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Western Clarion Dec 1, 1921

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WESTERN CLARION
A Journal of
CUBEaWT
EVENTS
856
Official Organ of
THE SOCIALIST PARTY OF CANADA
HISTORY
aWONOMXCS
PRXL080PH7
Twice a Month
VANCOUVEB, BtC.f DBCBMBBB 1, 15*21
FIVB CENTS
Working-Class Politics
W 7 UK!*"*'   ihe  niant •     ha**   j <•'       on  . ;j.|   [lu
J\i   .i-v-ii-talJ!   the  "!.;■<■.'i-.-). r       ;.i;ii;.   ui    j ,.
*  *   mass, a fast polities] intelligence, the Social
fin*!-. only « vii>t politicsl ignorance gravitating
Lgrdi two extremities.   Oo tbt one bsnd the stave
, ttvi     Vuo for th.   loan nith « -   beaotiftil
|    .  .»!)>! all will bt* wolil" and on   .. other the
bail) ignorant siava who says! "Politics i*. of no
If to  )(    I tske if> Interest in ii."
[Ti>- promise dans Is no Bovelty.   Thoussndi of
]      i   Iter twiU.'i-injr un entire world, Recording
•• orta, watt enthralled by the magie of the
Lml. | jnii   when applied i«» a bonus    It wg
|f*j      ii id<***t in ancient history.   In the middle
.  ninn. B.CX- the Atheniatui were en
mm |      th-   Peiipoiincsisn War. and, being hard
id ton *or! to alti'ain, th«-ir ilevi bto fight
:' .- ising them their Freedom f they woo
f tUd vm lit-  war f<r their mast en
n. r. caeoftcd t«» th** I-1' ■ •
- • \ f freeBteo. Titers their masters Ml apon
fcfm «itSi thr* BWOrd ami stew tl.tr all * '' would
BCn thst jw*li*:- HaHf* prOfOisBS and lh«- gullibility of
}h«* »!s*.-* in failing tor' them haw iieiUor one
Uteml in the ■••-iinn- of twenty-four centuries. Th<
**e SJtswer lo t.he pfOBaitS dOpS i* tht* failure of his
f- ran at in reolhsn-
Hnve Sieve* a Political Intcresf*
.-."<• \\--r th«* alav»- srho *ays hs ha*. BO polities",
I    rre»i v, look i« Hi** tleHnition: "Politim i* the
H*>--- --niMirtit " Now. th«*re can b>  BO gov
ern) ;<!*   unless   ti-'-r.-   pri*   thoSf   WBO  pov.m   ami
ih'«>        .1-, -,-o\mkod.    K»»rtI < r   tls* troubles snd
n  -        leming being eottslderablr, none undei
j htliethem unlets "h**y ran gain thereby   an.I tlo- rul
>r* rla-sH i| th, robbiof class.   Rven in Rossis t'""
rawtisn ol tht EtatS i<* to '*« propi i«te the expro-
priat r-      Polities* tBterssI  i«r<> *ds from econ
led   interest     Thos politics appears nnder two
Basats: On tin on'* band Master   I Ists Po •   - w
As eestrsltted bosinesa al r©hMBf. snd ruling; and
on Ihe ot!,. r W*»*ktnfcls« Politics, Of '
bed reaiatimet on tho pan of the workers to thi role
of thr robbers, How. thru, ran anvonr deO) thst the
*mtk*a h;i<« no j«itrr<-at in  politio-*'
Our Mantels* Politicsl Methods.
■•H onatanl of the DMthods employed Is polities
*•> f"ir winters in that of |tm ml raiacdti
,hro**«'. press, Bchool anil polpit tbroujfh the press
"••''informim- „H OI1 rurn.,,- ,.v,.i*t-* ami Impreasinfi.
f"i ns id, ",!,.|„noratir" natiiiv of our society;
■hronirh tbe hp1i.miI. mism/onning ui on hhitorie (>o<*
ar,'l impressing on tta ths Idetlisti-J nstore of the de-
Wopment of socioty, Drying thsl prosress results
or,!y from thi perfeotlon <»f our own "moral and in-
* nature"; thronfh ths pulpii. teaching us the
•**\ code of "Obsj nud bf rohbed." The shirkers
J^Htt thst their powsr n-nt-i on the ignorsnee ol
,h,> torkerij and if any espiUlisl institution '^ 100
,Kr"'^. perfsct, rffioirnt it is their institution for
*jwal misedu-jstloa,
Tn,'l,<, is iome ,-onfiiet of eeonomie intsrost in dif
^■eetions of Hta roUng elsss, rosulting In **'
J**>« mailer r|H«-a politieal psrtioi Twesdledss
•n,i T^'11,,1,,,,,.   |n --Ht-rioda of atress those join
Bnfk ho ,11^, „r(, (ho t,iff>n.m.,.s between them.
H^t, they an- uauslly i espsble means for «>t-
EJj!,hp »1svb,i attention from tf* own posiUon
"'"Vital"  ""*** —-*-—--   ,,
"** ''"-■"■lent Ix»m>" (Ken), p   1""
Dlf
and interest and directing it towards the weighty
pn bletn of which oi his enemies to support.
Perhaps Mi.- meal profitable investment of thc eap-
itaiist is il.ut of buying up members in the ranks of
ll - slaves. In bard times, when the slaves seem near
to waking up there is no consolation for the robber
'•';ii--l to a faithful "labor leader." The economic
struggle of the worken might prove not only a loss
of profits but also a valuable experience to the
worker*, were it not for the potent panegoric of the
labor' pr»-s.H, .,) tn.- "labor" man in polities, of
• ■ verbose organiser, and of that moat dangerous
of al! ''simps"---the "sympathiser with lahor."
A? times thi capitalists ingenious miseducation,
I * multi-part)  system, ?us faithful "labor" men,
* mid avail bira little, wen- it not for the trump
<•. r'i li- holds m reserve—-the fact tha* be has force
st I is disposi i.   Al aueh times he does not hesitate
■ i •,)-•.• fori e freeh
Our Political Methods.
11 te to the f«<-t thai the enemy takes the initiative,
the rerj  eonstructiveneas of our politieal methods
tnk'-s. n the form of retaliation.   To offset the mis-
■ iratiop of onr masters we Ujtisl awaken our own
DOMINION ELECTION 1921.
SOCIALIST PAKTY OF CANADA
CANDIDATES.
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Nanaimo: W. A. Pritdiard.
Vancouver (3 seats)
Burrard: J. D. Harrington.
Centre: T. O'Connor.
Soutl : J. Kavanagh.
MANTIOBA.
Winnipeg North: B. B. Bussell.
Campr-i-ri* f-"*»d8 arc tifgeoily required.   Send
contributions for B. C. or Manitoba to:
E McLeod, 401 Pender St. E.,
Vancouver, B. C.
H. M. Bartholomew, Box 1762
Winnipeg, Man.
eUsa to their position snd interest   There msy be
,,„.,, ., peeommend in s worker marking his ballot
for , Hoeialisl pandidate; but he will have done
fir mn for the working class politicsl druggie by
apr, ading Socialist literature, by prntming the "gos-
pfiofdiseontent"to his mates on the job, by at-
Uding workers'study classes to further eJarify his
;„;,„-;,,,, 0f the history of I ns olass to further real.
, , ,,s historic mission.
, WOuld seem thsl where the enemy lacks com-
„,v of interests, we would have an advan-
'''""";".;:.: ;:,„ *****•*»+**-*»*,.
,T,1 b not the ^t   Wher.th.Wit-ai-t.-x-
!"*■"•';: :;;;;',; ■***-**** *... ********
f . . . L work of the .lBMonwlo-i. work-
■■'"*" ".Ti- ol mryth.r-,1.. of hi.-aa. forth.
",r"t"tr; .,, ,„f  wnk. by buying out raota-
i"'-""". h„l  *"•  t**  Md  mwt,  expo..
. i    Ilii'P's ;    Dill    " ,.
**n "' • m. i.bor organisstiooa and al*
tl„   irsitors  in  'w
legedly labor political parties. And as for the masters' trump card—lorce—we must capture it and
make it ours. The force is exerted by members of
our own class—and there, if anywhere, is the crying
need for suitable propaganda. Moreover we must
prepare our own ranks for every conceivable phase
of the struggle. Many a bloody massacre of our
elaas is to be explained hy the neglect on the part
of our class of what every military tactician makes
his objective—to take the initiative and thereby
have choice of manner, time and place.
Our Political Problems.
The master class politicians and their friends of
the labor parties have been touring the country to
te11 us what our problems are. According to them
we need the unity of all classes, the cleaning up of a
corrupt administration, lighter taxes and a revision
of the tariff. Which is the great need to you with
the tijrht drawn belts—the unity of classes, or something to eat? Does a corrupt administration trouble
you ? Since you must oppose it. is not its corruption
a help to you? Better turn your attention to the
corruption of the canned garbage you eat, to the
filth you live in, to the corruption in your labor organization. Which is of the more importance to
you—the heavy taxes you don't pay, or the heavy
work you do—when the masrters let you? Whieh
do you need the most—a tariff to protect your master's goods, or an organization to protect your own
interests? This tariff issue is such a pet bauble it
is almost worth a second thought. If, by any manipulation of the tariff, conditions should become
■good,'' cither here or elsewhere, and the right to
be robbed easily secured, would not the freights to
that place be full of slaves until the market was
glutted? That being so how can tariff one way or
'tother. be of any interest to the slave class?
According to onr own experience we are faced
with quite a" different, set of problems. Part of the
time we have too much work, the rest of the time no
work, and all the time insufficient of the comforts
and necessities of life. We face these problems un-
der the menace of war, of insecurity in our livelihood, of the hostility of our masters, of the scabbing
and traitorhood in our own ranks. Every one of
these problems is to be traced to one cause, and one
cause only—that one section of society owns the
means of production upon which the rest of us are
dependent for our livelihood. It is only because of
that that we have not increased our leisure and our
standard of living, with every increase in the efficiency of production. T.t is because Ave are propertyless that we are slaves to those who have property.
The working of the system does not permit us to acquire property, so our emancipation lies in destroying the privilege of those who have property—i.e.,
in abolishing their property in the means of production. The privileged will resist us. Their power to
resist lies in the State—the monster that rules \io—
whose feet are to be seen in the police and militia
and whoso head, high above the clouds of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association, bids us go forth
and be cannon fodder. Freedom for our clasa can
be won only by conquering the State.
This is politics for our class—to acquaint our class
with its slave position and its interests, to make it
realize iff5 historic mission, to solidify its forces for
struggle, cleansing it of reaction, conquer the capitalist state, and establish ourselves over the robbers.
F. W. T.
H
a I
I i
I
1
^m PAGE TWO
WESTERN     CLARION
The Politics of the Working-Class
Editors Note: The following article is a report of a
speech delivered by Comrade J. liarrlnpton in Victoria,
B C. Victoria form?, partly, the south end of Nanaimo
riding ln the Federal elections. Comrade W. A. Pritchard is our candidate in this constituency.
NOT a few people are given over to the oh
session that Parliament as it stands today
is a popular institution. They entertain the
idea that it ia elected by popular "will."- thai it*
purpose is to safeguard their interests and desires, and that by the election of "good" men. i.e..
men who have high ideals of public service and Im
man welfare—the varicsjs conflicting elements and
evils in society can be reconciled and abrogated.
This concept of parliament is continually emphasised by the idealist philosophy and education of the
time, and the various candidates ol* the old parties,
imbued with the same notions, play on this theme
of "good government," print out each other's disqualifications, aud forever harp upon what is done
that should not be done. or. conversely, on what
ought not to be but is.That is all there is to political campaigning. That, and a silver tongue to give
it utterance.
But while that is all there is fo campaigning, there
is something more to government. Parliament never
was an expression of the inter*sts of the common
people, that is. of the producing class. In early
medieval times every village had its "moot." i.e.,
its common assembly, delegated from and hy the village community for th^ regulation of its various duties, e.g., for the alloting of land to cultivate;
the times of ploughing, sowing and reaping, etc.,
all the—to us—complex, irksome customs coincident to medieval life. In all matters pertaining to
daily life the village moot was. in reality, the expression o£ common interest.
GradosJJy, the village fell under the sway of th.-
feudal system, the relation of lordship and serfdom
and the consequent regulation of village conduct to
the primary interest of the feudal overlord. <'on-
current with this evolution was tin evolution of the
merchant class. Discoveries ot new minerals, countries and peoples, evolved markets, and markets
meant trade. Towns same info existence, towns
whose modes and necessities of life clashed with
feudal economy.
Nevertheless, the social forces of development fostered and favored the growth of the merchant class
as against the feudal lord. Towns continued to grow,
manufactures increased. ami .-.ith then the power
of the traders. The conflict of those traders with
their feudal overlords, combined with a variejv of
a
other matters, broke the peace of the realm aud
brought the interference of monarchy. The king invited the leading traders ts hi- riaiitniifii, ostensibly
|0 daSeOBS their grievance*, Out in reality aa hontag-
rs for the good csssdod oi their respective towns.
Bail ******) had ar OpOftBBStty to a-r their grievances;
their condi ti OBI iwr- probed; they -cci-re-l charters
and eeoeesBBetai and stasnaed relief from the growing exsetiossi ef needy ow-rlorrl*.
Sii'h were the eondrtiBSBl of ths real beginning of
parliament. Continually, th* merchant and manufacturer gathered power, continually they extended their dominion and increase-) their privileges and
prerogatives. They BOttled the landlord from dominance. They established centralized authority; they
Symbolized that authority in absolute monarchy and
finally made and unmade things a* their commercial
Interests demanded. From 1688 until today the story
ot parliamentary development is but a record of
commercial development, a record of a national assembly of traders legislating in SCCOrdSnee with
their ever widening Interests, styling themselves the
voice of the people ami dominating all social activity.
The growth of bu*iue*ui and the concentration of
eapital bus now developed it* inevitable antagonisms
between tb" members of the capitalist class them-
solve*. The same economic laws by and through
which they expropriate the common people from the
meana oi lit.- ate raw rcactiug on themselves, rs
ducing th.ir members to the ranks of tho proletariat  and centering governmental authority  in tha
■canine*--the central citadel  of th.- ftnancisl  oh
garchy.   Thus parliament w*as, snd iv the expres
vion of commercial rigl Is and business interests, and
never was and iievei ihsll be Ihe protector and -\
p. nent of the -   ploited wealth producers   the great
toiling, sweating and industrious commonality
it is obvious tiiat to folios parliaments!*) tae-
tics and part;--. .- ■! no moment t.» th.- working
class. .Wither Lib* Conser--stive, ftofreoBlfe,
nor Independent Un letter two being but modifies-
tions ol the form • m ever solvs our problem.
<Mii issue—the issue i th working rlsse is not
tlie Tariff. Nor it ia fi irade, nor the development
of resources, not nor unemployment, nor
any of th.- other catch cries of elections. The one
i-vie before n-  - • fi etlom, i.e. frecsJota of
aceesi to the means it reb) we live And that frt
doss must be achieved by ihe working Bines, must be
brought about b) their understanding of the relationships obtaining in human society. No govern
ment can. co will, bring it l psss Becsuse their interest is our exploitation. Thsl ss the fundamental
antagonism.
Modern soeii j - orgsi . ■•: on capitalist property rights. That ia, the right to hold as privste
property, for private sdvautage, the social means
of life* the j.ro-. -.-. i ..i production neccaaarj to the
whole society rnership of the productive
plan', therefore, :■•• - * ■ wners power lo dictate
th«- t.-nos of labor -snd il gives them the litniar
right to ail tie- products I thst production Indus
try is operated .»n f • refon. when ii :• '•■ tlo- ad
vantage oJ the oss w -■ ..-■.-. And it i* to its
.. (vantage onl) when \t protil ean be derived from
thc process. 1 si profll isoul) obtainable irben the
goods are sold in the srorld irkel If they cannot
be -.old tndustry ■ oaes down, snd the working clsss
stagnates snd rot* in id! teas That is the enow of
unemploviiiie't.
Why  is there  .i  surplus Of  foods to aelH      He.
bsusc, by the introduction ol machinery and the
eli rains tion of uuneeesary lai-«-r, the working clasa
is sblc to produce a    fai gn iter maas value «>f >
modities than tlo value of their labor power, which
produced them.   '1 lo arm      - elsas reeeivca f«»r its
labor-power, tbe market price ol th.- reproduction of
that Isbor-power, i.«-.. the amount required t.» msin
tain tile social standard of Ufa of th.- w.-rkintr .la**.
Three results follow;    :     .\h th,. value of pr.-due
tion exceeds !!<•  value of the labor power that   produces ii. the working elaas cannot purchase the commodities the) lav.- crested.   Consequently the mar
ke1  is glutted ,n»\ prodnetion st.,(.-,.    With  what
consequences ire knos    2   As wsgsi ate determio<
ed competitive!, iu the world market, the lif,. ,-m
dition of the workers steadil)  becomea worse-    :
with increase.i prodnetion there t*. inersaaad dnem-
ployrasot,   The -■!•■ eauae < f ali three ih the wsgci
system.
Am the cessation of wages is caused by the sssss
tion of Industry, and that industry, in time, by the
failure of the capitalist      mark-1. the only remedy in
the abolition of the capitalist1 system of society,   No
reform whatsoever ean accomplish any alleviation
permanently.    Capital   is  the   relationship  existing
between the owners of Industry who do nol produce,
aud tin   workers in industry, who own nothing but
produce everything. Wages, is. therefore, the complement of capital. Without the one, the other can
not exist.   Wages is bounded by profits, and profits
by markets, and tin key to the whole position ia
capitalist ownership Ami the substitution of the
collective social ownership and the operation of industry for Ihe full use of society in Ihe one and only
means to social  peace.
To abolish capital fmpl.ee politieal effort. For,
since business maintains and dominates governments, governments must protect business. The
power of capital iu property right is therefore to
capture the slat-     Thc slat, ,*, |JkC -.}„. ,,„.
modern liner.  It i* the executive froa *** l    1
,, , fi!r0 SffiM
all  authority  aim  action,  and  \-h-.r-,,.-- -
there commands everything.
Ililt  to make Ihe Stat,, th-   *.-,*.,.,- ol rjrj* ,
to awaken -lie alaVB to th- pert -1 •   •   ,|    .
All revolutions take plan* m the brs        .
thai tie loin.i devises the r.-. . . n '
determining conditions pre-* nt
un Basfekafely    in previous rei .^
mining eoojpocwsita of ehsngi
pie     i hough fttndaacntail)
mt-'-rial of direetiec peasibilitj •
now     TaT-BSt new devVlopetl sgei    ..   r* \    %np,
on* of th.- workers lo <*""*** th. birth •
row •*«>cial Mmntoaweaith   Out tm
ihe futnre nor the past   '»nr iti
are  wholly  on  ihe  |»r--»e*i!      The  pSBI    I     • -^gj.
m throijgh the ttnehsrted pre* it      - •    ■
eeonomie freedom.
POPULARITY
IN thr t•-.*»*. of Batnesliug the
dersfnading «f their trm  positi
tlo1 ttr;ter% anal «jx**sser-a aJ the 8
BBOBl ar-» ojw-n |q many and various
T*.e ' ry is oft«n hear-' thai UN
BOfS popttlar, anil lh«* worker*.   '
ptiva to th<  truths of --
sivle and language employed in th* preseotsi
ih.- r» voluiioiKsr.v  position wss       • lest *fs4
• h ifaetef
Tills m iii If Ism nsnsllj eosses fi     *   •*'   " *.
mifci* to w hosa « nossy entl
ni«-*r,!>' rst »p j% of psswooni I
it cannot v denied I»s1 n*>mo pi
.luud lo a somewhat profus**
nn* i-hrn-o**. their d«**<irr to be   :
ia worthy of every cssssMersi
the igaortneo ot the working
lereass -* to b* found m theii
Bpeetive, loose, s)mseientu1c habii*
a voeabniarly limited to a t««
have been traineal only |o he stoves
dt*o,\    Bence II »« that the bshii
UnlllsBfill and in ie|Hiider<>   SO
if- to ihe Sa»ei«ii%» movesMUt, \* tit.
Inability for the mentnl affort • *
Btgniftesnee of tb-* phMtsolog) ol **  ■ "   s
ism la largely the re«*ou for the S
being unpopular and mianndi ratood
Tr,   gau,   pof.ularii.v   and   Mlthm
msssss, is u.it a ditto all thing '"
torv abundantly pfoesa    Th*  indulg-*1
lie
iiuiiial writing ami oratory, the '• !    "•* .
■ .1    ■ •
lar slogans easy to repeal wiibou
alrmii   i>.   without   doubt,   a   s„
SppOSling to the workera in ihe Ial
tuntsm and lh.- building up of a big movei
erarnre, supposed lo be revolntiousry.   '•    ^
thai arch fiend Capital, small of form, •»'»■•• 7^
aged, with the sign «f the d>ilsr on bis wp
dnncing witfr devilish glee upon the pro        ^ (
of  Ubor,  the CoIIosbqs,  airbed in 0V<?r*\.,i.
r f nronagsno"'
SiJUSre paper car.    ■•",' »H *' f"""       P , ,-v,iv
most alluring, but of litlle effect ui (i,""ll|]"T,
the ilhismns eommon to the working «>*** nl'  0
eking eir popularity is foolish snd d»*P
sesKing fit po|
many fallen Idols know to their sorrow
I lift '"
The work Of explaining !»"• f'"',s "f "°C" , ,v,ih
eorreet language will never be popular, e .
the Bamsst  student,   As acientlfie [J*01  rtUltii
v»ilue«| in indiiHtrial ami commercial life-'       pjjsj.
be valued bv man In hioSOOisl affs«* ,fljjfr
lion by a dependent working clsaa wil    r -^eos-
petiiienee nnd liarmoiiy onl of the presao
fusion.    May llint «lay come BOOU. s g **********m*******M
WESTERN    CLARION
l»AGE THREE
By J. A. McDonald
Ii is scarcely neceassry to state thst any particular .ountl-y is on the "bum" these days. Thev
aji leem to have reached the *■••„,. degree of
normalcy i" ibis respect   Auatrslia is bo different
,),.,„ the others.   Industrial conditions arc terrible
and there arc no prospccla oi anything better in the
immediate fut ito,   All states m the Commonwealth
i thi sam, state of affairs, regardless of their
: -. shadte of politieal complexion.   Rome have
..■ governmenta; soma have National; and some
■ „\.   They are all disgnstingij similar in their
itrstive functions.
Here, in New South Wsles, we enjoy, or rathei
■  Labor Qovernment   Th.- opposition  is
ed of two factions- Nationalists styA Progrea
I hsve attended .several of the parliamentary
Qitii     snd listened to lengthy contributions from
■j   representatives of all shades   One of the most
of the Labor members waa endeavoring to
rave the necessity for governments] interferen •*> in
•   r to 'iirb the prehensile proclivities of the pro.
Due of the Nationalists answered to the
i that wc live in e competitive system, when
mopoli I** possihle, and competition will keep
.* down lo their proper level.   At the pr--.
.   ti ssti n the ■ hu-f item of social legislstion is the
I Endowment Aet.*1   The benefits to be
rtvetl from this Act, a** One of its ardent support-
.-. Rtsted, is thai "ii v.ill enanre that all rhildn
•t the world properly clothed."   Those wh<>
s • • ■ st then ia any advantage to be gaim I
'•    thi election of Labor member*., no matter bow
the)   may he, can hsve their delusions dis
examining results in Australia
revolutionary movement much work is be-
■ .• :   •■   The opportunities for carrying on pro-
111 the Open air are cr« «t. r than thev   sre
i la snd tb-* \". S    The Domains, the city
i •!«* suburbs off.-r a splendid held for tl
In Australia
soap-boxer.   This is apparently the one advantage
seeming from Lahor administrations.
As usual, the movement is badly split, up. The
S li. I'., almost as featureless and hinctionless as it
ls elsewhere, holds Sunday night meetings on a
small s.-a!e. and also participate! in the Domain gab-
feat on Sunday afternoons. They have an official
organ whieh is published twice a month.
there are two Communis) parties. Hoth have endorsed the twenty-one commandments, but neither
I ss beea officially recognized bj tbe Council at Moscow, who m-i-t on ''unity ' al all coats. From my
own observations 1 should judge that there are no
rounds f. r unity. The two factions are totally different, and a passive submission to the .Mater Mos-
cowa, "ii the question of unity, would have no effect
ui bridging tin chasm thai exists between them.
One of these parties is fashioned along 8. P. of C.
Iii ea.   Th.- general standard of Socialist knowledge
is im) -.o high a- in the Canadian movement, but the
methods adopted an   much the same.     Excellent
in this Party, was accomplished by Moses Bar-
lui i: ' his sojourn in Australia, and the lessons
• I   drov.-  home  on   Socialist   policy   have  been  accepted, and made good use of, bj the Party mem-
l>ers    Tin offi ial organ of this Party is the "'Inter-
nsiional Comm mist," which is the nearest approach
lo a S    slist paper thai ean be found in Australia.
Tl • members are very i ctive.   Every Sunday after-
i on the !•■ main the} have four or five speakers.
< m Btiiida*i - vening. beta ecu seven and eight o'clock.
th.r.   are  two streel   meetings conducted, and  at
i  ilit a meeting iti tbe ball, where six or seven hundred workers Bttend.   On Friday nights they have
street        li ets, either in the city, or in some
,,i -,) ■       iiy suburbs.    About a doien members ean
i    . on thi  **"■  '   'orners, and the Domain all
,i.,v Sm   ay. selling pap. rs. and nearly 3,000 copies
disposed of in thi* way during each week end.
thei    i ommnnist Part) " has strong Indus-
i
trial leaning&_juid is largely composed of ex-"wob-
blies," anarchists, and the more ambitious of the
trades union element.    The propaganda is of the
I'topian-anarcliist-inflammatory type.      There  are
no Marxian students among them, although lengthy
passages from Marx and Engels are quoted to substantiate absurdities.    Their chief work, at present,
is in the capacity of advisers to the unemployed.
Meetings are held outside the parliament buildings
to awaken the government to a sense of duty, with
*he hope of receiving the basic wage whether they
work or not    itaids on restaurants, the abolition of
late shopping, and self-determination for Ireland are
other outstanding features of their-"revolutionary"
programme.    They have branches in all the largo
cities, and publish a weekly paper—"The Communist." which has a circulation of about 2,000 copies
per issue.
Apart from these there are other small groups of a
fad it ical or industrial nature. The Socialist Party
of Victoria is the important group in Melbourne. A
glance at their paper. "The Socialist," suffices tot
show what a mixture they are. An attempt was
made to establish the O. 13. D. some time ago, but
was evidently abortive as nothing resembling an
0. B. 1". exists today. At one time the W. I. I, V.
was active, but so was Vesuvius. The last act of
the I. W. W. was an attempt to abolish paper currency by the circulation of counterfeit five pound
notes.    The paper notes are still with us. but the
1. W. \V. has left.
All in all. the revolutionary atmosphere is fairly
good in Australia and. with greater attention paid to
real Socialist education, there m-ed be no fear of the
future. The average wage-slave is easy to talk to,
and those who have once got started on the right
road show a keen desire for further study. Our
classes during the past three months were well at-
tended, and a good interest was displayed.
History of the Art of Writing
IN THREE PARTS- PART III
By Katharine Smith
TliK immediate parentage of our English al
pbahef   la  oof   hard   to  determine,  aa  our
K    sn eaphsli are practically identical with
iter* *-mployed in the third centurj   I-'
- been found that the primitive slphabel ol
u derived from ihe Drees slphsbet prevail
* ■ '■•■• lis  tnd Buboea about thi - v,K    i'■••>
'',   Tina Buijoesn alpfeab-i i is thoughi to have b*
Into Italy by means ol eofoniea fi
■ii.-h were cstabllabed In Bicil)  and slao
******* ''■•■.    The Chsleidian slphabel •■•<*• i ssi
'■ "•" ths archaic alphabet ol Greece, judging from
"'  -"BWerous inacriptiona, ths earliest ol which maj
l'rl|d.i.v belong to the eighth or ninth eentur) R.C
1    classical writers agree in attributing the in
lotion of letters to ths PhoeuJeians, from whose
r'll"i" posts in tin- Aegean they were obtained b.\
'"? Greeks    An examination of the alphabet gives
J^ncs through ihe names, numbers, order and
f,t'n" that they are Semitic in origin. The very word
"Ptafcel is derived from alpha and beth, which
***** SI the head of Ihe ('reek alphabet, and are
,,,,nl' Identical With alpha and beth borne by eor-
*«poiidng Semitic character*. In Greeb these
"'."""' ■■'"■■■»■ nothing bui they arc Bigniflesnl Sem
,"!'' u"l,,s- sleph  denoting an  "ox" and beth a
HOliai," x
)m'" to very recent limes the classical tradition
.(|,!* v,,,"y generally discarded, and the origin ot tbe
\q** VV;'^ thought to be by the highest author
**s unsolved problem.    Now scholars agree not
** lo lh,. Houre,. of the Semitic alphah-t hut al
' ° ^ opeetiil place, mods and period In which it
mui:      ve orig noted.
\ Preneh Egyptologist, Emanuel de Rouge, in
I $3-9 was first to formulati a theory of the origin
of the alphabet. M. de Rouge refers the origination
ol the Semitic alphabet io the period of five or six
. cniun.--. . •     ng which a race of Semitic kings ruled
•  \\h ts    Hi- method ..i investigation began by de-
;.■• - ,■,.',.. v-  !..i ii.- oi  th.   Semitic letters,
I ■ • paru-on with lhes< lie selected such of the
Kgypiian hieratic characters as were use.I at the
tune the Semitic people oweupied Delta, and as a
,,, ;■• | . • und that the primitive form of almost
kvrv Sei ter ' *o easily be trsci .1 from
: | nf its normal hieratic prototype. The
_ ,,- of ' is kii -ess in solving this problem lay in
• I,,. f,l(.t that i' Bought for the immediate prototype
0I (he Semitic letters not in the Egyptian hiero-
glvphies as so manj before had .lone, but among
ihe cursive characters whieh the Egyptians had developed oiH of their hciroglyphies and wind, had
,,,, employed for literary nnd business purposes,
p. Kava that the origin of the alphabet has been
,,1.,,.,.,) between Ihe 23rd nnd the 17th centuries,
-trobahlj thi IJHh century II. C.
Keeenl  investigations in Crete reported by Sir
Arthur Kvans seem to establish the fact that Greece
jj ,.,,. Q]der than has 1 n thought mid that n flouri-
Hn-m civilisation existed in the Aegean at least 3000
■- q vv|t}- renters in Crete and probably later in
Mvceuae: sUo thai there was close intercourse be-
t\,t.„n -hia civilisation and thai of Egypt about2600
,, p -r(!( \Pgpan script accordingly seems to have
[H,nn j„ n9a long before Phoenicia existed and ns
Ploeirtcinii history  ,v P** ,':"'1< *'* abonl  l80°
|, p Phoenicia's chance For commercial importance
'imi to have come with the fall of Myeean civilise.
tion. However this may he. we know that Phoenicia
was dominant in the .Mediterranean ami probably
took for business purposes the alphabet material
that was found and to it added a more practical
form.
Latin Alphabet—This is by far the most important alphabet derived from tbe Chalcidian type of the
Hellenic; as explained before, the date of the introduction of the Greek: alphabet into Italy 1ms been established as being about the eighth century  15. ('.
The ultimate dominance of the Latins brought the
abolition of every other alphabet  than their own.
which, becoming the alphabet of the Roman Empire
and then of Christiandom secured an everlasting
supremacy,   Through it the Greek and Roman culture was conveyed to Western Kurope and it is now
the vehicle of culture of the propressive races of the
world.
The Romans used two sets of charaeters.-eapitals
and cursive, in the early Empire. The capitals were
square shaped and used for inscriptions and other
writings demanding prominence, as we use capitals
now. borrowing the old Roman forms. The cursive
or running characters are the originals of our type
and were used for correspondence and other pUT>
poses where other writing was the object.
To the student ot historical materialism it is
simple to see the relation existing between the development of the tools of production and the evolution of Writings, It was those nations whicii
had developed sufficiently far as trading nations
under slave production which were forced to ae-
quire a phonetic alphabet. They either did so by
developing, more primitive methods or they adopted
that of a more forward race.
•
--; PAGE FOUR
vVESTERN     CLARION
Western Clarion
A J-msnal ef History, ■eoassslea, FSJiisifBr,
sai Camas Brents.
FaMisksd twies s montk by Us Boeislist Psrty sf
OsssSa 4S1 Pss-dsr Btrset Ksst, Vsaeeever, B. a
Phes-e HigUss-1 SSM
mitsrsd st G. P. O. ss s nswspspsr.
■ditor
Ewsn If acLsod
iubscription;
Osnsds, 10 isBuas	
Fsrsign, 1C issnss 	
 $1.00
  $1.00
gog-mmlt tkJs sssassr is ss yew sddrsss Isbsl j*mr
H*yi tmUariptimm  mrpirat   with   ssst  iaama,   "
psBssfSjgr,
.VANCOUVER. H.C.. DECEMBER 1, 1921.
THE ELECTIONS
\
NOMINATION day. November 22nd, resulted
in the oficial entry of five S. P. of C candidates contesting constituencies in the Federal
election, four in B. C, and one in Manitoba. In
Winnipeg, Man., while we had Comrade Bartholomew listed for Centre and Comrade R. B. Russell
for North, sufficient funds were raised to meet expenses in but one constituency and thus Comrade
Bart hoi emew's name was withdrawn.
In Calgary, while election manifestos were printed and the name of Comrade Frank Williams was
listed as candidate for the constituency known as
East Calgary, nomination day passed without his
official entry, this too on account of lack of funds.
Peculiarly enough, in this constituency, the "labor"
candidate, self-styled enemy of corruption—champion of justice, and so forth, charged Frank Williams, representing Local Calgary of the S. P. of (.'.,
with the baching of the Liberal party. The *'lahor"
candidate referred to is Mr. Irwin (Reverend ), whose
book received attention at some length in these columns last issue. Details are given in the following
note, sent by Local Calgary, S. P. of C.:
At a meeting in the CoHingwood School somewhere near
Wlraborne. Alberta, on October 28th. Mr. Irvine, speaking
In his own behalf ae tbe Farmer-Labor candidate for East
Calgary, made the Btateraent that the Socialist candidate
opposed to him.—Frank Williams.—was being backed by
the Liberal party. The implication was that the backing
was financial f'hallenged hy some of his audience to substantiate thc statement. Mr. Irvine, af course, failed to do
so. He was maliciously spreading a rumour implicating
his Socialist opponent in a despicable pi«*-ce of political
trading. T!*e statement was a plain ordinary lie. and to
politicians lies are useful.
Now, as to our backing, what are the facts? Comrade
Williams of Local Calgary, was named by the members of
that local, early In October, as tbe Socialist candidate in
the forthcoming election, the riding to be contested being
left for later decision. No announcement of any kind
was made, however, until November 6th. on which date
handbills were distributed, requesting the aid,-—aad particularly the financial aid, ol the class conscious workers
of Calgary, and publishing at the same time, and for the
first time, the intention of the locsl to contest East Csl-
gary—If funds peinutted. In the meantime, subscription
lists for the purpose of collecting these funds had been circulated, but bad met with no great response. The nlc-kles
and dimes ln wcrking-ch-ss pockets are not numerous
these days; and after trying for six or seven weeks to
raise enough to sec us over nomination day. we hsve to
publish our Inability to make the grade. We have not
thc means to pay the deposit required. Working-class
pockets have not been equal to tbe task of financing a
working-class candidate.
The aid of the Liberal Party which we were credited by
Mr. Irvine with having accepted (ten days before our intentions were announced) has never at any time been offered, nor has any other sort of aid, except of the working
class; neither, hsd it been offered, would It hsve been
accepted. The "Enemy of (.Corrupt Ion" cannot understand
that. He has since said that for the Socialist Party to
accept the kind of support mentioned would be good business, and that he would have no bones to pick with the
psrty if it did business In that way. To him It may appear to be all right. To us It is merely a compromise. It
la no psrt of the Socialist Party's function to further the
designs of its opponents. The 'champion of justice" may
see It limply ss good business; but to us it is treason. And
we remember that he attempted to capitalise s-ven ths
rumour.
He seeks the support of the workers, on the farm and ln
the factory. We sre out of the fight.-—on election day.
at any rate. At the same time we submit that the
Farmer-Labor candidate, tbe author of "The Farmer in
loiitics." is neither honest BOl Informed, neither understands thc position of these he seeks tt ******* nOT
knows ttt« their eul situation may he remedied. Hob
Edwards, in ths "Calanrj I ye-opener." of November 19th.
8ay8 that Mr. Irvine It purely dttnatewstser s poor r->
eommendaUo-L He r*ks ths SBpnort ot the earasrs ths
farmers and laborers, the dtateharitsd ami expropriated,
the class to which belongs (he Socialist bbsobss* be slsn-
dered. Let it pa.-s Bui keep it la osfad on election day,
Ar.d remember, thai ths only hope for stl »•>* «***"fcSfS ••**
in their tSklBJ Such at tun as will lead to Soo'stlr-m.
Champions of Justice lia-e abounded In all tunes, but th**
remedy for worktai class difficulties is still to seek oo
atectioo da) Trunk WilUsms •••ill aot !>♦• in the BSJd in this
rlcMng. the workers of K.-»: I **%*****} w.il not Ih< »Mp. then,
to vole for a Sov..»ll*.t The> can. however. Mil! vol*
against their Sttem - I BJ  OBStfBS lhe*f ballot for
SOCIALISM.
Such matters sre important lo us.   To Mr. Irwin,
votes, bv anv and all means obtained, are sufficient
*      i -*■
to satisfy bis Christian eons ienee.   Urns tne "» •■
politician" secures the    roles—or hopes to—ol a
credulous working das.   one thing bs knows ior
sure: be will never secure anything but well earned contempt from a S<>. ial ist.
t     *     •
Iu Winnipeg (North ComradeR li Russell's candidature is opposed by a candidate of "The Work
er's Alliance," an organisation made tip oi vsrioos
groups of social democrats young laboi iesguers,
Jewish Nationalists, Commua i - ml others. The
organisation cann- to life in this form soma three or
four weeks air«>. Tl.. various groups, national ss-
sociations mostly, prohsblj number 2><I^K, arhen com-
Lined. Thev bsve issued s manifesto, in which Um
numerical "weakness" of the 8. P, <>f ( seoasa to
worry them more than tbe i rength oi the mooter
class. Wc are expected, no doubt, to dtssgres with
and to condemn their policy of nominsting s -audi
date sgainst oa. On the contrary, arc prefer their
ojhu opposition to their support if they are not in
agreement with our poliej and principles
• «   •
In Vancouver Smith ( omiads Kavanagh, raudi
dale of Local No. I  ia opposed by it nomine,- of th**
1*. L. I*., under the banner, ol Bourse, of 'labor.
Questions have l.een asked u*    why do we oppoSB
the  labor candidate      In  tin*  instance, no  far as
placing an s P. of C. nominee io the field i* c(,n
earned- in the matter of precedence tha "labor" esa-*
dnlate was the second arrival.   Not that tre w
not have opposed him had he arrived titst*.*e op
pose all with whom we ar.  in d*SS8Tee*flBSttt    but we
await with interest the standard Of judgment of tin-
workers   of   Vancouver   South   on   December   6th.
Now's their opportunity to ne,. our differencies,
• •    •
In Jturrard. Vancouver Centre and Nanaimo the
candidates are simply Socialist, Coalition and Lib*
ersl, excepting that in Cen*trs sn "independent" <*•
listed.   Efforts to orgsnise Joint  msetinga of all
candidates in these Constituencies have failed, ex-
cepting that in Centre. Comrade O'Connor managed
to inveigle Mayor dale j Liberal to one joint meet,
ing, In BtiiTsrd sad Nanaimo the candidates of the
master claw sections ha\e more wisdom, if less
courage, than the Mayor of Vancouver, who talked
for half an hour or more to an audience of IfiffQ people without a murmur of applause at the joint meet-
in;,' with our nominee. %
•    •    •
Altogether, up to this date of writing, we have had
many (nestings ami our propaganda liaa readied the
attention of many people whose Interest tee probably would not bsve arrested had this not been else*
tion time.Our speakers are few and their energies
haVe been taxed to the utmost, They have laid down
the terms Of the Issue a* are see it in thia campaign
—■not tariff adjustments nor the fulfilment of election promises—but the ending of systematic exploitation of one cIjimk hy another Now, as always, that
has been the keynote of     our aclivitiea.The settle.
ment lies with the working claaa,
SECRETARIAL NOTES
Comrade.! A. McDonald writes fron v,.
New Zealand, to *-*>   that  be bai irrived *   ^
region and has addressed a nun ber ni '
r 1*1 . r,,'f:,*ifin
far.   The governments! regulsi ,f ,,,
are very tight and John jS doeen\t knowbaw
Ihe privilege of "free" -,-„,,.,,, ujll UsI    H.k J?
says he i* booked to apeak oa ''Banned Litettt   •*
which   is   h   live   issue   {fi   thos.    ;,,r,      If-    i
■ urj ... ••.,,
should bo in-um-itv,  for. judging by tbe    •
lished by tin- ' Uaoriland \\.
erature be m thoroughly familiar .
The h<t pnbllshed Includes thc    v,
♦   •   •
Pari two of Corsrade R  Kirk       •   ,    t\tr
ths  I'a-ific" will appear m  ■„-  . . .        -ft,
Job bunting oeupation has taken
v dd« me-., for   (he    time  b.
Comrade Stephen-*, ii,     \ review    f \      ■ %    ^
Rnginsers nnd the Pries $*m**o
sheet and we SI -:,-; n wha•• •
final guess on the nalur.  of •
o
HERE AND NOW
We have t»<>t been overwrn
ing the lime between sins
lag (he < h'tt-n Btiba, thnt bai w*sk.
\} >hy hy «U»>    S{,ji «,  |..
•piM-d inflated enrrene) ai
msjrh dsBrnssion and exsn
sobjeot of -feajji ftinanee >• *■ •-
ran explain to a Ith •' • .     .
ui experiencing \h** \a*k of it   1 y
alluring  BUOject-   always  appl   i I -
its practical workingi always
Clarion basement.   Tberefore ■ •  I  %
eneonraging   wheedling, -and ;
fr-un the coffers ve li have to >■■ H ft
w,> inti*oduee the totals added *
Foiloumg #|   vttih    li    f    A i"    o
ittaefa   \ W. CatitnU, a II H -       ^
S.yhtr. If. Goodie, P. Sobs fj Rupert f K'.r
notds, S   ii. Coined. ,J   -fenkins   n " * s
Bern, .1  s  hferaon, Kiac ii.  -      •■ -    K.
Thomas, Dr. Curry, C P. cjsli, J <• I   -   W
ker, T. Csrr.   W. \v  tefcaus  J  Oi      R *   M
Kay, »J. A. Brown, A  M  Daviea d 1   ■» '
V. Stewart \v g Uather a, Wi (I. Haal P M
Prissen, Key Addy, .1 c iil.ur. w «.. ■ ■ 8tea
art. .1   H. Reid,  I   Kllio't. .1   Myholt   H  '■'      ^v
Utdholland,
w. i:rw»n. *',   fi n Hanson  «-•  II Rsl
K.». Plala, M ; 'I  B. Roberts, |6; Wn *:-'
Frank Cu-sidy. <*.\. t, U Ronald, W   t  W.8
**.'; 0 Rriekaou, Mi vT. n  Wrist-  •    ' •' M*'
Donald. *•»   C. I,.kke. **J.
Above clarion aubacriptions ri •
to 30th Novemher. Inclusive    ' ''      **'' ' '
CLARION MAINTENANCE FUND
X. .1. Taylor, *4. R, Thomn , -• *i P Clarke, 111
II  c. Mitch.-ll,    US; I.. Oreen- »1   <    ,aK'
Katherine Smith, (fi,
W*ove, c. M. P, donations peeeivccl from llw
■toth Novemb   er, Inclusive -tots!, I©*-*5
MANIFESTO
— of ths-
•OCIALWT PARTY OF CANADA
(Fifth IdiUon)
For copy 10 cents
For 36 eopies   ****
Post Paid . aWHWW*s\****Mt%%*^
.-c£sV>---r^':'^
VV ESTEin     CLARJOM
PAGR FIVE
Bank Credits
-rg-^IlK prssent Inaolveaej of nations, .is express
I   ,.l in their failure to purchsas in aome in-
A  fauces »'"l **-** 'ail'-"  to develop industrier.
- ran be full) anderstood onlj if tbe methods
■   .in financing the wet an dear in our minds.
. j , rsslise that the arsr wa  not paid for
,.,,- be ) i   awhile   but thai does not n - sn
.  undi ■ -'.•" I -aIi..! • 1.1 »led I ti ma to    i .,,'   . • ,.n,  , ,
• as the) did i\.,, lUbilitii
i intended    .1 would to imposed-I <    *■■■■.,%.,    m.^ nossesi
.    ,   , f tlo   lie thods adopt. .1   ...   even I
,i nest ion of Jin in
*- .     I      ifi< ntiona. its divu
, -       .. |., ;    difl    lit t< undi n is ai
• , -t;. It tated teebnic il pro    • -       ,•: istr;
• ,..., be Ions 1 en ia • ■> tit < in bi        1   u<
ii ft eturee of the pi r whirl • d
...   log ]•«'«< f wm       ■   ted   luting th
impossibl   / \ ould 1,   il all came together for their
money,
\ bank    at- institution whose normal atste is that
ol insolvency.   Bunk profits are made by landing
oini :• •>- »| ,. ., money, sa often us poiwible.    A loan
";' ••• -■" ■ ap] •    ■ in the banl. books to the credit
•    v'. - a il i> frsnted, u 11' be
/•i lh< re.   It forma pai 1 af
l hai
.M.
i\. in *> ov •  inure 1 mm
• n fort una'*
a hit    this t*.\
I ii|   1
,,*. iy. the Oovi roment   isel      -.*•■>  .
.-• nlani I ion 00 that 1    • 1 11 appose
in drawing on our on *  i i
1 ontained in O01 ernment pu • - 1
ing 1 ay he taken ss a auau si ••     Ass in
h< re 1-- a limit  to I:.-- extent to
• ' ai r" .1 on.   Some cm I omen will
4 for actual mone;     Some cs th
1 •'     • -   1    order to mei: 1 h< bc demands.
•'    '    ■ '■!'*•: alv ayi keep \\ ithin s
'•<;,■■  i    , •       • 1 |)j , .,    . ,   ,1, m-servi a, and
'   ' I01 :: aii •<■ taught il what tbat proper.
lioi    .- «■ ,f -! ■.
u   n -a I t> thi  .-li. rjnea drawn by the
••       .-•• the Rank of England, posted to
contraci .***   who   in turn, deposit them with their
The im        ial   ontractor   or firm    reeeiving a
:,
to.'
• •. ■ foi ■ *■■' "| • *-" this in*.. B irclaj s, shall
• ■(,• Qovernment in ani given wi we - •    the ;.-'ik with which he deals     Barclays
, ,j the who!.* of i's   nrr<n? revenm '•• having d rie so, and sends the cheque
1   •   rteed "f an .'-dor   •       I      • ■'• ■ Bank of Emdand, who now place the
Ihe war enat ^,000.000 i-er daj   ao thai       tVtvXH    > the credit of Barclays Bank.
mands for additional currency are met. If a rise in
pries necessitates an addition to the currency, thc
IJ 11k will be called upon to find real money for this
purpose. Where is it to get tins gold from? And
'i* il tin-da it the v.iioh process now appears to be a
costly one, as far as the Hank i.s concerned. For-
tunately, however, the contingency did not arise.
Gold payments had already been suspended, and thia
difficulty, which would have made the whole scheme
i:i possible, removed. Additional demands for cur-
1 >ncy were met by the printing press. I'ntold mil-
'ioi a of bunk notes and "Bradburys" could be turn-
<•! out .<t v. ill. A paper currency was in circulation
and could be increased with little difficulty.
Tin- earrreney of this country became expanded,
or inflated as it is commonly termed, and with this
came a further rise in prices; for paper, unlike gold,
Is of no use apart from its function as a medium of
circulation. There followed, of course, a rise in the
cost of living. The purchasing power of money
wages fell, and thc working class, at least thc organized section, were compelled to take steps to increase
th.. amount of thia wage. This increase in wages
could never keep pace with tfu advance in prices because the process above outlined was going on all the
time. W: H. MALNWAKINO.
—'•The Plebs."
— :o :	
X< .■        I'ffecls   tl   -     • arc: First, the Government is *x\    .-'   I '   ■ mse it ha* been districted - •   101 •-' its various creditors. Sec-
tlufM* c.ovci     ■   '    •- ditors upon r< reipt ol
n pass them into their own hank and
ther      . 1 1 ■ .       pit d< posits, . nd, judged from the
of i   -ount* are richer to that extent,
Thim      ■'     '   ' ions -   1 nongsl   whom   the
• - iti ! in turn send them hack to
•    •'     I ■■      ■   I      ■■•!«i **** incretwe their deposits.
■ .   ...    .,.;!■        ; wil   ••  -  araomits, ; - if they
■   1 •■ •  1 illh n* :n an) one areek ta
.. I atl   Mm where »*• thi m *   ■ ■■
-. rlovernment has ta>ed and loa
1   • . if tier*'*   'ii  " a tbe Bai
whieh e*n !"•   - ■    for credit   ion**v
W      ■.  Bank then create mouet      II -
■ go00 with the process   nd ■     •    -
. . ir* sl    I •   to s point il does
•   .*   k'nd.      l.«-*    os   . v VOU,   f. II
■
havi     •     arefu) ** tth 1 bui *
• ■ one <''•'*>  but j 0 1 • ■-* 1 ■' h nd 1
■:\   '   ( tl   \h.    -..(•*•-•   till;-      '■'  tWO   I   •
-. , ud be a miracle    But it i» just 1   -
. arJiii h for**-- part
•     i a bank.   1? can lead •     *    •  w
■   •      1 oasihly ten Men
Why I    Well, it knows from *    1
t tiec thai these men • II nol
' lor thi money,   1 be auma I aned won
. ovef a long period, and whai ia
[xtrtanl Iks money too} 1 it leavi tin H
!: thi Hank lend*- mooe) lo ■ ne   tt*\ imer   I 0
times an eqnal amount to mother customer ol "■
•■-.ith li.is credit W|aarea ;' •        mnt no
' .. thi Ban))    oil ■' s  '
!ii >n» is t«> agrei  lo oo*      f necesssi
• two upon ii bj   ;   ae e be hsvi 1
• 11 r by those lo whom ihe bsnki rs I
*''-       ■  *-- ..n to draw,   In 1 rs< " • N-1N fpv
W ' sl ih drawn out in the WW •  ol    n    -!
: m ;ediateh rcc*iv.■.; bark in tl
' ' ■     " • Bionoj Hun runa out jual as rspidly
*
' ' •  in
•Sfi tl>- Government approaches the Rank autii
"tiesand Matei its roc|Qfreiuents    .1 len million 1
i! *0*t   The Bank airrees    The Goven n cm «*ka
"••''••'H, to pay oa ijti behslf £10.000,01 -^
?" irraj of Covemment enutraelora are awaituiu
Psyaieni for goo<U and aerviees rendered. ( h<■ ■■■■ ■
'i,;'^' upnn the Rani, of Rngland for the amounts
****** "•nt to each and thev. in turn, send them '"
NANAIMO RIDING
Here omes the i   [mrtanl point,
. .- 1 s regard I In ir deposit*  k\rith the
stitul        -      ng w ha   they pr*  ■ nd to be,
j,.       Th ;• ael upon thia assumption. Their
.   s. . . ; Irendj explained, is to lend
. -       . .  • ...     - id to lend it as often aa poa-
j, •  ..   f     •      moti ;•. and we assume all oi
      Iiel and*- of Ihcae bankers, has
• an.   M simpb lies to their credit at
the Bank      I ' - ■
tin   -   ■ -  undi
..   Hi
- ' an
their 01
times.    I ■ ■
ir liabilities 01
rested by 1
iig tin 1
I,as hcci    real
W
. n
he ito
Iii 11
nl if call'    upon
in turn are subje t to the
ivho paid them in
.,  !,.;..i or invest this money
'; 1 iii  v.' shall assume to be
.. (hi j grant or create ered-
- I lie amount origin-
; England, which me ms
. , .- ■{,'} millions ol credit
j   j- tin  nroeeas 1 ep<..:c< 1 over
•, niouittii -  > vcr higher an i
tin  .'M:  ta
, ui found itself compelled ' '
joftns ,; gave nothing in return
i,o* -rami nl is not a producer
For
i,      ) ,.,i,N in the 1
" """ Individual hankers who eredil ihem
v ith
1 one}.
da can ultimate!- cancel Una di
,,,. v, nl this is. 1 Ible only by putting its
tj,t, ,-oe.-el? 1 f fhi community, riic credit
,-, rived had im material basis, li was simply the
ri-jht to go into tli
the name of the Bank I
.   .  ., „-as ..n addition to iiie purchasing
.,!.', munit)  without inereuaing the gooda pro
\,a H>id make purchases, and
:<
v for them.   In ef-
power Ol
'';''amounts of the ehe-pics.    It now depends upon du     .   ^     inanufftetnred  puivLasing power the
***** hanka whether anything other than paper will PUters thc  aarket.   Us appearance in
!"ilv"'!- Banb of Rnglnnd.   The central institution «; ^'^ w m ,„,,,,. N marked hy other effects.
■■"•Inly a hunk for bankers, and jnst sa Individ '''/.;..' ,„ ,,.,■   Other causes would
ready
"alH -m-rim their own deposits to I-  note in <■"'    [*«*  "J||(,need the proeess. but we are here dea
'**••* of their respective banks, and thai they wi I      ivi -; (. 0ovrnnneB| purchases wit
ip*
^iol) be paid out upon application, so do imlivu
^ ****** regard their deposits in tl"1 ******* "f Kn"
"l   Rverybod) and every bank assume their ■''•
,'0vi,'s," be there and trust that the?  will be paid
1 '"••■"..'md:nnd vet all of then kllOW how Utterly
m ■ with the
":;;ii:-';u;:;';::;::;,1,m,1,,,, 1.«.,,,,».!,■ n,.^
"' '■■":"■''    „  :. tho institution iv,m which de-
fititution |"'t "  •
(Socialist Candidate—VV. A. Pritchard)
THE area covered by .this constituency is not
easy to measure, and the difficulties met with
in this campaign by the Socialist candidate
may bc stated in terms indicating bad roads and
long distances. Tin* riding runs irom \anaimo to
Victoria, !>. <'.. and some of the in-between places
and scattered Islands are bard to reach.
iVanaimo, Ladysmitb, .South Wellington and
Yie:<.iia have had meetings addressed by Comrades
O'Cononr and Wells, and Comrade Harringtons
speech, made in Victoria, appears in another eol-
iiinu.   Com. Earp spoke in Victoria last Sunday.
Answering an insistent demand from this office
thst he write something of the progress of the campaign whether he has time or not, W. A. P. replies:
•Take this: Meetings night after night, almost all of
which run uj> to 10.30 p.m. and even 11 p.m., of exposition,
dls. usslons, etc., with an astonished multitude listening
in r.t;*t altentkai This last week end: Got into Naniamo
1 11.1:1. (Sunday); went tn Granby 11 a.m.—dinner Chase
River 1 pm.—meeting (good 'un) Extension at 1.30—
un -titter meet;-*.* (also good- 'un) a? Chase River 3.30 p.m.
. • amltti e me* ting 6.30—propaganda 7.30 at Nanaimo, end-
iai at 1"Ai.. followed by eomiu-ittee meeting, ending bed
midnight Voice, though holding out good has deseend-
• ! a pla&o-and-a-nalf below normalcy. Did not expect appreciative recept"oa met wiUi al Duncans. Alleged to be
noma ef the brave—and conservatism. Was told meeting
would be boycotted. Small town, but meeting of over 300
Sl I talked till lt)M and had to tell them to go home. That
characterises all points tuched. The people want an explanation of ihe circumstances they find themselves in,
;.n ! I'm doin*- my best by introducing them to our con*
pta and method of observation.
Windpipes made of caoutchouc would be very useful
for Bpeakera theae days. An ordinary throat isn't tough
enough to meet all demands."
In the south end meetings have been held in
1\-.piimalt, Saiinicli. Sydney, Saaniohton, Keatings,
Cedar Hill. Royal Oak, Colwood, Marigold, Jordan
River and Oak Bay, besides the theatre meetings in
Victoria, Efforts, so far, to j-vt any opposition
sp; akcr or candidate to meet Comrade Pritchard
have failed.
Comrade J. Stevenson spoke to an interested aud-
ience at the cement works at Bamberton on 17th
November. A meeting is being arranged for the
10th ill ■*J-dl Spring Island, and if possible one will
be held at Sooke. On December 4th Comrade
Pritchard will speak at Ksquiraalt, Possibly other
meetings will !>e arranged and addressed by members
of Local (Victoria) Xo. 2. Here follows a report
Prom Victoria 'Times"':
(Continued on page S) PAGE SIX
WESTERN | CLARION	
Materialist Conception of History
FOR   BEGINNERS
Lesson 24—South Africa and thc Boer War.
BY PETER T. LECKIE
TO understand the South African history, let
us hark back some considerable distance iu
the history of capitalist d< velopment. Such a
review will show the prophetic clearness of Karl
Marx's masterly generalisation that, ihe means by
which people make their living, decides how they
must think and aet in all their relations of life. The
discovery of South Africa arose out of the struggle
for eeonomie supremacy among Portugeese, Dutch,
French ami English from the loth and 16th centuries. We recall that the cause which led to the expedition of Columbus, led i<* the expedition around
the Cape of flood Hope iu the endeavour to find a
sea route to India after the land route was blocked
through the capture of Constantinople by the Turks
in 14*5.1
The discovery of such a route led to the establishment of the American Republic ami also the I'liion
of Sonth Africa. The country was first discovered
by the Dutch in 14SG. The Boers (who were Dutch
peasants) made a settlement at the Cape in 1652,
and it was placed by Holland a few years later in
the eharge of the Dutch Kast Indian Co., for the
purpose of administration, pretty much in the same
way as Rhodesia was placed in the hands of the
British South Afrit an Co. The Dutch East Indian
Co. made a settlement at Cape Town merely for the
purpose of a port of call, whither ships passing on
the way to India might call for supply of vegetables
aud fresh meat. The Hottentots who were, and still
are the predominant native tribe of the Cape of
(lood Hope province, showed a natural disinclination to be robbed of their land and their cattle, and
many wars between them and the Dutch occurred
on that account. As a result, the Dutch East Indian
Co. encouraged settlers to come to the Cape so that
they might breed cattle independently of tin- natives.
These settlers received military protection against
the natives on condition that they supplied the company's ships with provisions at rales laid down by
the company.
Tin* settlers continued to increase in numbers
and began to chafe under the artificial restriction of
prices imposed by tin- company, Trouble also grew
with the natives -:s the settlers spread over the
country, which fact, together with dissent ion anion-,'
the colonists themselves, brought about the easy
conquest of the country h\ the British,
The Dutch had an easy living as the Hottentots
were their slaves.
The llritish took over permanently all the Dutch
interests of the Cape in 1806, partly by conquest
and, latterly, partly by pun-base.
The Boers were forced out of the Cape in \Hdl>
but they were not destined to enjoy possession of
their new promised land.
The gold mines brought unscrupulous adventurers into the gold fields who foisted worthless serip
on a gullible public. Of gold there was plenty, but
one writer says. "It is safe to say that legitimate
gold mining never made the colossal fortunes of
South African millionaires."
The gold mine owners, before 8 Boer Commission in 1897, demanded cheaper labor by increasing the Native Hut tax, but Kruger replied by passing a. law to confiscate the mines and work them if
the mine owners refused to do so. Kruger was not
animated by any humanitarisni iu refusing the mine
owners' demands to exploit tlie natives; he wanted
the Boer farmer to keep control of the cheap native
labor on their farms. There being a possibility of
Britishers outnumbering the Boers. Kruger gave
them a restricted franchise in order to prevent, this
political danger. The mine owners, not being able
to bribe Kruger to their way of thinking, prostituted
the press and bribed tlm British Government by get*
ting n\> a huge corruption Fund.
Petitions a ere sent out appealing for help from
tlie British Government, signed •>' the rate of Otto
shilling per signature. One eouM sign as often as
he pleased. Here we had a war beganae the Britisher w-nild not g< t the vote which meant changing ins
allegiance From «i..- British Crown, something nol
only unknown but also absurd, as ail countries endeavour to keep their moving population under the
home hag. The sheer forei of numbers defeated the
Boers, and be it noted Hot ha was ehoscn by the mine
magnates to be the first Premier, and DeWett, wh<»
opposed him most bitterh more 'bun once, hinted at
his alleged treachery in betraying Ihe Boer* into the
mine owners* hands.
.Jos. Chamberlain and Milner waxed emotionally
over the wi.-kedn.s-. ..? | '■<■ i:... r» founds our black
brothers bui. strange to saj   oui of the Bra" •-»
m nts <»f the Milner regime was to double the native
but tax.
As for tin- mine owner* Hoy reduced their pay
from 9 t.» .*) dollars a month The poiic) of the Cape
has been to break up the tnbnl ratem, so we Bra
told,  ".o bring out the individuality of the Kaffir
The Glen Ore) \e\ waa paused .»• | wos deemed
beet to ns.* means to pcrattade the natives to learn to
work.
All the young idle mates under the A- ? are to
pay fl labor lav of Jo shillings her head per annum,
the proceeds of which are devoted to industrial
Reboots "o train the nam.-, to work.
<>ne wni.r. defending the introduction of Chin-
e e labor Bfter the  BoO War saySi      0U ai!  hand*
the scarcity is apparent and abundanee of this
prim.- commodity labor ought to be provided at ad
hazards .... with the enforcing of the Squat*
teri law So. J] of l**o;, ani* -•„, ;,,,. ..„c ,(}l „;
locations to in Tease tlo* sn otinl of labor available.'"
In 1903 HHner appoint, d .* commission to en*
ipiire into th adequacy or sources of labor for (the
mines. The Commission reported 129,000 laborers
w»re neeess,--y and Central and Soot), Africa could
not supply them <»„ tbe Mb February, 1904 an or
dinancc wa carried in the Transvaal legudative
council for the introduction ot indentured labor
from out-id- of Africa south of 12 degrees north of
the equator.   It met with great opposition in Africa
and   Britain,   and   the   mine  own. rs   cam-   forward
with a petition for Chine* labor, hearing signatures
*«t a shilling a nine of curs.- of aver half the
white population.   Thai a great number of sifns*
tire* were forged • a trithoul saying,   The first
shipment of chin, s, wss from Hong Kong, reaching
Durham 20th dun.   1904,    I rXmatelj   60,000 Chin-
'■*••• wi le employ.,| ,.„ -\u. \(iiU,\ Tl|>, ,.x,„.,-,„„.„,
was Successful in so far as obtaining cheaper labor
and subsequently cheapened Kaffir labor, hut other
assertions eg, the employment of more white labor
were completely falsified. White labor found less
instead of more labor. Th- proportion of Whites to
colored of all races was 10 to 50, in Alav 1904, and
in 1906 was 10 white to SI eulore.f Thai wan I.e.
cause the Chinese proved adept pupils af skilled
work, although clauses staled "only unskilled work
lo be done. . . cannot do any skilled work. .
Therefore do competition with tin white man."
We are told unnau.eaide vice was rampant iu the
rhi,,,,K«* •'*''*- '■'•• ta Addition to gambling, opium
eating, murder ami robbery. The parsons and Holy
Willie* ignored these vices although they wen- well
known  until the mine owners discovered that  the
Chinese were not so profitable as expected,
The, they began tO howl out against the moral
'•-•nspooi of the Rand, Thus the spectacle of the
Archbishop of Canterhury, the High, J',.v. prt*|-.T j„
(ind, speaking of Chines,- labor as s regretabla neo
-'HHlly. The word rogro/,,1,1-. might be thought to
have some reference to the moral aspect of the sub.
.eet. but in reality be was only giving
IIS .1 s;   - ■   .
interpretation to the toon*  fael u*^- ,-,,.,..
in the mines, having higher tastes thin \,, ,  .,.
took twice the expense to feed, an.! .,? *\, .    ,
their coutrsi t then was the expense ->f r.--.. ■■
Thei. for tin- lime had eom.   for then
a moral ee-*«-jM--d, entailing such
owners, and causing such offeneeti
inga of «ui brctheru io Ood.
All supporter* of (he Chinese qm -* on     \
"er.* f'ttuk in admitting its .   rjooi       ,_.  . v_,.
Iff. Skinner, Bsanagfrof the Durham Woo      •
mine, *\poka***ot the mo** suitable I ■     v,,-^
em and Northern tnina as being af thi a
of COOiiea t •••cause ";he\ bit docile,
indtistijoiis  and  will  ram   ont   Bfl -»
ihe*.  entered into and ^ri--     •       its aaaif
to them  *   14th Feb. Pv:     h
that all the Chinsmen returni d     • •.
of the Mi.is^i wen* i.-fi on the Rami i "'
the ground    Wither grave*> >o
Known
The  most  remarkable thing  bB]
dhmnnsB^BUBcs of the rhin<- rntnt
soon proenrsd t»> th   ve-t-j peopti stht .-.-.•■-•
ftouth Africa could nol supplj them   Tl   •  ssa
not far lo set**-,   in (909 'he Ksfl •-.
tor 9 dollara a I ut   WOS BO ' '    • "<■
f.»r ,*» dollars.
Ih.  halfir wss being paid ' '
., laborevv re reived, and refused "
tion »n Bj«nv*a, whieh oraa one ••- I * '
U r the war.
It earn** alw-uf baeatsse oi tlo
ing "lie rsi     The uativea wen
rfc on both sldea fa high wages -  *
m»p- of  h, count!*) «*> gnidi I '   '
w<re  obtalnsd   from   the  UBtives,
Stpll  enjoyed  almOSl   uiinVri'i. !   '
eommcreial reserves    II* bougl ■*
!u» onl} means ol esehsnge in I
with them l»**3ight w }*.»** whs did
s-n*ieollure, ao tnat the eharsctei
"rii.ai ayatew render work, under "
unne^eeaary, an.I undestrabl« tr >   h
They lived a happ> lifi (indmg
..in    rtu» (*essstiou of the tribal wars gs'i
i.ni mism'ofisjrtc** an opportunity ol - -
serves for the purpose "t ••...-
ea'uig obedience to authority end esf
doctrine of the blesssfdnean ot lalmr.
for Others       This is a  VOTJ   n<
capitalfann,   The best exponents are (
sionaries    Along with the rnlaaionarj rametw
cr. the bible, B&d brandy bottle, folb.u..
one!, these heiug l|ic  ludispCUBBblt  Sllj
ita'is' eivilt/atiou,
So,,,,- of these icrvanti "f ihe moal
discontent    Thai Besnu another eontradictioi
• ng Christianity and capitalism preseh
However, the poor BStive was taught aud "
contended  v ith his l.appv  hcalihy  life -• ,,,ft!
higher ibi   -
might elevate bis tastes to yearn for
SIi'mI.I'
aueh as the products of capitalist prodnetion
gOOdi were  imported  and  sold  to the  M
princely profit, bal ths raw name, nol p"
much ready money (as his wealth eonsua« o
lo-rds and crops i our Chrisliau friends llicreIB .
an  additional  stimulus  l«»  make  th.   KanH
Irious, got their paternal goVOItimenl to cap •'
hut tax on the native, well knowniug in Ordfl
able to pay it  he would be forced to leave
sci-ve mid work iu the mines for hard cash,
In Ibis  way the \alal Dovernmcit  goaded
Zulua into revolt in IP06\ but wbat ellBUd' hai
■ 'drisi'"
'.<nUi with his healheii weapons against n
Maxim gun? :^*r*"'5^^''^^^-[fc..-.-**;.-^^--^,-l,. ■. ■ |BBBIBlBaBaBBBstBsVBBl H
i;'
WESTERN     CLARION
PAGE SEVEN
li,,,,- sprung up a system of recruiting labor
for th ■ mini n which for sheer infamy is hard to beat.
V,|S(- Chief-   were  bHbed  or intimidated  m  col-
,„,,„„ w-itfa the gov.rm i.-iits. Natal. Cgpc and Port
,,,..., s,- t.rri'ory permitted labor recruiting agents to
,,,\W; and terrify tne natives to sign away their
)(,.,.,!,,.„ f..r 6 dollars a mouth.   Natives wen- arrest-
(.,i ,,„ trumped up Bharges and forced to work on
la aa convicts.   An elaborate system of manu-
turing convicts ami handing them over t>, em-
,.. oi labor for their keep developed. Strikes
amine' natives don t often occur, but thev are soon
. ■•  .. arhen th*-y ***» occur.   According to the law
that Christian country any native servant  who
.   eva his master is a criminal, and his master can
■ punishmaut or call iu tbe police if he is not
...,,: • . ii..ugh to do ii himself.
\i i.ii.- work«r ia Kruger -» time had some pro-
tfotioi'  working a maximum of 8 hours n day. hav
. -    liars a day.    The whites engineered the arar
and !  ight for thAr uuurtera against Kruger and goi
• the)  never looked f»r. a reduction in wages
taed the strike of put?, when the surface
i aeabbed on ths miners.
!n most of the provinces the i ia not
tilled to ail on nay council i<M hi ia not, in fa* l
•,>>    His average wag.- is .:».   pnta .- day, j t
.-■ ■;»> in 'h/* Transvaal 10 dollan a year, >
i in the Orange Five stale and '". dollars
n direct taxes      In the Orange Free State
man and woman and in Natal     • r\ man is
riled to    on j   a pass   aithoal  which he ean
. • lean  his home or Ins faun upon which he a
A native travelling in search >d work
|ain a special travelling p»s*   irhen be ar
deatination, he mom if be desires to sta>
ind search for work, obtain a s\••■ ial pass
• d.ivs. if he has is rt obtained employment
■    ■ v station of hit pass be ia Itabt- to two we*   -
»it.
Itoers lost their standing, and poverty waa
•   'hilt the Dutch Reform Church was" -ut-
government   grants  to  establish  Ial
• the poor whites in the varioua parti
••      One eotonj in Kakamas has 5,000 af
a population; ihe  an- a potirce of revenue to I
"'    i,   !•"» form   ( bnreh   and   much  jealously  arc*
the "th.-i Christisn aetii becaus*  ol this
<f one Beet, ooh memliera of thai      ireh
H allowed lute the colon)
When the Hand strike of I9W hroki  oul bun-
•   f the hutch wen only too glad lo scab for
Idollai a day.   Th.* helped to break thr strikes
mine magnates wets .puck t<> see thc \..
B cheap labor,
li ' istrial   achools   were   . *-      *
rnaiuj Dutchmen bj miners .«' from on« to two dol
hut a day.    Hundreds found employment  in the
BBBej io thai maniier. b-n the supply outran the de
!i-l snd tho Oovernmenl supplemented ita
latropi* a*orh by Sliding employment on thi Sl
rtilwsya at BG cents a da\.
The shove is a summarised histor) of sffain in
s  !'! At!i,« at the time of the Cnion
fhl policy of eapiialism, acinic through the t"'"i
eevemmeuta, Natal, Transvaal. Orange and Cain ol
Good Hope, was i„ reduce wage* and increase ho
"i" labour,
•'• means hy which that polo \ wa*- i-arried oul
*«sb) forcing the natives otT then- reserves, train
***** lo thrift and industry and competition with
""' *bitoa, Uws were pass, d to itrengthcu thc
****** Ihe Industrial Dispute At provided rot
**•* wUblishmwit of a defence forci under which
'■'■>'* between 11 and 21 were trained.
Tha Imperial troops were kept there sfter tbe
***■ the excuse being until South Afr.es lieked her
"v" rfU«w army into shape, their presence was im
'"">,,v' for ih.- safely of tbe Union.
W|'" the attacking paity would bi  «**« "<*•'•'
":"""> bui substitute bosses for diion and thc posi
,1"" becomes clear.    Two thousand soldiers were
,"v|1"'1 lo the mines with maxim guns during the
»trJk« of |9X3,
Jbe ISohscs rBsusoiUted an sol ol  Kruger of
S',r ■■■ d   against   the   mine   owners  themselves
*•**' trymg to get the votes for Ihe whites, fbis
Ari provided thai an assemblage of more than six
|i",M,,ls '" l»1,h,i" w«s Illegal and could be violently
dispersed. lloths acted as the tool of his former
enemies in using the troops and killing 22, while 250
were wounded, including men, women and children.
Hie Commission, of course, blamed the strikers.
Vel peaceful meetings of thc mine workers were
broken up h* mounted police armed with pick haud-
•'"■     ••"' "trike committee were surrounded and
jailed.
Duriug thc railway strike later on in 1913, 75,-
000 anned men were sent to the industrial centres.
martial law declared, ritizena driven like sheep to
tjvalid miners hy scores dragged from their
homes, sometimea from their beds, and marched
«iles over the vel.it and herded in filthy lock-ups
withom sufficient blankets or other conveniences.
Prominent lahor men wen- jailed without trial, nine
of them deported to England. General Smuts, who
has been lauded and feted by capitalist hirelings
during and unci the war, told the troops in the January strikrof 1013 "Don I hesitate to shoot."
Therefore, workers, having nothing to hope for
but much to feu- from General Smuts don't be oar-
i away with his humanitarian expressions and
hope which he hold-, out to you in the League of
The result of t;.< Great War Im* further extended 1      \     -  territory in Africa.   The German coles have been divided up as part of the swag.   To
destroy Germsn trade the Itntish Government de-
i■■■ ■'■«! thai 90 ; cent of the exports of palm kernel
ist lie shi| -•: to Britain from West Africa.
Ucfore Ihe war the bulk of tins went to Germany,
who ha    the i   wl up-to-date pressing machines. The
--..->• was s.-iit to Holland and converted into
Britain hough)  1,400.000 tuns of mar-
ron   Holland in 1913.
During the war a deputation went to the British
t, representing the  ilritish  Chamber of
I I aa cd for the appointment of a com
mittee to enquire and report on the best methods
ol -.   uriug tl is German trade of West Africa.   The
•.v.ts appointed, consisting of sir George
Wata n    ' argai ne   manufaeturerl ;    Sir   William
I,, -,,!-.     soap   manufaeturer);   Sir Owen Phillips,
chairman <>! the Shipping Syndicacc which has a
o\\ of West African trade ami1 others.
niimeiided export* of the palm kernel to
Britain free, clsewhen an export tax of s.{) a ton.
,  .      , .., ol who runs the government,
Th. j* .■!* nipgera, therefore, will get 5 to 7 dol-
-,  g   ton   !.v   than   formerly,  as  a   result   of Che
\ 'i.s winning the war. and the British Margarine
anufocturers have jumped ihe price of margarine
*xr\ aoap  won a signal victory in obtaining a ifton-
„i> of the palm kernels of Wot Africa.    As a iv-
-mJ-'we have tin   Allied countries retaliating each
,,■  .•: ^\ ith increased tariffs,
: | -.question of the moment with thc ruling class.
ea is laritfa
Jufi-  1|n)iI1 ,, jheir megaphones—Meighen and
\, , j, nij( King in the election campaign in Canada
when elections held the public attention, the utterances of government or Liberal candidates were of
little importance to the working class The speaker's
experience and observation showed him, as a worker selling labor-power for the benefit of a master,
whither in the Crows Nest Pass, in Vancouver Island coal mines, iu the railroad camps of the G. T. P.,
packing his "home' on his back, or in any of the
cities of Great Britain or elsewhere, that his condition under capitalism as a/wage worker always presented the same problems. The politicians of Can-
ad.*, by the increase or adjustment of tariffs—according to their viewpoint—looked towards the lime
when Canada would be industrially developed and
advanced.
A picture of Great Britain was drawn by the
speaker, showing the conditions of poverty and starvation of the working class under developed capitalism. Such catch cries as Oriental exclusion had no
bearing in that country, and it had no bearing on
the working class problem here. Capitalism had
reached a stage now win re its markets could not ab-
sorb its products. In line with that development
waa an enormous supply of the commodity labor
power and the employing class could not buy it.
They had no use for it at the present time. International conferences of nations, including the dis-
a'ameiits conference now siting at Washington were
all products of the antagonisms arising out of the
conditions of wealth production and distribution
now existing. The workers' reward, here in Vancouver, for their activities as wage workers in past
years, would bc received, in the bull pens of Hastings Park . the "home*' of the unemployed floating population. The speeches, promises and differ-
cn es. more apparent than real, of the capitalist politicians could not alter lacts. They were faced with
a situation now which was involving the attention
of the working class, and the worse it became the
more attention they would be compelled to give to it.
Mayor Gale spoke for half an hour or more, his
speech being devoted mainly to the eommon electioneering trivialities that form the stock-in-trade
of Liberal  and Conservative speech-makers.
Many questions wire asked and Comrade O'Connor was in particularly good form all the time.
 :o:	
kflxt, Irelnmi. and then a summary of the whole to
conclude the scrici,
IN VANCOUVER CENTRE.
Socialist Candidate, T. O'Connor j
( , ( |(. T O'Connor, S. l\ of C. candidate for
Vancouver Centre, had a joint meeting with Mayor
, v | ,,,,.,,,1 iast Monday ai Mie nonunion Hall.
n *han holda .one hundred or a thousand people.
md it, seating capacity was taxed to tha limit
' 8ueakins for an hour before Mayor Gale arrived,
F df O'Connor outlined the industrial And poi-
itieai history of Csnada, laying particular stress on
.  ,i vv.al'h production by one class ana
"''',., ,.f „„. Sociali-l toward- Uberal and Go,.
";;;,:,;,, mwww-- *■ ■**■>**;
"   '.      ,,lv,„i over the p P who were out,
er ''•"' '    ■     .   , ,,„. jiffprenoM exitting between
■:''''::::;;.;■:'; «-***■-. *****
DEVELOP AN INTELLECTUAL
BASIS
STUDIES IN EVOLUTION, SCIENCE AND
REVOLUTION
Conducted by Dr. W. J. CURRY
Every Wednesday at 8 p.m.. except the First
Wednesday in every month !
148 CORDOVA STREET WEST
Subjects:
December 14th.—"The Solar System and how
it Was Made." •**
Other subjects enounced in the "Clarion" and
*' K.'derationist."
Questions and Discussion
The  greatest  and  latest   authorities.      The
most interesting and important subjects.
Illustrated with Holoptiean Reflectoracope
Proceeds for ' Federationist" Defense Fund
"B. C. FEDERATIONIST" DEFENCE FUND
The ease of the 15. C. Federationist and of
A. S. Wells its manager has been committed to
the Assize Court for trial. Moneys are urgently required for defence. Donations will be acknowledged in the "Fed" if sent to:
A. S. Wells,
342 Pender St. West,
Vancouver, B. C.
*
Mfl
I
i i -AGI EIGHT
WESTERN      CLARION
Communism
and
Christianism
Analyzed and contrasted from the Marxian and
Darwinian points of view. By Bishop William Montgomery Brown. D.D. Ita bo'.d reoooi mediations:
Banish the Gods from the Skies and Capitalists from
the Earth and make the Work! safe for Industrial
Communism.
Seventy-fifth thousand now ready.  Pp. 221.
Cloth edition, De Luxe, 51.01   This whole edition of
2,090 eopiea is a Christmas gift to the sufferers by
famine in Russte.    Every copy sold nr-ans a whole
dollar to them and much education to the buyer.
New   paper  edition.   2f.,000   copies,   artistic   desJtm,
THE BRADFORD-BROWN EDUCATIONAL CO.. Inc.
Publisher*, 102 South Union Street, Galion, Ohio.
Or from
SOCIALIST PARTY OF CANADA
401 Pender Street E., Vancouver, B. C.
very beautiful, one copy 25 cents, six. $1.00.
"It will do a wonderful  work in this the greatest
crisis in ail history."—Truth.
PLATFORM
Socialist Party of
Canada
We. tha  Socialist Party of Canada affirm our allot-
lane* to, and support of   the principles and proiramme
of She revolutionary   working claaa.
Labor, applied to natural resources, produces all
wealth. Ths present economic system le based upon
capitalist ownership of the moans of production, consequently, all the products of labor baton* to the capitalist class. The capitaliat la, therefore, master; ths
worker a slave
Bo tony aa the capitalist class remains In poesesslon
of the reins of government all the powere of the Btate
will be used to protect and'defend its property rights In
the means of wealth production and Ita control of the
product of labor.
The capitalist system gives to the capitalist aa ever-
swelling stream of profit*, and to the worker, aa ever-
increasing measure of misery and degradation.
Tbe interest of the working class Ilea In sotting Itself
free from capitaliat exploitation by the abolition of the
wage system, under which this exploitation, at the point
ef production. Is cloaked. To accomplish thla necessitates the traaeformatlon of capitalist property in tbe
means of wealth production into socially controlled economic forces.
The Irrepressible conflict of interest between the capitalist and tbe worker necessarily expresses itself as a
struggle for political supremacy. Thla Is the Class
Straggle.
Therefore we call upon all workers to organize under
the banner of the Socialist Party of Canada, with tbe
object of oonouortng the political powere for the purpose of setting up and enforcing tbe economic programme of tbe working clasa. as follows:
1—-The transformation, as rapidly as possible,
of capitaliat property in the means of
wealth production (natural resouroes, factor-
tories. mule, railroads, etc.) into collective
meana of production,
t—The organisation and management of industry
by the working claaa.
t—The establishment, aa speedily aa possible, of
production for use Instead of production for
profit
ECONOMIC CAUSES
OF WAR
By FETIB T. LB0KTJB.
MOW READY.
Preface by the author.
132 PAGES.
Ptr Copy, 36 CenU.
Tin Bopifi up, SO oenta each.
Poet Paid.
NANAIMO RIDING
(Continued iron, page 5)
W \. Pritchard. 8o< la) it candidate ter tho Na-c-aejno
division! addreaaed a full house laal night «- 'he Columbia
Theatre* J. Stevenson in the chair.
Reviews World Condition!.
Continuant his revise of world conditions and the dla
arin.un.nt con/ereuee, Mr Wwhaid Quoted -.-aienaively
from a aeelea of articlea by promtae-nt British, Canadian
and American repreaeataWvea ta » racBBl popular man-
Hi-lne. and also from otbei publications, --splaininx that be
bad tiscovered thai 11 <'•*- -i"•'-■ Poeelbl* for one pa-raoa
aa i-ly to make atteraa ea Hia another might set tn jail
for.
Be remarked that William aii.hi White, apeeelai from
his experietir- aa Am rtcan iv'-orter at tho Versailles Coo-
f renc prefaced hi« discusaion ot the WBahhaftoa Btsst-
Its? i.y the pertloeat query. Will the) '-nd n twieBt"
•*\ve in aaaeticfl are all right," aaya Mr Whit* "Wa **»nt
no more toriton : v.. onl} aw I : and recoaaiapBctJonj
bat Kurope v.ill tend men ».<!i ass* to prind: we have no
a *■•■■<• to erind."
Comoot*o*i thla w;'h 'h< almoai Idaatlcal prot»*atattoaa
of tho other Bsttoaala. Mr Pritehard potnted out thai
each viu em! Mvorii-t to o*.. rcoma or over reach the other.
and that the necessity lot ai leaal partial dWrmanwnt
sras beeanae th.- military tad naval forote tateaadad a* a
i lob to protect commen (al Inters***, hud now growi i.ke a
Frankenstein monster to -*. s aormooa propoeUoBa that
it throatencd to absorb all tha Mirplus value *h''h it wan
aappoaad to protecl Hencs 'ho • r> for th- cheBpaalxaf oJ
t***> €o°., of power lis ■ •••• above ojac-ted article Mr White
was r-ort-fldeut, be iaeJared, that while *rra-hen" and reformer* chunor for the dawn ot a i rttei ha) to rawall traaa
tile Wf.-ihlnrtoa «"enf< r.-n ■<•. 'here afffl 1*** IntriKiws and
plans which tho pablle -*iti km*** BOtntag aboot, )u»t a*
ir. Versailles, where, foi lustaaet Preeideat Wilson was
in lui •• 1 bj a clever   an ,.•:■:•- any «laim
to that tary island ot ifai that tb re waa now »o mmh
-trouble about   "Thi abac ■    Pai -  lypBOtitad tha **f0t*t,m
Mr. William   lllan White aal     • rordlna n- tb*- epBSJter
Welt known   Er«n»h    Pubi-c tt.
Mr. Prttchard rem n I quote a <; Gktrdner, the well
known author of 'Prophets, i rleata and Knaja,** asto editor
i.' 'ho Loadoa "I alt] St *-. aa a British coatriasjior m
the dtecttsalon: Am< rl a and I .' in I ahootd t-*ke tho tead
in «li*...nuanitrt the aea* ■ • tba property of all nations
ana   should  bo Open  tO all    ',      t| -• pt*M  Of th*  SSBB  waa
cfcalienged b> America and ad   it »* up to them to
make the great renunciation ('• objected to tho unvar
Diahed atatemesi of Mr . bnrchnTa tt«*i 5up«*riority in
•■.mi- ! force waa <<i. eaeattal prelimlaao •« ffntiraitfl ai
teodtaf a doaarmamanl coutti a, :-nd paetlJetBd that
"th'-r. are lean tfmea ahead foi tha fla^srafglBi d«"T»»
goana," aa Ltyd fieorfte la commeacian to ior«-M-e Mr
Uardlner ni'.d io Eaaland th. •  were llrtoa on ihoir (at.
and it's Kettinr mlfhtj   :i    I    ;.- .        000 ii««-mplo*.
ed, nnd th»-r- . r> two B»iaa iaauaa ccanJanonati tourlne
the land unem'>io>dm : t preachlai to tha i*** and ibo ta»
j it')- n r prea hlai        : ••• n<*h,
■ An-.1 so," aafd ^:r Pritchard. "wa fitwi live prohtaana
wf*i<h tn i'Ji* wen demandlai eolation which tho (hreaf
Wa- po-*ti»on«d. «ti; coi f- Ctlog us, atfll mUMiVBd and still
i:rowinK more acute .*:! laslateni; Ifka BaaBjae/a xhost.
th-y will not dOWtt, "if navies ur*- •'rap*;-'-,!, armies re-
duced, srseaala slowed down, powder fa-tor)-'*, ammuni-
••-a and ebemlcal rorka clow ., ail in tho brtsrasl oi
•\ aai -."—-v hat iJieo?
"Still more unemployment, in a world where already ih«
worherB eannoi purchase what tboy have rarBdnood, and
yet where trade aa :•' present conducted must inevitably
load to war- and the rlckaw rir-lo nil over again.
"Then.- w«h dotoi   In h.atOr> no hidhrouiily nad a para
<i v.' h** argued. "Tha onl] aoiatlon,*" in his opinion. ■ i*
to raattaa that »h*r< la plontir tor alt The means of pro-
duetion are alraail) adequate and more than ade-ouabe: it
Ih the distribution thai i* obsoleta and ttssdentlflc Th«*
whole queation i« one of Ownership of the wealth produ***-<1
by labor." 'The Issue in thin election," he derlarr-d. "la
not between any candidate, but between your masters
and yourselves"'
\ collection wa* taken up and several (ataeaBting (******
UOCS were anKwi-r.d Ij> tho candidate, who will speak al
Tillieum UMtlghl and Ifartgokl tomorrow.
One question, bowerair, failed to «et ■ -mtisfaetory reply,
am' that wan "Where Is Mr. Hra.v. wh<» faiatlaiajBll Mr.
Pritchard to i-nf his platform to an opponent?"
As to Prospects; As uo eanvaaaing i« being done
snd no vote catchini* tactics indulged in, it in i«!lc
to jtroplics;'. !i;it we <an testify lo the certain inter
onl aheavn everywncrBi and edaegtionnl work in being done thttl will abou sooner or Inter. Literature
sh!ox have been aatiafactory snd all the memberi of
Victoria local along with others nre working liar-
monionaiy together, each iIoiiik Iiik beat to spread
our propaganda.
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MARXIAN SOCIALISM
0OOK  I -fly II. HAIIIM
50 eenta per copy; $S.6C for 10.
Literature Price List
l>r I
Cloth Bound
PBBtttVB CtatBBBBB Bf Philosophy  (Dletj.--,.,,
Woman fnder Forlallsm (Babe!)
Knd of the  World   (tfeCabB)
Condition* of tb* Working I la»* In Bagbind It i-n
fJf*anjBtg)
A   h. ('  of Evolution (Mot abe)
Ifcswioeatc Detaratehnn  (Paroa)
.Social um and Mo lorn Solon «* (Kerr!)
Phys'ial Rasla of Mind and Morals (fitch)
landmarks of Sa-lontifte goiriiatlaHi fjaaageia)
Industiisl Ilisi. ry of Knj-Und (H   DjaOibbtea)
The  Stud- rt's   Man   (Avollnrl
favnhltlBa of Ihe Idea of G<k1 (I'.rant AHon
l>ar*vin»ra and llaoo Proar-r-sa (llayrrafi)
1 vndu*loa of I*roi*-f-rty (l--»far--*t--)
<*rltlque of Polltionl Ceonomjr (Man-
Hovoluilon and CBtnttav Ravototion our*)
phil foj»h». ai BaaBya ini»-tfsor-i
IMttory of Par's OoBUBlBBB (Maaaiaiaj)
Ao'-io-** Soetety ft* it aaBtian)
tntro«lurti-»n io .<*«»rJr*lo*?y (Arthur M  Ijcwi,*
aplialist Troalurtion 'Firnt Kino and S2nd    bspteri
Opjr
i:h
tin
tiu
n *s
nn
an
tin
n u
11 u
in:
ttn
tm
IK"
ti TS
tm
Il N
'*'>
Y)
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W
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M
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M
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y
"t'sniial." -.ol   1. (MaraI
SavBgg Survival* (Moor**)
Vjtsl Pro'l^ot* tn Soolal Ih^thtttOB <l4v-«;-i
Betenee an-d  flotnl'ttleti  (Cnterman)
Tb**  MMItsnt  PtolataTlBl   (I^w!«»
Kvolutlnn, fBactal and '»r«anlr flarwis)
Tho spvlal Revolotion (Kautsky)
<!*** Strursl<» (Kautskr)
Pur!isolan-  (Meily)
TT»e Worlds  Rotoluftons  (Cntertnaa)
BlhJca and Hl»:orv (Kaut»ky)
Life and l>*tb (th*   K   Toi--hmann»
Ijiw nf BVagagsBSBl (Moorwl
*to«-ia! Studioe (tAtxrxuo) W
Orrtn* of Mini In Planus (P.  H  rr-tn.-r n
Paner Covert Par ro??
Two Banssya bb lll»fory («   RtWvaWBBoa aad 0 Dei I>■   k
ConuBanlat  M*nifosio *a-
Wa\M*+t*Om*0 and Caeital He
Tbe PrBBent Krenomle BystBaa (Pfgi W   v <-r) .
BBCtalHat rtoplaa ind S.-U<n«lfi>
Btava pf ibo Parta
tfaaifes-to, ■  P of C
r-iolatlon of Man fProf fV>l»rh«-J
I"a«te» of flellof in Ood fcSfBJTfBS)
Th** Htrtir■«»*** of f«o*iot RBBota (Huoiphriei
.Hhof- Talks oo l>ooon*ik» (Mary)
Vahie. Prlr* and Proftt   (M-trt'
K«-«noml«- CSbBbpiB of War p^sekatj
The l*rcde«"tton of l^ber in 'tovlot lt«»*!-»   K :   m]
* ivil War Ui F*rao-"« (Maril
KlKht-*-er.tJi Bntmalre (Mart)
I br'-*",,anl**-n and rommunS«m fDtahof W  M  *'■* »
Psy**hotagy of asaraiaa a*kt-ciallssi
Quantity f?at»« on P*otr Co-»i!*-**i Pasaohlsta
Vk
Ik
•
Ma
tot
\ie
Bk
•/-
.*>
r*
■■■
.
Two Paaaya on HUtory
DBeanMBBttt MaBlfBBlo
Wase t aWir  and  'npltal
rre*-a-nl FVnnomlo System .
Sorlalism. Ctoplan and Sr^ntlfir
Stavo of lh*» farm
Manif. s'o of S   P of r
l>ol«(ion of Man
rsusos of Helief In Co-l
Vftl-ie. Prlre and Profit
f>onom!o ' s>ts<s of Wsr
''h>ifttiani»tn ard i'omm»«ni-.m
Paychology ot ftfanJaa Ho-iaiitm
aa Ik
eopies ttB)
;;, ...; lea M *
to eopiea IU*
It co) lea I* *'
I   ■  ;-:*» I- '*'
••, repie, tltg
25 coptea 1* **
; M l-'-"-1
H eoesea I" • -
10 ooptea i"1^*
.    ,- . . tl*
It)      ;    tt***9
All Prieea Include Pestag' _    , ,
Mako all mnnmrt  parstd-- lo E   McLeod   101 P*sW
Streof. Fjist. Vsnrouvor. II. V Add dlsooonl on *****
AH stove lit'-raitire oan ho obtained nt the *sma pnow
pox paid, from H  II  Davy. Bog ITtl, WtBBlpet  v,n
8TJB8CfRIPTI0N PORM
(Thia ia aa hnndy a WS* «» nn.v t" tend your 00
WBttern Clarion, 401 Pender Stcret Baat
Vanoonvcr, B. 0.
Official organ of the 8   P, of C   Publithed '"ir.*
a month.
Robtcriptiona: Osnsdg, 20 iaanei. $lj Porei-fDi
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