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Western Clarion Oct 2, 1922

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A Journal of
Official Organ of
No. 876.    EIGHTEENTH YEAR      Twice a Month
FAMILIARITY with automobiles, motor boats,
motor trucks; and vehicular traffic generally
has made us acquainted with the importance
of oil as a factor in everyday life. The war period
has emphasized it still more in the general necessity
of petroleum products for aeroplanes, tractors and
ships of war. Oil—lubricating oil and fuel—has become an essential factor in peace and war.
The old fashioned sailing vessel yielded place to
the more efficient coal-burning steamship; the latter is now giving way to the oil-burning steamship
and in some instances the oil-burning steamship is
supplanted by the motor-ship.
A given bulk and weight of oil will provide
more heat than the same bulk and weight of coal.
An oil-burning ship thus* obviously saves bunkering
space over a coal-burner, and has more general
carrying capacity. Added to this is the saving of
labor costs for firing. Equal engine-room efficiency
may be obtained by a smaller crew. Time also is a
factor. An oil-burning ship of a given tonnage with
a full cargo can carry enough oil fuel to suffice for
the outward and return voyages both. The same
ship as a coal-burner would require some sixteen
bunkerings by the time she had returned to her home
port. The oil-burner gives more heat for the same
volume, it takes less room, it is cheaper. Thus ocean
freight rates are subject to reduction and those shipping lines whicfc can secure access to oil supplies are
ensured of s-uccess over those that can not. In the
case of oil-burning warships, the smaller volume of
fuel necessary increases their radius of action, and
allows a greater gun carrying capacity.
These facts are acknowledged on all hands and
need no emphasizing nowadays. The importance of
oil being recbgnized, however, the more readily understood will be the disputes between governments
to which control of its plentiful supply gives rise.
A considerable period has passed since Standard
Oil agents presented free kerosene lamps to the
Chinese; incidentally it may be mentioned that
some two million of these lamps are now sold annually in China. The production of oil was then almost exclusively in American hands. The Standard
Oil Company, by laying pipe lines and building
tankers for sea and land transport, brought the producing companies under its domination as a marketing agency, and even today it is as a marketing
concern that it functions chiefly, although not exclusively.
The United States, according to various authoritative estimates, controls 80 per cent of the world's
present output of petroleum. At the same time she
is herself an enormous consumer. According to
"The Manchester Guardian Commercial" (6 July
1922) she consumes over six times the amount consumed by Great Britain annually. She cannot continue to maintain her export trade in oil and supply
her own needs without import. In 1921 she imported 125 million barrels of 32 gallons each, all but
a fraction of which came from Mexico. Of her total
consumption last year 25 per cent was imported. At
the same time she exported something over 450 million barrels. Her potential supplies are limited and
are estimated at seven billion barrels, which, at the
present rate of consumption would last probably
20 years. While the possible exhaustion of her oil
supplie. gives her anxiety, her present position as
an oil producer gives her an enormous present advantage.
British industry has heretofore depended upon a
plentiful supply of coal; a well distributed string
of coaling stations all round the world has given
British merchant shipping an enormous advantage
in trade, and British ships of war have been secure
over all other nations' ships in fuel supply. The appearance of oil as a superior fuel in the past few
years has upset this situation altogether.
In December 1917 Clemenceau addressed a note
to President Wilson stating that the French armies
required a minimum stock of petrol of 44 thousand
tons and a monthly supply of 30 thousand tons. The
stoe*k then on hand had shrunk to 28 thousand tons
and a failure of supply threatened to paralyse the
operations of motor lorries and aeroplanes and the
transport of artillery. Failure of supply, Clemenceau said, might compel the French "to a peace unfavourable to the Allies." He requested the immediate despatch of an American fleet of oil-tankers of 100,000 tons for permanent carrying use. The
British fleet and armies were in a similar position.
There was formed The Inter-Allied Petroleum Council which pooled all oil resources, superintended
supply, distribution and consumption of all petroleum products. In the last eighteen months of the
war this Council dealt with over 12 billion tons of
oil supplied in the main by the Standard Oil and
other American companies, Royal Dutch-Shell combine, Anglo-Persian and Anglo-Mexican oil companies. British home production was very small,
being confined to Scottish shale oil distillation and
tar oil substitutes for imported fuel. Oil supply is
therefore essential to the conduct of modern warfare in every branch of operation on land and sea.
In the years previous to the war the British commercial interests were not blind to the advantageous
position of the United States concerning oil. They
knew very well that in the event of war with Germany they could prevent U. S. oil supplies reaching
Germany. At anyrate, the U. S. companies marketed their oil where they could. But before the war
there appeared here and there at street intersections "Shell" oil supply stations. The Shell Trans
port Company first took shape, not as an oil com
pany but as a company trading in mother-of-pearl
in the south seas. Tt gradually displayed an interest
in Egyptian oil prospects and in the Straits of Mal-
aca. By and by it promoted oil prospecting in North
China, the Malay States, India and other places. Tt
became interested in the Rumanian oil fields and acquired concessions in the Dutch East Indies.
The importance of oil for fuel in merchant shipping gave rise to a general prospecting scramble
around the Panama Canal zone. The Mexican Eagle
Oil Company was formed in 1911, operating fields at
Tampico, Gulf of Mexico. This is known as the
Pearson group of interests, or the Cowdray interests, under the control of British capital. This group
obtained concessions also in Costa Rica, Colombia.
Venezuela and Ecuador. These were relinquished
under pressure from the United States upon the
states in question. The Shell Transport, however,
Conducted its operations more skilfully. By introducing part of its shares on the New York market it
interested American investors to the amount of nearly 25 million dollars.   By forming commercial alli
ances with separate American companies it secured
the interest of American capitalists and now has establishments in Venezuela and Colombia, and operates from Trinidad. Besides this it has an operating interest in the United States, in California,
Texas and Oklahoma.
The Royal Dutch, the Netherlands oil trust also
has holdings in various U. S. oil fields and in Mexico
and Venezuela. Before the war this company had
a working agreement with the Shell Transport, each
granting to the other participation to the extent of
40 per cent, in all fields. Its main field lies in the
Dutch East Indies, while it operates in Egypt also,
and in Rumania and so also does Shell Transport.
In the war period Allied sea power determined that
it market its oil to the use of Allied governments,
and after the war the wreck of German shipping
resources induced it readily to enter into combination with Shell. Thus we have what is known as
Royal Dutch-Shell.
The magnitude of the oil operations of the Royal
Dutch alone and before the merger with Shell may
be realised when it is known that its fleet of oil
tankers had a tonnage of 600,000.  The Royal Dutch-
Shell combined tonnage totals nearly 1,200,000 tons.
The combined output totals approximately 15 million tons annually.   The combine is in the control
of British capital which controls also (as previously
stated) the Mexican Eagle, besides the Anglo-Persian Oil Company and the Burmah Oil Company.
The business managers are Sir Marcus Samuel and
Lord Cowdray, the political director Lord Curzon
and the technical adviser Sir John Cadman, the last
mentioned being a Birmingham University professor.   He was chairman of the Inter-Allied Petroleum Council already referred to, which dissolved
after the war.   The total output of these companies
is small compared with the operations of the Standard Oil Company but, as we shall see, they have
The United States, while being the greatest
oil producer at the present time is at the same time
the geatest oil consumer. British capital has acquired control of the improved fields in Central and
South America, India, Ceylon, Papua, the Straits
Settlements and the areas we have already specified,
and in some United States territories it exercises
company control. The British government controls
oil bearing territories in Palestine, Mesopotamia
and Persia. Attempted American penetration of
these areas, whieh has been unsuccessful following
upon the armistice, has led to protests by the U. S.
government. The U. S. government after the world
war and the part U. S. oil played in it evidently expected "the open door." At any rate some of her
pressmen and politicians seem to be peeved and even
surprised that the door is closed. British capital has
extended its influence not alone in endeavoring to
control production but in marketing oil. She has
drawn under her control French financial oil interests and controls the oil supplies marketed in France,
for French commercial needs and for military and
naval needs also.
In the "Manchester Guardian Commercial"
(6 July, 1922) Sir John Cadman, whose title as technical adviser to the British Government in matters
concerning oil described him at H. M. Minister or*
Petroleum and whose activities as chairman of the
(Continued on page 7) PAGE TWO
The Origin of the World
By R. McMillan.
WHAT a world of romance that quotation
from Edward Clodd opens up! What a
lot of things I want to tell you about.   He
mentions the despised cockroach as being abundant;
and X laugh when I remember that, if long descent
counts for anything, the cockroach is among the very
oldest families in the world. I remember, too, that
I once bred cockroaches. My mate and I used to
get bottles full of them for selection; and one promising family of young cockroaches was roasted to
death on a winter's morning through my mother's
i'orgetfulness. My poor mother nearly broke her
heart about it; but when she saw my account of it in
the paper "Dreadful Tragedy in High Life," she
was able to laugh at it.
I remember, also, my first meeting with the footprints of the labyrinthodont at Storeton Quarry,
and my wild excitement over it; and I feel as if I
ought to tell you about it. You see, I had heard all
this story I am telling you now—as far as men had
made it out then—and it was all new to me. I had
only heard it in sections, as it were—a bit from the
astronomer, a bit from the geologist, and a bit from
the biologist, and so on; but I had not begun to fit
all the pieces together for myself. Besides that,
also, it seemed a bit'incredible, and I thought it was
a good deal of a fairy story. I do not remember
being what you would call incredulous, but when X
lead the story for myself on the stone books as I
heard it in class I was amazed; which shows that I
had not expected to find such clear proofs for myself.   But I found them!
I had been told that "once upon a time," in the
old long ago, after the carbonic acid gas had been
cleaned out of the air, living things began to creep
out of the water and breathe the dense air on the
land. They were a long time in learning to live on
the land entirely, but they had all the time they
needed for development. These amphibians, as they
were called, lived part of the time on land and part
in the water, as the frogs and the crocodiles do today. They grew to be very large. Great frog-like
animals, nearly as big as bullocks, came up out of
the water, and walked on the banks of the lagoons.
Their footprints hardened in the sun, and when the
tide rose again the marks were filled with clay and
covered up with sand. By and by the loose earth
was converted into solid rock by heat and pressure.
Ages and ages passed away, and all the frog-like
labyrinthodonts also; and men were born and developed, and the old sandbank was lifted high in a
hill; and men made a quarry in it, to get sandstone
to build their houses. One day, when a block of
stone was being lifted by the crane, they found a
thin, very thin, layer of clay, and the print of two
big hands, with five fingers on each, or rather four
fingers and a thumb. It was not really a thumb,
but simply a big swollen finger. The men were ignorant, and said they were the footprints of the
devil, and they were sore afraid. Nobody had ever
seen such footprints, but the scientific men were
greatly interested in them. All scientific men of the
world were aflame with excitement, and the quarry
was haunted by clever men who wanted to see if
there were any more footprints. And there were!
They found the big ones, larger than human hands,
and they found the little ones, which were the front
paws of the beast, and then they found the mark of
the tail in the sandstone rock on the same level.
As near as I remember now, it was an English bio-
. logist who/)rnamed it a eheirotherium—from two
Greek words signifying a beast with a hand. Afterwards they found a tooth in a German quarry, and
the biologist who examined the tooth explained
what sort of a beast the tooth belonged to. He said
it was an animal like a frog, but nearly the size of a
tow, and he called it, from the labyrinthine marking
of a tooth a labyrinthodont.
When I found the footprints of that ancient beast
I was delighted, and had the big stone blocks mounted in oak frames, and they were finally presented
to a great museum, where they abide even unto this
day. I tell you this so that you may understand
that I am not dealing entirely with things that I
have read out of a book. I have seen many things
with my own eyes, and have spent whole days and
weeks digging and delving in the stone books among
the unfailing records of the early life of our dear
old earth.
During the Carboniferous Ages these immense
animals, born in the water, took to creeping out on
the land, and gradually developed lungs, so as to be
able to live on land entirely. So arose a form of
land life. But you see that life developed first in
the water, and that accounts for human beings containing such a large amount of water in their make-1
up. R will also account for their salt tears, and the
large proportion of salt in their composition, for
life began in salt Avater. How wonderful it all seems,
does it not ?
Through the long ages there developed in the
low-lying swamps a vast amount of vegetable life,
chiefly ferns.' They flourished so amazingly in the
steamy, hot, choking atmosphere that all the world
seems to have been covered with mighty ferns.
They drank the carbon generated in the sun, and
that carbon, once a gas, is now.diamond and graphite (lead pencil) and coal and oil, and many other
wonderful things we use today. Carbon and oxygen
are the chief components of the earth, and in the
Carboniferous Age they were stored up to form—
along with the ferns—Avhat we call "coal" today.
The curious thing about it is the number of coal
seams existing today, which show the enormous number of epochs or eras, or times of deposition. Let me
quote Samuel Laing in his Modern Science and
Modern Thought:—
"The best idea of the enormous intervals of time
required for geological changes will be derived from
the coal measures. These consist o«f part only of one
geological formation known as the Carboniferous.
They are made aip of sheets, or seams, of condensed
vegetable matter, varying in thickness from less
than an inch to as much as thirty feet, and lying one
above the other, separated by beds of rock of various composition. As a rule every seam of coal rests
upon a bed of clay, known as the 'under-clay,' and
is covered by a bed of sandstone or shale. These
alternations of clay, coal, and rock are often repeated a great many times, and in some sections in South
Wales and Nova Scotia there are as many as eighty
or one hundred seams of coal, each with its own un-
derclay below, and sandstone or shale above. Some
of the coal seams are as much as thirty feet thick,
?nd the total thickness of the coal measures is, in
some cases, as much as 14,000 feet."
That means that every "under-clay" was once
a surface soil, and every foo+ of coal represents at
least fifty generations of ferns—sigillaria—and that
means that these seams of coal each represent a long
period of time;—
"Starting on the foregoing assumption that one
foot of coal represents fifty generations of coal
plants, and that each generation of coal plants took
ten years to come to maturity, an assumption which
is certainly very moderate; and taking the actually
measured thickness of the coal measures in some
localities at 12,000 feet, Professor Huxley calculates
that the time reperesented by the coal formation
alone would be six millions of years. Such a figure
is, of course, only a rough approximation, but it is
sufficient to show that, when we come to deal with
the'geological time, the standard by which we must
measure is one of which the unit is a million of
You see, then, great scientific people all assume
that the law never alters; that birth, growth, and
decay were always the same; that cause and effect
were always bound together, and that the uniformity of law is beyond all question. I believe that, and
you may also, if your mind allows you; but I can
only give you the facts on which to base your judgment.
Let me tell you of one of the beautiful forms
Avhich began in the Carboniferous Age and developed into wondrously ornamental forms and. tre-
"mendous sizes in later ages. I mean the ammonite.
I have seen tiny ones, as small as waistcoat buttons,
and I have seen giant ones as big as a cart wheel;
but they have all disappeared from off the face of
the earth as living forms. We find only their fossils
in the stone books today!
Education in
THERE Avas recently shown in Rochester, N.Y.,
a picture illustrating the process by which
modern manufacturers turn out soap. The
picture shows a vast mass of machinery that performs every process from the mixing of the formula
in the great vats to the final packing of the finished
product. Seven people are employed, three of whom
are Avomen, from the chemist in the laboratory who
makes the tests to the men who finally handle the
packed product. Twenty-five years ago the same
volume of production would have furnished employment for thousands of men.
Here in our town, where the old Erie canal is
being converted into a subAvay, the bridges are lined
with idle men watching the automatic diggers and
shovels doing the work, which, when the canal was
originally dug, employed thousands of men with
picks and shovels.
Capitalist development has reached a stage where
practically automatic machinery has displaced labor
in most of the productive processes but which at
the some time turns out commodities in a volume
for which the purchasing power of the workers limited by their Avages, and the purchasing power of
the capitalists limited by their powers of consumption, fails to furnish sufficient markets. As a result
industrial crises ensue. These crises, increasing in
frequency, involving greater numbers and extending over larger territories present a problem of unemployment which has become not only national but
The development of machinery and the consequent education of the workers have been two of
the great historical functions of capitalism. During
the period of development masses of skilled labor
were absorbed but now that machinery is approaching its automatic stage the highly skilled labor that
was formerly necessary is being rapidly replaced by
cheaper unskilled labor and that largely of women
and children.
The whole trend of capitalist production today
is to crowd the skilled mechanic into the class of the
unskilled, and the unskilled into the class of the unemployed. The report of Dr. Michelis, Italian commissioner of emigration, is a good illustration of the
unemployment problem in the various countries of
the world.
For any political group to assume that they can
control these economic conditions through legislation is simply taking advantage of them to play
politics to the detriment of the workers.
KATHERINE SMITH. r-sto***ata-**--*-siei-*aissf'MMM
rusaji'lBi tmt**}'***.
& >.
Poincare's Moratorium
PREMIER Poincare has pointed the difference
existing between Britain and France, and if
there has been no rupture it would require
the eye of spiritual discernment to discover an Entente in an agreement which disagrees with its
basic principle. However, economic reality will out,
and if the European prospect is neither peaceful nor
fraught with the portents of peace, it is, at least,
hopeful with the virility of necessity.
A moratorium, commonly understood, is an agreement to defer payments until a more convenient
season. It is, in effect, post-dating matured claims.
But in French policy it means confiscation. For in
return for the moratorium, France wants "guarantees"—control of German finance and customs frontier on the Rhine; special levy on Rhine coad; 25%
share (Allied) in German industries and control of
state mines and forests. Those "pledges" would
seem to be a dodge to retain the upper hand in Europe; as such they bring France in direct conflict
with British interest.
By the Versailles Treaty, Belgium has first claim,
and France the largest share in German reparations.
That is why France and Belgium always act in concert. Since France, acting on treaty rights, incidentally supports Belgium interest. But the same
treaty calls for Allied action in German affairs. That
is why the treaty in exactitude becomes a treaty in
delapidation—Allied action is never harmonious because Allied interest is never mutual. An Imperialist treaty naturally means Imperialist poAver. And
Imperialist power is destroying every democratic
element in Europe. It marches the proletariat in a
dance of death, through the confusions and antagonisms of its own productive forces.
The London Conference could hardly be expected to award such sweeping "guarantees" since in
effect they would 'guarantee' Germany as a French
dependency; and secure France in her aim of European hegemony. If the control of German finance
and customs is to be effective, it must be controlled
in the interest of France, if it is to be profitable, by
a France supreme—at least in Europe. But a
France supreme in Europe is a France in conflict
Avith Britain and a French control of German resource is a French barrier to British commerce. If
there is to be a quarter share in German industry—
with the Horn's share probably going to France—
there will be trouble in that arrangement for France,
but it will mean more than trouble for Britain,
while the levies on coal and the Rhenish customs, according to Belgium, interfere with Belgian trade,
and turn its flow from Antwerp to Rotterdam. Hence
the policy of "watchful waiting" is a policy of
Avatching disaster, and may be brought to an abrupt
termination by a fateful upheaval.
It is this inherent conflict of interest which
causes the awesome see-saw of European events and
drives the two remaining European Great Powers
in their desperate straits of rivalry. An industrial
Britain could view with equanimity, the delimitation
of an industrial Germany; but a commercial Britain
cannot remain passive when that delimitation
rudely blots out the whole of the European market. A Britain whose national traditions could curb
the aspirations of an aggressive competitor was
forced to relinquish its victim by a Britain whose
Imperialism stretched to the ends of the earth.
France, faced with the ruin of war and stagnation
of peace, strives for redemption in the very terms
Avhich brought about her ruin, seeing only in the
general decay of Capital the particular destruction
of French finance.
In Britain the expediency of the Entente may be
specific and alluring- but the expediency of commerce is more instant and commanding. The hostages of war may be very willing; but the spirit of
profit is all compelling. In France the fear of isolation may be great, but the fear of bankruptcy is
still greater. If the Entente is regarded with favor,
it is inspired with greed of gain; and if the gain
fails to materiali?.; its materialisation will assuredly
I e attempted by other means. If France, for the salvage of her bonis, could make overtures to Soviet
Russia, the same France, for its very existence, can
make advan' s to its quondam foe. True Avartime
acts and jrro testations, deportations, confiscation,
black troops, military insolence, national hate-
perhaps even Soviet Russia—may be all against it.
But public memory is short, an.! dire need is cosmopolitan. And the expression of big interests is
moving the idealist coteries.
The salvation if France does not lie in reaction
t Britain. Britain may extend that hope, but it is
the sprat to catch the mackerel, lt is for salvaging
of British Imperialism, an Imeprialism which cannot fail to check, to vitiate, to nullify every interest
of France. Acting alone against Germany, France
would reap a titter harvest of disillusionment; in
concert with Britain, as bitter disapointment. But
in a Franco-German collusion France might, by the
same stro'-o, achieve temporary success and hamper
her final enmy—Soviet Russia, Avhile Germany
might partially recover her commercial life, and
political unity, and save her democracy from the
rude hands of the "Red East." Thr- coal of the
Bhine at. 1 the iron of Briey Avere in concord during
the war; hy not to preserve the peace of profit?
If the indiu ry of Silesia and the wealth of the German state is » be exploited, what else should it do.
than revivify the leashed life of Austria and
strengthen thc neAv "democracies" of middle Europe? And though Britain proved the German export duty a vain and costly thing, it does not follow
that in the French rendering it should prove simibr.
Indeed with German technique and French p(hcy,
the situation (or the solution) is quite different—
and need not involve, either customs or duties. In
point of fact, with the dissolution of the London
Conference, Europe has taken a decisive step forward and" has entered thc second phase of the Revolution.
If we throw aside the probability of Avar betAveen
France and Britain for tlie destii/ ' Europe, then
we have a Britain whose prosperity requires a Germany restored on the i.ormal comity of trade, a
Prance seeing her national decline in such restoration; and a Germany--and with Germany, Europe,
commercially and socially mangled in the callous
rivalry for control. Such a situation can hardly be
of long duration. It is not a moment of morality; it is
a question of power. Self centred in the continent of
Europe: Avith Avide political influence: Avith an
efficient military regime: with necessitous Europe
for a market and necessitous Germany for a bargain counter; with a dangerous Communism in the
East and a dangerous Imperialism in the West, there
is plenty of indication of a "union of convenience"
betAveen the commercial Republic of Germany and
the financial oligarchs of France. BetAveen Britain
and France there is variance on all points: on industrial reconstruction; on commercial restoration;
on German Reparations, on Soviet trade; on Eastern
oil; on debt repayment, even on the mandates and
treaties of the war. But the situation is so complex
r<nd contradictory, it is next to impossible to foresee
the issue or what political conjunctions may transpire.
Be that as it may, these are implications in the
movements of rivalry, vital enough for us. It has
been stated that French confiscation of German resource is a vital blow at property right, and shakes
capital to its foundations. It may be a "blow" to
the private rights of the conquered, but it in no
wise affects the principle of capitalist property, and
as such threatens Capital as little as a lightning
stroke threatens the Rocky mountains. Capital
rests on confiscation. It is the tap-root of its life.
And although the transference of ownership carries
with it the transference of economic poAver it does
not involve its title of political privilege. Indeed
the transference may strengthen the title. There is
no hope of Communism by that route. Confiscation
involves capitalist rights only in so far as it means
concentration, and therefore the undermining of
capital itself; and it threatens its existence only as
it threatens the functioning of social activities. In
this particular case it might be the "open sesame"
to the partial functioning of those activities. And
if the torn thread of European life may be knitted—
even temporarily—in this manner, the relations of
capital may dwindlingly extend over an indefinite
. Moreover, the same upheaval that tumbled ths
kings of Europe, severed the bonds of serfdom. The
vicissitudes of war, and the necessities of the land
hungry, cut deep into the great agricultural estates
of Europe; dispossessed the barons and made the
small peasants proprietors. The instincts of self preservation and the economic of small production
makes and keeps Europe hungry. In all Europe,
Hungary alone has an exportable surplus of grain—
and that negligible. Russia—that formerly gave
the Avorld a quarter of its Avheat,—in spite of its
good crops is yet to be threatened with another
famine. In all countries the menace of hunger is
substantial, and the deviltry of Avar and riot renders it more imminent. In all countries the peasant
Avho produces looks darkly on the "red agitator"
of the town which consumes. And in all countries,
the spirit of small possession and the need of small
and self production accentuates both the feeling
and the process. And the industrial town has but
small economic power. That is, although the more
or less self sufficing peasant requires some tools and
implements of his craft, he can conlrive, in a pinch,
to get along with primitive means. But the non-
producing toAvn can eat only beyond itself, by right
of purchase. If it cannot purchase? The gay city,
Avith its paved streets; its glittering lights; its
strained joys; its barbaric splendor aid endless tides
of traffic appeals Avith all the passion of life to the
social instincts and imagination of man; but nevertheless it has life and being enly in tha lauor of the
wide spaces, the fruitful fields and fertile valleys
oi the still country. And if the bans of self interest
multiply in the silent fields, it wil! not be long till
the spider of ruin spins her Aveb in the dust of the
apocryphal city. Hungary and Austria arc an ex-
pmple. And the measure of their Teed may be
compared in an exchange which registers i!50,000 in
industrial Vienna, Avhile across the riv'er, iu Budapest, it is 6,000 (Par, in both eases 4 to £1). The
peasant militated against the social Revolution in
Russia (i.e. as a communist movement). The peas-
■.i.t will militate against the same revolution
throughout Europe. The owner peasant, and remaining landlords of Hungary and France, sidetracked on the main issues of Imperialism may force
Europe to a deeper exhaustion than it has yet experienced. "Bread" is the one voice in Austria,
and it falls on deaf ears. It will be thc one cry in
Germany. And if America refuses to lend to Europe—as she has refused Russia—if Britain can find
no profitable exchange; and no agreement Avith reactionary France, then it Avould seem that the starving toAvn Avould be driven against the holding country, or that France and Germany should unite in a
common effort to save their privilege from Bolshevism.
It is true there is both the example and spirit,
of Communism in Europe.    But the example apparently awakens but little response in the proletarian world;   and  Russia   itself  either  awaits an
(Continued on page 7) .X Kj.J.	
Western Clarion
A Journal of History, Economics, Philosophy,
and Current Events.
Published twice a month by the Socialist Party of
Canada, P. O. Box 710, Vancouver, B. C.
Entered at G. P. O. as a newspaper.
Editor Ewen   MacLeod
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and there is no escape from it in the long run. That
is to say, the question of ownership, not of this, that
or the other territory, but of all lands, becomes a
question of class ownership, and will be settled by
an enlightened working class.
PRESS news of September 25th announced that
the conference between Soviet Russia and
Japan over affairs in the far east has broken
up altogether. The stumbling block proved to be
Saghalien Island. The conference did not last long
enough to encounter all the possible difficulties.
Japan declined to evacuate Saghalien, and thereupon
the conference ended.
In pre-war days Saghalien Island was divided in
ownership between Russia and Japan. Russia dominated the northern part and Japan the southern.
Since then Japan hai occupied the Avhole and also
the territory adjacent on the Siberian mainland.
Saghalien lies directly north of Japan and she therefore dominates the Siberian northern coast, controlling the Amur River region and all activities in
the Okhotsk Sea.
The fishing areas to the north and west are very
productive and are fairly well developed in organization, mainly by Russians and partly by Japanese.
Northern Saghalien has been estimated by geologists
to contain something like two billion tons of coal. It
is said to be a prospective oil field. The island and
the mainland territories occupied by Japan hold
millions of acres of uncut larch, spruce and fir.
The natural resources of these areas contribute
to the needs of Japanese industry. Her supplies are
limited of coal and oil. She now imports timber for
building construction, and prepared pulp for paper
making. Her design is to hold Saghalien and the
Mainland coast territories, stretching "South to Vladivostok and connecting with Korea. She can thus extend and operate her industrial enterprises throughout an area all approaches to which, by sea, she can
control, and by exploiting the natural resources
newly acquired she can organize her enterprises
with much less dependency upon foreign imports.
Thus she balked at releasing Saghalien.
In the meantime, in what we may call her home
area, industrial strikes have become a regular feature in her life. The Socialist movement too has
taken root. The government, following the habit of
organisation and system which it copied from German method has sought, without very much evidence of understanding, to anticipate Socialist propaganda by prohibiting it altogether. They have
drafted a bill called "A Bill for the Control of Dangerous Thought," the eight articles of which can
easily be interpreted to mean anything a prosecuting attorney may desire. The press of the country
•has manifested some hostility against the measure,
mainly for the reason that under cover of the Bill
in question it can voice its own grievances, for there
already exists a rigorous press law.
Japan, in her quick development as a capitalist
-nation has already met the tide of unrest among her
working population.   An imperialist policy of colonization will provide an outlet.   It will carry too the
seed of unrest.   That goes Avhere capitalism goes,
UP to this moment of writing (Sept. 28th)
Mustapah Kemal's forces have had five solemn
warnings to observe the lines bordering the
neutral zone in Asia Minor, and the annihilation
has not yet commenced on account of the infringement. It may be judged, therefore, that the point
has not been reached where decisive council for military action in the Allied command is agreed.
The press speaks openly of British and French,
disagreement, and the general trend of comment on
the division of policy has pointed to the fact that the
British have promoted the Greek occupation of
Smyrna and Thrace and that the French have supported the Angora Turkish Government. All sorts
of explanations have been made for the Allied division, for instance, French influence on the side of
Turkey as a lever to force British acquiescence regarding German reparations. It is apparent that
this had an influence on the French victory in the
upper Silesian boundary dispute. At Paris on
March 22nd Marshall Foch drew up the military
terms agreed to by the Allied Council of Ministers
to determine the cessation of hostilities between the
Greeks and Turks. Great Britain recognized the
Greek efforts as hopeless even at that date and practically abandoned them. It is interesting to note
that the terms of the much advertised Montague
telegram of last March have formed a basis of the
present proposals to Kemal. Turkish debts too, the
major portion of which are held by France, are
spoken of as accounting for Franco-Turkish unity.
By single-track reasoning of that sort Britain should
then be supporting France and America supporting
Britain. The Ottoman debt in fact is subject to territorial apportionment and Council administration.
A country such as Turkey with important geographical and strategical features is necessarily the object of rivalry among nations. A glance at the map
will render this obvious. Indeed her own history
proves it.
Working class interest in such matters as these
is necessarily manifested. All "spheres of influence" are governed to the profit of the ruling class
and through the exploitation of the working population in those areas. Spheres of influence are in
fact territories where capital operates, at home or
abroad, but the working class have not found that
out yet. By that time no doubt we'll see a real war
to end war.
•The third meeting of the Assembly of the League of
Nations is taking place at Geneva. The Archbishop of
Canterbury preached to the delegates on the text: "Seek
ye first the Kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all
these things shall be added unto you."
(Manchester Guardian, Sept. 8, 1922)
S I ' i
THE Archbishop thereupon received his fee,
no doubt, and departed.   A sense of humor
is a saving grace, even in a well fed godly
The "Guardian" goes on to tell of one of .the first
items of business that came under consideration of
the delegates. An unruly Hottentot tribe in South
West Africa had refused to pay its taxes and had
been visited by a fleet of bombing aeroplanes and a
squad of machine gunners.
The Archbishop might now profitably employ
himself visiting the Hottentots, advising them to
"Flee from the wrath to come" and pay up. No
doubt some of his church minions are there already.
It's only a matter of time and efficiency; machine
guns, bayonets, bombing planes, or an avalanche of
bibles—they are all efficient agents in civilizing the
But isn't the Archbishop quite a jester?
SOCIALISTS everywhere will be sorry to learn
that Arthur Morrow Lewis is dead. He died
unexpectedly on August 22nd. Through his
work as a Socialist propagandist in the past twenty
years or more many thousands of men and Avomen
have made a beginning towards understanding Socialist doctrine. As a lecturer he attracted huge audiences season after season at the Chicago Garrick
Theatre. As a writer in the field of what may be
called popular seience he commanded a Avider audience. '' Vital Problems in Social Evolution;" " Evolution, Social and Organic;" "Science and Superstition;" "Introduction to Sociology" and other
books are known to most Socialists, at least on this
We record this note of his death as the regrettable loss of an active "Worker in the Socialist movement.
WE have heard it propounded that there is
reason in all things. A glance at the appended totals Here and Noav will dispel this
illusion at once. They appear to us to present a
rigid monopoly in unreasonableness.
Our manner of approach, or the text of our address in search of subs must come under alteration.
We must introduce something in the nature of a
weekly wail. In any case we must have subs and
more of them. It looks as if we were required to
point to Clarion qualities to bring forth the essential means of payment. Whereas we had thought
that were but harping prosily on the obvious, and a
tax on the retiring modesty of Clarion ink-spillers.
We hate to mention it, but Ave need the money.
Verb sap.
FolloAving $1 each: S. James, R. C. Twist, V. R.
Midgley, F. Cithero, G. Darts, Mrs. S. B. Wood, J.
F. Kirchman, A. Eische, P. Mytton, P. Garvie, E.
W. Bacchus, M. Raport.
Following $2 each: C. Luff, Wm. Braes, Fred
Harman, 0. P. Lundgard, N. P. Dougan.
W. H. Thomas 50 cents; C. Frederickson 50 cents;
W. Van Meer $3.
A/bove, Clarion subscriptions received from 15th
to 28th September, inclusive, total $2G.
Mrs. Griffith 50 cents; G. Darts $1; O. P. Lundgard $2; M. Raport $1.
Above, C. M. F. receipts from 15th to 28th
Sept., inclusive, total $4.50.
Alberta and Saskatchewan P. E. C. of the S. P. of C.
Secretary R. Burns, 134a 9th Avenue, West, Calgary, Alta.
Local Calgary. Same address as above. Business meetings every alternate Tuesday, 8 p.m. Propaganda meeting
every Sunday, St. George's Island (under big tree) at 3 p.m.
Correspondence with all comrades in these provinces in
vi'ted, and all help in co-ordinating activity invited.
Socialist Party of Canada
STAR THEATRE, 300 Block, Main Street
Speaker: CHAS. LESTOR.
All meetings at 8 p.m.
Questions. Discussion. **•***.'**•—,***,>• Wi upJf, «■
The Farmer s Forum
Editor's note: We present comrade Tyler's view of the
farmer's status as a producer here as of interest itqj farmers in general. The Socialist movement in this country
has shewn an interest in the farmer question—with particular reference to the position of the small farmer—for
many years, and this interest has been manifested in the
■columns of the Western Clarion tune and again in articles
which have attempted to analyse the farmer's position
from the standpoint of Socialist doctrines and principles.
That position can be understood, not by a cursory examination of ithe small farmer's position in general—that in
general he is always working, and always poor, from which
it has been at times deduced that he is to be classed as a
wage worker and is exploited at the point of production—
but by a thorough study of his status as a small producer in
legal ownership of his land and at times employing wage-
labor on that land. His position has never been better
stated in brief spacfc than by "Geordie" in the Western
Clarion of April lftth 1921. If our readers are now prompted to study the viewpoint there presented and to follow
.up the references made, they will have taken definite
steps ito a clear understanding of the position of the small
fanner in relation to the bigger producer and 'to the world
of industry in general.
Comrade Tyler's figures may be better understood by
then—for instance in the maitter of costs per acre of cultivated land. In addition to that, the position of disadvantage of the small farmer as against the bigger producers in marketing his product and the relation they
both bear to transportation companies and the like may
be understood also. _
Does Farming Pay?
GREAT Avas the consternation of the apologists of the ruling class, Avhen they received
the latest American census figures. For the
first time in American history, the toAvnspeople outnumber the farmers. The drift is towards the city.
Over 51.9 per cent of the population live in tOAvns
having a population of 2500 or more and 48.1 in
rural terrjtpry. Since 1910, the population of the
country as a Avhole increased 14.9 per cent. From
these figures, it Avould appear that quite a large number of farmers are becoming city thvellers. What
are the causes for this somewhat surprising migration? In the first place, let us see whether fanning
It is a matter of eommon knoAvledge to those
acquainted with farming conditions that cash earnings among farmers is small, so small as to be unbelievable to the city dwellers Avhose knoAvledge of
farming consists of that gained from the stories of
the huge profits to be made from a feAV hens, an acre
of ground and the exhilarating atmosphere of the
Detailed studies made by the U. S. Department
of Agriculture on 8,710 farms located in twenty representative districts, Avidely scattered, during the
period from 1910-1918 sIioav that there Avere more
districts in Avhich the lahor income averaged less
than $500 per year than there Avere districts Avhere
it averaged above this amount, ln view of the fact
that these areas were chosen because they Avere representative of specific types of farming, and further,
that many of these studies Avere conducted for a
series of years on the same farms, it is safe to say
that they fairly represent the average income.
Farming docs not pay in so far as the small fanner
is concerned. Of course when the small farm is located near a huge city, conditions are vastly different. We must realize that according to most
authorities on the subject, the small farm is usually
•conducted at a loss. Even some of the so-called
large farms are actually run at a loss. I was fortunate enough to be able to examine the records of
one of the best conducted farms in the State of Michigan, a farm operated by experts, a farm that Avas
considered as "the farm." This farm was run at a
loss. Of course, I do not wish to imply that such is
the case with all large farms. It can, hoAvever, be
safely asserted that this was an exception. What I
wish to bring out is that even large farms are sometimes operated at a loss.
The following figures were secured from the dean
of the Michigan Agricultural College. These figures
show that the small farmer cannot successfully compete with the large farmer.
Labor cost per acre.
30 acres or less  19.90
31-60 acres       8.10
61-100 acres       5.60
101-150 acres       4.24
151-200 acres       3.92
over 200 acres       3.33
Moreover, according to Ellis Rumley in his book
entitled "PoAver and the PIoav," it costs a farmer
approximately twice as much to work an acre of
land with a team of horses than with a tractor. The
gas tractor travels two miles per hour and there
are machines today that plow as much as 70 acres
in ten hours and only require two men, a boy, a
team of horses and some gasoline.
*] The use of the tractor and other expensive machinery, means that the small farmer cannot compete
successfully with his larger rivals. Every new
machine that is invented,intensifies this competition
as it increases the amount of production per individual. With machine methods of production it is
possible to produce all the agricultural products that
the present restricted market can absorb on much
less land than now under cultivation. As A. M.
Simons, so well points out in his "American Farmer": "Thus the pressure must become ever harder
and harder upon the small, poorly equipped farm.
There will come years of prosperity for certain sections Avhen crops have been ruined in other localities, and there will be times Avhen market fluctuations will relieve pressure for a period. But so long
as the amount of land is far in excess of the demand
for commodities, there will be a constant tendency
to crush the "unfit." Competition always levels
doAvn, never up. The farm or factory that places
its products upon the market at the lowest price is
destined to survive and-thrive, and it is immaterial
Avhether that cheapness be the result of improved
methods of production, as on the machine equipped,
intensively and scientifically operated farm, or
whether it is the result of the acceptance of a loAver
standard of life on the part of laborers, tenants or
We must also take into consideration the fact
that the value of food products is determined like
all other commodities by the average total world
production. An American farmer has not only to f ear
the competition of the farmers of Argentina but the
competition of the Indian wheat groAvers Avith their
very Ioav standard of living. No wonder the American farmers are demanding an embargo on Avheat.
Is it any wonder why the small farmer is compelled
to enter the industrial slaVe pens ?
The folloAving clippings culled from a Detroit
newspaper recently are fair examples of what the
American farmer has to face, Chicago, Jan. 5.
"Assertions that Argentina Avas offering wheat to
Germany at 15c to 20c cheaper than U. S. wheat
could be obtained had a bearish influence today on
the Avheat market here. Prices closed nervous at
31/- to 4% net lower with March $1.89% lo $1.69%
and May $1.64 to $1.64y4."
London, Jan. 15: "Australia has had a record
harvest says a dispatch from Sydney to the Daily
Telegraph today. NeAv South Wales, alone, it is estimated, has a Avheat crop of 55,000,000 bushels of
which 46,000,000 will be available for export."
Even the famine, terrible as it is aids the American
farmer. It is really to the advantage of the American farmer to have this famine continue as Avitness
the folloAving dispatch.
Chicago, July 29: "Reports that the famine in
the Volga Valley of Russia had been relieved caused
a slump in the early hours of trading but continued
buying by the exporters rallied prices at the close."
So great is the fear of foreign competition that
American farmers are demanding an embargo on all
incoming food products. According to John M.
Glenn, president of the 111. Mfg. Assn. the farmer
Avants to be protected from importation of Canadian wheat and this, of course, Avould mean he
would get a higher price for his grain.    All over
the country, farmers of alt1 descriptions, cotton
groAvers, tobacco growers, etc., are demanding the
enactment of legislation favorable to their interests.
Most of them realize that a further reduction of
prices would spell their ruin. A number of them
afflicted with anarchistic tendencies have organized
themselves into bands of night raiders and tar and
feather those who sell their crops lower than a stipulated price.
But if farming does not pay, Avhy do so many
persist in remaining on the farm? Yes, it is true
that a large number manage to get "by"—Avorking
the land with their wives and children but their position need occasion no envy on the part of the average industrial Avage Avorker. JOHN TYLER.
THE folloAving neAvs item appeared in the
"Dauphin Progress" (Manitoba) August
25th. We present it here as of interest to agricultural workers generally and to those Avho have
studied and observed the development of farm machinery in recent years. The success of such a machine as this in regular operation would obviously turn
many thousands of seasonal agricultural workers
adrift and further accentuate the unemployed problem.
# # # #
A party of men from Winnipeg, and Smith's
Falls, Out., representing all the leading manufacturers- of harvesting machinery, are in Dauphin today as critical spectators of the demonstration on
R. Cruize's farm, of the Clement Stooker.—the last
link in the chain of appliances for economical handling of wheat from seed bin to mill by machinery.
It is a far cry from the time Avhen the grain was
broadcasted by hand, cut with a cradle, threshed
with a flail, winnowed, bagged and carried to the
mill in sacks, though many men iioav living have
seen the development of the Avhole present system.
Labor-saving machinery has taken the place of
manual labor in every operation but one, making it
possible for one man today to produce more Avheat
than twenty men could produce fifty years ago.
The seeder, cultivator, binder, thresher, high
bagger, grain tank, and elevator system have all
contributed to this end, but the operation of stroking by hand, necessitating as it does the annual importation of scores of thousands of transient laborers over thousands of miles of country, has always
been the missing link in the chain of economical operations, the elimination of which would have almost
as great an effect on the grain growing industry as
did the first self binder.
Many attempts have been made by inventors to
fill the gap and during the past, twenty years, several machines have actually been placed on the market.
The present machine, which is the first really
successful one, is the invention of Lou J. Clement,
an old-time farmer and implement man, but who has
been for some years past employed in the Canadian
National Railway shops at Dauphin.
For more than twelve years, since be first obtained his basic patents, which insured the success of the
machine, Mr. Clement lias been improving details
and eliminating objectionable features, until today
the machine answers every test, and can be put into
the hands of the farmer with the assurance that it
will put up a field of slooks that will stay put as
long as necessary Avithout any manual intervention
The machine, which is attached to a standard
binder in place of the usual bundle carrier, requires
no extra horses, and is handled by the driver Avithout trouble, so that Avhen the binder leaves the field
after cutting' the grain remains untouched until
The sheaves are placed on the ground in such
a manner tbat tbe resulting stook stands firmer than
the average hand built one, and the means by which
this is accomplished, is the most important feature
in Mr. Clement's machine, and the one which ensures its success in practical work iu the harvest
field. »">/:*-j*Wlfcw/-4*r *a*m0m
Concerning Value
FROM the consideration just set forth it
would seem that the question now confronting
us may he formulated something as follows:—
What reason, if any, have we for saying that
"Value is the cause of Price?": if so, "What is the
mechanism by which value makes itself effective?'':
if not, "What is the function of the Theory of
If we take the market for any given commodity
at any given moment we shall find that the supply
of that commodity is for the time being a fixed
quantity. Noav, it is the business of the seller to
sell; they will sell if they can and in many eases
must sell. The goods, therefore, Avill be sold and
at such a price as Avill make the demand equal the
supply. That is to say at a price Avhich Avill find
purchasers for all the goods. We may observe in
passing the influence of price in the determination
of demand, 'if the price should rule so low as to
-cause a withdraAval of goods from the market this
would shoAV the influence of price on supply. In
any case supply would equal demand.
Noav this price is clearly arrived at Avithout reference to the value or to the cost or' production of
the goods and this fact has given rise to the statement, first made by Bastiat, I believe, that "labor,
once expended, can have no further influence on the
commodities." The goods, when once exposed for
sale are at the mercy of the market.
The production and sale of commodities is, however, a continuous process. If the goods are removed from the market by purchase others must
take their places, and the price which is realized
must be such as to alloAV of a continuous Aoav into
the market. That is to say the price must, on the
average, cover the cost of production of the goods.
On these grounds it was argued that Exchange-
Value Avas determined by Cost of Production. Jt
was also held that the average of prices over a long
time Avould conform to the cost of production.
It is a fact, however, that any change in the cost
of production of any commodity (caused by the use
of machinery or in any other way) Avould affect the
market prices of all the commodities of that kind
in the market no matter Avhat their cost of produc
tion might be. This fact, together with the objection I have just mentioned, gave rise to the
theory that Exchange-Value was determined not
by Cost of Production but by Cost of Reproduction.
This distinction, however, is merely verbal for,
while it is true that at any given time the cost of
production of any given commodity may vary iu
magnitude from its cost of reproduction, if avc look
at the process of production in its continuity it will
be seen that the cost of production and the cost of
reproduction are really the same thing. What does
emerge from these considerations is the fact that a
long time average of market prices does not necessarily indicate the cost of production of any commodity. In any event it is mere tautology to say
that Cost of Production determines Price, seeing
that Cost of Production is itself merely an addition
of prices plus, of course, the average rate of profit.
The Avhole question has been finally settled, so far
as this point is concerned, by the statement, which
is generally conceded, that the market prices of
freely produced commodities will, in the long run,
tend to coincide with their respective costs of production.
There is a tendency in certain quarters to revive
this cost of reproduction theory and it appears to
me that this arises from the loose Avay in which the
phrase "cost of production" is-used hy some Marxists.
It is, of course, permissible to use the term
"social cost of production" but that is only another
name for Value. On the other hand the phrase
"cost of production" simply means what the Classical School meant by that term and is the same as
Marx's price of production." This statement may
be disputed as for instance:—
"A close examination will show . . . that the Marxian cost of production, which forms a part of the price of
production, is determined by its value according to the
labor theory of value, whereas the ordinary theory of cost
of production has no such determining element."
I*. B. Boudin, Theoretical System of Karl Marx. p. 141
Now, this statement is expressly contradicted hy
Marx himself both directly and by implication and,
in any case, it is absurd. A "price of production"
could not be so constructed and if it could it would
be of no use.
As a matter of fact prices are determined by
the conditions of the market and tend, in the long
run, to conform to price of production which is itself
a fact of the market. That is, for competitively produced goods. Commodities produced under monopoly conditions are, of course, subject to the law of
monopoly prices. In this latter connection it Avould
be safe to say that 90% of manufactured goods are
produced under monopoly eonditions. Yes, I know,
there is no such thing as a complete monopoly. Such
a thing is almost as rare as complete competition.
It does not appear that there is any mechanism
by means of which Value can make itself effective
in the market.
The price of production however includes as one
of its elements the average rate of profit.
The average rate of profit arises as a pro rata dis>-
tribution of the total profit among the various capitals employed in production'. The total profit (including rent and interest) equals the total surplus
value, and this again is a part of the total value
produced by labor. This, however, is a fact of general significance.
Prices cannot be explained by reference to the
Theory of Value. They are to be accounted for by
the laws of the market.
What then is thc function of the Theory of
Value? The function of the Theory of Value is to
act as the basis of the Theory of Surplus Value.
These two, as a matter of fact, go together. The
Theory of Value is a very subtle, very profound and
very elaborate way of saying that labor creates all
values. If labor creates all values then it creates
all surplus values.
As Mr. Boudin very correctly remarks:—
"The 'cumbrous apparatus' of the Marxian theory of
value and surplus value was necessary in order to attain
the principal object of the science of political economy,
the discovery of the laws governing! the production and
distribution of profits in the capitalist system."
(Theoretical System p. 141)
The function and the effect of the Marxian
Theory of Value is to convict the capitalist system
of exploitation of the Avorking class.   The fact that
it does so proves it.
Social  Confusion
SOCIAL confusion, like commodity production,
seems to be on the increase. Just as every new
invention of machinery for producing commodities adds to the productive capacity of the Avorkers
and hence to thc mass of social wealth turned out by
them in a given period of time, so does the same invention seem to add to the mass of confusion prevailing in the minds of the members of present day
The vast, changes in the technique of Avealth production rip and rend the settled communities into
which they are introduced, and scatter to the fore-
winds many of those who have fondly imagined that
they Avere settled for life among those with whom
they had lived for many years, and probably among
Avhom they Avere born.
Under the capitalist mode of production, goods
are produced in the form of commodities, that is,
they are produced primarily for sale. These goods
must have a use-value ere they can have an exchange-value. So likeAvise is it Avith the energy
and skill of the productive enterprise of the worker,
whieh, like the basic method of production under
the present system, takes on a commodity form. It
must have a use-value ere it can have an exchange-
value. That is, it must be of some use to those that
buy it, ere it can be sold. Here comes the rub. This
usd-value is not to be measured by the needs of
society.   Failure to grasp this fact is one of the big
items tending toAvards the social confusion now pre-
cailing. The ignorance here displayed is the root
cause of all the bunk we hear'of justice, right, etc.
Rather must its use-value be measured by the requirements of eapital, and this is something very
different indeed, from that of social need.
Capitalism is a competitive system, and its prime
motive is profit. Without profit no capitalist will
(or could for long), produce commodities. Under a
competitive system he who produces the cheapest
lives longest, and as each capitalist Avishes to stay
in existence—not as a worker, but as a capitalist—
he is forced to produce as cheaply as possible. This
means the introduction of labor-saving machinery
and the cutting down of the labor-time necessary for
the production of commodities, for commodities as
a Avhole exchange in the proportion to the labor-
time embodied in them.
When a community grows up around a given industry, it necessarily follows that in times of crises
arising from over-production the workers engaged
in that form of production must be affected by anything that stops production along that line. At such
times we see a huge emigration of laborers seeking
some other outlet for their productive activity. Why
is this?
It has been pointed out above that the introduction of machinery continually forces more and more
workers into the ranks of the unemployed. In
other words the use-value of any given line of skill
steadily travels along its magnetic line until it be
comes useless, and therefore of no value. Along
with the annihilation of its use-value goes its exchange-value. The wages received by the worker
are the price of his commodity which he sells to his
boss for given stated periods of time. This price
Avhich, on the average, corresponds to its value, is
sufficient to keep the worker in good laboring condition from day to day just so long as the capitalist
can use him. In other words, what the Avorker receives in the form of wages is just sufficient to bring
him back to Avork Monday morning to start on another week of arduous toil. This explains why they
emigrate in times of slackness. They do so in order
to gain the Avherewithal to fill the larder.
The introduction of oil burning machinery has
played havoc with king coal's domain. Newer and
better methods of ocean transportation have invaded
the shipbuilding line. In fact, in all lines of industrial enterprise the result of the machine has been
the same. It has accelerated the productive activity
of mankind; it has brought periodical crises, arising
from over-production, to an acute point; it has
heightened the antagonism of private ownership and
social production, and it forces more and more producers into the ranks of the unemployed. It scatters them around and keeps them on the move. Thus
it breaks down the industrial unions which it creates, and it creates confusion and strife in the same
magnitude. In a like magnitude it also creates the
receptive mind that is open for newer doctrines
other than those which capitalism carefully nurtur-
(Continued on page 7) WESTERN   CLARION
The Practice of Darwinism
kOR most men the truth or untruth of Darwin's theory of man's origin only comes
within the range of their speculative
thoughts, but for all Avho are investigating the problems of living matter Darwinism enters into their
daily work. They depend on it, trust it as implicitly
as a navigator does his admiralty charts. This is
particularly the case with professional students of
the human body who, as is the case with the Avriter,
have to discover and to impart knoAvledge to generations of medical students. The reader will understand this aspect of Darwinism if J, give a few illustrative instances," writes Sir Arthur Keith in the
'' Nineteenth Century.''
Study of Embryology.
"Every one is familiar with the fact that children are occasionally born Avith thc condition of
"hare-lip"; in the complete form a cleft proceeds
downward from each nostril, dividing the upper
lip into three parts. The surgeon can mend the deformity by operation but the aim of the anatomist
is to discover why such a malformation should occur and, if possible, propose means to prevent its
occurrence. For help he turns to embryology and
finds that toward the end of the second month of
development the upper lip is formed by the union
or fusion of three structural elements. . If union
fails the condition known as "hare-lip" results. He
has then to answer the question, Avhy should tho
human lip be originally cleft in three parts?
"A suggestion is given as to the direction in
which a search should be made by the simultaneous
changes taking place in the neck of the embryo; gill
furrows are then disappearing. A search among
living fishes shows that in one type, which has retained many old and primitive characters, the upper
lip, is divided into three parts by a cleft descending
to the mouth from each, nasal opening. "ITare-lip"
represents the persistence of an evolutionary change
which occurred long ago at a very distant stage of
man's history.
"At the present time investigators are entering
the second part of this problem and are seeking
an ansAver to the question: "Why should this stage
occasionally persist?" Another puzzling occurrence
Avas solved in a similar manner. Some children are
born Avith congenital malformation of the heart, by
far the commonest form being the interpolation of
' a- small additional chamber on the right side of the
heart. A study of the development of this organ in
the human embryo has revealed the presence of an
extra chamber, which in normal circumstances becomes gradually merged into and absorbed by thc
right ventricle. The extra chamber, which makes a
transient appearance in the human heart, persists as
an active structure in the hearts of sharks and rays.
How are Ave to explain the occurrence of this fourth
chamber in the heart of thc human embryo and its
occasionaly retention in the child unless avc accept
the validity of the DarAvinism theory?
"We may take another instance from a discovery recently made by Professor Dendy of King's
College, London. He found that certain remarkable
fibres which pass along the spinal cord of fishes
arose in connection with a peculiar plaque of cells
situated in a passage of the brain. He naturally
wished to knoAv what had become of this plaque and
its fibre during the evolution of higher vertebrates.
He was able to demonstrate that even in the brain
of man a rudiment of the plaque is still preserved,
although no one had noted its presence before.
Guides to New Facts.
"DarAvin's theory is an engine of discovery; it
guides men to the observation of new facts. For the
brain surgeon Darwin's teaching is not a theory but
a basis of practice. He has found by experience
that knowledge gained from a study of the brain of
anthropoid apes can be directly applied when operating on the brain of a child or of a man. Physiologists have found that the "functional areas"
Avhich exist in the brain of anthropoid apes are represented—and are often elicited by disease or as
the result of accidental injury—on corresponding
convolutions of the human brain. The correspondence becomes less as we descend the ape scale. Again,
when a peculiarly human disease has to be investigated it is found that of all living animals only the
anthropoid apes show a high degree of susceptibility to human disease.
"When the chimpanzee is kept in confinement it
becomes the subject of that peculiarly human affliction appendicitis. Nearly tAventy years ago Professor Nuttall of Cambridge showed that the blood
of anthropoid apes is most akin to human blood in
its actions. Whatever may be the view of Darwin's
theory in popular imagination, there can be no doubt
of the strength with which it has become established
in the minds of men who are adding yearly to our
knowledge of the structure and function of tho
human body. His contention that man can not be
regarded as having arisen as an. independent creation may assuredly be taken as fully proved. But
when we are asked to explain the exact nature of
the evolutionary machinery which has shaped human
beings out of apelike forms Ave have still to admit—
an admission which Darwin insisted on in all his
writings—that Ave have much to discover.
New Light on Evolution.
"It is true that no one has succeeded in producing a new species—one which has been proved to be
incapable of breeding with tbe parent species—but
he would be a bold prophet Avho declared that this
was nature's secret and man would never find it out.
One discovery of recent years, the discovery thai
the development and growth of all parts of the body
are regulated and co-ordinated by a "hormone"
mechanism, is likely to throw a new light on the
manner in which new and useful characters come
into existence. Hormones are substances throAvn
into the circulating blood by the ductless glands of
the body. In our hospitals medical men are now investigating the remarkable transformations of body
and mind which folloAV disorders of the ductless
glands. A fuller knoAvledge of the action of hormones can not fail to throAv a neAv light on the machinery of evolution."
(Continued from page 1)
Inter-Allied Petroleum Council have already been
referred to had this to say of criticism levelled
against British oil grabbing policies:—
"I have had to listen to, and do what I could to
counteract, a lot of wild talk on this subject in the United
IStaites, and the gist of it was that we in this country were
the first of a vast cons-piracy to shut Americans out from
the remaining oil fields of the world. The main heads of
the indictment against us, so far as I could make out, were
(1) that we had made the San Remo agreement with
France with  very little  regard for American  interests;
(2) that in the mandate territories, particularly in Mesopotamia, we clearly intended to keep in our own hands
whatever oil might be discovered; (3) that the British
Government had itself entered the oil business and was
responsible for the extremely enterprising activities of the
Anglo-Persian Oil Company; (4) that several of the self-
governing Dominions had-placed an embargo on the development of their petroleum deposits by non-British subjects; and (5) that while this policy of barring out was
being followed in the near East and throughout the Empire,
British companies were acquiring oil concessions in Mexico,
Costa Rica, Venezuela, Ecuador, Niacaragua, and so on—
countries which Americans had come to look upon as being
exclusively within their own sphere of commercial influence."
Now it was not intended that this article should
run to this length and our story is not all told yet.
So we had better let this suffice for the time and
take it up again next issue. E.M.
(Continued from page 6)
ed in their minds during childhood and youth.    It
is this capitalistic education that is the prime cause
of the social confusion prevailing.
The mass of society is left in total ignorance of
any constructive knoAvledge of the laws operating
in capitalism. Hence the product of the destructive
social phenomena and a social mind left in utter
ignorance of such can only result in confusion.
Thus Ave have it. The driving force of the machine—Avhich has brought into being social production—on the one hand, and an individualistic, reactionary ideology arising out of the teachings that
are to the interest of the individual form of ownership hoav prevailing on the other.
Coir duty is plain in recognition of these facts.
We must accelerate the work of the machine by eliminating the individualistic mode of thought among
as many of its victims as Ave can.
In the meantime our advice is, step in and do-
something other than merely uttering pet phrases.
Eliminate the confusion in your oavii brain and then
go forth as a good specialist and begin the process
of confounding the confusion existing in the minds
of others. J. C.
(Continued from page 3)
"upsurge of the intelligence" of the West, or until
.in issue may be forced upon her necessitous waiting.
Humanly speaking, "intelligent comprehension"
may he a sIoav process. Man,—even in the age of
steel and jazz—resists innovation as stubbornly as
his ancestors of the prime. But "an issue" may fall
upon us like a bolt, from the blue. Hoav far the
spirit of Communism extends in Europe, I cannot
say. But I do say that the conservatism that can
be patient and long suffering in the red Avilderness
of modern Europe can be moved to the example of
Communism only when the pressure of circumstances
leaves it no other opening; only when the force of
events has stripped it of its fateful illusions of liberty; and its hope in the "sacred" institutions of
political democracy has been detroyed in the iron
rivalries of competing Imperialisms.
Primarily, therefor, movement is in the hands of
the master class. Unfortunately. For our masters
may blunder, and we shall suffer for their blunder-
ings. The exigencies of class needs and ambitions
shall force conclusions—considerate, if given time,
hut precipitate if occasion serves. That is thc danger—or the hope in the European situation, aud in
due time it shall motivate our apathy. If the ethic
of "have" calls forth the jimver to hold, it would
stem obvious that the need of "must" would indicate the force to take. Hut forceful or not, or
direct or not, is not our concern. The most avc can
do is to try to exercise the substance of class confusion, to preach the gospel of "understanding;"
to Avalk, not fearfully but knowingly, through the
tangled revisionism of time aud party; and to prepare to the utmost possibility, to recognise and
grasp, When it comes—as it will come—the crucial
opportunity Avhen moving circumstance shall transform thc crisis of class need, into the foot-stool of
social humanity. R.
Preface by tht author.
132 PAGES.
Per Copy, 16 Cents.
Ten oopies np, 10 eenta each.
The Clarion Mail Bag
THE revolutionary movement in Canada is very
quiet these days. It may be that the prospect
of another Avorld war in which the working
class again will attempt to annihilate itself on behalf
of interests utterly opposed to it, has had a depressing effect upon the correspondents of the "Western
Clarion," or perhaps they are busy Avorking for that
slender stake upon which they hope to exist through
the coming winter. AnyAvay their ink has dried
up and their Avriting paper has played out, except in
the case of a few loyal hearts to whom may fortune
come with bright smiles.
Comrade Ashton of the Winnipeg Local writes
Avith a vieAv to getting in touch with Jack McDonald
and Sam James sends in a reneAval of his "Clarion"
sub. We hold the opinion that the city of Winnipeg
is capable of being made a centre of Marxian thought
and revolutionary activity without equal on the'
North American continent. We urge all comrades
to Avork Avith this object in vieAv; to build up a movement that Avill be a force to be reckoned Avith by the
opponents of a revolutionary Avorking class. As an
intelligent, constructive task, Capitalism offers nothing finer, or with greater scope than to work for its
abolition. To the revolutionist comes that real joy
of life and labor, Avhich the development of the
mighty machine has all but stifled in the mind of
From Alberta a few letters have been received
including one from a farmer comrade in Mayen-
thorpe. He speaks of the hard struggle to live and
sends a renewal of his sub. A comrade writes from
New Lindsay renewing "Clarion" sub and expressing best wishes for the success and furtherance of
their efforts to those Avho make the paper so educative and enjoyable.
F. Cusack sends a bright letter giving & few impressions of the slave and slave minds that he meets
on and off the job. He says he Avill consider himself a greater hero than O'Leary, V.C., if he is able
to stick it until Oct. 1st.
A comrade in Salmon Arm, B. C. Avrites for
"Two Essays on History," and "Evolution of Man"
Avhich have been forwarded.
Writing from Vernon, B. C. Comrade AndreAVS
expresses dissappointment- that the mail has come
in without his "Clarion." He Avants to get every
copy as he is keeping them on file for future reading.
He considers the article "Leaving Home" to be very
good and should be a great lesson to all slaves.
A cheering letter comes from James Island containing two subs, and expressing much pleasure Avith
Com. Lestor's articles on "Rebelology," also the
"-Mail Bag Articles." Wm. Braes sends a short note
from Cumberland with two dollar subs. P. Danluck
notifies us of change of address to Read Bay, B. C.
Avhere his paper will be sent. G. Dart Avrites from
Sardis, enclosing a sub and one dollar to the Maintenance Fund. Subs also co™ from Allenby and
Com. Herman writes from Victoria, in which he
expresses the hope that the Local there Avill become more active this winter, lie sends subs for
himself and McGregor. We should like to hear
more neAvs from Victoria. John Kirchnian sends
notice of change of address to Burke, Idaho. An or>-
der for various literature has been received from
Sydney, Australia.
Local Vancouver is not having such big meetings
as in previous years but an improvement is expected
from noAv on. The recent war scare brought many
people to the Sunday night meetings at the Star
Theatre, who have been absent for a long time. Tavo
exceptionally fine lectures were delivered by Comrades Harrington and Pritchard. Charles Lestor
speaks every night weather permitting, at his old
stand on the corner of Carrall and Cordova St.
An effort will be made to arrange for the usual
study classes in the Headquarters. All local supporters are invited to attend the next business meeting, Tuesday Oct. 3rd at 8 o'clock, 163 Hastings St.,
West, room 12.
All the wealth the capitalist class possesses has
been produced by the working class. In taking it
the working class Avould but be taking it back.
Wealth is not a fixed and indestructible quantity.
It is being constantly destroyed and reneAved. Even
the most stable portions are being constantly worn
out and replaced. The Avorkers of one generation
may be said to produce with their own hands practically all the Avealth in existence at the end of their
generation, so that in taking it they would actually
be taking the very things they themselves produced,
things taken from them without any compensation.
They Avould therefore OAve compensation for them to
none. And, indeed, there can he no question of compensating the capitalists.       S. P. of C. Manifesto.
Literature Price List
With the story of Allied policy toward Turkey
fresh in our minds there can be but one view of this
threatening Avar; it-is the product of Allied intrigue
in Asia Minor, and if the Near East becomes the
scene of a neAv war today it will not be because
Moslems are conducting an offensive, but because
England, fearing for her prestige in Mesopotamia,
in Palestine, in Persia, and in India, is using military
and naval force to prevent the. realization by the
Turkish army of things which are Turkey's and
which were promised to Turkey by the very pdAvers
which England is now seeking to unite to keep that
promise broken. When the entire British Atlantic
fleet is ordered to the Dardanelles it is rather obviously not to defend their neutrality; it is to maintain the present British overlordship of that strategic capital.
—"The Nation" New York.
Socialist Party of
"Wa, tht Soolalist Party of Canada affirm our alias-
lance to, and support of tba prlnolpl*** aad pro-rmmai*
of Mia revolutionary working- olaaa.
Labor, applied to natural resources, prod-Mas all
wealth. Th* present •oono-mlo *y*t*m ta tmaai apon
oapitaliat ownership of tba maana of produotion, oonee-
quamtlr, all the produota of labor belong to tha oapitaliat olaaa. Tha oapitaliat la, therefore, maater; the
worker a slave.
So long aa the oapitaliat olaaa remains ln poaaeaalon
of the rains of government all the powere of the State
will be used to protect and'defend Ita property rights In
the meana of waalth produotion and Ma eontrol of the
produot of laibor.
Tho oapitaliat aystem gives to the oapitaliat aa ever--
•welling stream of profits, and to tha worker, aa ever-
Inoreaalng measure of misery and degradation.
The Interest of the working olass lies in setting Itaelf
free from oapitaliat exploitation by the abolition of the
wage system, under which this exploitation, at the point
of produotion, ls cloaked. To aooompllsh this necessitates the traaeformatlon of oapettaJIst property in tha
means of wealth produotion Into socially 00-atrolled i
omlc forces.
The Irrepressible conflict of interest between tha i
Itallat and the worker necessarily expresses Itself as a
struggle for politieal supremacy. This Is aha C3aas
Therefore we oaH upon all workers to organise under
the banner of the Socialist Party of Canada, with the
objeot of conquering the political powers for the purpose of setting up and enforolng the economic programme of the working class, as follows*
1—Tho transformation, as rapidly as possible,
of oapitaliat property In the mamas of
wealth production (natural resources, faotor-
torles, mills, railroads, ato,)i into oolleottve
means of produotion.
I—The organisation and management of Industry
by the working olaas.
t—The establishment, as apeadUy as possible, of
produotion for use Instead of production for
— of tht —
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