    The untoward
From the prospect of economic advancement that resemblance of the trade union totthe craft guild
hindered tin   formation of permanent combinations na<l -""I? attracted the attention ot'-tgte friends and
among hired journeymen of the Middle Ages might enemies of trade unionism; but it wat^the publica-
be tddueed the fact that certain classes of unskilled tion - Jo70 of Prof. Bretanos study ^''Origin of
manual workers, who had no chance of becoming Tra,le Unionism" that gave form to the popular
employers, do app.-ar to have succeeded in estab- i,l(,«-   Without implying that aay connection could
lishing long lived combinations which had to be put be traced between the mediaevat guild ancf^ke mod-.
down by law.   The masons, for example, had long eni trad(J union, he suggested that one wag in so
had their ''yearly congregations and conferences
alters.    Strikes are as <>
i     v ■.■ cannot  regard the revolt of the Hebrew
..,!.  in  Egypt,  lt'H) B.C., tht    innumerable
, ellions of subject races, the slave insurrections,
.  servile peasant revolts of which history is full,
Bs ;   any way analogous to the Trade (Jnion of to*
These  forms of labor war did  not  nsult  in
permanent organizations, nor were they strikes
red wage-workers seeking to improve condi*
s ol ;i contract of service into which they had
mtarily ent< red.
When, however, we patt from the annals of slav-
ii i serfdom to those of th«- nominal citizenship
i>( ihe medieaval town, we are on more debatable
md     Though   not   too   familiar   with   the   life
•■    Middle Ages, it is clear that there were a! all
ligside of tin-  independent   master crafts-
I .. number of hired journeymen who are known
occasionally combined agsins! their rulers
The-c sometimes lasted for months
ears.    Iu Lis?, for instance, the servii g
ihe London cordwainers, in rebellion against
-•*  -.:"  the   trade,"  are  reported   to   be     'heir   hclptj  	
■   • mtktng t permanent  fraternity.     Nine •*' *d* vtftwns,ith** masons, tilers, etc., remained from
■ ic serving men of the naddlers "called *he completion of then- apprenticeship to the end of
asscr? t|u,t they had i fraternity of their ' t!l,'l! working lives in one and the same economic
tirai   oul of mind." with a liver)  and ap position, a position which appears to have been iu-
governors    The masters declared, however,    *en !ia,,> l,,'"t,>" 'hose of the master craftsman
nation was but thirteen years old, and ;':i,i the journeymen of the other trades.    Like the
Memorisl jobbing carpenters of today, they were independ-
Undon and London life in the thirteenth, four- "l! producers, each controlling the process of his
sod fifteenth centuries." p.p  54243 ""''• rrat' alhi dealing directly with the consumer.
1    1417 the tailors' serving-men and journeymen ,,,ll! unlike the typical master craftsmen of the handi-
l>»ve to be forbidden from dwelling apart from their craft trades   'hey  sold   nothing  but   their  labor
blies have formed a kind of P°wer ;,t !•*■•»»■■'••' customary rates, and were unconcern- d. therefore, with the making of profit, whether
far the successor of the other, that both institutions
H       •   I   ••. a* tO raise wages
****. these ussein
i.iiiun   (Riley's   Mctuorials.   p,  609 .   "or   were
•-• fracterni tics confined to London    Iu 1538 the
Itishop of Ely reports to Cromwell that "tvveiitv one
■en   shoemakers   of   Wisbaeh    have   aSSCtn-
on a hill  without   the town ami sent  three ol
number to summon all the master shoe makers
 I them iu order to insist upon an advance 111
Iges, threatening that there shall none come
'Mo town to serve  for that   WtgCS within a twelve
'""- Snd S day. but WC will have an hai me or R
'-'-■'   al   h\m, except  tliev   will  take an Othe .'ts Wt
doon."     Calendar of State Papers: Letter**
1 I'spers, Foreign and Domtatic, Ueur.i Vlll . rol.
v    • par! 1. L538).
riU'HC   instances   suggest   that   a   more   complete
ej 'nation    of   the    unpublished    archives   mighl
""'• ihly disclose a whole series of journeymen fral
•lies, snd enable us to determine the exact con
!|/ "ii Of these associations.    It is not quite clear
•vl""lier   the   incidents   cited   were   strikes   against
'.vers or revolts against  the authority  of the
-" ;'*•     The case of the  Wisbaeh .shoemakers, ami
ly some of the others, suggest  the embryo
" Ot a Trade 1'iiion. but so far as we have be U
'■• ascertain, there is no reliable evidence oi
' 'Otinutd existence of any durable combination
1 VVflgP earners tgtinsl  their employers dining the
••Idle Ages.
i'"''''' are certain cases of associations which sre
""""'Hues assumed to be composed of journeymen.
ftH •'"tehelora or Yeomen Tailors, which were eon
l"'1''"1  With  Merchant   Tailors'. Company  of  LiOli
0U'  between   14464661,   which   maintained   a   con
made in their general chapters assembled," which had arisen ''under the breaking up of an old sys-
were expressly prohibited by Act of Parliament in *eni, ami among the men suffering from this, in
1425     (Henry VI   c  1 : also Edward III., c. 9.)    It order that they might msintain independence and
b,  probable  that  the  masons wandering over the or<*er.   And when Mr. George Howell prefixed to
country from job to job were united not in anv local ~ "History of Trade Unionism" a paragraph of
guild 'but  in a trade fraternity of natural extent. Prof. Bretano's account of guild, it became accepted
rnlike the operative in the modem building trades, that the trades union had in some undefined way
the mason of the Middle Ages served not a master "»»? originated from the craft guild.
....            I,;.,, ..ir ,,i„, ,,,,n;,!,>,i        The central figure of the guild organization was
entrepeneur, but the customer nimseii, wno proviaeu ° .
, • i i.i.i,    „., ,.!- .,,, i ,>„„.,„...■   -.1    in <*11 instances the master craftsman, owning the
the materials, supervised the work and engaged, at *
i  'i i,,i.  *i     .i.;iu i „,.,,.»,..,,;,. uii.i    instruments of production and selling the product.
specific datlv rates, both the skilled macnanic aim « .
.   . i       ..^.,.4  ,    ,i,.. i,.,,, ii,.,..1f,<„>pii   Opinions differ aa to the position oi the journeyman
their  helper*.    Iu  contrast   to  the   liainliciaitsmen       • -      « *
in the guilds or to the extent of the prevalence of
servile labor outside it, but throughout the whole
range of guild history the master craftsmen, eon-
trolling the processes and selling the products of
the labor of his little industrial group, was the practical administrator of, and the dominant influence
of  the  guild  system.    In  short   the  typical  guild
member was not wholly, or even chiefly, a manual
worker, though he had previously learned the craft
from the ground  up.    From  the first  he supplied
not only what capital was needed in his industry,
but also that knowledge of markets for both raw
material and products whieh is the special function
of  the  entrepeneur.    The  economic   function  and
political authority of the guild rested, not upon its
assumed   inclusion  of the  whole  body  of  manual
workers,  but  upon the presence within  it  of the
real directors of industry of the time.
In the modern union, on the contrary, we rind not
an association of entrepreneurs, theinselves controlling the processes of their industry and selling'their
products, but a combination of hired wage-workers.
serving under the direction of industrial captains,
who are outside of the organization of the unions
K. S.
upon purchase nud sale of material or upon the hiring of subordinate workers. The stability of their
combinations was accordingly not prevented by
those influences which proved fatal in England to
Ihe corresponding tttemptt of hired journeymen of
handicrafts.
Of the constitution, function or ultimate development of these mediaeval associations in building
trades little is known. There seems to be no tract
of then- existence later than the fifteenth century.
During the eighteenth century there is no lack of
information as to combinations of workers in prac-
ticallj every other skilled trade, but of combination* of buildiug trades no trace is evident until the
\civ end of the century. If. adhering to the letter
of our definition, we accept the masons' confederacy
;,s a trade union, we should be compelled to regard     $9.8
,lu. building trade aa presenting the unique instance of an industry which had a period of trade
unionism in the fifteenth century, then passed for
several centuries into a condition in which trade
unionism was impossible, and finally changed one,
more to a state ill whieh trade unionism flourished
C   M. O'BRIEN DEFENCE FUND.
Previously acknowledged, $8&8&
J.   A.   Turkman.  $1;   J.   Car*.>n.   %\;   M.   Vaagcr,  $-';   S
krrowsmith, $1.   Total to and including January 11th, 1920,
:0:
I, looks nioic to us as though the ••congregations and
confederacies" of the masons were the embryonic
stage of a guild of maater craftsmen than a trade
Mllion. Is il not rather that, with the growing elab-
opatio„ of domestic architect lire, the superior crafts
„„'.„ tended more ami more to become small master
Draftsmen and any organizations of such craftsmen
insensibly  into  the ordinary type of the
SUBSCRIPTION FORM.
WESTERN CLARION
A Journal of History. Economics, Philosophy and
Current  Events.
Official Organ of the Socialist Party of Canada.
Issued tvviee-a-nionth, at 401 Pender Street East.
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Rate: 20 Issues for One Dollar (Foreign, IbJssues).
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enclosed   herewith
issues  to?—-
1 PAGE SIX
W EST E RN     C LABI 0N
The Reply to A. McKenzie
By J. A. McD.
*
■ i'l
.     !
OUT of the mass of incongruous phrases purporting to be a "reply" to mv article—
"On Copying the Bolsheviki"--! think I
am safe in summarising the position of my critic to
be as follows:
1st — Bolshevism and Soculism are synonymous
terms.
2nd—That anyone claiming that Bolshevism b
not Socialism contradicts himself by supporting the
Bolsheviki. *\
t t
3rd—That the storking class movement in other
countries has, in no wavj been adversely affected by
the Russian situatitoj
4th—That the workers of Russia stand solidly for
■
Socialist prineijtesy •
These four -joints of dispute I will attempt to
explain in their proper sequence.
The evidjAt desire of Comrade McKenzie to seat
me on the. same platform as Kautsky, Martov. and
other opponents of ;*olshevist policy can be seen to
he futiltejby all who peruse botli sides of the controversy as presented thus far in the pages of the
"Clarion/' 1 hold 119 brief for Kautsky or other
porch-climbing intellectuals of his kind. I am under
no obligation to any capitalist compromiser in establishing the truth of the statement that Socialism, as s form of society, implies the social ownership and eoutrol of the means of wealth production ;
while Bolshevism, as a social form, is a svstem of
proletarian dictatorship, or state Socialism, having
for its ultimate good the complete socialization of
those things essential to the existence and development of human society.
The only authority on the subject that I find it
necessary to quote is Nikolai Lenin, the Bolshevik
leader, and one of the ablest students of Marxism
in the world today. I have quoted sufficiently from
the writings of Lenin in a previous issue to satisfy
any fair-minded seeker for knowledge that Socialism has not been established/in Russia .and that
much still remains to be done before its attainment
is possible. If anything further on this phase of the
subject is thought desirable, I can rt*fer our readers
to a late issue of '"Soviet Russia" December 25th),
where Lenin again reviews the situation in a similar
way.
'The reader is asked to note tha* these quotations
are  not   subject   to  my   interpretation.    They   are
tdaiu statements of fact that admit of no misconstruction.    In this article on "Problems of Peaceful
Reconstruction." Lenin'tells us that while the Bob
shevik victory struck capitalism  to the ground,  it
did not destroy it.   "Not only did the opposition of
the defeated class grow after the overthrow, but it
even drew new strength  from the relation of the
proletariat to the peasantry.    All who have studied
Marxism ever so little, who base Socialism upon the
international  working elass movement  as the mle
scientific foundation of Marxism, knows that Social
ism means doing away with the classes." "Wc are
conducting a class struggle, and our aim is the tbol.
ition of classes.    So long as there are workmen tnd
peasants, Socialism cannot be realized, and an nn
compromising struggle develops at every step."
The lengthy  extracts taken  from  the pamphlet
by Karl  Radek in no way repudiate the position
outlined by Lenin, and in no way substantiate the
contention of Comrade McKenzie. Such round-about
methods of trying to bolster up an untenable theory
are too palpable to require much attention at  my
hands.   The explanations repeatedly made by Lenin,
regarding affairs in Russia, are acceptable to me
A little reflexion on the analogy presented anent
the ''building of a house" will be sufficient to prove
such an*,analogy to he crude and out of place. The
building of a foundation does not necessarily imply
that a ■dwelling exists.    The same foundation may
suffice for a  stable,  granary, warehouse or other
structure.    Even  the  building in  the  imagination
of a dwelling, on a real foundation, does not tem
plet; the requirements of what is known as a house
Several conditions are imperative. There must be
at least a foundation, a roof, ami four walls, as well
as other minor -essentials, befog* the builder can
place his structure in the category of a house. U
t,this analog} is applied to Russia it can easily be seen
that repeated attempts, and avowed intent oils, do
not constitute Socialism Social ownership and con
trol is a primary requisite.
This matter of classification is a  very  important
one.    As Dietzgen has it "It is the business of the
intellect  to make classification*.'1     To properly
understand any subject, and deal with it uit.lli-
gently. we must be able to arrange the matter tn
general rules and categories. Without such clas-si-
Mention no discussion can proceed in an orderly and
syst» matie  manner .
To admit that the land is not socialized: that private property still exists; ayd that wage slaves are
exploited, in Russia, ami still contend that Socialism prevails, is a glaring contradiction that cannot
be brushed aside. This condition is not ameliorated
by asking whether or not I deny that capital is re*
striefed in Russia* 1 have no desire to deny facts.
I am thoroughly acquainted with the Meps already
taken to curb excessive profits and regulate indus
try. But this action does not obviate tin fact that
even if interest on money invettod is restricted to
five per cent, this amount is derived solely from the
exploitation of men and women. That the Bottbev.
iki are doing all that is humanly possible to realize
their goal we all understand, and any e!alx>ration
on so obvious a fact is quite beside the points at
:*Ml«\
My critic, quoting from Lenin, says: "The only
way to Socialism is through the dictatorship of the
proletariat." Then, he adds that "'McDonald dott
not agree with the al»ove, for he is waiting for time
to prove it." No assertion was ever made by BM
that I was waiting for time to prove that Socialism,
would come through the dictatorship of the pr-4;
tariat. What was stated was something entirely
different—'"Whether or not their aetiori will lead
to Socialism by the safest and shortest route, time
alone will tell."
In the article under discussion, there were no
Lahriolian word**) no Veblenian phrases All was
written in simple, Saxon English, that should be
easily understood by any worker. How anyone can
consciously interpret the article other than tt it i*
written I etsnot understand. Further, the state
incut: "One gets the impression that a dictatorship
ofthe proletariat will not be necessary in these more
highly developed countries/' etc. I am of the opinion that one is all who gets this impression. Tht
article r« fers to "methods of attack" Iwing changed
by condition*. The probability of proletarian die
tetorsbip being neeetttiy in the transitional period
is never questioned.
That the Bolsheviki merit the'svmpathy and sup
port of revolutionary workers everywhere has been
the Marxian attitude since the POT revolution. We
must Bttpport them for our own salvation.    It iH not
an attitude based on sentiment, but on stern nee. s
sity.    They are fighting the united forces of world
capitalism.    They   frankly   acknowledge   their  aim
to be the abolition of class society, and the  introduction of Socialism on the ruins of the present sys
tem.    In this great struggle it  is Incumbent  upon
all revolutionists to put their shoulders to tin* wheel.
But   to  contend   that   we   contradict   ourselves   hy
lending support and. at the same time, refusing to
affirm that Bolshevism and Socialism are one and
inseparable is quite unsound.
The greatest assistant- that can be given to the
Bolsheviki by the workers of this country is to tin
derstaud the Russian situation and. then, explain
it. This can not be achieved through the channels
of fawning allegiance, or Chauvinistic adoration
This method sufficd for the 17th century Coven-
antcrs who. with childlike faith, adhered to tlnir
beliefs and, with  fiendish severity, hunted out  nil
who were considered guiltv of hen
lithcd dogmas,
This  is not   the  method  of eritii      .
We must analyse all social phenon 1
sentiment and opinion.   Critical ti ,
is not necessarily hostile.   It fa thi    .     >' ?'.
investigator  and   the   scientist    >   . .
thusiasui  arc splendid  adjuncts ■ ,
poor substitutes for kaowledfff    v.
understand .ami then net.    The,.,.... ..   a
be treated in a similar manner to u
shevism must  be subjected to th< ,
and all  its phase*, disclosed     '] f
1111 can st„nd.    The more we pi
ment of the Rnsian Revolution th-    .
to appreciate the  grand acenmpl *'-
workers,
On tht matter of whether or no! .
Russia stand solidly  for Socialist  j •    I
rade M.Kcu/ie says yet, and Lenin no    Of .seta
opinions we era take our choice    1
the sob of Lenin.    I wonld like to point on! it-1
connection 'hat the fact 0! tht Boi*
maintained control for three -rear*
that the masses are solidly arrayed
my last contribution  I qoated Leni
the majority of the Russian worker* Roeid
ists.    Then   how   do  they   reta
article  mentioned   Lenin states      \\'.■ *
elaas struggle not 00 the iMisis of ri|  ■ " -
proletariat wins btOtnat it COnaJsti
thousands Of disciplined men. who trc led I
s uniform will."   There »♦» the Men	
intelligent tctjpn 00 the part of lot
jnates
!u sty last I offered sufficient evidene* ••■■;•
that the Revolution has had a dctfil
man)   ways, on the working etttS • <
countries        Any   Marxian   propsgi
taken part in 'he educational worl
ited State* during the past Ibret
orate  this assertion     My en?i< '*  n •   •■
fad that sloppy organisations exisi
Rolsnevhun was thought of in no sra •»
further fact th«? tuck partita have be*
Bfetttfd since the change fa Ru**
clarctiont of mob action; the form tl ■■••••
men's and soldiere' councils; tht |p
do something without knowing tnytl b|
reetly  attributable  lo the lack  of I
eerning the situation in Russia.
It was mver stated, nor inferred ■■-. me, that
Bolsheviki should be held reapautibU      taa e» ■
Committed in their name.    Far be it ft
i-est that they should have staved off the r-
till the workers of this country had to
of learning its true significance at id • ■'■■*'   .
iiiylv      The  wait   WOnld  be  too lone
Instead of being guilty of condor.    g Std ,,;'
aging those abortive attempts on thl
fellow  workers  in  other lands,  the
Communist  Party have emphatically d<
abhorrence of such  idiotic tactics     "    i ■*''
the ■ Theses and Statutes of the Co        '' l
national" we are  give,,  a  well  deflm I
when, and under what  conditions >•- '
formed.   Tkere, it can be teen that Un"
Id  WI
ripe for such action in this part of the •i"'
.     . lt] th'1
the conditions are suitable  for the Rnsl •"'
ii"•'
N th-
I,.!
class struggle, we can then decide wl
wav   to  conduct   the  of fens.-.     Wh- tl
. ■ fir* tu
political organs already in existence u
then be seen iu a better perspective
,;ij|] ■
Tin- Socialist movement in this COUttl J
its  study.Class   stage.    What   is   mv
is education along class lines to tWtl ■
our
uir"
fellotrs
pobles**
. direct*08
to 1 realisation of tht conditions tnd
before   them.    A   stronger  effort
win be productive of far greattd results *
shipping idols and hunting heretics WEST K !( N      CLAR10 N
PAGE SEVEN
The S. P. of C. and the Third
International
.,,e    Th<    following  article   opens   the  discus-
. columns on the matter of S- I'- of C affilia-
Tbird (Cotwnunist) tatetmational-.   Thii am
.:: hand Mine considerable time, and has I* < n
;    ,,.»,  puhticatioa  until  now,  beaut*   the  B,  «■
diverted our attention tnd space, am! alto becauK
■
ntentioo before coaunenang the publication ...
..   this matter, to fir-t present is these
otiditioQi <>; sffiliation with the Third Inter*
','. .  conditions were published in out last Usta
ai    now open for articles presenting the css<
, .; : affiliation.    Then- arc toctli in ontlying dU-
■ i  members may not be familiar wtth the point*
tment, for and atputtrt, *md Ihcj ma) bt  reached bj
|  rough the columns of the -"'Clation "   6end in
■.    A good discussion dependi npon tits inter-
in tin- question by the Part) members tbcmsclvi -
AFTER several preliminary discussions, Local
So.   :   Winnipeg. Socialist Party of Csnads,
t  00  Wednesday evening. October Pith.
,1 session, to discuss the advisability of the
■ ■•■   joining thc  Uoatow  (Third)   International.
Much (ItJiCiumion took place, both for and against.
• • Anally showing seven in favor of the rtaol-
The  resolution expressed  git'ting to thc
ntionsl in tht name of Local No. ■'>. proclaim-
-ilidarity with thc international proletariat,
railed   upon   the   Doininion   Executive   of   th-
•    lo *:ik•  .i referendum vote of all members ol
Psrty on the queation of affiliation.   Twelve
I Basins! the motion. (*Note).   The reeolut
motion vvas made embodying the action
i  the second part of thc resolution, nan
. s referendum vote on the matter.    Thin
tsaed with an almost unsnimous vote, anil
e vvitlt t view to explain to comrades
• *i   P of C. why they should vote for affdia
ballot tha! will be given them bj the
m Executive, that the following arguments
presented.
iiestion of joining with international Social
*. affiliating tht S. P. ol C  in a eommon
ith  Socialists  of like  revolutionary  eXprea
any other countries, is a deep and serious
»t m indeed, and la engendered through the feat
embers of the Party of coming out openly
dating their views, tIn ir position in the strug-
t tactics, if they have any. and then tdopl
- i course m line with their revolutionary eaprea-
s'*»n*i    N',, middle coarse, hobWy-wobbly, "abtratay*
•-■     'method   of  hiding ones  principles  tnd
real aims ought to he tolerated at this critical moment Only Socialists who present the true facts
of the class struggle, and who seek to advance that
class struggle .ought to he allowed to have the platform of a Party calling itself revolutionary. If
these individuals ,jo seek to advance the class struggle, it can be done only by solidifying the ranks of
the workers the world over. Their duty ia then to
vote in favor of joining with the third international.
Ii they do not, and if they form the majority of the
party, then certainly the party cannot call itself
Marxian, for Marx calls upon the workers to unite
internationally. Put let us examine the arguments
and objections against affiliation with the Moscow
International, as set forth hy the opposition, and
let u«. see wheth' r these arguments contain concrete
and good reasons for remaining aloof from the
workers of other countries.
It is claimed that:
1 . The  bold declaration*"of identity with the
Third   International  would  invite repressive measures  from local  state authorities.
(2). The S. P. of C. being purely a propagandist
organization at present, such repression arising from
sn avowal sf identity with the Third International.
would result in the propaganda being interfered
with, if not altogether stopped.
3 . The joining up with the Third International
would involve a suhinission to dictation from Moscow as to tactics to he adopted locally, under pecu-
! ar local conditions, which only local knowledge
and observation could properly determine or dictate.
There ma> h. other minor points in objection, hut
thea** three are the main ones as set forth to date
from discussions in thc Winnipeg local.
As to the first, it may suffice to suggest ihut
sooner or later it will he necessary to proclaim the
internal solidarity of the international movement
of which the S P. of C. is necessarily a p;frt (that i*
if it is Marxian in its essence). The moral effect
of -"ch an avowal at this crisis would more than
compensate for possihle. though hy no means certain repression ; such being determined hy other conditions than militant utterances of revolutionary
organizations. There is also in this objection ;:
suggestion of timidity, if not cowardice.
In refuting the second reason, it may he quite
truthfully stated that the identity of the S. P. of C.
with the Third International would offset somewhat
the effect oi the capitalist press propaganda regard.
ing the .Bolsheviki. The proletarian nature of the
latter i.s by no means clear to tne proletariat of
Canada at present. \.
Thirdly, the TlyrdNta tenia tion a 1 makes adequate
provision for latitude In the choice of local tactic:
determined hy special local conditions of the eias
struggle, apart from ceruin. fundamentals which
must he applied universally, and which admit of no
possihle modification under tnlplea of such local
conditions. Scheidemanitnn ami /Wremkyism must
rind no more loopholes in the nevr^evelopment of
our strategy. These fundamental Tactics correspond with those features of capitalist-which are
themselves modified by local conditions; .|n the different countries of tbe world. They ar^too well-
known to need detailing here. Any reserVation in
tins regard would involve rejection by the Tliird international, and would possibly give rise to a split
in the S. P. of C. with disastrous consequences, at a
time when concentrated energy is so necessary. Besides, the Third International has exhaustively dealt
with this very'question of lot il tactics..
En conclusion, let me urge tbe necessity for giving whole-hearted support to our comrades in Russia, whose sublime enterprise dwarfs anything ever
attempted by the human race. The magnitude of
their effort :the heroism and shc-'-r audacity of the
Russian jBolshevik movement waose soul i.s in the
Third International, is beyond measurement, for the
simple reason that no standards exist whereby they
may be measured, lt is indeed the greatest conscious effort ot* the human race to challenge its
fate, and to mould society hy.intelligent design for
the tirst time in its tragic history.
Let u* weigh the possihle moral effect of our
application for admission.to the Third International.
upon the Titans engaged in the struggle against all
the force and fraud of the whole capitalist world.
Such a declaration of solidarity from Marxists in
other countries must have a tremendous moral
weight  in such a stupendous crisis.
This is no time to split hairs. Let me urge you.
comrades, to strive for an affirmative vote in tin
name of the Revolution.
FRED W, KAPLAN.
Editor's Note —-Accordinp to our information from the
Secretary of Local (Winnipeg) Xo. 3, thc vote recorded was
7  for, and 1" against.
SOVIET RUSSIA MEDICAL RELIEF
COMMITTEE
v on    \\ c   are  asked   to  prim   ihi   following
Contributions rat) now U Km ta M   Popovitcb. sec
ry. Winnipeg  Committee,  Bon   3591   PuMal  Station   1*.
■■•■• Man
New   York,
...    .    November 36, 1920
!;\'" .\LLcod. Editor,
Western   Clarion."
\ tncouver, B, <'., Canada
''•".-*' •Miirnde,    We read with  great   interest  your
'*l editorial on the Soviet Russia msdictl relief
lv"rK- 'U the '•Western Clarion" of November 16.
thoroughly agree with you that  thc various
Soviet Ijiissi,, M,.,ii(.a| Relief Committees' In Canada
"'s'ht to work so as to avoid splitting up their forces.
';,,'..'!l|l'licatiiik. their efforts.
,,lr Central Soviet  Russia  Medical  Relief Com-
""''' '» New,York has realized the impraetieahility
'" ""' methods practised heretofore, ami has, there-
Jrc definitely   placed   the   medical   relief  work   in
CHfer« Canada for Soviet Russia under the juris
j,(',,°'! '"  'i'*' Winnipeg Committee, with Comrade
opovitch as Secretary.    Tliis Committer is to  he
" y^'tre of Isaac  McBride's tour in Camilla.
•'''•Charles L. Drake is the secretary and organ*
/IT "'  the Soviet   Russia  Medical  Relief Committee
' ( l,,cago, which is in charge of Isaac MeBride «
'"''!' '••rough the middle western State.-.
"1" Centra) Committee in New York has already
written to the interested parties to co-operate on
all matters pertaining to McPride's speaking tours.
so as to avoid waste of energy and funds, and to
achieve tht maximum of results.
And results are very important just now. Considerable funds are needed to carry out thc plans
{if our Committee. Soviet Russia is in great need"
of all kinds of medical supplies. The committee is
arranging to send to the central hospitals of Soviet
Russia some up-1o-date amhulances. Preliminary
work has been started to secure anti-typhoid and
other vaccines' to cheek the spread of epidemics.
The Central Committee has very carefully considered the queation of speakers, and has decided to
tour Isaac MeHride only after the most urgent requests from almost all local committees for this
speaker.
The Central Soviet Russia Medical Relief Committee appreciates very much your valuable assist -
mice in thc collection of funds, and in giving publicity to its work. You will greatly oblige Us hy inserting this letter in your valuable paper,
Fraternally yours,
* .1. MICHAEL,
Secretary.
SOVIET RUSSIA   MEDICAL RELIEF ASSOCIATION
Financial Statefcni  [or thc Month of November, 1920
Receipts,
Balaiwe on hand November I. 1920"    $2.8oo.3o
Donations ot  Individuals and Organisations   1,224.1*
Balance o( Tickets  ■•       *H»
Literature  ■      Jl71°
Contributions ol Local Committees;
Esthonia,  X-Y.         4655
Newark        5OOJ00
riniauYplhia -  4,000.00
Xc-w   Haven        356-0(1
Baltimore    » °00*00 ,
Washington        500.00
Chicago   t  XW72-
Montreal       350.1X1
Winnipeg     700.00
$15,226,97
Expenditure,
Medical   Supplies $12,136.53 ♦.
Printing    •  101.50   .
Slides and Port Cards        94-70
Typewriting  ■■*     34.95
Chicago and Detroit Investigation  * !»•• 125*87
Delegates' Expenses for Phibu Conference.         30.28
Postage, ear  fares. telecams,    etc         44.53
Clerical  Help   180.00
Exchange lo*s on Canadian Money        40.90
Total   ... $2,789*26
Hlalanee >•» hand December I      1920   2,437.71
*I5,226.'»7
Total receipts to November 30, 1920      *42.27075
Total  Expenditures:
Medical   Supplies    \ $36,545.NS
other disbursements     3,287.16
$39,83304
Balance on hand Deccfber 1, raj  $2,437-71 PAGE EIGHT
W E S T E Tt N     0L ABX 0 M
GREAT BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES
, Economic Bam of Naval Programmes.
(Continued from Page 11
brought within the orbit of Preach influence. The
tragic result no one can say. unlets capitalism collapses within theiiext ten years. Does thin not portray in vivid color the picture drawn in the lirst
article of why Ainerieans flew the Atlantic by way
of Spain und France?
Then  again,   the  American   Jthvy .programme   is
causing some alarm,    lt calls for e*i expenditure ot
70(1.000,000 dollars, and if this programme be ear
ried out as planned, the standiiWof the two leading
navies in HUM will he a*» folios**:
Great Britain United   States
Sh(ps       18       Ships —      27
Tonnage   487,450      Tonnage  -     983.000
Heaviest guns  - IF. iru      Heaviest guns   10 in
Greatest speed — 31 5 lent* Greatest speed .... 33 25 snots
Although Itrita/- originated the hat tie cruiser.
the new AmerigMi cruiser out-distances the beal
British ship y Hehgth, tonnage, speed and armaments. The British cruiser "Hood " is the nearest
approach t-a the new American type. The following is a i v.aparison ;
Vessel, pi S- A- '(Tonstcllation"; length, 874 ft ; dis-
pUcem**nty-4g,J'O0 lorj.; speed, 33-25 knots; armaments, guns,
8 16-irtc3
'Vessel, Britain, "Hood"; 860 ft- length; displacement.
41200 tons; speed, 31.00 knots; aramaments. guns, 8 15-inch.
While there is only one "Hood" in the British
navy, the ''Constellation" has five sister ships of
the same dimensions, in addition to six hat tie
cruisers of the same type which are now building
and are to he ready hy 1923. The American ships
are oil burners, with a 6.000 mile cruising radios;
therefore, do you wonder why oil is a key product
of capitalism and is becoming thc bone of contention! ,
The  Canadian  newspapers  have  a  dispatch  no
later than 31st December, 1920, telling of the difficult problems facing Britain in 1921.   The unemployed and  Ireland at  home, and the perplexing
problem of settling the Palestine boundaries, promising some  pointed exchanges of  opinion  with
France, Mesopotamia and Persia over oil.      The
despatch, which is dated London, 30th Deecmbe-
goes on to say: "Officials here believe that within
the next   12  months important dealings between
Great Britain and United States will necessitate
most careful handling .... There is a desire here
to clear up the oil question which has been the subject  of a  long series of communications on   this
question, as to the extent to which the United States
shall participate in the world's petroleum supply,
most of which is under British mandate!   It i.s believed that considerable more negotiating is necessary before an agreement is reached.    Settlement of
the cable control also offers many perplexities, particularly in that the United States is continually
reaching further for world  trade.    Shipping experts and officials are of the opinion that the new
mercantile marine of the United States is likely to
bring up a question of adroit diplomacy and po:>
out 4o Secretary Daniels' announcement of a  big
naval  programme as tbe forerunner for shipping
differences."
The "Literary Digest," January 1, 1921, in articles under "Problems of Democracy," especially
designed for school use, points out that the American marine was more efficient and equalled Britain's until the Civil War, but the Great War has
left a mucins of ships with which America can reestablish her flag upon the seas.
in my first article I pointed out why the aglta-
'tion for the British West Indies to become part of
Canada was necessary to extend trade, and ulso of
its geographical position to become a naval base,
as a key to the Panama Canal. The United States is
also fortifying herself in this part of the globe. Tin-
Virgin Islands, lying 60 miles east of Porto Rico,
bought from Denmark in August, 1916, for $2'».-
000*000, was accomplished behind the backs of the
people of the United States and Denmark while the
Kuropeans were too busy slaughtering each other to
take notice. This at a time when President Wilson
was humbugging the world that "America does not
want any additional territory."
Wilson, 27th May, 1916: "We believe ihese fund
aniental  things:   1st,  that   every   people  has   the
right to choose the sovereignity under which they
shall liva."
Denmark practically had to COi Ctdt the islands
because of the desire of the United States.    Den
mark's foreign minister favored th<: sale because re
teution  might  possibly involve  Denmark   iu   inter
national complications.    Fi   L9X3, Denmark refused
to sell to the States   but the U. S. A. gave Den
mark to understan 1 th .1 she would blocjt her itnper
inlistie aims in tire,inland unless Denmark yielded
to the 0, S. A. expansion and designs on the Danish
West   Indies.    TV  opposition  is   Denmark   to  Hit
sale  asked  that   the  population  of tin-   islands   In-
given n vote on the proposed isle  bill Welt told tat
r s. A. refused to saretioii tin, reqetst,   Bdward
Brandts, admitted in th   Denmark house that tin
government had no il tentative but to teeedt to thl
desire of the United tftatta.
llaiti is an island in ,'. a negro Republic, lying
east of Jamaica, whieh m< "Manchester Ouardian,'1
16 Id 2<t, says th, J' S A navy |,as |.,-,-n in control
of since 1918, Without tht v.'-rld knowing ought of
the seizor'. tfejor-Oenera birnctt, of the I S.
A. navy, has now itsued on official report admitting that no fewer than 3,250 negroes have been
killed since o nut o- .n 1915. lt has been cst.il>
lisln-d that W il-u.'s administration had invaded
two or three small Jentral American Republics and
estab'.vied I military dictatorship without at anv
time consulting c< tigress or reporting to the American public.
Now. fellow workers, are are m ■ pi riod ot unemployment wh .1' - ;i _■  be the match to -start this fire
to create an artificial market for thc surplus wealth
whieh you have produced. Are you going to be
fooled again into i war to end war. or you going
to unite under th- red flag of the proletariat and
transform the privste ownership of the great ma
ehinery of production and emancipate yourseiv ^
from the pr< *ni a tge tbtvery, so that instead of
being the slave -f live machine we shall make tin- machine the slave    i mai?
"To accompli t» this act of universal emancipation is the histi ricnl mission of the modem prole*
tariat."—KngelK. in "Jv-.--i.di.Hiii, Utopian and Sfeicn
tific" p/r.L,
WHAT DOES "EDUCATION" MEAN TO   THE
WOBKfRS?
Et&TOB's  Mors—The  iollowir.   is  taken  ir<>m I pamphh t
issued hy thc Plebs League trade* the above nth     The pamphlet outlines '':- efforts that I.>•'■ beet made in pasf uat*
towards th'.   '.suh'ishmnit  o>     eerlung cla»s  educational  i.i
stitutions—ii'lorts that have resulted ia thc eftat ifbtnenl oi
several Labor Colleges in Great Britain.
In a foreword to "First l-rinnoi' - ,i \\,.. j t "... EdtK
tion (Cluiiic), John Macl.e;in in Stating the need fof
wage -tamers to Ka>" •"» blOwtedl ot hi'torv and economic*,
says: "These arc the main tire i* ISOCCS that have led to the
pcrmanent establishment of lit • rotti h Labor College, the
start of the Connolly Mernon, i ' "<.-;«* in Ireland besides
the Lal>or College in London, m I thl movement just begbv
ning in Canada to establish a String ol Laboi Cotlcgctl right
aerate that vast territory."
ALL thiK more or lev* organized effort to "educate thf worker**' is chiefly interesting, from
our point of view here, in so far as it serves to
illustrate our main point; i.e. that everywhere the
workers were—and are—seeking after some "under
standing of tin* situation in which they are placed."
Everywhere one finds this instinctive desire express
ing itself in the study aud discussion of social, political and industrial questions. But what was 'm-
stinetive' in the ease of individuals- and even of the
Movement itself in its earlier stagesmust be, for
that Movement today, a contciout effort to understand in order to remove, the . htttclet to working
class emancipation, if the aim nf the Labor Movement is a real Social Reconstruction, 'h»u, in spite of
all the existing 1 t.drances thrown i;, the way by
those interested in the preservation of the existing
order, it must enable its nn nibers to tttfl d a full and
clear knowledge of the facta about society.
Now where are the workers to turn to for full an.l
clear knowledge Of this kind? Obviously, the Btatc
will not supply it—any more than it will finance the
efforts of the workers to overthrow ihe Capitalist
order of society. Tic Stiite exist* to defend the e\
Ut ing order; and the people who draw profit, rent,
and interest, control "State" education.    The State
may bt b it to provide education iu the elementary
subjectfj already referred to but, although there iniiv
he ample room for improvement in the way these
subjects are taught    especially in th.- Wii}. .,
taught  to the children of the Workers   tl,,. i **
Movement will be neglecting its own vu.,) ,,,,/**
nits to -provide, and to control, in ow. ,
It   ol
"•'•-■■
- ., u
tionul institutions, in which an exact kt.m.i ■
the   foundation*,,  and   the  developments of
ina.v   be taught. M
Th..; exact knowledge, of course, must w........
•Oil
10-M,
"a
us societv  is constituted today, be " educationt
the Labor point of view," ami it will be deten)
bj those who either cannot, or will aot, ret]
exactness as bong partial," "one-sided." t-j":
eotuplttt       It will In- all these things, ofi
pi-.ris.lv   to the extent  that the  Laboi   \]
■tlf   is  all   these   things.     It   will   |„.  • partial"^
eautt it will be concerned with th>- pa nt ol -..,,.•
the workers, ami only incidental!)  triti
of view of the remaining fraetioo of thi
it trill ht    "ii«-aided." became it ail] be
the Labor tfovemeal itself \h based, oi
tht eiaaa-atniggle; ami it will, rcrj defii •■     •„,
sides'   in dealing with that fact.     It •■  |] <.. ■ ^^
pl-te," in the tense that it will concent ml
lain sssentisls, leaving many interest il ;n    . .
ful biaind;--'  of study untouched, oi    ■        -^ ^
garding them as, at present, of oi!        ,
portance —
' i oi the ,.o,«. akmc i* worthyi HH tb« , •„
)«-*t
A master-claae vviii not tearh tht
jrct-ctsas; >t is indeed incapable ol «
us that anbject-cltas seen it.    Antsg
rata between two classes In tociet) .
isti« v lew i as regards the desirsbilitj ■■"   ihervit
of "reconstruction", or, at least, a* ref
tent  ami  thoroughness ->f that   n
The Labor Movement has its basil in the anu|tca
of interests existing between  Capital and Liw
Then the education with which it u concerned sst
be based on a recognition of this autt anisiotua
OEOORAPHICAL  FOOTNOTES  OF CUMBT
HI8T0RY-I
I Continued from Tag'  j
"The   ralr.linun   r.<mmuescjti^n*.
the Cansl sre sB at heiag   Theysn
liny   an-   wry   rcav.»iu)*iv   u * ntr     T
Irsveraei j« tntMiabifetl coootrj end i»
it..ni  .(tuck      Let tt he oddtd thai  !>'■'■   ■'■'•      "
*§lnUmKlit4   of  a h>ph  order  M   /■;'.'     '  "•'    ''"
tupped h\ tht nTsslsra Htifo rs»ftw>) "•
;. hat tft.Htl kind "
Moreover. Palestine is a lull count**
healthier  as  a   station   for   European  tn«>;■-• 'm
Kg.vpt     Bo what more could you Wtntl   Why"
he "generoua" and "ttateamanlike" to \'^}\"
V«'t there jm another .and eojually good,
traiisfering the weight from one leg to tl
Britain now has important interests ,: M »|
and in  I'ernia        both lying due c;is'       ■'
"he shortest routt t<> these new ipheres ol :
is not via Suet, th- Red Sea. round ai
the   I'ersiiin  Cull     ser your Oplm*        Il    > ^ '
Haifa, the future port of Palestine, tnd "   :
land .ast to Bagdad.     liet me quote front &&
in  "The  World's  Work"  (March.  1920
"\ QJOQOJXQ harbor scheme i* slreadj p''   l
convert  the hay  at  Haifa  into  | p rt       ! * *
(the Su./ C.O...I < an thus Im- defend) :
Haifa * present popotation is 20*000, bui ii '*-nheih.
thai il will Ih- IfSUKlfl within ini >..■(■     ]
port not only ol Palestine, but o! M'    ■' : "'"', "• ,.u;
rtMttl'
lor   it   is   the   sea-terminus   of   the   ' i|j
Desert railway to Bagdsd, which is to '     ,n \a9*
a pipe Ibie, eonveyinfl Anglo Persia"
il din
• K
British Wavy in tbe sfeeHtenraneati
Canal he* hack of  Haifa." , .,',1k
No wonder that it is Haifa "which inn (
Hritish War Office ami the British A*-"1 '•'"■V' j
base for Suez   -a port for Mesopota■  >•'
rVrabia I via the lledju/ railway)   tuw
"fair exchange" for tht eonecssmn
independence."
ui'
Iced »
i
The Plebt (Ix>ndon
:o:
CLARION MAINTENANCE
\,»\
f,
D
I   I   MacDonald, $1; P. ElUson, Kl; (    [' \v$ ^
a  Black, $10; llarwooned, %2\ S- \n<o^»»-
Iter,'|l;   I   Murray, *1 ;  l»   Stewart, lb •)i;u^"^1
Total from 28th December to llh January. "

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